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Sample records for pesticide degradation products

  1. A Test House Study of Pesticides and PesticideDegradation Products Following an Indoor Application

    EPA Science Inventory

    Preexisting pesticide degradates are a concern for pesticide biomonitoring studies as exposure to them may result in overestimation of pesticide exposure. The purpose of this research was to determine whether there was significant formation and movement, of pesticide degradates o...

  2. Pesticides and pesticide degradation products in stormwater runoff: Sacramento River Basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Domagalski, J.

    1996-01-01

    Pesticides in stormwater runoff, within the Sacramento River Basin, California, were assessed during a storm that occurred in January 1994. Two organophosphate insecticides (diazinon and methidathion), two carbamate pesticides (molinate and carbofuran), and one triazine herbicide (simazine) were detected. Organophosphate pesticide concentrations increased with the rising stage of the hydrographs; peak concentrations were measured near peak discharge. Diazinon oxon, a toxic degradation product of diazinon, made up approximately 1 to 3 percent of the diazinon load. The Feather River was the principal source of organophosphate pesticides to the Sacramento River during this storm. The concentrations of molinate and carbofuran, pesticides applied to rice fields during May and June, were relatively constant during and after the storm. Their presence in surface water was attributed to the flooding and subsequent drainage, as a management practice to degrade rice stubble prior to the next planting. A photodegradation product of molinate, 4-keto molinate, was in all samples where molinate was detected and made up approximately 50 percent of the total molinate load. Simazine, a herbicide used in orchards and to control weeds along the roadways, was detected in the storm runoff, but it was not possible to differentiate the two sources of that pesticide to the Sacramento River.

  3. THERMAL DEGRADATION CHARACTERISTICS OF ENVIRONMENTALLY SENSITIVE PESTICIDE PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The thermal decomposition properties of the active ingredient of 16 pesticides have been theoretically examined. xperimental studies on 6 pesticide related materials were also conducted under controlled laboratory testing. xperimental studies of the high-temperature oxidation and...

  4. MECHANISMS OF PESTICIDE DEGRADATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research project was initiated with the overall objective of determining (1) the chemical structures of toxic components of toxaphene, (2) to study anaerobic metabolism to degrade toxaphene and other pesticides, and (3) to understand toxic action mechanism of chlordimeform. ...

  5. Ocular irritation from product of pesticide degradation among workers in a seed warehouse

    PubMed Central

    MATSUKAWA, Takehisa; YOKOYAMA, Kazuhito; ITOH, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    Four workers at a seed supply warehouse in Chiba Prefecture, Japan, complained of ocular irritation on the job. Pesticide-coated seeds were stored in the warehouse but no significant amount of pesticide was detected in the air inside the warehouse. To identify the cause of the ocular irritation and to determine an appropriate solution to the problem, the authors used thermal desorption gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to analyze the profiles of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the air of the two warehouses at the site—warehouse A, where the four workers experienced ocular irritation, and warehouse B, where no workers experienced ocular irritation. Comparing the profiles of VOCs in these warehouses indicated that n-butyl isocyanate, a hydrolyzed product of the fungicide benomyl, was the cause of the workers’ ocular irritation. n-Butyl isocyanate is known to be a contact irritant and if the benomyl-coated seeds were not properly dried before storage in the warehouse n-butyl isocyanate would have been produced. The results of the study suggest that more attention should be paid both to the pesticide itself and to the products of pesticide degradation. In this study, n-butyl isocyanate was identified as a product of pesticide degradation and a causative chemical affecting occupational health. PMID:25327297

  6. Light Induced Degradation of Eight Commonly Used Pesticides Adsorbed on Atmospheric Particles: Kinetics and Product Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Socorro, J.; Durand, A.; Gligorovski, S.; Wortham, H.; Quivet, E.

    2014-12-01

    Pesticides are widely used all over the world whether in agricultural production or in non-agricultural settings. They may pose a potential human health effects and environmental risks due to their physico-chemical properties and their extensive use which is growing every year. Pesticides are found in the atmosphere removed from the target area by volatilization or wind erosion, and carried over long distances. These compounds are partitioned between the gaseous and particulate atmospheric phases. The increasingly used pesticides are semi-volatile compounds which are usually adsorbed on the surface of the atmospheric particles. These pesticides may undergo chemical and photo-chemical transformation. New compounds may then be formed that could be more hazardous than the primary pesticides. The atmospheric fate and lifetime of adsorbed pesticides on particles are controlled by the these (photo)chemical processes. However, there is a lack of kinetic data regarding the pesticides in the particle phase. This current work focuses on the photolytic degradation of commonly used pesticides in particulate phase. It aims at estimating the photolytic rates and thus the lifetimes of pesticides adsorbed on silica particles as a proxy of atmospheric particles. The following eight commonly used pesticides, cyprodinil, deltamethrin, difenoconazole, fipronil, oxadiazon, pendimethalin, permethrin, tetraconazole, were chosen because of their physico-chemical properties. The photolysis rates of tetraconazole and permethrin were extremely slow ≤ 1.2 · 10-6 s-1. The photolysis rates for the other pesticides were determined in the range of: (5.9 ± 0.3) · 10-6 < k < (1.7 ± 0.1) · 10-4 s-1 from slowest to the fastest: pendimethalin < cyprodinil < deltamethrin < difenoconazole < oxadiazon < fipronil. Finally, the identification of the surface products upon light irradiation was performed, using GC-(QqQ)-MS/MS and LC-(Q-IMS-ToF)-MS/MS. The potentially formed gas-phase products during

  7. Effect of household and industrial processing on the levels of pesticide residues and degradation products in melons.

    PubMed

    Bonnechère, A; Hanot, V; Bragard, C; Bedoret, T; van Loco, J

    2012-01-01

    Two varieties of melons (Cucumis melo) were treated with two fungicides (carbendazim and maneb) and four insecticides (acetamiprid, cyromazin, imazalil and thiamethoxam) to quantify the effect of household processing on the pesticide residues. To ensure sufficiently high levels of residues in flesh and peel, the most concentrated formulations were applied observing good agricultural practice. The peeling step decreased the concentration of pesticide residues for maneb, imazalil and acetamiprid by more than 90%. Cyromazin, carbendazim and thiamethoxam were reduced by approximately 50%. The reduction of the pesticides could not be fully explained by the systemic character of the pesticides. However, the agricultural practices (time of application), solubility and mode of action (systemic versus contact pesticide) of the pesticides could be used to explain the difference in processing factors for the studied pesticides. Degradation products (melamine and ethylenethiourea) were also investigated in this study, but were not detected. PMID:22489844

  8. Occurrence of pesticides and some of their degradation products in waters in a Spanish wine region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrero-Hernández, E.; Andrades, M. S.; Álvarez-Martín, A.; Pose-Juan, E.; Rodríguez-Cruz, M. S.; Sánchez-Martín, M. J.

    2013-04-01

    SummaryA multi-residual analytical method based on solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was developed to monitor pesticides in natural waters. Fifty-eight compounds, including herbicides, fungicides, insecticides and some of their degradation products, were surveyed to evaluate the quality of natural waters throughout the wine-growing region of La Rioja (Rioja DOCa). Ninety-two sampling points were selected, including surface and ground waters that could be affected by agricultural activities covering the region's three sub-areas. Different parameters that may affect the efficiency of the SPE procedure were optimised (sorbent type, elution solvent and sample volume), and matrix-matched standards were used to eliminate the variable matrix effect and ensure good quantification. The developed method allows the determination of target compounds below the level established by the European Union for waters for human use with suitable precision (relative standard deviations lower than 18%) and accuracy (with recoveries over 61%). Forty compounds included in this study (six insecticides, 12 herbicides, 16 fungicides and six degradation products) were detected in one or more samples. The herbicides terbuthylazine, its metabolite desethyl terbuthylazine, fluometuron and ethofumesate and the fungicides pyrimethanil and tebuconazole were the compounds most frequently detected in water samples (present in more than 60% of the samples). Concentrations above 0.1 μg L-1 were detected for 37 of the compounds studied, and in several cases recorded values of over 18 μg L-1. The results reveal the presence of pesticides in most of the samples investigated. In 64% of groundwaters and 62% of surface waters, the sum of compounds detected was higher than 0.5 μg L-1 (the limit established by EU legislation for the sum of all pesticides detected in waters for human use).

  9. Pesticide Degradation in Thermal Foggers.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thermal foggers are used in many parts of the world for vector control. Since thermal foggers use heat to create and help propel adulticide clouds, there is reason to examine the stability of pesticides in both diesel and water-based formulations. This study examined the degradation of 5 pesticide...

  10. Agricultural pesticides and selected degradation products in five tidal regions and the main stem of Chesapeake Bay, USA.

    PubMed

    McConnell, Laura L; Rice, Clifford P; Hapeman, Cathleen J; Drakeford, Leticia; Harman-Fetcho, Jennifer A; Bialek, Krystyna; Fulton, Michael H; Leight, Andrew K; Allen, Gregory

    2007-12-01

    Nutrients, sediment, and toxics from water sources and the surrounding airshed are major problems contributing to poor water quality in many regions of the Chesapeake Bay, an important estuary located in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States. During the early spring of 2000, surface water samples were collected for pesticide analysis from 18 stations spanning the Chesapeake Bay. In a separate effort from July to September of 2004, 61 stations within several tidal regions were characterized with respect to 21 pesticides and 11 of their degradation products. Three regions were located on the agricultural Delmarva Peninsula: The Chester, Nanticoke, and Pocomoke Rivers. Two regions were located on the more urban western shore: The Rhode and South Rivers and the Lower Mobjack Bay, including the Back and Poquoson Rivers. In both studies, herbicides and their degradation products were the most frequently detected chemicals. In 2000, atrazine and metolachlor were found at all 18 stations. In 2004, the highest parent herbicide concentrations were found in the upstream region of Chester River. The highest concentration for any analyte in these studies was for the ethane sulfonic acid of metolachlor (MESA) at 2,900 ng/L in the Nanticoke River. The degradation product MESA also had the greatest concentration of any analyte in the Pocomoke River (2,100 ng/L) and in the Chester River (1,200 ng/L). In the agricultural tributaries, herbicide degradation product concentrations were more strongly correlated with salinity than the parent herbicides. In the two nonagricultural watersheds on the western shore, no gradient in herbicide concentrations was observed, indicating the pesticide source to these areas was water from the Bay main stem. PMID:18020682

  11. Enhanced degradation of five organophosphorus pesticides in skimmed milk by lactic acid bacteria and its potential relationship with phosphatase production.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying-Hua; Xu, Di; Liu, Jia-Qi; Zhao, Xin-Huai

    2014-12-01

    Skimmed milk spiked with five organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs), chlorpyrifos, diazinon, fenitrothion, malathion and methyl parathion, was fermented by ten lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and four strain combinations at 42°C for 24h. OPPs left in the samples at different times were extracted, purified, detected by gas chromatography and calculated for degradation rate constants, based on a first-order reaction model. OPPs degradation was enhanced by the inoculated LAB, resulting in 0.8-225.4% increase in the rate constants. Diazinon and methyl parathion were more stable whereas chlorpyrifos, fenitrothion and malathion were more labile. Lactobacillus brevis 1.0209 showed the strongest acceleration on OPPs degradation while strain combination could bring about a synergy between the strains of lower ability. Phosphatase production of the strains might be one of the key factors responsible for the enhanced OPPs degradation, as the detected phosphatase activities were positively correlated to the measured degradation rate constants of OPPs (r=0.636-0.970, P<0.05). PMID:24996321

  12. Detection of pyrethroid pesticides and their environmental degradation products in duplicate diet samples

    EPA Science Inventory

    The abstract is for an oral presentation at the Asilomar Conference on Mass Spectrometry: Mass Spectrometry in Environmental Chemistry, Toxicology, and Health. It describes analytical method development and sample results for determination of pyrethroid pesticides and environme...

  13. ORGANOPHOSPHATE PESTICIDE DEGRADATION PATHWAYS DURING DRINKING WATER TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Free chlorine has been found to react with organophosphate (OP) pesticides resulting in the more toxic oxon products. We will discuss OP pesticide degradation pathways and modeling in the presence of chlorine and chloramines, as well as present a relationship between structure a...

  14. Low pressure UV/H2O2 treatment for the degradation of the pesticides metaldehyde, clopyralid and mecoprop - Kinetics and reaction product formation.

    PubMed

    Semitsoglou-Tsiapou, Sofia; Templeton, Michael R; Graham, Nigel J D; Hernández Leal, Lucía; Martijn, Bram J; Royce, Alan; Kruithof, Joop C

    2016-03-15

    The degradation kinetics of three pesticides - metaldehyde, clopyralid and mecoprop - by ultraviolet photolysis and hydroxyl radical oxidation by low pressure ultraviolet hydrogen peroxide (LP-UV/H2O2) advanced oxidation was determined. Mecoprop was susceptible to both LP-UV photolysis and hydroxyl radical oxidation, and exhibited the fastest degradation kinetics, achieving 99.6% (2.4-log) degradation with a UV fluence of 800 mJ/cm(2) and 5 mg/L hydrogen peroxide. Metaldehyde was poorly degraded by LP-UV photolysis while 97.7% (1.6-log) degradation was achieved with LP-UV/H2O2 treatment at the maximum tested UV fluence of 1000 mJ/cm(2) and 15 mg/L hydrogen peroxide. Clopyralid was hardly susceptible to LP-UV photolysis and exhibited the lowest degradation by LP-UV/H2O2 among the three pesticides. The second-order reaction rate constants for the reactions between the pesticides and OH-radicals were calculated applying a kinetic model for LP-UV/H2O2 treatment to be 3.6 × 10(8), 2.0 × 10(8) and 1.1 × 10(9) M(-1) s(-1) for metaldehyde, clopyralid and mecoprop, respectively. The main LP-UV photolysis reaction product from mecoprop was 2-(4-hydroxy-2-methylphenoxy) propanoic acid, while photo-oxidation by LP-UV/H2O2 treatment formed several oxidation products. The photo-oxidation of clopyralid involved either hydroxylation or dechlorination of the ring, while metaldehyde underwent hydroxylation and produced acetic acid as a major end product. Based on the findings, degradation pathways for the three pesticides by LP-UV/H2O2 treatment were proposed. PMID:26803264

  15. PESTICIDE PRODUCT INFORMATION SYSTEM (PPIS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pesticide Product Information System (PPIS) contains information concerning all pesticide products registered in the United States. It includes registrant name and address, chemical ingredients, toxicity category, product names, distributor brand names, site/pest uses, pestic...

  16. Organochlorinated pesticide degrading microorganisms isolated from contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Lovecka, Petra; Pacovska, Iva; Stursa, Petr; Vrchotova, Blanka; Kochankova, Lucie; Demnerova, Katerina

    2015-01-25

    Degradation of selected organochlorinated pesticides (γ-hexachlorocyclohexane - γ-HCH, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane - DDT, hexachlorobenzene - HCB) by soil microorganisms was studied. Bacterial strains isolated from contaminated soil from Klatovy-Luby, Hajek and Neratovice, Czech Republic, capable of growth on the selected pesticides were isolated and characterised. These isolates were subjected to characterisation and identification by MS MALDI-TOF of whole cells and sequence analysis of 16S rRNA genes. The isolates were screened by gas chromatography for their ability to degrade the selected pesticides. Some isolates were able to degrade pesticides, and the formation of degradation products (γ-pentachlorocyclohexane (γ-PCCH), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD)) observed in liquid culture confirmed their degradation capability. The isolates and DNA samples isolated from the contaminated soil were also screened for the bphA1 gene (encoding biphenyl-2,3-dioxygenase, the first enzyme in the PCB degradation pathway) and its occurrence was demonstrated. The isolates were also screened for the presence of linA, encoding dehydrochlorinase, the first enzyme of the HCH degradation pathway. The linA gene could not be found in any of the tested isolates, possibly due to the high specificity of the primers used. The isolates with the most effective degradation abilities could be used for further in situ bioremediation experiments with contaminated soil. PMID:25094051

  17. Particulate matter formation from photochemical degradation of organophosphorus pesticides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrás, E.; Ródenas, M.; Vera, T.; Muñoz, A.

    2015-12-01

    Several experiments were performed in the European Photo-reactor - EUPHORE - for studying aerosol formation from organophosphorus pesticides such as diazinon, chlorpyrifos, chlorpyrifos-methyl and pirimiphos-methyl. The mass concentration yields obtained (Y) were in the range 5 - 44% for the photo-oxidation reactions in the presence and the absence of NOx. These results confirm the importance of studying pesticides as significant precursors of atmospheric particulate matter due to the serious risks associated to them. The studies based on the use of EUPHORE photoreactor provide useful data about atmospheric degradation processes of organophosphorus pesticides to the atmosphere. Knowledge of the specific degradation products, including the formation of secondary particulate matter, could complete the assessment of their potential impact, since the formation of those degradation products plays a significant role in the atmospheric chemistry, global climate change, radiative force, and are related to health effects.

  18. Results of analyses of the fungicide Chlorothalonil, its degradation products, and other selected pesticides at 22 surface-water sites in five Southern states, 2003-04

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scribner, Elisabeth A.; Orlando, James L.; Battaglin, William A.; Sandstrom, Mark; Kuivila, Kathryn M.; Meyer, Michael T.

    2006-01-01

    In accordance with the mission of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Toxic Substances Hydrology Program, a pesticide study was conducted during 2003-04 to determine the occurrence of the fungicide chlorothalonil and its degradation products at 22 surface-water sites in five Southern States. Water-quality samples were collected during the peanut-growing season (June-September) in 2003. During the peanut-growing season in 2004, samples were collected after large storms. An analytical method was developed at the USGS Organic Geochemistry Research Laboratory in Lawrence, Kansas, to measure chlorothalonil and its degradation products by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). Chlorothalonil was detected in 4 of the 113 surface-water samples. The primary degradation product of chlorothalonil, 4-hydroxy-chlorothalonil, was detected in 26 of the 113 samples with concentrations ranging from 0.002 to 0.930 microgram per liter. The chlorothalonil degradation products, 1-amide-4-hydroxy-chorothalonil and 1,3-diamide-chlorothalonil, were detected in one water sample each at 0.020 and 0.161 microgram per liter, respectively. The USGS Methods and Research Development Group, Lakewood, Colorado, developed a custom method for chlorothalonil using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) in an effort to achieve a lower laboratory reporting level (LRL) than the USGS National Water-Quality Laboratory (NWQL) schedule 2060, which analyzes the compound chlorothalonil at a LRL of 0.035 ?g/L. The group succeeded in achieving a lower GC/MS reporting level of 0.01 ?g/L. Chlorothalonil was detected in 5 of 68 water samples analyzed using the custom GC/MS method, whereas chlorothalonil was detected in 2 of 21 water samples analyzed using NWQL schedule 2060. In addition to analysis of chlorothalonil and its degradation products, samples were analyzed using the USGS NWQL schedules 2001 and 2060 for about 114 pesticides and their degradation products. Samples also were analyzed for

  19. Regulation of pesticide degradation in the detritusphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagel, Holger; Poll, Christian; Ingwersen, Joachim; Ditterich, Franziska; Gebala, Aurelia; Kandeler, Ellen; Streck, Thilo

    2015-04-01

    The detritusphere is a microbial hot spot of C turnover and degradation of pesticides in soils. We aimed at an improved understanding of the regulation mechanisms, which are responsible for stimulated degradation of the herbicide MCPA (2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid) in response to increased C availability in the detritusphere. We combined a microcosm experiment with biogeochemical modeling and linked genetic information on abundances of total bacteria, fungi and specific pesticide degraders in soil to the coupled biogeochemical dynamics of C and MCPA. As a result of diffusive and convective C transport from litter into the adjacent soil we found increased dissolved organic C (DOC) in soil up to a 6 mm distance to litter (detritusphere). In the detritusphere, we observed increased microbial C and accelerated MCPA degradation. These dynamics were accurately reproduced by the model. Whereas the observed increase of bacteria and pesticide degrader populations in the detritusphere was simulated satisfactorily, the model could not reproduce the steep increase of fungi indicated by the fungal marker gene. Our simulations suggest that bacterial MCPA degraders mostly benefited from high-quality DOC, whereas fungal activity and growth were specifically stimulated by low-quality DOC. According to the simulations, MCPA was predominantly degraded via fungal co-metabolism. Our study demonstrates that biogeochemical processes in soil hotspots are regulated by the interaction of transport processes and microbial dynamics. It further reveals that mathematical modelling is as powerful tool to gain comprehensive insight into the microbial regulation of matter cycling in soil. Genetic information has a high potential to parameterize and evaluate complex mechanistic models, but model approaches must be improved based on extended information on gene dynamics at the cellular level.

  20. 75 FR 24694 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has received applications to register pesticide products containing an active ingredient not included in any previously registered pesticide product. Pursuant to the...

  1. 75 FR 71695 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has received applications to register new uses for pesticide products containing... Pesticide Programs (OPP) Regulatory Public Docket (7502P), Environmental Protection Agency,...

  2. 75 FR 32767 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-09

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces receipt of applications to register new uses for pesticide...: Office of Pesticide Programs (OPP) Regulatory Public Docket (7502P), Environmental Protection...

  3. 75 FR 10259 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has received applications to register new uses for pesticide products... opportunity to comment on these applications. DATES: Comments must be received on or before April 5,...

  4. 76 FR 17644 - Pesticide Product; Registration Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-30

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Product; Registration Application AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has received an application to register a pesticide product containing active... providing notice of receipt and opportunity to comment on this application. DATES: Comments must be...

  5. 75 FR 4383 - Pesticide Products: Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products: Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces receipt of applications to register pesticide products... comments by the comment period deadline identified. II. Registration Applications EPA received...

