Science.gov

Sample records for pesticide degradation products

  1. A Test House Study of Pesticides and PesticideDegradation Products Following an Indoor Application

    EPA Science Inventory

    Preexisting pesticide degradates are a concern for pesticide biomonitoring studies as exposure to them may result in overestimation of pesticide exposure. The purpose of this research was to determine whether there was significant formation and movement, of pesticide degradates o...

  2. THERMAL DEGRADATION CHARACTERISTICS OF ENVIRONMENTALLY SENSITIVE PESTICIDE PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The thermal decomposition properties of the active ingredient of 16 pesticides have been theoretically examined. xperimental studies on 6 pesticide related materials were also conducted under controlled laboratory testing. xperimental studies of the high-temperature oxidation and...

  3. MECHANISMS OF PESTICIDE DEGRADATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research project was initiated with the overall objective of determining (1) the chemical structures of toxic components of toxaphene, (2) to study anaerobic metabolism to degrade toxaphene and other pesticides, and (3) to understand toxic action mechanism of chlordimeform. ...

  4. Light Induced Degradation of Eight Commonly Used Pesticides Adsorbed on Atmospheric Particles: Kinetics and Product Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Socorro, J.; Durand, A.; Gligorovski, S.; Wortham, H.; Quivet, E.

    2014-12-01

    Pesticides are widely used all over the world whether in agricultural production or in non-agricultural settings. They may pose a potential human health effects and environmental risks due to their physico-chemical properties and their extensive use which is growing every year. Pesticides are found in the atmosphere removed from the target area by volatilization or wind erosion, and carried over long distances. These compounds are partitioned between the gaseous and particulate atmospheric phases. The increasingly used pesticides are semi-volatile compounds which are usually adsorbed on the surface of the atmospheric particles. These pesticides may undergo chemical and photo-chemical transformation. New compounds may then be formed that could be more hazardous than the primary pesticides. The atmospheric fate and lifetime of adsorbed pesticides on particles are controlled by the these (photo)chemical processes. However, there is a lack of kinetic data regarding the pesticides in the particle phase. This current work focuses on the photolytic degradation of commonly used pesticides in particulate phase. It aims at estimating the photolytic rates and thus the lifetimes of pesticides adsorbed on silica particles as a proxy of atmospheric particles. The following eight commonly used pesticides, cyprodinil, deltamethrin, difenoconazole, fipronil, oxadiazon, pendimethalin, permethrin, tetraconazole, were chosen because of their physico-chemical properties. The photolysis rates of tetraconazole and permethrin were extremely slow ? 1.2 · 10-6 s-1. The photolysis rates for the other pesticides were determined in the range of: (5.9 ± 0.3) · 10-6 < k < (1.7 ± 0.1) · 10-4 s-1 from slowest to the fastest: pendimethalin < cyprodinil < deltamethrin < difenoconazole < oxadiazon < fipronil. Finally, the identification of the surface products upon light irradiation was performed, using GC-(QqQ)-MS/MS and LC-(Q-IMS-ToF)-MS/MS. The potentially formed gas-phase products during these photolysis processes were followed continuously and on-line by PTR-ToF-MS. We hope that the obtained results from this study will help in the development of future environmental strategies to better understand and control phyto-sanitary product application and human exposure.

  5. Effect of household and industrial processing on the levels of pesticide residues and degradation products in melons.

    PubMed

    Bonnechère, A; Hanot, V; Bragard, C; Bedoret, T; van Loco, J

    2012-01-01

    Two varieties of melons (Cucumis melo) were treated with two fungicides (carbendazim and maneb) and four insecticides (acetamiprid, cyromazin, imazalil and thiamethoxam) to quantify the effect of household processing on the pesticide residues. To ensure sufficiently high levels of residues in flesh and peel, the most concentrated formulations were applied observing good agricultural practice. The peeling step decreased the concentration of pesticide residues for maneb, imazalil and acetamiprid by more than 90%. Cyromazin, carbendazim and thiamethoxam were reduced by approximately 50%. The reduction of the pesticides could not be fully explained by the systemic character of the pesticides. However, the agricultural practices (time of application), solubility and mode of action (systemic versus contact pesticide) of the pesticides could be used to explain the difference in processing factors for the studied pesticides. Degradation products (melamine and ethylenethiourea) were also investigated in this study, but were not detected. PMID:22489844

  6. Occurrence of pesticides and some of their degradation products in waters in a Spanish wine region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrero-Hernández, E.; Andrades, M. S.; Álvarez-Martín, A.; Pose-Juan, E.; Rodríguez-Cruz, M. S.; Sánchez-Martín, M. J.

    2013-04-01

    SummaryA multi-residual analytical method based on solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was developed to monitor pesticides in natural waters. Fifty-eight compounds, including herbicides, fungicides, insecticides and some of their degradation products, were surveyed to evaluate the quality of natural waters throughout the wine-growing region of La Rioja (Rioja DOCa). Ninety-two sampling points were selected, including surface and ground waters that could be affected by agricultural activities covering the region's three sub-areas. Different parameters that may affect the efficiency of the SPE procedure were optimised (sorbent type, elution solvent and sample volume), and matrix-matched standards were used to eliminate the variable matrix effect and ensure good quantification. The developed method allows the determination of target compounds below the level established by the European Union for waters for human use with suitable precision (relative standard deviations lower than 18%) and accuracy (with recoveries over 61%). Forty compounds included in this study (six insecticides, 12 herbicides, 16 fungicides and six degradation products) were detected in one or more samples. The herbicides terbuthylazine, its metabolite desethyl terbuthylazine, fluometuron and ethofumesate and the fungicides pyrimethanil and tebuconazole were the compounds most frequently detected in water samples (present in more than 60% of the samples). Concentrations above 0.1 ?g L-1 were detected for 37 of the compounds studied, and in several cases recorded values of over 18 ?g L-1. The results reveal the presence of pesticides in most of the samples investigated. In 64% of groundwaters and 62% of surface waters, the sum of compounds detected was higher than 0.5 ?g L-1 (the limit established by EU legislation for the sum of all pesticides detected in waters for human use).

  7. Pesticide Degradation in Thermal Foggers.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thermal foggers are used in many parts of the world for vector control. Since thermal foggers use heat to create and help propel adulticide clouds, there is reason to examine the stability of pesticides in both diesel and water-based formulations. This study examined the degradation of 5 pesticide...

  8. Factors influencing degradation of pesticides in soil.

    PubMed

    Kah, Melanie; Beulke, Sabine; Brown, Colin D

    2007-05-30

    Degradation and sorption of six acidic pesticides (2,4-D, dicamba, fluroxypyr, fluazifop-P, metsulfuron-methyl, and flupyrsulfuron-methyl) and four basic pesticides (metribuzin, terbutryn, pirimicarb, and fenpropimorph) were determined in nine temperate soils. Results were submitted to statistical analyses against a wide range of soil and pesticide properties to (i) identify any commonalities in factors influencing rate of degradation and (ii) determine whether there was any link between sorption and degradation processes for the compounds and soils studied. There were some marked differences between the soils in their ability to degrade the different pesticides. The parameters selected to explain variations in degradation rates depended on the soil-pesticide combination. The lack of consistent behavior renders a global approach to prediction of degradation unrealistic. The soil organic carbon content generally had a positive influence on degradation. The relationship between pH and degradation rates depended on the dominant mode of degradation for each pesticide. There were positive relationships between sorption and rate of degradation for metsulfuron-methyl, pirimicarb, and all acidic pesticides considered together (all P < 0.001) and for dicamba and all bases considered together (P < 0.05). No relationship between these processes was observed for the remaining seven individual pesticides. PMID:17488087

  9. ORGANOPHOSPHATE PESTICIDE DEGRADATION PATHWAYS DURING DRINKING WATER TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Free chlorine has been found to react with organophosphate (OP) pesticides resulting in the more toxic oxon products. We will discuss OP pesticide degradation pathways and modeling in the presence of chlorine and chloramines, as well as present a relationship between structure a...

  10. Detection of pyrethroid pesticides and their environmental degradation products in duplicate diet samples

    EPA Science Inventory

    The abstract is for an oral presentation at the Asilomar Conference on Mass Spectrometry: Mass Spectrometry in Environmental Chemistry, Toxicology, and Health. It describes analytical method development and sample results for determination of pyrethroid pesticides and environme...

  11. MICROBIAL DEGRADATION OF PESTICIDES IN FRESHWATER STREAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An overview is provided of studies of the microbial degradation of pesticides in streams, including research to understand the kinetics governing the rates of degradation. Most of these projects have related to the development of mathematical models that predict degradation of a ...

  12. Results of analyses of the fungicide Chlorothalonil, its degradation products, and other selected pesticides at 22 surface-water sites in five Southern states, 2003-04

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scribner, Elisabeth A.; Orlando, James L.; Battaglin, William A.; Sandstrom, Mark; Kuivila, Kathryn M.; Meyer, Michael T.

    2006-01-01

    In accordance with the mission of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Toxic Substances Hydrology Program, a pesticide study was conducted during 2003-04 to determine the occurrence of the fungicide chlorothalonil and its degradation products at 22 surface-water sites in five Southern States. Water-quality samples were collected during the peanut-growing season (June-September) in 2003. During the peanut-growing season in 2004, samples were collected after large storms. An analytical method was developed at the USGS Organic Geochemistry Research Laboratory in Lawrence, Kansas, to measure chlorothalonil and its degradation products by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). Chlorothalonil was detected in 4 of the 113 surface-water samples. The primary degradation product of chlorothalonil, 4-hydroxy-chlorothalonil, was detected in 26 of the 113 samples with concentrations ranging from 0.002 to 0.930 microgram per liter. The chlorothalonil degradation products, 1-amide-4-hydroxy-chorothalonil and 1,3-diamide-chlorothalonil, were detected in one water sample each at 0.020 and 0.161 microgram per liter, respectively. The USGS Methods and Research Development Group, Lakewood, Colorado, developed a custom method for chlorothalonil using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) in an effort to achieve a lower laboratory reporting level (LRL) than the USGS National Water-Quality Laboratory (NWQL) schedule 2060, which analyzes the compound chlorothalonil at a LRL of 0.035 ?g/L. The group succeeded in achieving a lower GC/MS reporting level of 0.01 ?g/L. Chlorothalonil was detected in 5 of 68 water samples analyzed using the custom GC/MS method, whereas chlorothalonil was detected in 2 of 21 water samples analyzed using NWQL schedule 2060. In addition to analysis of chlorothalonil and its degradation products, samples were analyzed using the USGS NWQL schedules 2001 and 2060 for about 114 pesticides and their degradation products. Samples also were analyzed for dissolved organic carbon, suspended sediment, and percentage of silt- and clay-sized particles. Overall, it was found that chlorothalonil was detected only infrequently and at relatively low concentrations. Chlorothalonil's major degradation product, 4-hydroxy-chlorothalonil, was detected most frequently, occurred generally at higher concentrations in water samples than did the parent fungicide, and the data from this study reaffirmed that it is the dominant degradation product of chlorothalonil in the peanut-growing environment.

  13. PESTICIDE PRODUCT INFORMATION SYSTEM (PPIS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pesticide Product Information System (PPIS) contains information concerning all pesticide products registered in the United States. It includes registrant name and address, chemical ingredients, toxicity category, product names, distributor brand names, site/pest uses, pestic...

  14. Regulation of pesticide degradation in the detritusphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagel, Holger; Poll, Christian; Ingwersen, Joachim; Ditterich, Franziska; Gebala, Aurelia; Kandeler, Ellen; Streck, Thilo

    2015-04-01

    The detritusphere is a microbial hot spot of C turnover and degradation of pesticides in soils. We aimed at an improved understanding of the regulation mechanisms, which are responsible for stimulated degradation of the herbicide MCPA (2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid) in response to increased C availability in the detritusphere. We combined a microcosm experiment with biogeochemical modeling and linked genetic information on abundances of total bacteria, fungi and specific pesticide degraders in soil to the coupled biogeochemical dynamics of C and MCPA. As a result of diffusive and convective C transport from litter into the adjacent soil we found increased dissolved organic C (DOC) in soil up to a 6 mm distance to litter (detritusphere). In the detritusphere, we observed increased microbial C and accelerated MCPA degradation. These dynamics were accurately reproduced by the model. Whereas the observed increase of bacteria and pesticide degrader populations in the detritusphere was simulated satisfactorily, the model could not reproduce the steep increase of fungi indicated by the fungal marker gene. Our simulations suggest that bacterial MCPA degraders mostly benefited from high-quality DOC, whereas fungal activity and growth were specifically stimulated by low-quality DOC. According to the simulations, MCPA was predominantly degraded via fungal co-metabolism. Our study demonstrates that biogeochemical processes in soil hotspots are regulated by the interaction of transport processes and microbial dynamics. It further reveals that mathematical modelling is as powerful tool to gain comprehensive insight into the microbial regulation of matter cycling in soil. Genetic information has a high potential to parameterize and evaluate complex mechanistic models, but model approaches must be improved based on extended information on gene dynamics at the cellular level.

  15. 75 FR 34448 - Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on False or Misleading Pesticide Product...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ...False or Misleading Pesticide Product Brand Names; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY...False or Misleading Pesticide Product Brand Names.'' This document extends the comment...False or Misleading Pesticide Product Brand Names.'' EPA is hereby extending the...

  16. 77 FR 74003 - Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on Antimicrobial Pesticide Products With...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-12

    ... AGENCY Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on Antimicrobial Pesticide Products With Mold... Registration Notice (PR Notice) titled ``Guidance on Antimicrobial Pesticide Products with Mold-Related Label... (efficacy) data and labeling for ``mold-related'' pesticide products. EPA believes that the...

  17. The effects of pesticide mixtures on degradation of pendimethalin in soils.

    PubMed

    Swarcewicz, Maria K; Gregorczyk, Andrzej

    2012-05-01

    Most agronomic situations involve a sequence of herbicide, fungicide, and insecticide application. On the other hand, use of pesticidal combinations has become a standard practice in the production of many agricultural crops. One of the most important processes influencing the behavior of a pesticide in the environment is its degradation in soil. It is known that due to several pesticide applications in one vegetation season, the pesticide may be present in mixtures with other pesticides or xenobiotics in soil. This study examines the role which a mixture of chemicals plays in pesticide degradation. The influence of other pesticides on the rate of pendimethalin (PDM) degradation in soil was measured in controlled conditions. Mixtures of PDM with mancozeb or mancozeb and thiamethoxam significantly influenced the degradation of pendimethalin under controlled conditions. The second type of mixtures, with metribuzin or thiamethoxam, did not affect the behavior of pendimethalin in soil. Also, we determined the influence of water content on the rate of pendimethalin degradation alone in two soils and compared it to the rate in three pesticide mixtures. We compared two equations to evaluate the predictors of the rate of herbicide dissipation in soil: the first-order kinetic and the non-linear empirical models. We used the non-linear empirical model assuming that the degradation rate of a herbicide in soil is proportional to the difference of the observed concentration of herbicide in soil at time and concentration of herbicide in the last day of measurement. PMID:21713483

  18. 76 FR 38160 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has received applications to register pesticide products containing an active ingredient not included in any previously registered pesticide products. Pursuant to...

  19. 75 FR 80490 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-22

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has received applications to register pesticide products containing active ingredients not included in any previously registered pesticide products. Pursuant to the provisions...

  20. 75 FR 24694 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has received applications to register pesticide products containing an active ingredient not included in any previously registered pesticide product. Pursuant to the...

  1. Biotic and abiotic degradation of pesticide Dufulin in soils.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua Zi; Zuo, Hai Gen; Ding, Ya Juan; Miao, Shan Shan; Jiang, Chen; Yang, Hong

    2014-03-01

    Dufulin is a newly developed antiviral agent (or pesticide) that activates systemic acquired resistance of plants. This pesticide is widely used in China to prevent abroad viral diseases in rice, tobacco and vegetables. In this study, the potential impacts such as soil type, moisture, temperature, and other factors on Dufulin degradation in soil were investigated. Degradation of Dufulin followed the first-order kinetics. The half-life values varied from 2.27 to 150.68 days. The dissipation of Dufulin was greatly affected by soil types, with DT50 (Degradation half time) varying between 17.59, 31.36, and 43.32 days for Eutric Gleysols, Cumulic Anthrosols, and Dystric Regosols, respectively. The elevated moisture accelerated the decay of Dufulin in soil. Degradation of Dufulin increased with temperature and its half-life values ranged from 16.66 to 42.79 days. Sterilization of soils and treatment with H2O2 resulted in a 6- and 8-fold decrease in degradation rates compared to the control, suggesting that Dufulin degradation was largely governed by microbial processes. Under different light spectra, the most effective degradation occurred with 100-W UV light (DT50=2.27 days), followed by 15-W UV light (DT50=8.32 days) and xenon light (DT50=14.26 days). Analysis by liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (LC-MS) revealed that 2-amino-4-methylbenzothiazole was one of the major decayed products of Dufulin in soils, suggesting that elimination of diethyl phosphate and 2-fluorobenzaldehyde was most like the degradation pathway of Dufulin in Eutric Gleysols. PMID:24323324

  2. 77 FR 14362 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces receipt of applications to register pesticide products... by the docket identification (ID) number and the file symbol for the pesticide of interest as...

  3. 77 FR 38285 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-27

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces receipt of applications to register pesticide products...), Office of Pesticide Programs, Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave. NW., Washington,...

  4. 75 FR 71695 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has received applications to register new uses for pesticide products containing... Pesticide Programs (OPP) Regulatory Public Docket (7502P), Environmental Protection Agency,...

  5. 75 FR 28012 - Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on False or Misleading Pesticide Product...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-19

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0282; FRL-8824-8] Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on False or Misleading Pesticide Product Brand Names AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)....

  6. 75 FR 11884 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces receipt of applications to register new uses for pesticide...: Office of Pesticide Programs (OPP) Regulatory Public Docket (7502P), Environmental Protection...

  7. 75 FR 32767 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-09

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces receipt of applications to register new uses for pesticide...: Office of Pesticide Programs (OPP) Regulatory Public Docket (7502P), Environmental Protection...

  8. 78 FR 9688 - Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on Antimicrobial Pesticide Products With...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ... (77 FR 74003) (FRL-9362-3). In that document, EPA requested comment on a draft PR notice that provided... AGENCY Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on Antimicrobial Pesticide Products With Mold... for Antimicrobial Pesticide Products with Mold-Related Label Claims. This document extends the...

  9. Sorption-desorption behavior of pesticides and their degradation products in volcanic and nonvolcanic soils: interpretation of interactions through two-way principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Báez, María E; Espinoza, Jeannette; Silva, Ricardo; Fuentes, Edwar

    2015-06-01

    Sorption-desorption behavior of six pesticides and some degradation products was assessed on seven agricultural volcanic and nonvolcanic soils belonging to Andisol, Ultisol, Mollisol, and Alfisol orders. The global interpretation of sorption data was performed by principal component analysis. Results showed exceptionally high sorption of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) (the breakdown product) on volcanic soils (K f?>?1500 ?g(1 - 1 / n) mL(1 / n) g(-1)) related mainly to contents of amorphous aluminum oxides (Andisols) and crystalline minerals (Ultisols). The lower sorption on nonvolcanic soils was associated to low organic matter contents and lack of significant minerals. Metsulfuron-methyl and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (metabolite of chlorpyrifos) were weakly to substantially sorbed on Andisols and Ultisols, but the first one was not sorbed at pH?>?6.4, including nonvolcanic soils. The metabolite of diazinon, 2-isopropyl-4-methyl-6-hydroxypyrimidine, was weakly sorbed on all soils (K f?=?0.4 to 3.6 ?g(1 - 1 / n) mL(1 / n) g(-1)). Acidic compounds would be lixiviated in Mollisols and Alfisols, but they could leach also in Andisols and Ultisols if they reach greater depths. Atrazine and deethylatrazine sorption was related to organic carbon content; therefore, they were weakly retained on nonvolcanic soils (K f?=?0.7 to 2.2 ?g(1 - 1 / n) mL(1 / n) g(-1)). Chlorpyrifos was highly sorbed on all soils reaching K OC values of >8000. Finally, the significant retention of chlorothalonil and diazinon on Mollisols and Alfisols in spite of their low OC contents showed the contribution of clay minerals in the sorption process. PMID:25561264

  10. 77 FR 16544 - Pesticide Product Registration Approvals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-21

    ... of receipt published on April 14, 2010 (75 FR 19388; FRL- 8808-5). One comment was received during... AGENCY Pesticide Product Registration Approvals AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... pesticide products and amended registrations for currently existing pesticide products. FOR...

  11. Simultaneous Degradation of Organophosphorus Pesticides and

    E-print Network

    Chen, Wilfred

    ) pesticides and p-nitrophenol (PNP). The truncated ice nucleation protein (INPNC) anchor was used to target was 0.6 lmol/h/mg dry weight, 1.5 lmol/h/mg dry weight, and 9.0 lmol/h/mg dry weight for methyl-level exposure to these neurotoxins results in acetylcholine accumulation, which interferes with muscular

  12. 75 FR 23759 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA.... The regulations.gov website is an ``anonymous access'' system, which means EPA will not know your... Hill, Registration Division (7504P), Office of Pesticide Programs, Environmental Protection...

  13. 75 FR 24695 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces receipt of applications to register new uses for pesticide....regulations.gov . Follow the on-line instructions for submitting comments. Mail: Office of Pesticide...

  14. Pesticides

    MedlinePLUS

    ... or cause harm to crops, people, or animals. Pesticides can help get rid of them. Pesticides are not just insect killers. They also include ... mildew, germs, and more. Many household products contain pesticides. Pesticides can protect your health by killing germs, ...

  15. 75 FR 52737 - Pesticide Product Registrations; Unconditional and Conditional Approvals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    ...EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0213; FRL-8839-2] Pesticide Product Registrations; Unconditional...FIFRA), of registrations for pesticide products containing active ingredients that were not in any registered pesticide products at the time of their...

  16. 76 FR 5805 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-02

    ...EPA has received applications to register pesticide products containing active ingredients not included in any previously registered pesticide products. Pursuant to the provisions of section 3(c)(4) of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), EPA is hereby providing notice of receipt and opportunity to comment on these...

  17. 75 FR 71697 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ...-RR) was published in a separate notice (see 75 FR 11175; March 10, 2010; FRL-8811-6). File symbol... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has received applications to register pesticide products containing...

  18. THE DEGRADATION OF SELECTED PESTICIDES IN SOIL: A REVIEW OF THE PUBLISHED LITERATURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report contains a literature summary on the degradation of forty-five pesticides in soil. The point of beginning of each literature review is the year of issue of the patent for the particular pesticide. After compilation of the literature data for each pesticide, conclusion...

  19. 40 CFR 158.2171 - Experimental use permit microbial pesticides product analysis data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...false Experimental use permit microbial pesticides product analysis data requirements table...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2171...

  20. 40 CFR 158.2171 - Experimental use permit microbial pesticides product analysis data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...false Experimental use permit microbial pesticides product analysis data requirements table...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2171...

  1. 40 CFR 158.2081 - Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides product chemistry data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...false Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides product chemistry data requirements table...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides §...

  2. 40 CFR 158.2171 - Experimental use permit microbial pesticides product analysis data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...false Experimental use permit microbial pesticides product analysis data requirements table...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2171...

  3. 40 CFR 158.2171 - Experimental use permit microbial pesticides product analysis data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...false Experimental use permit microbial pesticides product analysis data requirements table...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2171...

  4. 40 CFR 158.2081 - Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides product chemistry data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...false Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides product chemistry data requirements table...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides §...

  5. 40 CFR 158.2081 - Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides product chemistry data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...false Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides product chemistry data requirements table...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides §...

  6. 40 CFR 158.2070 - Biochemical pesticides product performance data requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides product performance data requirements...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides §...

  7. 40 CFR 158.2171 - Experimental use permit microbial pesticides product analysis data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...false Experimental use permit microbial pesticides product analysis data requirements table...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2171...

  8. 40 CFR 158.2081 - Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides product chemistry data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...false Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides product chemistry data requirements table...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides §...

  9. 77 FR 74003 - Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on Antimicrobial Pesticide Products With...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-12

    ...a draft Pesticide Registration Notice (PR Notice) titled ``Guidance on Antimicrobial...Products with Mold-Related Label Claims.'' PR Notices are issued by EPA's Office of...and OPP personnel. This particular draft PR Notice, once final, will provide...

  10. Simultaneous degradation of toxic refractory organic pesticide and bioelectricity generation using a soil microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xian; Song, Hai-liang; Yu, Chun-yan; Li, Xian-ning

    2015-08-01

    In this study, the soil microbial fuel cells (MFCs) were constructed in the topsoil contaminated with toxic refractory organic pesticide, hexachlorobenzene (HCB). The performance of electricity generation and HCB degradation in the soil-MFCs were investigated. The HCB degradation pathway was analyzed based on the determination of degradation products and intermediates. Experimental results showed that the HCB removal efficiencies in the three groups (soil MFCs group, open circuit control group and no adding anaerobic sludge blank group) were 71.15%, 52.49% and 38.92%, respectively. The highest detected power density was 77.5 mW/m(2) at the external resistance of 1000 ?. HCB was degraded via the reductive dechlorination pathway in the soil MFC under anaerobic condition. The existence of the anode promoted electrogenic bacteria to provide more electrons to increase the metabolic reactions rates of anaerobic bacteria was the main way which could promote the removal efficiencies of HCB in soil MFC. PMID:25864035

  11. 40 CFR 168.70 - Unregistered export pesticide products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Unregistered export pesticide products. 168.70 Section 168...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS STATEMENTS OF ENFORCEMENT...Export Policy and Procedures for Exporting Pesticides § 168.70 Unregistered export...

  12. 40 CFR 168.69 - Registered export pesticide products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Registered export pesticide products. 168.69 Section 168...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS STATEMENTS OF ENFORCEMENT...Export Policy and Procedures for Exporting Pesticides § 168.69 Registered export...

  13. 40 CFR 168.69 - Registered export pesticide products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Registered export pesticide products. 168.69 Section 168...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS STATEMENTS OF ENFORCEMENT...Export Policy and Procedures for Exporting Pesticides § 168.69 Registered export...

  14. 40 CFR 168.70 - Unregistered export pesticide products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Unregistered export pesticide products. 168.70 Section 168...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS STATEMENTS OF ENFORCEMENT...Export Policy and Procedures for Exporting Pesticides § 168.70 Unregistered export...

  15. 40 CFR 165.63 - Scope of pesticide products included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope of pesticide products included. 165.63 Section 165...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL Standards for...

  16. 40 CFR 165.43 - Scope of pesticide products included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope of pesticide products included. 165.43 Section 165...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL Refillable...

  17. 40 CFR 165.23 - Scope of pesticide products included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope of pesticide products included. 165.23 Section 165...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL Nonrefillable...

  18. 40 CFR 152.10 - Products that are not pesticides because they are not intended for a pesticidal purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 2011-07-01 false Products that are not pesticides because they are not intended for a pesticidal...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES...

  19. 40 CFR 152.10 - Products that are not pesticides because they are not intended for a pesticidal purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 2012-07-01 false Products that are not pesticides because they are not intended for a pesticidal...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES...

  20. 40 CFR 152.10 - Products that are not pesticides because they are not intended for a pesticidal purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 2014-07-01 false Products that are not pesticides because they are not intended for a pesticidal...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES...

  1. 40 CFR 152.10 - Products that are not pesticides because they are not intended for a pesticidal purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 2013-07-01 false Products that are not pesticides because they are not intended for a pesticidal...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES...

  2. 40 CFR 152.10 - Products that are not pesticides because they are not intended for a pesticidal purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 false Products that are not pesticides because they are not intended for a pesticidal...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES...

  3. 40 CFR 158.2171 - Experimental use permit microbial pesticides product analysis data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... pesticides product analysis data requirements table. 158.2171 Section 158.2171 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2171 Experimental use permit microbial pesticides product analysis data requirements...

  4. 40 CFR 158.2081 - Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides product chemistry data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... pesticides product chemistry data requirements table. 158.2081 Section 158.2081 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2081 Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides product chemistry data...

  5. 40 CFR 165.63 - Scope of pesticide products included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope of pesticide products included. 165.63 Section 165.63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL Standards for Repackaging Pesticide Products into...

  6. Compound specific isotope analysis to investigate pesticide degradation in lysimeter experiments at field conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryabenko, Evgenia; Elsner, Martin; Bakkour, Rani; Hofstetter, Thomas; Torrento, Clara; Hunkeler, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    The frequent detection of organic micropollutants such as pesticides, consumer care products or pharmaceuticals in water is an increasing concern for human and ecosystem health. Degradation analysis of these compounds can be challenging in complex systems due to the fact that metabolites are not always found and mass balances frequently cannot be closed. Many abiotic and biotic degradation pathways cause, however, distinct isotope fractionation, where light isotopes are transferred preferentially from the reactant to the product pool (normal isotope fractionation). Compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) of multiple elements is a particularly powerful method to evaluate organic micropollutant transformation, because it can even give pathway-specific isotope fractionation (1,2). Available CSIA field studies, however, have focused almost exclusively on volatile petroleum and chlorinated hydrocarbons, which are present in high concentrations in the environment and can be extracted easily from water for GC-IRMS analysis. In the case of micropollutants, such as pesticides, CSIA in more challenging since it needs to be conducted at lower concentrations and requires pre-concentration, purification and high chromatographic performance (3). In this study we used lysimeters experiments to analyze transformation of atrazine, acetochlor, metolachlor and chloridazone by studying associated isotope fractionation. The project combines a) analytical method development for CSIA, b) identification of pathways of micropollutant degradation and c) quantification of transformation processes under field condition. The pesticides were applied both, at the soil surface and below the top soil under field-relevant concentrations in May 2014. After typical irrigation of the lysimeters, seepage water was collected in 50L bottles and stored for further SPE and CSIA. Here we present the very first result of a) analytical method development, b) improvement of SPE methods for complex pesticide mixtures and c) transformation of pesticides in lysimeters during the year 2014. 1 Elsner, M. Stable isotope fractionation to investigate natural transformation mechanisms of organic contaminants: principles, prospects and limitations. J. Environ. Monit. 12, 2005-2031 (2010). 2 Hofstetter, T. B. & Berg, M. Assessing transformation processes of organic contaminants by compound-specific stable isotope analysis. TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry 30, 618-627 (2011). 3 Elsner, M. et al. Current challenges in compound-specific stable isotope analysis of environmental organic contaminants. Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 403, 2471-2491, doi:10.1007/s00216-011-5683-y (2012).

  7. PHOTOCHEMICAL TRANSFORMATION OF THE DDT AND METHOXYCHLOR DEGRADATION PRODUCTS, DDE AND DMDE, BY SUNLIGHT

    EPA Science Inventory

    DDE and DMDE, degradation products of the pesticides DDT and methoxychlor, rapidly undergo an unusual photoisomerization in solution when exposed to sunlight. The isomerization involves the exchange of a vinyl chlorine and an ortho aromatic hydrogen. Other photoproducts identifie...

  8. ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDE DEGRADATION PATHWAYS DURING DRINKING WATER TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this work was to investigate organophosphorus (OP) pesticide transformation pathways as a class in the presence of aqueous chlorine. Seven priority OP pesticides were examined for their reactivity with aqueous chlorine: chlorpyrifos (CP), parathion (PA), diazino...

  9. 75 FR 34448 - Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on False or Misleading Pesticide Product...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... of May 19, 2010 (75 FR 28012) (FRL-8824-8). In that document, the Agency announced the availability... Brand Names; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice...) entitled ``False or Misleading Pesticide Product Brand Names.'' This document extends the comment...

  10. 75 FR 28012 - Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on False or Misleading Pesticide Product...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-19

    ... availability of this draft PR Notice for public comment (67 FR 14941; FRL-6809-9) on March 28, 2002 and... Brand Names AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The... Notice (PR Notice) entitled ``False or Misleading Pesticide Product Brand Names.'' PR Notices are...

  11. 40 CFR 165.23 - Scope of pesticide products included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... this section, a pesticide product must be packaged in compliance with 49 CFR 173.24. If the pesticide product meets the definition of a hazardous material in 49 CFR 171.8, the Department of Transportation requires it to be packaged according to 49 CFR parts 171-180. (f) What does “pesticide product”...

  12. 40 CFR 165.23 - Scope of pesticide products included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... this section, a pesticide product must be packaged in compliance with 49 CFR 173.24. If the pesticide product meets the definition of a hazardous material in 49 CFR 171.8, the Department of Transportation requires it to be packaged according to 49 CFR parts 171-180. (f) What does “pesticide product”...

  13. 40 CFR 165.23 - Scope of pesticide products included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... this section, a pesticide product must be packaged in compliance with 49 CFR 173.24. If the pesticide product meets the definition of a hazardous material in 49 CFR 171.8, the Department of Transportation requires it to be packaged according to 49 CFR parts 171-180. (f) What does “pesticide product”...

  14. 40 CFR 165.23 - Scope of pesticide products included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... this section, a pesticide product must be packaged in compliance with 49 CFR 173.24. If the pesticide product meets the definition of a hazardous material in 49 CFR 171.8, the Department of Transportation requires it to be packaged according to 49 CFR parts 171-180. (f) What does “pesticide product”...

  15. 40 CFR 165.23 - Scope of pesticide products included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... this section, a pesticide product must be packaged in compliance with 49 CFR 173.24. If the pesticide product meets the definition of a hazardous material in 49 CFR 171.8, the Department of Transportation requires it to be packaged according to 49 CFR parts 171-180. (f) What does “pesticide product”...

  16. 76 FR 17644 - Pesticide Product; Registration Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-30

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Product; Registration Application AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... Web site is an ``anonymous access'' system, which means EPA will not know your identity or contact... this unit could also be affected. The North American Industrial Classification System (NAICS)...

  17. 75 FR 53692 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ...This notice announces receipt of applications to register new uses for pesticide products containing currently registered active ingredients, pursuant to the provisions of section 3(c) of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), as amended. EPA is publishing this notice of such applications, pursuant to section 3(c)(4) of...

  18. 75 FR 4383 - Pesticide Products: Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products: Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... protected through regulations.gov or e- mail. The regulations.gov website is an ``anonymous access'' system... be affected. The North American Industrial Classification System (NAICS) codes have been provided...

  19. 76 FR 17645 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-30

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... access'' system, which means EPA will not know your identity or contact information unless you provide it... (703) 305-5805. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Kimberly Nesci, Registration Division (7505P),...

  20. 75 FR 56105 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-15

    ...This notice announces receipt of applications to register new uses for pesticide products containing currently registered active ingredients, pursuant to the provisions of section 3(c) of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), as amended. EPA is publishing this notice of such applications, pursuant to section 3(c)(4) of...

  1. 75 FR 11174 - Pesticide Product Registration Approval

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... notice of receipt in the Federal Register of May 1, 2009 (74 FR 20298) (FRL-8404-9), which announced that... AGENCY Pesticide Product Registration Approval AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION...)(5) of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), of a registration for...

  2. 76 FR 16413 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ...This notice announces receipt of applications to register new uses for pesticide products containing currently registered active ingredients, pursuant to the provisions of section 3(c) of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), as amended. EPA is publishing this Notice of such applications, pursuant to section 3(c)(4) of...

  3. Pesticide Labeling: Unique Product Labeling1 Frederick M. Fishel2

    E-print Network

    Hill, Jeffrey E.

    PI-110 Pesticide Labeling: Unique Product Labeling1 Frederick M. Fishel2 1. This document is PI-110, professor, Agronomy Department, and Director, Pesticide Information Office; Florida Cooperative Extension not signify our approval to the exclusion of other products of suitable composition. Use pesticides safely

  4. Does mechanistic modeling of filter strip pesticide mass balance and degradation processes affect environmental exposure assessments?

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Carpena, Rafael; Ritter, Amy; Fox, Garey A; Perez-Ovilla, Oscar

    2015-11-01

    Vegetative filter strips (VFS) are a widely adopted practice for limiting pesticide transport from adjacent fields to receiving waterbodies. The efficacy of VFS depends on site-specific input factors. To elucidate the complex and non-linear relationships among these factors requires a process-based modeling framework. Previous research proposed linking existing higher-tier environmental exposure models with a well-tested VFS model (VFSMOD). However, the framework assumed pesticide mass stored in the VFS was not available for transport in subsequent storm events. A new pesticide mass balance component was developed to estimate surface pesticide residue trapped in the VFS and its degradation between consecutive runoff events. The influence and necessity of the updated framework on acute and chronic estimated environmental concentrations (EECs) and percent reductions in EECs were investigated across three, 30-year U.S. EPA scenarios: Illinois corn, California tomato, and Oregon wheat. The updated framework with degradation predicted higher EECs than the existing framework without degradation for scenarios with greater sediment transport, longer VFS lengths, and highly sorbing and persistent pesticides. Global sensitivity analysis (GSA) assessed the relative importance of mass balance and degradation processes in the context of other input factors like VFS length (VL), organic-carbon sorption coefficient (Koc), and soil and water half-lives. Considering VFS pesticide residue and degradation was not important if single, large runoff events controlled transport, as is typical for higher percentiles considered in exposure assessments. Degradation processes become more important when considering percent reductions in acute or chronic EECs, especially under scenarios with lower pesticide losses. PMID:26218348

  5. 40 CFR 165.43 - Scope of pesticide products included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope of pesticide products included. 165.43 Section 165.43 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL Refillable Container Standards: Container Design § 165.43...

  6. In-package nonthermal plasma degradation of pesticides on fresh produce.

    PubMed

    Misra, N N; Pankaj, S K; Walsh, Tony; O'Regan, Finbarr; Bourke, Paula; Cullen, P J

    2014-04-30

    In-package nonthermal plasma (NTP) technology is a novel technology for the decontamination of foods and biological materials. This study presents the first report on the potential of the technology for the degradation of pesticide residues on fresh produce. A cocktail of pesticides, namely azoxystrobin, cyprodinil, fludioxonil and pyriproxyfen was tested on strawberries. The concentrations of these pesticides were monitored in priori and post-plasma treatment using GC-MS/MS. An applied voltage and time dependent degradation of the pesticides was observed for treatment voltages of 60, 70 and 80 kV and treatment durations ranging from 1 to 5 min, followed by 24h in-pack storage. The electrical characterisation revealed the operation of the discharge in a stable filamentary regime. The discharge was found to generate reactive oxygen and excited nitrogen species as observed by optical emission spectroscopy. PMID:24598029

  7. ABIOTIC PROCESSES IN THE DEGRADATION OF PESTICIDES IN NATURAL WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pesticides and other trace micropollutants released to the aquatic environment are subject to hydrolysis, oxidation-reduction, and photodecomposition. Kinetic treatments of hydrolysis and direct photolysis processes have been successful in allowing accurate extrapolation of labor...

  8. 40 CFR 152.10 - Products that are not pesticides because they are not intended for a pesticidal purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Products that are not pesticides... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES General Provisions § 152.10 Products that are not pesticides because they are not intended for...

  9. 40 CFR 158.2030 - Biochemical pesticides product chemistry data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides product chemistry data requirements table...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides §...

  10. 40 CFR 158.2030 - Biochemical pesticides product chemistry data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides product chemistry data requirements table...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides §...

  11. 40 CFR 158.2120 - Microbial pesticides product analysis data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Microbial pesticides product analysis data requirements table...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2120...

  12. 40 CFR 158.2120 - Microbial pesticides product analysis data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Microbial pesticides product analysis data requirements table...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2120...

  13. 40 CFR 158.2030 - Biochemical pesticides product chemistry data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides product chemistry data requirements table...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides §...

  14. 40 CFR 158.2120 - Microbial pesticides product analysis data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Microbial pesticides product analysis data requirements table...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2120...

  15. 40 CFR 158.2120 - Microbial pesticides product analysis data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Microbial pesticides product analysis data requirements table...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2120...

  16. 40 CFR 158.2030 - Biochemical pesticides product chemistry data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides product chemistry data requirements table...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides §...

  17. 40 CFR 158.2160 - Microbial pesticides product performance data requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Microbial pesticides product performance data requirements...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2160...

  18. 40 CFR 158.2120 - Microbial pesticides product analysis data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Microbial pesticides product analysis data requirements table...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2120...

  19. Combining chemical and isotopic measurements to estimate pesticide degradation rates in a fractured-rock aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farlin, Julien; Gallé, Tom; Bayerle, Michael; Pittois, Denis; El-Khabbaz, Hassanya; Schreglmann, Kathrin; Höche, Martina; Elsner, Martin

    2013-04-01

    Encouraged by new regulatory requirements for pesticide registration and authorization, the transport and environmental fate of these compounds in the different environmental compartments has been studied extensively. Degradation rates vary widely depending on hydraulic and chemical characteristics, with the strongest degradation usually occuring in the topsoil. Nonetheless, significant pesticide attenuation may still take place during transport in the aquifer, since residence times are generally much longer than in the soil. Ideally, pesticide transformation in the aquifer needs to be determined under real field conditions. Mass balance calculations however are complicated by the fact that the initial pesticide mass leached from the soil is often not known precisely enough. In this study, isotopic and classical pesticide concentration measurements were combined with groundwater dating techniques to assess the degradation rate of atrazine and its metabolite desethylatrazine in a fractured sandstone. The mass balance problem was solved by introducing the desethylatrazine to atrazine ratio, a relative measure which was used to quantify the advancement of atrazine degradation with increasing transport time in the subsurface. The extent of transformation of the parent compound was finally estimated from the shift in the isotopic signal between soil application and the outlet of the groundwater system.

  20. 77 FR 30526 - Product Cancellation Order for Certain Pesticide Registrations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ...agricultural advocates; the chemical industry; pesticide users...registration No. Product name Chemical name...Germicidal Alkyl* dimethyl Detergent. benzyl ammonium chloride...Mitsui Chemicals Agro, Inc., AGENT:...

  1. Effect of process intensifying parameters on the hydrodynamic cavitation based degradation of commercial pesticide (methomyl) in the aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Raut-Jadhav, Sunita; Saini, Daulat; Sonawane, Shirish; Pandit, Aniruddha

    2016-01-01

    Methomyl, a carbamate pesticide, is classified as a pesticide of category-1 toxicity and hence shows harmful effects on both human and aquatic life. In the present work, the degradation of methomyl has been studied by using hydrodynamic cavitation reactor (HC) and its combination with intensifying agents such as H2O2, fenton reagent and ozone (hybrid processes). Initially, the optimization of operating parameters such pH and inlet pressure to the cavitating device (circular venturi) has been carried out for maximizing the efficacy of hydrodynamic cavitation. Further degradation study of methomyl by the application of hybrid processes was carried out at an optimal pH of 2.5 and the optimal inlet pressure of 5 bar. Significant synergetic effect has been observed in case of all the hybrid processes studied. Synergetic coefficient of 5.8, 13.41 and 47.6 has been obtained by combining hydrodynamic cavitation with H2O2, fenton process and ozone respectively. Efficacy of individual and hybrid processes has also been obtained in terms of energy efficiency and extent of mineralization. HC+Ozone process has proved to be the most effective process having highest synergetic coefficient, energy efficiency and the extent of mineralization. The study has also encompassed the identification of intermediate by-products generated during the degradation and has proposed the probable degradation pathway. It has been conclusively established that hydrodynamic cavitation in the presence of intensifying agents can effectively be used for complete degradation of methomyl. PMID:26384910

  2. 9 CFR 318.16 - Pesticide chemicals and other residues in products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pesticide chemicals and other residues in products...OF PRODUCTS General § 318.16 Pesticide chemicals and other residues in products...Nonmeat ingredients. Residues of pesticide chemicals, food additives...

  3. 9 CFR 318.16 - Pesticide chemicals and other residues in products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pesticide chemicals and other residues in products...OF PRODUCTS General § 318.16 Pesticide chemicals and other residues in products...Nonmeat ingredients. Residues of pesticide chemicals, food additives...

  4. 9 CFR 318.16 - Pesticide chemicals and other residues in products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pesticide chemicals and other residues in products...OF PRODUCTS General § 318.16 Pesticide chemicals and other residues in products...Nonmeat ingredients. Residues of pesticide chemicals, food additives...

  5. 9 CFR 318.16 - Pesticide chemicals and other residues in products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pesticide chemicals and other residues in products...OF PRODUCTS General § 318.16 Pesticide chemicals and other residues in products...Nonmeat ingredients. Residues of pesticide chemicals, food additives...

  6. 9 CFR 318.16 - Pesticide chemicals and other residues in products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pesticide chemicals and other residues in products...OF PRODUCTS General § 318.16 Pesticide chemicals and other residues in products...Nonmeat ingredients. Residues of pesticide chemicals, food additives...

  7. ANALYSIS OF THE FLUX OF AN ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING DICARBOXIMIDE AND ITS DEGRADATION PRODUCTS FROM THE SOIL TO THE LOWER TROPOSPHERE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method for measuring the atmospheric flux of the antiandrogenic dicarboxirnide, vinclozolin, and its degradation products was investigated. A nitric oxide laboratory chamber was modified to measure the flux of semi-volatile compounds. Pesticide application systems and soil in...

  8. Fine scale spatial variability of microbial pesticide degradation in soil: scales, controlling factors, and implications

    PubMed Central

    Dechesne, Arnaud; Badawi, Nora; Aamand, Jens; Smets, Barth F.

    2014-01-01

    Pesticide biodegradation is a soil microbial function of critical importance for modern agriculture and its environmental impact. While it was once assumed that this activity was homogeneously distributed at the field scale, mounting evidence indicates that this is rarely the case. Here, we critically examine the literature on spatial variability of pesticide biodegradation in agricultural soil. We discuss the motivations, methods, and main findings of the primary literature. We found significant diversity in the approaches used to describe and quantify spatial heterogeneity, which complicates inter-studies comparisons. However, it is clear that the presence and activity of pesticide degraders is often highly spatially variable with coefficients of variation often exceeding 50% and frequently displays non-random spatial patterns. A few controlling factors have tentatively been identified across pesticide classes: they include some soil characteristics (pH) and some agricultural management practices (pesticide application, tillage), while other potential controlling factors have more conflicting effects depending on the site or the pesticide. Evidence demonstrating the importance of spatial heterogeneity on the fate of pesticides in soil has been difficult to obtain but modeling and experimental systems that do not include soil's full complexity reveal that this heterogeneity must be considered to improve prediction of pesticide biodegradation rates or of leaching risks. Overall, studying the spatial heterogeneity of pesticide biodegradation is a relatively new field at the interface of agronomy, microbial ecology, and geosciences and a wealth of novel data is being collected from these different disciplinary perspectives. We make suggestions on possible avenues to take full advantage of these investigations for a better understanding and prediction of the fate of pesticides in soil. PMID:25538691

  9. ORGANOPHOSPHATE PESTICIDE DEGRADATION UNDER DRINKING WATER TREATMENT CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) of 1996 requires that all tolerances for pesticide chemical residuals in or on food be considered for anticipated exposure. Drinking water is considered a potential pathway for dietary exposure and there is reliable monitoring data for the ...

  10. ORGANOPHOSPHATE PESTICIDE DEGRADATION UNDER DRINKING WATER TREATMENT CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chlorpyrifos (CP) was used as a model compound to develop experimental methods and prototype modeling tools to forecast the fate of organophosphate (OP) pesticides under drinking water treatment conditions. CP was found to rapidly oxidize to chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO) in the presen...

  11. 78 FR 9688 - Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on Antimicrobial Pesticide Products With...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ...SUMMARY: EPA issued a draft Pesticide Registration (PR) notice in the Federal Register issue of December 12, 2012...FRL-9362-3). In that document, EPA requested comment on a draft PR notice that provided guidance for antimicrobial pesticide...

  12. Effects of halving pesticide use on wheat production

    PubMed Central

    Hossard, L.; Philibert, A.; Bertrand, M.; Colnenne-David, C.; Debaeke, P.; Munier-Jolain, N.; Jeuffroy, M. H.; Richard, G.; Makowski, D.

