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Sample records for pesticide exposure critical

  1. Critical windows of exposure to household pesticides and risk of childhood leukemia.

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiaomei; Buffler, Patricia A; Gunier, Robert B; Dahl, Gary; Smith, Martyn T; Reinier, Kyndaron; Reynolds, Peggy

    2002-01-01

    The potential etiologic role of household pesticide exposures was examined in the Northern California Childhood Leukemia Study. A total of 162 patients (0-14 years old) with newly diagnosed leukemia were rapidly ascertained during 1995-1999, and 162 matched control subjects were randomly selected from the birth registry. The use of professional pest control services at any time from 1 year before birth to 3 years after was associated with a significantly increased risk of childhood leukemia [odds ratio (OR) = 2.8; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.4-5.7], and the exposure during year 2 was associated with the highest risk (OR = 3.6; 95% CI, 1.6-8.3). The ORs for exposure to insecticides during the 3 months before pregnancy, pregnancy, and years 1, 2, and 3 were 1.8 (95% CI, 1.1-3.1), 2.1 (95% CI, 1.3-3.5), 1.7 (95% CI, 1.0-2.9), 1.6 (95% CI, 1.0-2.7), and 1.2 (95% CI, 0.7-2.1), respectively. Insecticide exposures early in life appear to be more significant than later exposures, and the highest risk was observed for exposure during pregnancy. Additionally, more frequent exposure to insecticides was associated with a higher risk. In contrast to insecticides, the association between herbicides and leukemia was weak and nonsignificant. Pesticides were also grouped based on where they were applied. Exposure to indoor pesticides was associated with an increased risk, whereas no significant association was observed for exposure to outdoor pesticides. The findings suggest that exposure to household pesticides is associated with an elevated risk of childhood leukemia and further indicate the importance of the timing and location of exposure. PMID:12204832

  2. Pesticide-Exposure Matrix

    Cancer.gov

    The "Pesticide-exposure Matrix" was developed to help epidemiologists and other researchers identify the active ingredients to which people were likely exposed when their homes and gardens were treated for pests in past years.

  3. Occupational Pesticide Exposures and Respiratory Health

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Ming; Beach, Jeremy; Martin, Jonathan W.; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan

    2013-01-01

    Pesticides have been widely used to control pest and pest-related diseases in agriculture, fishery, forestry and the food industry. In this review, we identify a number of respiratory symptoms and diseases that have been associated with occupational pesticide exposures. Impaired lung function has also been observed among people occupationally exposed to pesticides. There was strong evidence for an association between occupational pesticide exposure and asthma, especially in agricultural occupations. In addition, we found suggestive evidence for a link between occupational pesticide exposure and chronic bronchitis or COPD. There was inconclusive evidence for the association between occupational pesticide exposure and lung cancer. Better control of pesticide uses and enforcement of safety behaviors, such as using personal protection equipment (PPE) in the workplace, are critical for reducing the risk of developing pesticide-related symptoms and diseases. Educational training programs focusing on basic safety precautions and proper uses of personal protection equipment (PPE) are possible interventions that could be used to control the respiratory diseases associated with pesticide exposure in occupational setting. PMID:24287863

  4. Pesticide exposure--Indian scene.

    PubMed

    Gupta, P K

    2004-05-20

    Use of pesticides in India began in 1948 when DDT was imported for malaria control and BHC for locust control. India started pesticide production with manufacturing plant for DDT and benzene hexachloride (BHC) (HCH) in the year 1952. In 1958, India was producing over 5000 metric tonnes of pesticides. Currently, there are approximately 145 pesticides registered for use, and production has increased to approximately 85,000 metric tonnes. Rampant use of these chemicals has given rise to several short-term and long-term adverse effects of these chemicals. The first report of poisoning due to pesticides in India came from Kerala in 1958 where, over 100 people died after consuming wheat flour contaminated with parathion. Subsequently several cases of pesticide-poisoning including the Bhopal disaster have been reported. Despite the fact that the consumption of pesticides in India is still very low, about 0.5 kg/ha of pesticides against 6.60 and 12.0 kg/ha in Korea and Japan, respectively, there has been a widespread contamination of food commodities with pesticide residues, basically due to non-judicious use of pesticides. In India, 51% of food commodities are contaminated with pesticide residues and out of these, 20% have pesticides residues above the maximum residue level values on a worldwide basis. It has been observed that their long-term, low-dose exposure are increasingly linked to human health effects such as immune-suppression, hormone disruption, diminished intelligence, reproductive abnormalities, and cancer. In this light, problems of pesticide safety, regulation of pesticide use, use of biotechnology, and biopesticides, and use of pesticides obtained from natural plant sources such as neem extracts are some of the future strategies for minimizing human exposure to pesticides. PMID:15138033

  5. Lessons Learned for the Assessment of Children’s Pesticide Exposure: Critical Sampling and Analytical Issues for Future Studies

    PubMed Central

    Fenske, Richard A.; Bradman, Asa; Whyatt, Robin M.; Wolff, Mary S.; Barr, Dana B.