  6. Pesticide runoff from greenhouse production.

    PubMed

    Roseth, Roger; Haarstad, Ketil

    2010-01-01

    A research has been undertaken studying pesticide residues in water from greenhouses and the use of soils and filter materials to reduce such losses. The pesticides detected in water samples collected downstream greenhouses include 9 fungicides, 5 herbicides and 4 insecticides. 10 compounds from flower and vegetable productions were frequently found to exceed environmental risk levels, and with a few exceptions the compounds were found in higher concentrations than those typically found in agricultural runoff. Some compounds were found in high concentrations (>1 microg/l) in undiluted runoff from greenhouses producing vegetables. Nutrient concentrations in the runoff were also sporadically very high, with phosphorous values varying between 0.85 and 7.4 mg P/l, and nitrogen values between 7.5 and 41.4 mg N/l. Undiluted runoff from the productions showed values of 60 mg P/l and 300 mg N/l. High values of pesticides correlated with high values of nutrients, especially P. Column experiments using a sandy agricultural soil and stock solutions of non-polar and slightly polar pesticides mixed with a complex binder and nutrients showed a significant reduction for nearly all of the compounds used, indicating that transport through soil will reduce the concentrations of the studied pesticides. The pesticide adsorption capacity of the filter materials pine bark, peat, Sphagnum moss, compost, oat straw, ferrous sand and clay soil were tested in batch and column experiments. Adsorption were studied contacting the filter materials with aqueous solutions containing greenhouse production pesticides. The batch experiments showed that pine bark and peat, both combining a high content of organic matter with a low ph, provided the highest adsorption for most of the tested pesticides. Sphagnum moss, compost and oat straw also showed high adsorption for most of the pesticides, while the mineral filters provided the lowest adsorption (30-55%). Further column experiments confirmed these

  7. Sorption-desorption behavior of pesticides and their degradation products in volcanic and nonvolcanic soils: interpretation of interactions through two-way principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Báez, María E; Espinoza, Jeannette; Silva, Ricardo; Fuentes, Edwar

    2015-06-01

    Sorption-desorption behavior of six pesticides and some degradation products was assessed on seven agricultural volcanic and nonvolcanic soils belonging to Andisol, Ultisol, Mollisol, and Alfisol orders. The global interpretation of sorption data was performed by principal component analysis. Results showed exceptionally high sorption of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) (the breakdown product) on volcanic soils (K f > 1500 μg(1 - 1 / n) mL(1 / n) g(-1)) related mainly to contents of amorphous aluminum oxides (Andisols) and crystalline minerals (Ultisols). The lower sorption on nonvolcanic soils was associated to low organic matter contents and lack of significant minerals. Metsulfuron-methyl and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (metabolite of chlorpyrifos) were weakly to substantially sorbed on Andisols and Ultisols, but the first one was not sorbed at pH > 6.4, including nonvolcanic soils. The metabolite of diazinon, 2-isopropyl-4-methyl-6-hydroxypyrimidine, was weakly sorbed on all soils (K f = 0.4 to 3.6 μg(1 - 1 / n) mL(1 / n) g(-1)). Acidic compounds would be lixiviated in Mollisols and Alfisols, but they could leach also in Andisols and Ultisols if they reach greater depths. Atrazine and deethylatrazine sorption was related to organic carbon content; therefore, they were weakly retained on nonvolcanic soils (K f = 0.7 to 2.2 μg(1 - 1 / n) mL(1 / n) g(-1)). Chlorpyrifos was highly sorbed on all soils reaching K OC values of >8000. Finally, the significant retention of chlorothalonil and diazinon on Mollisols and Alfisols in spite of their low OC contents showed the contribution of clay minerals in the sorption process. PMID:25561264

  8. Inverse modeling of pesticide degradation and pesticide-degrading population size dynamics in a bioremediation system: parameterizing the Monod model.

    PubMed

    Sniegowski, Kristel; Mertens, Jan; Diels, Jan; Smolders, Erik; Springael, Dirk

    2009-05-01

    Pesticide degradation models are compared which simulate the response of biofilters for treatment of pesticide-contaminated waste water to time-irregular pesticide supply in which the pesticide is used for growth and mineralized. Biofilter microcosms containing a mixture of straw, peat and soil and harboring micropopulations which uses the herbicide linuron for growth, were irrigated with linuron for 28 weeks with a stop in its supply between week 12 and 17. Matrix samples were regularly taken to assay linuron mineralization. A first-order approximation of the Monod model was used to simulate the observed mineralization data, while an inverse modeling framework combining a sensitivity analysis (Morris Sensitivity Analysis) with an inverse modeling approach (Shuffled Complex Evolution Metropolis) adopted to parameterize the model. Lag times in linuron mineralization decreased during the initial weeks of linuron irrigation but increased after supply of linuron ceased. The model well-simulated the lag time dynamics which were related to the dynamics of the predicted linuron-degrading population size in the microcosms. It was predicted that the population size decreased at a rate of 0.031 d(-1) after pesticide supply ceased to reach its initial population size after 25 weeks. We conclude that modeling pesticide degradation in biofilters should incorporate biomass dynamics in case the pesticide is used as C-source. First-order approaches without incorporating biomass dynamics could lead to underestimation of the risk of pesticide leaching. PMID:19232428

  9. Household Products Database: Pesticides

    MedlinePlus

    ... Names Types of Products Manufacturers Ingredients About the Database FAQ Product Recalls Help Glossary Contact Us More ... holders. Information is extracted from Consumer Product Information Database ©2001-2015 by DeLima Associates. All rights reserved. ...

  10. Potential risks of pesticide degradates to aquatic life

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boxall, Alistair; Sinclair, C.; Koplin, Dana W.

    2006-01-01

    Recent advances in analytical methodology and greater access to analytical standards have led to the detection of degradates from a wide variety of pesticides and other compounds in surface water, ground water, precipitation, air, and sediment (Boxall and others, 2004). Many of these degradates are more persistent in the environment than their parent compounds, and many are more mobile, as well.

  11. Pesticides

    MedlinePlus

    ... or cause harm to crops, people, or animals. Pesticides can help get rid of them. Pesticides are not just insect killers. They also include ... mildew, germs, and more. Many household products contain pesticides. Pesticides can protect your health by killing germs, ...

  12. Comprehensive screening study of pesticide degradation via oxidation and hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, Evelyn; Shi, Honglan; Wang, Tongwen; Ma, Yinfa; Fulmer, Alice; Adams, Craig

    2012-01-11

    This comprehensive study focused on the reactivity of a set of 62 pesticides via oxidization by free chlorine, monochloramine, chlorine dioxide, hydrogen peroxide, ozone, and permanganate; photodegradation with UV(254); and hydrolysis at pH 2, 7, and 12. Samples were analyzed using direct injection liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry detection or gas chromatography-electron capture detection after liquid-liquid extraction. Many pesticides were reactive via hydrolysis and/or chlorination and ozonation mechanisms under typical drinking water treatment conditions, with less reactivity exhibited on average for chlorine dioxide, monochloramine, hydrogen peroxide, and UV(254). The pyrazole and organophosphorous pesticides were most reactive in general, whereas carbamates and others were less reactive. The screening study provides guidance for the pesticide/oxidation systems that are most likely to lead to degradates in water treatment and the environment. PMID:22141915

  13. Natural products as sources for new pesticides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural products as pesticides have been reviewed from several perspectives in the past; however, no review has examined the impact of natural product and natural product-based pesticides, as a function of new active ingredient registrations with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), on the U.S...

  14. 76 FR 5805 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-02

    ...EPA has received applications to register pesticide products containing active ingredients not included in any previously registered pesticide products. Pursuant to the provisions of section 3(c)(4) of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), EPA is hereby providing notice of receipt and opportunity to comment on these...

  15. 75 FR 71697 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ...-RR) was published in a separate notice (see 75 FR 11175; March 10, 2010; FRL-8811-6). File symbol... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has received applications to register pesticide products containing...

  16. 40 CFR 168.70 - Unregistered export pesticide products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Unregistered export pesticide products. 168.70 Section 168.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE... Pesticides § 168.70 Unregistered export pesticide products. (a) Any export pesticide product that does...

  17. 40 CFR 168.70 - Unregistered export pesticide products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Unregistered export pesticide products. 168.70 Section 168.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE... Pesticides § 168.70 Unregistered export pesticide products. (a) Any export pesticide product that does...

  18. 40 CFR 168.69 - Registered export pesticide products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Registered export pesticide products. 168.69 Section 168.69 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE... Pesticides § 168.69 Registered export pesticide products. (a) Each export pesticide product that...

  19. 40 CFR 168.69 - Registered export pesticide products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Registered export pesticide products. 168.69 Section 168.69 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE... Pesticides § 168.69 Registered export pesticide products. (a) Each export pesticide product that...

  20. Modeling spatial variation in microbial degradation of pesticides in soil.

    PubMed

    Ghafoor, Abdul; Moeys, Julien; Stenström, John; Tranter, Grant; Jarvis, Nicholas J

    2011-08-01

    Currently, no general guidance is available on suitable approaches for dealing with spatial variation in the first-order pesticide degradation rate constant k even though it is a very sensitive parameter and often highly variable at the field, catchment, and regional scales. Supported by some mechanistic reasoning, we propose a simple general modeling approach to predict k from the sorption constant, which reflects bioavailability, and easily measurable surrogate variables for microbial biomass/activity (organic carbon and clay contents). The soil depth was also explicitly included as an additional predictor variable. This approach was tested in a meta-analysis of available literature data using bootstrapped partial least-squares regression. It explained 73% of the variation in k for the 19 pesticide-study combinations (n = 212) in the database. When 4 of the 19 pesticide-study combinations were excluded (n = 169), the approach explained 80% of the variation in the degradation rate constant. We conclude that the approach shows promise as an effective way to account for the effects of bioavailability and microbial activity on microbial pesticide degradation in large-scale model applications. PMID:21682283

  1. Pesticides

    MedlinePlus

    ... and rats. Because of the widespread use of agricultural chemicals in food production, people are exposed to ... effects of these pesticide residues. Results from the Agricultural Health Study, an ongoing study of pesticide exposures ...

  2. 77 FR 38285 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-27

    ...This notice announces receipt of applications to register pesticide products containing new active ingredients not included in any currently registered products pursuant to the provisions of section 3(c)(4) of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), as...

  3. 75 FR 3235 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ...This notice announces receipt of applications to register pesticide products containing new active ingredients not included in any currently registered products pursuant to the provisions of section 3(c)(4) of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), as...

  4. 75 FR 56105 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-15

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces receipt of applications to register new uses for pesticide... notice of such applications, pursuant to section 3(c)(4) of FIFRA. DATES: Comments must be received on...

  5. Degradation of ethylenethiourea pesticide metabolite from water by photocatalytic processes.

    PubMed

    Bottrel, Sue Ellen C; Amorim, Camila C; Leão, Mônica M D; Costa, Elizângela P; Lacerda, Igor A

    2014-01-01

    In this study, photocatalytic (photo-Fenton and H2O2/UV) and dark Fenton processes were used to remove ethylenethiourea (ETU) from water. The experiments were conducted in a photo-reactor with an 80 W mercury vapor lamp. The mineralization of ETU was determined by total organic carbon analysis, and ETU degradation was qualitatively monitored by the reduction of UV absorbance at 232 nm. A higher mineralization efficiency was obtained by using the photo-peroxidation process (UV/H2O2). Approximately 77% of ETU was mineralized within 120 min of the reaction using [H2O2]0 = 400 mg L(-1). The photo-Fenton process mineralized 70% of the ETU with [H2O2]0 = 800 mg L(-1) and [Fe(2+)] = 400 mg L(-1), and there is evidence that hydrogen peroxide was the limiting reagent in the reaction because it was rapidly consumed. Moreover, increasing the concentration of H2O2 from 800 mg L(-1) to 1200 mg L(-1) did not enhance the degradation of ETU. Kinetics studies revealed that the pseudo-second-order model best fit the experimental conditions. The k values for the UV/H2O2 and photo-Fenton processes were determined to be 6.2 × 10(-4) mg L(-1) min(-1) and 7.7 × 10(-4) mg L(-1) min(-1), respectively. The mineralization of ETU in the absence of hydrogen peroxide has led to the conclusion that ETU transformation products are susceptible to photolysis by UV light. These are promising results for further research. The processes that were investigated can be used to remove pesticide metabolites from drinking water sources and wastewater in developing countries. PMID:24502213

  6. Simultaneous determination of 19 triazine pesticides and degradation products in processed cereal samples from Chinese total diet study by isotope dilution-high performance liquid chromatography-linear ion trap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Yang, Xin; Miao, Hong; Zhao, Yunfeng; Liu, Wei; Wu, Yongning

    2013-06-01

    A selective and sensitive isotope dilution-high performance liquid chromatography-linear ion trap mass spectrometry (Isotope Dilution-HPLC-LIT-MS(3)) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 19 triazine pesticides and their degradation products in processed cereal samples from Chinese total diet study (TDS). The method integrated the addition of isotope internal standards, liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), clean-up with MCX solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges and HPLC-LIT-MS(3) analysis with selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. Matrix-matched calibration curves showed good linearity (R(2)≥0.9940) verified by applying the Mandel's fitting test (p>0.087) performed at the 95% confidence level. Decision limits (CCαs) and detection capabilities (CCβs) of the 19 triazine pesticides and their degradation products fell in the ranges of 0.0020-0.4200 μg kg(-1) and 0.0024-0.4500 μg kg(-1), respectively. Recoveries ranged from 70.1% to 112.8%, with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranging from 1.5% to 13.5%. Furthermore, the proposed method was applied to analyzing the proposed cereal samples from the fourth Chinese TDS. Eleven triazines were detected in six cereal samples with the concentrations ranging from 0.013 to 0.987 μg kg(-1). This method can also be used for the further determination of the triazines in other food group composites, and ultimately served as a methodological foundation for assessing the triazines in the average Chinese diet in the general population. PMID:23684466

  7. Degradation of nitenpyram pesticide in aqueous solution by low-temperature plasma.

    PubMed

    Li, S P; Jiang, Y Y; Cao, X H; Dong, Y W; Dong, M; Xu, J

    2013-01-01

    In order to study the new technique of plasma wastewater treatment, the degradation behaviour ofnitenpyram (NTP) pesticide was investigated in a low-temperature plasma formed during a dielectric barrier discharge process. The reactor was a radial flow sedimentation tank centred around the water inlet. We studied the effect of pesticide concentration and input power of the dielectric barrier discharge, together with the effect of external factors on the degradation of nitenpyram pesticide wastewater such as conductivity and the use of various of catalysts, and the reaction products were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). The results showed that NTP could be effectively removed from aqueous solution by low-temperature plasma. Increasing the input power could improve the efficiency of degradation, conforming to a first-order kinetic model. Use of a suitable catalyst clearly improved the degradation process, as also did low conductivity. The pH of NTP was reduced with discharge time. PMID:24191496

  8. 40 CFR 165.63 - Scope of pesticide products included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Scope of pesticide products included. 165.63 Section 165.63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL Standards for Repackaging Pesticide Products into...

  9. 40 CFR 165.63 - Scope of pesticide products included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope of pesticide products included. 165.63 Section 165.63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL Standards for Repackaging Pesticide Products into...

  10. Microbiological degradation of pesticides in yard waste composting.

    PubMed Central

    Fogarty, A M; Tuovinen, O H

    1991-01-01

    Changes in public opinion and legislation have led to the general recognition that solid waste treatment practices must be changed. Solid-waste disposal by landfill is becoming increasingly expensive and regulated and no longer represents a long-term option in view of limited land space and environmental problems. Yard waste, a significant component of municipal solid waste, has previously not been separated from the municipal solid-waste stream. The treatment of municipal solid waste including yard waste must urgently be addressed because disposal via landfill will be prohibited by legislation. Separation of yard waste from municipal solid waste will be mandated in many localities, thus stressing the importance of scrutinizing current composting practices in treating grass clippings, leaves, and other yard residues. Yard waste poses a potential environmental health problem as a result of the widespread use of pesticides in lawn and tree care and the persistence of the residues of these chemicals in plant tissue. Yard waste containing pesticides may present a problem due to the recalcitrant and toxic nature of the pesticide molecules. Current composting processes are based on various modifications of either window systems or in-vessel systems. Both types of processes are ultimately dependent on microbial bioconversions of organic material to innocuous end products. The critical stage of the composting process is the thermophilic phase. The fate and mechanism of removal of pesticides in composting processes is largely unknown and in need of comprehensive analysis. PMID:1886519

  11. Pesticides

    MedlinePlus

    ... ACMT Recognition Awards Annual Scientific Meeting Travel Scholarships Pesticides Public Health > Public > Toxicology FAQ's > Pesticides Pesticides What are pesticides ? How do pesticides work ? How ...

  12. 78 FR 9688 - Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on Antimicrobial Pesticide Products With...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ... (77 FR 74003) (FRL-9362-3). In that document, EPA requested comment on a draft PR notice that provided...-Related Label Claims; Notice of Availability; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY: Environmental Protection... for Antimicrobial Pesticide Products with Mold-Related Label Claims. This document extends the...

  13. 75 FR 34448 - Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on False or Misleading Pesticide Product...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... of May 19, 2010 (75 FR 28012) (FRL-8824-8). In that document, the Agency announced the availability... Brand Names; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice...) entitled ``False or Misleading Pesticide Product Brand Names.'' This document extends the comment...

  14. 75 FR 28012 - Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on False or Misleading Pesticide Product...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-19

    ... availability of this draft PR Notice for public comment (67 FR 14941; FRL-6809-9) on March 28, 2002 and... Brand Names AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The... Notice (PR Notice) entitled ``False or Misleading Pesticide Product Brand Names.'' PR Notices are...

  15. Metabolic pathways utilized by Phanerochaete chrysosporium for degradation of the cyclodiene pesticide endosulfan.

    PubMed Central

    Kullman, S W; Matsumura, F

    1996-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that cultures of white rot fungi not favoring the production of lignin and manganese peroxidases are effective in degrading certain xenobiotics. In this study we have used endosulfan as a model xenobiotic to assess the enzymatic mechanisms of pesticide metabolism under ligninolytic (nutrient-deficient) and nonligninolytic (nutrient-rich) culture conditions. Rapid metabolism of this chlorinated pesticide occurred under each nutrient condition tested. However, the extent of degradation and the nature of the metabolic products differed for nutrient-deficient and nutrient-rich media. The pathways for endosulfan metabolism were characterized by analysis of the fungal metabolites produced. The major endosulfan metabolites were identified by gas chromatography-electron capture detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as endosulfan sulfate, endosulfan diol, endosulfan hydroxyether, and a unknown metabolite tentatively identified as endosulfan dialdehyde. The nature of the metabolites formed indicates that this organism utilizes both oxidative and hydrolytic pathways for metabolism of this pesticide. Piperonyl butoxide, a known cytochrome P-450 inhibitor, significantly inhibited the oxidation of endosulfan to endosulfan sulfate and enhanced hydrolysis of endosulfan to endosulfan diol. We suggest that the metabolism of endosulfan is mediated by two divergent pathways, one hydrolytic and the other oxidative. Judging by the inactivity of extracellular fluid and partially purified lignin peroxidase in metabolizing endosulfan, we conclude that metabolism of this compound does not involve the action of extracellular peroxidases. PMID:8593059

  16. 75 FR 66095 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-27

    ...). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces receipt of applications to register new uses for pesticide products containing currently registered active ingredients, pursuant to the provisions of section 3(c) of... Notice of such applications, pursuant to section 3(c)(4) of FIFRA. DATES: Comments must be received on...

  17. 76 FR 16413 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ...This notice announces receipt of applications to register new uses for pesticide products containing currently registered active ingredients, pursuant to the provisions of section 3(c) of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), as amended. EPA is publishing this Notice of such applications, pursuant to section 3(c)(4) of...

  18. 75 FR 76463 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ...This notice announces receipt of applications to register new uses for pesticide products containing currently registered active ingredients, pursuant to the provisions of section 3(c) of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), as amended. EPA is publishing this Notice of such applications, pursuant to section 3(c)(4) of...

  19. 75 FR 51045 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ...This notice announces receipt of applications to register new uses for pesticide products containing currently registered active ingredients, pursuant to the provisions of section 3(c) of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), as amended. EPA is publishing this Notice of such applications, pursuant to section 3(c)(4) of...

  20. 40 CFR 165.23 - Scope of pesticide products included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... this section, a pesticide product must be packaged in compliance with 49 CFR 173.24. If the pesticide product meets the definition of a hazardous material in 49 CFR 171.8, the Department of Transportation requires it to be packaged according to 49 CFR parts 171-180. (f) What does “pesticide product”...

  1. 40 CFR 165.23 - Scope of pesticide products included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... this section, a pesticide product must be packaged in compliance with 49 CFR 173.24. If the pesticide product meets the definition of a hazardous material in 49 CFR 171.8, the Department of Transportation requires it to be packaged according to 49 CFR parts 171-180. (f) What does “pesticide product”...

  2. 40 CFR 165.23 - Scope of pesticide products included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... this section, a pesticide product must be packaged in compliance with 49 CFR 173.24. If the pesticide product meets the definition of a hazardous material in 49 CFR 171.8, the Department of Transportation requires it to be packaged according to 49 CFR parts 171-180. (f) What does “pesticide product”...

  3. 40 CFR 165.23 - Scope of pesticide products included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... this section, a pesticide product must be packaged in compliance with 49 CFR 173.24. If the pesticide product meets the definition of a hazardous material in 49 CFR 171.8, the Department of Transportation requires it to be packaged according to 49 CFR parts 171-180. (f) What does “pesticide product”...

  4. 40 CFR 165.23 - Scope of pesticide products included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... this section, a pesticide product must be packaged in compliance with 49 CFR 173.24. If the pesticide product meets the definition of a hazardous material in 49 CFR 171.8, the Department of Transportation requires it to be packaged according to 49 CFR parts 171-180. (f) What does “pesticide product”...

  5. ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDE DEGRADATION PATHWAYS DURING DRINKING WATER TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this work was to investigate organophosphorus (OP) pesticide transformation pathways as a class in the presence of aqueous chlorine. Seven priority OP pesticides were examined for their reactivity with aqueous chlorine: chlorpyrifos (CP), parathion (PA), diazino...

  6. Production of pesticide metabolites by oxidative reactions.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, E

    1982-08-01

    The cytochrome P-450-dependent monooxygenase system catalyzes a wide variety of oxidations of pesticide chemicals and related compounds. These reactions include epoxidation and aromatic hydroxylation, aliphatic hydroxylation, O-, N- and S-dealkylation, N-oxidation, oxidative deamination, S-oxidation, P-oxidation, desulfuration and ester cleavage and may result in either detoxication or activation of the pesticide. The current status of such reactions, relative to the production, in vivo, of biologically active intermediates in pesticide metabolism is summarized. More recently we have shown that the FAD-containing monooxygenase of mammalian liver (E.C.1.14.13.8), a xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme of broad specificity formerly known as an amine oxidase, is involved in a variety of pesticide oxidations. These include sulfoxidation of organophosphorus insecticides such as phorate and disulfoton, oxidative desulfuration of phosphonate insecticides such as fonofos and oxidation at the phosphorus atom in such compounds as the cotton defoliant, folex. The relative importance of the FAD-containing monooxygenase vis-a-vis the cytochrome P-450-dependent monooxygenase system is discussed, based on in vitro studies on purified enzymes. PMID:7161848

  7. Compound specific isotope analysis to investigate pesticide degradation in lysimeter experiments at field conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryabenko, Evgenia; Elsner, Martin; Bakkour, Rani; Hofstetter, Thomas; Torrento, Clara; Hunkeler, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    The frequent detection of organic micropollutants such as pesticides, consumer care products or pharmaceuticals in water is an increasing concern for human and ecosystem health. Degradation analysis of these compounds can be challenging in complex systems due to the fact that metabolites are not always found and mass balances frequently cannot be closed. Many abiotic and biotic degradation pathways cause, however, distinct isotope fractionation, where light isotopes are transferred preferentially from the reactant to the product pool (normal isotope fractionation). Compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) of multiple elements is a particularly powerful method to evaluate organic micropollutant transformation, because it can even give pathway-specific isotope fractionation (1,2). Available CSIA field studies, however, have focused almost exclusively on volatile petroleum and chlorinated hydrocarbons, which are present in high concentrations in the environment and can be extracted easily from water for GC-IRMS analysis. In the case of micropollutants, such as pesticides, CSIA in more challenging since it needs to be conducted at lower concentrations and requires pre-concentration, purification and high chromatographic performance (3). In this study we used lysimeters experiments to analyze transformation of atrazine, acetochlor, metolachlor and chloridazone by studying associated isotope fractionation. The project combines a) analytical method development for CSIA, b) identification of pathways of micropollutant degradation and c) quantification of transformation processes under field condition. The pesticides were applied both, at the soil surface and below the top soil under field-relevant concentrations in May 2014. After typical irrigation of the lysimeters, seepage water was collected in 50L bottles and stored for further SPE and CSIA. Here we present the very first result of a) analytical method development, b) improvement of SPE methods for complex pesticide

  8. Potential Transport and Degradation of “Aged” Pesticide Residues in Soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased pesticide residence time in soil, or “aging”, has been shown to affect the sorption-desorption of pesticides in the soil, which in turn can control transport and degradation processes. Aging effects have been characterized by batch sequential extraction methods, in which sorption coefficie...