    2014-01-01

    Pesticides pose serious threats to both human health and the environment. In Europe, farmers are encouraged to reduce their use, and in France a recent environmental policy fixed a target of halving the pesticide use by 2018. Organic and integrated cropping systems have been proposed as possible solutions for reducing pesticide use, but the effect of reducing pesticide use on crop yield remains unclear. Here we use a set of cropping system experiments to quantify the yield losses resulting from a reduction of pesticide use for winter wheat in France. Our estimated yield losses resulting from a 50% reduction in pesticide use ranged from 5 to 13% of the yield obtained with the current pesticide use. At the scale of the whole country, these losses would decrease the French wheat production by about 2 to 3 millions of tons, which represent about 15% of the French wheat export. PMID:24651597

  13. 76 FR 16415 - Product Cancellation Order for Certain Pesticide Registrations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ...use of the products subject to...advocates; the chemical industry; pesticide...Bonide Products, Inc., P...United Industries Corporation...Hi-Yield Chemical Company, 6860...cancellations of products listed in...

  14. 78 FR 24197 - Product Cancellation Order for Certain Pesticide Registrations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ...voluntarily cancel these product registrations. In the...sale, or use of the products subject to this cancellation...agricultural advocates; the chemical industry; pesticide users...registrants, of 50 products registered under...

  15. 78 FR 59019 - Product Cancellation Order for Certain Pesticide Registrations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ...voluntarily cancel these product registrations. In the...sale, or use of the products subject to this cancellation...agricultural advocates; the chemical industry; pesticide users...by registrants, of products registered under...

  16. 78 FR 11879 - Product Cancellation Order for Certain Pesticide Registrations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-20

    ...voluntarily cancel these product registrations. In the...sale, or use of the products subject to this cancellation...agricultural advocates; the chemical industry; pesticide users...registrants, of 41 products registered under...

  17. 77 FR 75155 - Product Cancellation Order for Certain Pesticide Registrations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-19

    ...voluntarily cancel these product registrations. In the...sale, or use of the products subject to this cancellation...agricultural advocates; the chemical industry; pesticide users...registrants, of 19 products registered under...

  18. 75 FR 44247 - Product Cancellation Order for Certain Pesticide Registrations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-28

    ...voluntarily cancel these product registrations. In the...sale, or use of the products subject to this cancellation...agricultural advocates; the chemical industry; pesticide users...registrants, of 17 products registered under...

  19. 75 FR 63178 - Product Cancellation Order for Certain Pesticide Registrations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-14

    ...With respect to the products that are the subject...sale, or use of the products subject to this cancellation...agricultural advocates; the chemical industry; pesticide users...the registrant, of products registered under...

  20. 77 FR 26004 - Product Cancellation Order for Certain Pesticide Registrations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-02

    ...voluntarily cancel these product registrations. In the...sale, or use of the products subject to this cancellation...agricultural advocates; the chemical industry; pesticide users...registrants, of 40 products registered under...

  1. 78 FR 25438 - Product Cancellation Order for Certain Pesticide Registrations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ...voluntarily cancel these product registrations. In the...sale, or use of the products subject to this cancellation...agricultural advocates; the chemical industry; pesticide users...registrants, of 39 products registered under...

  2. 40 CFR 158.2070 - Biochemical pesticides product performance data requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides product... AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2070 Biochemical pesticides product performance data requirements. Product performance data must be developed...

  3. 40 CFR 158.2160 - Microbial pesticides product performance data requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Microbial pesticides product... AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2160 Microbial pesticides product performance data requirements. Product performance data must be developed...

  4. 40 CFR 152.15 - Pesticide products required to be registered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pesticide products required to be...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES General Provisions § 152.15 Pesticide products required to be registered. No person may distribute or sell any pesticide product that...

  5. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation 58 (2006) 7076 Coexpression of two detoxifying pesticide-degrading enzymes in a

    E-print Network

    Chen, Wilfred

    2006-01-01

    pesticide-degrading enzymes in a genetically engineered bacterium W.S. Lana , J.D. Gub , J.L. Zhanga , B. The technical capability of genetically engineering bacteria with more enzymes should open up new opportunities and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Riverside, California 92521, USA Available online 7

  6. 40 CFR 158.2030 - Biochemical pesticides product chemistry data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides product... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2030 Biochemical pesticides product chemistry data requirements table. (a) General. (1)...

  7. 40 CFR 165.65 - Registrants who distribute or sell pesticide products in refillable containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... pesticide products in refillable containers. 165.65 Section 165.65 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL Standards for Repackaging Pesticide Products into Refillable Containers § 165.65 Registrants who distribute or sell pesticide...

  8. 40 CFR 158.2120 - Microbial pesticides product analysis data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Microbial pesticides product analysis... AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2120 Microbial pesticides product analysis data requirements table. (a) General. Sections 158.100 through...

  9. Identification of Major Degradation Products of Ketoconazole

    PubMed Central

    Mhaske, Rajendra A.; Sahasrabudhe, Shirish

    2011-01-01

    Analytical methods were developed for the identification of major degradation products of Ketoconazole, an antifungal agent. The stressed degradation of Ketoconazole drug substance was performed under acid, base, thermal, photo and oxidative stress conditions. The major degradation was observed under acid, base and oxidative stress conditions. The degradation study was performed on Inertsil ODS-3V, length 100 X diameter 4.6 mm, particle size 3 ?m column using gradient method. These degradants were identified by LC-MS technique. PMID:22145107

  10. Degradation of terbuthylazine, difenoconazole and pendimethalin pesticides by selected fungi cultures.

    PubMed

    Pinto, A P; Serrano, C; Pires, T; Mestrinho, E; Dias, L; Teixeira, D Martins; Caldeira, A T

    2012-10-01

    Contamination of waters by xenobiotic compounds such as pesticides presents a serious environmental problem with substantial levels of pesticides now contaminating European water resources. The aim of this work was to evaluate the ability of the fungi Fusarium oxysporum, Aspergillus oryzae, Lentinula edodes, Penicillium brevicompactum and Lecanicillium saksenae, for the biodegradation of the pesticides terbuthylazine, difenoconazole and pendimethalin in batch liquid cultures. These pesticides are common soil and water contaminants and terbuthylazine is considered the most persistent triazine herbicide in surface environments. P. brevicompactum and L. saksenae were achieved by enrichment, isolation and screening of fungi capable to metabolize the pesticides studied. The isolates were obtained from two pesticide-primed materials (soil and biomixture). Despite the relatively high persistence of terbuthylazine, the results obtained in this work showed that the fungi species studied have a high capability of biotransformation of this xenobiotic, comparatively the results obtained in other similar studies. The highest removal percentage of terbuthylazine from liquid medium was achieved with A. oryzae (~80%), although the major biodegradation has been reached with P. brevicompactum. The higher ability of P. brevicompactum to metabolize terbuthylazine was presumably acquired through chronic exposure to contamination with the herbicide. L. saksenae could remove 99.5% of the available pendimethalin in batch liquid cultures. L. edodes proved to be a fungus with a high potential for biodegradation of pesticides, especially difenoconazole and pendimethalin. Furthermore, the metabolite desethyl-terbuthylazine was detected in L. edodes liquid culture medium, indicating terbuthylazine biodegradation by this fungus. The fungi strains investigated could prove to be valuable as active pesticide-degrading microorganisms, increasing the efficiency of biopurification systems containing wastewaters contaminated with the xenobiotics studied or compounds with similar intrinsic characteristics. PMID:22878100

  11. Degradation of organophosphorus pesticide parathion methyl on nanostructured titania-iron mixed oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henych, Ji?í; Štengl, Václav; Slušná, Michaela; Matys Grygar, Tomáš; Janoš, Pavel; Kurá?, Pavel; Štastný, Martin

    2015-07-01

    Titania-iron mixed oxides with various Ti:Fe ratio were prepared by homogeneous hydrolysis of aqueous solutions of titanium(IV) oxysulphate and iron(III) sulphate with urea as a precipitating agent. The synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman and infrared spectroscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, XRF analysis, specific surface area (BET) and porosity determination (BJH). These oxides were used for degradation of organophosporus pesticide parathion methyl. The highest degradation efficiency approaching <70% was found for the samples with Ti:Fe ratio 0.25:1 and 1:0.25. Contrary, parathion methyl was not degraded on the surfaces of pure oxides. In general, the highest degradation rate exhibited samples consisted of the iron or titanium oxide containing a moderate amount of the admixture. However, distinct correlations between the degradation rate and the sorbent composition were not identified.

  12. Pesticides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherma, Joseph

    1989-01-01

    This review is devoted to methods for the determination of residues of pesticides and some related industrial chemicals. Topics include: residue methods, sampling, chromatography, organochlorine pesticides, organophosphorus pesticides, carbamate insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, pyrethrins, fumigants, and related chemicals. (MVL)

  13. 40 CFR 158.2081 - Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides product chemistry data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... pesticides product chemistry data requirements table. 158.2081 Section 158.2081 Protection of Environment... Pesticides § 158.2081 Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides product chemistry data requirements... product chemistry data requirements for a particular biochemical pesticide product. Notes that apply to...

  14. 40 CFR 158.2081 - Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides product chemistry data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... pesticides product chemistry data requirements table. 158.2081 Section 158.2081 Protection of Environment... Pesticides § 158.2081 Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides product chemistry data requirements... product chemistry data requirements for a particular biochemical pesticide product. Notes that apply to...

  15. 40 CFR 158.2081 - Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides product chemistry data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... pesticides product chemistry data requirements table. 158.2081 Section 158.2081 Protection of Environment... Pesticides § 158.2081 Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides product chemistry data requirements... product chemistry data requirements for a particular biochemical pesticide product. Notes that apply to...

  16. 40 CFR 158.2081 - Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides product chemistry data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... pesticides product chemistry data requirements table. 158.2081 Section 158.2081 Protection of Environment... Pesticides § 158.2081 Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides product chemistry data requirements... product chemistry data requirements for a particular biochemical pesticide product. Notes that apply to...

  17. 40 CFR 158.2081 - Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides product chemistry data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... pesticides product chemistry data requirements table. 158.2081 Section 158.2081 Protection of Environment... Pesticides § 158.2081 Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides product chemistry data requirements... product chemistry data requirements for a particular biochemical pesticide product. Notes that apply to...

  18. Environmental pesticide distribution in horticultural and floricultural periurban production units.

    PubMed

    Querejeta, Giselle A; Ramos, Laura M; Flores, Andrea P; Hughes, Enrique A; Zalts, Anita; Montserrat, Javier M

    2012-04-01

    The environmental pesticide distribution on non-target systems (soil, drift and agricultural plastics) during the application step at small periurban production units, was studied in open field and greenhouses, for different crops (tomato, lettuce, broccoli, strawberry and flowers) using different pesticides (endosulfan, procymidone, chlorothalonil, chlorpyrifos and deltamethrin). In all cases, soil was the most exposed non-target system. For greenhouses, a general pesticide distribution was found of approximately 2/3 for crop, 1/4 for soil and 1/20 for plastic, of the total amount applied. In horticultural open fields, although the distribution was very dependent on the crop size and type, soil was also the most exposed non-target subsystem. Pesticide drift seems not to be significant in these production units, whilst pesticide accumulation on agricultural plastics reached up to 45% of the total applied, for polyethylene mulching in strawberry fields. PMID:22285036

  19. 40 CFR 168.66 - Labeling of pesticide products and devices intended solely for export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 2013-07-01 false Labeling of pesticide products and devices intended solely...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS STATEMENTS OF ENFORCEMENT...Export Policy and Procedures for Exporting Pesticides § 168.66 Labeling of...

  20. 40 CFR 165.65 - Registrants who distribute or sell pesticide products in refillable containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Registrants who distribute or sell pesticide products in refillable containers. 165.65...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL Standards for...

  1. 40 CFR 168.66 - Labeling of pesticide products and devices intended solely for export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 2014-07-01 false Labeling of pesticide products and devices intended solely...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS STATEMENTS OF ENFORCEMENT...Export Policy and Procedures for Exporting Pesticides § 168.66 Labeling of...

  2. 40 CFR 152.15 - Pesticide products required to be registered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pesticide products required to be registered. 152.15...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES...

  3. 40 CFR 165.65 - Registrants who distribute or sell pesticide products in refillable containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Registrants who distribute or sell pesticide products in refillable containers. 165.65...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL Standards for...

  4. 40 CFR 165.67 - Registrants who distribute or sell pesticide products to refillers for repackaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Registrants who distribute or sell pesticide products to refillers for repackaging. 165...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL Standards for...

  5. 40 CFR 165.67 - Registrants who distribute or sell pesticide products to refillers for repackaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Registrants who distribute or sell pesticide products to refillers for repackaging. 165...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL Standards for...

  6. 40 CFR 152.15 - Pesticide products required to be registered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pesticide products required to be registered. 152.15...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES...

  7. 40 CFR 152.15 - Pesticide products required to be registered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pesticide products required to be registered. 152.15...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES...

  8. 40 CFR 165.65 - Registrants who distribute or sell pesticide products in refillable containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Registrants who distribute or sell pesticide products in refillable containers. 165.65...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL Standards for...

  9. 40 CFR 165.65 - Registrants who distribute or sell pesticide products in refillable containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Registrants who distribute or sell pesticide products in refillable containers. 165.65...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL Standards for...

  10. 40 CFR 165.67 - Registrants who distribute or sell pesticide products to refillers for repackaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Registrants who distribute or sell pesticide products to refillers for repackaging. 165...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL Standards for...

  11. 40 CFR 152.15 - Pesticide products required to be registered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pesticide products required to be registered. 152.15...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES...

  12. 40 CFR 165.67 - Registrants who distribute or sell pesticide products to refillers for repackaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Registrants who distribute or sell pesticide products to refillers for repackaging. 165...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL Standards for...

  13. 40 CFR 165.67 - Registrants who distribute or sell pesticide products to refillers for repackaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Registrants who distribute or sell pesticide products to refillers for repackaging. 165...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL Standards for...

  14. 40 CFR 152.15 - Pesticide products required to be registered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pesticide products required to be registered. 152.15...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES...

  15. 40 CFR 165.65 - Registrants who distribute or sell pesticide products in refillable containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Registrants who distribute or sell pesticide products in refillable containers. 165.65...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL Standards for...

  16. Concentrations of pesticides and pesticide degradates in the Croton River Watershed in southeastern New York, July-September 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, Patrick; Bode, Robert W.

    2002-01-01

    Thirty-seven pesticides and (or) pesticide degradates were detected in baseflow samples collected from 47 stream sites in the Croton River Watershed (374 square miles) in southeastern New York in the summer of 2000. The Croton Reservoir provides about 10 percent of New York City's water supply. Maximum concentrations of most pesticides detected did not exceed 0.1 ?g/L (micrograms per liter). This study, by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, was conducted from July through September 2000 and entailed analysis of the samples for more than 150 pesticides and their degradates. Nine compounds were detected at a concentration greater than 0.10 ?g/L; three of these were insecticides (diazinon, carbaryl, and imidacloprid), one was a fungicide (mycobutanil), and five were herbicides (simazine, 2,4-D, diuron, hexazinone, and 2,4-D methyl esther). Only two of these compounds (simazine and 2,4-D) were detected at a concentration exceeding 1 ?g/L; the simazine concentration exceeded the New York State surface-water standard of 0.5 ?g/L. Two insecticides (diazinon and azinphos-methyl) exceeded aquatic-life-protection standard in one sample each. Concentrations of three insecticides (chlorpyrifos, carbaryl, and malathion) were more than 50 percent of the aquatic-life-protection standards in one sample each. Total concentrations of insecticides and herbicides (the sum of the concentrations, whereby all concentrations below the detection limit were set to zero), and the concentrations of the herbicide prometon and the insecticide diazinon, were highest in samples from watersheds with population densities greater than 510 per square mile (21 sites); therefore, the presence of these compounds is attributable to urban, residential, and other developed land uses. The data obtained in this study are useful for making general comparisons among watersheds with differing land uses, but the concentrations represent baseflow conditions and, thus, are probably lower than the annual maximum concentrations in these streams. A July baseflow sample had total insecticide and fungicide concentrations of less than 0.03 ?g/L, whereas a stormflow sample collected at the same site 2 weeks later had a corresponding concentration greater than 0.10 ?g/L. Total herbicide concentrations for the July baseflow and stormflow samples were around 0.03 ?g/L, but that for a stormflow sample collected at the same site 2 months later was greater than 20 ?g/L.

  17. 40 CFR 165.63 - Scope of pesticide products included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, algae, or slime; and (B) In the intended use is subject to... bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, algae, or slime. (ii) The labeling of the pesticide product...

  18. 40 CFR 165.63 - Scope of pesticide products included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, algae, or slime; and (B) In the intended use is subject to... bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, algae, or slime. (ii) The labeling of the pesticide product...

  19. 40 CFR 165.63 - Scope of pesticide products included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, algae, or slime; and (B) In the intended use is subject to... bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, algae, or slime. (ii) The labeling of the pesticide product...

  20. 40 CFR 165.63 - Scope of pesticide products included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, algae, or slime; and (B) In the intended use is subject to... bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, algae, or slime. (ii) The labeling of the pesticide product...

  1. Compound-specific stable isotope analysis of pesticides: a combined monitoring and modeling approach to assess pesticide fate and degradation at catchment scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Breukelen, B. M.; Lutz, S.; Van der Velde, Y.; Elsayed, O. F.; LeFrancq, M.; Payraudeau, S.; Imfeld, G.

    2014-12-01

    Compound-specific stable isotope analysis (CSIA) has proven useful in asessing the fate of groundwater contamination. However, although evidence of diffuse pesticide degradation is crucial, and CSIA methods have been developed for several pesticides, there is a clear lack of field CSIA data of pesticides. This study now presents the first analysis of field CSIA data from a 47-ha agricultural headwater catchment (Alteckendorf, Alsace, France) in the period March to August 2012. Measured stream concentrations of the two investigated chloroacetanilide herbicides (S-metolachlor and acetochlor) were highest (65 ?g/L) following an intense rainfall event in the first month after herbicide application. Carbon isotope ratios increased with more than 2 ‰ in 3 months, which indicates the occurrence of herbicide degradation during transport to the stream. Previously, field CSIA data have also been simulated with reactive transport models to evaluate degradation of groundwater contaminants. This study now presents such a model-assisted interpretation of CSIA data for the first time at catchment scale, which aims at exploring the added value of CSIA in monitoring and modelling of pesticide pollution. The conceptual mathematical model succeeded in reproducing the general trend in concentrations and carbon isotope ratios of metolachlor. It also allowed for the quantification of metolachlor degradation (above 70 % during the study period), and yielded a mass export of 1.8 % of the applied pesticide, which is in agreement with the measured pesticide export. The field concentration and CSIA data informed the model building by indicating the importance of overland flow, and slow pesticide degradation in groundwater compared to the upper soil zone. Moreover, incorporation of the field CSIA data into model calibration slightly reduced model uncertainty in the quantification of pesticide degradation. We suggest that a finer temporal CSIA resolution than possible in this study, especially during base flow conditions, would result in a more significant reduction of model uncertainty. Nonetheless, these results demonstrate how a combined monitoring and modelling approach of concentration and CSIA data can result in an improved understanding of pesticide transport and degradation at catchment scale.

  2. 75 FR 6656 - Pesticide Product; Registration Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-10

    ...Shanaz Bacchus, Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division (7511P), Office...you are an agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide manufacturer...Acting Director, Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division, Office of...

  3. 76 FR 17644 - Pesticide Product; Registration Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-30

    ...Gina Casciano, Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division (7511P), Office...you are an agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide manufacturer...Matthews, Director, Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division, Office of...

  4. 75 FR 4383 - Pesticide Products: Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ...Casciano, Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division...agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide...classification/Use: Food Use, Outdoor Use (G...classification/Use: Food Use, Outdoor Use (G...Director, Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention...

  5. 75 FR 71695 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ...John Fournier, Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division (7511P), Office...you are an agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide manufacturer...Acting Director, Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division, Office of...

  6. Preparation of H3PW12O40/MCM-48 and its photocatalytic degradation of pesticides.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xia; Li, Yan-zhou; Gan, Qiang; Feng, Chang-gen

    2014-08-01

    A composite catalyst H3PW12O40/MCM-48 was prepared by loading photocatalyst phosphotungstic acid H3PW12O40 (HPW) to molecular sieve MCM-48 by impregnation method, and its structure was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra, small angle X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, nitrogen adsorption analysis and High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) analysis. Photocatalytic degradation activities of HPW/MCM-48 against pesticides imidacloprid and paraquat were evaluated under UV radiation (365 nm). The results show that HPW/MCM-48 maintains the mesoprous molecular sieve structure of MCM-48 and the Keggin structure of HPW, while the BET surface area is 793.35 m2 x g(-1), pore volume is 1.46 cm3 x g(-1), average pore diameter is 2.76 nm, suggesting loading HPW on MCM-48 is a considerable way to improve its surface area. After 14 h UV irradiation (365 nm), 57.38% imidacloprid and 63.79% paraquat were degraded by 20 mg HPW/MCM-48 catalyst, while HPW and blank group degraded the two pesticides at the degradation rate of about 25% and 5%, respectively. Implying loading on MCM-48 could greaterly improve the degradation activity of HPW. The reslut of degradation kinetics show that, the degradation process of HPW/MCM-48 fits first order kinetics equation. The rate constant Ka of HPW/MCM-48 toward imidacloprid and paraquat are 0.089 h and 0.117 h, with the half-life t(1/2) of 7.8 h and 5.9 h, respectively. PMID:25508733

  7. Preparation of H3PW12O40/MCM-48 and its photocatalytic degradation of pesticides.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xia; Li, Yan-zhou; Gan, Qiang; Feng, Chang-gen

    2014-08-01

    A composite catalyst H3PW12O40/MCM-48 was prepared by loading photocatalyst phosphotungstic acid H3PW12O40 (HPW) to molecular sieve MCM-48 by impregnation method, and its structure was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra, small angle X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, nitrogen adsorption analysis and High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) analysis. Photocatalytic degradation activities of HPW/MCM-48 against pesticides imidacloprid and paraquat were evaluated under UV radiation (365 nm). The results show that HPW/MCM-48 maintains the mesoprous molecular sieve structure of MCM-48 and the Keggin structure of HPW, while the BET surface area is 793.35 m2 x g(-1), pore volume is 1.46 cm3 x g(-1), average pore diameter is 2.76 nm, suggesting loading HPW on MCM-48 is a considerable way to improve its surface area. After 14 h UV irradiation (365 nm), 57.38% imidacloprid and 63.79% paraquat were degraded by 20 mg HPW/MCM-48 catalyst, while HPW and blank group degraded the two pesticides at the degradation rate of about 25% and 5%, respectively. Implying loading on MCM-48 could greaterly improve the degradation activity of HPW. The reslut of degradation kinetics show that, the degradation process of HPW/MCM-48 fits first order kinetics equation. The rate constant Ka of HPW/MCM-48 toward imidacloprid and paraquat are 0.089 h and 0.117 h, with the half-life t(1/2) of 7.8 h and 5.9 h, respectively. PMID:25474954

  8. Catalytic strategy for efficient degradation of nitroaromatic pesticides by using gold nanoflower.

    PubMed

    Mao, Kang; Chen, Yinran; Wu, Zitong; Zhou, Xiaodong; Shen, Aiguo; Hu, Jiming

    2014-11-01

    In this contribution, we report a new type of Au nanoflower-based nitroaromatic pesticide degradation platform that is fast, efficient, and simple. We found a straightforward, economically viable, and "green" approach for the synthesis and stabilization of relatively monodisperse Au nanoflowers by using nontoxic chemical of hydroxylamine (NH2OH) without stabilizer and the adjustment of the pH environment. This experiment shows that these Au nanoflowers function as effective catalyst for the reduction of pendimethalin in the presence of NaBH4 (otherwise unfeasible if NaBH4 is the only agent employed), which was reflected by the UV/vis spectra of the catalytic reaction kinetics. Importantly, the novel degradation platform could be put in use in two different practical soil samples with satisfactory results under laboratory conditions. To demonstrate the feasibility and universality of our design, two other nitroaromatic pesticides, trifluralin, and p-nitrophenol, were selected and were successfully degraded using this degradation platform. PMID:25329810

  9. Solar photocatalytic degradation of some hazardous water-soluble pesticides at pilot-plant scale.

    PubMed

    Oller, I; Gernjak, W; Maldonado, M I; Pérez-Estrada, L A; Sánchez-Pérez, J A; Malato, S

    2006-12-01

    The technical feasibility and performance of photocatalytic degradation of six water-soluble pesticides (cymoxanil, methomyl, oxamyl, dimethoate, pyrimethanil and telone) have been studied at pilot-plant scale in two well-defined systems which are of special interest because natural solar UV light can be used: heterogeneous photocatalysis with titanium dioxide and homogeneous photocatalysis by photo-Fenton. TiO(2) photocatalysis tests were performed in a 35L solar pilot plant with three Compound Parabolic Collectors (CPCs) under natural illumination and a 75L solar pilot plant with four CPC units was used for homogeneous photocatalysis tests. The initial pesticide concentration studied was 50 mg L(-1) and the catalyst concentrations employed were 200 mg L(-1) of TiO(2) and 20 mg L(-1) of iron. Both toxicity (Vibrio fischeri, Biofix) and biodegradability (Zahn-Wellens test) of the initial pesticide solutions were also measured. Total disappearance of the parent compounds and nearly complete mineralization were attained with all pesticides tested. Treatment time, hydrogen peroxide consumption and release of heteroatoms are discussed. PMID:16839679

  10. 40 CFR 165.67 - Registrants who distribute or sell pesticide products to refillers for repackaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... pesticide products to refillers for repackaging. 165.67 Section 165.67 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL Standards for Repackaging Pesticide Products into Refillable Containers § 165.67 Registrants who distribute or...

  11. Exploring the potential of novel biomixtures and Lentinula edodes fungus for the degradation of selected pesticides. Evaluation for use in biobed systems.

    PubMed

    Pinto, A P; Rodrigues, S C; Caldeira, A T; Teixeira, D M

    2016-01-15

    An approach to reduce the contamination of water sources with pesticides is the use of biopurificaction systems. The active core of these systems is the biomixture. The composition of biomixtures depends on the availability of local agro-industrial wastes and design should be adapted to every region. In Portugal, cork processing is generally regarded as environmentally friendly and would be interesting to find applications for its industry residues. In this work the potential use of different substrates in biomixtures, as cork (CBX); cork and straw, coat pine and LECA (Light Expanded Clay Aggregates), was tested on the degradation of terbuthylazine, difenoconazole, diflufenican and pendimethalin pesticides. Bioaugmentation strategies using the white-rot fungus Lentinula edodes inoculated into the CBX, was also assessed. The results obtained from this study clearly demonstrated the relevance of using natural biosorbents as cork residues to increase the capacity of pesticide dissipation in biomixtures for establishing biobeds. Furthermore, higher degradation of all the pesticides was achieved by use of bioaugmented biomixtures. Indeed, the biomixtures inoculated with L. edodes EL1 were able to mineralize the selected xenobiotics, revelling that these white-rot fungi might be a suitable fungus for being used as inoculum sources in on-farm sustainable biopurification system, in order to increase its degradation efficiency. After 120days, maximum degradation of terbuthylazine, difenoconazole, diflufenican and pendimethalin, of bioaugmented CBX, was 89.9%, 75.0%, 65.0% and 99.4%, respectively.. The dominant metabolic route of terbuthylazine in biomixtures inoculated with L. edodes EL1 proceeded mainly via hydroxylation, towards production of terbuthylazine-hydroxy-2 metabolite. Finally, sorption process to cork by pesticides proved to be a reversible process, working cork as a mitigating factor reducing the toxicity to microorganisms in the biomixture, especially in the early stages. PMID:26479911

  12. Structure-Guided Engineering of Molinate Hydrolase for the Degradation of Thiocarbamate Pesticides

    PubMed Central

    Paiva, Ana M.; Ferreira-da-Silva, Frederico; Matias, Pedro M.; Nunes, Olga C.; Gales, Luís

    2015-01-01

    Molinate is a recalcitrant thiocarbamate used to control grass weeds in rice fields. The recently described molinate hydrolase, from Gulosibacter molinativorax ON4T, plays a key role in the only known molinate degradation pathway ending in the formation of innocuous compounds. Here we report the crystal structure of recombinant molinate hydrolase at 2.27 Å. The structure reveals a homotetramer with a single mononuclear metal-dependent active site per monomer. The active site architecture shows similarities with other amidohydrolases and enables us to propose a general acid-base catalysis mechanism for molinate hydrolysis. Molinate hydrolase is unable to degrade bulkier thiocarbamate pesticides such as thiobencarb which is used mostly in rice crops. Using a structural-based approach, we were able to generate a mutant (Arg187Ala) that efficiently degrades thiobencarb. The engineered enzyme is suitable for the development of a broader thiocarbamate bioremediation system. PMID:25905461

  13. Pesticides

    MedlinePLUS

    ... people are exposed to low levels of pesticide residues through their diets. Scientists do not yet have ... understanding of the health effects of these pesticide residues. Results from the Agricultural Health Study, an ongoing ...

  14. 76 FR 4686 - Product Cancellation Order for Certain Pesticide Registrations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-26

    ...advocates; the chemical industry; pesticide users...registrants, of 54 products registered under...Registration No. Product name ingredients...Mineral Oil-- Emulsion. includes paraffin...registrants of the products in Table 1 of this...Div of United Industries Corp.,...

  15. 76 FR 31606 - Product Cancellation Order for Certain Pesticide Registrations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ...or use of the products subject to this...advocates; the chemical industry; pesticide users...registrants, of 121 products registered under...Resmethrin. Transparent Emulsion Spray 0.35...Insecticide Transparent Emulsion Spray 0.25...registrants of the products in Table 1 of...

  16. 40 CFR 158.2030 - Biochemical pesticides product chemistry data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...false Biochemical pesticides product chemistry data requirements table. 158.2030...2030 Biochemical pesticides product chemistry data requirements table. (a) General...use this table to determine the product chemistry data requirements for a...

  17. 40 CFR 158.2081 - Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides product chemistry data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...permit biochemical pesticides product chemistry data requirements table. 158.2081...permit biochemical pesticides product chemistry data requirements table. (a) General...use this table to determine the product chemistry data requirements for a...

  18. 75 FR 8340 - Maneb; Product Cancellation Order of a Certain Pesticide Registration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ...This is not the last product containing this pesticide...sale, or use of the product subject to this cancellation...agricultural advocates; the chemical industry; pesticide users...by registrant, of a product registered under...

  19. 75 FR 8942 - Maneb; Product Cancellation Order for Certain Pesticide Registrations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ...These are not the last products containing this pesticide...sale, or use of the products subject to this cancellation...agricultural advocates; the chemical industry; pesticide users...by registrants, of products registered under...

  20. Degradation and adsorption of pesticides in compost-based biomixtures as potential substrates for biobeds in southern Europe.

    PubMed

    Karanasios, Evangelos; Tsiropoulos, Nikolaos G; Karpouzas, Dimitrios G; Ehaliotis, Constantinos

    2010-08-25

    Biobeds have been used in northern Europe for minimizing point source contamination of water resources by pesticides. However, little is known regarding their use in southern Europe where edaphoclimatic conditions and agriculture practices significantly differ. A first step toward their adaptation in southern Europe is the use of low-cost and easily available substrates as biomixture components. This study investigated the possibility of replacing peat with agricultural composts in the biomixture. Five composts from local substrates including olive leaves, cotton crop residues, cotton seeds, spent mushroom substrate, and commercial sea wrack were mixed with topsoil and straw (1:1:2). Degradation of a mixture of pesticides (dimethoate, indoxacarb, buprofezin, terbuthylazine, metribuzin, metalaxyl-M, iprodione, azoxystrobin) at two dose rates was tested in the compost biomixtures (BX), in corresponding peat biomixtures (OBX), and in soil. Adsorption-desorption of selected pesticides were also studied. Pesticide residues were determined by gas chromatography with nitrogen-phosphorus detector, except indoxacarb, which was determined with a microelectron capture detector. Overall, BX degraded the studied pesticides at rates markedly higher than those observed in soil and OBX, in which the slowest degradation rates were evident. Overall, the olive leaf compost biomixture showed the highest degradation capacity. Adsorption studies showed that OBX and BX had higher adsorption affinity compared to soil. Desorption experiments revealed that pesticide adsorption in biomixtures was not entirely reversible. The results suggest that substitution of peat with local composts will lead to optimization of the biobed system for use in Mediterranean countries. PMID:20666446

  1. Biodegradation of pesticides. (Latest citations from the Biobusiness data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the biological degradation of pesticides. Pesticides such as malathion, parathion and DDT, organophosphates and carbamates, herbicides, fungicides, and rodenticides are examined. Coverage includes the isolation of enzymes specifically able to degrade pesticides, field studies of natural degradation and migration of pesticides, and test tube examination of microbial organisms with the ability to digest pesticides. Degradation products, effects of available nutrients on microbial degradation, and pesticide resistance in natural ecosystems are also discussed. (Contains a minimum of 190 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  2. Estimation of pesticide and transformation product export pathways in a headwater catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gassmann, Matthias; Olsson, Oliver; Stamm, Christian; Weiler, Markus; Lange, Jens; Kümmerer, Klaus

    2014-05-01

    Following their application, pesticide residues are exported towards rivers along several hydrological pathways in agricultural areas. The importance of each pathway is influenced by the substances' physico-chemical characteristics, mainly sorption and degradation. Incomplete mineralization results in the formation of transformation products (TPs) which have generally different environmental fate characteristics than their parent compounds (PCs). Therefore, the export pathways of pesticides and their transformation products towards rivers may also be different. In order to investigate this hypothesis, we extended a distributed process-based hydrological model (ZIN-AgriTra) by the environmental fate of pesticides and their TPs. The process-based nature of the model allowed for an analysis of PC and TP export pathways including overland flow, lateral preferential flow in soils and soil water flow to tile drains. The model was applied to a Swiss headwater catchment using three pesticides and their TPs as test substances. It was successfully calibrated to three sampling stations in the catchment. At the end of the simulated three-months period, most of the applied pesticides were either fully mineralized or incompletely transformed. Less than 2% of each pesticide was exported to the river as PC or TP. Although all three pesticides could be classified as slightly mobile they remained in the top soil layer during the whole period, whereas the more mobile TPs were additionally leached through the soil towards tile drains. Accordingly, PCs were exported largely by surface runoff, while a larger share of TPs was exported via tile drains. Additionally, the delayed formation and degradation of TPs led to an export under different hydrological conditions resulting in an increased subsurface export of TPs towards the end of the simulation period. A consequence of the different export pathways of PCs and TPs could be shown by an assessment of critical source areas (CSA) in the study catchment: CSA for PCs were restricted to small areas whereas CSA for TPs were more equally distributed in the catchment. Our study demonstrates that PCs and their TPs have generally different export pathways in catchments because of their different physico-chemical properties and the delayed formation of TPs. We suggest that these results should be considered in risk assessment of pesticide residues export to adjacent rivers and that catchment scale models should be extended to include both PCs and TPs.

  3. 77 FR 10515 - Pesticide Product Registrations; Conditional Approval

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ...This notice announces Agency approval of an application submitted by HeiQ Materials AG, to conditionally register the pesticide product HeiQ AGS-20 containing a new active ingredient not included in any previously registered products pursuant to the provisions of section 3(c)(7)(C) of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), as...

  4. [Validation study on a multi-residue analysis of pesticides in agricultural products by using phosphoric acid treatment and GC-MS/MS].

    PubMed

    Makabe, Yuhki; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Enomoto, Tomoko; Aikawa, Takehiko

    2014-01-01

    A rapid method for multi-residue determination of pesticides in agricultural products was validated. The sample was cut into pieces and placed into a mixer cup containing half weight amount of 10% phosphoric acid in order to suppress degradation of easily degraded pesticides, represented by captan, and then homogenized. Pesticides in the phosphoric acid-treated sample were extracted with acetonitrile using a homogenizer, followed by salting out with anhydrous magnesium sulfate and sodium chloride. The extract was cleaned up on a C18 and graphite carbon black/PSA mini-cartridge column. Some pesticides gave tailing peaks, but these peaks became sharp and symmetrical when polyethylene glycol (PEG) 300 was added to the test solution. Recovery tests were performed on nine kinds of agricultural products (brown rice, soybean, spinach, cabbage, potato, orange, apple, strawberry, and Japanese pear) fortified with 170 pesticides at 0.01 and 0.1 ?g/g. Each concentration of pesticide residue was extracted from 2 samples on 5 separate days. The trueness of the method for 147-164 pesticides in each sample was 70-120% with satisfactory repeatability and within-run reproducibility. This method is expected to useful for multi-residue analysis of pesticides in agricultural products. PMID:25212821

  5. 40 CFR 165.65 - Registrants who distribute or sell pesticide products in refillable containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... pesticide product does not differ at the time of its distribution or sale from the composition described in... a reaction or interaction between the pesticide product being repackaged and the residue remaining... written description of acceptable containers for the pesticide product. (2) Each time a refiller at...

  6. 9 CFR 318.16 - Pesticide chemicals and other residues in products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pesticide chemicals and other residues... PREPARATION OF PRODUCTS General § 318.16 Pesticide chemicals and other residues in products. (a) Nonmeat ingredients. Residues of pesticide chemicals, food additives and color additives or other substances in or...

  7. 78 FR 4073 - Labeling of Pesticide Products and Devices for Export; Clarification of Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-18

    ...FRL-9360-8] RIN 2070-AJ53 Labeling of Pesticide Products and Devices for Export; Clarification...revising the regulations on the labeling of pesticide products and devices intended solely...that people who transfer unregistered pesticide products between registered...

  8. 78 FR 64938 - Product Cancellation Order for Certain Pesticide Registrations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ... no comments in response to the August 21, 2013 Federal Register notice (78 FR 51721) (FRL-9396-5..., human health, and agricultural advocates; the chemical industry; pesticide users; and members of the... Cancellations EPA Registration No. Product name Chemical name 000100-01125 Impasse Termite...

  9. Partial degradation of five pesticides and an industrial pollutant by ozonation in a pilot-plant scale reactor.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, M I; Malato, S; Pérez-Estrada, L A; Gernjak, W; Oller, I; Doménech, Xavier; Peral, José

    2006-11-16

    Aqueous solutions of a mixture of several pesticides (alachlor, atrazine, chlorfenvinphos, diuron and isoproturon), considered PS (priority substances) by the European Commission, and an intermediate product of the pharmaceutical industry (alpha-methylphenylglycine, MPG) chosen as a model industrial pollutant, have been degraded at pilot-plant scale using ozonation. This study is part of a large research project [CADOX Project, A Coupled Advanced Oxidation-Biological Process for Recycling of Industrial Wastewater Containing Persistent Organic Contaminants, Contract No.: EVK1-CT-2002-00122, European Commission, http://www.psa.es/webeng/projects/cadox/index.html] founded by the European Union that inquires into the potential coupling between chemical and biological oxidations for the removal of toxic or non-biodegradable contaminants from water. The evolution of pollutant concentration, TOC mineralization, generation of inorganic species and consumption of O3 have been followed in order to visualize the chemical treatment effectiveness. Although complete mineralization is hard to accomplish, and large amounts of the oxidant are required to lower the organic content of the solutions, the possibility of ozonation cannot be ruled out if partial degradation is the final goal wanted. In this sense, Zahn-Wellens biodegradability tests of the ozonated MPG solutions have been performed, and the possibility of a further coupling with a secondary biological treatment for complete organic removal is envisaged. PMID:16822610

  10. Pesticides

    MedlinePLUS

    ... are applied during farming and how much pesticide residue can remain in foods sold in stores. Exposure ... at work should be careful about cleaning any residue from their skin, and removing their clothes and ...

  11. 40 CFR 152.8 - Products that are not pesticides because they are not for use against pests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 2013-07-01 false Products that are not pesticides because they are not for use against pests. ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES...

  12. 40 CFR 152.8 - Products that are not pesticides because they are not for use against pests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 2011-07-01 false Products that are not pesticides because they are not for use against pests. ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES...

  13. 40 CFR 152.8 - Products that are not pesticides because they are not for use against pests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 2014-07-01 false Products that are not pesticides because they are not for use against pests. ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES...

  14. 40 CFR 152.8 - Products that are not pesticides because they are not for use against pests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 2012-07-01 false Products that are not pesticides because they are not for use against pests. ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES...

  15. 40 CFR 152.8 - Products that are not pesticides because they are not for use against pests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 false Products that are not pesticides because they are not for use against pests. ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES...

  16. Stereoselective Degradation and Molecular Ecological Mechanism of Chiral Pesticides Beta-Cypermethrin in Soils with Different pH Values.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhong-Hua; Ji, Guo-Dong

    2015-12-15

    For decades, pesticides have been widely used for agricultural activities around the world, and the environmental problems caused by these compounds have raised widespread concern. However, the different enantioselective behaviors of chiral pesticide enantiomers are often ignored. Here, the selective degradation patterns and mechanisms of chiral pesticide enantiomers were successfully investigated for the first time in the soils of three cultivation areas with different pH values. Beta-cypermethrin was chosen as the target analyte. We found that the degradation rates of the four isomers of beta-cypermethrin were different. We used stepwise regression equations between degradation rates and functional genes to quantitatively study their relationships. Quantitative response analysis revealed that different isomers have different equations even under identical conditions. The results of path analysis showed that a single functional gene can make different direct and indirect contributions to the degradation of different isomers. Finally, the high-throughput technology was used to analysis the genome of the three tested soils and then compared the main microbial communities in them. We have successfully devised a method to investigate the molecular biological mechanisms of the selective degradation behavior of chiral compounds, thus enabling us to better understand these mechanisms. PMID:26560831

  17. Long-term lessons on pesticide leaching obtained via the Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenbom, A. E.; Olsen, P.; Plauborg, F.; Grant, R.; Juhler, R. K.; Brüsch, W.; Kjær, J.

    2014-12-01

    To avoid any unacceptable influence on the environment posed by pesticides and their degradation products, all pesticides used in the European Union needs authorization. The authorization procedure includes assessing the leaching risk of both pesticides and their degradation products to the groundwater. There are shortcomings to the procedure, however, as revealed by the results of the Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme from the period 1990/2000 to 2012 (app. twelve years). This monitoring program has for this period assessed leaching into groundwater via the variably-saturated zone of 43 pesticides applied in accordance with current regulations on sandy and loamy agricultural fields, and 47 of their degradation products. Three types of leaching scenario were not fully captured by the authorization procedure: i) long-term leaching of degradation products of pesticides applied on potato crops cultivated in sandy soils, ii) leaching of strongly sorbing pesticides after autumn application on loamy soils, and iii) leaching of various pesticides and their degradation products following early summer application on loamy soils. The monitoring data revealed that the authorization procedure was unable to predict leaching scenarios for a number of pesticides in hydrogeological settings dominated by rapid preferential transport via e.g. biopores that bypasses the retardation (sorption and degradation) of the plow layer. Such settings are primarily present in the autumn, but can also occur during the early summer in connection with the formation of a structural seal on the soil surface.

  18. MEASURING THE TRANSPORT OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING DICARBOXIMIDES AND DEGRADATION PRODUCTS FROM THE SOIL TO THE LOWER TROPOSPHERE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method for measuring the atmospheric flux of a dicarboximide and its degradation products was investigated. A volatile gas laboratory chamber was modified to measure the flux of semi-volatile fungicides. Pesticide application systems and soil incorporation systems were desig...

  19. 75 FR 11175 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... Incorporated, 3406 Pomona Boulevard, Pomona, CA 91768. Product Name: Technical Salicylic Acid. Active Ingredient: Salicylic Acid at 98.7%. Proposed Classification/Use: Manufacturing-use product for...

  20. 76 FR 10026 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-23

    ...are not limited to: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food...Active ingredient: L-lactic acid Proposed Use: Commercial...at 23% and Ethaneperoxoic Acid at 15%. Proposed...

  1. 75 FR 11175 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ...NCA Biotech Incorporated, 3406 Pomona Boulevard, Pomona, CA 91768. Product Name: Technical Salicylic Acid. Active Ingredient: Salicylic Acid at 98.7%. Proposed Classification/Use: Manufacturing-use product for formulation into...

  2. ORGANOPHOSPHATE PESTICIDE DEGRADATION IN THE PRESENCE OF NATURALLY OCCURRING AQUATIC CONSTITUENTS UNDER DRINKING WATER TREATMENT CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Little work to date has solely investigated the kinetics and pathways of pesticide transformations under drinking water treatment conditions. Free chlorine has been found to react with s-triazine, carbamate, and organophosphate pesticides. However, these experimental conditions...

  3. 77 FR 12295 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    ... CP ] Insecticide, Mainspring Insecticide, A16901B Residential Insecticide, A16901B TURF, A17960A ST... genetic material (PHP27118 T-DNA) necessary for its production in Event DP- 4114-3 corn and Bacillus... production in Event DP- 4114-3 corn at less than 0.1%. Proposed classification/Use: Seed increase/...

  4. 40 CFR 152.8 - Products that are not pesticides because they are not for use against pests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Products that are not pesticides... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES General Provisions § 152.8 Products that are not pesticides because they are not for use against pests. A...

  5. 75 FR 19388 - Pesticide Product; Registration Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-14

    ...receipt of this application does not imply a decision by the Agency on the application. File Symbol: 524-LOU. Applicant: Monsanto Company, 1300 I St., NW., Suite 450 East, Washington, DC 20005. Product name: MON 87701. Active ingredient:...

  6. 77 FR 38285 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-27

    ...98332. Product name: PM-4300 Organic Acids. Active ingredient: Plant growth regulator with Organic Acids derived from Leonardite at 18...Plant growth regulator with Organic Acids derived from Leonardite at...

  7. 76 FR 5805 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-02

    ...ingredient: Plant growth regulator, Salicylic Acid, at 0.04%. Proposed classification...ingredient: Plant growth regulator, Salicylic Acid, at 0.0067%. Proposed classification...Harbor, WA 98332. Product name: Salicylic Acid Technical. Active...

  8. 75 FR 4384 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ... herbicide for the control of annual grasses and broadleaf weeds in forest areas. Contact: Bethany Benbow... into herbicide products intended for use in/on bare ground non-crop areas, conifers, deciduous...

  9. 77 FR 6560 - Pesticide Product Registration Approval

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-08

    ... the Federal Register of June 10, 2009 (74 FR 27541) (FRL-8413-2), which announced that Lubrizol, 29400...) Regulatory Public Docket in Rm. S- 4400, One Potomac Yard (South Bldg.), 2777 S. Crystal Dr., Arlington, VA... product, Contram ST-1, as an antimicrobial preservative to inhibit the growth of bacteria and fungi...

  10. 75 FR 3235 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    .... Crystal Dr., Arlington, VA. Deliveries are only accepted during the Docket Facility's normal hours of..., at the OPP Regulatory Public Docket in Rm. S-4400, One Potomac Yard (South Bldg.), 2777 S. Crystal Dr..., Collierville, TN 38017. Product name: Carbon Power Concentrate. Plant growth regulator. Active...

  11. 75 FR 5077 - Pesticide Product; Registration Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ... transporting food. In addition, the NOP (National Organic Program) has approved both of these ingredients for... may be potentially affected by this action if you are an agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or... (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311)....

  12. Chemical degradation of trimethyl phosphate as surrogate for organo-phosporus pesticides on nanostructured metal oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Štengl, Václav Henych, Ji?í; Grygar, Tomáš; Pérez, Raúl

    2015-01-15

    Nanostructured TiO{sub 2} and mixed oxides of Ti and Fe, Hf, In, Mn or Zr -were prepared by homogeneous hydrolysis of aqueous solution of metal sulphates with urea. The oxides were characterised by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy, particle size distribution, surface area and porosity. The oxide materials consists of a few nanometre primary crystals (mainly anatase) arranged in a few micrometre regular spherical agglomerates with specific surface area 133–511 m{sup 2} g{sup ?1}. The FTIR diffuse spectroscopy was used for monitoring chemical degradation of trimethylphosphate (TMP) as a surrogate for organo-phosphorus pesticides under ambient and higher temperatures. Undoped TiO{sub 2} and Ti,Mn-mixed oxide were most active in cleavage (hydrolysis) of CH{sub 3}O from TMP at room temperature and 100 °C. Cleavage of CH{sub 3}O in the other studied mixed oxides was not complete until temperature exceeds the boiling point of TMP.

  13. 40 CFR 165.65 - Registrants who distribute or sell pesticide products in refillable containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... product into a refillable container up to the rated capacity of the container. In addition, there are no... a reaction or interaction between the pesticide product being repackaged and the residue remaining... removal procedure before repackaging the pesticide product into the refillable container. In...

  14. 40 CFR 165.65 - Registrants who distribute or sell pesticide products in refillable containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... product into a refillable container up to the rated capacity of the container. In addition, there are no... a reaction or interaction between the pesticide product being repackaged and the residue remaining... removal procedure before repackaging the pesticide product into the refillable container. In...

  15. Mechanism and kinetic properties for OH-initiated atmospheric degradation of the organophosphorus pesticide diazinon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Qin; Sun, Xiaoyan; Gao, Rui; Hu, Jingtian

    2011-06-01

    Diazinon is a member of the organophosphorus class of insecticides. It has been regarded as an important atmospheric pollutant because of its high detection-frequency in the air and potential adverse effects on humans and wildlife. In this paper, the reaction mechanism and possible degradation products for the OH-initiated atmospheric degradation of diazinon were investigated and the rate constants of crucial elementary steps over the temperature range of 180-370 K were predicted. Present results show that OH addition to C4 atom in the pyrimidyl ring, H abstraction from the -CH- moiety as well as OH addition to P atom are the dominant pathways for the reaction of diazinon with OH radicals. The dominant degradation products are diazoxon, SO 2, P3, CH 3CHO, P4, CH 3CO, P14 as well as CH 3CHCH 3. This work provides a comprehensive investigation of the OH-initiated atmospheric degradation of diazinon and should help to clarify its potential risk to non-targets.

  16. 78 FR 32246 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications for New Active Ingredients

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ...EPA has received several applications to register pesticide products containing active ingredients not included in any currently registered pesticide products. Pursuant to the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), EPA is hereby providing notice of receipt and opportunity to comment on these...

  17. 77 FR 75152 - Notice of Receipt of Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-19

    ...EPA has received applications to register pesticide products containing an active ingredient not included in any currently registered pesticide products. Pursuant to the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), EPA is hereby providing notice of receipt and opportunity to comment on these...

  18. 77 FR 59610 - Flonicamid; Applications To Add New Food Uses on Previously Registered Pesticide Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-28

    ... AGENCY Flonicamid; Applications To Add New Food Uses on Previously Registered Pesticide Products AGENCY... applications to add new food uses on previously registered pesticide products containing the insecticide... information that is claimed as CBI. In addition to one complete version of the comment that...

  19. 77 FR 48519 - Registration Applications for Pesticide Products Containing New Active Ingredients

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-14

    ... AGENCY Registration Applications for Pesticide Products Containing New Active Ingredients AGENCY... register pesticide products containing new active ingredients not included in any currently registered... the comment that includes information claimed as CBI, a copy of the comment that does not contain...

  20. Assessment of model uncertainty during the river export modelling of pesticides and transformation products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gassmann, Matthias; Olsson, Oliver; Kümmerer, Klaus

    2013-04-01

    The modelling of organic pollutants in the environment is burdened by a load of uncertainties. Not only parameter values are uncertain but often also the mass and timing of pesticide application. By introducing transformation products (TPs) into modelling, further uncertainty coming from the dependence of these substances on their parent compounds and the introduction of new model parameters are likely. The purpose of this study was the investigation of the behaviour of a parsimonious catchment scale model for the assessment of river concentrations of the insecticide Chlorpyrifos (CP) and two of its TPs, Chlorpyrifos Oxon (CPO) and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) under the influence of uncertain input parameter values. Especially parameter uncertainty and pesticide application uncertainty were investigated by Global Sensitivity Analysis (GSA) and the Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE) method, based on Monte-Carlo sampling. GSA revealed that half-lives and sorption parameters as well as half-lives and transformation parameters were correlated to each other. This means, that the concepts of modelling sorption and degradation/transformation were correlated. Thus, it may be difficult in modelling studies to optimize parameter values for these modules. Furthermore, we could show that erroneous pesticide application mass and timing were compensated during Monte-Carlo sampling by changing the half-life of CP. However, the introduction of TCP into the calculation of the objective function was able to enhance identifiability of pesticide application mass. The GLUE analysis showed that CP and TCP were modelled successfully, but CPO modelling failed with high uncertainty and insensitive parameters. We assumed a structural error of the model which was especially important for CPO assessment. This shows that there is the possibility that a chemical and some of its TPs can be modelled successfully by a specific model structure, but for other TPs, the model structure may not be suitable. Concluding, this study confirmed that the introduction of TPs into pesticide fate and export modelling from hydrological catchments amplifies parameter uncertainty and model structure uncertainty.

  1. Productivity, pesticides, and management of the Peregrine Falcon in Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    In the decade since research commenced with the Peregrine in Arizona, over 60 sites have been identified which historically or presently are occupied by breeding pairs. Productivity was determined for about 120 breeding attempts from 1975-85. Almost all sites, for which productivity information is available for two or more years, have hatched young. Average values for fledging success were ca. 1.4 young/attempt for all active sites and ca. 2.3 young/attempt for successful sites. Eggshell thickness values were highly varied, but few samples reflect thinning sufficient to cause reproductive failure, and the population appears to be increasing slightly. Management practices which can further benefit the falcon include: controlling pesticide use, habitat protection, and information management.

  2. 77 FR 77077 - Pesticide Product Registration; Receipt of Applications for New Uses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ... pesticide products containing currently registered active ingredients. Pursuant to the Federal Insecticide... Triangle Park, NC 27709. Active Ingredient: Spirotetramat. Product Type: Insecticide. Proposed Uses...: Insecticide. Proposed Use: To control darkling beetles in poultry house litter. Contact: Linda DeLuise,...

  3. Occurrence of pesticide residues and transformation products in different types of dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Páleníková, Agneša; Martínez-Domínguez, Gerardo; Arrebola, Francisco Javier; Romero-González, Roberto; Hrouzková, Svetlana; Garrido Frenich, Antonia

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the presence of pesticide residues and transformation products in dietary supplement products. Thirty-two samples were analysed to determine 177 pesticides by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) and 333 pesticides by liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). Pesticides were extracted from different kinds of dietary supplements by the use of a modified QuEChERS extraction method. Six samples contained pesticide residues at concentration up to 92.7 µg kg(-1), but only butralin exceeded the maximum residue limits set for raw material. In addition to target compounds, LC-HRMS enables the simultaneous detection of non-target pesticides. In this case, transformation products of pesticides were detected in the analysed samples using HRMS analyser (Exactive-Orbitrap). These compounds were not included in the original method, and they were monitored as post-target compounds, knowing their molecular formula and exact mass. Mass accuracy was always < 2 ppm, corresponding to a maximum mass error. The positive findings endorse the idea that a deeper and continuous investigation of pesticide residues and transformation products in dietary supplement products is necessary in order to guaranty consumer's safety. PMID:25856415

  4. Particulate and gas-phase products from the atmospheric degradation of chlorpyrifos and chlorpyrifos-oxon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrás, Esther; Ródenas, Milagros; Vázquez, Mónica; Vera, Teresa; Muñoz, Amalia

    2015-12-01

    The phosphorothioate structure is highly present in several pesticides. However, there is a lack of information about its degradation process in air and the secondary pollutants formed. Herein, the atmospheric reactions of chlorpyrifos, one of the most world-used insecticide, and its main degradation product - chlorpyrifos-oxon - are described. The photo-oxidation under the presence of NOx was studied in a large outdoor simulation chamber for both chlorpyrifos and chlorpyrifos-oxon, observing a rapid degradation (Half lifetime < 3.5 h for both compounds). Also, the photolysis reactions of both were studied. The formation of particulate matter (aerosol mass yield ranged 6-59%) and gaseous products were monitored. The chemical composition of minor products was studied, identifying 15 multi-oxygenated derivatives. The most abundant products were ring-retaining molecules such as 3,5,6-trichloropyridin-2-ol and ethyl 3,5,6-trichloropyridin-2-yl hydrogen phosphate. An atmospheric degradation mechanism has been amplified based on an oxidation started with OH-nucleophilic attack to Pdbnd S bond.

  5. Degradation products of rubusoside under acidic conditions.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Indra; Bunders, Cynthia; Devkota, Krishna P; Charan, Romila D; Hartz, Rachael M; Sears, Tracy L; Snyder, Tara M; Ramirez, Catherine

    2015-04-01

    A natural sweetener, Rubusoside (1), subjected to extreme pH and temperature conditions, resulted in the isolation and structural elucidation of one novel rubusoside degradant (7), together with seven known degradants (2-6 and 8-9). ID and 2D NMR spectroscopy (1H, 13C, COSY, HSQC-DEPT, HMBC, and NOESY) and mass spectral data were used to fully characterize the degradant 7. PMID:25973475

  6. Vitamin C Degradation Products and Pathways in the Human Lens*

    PubMed Central

    Nemet, Ina; Monnier, Vincent M.

    2011-01-01

    Vitamin C and its degradation products participate in chemical modifications of proteins in vivo through non-enzymatic glycation (Maillard reaction) and formation of different products called advanced glycation end products. Vitamin C levels are particularly high in selected tissues, such as lens, brain and adrenal gland, and its degradation products can inflict substantial protein damage via formation of advanced glycation end products. However, the pathways of in vivo vitamin C degradation are poorly understood. Here we have determined the levels of vitamin C oxidation and degradation products dehydroascorbic acid, 2,3-diketogulonic acid, 3-deoxythreosone, xylosone, and threosone in the human lens using o-phenylenediamine to trap both free and protein-bound adducts. In the protein-free fraction and water-soluble proteins (WSP), all five listed degradation products were identified. Dehydroascorbic acid, 2,3-diketogulonic acid, and 3-deoxythreosone were the major products in the protein-free fraction, whereas in the WSP, 3-deoxythreosone was the most abundant measured dicarbonyl. In addition, 3-deoxythreosone in WSP showed positive linear correlation with age (p < 0.05). In water-insoluble proteins, only 3-deoxythreosone and threosone were detected, whereby the level of 3-deoxythreosone was ?20 times higher than the level of threosone. The identification of 3-deoxythreosone as the major degradation product bound to human lens proteins provides in vivo evidence for the non-oxidative pathway of dehydroascorbate degradation into erythrulose as a major pathway for vitamin C degradation in vivo. PMID:21885436

  7. Vitamin C degradation products and pathways in the human lens.

    PubMed

    Nemet, Ina; Monnier, Vincent M

    2011-10-28

    Vitamin C and its degradation products participate in chemical modifications of proteins in vivo through non-enzymatic glycation (Maillard reaction) and formation of different products called advanced glycation end products. Vitamin C levels are particularly high in selected tissues, such as lens, brain and adrenal gland, and its degradation products can inflict substantial protein damage via formation of advanced glycation end products. However, the pathways of in vivo vitamin C degradation are poorly understood. Here we have determined the levels of vitamin C oxidation and degradation products dehydroascorbic acid, 2,3-diketogulonic acid, 3-deoxythreosone, xylosone, and threosone in the human lens using o-phenylenediamine to trap both free and protein-bound adducts. In the protein-free fraction and water-soluble proteins (WSP), all five listed degradation products were identified. Dehydroascorbic acid, 2,3-diketogulonic acid, and 3-deoxythreosone were the major products in the protein-free fraction, whereas in the WSP, 3-deoxythreosone was the most abundant measured dicarbonyl. In addition, 3-deoxythreosone in WSP showed positive linear correlation with age (p < 0.05). In water-insoluble proteins, only 3-deoxythreosone and threosone were detected, whereby the level of 3-deoxythreosone was ?20 times higher than the level of threosone. The identification of 3-deoxythreosone as the major degradation product bound to human lens proteins provides in vivo evidence for the non-oxidative pathway of dehydroascorbate degradation into erythrulose as a major pathway for vitamin C degradation in vivo. PMID:21885436

  8. EXPOSURE OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN TO CHLORPYRIFOS AND ITS DEGRADATION PRODUCT 3,5,6-TRICHLORO-2-PYRIDINOL IN THEIR EVERYDAY ENVIRONMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the Children's Total Exposure to Persistent Pesticides and Other Persistent Organic Pollutants (CTEPP) study, we investigated the exposures of preschool children to chlorpyrifos and its degradation product 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) in their everyday environment...

  9. Biodegradation and bioremediation potential of diazinon-degrading Serratia marcescens to remove other organophosphorus pesticides from soils.

    PubMed

    Cyco?, Mariusz; ?mijowska, Agnieszka; Wójcik, Marcin; Piotrowska-Seget, Zofia

    2013-03-15

    The ability of diazinon-degrading Serratia marcescens to remove organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs), i.e. chlorpyrifos (CP), fenitrothion (FT), and parathion (PT) was studied in a mineral salt medium (MSM) and in three soils of different characteristics. This strain was capable of using all insecticides at concentration of 50 mg/l as the only carbon source when grown in MSM, and 58.9%, 70.5%, and 82.5% of the initial dosage of CP, FT, and PT, respectively was degraded within 14 days. The biodegradation experiment showed that autochthonous microflora in all soils was characterized by a degradation potential of all tested OPPs; however, the initial lag phases for degradation of CP and FT, especially in sandy soil, were observed. During the 42-day experiment, 45.3%, 61.4% and 72.5% of the initial dose of CP, FT, and PT, respectively, was removed in sandy soil whereas the degradation of CP, FT, and PT in the same period, in sandy loam and silty soils reached 61.4%, 79.7% and 64.2%, and 68.9%, 81.0% and 63.6%, respectively. S. marcescens introduced into sterile soils showed a higher degradation potential (5-13%) for OPPs removal than those observed in non-sterile soil with naturally occurring attenuation. Inoculation of non-sterile soils with S. marcescens enhanced the disappearance rates of all insecticides, and DT50 for CP, FT, and PT was reduced by 20.7, 11.3 and 13.0 days, and 11.9, 7.0 and 8.1 days, and 9.7, 14.5 and 12.6 days in sandy, sandy loam, and silty soils, respectively, in comparison with non-sterile soils with only indigenous microflora. This ability of S. marcescens makes it a suitable strain for bioremediation of soils contaminated with OPPs. PMID:23333465

  10. 78 FR 75343 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications for New Active Ingredients

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ...McNally, Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division (7511P...are an agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide...production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311...ground and aerial applications to food and non-food crops,...

  11. Determination of Vapor Pressure-Temperature Relationships of Current Use Pesticides and Transformation Products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sub-cooled liquid vapor pressures of current use organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides (chlorothalonil, chlorpyrifos methyl, diazinon, fipronil) and selected transformation products (chlorpyrifos oxon, heptachlor epoxide, oxychlordane, 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol) were determined at multiple...

  12. 75 FR 6386 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications for a New Active Ingredient Chemical; Demiditraz

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-09

    ...agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide...NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS...products containing active ingredients not included in any previously...CA Acaricide. Active ingredient: Insecticide and Demiditraz...Spot on treatment for dogs. List of Subjects...

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF A STRUCTURE-SEARCHABLE DATABASE FOR PESTICIDE METABOLITES AND ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    USEPA is modifying and enhancing existing software for the depiction of metabolic maps to provide access via structures to metabolism information and associated data in EPA's Office of Pesticide Programs (OPP). The database includes information submitted to EPA in support of pest...

  14. DESIGNING PESTICIDE METABOLIC PATHWAY/DEGRADATE DATABASES FOR REGISTRANT SUBMITTED HEALTH EFFECTS/ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    OPPTS requires information on the toxic effects of pesticide metabolites as well as the parent chemical. Currently, OPP receives metabolic maps with registrant study data submissions, but there is no efficient way to access previously submitted maps on similar chemicals to help w...

  15. 76 FR 17607 - Receipt of Request To Require Pesticide Products To Be Labeled in English and Spanish

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-30

    ...and 170 Receipt of Request To Require Pesticide Products To Be Labeled in English and...groups have petitioned EPA to require all pesticide labels be available in both English and...submitting comments. Mail: Office of Pesticide Programs (OPP) Regulatory Public...

  16. Degradation of caffeic acid in subcritical water and online HPLC-DPPH assay of degradation products.

    PubMed

    Khuwijitjaru, Pramote; Suaylam, Boonyanuch; Adachi, Shuji

    2014-02-26

    Caffeic acid was subjected to degradation under subcritical water conditions within 160-240 °C and at a constant pressure of 5 MPa in a continuous tubular reactor. Caffeic acid degraded quickly at these temperatures; the main products identified by liquid chromatography-diode array detection/mass spectrometry were hydroxytyrosol, protocatechuic aldehyde, and 4-vinylcatechol. The reaction rates for the degradation of caffeic acid and the formation of products were evaluated. Online high-performance liquid chromatography/2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl assay was used to determine the antioxidant activity of each product in the solution. It was found that the overall antioxidant activity of the treated solution did not change during the degradation process. This study showed a potential of formation of antioxidants from natural phenolic compounds under these subcritical water conditions, and this may lead to a discovering of novel antioxidants compounds during the extraction by this technique. PMID:24483598

  17. 77 FR 43595 - Product Cancellation Order for Certain Pesticide Registrations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-25

    ...health, and agricultural advocates; the chemical industry; pesticide users; and members...T.B.Q. Germicidal Alkyl dimethyl Detergent. benzyl ammonium chloride (50%C14...Mason Chemical Co., 721 W. Algonquin Rd.,...

  18. 75 FR 30829 - Antimicrobial Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ... producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide manufacturer. Potentially affected entities may include, but are...-2010-0325. Company name and address: NanoSilva, LLC, 2811 NE 14th Street, Ocala, FL 34470....

  19. DETERMINATION OF HEAVY METALS AND PESTICIDES IN GINSENG PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Medicinal plants may carry residuals of environmentally persistent pesticides or assimilate heavy metals in varying degrees. Several factors may influence contaminant accumulation, including species, level and duration of contaminant exposure, and topography. As part of a progra...

  20. Identification and Characterization of a Pesticide Degrading Flavobacterium Species EMBS0145 by 16S rRNA Gene Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Nayarisseri, Anuraj; Suppahia, Anjana; Nadh, Anuroopa G; Nair, Achuthsankar S

    2015-06-01

    Organophosphates like chlorpyrifos, diazinon, or malathion have become most common and indisputably most toxic pest control agents that adversely affects the human nervous system even at low levels of exposure. Because of their relatively low cost and ability to be applied on a wide range of target insects and crop, organophosphorus pesticides account for a large share of all insecticides used in India, and this in turn raises severe health concerns. In this view, the present investigation was aimed to identify novel species of Flavobacterium bacteria which is bestowed with the capacity to degrade pesticides like chlorpyrifos, diazinon, or malathion. The bacterium was isolated from agricultural soil collected from Guntur District, Andhra Pradesh, India. The samples were serially diluted, and the aliquots were incubated for a suitable time following which the suspected colony was subjected to 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The sequence thus obtained was aligned pairwise against Flavobacterium species, which resulted in identification of novel species of Flavobacterium later which was named as EMBS0145 and sequence was deposited in GenBank with Accession Number: JN794045. PMID:26202942

  1. Identification and characterization of a pesticide degrading flavobacterium species EMBS0145 by 16S rRNA gene sequencing.

    PubMed

    Nayarisseri, Anuraj; Suppahia, Anjana; Nadh, Anuroopa G; Nair, Achuthsankar S

    2014-08-01

    Organophosphates (OPs) like chlorpyrifos, diazinon, or malathion have become most common and indisputably most toxic pest-control agents that adversely affects the human nervous system even at low levels of exposure. Because of their relatively low cost and ability to be applied on a wide range of target insects and crop, organophosphorus pesticides account for a large share of all insecticides used in India, this in turn raises severe health concerns. In this view, the present investigation was aimed to identify novel species of Flavobacterium bacteria which is bestowed with the capacity to degrade pesticides like chlorpyrifos, diazinon or malathion. The bacterium was isolated from agricultural soil collected from Guntur District, Andhra Pradesh, India. The samples were serially diluted and the aliquots were incubated for a suitable time following which the suspected colony was subjected to 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The sequence thus obtained was aligned pairwise against Flavobacterium species, which resulted in identification of novel species of Flavobacterium later which was named as EMBS0145 and sequence was deposited in GenBank with accession number JN794045. PMID:25125136

  2. 21 CFR 864.7320 - Fibrinogen/fibrin degradation products assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Fibrinogen/fibrin degradation products assay. 864...Packages § 864.7320 Fibrinogen/fibrin degradation products assay. (a) Identification. A fibrinogen/fibrin degradation products assay is a...

  3. 21 CFR 864.7320 - Fibrinogen/fibrin degradation products assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Fibrinogen/fibrin degradation products assay. 864...Packages § 864.7320 Fibrinogen/fibrin degradation products assay. (a) Identification. A fibrinogen/fibrin degradation products assay is a...

  4. 21 CFR 864.7320 - Fibrinogen/fibrin degradation products assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Fibrinogen/fibrin degradation products assay. 864...Packages § 864.7320 Fibrinogen/fibrin degradation products assay. (a) Identification. A fibrinogen/fibrin degradation products assay is a...

  5. 21 CFR 864.7320 - Fibrinogen/fibrin degradation products assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Fibrinogen/fibrin degradation products assay. 864...Packages § 864.7320 Fibrinogen/fibrin degradation products assay. (a) Identification. A fibrinogen/fibrin degradation products assay is a...

  6. 21 CFR 864.7320 - Fibrinogen/fibrin degradation products assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Fibrinogen/fibrin degradation products assay. 864.7320 Section 864.7320...Fibrinogen/fibrin degradation products assay. (a) Identification. A fibrinogen/fibrin degradation products assay is a device used to detect...

  7. PR notice 87-6. Notice to manufacturers, formulators, procedures, and registrants of pesticide products

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-05-01

    The document is one in the series of Pesticide Regulatory Notices, usually called PR Notices, which supplement the laws and regulations governing pesticide regulation in the US. These notices clarify, interpret and explain regulatory requirements and policies. They are directed at pesticide registrants and other parties interested in detailed procedures of regulation. This notice announces certain policies designed to reduce the potential for adverse effects from the use of pesticide products containing toxic inert ingredients. The agency is encouraging the use of the least toxic inert ingredient available and requiring the development of data necessary to determine the conditions of safe use of products containing toxic inert ingredients. In support of these policies, the Agency has categorized inert ingredients according to toxicity.

  8. What Is a Pesticide?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Ingredients Used in Pesticide Products Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Basic Information about Pesticide Ingredients ... pesticide's distribution, sale, and use only after the company meets the scientific and regulatory requirements. In evaluating ...

  9. National Pesticide Information Center

    MedlinePLUS

    National Pesticide Information Center npic@ace.orst.edu 1.800.858.7378 Index A B C D E F ... Your Pest Control Your Pest Integrated Pest Management Pesticide Ingredients Active Ingredients Other/Inert Ingredients Pesticide Products ...

  10. 75 FR 6386 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications for a New Active Ingredient Chemical; Demiditraz

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-09

    ... pesticide products. Pursuant to the provisions of section 3(c)(4) of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and.... Product name: Demiditraz Technical. Active ingredient: Insecticide and Demiditraz at 100%. Proposed...., Kalamazoo, MI 49001. Product name: CA Acaricide. Active ingredient: Insecticide and Demiditraz at...

  11. Target product profile choices for intra-domiciliary malaria vector control pesticide products: repel or kill?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The most common pesticide products for controlling malaria-transmitting mosquitoes combine two distinct modes of action: 1) conventional insecticidal activity which kills mosquitoes exposed to the pesticide and 2) deterrence of mosquitoes away from protected humans. While deterrence enhances personal or household protection of long-lasting insecticidal nets and indoor residual sprays, it may also attenuate or even reverse communal protection if it diverts mosquitoes to non-users rather than killing them outright. Methods A process-explicit model of malaria transmission is described which captures the sequential interaction between deterrent and toxic actions of vector control pesticides and accounts for the distinctive impacts of toxic activities which kill mosquitoes before or after they have fed upon the occupant of a covered house or sleeping space. Results Increasing deterrency increases personal protection but consistently reduces communal protection because deterrent sub-lethal exposure inevitably reduces the proportion subsequently exposed to higher lethal doses. If the high coverage targets of the World Health Organization are achieved, purely toxic products with no deterrence are predicted to generally provide superior protection to non-users and even users, especially where vectors feed exclusively on humans and a substantial amount of transmission occurs outdoors. Remarkably, this is even the case if that product confers no personal protection and only kills mosquitoes after they have fed. Conclusions Products with purely mosquito-toxic profiles may, therefore, be preferable for programmes with universal coverage targets, rather than those with equivalent toxicity but which also have higher deterrence. However, if purely mosquito-toxic products confer little personal protection because they do not deter mosquitoes and only kill them after they have fed, then they will require aggressive "catch up" campaigns, with behaviour change communication strategies that emphasize the communal nature of protection, to achieve high coverage rapidly. PMID:21798023

  12. 75 FR 52329 - Corn Event MON 863 and MON 863 x MON 810; Product Cancellation Order for Certain Pesticide...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-25

    ... Register issued on June 26, 1991 (56 FR 29362), as those stocks of registered pesticide products which are... AGENCY Corn Event MON 863 and MON 863 x MON 810; Product Cancellation Order for Certain Pesticide... Cry3Bb1 protein and the genetic material necessary for its production (vector PV-ZMIR13L) in MON 863...

  13. Eleven-year trend in acetanilide pesticide degradates in the Iowa River, Iowa.

    PubMed

    Kalkhoff, Stephen J; Vecchia, Aldo V; Capel, Paul D; Meyer, Michael T

    2012-01-01

    Trends in concentration and loads of acetochlor, alachlor, and metolachlor and their ethanasulfonic (ESA) and oxanilic (OXA) acid degradates were studied from 1996 through 2006 in the main stem of the Iowa River, Iowa and in the South Fork Iowa River, a small tributary near the headwaters of the Iowa River. Concentration trends were determined using the parametric regression model SEAWAVE-Q, which accounts for seasonal and flow-related variability. Daily estimated concentrations generated from the model were used with daily streamflow to calculate daily and yearly loads. Acetochlor, alachlor, metolachlor, and their ESA and OXA degradates were generally present in >50% of the samples collected from both sites throughout the study. Their concentrations generally decreased from 1996 through 2006, although the rate of decrease was slower after 2001. Concentrations of the ESA and OXA degradates decreased from 3 to about 23% yr. The concentration trend was related to the decreasing use of these compounds during the study period. Decreasing concentrations and constant runoff resulted in an average reduction of 10 to >3000 kg per year of alachlor and metolachlor ESA and OXA degradates being transported out of the Iowa River watershed. Transport of acetochlor and metolachlor parent compounds and their degradates from the Iowa River watershed ranged from <1% to about 6% of the annual application. These trends were related to the decreasing use of these compounds during the study period, but the year-to-year variability cannot explain changes in loads based on herbicide use alone. The trends were also affected by the timing and amount of precipitation. As expected, increased amounts of water moving through the watershed moved a greater percentage of the applied herbicides, especially the relatively soluble degradates, from the soils into the rivers through surface runoff, shallow groundwater inflow, and subsurface drainage. PMID:23099949

  14. Eleven-year trend in acetanilide pesticide degradates in the Iowa River, Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kalkhoff, Stephen J.; Vecchia, Aldo V.; Capel, Paul D.; Meyer, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    Trends in concentration and loads of acetochlor, alachlor, and metolachlor and their ethanasulfonic (ESA) and oxanilic (OXA) acid degradates were studied from 1996 through 2006 in the main stem of the Iowa River, Iowa and in the South Fork Iowa River, a small tributary near the headwaters of the Iowa River. Concentration trends were determined using the parametric regression model SEAWAVE-Q, which accounts for seasonal and flow-related variability. Daily estimated concentrations generated from the model were used with daily streamflow to calculate daily and yearly loads. Acetochlor, alachlor, metolachlor, and their ESA and OXA degradates were generally present in >50% of the samples collected from both sites throughout the study. Their concentrations generally decreased from 1996 through 2006, although the rate of decrease was slower after 2001. Concentrations of the ESA and OXA degradates decreased from 3 to about 23% yr-1. The concentration trend was related to the decreasing use of these compounds during the study period. Decreasing concentrations and constant runoff resulted in an average reduction of 10 to >3000 kg per year of alachlor and metolachlor ESA and OXA degradates being transported out of the Iowa River watershed. Transport of acetochlor and metolachlor parent compounds and their degradates from the Iowa River watershed ranged from <1% to about 6% of the annual application. These trends were related to the decreasing use of these compounds during the study period, but the year-to-year variability cannot explain changes in loads based on herbicide use alone. The trends were also affected by the timing and amount of precipitation. As expected, increased amounts of water moving through the watershed moved a greater percentage of the applied herbicides, especially the relatively soluble degradates, from the soils into the rivers through surface runoff, shallow groundwater inflow, and subsurface drainage.

  15. 76 FR 34979 - Product Cancellation Order for Certain Pesticide Registrations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-15

    ... no comments in response to the November 10, 2010 Federal Register notice (75 FR 69070) (FRL-8851-9... chemical industry; pesticide users; and members of the public interested in the sale, distribution, or use..., Philadelphia, PA 19106-2399. 5905 Helena Chemical Company, 7664 Moore Road, Memphis, TN 38120. 6218...

  16. SAFE PESTICIDES/SAFE PRODUCTS MULTI-YEAR PLAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Additional research on pesticides and toxics provides results that support the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) and Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). EPA's multi-year research plan establishes four long-term goals, designed to enhance the Agency's Off...

  17. Qualitative Profiling of Polyglucose Degradation Products in Peritoneal Dialysis Fluids.

    PubMed

    Gensberger, Sabrina; Knabner, Carina; Waibel, Reiner; Huppert, Jochen; Pischetsrieder, Monika

    2015-06-16

    Heat sterilization of peritoneal dialysis (PD) fluids leads to partial degradation of the osmotic agent to form reactive carbonyl structures, which significantly reduce the biocompatibility of PD fluids and impair long-term PD therapy. Hence, it is important to know the exact composition of the degradation products to improve biocompatibility of PD fluids. Our study conducted targeted screening for degradation products in polyglucose (icodextrin)-containing PD fluids (pGDPs) by applying o-phenylenediamine (OPD) to form stable derivatives, which were analyzed by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography with hyphenated diode array tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-DAD-MS/MS). For the first time, specific degradation products of polyglucose, namely, 4-deoxyglucosone (4-DG) and 3,4-dideoxypentosone (3,4-DDPS), could be identified in PD fluids. Further, a reaction product of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) and OPD could be characterized to be (5-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)furan-2-yl)methanol. Additionally, 3-deoxyglucosone (3-DG) and 3-deoxygalactosone (3-DGal), both known to be present in glucose-based PD fluids, were also detected in polyglucose-containing fluids. Trapping a hitherto unknown degradation product with OPD yielded 1,4-bis(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)-3,4-dihydroxybutan-1-one, which was present in heat- as well as filter-sterilized PD fluids. PMID:25970747

  18. 40 CFR 158.2030 - Biochemical pesticides product chemistry data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... chemistry data requirements table. 158.2030 Section 158.2030 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... § 158.2030 Biochemical pesticides product chemistry data requirements table. (a) General. (1) Sections 158.100 through 158.130 describe how to use this table to determine the product chemistry...

  19. 40 CFR 158.2030 - Biochemical pesticides product chemistry data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... chemistry data requirements table. 158.2030 Section 158.2030 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... § 158.2030 Biochemical pesticides product chemistry data requirements table. (a) General. (1) Sections 158.100 through 158.130 describe how to use this table to determine the product chemistry...

  20. 40 CFR 158.2030 - Biochemical pesticides product chemistry data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... chemistry data requirements table. 158.2030 Section 158.2030 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... § 158.2030 Biochemical pesticides product chemistry data requirements table. (a) General. (1) Sections 158.100 through 158.130 describe how to use this table to determine the product chemistry...

  1. 40 CFR 158.2030 - Biochemical pesticides product chemistry data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... chemistry data requirements table. 158.2030 Section 158.2030 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... § 158.2030 Biochemical pesticides product chemistry data requirements table. (a) General. (1) Sections 158.100 through 158.130 describe how to use this table to determine the product chemistry...

  2. 40 CFR 158.2030 - Biochemical pesticides product chemistry data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... chemistry data requirements table. 158.2030 Section 158.2030 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... § 158.2030 Biochemical pesticides product chemistry data requirements table. (a) General. (1) Sections 158.100 through 158.130 describe how to use this table to determine the product chemistry...

  3. Organophosphorus (OP) Pesticide Degradation in the Presence of Chlorinated Oxidants: Kinetics, Modeling, and Structure-Activity Relationships

    EPA Science Inventory

    The rates and pathways for pesticide transformation during drinking water treatment are known for only a few pesticides and under limited conditions. The resulting oxons are more toxic than the parent pesticides. The transformation rates and pathways for chlorpyrifos, an OP pest...

  4. 21 CFR 864.7320 - Fibrinogen/fibrin degradation products assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fibrinogen/fibrin degradation products assay. 864....7320 Fibrinogen/fibrin degradation products assay. (a) Identification. A fibrinogen/fibrin degradation products assay is a device used to detect and measure fibrinogen degradation products and...

  5. Solvent degradation products in nuclear fuel processing solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Shook, H.E. Jr.

    1988-06-01

    The Savannah River Plant uses a modified Purex process to recover enriched uranium and separate fission products. This process uses 7.5% tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) dissolved in normal paraffin hydrocarbons for the solvent extraction of a nitric acid solution containing the materials to be separated. Periodic problems in product decontamination result from solvent degradation. A study to improve process efficiency has identified certain solvent degradation products and suggested mitigation measures. Undecanoic acid, lauric acid, and tridecanoic acid were tentatively identified as diluent degradation products in recycle solvent. These long-chain organic acids affect phase separation and lead to low decontamination factors. Solid phase extraction (SPE) was used to concentrate the organic acids in solvent prior to analysis by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). SPE and HPLC methods were optimized in this work for analysis of decanoic acid, undecanoic acid, and lauric acid in solvent. Accelerated solvent degradation studies with 7.5% TBP in normal paraffin hydrocarbons showed that long-chain organic acids and long-chain alkyl butyl phosphoric acids are formed by reactions with nitric acid. Degradation of both tributyl phosphate and hydrocarbon can be minimized with purified normal paraffin replacing the standard grade presently used. 12 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  6. Rapid detection of chlorpyrifos pesticide residue concentration in agro-product using Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhakal, Sagar; Peng, Yankun; Li, Yongyu; Chao, Kuanglin; Qin, Jianwei; Zhang, Leilei; Xu, Tianfeng

    2014-05-01

    Different chemicals are sprayed in fruits and vegetables before and after harvest for better yield and longer shelf-life of crops. Cases of pesticide poisoning to human health are regularly reported due to excessive application of such chemicals for greater economic benefit. Different analytical technologies exist to detect trace amount of pesticides in fruits and vegetables, but are expensive, sample destructive, and require longer processing time. This study explores the application of Raman spectroscopy for rapid and non-destructive detection of pesticide residue in agricultural products. Raman spectroscopy with laser module of 785 nm was used to collect Raman spectral information from the surface of Gala apples contaminated with different concentrations of commercially available organophosphorous (48% chlorpyrifos) pesticide. Apples within 15 days of harvest from same orchard were used in this study. The Raman spectral signal was processed by Savitzky-Golay (SG) filter for noise removal, Multiplicative Scatter Correction (MSC) for drift removal and finally polynomial fitting was used to eliminate the fluorescence background. The Raman spectral peak at 677 cm-1 was recognized as Raman fingerprint of chlorpyrifos. Presence of Raman peak at 677 cm-1 after fluorescence background removal was used to develop classification model (presence and absence of pesticide). The peak intensity was correlated with actual pesticide concentration obtained using Gas Chromatography and MLR prediction model was developed with correlation coefficient of calibration and validation of 0.86 and 0.81 respectively. Result shows that Raman spectroscopy is a promising tool for rapid, real-time and non-destructive detection of pesticide residue in agro-products.

  7. Facile synthesis of hierarchical porous TiO(2) ceramics with enhanced photocatalytic performance for micropolluted pesticide degradation.

    PubMed

    Xing, Zipeng; Zhou, Wei; Du, Fan; Zhang, Linlin; Li, Zhenzi; Zhang, Hang; Li, Wei

    2014-10-01

    In this research, hierarchical porous TiO2 ceramics were successfully synthesized through a camphene-based freeze-drying route. The well-dispersed TiO2 slurries were first frozen and dried at room temperature, followed by high-temperature sintering. The ceramics were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Results indicated that the obtained TiO2 ceramics could inhibit undesirable anatase-to-rutile phase transformation and grain growth even at temperatures as high as 800 °C. In this experiment, optimal compressive strength and porosity of the TiO2 ceramics were produced with the initial TiO2 slurry content of ?15 wt %. The resultant TiO2 ceramics performed excellently in the photodegradation of atrazine and thiobencarb, and the total organic carbon removal efficiency was up to 95.7% and 96.7%, respectively. More importantly, the TiO2 ceramics were easily recyclable. No obvious changes of the photocatalytic performance were observed after six cycles. Furthermore, the ceramics also effectively degraded other pesticides such as dimethoate, lindane, dipterex, malathion, and bentazone. These hierarchical porous TiO2 ceramics have potential applications in environmental cleanup. PMID:25198508

  8. High Modulus Biodegradable Polyurethanes for Vascular Stents: Evaluation of Accelerated in vitro Degradation and Cell Viability of Degradation Products

    PubMed Central

    Sgarioto, Melissa; Adhikari, Raju; Gunatillake, Pathiraja A.; Moore, Tim; Patterson, John; Nagel, Marie-Danielle; Malherbe, François

    2015-01-01

    We have recently reported the mechanical properties and hydrolytic degradation behavior of a series of NovoSorb™ biodegradable polyurethanes (PUs) prepared by varying the hard segment (HS) weight percentage from 60 to 100. In this study, the in vitro degradation behavior of these PUs with and without extracellular matrix (ECM) coating was investigated under accelerated hydrolytic degradation (phosphate buffer saline; PBS/70°C) conditions. The mass loss at different time intervals and the effect of aqueous degradation products on the viability and growth of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were examined. The results showed that PUs with HS 80% and below completely disintegrated leaving no visual polymer residue at 18?weeks and the degradation medium turned acidic due to the accumulation of products from the soft segment (SS) degradation. As expected the PU with the lowest HS was the fastest to degrade. The accumulated degradation products, when tested undiluted, showed viability of about 40% for HUVEC cells. However, the viability was over 80% when the solution was diluted to 50% and below. The growth of HUVEC cells is similar to but not identical to that observed with tissue culture polystyrene standard (TCPS). The results from this in vitro study suggested that the PUs in the series degraded primarily due to the SS degradation and the cell viability of the accumulated acidic degradation products showed poor viability to HUVEC cells when tested undiluted, however particles released to the degradation medium showed cell viability over 80%. PMID:26000274

  9. High Modulus Biodegradable Polyurethanes for Vascular Stents: Evaluation of Accelerated in vitro Degradation and Cell Viability of Degradation Products.

    PubMed

    Sgarioto, Melissa; Adhikari, Raju; Gunatillake, Pathiraja A; Moore, Tim; Patterson, John; Nagel, Marie-Danielle; Malherbe, François

    2015-01-01

    We have recently reported the mechanical properties and hydrolytic degradation behavior of a series of NovoSorb™ biodegradable polyurethanes (PUs) prepared by varying the hard segment (HS) weight percentage from 60 to 100. In this study, the in vitro degradation behavior of these PUs with and without extracellular matrix (ECM) coating was investigated under accelerated hydrolytic degradation (phosphate buffer saline; PBS/70°C) conditions. The mass loss at different time intervals and the effect of aqueous degradation products on the viability and growth of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were examined. The results showed that PUs with HS 80% and below completely disintegrated leaving no visual polymer residue at 18?weeks and the degradation medium turned acidic due to the accumulation of products from the soft segment (SS) degradation. As expected the PU with the lowest HS was the fastest to degrade. The accumulated degradation products, when tested undiluted, showed viability of about 40% for HUVEC cells. However, the viability was over 80% when the solution was diluted to 50% and below. The growth of HUVEC cells is similar to but not identical to that observed with tissue culture polystyrene standard (TCPS). The results from this in vitro study suggested that the PUs in the series degraded primarily due to the SS degradation and the cell viability of the accumulated acidic degradation products showed poor viability to HUVEC cells when tested undiluted, however particles released to the degradation medium showed cell viability over 80%. PMID:26000274

  10. DEGRADATION AND MIGRATION OF VINCLOZOLIN IN SAND AND SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The migration of the dicarboximide fungicide vinclozolin and its principal degradation products through porous media was experimentally determined by simulating pesticide applications to a 23-30 mesh Ottawa sand and a North Carolina Piedmont, aquic hapludult soil in laboratory ...

  11. Comparison of linuron degradation in the presence of pesticide mixtures in soil under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Swarcewicz, Maria; Gregorczyk, Andrzej; Sobczak, Justyna

    2013-10-01

    It is widely recognised that complex interactions occur between chemicals in mixtures. In many agricultural situations, the use of tank mixes and complex spray programs is a common practice. Insecticides, fungicides and a herbicide being applied in potato protection were used in this research. Interactions between linuron and insecticides, such as thiamethoxam or clothianidin, and fungicides, such as mancozeb or chlorothalonil, were examined in soil. The degradation rate of linuron in soil during laboratory incubation in six treatments was studied. Mixtures of linuron with mancozeb in sandy loam and clay loam soils had a significant effect on the persistence of this herbicide. For example, for the same herbicide, t 1/2 values for linuron were from 37 days in sandy loam to 44 days in clay loam. These values changed (64-67 days) when thiamethoxam and mancozeb were in soil. When mancozeb was added only, the half-life values were from 59 to 62 days, respectively. Other mixtures with chlorothalonil, thiamethoxam and clothianidin did not have any effect. In order to compare linuron degradation rates in soils, a single first-order model and expanded statistical analysis were used. PMID:23525775

  12. Study of degradation intermediates formed during electrochemical oxidation of pesticide residue 2,6-dichlorobenzamide (BAM) in chloride medium at boron doped diamond (BDD) and platinum anodes.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Henrik Tækker; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen; Muff, Jens

    2015-02-01

    For electrochemical oxidation to become applicable in water treatment outside of laboratories, a number of challenges must be elucidated. One is the formation and fate of degradation intermediates of targeted organics. In this study the degradation of the pesticide residue 2,6-dichlorobenzamide, an important groundwater pollutant, was investigated in a chloride rich solution with the purpose of studying the effect of active chlorine on the degradation pathway. To study the relative importance of the anodic oxidation and active chlorine oxidation in the bulk solution, a non-active BDD and an active Pt anode were compared. Also, the effect of the active chlorine oxidation on the total amount of degradation intermediates was investigated. We found that for 2,6-dichlorobenzamide, active chlorine oxidation was determining for the initial step of the degradation, and therefore yielded a completely different set of degradation intermediates compared to an inert electrolyte. For the Pt anode, the further degradation of the intermediates was also largely dependent on active chlorine oxidation, while for the BDD anode anodic oxidation was most important. It was also found that the presence of active chlorine led to fewer degradation intermediates compared to treatment in an inert electrolyte. PMID:25465959

  13. Gas-phase and particulate products from the atmospheric degradation of the organothiophosphorus insecticide chlorpyrifos-methyl.

    PubMed

    Borrás, Esther; Tortajada-Genaro, Luis Antonio; Ródenas, Milagros; Vera, Teresa; Coscollá, Clara; Yusá, Vicent; Muñoz, Amalia

    2015-11-01

    The phosphorothioate structure is highly present in several organophosphorus pesticides. However, there is insufficient information about its degradation process after the release to the atmosphere and the secondary pollutants formed. Herein, the atmospheric reaction of chlorpyrifos-methyl (o,o-dimethyl o-(3,5,6-trichloropyridin-2-yl) phosphorothioate), is described for semi-urban or rural locations. The photo-oxidation under low NOx conditions (5-55 ppbV) was reproduced in a large outdoor simulation chamber, observing a rapid degradation (lifetime<3.5 h). The formation of gaseous products and particulate matter (aerosol yield 2-8%) was monitored. The chemical composition of minor products (gaseous and particulate) was studied, identifying 15 multi-oxygenated derivatives. The most abundant products were ring-retaining molecules such as o,o-dimethyl o-(3,5,6-trichloropyridin-2-yl) phosphorothioate, dimethyl 3,5,6-trichloropyridin-2-yl phosphate, o-methyl o-(3,5,6-trichloropyridin-2-yl) hydrogen phosphorothioate, 3,5,6-trichloropyridin-2-yl dihydrogen phosphate, 3,5,6-trichloropyridin-2-ol, and 3,5,6-trichloropyridine-2,4-diol. An atmospheric degradation mechanism has been proposed based on an oxidation started with OH-nucleophilic attack to P=S bond. The results have been extrapolated to other organothiophosphorus molecules, such as malathion, parathion, diazinon and methidathion, among many others, to estimate their photo-oxidative degradation and the expected products. PMID:25548033

  14. Management Practices to Improve Productivity of Degraded/Eroded Soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Productivity of degraded/eroded soils can be restored by using organic amendment, such as manure, and improved soil management. A study is being conducted near Hays, KS, to investigate and compare restorative potential of two nitrogen (N) sources. Dried beef manure and urea fertilizer were each appl...

  15. 78 FR 9389 - Notice of Receipt of Pesticide Products; Registration Applications To Register New Uses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-08

    ...This notice announces receipt of applications to register new uses for pesticide products containing currently registered active ingredients pursuant to the provisions of section 3(c) of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), as amended. This notice provides the public with an opportunity to comment on the...

  16. 78 FR 78356 - Notice of Receipt of Pesticide Products; Registration Applications To Register New Uses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ...This notice announces receipt of applications to register new uses for pesticide products containing currently registered active ingredients pursuant to the provisions of section 3(c) of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), as amended. This notice provides the public with an opportunity to comment on the...

  17. Development of smart spray systems to enhance delivery of pesticides in field nursery production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two smart sprayer prototypes have been developed and are being evaluated with a goal of increasing pesticide application efficiency and minimizing environmental impact in field nursery production sites. The first prototype, a modified hydraulic vertical boom system, utilizes ultrasonic sensors to d...

  18. 77 FR 14361 - Pesticide Products; Receipt of Applications To Register New Uses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ...This notice announces receipt of applications to register new uses for pesticide products containing currently registered active ingredients, pursuant to the provisions of section 3(c) of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), as amended. EPA is publishing this notice of such applications, pursuant to section 3(c)(4) of...

  19. 76 FR 41178 - Pesticides; Policies Concerning Products Containing Nanoscale Materials; Opportunity for Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-13

    ... established in the Federal Register of June 17, 2011 (76 FR 35383) (FRL-8877-9). In that document, EPA sought... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office ] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Chapter I RIN 2070-ZA11 Pesticides; Policies Concerning Products Containing...

  20. 78 FR 55695 - Notice of Receipt of Pesticide Products; Registration Applications To Register New Uses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-11

    ...This notice announces receipt of applications to register new uses for pesticide products containing currently registered active ingredients pursuant to the provisions of section 3(c) of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), as amended. This notice provides the public with an opportunity to comment on the...

  1. Exposure Assessment for Pesticide Intake from Multiple Food Products : A Bayesian

    E-print Network

    Theobald, Chris

    Exposure Assessment for Pesticide Intake from Multiple Food Products : A Bayesian Latent exposure. The latent-variable models allow for both skewness and large numbers of ze- 2 #12;ros estimates of high percentiles of the exposure distribution than an empirical approach. Bayesian inference

  2. Pesticide Movement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pesticides generally include herbicides, insecticides and fungicides that play an important role in maintaining worldwide food and fiber production by controlling weeds that compete for water and nutrients or by eliminating pests that reduce yields. In the future, the role of pesticides and fertili...