  9. Isolation and characterization of the pesticide-degrading plasmid pJP1 from Alcaligenes paradoxus.

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, P R; Appleton, J; Pemberton, J M

    1978-01-01

    A strain of Alcaligenes paradoxus, unable to degrade phenoxyacetic acid, was shown to degrade two synthetic derivatives of this molecule, the herbicides 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid. The ability to degrade these pesticides is encoded by a 58-megadalton conjugal plasmid, pJP1. PMID:690076

  10. 40 CFR 165.43 - Scope of pesticide products included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Scope of pesticide products included. 165.43 Section 165.43 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL Refillable Container Standards: Container Design § 165.43...

  11. 40 CFR 165.43 - Scope of pesticide products included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope of pesticide products included. 165.43 Section 165.43 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL Refillable Container Standards: Container Design § 165.43...

  12. ADSORPTION, MOVEMENT, AND BIOLOGICAL DEGRADATION OF LARGE CONCENTRATIONS OF SELECTED PESTICIDES IN SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because of the importance of soil in biologically reducing the quantity and retarding the rate of pollutant movement into groundwater, this laboratory study was initiated to evaluate the adsorption, mobility, and degradation of large concentrations of the pesticide atrazine, meth...

  13. Water-quality assessment of the eastern Iowa basins : selected pesticides and pesticide degradates in streams, 1996-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schnoebelen, Douglas J.; Kalkhoff, Stephen J.; Becher, Kent D.; Thurman, E.M.

    2003-01-01

    Concentrations of pesticides varied by land-form region. Atrazine and cyanazine and their degradates were present in significantly greater concentrations in streams of the Southern Iowa Drift Plain than streams of either the Des Moines Lobe or the Iowan Surface.

  14. PHOTOCHEMICAL TRANSFORMATION OF THE DDT AND METHOXYCHLOR DEGRADATION PRODUCTS, DDE AND DMDE, BY SUNLIGHT

    EPA Science Inventory

    DDE and DMDE, degradation products of the pesticides DDT and methoxychlor, rapidly undergo an unusual photoisomerization in solution when exposed to sunlight. The isomerization involves the exchange of a vinyl chlorine and an ortho aromatic hydrogen. Other photoproducts identifie...

  15. Application of zerovalent iron (Fe(0)) to enhance degradation of HCHs and DDX in soil from a former organochlorine pesticides manufacturing plant.

    PubMed

    Yang, Su-Cai; Lei, Mei; Chen, Tong-Bin; Li, Xiao-Yan; Liang, Qi; Ma, Chuang

    2010-04-01

    Remediation of pesticide-polluted soil is particularly challenging when pesticides in soil are aged and a mixture of pesticides is present. Application of zerovalent iron (Fe(0)) was investigated to accelerate the degradation of HCHs (alpha-, beta-, gamma- and delta-hexachlorocyclohexane) and DDX (DDT, DDE and DDD) in the soil from a former organochlorine pesticide manufacturing plant. Ultrasonic extraction was used extract the organochlorine pesticides from soil. The identification and quantification of organochlorine pesticides in the extracts were accomplished by gas chromatograph. The addition of Fe(0) facilitated the degradation of the beta-HCH isomer, but had little effect on the degradation of alpha-HCH, gamma-HCH and delta-HCH. Zerovalent iron significantly increased the degradation of p,p'-DDT and o,p'-DDT in soil, and the percentage degradation of p,p'-DDT and o,p'-DDT increased with increased Fe(0) concentration during the first period of incubation. However, the amount of p,p'-DDD, the main dechlorinated product of p,p'-DDT, basically kept increased except in the unamended soil. The addition of Fe(0) therefore did not increased the percent degradation of summation SigmaDDT (p,p'-DDT+p,p'-DDD+p,p'-DDE) markedly. PMID:20303568

  16. 40 CFR 152.10 - Products that are not pesticides because they are not intended for a pesticidal purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Products that are not pesticides... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES General Provisions § 152.10 Products that are not pesticides because they are not intended for...

  17. 40 CFR 152.10 - Products that are not pesticides because they are not intended for a pesticidal purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Products that are not pesticides... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES General Provisions § 152.10 Products that are not pesticides because they are not intended for...

  18. 40 CFR 152.10 - Products that are not pesticides because they are not intended for a pesticidal purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Products that are not pesticides... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES General Provisions § 152.10 Products that are not pesticides because they are not intended for...

  19. 40 CFR 152.10 - Products that are not pesticides because they are not intended for a pesticidal purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Products that are not pesticides... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES General Provisions § 152.10 Products that are not pesticides because they are not intended for...

  20. 40 CFR 152.10 - Products that are not pesticides because they are not intended for a pesticidal purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Products that are not pesticides... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES General Provisions § 152.10 Products that are not pesticides because they are not intended for...

  1. Calculation of pesticide degradation in decaying cotton gin trash.

    PubMed

    Crossan, Angus N; Kennedy, Ivan R

    2008-10-01

    Pesticide residues were measured in stockpiled cotton gin trash (CGT) over a 2-year period. Samples were analysed by GC/MS/MS and interpretation of the results was aided by the presence of DDE residues, remnant from prior DDT use. Fourteen pesticide residues from current agricultural practice were detected in CGT. Several of these, including indoxacarb, profenofos, chlorpyrifos, propargite, bifenthrin, ethion and cyhalothrin, were more persistent than expected on the basis of published data for soil dissipation. The results showed a complex pattern of pesticide residue decay over time because of the simultaneous decomposition of the CGT matrix. PMID:18651089

  2. Effects of halving pesticide use on wheat production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossard, L.; Philibert, A.; Bertrand, M.; Colnenne-David, C.; Debaeke, P.; Munier-Jolain, N.; Jeuffroy, M. H.; Richard, G.; Makowski, D.

    2014-03-01

    Pesticides pose serious threats to both human health and the environment. In Europe, farmers are encouraged to reduce their use, and in France a recent environmental policy fixed a target of halving the pesticide use by 2018. Organic and integrated cropping systems have been proposed as possible solutions for reducing pesticide use, but the effect of reducing pesticide use on crop yield remains unclear. Here we use a set of cropping system experiments to quantify the yield losses resulting from a reduction of pesticide use for winter wheat in France. Our estimated yield losses resulting from a 50% reduction in pesticide use ranged from 5 to 13% of the yield obtained with the current pesticide use. At the scale of the whole country, these losses would decrease the French wheat production by about 2 to 3 millions of tons, which represent about 15% of the French wheat export.

  3. Effects of halving pesticide use on wheat production

    PubMed Central

    Hossard, L.; Philibert, A.; Bertrand, M.; Colnenne-David, C.; Debaeke, P.; Munier-Jolain, N.; Jeuffroy, M. H.; Richard, G.; Makowski, D.

    2014-01-01

    Pesticides pose serious threats to both human health and the environment. In Europe, farmers are encouraged to reduce their use, and in France a recent environmental policy fixed a target of halving the pesticide use by 2018. Organic and integrated cropping systems have been proposed as possible solutions for reducing pesticide use, but the effect of reducing pesticide use on crop yield remains unclear. Here we use a set of cropping system experiments to quantify the yield losses resulting from a reduction of pesticide use for winter wheat in France. Our estimated yield losses resulting from a 50% reduction in pesticide use ranged from 5 to 13% of the yield obtained with the current pesticide use. At the scale of the whole country, these losses would decrease the French wheat production by about 2 to 3 millions of tons, which represent about 15% of the French wheat export. PMID:24651597

  4. Simultaneous degradation of toxic refractory organic pesticide and bioelectricity generation using a soil microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xian; Song, Hai-liang; Yu, Chun-yan; Li, Xian-ning

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the soil microbial fuel cells (MFCs) were constructed in the topsoil contaminated with toxic refractory organic pesticide, hexachlorobenzene (HCB). The performance of electricity generation and HCB degradation in the soil-MFCs were investigated. The HCB degradation pathway was analyzed based on the determination of degradation products and intermediates. Experimental results showed that the HCB removal efficiencies in the three groups (soil MFCs group, open circuit control group and no adding anaerobic sludge blank group) were 71.15%, 52.49% and 38.92%, respectively. The highest detected power density was 77.5 mW/m(2) at the external resistance of 1000 Ω. HCB was degraded via the reductive dechlorination pathway in the soil MFC under anaerobic condition. The existence of the anode promoted electrogenic bacteria to provide more electrons to increase the metabolic reactions rates of anaerobic bacteria was the main way which could promote the removal efficiencies of HCB in soil MFC. PMID:25864035

  5. Does mechanistic modeling of filter strip pesticide mass balance and degradation processes affect environmental exposure assessments?

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Carpena, Rafael; Ritter, Amy; Fox, Garey A; Perez-Ovilla, Oscar

    2015-11-01

    Vegetative filter strips (VFS) are a widely adopted practice for limiting pesticide transport from adjacent fields to receiving waterbodies. The efficacy of VFS depends on site-specific input factors. To elucidate the complex and non-linear relationships among these factors requires a process-based modeling framework. Previous research proposed linking existing higher-tier environmental exposure models with a well-tested VFS model (VFSMOD). However, the framework assumed pesticide mass stored in the VFS was not available for transport in subsequent storm events. A new pesticide mass balance component was developed to estimate surface pesticide residue trapped in the VFS and its degradation between consecutive runoff events. The influence and necessity of the updated framework on acute and chronic estimated environmental concentrations (EECs) and percent reductions in EECs were investigated across three, 30-year U.S. EPA scenarios: Illinois corn, California tomato, and Oregon wheat. The updated framework with degradation predicted higher EECs than the existing framework without degradation for scenarios with greater sediment transport, longer VFS lengths, and highly sorbing and persistent pesticides. Global sensitivity analysis (GSA) assessed the relative importance of mass balance and degradation processes in the context of other input factors like VFS length (VL), organic-carbon sorption coefficient (Koc), and soil and water half-lives. Considering VFS pesticide residue and degradation was not important if single, large runoff events controlled transport, as is typical for higher percentiles considered in exposure assessments. Degradation processes become more important when considering percent reductions in acute or chronic EECs, especially under scenarios with lower pesticide losses. PMID:26218348

  6. 78 FR 10167 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications for a New Active Ingredient

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications for a New Active Ingredient AGENCY: Environmental... products containing an active ingredient not included in any currently registered pesticide products... agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide manufacturer. The following list of North...

  7. In-package nonthermal plasma degradation of pesticides on fresh produce.

    PubMed

    Misra, N N; Pankaj, S K; Walsh, Tony; O'Regan, Finbarr; Bourke, Paula; Cullen, P J

    2014-04-30

    In-package nonthermal plasma (NTP) technology is a novel technology for the decontamination of foods and biological materials. This study presents the first report on the potential of the technology for the degradation of pesticide residues on fresh produce. A cocktail of pesticides, namely azoxystrobin, cyprodinil, fludioxonil and pyriproxyfen was tested on strawberries. The concentrations of these pesticides were monitored in priori and post-plasma treatment using GC-MS/MS. An applied voltage and time dependent degradation of the pesticides was observed for treatment voltages of 60, 70 and 80 kV and treatment durations ranging from 1 to 5 min, followed by 24h in-pack storage. The electrical characterisation revealed the operation of the discharge in a stable filamentary regime. The discharge was found to generate reactive oxygen and excited nitrogen species as observed by optical emission spectroscopy. PMID:24598029

  8. 40 CFR 152.15 - Pesticide products required to be registered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pesticide products required to be...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES General Provisions § 152.15 Pesticide products required to be registered. No person may distribute or sell any pesticide product that...

  9. 40 CFR 152.15 - Pesticide products required to be registered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pesticide products required to be...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES General Provisions § 152.15 Pesticide products required to be registered. No person may distribute or sell any pesticide product that...

  10. 40 CFR 152.15 - Pesticide products required to be registered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pesticide products required to be...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES General Provisions § 152.15 Pesticide products required to be registered. No person may distribute or sell any pesticide product that...

  11. 40 CFR 152.15 - Pesticide products required to be registered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pesticide products required to be...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES General Provisions § 152.15 Pesticide products required to be registered. No person may distribute or sell any pesticide product that...

  12. 40 CFR 152.15 - Pesticide products required to be registered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pesticide products required to be...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES General Provisions § 152.15 Pesticide products required to be registered. No person may distribute or sell any pesticide product that...

  13. [Isolation and identification of a bacterial strain JS018 capable of degrading several kinds of organophosphate pesticides].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yu-Ji; Deng, You-Jin; Liu, Xin-Rui; Xie, Bao-Gui; Hu, Fang-Ping

    2006-06-01

    Organophosphate pesticides are used widely all over the world and play an important role in plant pest control. However these pesticides are considered as pollutants and harmful to human health. To search for microorganisms that can degrade organophosphate pesticides with high efficiency, a bacterial strain, coded as JS018, was isolated and screened from the soil in the vicinity of Shanming Pesticides Factory, Shanming, Fujian. Laboratory tests showed that the bacterium could degrade several kinds of organophosphate pesticides, such as Parathion-methyl and phoxin. The strain's degrading rates on phoxin, Parathion-methyl, hostathion and dichlorvos in LB liquid fermentation medium for 36 h were 99%, 96%, 80.4% and 69.0% respectively. The bacterial colonies on LB plate appeared shiny and pale-pink in color. The bacteria were Gram-negative coccoids, 0.5 - 0.7 microm in diameter. They grew well at 30 - 38 degrees C and pH 7.0 - 9.0. The optimal temperature and pH for cell growth was 32 degrees C and pH 7.5 - 8.0, respectively. They did not grow in medium containing 6% or more NaCl. The antibiotic susceptibility tests showed that the strain was resistant to ampicillin, penicillin and lincomycin. It was sensitive to kanamycin, tetracycline and gentamicin. Laboratory tests also showed that the strain could ferment D-glucose, trehalose, melezitose and ethanol. It was negative in the production of indole and hydrogen sulfide. It could not liquefy gelatin, utilize citrate, nor ferment L-arabinose, sucrose, D-mannitol, D-xylose, fructose, D-galactose, maltose or lactose. The catalase, urease and nitrate reduction were positive. Based on its morphological, physiological and biochemical properties as well as the 16S rDNA sequence analysis result, the strain was tentatively identified as Roseomonas sp. PMID:16933622

  14. Combining chemical and isotopic measurements to estimate pesticide degradation rates in a fractured-rock aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farlin, Julien; Gallé, Tom; Bayerle, Michael; Pittois, Denis; El-Khabbaz, Hassanya; Schreglmann, Kathrin; Höche, Martina; Elsner, Martin

    2013-04-01

    Encouraged by new regulatory requirements for pesticide registration and authorization, the transport and environmental fate of these compounds in the different environmental compartments has been studied extensively. Degradation rates vary widely depending on hydraulic and chemical characteristics, with the strongest degradation usually occuring in the topsoil. Nonetheless, significant pesticide attenuation may still take place during transport in the aquifer, since residence times are generally much longer than in the soil. Ideally, pesticide transformation in the aquifer needs to be determined under real field conditions. Mass balance calculations however are complicated by the fact that the initial pesticide mass leached from the soil is often not known precisely enough. In this study, isotopic and classical pesticide concentration measurements were combined with groundwater dating techniques to assess the degradation rate of atrazine and its metabolite desethylatrazine in a fractured sandstone. The mass balance problem was solved by introducing the desethylatrazine to atrazine ratio, a relative measure which was used to quantify the advancement of atrazine degradation with increasing transport time in the subsurface. The extent of transformation of the parent compound was finally estimated from the shift in the isotopic signal between soil application and the outlet of the groundwater system.

  15. ORGANOPHOSPHATE PESTICIDE DEGRADATION UNDER DRINKING WATER TREATMENT CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chlorpyrifos (CP) was used as a model compound to develop experimental methods and prototype modeling tools to forecast the fate of organophosphate (OP) pesticides under drinking water treatment conditions. CP was found to rapidly oxidize to chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO) in the presen...

  16. ORGANOPHOSPHATE PESTICIDE DEGRADATION UNDER DRINKING WATER TREATMENT CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) of 1996 requires that all tolerances for pesticide chemical residuals in or on food be considered for anticipated exposure. Drinking water is considered a potential pathway for dietary exposure and there is reliable monitoring data for the ...

  17. 40 CFR 158.2120 - Microbial pesticides product analysis data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Microbial pesticides product analysis... AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2120 Microbial pesticides product analysis data requirements table. (a) General. Sections 158.100 through...

  18. 40 CFR 158.2120 - Microbial pesticides product analysis data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Microbial pesticides product analysis... AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2120 Microbial pesticides product analysis data requirements table. (a) General. Sections 158.100 through...

  19. 40 CFR 165.65 - Registrants who distribute or sell pesticide products in refillable containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... pesticide products in refillable containers. 165.65 Section 165.65 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL Standards for Repackaging Pesticide Products into Refillable Containers § 165.65 Registrants who distribute or sell pesticide...

  20. 40 CFR 165.65 - Registrants who distribute or sell pesticide products in refillable containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... pesticide products in refillable containers. 165.65 Section 165.65 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL Standards for Repackaging Pesticide Products into Refillable Containers § 165.65 Registrants who distribute or sell pesticide...

  1. 40 CFR 158.2171 - Experimental use permit microbial pesticides product analysis data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... pesticides product analysis data requirements table. 158.2171 Section 158.2171 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2171 Experimental use permit microbial pesticides product analysis data requirements...

  2. 40 CFR 158.2171 - Experimental use permit microbial pesticides product analysis data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... pesticides product analysis data requirements table. 158.2171 Section 158.2171 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2171 Experimental use permit microbial pesticides product analysis data requirements...

  3. 40 CFR 158.2120 - Microbial pesticides product analysis data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Microbial pesticides product analysis... AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2120 Microbial pesticides product analysis data requirements table. (a) General. Sections 158.100 through...

  4. 40 CFR 158.2171 - Experimental use permit microbial pesticides product analysis data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... pesticides product analysis data requirements table. 158.2171 Section 158.2171 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2171 Experimental use permit microbial pesticides product analysis data requirements...

  5. 40 CFR 158.2120 - Microbial pesticides product analysis data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Microbial pesticides product analysis... AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2120 Microbial pesticides product analysis data requirements table. (a) General. Sections 158.100 through...

  6. 40 CFR 165.65 - Registrants who distribute or sell pesticide products in refillable containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... pesticide products in refillable containers. 165.65 Section 165.65 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL Standards for Repackaging Pesticide Products into Refillable Containers § 165.65 Registrants who distribute or sell pesticide...

  7. 40 CFR 158.2120 - Microbial pesticides product analysis data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Microbial pesticides product analysis... AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2120 Microbial pesticides product analysis data requirements table. (a) General. Sections 158.100 through...

  8. 40 CFR 158.2171 - Experimental use permit microbial pesticides product analysis data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... pesticides product analysis data requirements table. 158.2171 Section 158.2171 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2171 Experimental use permit microbial pesticides product analysis data requirements...

  9. 40 CFR 158.2070 - Biochemical pesticides product performance data requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides product performance data requirements. 158.2070 Section 158.2070 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2070 Biochemical pesticides product...

  10. 40 CFR 158.2160 - Microbial pesticides product performance data requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Microbial pesticides product performance data requirements. 158.2160 Section 158.2160 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2160 Microbial pesticides product performance...

  11. 40 CFR 158.2160 - Microbial pesticides product performance data requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Microbial pesticides product performance data requirements. 158.2160 Section 158.2160 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2160 Microbial pesticides product performance...

  12. 40 CFR 158.2160 - Microbial pesticides product performance data requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Microbial pesticides product performance data requirements. 158.2160 Section 158.2160 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2160 Microbial pesticides product performance...

  13. 40 CFR 158.2160 - Microbial pesticides product performance data requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Microbial pesticides product performance data requirements. 158.2160 Section 158.2160 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2160 Microbial pesticides product performance...

  14. 40 CFR 158.2070 - Biochemical pesticides product performance data requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides product performance data requirements. 158.2070 Section 158.2070 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2070 Biochemical pesticides product...

  15. 40 CFR 158.2070 - Biochemical pesticides product performance data requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides product performance data requirements. 158.2070 Section 158.2070 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2070 Biochemical pesticides product...

  16. 40 CFR 158.2070 - Biochemical pesticides product performance data requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides product performance data requirements. 158.2070 Section 158.2070 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2070 Biochemical pesticides product...

  17. 40 CFR 158.2160 - Microbial pesticides product performance data requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Microbial pesticides product performance data requirements. 158.2160 Section 158.2160 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2160 Microbial pesticides product performance...

  18. 40 CFR 158.2070 - Biochemical pesticides product performance data requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides product performance data requirements. 158.2070 Section 158.2070 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2070 Biochemical pesticides product...

  19. Fine scale spatial variability of microbial pesticide degradation in soil: scales, controlling factors, and implications

    PubMed Central

    Dechesne, Arnaud; Badawi, Nora; Aamand, Jens; Smets, Barth F.