  3. Microbial adaption to a pesticide in agricultural soils: Accelerated degradation of 14C-atrazine in field soils from Brazil and Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jablonowski, Nicolai David; Martinazzo, Rosane; Hamacher, Georg; Accinelli, Cesare; Köppchen, Stephan; Langen, Ulrike; Linden, Andreas; Krause, Martina; Burauel, Peter

    2010-05-01

    An increasing demand for food, feed and bioenergy, and simultaneously a decline of arable land will require an intensive agricultural production including the use of pesticides. With an increasing use of pesticides the occurrence of an accelerated degradation potential has to be assessed. Atrazine [2-chloro-4-(ethylamino)-6-(isopropylamino)-s-triazine] is one of the most widely used herbicides in the world. Even though its use was banned in several countries it is still widely used throughout America and the Asia-Pacific region. Atrazine is the most widely used herbicide in maize plantations in Brazil and the US. The use of atrazine in Belgium and all EU member states was banned in September 2004, with the permission to consume existing stocks until October 2005. Atrazine and its residues are still regularly detected in soil, ground and surface waters even years after its prohibition. Its persistence in soil and in association with organic particles might become crucial in terms of erosion due to climate and environmental changes. Due to its potential microbiological accessibility, the microbial mineralization of atrazine competes with chemical/physical interaction such as sorption and binding processes of the chemical molecule in the soil matrix. Binding or intrusion of the chemical on soil components results in a decrease of its accessibility for soil microbes, which does not necessarily exclude the molecule from environmental interactions. In the present study the accelerated atrazine degradation in agriculturally used soils was examined. Soil samples were collected from a Rhodic Ferralsol, Campinas do Sul, South Brazil, and Geric Ferralsol, Correntina, Northeastern Brazil. The sampling site of the Rhodic Ferralsol soil has been under crop rotation (soybean/wheat/maize/oat) since 1990. The Geric Ferralsol site has alternately been cultivated with maize and soybean since 2000. Both areas have been treated biennially with atrazine at recommended doses of 1.5 - 3.0 kg ha-1. Additionally, samples were taken from a Belgian field which was used for corn-plantations and which was regularly treated with atrazine for the last 30 years in varying doses of 0.5 - 3.0 kg ha-1. The experiment was performed using 14C-labelled and unlabelled atrazine in accordance to a field application dose of 3 mg kg-1 for the Brazilian soils, and 1 mg kg-1 for the Belgian soil, equaling approximately 3.0 and 1.0 kg ha-1, respectively. All soils with atrazine application history showed a high extent of atrazine mineralization, indicating a highly adapted microbial community being able to mineralize this pesticide. After 15 days of incubation, about 75 % of the initially applied 14C-atrazine was mineralized in the Rhodic Ferralsol, while in the Geric Ferralsol it did not exceed 15 % of the total applied 14C-activity. After a total incubation time of 85 days, the amount mineralized reached 82 % in the Rhodic Ferralsol and 74 % in the Geric Ferralsol. In the Belgian soil, after a total incubation time of 92 days, the mineralized amount of atrazine reached 83% of the initially applied 14C-activity in the atrazine treated soil for the slurry setup. A maximum of atrazine mineralization was observed in the treated field soil between 6 and 7 days of incubation for both, 50% WHCmax and slurry setups. The total 14C-atrazine mineralization was equally high for 50% WHCmax in the atrazine treated soil, totaling 81%. The formation of desorbable metabolites as well as the formation of unextractable, bound atrazine residues during the incubation process was monitored by desorption and accelerated solvent extraction, and successive LC-MSMS and LSC analyses, subsequent to sample oxidation. With increasing incubation time the presence of atrazine metabolites increased in the extracts, with hydroxyl-atrazine as the main metabolite.

  4. A multi-residue method for the analysis of pesticides and pesticide degradates in water using HLB solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hladik, M.L.; Smalling, K.L.; Kuivila, K.M.

    2008-01-01

    A method was developed for the analysis of over 60 pesticides and degradates in water by HLB solid-phase extraction and gas-chromatography/mass spectrometry. Method recoveries and detection limits were determined using two surface waters with different dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations. In the lower DOC water, recoveries and detection limits were 80%-108% and 1-12 ng/L, respectively. In the higher DOC water, the detection limits were slightly higher (1-15 ng/L). Additionally, surface water samples from four sites were analyzed and 14 pesticides were detected with concentrations ranging from 4 to 1,200 ng/L. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  5. Surface water pesticide modelling for decision support in drinking water production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desmet, Nele; Dams, Jef; Bronders, Jan; Peleman, Gisèle; Verdickt, Liesbeth

    2015-04-01

    The occurrence of pesticides and other contaminants in river systems may compromise the use of surface water for drinking water production. To reduce the cost of removal of pesticides from the raw water, drinking water companies can: search for other raw water sources, invest in water storage capacity to overcome periods with high pesticide concentrations (often related to the application period), or impose measures to reduce the emission of pesticides to surface water (i.e. sustainable application strategies or use restrictions). To select the most appropriate water management options, the costs and effects of the aforementioned actions need to be evaluated. This evaluation requires knowledge on the concentrations and loads of pesticides at the point of drinking water abstraction, as well as insight in the contribution and the temporal variability of different sources or subbasins. In such a case, a modelling approach can assist in generating measurement-based datasets and to compare different scenarios for water management. We illustrate how a modelling approach can provide decision support for water management related to drinking water abstraction from surface water in a catchment that suffers from elevated pesticide concentrations. The study area is a water production center (WPC) located in northwestern Belgium. The WPC abstracts raw water from the river IJzer or from a natural pond and its connected streams. The available quantities as well as the quality of the water vary throughout the year. The WPC uses a reservoir of 3 million m³ to capture and store raw water to overcome periods with limited water availability and/or poor water quality. However, the pressure on water increases and in the future this buffering capacity might be no longer sufficient to fulfill the drinking water production demand. A surface water quality model for the area is set up using InfoWorks RS. The model is applied to obtain insight in the concentrations and loads at the different points of drinking water abstraction (river IJzer and Blankaart pond), the contribution of the subbasins, and the seasonal dynamics. The model is also applied for scenario analysis related to water management and varying climatological conditions. Especially in summer, the availability of raw water of good quality for the WPC is limited. The discharge of the river IJzer is low and a minimum level is required for navigation, and the pond is part of a nature reserve where a minimum water level is imposed for conservation of aquatic habitats, and application of pesticides on the surrounding agricultural lands results in high pesticide concentrations (e.g. bentazon > 1µg/L).

  6. Sources and Input Pathways of Glyphosate and its Degradation Product AMPA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bischofberger, S.; Hanke, I.; Wittmer, I.; Singer, H.; Stamm, C.

    2009-04-01

    Despite being the pesticide used in the largest quantities worldwide, the environmental relevance of glyphosate has been considered low for many years. Reasons for this assessment were the observations that glyphosate degrades quickly into its degradation product AMPA and that it sorbs strongly to soil particles. Hence, little losses to water bodies had been expected. Research during the last few years however contradicts this expectation. Although glyphosate is a dominant pesticide used in agriculture, recent studies on other pesticides revealed that urban sources may play a significant role for water quality. Therefore this study compares glyphosate input into streams from agricultural and urban sources. For that purpose, a catchment of an area of 25 km2 was selected. It has by about 12'000 inhabitants and about 15 % of the area is used as arable land. Four sampling sites were selected in the river system in order to reflect different urban and agricultural sources. Additionally, we sampled a combined sewer overflow, a rain sewer and the outflow of a waste water treatment plant. At each site discharge was measured continuously from March to November 2007. During 16 rain events samples were taken by automatic devices at a high temporal resolution. To analyze the concentration of glyphosate and its degradation product AMPA, the samples were derivatized with FMOC-Cl at low pH conditions and then filtrated. The solid phase extraction was conducted with Strata-X sorbent cartridge. Glyphosate and AMPA were detected with API 4000 after the chromatography with X bridge column C18. To assure the data quality, interne standards of Glyphosate and AMPA were added to every sample. The limit of detection and quantification for glyphosate and AMPA are bellow 1ng/l. We analyzed two rain events at a high resolution for all stations and several events at the outlet of the catchment. We measured high glyphosate concentration in urban and agriculture dominated catchments with up to 3'600ng/l in the rainwater sewer and 2'500ng/l from agricultural origin. The highest glyphosate concentrations were detected during peak flow. The input of the waste water treatment plant (WWTP) was up to 500ng/l. We detected glyphosate above the detection limit in all samples throughout the sampling period. Even after the vegetation period in November, glyphosate peak flow concentration in the outlet of the entire catchment was 137 ng/l exceeding the Swiss water quality criteria for single pesticides. The AMPA concentrations were generally lower than those of Glyphosate except for the WWTP. Generally, AMPA concentrations varied less during a rain event than glyphosate concentrations. Despite the strong sorption to soil particles and short half-life, glyphosate occurs in high concentrations in surface waters affected by urban and agricultural sources. Concentrations were even higher than those of other widely used herbicides like atrazine and mecoprop.

  7. Assessment of the plasma desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometry technique for pesticide adsorption and degradation on 'as-received' treated soil samples.

    PubMed

    Thomas, J P; Nsouli, B; Darwish, T; Fallavier, M; Khoury, R; Wehbé, N

    2005-01-01

    The assessment of the plasma desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PD-TOFMS) technique as a tool for direct characterization of pesticides adsorbed on agricultural soil is made for the first time in this study. Pellets of soils impregnated by solutions of three pesticides, namely norflurazon, malathion and oxyfluorfen, as well as deposits of these solutions onto aluminum surfaces, were investigated to this end. The yield values of the most characteristic peaks of the negative ion mass spectra were used to determine both the lowest concentrations detected on soils and limits of detection from thin films. The lowest values on soils are for malathion (1000 ppm range), and the largest for norflurazon (20,000 ppm), which is close to the limit of detection (LOD) found for the pesticide on the aluminum substrate (approximately 0.2 microg . cm(-2)). Different behaviors were observed as a function of time of storage in the ambient atmosphere or under vacuum; norflurazon adsorbed on soil exhibited high stability for a long period of time, and a rapid degradation of malathion with the elapsed time was clearly observed. The behavior of oxyfluorfen was also investigated but segregation processes seem to occur after several days. Although by far less sensitive than conventional methods based on extraction processes and used for real-world analytical applications, this technique is well suited to the study of the transformations occurring at the sample surface. A discussion is presented of the future prospects of such experiments in degradation studies. PMID:16047317

  8. The austral peregrine falcon: Color variation, productivity, and pesticides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    The austral peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus cassini) was studied in the Andean foot- hills and across the Patagonian steppe from November to December 1981. The birds under study (18 pairs) were reproducing at or near normal (pre-DDT) levels for other races. Pesticide residues, while elevated, were well below the values associated with reproductive failure in other populations. With one exception, eggshells were not abnormally thin. The peregrine falcon in Patagonia exhibits extreme color variation. Pallid birds are nearly pure white below (light cream as juveniles), whereas normally pigmented birds are black-crowned and conspicuously barred with black ventrally. Rare individuals of the Normal Phase display black heads, broad black ventral barring, and warm reddish-brown ventral background coloration.

  9. Counteraction of antibiotic production and degradation stabilizes microbial communities

    PubMed Central

    Kelsic, Eric D.; Zhao, Jeffrey; Vetsigian, Kalin; Kishony, Roy

    2015-01-01

    Summary A major challenge in theoretical ecology is understanding how natural microbial communities support species diversity1-8, and in particular how antibiotic producing, sensitive and resistant species coexist9-15. While cyclic “rock-paper-scissors” interactions can stabilize communities in spatial environments9-11, coexistence in unstructured environments remains an enigma12,16. Here, using simulations and analytical models, we show that the opposing actions of antibiotic production and degradation enable coexistence even in well-mixed environments. Coexistence depends on 3-way interactions where an antibiotic degrading species attenuates the inhibitory interactions between two other species. These 3-way interactions enable coexistence that is robust to substantial differences in inherent species growth rates and to invasion by “cheating” species that cease producing or degrading antibiotics. At least two antibiotics are required for stability, with greater numbers of antibiotics enabling more complex communities and diverse dynamical behaviors ranging from stable fixed-points to limit cycles and chaos. Together, these results show how multi-species antibiotic interactions can generate ecological stability in both spatial and mixed microbial communities, suggesting strategies for engineering synthetic ecosystems and highlighting the importance of toxin production and degradation for microbial biodiversity. PMID:25992546

  10. Toxicity of pesticides associated with potato production, including soil fumigants, to snapping turtle eggs (Chelydra serpentina).

    PubMed

    de Solla, Shane Raymond; Palonen, Kimberley Elizabeth; Martin, Pamela Anne

    2014-01-01

    Turtles frequently oviposit in soils associated with agriculture and, thus, may be exposed to pesticides or fertilizers. The toxicity of a pesticide regime that is used for potato production in Ontario on the survivorship of snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) eggs was evaluated. The following treatments were applied to clean soil: 1) a mixture of the pesticides chlorothalonil, S-metolachlor, metribuzin, and chlorpyrifos, and 2) the soil fumigant metam sodium. Turtle eggs were incubated in soil in outdoor plots in which these mixtures were applied at typical and higher field application rates, where the eggs were subject to ambient temperature and weather conditions. The pesticide mixture consisting of chlorothalonil, S-metolachlor, metribuzin, and chlorpyrifos did not affect survivorship, deformities, or body size at applications up to 10 times the typical field application rates. Hatching success ranged between 87% and 100% for these treatments. Metam sodium was applied at 0.1¯ times, 0.3¯ times, 1 times, and 3 times field application rates. Eggs exposed to any application of metam sodium had 100% mortality. At typical field application rates, the chemical regime associated with potato production does not appear to have any detrimental impacts on turtle egg development, except for the use of the soil fumigant metam sodium, which is highly toxic to turtle eggs at the lowest recommended application rate. PMID:24105794

  11. 75 FR 48669 - Product Cancellation Order for Certain Pesticide Registrations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-11

    ...Corp. Agricultural Products Group 1735 Market St...Sergeant's Pet Care Products, Inc. 2625 South 158th...8536 Soil Chemicals Corporation P.O...8660 United Industries Corp. d/b/a Sylorr...13799 Four Paws Products Ltd. 50 Wireless...

  12. Dioxin/POPs legacy of pesticide production in Hamburg: part 1--securing of the production area.

    PubMed

    Weber, Roland; Varbelow, Hans Gerhard

    2013-04-01

    ?-Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), ?-HCH, and ?-HCH (lindane) were recently included as new persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the Stockholm Convention. Therefore, the chemicals need to be globally addressed, including the disposal of historic wastes. At most sites, the approximately 85% of HCH waste isomers were dumped. At a former lindane factory in Hamburg and some other factories the HCH, waste was recycled producing residues with high polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/PCDF) levels. The soil and ground water under the former pesticide factory was/is highly contaminated with HCH (260 tons), chlorobenzenes (550 tons), and PCDD/PCDF (6 kg toxic equivalents (TEQ)). This contamination did not result from disposal operations but from spillages and leakages during the 30 years of the factory's production history. A containment wall has been constructed around the production area to prevent the dispersal of the pollutants. The ground water is managed by a pump and treat system. Over the last 15 years, approximately 10-30 tons of this pollution reservoir has been pumped and incinerated. For the contaminated production buildings, specific assessment and demolition technologies have been applied. In addition to their HCH waste isomer deposition, former lindane/HCH productions need to be assessed for possible recycling practice of HCH and related PCDD/PCDF contamination of the production area and buildings. Since such recycling activities have taken place at several factories in different countries, the experience of assessment and management of the described production area and contaminated buildings could be valuable. Such assessment could be addressed within the frame of the Stockholm Convention. PMID:22777609

  13. [Studies on rapid multi-residue analysis of pesticides in agricultural products by LC-MS/MS].

    PubMed

    Iwakoshi, Keiko; Tamura, Yasuhiro; Otsuka, Kenji; Tomizawa, Sanae; Yamaki, Yumiko; Masubuchi, Tamako; Nakagawa, Yukiko; Masuda, Ryoko; Sato, Chizuko; Sasamoto, Takeo; Takano, Ichiro

    2014-01-01

    Rapid multi-residue analysis of pesticides in agricultural products was studied by using LC-MS/MS. Pesticide residues in 10 g of homogenized agricultural products were extracted with 30 mL of acetonitrile and salted out with 4 g of anhydrous magnesium sulfate and 1 g of sodium chloride in the presence of citrate salts for buffering in a disposable tube. Co-extractives were removed by use of our original triple layered column (C18/GC/PSA; 60/30/60 mg). According to the method validation guideline of the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan, we conducted recovery tests in 5 kinds of agricultural products (brown rice, kiwi, cabbage, sweet potato and spinach) spiked with 60 pesticides at the level of 0.01 or 0.1 ?g/g. Each concentration of pesticide spiked was extracted from 2 samples per day on 5 days. Pesticides in the test solution were determined by two types of LC-MS/MS using scheduled MRM. Using this method, 58 out of 60 pesticides satisfied the guideline criteria in brown rice, 59 in kiwi, 55 in cabbage, 55 in sweet potato and 56 in spinach. This method is applicable for routine examination of pesticide residues in agricultural products. PMID:25743588

  14. Radiolytic gas production in the alpha particle degradation of plastics

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, D.T.; Hoh, J.; Emery, J. ); Hobbs, D. )

    1992-01-01

    Net gas generation due to alpha particle irradiation of polyethylene and polyvinyl chloride was investigated. Experiments were performed in an air environment at 30, 60, and 100{degree}C. The predominant radiolytic degradation products of polyethylene were hydrogen and carbon dioxide with a wide variety of trace organic species noted. Irradiation of polyvinyl chloride resulted in the formation of HCl in addition to the products observed for polyethylene. For both plastic materials, a strong enhancement of net yields was noted at 100{degree}C.

  15. Radiolytic gas production in the alpha particle degradation of plastics

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, D.T.; Hoh, J.; Emery, J.; Hobbs, D.

    1992-05-01

    Net gas generation due to alpha particle irradiation of polyethylene and polyvinyl chloride was investigated. Experiments were performed in an air environment at 30, 60, and 100{degree}C. The predominant radiolytic degradation products of polyethylene were hydrogen and carbon dioxide with a wide variety of trace organic species noted. Irradiation of polyvinyl chloride resulted in the formation of HCl in addition to the products observed for polyethylene. For both plastic materials, a strong enhancement of net yields was noted at 100{degree}C.

  16. Exploring the functional diversity of the supraglacial environment: Microbial degradation of the pesticide 2,4-D on the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stibal, M.; Bælum, J.; Holben, W. E.; Jacobsen, C. S.

    2012-12-01

    The surface of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) harbours a diverse community of heterotrophic microorganisms. Organic compounds of anthropogenic origin, including pesticides, are deposited on the GrIS; however, the fate of these compounds in the ice is currently unknown. In this study we determine the potential of the microbial community from the surface of the GrIS to mineralise the pesticide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). It is one of the most easily degraded compounds among the phenoxyacetic acid pesticides, and the ability to mineralise 2,4-D has been found to be widespread in microbial communities around the globe. Functional genes involved in the degradation pathway have also been characterised. Thus, 2,4-D represents a very suitable model compound to use in order to gain an insight into pollutant degradation dynamics in the rapidly changing Arctic region. We collected surface ice cores on the GrIS and incubated them for up to 529 days in microcosms simulating in situ conditions. We measured mineralisation of side-chain- and ring-labelled 14C-2,4-D in the samples and performed quantitative PCR targeting the tfdA gene, encoding an enzyme catalysing the first step in the degradation pathway of 2,4-D, in the DNA extracted from the ice after the experiments. We show that the microbial community on the surface of the GrIS is of low diversity, but contains microbes capable of degrading 2,4-D. The low diversity of the community and the similarity of the detected clones to those from other icy environment clones suggest that the bacterial community on the GrIS is selected from a pool of propagules deposited on the surface of the ice sheet, based on the level of adaptation to the conditions in the surface ice. The 2,4-D degraders are likely present in very low numbers, and they can mineralise 2,4-D at a rate of up to 1 nmol per m2 per day, equivalent to ~26 ng C m-2 d-1. We contend that the surface of the GrIS should not be considered to be a mere reservoir of all atmospheric contaminants, as it is likely that some deposited compounds will be removed from the system via biodegradation processes before their potential release due to the accelerated melting of the ice sheet.

  17. 78 FR 3418 - Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on Web-Distributed Labeling for Pesticide...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-16

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-OPP-2012-0906; FRL-9374-4] Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on Web- Distributed Labeling for Pesticide Products AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION:...

  18. Halotolerance, ligninase production and herbicide degradation ability of basidiomycetes strains

    PubMed Central

    Arakaki, R.L.; Monteiro, D.A.; Boscolo, M.; Dasilva, R.; Gomes, E.

    2013-01-01

    Fungi have been recently recognized as organisms able to grow in presence of high salt concentration with halophilic and halotolerance properties and their ligninolytic enzyme complex have an unspecific action enabling their use to degradation of a number of xenobiotic compounds. In this work, both the effect of salt and polyols on growth of the basidiomycetes strains, on their ability to produce ligninolytic enzyme and diuron degradation were evaluated. Results showed that the presence of NaCl in the culture medium affected fungal specimens in different ways. Seven out of ten tested strains had growth inhibited by salt while Dacryopinax elegans SXS323, Polyporus sp MCA128 and Datronia stereoides MCA167 fungi exhibited higher biomass production in medium containing 0.5 and 0.6 mol.L?1 of NaCl, suggesting to be halotolerant. Polyols such as glycerol and mannitol added into the culture media improved the biomass and ligninases production by D. elegans but the fungus did not reveal consumption of these polyols from media. This fungus degraded diuron in medium control, in presence of NaCl as well as polyols, produced MnP, LiP and laccase. PMID:24688513

  19. Modern pesticides and bobwhite populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stromborg, K.L.

    1982-01-01

    Bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) are frequently used as test animals for wildlife tests of pesticides. The organophosphate and carbamate pesticides that have replaced the organochlorines have many desirable properties, but they span a wide range of acute toxicities and some of them affe,ct survival, reproduction, food consumption, behavior, and nervous system enzymes in laboratory tests. Applying these laboratory findings to the field requires assumptions about the severity of exposure in the field. Direct field measurements show that birds may be exposed to significant amounts of these pesticides or even more toxic degradation products under some conditions. Adverse population effects may also result from depression of insect populations during the seasons when bobwhites rely on insects for food.

  20. 76 FR 40359 - Product Cancellation Order for Certain Pesticide Registrations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-08

    ...registration No. Product name Chemical name...Germicidal Alkyl* dimethyl Detergent. benzyl ammonium chloride...dimethyl Germicidal ethylbenzyl Detergent. ammonium chloride *(68...Amvac Chemical Corporation, 4695...

  1. Development of an Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay and an Immunochromatographic Assay for Detection of Organophosphorus Pesticides in Different Agricultural Products

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Xiude; Yang, Jifei; Wang, Limin; Fang, Qingkui; Zhang, Gaiping; Liu, Fengquan

    2012-01-01

    Objective Organophosphorus (OP) pesticides are considered hazardous substances because of their high toxicity to nontarget species and their persistence in the environment and agricultural products. Therefore, it is important to develop a rapid, sensitive, and economical method for detecting OP pesticides and their residues in food and the environment. Methods A broad, selective monoclonal antibody (MAb) for organophosphorus pesticides was produced. Based on the MAb, an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and an immunochromatography assay (ICA) for detecting OP pesticides in different agricultural products were developed using a binding inhibition format on microtiter plates and a membrane strip, respectively. Results Under the optimized conditions, the IC50 values of the ELISA ranged from 3.7 to 162.2 ng mL–1 for the 8 OP pesticides. The matrix interferences of Apple, Chinese cabbage, and greengrocery were removed by 40-fold dilution, the recoveries from spiked samples ranged from 79.1% to 118.1%. The IC50 values of ICA for the 8 OP pesticides ranged from 11.8 to 470.4 ng mL?1. The matrix interference was removed from the Chinese cabbage and Apple samples with 5-fold dilution, and the interference was removed from the greengrocery samples with 20-fold dilution. The recoveries from the spiked samples ranged between 70.6 and 131.9%. The established ELISA and ICA were specific selectivity for the 8 OP pesticides. Conclusions The established ELISA is a sensitive screening method for the detection of OP pesticides, but the ELISA detection method depends on a laboratory platform and requires a relative long assay time and several steps operation. The established ICA is very useful as a screening method for the quantitative, semi-quantitative or qualitative detection of OP pesticides in agricultural products, and it has advantages over ELISA methods with regard to factors such as the testing procedure, testing time, and matrix interferences, among others. PMID:23300869

  2. Routine low-level monitoring of polar pesticides and pesticide degradates by HPLC/ESI-MS: Evaluating long-term performance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Furlong, E.T.; Martin, J.D.; Werner, S.L.; Gates, P.M.

    2002-01-01

    The sensitivity and selective determination of polar pesticides were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI-MS). The effects of multiple operators and instruments on method performance were evaluated using 440 pairs of fortified reagent-water and blank reagent-water samples. The influence of varying environmental matrices on recovery and precision were also analyzed using 200 fortified ambient water samples and duplicate ambient water samples. The results show that compound stability in filtered water was matrix-, chemical class- and compound-dependent which ranged from 1 day to 2 weeks.

  3. 76 FR 44587 - Product Cancellation Order for Certain Pesticide Registrations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... number 2011-17089, appearing on pages 40359- 40365, in the issue of Friday, July 8, 2011, make the following corrections: 1. On page 40363, Table 3--Cancellations of Products Due to Non- Payment of... ``WAO70009.'' 2. On page 40364, Table 3--Cancellations of Products Due to Non- Payment of Maintenance...

  4. 75 FR 8341 - Product Cancellation Order for Certain Pesticide Registrations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ...Clark Mosquito Control Products, Inc. P.O. Box...008660 United Industries, Corp. D/B/A Sylorr...Group, Div Of United Industries Corp. P.O. Box 142642...034704 Loveland Products, Inc. 7251 W. 4...Celex, Div. Of United Industries, Corp. P.O....

  5. Degradation Products of Benzophenone-3 in Chlorinated Seawater Swimming Pools.

    PubMed

    Manasfi, Tarek; Storck, Veronika; Ravier, Sylvain; Demelas, Carine; Coulomb, Bruno; Boudenne, Jean-Luc

    2015-08-01

    Oxybenzone (2-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenone, benzophenone-3) is one of the UV filters commonly found in sunscreens. Its presence in swimming pools and its reactivity with chlorine has already been demonstrated but never in seawater swimming pools. In these pools, chlorine added for disinfection results in the formation of bromine, due to the high levels of bromide in seawater, and leads to the formation of brominated disinfection byproducts, known to be more toxic than chlorinated ones. Therefore, it seems important to determine the transformation products of oxybenzone in chlorinated seawater swimming pools; especially that users of seawater swimming pools may apply sunscreens and other personal-care products containing oxybenzone before going to pools. This leads to the introduction of oxybenzone to pools, where it reacts with bromine. For this purpose, the reactivity of oxybenzone has been examined as a function of chlorine dose and temperature in artificial seawater to assess its potential to produce trihalomethanes and to determine the byproducts generated following chlorination. Increasing doses of chlorine and increasing temperatures enhanced the formation of bromoform. Experiments carried out with excess doses of chlorine resulted in the degradation of oxybenzone and allowed the determination of the degradation mechanisms leading to the formation of bromoform. In total, ten transformation products were identified, based on which the transformation pathway was proposed. PMID:26167727

  6. Effect of pesticide concentration on the degradation process by combined solar photo-Fenton and biological treatment.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros Martín, M M; Sánchez Pérez, J A; García Sánchez, J L; Casas López, J L; Malato Rodríguez, S

    2009-08-01

    The influence of pesticide concentration, expressed as dissolved organic carbon (DOC), on combined solar photo-Fenton and biological oxidation treatment was studied using wastewater containing a mixture of five commercial pesticides, Vydate, Metomur, Couraze, Ditumur and Scala. Two initial DOC concentrations, 200 mg L(-1) and 500 mg L(-1) were assayed. Variation in biodegradability with photocatalytic treatment intensity was tested using Pseudomonas putida. Thus the mineralisation required for combining with biodegradation of intermediates by activated sludge was 33% and 55% at 200 mg L(-1) and 500 mg L(-1), respectively. Biotreatment was carried out in a stirred tank in sequencing batch reactor (SBR) mode. As revealed by the biodegradation kinetics, intermediates generated at the higher pesticide concentration caused lower carbon removal rates in spite of the longer photo-Fenton treatment time applied. One strategy for treating water with high concentrations of pesticides and overcoming the low biodegradability of photo-Fenton intermediates is to mix it with a biodegradable carbon source before biological oxidation. This combination of photo-Fenton and acclimatized activated sludge in several SBR cycles led to complete biodegradation of a concentrated pesticide solution of 500 mg L(-1) DOC in approximately 5h with a carbon removal efficiency of 90%. PMID:19560181

  7. Identification and measurement of pesticide contaminants in food products by electron impact GC/MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tusa, Florina; Moldovan, Zaharie; Vlassa, Mircea

    2009-08-01

    The paper concern is determination of eight pesticides in food products samples. The target compounds are: Lindane, Heptachlor, Aldrin, o,p-DDE, Dieldrin, Endrin, p,p'-DDT, and Methoxychlor. The compounds quantities were performed from chromatographic area obtained in full scan GC/MS mode after baseline separation and by comparation with surrogate internal standard area (Diphenylamine). The samples were concentrated by extraction with organic solvents (acetone) by Solid-Liquid Extraction (SLE) procedures the recovery factors being better than 80% except for Heptachlors. The coefficient of correlation of detector response function was better than 0.913 and LOQ under 0.015 ?g/g. The method enables to determine pesticides at low ?g/g in food supplements.

  8. 75 FR 16109 - Antimicrobial Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ...ingredient: Potassium hypochlorite. Proposed Uses: Use on porous food and non-food contact surfaces, treatment of sewage...to treat fibers, plastics, polymers, latex products, and ceramics. Contact: Demson Fuller, (703) 308-8062;...

  9. 78 FR 64938 - Product Cancellation Order for Certain Pesticide Registrations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ... no comments in response to the August 21, 2013 Federal Register notice (78 FR 51721) (FRL-9396-5.... 060061-00121 Woodtreat XP Propiconazole and Sapstain Control Carbamic acid, Product. butyl-,...

  10. 76 FR 551 - Pesticide Product Registrations; Conditional Approval

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-05

    ...the end-use products consists of: a. Residue Analysis of Nectar and Pollen in Flowering Citrus (OPPTS Guideline: Special Study). b. Residue Analysis of Nectar and Pollen in Flowering Tree Crops OPPTS Guideline: Special Study). V....

  11. Life- cycle assessment in pesticide product development: methods and case study on two plant-growth regulators from different product generations.

    PubMed

    Geisler, Georg; Hellweg, Stefanie; Hofstetter, Thomas B; Hungerbuehler, Konrad

    2005-04-01

    Environmental assessments in pesticide product development are generally restricted to plant uptake and emissions of active ingredients. Life-cycle assessment (LCA) enables a more comprehensive evaluation by additionally assessing the impacts of pesticide production and application (e.g. tractor operations). The use of LCA in the product development of pesticides, in addition to the methods commonly applied, is therefore advisable. In this paper a procedure for conducting LCA in early phases of product development is proposed. In a case study, two plant-growth regulators from different product generations were compared regarding their application in intensive production of winter wheat. The results showed thatthe reduced emissions from active ingredients of the newer pesticide were compensated by higher impacts from the production process. The authors draw the conclusion that it is important to consider environmental objectives in the procurement of precursors, in addition to the classical goals of increasing the efficacy and reducing the nontarget effects of pesticides. Moreover, the case study showed that decisions based on uncertain results in early stages of product development may need to be revised in later stages, e.g. based on investigations of pesticides' effects on crop yield. PMID:15871283

  12. Community air monitoring for pesticides. Part 3: using health-based screening levels to evaluate results collected for a year.

    PubMed

    Wofford, Pamela; Segawa, Randy; Schreider, Jay; Federighi, Veda; Neal, Rosemary; Brattesani, Madeline

    2014-03-01

    The CA Department of Pesticide Regulation (CDPR) and the CA Air Resources Board monitored 40 pesticides, including five degradation products, in Parlier, CA, to determine if its residents were exposed to any of these pesticides and, if so, in what amounts. They included 1,3-dichloropropene, acrolein, arsenic, azinphos-methyl, carbon disulfide, chlorpyrifos and its degradation product, chlorthalonil, copper, cypermethrin, diazinon and its degradation product, dichlorvos, dicofol, dimethoate and its degradation product, diuron, endosulfan and its degradation product, S-ethyl dipropylcarbamothioate (EPTC), formaldehyde, malathion and its degradation product, methyl isothiocyanate (MITC), methyl bromide, metolachlor, molinate, norflurazon, oryzalin, oxyfluorfen, permethrin, phosmet, propanil, propargite, simazine, SSS-tributylphosphorotrithioate, sulfur, thiobencarb, trifluralin, and xylene. Monitoring was conducted 3 days per week for a year. Twenty-three pesticides and degradation products were detected. Acrolein, arsenic, carbon disulfide, chlorpyrifos, copper, formaldehyde, methyl bromide, MITC, and sulfur were detected in more than half the samples. Since no regulatory ambient air standards exist for these pesticides, CDPR developed advisory, health-based non-cancer screening levels (SLs) to assess acute, subchronic, and chronic exposures. For carcinogenic pesticides, CDPR assessed risk using cancer potency values. Amongst non-carcinogenic agricultural use pesticides, only diazinon exceeded its SL. For carcinogens, 1,3-dichloropropene concentrations exceeded its cancer potency value. Based on these findings, CDPR has undertaken a more comprehensive evaluation of 1,3-dichloropropene, diazinon, and the closely related chlorpyrifos that was frequently detected. Four chemicals-acrolein, arsenic, carbon disulfide, and formaldehyde-sometimes used as pesticides were detected, although no pesticidal use was reported in the area during this study. Their presence was most likely due to vehicular or industrial emissions. PMID:24370859

  13. Isolation and characterization of soybean waste-degrading microorganisms and analysis of fertilizer effects of the degraded products.

    PubMed Central

    Kubo, M; Okajima, J; Hasumi, F

    1994-01-01

    Two microorganisms which could degrade soybean lees efficiently were isolated and identified as Bacillus circulans and B. stearothermophilus. These two strains secreted thermostable proteases into the medium and could digest soybean lees rapidly and completely at 50 degrees C. Initially, the soybean lees were degraded to proteins in approximately 20 h by these two strains, after which time the concentrations of peptides in the medium gradually increased. The degraded products from soybean lees contained abundant nitrogen compounds, such as peptides, amino acids, and amides. Approximately 10 times more fresh plant weight was obtained (in the case of Brassica campestris) when these degraded products were applied than when water was applied for 42 days. These stimulatory effects of the soybean lees products were almost equal to those of a chemically synthesized fertilizer. Images PMID:8117080

  14. New Trends in Pesticide Residue Analysis in Cereals, Nutraceuticals, Baby Foods, and Related Processed Consumer Products.

    PubMed

    Raina-Fulton, Renata

    2015-01-01

    Pesticide residue methods have been developed for a wide variety of food products including cereal-based foods, nutraceuticals and related plant products, and baby foods. These cereal, fruit, vegetable, and plant-based products provide the basis for many processed consumer products. For cereal and nutraceuticals, which are dry sample products, a modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) method has been used with additional steps to allow wetting of the dry sample matrix and subsequent cleanup using dispersive or cartridge format SPE to reduce matrix effects. More processed foods may have lower pesticide concentrations but higher co-extracts that can lead to signal suppression or enhancement with MS detection. For complex matrixes, GC/MS/MS or LC/electrospray ionization (positive or negative ion)-MS/MS is more frequently used. The extraction and cleanup methods vary with different sample types particularly for cereal-based products, and these different approaches are discussed in this review. General instrument considerations are also discussed. PMID:26525234

  15. Pesticide use in banana and plantain production and risk perception among local actors in Talamanca, Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Barraza, Douglas; Technology and Agrarian Development Group, Wageningen University ; Jansen, Kees; Wendel de Joode, Berna van; Wesseling, Catharina

    2011-07-15

    The Talamanca County in Costa Rica has large-scale banana and small-scale plantain production, probably causing pesticide exposure in indigenous children. We explored to what extent different community actors are aware of children's pesticide hazards and how their awareness related to socio-economical and cultural conditions. Methods comprised eight focus groups with fathers and mothers separately, 27 semi-structured interviews to key actors, and field observations. As a whole, the indigenous plantain farmers and banana plantation workers had some general knowledge of pesticides concerning crop protection, but little on acute health effects, and hardly any on exposure routes and pathways, and chronic effects. People expressed vague ideas about pesticide risks. Inter-community differences were related to pesticide technologies used in banana and plantain production, employment status on a multinational plantation versus smallholder status, and gender. Compared to formalized practices on transnational company plantations, where workers reported to feel protected, pesticide handling by plantain smallholders was not perceived as hazardous and therefore no safety precautions were applied. Large-scale monoculture was perceived as one of the most important problems leading to pesticide risks in Talamanca on banana plantations, and also on neighboring small plantain farms extending into large areas. Plantain farmers have adopted use of highly toxic pesticides following banana production, but in conditions of extreme poverty. Aerial spraying in banana plantations was considered by most social actors a major determinant of exposure for the population living nearby these plantations, including vulnerable children. We observed violations of legally established aerial spraying distances. Economic considerations were most mentioned as the underlying reason for the pesticide use: economic needs to obtain the production quantity and quality, and pressure to use pesticides by other economic agents such as middlemen. Risk perceptions were modulated by factors such as people's tasks and positions in the production process, gender, and people's possibilities to define their own social conditions (more fatalistic perceptions among banana workers). The challenge for the future is to combine these insights into improved health risk assessment and management that is culturally adequate for each particular community and agricultural context. - Research highlights: {yields} A first study on pesticide risk perception in Costa Rica. {yields} One of the few studies performed in the indigenous populations in Talamanca. {yields} Economic considerations prevailed above health risks in both communities. {yields} Our findings provide valuable information for multiple social actors.

  16. Occurrence of Selected Pharmaceuticals, Personal-Care Products, Organic Wastewater Compounds, and Pesticides in the Lower Tallapoosa River Watershed near Montgomery, Alabama, 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oblinger, Carolyn J.; Gill, Amy C.; McPherson, Ann K.; Meyer, Michael T.; Furlong, Edward T.

    2007-01-01

    Synthetic and natural organic compounds derived from agricultural operations, residential development, and treated and untreated sanitary and industrial wastewater discharges can contribute contaminants to surface and ground waters. To determine the occurrence of these compounds in the lower Tallapoosa River watershed, Alabama, new laboratory methods were used that can detect human and veterinary antibiotics; pharmaceuticals; and compounds found in personal-care products, food additives, detergents and their metabolites, plasticizers, and other industrial and household products in the environment. Well-established methods for detecting 47 pesticides and 19 pesticide degradates also were used. In all, 186 different compounds were analyzed by using four analytical methods. The lower Tallapoosa River serves as the water-supply source for more than 100,000 customers of the Montgomery Water Works and Sanitary Sewer Board. Source-water protection is a high priority for the Board, which is responsible for providing safe drinking water. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Montgomery Water Works and Sanitary Sewer Board, conducted this study to provide baseline data that could be used to assess the effects of agriculture and residential development on the occurrence of selected organic compounds in the lower Tallapoosa River watershed. Twenty samples were collected at 10 sites on the Tallapoosa River and its tributaries. Ten samples were collected in April 2005 during high base streamflow, and 10 samples were collected in October 2005 when base streamflow was low. Thirty-two of 186 compounds were detected in the lower Tallapoosa River watershed. Thirteen compounds, including atrazine, 2-chloro-4-isopropylamino-6-amino-s-triazine (CIAT), hexazinone, metalaxyl, metolachlor, prometryn, prometon, simazine, azithromycin, oxytetracycline, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, and tylosin, had measurable concentrations above their laboratory reporting levels. Concentrations were estimated for an additional 19 compounds that were detected below their laboratory reporting levels. The two most frequently detected compounds were the pesticides atrazine (19 of 20 samples) and simazine (13 of 20 samples). Tylosin, a veterinary antibiotic, was detected in 8 of 20 samples. Other compounds frequently detected at very low concentrations included CIAT and hexazinone (a degradate of atrazine and a pesticide, respectively); camphor (derived from personal-care products or flavorants), para-cresol (various uses including solvent, wood preservative, and in household cleaning products), and N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET, an insect repellent).

  17. 78 FR 8513 - Product Cancellation Order for Certain Pesticide Registrations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ...SD060004; UT090003; P.O. Box 13528, Research Triangle WY080004. Park...BASF Sparks, LLC, P.O. Box 13528, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709...Products, 26 Davis Dr., P.O. Box 13528, Research Triangle Park, NC...

  18. 76 FR 11460 - Product Cancellation Order for Certain Pesticide Registrations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... Federal Register issue of August 4, 2010 (75 FR 46932) (FRL-8837-9). The comment period closed on January... range of stakeholders including environmental, human health, and agricultural advocates; the chemical... EPA registration No. Product name Active ingredients 000004-00372 Bonide Pyrenone Garden...

  19. 75 FR 16109 - Antimicrobial Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ... name and address: Arch Chemicals Inc., 501 Merrit 7, Norwalk, CT 06856. Active ingredient: Copper 2... ingredient: Copper pyrithione; Cuprous oxide. Proposed Uses: For antifoulant paint to be used below the...: Manufacturing use product for joint compound, masonry coatings, paints, roof coatings, sealants, stuccos,...

  20. 78 FR 25438 - Product Cancellation Order for Certain Pesticide Registrations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ...This notice announces EPA's order for the cancellations, voluntarily requested by the registrants and accepted by the Agency, of the products listed in Table 1 and Table 2 of Unit II., pursuant to the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA). This cancellation order follows a February 20, 2013 Federal Register Notice of Receipt of Requests from the registrants listed in......

  1. 78 FR 38326 - Product Cancellation Order for Certain Pesticide Registrations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ...This notice announces EPA's order for the cancellations, voluntarily requested by the registrants and accepted by the Agency, of the products listed in Table 1a and 1b of Unit II. pursuant to the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA). This cancellation order follows a November 28, 2012 Federal Register Notice of Receipt of Requests from the registrants listed in Table 2......

  2. 76 FR 551 - Pesticide Product Registrations; Conditional Approval

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-05

    ... EPA issued a notice, published in the Federal Register of February 26, 2010 (75 FR 8939) (FRL-8812-8... 26, 2010 (75 FR 8939), which announced that Bayer CropScience and Bayer Environmental Science had... the end-use products consists of: a. Residue Analysis of Nectar and Pollen in Flowering Citrus...

  3. 75 FR 57019 - Pesticide Product Registrations; Conditional Approval

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... Form EPA issued a notice, published in the Federal Register of November 18, 2009 (74 FR 59536) (FRL... products for use on apples and soybeans. 2. TOPGUARD Fungicide (EPA registration number 4787-55) was... leaf spot, leaf spot, powdery mildew, and soybean rust, and on apples to control cedar apple...

  4. 78 FR 24195 - Product Cancellation Order for Certain Pesticide Registrations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... published for comment in the Federal Register issue of December 19, 2012 (77 FR 75157) (FRL-9368-8). The... after December 31, 2015; and the cancellation for the allethrins end use products listed in Table 2. of..., beyond the date of December 31, 2015, as specified in the Notice of Receipt of a Request to...

  5. 76 FR 31606 - Product Cancellation Order for Certain Pesticide Registrations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ...This notice announces EPA's order for the cancellations, voluntarily requested by the registrants and accepted by the Agency, of the products listed in Table 1 of Unit II., pursuant to section 6(f)(1) of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), as amended. This cancellation order follows an August 25, 2010 Federal Register Notice of Receipt of Requests from the......

  6. Liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry study of nilutamide and its stress degradation products: in silico toxicity prediction of degradation products.

    PubMed

    Ramesh Babu, A; Borkar, Roshan M; Raju, G; Raju, B; Srinivas, R

    2014-06-01

    Nilutamide, a nonsteroidal anti-androgen drug, widely used in the treatment of prostate cancer, was subjected to hydrolytic, photolytic, thermal and oxidative stress conditions as per International Conference on Harmonization guidelines Q1A (R2). Nilutamide showed significant degradation under basic hydrolysis and photolytic stress conditions, while it was stable to neutral, acidic and thermal stress conditions. Five degradation products were formed and the chromatographic separation of nilutamide and its degradation products was achieved on a Waters C18 column (4.6 × 250 mm, 5 µm) using a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and 0.1% of formic acid in an isocratic elution method. All these degradation products were characterized by LC/MS/MS in negative ion mode, combined with accurate mass measurements. To assign likely structures for the observed degradation products, the fragmentation patterns of the deprotonated drug and its degradation products were compared. The in silico toxicity of the drug and its degradation products was also assessed using TOPKAT software. The carcinogenicity probability of the degradation products, DP-I-IV, was greater than that of nilutamide. PMID:24861745

  7. Multifamily determination of pesticide residues in soya-based nutraceutical products by GC/MS-MS.

    PubMed

    Páleníková, Agneša; Martínez-Domínguez, Gerardo; Arrebola, Francisco Javier; Romero-González, Roberto; Hrouzková, Svetlana; Frenich, Antonia Garrido

    2015-04-15

    An analytical method based on a modified QuEChERS extraction coupled with gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) was evaluated for the determination of 177 pesticides in soya-based nutraceutical products. The QuEChERS method was optimised and different extraction solvents and clean-up approaches were tested, obtaining the most efficient conditions with a mixture of sorbents (PSA, C18, GBC and Zr-Sep(+)). Recoveries were evaluated at 10, 50 and 100 ?g/kg and ranged between 70% and 120%. Precision was expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD), and it was evaluated for more than 160 pesticides as intra and inter-day precision, with values always below 20% and 25%, respectively. Limits of detection (LODs) ranged from 0.1 to 10 ?g/kg, whereas limits of quantification (LOQs) from 0.5 to 20 ?g/kg. The applicability of the method was proved by analysing soya-based nutraceuticals. Two pesticides were found in these samples, malathion and pyriproxyfen, at 11.1 and 1.5 ?g/kg respectively. PMID:25466092

  8. Challenges and opportunities of the bio-pesticides production by solid-state fermentation: filamentous fungi as a model.

    PubMed

    De la Cruz Quiroz, Reynaldo; Roussos, Sevastianos; Hernández, Daniel; Rodríguez, Raúl; Castillo, Francisco; Aguilar, Cristóbal N

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, production and use of bio-pesticides have increasing and replacing some synthetic chemical pesticides applied to food commodities. In this review, biological control is focused as an alternative, to some synthetic chemical treatments that cause environmental, human health, and food quality risks. In addition, several phytopathogenic microorganisms have developed resistance to some of these synthetic chemicals and become more difficult to control. Worldwide, the bio-pesticides market is growing annually at a rate of 44% in North America, 20% in Europe and Oceania, 10% in Latin and South American countries and 6% in Asia. Use of agro-industrial wastes and solid-state fermentation (SSF) technology offers an alternative to bio-pesticide production with advantages versus conventional submerged fermentations, as reduced cost and energy consumption, low production of residual water and high stability products. In this review, recent data about state of art regarding bio-pesticides production under SSF on agroindustrial wastes will be discussed. SSF can be defined as a microbial process that generally occurs on solid material in the absence of free water. This material has the ability to absorb water with or without soluble nutrients, since the substrate must have water to support the microorganism's growth and metabolism. Changes in water content are analyzed in order to select the conditions for a future process, where water stress can be combined with the best spore production conditions, obtaining in this way an inexpensive biotechnological option for modern agriculture in developing countries. PMID:24494699

  9. Pyrethroid Pesticides and Their Metabolites in Vacuum Cleaner Dust Collected from Homes and Day-Care Centers

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the concentrations of 13 selected pyrethroid pesticides and their degradation products in samples of indoor dust that had been collected in vacuum cleaner bags during the Children's Total Exposure to Persistent Pesticides and Other Persis...