    2014-01-01

    Pesticide biodegradation is a soil microbial function of critical importance for modern agriculture and its environmental impact. While it was once assumed that this activity was homogeneously distributed at the field scale, mounting evidence indicates that this is rarely the case. Here, we critically examine the literature on spatial variability of pesticide biodegradation in agricultural soil. We discuss the motivations, methods, and main findings of the primary literature. We found significant diversity in the approaches used to describe and quantify spatial heterogeneity, which complicates inter-studies comparisons. However, it is clear that the presence and activity of pesticide degraders is often highly spatially variable with coefficients of variation often exceeding 50% and frequently displays non-random spatial patterns. A few controlling factors have tentatively been identified across pesticide classes: they include some soil characteristics (pH) and some agricultural management practices (pesticide application, tillage), while other potential controlling factors have more conflicting effects depending on the site or the pesticide. Evidence demonstrating the importance of spatial heterogeneity on the fate of pesticides in soil has been difficult to obtain but modeling and experimental systems that do not include soil's full complexity reveal that this heterogeneity must be considered to improve prediction of pesticide biodegradation rates or of leaching risks. Overall, studying the spatial heterogeneity of pesticide biodegradation is a relatively new field at the interface of agronomy, microbial ecology, and geosciences and a wealth of novel data is being collected from these different disciplinary perspectives. We make suggestions on possible avenues to take full advantage of these investigations for a better understanding and prediction of the fate of pesticides in soil. PMID:25538691

  20. Pesticides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherma, Joseph

    1989-01-01

    This review is devoted to methods for the determination of residues of pesticides and some related industrial chemicals. Topics include: residue methods, sampling, chromatography, organochlorine pesticides, organophosphorus pesticides, carbamate insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, pyrethrins, fumigants, and related chemicals. (MVL)

  1. Pesticides removal in the process of drinking water production.

    PubMed

    Ormad, M P; Miguel, N; Claver, A; Matesanz, J M; Ovelleiro, J L

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this research work was to study the effectiveness of the treatments commonly used in drinking water plants in Spain to degrade 44 pesticides systematically detected in the Ebro River Basin. The pesticides studied are: alachlor, aldrin, ametryn, atrazine, chlorfenvinfos, chlorpyrifos, pp'-DDD, op'-DDE, op'-DDT, pp'-DDT, desethylatrazine, 3,4-dichloroaniline, 4,4'-dichlorobenzophenone, dicofol, dieldrin, dimethoate, diuron, alpha-endosulphan, endosulphan-sulphate, endrin, alpha-HCH, beta-HCH, gamma-HCH, delta-HCH, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide A, heptachlor epoxide B, hexachlorobenzene, isodrin, 4-isopropylaniline, isoproturon, metholachlor, methoxychlor, molinate, parathion methyl, parathion ethyl, prometon, prometryn, propazine, simazine, terbuthylazine, terbutryn, tetradifon and trifluralin. The techniques applied are: preoxidation by chlorine or ozone, chemical precipitation with aluminium sulphate and activated carbon adsorption. Oxidation by chlorine removes 60% of the studied pesticides, although combining this technique with a coagulation-flocculation-decantation process is more effective. The disadvantage of this treatment is the formation of trihalomethanes. Oxidation by ozone removes 70% of the studied pesticides. Although combination with a subsequent coagulation-flocculation-decantation process does not improve the efficiency of the process, combination with an activated-carbon absorption process gives rise to 90% removal of the studied pesticides. This technique was found to be the most efficient among the techniques studied for degrading the majority of the studied pesticides. PMID:18023468

  2. Environmental pesticide distribution in horticultural and floricultural periurban production units.

    PubMed

    Querejeta, Giselle A; Ramos, Laura M; Flores, Andrea P; Hughes, Enrique A; Zalts, Anita; Montserrat, Javier M

    2012-04-01

    The environmental pesticide distribution on non-target systems (soil, drift and agricultural plastics) during the application step at small periurban production units, was studied in open field and greenhouses, for different crops (tomato, lettuce, broccoli, strawberry and flowers) using different pesticides (endosulfan, procymidone, chlorothalonil, chlorpyrifos and deltamethrin). In all cases, soil was the most exposed non-target system. For greenhouses, a general pesticide distribution was found of approximately 2/3 for crop, 1/4 for soil and 1/20 for plastic, of the total amount applied. In horticultural open fields, although the distribution was very dependent on the crop size and type, soil was also the most exposed non-target subsystem. Pesticide drift seems not to be significant in these production units, whilst pesticide accumulation on agricultural plastics reached up to 45% of the total applied, for polyethylene mulching in strawberry fields. PMID:22285036

  3. Heterogeneous photocatalysed degradation of two selected pesticide derivatives, triclopyr and daminozid in aqueous suspensions of titanium dioxide.

    PubMed

    Qamar, M; Muneer, M; Bahnemann, D

    2006-07-01

    Heterogeneous photocatalysed degradation of two selected pesticide derivatives, triclopyr (1) and daminozid (2), has been investigated in aqueous suspensions of titanium dioxide by monitoring the change in substrate concentration employing the UV Spectroscopic analysis technique and depletion of Total Organic Carbon (TOC) content as a function of irradiation time. The degradation kinetics were studied under different conditions such as reaction pH, substrate and catalyst concentration, different types of TiO2 and in the presence of electron acceptors such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), potassium bromate (KBrO3) and ammonium persulphate (NH4)2S2O8 in addition to molecular oxygen. The degradation rates were found to be strongly influenced by all the above parameters. The photocatalyst Degussa P25 was found to be more efficient as compared with other photocatalysts. The pesticide derivative triclopyr (1) was found to degrade faster as compared to daminozid (2). An attempt was also made to identify the intermediate products formed during the photooxidation process using GC/MS analysis. Probable pathways for the formation of products have been proposed. PMID:16359776

  4. Degradation of pesticides chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin and chlorothalonil in aqueous solution by TiO2 photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Affam, Augustine Chioma; Chaudhuri, Malay

    2013-11-30

    Degradation of pesticides chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin and chlorothalonil in aqueous solution by TiO2 photocatalysis under UVA (365 nm) irradiation was examined. Enhancement of degradation and improvement in biodegradability index (BOD5/COD ratio) by H2O2 addition were also evaluated. UVA irradiation per se produced insignificant degradation of the pesticides. In UV/TiO2 photocatalysis (TiO2 1.5 g L(-1), pH 6 and 300 min irradiation), COD and TOC removal were 25.95 and 8.45%, respectively. In UV/TiO2/H2O2 photocatalysis (TiO2 1.5 g L(-1), H2O2 100 mg L(-1), pH 6 and 300 min irradiation), COD and TOC removal were 53.62 and 21.54%, respectively and biodegradability index improved to 0.26. Ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N) decreased from 22 to 7.8 mg L(-1) and nitrate-nitrogen (NO3(-)-N) increased from 0.7 to 13.8 mg L(-1) in 300 min, indicating mineralization. Photocatalytic degradation followed pseudo-first order kinetics with rate constant (k) of 0.0025 and 0.0008 min(-1) for COD and TOC removal, respectively. FTIR spectra indicated degradation of the organic bonds of the pesticides. UV/TiO2/H2O2 photocatalysis is effective in degradation of pesticides chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin and chlorothalonil in aqueous solution. UV/TiO2/H2O2 photocatalysis may be applied as pretreatment of a chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin and chlorothalonil pesticide wastewater at pH 6, for biological treatment. PMID:24076516

  5. Potential transport and degradation of “Aged” pesticide residues in soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    “Aging” has been shown to affect the sorption-desorption of pesticides in the soil, which in turn can control transport and degradation processes. Aging effects have been characterized by batch sequential extraction methods, in which sorption coefficients (i.e. Kd) are determined for the chemical re...

  6. 40 CFR 158.2081 - Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides product chemistry data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... pesticides product chemistry data requirements table. 158.2081 Section 158.2081 Protection of Environment... Pesticides § 158.2081 Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides product chemistry data requirements... product chemistry data requirements for a particular biochemical pesticide product. Notes that apply to...

  7. 40 CFR 165.63 - Scope of pesticide products included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, algae, or slime; and (B) In the intended use is subject to... bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, algae, or slime. (ii) The labeling of the pesticide product...

  8. 40 CFR 165.63 - Scope of pesticide products included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, algae, or slime; and (B) In the intended use is subject to... bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, algae, or slime. (ii) The labeling of the pesticide product...

  9. 40 CFR 165.63 - Scope of pesticide products included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, algae, or slime; and (B) In the intended use is subject to... bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, algae, or slime. (ii) The labeling of the pesticide product...

  10. ANALYSIS OF THE FLUX OF AN ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING DICARBOXIMIDE AND ITS DEGRADATION PRODUCTS FROM THE SOIL TO THE LOWER TROPOSPHERE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method for measuring the atmospheric flux of the antiandrogenic dicarboxirnide, vinclozolin, and its degradation products was investigated. A nitric oxide laboratory chamber was modified to measure the flux of semi-volatile compounds. Pesticide application systems and soil in...

  11. Enhancing pesticide degradation using indigenous microorganisms isolated under high pesticide load in bioremediation systems with vermicomposts.

    PubMed

    Castillo Diaz, Jean Manuel; Delgado-Moreno, Laura; Núñez, Rafael; Nogales, Rogelio; Romero, Esperanza

    2016-08-01

    In biobed bioremediation systems (BBSs) with vermicomposts exposed to a high load of pesticides, 6 bacteria and 4 fungus strains were isolated, identified, and investigated to enhance the removal of pesticides. Three different mixtures of BBSs composed of vermicomposts made from greenhouse (GM), olive-mill (OM) and winery (WM) wastes were contaminated, inoculated, and incubated for one month (GMI, OMI and WMI). The inoculums maintenance was evaluated by DGGE and Q-PCR. Pesticides were monitored by HPLC-DAD. The highest bacterial and fungal abundance was observed in WMI and OMI respectively. In WMI, the consortia improved the removal of tebuconazole, metalaxyl, and oxyfluorfen by 1.6-, 3.8-, and 7.7-fold, respectively. The dissipation of oxyfluorfen was also accelerated in OMI, with less than 30% remaining after 30d. One metabolite for metalaxyl and 4 for oxyfluorfen were identified by GC-MS. The isolates could be suitable to improve the efficiency of bioremediation systems. PMID:27136610

  12. Ozone-driven photocatalyzed degradation and mineralization of pesticide, Triclopyr by Au/TiO2.

    PubMed

    Maddila, Suresh; Rana, Surjakanta; Pagadala, Ramakanth; Maddila, Surya N; Vasam, Chandrasekhar; Jonnalagadda, Sreekantha B

    2015-01-01

    Triclopyr is a widely used pesticide which is non-biodegradable and enters aquatic systems. The ozone facilitated photocatalyzed degradation and mineralization of Triclopyr using Au-loaded titania as heterogeneous catalyst is reported. The oxidative degradation activity of the hazardous pesticide was investigated at pH 7.8 under varied reaction conditions, including in presence and absence of ozone, titania alone, in presence and absence of light and with different loadings of Au on support. Photocatalysis with 2% Au/TiO2 in the presence of ozone yielded 100% degradation of Triclopyr in 2 h. The extent of degradation of pesticide and its mineralization were confirmed by GC-MS. For 10 mg/L of Triclopyr, 0.1 g/L of catalyst was found to be the optimum for mineralization. Results show that photocatalyzed ozonation with Au/TiO2 as catalyst is a very effective for its removal. No leaching of Au was observed in triplicate runs. Catalyst was fully recoverable and reusable with no loss of activity. PMID:26065517

  13. Pesticides

    MedlinePlus

    ... are applied during farming and how much pesticide residue can remain in foods sold in stores. Exposure ... to pesticides at work should carefully clean any residue from their skin and remove their clothes and ...

  14. Degradation of organophosphorus pesticide parathion methyl on nanostructured titania-iron mixed oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henych, Jiří; Štengl, Václav; Slušná, Michaela; Matys Grygar, Tomáš; Janoš, Pavel; Kuráň, Pavel; Štastný, Martin

    2015-07-01

    Titania-iron mixed oxides with various Ti:Fe ratio were prepared by homogeneous hydrolysis of aqueous solutions of titanium(IV) oxysulphate and iron(III) sulphate with urea as a precipitating agent. The synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman and infrared spectroscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, XRF analysis, specific surface area (BET) and porosity determination (BJH). These oxides were used for degradation of organophosporus pesticide parathion methyl. The highest degradation efficiency approaching <70% was found for the samples with Ti:Fe ratio 0.25:1 and 1:0.25. Contrary, parathion methyl was not degraded on the surfaces of pure oxides. In general, the highest degradation rate exhibited samples consisted of the iron or titanium oxide containing a moderate amount of the admixture. However, distinct correlations between the degradation rate and the sorbent composition were not identified.

  15. 40 CFR 165.67 - Registrants who distribute or sell pesticide products to refillers for repackaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... pesticide products to refillers for repackaging. 165.67 Section 165.67 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL Standards for Repackaging Pesticide Products into Refillable Containers § 165.67 Registrants who distribute or...

  16. 40 CFR 165.67 - Registrants who distribute or sell pesticide products to refillers for repackaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... pesticide products to refillers for repackaging. 165.67 Section 165.67 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL Standards for Repackaging Pesticide Products into Refillable Containers § 165.67 Registrants who distribute or...

  17. 40 CFR 165.67 - Registrants who distribute or sell pesticide products to refillers for repackaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... pesticide products to refillers for repackaging. 165.67 Section 165.67 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL Standards for Repackaging Pesticide Products into Refillable Containers § 165.67 Registrants who distribute or...

  18. 40 CFR 168.66 - Labeling of pesticide products and devices intended solely for export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Labeling of pesticide products and... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS STATEMENTS OF ENFORCEMENT POLICIES AND INTERPRETATIONS Export Policy and Procedures for Exporting Pesticides § 168.66 Labeling of pesticide products and...

  19. 40 CFR 165.67 - Registrants who distribute or sell pesticide products to refillers for repackaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... pesticide products to refillers for repackaging. 165.67 Section 165.67 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL Standards for Repackaging Pesticide Products into Refillable Containers § 165.67 Registrants who distribute or...

  20. 40 CFR 168.66 - Labeling of pesticide products and devices intended solely for export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Labeling of pesticide products and... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS STATEMENTS OF ENFORCEMENT POLICIES AND INTERPRETATIONS Export Policy and Procedures for Exporting Pesticides § 168.66 Labeling of pesticide products and...

  1. 40 CFR 165.67 - Registrants who distribute or sell pesticide products to refillers for repackaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... pesticide products to refillers for repackaging. 165.67 Section 165.67 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL Standards for Repackaging Pesticide Products into Refillable Containers § 165.67 Registrants who distribute or...

  2. Concentrations of pesticides and pesticide degradates in the Croton River Watershed in southeastern New York, July-September 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, Patrick J.; Bode, Robert W.

    2002-01-01

    Thirty-seven pesticides and (or) pesticide degradates were detected in baseflow samples collected from 47 stream sites in the Croton River Watershed (374 square miles) in southeastern New York in the summer of 2000. The Croton Reservoir provides about 10 percent of New York City's water supply. Maximum concentrations of most pesticides detected did not exceed 0.1 ?g/L (micrograms per liter). This study, by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, was conducted from July through September 2000 and entailed analysis of the samples for more than 150 pesticides and their degradates. Nine compounds were detected at a concentration greater than 0.10 ?g/L; three of these were insecticides (diazinon, carbaryl, and imidacloprid), one was a fungicide (mycobutanil), and five were herbicides (simazine, 2,4-D, diuron, hexazinone, and 2,4-D methyl esther). Only two of these compounds (simazine and 2,4-D) were detected at a concentration exceeding 1 ?g/L; the simazine concentration exceeded the New York State surface-water standard of 0.5 ?g/L. Two insecticides (diazinon and azinphos-methyl) exceeded aquatic-life-protection standard in one sample each. Concentrations of three insecticides (chlorpyrifos, carbaryl, and malathion) were more than 50 percent of the aquatic-life-protection standards in one sample each. Total concentrations of insecticides and herbicides (the sum of the concentrations, whereby all concentrations below the detection limit were set to zero), and the concentrations of the herbicide prometon and the insecticide diazinon, were highest in samples from watersheds with population densities greater than 510 per square mile (21 sites); therefore, the presence of these compounds is attributable to urban, residential, and other developed land uses. The data obtained in this study are useful for making general comparisons among watersheds with differing land uses, but the concentrations represent

  3. Input dynamics of pesticide transformation products into surface water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kern, Susanne; Singer, Heinz; Hollender, Juliane; Schwarzenbach, René P.; Fenner, Kathrin

    2010-05-01

    Some pesticide transformation products have been observed to occur in higher concentrations and more frequently than the parent active pesticide in surface water and groundwater. These products are often more mobile and sometimes more stable than the parent pesticide. If they also represent the major product into which the parent substance is transformed, these transformation products may dominate observed pesticide occurrences in surface water and groundwater. Their potential contribution to the overall risk to the aquatic environment caused by the use of the parent pesticide should therefore not be neglected in chemical risk and water quality assessments. The same is true for transformation products of other compound classes that might reach the soil environment, such as veterinary pharmaceuticals. However, the fate and input pathways of transformation products of soil-applied chemicals into surface water are not yet well understood, which largely prevents their appropriate inclusion into chemical risk and water quality assessments. Here, we studied whether prioritization methods based on available environmental fate data from pesticide registration dossiers in combination with basic fate models could help identify transformation products which can be found in relevant concentrations in surface and groundwater and which should therefore be included into monitoring programs. A three-box steady state model containing air, soil, and surface water compartments was used to predict relative inputs of pesticide transformation products into surface waters based on their physico-chemical and environmental fate properties. The model predictions were compared to monitoring data from a small Swiss river located in an intensely agricultural catchment (90 km2) which was flow-proportionally sampled from May to October 2008 and screened for 74 pesticides as well as 50 corresponding transformation products. Sampling mainly occurred during high discharge, but additional samples

  4. Effect of biochar and digestate on microbial respiration and pesticide degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Santanu; Tappe, Wolfgang; Hofmann, Diana; Köppchen, Stephan; Disko, Ulrich; Weihermüller, Lutz; Burauel, Peter; Vereecken, Harry

    2014-05-01

    To overcome the problem of on farm point sources of pollution stemming from improper handling, spillages, and leakages of pesticides during filling and cleaning of spraying equipment, environmental friendly and low cost technology filter systems are currently under development. Based on a laboratory screening approach, where different biomixtures (soil, with biochar and/or digestate) are tested a full scale outdoor system will be developed. Therefore, different fundamental processes like pesticide mineralization, metabolization, sorption-desorption, and transport behavior of three radiolabelled pesticides (Bentazone, Boscalid and Pyrimethanil) will be investigated. Biochar and digestate mixtures with two contrasting soils (sandy and silt loam) had been used as a novel biofilter material for respiration study instead of conventional soil and straw mixtures. To analyze the pesticide degradation potential and to gain information about the temporal evolution of the degradation process of the biochar and digestate soil mixtures microbial respiration was measured over the course of three month. As expected, digestate acts as an easily available C-source leading to highest release of CO2 compared to other biomixtures used. In contrast, the addition of even small amounts (1 %) of biochar caused a profound suppression in the CO2 release from digestate based mixtures. The exact driving mechanism for this suppression can be manifold likes negative priming or chemisorption of CO2 on biochar or NH3 toxicity induced by the large amount of digestate applied in the experiment (30 %) or can be combination of all effects. Surprisingly, a repeated experiment with same but aged digestate did not show such negative priming. On the other hand, the fate of applied organic contaminants to biomixtures depends on several factors like soil properties and climatic conditions as well as biological degradation. To analyze the degradation potential of the different soil/amendment mixtures a

  5. Compound-specific stable isotope analysis of pesticides: a combined monitoring and modeling approach to assess pesticide fate and degradation at catchment scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Breukelen, B. M.; Lutz, S.; Van der Velde, Y.; Elsayed, O. F.; LeFrancq, M.; Payraudeau, S.; Imfeld, G.

    2014-12-01

    Compound-specific stable isotope analysis (CSIA) has proven useful in asessing the fate of groundwater contamination. However, although evidence of diffuse pesticide degradation is crucial, and CSIA methods have been developed for several pesticides, there is a clear lack of field CSIA data of pesticides. This study now presents the first analysis of field CSIA data from a 47-ha agricultural headwater catchment (Alteckendorf, Alsace, France) in the period March to August 2012. Measured stream concentrations of the two investigated chloroacetanilide herbicides (S-metolachlor and acetochlor) were highest (65 μg/L) following an intense rainfall event in the first month after herbicide application. Carbon isotope ratios increased with more than 2 ‰ in 3 months, which indicates the occurrence of herbicide degradation during transport to the stream. Previously, field CSIA data have also been simulated with reactive transport models to evaluate degradation of groundwater contaminants. This study now presents such a model-assisted interpretation of CSIA data for the first time at catchment scale, which aims at exploring the added value of CSIA in monitoring and modelling of pesticide pollution. The conceptual mathematical model succeeded in reproducing the general trend in concentrations and carbon isotope ratios of metolachlor. It also allowed for the quantification of metolachlor degradation (above 70 % during the study period), and yielded a mass export of 1.8 % of the applied pesticide, which is in agreement with the measured pesticide export. The field concentration and CSIA data informed the model building by indicating the importance of overland flow, and slow pesticide degradation in groundwater compared to the upper soil zone. Moreover, incorporation of the field CSIA data into model calibration slightly reduced model uncertainty in the quantification of pesticide degradation. We suggest that a finer temporal CSIA resolution than possible in this study

  6. Estimation of pesticide and transformation product export pathways in a headwater catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gassmann, Matthias; Olsson, Oliver; Stamm, Christian; Weiler, Markus; Lange, Jens; Kümmerer, Klaus

    2014-05-01

    Following their application, pesticide residues are exported towards rivers along several hydrological pathways in agricultural areas. The importance of each pathway is influenced by the substances' physico-chemical characteristics, mainly sorption and degradation. Incomplete mineralization results in the formation of transformation products (TPs) which have generally different environmental fate characteristics than their parent compounds (PCs). Therefore, the export pathways of pesticides and their transformation products towards rivers may also be different. In order to investigate this hypothesis, we extended a distributed process-based hydrological model (ZIN-AgriTra) by the environmental fate of pesticides and their TPs. The process-based nature of the model allowed for an analysis of PC and TP export pathways including overland flow, lateral preferential flow in soils and soil water flow to tile drains. The model was applied to a Swiss headwater catchment using three pesticides and their TPs as test substances. It was successfully calibrated to three sampling stations in the catchment. At the end of the simulated three-months period, most of the applied pesticides were either fully mineralized or incompletely transformed. Less than 2% of each pesticide was exported to the river as PC or TP. Although all three pesticides could be classified as slightly mobile they remained in the top soil layer during the whole period, whereas the more mobile TPs were additionally leached through the soil towards tile drains. Accordingly, PCs were exported largely by surface runoff, while a larger share of TPs was exported via tile drains. Additionally, the delayed formation and degradation of TPs led to an export under different hydrological conditions resulting in an increased subsurface export of TPs towards the end of the simulation period. A consequence of the different export pathways of PCs and TPs could be shown by an assessment of critical source areas (CSA) in the

  7. Impact of biofumigation with solarization on degradation of pesticides and heavy metal accumulation.

    PubMed

    Flores, Pilar; Lacasa, Alfredo; Fernández, Pedro; Hellín, Pilar; Fenoll, José

    2008-08-01

    A greenhouse study was conducted to evaluate the effect of biofumigation (with sheep and chicken manure) combined with solarization on the dissipation of pesticides (pyrifenox, DDT and dieldrin), and on soil metals accumulation. The treatments consisted of a control, and soil disinfestations by biofumigation combined with solarization (B+S) for two, four, five, six consecutive years. B+S enhanced the dissipation of pyrifenox with regard to control treatment. Significant differences were not detected among plots disinfected with B+S for consecutive years. On the other hand, B+S had no effect on the dissipation of DDT and dieldrin, probably due to the resistance of these pesticides to microbial degradation and/or high temperatures. Biofumigation is considered to be an environmentally safe practice, since no accumulation of heavy metals such as Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Pb, Ni, or Zn was observed after the subsequent application of organic matter through the treatments. PMID:18665988

  8. Structure-guided engineering of molinate hydrolase for the degradation of thiocarbamate pesticides.

    PubMed

    Leite, José P; Duarte, Márcia; Paiva, Ana M; Ferreira-da-Silva, Frederico; Matias, Pedro M; Nunes, Olga C; Gales, Luís

    2015-01-01

    Molinate is a recalcitrant thiocarbamate used to control grass weeds in rice fields. The recently described molinate hydrolase, from Gulosibacter molinativorax ON4T, plays a key role in the only known molinate degradation pathway ending in the formation of innocuous compounds. Here we report the crystal structure of recombinant molinate hydrolase at 2.27 Å. The structure reveals a homotetramer with a single mononuclear metal-dependent active site per monomer. The active site architecture shows similarities with other amidohydrolases and enables us to propose a general acid-base catalysis mechanism for molinate hydrolysis. Molinate hydrolase is unable to degrade bulkier thiocarbamate pesticides such as thiobencarb which is used mostly in rice crops. Using a structural-based approach, we were able to generate a mutant (Arg187Ala) that efficiently degrades thiobencarb. The engineered enzyme is suitable for the development of a broader thiocarbamate bioremediation system. PMID:25905461

  9. Structure-Guided Engineering of Molinate Hydrolase for the Degradation of Thiocarbamate Pesticides

    PubMed Central

    Paiva, Ana M.; Ferreira-da-Silva, Frederico; Matias, Pedro M.; Nunes, Olga C.; Gales, Luís

    2015-01-01

    Molinate is a recalcitrant thiocarbamate used to control grass weeds in rice fields. The recently described molinate hydrolase, from Gulosibacter molinativorax ON4T, plays a key role in the only known molinate degradation pathway ending in the formation of innocuous compounds. Here we report the crystal structure of recombinant molinate hydrolase at 2.27 Å. The structure reveals a homotetramer with a single mononuclear metal-dependent active site per monomer. The active site architecture shows similarities with other amidohydrolases and enables us to propose a general acid-base catalysis mechanism for molinate hydrolysis. Molinate hydrolase is unable to degrade bulkier thiocarbamate pesticides such as thiobencarb which is used mostly in rice crops. Using a structural-based approach, we were able to generate a mutant (Arg187Ala) that efficiently degrades thiobencarb. The engineered enzyme is suitable for the development of a broader thiocarbamate bioremediation system. PMID:25905461

  10. 75 FR 10482 - Product Cancellation Order for Certain Pesticide Registrations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Product Cancellation Order for Certain Pesticide Registrations Correction In notice document 2010-3537 beginning on page 8341 in the issue of February 24, 2010, make the following correction: On...

  11. 75 FR 30829 - Antimicrobial Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Demson Fuller, Antimicrobials Division (7510P), Office of Pesticide Programs...) 308-8062; e-mail address: fuller.demson@epa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. General Information A..., plastics, polymers, latex products and ceramics. Contact: Demson Fuller, (703) 308-8062;...

  12. 75 FR 16109 - Antimicrobial Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ...This notice announces receipt of applications to register new antimicrobial pesticide products containing new active ingredients, pursuant to the provisions of section 3(c) of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), as amended. EPA is publishing this notice of such applications, pursuant to section 3(c)(4) of...

  13. 40 CFR 165.65 - Registrants who distribute or sell pesticide products in refillable containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... pesticide product does not differ at the time of its distribution or sale from the composition described in... a reaction or interaction between the pesticide product being repackaged and the residue remaining... written description of acceptable containers for the pesticide product. (2) Each time a refiller at...

  14. 9 CFR 318.16 - Pesticide chemicals and other residues in products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pesticide chemicals and other residues... PREPARATION OF PRODUCTS General § 318.16 Pesticide chemicals and other residues in products. (a) Nonmeat ingredients. Residues of pesticide chemicals, food additives and color additives or other substances in or...

  15. 9 CFR 318.16 - Pesticide chemicals and other residues in products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pesticide chemicals and other residues... PREPARATION OF PRODUCTS General § 318.16 Pesticide chemicals and other residues in products. (a) Nonmeat ingredients. Residues of pesticide chemicals, food additives and color additives or other substances in or...

  16. 9 CFR 318.16 - Pesticide chemicals and other residues in products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pesticide chemicals and other residues... PREPARATION OF PRODUCTS General § 318.16 Pesticide chemicals and other residues in products. (a) Nonmeat ingredients. Residues of pesticide chemicals, food additives and color additives or other substances in or...

  17. 9 CFR 318.16 - Pesticide chemicals and other residues in products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pesticide chemicals and other residues... PREPARATION OF PRODUCTS General § 318.16 Pesticide chemicals and other residues in products. (a) Nonmeat ingredients. Residues of pesticide chemicals, food additives and color additives or other substances in or...

  18. 9 CFR 318.16 - Pesticide chemicals and other residues in products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pesticide chemicals and other residues... PREPARATION OF PRODUCTS General § 318.16 Pesticide chemicals and other residues in products. (a) Nonmeat ingredients. Residues of pesticide chemicals, food additives and color additives or other substances in or...

  19. Identification of Major Degradation Products of Ketoconazole

    PubMed Central

    Mhaske, Rajendra A.; Sahasrabudhe, Shirish

    2011-01-01

    Analytical methods were developed for the identification of major degradation products of Ketoconazole, an antifungal agent. The stressed degradation of Ketoconazole drug substance was performed under acid, base, thermal, photo and oxidative stress conditions. The major degradation was observed under acid, base and oxidative stress conditions. The degradation study was performed on Inertsil ODS-3V, length 100 X diameter 4.6 mm, particle size 3 μm column using gradient method. These degradants were identified by LC-MS technique. PMID:22145107

  20. Planktonic versus Biofilm Catabolic Communities: Importance of the Biofilm for Species Selection and Pesticide Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Verhagen, Pieter; De Gelder, Leen; Hoefman, Sven; De Vos, Paul; Boon, Nico

    2011-01-01

    Chloropropham-degrading cultures were obtained from sludge and soil samples by using two different enrichment techniques: (i) planktonic enrichments in shaken liquid medium and (ii) biofilm enrichments on two types of solid matrixes (plastic chips and gravel). Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprinting showed that planktonic and biofilm cultures had a different community composition depending on the presence and type of added solid matrix during enrichment. This was reflected in the unique chloropropham-degrading species that could be isolated from the different cultures. Planktonic and biofilm cultures also differed in chloropropham-degrading activity. With biofilm cultures, slower chloropropham removal was observed, but with less build-up of the toxic intermediate 3-chloroaniline. Disruption of the biofilm architecture resulted in degradation characteristics shifting toward those of the free suspensions, indicating the importance of a well-established biofilm structure for good performance. These results show that biofilm-mediated enrichment techniques can be used to select for pollutant-degrading microorganisms that like to proliferate in a biofilm and that cannot be isolated using conventional shaken-liquid procedures. Furthermore, the influence of the biofilm architecture on the pesticide degradation characteristics suggests that for bioaugmentation the use of biofilm catabolic communities might be a proficient alternative to using planktonic freely suspended cultures. PMID:21602394

  1. Effects of single pesticides and binary pesticide mixtures on estrone production in H295R cells.

    PubMed

    Prutner, Wiebke; Nicken, Petra; Haunhorst, Eberhard; Hamscher, Gerd; Steinberg, Pablo

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether the human adrenocortical carcinoma cell line H295R can be used as an in vitro test system to investigate the effects of binary pesticide combinations on estrone production as biological endpoint. In the first step ten pesticides selected according to a tiered approach were tested individually. The anilinopyrimidines cyprodinil and pyrimethanil as well as the dicarboximides iprodione and procymidone increased estrone concentration, while the triazoles myclobutanil and tebuconazole as well as the strobilurins azoxystrobin and kresoxim-methyl decreased estrone concentration in the supernatant of H295R cells. The N-methylcarbamate methomyl did not show any effects, and the phthalimide captan reduced estrone concentration unspecifically due to its detrimental impact on cellular viability. When cyprodinil and pyrimethanil, which belong to the same chemical group and increase estrone production, were combined, in most of the cases the overall effect was solely determined by the most potent compound in the mixture (i.e., cyprodinil). When cyprodinil and procymidone, which belong to different chemical groups but increase estrone production, were combined, in most cases an additive effect was observed. When cyprodinil, which increased estrone production, was combined with either myclobutanil or azoxystrobin, which decreased estrone production, the overall effect of the mixture was in most cases either entirely determined by myclobutanil or at least partially modulated by azoxystrobin. In conclusion, H295R cells appear to be an adequate in vitro test system to study the effect of combining two pesticides affecting estrone production. PMID:23708528

  2. Biodegradation of pesticides. (Latest citations from the Biobusiness data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the biological degradation of pesticides. Pesticides such as malathion, parathion and DDT, organophosphates and carbamates, herbicides, fungicides, and rodenticides are examined. Coverage includes the isolation of enzymes specifically able to degrade pesticides, field studies of natural degradation and migration of pesticides, and test tube examination of microbial organisms with the ability to digest pesticides. Degradation products, effects of available nutrients on microbial degradation, and pesticide resistance in natural ecosystems are also discussed. (Contains a minimum of 190 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  3. 76 FR 63298 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-12

    ...: Insecticide. Active ingredient: Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki strain VBTS 2546 fermentation solids... Insecticide. Product type: Insecticide. Active ingredient: Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki strain VBTS... Biological Insecticide Technical Powder. Product type: Insecticide. Active ingredient: Bacillus...

  4. Simplifying the complexity of a coupled carbon turnover and pesticide degradation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marschmann, Gianna; Erhardt, André H.; Pagel, Holger; Kügler, Philipp; Streck, Thilo

    2016-04-01

    The mechanistic one-dimensional model PECCAD (PEsticide degradation Coupled to CArbon turnover in the Detritusphere; Pagel et al. 2014, Biogeochemistry 117, 185-204) has been developed as a tool to elucidate regulation mechanisms of pesticide degradation in soil. A feature of this model is that it integrates functional traits of microorganisms, identifiable by molecular tools, and physicochemical processes such as transport and sorption that control substrate availability. Predicting the behavior of microbially active interfaces demands a fundamental understanding of factors controlling their dynamics. Concepts from dynamical systems theory allow us to study general properties of the model such as its qualitative behavior, intrinsic timescales and dynamic stability: Using a Latin hypercube method we sampled the parameter space for physically realistic steady states of the PECCAD ODE system and set up a numerical continuation and bifurcation problem with the open-source toolbox MatCont in order to obtain a complete classification of the dynamical system's behaviour. Bifurcation analysis reveals an equilibrium state of the system entirely controlled by fungal kinetic parameters. The equilibrium is generally unstable in response to small perturbations except for a small band in parameter space where the pesticide pool is stable. Time scale separation is a phenomenon that occurs in almost every complex open physical system. Motivated by the notion of "initial-stage" and "late-stage" decomposers and the concept of r-, K- or L-selected microbial life strategies, we test the applicability of geometric singular perturbation theory to identify fast and slow time scales of PECCAD. Revealing a generic fast-slow structure would greatly simplify the analysis of complex models of organic matter turnover by reducing the number of unknowns and parameters and providing a systematic mathematical framework for studying their properties.

  5. 75 FR 5077 - Pesticide Product; Registration Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ... Viewridge Dr., Angwin, CA 94508. Product name: Isomate-EGVM mating disruptor pheromone (E,Z)-7,9-Dodecadien... a sustainable agriculture community, registration of a pheromone-based product is of importance to... biochemical that is structurally similar to and mimics the naturally occurring pheromone produced by...

  6. 75 FR 4384 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    .... Box 30, Newark, DE 19714. Product name: DPX-KJM44 0.064G Turf Herbicide + Fertilizer. Active.... Product name: DPX-KJM44 0.053G Turf Herbicide + Fertilizer. Active ingredient: Herbicide with... Herbicide + Fertilizer. Active ingredient: Herbicide with Aminocyclopyrachlor methyl at 0.032%. Proposed...

  7. Pesticides

    MedlinePlus

    ... Heindel JJ, Zoeller RT. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals and human disease. In: Jameson JL, ed. Endocrinology: Adult and Pediatric . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 153. Karr CJ, Solomon GM, Brock-Utne AC. Health effects of common home, lawn, and garden pesticides. Pediatr ...

  8. Monod kinetics rather than a first-order degradation model explains atrazine fate in soil mini-columns: implications for pesticide fate modelling.

    PubMed

    Cheyns, K; Mertens, J; Diels, J; Smolders, E; Springael, D

    2010-05-01

    Pesticide transport models commonly assume first-order pesticide degradation kinetics for describing reactive transport in soil. This assumption was assessed in mini-column studies with associated batch degradation tests. Soil mini-columns were irrigated with atrazine in two intermittent steps of about 30 days separated by 161 days application of artificial rain water. Atrazine concentration in the effluent peaked to that of the influent concentration after initial break-through but sharply decreased while influx was sustained, suggesting a degradation lag phase. The same pattern was displayed in the second step but peak height and percentage of atrazine recovered in the effluent were lower. A Monod model with biomass decay was successfully calibrated to this data. The model was successfully evaluated against batch degradation data and mini-column experiments at lower flow rate. The study suggested that first-order degradation models may underestimate risk of pesticide leaching if the pesticide degradation potential needs amplification during degradation. PMID:20116148

  9. 77 FR 6560 - Pesticide Product Registration Approval

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-08

    ... the Federal Register of June 10, 2009 (74 FR 27541) (FRL-8413-2), which announced that Lubrizol, 29400... product, Contram ST-1, as an antimicrobial preservative to inhibit the growth of bacteria and fungi in... Number (52484-3) as a preservative to inhibit the growth of bacteria and fungi in metalworking,...

  10. 77 FR 12295 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    ... Insecticide, and A17960B ST Insecticide. Active ingredient: Insecticide with Cyantraniliprole at 0.5--96.7.... Active ingredient: Plant-Incorporated Protectant with Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1F protein and the...: Trece, Inc., 7569 Hwy. 28 W, Adair, OK 74330. Product name: Cidetrak DA MEC. Active ingredient:...

  11. 76 FR 4688 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-26

    ... files should avoid the use of special characters, any form of encryption, and be free of any defects or... beet molasses, bulb onion subgroup, peanut nutmeat, peanut hay and dried tea leaves. Contact: Kable Bo... products containing currently registered active ingredients, pursuant to the provisions of section 3(c)...

  12. 75 FR 11884 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... files should avoid the use of special characters, any form of encryption, and be free of any defects or... apple, ilama and soursop; tea. Contact: Olga Odiott, (703) 308- 9369, odiott.olga@epa.gov . 20... products containing currently registered active ingredients, pursuant to the provisions of section 3(c)...

  13. 75 FR 53692 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ... files should avoid the use of special characters, any form of encryption, and be free of any defects or... forage, fodder and hay group, grass grown for seed, pasture and rangeland, and tea. Contact: BeWanda... products containing currently registered active ingredients, pursuant to the provisions of section 3(c)...

  14. 77 FR 14362 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ... entities likely to be affected by this action. Other types of entities not listed in this unit could also... elements of vector pSYN12274) in 5307 Corn (SYN- 53 7-1) at 0.01782%. ] Proposed Use: Plant-Incorporated... material necessary for its production (via elements of vector pSYN12274) in 5307 Corn (SYN- 53 7-1) at...

  15. Heterogeneous photocatalytic degradation of pesticides using decatungstate intercalated macroporous layered double hydroxides.

    PubMed

    Da Silva, Eliana S; Prevot, Vanessa; Forano, Claude; Wong-Wah-Chung, Pascal; Burrows, Hugh D; Sarakha, Mohamed

    2014-10-01

    Decatungstate W10O32(4-) was efficiently intercalated between the layers of three-dimensionally ordered macroporous Mg2Al-layered double hydroxide. The structural and textural properties of as-prepared intercalated compound were characterized using different solid-state characterization techniques such as X-ray powder diffraction, FTIR and Raman spectroscopies and electronic microscopy. The photocatalytic properties of immobilized W10O32 (4-) within Mg2Al structure were investigated using 2-(1-naphthyl) acetamide (NAD) as a model of pesticide. The influence of different parameters such as amount of catalyst, pH and oxygen concentration were investigated. An optimal NAD degradation was obtained for a photocatalyst concentration of 60 mg l(-1). Under our experimental conditions, this heterogeneous photocatalyst induces photodegradation of 60 % of NAD after 17 h of irradiation at 365 nm and at pH 6.6. Interestingly, pesticide photodegradation leads to the mineralization of substrates to H2O and CO2 and the photocatalyst can be recycled and reused without any loss of activity over four cycles. PMID:24838128

  16. Model-based estimation of pesticides and transformation products and their export pathways in a headwater catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gassmann, M.; Stamm, C.; Olsson, O.; Lange, J.; Kümmerer, K.; Weiler, M.

    2013-12-01

    Pesticides applied onto agricultural fields are frequently found in adjacent rivers. To what extent and along which pathways they are transported is influenced by intrinsic pesticide properties such as sorption and degradation. In the environment, incomplete degradation of pesticides leads to the formation of transformation products (TPs), which may differ from the parent compounds regarding their intrinsic fate characteristics. Thus, the export processes of TPs in catchments and streams may also be different. In order to test this hypothesis, we extended a distributed hydrological model by the fate and behaviour of pesticides and transformation products and applied it to a small, well-monitored headwater catchment in Switzerland. The successful model evaluation of three pesticides and their TPs at three sampling locations in the catchment enabled us to estimate the quantity of contributing processes for pollutant export. Since all TPs were more mobile than their parent compounds (PCs), they exhibited larger fractions of export via subsurface pathways. However, besides freshly applied pesticides, subsurface export was found to be influenced by residues of former applications. Export along preferential flow pathways was less dependent on substance fate characteristics than soil matrix export, but total soil water flow to tile drains increased more due to preferential flow for stronger sorbing substances. Our results indicate that runoff generation by matrix flow to tile drains gained importance towards the end of the modelling period whereas the contributions from fast surface runoff and preferential flow decreased. Accordingly, TPs were to a large extent exported under different hydrological conditions than their PCs, due to their delayed formation and longer half-lives. Thus, not only their different intrinsic characteristics but also their delayed formation could be responsible for the fact that TPs generally took different pathways than their PCs. We suggest

  17. Model-based estimation of pesticides and transformation products and their export pathways in a headwater catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gassmann, M.; Stamm, C.; Olsson, O.; Lange, J.; Kümmerer, K.; Weiler, M.

    2013-07-01

    Pesticides applied onto agricultural fields are frequently found in adjacent rivers. To what extent and along which pathways they are transported is influenced by intrinsic pesticide properties such as sorption and degradation. In the environment, incomplete degradation of pesticides leads to the formation of transformation products (TPs), which may differ from the parent compounds regarding their intrinsic fate characteristics. Thus, the export processes of TPs in catchments and streams may also be different. In order to test this hypothesis, we extended a distributed hydrological model by the fate and behaviour of pesticides and transformation products and applied it to a small, well-monitored headwater catchment in Switzerland. The successful model evaluation of three pesticides and their TPs at three sampling locations in the catchment enabled us to estimate the quantity of contributing processes for pollutant export. Since all TPs were more mobile than their parent compounds (PCs), they exhibited larger fractions of export via subsurface pathways. However, besides freshly applied pesticides, subsurface export was found to be influenced by residues of former applications. Export along preferential flow pathways was less dependent on substance fate characteristics than soil matrix export, but total soil water flow to tile drains increased more due to preferential flow for stronger sorbing substances. Our results indicate that runoff generation by matrix flow to tile drains gained importance towards the end of the modelling period whereas the contributions from fast surface runoff and preferential flow decreased. Accordingly, TPs were to a large extent exported under different hydrological conditions than their PCs, due to their delayed formation and longer half-lives. Thus, not only their different intrinsic characteristics but also their delayed formation could be responsible for the fact that TPs generally took different pathways than their PCs. We suggest

  18. 40 CFR 152.8 - Products that are not pesticides because they are not for use against pests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Products that are not pesticides... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES General Provisions § 152.8 Products that are not pesticides because they are not for use against pests. A...

  19. 40 CFR 152.8 - Products that are not pesticides because they are not for use against pests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Products that are not pesticides... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES General Provisions § 152.8 Products that are not pesticides because they are not for use against pests. A...

  20. Long-term lessons on pesticide leaching obtained via the Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenbom, A. E.; Olsen, P.; Plauborg, F.; Grant, R.; Juhler, R. K.; Brüsch, W.; Kjær, J.

    2014-12-01

    To avoid any unacceptable influence on the environment posed by pesticides and their degradation products, all pesticides used in the European Union needs authorization. The authorization procedure includes assessing the leaching risk of both pesticides and their degradation products to the groundwater. There are shortcomings to the procedure, however, as revealed by the results of the Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme from the period 1990/2000 to 2012 (app. twelve years). This monitoring program has for this period assessed leaching into groundwater via the variably-saturated zone of 43 pesticides applied in accordance with current regulations on sandy and loamy agricultural fields, and 47 of their degradation products. Three types of leaching scenario were not fully captured by the authorization procedure: i) long-term leaching of degradation products of pesticides applied on potato crops cultivated in sandy soils, ii) leaching of strongly sorbing pesticides after autumn application on loamy soils, and iii) leaching of various pesticides and their degradation products following early summer application on loamy soils. The monitoring data revealed that the authorization procedure was unable to predict leaching scenarios for a number of pesticides in hydrogeological settings dominated by rapid preferential transport via e.g. biopores that bypasses the retardation (sorption and degradation) of the plow layer. Such settings are primarily present in the autumn, but can also occur during the early summer in connection with the formation of a structural seal on the soil surface.

  1. 40 CFR 165.65 - Registrants who distribute or sell pesticide products in refillable containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... product into a refillable container up to the rated capacity of the container. In addition, there are no... a reaction or interaction between the pesticide product being repackaged and the residue remaining... removal procedure before repackaging the pesticide product into the refillable container. In...

  2. ORGANOPHOSPHATE PESTICIDE DEGRADATION IN THE PRESENCE OF NATURALLY OCCURRING AQUATIC CONSTITUENTS UNDER DRINKING WATER TREATMENT CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Little work to date has solely investigated the kinetics and pathways of pesticide transformations under drinking water treatment conditions. Free chlorine has been found to react with s-triazine, carbamate, and organophosphate pesticides. However, these experimental conditions...

  3. Single-Step Production of a Recyclable Nanobiocatalyst for Organophosphate Pesticides Biodegradation Using Functionalized Bacterial Magnetosomes

    PubMed Central

    Ginet, Nicolas; Pardoux, Romain; Adryanczyk, Géraldine; Garcia, Daniel; Brutesco, Catherine; Pignol, David

    2011-01-01

    Enzymes are versatile catalysts in laboratories and on an industrial scale; improving their immobilization would be beneficial to broadening their applicability and ensuring their (re)use. Lipid-coated nano-magnets produced by magnetotactic bacteria are suitable for a universally applicable single-step method of enzyme immobilization. By genetically functionalizing the membrane surrounding these magnetite particles with a phosphohydrolase, we engineered an easy-to-purify, robust and recyclable biocatalyst to degrade ethyl-paraoxon, a commonly used pesticide. For this, we genetically fused the opd gene from Flavobacterium sp. ATCC 27551 encoding a paraoxonase to mamC, an abundant protein of the magnetosome membrane in Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1. The MamC protein acts as an anchor for the paraoxonase to the magnetosome surface, thus producing magnetic nanoparticles displaying phosphohydrolase activity. Magnetosomes functionalized with Opd were easily recovered from genetically modified AMB-1 cells: after cellular disruption with a French press, the magnetic nanoparticles are purified using a commercially available magnetic separation system. The catalytic properties of the immobilized Opd were measured on ethyl-paraoxon hydrolysis: they are comparable with the purified enzyme, with Km (and kcat) values of 58 µM (and 178 s−1) and 43 µM (and 314 s−1) for the immobilized and purified enzyme respectively. The Opd, a metalloenzyme requiring a zinc cofactor, is thus properly matured in AMB-1. The recycling of the functionalized magnetosomes was investigated and their catalytic activity proved to be stable over repeated use for pesticide degradation. In this study, we demonstrate the easy production of functionalized magnetic nanoparticles with suitably genetically modified magnetotactic bacteria that are efficient as a reusable nanobiocatalyst for pesticides bioremediation in contaminated effluents. PMID:21738665

  4. Single-step production of a recyclable nanobiocatalyst for organophosphate pesticides biodegradation using functionalized bacterial magnetosomes.