  10. The Greening of Pesticide–Environment Interactions: Some Personal Observations

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background: Pesticide–environment interactions are bidirectional. The environment alters pesticides by metabolism and photodegradation, and pesticides in turn change the environment through nontarget or secondary effects. Objectives: Approximately 900 currently used commercial pesticides of widely diverse structures act by nearly a hundred mechanisms to control insects, weeds, and fungi, usually with minimal disruption of nature’s equilibrium. Here I consider some aspects of the discovery, development, and use of ecofriendly or green pesticides (i.e., pesticides that are safe, effective, and biodegradable with minimal adverse secondary effects on the environment). Emphasis is given to research in my laboratory. Discussion: The need for understanding and improving pesticide–environment interactions began with production of the first major insecticide approximately 150 years ago: The arsenical poison Paris Green was green in color but definitely not ecofriendly. Development and use of other pesticides has led to a variety of problems. Topics considered here include the need for high purity [e.g., hexachlorocyclohexane and polychloroborane isomers and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T)], environmental degradation and the bioactivity of resulting photoproducts and metabolites, pesticide photochemistry (including the use of structural optimization, photostabilizers, and photosensitizers to achieve suitable persistence), the presence of multiple active ingredients in botanical insecticides, the need to consider compounds with common mechanisms of action, issues related to primary and secondary targets, and chemically induced or genetically modified changes in plant biochemistry. Many insecticides are bird, fish, and honeybee toxicants, whereas herbicides and fungicides pose fewer environmental problems. Conclusion: Six factors have contributed to the greening of pesticide–environment interactions: advances in pesticide chemistry and toxicology, banning of many chlorinated hydrocarbons, the development of new biochemical targets, increased reliance on genetically modified crops that reduce the amount and variety of pesticides applied, emphasis on biodegradability and environmental protection, and integrated pest- and pesticide-management systems. PMID:22472325

  11. Pesticide use in banana and plantain production and risk perception among local actors in Talamanca, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Barraza, Douglas; Jansen, Kees; van Wendel de Joode, Berna; Wesseling, Catharina

    2011-07-01

    The Talamanca County in Costa Rica has large-scale banana and small-scale plantain production, probably causing pesticide exposure in indigenous children. We explored to what extent different community actors are aware of children's pesticide hazards and how their awareness related to socio-economical and cultural conditions. Methods comprised eight focus groups with fathers and mothers separately, 27 semi-structured interviews to key actors, and field observations. As a whole, the indigenous plantain farmers and banana plantation workers had some general knowledge of pesticides concerning crop protection, but little on acute health effects, and hardly any on exposure routes and pathways, and chronic effects. People expressed vague ideas about pesticide risks. Inter-community differences were related to pesticide technologies used in banana and plantain production, employment status on a multinational plantation versus smallholder status, and gender. Compared to formalized practices on transnational company plantations, where workers reported to feel protected, pesticide handling by plantain smallholders was not perceived as hazardous and therefore no safety precautions were applied. Large-scale monoculture was perceived as one of the most important problems leading to pesticide risks in Talamanca on banana plantations, and also on neighboring small plantain farms extending into large areas. Plantain farmers have adopted use of highly toxic pesticides following banana production, but in conditions of extreme poverty. Aerial spraying in banana plantations was considered by most social actors a major determinant of exposure for the population living nearby these plantations, including vulnerable children. We observed violations of legally established aerial spraying distances. Economic considerations were most mentioned as the underlying reason for the pesticide use: economic needs to obtain the production quantity and quality, and pressure to use pesticides by other economic agents such as middlemen. Risk perceptions were modulated by factors such as people's tasks and positions in the production process, gender, and people's possibilities to define their own social conditions (more fatalistic perceptions among banana workers). The challenge for the future is to combine these insights into improved health risk assessment and management that is culturally adequate for each particular community and agricultural context. PMID:21396636

  12. Identification of forced degradation products of tamsulosin using liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Namdev, Deepak; Borkar, Roshan M; Raju, B; Kalariya, Pradipbhai D; Rahangdale, Vinodkumar T; Gananadhamu, S; Srinivas, R

    2014-01-01

    A rapid and gradient high-performance liquid chromatography combined with quadrupole time-of-flight electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/Q-TOF-ESI-MS/MS) method has been developed for the identification and structural characterization of stressed degradation products of tamsulosin. Tamsulosin, a selective ?1-adrenoceptor antagonist, was subjected to forced degradation studies under hydrolytic (acid, base and neutral), oxidative, photolytic and thermal stress conditions as per ICH guidelines Q1A (R2). The drug degraded significantly under hydrolytic (base and neutral), thermal, oxidative and photolytic conditions, while it was stable to acid hydrolytic stress conditions. A total of twelve degradation products were formed and the chromatographic separation of the drug and its degradation products were achieved on a GRACE C-18 column (250mm×4.6mm, 5?m). All the degradants have been identified and characterized by LC/ESI-MS/MS and accurate mass measurements. To elucidate the structures of degradation products, fragmentation of the [M+H](+) ions of tamsulosin and its degradation products was studied by using LC-MS/MS experiments combined with accurate mass measurements. The product ions of all the protonated degradation products were compared with the product ions of protonated tamsulosin to assign most probable structures for the observed degradation products. PMID:24083958

  13. Enzymatic degradation of plutonium-contaminated cellulose products

    SciTech Connect

    Heintz, C.E.; Rainwater, K.A.; Swift, L.M.; Barnes, D.L.; Worl, L.; Avens, L.

    1999-03-01

    Enzyme solutions produced for commercial purposes unrelated to waste management have the potential for reducing the volume of wastes in streams containing cellulose, lipid and protein materials. For example, the authors have shown that cellulases used in denim production and in detergent formulations are able to digest cellulose-containing sorbents and other cellulose-based wastes contaminated either with crude oil or with radionuclides. This presentation describes the use of one such enzyme preparation (Rapidase{trademark}) for the degradation of cotton sorbents intentionally contaminated with low levels of plutonium. This is part of a feasibility study to determine if such treatments have a role in reducing the volume of low level and transuranic wastes to minimize the amount of radionuclide-contaminated waste that must be disposed of in secured storage areas.

  14. Enzymatic degradation of plutonium-contaminated cellulose products

    SciTech Connect

    Heintz, C.E.; Rainwater, K.A.; Swift, L.M.; Barnes, D.L.; Worl, L.A.

    1999-06-01

    Enzyme solutions produced for commercial purposes unrelated to waste management have the potential for reducing the volume of wastes in streams containing cellulose, lipid and protein materials. For example, the authors have shown previously that cellulases used in denim production and in detergent formulations are able to digest cellulose-containing sorbents and other cellulose-based wastes contaminated either with crude oil or with uranium. This presentation describes the use of one such enzyme preparation (Rapidase{trademark}, manufactured by Genencor, Rochester, NY) for the degradation of cotton sorbents intentionally contaminated with low levels of plutonium. This is part of a feasibility study to determine if such treatments have a role in reducing the volume of low level and transuranic wastes to minimize the amount of radionuclide-contaminated waste destined for costly disposal options.

  15. Toxicology of atmospheric degradation products of selected hydrochlorofluorocarbons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaminsky, Laurence S.

    1990-01-01

    Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) is a liquid with a sharp biting odor. It has been proposed as the product of environmental degradation of the hydrochlorofluorocarbons HCFC-123, HCFC-124, HFC-134a, and HFC-125. Compounds HCFC-141b and HCFC-142b could yield mixed fluorochloroacetic acids, for which there is no available toxicologic data. The release of hydrochlorofluorocarbons into the environment could also give rise to HF, but the additional fluoride burden (1 to 3 ppb) in rainwater is trivial compared to levels in fluoridated drinking water (1 ppm), and would provide an insignificant risk to humans. Thus, in this paper only the toxocologic data on TFA is reviewed to assess the potential risks of environmental exposure.

  16. Production of xenobiotic degrader for potential application in bioaugmentation.

    PubMed

    Chong, Nyuk-Min; Huang, Jung-Cheng

    2012-12-01

    Continuous-flow chemostats were operated at different mean-cell-residence-times (?c) and influent concentrations of a xenobiotic (2,4-D) and biogenic substrates. Steady state chemostat biomasses' performances in 2,4-D degradation were analyzed with a mathematical model to determine the quantities of degrader the biomasses contained. The qualification for microbial cells to become degraders is a high grade of degradation kinetics. This qualification uniformly applies to all biomasses. The quantities of degraders vary inversely with the chemostats'?c. Biogenic substrates increase degrader yield such that a high biogenic and a high xenobiotic influent optimize degrader mass output. Economics evaluation performed around the optima finds the influent containing 5-25% 2,4-D carbon (TOC) in approximately 900 mg/l biogenic TOC, and the ?c of 2-5d, are suitable operating conditions for a degrader producing bioreactor that may serve as a selector of biomass for bioaugmentation purposes. PMID:23070139

  17. Anaerobic degradation of renewable biomass for production of methane

    SciTech Connect

    Rajoka, M.I.; Tabassum, R.; Malik, K.A.

    1996-12-31

    Anaerobic degradation of renewable biomass namely kallar grass (KG) (Leptochloafusca L. Kunth), Atriplex sp, wheat straw, cotton stalk, cotton lint and molasses was carried out at 37{degrees}C in a 15 litre fermentor, using laboratory enriched co-culture of fermentative, acetogenic and methanogenic organisms. Maximum reduction of volatile solids (VS) was from causticized KG, and cotton lint, followed by causticized wheat straw and Atriplex sp. followed by causticized wheat straw and Atriplex sp. Maximum production of methane was obtained from NaOH-pretreated KG with a process product yield (Y{sub p/s}) of 0.9 m{sup 3}/kg VS with a volumetric productivity (Q{sub p}) of 4.24 L/day after 19 days of fermentation. Maximum methane content in the gas mixture was 96% with average of 78.6{+-}21.6. The Y{sub p/s} in 1000 litre digestor was 0.7 m{sup 3}/kg VS from a 3% suspension of uncaustisized kallar grass.

  18. Production of degradable polymers from food-waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, S.P.: Coleman, R.D.; Bonsignore, P.V.; Moon, S.H.

    1992-07-01

    In the United States, billions of pounds of cheese whey permeate and approximately 10 billion pounds of potatoes processed each year are typically discarded or sold as cattle feed at $3{endash}6/ton; moreover, the transportation required for these means of disposal can be expensive. As a potential solution to this economic and environmental problem, Argonne National Laboratory is developing technology that: Biologically converts existing food-processing waste streams into lactic acid and uses lactic acid for making environmentally safe, degradable polylactic acid (PLA) and modified PLA plastics and coatings. An Argonne process for biologically converting high-carbohydrate food waste will not only help to solve a waste problem for the food industry, but will also save energy and be economically attractive. Although the initial substrate for Argonne`s process development is potato by-product, the process can be adapted to convert other food wastes, as well as corn starch, to lactic acid. Proprietary technology for biologically converting greater than 90% of the starch in potato wastes to glucose has been developed. Glucose and other products of starch hydrolysis are subsequently fermented by bacteria that produce lactic acid. The lactic acid is recovered, concentrated, and further purified to a polymer-grade product.

  19. Production of degradable polymers from food-waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, S.P.: Coleman, R.D.; Bonsignore, P.V.; Moon, S.H.

    1992-01-01

    In the United States, billions of pounds of cheese whey permeate and approximately 10 billion pounds of potatoes processed each year are typically discarded or sold as cattle feed at $3{endash}6/ton; moreover, the transportation required for these means of disposal can be expensive. As a potential solution to this economic and environmental problem, Argonne National Laboratory is developing technology that: Biologically converts existing food-processing waste streams into lactic acid and uses lactic acid for making environmentally safe, degradable polylactic acid (PLA) and modified PLA plastics and coatings. An Argonne process for biologically converting high-carbohydrate food waste will not only help to solve a waste problem for the food industry, but will also save energy and be economically attractive. Although the initial substrate for Argonne's process development is potato by-product, the process can be adapted to convert other food wastes, as well as corn starch, to lactic acid. Proprietary technology for biologically converting greater than 90% of the starch in potato wastes to glucose has been developed. Glucose and other products of starch hydrolysis are subsequently fermented by bacteria that produce lactic acid. The lactic acid is recovered, concentrated, and further purified to a polymer-grade product.

  20. Relationship between bacterial diversity and function under biotic control: the soil pesticide degraders as a case study.

    PubMed

    Monard, Cécile; Vandenkoornhuyse, Philippe; Le Bot, Barbara; Binet, Françoise

    2011-06-01

    In soil, the way biotic parameters impact the relationship between bacterial diversity and function is still unknown. To understand these interactions better, we used RNA-based stable-isotope probing to study the diversity of active atrazine-degrading bacteria in relation to atrazine degradation and to explore the impact of earthworm-soil engineering with respect to this relationship. Bulk soil, burrow linings and earthworm casts were incubated with (13)C-atrazine. The pollutant degradation was quantified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry for 8 days, whereas active atrazine degraders were identified at 2 and 8 days by sequencing the 16S ribosomal RNA in the (13)C-RNA fractions from the three soil microsites. An original diversity of atrazine degraders was found. Earthworm soil engineering greatly modified the taxonomic composition of atrazine degraders with dominance of ?-, ?- and ?-proteobacteria in burrow linings and of Actinobacteria in casts. Earthworm soil bioturbation increased the ?-diversity of atrazine degraders over the soil microsites generated. Atrazine degradation was enhanced in burrow linings in which primary atrazine degraders, closely related to Pelomonas aquatica, were detected only 2 days after atrazine addition. Atrazine degradation efficiency was not linearly related to the species richness of degraders but likely relied on keystone species. By enhancing soil heterogeneity, earthworms sustained high phylogenetic bacterial diversity and exerted a biotic control on the bacterial diversity-function relationships. Our findings call for future investigations to assess the ecological significance of biotic controls on the relationships between diversity and function on ecosystem properties and services (for example, soil detoxification) at larger scales. PMID:21160539

  1. Relationship between bacterial diversity and function under biotic control: the soil pesticide degraders as a case study

    PubMed Central

    Monard, Cécile; Vandenkoornhuyse, Philippe; Le Bot, Barbara; Binet, Françoise

    2011-01-01

    In soil, the way biotic parameters impact the relationship between bacterial diversity and function is still unknown. To understand these interactions better, we used RNA-based stable-isotope probing to study the diversity of active atrazine-degrading bacteria in relation to atrazine degradation and to explore the impact of earthworm-soil engineering with respect to this relationship. Bulk soil, burrow linings and earthworm casts were incubated with 13C-atrazine. The pollutant degradation was quantified by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry for 8 days, whereas active atrazine degraders were identified at 2 and 8 days by sequencing the 16S ribosomal RNA in the 13C-RNA fractions from the three soil microsites. An original diversity of atrazine degraders was found. Earthworm soil engineering greatly modified the taxonomic composition of atrazine degraders with dominance of ?-, ?- and ?-proteobacteria in burrow linings and of Actinobacteria in casts. Earthworm soil bioturbation increased the ?-diversity of atrazine degraders over the soil microsites generated. Atrazine degradation was enhanced in burrow linings in which primary atrazine degraders, closely related to Pelomonas aquatica, were detected only 2 days after atrazine addition. Atrazine degradation efficiency was not linearly related to the species richness of degraders but likely relied on keystone species. By enhancing soil heterogeneity, earthworms sustained high phylogenetic bacterial diversity and exerted a biotic control on the bacterial diversity–function relationships. Our findings call for future investigations to assess the ecological significance of biotic controls on the relationships between diversity and function on ecosystem properties and services (for example, soil detoxification) at larger scales. PMID:21160539

  2. Identification of the product of Toxoflavin lyase: degradation via a Baeyer-Villiger oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Philmus, Benjamin; Abdelwahed, Sameh; Williams, Howard J.; Fenwick, Michael K.; Ealick, Steven E.; Begley, Tadhg P.

    2012-01-01

    Toxoflavin (an azapteridine) is degraded to a single product by toxoflavin lyase (TflA) in a reaction dependent on reductant, Mn(II), and oxygen. The isolated product was fully characterized by NMR and MS and was identified as a triazine in which the pyrimidine ring was oxidatively degraded. A mechanism for toxoflavin degradation based on the identification of the enzymatic product and the recently determined crystal structure of toxoflavin lyase is proposed. PMID:22304755

  3. Identifying high production, low production and degraded rangelands in Senegal with normalized difference vegetation index data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tappan, G. Gray; Wood, Lynette; Moore, Donald G.

    1993-01-01

    Seasonal herbaceous vegetation production on Senegal's native rangelands exhibits high spatial and temporal variability. This variability can be monitored using normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data computed from 1-km resolution Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) image data. Although annual fluctuations in rainfall account for some of the variability, numerous long-term production patterns are evident in the AVHRR time-series data. Different n productivity reflect variations in the region's climate, topography, soils, and land use. Areas of overgrazing and intensive cultivation have caused long-term soil and vegetation degradation. Rangelands of high and low productivity, and degraded rangelands were identified using NDVI. Time-series image data from 1987 though 1992 were used to map relative rangeland productivity. The results were compared to detailed resource maps on soils, vegetation and land use. Much of the variation in rangeland productivity correlated well to the known distribution of resources. The study developed an approach that identified a number of areas of degraded soils and low vegetation production.

  4. Pyrene degradation accelerated by constructed consortium of bacterium and microalga: effects of degradation products on the microalgal growth.

    PubMed

    Luo, Shusheng; Chen, Baowei; Lin, Li; Wang, Xiaowei; Tam, Nora Fung-Yee; Luan, Tiangang

    2014-12-01

    Abundant microbes including bacteria, fungi, or algae are capable of biodegrading polycyclic hydrocarbons (PAHs). However, pure cultures never occur in the contaminated environments. This study aimed to understand the general potential mechanisms of interactions between microbes under pollution stress by constructing a consortium of PAH-degrading microalga (Selenastrum capricornutum) and bacterium (Mycobacterium sp. strain A1-PYR). Bacteria alone could grow on the pyrene, whereas the growth of algae alone was substantially inhibited by the pyrene of 10 mg L(-1). In the mixing culture of algae and bacteria, the growth rate of algae was significantly increased from day 4 onward. Rapid bacterial degradation of pyrene might mitigate the toxicity of pyrene to algae. Phenolic acids, the bacterial degradation products of pyrene, could serve as the phytohormone for promoting algal growth in the coculture of algae and bacteria. In turn, bacterial growth was also enhanced by the algae presented in the mixing culture. Consequently, the fastest degradation of pyrene among all biodegradation systems was achieved by the consortium of algae and bacteria probably due to such interactions between the two species by virtue of degradation products. This study reveals that the consortium containing multiple microbial species is high potential for microbial remediation of pyrene-contaminated environments, and provides a new strategy to degrade the recalcitrant PAHs. PMID:25382552

  5. Effect of handling and processing on pesticide residues in food- a review.

    PubMed

    Bajwa, Usha; Sandhu, Kulwant Singh

    2014-02-01

    Pesticides are one of the major inputs used for increasing agricultural productivity of crops. The pesticide residues, left to variable extent in the food materials after harvesting, are beyond the control of consumer and have deleterious effect on human health. The presence of pesticide residues is a major bottleneck in the international trade of food commodities. The localization of pesticides in foods varies with the nature of pesticide molecule, type and portion of food material and environmental factors. The food crops treated with pesticides invariably contain unpredictable amount of these chemicals, therefore, it becomes imperative to find out some alternatives for decontamination of foods. The washing with water or soaking in solutions of salt and some chemicals e.g. chlorine, chlorine dioxide, hydrogen peroxide, ozone, acetic acid, hydroxy peracetic acid, iprodione and detergents are reported to be highly effective in reducing the level of pesticides. Preparatory steps like peeling, trimming etc. remove the residues from outer portions. Various thermal processing treatments like pasteurization, blanching, boiling, cooking, steaming, canning, scrambling etc. have been found valuable in degradation of various pesticides depending upon the type of pesticide and length of treatment. Preservation techniques like drying or dehydration and concentration increase the pesticide content many folds due to concentration effect. Many other techniques like refining, fermentation and curing have been reported to affect the pesticide level in foods to varied extent. Milling, baking, wine making, malting and brewing resulted in lowering of pesticide residue level in the end products. Post harvest treatments and cold storage have also been found effective. Many of the decontamination techniques bring down the concentration of pesticides below MRL. However, the diminution effect depends upon the initial concentration at the time of harvest, substrate/food and type of pesticide. There is diversified information available in literature on the effect of preparation, processing and subsequent handling and storage of foods on pesticide residues which has been compiled in this article. PMID:24493878

  6. Persistence and Migration of Alkylphenol Ethoxylate Degradation Products Associated with Land-applied Biosolids

    E-print Network

    Fabrizio, Mary C.

    are commonly used as surfactants in detergents, paints, pesticides, textiles, and personal care products. NPEOs b a Department of Environmental & Aquatic Animal Health Virginia Institute of Marine Science waters from release of excess phosphorus, ground water contamination by nitrate leaching, health risks

  7. Enhancing the Promiscuous Phosphotriesterase Activity of a Thermostable Lactonase (GkaP) for the Efficient Degradation of Organophosphate Pesticides

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu; An, Jiao; Ye, Wei; Yang, Guangyu; Qian, Zhi-Gang; Chen, Hai-Feng; Cui, Li

    2012-01-01

    The phosphotriesterase-like lactonase (PLL) enzymes in the amidohydrolase superfamily hydrolyze various lactones and exhibit latent phosphotriesterase activities. These enzymes serve as attractive templates for in vitro evolution of neurotoxic organophosphates (OPs) with hydrolytic capabilities that can be used as bioremediation tools. Here, a thermostable PLL from Geobacillus kaustophilus HTA426 (GkaP) was targeted for joint laboratory evolution with the aim of enhancing its catalytic efficiency against OP pesticides. By a combination of site saturation mutagenesis and whole-gene error-prone PCR approaches, several improved variants were isolated. The most active variant, 26A8C, accumulated eight amino acid substitutions and demonstrated a 232-fold improvement over the wild-type enzyme in reactivity (kcat/Km) for the OP pesticide ethyl-paraoxon. Concomitantly, this variant showed a 767-fold decrease in lactonase activity with ?-decanolactone, imparting a specificity switch of 1.8 × 105-fold. 26A8C also exhibited high hydrolytic activities (19- to 497-fold) for several OP pesticides, including parathion, diazinon, and chlorpyrifos. Analysis of the mutagenesis sites on the GkaP structure revealed that most mutations are located in loop 8, which determines substrate specificity in the amidohydrolase superfamily. Molecular dynamics simulation shed light on why 26A8C lost its native lactonase activity and improved the promiscuous phosphotriesterase activity. These results permit us to obtain further insights into the divergent evolution of promiscuous enzymes and suggest that laboratory evolution of GkaP may lead to potential biological solutions for the efficient decontamination of neurotoxic OP compounds. PMID:22798358

  8. Management technologies can reduce the environmental risk of pesticides in agricultural production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pesticide use in agriculture, the potential risk posed by pesticides when they are transported beyond the intended target, and their effects on human and environmental health have been of public concern for many years. We utilized 5 years of field data, quantifying pesticide transport with runoff fr...

  9. Design of an optimized biomixture for the degradation of carbofuran based on pesticide removal and toxicity reduction of the matrix.

    PubMed

    Chin-Pampillo, Juan Salvador; Ruiz-Hidalgo, Karla; Masís-Mora, Mario; Carazo-Rojas, Elizabeth; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carlos E

    2015-12-01

    Pesticide biopurification systems contain a biologically active matrix (biomixture) responsible for the accelerated elimination of pesticides in wastewaters derived from pest control in crop fields. Biomixtures have been typically prepared using the volumetric composition 50:25:25 (lignocellulosic substrate/humic component/soil); nonetheless, formal composition optimization has not been performed so far. Carbofuran is an insecticide/nematicide of high toxicity widely employed in developing countries. Therefore, the composition of a highly efficient biomixture (composed of coconut fiber, compost, and soil, FCS) for the removal of carbofuran was optimized by means of a central composite design and response surface methodology. The volumetric content of soil and the ratio coconut fiber/compost were used as the design variables. The performance of the biomixture was assayed by considering the elimination of carbofuran, the mineralization of (14)C-carbofuran, and the residual toxicity of the matrix, as response variables. Based on the models, the optimal volumetric composition of the FCS biomixture consists of 45:13:42 (coconut fiber/compost/soil), which resulted in minimal residual toxicity and ?99 % carbofuran elimination after 3 days. This optimized biomixture considerably differs from the standard 50:25:25 composition, which remarks the importance of assessing the performance of newly developed biomixtures during the design of biopurification systems. PMID:26250812

  10. Elastin degradation product isodesmosine is a chemoattractant for Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Sampedro, Inmaculada; Kato, Junichi; Hill, Jane E

    2015-07-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 is chemotactic towards proteinogenic amino acids, however, the chemotaxis response of this strain towards non-proteinogenic amino acids and the specific chemoreceptors involved in this response are essentially unknown. In this study, we analysed the chemotactic response of PAO1 towards two degradation products of elastin, the lysine-rich, non-proteinogenic amino acids, desmosine and isodesmosine. We observed that isodesmosine, a potential biomarker for different diseases, served as a chemoattractant for PAO1. A screen of 251methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins mutants of PAO1 identified PctA as the chemoreceptor for isodesmosine. We also showed that the positive chemotactic response to isodesmosine is potentially common by demonstrating chemoattraction in 12 of 15 diverse (in terms of source of isolation) clinical isolates, suggesting that the chemotactic response to this non-proteinogenic amino acid might be a conserved feature of acute infection isolates and thus could influence the colonization of potential infection sites. PMID:25855762

  11. Pesticide Record Keeping Requirements For New Hampshire

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    Pesticide Record Keeping Requirements For New Hampshire Pesticide applicators are required to maintain records on pesticide applications according to state and national regulations. Also pesticide or solve production problems. This fact sheet will help you comply with federal and state pesticide record

  12. Safe apples for baby-food production: survey of pesticide treatment regimes leaving minimum residues.

    PubMed

    Ticha, Jana; Hajslova, Jana; Kovalczuk, Tomas; Jech, Martin; Honzicek, Jiri; Kocourek, Vladimir; Lansky, Miroslav; Kloutvorova, Jana; Falta, Vladan

    2007-06-01

    A total of 19 pesticide preparations were used according to agricultural practice in six trials in apple orchards. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), premature Golden Delicious apples collected 64, 50, 36 days before harvest and mature fruit were examined for residues of active ingredients. No residues of triflumuron, triazamate, chlorpyrifos, etofenprox, fenoxycarb, kresoxim-methyl, cyprodinyl, difenoconazole or thiram were detected in the first sampling. Also, the levels of chlorpyrifos-methyl, penconazole, tebuconazole and tolylfluanid dropped during the pre-harvest interval. Detectable residues of pyridaben, thiacloprid, trifloxystrobin and tetraconazole in harvested fruits were below 0.01 mg kg(-1), which is the maximum concentration of residues acceptable by baby-food producers in any raw material. The only residues exceeding this concentration were captan and teflubenzuron. Based on the data, farmers can choose pesticides for optimal treatment of plants, while enabling growth of a safe crop suitable for baby-food production. PMID:17487602

  13. Reflectance model for quantifying chlorophyll a in the presence of productivity degradation products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carder, K. L.; Hawes, S. K.; Steward, R. G.; Baker, K. A.; Smith, R. C.; Mitchell, B. G.

    1991-01-01

    A reflectance model developed to estimate chlorophyll a concentrations in the presence of marine colored dissolved organic matter, pheopigments, detritus, and bacteria is presented. Nomograms and lookup tables are generated to describe the effects of different mixtures of chlorophyll a and these degradation products on the R(412):R(443) and R(443):R(565) remote-sensing reflectance or irradiance reflectance ratios. These are used to simulate the accuracy of potential ocean color satellite algorithms, assuming that atmospheric effects have been removed. For the California Current upwelling and offshore regions, with chlorophyll a not greater than 1.3 mg/cu m, the average error for chlorophyll a retrievals derived from irradiance reflectance data for degradation product-rich areas was reduced from +/-61 percent to +/-23 percent by application of an algorithm using two reflectance ratios rather than the commonly used algorithm applying a single reflectance ratio.

  14. LC-UV-PDA and LC-MS studies to characterize degradation products of glimepiride.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Gulshan; Singh, Manjeet; Jindal, K C; Singh, Saranjit

    2008-11-01

    Degradation products of glimepiride formed under different forced conditions have been characterized through LC-UV-PDA and LC-MS studies. Glimepiride was subjected to forced decomposition under the conditions of hydrolysis, oxidation, dry heat and photolysis, in accordance with the ICH guideline Q1A(R2). The reaction solutions were chromatographed on reversed phase C8 (150 mm x 4.6mm i.d., 5 microm) analytical column. In total, five degradation products (I-V) were formed under various conditions. The drug degraded to products II and V under acid and neutral hydrolytic conditions while products I, III and IV were formed under the alkaline conditions. The products II and V were also observed on exposure of drug to peroxide. No additional degradation product was shown up under photolytic conditions. All the products, except I, could be characterized through LC-PDA analyses and study of MS fragmentation pattern in both +ESI and -ESI modes. Product I could not be identified, as it did not ionize under MS conditions. The products II, III and V matched, respectively, to impurity B (glimepiride sulfonamide), impurity J and impurity C (glimepiride urethane) listed in European Pharmacopoeia. The product IV was a new degradation product, characterized as [[4-[2-(N-carbamoyl)aminoethyl]phenyl]sulfonyl]-3-trans-(4-methylcyclohexyl) urea. The degradation pathway of the drug to products II-V is proposed, which is yet unreported. PMID:18804934

  15. Degradation and monitoring of acetamiprid, thiabendazole and their transformation products in an agro-food industry effluent during solar photo-Fenton treatment in a raceway pond reactor.

    PubMed

    Carra, Irene; Sirtori, Carla; Ponce-Robles, Laura; Sánchez Pérez, José Antonio; Malato, Sixto; Agüera, Ana

    2015-07-01

    In this study, pesticides acetamiprid and thiabendazole and their transformation products (TPs), seven from each pesticide, were successfully monitored during solar photo-Fenton treatment in a real secondary effluent from an agro-food industry spiked with 100?gL(-1) of each pesticide. To this end, a highly sensitive procedure was developed, based on liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to hybrid quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometry (QqLIT-MS). In addition, finding low-cost and operational technology for the application of AOPs would then facilitate their use on a commercial level. Simple and extensive photoreactors such as raceway pond reactors (RPRs) are therefore proposed as an alternative for the application of solar photo-Fenton. Results showed that high degradation could be achieved in a complex water matrix (>99% TBZ and 91% ACTM in 240min) using a 120-L RPR pilot plant as novel technology. The analyses indicated that after the treatment only three TPs from ACTM were still present in the effluent, while the others had been removed. The study showed that the goal of either just removing the parent compounds, or going one step further and removing all the TPs, can significantly change the treatment time, which would affect process costs. PMID:25841181

  16. 40 CFR 152.175 - Pesticides classified for restricted use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pesticides classified for restricted...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Classification of Pesticides § 152.175 Pesticides classified for restricted use. The following uses of pesticide products containing...

  17. Selectivity of Pesticides used in Integrated Apple Production to the Lacewing, Chrysoperla externa

    PubMed Central

    Moura, Alexandre Pinho; Carvalho, Geraldo Andrade; Moscardini, Valéria Fonseca; Lasmar, Olinto; Rezende, Denise Tourino; Marques, Márcio Candeias

    2010-01-01

    This research aimed to assess the toxicity of the pesticides abamectin 18 CE (0.02 g a.i. L-1), carbaryl 480 SC (1.73 g a.i. L-1), sulfur 800 GrDA (4.8 g a.i. L-1), fenitrothion 500 CE (0.75 g a.i. L-1), methidathion 400 CE (0.4 g a.i. L-1), and trichlorfon 500 SC (1.5 g a.i. L-1) as applied in integrated apple production in Brazil on the survival, oviposition capacity, and egg viability of the lacewing, Chrysoperla externa (Hagen) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) from Bento Gonçalves and Vacaria, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. An attempt was made to study morphological changes caused by some of these chemicals, by means of ultrastructural analysis, using a scanning electronic microscope. Carbaryl, fenitrothion, and methidathion caused 100% adult mortality for both populations, avoiding evaluation of pesticides' effects on predator reproductive parameters. Abamectin and sulfur also affected the survival of these individuals with mortality rates of 10% and 6.7%, respectively, for adults from Bento Gonçalves, and were harmless to those from Vacaria at the end of evaluation. Trichlorfon was also harmless to adults from both populations. No compound reduced oviposition capacity. C. externa from Vacaria presented higher reproductive potential than those from Bento Gonçalves. In relation to egg viability, sulfur was the most damaging compound to both populations of C. externa. Ultrastructural analyses showed morphological changes in the micropyle and the chorion of eggs laid by C. externa treated with either abamectin or sulfur. The treatment may have influenced the fertilization of C. externa eggs and embryonic development. Sulfur was responsible for malformations in the end region of the abdomen and genitals of treated females. When applied to adults, abamectin, sulfur, and trichlorfon were harmless, while carbaryl, fenitrothion, and methidathion were harmful, according to the IOBC classification. PMID:20879916

  18. CHEMICAL NATURE AND IMMUNOTOXICOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF ARACHIDONIC ACID DEGRADATION PRODUCTS FORMED BY EXPOSURE TO OZONE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ozone (O3) exposure in vivo has been reported to degrade arachidonic acid (AA) in the lungs of rodents. The O3-degraded AA products may play a role in the lung responses to this toxicant. In order to study the chemical nature and biological activity of O3-exposed AA, we exposed A...

  19. A stability indicating HPLC method for the determination of clobazam and its basic degradation product characterization

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Clobazam is used for the treatment of different types of seizure and epilepsy. The present research is undertaken to study the systematic forced degradation of clobazam and to identify its main degradation product under basic conditions. Methods The degradation of clobazam was studied under different conditions. Clobazam and its degradation products were separated using a Nova-Pak C18 column and a mixture of KH2PO4 50 mM (pH 8.5) and acetonitrile (50:50, v/v) as the mobile phase with UV detection at 230 nm. Results The within-day and between-day precision values in the calibration range of 0.1-20 ?g/ml were within 0.5-1.5%. Clobazam was relatively stable in solid from under exposure to visible and UV light and also heat. The clobazam aqueous solution of clobazam was more labile under exposure to visible and UV light. The bulk drug was significantly degraded under exposure to 2 M HCl, 0.1 M NaOH or 3% H2O2. Using the tablet powder, higher degradation rates were observed under different stress conditions. The main degradation product of clobazam under basic condition was subsequently characterized. Conclusion The developed method could be used for the determination of clobazam in the presence of its degradation products with acceptable precision and accuracy. The applicability of the proposed method was evaluated in commercial dosage forms analysis. PMID:24919821

  20. METHOXYCHLOR AND DDT DEGRADATION IN WATER: RATES AND PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methoxychlor (2,2-bis(methoxyphenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane) and DDT (2,2-bis(chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane) undergo different hydrolytic degradation pathways in water at pH's common to the aquatic environment. For methoxychlor at common aquatic pH's, the reaction is pH inde...

  1. Pesticide Flow Analysis to Assess Human Exposure in Greenhouse Flower Production in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Lesmes-Fabian, Camilo; Binder, Claudia R.

    2013-01-01

    Human exposure assessment tools represent a means for understanding human exposure to pesticides in agricultural activities and managing possible health risks. This paper presents a pesticide flow analysis modeling approach developed to assess human exposure to pesticide use in greenhouse flower crops in Colombia, focusing on dermal and inhalation exposure. This approach is based on the material flow analysis methodology. The transfer coefficients were obtained using the whole body dosimetry method for dermal exposure and the button personal inhalable aerosol sampler for inhalation exposure, using the tracer uranine as a pesticide surrogate. The case study was a greenhouse rose farm in the Bogota Plateau in Colombia. The approach was applied to estimate the exposure to pesticides such as mancozeb, carbendazim, propamocarb hydrochloride, fosetyl, carboxin, thiram, dimethomorph and mandipropamide. We found dermal absorption estimations close to the AOEL reference values for the pesticides carbendazim, mancozeb, thiram and mandipropamide during the study period. In addition, high values of dermal exposure were found on the forearms, hands, chest and legs of study participants, indicating weaknesses in the overlapping areas of the personal protective equipment parts. These results show how the material flow analysis methodology can be applied in the field of human exposure for early recognition of the dispersion of pesticides and support the development of measures to improve operational safety during pesticide management. Furthermore, the model makes it possible to identify the status quo of the health risk faced by workers in the study area. PMID:23528812

  2. Pesticide flow analysis to assess human exposure in greenhouse flower production in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Lesmes-Fabian, Camilo; Binder, Claudia R

    2013-04-01

    Human exposure assessment tools represent a means for understanding human exposure to pesticides in agricultural activities and managing possible health risks. This paper presents a pesticide flow analysis modeling approach developed to assess human exposure to pesticide use in greenhouse flower crops in Colombia, focusing on dermal and inhalation exposure. This approach is based on the material flow analysis methodology. The transfer coefficients were obtained using the whole body dosimetry method for dermal exposure and the button personal inhalable aerosol sampler for inhalation exposure, using the tracer uranine as a pesticide surrogate. The case study was a greenhouse rose farm in the Bogota Plateau in Colombia. The approach was applied to estimate the exposure to pesticides such as mancozeb, carbendazim, propamocarb hydrochloride, fosetyl, carboxin, thiram, dimethomorph and mandipropamide. We found dermal absorption estimations close to the AOEL reference values for the pesticides carbendazim, mancozeb, thiram and mandipropamide during the study period. In addition, high values of dermal exposure were found on the forearms, hands, chest and legs of study participants, indicating weaknesses in the overlapping areas of the personal protective equipment parts. These results show how the material flow analysis methodology can be applied in the field of human exposure for early recognition of the dispersion of pesticides and support the development of measures to improve operational safety during pesticide management. Furthermore, the model makes it possible to identify the status quo of the health risk faced by workers in the study area. PMID:23528812

  3. Herbicides and herbicide degradation products in upper midwest agricultural streams during august base-flow conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kalkhoff, S.J.; Lee, K.E.; Porter, S.D.; Terrio, P.J.; Thurman, E.M.

    2003-01-01

    Herbicide concentrations in streams of the U.S. Midwest have been shown to decrease through the growing season due to a variety of chemical and physical factors. The occurrence of herbicide degradation products at the end of the growing season is not well known. This study was conducted to document the occurrence of commonly used herbicides and their degradation products in Illinois, Iowa, and Minnesota streams during base-flow conditions in August 1997. Atrazine, the most frequently detected herbicide (94%), was present at relatively low concentrations (median 0.17 ??g L-1). Metolachlor was detected in 59% and cyanazine in 37% of the samples. Seven of nine compounds detected in more than 50% of the samples were degradation products. The total concentration of the degradation products (median of 4.4 ??g L-1) was significantly greater than the total concentration of parent compounds (median of 0.26 ??g L-1). Atrazine compounds were present less frequently and in significantly smaller concentrations in streams draining watersheds with soils developed on less permeable tills than in watersheds with soils developed on more permeable loess. The detection and concentration of triazine compounds was negatively correlated with antecedent rainfall (April-July). In contrast, acetanalide compounds were positively correlated with antecedant rainfall in late spring and early summer that may transport the acetanalide degradates into ground water and subsequently into nearby streams. The distribution of atrazine degradation products suggests regional differences in atrazine degradation processes.

  4. Detection of Pesticides and Pesticide Metabolites Using the Cross Reactivity of Enzyme Immunoassays

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thurman, E.M.; Aga, D.S.

    2001-01-01

    Enzyme immunoassay is an important environmental analysis method that may be used to identify many pesticide analytes in water samples. Because of similarities in chemical structure between various members of a pesticide class, there often may be an unwanted response that is characterized by a percentage of cross reactivity. Also, there may be cross reactivity caused by degradation products of the target analyte that may be present in the sample. In this paper, the concept of cross reactivity caused by degradation products or by nontarget analytes is explored as a tool for identification of metabolites or structurally similar compounds not previously known to be present in water samples. Two examples are examined in this paper from various water quality studies. They are alachlor and its metabolite, alachlor ethane sulfonic acid, and atrazine and its class members, prometryn and propazine. A method for using cross reactivity for the detection of these compounds is explained in this paper.

  5. Agricultural Pesticides and Selected Degradation Products in Five Tidal Regions and the Mainstem of Chesapeake Bay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutrients, sediment, air pollution, and toxics from the water sources and the surrounding airshed are major problems contributing to poor water quality in many regions of the Chesapeake Bay (CB). Toxics are defined as chemicals that may affect the reproduction, development, and ultimately, the surv...

  6. Transfer of pesticides and copper in a stormwater wetland receiving contaminated runoff from a vineyard catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maillard, E.; Babcsanyi, I.; Payraudeau, S.; Imfeld, G.

    2012-04-01

    Wetlands can collect contaminated runoff from urban and agricultural catchments, and have intrinsic physical, chemical and biological processes useful for mitigating pesticides. However, knowledge about the ability of wetlands to mitigate pesticide mixtures in runoff is currently very limited. Our results show that stormwater wetlands that primarily serve for flood protection can also be effective tools for reducing concentrations and loads of runoff-related pesticides. Concentrations and loads of 20 pesticides and degradation products, as well as copper were continuously recorded during the period of pesticide application (April to September 2009, 2010 and 2011) at the inlet, the outlet and in sediments of a stormwater wetland that collects runoff from a vineyard catchment. Removal rates of dissolved loads ranged from 39% (simazine) to 100% (cymoxanil, gluphosinate, kresoxim methyl and terbuthylazine). Dimethomorph, diuron, glyphosate and metalaxyl were more efficiently removed in spring than in summer. The calculation of sedimentation rates from discharge measurements and total suspended solids (TSS) values revealed that the wetland retained more than 77% of the input mass of suspended solids, underscoring the capability of the wetland to trap pesticide-laden particles. Only flufenoxuron was frequently detected in the wetland sediments. An inter-annual comparison showed that changes in the removal of aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA, a degradation product of glyphosate), isoxaben or simazine can be attributed mainly to the larger vegetation cover in 2010 compared to 2009. More than 80% of the copper load entering the wetland was retained in the sediments and the plants. Our results demonstrate that stormwater wetlands can efficiently remove pesticide mixtures and copper in agricultural runoff during critical periods of pesticide application. Nevertheless, fluctuations in the runoff regime, as well as the vegetation and hydrochemical characteristics affect the removal rate of individual pesticides and copper in stormwater wetlands. Therefore the use of stormwater wetlands as a management practice targeting pesticide and copper mitigation should not be conceived as a unique solution to treat pesticide runoff.

  7. ANALYSIS OF GLUCOSINOLATES AND GLUCOSINOLATE DEGRADATION PRODUCTS IN SPROUTING BROCCOLI SEEDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Total glucosinolate content and glucosinolate degradation products were examined in unsprouted `Marathon' broccoli (Brassica oleracea L., Italica group) seeds and in 1-, 2-, 3-, 5-, 7-, and 10-day-old sprouts. Glucosinolates identified were glucoiberin, glucoraphanin, gluconapin, glucoiberverin, 4-...

  8. Metabolic labeling of RNA uncovers principles of RNA production and degradation dynamics in mammalian cells

    E-print Network

    Rabani, Michal

    Cellular RNA levels are determined by the interplay of RNA production, processing and degradation. However, because most studies of RNA regulation do not distinguish the separate contributions of these processes, little ...

  9. Development of the in vitro gas production technique to estimate protein degradation in the rumen 

    E-print Network

    Palmer, Matthew

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to adapt the in vitro gas production technique (IVGPT) to estimate the rumen degradation profile of feed protein and to investigate the effect of sample preparation on the estimated kinetics of silage carbohydrate...

  10. Degradation of triketone herbicides, mesotrione and sulcotrione, using advanced oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    Jovi?, Milica; Manojlovi?, Dragan; Stankovi?, Dalibor; Doj?inovi?, Biljana; Obradovi?, Bratislav; Gaši?, Uroš; Rogli?, Goran

    2013-09-15

    Degradation of two triketone herbicides, mesotrione and sulcotrione, was studied using four different advanced oxidation processes (AOPs): ozonization, dielectric barrier discharge (DBD reactor), photocatalysis and Fenton reagent, in order to find differences in mechanism of degradation. Degradation products were identified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-DAD) and UHPLC-Orbitrap-MS analyses. A simple mechanism of degradation for different AOP was proposed. Thirteen products were identified during all degradations for both pesticides. It was assumed that the oxidation mechanisms in the all four technologies were not based only on the production and use of the hydroxyl radical, but they also included other kinds of oxidation mechanisms specific for each technology. Similarity was observed between degradation mechanism of ozonation and DBD. The greatest difference in the products was found in Fenton degradation which included the opening of benzene ring. When degraded with same AOP pesticides gave at the end of treatment the same products. Global toxicity and COD value of samples was determined after all degradations. Real water sample was used to study influence of organic matter on pesticide degradation. These results could lead to accurate estimates of the overall effects of triketone herbicides on environmental ecosystems and also contributed to the development of improved removal processes. PMID:23892174

  11. Toxicity and physical properties of atrazine and its degradation products: A literature survey

    SciTech Connect

    Pugh, K.C.

    1994-10-01

    The Tennessee Valley Authority`s Environmental Research Center has been developing a means of detoxifying atrazine waste waters using TiO{sub 2} photocatalysis. The toxicity and physical properties of atrazine and its degradation products will probably be required information in obtaining permits from the United States Environmental Protection Agency for the demonstration of any photocatalytic treatment of atrazine waste waters. The following report is a literature survey of the toxicological and physical properties of atrazine and its degradation products.

  12. Seasonal exposures to triazine and other pesticides in surface waters in the western Highveld corn-production region in South Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Du Preez, L.H.; Jansen Van Rensburg, P.J.; Jooste, A.M.; Carr, J.A.; Giesy, J.P.; Gross, T.S.; Kendall, R.J.; Smith, E.E.; Van Der Kraak, G.; Solomon, K.R.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize concentrations of atrazine, terbuthylazine, and other pesticides in amphibian habitats in surface waters of a corn-production area of the western Highveld region (North-West Province) of South Africa. The study was conducted from November 2001 to June 2002, coinciding with the corn-production season. Pesticide residues were measured at regular intervals in surface water from eight ponds, three in a non-corn-growing area (NCGA) and five within the corn-growing area (CGA). Measured atrazine concentrations differed significantly among sites and between samples. In the five CGA sites, the maximum atrazine concentrations measured during the study ranged from 1.2 to 9.3 ??g/L. Although no atrazine was recorded as being applied in the catchment of the three NCGA sites, maximum concentrations from 0.39 to 0.84 ??g/L were measured during the study, possibly as a result of atmospheric transport. Maximum measured concentrations of terbuthylazine ranged from 1.22 to 2.1 ??g/L in the NCGA sites and from 1.04 to 4.1 ??g/L in the CGA sites. The source of terbuthylazine in the NCGA sites may have been in use other than in corn. The triazine degradation products, deisopropylatrazine (DIA) and deethylatrazine (DEA) and diaminochlorotriazine (DACT) were also found in water from both the CGA and NCGA sites. Concentrations of DIA were ??? 1 ??g/L throughout the season, while DEA concentrations were mostly 2 ??g/L in some locations. Concentrations of DACT were highly variable (LOD to 8 ??g/L) both before and after planting and application, suggesting that they resulted from historical use of triazines in the area. Other herbicides such as simazine and acetochlor were only detected infrequently and pesticides such as S-metolachlor, cypermethrin, monocrotophos, and terbuphos, known to be used in the CGA, were not detected in any of the samples. Because of dilution by higher than normal rainfall in the study period, these concentrations may not be predictive of those in years of normal rainfall. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Heterogeneous photo-oxidation of pesticides and its implication to their environmental fate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubowski, Y.

    2014-12-01

    The environmental fate and impact of pesticides strongly depend on their post application degradation processes. While most existing knowledge on pesticides degradation refers to processes within bulk soil and water, applied pesticides may remain on treated surfaces (and on airborn particles) for long duration, exposed to atmospheric oxidants and solar radiation. The resulting photo-oxidation processes may have significant effect on their fate, especially in semiarid regions where pesticide applications take place during the long dry season and targeted irrigation is common. Here we present our studies on heterogeneous photo-oxidation of few commonly used pesticides (e.g., cypermethrin, methyl parathion, and chlorpyrifos), using novel laboratory setups enabling simultaneous monitoring of both phases. Experiments focused on kinetics, quantum yields, and identification of gaseous and condensed products. In addition, the reactivity of the selected pesticides was investigated as a function of their matrix (analytical vs. commercial formula), their phase (thin film vs. airborne aerosols), and the substrate they are sorbed on (leaf, soil, and glass). Complimentarily to these laboratory studies, field measurements of selected pesticides concentrations in few streams in northern Israel during the first rain events were also conducted and showed the important role of surface processes on these pesticides fate and transport in semi-arid climate.

  14. Fungal degradation of coal as a pretreatment for methane production

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haider, Rizwan; Ghauri, Muhammad A.; SanFilipo, John R.; Jones, Elizabeth J.; Orem, William H.; Tatu, Calin A.; Akhtar, Kalsoom; Akhtar, Nasrin

    2013-01-01

    Coal conversion technologies can help in taking advantage of huge low rank coal reserves by converting those into alternative fuels like methane. In this regard, fungal degradation of coal can serve as a pretreatment step in order to make coal a suitable substrate for biological beneficiation. A fungal isolate MW1, identified as Penicillium chrysogenum on the basis of fungal ITS sequences, was isolated from a core sample of coal, taken from a well drilled by the US. Geological Survey in Montana, USA. The low rank coal samples, from major coal fields of Pakistan, were treated with MW1 for 7 days in the presence of 0.1% ammonium sulfate as nitrogen source and 0.1% glucose as a supplemental carbon source. Liquid extracts were analyzed through Excitation–Emission Matrix Spectroscopy (EEMS) to obtain qualitative estimates of solubilized coal; these analyses indicated the release of complex organic functionalities. In addition, GC–MS analysis of these extracts confirmed the presence of single ring aromatics, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), aromatic nitrogen compounds and aliphatics. Subsequently, the released organics were subjected to a bioassay for the generation of methane which conferred the potential application of fungal degradation as pretreatment. Additionally, fungal-mediated degradation was also prospected for extracting some other chemical entities like humic acids from brown coals with high huminite content especially from Thar, the largest lignite reserve of Pakistan.