    PubMed

    Ginet, Nicolas; Pardoux, Romain; Adryanczyk, Géraldine; Garcia, Daniel; Brutesco, Catherine; Pignol, David

    2011-01-01

    Enzymes are versatile catalysts in laboratories and on an industrial scale; improving their immobilization would be beneficial to broadening their applicability and ensuring their (re)use. Lipid-coated nano-magnets produced by magnetotactic bacteria are suitable for a universally applicable single-step method of enzyme immobilization. By genetically functionalizing the membrane surrounding these magnetite particles with a phosphohydrolase, we engineered an easy-to-purify, robust and recyclable biocatalyst to degrade ethyl-paraoxon, a commonly used pesticide. For this, we genetically fused the opd gene from Flavobacterium sp. ATCC 27551 encoding a paraoxonase to mamC, an abundant protein of the magnetosome membrane in Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1. The MamC protein acts as an anchor for the paraoxonase to the magnetosome surface, thus producing magnetic nanoparticles displaying phosphohydrolase activity. Magnetosomes functionalized with Opd were easily recovered from genetically modified AMB-1 cells: after cellular disruption with a French press, the magnetic nanoparticles are purified using a commercially available magnetic separation system. The catalytic properties of the immobilized Opd were measured on ethyl-paraoxon hydrolysis: they are comparable with the purified enzyme, with K(m) (and k(cat)) values of 58 µM (and 178 s(-1)) and 43 µM (and 314 s(-1)) for the immobilized and purified enzyme respectively. The Opd, a metalloenzyme requiring a zinc cofactor, is thus properly matured in AMB-1. The recycling of the functionalized magnetosomes was investigated and their catalytic activity proved to be stable over repeated use for pesticide degradation. In this study, we demonstrate the easy production of functionalized magnetic nanoparticles with suitably genetically modified magnetotactic bacteria that are efficient as a reusable nanobiocatalyst for pesticides bioremediation in contaminated effluents. PMID:21738665

  5. Lethal and sublethal effects of pesticides on Chrysoperla carnea larvae (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and the influence of rainfastness in their degradation pattern over time.

    PubMed

    Maia, Jader Braga; Carvalho, Geraldo Andrade; Medina, Pilar; Garzón, Agustín; Gontijo, Pablo da Costa; Viñuela, Elisa

    2016-07-01

    The predator Chrysoperla carnea is a model species for the study of non-target effects of pesticides under different scenarios: registration of plant protection products under the European Union and effects of the Bt toxin. Laboratory and persistence studies were carried out with six pesticides currently used in corn crops in Spain that were applied at their maximum field recommended concentrations. The assessed end-points were larval mortality, survivorship until adult stage, duration of the larval and pupal periods, fecundity, fertility and sex ratio of the emerged adults. Based on the total effect (lethal and sublethal) caused to L3 larvae in contact with fresh residues in the laboratory, pendimethalin was harmless (IOBC 1), lambda-cyhalothrin, abamectin, and hexythiazox were slightly harmful (IOBC 2), deltamethrin was moderately harmful (IOBC 3) and chlorpyrifos was harmful (IOBC 4). Afterwards, the residues of the two most toxic pesticides in the lab (deltamethrin and chlorpyrifos) were aged under greenhouse conditions (22 ± 2 °C, 40 ± 10 % R.H., 16.9 μmol m(-2) s(-1) UV radiation) in the presence and absence of artificial rainfall (10 l m(-2) h(-1), applied 24 h after pesticide application). Deltamethrin was classified as short lived (IOBC A) in both cases. However, degradation of chlorpyrifos residues was accelerated in the presence of rainfall, leading to the classification as slightly persistent (IOBC B), while in absence of rainfall it behaved as persistent (IOBC D). Every pesticide can be recommended for inclusion in corn IPM programs where the predator is present except chlorpyrifos that exhibited high direct toxicity in the lab and prolonged residual action even in the presence of rainfall. PMID:26975320

  6. MEASURING THE TRANSPORT OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING DICARBOXIMIDES AND DEGRADATION PRODUCTS FROM THE SOIL TO THE LOWER TROPOSPHERE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method for measuring the atmospheric flux of a dicarboximide and its degradation products was investigated. A volatile gas laboratory chamber was modified to measure the flux of semi-volatile fungicides. Pesticide application systems and soil incorporation systems were desig...

  7. 75 FR 6386 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications for a New Active Ingredient Chemical; Demiditraz

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-09

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications for a New Active Ingredient Chemical; Demiditraz.... Product name: Demiditraz Technical. Active ingredient: Insecticide and Demiditraz at 100%. Proposed...., Kalamazoo, MI 49001. Product name: CA Acaricide. Active ingredient: Insecticide and Demiditraz at...

  8. 77 FR 75152 - Notice of Receipt of Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-19

    ...EPA has received applications to register pesticide products containing an active ingredient not included in any currently registered pesticide products. Pursuant to the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), EPA is hereby providing notice of receipt and opportunity to comment on these...

  9. Productivity, pesticides, and management of the Peregrine Falcon in Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    In the decade since research commenced with the Peregrine in Arizona, over 60 sites have been identified which historically or presently are occupied by breeding pairs. Productivity was determined for about 120 breeding attempts from 1975-85. Almost all sites, for which productivity information is available for two or more years, have hatched young. Average values for fledging success were ca. 1.4 young/attempt for all active sites and ca. 2.3 young/attempt for successful sites. Eggshell thickness values were highly varied, but few samples reflect thinning sufficient to cause reproductive failure, and the population appears to be increasing slightly. Management practices which can further benefit the falcon include: controlling pesticide use, habitat protection, and information management.

  10. Degradation products of benzyldibutylamine as extracton agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirchi, R.; Jedinakova, V.

    The composition of the degradation products of benzyldibutylamine (BDBuN) and benzene radiolysis in the presence of nitric acid and lanthanide nitrates was identified by means of mass, NMR and infrared spectra, elementary analysis and gas liquid chromatography. The change in the extraction capacity of this agent and its solutions in aromatic hydrocarbon solvents in the extraction of Eu/III/ and Am/III/ was investigated in dependence on the absorbed dose of the ionising radiation.

  11. Chemical degradation of trimethyl phosphate as surrogate for organo-phosporus pesticides on nanostructured metal oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Štengl, Václav Henych, Jiří; Grygar, Tomáš; Pérez, Raúl

    2015-01-15

    Nanostructured TiO{sub 2} and mixed oxides of Ti and Fe, Hf, In, Mn or Zr -were prepared by homogeneous hydrolysis of aqueous solution of metal sulphates with urea. The oxides were characterised by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy, particle size distribution, surface area and porosity. The oxide materials consists of a few nanometre primary crystals (mainly anatase) arranged in a few micrometre regular spherical agglomerates with specific surface area 133–511 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}. The FTIR diffuse spectroscopy was used for monitoring chemical degradation of trimethylphosphate (TMP) as a surrogate for organo-phosphorus pesticides under ambient and higher temperatures. Undoped TiO{sub 2} and Ti,Mn-mixed oxide were most active in cleavage (hydrolysis) of CH{sub 3}O from TMP at room temperature and 100 °C. Cleavage of CH{sub 3}O in the other studied mixed oxides was not complete until temperature exceeds the boiling point of TMP.

  12. Assessment of model uncertainty during the river export modelling of pesticides and transformation products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gassmann, Matthias; Olsson, Oliver; Kümmerer, Klaus

    2013-04-01

    The modelling of organic pollutants in the environment is burdened by a load of uncertainties. Not only parameter values are uncertain but often also the mass and timing of pesticide application. By introducing transformation products (TPs) into modelling, further uncertainty coming from the dependence of these substances on their parent compounds and the introduction of new model parameters are likely. The purpose of this study was the investigation of the behaviour of a parsimonious catchment scale model for the assessment of river concentrations of the insecticide Chlorpyrifos (CP) and two of its TPs, Chlorpyrifos Oxon (CPO) and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) under the influence of uncertain input parameter values. Especially parameter uncertainty and pesticide application uncertainty were investigated by Global Sensitivity Analysis (GSA) and the Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE) method, based on Monte-Carlo sampling. GSA revealed that half-lives and sorption parameters as well as half-lives and transformation parameters were correlated to each other. This means, that the concepts of modelling sorption and degradation/transformation were correlated. Thus, it may be difficult in modelling studies to optimize parameter values for these modules. Furthermore, we could show that erroneous pesticide application mass and timing were compensated during Monte-Carlo sampling by changing the half-life of CP. However, the introduction of TCP into the calculation of the objective function was able to enhance identifiability of pesticide application mass. The GLUE analysis showed that CP and TCP were modelled successfully, but CPO modelling failed with high uncertainty and insensitive parameters. We assumed a structural error of the model which was especially important for CPO assessment. This shows that there is the possibility that a chemical and some of its TPs can be modelled successfully by a specific model structure, but for other TPs, the model

  13. High-Throughput Analytical Techniques for Determination of Residues of 653 Multiclass Pesticides and Chemical Pollutants in Tea, Part VI: Study of the Degradation of 271 Pesticide Residues in Aged Oolong Tea by Gas Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry and Its Application in Predicting the Residue Concentrations of Target Pesticides.

    PubMed

    Chang, Qiao-Ying; Pang, Guo-Fang; Fan, Chun-Lin; Chen, Hui; Wang, Zhi-Bin

    2016-07-01

    The degradation rate of 271 pesticide residues in aged Oolong tea at two spray concentrations, named a and b (a < b), were monitored for 120 days using GC-tandem MS (GC-MS/MS). To research the degradation trends and establish regression equations, determination days were plotted as horizontal ordinates and the residue concentrations of pesticide were plotted as vertical ordinates. Here, we consider the degradation equations of 271 pesticides over 40 and 120 days, summarize the degradation rates in six aspects (A-F), and discuss the degradation trends of the 271 pesticides in aged Oolong tea in detail. The results indicate that >70% of the determined pesticides coincide with the degradation regularity of trends A, B, and E, i.e., the concentration of pesticide will decrease within 4 months. Next, 20 representative pesticides were selected for further study at higher spray concentrations, named c and d (d > c > b > a), in aged Oolong tea over another 90 days. The determination days were plotted on the x-axis, and the differences between each determined result and first-time-determined value of target pesticides were plotted on the y-axis. The logarithmic function was obtained by fitting the 90-day determination results, allowing the degradation value of a target pesticide on a specific day to be calculated. These logarithmic functions at d concentration were applied to predict the residue concentrations of pesticides at c concentration. Results revealed that 70% of the 20 pesticides had the lower deviation ratios of predicted and measured results. PMID:27151741

  14. Determination of pesticides and pesticide degradates in filtered water by direct aqueous-injection liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sandstrom, Mark W.; Kanagy, Leslie K.; Anderson, Cyrissa A.; Kanagy, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Mean recoveries of most analytes (223 of 229) were within data-quality objectives of 100±30 percent at spike concentrations above method detection levels (MDLs) in all four matrices. The calculated MDLs ranged from 1 to 103 nanograms per liter (ng/L) for 182 analytes analyzed in the ESI positive mode, and from 2 to 106 ng/L for 42 analytes analyzed in the ESI negative mode. Five analytes had MDLs between 100 and 250 ng/L. The stability studies in reagent water demonstrated that the largest number of the pesticide compounds (227 of 229) were stable after 14 days of storage at 4 degrees Celsius, so these were selected as the practical holding time and storage temperature for routine sample processing. The use of antimicrobial reagent citric acid to adjust the sample pH to about 4 also resulted in lower recoveries of some analytes, so it should not be used as a routine sample preservative.

  15. SORPTION, DEGRADATION, AND MINERALIZATION OF CARBARYL IN SOILS, FOR SINGLE-PESTICIDE AND MULTIPLE-PESTICIDE SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sorption, degradation, and mineralization of carbaryl (1-naphthyl N-methylcarbamate) alone and in mixtures with atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-1,3,5-triazine) and diuron (N1-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-N, N-dimethylurea) were characterized for two topsoils and their re...

  16. Pesticides and Health in Vegetable Production in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Macharia, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the determinants of pesticide-related cost of illness (COI) and acute symptoms, using a balanced panel of 363 farmers interviewed from seven major vegetable producing districts of Kenya. Finding shows that the incidences of pesticide-related health impairments have increased. Variation in number of symptoms and symptom severity significantly explained COI. The personal protective equipment (PPE), education level, record keeping, and geographical location considerably determined health impairments. Encouraging the proper use of PPE and record keeping of pesticide use could greatly reduce poisoning cases and COI. PMID:26783515

  17. Determination of Vapor Pressure-Temperature Relationships of Current Use Pesticides and Transformation Products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sub-cooled liquid vapor pressures of current use organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides (chlorothalonil, chlorpyrifos methyl, diazinon, fipronil) and selected transformation products (chlorpyrifos oxon, heptachlor epoxide, oxychlordane, 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol) were determined at multiple...

  18. DETERMINATION OF HEAVY METALS AND PESTICIDES IN GINSENG PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Medicinal plants may carry residuals of environmentally persistent pesticides or assimilate heavy metals in varying degrees. Several factors may influence contaminant accumulation, including species, level and duration of contaminant exposure, and topography. As part of a progra...

  19. Degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid by a halotolerant strain of Penicillium chrysogenum: antibiotic production.

    PubMed

    Ferreira-Guedes, Sumaya; Mendes, Benilde; Leitão, Ana Lúcia

    2012-01-01

    The extensive use of pesticides in agriculture has prompted intensive research on chemical and biological methods in order to protect contamination of water and soil resources. In this paper the degradation of the pesticide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid by a Penicillium chrysogenum strain previously isolated from a salt mine was studied in batch cultures. Co-degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid with additives such as sugar and intermediates of pesticide metabolism was also investigated. Penicillium chrysogenum in solid medium was able to grow at concentrations up to 1000 mg/L of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) with sucrose. Meanwhile, supplementation of the solid medium with glucose and lactose led to fungal growth at concentrations up to 500 mg/L of herbicide. Batch cultures of 2,4-D at 100 mg/L were developed under aerobic conditions with the addition of glucose, lactose and sucrose, showing sucrose as the best additional carbon source. The 2,4-D removal was quantified by liquid chromatography. The fungus was able to use 2,4-D as the sole carbon and energy source under 0%, 2% and 5.9% NaCl. The greatest 2,4-D degradation efficiency was found using alpha-ketoglutarate and ascorbic acid as co-substrates under 2% NaCl at pH 7. Penicillin production was evaluated in submerged cultures by bioassay, and higher amounts of beta-lactam antibiotic were produced when the herbicide was alone. Taking into account the ability of P. chrysogenum CLONA2 to degrade aromatic compounds, this strain could be an interesting tool for 2,4-D herbicide remediation in saline environments. PMID:22629643

  20. Production of apple-based baby food: changes in pesticide residues.

    PubMed

    Kovacova, Jana; Kocourek, Vladimir; Kohoutkova, Jana; Lansky, Miroslav; Hajslova, Jana

    2014-01-01

    Apples represent the main component of most fruit-based baby food products. Since not only fruit from organic farming, but also conventionally grown fruit is used for baby food production, the occurrence of pesticide residues in the final product is of high concern. To learn more about the fate of these hazardous compounds during processing of contaminated raw material, apples containing altogether 21 pesticide residues were used for preparation of a baby food purée both in the household and at industrial scale (in the baby food production facility). Within both studies, pesticide residues were determined in raw apples as well as in final products. Intermediate product and by-product were also analysed during the industrial process. Determination of residues was performed by a sensitive multi-detection analytical method based on liquid or gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The household procedure involved mainly the cooking of unpeeled apples, and the decrease of residues was not extensive enough for most of the studied pesticides; only residues of captan, dithianon and thiram dropped significantly (processing factors less than 0.04). On the other hand, changes in pesticide levels were substantial for all tested pesticides during apple processing in the industrial baby food production facility. The most important operation affecting the reduction of residues was removal of the by-products after pulping (rest of the peel, stem, pips etc.), while subsequent sterilisation has an insignificant effect. Also in this case, captan, dithianon and thiram were identified as pesticides with the most evident decrease of residues. PMID:24720736

  1. Sorption and degradation of chlorophenols, nitrophenols and organophosphorus pesticides in the subsoil under landfills — laboratory studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Kjølholt, Jesper; Schultz, Birgit; Christensen, Thomas H.; Tjell, Jens Christian

    1990-09-01

    Landfills and old industrial plant sites have been identified in an increasing number of cases as point sources of groundwater pollution, dissipating a wide range of industrial chemicals and pesticides. To study the fate of co-disposed chemicals in the subsoil of landfills, anaerobic soil columns loaded with anaerobic leachate from a municipal landfill were set up. The leachate was spiked with eleven compounds representing three groups of chemicals: chlorophenols, nitrophenols and organophosphates. Two subsoils were used in the study. The columns were maintained at Danish groundwater temperature (8-10°C), and were run for a period of 10 months. Analysis of the influent leachate concentrations of the spiked compounds showed that the concentrations were constant during the entire experimental period. Many of the compounds showed delayed breakthrough (compared to chloride breakthrough) in both soils, followed by a constant effluent concentration ratio of less than unity indicating that degradation was occuring. The velocities for the chloro- and nitrophenols were in the range of 10-100% of the water velocity in the two subsoils. The distribution coefficient for the specific phenol, the acidity and the pH of the soil apparently governed the retardation of the phenolic compounds. Degradation of most of the phenols was observed with half-like values of 30-150 days. The four organophosphorus pesticides, Dimethoate ®, Malathion ®, Sulfotep ® and Fenitrothion ®, showed relative velocities from < 10% to ≈ 100%. Malathion ® and Sulfotep ® were degraded with half-life values of 10-20 days, while Dimethoate ® was not significantly degraded in the two soil columns. Fenitrothion ® did not appear in the effluent from the columns within the experimental period of time, probably due to high retardation.

  2. [Induce of laccase from Trametes gallica and its degradation on neutral dyes and organophosphorus pesticides].

    PubMed

    Jing, De-Jun; Huang, Jian-Bo; Yang, Zhou-Ping; Hu, Rong; Cheng, Zi-Zhang; Huang, Qian-Ming

    2011-12-01

    The characteristics of the induction of laccase in Trametes gallica under different initial cultural pH, incubation time by different inducers were discussed, as well as the effects of temperature, pH and time on laccase degradation of six dyes and four organophosphors. The results showed that RB-bright blue, ABTS and o-toluidine affected the production of laccase at different levels, and ABTS was the best inductive agent in our test conditions, whose optimal initial pH and incubation time were 4.0 and 13 days, respectively. The appropriate reaction temperature of the laccase produced was 38 degrees C, and it got a good stability, for it could retain 78.6% of the enzyme activity after 20 min holding at 40 degrees C. Mediated by ABTS, the optimal temperature for laccase to degrade the six types of neutral dyes could be divided into two cases, that was 30 degrees C (neutral black, neutral bordeaux, neutral pink, methyl orange) and 60 degrees C (neutral dark yellow, cresol red), the optimal pH were 6.0 (neutral black), 2.0 (neutral bordeaux, neutral pink) and 4.0 (methyl orange, neutral dark yellow, cresol red), respectively, while the optimal times separately were 6 h (methyl orange, neutral dark yellow, cresol red), 12 h (neutral pink) and 24 h (neutral bordeaux). And using the same inductive agent, the best temperature for laccase to degrade dimethoate, chlorpyrifos, trichlorfon and parathion-pyridazine was 25 degrees C, the suitable time was 9 h, and the optimal pH was 10.0 for dimethoate, chlorpyrifos and parathion-pyridazine, and 8.0 for trichlorfon. PMID:22384601

  3. Atmospheric aqueous-phase photoreactivity: correlation between the hydroxyl radical photoformation and pesticide degradation rate in atmospherically relevant waters.

    PubMed

    Charbouillot, Tiffany; Brigante, Marcello; Deguillaume, Laurent; Mailhot, Gilles

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the correlation between the hydroxyl radical formation rate (R(˙OH) ) and the degradation of a pesticide (mesotrione) in synthetic cloud water solutions and in two real atmospheric cloud waters collected at the top of puy de Dôme station (France). Using terephthalic acid as the hydroxyl radical chemical probe, we established the linear correlation between the photogenerated hydroxyl radical under polychromatic wavelengths and the pesticide degradation rate: (M s(-1)) = (1.61 ± 0.15) × 10(-1) (M s(-1)). Moreover, the formation rate of hydroxyl radical in two natural cloud waters was estimated considering H(2)O(2) and NO(3)(-) and the difference between the predicted values and those experimentally obtained could be attributed to the presence of other photochemical sources: iron-complexes and total organic matter. The organic constituents could play a dual role of sources and scavengers of photoformed hydroxyl radicals in the aqueous phase. PMID:21988772

  4. PR notice 87-6. Notice to manufacturers, formulators, procedures, and registrants of pesticide products

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-05-01

    The document is one in the series of Pesticide Regulatory Notices, usually called PR Notices, which supplement the laws and regulations governing pesticide regulation in the US. These notices clarify, interpret and explain regulatory requirements and policies. They are directed at pesticide registrants and other parties interested in detailed procedures of regulation. This notice announces certain policies designed to reduce the potential for adverse effects from the use of pesticide products containing toxic inert ingredients. The agency is encouraging the use of the least toxic inert ingredient available and requiring the development of data necessary to determine the conditions of safe use of products containing toxic inert ingredients. In support of these policies, the Agency has categorized inert ingredients according to toxicity.