  15. Children's residential exposures to flame retardants, pesticides and pesticide degradation products, and the relationship of pesticides with autonomic nervous system functioning

    E-print Network

    Quiros Alcala, Lesliam

    2010-01-01

    health effects from these compounds. Finally, such research should consider the complex mixture of chemicals found in indoor environmentshealth effects from these compounds. Finally, such research should consider the complex mixture of chemicals found in indoor environments

  16. [Survey of PCB and organochlorine pesticide residues in meats and processed meat products collected in Osaka, Japan].

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Hisashi; Kuwabara, Katsuyoshi; Murakami, Yasuyuki; Murata, Hiroshi

    2006-06-01

    Residues of PCB and organochlorine pesticides in meats (beef, pork and poultry) and processed meat products collected in Osaka, Japan were surveyed. For 35 years from 1970 to 2004, the concentrations of PCB, HCH isomers, DDT analogues and dieldrin in all meats appeared to decline with each passing year. The concentration of each isomer of HCH in all meats declined rapidly from the early to the late 1970's and showed a gentle decline thereafter; beta-HCH showed the highest residue rate of the isomers in all the time periods surveyed, except for pork and poultry samples in the early 1980's. The concentrations of DDT analogues in all meats also showed sharp declines from the late 1970's to the early 1980's, followed by a smaller decrease thereafter; the main residues were pp'-DDD, p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDT, and the residue rate of p,p'-DDE increased over the years. The residue levels of organochlorine pesticides in processed meat products (raw materials: beef, pork, poultry and mixture of ground beef and pork) were surveyed for 15 years (from 1990 to 2004) and there were no significant differences in the values among the materials. The concentrations of each pesticide in processed meat products tended to be lower than those of the corresponding meat samples, respectively. PMID:16862991

  17. Identification of degradation products of erythromycin A arising from ozone and advanced oxidation process treatment.

    PubMed

    Luiz, Danielle B; Genena, Aziza K; Virmond, Elaine; José, Humberto J; Moreira, Regina F P M; Gebhardt, Wilhelm; Schröder, Horst Fr

    2010-01-01

    The degradation products of the macrolide antibiotic erythromycin A (ERY) arising from direct ozone attack and hydroxyl radical attack are presented for the first time. Ozone treatment was carried out by spiking ozone stock solutions to solutions containing ERY-ERY:O3 = 1:5 and 1:10 (M:M), while, in parallel, t-BuOH was used as a hydroxyl radical (*OH) scavenger. The advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) O3/UV, O3/H2O2, and UV/H2O2 were carried out to recognize and verify possible differences between their primary degradation products; the initial concentrations were ERY:O3 = 1:5 (M:M), ERY:O3:H202 = 1:5:5 (M:M:M), or ERY:H202 = 1:5 (M:M), respectively. Six degradation products were identified from ozonation-one originates from direct ozone attack on the tertiary amine group, while the others arise from radical ion attack, which might be formed during degradation of O3 in water. Fewer primary degradation products were observed arising from *OH-based treatments (AOP) than from ozonation, possibly because the reaction of *OH radicals is non-selective and typically is diffusion-controlled. Four degradation products were detected by *OH radical attacks; two of them already were observed during ozonation, with one as an oxidized ERY molecule and the other as a non-oxidized fragment of the ERY molecule. PMID:20942335

  18. MONITORING AND MODELLING OF RADIOLYTIC DEGRADATION PRODUCTS OF TBP/n-DODECANE

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, James M.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Bryan, Samuel A.

    2011-10-03

    The Plutonium Uranium Extraction (PUREX) solvent system was developed for the separation of plutonium and uranium from irradiated fuel. Since the implementation of this process, the degradation chemistry associated with the irradiated solvent system, tributyl phosphate (TBP)/n-dodecane/nitric acid has been extensively studied as the integrity of the organic solvent is paramount for reproducible performance of the separation flowsheet (extraction/scrub/strip) during multiple cycles. In PUREX-like processes, the extent of decomposition is dependent not only upon the solvent, but also upon the presence of constituents, such as nitric acid, that interact with TBP and increase its susceptibility to radiolytic degradation. The build-up of degradation products in the organic phase alters process flowsheet performance via modification of the metal ions speciation, loss of solvent components, and enhanced water transport into the organic phase. On-line identification and quantification of the solvent degradation products would provide the necessary information for more detailed process control as well as providing the basis for timing solvent washing or replacement. In our research, we are exploring the potential of on-line monitoring for the PUREX solvent radiolytic degradation products. To identify degradation products, TBP/n-dodecane solvent, contacted with aqueous nitric acid solutions of variable concentrations are subjected to various gamma radiation external doses then analyzed by electro-spray ionization mass spectrometry (ESMS). In addition, vibrational spectroscopy is utilized to monitor and quantify major degradation products including dibutyl phosphoric acid (HDBP) and monobutyl phosphoric acid (H2MBP) in TBP/n-dodecane solvent. The compiled spectroscopic databases serve for developing interpretive and predictive chemometric models for the quantification of the PUREX solvent degradation products.

  19. Activity of Meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba) Seed Meal Glucolimnanthin Degradation Products against Soil-Borne Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    ZASADA, INGA A; WEILAND, JERRY E; REED, RALPH L; STEVENS, JAN F

    2014-01-01

    Meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba L.) is a herbaceous winter-spring annual grown as a commercial oil seed crop. The meal remaining after oil extraction from the seed contains up to 4% of the glucosinolate, glucolimnanthin. Degradation of glucolimnanthin yields toxic breakdown products and therefore the meal may have potential in the management of soil-borne pathogens. To maximize the pest suppressive potential of meadowfoam seed meal, it would be beneficial to know the toxicity of individual glucolimnanthin degradation products against specific soil-borne pathogens. Meloidogyne hapla second-stage juveniles (J2) and Pythium irregulare and Verticillium dahliae mycelial cultures were exposed to glucolimnanthin as well as its degradation products. Glucolimnanthin and its degradation product, 2-(3-methoxyphenyl)acetamide, were not toxic to any of the soil-borne pathogens at concentrations up to 1.0 mg/mL. Two other degradation products, 2-(3-methoxymethyl)ethanethioamide and 3-methoxyphenylacetonitrile, were toxic to M. hapla and P. irregulare but not V. dahliae. The predominant enzyme degradation product, 3-methoxybenzyl isothiocyanate was the most toxic compound against all of the soil-borne pathogens with M. hapla being the most sensitive with EC50 values (0.0025 ± 0.0001 to 0.0027 ± 0.0001 mg/mL) 20 to 40 times lower than estimated EC50 mortality values generated for P. irregulare and V. dahliae (0.05 and 0.1 mg/mL, respectively). The potential exists to manipulate meadowfoam seed meal to promote the production of specific degradation products. The conversion of glucolimnanthin into its corresponding isothiocyanate should optimize the biopesticidal properties of meadowfoam seed meal against M. hapla, P. irregulare, and V. dahliae. PMID:22142246

  20. Pesticide Residues in Food

    EPA Science Inventory

    This indicator describes the number of pesticide residues detected in fruits, vegetables, grains, meat, and dairy products from across the country and the number of residues exceeding the EPA tolerance for a given pesticide-commodity pair from 1994 to 2009. This information pr...

  1. RESISTANCE TO PESTICIDES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The occurrence of pesticide resistance stands as one of the most chronic and formidable problems for crop production and public health worldwide. The evolution of different resistance mechanisms by pestiferous organisms has diminished the lethal action of pesticides and led to greater difficulties ...

  2. Biochar efficiency in pesticides sorption as a function of production variables--a review.

    PubMed

    Yavari, Saba; Malakahmad, Amirhossein; Sapari, Nasiman B

    2015-09-01

    Biochar is a stabilized, carbon-rich by-product derived from pyrolysis of biomass. Recently, biochar has received extensive attentions because of its multi-functionality for agricultural and environmental applications. Biochar can contribute to sequestration of atmosphere carbon, improvement of soils quality, and mitigation of environmental contaminations. The capability of biochar for specific application is determined by its properties which are predominantly controlled by source material and pyrolysis route variables. The biochar sorption potential is a function of its surface area, pores volume, ash contents, and functional groups. The impacts of each production factors on these characteristics of biochar need to be well-understood to design efficient biochars for pesticides removal. The effects of biomass type on biochar sorptive properties are determined by relative amounts of its lingo-cellulosic compounds, minerals content, particles size, and structure. The highest treatment temperature is the most effective pyrolysis factor in the determination of biochar sorption behavior. The expansion of micro-porosity and surface area and also increase of biochar organic carbon content and hydrophobicity mostly happen by pyrolysis peak temperature rise. These changes make biochar suitable for immobilization of organic contaminants. Heating rate, gas pressure, and reaction retention time after the pyrolysis temperatures are sequentially important pyrolysis variables effective on biochar sorptive properties. This review compiles the available knowledge about the impacts of production variables on biochars sorptive properties and discusses the aging process as the main factor in post-pyrolysis alterations of biochars sorption capacity. The drawbacks of biochar application in the environment are summarized as well in the last section. PMID:26250816

  3. 78 FR 70043 - Pesticide Product Registration; Receipt of an Application for a New Active Ingredient

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-22

    ...Robert McNally, Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division (7511P), Office...you are an agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide manufacturer...McNally, Director, Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division, Office of...

  4. 75 FR 53691 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications for a New Active Ingredient Chemical Sedaxane

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ..., triticale, and wheat. 3. File symbol: 100-RGIG. Applicant: Syngenta Crop Protection, Inc., P.O. Box 18300..., triticale, and wheat. List of Subjects Environmental protection, Pesticides and pest. Dated: August 20,...

  5. 76 FR 41178 - Pesticides; Policies Concerning Products Containing Nanoscale Materials; Opportunity for Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-13

    ...under FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT. List of Subjects Environmental protection, Administrative practice and procedure, Nanotechnology, Pesticides and pests. Dated: July 6, 2011. William R. Diamond, Acting Assistant Administrator, Office of...

  6. 75 FR 74713 - Product Cancellation Order for Certain Pesticide Registrations; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-01

    ...), Office of Pesticide Programs, Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW., Washington... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION.... List of Subjects Environmental protection. Dated: November 22, 2010. Richard P. Keigwin, Jr.,...

  7. Effects of pesticides on songbird productivity in conjunction with pecan cultivation in southern Georgia: A multiple-exposure experimental design

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patnode, K.A.; White, D.H.

    1991-01-01

    A prototypic experimental design was used to assess sublethal effects of multiple and varied organophosphates and carbamates on reproduction in birds. The design allowed for classification of pesticide exposure according to toxicity of applied compounds and type and frequency of applications. Daily survival rates (DSRs) of nests, eggs, and nestlings were determined for northern mockingbirds (Mimus polyglottos), brown thrashers (Toxostoma rufum), and northern cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis) nesting along edges of pecan orchards and row crops in southern Georgia [USA]. Egg and nestling DSRs for all species combined varied inversely (P 0.05) among three exposure levels. Brain cholinesterase activities were age-dependent and substantiated adult, but not nestling, exposure. Results suggest that increasing exposure to pesticides may reduce songbird productivity.

  8. Methods of Analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory - Determination of Moderate-Use Pesticides and Selected Degradates in Water by C-18 Solid-Phase Extraction and Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sandstrom, Mark W.; Stroppel, Max E.; Foreman, William T.; Schroeder, Michael P.

    2001-01-01

    A method for the isolation and analysis of 21 parent pesticides and 20 pesticide degradates in natural-water samples is described. Water samples are filtered to remove suspended particulate matter and then are pumped through disposable solid-phase-extraction columns that contain octadecyl-bonded porous silica to extract the analytes. The columns are dried by using nitrogen gas, and adsorbed analytes are eluted with ethyl acetate. Extracted analytes are determined by capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with selected-ion monitoring of three characteristic ions. The upper concentration limit is 2 micrograms per liter (?g/L) for most analytes. Single-operator method detection limits in reagent-water samples range from 0.00 1 to 0.057 ?g/L. Validation data also are presented for 14 parent pesticides and 20 degradates that were determined to have greater bias or variability, or shorter holding times than the other compounds. The estimated maximum holding time for analytes in pesticide-grade water before extraction was 4 days. The estimated maximum holding time for analytes after extraction on the dry solid-phase-extraction columns was 7 days. An optional on-site extraction procedure allows for samples to be collected and processed at remote sites where it is difficult to ship samples to the laboratory within the recommended pre-extraction holding time. The method complements existing U.S. Geological Survey Method O-1126-95 (NWQL Schedules 2001 and 2010) by using identical sample preparation and comparable instrument analytical conditions so that sample extracts can be analyzed by either method to expand the range of analytes determined from one water sample.

  9. Remediation/Restoration of Degraded Soil to Improve Productivity In The Central Great Plains Region

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The quality and productivity of some farmlands in the central Great Plains Region (CGPR) have been lost through wind and water erosion induced by tillage and poor soil management. Productivity of degraded/eroded soils can be restored using organic amendments such as manure and improved crop and soil...

  10. PRODUCTION OF HIGHLY ACTIVE LIGNOCELLULOSE-DEGRADING ENZYMES OF ANAEROBIC FUNGI BY INDUSTRIALLY RELEVANT FUNGI

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most anaerobic fungi isolated from the digestive tracts of herbivorous animals secrete highly active lignocellulose-degrading enzymes, but the levels of production are usually low (e.g., <50 mg per liter). Fungi such as Trichoderma and Aspergillus, that are commonly used for commercial production o...

  11. Degradation products of cyanidin glycosides from tart cherries and their bioactivities.

    PubMed

    Seeram, N P; Bourquin, L D; Nair, M G

    2001-10-01

    The bioactive anthocyanins present in tart cherries, Prunus cerasus L. (Rosaceae) cv. Balaton, are cyanidin 3-glucosylrutinoside (1), cyanidin 3-rutinoside (2), and cyanidin 3-glucoside (3). Cyanidin (4) is the major anthocyanidin in tart cherries. In our continued evaluation of the in vivo and in vitro efficacy of these anthocyanins to prevent inflammation and colon cancer, we have added these compounds to McCoy's 5A medium in an effort to identify their degradation products during in vitro cell culture studies. This resulted in the isolation and characterization of protocatechuic acid (5), the predominant degradation product. In addition, 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (6) and 2,4,6-trihydroxybenzoic acid (7) were identified as degradation products. However, these degradation products were not quantified. Compounds 5-7 were also identified as degradation products when anthocyanins were subjected to varying pH and thermal conditions. In cyclooxygenase (COX)-I and -II enzyme inhibitory assays, compounds 5-7 did not show significant activities when compared to the NSAIDs Naproxen, Celebrex, and Vioxx, or Ibuprofen, at 50 microM concentrations. However, at a test concentration of 50 microM, the antioxidant activity of protocatechuic acid (5) was comparable to those of the commercial antioxidants tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), and superior to that of vitamin E at 10 microM concentrations. PMID:11600045

  12. Heterogeneous oxidation of pesticides on aerosol condensed phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Socorro, Joanna; Durand, Amandine; Temime-Roussel, Brice; Ravier, Sylvain; Gligorovski, Sasho; Wortham, Henri; Quivet, Etienne

    2015-04-01

    Pesticides are widely used all over the world. It is known that they exhibit adverse health effects and environmental risks due to their physico-chemical properties and their extensive use which is growing every year. They are distributed in the atmosphere, an important vector of dissemination, over long distances away from the target area. The partitioning of pesticides between the gas and particulate phases influences their atmospheric fate. Most of the pesticides are semi-volatile compounds, emphasizing the importance of assessing their heterogeneous reactivity towards atmospheric oxidants. These reactions are important because they are involved in, among others, direct and indirect climate changes, adverse health effects from inhaled particles, effects on cloud chemistry and ozone production. In this work, the importance of atmospheric degradation of pesticides is evaluated on the surface of aerosol deliquescent particles. The photolysis processing and heterogeneous reactivity towards O3 and OH, was evaluated of eight commonly used pesticides (cyprodinil, deltamethrin, difenoconazole, fipronil, oxadiazon, pendimethalin, permethrin, tetraconazole) adsorbed on silica particles. Silicate particles are present in air-borne mineral dust in atmospheric aerosols, and heterogeneous reactions can be different in the presence of these mineral particles. Depending on their origin and conditioning, aerosol particles containing pesticides can have complex and highly porous microstructures, which are influenced by electric charge effects and interaction with water vapour. Therefore, the kinetic experiments and consecutive product studies were performed at atmospherically relevant relative humidity (RH) of 55 %. The identification of surface bound products was performed using GC-(QqQ)-MS/MS and LC-(Q-ToF)-MS/MS and the gas-phase products were on-line monitored by PTR-ToF-MS. Based on the detected and identified reaction products, it was observed that water plays a crucial role in the reaction mechanism of ozone and hydroxyl radical with the adsorbed pesticides on the silica particles. The obtained results will allow better understanding of the impact of pesticides and their degradation products on human health, and to make recommendations in order to reduce population exposure to the pesticide plume and the pollution by phyto-sanitary products on the regional scale, which constitutes a necessary step in the development of environmental strategies.

  13. Photochemical Attenuation of Pesticides in Prairie Potholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, T.; Arnold, W. A.

    2013-12-01

    Prairie potholes are small, shallow, glacially-derived wetlands scattered across a vast region extending from Midwestern United States into south central Canada known as the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR). They constitute one of the largest inland wetland systems on Earth and play a prominent role in sustaining the regional biodiversity and productivity. Throughout the PPR, historic and contemporary conversion of native prairie for agriculture resulted in a pronounced loss of potholes. Remaining potholes have become interspersed within a matrix of agricultural landscape and trap nonpoint source pollutants such as pesticides from adjacent farmland, which has raised concerns regarding negative impacts on the water quality of downstream water bodies. The fate and persistence of pesticides in potholes, however, remains largely unexplored. Prairie potholes are typically characterized by shallow depth (i.e., large photic zone) and high levels of dissolved organic matter (DOM), making them ideal for photochemical reactions. In this context, we collected pothole water samples from North Dakota to investigate the rates and mechanisms of sunlight-induced attenuation of pesticides. The photodegradation kinetics and pathways of sixteen pesticides in the pothole water were monitored under both simulated and natural sunlight. For most pesticides, photolysis accelerated in the pothole water relative to the buffer control, which pointed to the importance of photosensitized processes (i.e., indirect photolysis). Upon solar irradiation, a mixture of photochemically produced reactive intermediates (PPRIs), such as carbonate radical, hydroxyl radical, singlet oxygen, and triplet-excited state DOM, formed in the pothole water. The major pathways through which pesticides degraded were inferred from the relative contribution attributable to specific PPRIs via quencher experiments. Different classes of pesticides exhibited contrasting photochemical behavior, but singlet oxygen and triplet DOM appeared to exert the largest effects on the overall photodegradation. Furthermore, a suite of second-order rate constants for reactions of pesticides with PPRIs were derived based on the quenching effect on observed reaction rate constants and measured steady-state concentrations of PPRIs. These rate constants may find practical utility for estimating DOM photochemical reaction rates in addition to data traditionally estimated from model compounds. Overall, our work contributed to a systematic evaluation of the potential for photochemical attenuation of pesticides in near-surface pothole water. Given recent incentives to expand agriculture in the PPR for production of organic crops and corn-based biofuels, this research also calls for the need to properly conserve prairie potholes and to develop regionally-specific, sustainable water resource management and land use strategies.

  14. Assessment of heavy metal and pesticide levels in soil and plant products from agricultural area of Belgrade, Serbia.

    PubMed

    Markovi?, Mirjana; Cupa?, Svjetlana; Durovi?, Rada; Milinovi?, Jelena; Kljaji?, Petar

    2010-02-01

    This study was aimed to assess the levels of selected heavy metals and pesticides in soil and plant products from an agricultural area of Belgrade, Serbia and to indicate possible sources and risks of contamination. Soil, vegetable, and fruit samples from the most important agricultural city areas were collected from July to November of 2006. Metal contents were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry, whereas pesticide residues were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after extraction performed using solid-phase microextraction technique. Soil characterization based on the determination of selected physical and chemical properties revealed heterogeneous soils belonging to different soil groups. The concentrations of lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc in soil samples do not exceed the limits established by national and international regulations. Residues of the herbicide atrazine were detected in three soil samples, with levels lower than the relevant limit. The presence of other herbicides, namely prometryn, chloridazon, acetochlor, flurochloridone, and napropamide, was registered in some soil samples as well. Among the insecticides investigated in the soil, fenitrothion and chlorpyrifos were the only ones detected. In most of the investigated vegetable samples from the Obrenovac area, Pb and Cd contents are higher in comparison with the maximum levels, indicating the emission of coal combustion products from local thermal power plants as a possible source of contamination. Residue levels of some herbicides and insecticides (metribuzin, trifluralin, pendimethalin, bifenthrin, chlorpyrifos, and cypermethrin) determined in tomato, pepper, potato, and onion samples from Slanci, Ovca, and Obrenovac areas are even several times higher than the maximum residue levels. Inappropriate use of these plant protection products is considered to be the most probable reason of contamination. Because increased levels of heavy metals and pesticide residues found in plant products could pose a risk to consumers' health, their continual monitoring before product distribution to city markets is indispensable. PMID:19603130

  15. Microbial petroleum degradation enhancement by oil spill bioremediation products 

    E-print Network

    Lee, Salvador Aldrett

    1996-01-01

    Biodegradation of an artificially weathered crude oil (Alaska North Slope) was compared using 13 different oil spill bioremediation agents. All products were evaluated under identical conditions emulating a marine environment. The research...

  16. Subcritical water hydrolysis of rice straw for reducing sugar production with focus on degradation by-products and kinetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Richen; Cheng, Jun; Ding, Lingkan; Song, Wenlu; Qi, Feng; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2015-06-01

    The competitive reactions of reducing sugar production and degradation in the subcritical water hydrolysis of rice straw were investigated to optimise reducing sugar yield. The optimised conditions (280°C, 20 MPa, rice straw concentration of 5 wt.% and agitation speed of 200 rpm) resulted in a reducing sugar yield of 0.346 g/g rice straw because of the enhanced reducing sugar production and decreased sugar degradation. The sugar yield increased when the temperature increased from 250°C to 280°C, but it decreased when the temperature further increased to 300°C because of the degradation of monosaccharides (e.g. glucose and xylose) into by-products (e.g. 2-methyltetrahydrofuran and acetic acid). A first-order reaction model was developed to elucidate the competitive reaction kinetics of sugar production and degradation at various temperatures. The highest reducing sugar yield based on the model was achieved at 280°C with the highest production and lowest degradation rates. PMID:25795997

  17. Evaluation of vegetable production management practices to reduce the ecological risk of pesticides.

    PubMed

    Rice, Pamela J; Hapeman, Cathleen J; McConnell, Laura L; Sadeghi, Ali M; Teasdale, John R; Coffman, C Benjamin; McCarty, Gregory W; Abdul-Baki, Aref A; Starr, James L

    2007-11-01

    The ability of agricultural management practices to reduce the ecological risks of pesticides was evaluated. Risk quotients, a mathematical description of the relationship between exposure and toxicity, and hazard ratings, a rank of the potential risk of pesticides to aquatic environments, were calculated for conventional and alternative cultivation practices for tomatoes: Poly-Bare, raised beds covered with polyethylene mulch with bare-soil furrows; Poly-Rye, raised beds covered with polyethylene mulch with cereal rye (Secale cereale) grown in the furrows; and Vetch, raised beds and furrows planted with hairy vetch seed (Vicia villosa). Evaluations were conducted using measured pesticide concentrations in runoff at the edge-of-field and estimated environmental concentrations in an adjacent creek and a theoretical pond receiving the runoff. Runoff from Poly-Bare presented the greatest risk to ecosystem health and to sensitive organisms, whereas the use of Vetch minimized these risks. Previous studies have shown that harvest yields were maintained and that runoff volume, soil loss, and off-site transport of pesticides measured in runoff were reduced using the alternative management practices (Poly-Rye and Vetch). Together, these results indicate that the alternative management practices (Poly-Rye and Vetch) have a less adverse impact on the environment than the conventional management practice (Poly-Bare) while providing growers with an acceptable economic return. In addition, the present study demonstrates the need to consider the management practice when assessing the potential risks and hazards for certain pesticides. PMID:17941735

  18. Evaluation of serum pesticide residue levels and liver function in persons exposed to dairy products contaminated with heptachlor

    SciTech Connect

    Stehr-Green, P.A.; Wohlleb, J.C.; Royce, W.; Head, S.L.

    1988-01-15

    The authors studied a group of 45 dairy farm family members who had consumed undiluted raw milk products known to be contaminated with residues of the pesticide heptachlor at concentrations as high as 89.2 ppm (fat basis). They compared results of serum pesticide assays for these exposed persons with results for an unexposed group of 94 persons from the same geographic area and the results from the Second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The exposed group had significantly higher mean levels of primary heptachlor metabolites-i.e., heptachlor epoxide and oxychlordane than the unexposed group. In the exposed group, 21.2% had evaluated serum concentrations of these same metabolites; this rate was significantly greater than the rates in both the unexposed farm family members (heptachlor epoxide, 3.8%; oxychlordane, 6.3%) and the Second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey sample (2.5% for both metabolites). However they found no evidence of related acute and/or subacute hepatic effects in these exposed persons regardless of their serum concentrations of pesticide residues.

  19. Environmental, biochemical and genetic drivers of DMSP degradation and DMS production in the Sargasso Sea.

    PubMed

    Levine, Naomi Marcil; Varaljay, Vanessa A; Toole, Dierdre A; Dacey, John W H; Doney, Scott C; Moran, Mary Ann

    2012-05-01

    Dimethylsulfide (DMS) is a climatically relevant trace gas produced and cycled by the surface ocean food web. Mechanisms driving intraannual variability in DMS production and dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) degradation in open-ocean, oligotrophic regions were investigated during a 10-month time-series at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study site in the Sargasso Sea. Abundance and transcription of bacterial DMSP degradation genes, DMSP lyase enzyme activity, and DMS and DMSP concentrations, consumption rates and production rates were quantified over time and depth. This interdisciplinary data set was used to test current hypotheses of the role of light and carbon supply in regulating upper-ocean sulfur cycling. Findings supported UV-A-dependent phytoplankton DMS production. Bacterial DMSP degraders may also contribute significantly to DMS production when temperatures are elevated and UV-A dose is moderate, but may favour DMSP demethylation under low UV-A doses. Three groups of bacterial DMSP degraders with distinct intraannual variability were identified and niche differentiation was indicated. The combination of genetic and biochemical data suggest a modified 'bacterial switch' hypothesis where the prevalence of different bacterial DMSP degradation pathways is regulated by a complex set of factors including carbon supply, temperature and UV-A dose. PMID:22324779

  20. Systematic identification of thermal degradation products of HPMCP during hot melt extrusion process.

    PubMed

    Karandikar, Hrushikesh; Ambardekar, Rohan; Kelly, Adrian; Gough, Tim; Paradkar, Anant

    2015-05-30

    A systematic identification of the degradation products of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose phthalate (HPMCP) during hot melt extrusion (HME) has been performed. A reverse phase HPLC method was developed for the extrudates of both hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS) and HPMCP polymers to quantify their thermal hydrolytic products: acetic acid (AA), succinic acid (SA) for HPMCAS and phthalic acid (PA) for HPMCP, without hydrolysing the polymers in strong alkaline solutions. The polymers were extruded in the temperature range of 160-190 °C at different screw rotation speeds and hydrolytic impurities were analysed. Investigation of extruded HPMCP showed an additional thermal degradation product, who is structural elucidation revealed to be phthalic anhydride (PAH). Moreover, two environmental analytical impurities, dimethyl phthalate and methyl benzoate formed in situ were recorded on GC-MS and their origin was found to be associated with PAH derivatization. Using the experimental data gathered during this study, a degradation mechanism for HPMCP is proposed. PMID:25845717

  1. Environmental hazards of pesticides from pineapple crop production in the Río Jiménez watershed (Caribbean Coast, Costa Rica).

    PubMed

    Echeverría-Sáenz, S; Mena, F; Pinnock, M; Ruepert, C; Solano, K; de la Cruz, E; Campos, B; Sánchez-Avila, J; Lacorte, S; Barata, C

    2012-12-01

    This study aimed to characterize environmental hazards of pesticides from pineapple production in riparian communities along the Jiménez River watershed. To achieve our objectives riparian ecological quality indices on riparian habitat and macroinvertebrate assemblages were combined with toxicity assays, fish biomarkers, physico-chemical water analysis and pesticide environmental hazards. During two consecutive years and two periods (July and October), three reference and four impacted sites were monitored. The ecological quality of benthic macroinvertebrates and of riparian habitats deteriorated from the reference sites downstream to the polluted reaches along the Jiménez River area affected by pineapple plantations. The toxicity of water to Daphnia magna also increased towards downstream reaches. Biomarkers of fish of the species Poecilia gillii and Bryconamericus scleroparius transplanted across the studied sites evidenced a clear anticholinergic effect towards downstream sites as well as increased levels of lipid peroxidation. Different pesticide residues were frequently detected in water samples collected across the Jiménez River watershed with herbicides (ametryn, bromacil, diuron), organophosphorus insecticides (diazinon and ethoprophos) and triazole fungicides being the greatest reaching levels above 1 ?g L(-1) in downstream sites. Principal component and environmental hazard analysis of physico-chemical and biological responses established clear relationships among habitat deterioration and the ecological quality of macroinvertebrate communities, high levels of herbicides and poor plant growth, high levels of organophosphorus insecticides in water and anticholinesterase effects on fish, D. magna mortality and deterioration of macroinvertebrate communities. Fungicide and herbicide residue levels were also related with high levels of lipid peroxidation and high activities of glutathione S transferase in fish liver, respectively. These results indicated, thus, that riparian habitat deterioration due to deforestation and land use for agriculture and pesticide contamination are affecting river ecosystems. PMID:23040047

  2. The sources, fate, and toxicity of chemical warfare agent degradation products.

    PubMed Central

    Munro, N B; Talmage, S S; Griffin, G D; Waters, L C; Watson, A P; King, J F; Hauschild, V

    1999-01-01

    We include in this review an assessment of the formation, environmental fate, and mammalian and ecotoxicity of CW agent degradation products relevant to environmental and occupational health. These parent CW agents include several vesicants: sulfur mustards [undistilled sulfur mustard (H), sulfur mustard (HD), and an HD/agent T mixture (HT)]; nitrogen mustards [ethylbis(2-chloroethyl)amine (HN1), methylbis(2-chloroethyl)amine (HN2), tris(2-chloroethyl)amine (HN3)], and Lewisite; four nerve agents (O-ethyl S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothioate (VX), tabun (GA), sarin (GB), and soman (GD)); and the blood agent cyanogen chloride. The degradation processes considered here include hydrolysis, microbial degradation, oxidation, and photolysis. We also briefly address decontamination but not combustion processes. Because CW agents are generally not considered very persistent, certain degradation products of significant persistence, even those that are not particularly toxic, may indicate previous CW agent presence or that degradation has occurred. Of those products for which there are data on both environmental fate and toxicity, only a few are both environmentally persistent and highly toxic. Major degradation products estimated to be of significant persistence (weeks to years) include thiodiglycol for HD; Lewisite oxide for Lewisite; and ethyl methyl phosphonic acid, methyl phosphonic acid, and possibly S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) methylphosphonothioic acid (EA 2192) for VX. Methyl phosphonic acid is also the ultimate hydrolysis product of both GB and GD. The GB product, isopropyl methylphosphonic acid, and a closely related contaminant of GB, diisopropyl methylphosphonate, are also persistent. Of all of these compounds, only Lewisite oxide and EA 2192 possess high mammalian toxicity. Unlike other CW agents, sulfur mustard agents (e.g., HD) are somewhat persistent; therefore, sites or conditions involving potential HD contamination should include an evaluation of both the agent and thiodiglycol. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 5 PMID:10585900

  3. Hydrothermal degradation of lignin: products analysis for phenol formaldehyde adhesive synthesis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sheng; Yuan, Tong-Qi; Li, Ming-Fei; Sun, Run-Cang

    2015-01-01

    Corncob lignin was treated with pressurized hot water in a cylindrical autoclave in current investigation. With the aim of investigating the effect of reaction temperature and retention time on the distribution of degradation products, the products were divided into five fractions including gas, volatile organic compounds, water-soluble oil, heavy oil, and solid residue. It was found that hydrothermal degradation of corncob lignin in pressurized hot water produced a large amount of phenolic compounds with lower molecular weight than the raw lignin. Some phenolic and benzene derivatives monomers such as vanillin, 2-methoxy-phenol, 2-ethyl-phenol, p-xylene, and 1, 3-dimethyl-benzene were also identified in the degradation products. The products were further analyzed by GC-MS, GPC, 2D-HSQC, and (31)P-NMR to investigate their suitability for partial incorporation into phenol formaldehyde adhesive as a substitution of phenol. The results indicated that the reaction temperature had more effect on the products distribution than the retention time. The optimal condition for heavy oil production appeared at 290 °C with retention time 0 min. The compounds of heavy oil had more active sites than the raw lignin, suggesting that the heavy oil obtained from hydrothermal degradation of lignin is a promising material for phenol formaldehyde adhesive synthesis. PMID:25109457

  4. Composition of the ozonolytic degradation products of the organic matter of Barzasskii sapromyxite coal

    SciTech Connect

    S.A. Semenova; Y.F.Patrakov

    2009-04-15

    The ozonization of Barzasskii sapromyxite coal in chloroform and the composition of ozonolytic degradation products were studied. Water-insoluble high-molecular-weight products were predominant among the ozonization products. A half of water-soluble substances consisted of aliphatic C{sub 5}-C{sub 12} dicarboxylic acids and benzenedicarboxylic acid derivatives. Sapromyxite has been suggested as a substitute for crude petroleum in the manufacture of motor fuels.

  5. ATMOSPHERIC REACTION PRODUCTS FROM HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANT DEGRADATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research project was undertaken to investigate the products of selected hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) as they react in the atmosphere. Many hazardous or potentially hazardous organic compounds are emitted into the atmosphere and are subject to chemical change by photolysis...

  6. Residential Exposure to Pesticides

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... health news that matters to you. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Childhood Leukemia Household Products Lymphoma Pesticides About ... Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page ...

  7. [Effect of photosynthetic bacteria and compost on degradation of petroleum products in soil].

    PubMed

    Mun, T Kh; Kirienko, O A; Imranova, E L

    2004-01-01

    Addition of diesel fuel and waste engine oil to soil was found to cause biostimulation of hydrocarbon-oxidizing microorganisms. Corynebacteria constitute a large group of hydrocarbon-oxidizing microorganisms. Addition of a liquid culture of photosynthetic bacteria to soil not only facilitates degradation of petroleum products, but also stimulates growth of hydrocarbon-oxidizing microorganisms. Combined addition of photosynthetic bacteria and compost to soil polluted with petroleum products causes even a more significant increase in the count of hydrocarbon-oxidizing bacteria and substantially increases the rate of pollutant degradation. PMID:15125200

  8. Toxicity of thermal degradation products of spacecraft materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, W. H.; Turner, J. E.; Sanford, C.; Foster, S.; Baldwin, E.; Oconnor, J.

    1982-01-01

    Three polymeric materials were evaluated for relative toxicity of their pyrolysis products to rats by inhalation: Y-7683 (LS 200), Y-7684 (Vonar 3 on Fiberglass), and Y-7685 (Vonar 3 on N W Polyester). Criteria employed for assessing relative toxicity were (1) lethality from in-chamber pyrolysis, (2) lethality from an outside-of-chamber pyrolysis MSTL Procedure, and (3) disruption of trained rats' shock-avoidance performance during sub-lethal exposures to in-chamber pyrolysis of the materials.

  9. 75 FR 82011 - Web-Distributed Labeling of Pesticides

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ...FRL-8856-4] Web-Distributed Labeling of Pesticides AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency...considering an initiative to make portions of pesticide labeling for certain products available...users' comprehension and compliance with pesticide labeling, thereby improving...

  10. 78 FR 26935 - Data Requirements for Antimicrobial Pesticides

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-08

    ...Data Requirements for Antimicrobial Pesticides; Final Rule Federal Register / Vol...Data Requirements for Antimicrobial Pesticides AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency...data requirements for antimicrobial pesticide products to reflect current...

  11. 40 CFR 152.166 - Labeling of restricted use products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Classification of Pesticides § 152... formulation into other pesticide products) is not subject to the labeling requirements of this subpart....

  12. Soil column leaching of pesticides.

    PubMed

    Katagi, Toshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    In this review, I address the practical and theoretical aspects of pesticide soil mobility.I also address the methods used to measure mobility, and the factors that influence it, and I summarize the data that have been published on the column leaching of pesticides.Pesticides that enter the unsaturated soil profile are transported downwards by the water flux, and are adsorbed, desorbed, and/or degraded as they pass through the soil. The rate of passage of a pesticide through the soil depends on the properties of the pesticide, the properties of the soil and the prevailing environmental conditions.Because large amounts of many different pesticides are used around the world, they and their degradates may sometimes contaminate groundwater at unacceptable levels.It is for this reason that assessing the transport behavior and soil mobility of pesticides before they are sold into commerce is important and is one indispensable element that regulators use to assess probable pesticide safety. Both elementary soil column leaching and sophisticated outdoor lysimeter studies are performed to measure the leaching potential for pesticides; the latter approach more reliably reflects probable field behavior, but the former is useful to initially profile a pesticide for soil mobility potential.Soil is physically heterogeneous. The structure of soil varies both vertically and laterally, and this variability affects the complex flow of water through the soil profile, making it difficult to predict with accuracy. In addition, macropores exist in soils and further add to the complexity of how water flow occurs. The degree to which soil is tilled, the density of vegetation on the surface, and the type and amounts of organic soil amendments that are added to soil further affect the movement rate of water through soil, the character of soil adsorption sites and the microbial populations that exist in the soil. Parameters that most influence the rate of pesticide mobility in soil are persistence (DT50) of the pesticide, and its sorption/desorption(Koc) characteristics. These parameters may vary for the same pesticide from geographic site-to-site and with soil depth. The interactions that normally occur between pesticides and dissolved organic matter (DOM) or WDC are yet other factors that may complicate pesticide leaching behavior.The soil mobility of pesticides is normally tested both in the laboratory and in the field. Lab studies are initially performed to give researchers a preliminary appraisal of the relative mobility of a pesticide. Later, field lysimeter studies can be performed to provide more natural leaching conditions that emulate the actual field use pattern. Lysimeter studies give the most reliable information on the leaching behavior of a pesticide under field conditions, but these studies are time-consuming and expensive and cannot be performed everywhere. It is for this reason that the laboratory soil column leaching approach is commonly utilized to profile the mobility of a pesticide,and appraise how it behaves in different soils, and relative to other pesticides.Because the soil structure is chemically and physically heterogenous, different pesticide tests may produce variable DT50 and Koc values; therefore, initial pesticide mobility testing is undertaken in homogeneously packed columns that contain two or more soils and are eluted at constant flow rates. Such studies are done in duplicate and utilize a conservative tracer element. By fitting an appropriate mathematical model to the breakthrough curve of the conservative tracer selected,researchers determine key mobility parameters, such as pore water velocity, the column-specific dispersion coefficient, and the contribution of non equilibrium transport processes. Such parameters form the basis for estimating the probable transport and degradation rates that will be characteristic of the tested pesticide. Researchers also examine how a pesticide interacts with soil DOM and WDC, and what contribution from facilitated transport to mobility is made as a result of the effects of

  13. Isolation and structure elucidation of degradation products in the potential anticancer drug PAC-1.

    PubMed

    Song, Zhen; Chen, Xiaohui; Zhang, Di; Gong, Ping; Bi, Kaishun

    2010-03-11

    PAC-1 was subjected to acid degradation conditions at 80 degrees C for 10h. Four unknown degradation products were isolated from PAC-1 by semi-preparative high performance liquid chromatography using isocratic elution conditions. Based on the ESI-MS and NMR spectral data the structures of these four degradation products were characterized as 2-allyl-6-((E)-((E)-(2-hydroxy-3-(2-hydroxypropyl)benzylidene)hydrazono)methyl)phenol, 2-hydroxy-3-(2-propenyl)-[[2-hydroxy-3-(2-propenyl)phenyl]methylene]hydrazone, 6,6'-(1E,1'E)-hydrazine-1,2-diylidenebis(methan-1-yl-1-ylidene)bis(2-(2-hydroxypropyl)phenol) and 2-hydroxy-3-(2-hydroxypropyl)benzaldehyde. PMID:19889506

  14. Liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometric study of sitagliptin and its stressed degradation products.

    PubMed

    Vishnuvardhan, C; Radhakrishnanand, P; Navalgund, S G; Satheeshkumar, N

    2014-12-01

    A sensitive UPLC positive ion electrospray tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for identification of degradation products of sitagliptin formed during stress study. Six of the major degradants were identi-fied with the proposed method. The separation of sitagliptin and its degradation products was achieved on a Acquity BEH C-18 column (50×2.1?mm, 1.7?µm) using a gradient programme. The mobile phase consists of solvent A (10?mM ammonium formate, pH 6.4 adjusted with formic acid) and solvent B (acetonitrile) and quantitative evaluation was performed at 267?nm with a flow rate of 0.15?mL min(-1). Suitability of this method for the quantitative determination of the drugs was proved by validation in accordance with International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines and can be used for routine analysis of sitagliptin formulations in quality control. PMID:24623032

  15. Analysis of atrazine and four degradation products in the pore water of the vadose zone, central Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Panshin, S.Y.; Carter, D.S.; Bayless, E.R.

    2000-01-01

    A new method is described for the analysis of atrazine and four of its degradation products (desethylatrazine, deisopropylatrazine, didealkylatrazine, and hydroxyatrazine) in water. This method uses solid- phase extraction on a graphitized carbon black cartridge, derivatization of the eluate with N-methyl-N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA), and analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). This method was used to analyze lysimeter samples collected from a field in central Indiana in 1994 and 1995. Atrazine and its degradation products were transported rapidly through the vadose zone. Maximum values of atrazine ranged from 2.61 to 8.44 ??g/L and occurred from 15 to 57 days after application. Maximum concentrations of the degradation products occurred from 11 to 140 days after atrazine application. The degradation products were more persistent than atrazine in pore water. Desethylatrazine was the dominant degradation product detected in the first year, and didealkylatrazine was the dominant degradation product detected in the second year. Concentrations of atrazine and the degradation products sorbed onto soil were estimated; maximum concentrations ranged from 7.3 to 24 ??g/kg for atrazine and were less than 5 ??g/kg for all degradation products. Degradation of atrazine and transport of all five compounds were simulated by the vadose zone flow model LEACHM. LEACHM was run as a Darcian-flow model and as a non-Darcian-flow model.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of acetalated dextran polymer and microparticles with ethanol as a degradation product.

    PubMed

    Kauffman, Kevin J; Do, Clement; Sharma, Sadhana; Gallovic, Matthew D; Bachelder, Eric M; Ainslie, Kristy M

    2012-08-01

    In the field of drug delivery, pH-sensitive polymeric microparticles can be used to release therapeutic payloads slowly in extracellular conditions (pH 7.4) and faster in more acidic areas in vivo, such as sites of inflammation, tumors, or intracellular conditions. Our group currently uses and is further developing the pH-sensitive polymer acetalated dextran (Ac-DEX), which is a biodegradable polymer with highly tunable degradation kinetics. Ac-DEX has displayed enhanced delivery of vaccine and drug components to immune and other cells, making it an extremely desirable polymer for immune applications. Currently, one of the degradation products of Ac-DEX is methanol, which may cause toxicity issues if applied at high concentrations with repeated doses. Therefore, in this manuscript we report the first synthesis and characterization of an Ac-DEX analog which, instead of a methanol degradation product, has a much safer ethanol degradation product. We abbreviate this ethoxy acetal derivatized acetalated dextran polymer as Ace-DEX, with the 'e' to indicate an ethanol degradation product. Like Ac-DEX, Ace-DEX microparticles have tunable degradation rates at pH 5 (intracellular). These rates range from hours to several days and are controlled simply by reaction time. Ace-DEX microparticles also show minimal cytotoxicity compared to commonly used poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microparticles when incubated with macrophages. This study aims to enhance the biocompatibility of acetalated dextran-type polymers to allow their use in high volume clinical applications such as multiple dosing and tissue engineering. PMID:22833690

  17. Soil analyses for 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-DCP), sodium n-methyldithiocarbamate (metam-sodium), and their degradation products near Fort Hall Idaho, September 1999 through March 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parliman, D.J.

    2001-01-01

    Between September 1999 and March 2000, soil samples from the Fort Hall, Idaho, area were analyzed for two soil fumigants, 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-DCP) and sodium n-methyldithiocarbamate (metam-sodium), and their degradation products. Ground water is the only source of drinking water at Fort Hall, and the purpose of the investigation was to determine potential risk of ground-water contamination from persistence and movement of these pesticides in cropland soils. 1,3-DCP, metam-sodium, or their degradation products were detected in 42 of 104 soil samples. The samples were collected from 1-, 2-, and 3-foot depths in multiple backhoe trenches during four sampling events—before pesticide application in September; after application in October; before soil freeze in December; and after soil thaw in March. In most cases, concentrations of the pesticide compounds were at or near their laboratory minimum reporting limits. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Method 5035 was used as the guideline for soil sample preparation and analyses, and either sodium bisulfate (NaHSO4), an acidic preservative, or pesticide-free water was added to samples prior to analyses. Addition of NaHSO4 to the samples resulted in a greater number of compound detections, but pesticide-free water was added to most samples to avoid the strong reactions of soil carbonate minerals with the NaHSO4. As a result, nondetection of compounds in samples containing pesticide-free water did not necessarily indicate that the compounds were absent. Detections of these compounds were inconsistent among trenches with similar soil characteristics and histories of soil fumigant use. Compounds were detected at different depths and different trench locations during each sampling event. Overall results of this study showed that the original compounds or their degradation products can persist in soil 6 months or more after their application and are present to at least 3 feet below land surface in some areas. A few of the soil analyses results were unexpected. Degradation products of metam-sodium were detected in samples from croplands with a history of 1,3-DCP applications only, and were not detected in samples from croplands with a history of metam-sodium applications. Although 1,2-dibromoethane (EDB) has not been used in the area for many years, EDB was detected in a few soil samples. The presence of EDB in soil could be caused by irrigation of croplands with EDBcontaminated ground water. Analyses of these soil samples resulted in many unanswered questions, and further studies are needed. One potential study to determine vertical extent of pesticide compound migration in sediments, for example, would include analysis of one or more columns of soil and sediments (land surface to ground water, about 35 to 50 feet below land surface) in areas with known soil contamination. Another study would expand the scope of soil contamination to include broader types of cropland conditions and compound analyses.

  18. Occurrence and potential risk of currently used pesticides in sediments of the Alqueva reservoir (Guadiana Basin).

    PubMed

    Palma, P; Köck-Schulmeyer, M; Alvarenga, P; Ledo, L; de Alda, M López; Barceló, D

    2015-05-01

    The evaluation of sediments, concerning to pesticides, constitutes an important step for the understanding of the principal sources of contamination of the surface water. Hence, the purpose of this study was to evaluate for the first time the occurrence, distribution and risk of pesticides in sediments of the Alqueva reservoir, the largest reservoir in the Europe. For this purpose, the occurrence of 22 pesticides and some of their degradation products was determined in surficial sediments of the Alqueva reservoir. To assess the potential risk on ecosystem, the measured concentrations of pesticides were compared with regulatory and toxicological benchmarks. Of the 22 pesticides analysed, only 8 were detected. Diuron was the pesticide detected in greater concentration, followed by terbuthylazine and chlortoluron. The sediments most polluted by pesticides were from Lucefécit, constituted totally by fine particles (<0.063 mm) and with high values of organic matter, and are located nearby large agricultural fields. The risk assessment allowed us to conclude that the sediments from the Alqueva reservoir presented low risk, concerning to pesticides, for the various communities that integrate the aquatic ecosystems. However, some of the compounds detected present a high potential for bioaccumulation that may lead to their bioamplification in the trophic chain, reaching concentrations higher than their acceptable daily intake, putting, in this way the populations at risk. PMID:25874427

  19. Global sensitivity analysis for UNSATCHEM simulations of crop production with degraded waters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One strategy for maintaining irrigated agricultural productivity in the face of diminishing resource availability is to make greater use of marginal quality waters and lands. A key to sustaining systems using degraded irrigation waters is salinity management. Advanced simulation models and decision ...

  20. 21 CFR 864.7320 - Fibrinogen/fibrin degradation products assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fibrinogen/fibrin degradation products assay. 864.7320 Section 864.7320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages §...

  1. 21 CFR 864.7320 - Fibrinogen/fibrin degradation products assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fibrinogen/fibrin degradation products assay. 864.7320 Section 864.7320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages §...

  2. 21 CFR 864.7320 - Fibrinogen/fibrin degradation products assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fibrinogen/fibrin degradation products assay. 864.7320 Section 864.7320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages §...

  3. 21 CFR 864.7320 - Fibrinogen/fibrin degradation products assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fibrinogen/fibrin degradation products assay. 864.7320 Section 864.7320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages §...

  4. Meiothermus ruber H328 enhances the production of membrane vesicles for feather degradation.

    PubMed

    Yamaoka, Akito; Kataoka, Maachi; Kawasaki, Kazunori; Kobayashi, Emiko; Shigeri, Yasushi; Watanabe, Kunihiko

    2014-01-01

    The thermophilic bacterium Meiothermus ruber H328 aggressively degrades chicken feathers. When feathers were added to culture medium, the cells significantly exfoliated membrane vesicles from the outer membrane as observed by electron microscopy of ultrathin sections. This is the first report of membrane vesicle production associated with keratinolytic activity by Meiothermus sp. PMID:25209513

  5. HYDROLOGIC CONDITIONS AFFECTING THE TROPOSPHERIC FLUX OF VINCLOZOLIN AND ITS DEGRADATION PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A laboratory chamber was used to determine hydrologic conditions that lead to the tropospheric flux of a suspected anti-androgenic dicarboximide fungicide, vinclozolin (3-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-5-methyl-5-vinyl-oxzoli-dine-2,4-dione) and three degradation products from sterilized...

  6. Activity of meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba) seed meal glucolimnanthin degradation products against soilborne pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba L.) is a herbaceous winter-spring annual grown as a commercial oilseed crop. The meal remaining after oil extraction from the seed contains up to 4% of the glucosinolate glucolimnanthin. Degradation of glucolimnanthin yields toxic breakdown products, and therefore the mea...

  7. Identification of a new degradation product of the antifouling agent Irgarol 1051 in natural samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferrer, I.; Barcelo, D.

    2001-01-01

    A main degradation product of Irgarol [2-(methylthio)-4-(tert-butylamino)-6-(cyclopropylamino)-s-triazine], one of the most widely used compounds in antifouling paints, was detected at trace levels in seawater and sediment samples collected from several marinas on the Mediterranean coast. This degradation product was identified as 2-methylthio-4-tert-butylamino-s-triazine. The unequivocal identification of this compound in seawater samples was carried out by solid-phase extraction (SPE) coupled on-line with liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-APCI-MS). SPE was carried out by passing 150 ml of seawater sample through a cartridge containing a polymeric phase (PLRP-s), with recoveries ranging from 92 to 108% (n=5). Using LC-MS detection in positive ion mode, useful structural information was obtained by increasing the fragmentor voltage, thus permitting the unequivocal identification of this compound in natural samples. Method detection limits were in the range of 0.002 to 0.005 ??g/l. Overall, the combination of on-line SPE and LC-APCI-MS represents an important advance in environmental analysis of herbicide degradation products in seawater, since it demonstrates that trace amounts of new polar metabolites may be determined rapidly. This paper reports the LC-MS identification of the main degradation product of Irgarol in seawater and sediment samples. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Liquid chromatographic assay of diatrizoic acid and its diiodo degradation products in radio-opaque solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Farag, S.A.

    1995-03-01

    A liquid chromatographic method is described for the analysis of diatrizoic acid (2,4,6-triiodo-3,5-diacetamidobenzoic acid) and its 2,4- and 2,6-diiodo degradation products in radio-opaque injection solutions. The method is accurate, precise, and linear at a concentration range of 5-50 ppm. 12 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Effect of exogenous xylanase on rumen in vitro gas production and degradability of wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Togtokhbayar, Norovsambuu; Cerrillo, María A; Rodríguez, Germán Buendía; Elghandour, Mona M M Y; Salem, Abdelfattah Z M; Urankhaich, Chuluunbaatar; Jigjidpurev, Sukhbaatar; Odongo, Nicholas E; Kholif, Ahmed E

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine effects of xylanase on in vitro gas production (GP) and in sacco degradability of wheat straw. Rumen fluid was obtained from three Mongolian native goats fitted with permanent rumen cannulas. The trial consisted of five doses (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0??L/g of substrate) of a commercial xylanase (Dyadic® xylanase PLUS, Dyadic International, Inc., Jupiter, FL, USA). For the in sacco degradability, different levels of xylanase enzyme were added directly onto 2?g of wheat straw in nylon bags and incubated in the rumen for 3, 6, 12, 24 and 48?h to estimate degradability of wheat straw. Total GP increased (P?production had a similar pattern at 3 and 12?h of incubation; increased linearly at 24?h of incubation, and was unaffected at 6 and 48?h of incubation. Rumen NH3 -N concentration increased linearly at 3?h and the highest values were observed with intermediate enzyme levels. All ruminal volatile fatty acids increased linearly with intermediate levels of the fibrolytic enzyme. The in sacco rate of dry matter degradation decreased linearly (P?=?0.020) with increasing enzymes. Intermediate levels of xylanase improved rumen kinetic fermentation and degradability. The outcome of this research indicated that the application of xylanase enzyme could improve in vitro?GP fermentation of wheat straw. PMID:25923062

  10. RP-HPLC stability-indicating assay method for talinolol and characterization of its degradation products.

    PubMed

    Sinha, V R; Ghai, Damanjeet

    2011-01-01

    A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method is developed and validated for the quantitative determination of talinolol and to characterize its degradation products. A very good resolution between peaks is achieved using a C18 column at 40°C. The mobile phase comprises of a mixture of acetonitrile and potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate buffer (pH 4.4) in the ratio of 27:73 (v/v). The method is validated with respect to linearity, accuracy, precision, robustness, and forced degradation studies, which further proved the stability indicating power. During the forced degradation studies, talinolol is observed to be labile to hydrolytic stress and thermal stress (in the solution form). However, it is stable to the oxidative, photolytic, and thermal stress (in the solid form). The degraded products formed are investigated by electrospray ionization (ESI), time-of-flight mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance, and infrared spectroscopy. A possible degradation pathway is outlined based on the results. The method is found to be sensitive with a detection limit of 0.125 ?g/mL and a quantitation limit of 0.378 ?g/mL. The method is also demonstrated to be robust, as it is resistant to small variations of chromatographic variables such as pH, mobile phase composition, flow rate, and column temperature. PMID:22080807

  11. The environmental fate of the primary degradation products of alkylphenol ethoxylate surfactants in recycled paper sludge.

    PubMed

    Hawrelak, M; Bennett, E; Metcalfe, C

    1999-08-01

    Alkylphenol ethoxylates (APEOs) are a group of non-ionic surfactants that are degraded microbially into more lipophilic degradation products with estrogenic potential, including nonylphenol monoethoxylate (NP1EO), nonylphenol diethoxylate (NP2EO), octylphenol (4-tOP) and nonylphenol (4-NP). Nonylphenol ethoxylates are used in paper recycling plants for de-inking paper and have the potential to be released into the environment through spreading of wastewater treatment sludge for soil amendment. Three samples of recycled paper sludge were collected from farmers' fields and analyzed for concentrations of NP1EO, NP2EO, 4-NP and 4-tOP. Each sample differed in the amount of time elapsed since the sludge was placed on farmers' fields. Primary degradation products of APEOs were present at low micrograms/g concentrations in the sludge samples. Differences in the concentrations of these analytes in sludge samples indicated that APEO concentrations declined by 84% over a period of 14 weeks on farmers' fields. Changes in the chromatographic patterns of acetylated 4-NP indicated that there is a group of recalcitrant nonylphenol isomers that degrades more slowly than other isomers. These data indicate that microbial degradation may reduce the risk of environmental contamination by these compounds, but more work is required to assess the toxic potential of APEOs in sludges used for soil amendment. PMID:10448553

  12. Radiolysis of solvents containing C5-BTBP: identification of degradation products and their dependence on absorbed dose and dose rate.

    PubMed

    Fermvik, Anna; Berthon, Laurence; Ekberg, Christian; Englund, Sofie; Retegan, Teodora; Zorz, Nicole

    2009-08-28

    Solvents intended for the separation of trivalent actinides from trivalent lanthanides in spent nuclear fuel have been irradiated with gamma-radiation. The solvents initially contained 0.005 M C5-BTBP dissolved in either hexanol or cyclohexanone and they were exposed to doses up to 20 kGy. Identification of degradation products was done using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (APCI-MS). Structures were suggested for a number of degradation products and the relative intensity of the peaks in the MS spectra was estimated. It was clear that the content of the original molecule, C5-BTBP, decreased with dose, while the content of the various degradation products increased. It was also shown that both the choice of diluent and the dose rate (Gy/h) affect the amount of degradation products formed. A degradation scheme was proposed for the radiolytic degradation of C5-BTBP. PMID:19655077

  13. Antimicrobial Pesticides

    MedlinePLUS

    ... menu Learn the Issues Air Chemicals and Toxics Climate Change Emergencies Greener Living Health and Safety Land and Cleanup Pesticides Waste Water Science & Technology Air Climate Change Ecosystems Health Land, Waste and Cleanup Pesticides Substances ...

  14. Pesticides and Human Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Health and Safety Information —> Pesticides and Human Health Pesticides and Human Health Pesticides have a specific purpose in society. Pesticides are intended to: kill organisms that cause disease ...

  15. Relationship between lignin degradation and production of reduced oxygen species by Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    SciTech Connect

    Faison, B.D.; Kirk, T.K.

    1983-11-01

    The relationship between the production of reduced oxygen species, hydrogen peroxide (H/sub 2/O/sub 2/), superoxide (O/sub 2//sup -/), and hydroxyl radical (.OH), and the oxidation of synthetic lignin to CO/sub 2/ was studied in whole cultures of the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium Burds. The kinetics of the synthesis of H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ coincided with the appearance of the ligninolytic system; also, H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ production was markedly enhanced by growth under 100% O/sub 2/, mimicing the increase in ligninolytic activity characteristic of cultures grown under elevated oxygen tension. Lignin degradation by whole cultures was inhibited by a specific H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ scavenger, catalase, implying a role for H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ in the degradative process. Superoxide dismutase also inhibited lignin degradation, suggesting that O/sub 2//sup -/ is also involved in the breakdown of lignin. The production of .OH was assayed in whole cultures by a benzoate decarboxylation assay. Neither the kinetics of .OH synthesis nor the final activity of its producing system obtained under 100% O/sub 2/ correlated with that of the lignin-degrading system. However, lignin degradation was inhibited by compounds which react with .OH. It is concluded that H/sub 2/O/sub 2/, and perhaps O/sub 2//sup -/, are involved in lignin degradation; because these species are relatively unreactive per se, their role must be indirect. Conclusions about a role for .OH in ligninolysis could not be reached. (Refs. 28).

  16. Degradation and Sorption of Imidacloprid in Dissimilar Surface and Subsurface Soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Degradation and sorption/desorption are important processes affecting the leaching of pesticides through soil. Once pesticides move past the surface soil layers, subsurface soil physical, chemical, and biological properties significantly affect pesticide fate and the potential for groundwater contam...

  17. Pure ZnO and composite ZnO/TiO2 catalyst plates: a comparative study for the degradation of azo dye, pesticide and antibiotic in aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Topkaya, Eylem; Konyar, Mehmet; Yatmaz, H Cengiz; Öztürk, Koray

    2014-09-15

    Photocatalytic degradations of azo dye (RR 180), pesticide (2,4-D) and antibiotic (enrofloxacin) in aqueous solutions were performed and compared by using pure ZnO and ZnO/TiO2 composite (at 1:1 ZnO to TiO2 mole ratio) catalysts in a self-supporting plate form. The plates were produced by tape casting of the constituent powder slurries and sintering at 600°C. Photocatalytic degradations of these pollutants were carried out under UVA and UVC irradiations for 120 min. Maximum degradation was obtained for 2,4-D solution using pure ZnO plates under UVC. Due to the photolysis effect, UVC wavelength yielded higher efficiency values for all the chemicals than UVA. The discrepancy in the photocatalytic performances of the pure ZnO and the ZnO/TiO2 composite plates were not found to be significant. The plates were found to be effective for the consecutive degradation tests which indicated their potentiality in extended applications. PMID:24998047

  18. [Degradation Kinetics and Formation of Disinfection By-products During Linuron Chlorination in Drinking Water].

    PubMed

    Ling, Xiao; Hu, Chen-yan; Cheng, Ming; Gu, Jian

    2015-05-01

    Chlorination degradation of linuron was studied using the common disinfectant sodium hypochlorite, the effects of chlorine dosage, pH value, bromine ion concentrationand temperature were systematically investigated, and the formation characteristics of disinfection by-products (DBPs) during the chlorination reaction was analyzed. The results showed that the chlorination degradation kinetics of linuron by sodium hypochlorite could be well described by the second-order kinetic model. Moreover, pH values had a great impact on the degradation reaction, and the rate constant reached the maximum level at pH 7, and the base elementary reaction rate constants of HOCl and OCl- with linuron were 4.84 x 10(2) L · (mol · h)(-1) and 3.80 x 10(2) L · (mol · h)(-1), respectively. The reaction rate decreased with the addition of bromide ion and increased with increasing temperature. Furthermore, many kinds of disinfection by- products were produced during the chlorination degradation of linuron, including CF, DCAN, TCNM and halogen acetone. Under conditions of different solution pH and different bromide ion concentrations, there would be significant difference in the types and concentrations of disinfection by-products. PMID:26314114

  19. Characterization of radiolytically generated degradation products in the strip section of a TRUEX flowsheet

    SciTech Connect

    Dean R. Peterman; Lonnie G. Olson; Gary S. Groenewold; Rocklan G. McDowell; Richard D. Tillotson; Jack D. Law

    2013-08-01

    This report presents a summary of the work performed to meet the FCRD level 2 milestone M3FT-13IN0302053, “Identification of TRUEX Strip Degradation.” The INL radiolysis test loop has been used to identify radiolytically generated degradation products in the strip section of the TRUEX flowsheet. These data were used to evaluate impact of the formation of radiolytic degradation products in the strip section upon the efficacy of the TRUEX flowsheet for the recovery of trivalent actinides and lanthanides from acidic solution. The nominal composition of the TRUEX solvent used in this study is 0.2 M CMPO and 1.4 M TBP dissolved in n-dodecane and the nominal composition of the TRUEX strip solution is 1.5 M lactic acid and 0.050 M diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid. Gamma irradiation of a mixture of TRUEX process solvent and stripping solution in the test loop does not adversely impact flowsheet performance as measured by stripping americium ratios. The observed increase in americium stripping distribution ratios with increasing absorbed dose indicates the radiolytic production of organic soluble degradation compounds.

  20. Pesticides in ground water beneath Loukkos perimeter, Northwest Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Bakouri, Hicham; Ouassini, Abdelhamid; Morillo, José; Usero, José

    2008-01-01

    SummaryThis study assesses pesticide occurrence in the ground water beneath the Loukkos area (Northwest Morocco). The inhabitants and farmers depend on ground water supplies for drinking water, crop irrigation and other uses. The plain provides ideal conditions for agriculture and thus the use of pesticides was increasing during the past decade. The 23 investigated pesticides belong to the endosulfan isomers and their degradation products, the triazines and the phenyl-ureas. The analyses were done using chromatographic techniques and solid-phase extraction. The analytical determination was optimized by selecting the best clean-up procedure to reach the highest pesticide recovery rate. So, clean-up with Florisil was applied for endosulfan and its metabolites. For the triazines and phenyl-ureas clean-up with LiChrolut EN was used. Endosulfan isomers and their degradation products both were detected in ground water samples of which the latter presents the highest concentrations. No herbicides (triazines and phenyl-ureas) were detected, what can be explained by the low use of these compounds in the area. With the exception of endosulfan ether, the results did not exceed the current drinking water quality established by the European Union.

  1. Acetamide herbicides and their degradation products in ground water and surface water of the United States, 1993-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scribner, Elisabeth A.; Dietze, Julie E.; Thurman, Michael

    2004-01-01

    During 1993 through 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a number of studies to investigate and document the occurrence, fate, and transport of acetamide herbicides and their degradation products in ground and surface water. As part of these studies, approximately 5,100 water samples were collected and analyzed for the acetamide parent herbicides acetochlor, alachlor, dimethenamid, flufenacet, and metolachlor and their degradation products ethanesulfonic acid, oxanilic acid, and sulfinyl acetic acid. During this period, various analytical methods were developed to detect and measure concentrations of acetamide herbicides and their degradation products in ground water and surface water. Results showed that the degradation products of acetamide herbicides in ground water were detected more frequently and occurred at higher concentrations than their parent compounds. Further study showed that the acetamide herbicides and their degradation products were detected more frequently in surface water than in ground water. In general, the parent compounds were detected at similar or greater frequencies than the degradation products in surface water. The developed methods and data were valuable for acquiring information about the occurrence, fate, and transport of the herbicides and their degradation products and the importance of analyzing for both parent compounds and their degradate products in water-quality studies.

  2. Biodegradation of Leonardite by an alkali-producing bacterial community and characterization of the degraded products.

    PubMed

    Gao, Tong-Guo; Jiang, Feng; Yang, Jin-Shui; Li, Bao-Zhen; Yuan, Hong-Li

    2012-03-01

    In this study, three bacterial communities were obtained from 12 Leonardite samples with the aim of identifying a clean, effective, and economic technique for the dissolution of Leonardite, a type of low-grade coal, in the production of humic acid (HA). The biodegradation ability and characteristics of the degraded products of the most effective bacterial community (MCSL-2), which degraded 50% of the Leonardite within 21 days, were further investigated. Analyses of elemental composition, (13)C NMR, and Fourier transform infrared revealed that the contents of C, O, and aliphatic carbon were similar in biodegraded humic acid (bHA) and chemically (alkali) extracted humic acid (cHA). However, the N and carboxyl carbon contents of bHA was higher than that of cHA. Furthermore, a positive correlation was identified between the degradation efficiency and the increasing pH of the culture medium, while increases of manganese peroxidase and esterase activities were also observed. These data demonstrated that both alkali production and enzyme reactions were involved in Leonardite solubilization by MCSL-2, although the former mechanism predominated. No fungus was observed by microscopy. Only four bacterial phylotypes were recognized, and Bacillus licheniformis-related bacteria were identified as the main group in MCSL-2 by analysis of amplified 16S rRNA genes, thus demonstrating that Leonardite degradation ability has a limited distribution in bacteria. Hormone-like bioactivities of bHA were also detected. In this study, a bacterial community capable of Leonardite degradation was identified and the products characterized. These data implicate the use of such bacteria for the exploitation of Leonardite as a biofertilizer. PMID:22075634

  3. Degradation of Microcellular PET reflective materials used in LED-based products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Guangjun; van Driel, W. D.; Fan, Xuejun; Yazdan Mehr, M.; Fan, Jiajie; Jansen, K. M. B.; Zhang, G. Q.

    2015-11-01

    Microcellular PET is an emerging reflective material used for solid state lighting. This paper experimentally investigated its degradation mechanisms and quantified both lumen decay and color shift effects of LED-based products with this material aged under different conditions. The results show that: (1) A humidity test at 85 °C & 85%RH for 4000 h (or even shorter) can lead to hydrolytic degradation, which causes both the obvious inconsistent decrease of reflectivity and a severe embrittlement; (2) Oxidative degradation occurred at 85 °C for 4000 h can cause a slight reflectance spectrum change, while the additional blue light exposure has little impact; (3) Color shift induced by thermal aging at 85 °C for 4000 h is 0.0001 and lumen efficiency decreased by 1.57%. When Microcellular PET falls off due to the embrittlement during humidity test, the color shift increases to 0.0004 and the lumen efficiency is reduced by 4.47%.

  4. Organophosphorous pesticide breakdown products in house dust and children’s urine

    PubMed Central

    Quirós-Alcalá, Lesliam; Bradman, Asa; Smith, Kimberly; Weerasekera, Gayanga; Odetokun, Martins; Barr, Dana Boyd; Nishioka, Marcia; Castorina, Rosemary; Hubbard, Alan E.; Nicas, Mark; Hammond, S. Katharine; McKone, Thomas E.; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2014-01-01

    Human exposure to preformed dialkylphosphates (DAPs) in food or the environment may affect the reliability of DAP urinary metabolites as biomarkers of organophosphate (OP) pesticide exposure. We conducted a study to investigate the presence of DAPs in indoor residential environments and their association with children’s urinary DAP levels. We collected dust samples from homes in farmworker and urban communities (40 homes total, n = 79 samples) and up to two urine samples from resident children ages 3–6 years. We measured six DAPs in all samples and eight DAP-devolving OP pesticides in a subset of dust samples (n = 54). DAPs were detected in dust with diethylphosphate (DEP) being the most frequently detected (?60%); detection frequencies for other DAPs were ?50%. DEP dust concentrations did not significantly differ between communities, nor were concentrations significantly correlated with concentrations of chlorpyrifos and diazinon, the most frequently detected diethyl-OP pesticides (Spearman ? = ?0.41 to 0.38, P>0.05). Detection of DEP, chlorpyrifos, or diazinon, was not associated with DEP and/or DEP + diethylthiophosphate detection in urine (Kappa coefficients = ?0.33 to 0.16). Finally, estimated non-dietary ingestion intake from DEP in dust was found to be ?5% of the dose calculated from DEP levels in urine, suggesting that ingestion of dust is not a significant source of DAPs in urine if they are excreted unchanged. PMID:22781438

  5. Chiral Pesticides: Identification, Description and Environmental Implications

    EPA Science Inventory

    Anthropogenic chemicals, including pesticides, are a major source of contamination and pollution in the environment. Pesticides have many positive uses: increased food production, decreased damage to crops and structures, reduced disease vector populations, and more. Nevertheless...

  6. Determination of pesticides associated with suspended sediments in the San Joaquin River, California, USA, using gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergamaschi, B.A.; Baston, D.S.; Crepeau, K.L.; Kuivila, K.M.

    1999-01-01

    An analytical method useful for the quantification of a range of pesticides and pesticide degradation products associated with suspended sediments was developed by testing a variety of extraction and cleanup schemes. The final extraction and cleanup methods chosen for use are suitable for the quantification of the listed pesticides using gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry and the removal of interfering coextractable organic material found in suspended sediments. Methylene chloride extraction followed by Florisil cleanup proved most effective for separation of coextractives from the pesticide analytes. Removal of elemental sulfur was accomplished with tetrabutylammonium hydrogen sulfite. The suitability of the method for the analysis of a variety of pesticides was evaluated, and the method detection limits (MDLs) were determined (0.1-6.0 ng/g dry weight of sediment) for 21 compounds. Recovery of pesticides dried onto natural sediments averaged 63%. Analysis of duplicate San Joaquin River suspended-sediment samples demonstrated the utility of the method for environmental samples with variability between replicate analyses lower than between environmental samples. Eight of 21 pesticides measured were observed at concentrations ranging from the MDL to more than 80 ng/g dry weight of sediment and exhibited significant temporal variability. Sediment-associated pesticides, therefore, may contribute to the transport of pesticides through aquatic systems and should be studied separately from dissolved pesticides.

  7. Atmospheric deposition of current-use and historic-use pesticides in snow at National Parks in the Western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hageman, K.J.; Simonich, S.L.; Campbell, D.H.; Wilson, G.R.; Landers, D.H.

    2006-01-01

    The United States (U.S.) National Park Service has initiated research on the atmospheric deposition and fate of semi-volatile organic compounds in its alpine, sub-Arctic, and Arctic ecosystems in the Western U.S. Results for the analysis of pesticides in seasonal snowpack samples collected in spring 2003 from seven national parks are presented herein. From a target analyte list of 47 pesticides and degradation products, the most frequently detected current-use pesticides were dacthal, chlorpyrifos, endosulfan, and ??- hexachlorocyclohexane, whereas the most frequently detected historic-use pesticides were dieldrin, ??-hexachlorocyclohexane, chlordane, and hexachlorobenzene. Correlation analysis with latitude, temperature, elevation, particulate matter, and two indicators of regional pesticide use reveal that regional current and historic agricultural practices are largely responsible for the distribution of pesticides in the national parks in this study. Pesticide deposition in the Alaskan parks is attributed to long-range transport because there are no significant regional pesticide sources. The percentage of total pesticide concentration due to regional transport (%RT) was calculated for the other parks. %RT was highest at parks with higher regional cropland intensity and for pesticides with lower vapor pressures and shorter half-lives in air. ?? 2006 American Chemical Society.

  8. Biodegradation of the alkaline cellulose degradation products generated during radioactive waste disposal.

    PubMed

    Rout, Simon P; Radford, Jessica; Laws, Andrew P; Sweeney, Francis; Elmekawy, Ahmed; Gillie, Lisa J; Humphreys, Paul N

    2014-01-01

    The anoxic, alkaline hydrolysis of cellulosic materials generates a range of cellulose degradation products (CDP) including ? and ? forms of isosaccharinic acid (ISA) and is expected to occur in radioactive waste disposal sites receiving intermediate level radioactive wastes. The generation of ISA's is of particular relevance to the disposal of these wastes since they are able to form complexes with radioelements such as Pu enhancing their migration. This study demonstrates that microbial communities present in near-surface anoxic sediments are able to degrade CDP including both forms of ISA via iron reduction, sulphate reduction and methanogenesis, without any prior exposure to these substrates. No significant difference (n = 6, p = 0.118) in ? and ? ISA degradation rates were seen under either iron reducing, sulphate reducing or methanogenic conditions, giving an overall mean degradation rate of 4.7 × 10(-2) hr(-1) (SE ± 2.9 × 10(-3)). These results suggest that a radioactive waste disposal site is likely to be colonised by organisms able to degrade CDP and associated ISA's during the construction and operational phase of the facility. PMID:25268118

  9. Non-UV light influences the degradation rate of crop protection products.

    PubMed

    Davies, Lawrence O; Bramke, Irene; France, Emma; Marshall, Samantha; Oliver, Robin; Nichols, Carol; Schäfer, Hendrik; Bending, Gary D

    2013-08-01

    Crop protection products (CPPs) are subject to strict regulatory evaluation, including laboratory and field trials, prior to approval for commercial use. Laboratory tests lack environmental realism, while field trials are difficult to control. Addition of environmental complexity to laboratory systems is therefore desirable to mimic a field environment more effectively. We investigated the effect of non-UV light on the degradation of eight CPPs (chlorotoluron, prometryn, cinosulfuron, imidacloprid, lufenuron, propiconazole, fludioxonil, and benzovindiflupyr) by addition of non-UV light to standard OECD 307 guidelines. Time taken for 50% degradation of benzovindiflupyr was halved from 373 to 183 days with the inclusion of light. Similarly, time taken for 90% degradation of chlorotoluron decreased from 79 to 35 days under light conditions. Significant reductions in extractable parent compound occurred under light conditions for prometryn (4%), imidacloprid (8%), and fludioxonil (24%) compared to dark controls. However, a significantly slower rate of cinosulfuron (14%) transformation was observed under light compared to dark conditions. Under light conditions, nonextractable residues were significantly higher for seven of the CPPs. Soil biological and chemical analyses suggest that light stimulates phototroph growth, which may directly and/or indirectly impact CPP degradation rates. The results of this study strongly suggest that light is an important parameter affecting CPP degradation, and inclusion of light into regulatory studies may enhance their environmental realism. PMID:23819841

  10. Biodegradation of the Alkaline Cellulose Degradation Products Generated during Radioactive Waste Disposal

    PubMed Central

    Rout, Simon P.; Radford, Jessica; Laws, Andrew P.; Sweeney, Francis; Elmekawy, Ahmed; Gillie, Lisa J.; Humphreys, Paul N.

    2014-01-01

    The anoxic, alkaline hydrolysis of cellulosic materials generates a range of cellulose degradation products (CDP) including ? and ? forms of isosaccharinic acid (ISA) and is expected to occur in radioactive waste disposal sites receiving intermediate level radioactive wastes. The generation of ISA's is of particular relevance to the disposal of these wastes since they are able to form complexes with radioelements such as Pu enhancing their migration. This study demonstrates that microbial communities present in near-surface anoxic sediments are able to degrade CDP including both forms of ISA via iron reduction, sulphate reduction and methanogenesis, without any prior exposure to these substrates. No significant difference (n?=?6, p?=?0.118) in ? and ? ISA degradation rates were seen under either iron reducing, sulphate reducing or methanogenic conditions, giving an overall mean degradation rate of 4.7×10?2 hr?1 (SE±2.9×10?3). These results suggest that a radioactive waste disposal site is likely to be colonised by organisms able to degrade CDP and associated ISA's during the construction and operational phase of the facility. PMID:25268118

  11. [Role of spot gene product in the degradation of pppGpp in bacteria].

    PubMed

    Belitski?, B R; Shakulov, R S

    1982-01-01

    In Baccillus subtilis cells, in contrast to Escherichia coli cells, chelating agent 1,10-phenanthroline induces the expansion of guanosine-5'-diphosphate,3'-diphosphate( (ppGpp) pool, as well as the pool of its precursor guanosine-5'-triphosphate,3'-diphosphate (pppGpp). Under these conditions the degradation rate of both nucleotides decreases greatly, which is the main cause of their accumulation in the cells. In E. coli phenanthroline inactivates the product of spoT gene, which is responsible for ppGpp degradation, as a result of combining Mn2+ ions necessary for the activity of this enzyme. The addition of Mn2+ ions to B. subtilis cells, treated with phenanthroline, leads to the decline in (p)ppGpp pools. Antibiotic tetracycline, which has the chelating properties at the concentration of 1 mg/ml, also inactivates spoT gene product in E. coli and slows down the decay of ppGpp, but not of pppGpp. The addition of high concentrations of tetracycline to B. subtilis cells leads to severe inhibition of the degradation of both nucleotides. Therefore in B. subtilis spoT gene product is involved in the degradation of pppGpp, as well as ppGpp. In E. coli cells with defective gpp gene product, taking part in the conversion of pppGpp to ppGpp, phenanthroline and tetracycline also inhibit the breakdown of both nucleotides. The similarity of B. subtilis and E. coli gpp cells in respect of spoT gene product functions and of enhanced pppGpp fraction in the total amount of guanosine polyphosphates during aminoacyl-tRNA limitation makes it plausible that in B. subtilis cells the product of gpp gene is missing or has low activity. PMID:6811860

  12. Method for determination of methyl tert-butyl ether and its degradation products in water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Church, C.D.; Isabelle, L.M.; Pankow, J.F.; Rose, D.L.; Tratnyek, P.G.

    1997-01-01

    An analytical method is described that can detect the major alkyl ether compounds that are used as gasoline oxygenates (methyl tert-butyl ether, MTBE; ethyl tert-butyl ether, ETBE; and tert-amyl methyl ether, TAME) and their most characteristic degradation products (tert-butyl alcohol, TBA; tert-butyl formate, TBF; and tert-amyl alcohol, TAA) in water at sub-ppb concentrations. The new method involves gas chromatography (GC) with direct aqueous injection (DAI) onto a polar column via a splitless injector, coupled with detection by mass spectrometry (MS). DAI-GC/MS gives excellent agreement with conventional purge-and-trap methods for MTBE over a wide range of environmentally relevant concentrations. The new method can also give simultaneous identification of polar compounds that might occur as degradation products of gasoline oxygenates, such as TBA, TBF, TAA, methyl acetate, and acetone. When the method was applied to effluent from a column microcosm prepared with core material from an urban site in New Jersey, conversion of MTBE to TBA was observed after a lag period of 35 days. However, to date, analyses of water samples from six field sites using the DAI-GC/MS method have not produced evidence for the expected products of in situ degradation of MTBE.An analytical method is described that can detect the major alkyl ether compounds that are used as gasoline oxygenates (methyl tert-butyl ether, MTBE; ethyl tert-butyl ether, ETBE; and tert-amyl methyl ether, TAME) and their most characteristic degradation products (tert-butyl alcohol, TBA; tert-butyl formate, TBF; and tert-amyl alcohol, TAA) in water at sub-ppb concentrations. The new method involves gas chromatography (GC) with direct aqueous injection (DAI) onto a polar column via a splitless injector, coupled with detection by mass spectrometry (MS). DAI-GC/MS gives excellent agreement with conventional purge-and-trap methods for MTBE over a wide range of environmentally relevant concentrations. The new method can also give simultaneous identification of polar compounds that might occur as degradation products of gasoline oxygenates, such as TBA, TBF, TAA, methyl acetate, and acetone. When the method was applied to effluent from a column microcosm prepared with core material from an urban site in New Jersey, conversion of MTBE to TBA was observed after a lag period of 35 days. However, to date, analyses of water samples from six field sites using the DAI-GC/MS method have not produced evidence for the expected products of in situ degradation of MTBE.

  13. Biodegradation of organophosphorus pesticides by soil bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Pasquale, C.; Fodale, R.; Lo Piccolo, L.; Palazzolo, E.; Alonzo, G.; Quatrini, P.

    2009-04-01

    A number of studies in the 1980s and 1990s showed that crop-protection products, applied to drained fields, could move downwards through the soil profile and to the groundwater. Organophosphorus insecticides (OPs) are used all over the world for crop protection, for other agricultural practices such as sheep dipping and, in aquaculture, for the control of sea lice. Ops besides showing a specific neurotoxicity and have also been related to various modern diseases, including Creutzfeldt-Jakob (CJD) and the Gulf War syndrome. Although OPs are less persistent than Organoclorine pesticides (OCs), they still constitute an environmental risks thus increasing the social concern about their levels in soils, surface waters, and ground waters. Degradation of OPs by microorganisms has been assessed for a few bacterial strains. In the present study the OPs degrading potential of indigenous soil microorganisms was investigated. Using enrichment cultures in which parathion was the only C and energy sources many bacterial strains were isolated from OPs contaminated and pristine agricultural soils characterized by different physico-chemical properties. More than 40 potential OPs degraders were isolated and grouped in operational taxonomic units (OTU) using analysis of polymorphism showed by the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS). Partial sequencing of 16S rRNA gene of representative isolates of each OTU revealed that most of them belong to Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria. All the analyzed soils showed the presence of putative OPs degraders: the highest diversity was found in organic cultivated soils, the lowest in chemically cultivated soils. Degradation of different OPs, characterized by different physical and chemical properties, was obtained by different selected representative strains using SPME GC-MS analysis on water and soil microcosms. The results showed that, after the incubation period, the amount of pesticide residues were in the range 20-80%. Some of the isolates bacterial species are currently unknown as OPs degraders.

  14. Development of Phage Immuno-Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assays for Organophosphorus Pesticides in Agro-products

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Two immuno-loop-mediated isothermal amplification assays (iLAMP) were developed by using a phage-borne peptide that was isolated from a cyclic eight-peptide phage library. One assay was used to screen eight organophosphorus (OP) pesticides with limits of detection (LOD) between 2 and 128 ng mL–1. The iLAMP consisted of the competitive immuno-reaction coupled to the LAMP reaction for detection. This method provides positive results in the visual color of violet, while a negative response results in a sky blue color; therefore, the iLAMP allows one to rapidly detect analytes in yes or no fashion. We validated the iLAMP by detecting parathion-methyl, parathion, and fenitrothion in Chinese cabbage, apple, and greengrocery, and the detection results were consistent with the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In conclusion, the iLAMP is a simple, rapid, sensitive, and economical method for detecting OP pesticide residues in agro-products with no instrumental requirement. PMID:25135320

  15. Development of phage immuno-loop-mediated isothermal amplification assays for organophosphorus pesticides in agro-products.

    PubMed

    Hua, Xiude; Yin, Wei; Shi, Haiyan; Li, Ming; Wang, Yanru; Wang, Hong; Ye, Yonghao; Kim, Hee Joo; Gee, Shirley J; Wang, Minghua; Liu, Fengquan; Hammock, Bruce D

    2014-08-19

    Two immuno-loop-mediated isothermal amplification assays (iLAMP) were developed by using a phage-borne peptide that was isolated from a cyclic eight-peptide phage library. One assay was used to screen eight organophosphorus (OP) pesticides with limits of detection (LOD) between 2 and 128 ng mL(-1). The iLAMP consisted of the competitive immuno-reaction coupled to the LAMP reaction for detection. This method provides positive results in the visual color of violet, while a negative response results in a sky blue color; therefore, the iLAMP allows one to rapidly detect analytes in yes or no fashion. We validated the iLAMP by detecting parathion-methyl, parathion, and fenitrothion in Chinese cabbage, apple, and greengrocery, and the detection results were consistent with the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In conclusion, the iLAMP is a simple, rapid, sensitive, and economical method for detecting OP pesticide residues in agro-products with no instrumental requirement. PMID:25135320

  16. Emerging contaminants (pharmaceuticals, personal care products, a food additive and pesticides) in waters of Sydney estuary, Australia.

    PubMed

    Birch, G F; Drage, D S; Thompson, K; Eaglesham, G; Mueller, J F

    2015-08-15

    The current investigation of marine water from 30 sites adjacent to stormwater outlets across the entire Sydney estuary is the first such research in Australia. The number of analytes detected were: 8/59 pharmaceutical compounds (codeine, paracetamol, tramadol, venlafaxine, propranolol, fluoxetine, iopromide and carbamazepine), 7/38 of the pesticides (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 3,4-dichloroaniline, carbaryl, diuron, 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA), mecoprop and simazine) and 0/3 of the personal care products (PCPs) analysed. An artificial sweetener (acesulfame) was detected, however none of the nine antibiotics analysed were identified. Sewage water is not discharged to this estuary, except infrequently as overflow during high-precipitation events. The presence of acesulfame (a recognised marker of domestic wastewater) and pharmaceuticals in water from all parts of the estuary after a dry period, suggests sewage water is leaking into the stormwater system in this catchment. The pesticides are applied to the environment and were discharged via stormwater to the estuary. PMID:26130525

  17. Relative toxicity and occurrence patterns of pesticide mixtures in streams draining agricultural watersheds dominated by corn and soybean production.

    PubMed

    Belden, Jason B; Gilliom, Robert J; Martin, Jeffrey D; Lydy, Michael J

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the relative toxicity and the occurrence patterns of pesticide mixtures in streams draining agricultural watersheds, a 3-step approach was used. First, a landscape of interest was identified, defined, and isolated. Second, the relative toxicity of mixtures, on the basis of pesticide toxicity index scores, was compared with the relative toxicity of the highest individual pesticide, on the basis of highest toxicity quotient values. Third, occurrence patterns of pesticide mixtures were identified for use in follow-up mechanistic studies. The landscape of interest was identified as the corn and soybeans crop setting and concentrations of pesticides in streams within this crop setting were determined from US Geological Survey data. Pesticide toxicity index scores for individual samples were highest for the primary producers, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and Lemna gibba; with 95th percentile pesticide toxicity index scores of 4.7 and 1.9, respectively. The 95th percentile pesticide toxicity index score for Daphnia magna was 0.40 when a chronic sublethal endpoint was used. Pesticide toxicity index values were above the highest toxicity quotient values, indicating that consideration of mixtures does increase the estimated risk, but pesticide toxicity index scores were generally within a factor of 2 of highest toxicity quotient values, indicating that the increased risk is not large for most samples. Pesticide toxicity index scores tended to be dominated by individual pesticides and simple mixtures. Two different prioritization strategies were used to identify important mixtures for further study on the basis of potential effects on P. subcapitata. Both techniques decreased the complexity of the pesticide mixtures to consider by reducing the number of components within the identified mixtures as well as identifying a few specific combinations that constitute the majority of mixtures within the sample. Nearly all important pesticides for P. subcapitata were herbicides from 2 chemical classes: acetanilide and triazine herbicides. PMID:17283598

  18. Photo-assisted electrochemical detection (PAED) following HPLC-UV for the determination of nitro explosives and degradation products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorowski, J.; LaCourse, William R.; Lorah, Michelle M.

    2012-06-01

    Continuous efforts implemented by government agencies such as the United States Geological Survey (USGS) aim to manage and protect the integrity of the environment's natural resources. RDX is one of the most frequently utilized nitramine explosives for mining, demolition and munitions purposes in the United States (US). The degradation of RDX in natural environments is of particular importance as a result of the accumulation of consequential degradation products in nature. Specifically, RDX has the potential to be degraded by microorganisms resulting in hazardous levels of harmful degradation products in soil and groundwater. The necessity for the detection of these particular degradation products is emphasized as a consequence of their toxicity as these products are recognized as potential mutagens. Photo-assisted electrochemical detection (PAED) following HPLC-UV is used to develop an analytical method qualified for the assessment of RDX and degradation products. The technique offers unique selectivity possessed by the photochemical reactor coupled to EC detection serving to eliminate the need for repetitive analysis using different column technologies. Furthermore, on-line sample pretreatment is developed and optimized specifically for the preparation of samples consisting of RDX and degradation products. Analytical figures of merit determined for all target analytes using on-line SPE-HPLC-UV-PAED revealed detection limits in the sub part per billion range for RDX and degradation product MEDINA. The effectiveness of the method is exemplified in collaborative studies with the USGS in monitoring the degradation of RDX and formation of degradation products once the nitro explosive is subject to anaerobic microorganisms WBC-2.

  19. The dioxin/POPs legacy of pesticide production in Hamburg: part 2--waste deposits and remediation of Georgswerder landfill.

    PubMed

    Götz, Rainer; Sokollek, Volker; Weber, Roland

    2013-04-01

    ?-HCH, ?-HCH, and ?-HCH (lindane) were listed as persistent organic pollutants in the Stockholm Convention. Therefore, they need to be globally addressed including the wastes remaining from historic use and production. While at most lindane production sites the unintentionally produced 85% HCH waste isomers have been deposited, at a former pesticide factory in Hamburg-Moorfleet HCH waste isomers have been recycled from 1953 to 1984 by thermal decomposition to chlorobenzenes and resulted in high polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDD/PCDF)-contaminated residues. The management of the PCDD/PCDF-contaminated waste from the former pesticide factory in Hamburg has been assessed and quantified. Based on past accredited PCDD/PCDF measurements, the registered 3,700 tonnes of disposed thermal HCH decomposition residue contained 333 to 854 kg of PCDD/PCDF toxicity equivalent (I-TEQ) in 53-102 tonnes total sum of PCDD/PCDF. The wastes have been deposited together with other wastes in landfills in Hamburg and other parts of Germany. For the Georgswerder landfill (Hamburg), where approximately 50% of the PCDD/PCDF is disposed, current and previous situation and remediation activities are described. While PCDD/PCDF leaching from the landfill is controlled and incinerated, more water soluble organochlorines (vinyl chloride, cis-1,2-dichlorethene, chlorobenzenes) and benzene remain as a challenge for groundwater management. A comprehensive aftercare program has been established and will need to be operated by future generations including renewal of containment systems. Former lindane/HCH productions need-in addition to HCH deposits-to be assessed for possible recycling practice of HCH and related PCDD/PCDF-containing deposits. This could systematically be addressed within the Stockholm Convention implementation. PMID:22777611

  20. [A rapid multi-residual analysis for organophosphorus pesticides in the products of animal origin using gas chromatography coupled with accelerated solvent extraction and gel permeation chromatographic purification].

    PubMed

    Wu, Gang; Bao, Xiaoxia; Wang, Huaxiong; Yu, Chunyan; Wu, Huiming; Ye, Qingfu

    2008-09-01

    A rapid method has been developed to determine the multi-residues of 36 organophosphorus pesticides in the products of animal origin using capillary gas chromatography with flame photometric detector (GC-FPD (P)). The organophosphorus pesticides were extracted with acetonitrile by accelerated solvent extraction, and cleaned up by auto gel permeation chromatography and primary secondary amine (PSA) packing material. The collected solution was analyzed by the GC-FPD (P) and quantified by internal standard method. The 36 organophosphorus pesticides were separated efficiently from impurity in high sensitivity and reproducibility by GC-FPD (P). The limits of detection (LODs) ranged from 0.0012 mg/kg (phorate) to 0.014 mg/kg (pyraclofos), and the limits of quantitation (LOQs) ranged from 0.004 mg/kg (phorate) to 0.047 mg/kg (pyraclofos). The recoveries ranged from 58.2% to 106.3% in blank samples spiked with 0.05, 0.1 and 0.2 mg/kg of 36 organophosphorus pesticides. The LODs, LOQs and the recoveries of the method all satisfy the requirement of pesticide residue analysis. PMID:19160756

  1. Bacterial degradation of monocyclic aromatic amines

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Pankaj K.

    2015-01-01

    Aromatic amines are an important group of industrial chemicals, which are widely used for manufacturing of dyes, pesticides, drugs, pigments, and other industrial products. These compounds have been considered highly toxic to human beings due to their carcinogenic nature. Three groups of aromatic amines have been recognized: monocyclic, polycyclic, and heterocyclic aromatic amines. Bacterial degradation of several monocyclic aromatic amines has been studied in a variety of bacteria, which utilizes monocyclic aromatic amines as their sole source of carbon and energy. Several degradation pathways have been proposed and the related enzymes and genes have also been characterized. Many reviews have been reviewed toxicity of monocyclic aromatic amines; however, there is lack of review on biodegradation of monocyclic aromatic amines. The aim of this review is to summarize bacterial degradation of monocyclic aromatic amines. This review will increase our current understanding of biochemical and molecular basis of bacterial degradation of monocyclic aromatic amines. PMID:26347719

  2. Photochemical fate and photocatalysis of 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol, degradation product of chlorpyrifos.

    PubMed

    Žabar, Romina; Sarakha, Mohamed; Lebedev, Albert T; Polyakova, Olga V; Trebše, Polonca

    2016-02-01

    In this study we have focused on 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP), degradation product of chlorpyrifos. Photolysis experiments were conducted in order to elucidate its degradation mechanism. Identification of products was performed using the LC-MS technique. To evaluate the mineralization efficiency, TiO2 photocatalytic study was performed. Under photolytic experimental conditions, the concentration of TCP after 120 min of irradiation reached 5.9 ± 1.5% of the initial concentration, while chloride concentration reached approximately 73% of total chloride concentration. The TOC measurements after 120 min of photocatalytic degradation experiment revealed high mineralization rate, i.e. 53.6 ± 1.9%, while chloride concentration reached 26.6 mg L(-1) what means almost quantitative transformation of organic chlorine into chloride. TIC chromatogram (ESI, negative ion mode) of the reaction mixture after 30 min of irradiation revealed the presence of several peaks. One of them has already been reported previously. Two other products have been identified in this study for the first time. They have been formed by radical attack of the reactive OH(•) species on the carbonyl group followed by the corresponding N-C or C-C bond cleavages and recyclization with formation of the pyrrol structures substituted with carboxylic groups. Both deprotonated molecules easily lose CO2 in ESI conditions. PMID:26398927

  3. Determination of pesticide residues in fruit-based soft drinks.

    PubMed

    García-Reyes, Juan F; Gilbert-López, Bienvenida; Molina-Díaz, Antonio; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R

    2008-12-01

    Here we report the first worldwide reconnaissance study of the presence and occurrence of pesticides in fruit-based soft drinks. While there are strict regulations and exhaustive controls for pesticides in fruits, vegetables, and drinking water, scarce attention has been paid to highly consumed derivate products, which may contain these commodities as ingredients. In the case of the fruit-based soft drinks industry, there are no clear regulations, relating to pesticides, which address them, even when there is significant consumption in vulnerable groups such as children. In this work, we have developed a screening method to search automatically for up to 100 pesticides in fruit-based soft drinks extracts based on the application of liquid chromatography-electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOF MS). The sample extracts injected were obtained by a preliminary sample treatment step based on solid-phase extraction using hydrophilic-lipophilic balanced polymer-based reverse phase cartridges and methanol as eluting solvent. Subsequent identification, confirmation, and quantitation were carried out by LC-TOF MS analysis: the confirmation of the target species was based on retention time matching and accurate mass measurements of protonated molecules ([M + H]+) and fragment ions (obtaining accuracy errors typically lower than 2 ppm). With the proposed method, we measured over 100 fruit-based soft drink samples, purchased from 15 different countries from companies with brands distributed worldwide and found relatively large concentration levels of pesticides in most of the samples analyzed. The concentration levels detected were of the micrograms per liter level, low when considering the European maximum residue levels (MRLs) set for fruits but very high (i.e., 300 times) when considering the MRLs for drinking or bottled water. The detected pesticides (carbendazim, thiabendazole, imazalil and its main degradate, prochloraz and its main degradate, malathion, and iprodione) are mainly those applied to crops in the final stages of production (postharvest treatment), some of them contain chlorine atoms in their structures. Therefore, steps should be taken with the aim of removing any traces of pesticides in these products, in order to avoid this source of pesticide exposure on the consumer, particularly on vulnerable groups with higher exposure, such as children. PMID:19551973

  4. Oxidative degradation study on antimicrobial agent ciprofloxacin by electro-Fenton process: kinetics and oxidation products.