  5. Advice on Degradation Products in Pharmaceuticals: A Toxicological Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Melo, Sâmia Rocha de Oliveira; Homem-de-Mello, Maurício; Silveira, Dâmaris; Simeoni, Luiz Alberto

    Degradation products are unwanted chemicals that can develop during the manufacturing, transportation, and storage of drug products and can affect the efficacy of pharmaceutical products. Moreover, even small amounts of degradation products can affect pharmaceutical safety because of the potential to cause adverse effects in patients. Consequently, it is crucial to focus on mechanistic understanding, formulation, storage conditions, and packaging to prevent the formation of degradation products that can negatively affect the quality and safety of the drug product. In this sense, databases and software that help predict the reactions involving the pharmaceutically active substance in the presence of degradation conditions can be used to obtain information on major degradation routes and the main degradation products formed during pharmaceutical product storage. In some cases, when the presence of a genotoxic degradation product is verified, it is necessary to conduct more thorough assessments. It is important to consider the chemical structure to distinguish between compounds with toxicologically alerting structures with associated toxic/genotoxic risks and compounds without active structures that can be treated as ordinary impurities. Evaluating the levels of degradation products based on a risk/benefit analysis is mandatory. Controlling critical variables during early development of drug products and conducting a follow-up study of these impurities can prevent degradation impurities present at concentrations greater than threshold values to ensure product quality. The definition of the impurity profile has become essential per various regulatory requirements. Therefore, this review includes the international regulatory perspective on impurity documents and the toxicological evaluation of degradation products. Additionally, some techniquesused in the investigation of degradation products and stability-indicating assay methods are highlighted. PMID:25188345

  6. [Role of bacterial metabolism in transformation of non-mutagenic compounds into mutagens. II. Participation of bacteria producing urease in degradation of pesticides--urea derivatives].

    PubMed

    Szarapińska-Kwaszewska, J; Mikucki, J

    1992-01-01

    Participation of bacteria producing urease: Proteus mirabilis and Staphylococcus epidermidis in degradation of pesticides--urea derivatives, was investigated. Four new compounds were studies: N-/(3-trifluoromethyl)phenyl/N'-(2-cyanoethyl)-urea (IPO 6584), N-(4-chlorophenyl)-N'-(2-hydroxyethyl)-N'-ethylurea (PO 6236), N-(4-chlorophenyl)-N'-(2-hydroxyethyl), N'-propyl-urea (IPO 6237), N-(2-hydroxyethyl), N-methyl-N'-(3,4 dichlorophenyl)-urea (IPO 3102), pesticide reference standard--thiram fungicide--tetramethyl-bis-thiocarbamyl disulfide, and rodenticide-alpha-naphthylthiourea (ANTU). Investigated compounds were incubated with cells of P. mirabilis 4508 ans S. epidermidis CCM 2448 and commercial preparation of urease from beans. Mutagenicity of resulting metabolites was then studies by the Ames test. All compounds were decomposed by bacteria used in this study, as well with beans urease with different activity. Reaction products did not exhibit mutagenic activity for test strains S. typhimurium his- TA97a, TA98, TA100 and TA102. PMID:1297032

  7. Pesticide Product Use and Risk of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma in Women

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Ikuko; Watanabe-Meserve, Hiroko; Koenig, Karen L.; Baptiste, Mark S.; Lillquist, Patricia P.; Frizzera, Glauco; Burke, Jerome S.; Moseson, Miriam; Shore, Roy E.

    2004-01-01

    A population-based, incidence case–control study was conducted among women in upstate New York to determine whether pesticide exposure is associated with an increase in risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) among women. The study involved 376 cases of NHL identified through the State Cancer Registry and 463 controls selected from the Medicare beneficiary files and state driver’s license records. Information about history of farm work, history of other jobs associated with pesticide exposure, use of common household pesticide products, and potential confounding variables was obtained by telephone interview. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using an unconditional logistic regression model. The risk of NHL was doubled (OR = 2.12; 95% CI, 1.21–3.71) among women who worked for at least 10 years at a farm where pesticides were reportedly used. When both farming and other types of jobs associated with pesticide exposure were combined, there was a progressive increase in risk of NHL with increasing duration of such work (p = 0.005). Overall cumulative frequency of use of household pesticide products was positively associated with risk of NHL (p = 0.004), which was most pronounced when they were applied by subjects themselves. When exposure was analyzed by type of products used, a significant association was observed for mothballs. The associations with both occupational and household pesticides were particularly elevated if exposure started in 1950–1969 and for high-grade NHL. Although the results of this case–control study suggest that exposure to pesticide products may be associated with an increased risk of NHL among women, methodologic limitations related to selection and recall bias suggest caution in inferring causation. PMID:15345339

  8. Target product profile choices for intra-domiciliary malaria vector control pesticide products: repel or kill?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The most common pesticide products for controlling malaria-transmitting mosquitoes combine two distinct modes of action: 1) conventional insecticidal activity which kills mosquitoes exposed to the pesticide and 2) deterrence of mosquitoes away from protected humans. While deterrence enhances personal or household protection of long-lasting insecticidal nets and indoor residual sprays, it may also attenuate or even reverse communal protection if it diverts mosquitoes to non-users rather than killing them outright. Methods A process-explicit model of malaria transmission is described which captures the sequential interaction between deterrent and toxic actions of vector control pesticides and accounts for the distinctive impacts of toxic activities which kill mosquitoes before or after they have fed upon the occupant of a covered house or sleeping space. Results Increasing deterrency increases personal protection but consistently reduces communal protection because deterrent sub-lethal exposure inevitably reduces the proportion subsequently exposed to higher lethal doses. If the high coverage targets of the World Health Organization are achieved, purely toxic products with no deterrence are predicted to generally provide superior protection to non-users and even users, especially where vectors feed exclusively on humans and a substantial amount of transmission occurs outdoors. Remarkably, this is even the case if that product confers no personal protection and only kills mosquitoes after they have fed. Conclusions Products with purely mosquito-toxic profiles may, therefore, be preferable for programmes with universal coverage targets, rather than those with equivalent toxicity but which also have higher deterrence. However, if purely mosquito-toxic products confer little personal protection because they do not deter mosquitoes and only kill them after they have fed, then they will require aggressive "catch up" campaigns, with behaviour change communication

  9. DESIGNING PESTICIDE METABOLIC PATHWAY/DEGRADATE DATABASES FOR REGISTRANT SUBMITTED HEALTH EFFECTS/ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    OPPTS requires information on the toxic effects of pesticide metabolites as well as the parent chemical. Currently, OPP receives metabolic maps with registrant study data submissions, but there is no efficient way to access previously submitted maps on similar chemicals to help w...

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF A STRUCTURE-SEARCHABLE DATABASE FOR PESTICIDE METABOLITES AND ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    USEPA is modifying and enhancing existing software for the depiction of metabolic maps to provide access via structures to metabolism information and associated data in EPA's Office of Pesticide Programs (OPP). The database includes information submitted to EPA in support of pest...

  11. Particulate and gas-phase products from the atmospheric degradation of chlorpyrifos and chlorpyrifos-oxon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrás, Esther; Ródenas, Milagros; Vázquez, Mónica; Vera, Teresa; Muñoz, Amalia

    2015-12-01

    The phosphorothioate structure is highly present in several pesticides. However, there is a lack of information about its degradation process in air and the secondary pollutants formed. Herein, the atmospheric reactions of chlorpyrifos, one of the most world-used insecticide, and its main degradation product - chlorpyrifos-oxon - are described. The photo-oxidation under the presence of NOx was studied in a large outdoor simulation chamber for both chlorpyrifos and chlorpyrifos-oxon, observing a rapid degradation (Half lifetime < 3.5 h for both compounds). Also, the photolysis reactions of both were studied. The formation of particulate matter (aerosol mass yield ranged 6-59%) and gaseous products were monitored. The chemical composition of minor products was studied, identifying 15 multi-oxygenated derivatives. The most abundant products were ring-retaining molecules such as 3,5,6-trichloropyridin-2-ol and ethyl 3,5,6-trichloropyridin-2-yl hydrogen phosphate. An atmospheric degradation mechanism has been amplified based on an oxidation started with OH-nucleophilic attack to Pdbnd S bond.

  12. Infusion fluids contain harmful glucose degradation products

    PubMed Central

    Bryland, Anna; Broman, Marcus; Erixon, Martin; Klarin, Bengt; Lindén, Torbjörn; Friberg, Hans; Wieslander, Anders; Kjellstrand, Per; Ronco, Claudio; Carlsson, Ola

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Glucose degradation products (GDPs) are precursors of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) that cause cellular damage and inflammation. We examined the content of GDPs in commercially available glucose-containing infusion fluids and investigated whether GDPs are found in patients’ blood. Methods The content of GDPs was examined in infusion fluids by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. To investigate whether GDPs also are found in patients, we included 11 patients who received glucose fluids (standard group) during and after their surgery and 11 control patients receiving buffered saline (control group). Blood samples were analyzed for GDP content and carboxymethyllysine (CML), as a measure of AGE formation. The influence of heat-sterilized fluids on cell viability and cell function upon infection was investigated. Results All investigated fluids contained high concentrations of GDPs, such as 3-deoxyglucosone (3-DG). Serum concentration of 3-DG increased rapidly by a factor of eight in patients receiving standard therapy. Serum CML levels increased significantly and showed linear correlation with the amount of infused 3-DG. There was no increase in serum 3-DG or CML concentrations in the control group. The concentration of GDPs in most of the tested fluids damaged neutrophils, reducing their cytokine secretion, and inhibited microbial killing. Conclusions These findings indicate that normal standard fluid therapy involves unwanted infusion of GDPs. Reduction of the content of GDPs in commonly used infusion fluids may improve cell function, and possibly also organ function, in intensive-care patients. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00134-010-1873-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20397009

  13. DETERMINATION OF AZOXYSTROBIN AND DIFENOCONAZOLE IN PESTICIDE PRODUCTS.

    PubMed

    Lazić, S; Šunjka, D

    2015-01-01

    In this study a high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC-DAD) procedure has been developed for the simultaneous determination of azoxystrobin and difenoconazole in suspension concentrate pesticide formulations, with the aim of the product quality control. Azoxystrobin, strobilurin fungicide and difenoconazole (cis,trans-3-chloro-4-[4-methyl-2-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-ylmethyl)-1,3-dioxolan-2-yl]phenyl 4-chlorophenyl ether), triazole fungicide, are used for the protection of plants from wide spectrum of fungal diseases. For the analysis LC system an Agilent Technologies 1100 Series was used. Good separation was achieved on a Zorbax SB-C18 column (5 μm, 250 mm x 3 mm internal diameter) using a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile/ultrapure water (90:10, v/v), at a flow rate of 0.9 ml/minute and UV detection at 218 nm. Column temperature was 25 degrees C, injected volume was 1 μl. Retention times for azoxystrobin and difenoconazole were 2.504 min and 1.963 min, respectively. This method is validated according to the requirements for new methods, which include linearity, precision, accuracy and selectivity. The method demonstrates good linearity with r2 > 0.997. The repeatability of the method, expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD, %), was found to be 1.9% for azoxystrobin and 0.5% for difenoconazole. The precision of the method was also considered to be acceptable as the experimental repeatability relative standard deviation (RSD) was lower than the RSD calculated using the Horwitz equation of 1.7% and 1.4% for azoxystrobin and difenoconazole, respectively. The accuracy of the proposed method was determined from recovery experiments through standard addition procedure. The average recoveries of the three fortification levels were 101.9% for azoxystrobin and 103.2% for difenoconazole with RSDs of 1.1% and 1.2%. The method described in this paper is simple, precise, accurate and selective and represents a new and reliable way of simultaneous determination

  14. SAFE PESTICIDES/SAFE PRODUCTS MULTI-YEAR PLAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Additional research on pesticides and toxics provides results that support the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) and Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). EPA's multi-year research plan establishes four long-term goals, designed to enhance the Agency's Off...

  15. 78 FR 59019 - Product Cancellation Order for Certain Pesticide Registrations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ..., human health, and agricultural advocates; the chemical industry; pesticide users; and members of the..., 2013 (78 FR 12313) (FRL-9378-7). The comment period closed on August 21, 2013. VI. Provisions for... Pendimethalin. Herbicide. 000241-00403 Pendimethalin Pendimethalin. Manufacturing Concentrate Herbicide....

  16. 78 FR 24195 - Product Cancellation Order for Certain Pesticide Registrations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... Unit II. will be effective December 31, 2016. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Molly Clayton, Pesticide... Unit II. will be effective December 31, 2016. Any distribution, sale, or use of existing stocks of the... published for comment in the Federal Register issue of December 19, 2012 (77 FR 75157) (FRL-9368-8)....

  17. Vitamin C Degradation Products and Pathways in the Human Lens*

    PubMed Central

    Nemet, Ina; Monnier, Vincent M.

    2011-01-01

    Vitamin C and its degradation products participate in chemical modifications of proteins in vivo through non-enzymatic glycation (Maillard reaction) and formation of different products called advanced glycation end products. Vitamin C levels are particularly high in selected tissues, such as lens, brain and adrenal gland, and its degradation products can inflict substantial protein damage via formation of advanced glycation end products. However, the pathways of in vivo vitamin C degradation are poorly understood. Here we have determined the levels of vitamin C oxidation and degradation products dehydroascorbic acid, 2,3-diketogulonic acid, 3-deoxythreosone, xylosone, and threosone in the human lens using o-phenylenediamine to trap both free and protein-bound adducts. In the protein-free fraction and water-soluble proteins (WSP), all five listed degradation products were identified. Dehydroascorbic acid, 2,3-diketogulonic acid, and 3-deoxythreosone were the major products in the protein-free fraction, whereas in the WSP, 3-deoxythreosone was the most abundant measured dicarbonyl. In addition, 3-deoxythreosone in WSP showed positive linear correlation with age (p < 0.05). In water-insoluble proteins, only 3-deoxythreosone and threosone were detected, whereby the level of 3-deoxythreosone was ∼20 times higher than the level of threosone. The identification of 3-deoxythreosone as the major degradation product bound to human lens proteins provides in vivo evidence for the non-oxidative pathway of dehydroascorbate degradation into erythrulose as a major pathway for vitamin C degradation in vivo. PMID:21885436

  18. Biodegradation of the Organophosphate Trichlorfon and Its Major Degradation Products by a Novel Aspergillus sydowii PA F-2.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jiang; Dong, Qiaofeng; Yu, Chenlei; Zhao, Ruixue; Wang, Jing; Chen, Lanzhou

    2016-06-01

    Trichlorfon (TCF) is an important organophosphate pesticide in agriculture. However, limited information is known about the biodegradation behaviors and kinetics of this pesticide. In this study, a newly isolated fungus (PA F-2) from pesticide-polluted soils was identified as Aspergillus sydowii on the basis of the sequencing of internal transcribed spacer rDNA. This fungus degraded TCF as sole carbon, sole phosphorus, and sole carbon-phosphorus sources in a mineral salt medium (MSM). Optimal TCF degradation conditions were determined through response surface methodology, and results also revealed that 75.31% of 100 mg/L TCF was metabolized within 7 days. The degradation of TCF was accelerated, and the mycelial dry weight of PA F-2 was remarkably increased in MSM supplemented with exogenous sucrose and yeast extract. Five TCF metabolic products were identified through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. TCF could be initially hydrolyzed to dichlorvos and then be degraded through the cleavage of the P-C bond to produce dimethyl hydrogen phosphate and chloral hydrate. These two compounds were subsequently deoxidized to produce dimethyl phosphite and trichloroethanal. These results demonstrate the biodegradation pathways of TCF and promote the potential use of PA F-2 to bioremediate TCF-contaminated environments. PMID:27161040

  19. EXPOSURE OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN TO CHLORPYRIFOS AND ITS DEGRADATION PRODUCT 3,5,6-TRICHLORO-2-PYRIDINOL IN THEIR EVERYDAY ENVIRONMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the Children's Total Exposure to Persistent Pesticides and Other Persistent Organic Pollutants (CTEPP) study, we investigated the exposures of preschool children to chlorpyrifos and its degradation product 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) in their everyday environment...

  20. 40 CFR 158.2030 - Biochemical pesticides product chemistry data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... chemistry data requirements table. 158.2030 Section 158.2030 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... § 158.2030 Biochemical pesticides product chemistry data requirements table. (a) General. (1) Sections 158.100 through 158.130 describe how to use this table to determine the product chemistry...

  1. Research of the degradation products of chitosan's angiogenic function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianyun; Chen, Yuanwei; Ding, Yulong; Shi, Guoqi; Wan, Changxiu

    2008-11-01

    Angiogenesis is of great importance in tissue engineering and has gained large attention in the past decade. But how it will be influenced by the biodegradable materials, especially their degradation products, remains unknown. Chitosan (CS) is a kind of naturally occurred polysaccharide which can be degraded in physiological environment. In order to gain some knowledge of the influences of CS degradation products on angiogenesis, the interaction of vascular endothelial cells with the degradation products was investigated in the present study. The CS degradation products were prepared by keeping CS sample in physiological saline aseptically at 37 °C for 120 days. Endothelial cells were co-cultured with the degradation products and the angiogenic cell behaviors, including cell proliferation, migration and tube-like structure (TLS) formation, were tested by MTT assay, cell migration quantification method (CMQM), and tube-like structure quantification method (TLSQM) respectively. Furthermore, mRNA expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and matrix metallo proteinase (MMP-2) were determined by real-time reverse transcriptional polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Physiological saline served as a negative control. As the results showed, the degradation products obtained from 20th to 60th day significantly inhibited the proliferation, migration, and TLS formation of endothelial cells. However, degradation products of the first 14 days and the last 30 days were found to be proangiogenic. At the molecular level, the initial results indicated that the mRNA expressions of VEGF and MMP-2 were increased by the degradation products of 7th day, but were decreased by the ones of 60th day. According to all the results, it could be concluded that the angiogenic behaviors of endothelial cells at both cellular and molecular level could be significantly stimulated or suppressed by the degradation products of CS and the influences are quite time-dependent.

  2. Organochlorine pesticide distribution in an organic production system for cow's milk in Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Murga, María N; Gutiérrez, Rey; Vega, Salvador; Pérez, José J; Ortiz, Rutilio; Schettino, Beatriz; Yamasaki, Alberto; Ruíz, Jorge L

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of organochlorine pesticides in samples of forage, soil, water, and milk in four units of an organic production system for cow´s milk (samples of forage, milk, soil, and water) in Tecpatan, Chiapas, Mexico. The organochlorine pesticides were extracted from forage, soil and water based on the USEPA (2005) guideline and from milk based on the IDF 1991 guideline. The pesticides were identified and quantified by gas chromatography with electron capture detector (CG-ECD). In general, the highest average concentration of total pesticides was found in the samples of milk and forage (311 ± 328 and 116.5 ±77 ng g(-1) respectively). Although, the production systems analyzed are organic, organochlorine pesticides were detected in all environmental samples (forage, soil, water, and organic milk). Although no values surpassed the defined limits of Mexican and International regulation it is advisable that a monitoring program of contaminants in these production systems is continued. PMID:27228789

  3. Rapid detection of chlorpyrifos pesticide residue concentration in agro-product using Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhakal, Sagar; Peng, Yankun; Li, Yongyu; Chao, Kuanglin; Qin, Jianwei; Zhang, Leilei; Xu, Tianfeng

    2014-05-01

    Different chemicals are sprayed in fruits and vegetables before and after harvest for better yield and longer shelf-life of crops. Cases of pesticide poisoning to human health are regularly reported due to excessive application of such chemicals for greater economic benefit. Different analytical technologies exist to detect trace amount of pesticides in fruits and vegetables, but are expensive, sample destructive, and require longer processing time. This study explores the application of Raman spectroscopy for rapid and non-destructive detection of pesticide residue in agricultural products. Raman spectroscopy with laser module of 785 nm was used to collect Raman spectral information from the surface of Gala apples contaminated with different concentrations of commercially available organophosphorous (48% chlorpyrifos) pesticide. Apples within 15 days of harvest from same orchard were used in this study. The Raman spectral signal was processed by Savitzky-Golay (SG) filter for noise removal, Multiplicative Scatter Correction (MSC) for drift removal and finally polynomial fitting was used to eliminate the fluorescence background. The Raman spectral peak at 677 cm-1 was recognized as Raman fingerprint of chlorpyrifos. Presence of Raman peak at 677 cm-1 after fluorescence background removal was used to develop classification model (presence and absence of pesticide). The peak intensity was correlated with actual pesticide concentration obtained using Gas Chromatography and MLR prediction model was developed with correlation coefficient of calibration and validation of 0.86 and 0.81 respectively. Result shows that Raman spectroscopy is a promising tool for rapid, real-time and non-destructive detection of pesticide residue in agro-products.

  4. Degradation of caffeic acid in subcritical water and online HPLC-DPPH assay of degradation products.

    PubMed

    Khuwijitjaru, Pramote; Suaylam, Boonyanuch; Adachi, Shuji

    2014-02-26

    Caffeic acid was subjected to degradation under subcritical water conditions within 160-240 °C and at a constant pressure of 5 MPa in a continuous tubular reactor. Caffeic acid degraded quickly at these temperatures; the main products identified by liquid chromatography-diode array detection/mass spectrometry were hydroxytyrosol, protocatechuic aldehyde, and 4-vinylcatechol. The reaction rates for the degradation of caffeic acid and the formation of products were evaluated. Online high-performance liquid chromatography/2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl assay was used to determine the antioxidant activity of each product in the solution. It was found that the overall antioxidant activity of the treated solution did not change during the degradation process. This study showed a potential of formation of antioxidants from natural phenolic compounds under these subcritical water conditions, and this may lead to a discovering of novel antioxidants compounds during the extraction by this technique. PMID:24483598

  5. Brevetoxin Degradation and By-Product Formation via Natural Sunlight

    PubMed Central

    Hardman, Ron C.; Cooper, William J.; Bourdelais, Andrea J.; Gardinali, Piero; Baden, Daniel G.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the effects of solar radiation on brevetoxin (PbTx2). Our findings suggest that natural sunlight mediates brevetoxin (PbTx2) degradation and results in brevetoxin by-product formation via photochemical processes. PMID:26436141

  6. 76 FR 79171 - Pesticide Products; Receipt of Applications To Register New Uses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    .... Company Name and Address: Arysta LifeScience, North America LLC., 15401 Weston Parkway, Suite 150, Cary... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Receipt of Applications To Register New Uses AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces receipt of applications to register new...

  7. Development of smart spray systems to enhance delivery of pesticides in field nursery production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two smart sprayer prototypes have been developed and are being evaluated with a goal of increasing pesticide application efficiency and minimizing environmental impact in field nursery production sites. The first prototype, a modified hydraulic vertical boom system, utilizes ultrasonic sensors to d...

  8. 78 FR 78356 - Notice of Receipt of Pesticide Products; Registration Applications To Register New Uses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ...This notice announces receipt of applications to register new uses for pesticide products containing currently registered active ingredients pursuant to the provisions of section 3(c) of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), as amended. This notice provides the public with an opportunity to comment on the...

  9. 78 FR 14539 - Notice of Receipt of Pesticide Products; Registration Applications To Register New Uses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    ...This notice announces receipt of applications to register new uses for pesticide products containing currently registered active ingredients pursuant to the provisions of section 3(c) of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), as amended. This notice provides the public with an opportunity to comment on the...

  10. 77 FR 14361 - Pesticide Products; Receipt of Applications To Register New Uses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ...This notice announces receipt of applications to register new uses for pesticide products containing currently registered active ingredients, pursuant to the provisions of section 3(c) of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), as amended. EPA is publishing this notice of such applications, pursuant to section 3(c)(4) of...

  11. 77 FR 8861 - Pesticide Products; Receipt of Applications To Register New Uses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ... the use of special characters, any form of encryption, and be free of any defects or viruses. Docket...: Avocado, sapote, black, canistel, sapote, mamey, mango, papaya, sapodilla, star apple, bean, snap, and tea... for pesticide products containing currently registered active ingredients, pursuant to the...