    PubMed

    Yahya, Muna Sh; Oturan, Nihal; El Kacemi, Kacem; El Karbane, Miloud; Aravindakumar, C T; Oturan, Mehmet A

    2014-12-01

    Oxidative degradation of the antimicrobial agent ciprofloxacin hydrochloride (CIP) has been investigated using electro-Fenton (EF) treatment with a constant current in the range 60-500 mA. The process generates highly oxidant species OH in situ via electrochemically monitored Fenton reaction. The EF experiments were performed using cells with a carbon felt cathode and Pt anode. Effect of applied current and catalyst concentration on the kinetics of oxidative degradation and mineralization efficiency have been investigated. Degradation of CIP followed pseudo-first order reaction kinetics. The rate constant of the oxidation of CIP by OH has been determined to be (1.01 ± 0.14) × 10(10) M(-1) s(-1) by using competitive kinetics method. An optimum current of 400 mA and a catalyst concentration of Fe(2+) at 0.1mM are found to be optimal for an effective degradation of CIP under our operating conditions. A remarkably high degree of mineralization (>94%) was obtained at 6h of treatment under these conditions. A number of stable intermediate products have been identified using HPLC and LC-MS/MS analyses. Based on the identified reaction intermediates, a plausible reaction pathway was proposed for the mineralization process. The high degree of mineralization obtained in this work highlights the potential application of EF process in the efficient removal of fluoroquinolone based drugs in aqueous medium. PMID:25201488

  5. Degradation of synthetic dye, Rhodamine B to environmentally non-toxic products using microalgae.

    PubMed

    Baldev, E; MubarakAli, D; Ilavarasi, A; Pandiaraj, D; Ishack, K A Sheik Syed; Thajuddin, N

    2013-05-01

    In the present study a potential freshwater microalgae Coelastrella sp. was selected for degradation of synthetic dye, Rhodamine B in batch culture system. Effect of several physico-chemical parameters that influence the decolorization followed by degradation ability was investigated (inoculum concentration, initial dye concentration, temperature and pH) and optimal experimental condition was ascertained. The optimum operating conditions were found to be [Dye]=100 mg l(-1); [temperature]=30°C; with 10% of inoculum at a pH of 8. Under these conditions, a maximum of 80% decolorization of the dye was achieved in 20 days. Peroxidase activity of the isolate was also determined and it was found to be 2.1 ?mol min mg(-1) of protein. The actual break down of the dye was confirmed by using various analytical techniques such as GC-MS, TLC, FTIR and UV-vis spectral analysis. Small aliphatic chains, small chain alcohols and ketones were obtained after degradation of Rhodamine B. These are the evidences that showed that microalgae play a vital role on dye degradation to non-toxic products effectively. PMID:23376747

  6. 75 FR 5522 - Spiromesifen; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-03

    ...a practical solubility of 40 to 50 [micro]g/L. The pesticide degrades primarily through aerobic soil metabolism and hydrolysis; however, in clear shallow water it will readily undergo photolysis. Field studies indicate that spiromesifen...

  7. Formation of 2-chlorobenzylidenemalononitrile (CS riot control agent) thermal degradation products at elevated temperatures.

    PubMed

    Kluchinsky, Timothy A; Sheely, Michael V; Savage, Paul B; Smith, Philip A

    2002-04-01

    2-Chlorobenzylidenemalononitrile (CS riot control agent) has been shown to produce a number of thermal degradation products when dispersed at high temperature. We hypothesized that these CS-derived compounds are formed by energy input from heating during the dispersion process. Here we identified organic CS-derived compounds formed from purified CS subjected to temperatures ranging from 300 to 900 degrees C in an inert atmosphere with analysis of tube furnace effluent by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. We conclude that the production of many CS-derived compounds previously observed during high-temperature dispersion is likely to be heat related. PMID:12064532

  8. Study of degradation intermediates formed during electrochemical oxidation of pesticide residue 2,6-dichlorobenzamide (BAM) at boron doped diamond (BDD) and platinum-iridium anodes.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Henrik Tækker; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen; Muff, Jens

    2014-08-01

    Electrochemical oxidation is a promising technique for degradation of otherwise recalcitrant organic micropollutants in waters. In this study, the applicability of electrochemical oxidation was investigated concerning the degradation of the groundwater pollutant 2,6-dichlorobenzamide (BAM) through the electrochemical oxygen transfer process with two anode materials: Ti/Pt90-Ir10 and boron doped diamond (Si/BDD). Besides the efficiency of the degradation of the main pollutant, it is also of outmost importance to control the formation and fate of stable degradation intermediates. These were investigated quantitatively with HPLC-MS and TOC measurements and qualitatively with a combined HPLC-UV and HPLC-MS protocol. 2,6-Dichlorobenzamide was found to be degraded most efficiently by the BDD cell, which also resulted in significantly lower amounts of intermediates formed during the process. The anodic degradation pathway was found to occur via substitution of hydroxyl groups until ring cleavage leading to carboxylic acids. For the BDD cell, there was a parallel cathodic degradation pathway that occurred via dechlorination. The combination of TOC with the combined HPLC-UV/MS was found to be a powerful method for determining the amount and nature of degradation intermediates. PMID:24873711

  9. The identification of degradation products and degradation pathway of malvidin-3-glucoside and malvidin-3,5-diglucoside under microwave treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mengyao; Luo, Yinghua; Li, Yuan; Liu, Xin; Wu, Jihong; Liao, Xiaojun; Chen, Fang

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the degradation of anthocyanins (Acys) during microwave treatment is required for the application of this novel technology to fruit and vegetable processing. The pH 3.5 buffer solutions containing 50mg/l malvidin-3-glucoside (Mv-3-glu) and malvidin-3,5-diglucoside (Mv-3,5-diglu), respectively, were treated with microwaves at 700 W. In comparison, the samples were heated at 98±2 °C in a water bath. In total, nine degradation products were detected (using LC-UV/Vis-MS/MS) for each Acys after microwave treatment. Anthocyanone A, hydroxycoumarins and dihydroxy phenylacetaldehyde were characterised as the main degradation products of both Acys under microwave conditions, which were not detected in the thermal treatment. In addition, syringic acid, 2,4,6-trihydroxybenzaldehyde, coumarin glucosides and 2,6-dimethoxyphenol were found simultaneously under the microwave and thermal treatments. During the microwave treatment, hydrogen peroxide was formed and resulted in the Baeyer-Villiger-type oxidation of the Acys, which was the main degradation pathway. At the same time, the conventional thermal degradation pathway of Acys also occurred. PMID:23871085

  10. Forced degradation of fingolimod: Effect of co-solvent and characterization of degradation products by UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS and (1)H NMR.

    PubMed

    Patel, Prinesh N; Kalariya, Pradipbhai D; Gananadhamu, S; Srinivas, R

    2015-11-10

    Fingolimod (FGL), an immunomodulator drug for treating multiple sclerosis, was subjected to hydrolysis (acidic, alkaline and neutral), oxidation, photolysis and thermal stress, as per International Conference on Harmonization specified conditions. The drug showed extensive degradation under base hydrolysis, however, it was stable under all other conditions. A total of three degradation products (DPs) were observed. The chromatographic separation of the drug and its degradation products was achieved on a Fortis C18 (100×2.1mm, 1.7?m) column with a mobile phase composed of 0.1% formic acid (Solvent A) and acetonitrile (Solvent B) in gradient mode. All the DPs were identified and characterized by liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight-mass spectrometry (LC-Q-TOF-MS) in combination with accurate mass measurements. The major DP was isolated and characterized by Nuclear Magnetic resonance spectroscopy. This is a typical case of degradation where acetonitrile used as co-solvent in stress studies, reacts with FGL in base hydrolytic conditions to produce acetylated DPs. Hence, it can be suggested that acetonitrile is not preferable as a co-solvent for stress degradation of FGL. The developed UHPLC method was validated as per ICH guidelines. PMID:26279369

  11. A stability indicating HPLC method for determination of mebeverine in the presence of its degradation products and kinetic study of its degradation in oxidative condition

    PubMed Central

    Souri, E.; Aghdami, A. Negahban; Adib, N.

    2014-01-01

    An HPLC method for determination of mebeverine hydrochloride (MH) in the presence of its degradation products was developed. The degradation of MH was studied under hydrolysis, oxidative and photolysis stress conditions. Under alkaline, acidic and oxidative conditions, degradation of MH was observed. The separation was performed using a Symmetry C18 column and a mixture of 50 mM KH2PO4, acetonitrile and tetrahydrfuran (THF) (63:35:2; v/v/v) as the mobile phase. No interference peaks from degradation products in acidic, alkaline and oxidative conditions were observed. The linearity, accuracy and precision of the method were studied. The method was linear over the range of 1-100 ?g/ml MH (r2>0.999) and the CV values for intra-day and inter-day variations were in the range of 1.0-1.8%. The limit of quantification (LOQ) and the limit of detection (LOD) of the method were 1.0 and 0.2 ?g/ml, respectively. Determination of MH in pharmaceutical dosage forms was performed using the developed method. Furthermore the kinetics of the degradation of MH in the presence of hydrogen peroxide was investigated. The proposed method could be a suitable method for routine quality control studies of mebeverine dosage forms. PMID:25657790

  12. Photocatalytic and photoelectrocatalytic degradation of the drug omeprazole on nanocrystalline titania films in alkaline media: Effect of applied electrical bias on degradation and transformation products.

    PubMed

    Tantis, Iosif; Bousiakou, Leda; Frontistis, Zacharias; Mantzavinos, Dionissios; Konstantinou, Ioannis; Antonopoulou, Maria; Karikas, George-Albert; Lianos, Panagiotis

    2015-08-30

    Photocatalytic and photoelectrocatalytic degradation of the drug omeprazole has been studied in the presence of nanocrystalline titania films supported on glass slides or transparent FTO electrodes in alkaline environment. Its photocatalytic degradation rate was assessed by its UV absorbance and by HPLC, while its transformation products were analyzed by HR-LC-MS. Based on UV absorbance, omeprazole can be photocatalytically degraded at an average rate of 6.7×10(-4)min(-1) under low intensity UVA irradiation of 1.5mWcm(-2) in the presence of a nanoparticulate titania film. This corresponds to degradation of 1.4mg of omeprazole per gram of the photocatalyst per liter of solution per hour. The photodegradation rate can be accelerated in a photoelectrochemical cell by applying a forward bias. In this case, the maximum rate reached under the present conditions was 11.6×10(-4)min(-1) by applying a forward bias of +0.6V vs. Ag/AgCl. Four major transformation products were successfully identified and their profiles were followed by HR-LC-MS. The major degradation path includes the scission of the sulfoxide bridge into the corresponding pyridine and benzimidazole ring derivates and this is accompanied by the release of sulfate anions in the reaction mixture. PMID:25855613

  13. Impact of Heme and Heme Degradation Products on Vascular Diameter in Mouse Visual Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Joerk, Alexander; Seidel, Raphael Andreas; Walter, Sebastian Gottfried; Wiegand, Anne; Kahnes, Marcel; Klopfleisch, Maurice; Kirmse, Knut; Pohnert, Georg; Westerhausen, Matthias; Witte, Otto Wilhelm; Holthoff, Knut

    2014-01-01

    Background Delayed cerebral vasospasm is the most common cause of mortality and severe neurological impairment in patients who survive subarachnoid hemorrhage. Despite improvements in the field of diagnostic imaging, options for prevention and medical treatment—primarily with the calcium channel antagonist nimodipine or hemodynamic manipulations—are insufficient. Previous studies have suggested that heme and bilirubin oxidation end products, originating from degraded hemoglobin around ruptured blood vessels, are involved in the development of vasospasm by inhibiting large conductance BKCa potassium channels in vascular smooth muscle cells. In this study, we identify individual heme degradation products regulating arteriolar diameter in dependence of BKCa channel activity. Methods and Results Using differential interference contrast video microscopy in acute brain slices, we determined diameter changes of intracerebral arterioles in mouse visual cortex. In preconstricted vessels, the specific BKCa channel blockers paxilline and iberiotoxin as well as iron?containing hemin caused vasoconstriction. In addition, the bilirubin oxidation end product Z?BOX A showed a stronger vasoconstrictive potency than its regio?isomer Z?BOX B. Importantly, Z?BOX A had the same vasoconstrictive effect, independent of its origin from oxidative degradation or chemical synthesis. Finally, in slices of Slo1?deficient knockout mice, paxilline and Z?BOX A remained ineffective in changing arteriole diameter. Conclusions We identified individual components of the oxidative bilirubin degradation that led to vasoconstriction of cerebral arterioles. The vasoconstrictive effect of Z?BOX A and Z?BOX B was mediated by BKCa channel activity that might represent a signaling pathway in the occurrence of delayed cerebral vasospasm in subarachnoid hemorrhage patients. PMID:25169792

  14. Stability-indicating determination of rebamipide in the presence of its acid degradation products.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Samah S; Zaazaa, Hala E; Essam, Hebat Allah M; El-Bardicy, Mohammed G

    2014-01-01

    Four sensitive and precise stability-indicating methods for the determination of rebamipide (REB) in the presence of its acid-degradation products and in a pharmaceutical formulation were developed and validated. Method A used the first derivative of the ratio spectra (1DD) spectrophotometric method by measuring the peak amplitude at 249.4 nm (maximum) and at 259 nm (minimum), and at the total peak amplitude (from 249.4 to 259 nm, 1DD(249.4 + 259 nm)) in the range of 2-14 microg/mL. This method yielded mean recoveries of 99.87 +/- 0.83, 100.04 +/- 0.75, and 100.28 +/- 1.11%, respectively. Method B is a dual wavelength method, which allows the determination of REB in presence of its acid-degradation products by measuring the absorbance difference between 254 and 269 nm within a linearity range of 5-65 microg/mL; it showed a mean recovery of 99.84 +/- 1.06. Method C is a TLC-densitometric procedure in which REB was separated from its degradation products using a developing solution of methanol-chloroform-ammonia (8.5 + 1.5 + 0.5, v/v/v). The quantitative evaluation of REB at 329 nm was linear over the concentration range of 0.50-4.5 microg/band, with a mean recovery of 99.49 +/- 0.99% even in the presence of up to 90% degradation products. Method D is an RP-HPLC procedure. It provided the complete separation of REB from its degradation products on an Xterra C18 column using phosphate buffer (pH 6, 0.01 M)-methanol (1 + 1, v/v) as the mobile phase (UV detection at 254 nm). Recovery was 99.28 +/- 0.78% within the range of 10-190 microg/mL. The selectivity of the proposed methods was checked using laboratory-prepared mixtures. The proposed methods have been successfully applied to the analysis of REB in pharmaceutical dosage forms without interference from other dosage form excipients. PMID:24672862

  15. Characterisation and comparison of the uptake of ionizable and polar pesticides, pharmaceuticals and personal care products by POCIS and Chemcatchers.

    PubMed

    Kaserzon, S L; Hawker, D W; Kennedy, K; Bartkow, M; Carter, S; Booij, K; Mueller, J F

    2014-11-01

    Growing concern about the environmental impact of ionizable and polar organic chemicals such as pesticides, pharmaceuticals and personal care products has lead to the inclusion of some in legislative and regulatory frameworks. It is expected that future monitoring requirements for these chemicals in aquatic environments will increase, along with the need for low cost monitoring and risk assessment strategies. In this study the uptake of 13 neutral and 6 ionizable pesticides, pharmaceuticals and personal care products by modified POCIS (with Strata™-X sorbent) and Chemcatchers™ (SDB-RPS or SDB-XC) was investigated under controlled conditions at pH = 6.5 for 26 days. The modified POCIS and Chemcatcher™ (SDB-RPS) samplers exhibited similar performance with the uptake of the majority of the 19 chemicals of interest categorised as linear over the 26 day deployment. Only a few ionized herbicides (picloram and dicamba) and triclosan showed negligible accumulation. Chemcatcher™ with SDB-XC sorbent performed relatively poorly with only carbamazepine having a linear accumulation profile, and 8 compounds showing no measurable accumulation. Differences in the uptake behavior of chemicals were not easily explained by their physico-chemical properties, strengthening the requirement for detailed calibration data. PES membranes accumulated significant amount of some compounds (i.e. triclosan and diuron), even after extended deployment (i.e. 26 days). At present there is no way to predict which compounds will demonstrate this behavior. Increasing membrane pore size from 0.2 to 0.45 ?m for Chemcatcher™ (SBD-RPS) caused an average increase in Rs of 24%. PMID:25208684

  16. Phosphorus, carbon- and nitrogen interactions in productive and degraded tropical pastures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberson, A.; Hegglin, D. D.; Nesper, M.; Rao, I.; Fonte, S.; Ramirez, B.; Velasquez, J.; Tamburini, F.; Bünemann, E. K.; Frossard, E.

    2011-12-01

    Pastures are the main land use in deforested areas of tropical South America. The highly weathered soils of these regions usually have low total and available phosphorus (P) contents. Low P availability can strongly limit plant and animal productivity and other soil ecosystem functions. Most introduced pastures of Brachiaria spp. are grass-alone (GA) while some are grass-legume (GL) pastures. The majority of the introduced pastures, particularly the grass-alone are at some state of degradation (GD). Pasture degradation induces severe loss of plant biomass production, with drastic ecological and economic implications. Although the importance of P deficiency in pasture degradation has been recognized, the knowledge generated on stoichiometry of carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and P along pathways of the nutrient cycles of pastures, with different botanical composition and productivity, has been very limited. We will present results of a case study realized during 2010 to 2011 in the forest margins agro-ecosystem of the department of Caquetá, Colombia. Our objectives were to determine: i) whether P availability is lower in degraded compared to productive pastures, and ii) whether the introduction of legumes in the pasture increases P availability through enhanced biological P cycling through plant growth, plant litter decomposition and the soil microbial biomass; and iii) whether pasture types (GA vs GL) and the state of pasture degradation affect the C:N:P ratios in nutrient pools of the soil-plant system. An on-farm study was conducted on nine farms in the department of Caquetá, Colombia. On every farm three different pasture types were studied: degraded grass alone pastures (GD), productive grass-alone pastures (GA) and productive grass-legume pastures (GL). Basic soil characteristics and indicators on soil P status, microbial P cycling, plant biomass production, plant litter deposition and nutrient concentrations in plant tissue were determined. Analysis of P, C and N in the microbial biomass, particulate organic matter and soil aggregates is in progress. Results showed that plant biomass production, litter deposition, soil organic P and basal soil respiration rate were significantly lower in GD than GA pastures. Moreover, clear trends towards lower total C, N, total P and microbial P per unit soil mass and higher Al saturation were observed in soils of GD compared to GA pastures while available soil P content and P concentration in plant biomass did not differ. No significant differences were found in any of the measured soil parameters between the two productive pasture types, GA and GL, but legume biomass has significantly higher N concentration and tends to have higher P concentration than grasses. 15-N natural abundance data indicated that legume N was largely derived from symbiotic N2 fixation. Biological P cycling was clearly reduced in GD compared to productive GA and GL pastures. This work highlights the importance of biological P cycling for developing sustainable pastoral systems and provides new knowledge on interactions of P with C and N.

  17. Pesticide Residues in Food: Your Daily Dose.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mott, Lawrie

    1985-01-01

    Extensive use of pesticides during food production has created concerns for certain involuntary risks. Examines these concerns: government role in control and monitoring pesticide use, proposals for reform, and how consumer awareness might be an effective pressure for finding remedies. A table listing produce and pesticide residues is included.…

  18. Products from the incomplete metabolism of pyrene by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Kazunga, C.; Aitken, M.D.

    2000-05-01

    Pyrene is a regulated pollutant at sites contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). It is mineralized by some bacteria but is also transformed to nonmineral products by a variety of other PAH-degrading bacteria. The authors examined the formation of such products by four bacterial strains and identified and further characterized the most apparently significant of these metabolites. Pseudomonas stutzeri strain P16 and Bacillus cereus strain P21 transformed pyrene primarily to cis-4,5-dihydro-4,5-dihydroxypyrene (PYRdHD), the first intermediate in the known pathway for aerobic bacterial mineralization of pyrene. Sphingomonas yanoikuyae strain R1 transformed pyrene to PYRdHD and pyrene-4,5-dione (PYRQ). Both strain R1 and Pseudomonas saccharophila strain P15 transform PYRdHD to PYRQ nearly stoichiometrically, suggesting that PYRQ is formed by oxidation of PYRdHD to 4,5-dihydroxypyrene and subsequent autoxidation of this metabolite. A pyrene-mineralizing organism, Mycobacterium strain PYR-1, also transforms PYRdHD to PYRQ at high initial concentrations of PYRdHD. However, strain PYR-1 is able to use both PYRdHD and PYRQ as growth substrates. PYRdHD strongly inhibited phenanthrene degradation by strains P15 and R1 but had only a minor effect on strains P16 and P21. At their aqueous saturation concentrations, both PYRdHD and PYRQ severely inhibited benzo[a]pyrene mineralization by strains P15 and R1. Collectively, these findings suggest that products derived from pyrene transformation have the potential to accumulate in PAH-contaminated systems and that such products can significantly influence the removal of other PAH. However, these products may be susceptible to subsequent degradation by organisms able to metabolize pyrene more extensively if such organisms are present in the system.

  19. Products from the Incomplete Metabolism of Pyrene by Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon-Degrading Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Kazunga, Chikoma; Aitken, Michael D.

    2000-01-01

    Pyrene is a regulated pollutant at sites contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). It is mineralized by some bacteria but is also transformed to nonmineral products by a variety of other PAH-degrading bacteria. We examined the formation of such products by four bacterial strains and identified and further characterized the most apparently significant of these metabolites. Pseudomonas stutzeri strain P16 and Bacillus cereus strain P21 transformed pyrene primarily to cis-4,5-dihydro-4,5-dihydroxypyrene (PYRdHD), the first intermediate in the known pathway for aerobic bacterial mineralization of pyrene. Sphingomonas yanoikuyae strain R1 transformed pyrene to PYRdHD and pyrene-4,5-dione (PYRQ). Both strain R1 and Pseudomonas saccharophila strain P15 transform PYRdHD to PYRQ nearly stoichiometrically, suggesting that PYRQ is formed by oxidation of PYRdHD to 4,5-dihydroxypyrene and subsequent autoxidation of this metabolite. A pyrene-mineralizing organism, Mycobacterium strain PYR-1, also transforms PYRdHD to PYRQ at high initial concentrations of PYRdHD. However, strain PYR-1 is able to use both PYRdHD and PYRQ as growth substrates. PYRdHD strongly inhibited phenanthrene degradation by strains P15 and R1 but had only a minor effect on strains P16 and P21. At their aqueous saturation concentrations, both PYRdHD and PYRQ severely inhibited benzo[a]pyrene mineralization by strains P15 and R1. Collectively, these findings suggest that products derived from pyrene transformation have the potential to accumulate in PAH-contaminated systems and that such products can significantly influence the removal of other PAH. However, these products may be susceptible to subsequent degradation by organisms able to metabolize pyrene more extensively if such organisms are present in the system. PMID:10788360

  20. Concentrations of selected chlorinated pesticides in shrimp collected from the Calcasieu River/Lake Complex, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, H.E.; Beck, J.N. )

    1990-05-01

    For several decades inland and coastal aquatic ecosystems have been affected by a multitude of synthetic chemical substances. This is a consequence of population growth and increased industrial and agricultural activity. Many of these chemicals, the by-products of their production, and degradation products ultimately find their way into the aquatic environment as pollutants. The extent to which these pollutants affect the environment and its inhabitants depends largely upon the quantity and nature of the particular compounds involved. Halogenated hydrocarbons, particularly polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and the pesticide DDT and its degradation products have received much attention as environmental pollutants. Because of the economic importance of the shrimping industry to southwest Louisiana, the objective of this study was to analyze shrimp collected from the Calcasieu River/Lake Complex for the presence of selected chlorinated pesticides. The presence of these compounds within shrimp tissues would serve as an indicator for the extent of pollution throughout this important estuarine system.

  1. 9 CFR 318.16 - Pesticide chemicals and other residues in products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... for determining when ingredients of finished products are in compliance with this section shall be... byproduct, or other meat food product ingredients. Products, and products used as ingredients of...

  2. Lignin degradation, ligninolytic enzymes activities and exopolysaccharide production by Grifola frondosa strains cultivated on oak sawdust

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Nona A.; Isikhuemhen, Omoanghe S.; Ohimain, Elijah I.

    2011-01-01

    Fourteen strains of Grifola frondosa (Dicks.) S. F. Gray, originating from different regions (Asia, Europe and North America) were tested for lignin degradation, ligninolytic enzyme activities, protein accumulation and exopolysaccharide production during 55 days of cultivation on oak sawdust. Lignin degradation varied from 2.6 to7.1 % of dry weight of the oak sawdust substrate among tested strains. The loss of dry matter in all screened fungi varied between 11.7 and 33.0%, and the amount of crude protein in the dry substrate varied between 0.94 to 2.55%. The strain, MBFBL 596, had the highest laccase activity (703.3 U/l), and the maximum peroxidase activity of 22.6 U/l was shown by the strain MBFBL 684. Several tested strains (MBFBL 21, 638 and 662) appeared to be good producers of exopolysaccharides (3.5, 3.5 and 3.2 mg/ml respectively). PMID:24031728

  3. The degradation of oxytetracycline during thermal treatments of chicken and pig meat and the toxic effects of degradation products of oxytetracycline on rats.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, VanHue; Nguyen, VanToan; Li, ChunBao; Zhou, GuangHong

    2015-05-01

    The formation oxytetracycline (OTC) degradation products in chicken and pork under two different methods of cooking were studied. Samples of chicken and pig muscles previously dosed with OTC residues were subjected to boiling or microwave treatment, and the residues were extracted in a mixture of citrate buffer-MeOH (75:25 v/v), and then analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection using a XBridgeTM C18 reverse-phase chromatographic column. Thermal treatment resulted in the degradation of OTC and the concentrations of the degradation products ?-apo-oxytetracycline (?-apo-OTC) and ?-apo-oxytetracycline (?-apo-OTC) in muscle samples amounted to 0.7 to 1.2 % of the initial OTC content. The toxic effects of the degradation products of oxytetracycline, ?-apo-OTC and ?-apo-OTC were studied in rats. Male rats received oral doses of 10 mg/kg body weight/day of either ?-apo-OTC, ?-apo-OTC, 90 days. The results of this study suggest that the toxic effects of ?-apo-OTC treatment could damage liver and kidney tissues of rats, as well as lead to the degeneration and necrosis in the hepatocytes. PMID:25892782

  4. Contribution to the food products' analysis: A research and evaluation on the hemolytic effect of some pesticides used in Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Al-Alam, Josephine; Millet, Maurice; Chbani, Asma; Fajloun, Ziad

    2015-11-01

    Pesticides are a real concern for the society as their use has become critical, leading sometimes to their accumulation as residues in fruits and vegetables. After examining the pesticides sold in Northern Lebanon, this study is focused on the analysis and identification of pesticides residues in fruits and vegetables that are harvested in this region and treated with the locally sold pesticides. Results show: first, (i) a use of Zineb by the name of another pesticide Micronized Sulfur to avoid prosecution; (ii) a significant presence of Metalaxyl in lemons and oranges; (iii) a significant presence of Trifluralin in strawberries; and (iv) a significant presence of Zineb in lemons and tomatoes. Second, with the use of hemolytic tests on human blood results show: (i) a critical concentration and a significant hemolytic effect of some pesticides used in Lebanon; and (ii) an absence of hemolytic effect in the collected fractions of the different analyzed fruit extracts containing pesticides. Finally, this work is the first step for pesticides' analysis in vegetables and fruits in Lebanon, initiating a wider analytical study in order to control and examine the use of pesticides which, according to our results, could have an adverse effect on human health over a long term. PMID:26357889

  5. Influence of Temperature, Relative Humidity, and Soil Properties on the Soil-Air Partitioning of Semivolatile Pesticides: Laboratory Measurements and Predictive Models.

    PubMed

    Davie-Martin, Cleo L; Hageman, Kimberly J; Chin, Yu-Ping; Rougé, Valentin; Fujita, Yuki

    2015-09-01

    Soil-air partition coefficient (Ksoil-air) values are often employed to investigate the fate of organic contaminants in soils; however, these values have not been measured for many compounds of interest, including semivolatile current-use pesticides. Moreover, predictive equations for estimating Ksoil-air values for pesticides (other than the organochlorine pesticides) have not been robustly developed, due to a lack of measured data. In this work, a solid-phase fugacity meter was used to measure the Ksoil-air values of 22 semivolatile current- and historic-use pesticides and their degradation products. Ksoil-air values were determined for two soils (semiarid and volcanic) under a range of environmentally relevant temperature (10-30 °C) and relative humidity (30-100%) conditions, such that 943 Ksoil-air measurements were made. Measured values were used to derive a predictive equation for pesticide Ksoil-air values based on temperature, relative humidity, soil organic carbon content, and pesticide-specific octanol-air partition coefficients. Pesticide volatilization losses from soil, calculated with the newly derived Ksoil-air predictive equation and a previously described pesticide volatilization model, were compared to previous results and showed that the choice of Ksoil-air predictive equation mainly affected the more-volatile pesticides and that the way in which relative humidity was accounted for was the most critical difference. PMID:26258946

  6. Pesticides' influence on wine fermentation.

    PubMed

    Caboni, Pierluigi; Cabras, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Wine quality strongly depends on the grape quality. To obtain high-quality wines, it is necessary to process healthy grapes at the correct ripeness stage and for this reason the farmer has to be especially careful in the prevention of parasite attacks on the grapevine. The most common fungal diseases affecting grape quality are downy and powdery mildew (Plasmopara viticola and Uncinula necator), and gray mold (Botrytis cinerea). On the other hand, the most dangerous insects are the grape moth (Lobesia botrana), vine mealybug (Planococcus ficus), and the citrus mealybug (Planococcus citri). Farmers fight grape diseases and insects applying pesticides that can be found at harvest time on grapes. The persistence of pesticides depends on the chemical characteristic of the active ingredients as well as on photodegradation, thermodegradation, codistillation, and enzymatic degradation. The pesticide residues on grapes can be transferred to the must and this can influence the selection and development of yeast strains. Moreover, yeasts can also influence the levels of the pesticides in the wine by reducing or adsorbing them on lees. During the fermentative process, yeasts can cause the disappearance of pesticide residues by degradation or absorption at the end of the fermentation when yeasts are deposited as lees. In this chapter, we reviewed the effect of commonly used herbicides, insecticides, and fungicides on yeasts. We also studied the effect of alcoholic and malolactic fermentation on pesticide residues. PMID:20610173

  7. MEASURING AND MODELING THE TRANSPORT OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING DICARBOXIMIDES AND DEGRADATION PRODUCTS FROM THE SOIL TO THE LOWER TROPOSPHERE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research addresses the environmental fate, transport, exposure and potential risks from dicarboximides, a widely used class of agricultural fungicides. Certain dicarboximide fungicides and degradation products have been found to be anti-androgenic; i. e., exposure to these...

  8. MEASUREMENT AND MODELING OF THE TRANSPORT OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING DICARBOXIMIDES AND DEGRADATION PRODUCTS FROM THE SOIL TO THE LOWER TROPOSPHERE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research addresses the environmental fate, transport, exposure and potential risks from dicarboximides, a widely used class of agricultural fungicides. Certain dicarboximide fungicides and degradation products have been found to be anti-androgenic; i. e., exposure to these...

  9. [Validation study on a multi-residue method for determination of pesticide residues in agricultural products by new automatic pretreatment equipment (FASRAC) and GC-MS/MS].

    PubMed

    Okuda, Taiki; Koshi, Naohiro; Matsumura, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Reo; Oyanagi, Tatsuya; Matsuda, Takahiro; Hashimoto, Akihiko; Hatakeyama, Osamu; Kobayashi, Kazuhiro; Nagao, Yasuhiro; Yamada, Toshihiro

    2014-01-01

    A validation study was performed on a multiresidue method for determination of pesticide residues in agricultural products according to the method validation guideline of the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan. FASRAC (Food Automatic Analytical Systems for Residual Agricultural Chemicals) automatically performs extraction of pesticide residues from agricultural products with acetonitrile, filtration, constant volume, mixing with the use of air, mixing acetonitrile with buffer solvent, separation, and dehydration with sodium sulfate. The extract was purified with a GC/NH2 column. For wheat flour and soybeans, a purification step with a C18 column was added before a GC/NH2 column. After removal of the solvent, the extract was resolved in n-hexane/acetone solvent for GC-MS/MS analysis. In the case of manual analysis, pesticide residues were analyzed according to official multiresidue methods and purification steps were the same as in FASRAC. Recovery tests were performed with wheat flour, soybeans, spinach and apples, by addition of 302 pesticides at the concentrations 0.01 mg/kg. The results indicate that automatic extraction using FASRAC is superior to manual analysis in trueness, repeatability and within-run reproducibility. Specially, automatic extraction using FASRAC is superior to manual analysis in trueness because it is optimized in various respects, for example reextraction at salting-out. PMID:25743385

  10. [Effects of nitrogen and phosphorous fertilization on community structure and productivity of degraded alpine meadows in northern Tibet, China].

    PubMed

    Zong, Ning; Shi, Pei-li; Niu, Ben; Jiang, Jing; Song, Ming-hua; Zhang, Xian-zhou; He, Yong-tao

    2014-12-01

    Abstract: Fertilization is an effective management measure for recovery of degraded grasslands. To better understand the effects of fertilization on community structure and productivity of lightly and severely degraded alpine meadows, we conducted a fertilization experiment in northern Tibet since 2008. The treatments were addition of nitrogen (N) alone (50 kg N x hm(-2) x a(-1), LN; 100 kg N x hm(-2) x a(-1), HN) or addition of both phosphorus (P) and N (50 kg N x hm(-2) x a(-1) +50 kg P x hm(-2) x a(-1), LN+P; 100 kg N x hm(-2) x a(-1) +50 kg P x hm(-2) x a(-1), HN+P) in each of the two types of degraded alpine meadows. N addition alone significantly affected plant community coverage or productivity in neither the slightly nor the severely degraded alpine meadow, while addition of both N and P significantly increased plant community coverage, aboveground and below- ground biomass of the alpine meadows. This suggested that productivity of this alpine meadow is co-limited by N and P. HN and HN+P significantly decreased species richness and evenness in the lightly degraded grassland, indicating that HN was not beneficial for the lightly degraded grassland to maintain species diversity and community stability. N addition significantly reduced the root to shoot ratio in the severely degraded meadow. In the lightly degraded meadow, N addition alone, especially with a high amount (HN) , enhanced the importance values (IV) and biomass of grasses, while fertilization with both N and P increased those of sedges. In the severely degraded meadow, fertilization had little effect on IV of grasses or sedges, but improved biomass of forbs. The results suggested that LN+P could be employed in recovery of lightly degraded alpine meadows, but other management measures such as fencing and reseeding may be needed for recovery of severely degraded alpine meadows. PMID:25876395

  11. Water pollution: Pesticides in Aquatic environments. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the physicochemical and biochemical dynamics of pesticides in aquatic environments. The effects of organophosphorus, organochlorine, and arsenical pesticides on marine, surface, and groundwater ecosystems are discussed. Topics include biological fate and transformation of pesticides in waters, sources of release and transport of pesticides, bioaccumulation and metabolism of pesticides by aquatic organisms, ecological concentration and degradability of pesticides in model ecosystems, and marine ecology. Guidelines for pesticide registration and pesticide effluents are also referenced. (Contains a minimum of 205 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  12. Identification and Characterization of Hydrolytic Degradation Products of Cefditoren Pivoxil using LC and LC-MS/TOF

    PubMed Central

    Gawande, V. T.; Bothara, K. G.; Singh, A.; Mahajan, A. A.

    2015-01-01

    The present research work was carried out to determine stability of cefditoren pivoxil, an orally absorbed prodrug that is rapidly hydrolysed by intestinal esterases to the active cephalosporin cefditoren. Cefditoren was subjected to stress conditions recommended by the International Conference on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use guideline Q1A (R2). Cefditoren pivoxil was susceptible for degradation under acidic, alkaline and neutral hydrolytic conditions while it was stable under photolytic and thermal stress conditions. Separation of cefditoren and degradation products were carried out by using HPLC. The unknown degradation products were characterized by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/time of flight studies. Structures were proposed for each fragment based on best possible molecular formula and complete degradation pathways were reported for cefditoren and its degradants. PMID:25767321

  13. Light induced heterogeneous ozone processing on the pesticides adsorbed on silica particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Socorro, J.; Désert, M.; Quivet, E.; Gligorovski, S.; Wortham, H.

    2013-12-01

    In France, in 2010, the sales of pesticides reached 1.8 billion euros for 61 900 tons of active ingredients, positioning France as a first European consumer of pesticides, as reported by the European Crop Protection Association. About 19 million hectares of crops are sprayed annually with pesticides, i.e., 35% of the total surface area of France. This corresponds to an average pesticide dose of 3.2 kg ha-1. The consumption of herbicide and fungicide is favoured in comparison to the use of insecticides in France and the other European countries, as well. The partitioning of pesticides between the gas and particulate phases influences the atmospheric fate of these compounds such as their photo-chemical degradation. There is much uncertainty concerning the behavior of the pesticides in the atmosphere. Especially, there is a gap of knowledge concerning the degradation of the pesticides induced by heterogeneous reactions in absence and especially in presence of solar light. Considering that most of the pesticides currently used are semi-volatile, it is of crucial importance to investigate the heterogeneous reactivity of particulate pesticides with light and with atmospheric oxidants such as ozone and OH radical. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the light induced heterogeneous ozonation of suspended pesticide particles. 8 pesticides (cyprodinil, deltamethrin, difenoconazole, fipronil, oxadiazon, pendimethalin, permethrin and tetraconazole) were chosen for their physico-chemical properties and their concentration levels in the PACA (Région Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur) region, France. Silica particles with well-known properties were chosen as model particles of atmospheric relevance. Kinetic rate constants were determined to allow estimate the atmospheric lifetimes relating to ozone. The rate constants were determined as follows: k = (6.6 × 0.2) 10-19, (7.2 × 0.3) 10-19, (5.1 × 0.5) 10-19, (3.9 × 0.3) 10-19 [cm3 molecules-1 s-1] for Cyprodinil, delthamethrine, permethrine and pendimethaline, respectively. Concerning the other four pesticides under study i.e. difenoconazole, fipronil, oxadiazon and tetraconazole the obtained rate constants were extremely slow, < 3.9 10-19 [cm3 molecules-1 s-1]. In addition, we identified the condensed phase products in such heterogeneous reactions of ozone with the particulate pesticides by GC-MS coupled with the derivatization technique. The gas-phase products were followed on-line by PTR-MS-TOF. The obtained results will allow to recognize the impact of the pesticides and their degradation products on the human health, and to make recommendations in order to reduce population exposure to the pesticide plume. The results of this work will contribute to better describe and understand the pollution by phyto-sanitary products on the regional scale, which constitutes a necessary step in the development of environmental strategies. As a result the obtained results will help in the development of future environmental strategies to better understand and control phyto-sanitary product application and human exposure.

  14. Stress Degradation Behavior of Atorvastatin Calcium and Development of a Suitable Stability-Indicating LC Method for the Determination of Atorvastatin, its Related Impurities, and its Degradation Products.

    PubMed

    Vukkum, Pallavi; Moses Babu, J; Muralikrishna, R

    2013-03-01

    A rapid, reversed-phase liquid chromatographic method was developed for the quantitative determination of Atorvastatin calcium, its related substances (12 impurities), and degradation impurities in bulk drugs. The chromatographic separation was achieved on a Zorbax Bonus-RP column by employing a gradient elution with water-acetonitrile-trifluoroacetic acid as the mobile phase in a shorter run time of 25 min. The flow rate was 1.0 mL/min and the detection wavelength was 245 nm. The drug substance was subjected to stress studies such as hydrolysis, oxidation, photolysis, and thermal degradation, and considerable degradation was observed in acidic hydrolysis, oxidative, thermal, and photolytic stress conditions. The formed degradation products were reported and were well-resolved from the Atorvastatin and its related substances. The stressed samples were quantified against a qualified reference standard and the mass balance was found to be close to 99.5% (w/w) when the response of the degradant was considered to be equal to the analyte (i.e. Atorvastatin), which demonstrates the stability-indicating capability of the method. The method was validated in agreement with ICH requirements. The method developed here was single and shorter (25 min method for the determination of all 12 related impurities of Atorvastatin and its degradation products), with clearly better resolution and higher sensitivity than the European (85 min method for the determination of six impurities) and United States pharmacopeia (115 min and 55 min, two different methods for the determination of six related substances). PMID:23641331

  15. A comparison of organophosphate degradation genes and bioremediation applications.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Rupa; Iken, Brian; Damania, Ashish

    2013-12-01

    Organophosphates (OPs) form the bulk of pesticides that are currently in use around the world accounting for more than 30% of the world market. They also form the core for many nerve-based warfare agents including sarin and soman. The widespread use and the resultant build-up of OP pesticides and chemical nerve agents has led to the development of major health problems due to their extremely toxic interaction with any biological system that encounters them. Growing concern over the accumulation of OP compounds in our food products, in the soils from which they are harvested and in wastewater run-off has fuelled a growing interest in microbial biotechnology that provides cheap, efficient OP detoxification to supplement expensive chemical methods. In this article, we review the current state of knowledge of OP pesticide and chemical agent degradation and attempt to clarify confusion over identification and nomenclature of two major families of OP-degrading enzymes through a comparison of their structure and function. The isolation, characterization, utilization and manipulation of the major detoxifying enzymes and the molecular basis of degradation of OP pesticides and chemical nerve agents are discussed as well as the achievements and technological advancements made towards the bioremediation of such compounds. PMID:24249287

  16. Influence of fermentation on glucosinolates and glucobrassicin degradation products in sauerkraut.

    PubMed

    Palani, Kalpana; Harbaum-Piayda, Britta; Meske, Diana; Keppler, Julia Katharina; Bockelmann, Wilhelm; Heller, Knut J; Schwarz, Karin

    2016-01-01

    A systematic investigation was carried out on the influence of fermentation on glucosinolates and their degradation products from fresh raw cabbage, throughout fermentation at 20 °C and storage at 4 °C. Glucosinolates were degraded dramatically between Day 2 and 5 of fermentation and by Day 7 there was no detectable amount of glucosinolates left. Fermentation led to formation of potential bioactive compounds ascorbigen (13.0 ?mol/100 g FW) and indole-3-carbinol (4.52 ?mol/100g FW) with their higher concentrations from Day 5 to Day 9. However, during storage indole-3-carbinol slowly degraded to 0.68 ?mol/100 g FW, while ascorbigen was relatively stable from Week 4 until Week 8 at 6.78 ?mol/100 g FW. In contrast, the content of indole-3-acetonitrile decreased rapidly during fermentation from 3.6 to 0.14 ?mol/100 g FW. The results imply a maximum of health beneficial compounds after fermentation (7-9 days) in contrast to raw cabbage or stored sauerkraut. PMID:26213035

  17. Production, structure and in vitro degradation of electrospun honeybee silk nanofibers

    PubMed Central

    Wittmer, Corinne R.; Hu, Xiao; Gauthier, Pierre-Chanel; Weisman, Sarah; Kaplan, David L.; Sutherland, Tara D.

    2012-01-01

    Honeybees produce silken cocoons containing four related fibrous proteins. High levels of each of the honeybee silk proteins can be produced recombinantly by fermentation in E. coli. In this study we have used electrospinning to fabricate a single recombinant honeybee silk protein, AmelF3, into nanofibres of around 200 nm diameter. Infrared spectroscopy found that the molecular structure of the nanofibres was predominantly coiled coil, essentially the same as native honeybee silk. Mats of the honeybee nanofibres were treated with methanol or by water annealing, which increased their ß-sheet content and rendered them water-insensitive. The insoluble mats were degraded by protease on a time scale of hours to days. The protease gradually released proteins from the solid state and these were subsequently rapidly degraded into small peptides without the accumulation of partial degradation products. Cell culture assays demonstrated that the mats allowed survival, attachment and proliferation of fibroblasts. These results indicate that honeybee silk proteins meet many prerequisites for use as a biomaterial. PMID:21689795

  18. 77 FR 59186 - Notice of Receipt of Pesticide Products; Registration Applications To Register New Uses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-26

    .... Corporation, P.O. Box 8025, Walnut Creek, CA 94596. Active ingredient: Clothianidin. Product Type: Insecticide... Creek, CA 94596. Active ingredient: Clothianidin. Product Type: Insecticide. Proposed Uses: Expansion...

  19. Characterization of intermediate products of solar photocatalytic degradation of ranitidine at pilot-scale.

    PubMed

    Radjenovi?, Jelena; Sirtori, Carla; Petrovi?, Mira; Barceló, Damià; Malato, Sixto

    2010-04-01

    In the present study the mechanisms of solar photodegradation of H(2)-receptor antagonist ranitidine (RNTD) were studied in a well-defined system of a pilot plant scale Compound Parabolic Collector (CPC) reactor. Two types of heterogeneous photocatalytic experiments were performed: catalysed by titanium-dioxide (TiO(2)) semiconductor and by Fenton reagent (Fe(2+)/H(2)O(2)), each one with distilled water and synthetic wastewater effluent matrix. Complete disappearance of the parent compounds and discreet mineralization were attained in all experiments. Furthermore, kinetic parameters, main intermediate products, release of heteroatoms and formation of carboxylic acids are discussed. The main intermediate products of photocatalytic degradation of RNTD have been structurally elucidated by tandem mass spectrometry (MS(2)) experiments performed at quadrupole-time of flight (QqToF) mass analyzer coupled to ultra-performance liquid chromatograph (UPLC). RNTD displayed high reactivity towards OH radicals, although a product of conduction band electrons reduction was also present in the experiment with TiO(2). In the absence of standards, quantification of intermediates was not possible and only qualitative profiles of their evolution could be determined. The proposed TiO(2) and photo-Fenton degradation routes of RNTD are reported for the first time. PMID:20207392

  20. Refined methodology for the determination of neonicotinoid pesticides and their metabolites in honey bees and bee products by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS).

    PubMed

    Kamel, Alaa

    2010-05-26

    An analytical method was refined for the extraction and determination of neonicotinoid pesticide residues and their metabolites in honey bees and bee products. Samples were extracted with 2% triethylamine (TEA) in acetonitrile (ACN) followed by salting out, solid phase extraction (SPE) cleanup, and detection using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The method was validated in triplicate at three fortification concentrations in each matrix. Good recoveries were observed for most analytes and ranged between 70 and 120% with relative standard deviations between replicates of <20% in most cases. The method limits of detection were 0.2 ng/g for the parent neonicotinoid pesticides and ranged between 0.2 and 15 ng/g for the neonicotinoid metabolites. This refined method provides lower detection limits and improved recovery of neonicotinoids and their metabolites, which will help researchers evaluate subchronic effects of these pesticides, address data gaps related to colony collapse disorder (CCD), and determine the role of pesticides in pollinator decline. PMID:20163114