  12. Eleven-year trend in acetanilide pesticide degradates in the Iowa River, Iowa.

    PubMed

    Kalkhoff, Stephen J; Vecchia, Aldo V; Capel, Paul D; Meyer, Michael T

    2012-01-01

    Trends in concentration and loads of acetochlor, alachlor, and metolachlor and their ethanasulfonic (ESA) and oxanilic (OXA) acid degradates were studied from 1996 through 2006 in the main stem of the Iowa River, Iowa and in the South Fork Iowa River, a small tributary near the headwaters of the Iowa River. Concentration trends were determined using the parametric regression model SEAWAVE-Q, which accounts for seasonal and flow-related variability. Daily estimated concentrations generated from the model were used with daily streamflow to calculate daily and yearly loads. Acetochlor, alachlor, metolachlor, and their ESA and OXA degradates were generally present in >50% of the samples collected from both sites throughout the study. Their concentrations generally decreased from 1996 through 2006, although the rate of decrease was slower after 2001. Concentrations of the ESA and OXA degradates decreased from 3 to about 23% yr. The concentration trend was related to the decreasing use of these compounds during the study period. Decreasing concentrations and constant runoff resulted in an average reduction of 10 to >3000 kg per year of alachlor and metolachlor ESA and OXA degradates being transported out of the Iowa River watershed. Transport of acetochlor and metolachlor parent compounds and their degradates from the Iowa River watershed ranged from <1% to about 6% of the annual application. These trends were related to the decreasing use of these compounds during the study period, but the year-to-year variability cannot explain changes in loads based on herbicide use alone. The trends were also affected by the timing and amount of precipitation. As expected, increased amounts of water moving through the watershed moved a greater percentage of the applied herbicides, especially the relatively soluble degradates, from the soils into the rivers through surface runoff, shallow groundwater inflow, and subsurface drainage. PMID:23099949

  13. Eleven-year trend in acetanilide pesticide degradates in the Iowa River, Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kalkhoff, Stephen J.; Vecchia, Aldo V.; Capel, Paul D.; Meyer, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    Trends in concentration and loads of acetochlor, alachlor, and metolachlor and their ethanasulfonic (ESA) and oxanilic (OXA) acid degradates were studied from 1996 through 2006 in the main stem of the Iowa River, Iowa and in the South Fork Iowa River, a small tributary near the headwaters of the Iowa River. Concentration trends were determined using the parametric regression model SEAWAVE-Q, which accounts for seasonal and flow-related variability. Daily estimated concentrations generated from the model were used with daily streamflow to calculate daily and yearly loads. Acetochlor, alachlor, metolachlor, and their ESA and OXA degradates were generally present in >50% of the samples collected from both sites throughout the study. Their concentrations generally decreased from 1996 through 2006, although the rate of decrease was slower after 2001. Concentrations of the ESA and OXA degradates decreased from 3 to about 23% yr-1. The concentration trend was related to the decreasing use of these compounds during the study period. Decreasing concentrations and constant runoff resulted in an average reduction of 10 to >3000 kg per year of alachlor and metolachlor ESA and OXA degradates being transported out of the Iowa River watershed. Transport of acetochlor and metolachlor parent compounds and their degradates from the Iowa River watershed ranged from <1% to about 6% of the annual application. These trends were related to the decreasing use of these compounds during the study period, but the year-to-year variability cannot explain changes in loads based on herbicide use alone. The trends were also affected by the timing and amount of precipitation. As expected, increased amounts of water moving through the watershed moved a greater percentage of the applied herbicides, especially the relatively soluble degradates, from the soils into the rivers through surface runoff, shallow groundwater inflow, and subsurface drainage.

  14. Field solar degradation of pesticides and emerging water contaminants mediated by polymer films containing titanium and iron oxide with synergistic heterogeneous photocatalytic activity at neutral pH.

    PubMed

    Mazille, F; Schoettl, T; Klamerth, N; Malato, S; Pulgarin, C

    2010-05-01

    Photocatalytic degradation of phenol, nalidixic acid, mixture of pesticides, and another of emerging contaminants in water was mediated by TiO(2) and iron oxide immobilized on functionalized polyvinyl fluoride films (PVF(f)-TiO(2)-Fe oxide) in a compound parabolic collector (CPC) solar photoreactor. During degradation, little iron leaching (<0.2mgL(-1)) was observed. Phenol was efficiently degraded and mineralized at operational pH<5 and nalidixic acid degradation was complete even at pH 7, but mineralization stopped at 35%. Pesticide mixture was slowly degraded (50%) after 150min of irradiation. Degradation of the emergent contaminant mixture was successful for eight compounds and less efficient for six other compounds. The significant reactivity differences between tested compounds were assigned to the differences in structure namely that the presence of complexing or chelating groups enhanced the rates. PVF(f)-TiO(2)-Fe oxide photoactivity gradually increased during 20 days of experiments. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements revealed significant changes on the catalyst surface. These analyses confirm that during photocatalysis mediated by PVF(f)-TiO(2)-Fe oxide, some iron leaching led to enlargement of the TiO(2) surface exposed to light, increasing its synergy with iron oxides and leading to enhanced pollutant degradation. PMID:20362319

  15. Organophosphorus (OP) Pesticide Degradation in the Presence of Chlorinated Oxidants: Kinetics, Modeling, and Structure-Activity Relationships

    EPA Science Inventory

    The rates and pathways for pesticide transformation during drinking water treatment are known for only a few pesticides and under limited conditions. The resulting oxons are more toxic than the parent pesticides. The transformation rates and pathways for chlorpyrifos, an OP pest...

  16. The austral peregrine falcon: Color variation, productivity, and pesticides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    The austral peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus cassini) was studied in the Andean foot- hills and across the Patagonian steppe from November to December 1981. The birds under study (18 pairs) were reproducing at or near normal (pre-DDT) levels for other races. Pesticide residues, while elevated, were well below the values associated with reproductive failure in other populations. With one exception, eggshells were not abnormally thin. The peregrine falcon in Patagonia exhibits extreme color variation. Pallid birds are nearly pure white below (light cream as juveniles), whereas normally pigmented birds are black-crowned and conspicuously barred with black ventrally. Rare individuals of the Normal Phase display black heads, broad black ventral barring, and warm reddish-brown ventral background coloration.

  17. Anthocyanins degradation during storage of Hibiscus sabdariffa extract and evolution of its degradation products.

    PubMed

    Sinela, André; Rawat, Nadirah; Mertz, Christian; Achir, Nawel; Fulcrand, Hélène; Dornier, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Degradation parameters of two main anthocyanins from roselle extract (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) stored at different temperatures (4-37°C) over 60days were determined. Anthocyanins and some of their degradation products were monitored and quantified using HPLC-MS and DAD. Degradation of anthocyanins followed first-order kinetics and reaction rate constants (k values), which were obtained by non-linear regression, showed that the degradation rate of delphinidin 3-O-sambubioside was higher than that of cyanidin 3-O-sambubioside with k values of 9.2·10(-7)s(-1) and 8.4·10(-7)s(-1) at 37°C respectively. The temperature dependence of the rate of anthocyanin degradation was modeled by the Arrhenius equation. Degradation of delphinidin 3-O-sambubioside (Ea=90kJmol(-1)) tended to be significantly more sensitive to an increase in temperature than cyanidin 3-O-sambubioside (Ea=80kJmol(-1)). Degradation of these anthocyanins formed scission products (gallic and protocatechuic acids respectively) and was accompanied by an increase in polymeric color index. PMID:27507471

  18. Surface water pesticide modelling for decision support in drinking water production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desmet, Nele; Dams, Jef; Bronders, Jan; Peleman, Gisèle; Verdickt, Liesbeth

    2015-04-01

    The occurrence of pesticides and other contaminants in river systems may compromise the use of surface water for drinking water production. To reduce the cost of removal of pesticides from the raw water, drinking water companies can: search for other raw water sources, invest in water storage capacity to overcome periods with high pesticide concentrations (often related to the application period), or impose measures to reduce the emission of pesticides to surface water (i.e. sustainable application strategies or use restrictions). To select the most appropriate water management options, the costs and effects of the aforementioned actions need to be evaluated. This evaluation requires knowledge on the concentrations and loads of pesticides at the point of drinking water abstraction, as well as insight in the contribution and the temporal variability of different sources or subbasins. In such a case, a modelling approach can assist in generating measurement-based datasets and to compare different scenarios for water management. We illustrate how a modelling approach can provide decision support for water management related to drinking water abstraction from surface water in a catchment that suffers from elevated pesticide concentrations. The study area is a water production center (WPC) located in northwestern Belgium. The WPC abstracts raw water from the river IJzer or from a natural pond and its connected streams. The available quantities as well as the quality of the water vary throughout the year. The WPC uses a reservoir of 3 million m³ to capture and store raw water to overcome periods with limited water availability and/or poor water quality. However, the pressure on water increases and in the future this buffering capacity might be no longer sufficient to fulfill the drinking water production demand. A surface water quality model for the area is set up using InfoWorks RS. The model is applied to obtain insight in the concentrations and loads at the different

  19. Novel Chryseobacterium sp. PYR2 degrades various organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and achieves enhancing removal and complete degradation of DDT in highly contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Qu, Jie; Xu, Yang; Ai, Guo-Min; Liu, Ying; Liu, Zhi-Pei

    2015-09-15

    Long term residues of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in soils are of great concerning because they seriously threaten food security and human health. This article focuses on isolation of OCP-degrading strains and their performance in bioremediation of contaminated soil under ex situ conditions. A bacterium, Chryseobacterium sp. PYR2, capable of degrading various OCPs and utilizing them as a sole carbon and energy source for growth, was isolated from OCP-contaminated soil. In culture experiments, PYR2 degraded 80-98% of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) or 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis (4-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDT) isomers (50 mg L(-1)) in 30 days. A pilot-scale ex situ bioremediation study of highly OCP-contaminated soil augmented with PYR2 was performed. During the 45-day experimental period, DDT concentration was reduced by 80.3% in PYR2-augmented soils (35.37 mg kg(-1) to 6.97 mg kg(-1)) but by only 57.6% in control soils. Seven DDT degradation intermediates (metabolites) were detected and identified in PYR2-augmented soils: five by GC/MS: 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis (4-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDD), 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis (4-chlorophenyl) ethylene (DDE), 1-chloro-2,2-bis (4-chlorophenyl) ethylene (DDMU), 1-chloro-2,2-bis (4-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDMS), and dichlorobenzophenone (DBP); and two by LC/MS: 4-chlorobenzoic acid (PCBA) and 4-chlorophenylacetic acid (PCPA). Levels of metabolites were fairly stable in control soils but varied greatly with time in PYR2-augmented soils. Levels of DDD, DDMU, and DDE in PYR2-augmented soils increased from day 0 to day 30 and then decreased by day 45. A DDT biodegradation pathway is proposed based on our identification of DDT metabolites in PYR2-augmented systems. PYR2 will be useful in future studies of OCP biodegradation and in bioremediation of OCP-contaminated soils. PMID:26203874

  20. Method for determination of organohalogen pesticide residues in vegetable oil refinery by-products.

    PubMed

    Young, S; Clower, M; Roach, J A

    1984-01-01

    A method using gel permeation and Florisil column chromatographic cleanup techniques is described for determination of residues of nonpolar organohalogen pesticides and pesticide alteration products in vegetable oils and their refinery by-products. Supplemental Florisil separation and alkali cleanup techniques are used to facilitate determinations. Residues are determined with a 63Ni electron capture gas chromatographic detection system used in conjunction with 3 different gas chromatographic columns. Residue identities are confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Recoveries of 7 organohalogen pesticides, ranging from 90 to 103%, were determined by the supplemental Florisil separation technique to augment previously reported recovery data determined for initial GPC and Florisil cleanup steps. Soybean, peanut, and cottonseed deodorizer distillates and crude and refined oil, as well as additional refinery by-products, were analyzed. Nine to 13 organohalogen residues ranging from 0.5 to 6.3 ppm were determined in the 2 soybean deodorizer distillate samples used to develop and test the method. Identities of residues present at greater than or equal to 0.3 ppm were confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. An intralaboratory trial of the method provided additional recovery and residue determination data as follows: Recoveries ranging from 102 to 116% were obtained for 4 pesticides added to peanut oil deodorizer distillate. Residues determined in 1 soybean deodorizer distillate sample supported previously obtained data for this sample. PMID:6698936

  1. Multiresidue method for the quantitation of 20 pesticides in aquatic products.

    PubMed

    Cho, Ha Ra; Park, Jun Seo; Kim, Junghyun; Han, Sang Beom; Choi, Yong Seok

    2015-12-01

    As the consumption of aquatic products increased, the need for regulation of pesticide residues in aquatic products also emerged. Thus, in this study, a scheduled multiple reaction monitoring (sMRM) method employing a novel extraction and purification step based on QuEChERS with EDTA was developed for the simultaneous quantitation of 20 pesticides (alachlor, aldicarb, carbofuran, diazinon, dimethoate, dimethomorph, ethoprophos, ferimzone, fluridone, hexaconazole, iprobenfos, malathion, methidathion, methiocarb, phenthoate, phosalone, phosmet, phosphamidon, pirimicarb, and simazine) in aquatic products. Additionally, the present method was validated in the aspects of specificity, linearity (r ≥ 0.980), sensitivity (the limit of quantitation (LOQ) ≤ 5 ng/g), relative standard deviation, RSD (1.0% ≤ RSD ≤ 19.4%), and recovery (60.1% ≤ recovery ≤ 117.9%). Finally, the validated method was applied for the determination of the 20 pesticide residues in eel and shrimp purchased from local food markets. In the present study, QuEChERS with EDTA was successfully expanded to residual pesticide analysis for the first time. The present method could contribute to the rapid and successful establishment of the positive list system in South Korea. PMID:26466578

  2. Pesticide Movement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pesticides generally include herbicides, insecticides and fungicides that play an important role in maintaining worldwide food and fiber production by controlling weeds that compete for water and nutrients or by eliminating pests that reduce yields. In the future, the role of pesticides and fertili...

  3. Computational Enzymology and Organophosphorus Degrading Enzymes: Promising Approaches Toward Remediation Technologies of Warfare Agents and Pesticides.

    PubMed

    Ramalho, Teodorico C; de Castro, Alexandre A; Silva, Daniela R; Silva, Maria Cristina; Franca, Tanos C C; Bennion, Brian J; Kuca, Kamil

    2016-01-01

    The re-emergence of chemical weapons as a global threat in hands of terrorist groups, together with an increasing number of pesticides intoxications and environmental contaminations worldwide, has called the attention of the scientific community for the need of improvement in the technologies for detoxification of organophosphorus (OP) compounds. A compelling strategy is the use of bioremediation by enzymes that are able to hydrolyze these molecules to harmless chemical species. Several enzymes have been studied and engineered for this purpose. However, their mechanisms of action are not well understood. Theoretical investigations may help elucidate important aspects of these mechanisms and help in the development of more efficient bio-remediators. In this review, we point out the major contributions of computational methodologies applied to enzyme based detoxification of OPs. Furthermore, we highlight the use of PTE, PON, DFP, and BuChE as enzymes used in OP detoxification process and how computational tools such as molecular docking, molecular dynamics simulations and combined quantum mechanical/molecular mechanics have and will continue to contribute to this very important area of research. PMID:26898655

  4. Pesticide leaching through sandy and loamy fields - long-term lessons learnt from the Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme.

    PubMed

    Rosenbom, Annette E; Olsen, Preben; Plauborg, Finn; Grant, Ruth; Juhler, René K; Brüsch, Walter; Kjær, Jeanne

    2015-06-01

    The European Union authorization procedure for pesticides includes an assessment of the leaching risk posed by pesticides and their degradation products (DP) with the aim of avoiding any unacceptable influence on groundwater. Twelve-year's results of the Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme reveal shortcomings to the procedure by having assessed leaching into groundwater of 43 pesticides applied in accordance with current regulations on agricultural fields, and 47 of their DP. Three types of leaching scenario were not fully captured by the procedure: long-term leaching of DP of pesticides applied on potato crops cultivated in sand, leaching of strongly sorbing pesticides after autumn application on loam, and leaching of various pesticides and their DP following early summer application on loam. Rapid preferential transport that bypasses the retardation of the plow layer primarily in autumn, but also during early summer, seems to dominate leaching in a number of those scenarios. PMID:25771345

  5. Production of Insecticide Degradates in Juices: Implications for Risk Assessment.

    PubMed

    Radford, Samantha A; Panuwet, Parinya; Hunter, Ronald E; Barr, Dana Boyd; Ryan, P Barry

    2016-06-01

    This study was designed to observe the production of degradates of two organophosphorus insecticides and one pyrethroid insecticide in beverages. Purified water, white grape juice, apple juice, and red grape juice were fortified with 500 ng/g malathion, chlorpyrifos, and permethrin, and aliquots were extracted for malathion dicarboxylic acid (MDA), 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy), and 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA) several times over a 15 day period of being stored in the dark at 2.5 °C. Overall, first-order kinetics were observed for production of MDA, and statistically significant production of TCPy was also observed. Statistically significant production of 3-phenoxybenzoic acid was not observed. Results indicate that insecticides degrade in food and beverages, and this degradation may lead to preexisting insecticide metabolites in the beverages. Therefore, it is suggested that caution should be exercised when using urinary insecticide metabolites to assess exposure and risk. PMID:27213611

  6. Screening of nerve agent degradation products by MALDI-TOFMS.

    PubMed

    Shu, You-Ren; Su, An-Kai; Liu, Ju-Tsung; Lin, Cheng-Huang

    2006-07-01

    A novel method for the rapid screening of degradation products derived from nerve agents by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry is described. Five standard products were selected as model compounds, including isopropyl methylphosphonic acid (IMPA), pinacolyl methylphosphonic acid (PMPA), ethyl methylphosphonic acid (EMPA), isobutyl methylphosphonic acid (i-BuMPA), and cyclohexyl methylphosphonic acid (CHMPA), which are degradation products of Sarin (GB), Soman (GD), VX, Russian VX (RVX), and GF, respectively. For comparison, CHCA (alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid) and DCCA (7-(diethylamino)coumarin-3-carboxylic acid) were used as the MALDI-matrix when the third harmonic generation (355 nm) of a Nd:YAG laser and a hydrogen Raman laser (multifrequency laser) were used, respectively. The method permitted the five nerve agent degradation products to be screened rapidly and successfully, suggesting that it has the potential for use as a routine monitoring tool. PMID:16808484

  7. Qualitative Profiling of Polyglucose Degradation Products in Peritoneal Dialysis Fluids.

    PubMed

    Gensberger, Sabrina; Knabner, Carina; Waibel, Reiner; Huppert, Jochen; Pischetsrieder, Monika

    2015-06-16

    Heat sterilization of peritoneal dialysis (PD) fluids leads to partial degradation of the osmotic agent to form reactive carbonyl structures, which significantly reduce the biocompatibility of PD fluids and impair long-term PD therapy. Hence, it is important to know the exact composition of the degradation products to improve biocompatibility of PD fluids. Our study conducted targeted screening for degradation products in polyglucose (icodextrin)-containing PD fluids (pGDPs) by applying o-phenylenediamine (OPD) to form stable derivatives, which were analyzed by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography with hyphenated diode array tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-DAD-MS/MS). For the first time, specific degradation products of polyglucose, namely, 4-deoxyglucosone (4-DG) and 3,4-dideoxypentosone (3,4-DDPS), could be identified in PD fluids. Further, a reaction product of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) and OPD could be characterized to be (5-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)furan-2-yl)methanol. Additionally, 3-deoxyglucosone (3-DG) and 3-deoxygalactosone (3-DGal), both known to be present in glucose-based PD fluids, were also detected in polyglucose-containing fluids. Trapping a hitherto unknown degradation product with OPD yielded 1,4-bis(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)-3,4-dihydroxybutan-1-one, which was present in heat- as well as filter-sterilized PD fluids. PMID:25970747

  8. Community air monitoring for pesticides. Part 1: selecting pesticides and a community.

    PubMed

    Segawa, Randy; Levine, Johanna; Neal, Rosemary; Brattesani, Madeline

    2014-03-01

    The CA Department of Pesticide Regulation (CDPR) developed methods to select pesticides and a community to fulfill criteria for an ambient air monitoring study it conducted as part of the CA Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Justice Action Plan. Using a scoring system, CDPR evaluated 100 pesticides based on statewide-reported pesticide use, volatility, and priority in CDPR's risk assessment process (indicators of exposure and toxicity) to produce a list of pesticides to consider as candidates for monitoring. The CDPR also evaluated and scored 83 communities based on demographics and health factors, availability of cumulative impacts data, and reported pesticide use to create a list of community candidates. The scores provide relative rankings to distinguish more highly impacted communities from less impacted ones and to identify which pesticides might contribute most to potential adverse health effects. These methods use criteria that can be quantified, validated, and verified in order to provide a transparent and fair selection process. Based on public comments and highest scores, CDPR recommended 40 pesticides (including some of their degradation products) and one community for its yearlong monitoring study. The CDPR then further refined its list of pesticides by soliciting input from local and technical advisory groups. The CDPR plans to use these methods to select pesticides and communities in future monitoring activities. PMID:24362496

  9. Solvent degradation products in nuclear fuel processing solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Shook, H.E. Jr.

    1988-06-01

    The Savannah River Plant uses a modified Purex process to recover enriched uranium and separate fission products. This process uses 7.5% tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) dissolved in normal paraffin hydrocarbons for the solvent extraction of a nitric acid solution containing the materials to be separated. Periodic problems in product decontamination result from solvent degradation. A study to improve process efficiency has identified certain solvent degradation products and suggested mitigation measures. Undecanoic acid, lauric acid, and tridecanoic acid were tentatively identified as diluent degradation products in recycle solvent. These long-chain organic acids affect phase separation and lead to low decontamination factors. Solid phase extraction (SPE) was used to concentrate the organic acids in solvent prior to analysis by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). SPE and HPLC methods were optimized in this work for analysis of decanoic acid, undecanoic acid, and lauric acid in solvent. Accelerated solvent degradation studies with 7.5% TBP in normal paraffin hydrocarbons showed that long-chain organic acids and long-chain alkyl butyl phosphoric acids are formed by reactions with nitric acid. Degradation of both tributyl phosphate and hydrocarbon can be minimized with purified normal paraffin replacing the standard grade presently used. 12 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  10. A multi-residue method for the analysis of pesticides and pesticide degradates in water using HLB solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hladik, M.L.; Smalling, K.L.; Kuivila, K.M.

    2008-01-01

    A method was developed for the analysis of over 60 pesticides and degradates in water by HLB solid-phase extraction and gas-chromatography/mass spectrometry. Method recoveries and detection limits were determined using two surface waters with different dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations. In the lower DOC water, recoveries and detection limits were 80%-108% and 1-12 ng/L, respectively. In the higher DOC water, the detection limits were slightly higher (1-15 ng/L). Additionally, surface water samples from four sites were analyzed and 14 pesticides were detected with concentrations ranging from 4 to 1,200 ng/L. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.