    2005-01-01

    In this article we examine sampling strategies and analytical methods used in a series of recent studies of children’s exposure to pesticides that may prove useful in the design and implementation of the National Children’s Study. We focus primarily on the experiences of four of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences/U.S. Environmental Protection Agency/ Children’s Centers and include University of Washington studies that predated these centers. These studies have measured maternal exposures, perinatal exposures, infant and toddler exposures, and exposure among young children through biologic monitoring, personal sampling, and environmental monitoring. Biologic monitoring appears to be the best available method for assessment of children’s exposure to pesticides, with some limitations. It is likely that a combination of biomarkers, environmental measurements, and questionnaires will be needed after careful consideration of the specific hypotheses posed by investigators and the limitations of each exposure metric. The value of environmental measurements, such as surface and toy wipes and indoor air or house dust samples, deserves further investigation. Emphasis on personal rather than environmental sampling in conjunction with urine or blood sampling is likely to be most effective at classifying exposure. For infants and young children, ease of urine collection (possible for extended periods of time) may make these samples the best available approach to capturing exposure variability of nonpersistent pesticides; additional validation studies are needed. Saliva measurements of pesticides, if feasible, would overcome the limitations of urinary metabolite-based exposure analysis. Global positioning system technology appears promising in the delineation of children’s time–location patterns. PMID:16203262

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL EQUITY AND PESTICIDE EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although people of color and low-income groups bear a disproportionate share of the health risks from exposure to pesticides, research attention has been meager, and data on acute and chronic health effects related to their toxic exposures are generally lacking. ncreased resource...

  7. EXPOSURE TO CHILDREN FROM PESTICIDE RESIDUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Children's aggregate exposure to pesticides will be characterized using pesticide exposure data from Brownsville, TX. The aggregate exposure methodology developed in this phase of the project will be tested with a larger data set from Arizona using data from US-Mexico border are...

  8. AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY/PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a prospective epidemiologic study of a large cohort of pesticide applicators and their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. The Pesticide Exposure Study is a sub-study to evaluate exposure factors and to provide data to assess exposure cla...

  9. PESTICIDE EXPOSURE TO FLORIDA GREENHOUSE APPLICATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The exposure of pesticide applicators in a commercial greenhouse facility was assessed. Data were collected primarily from five handgunners and a tractor driver. The chemicals applied were fluvalinate, chlorpyrifos, ethazol, dicofol, captan, and chlorothalonil. Potential exposure...

  10. DISTRIBUTIONS, ASSOCIATIONS, AND PARTIAL AGGREGATE EXPOSURE OF PESTICIDES AND POLYNUCLEAR AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN THE MINNESOTA CHILDREN'S PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY (MNCPES)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Minnesota Children's Pesticide Exposure Study (MNCPES) provides exposure, environmental, and biologic data relating to multi-pathway exposures of children for four primary pesticides (chlorpyrifos, malathion, diazinon, and atrazine), 14 secondary pesticides, and 13 polynucl...

  11. Assessment of a Pesticide Exposure Intensity Algorithm in the Agricultural Health Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    The accuracy of the exposure assessment is a critical factor in epidemiological investigations of pesticide exposures and health in agricultural populations. However, few studies have been conducted to evaluate questionnaire-based exposure metrics. The Agricultural Health Study...

  12. FEASIBILITY OF USING THE MACROACTIVITY APPROACH TO ASSESS CHILDREN'S DERMAL EXPOSURE TO PESTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Results derived from an initial assessment of critical exposure pathways for children indicate that dermal contact may result in high residential exposures to pesticides. However, data on children's exposures and activities are insufficient to support quantitative assessments ...

  13. Reproductive disorders associated with pesticide exposure.

    PubMed

    Frazier, Linda M

    2007-01-01

    Exposure of men or women to certain pesticides at sufficient doses may increase the risk for sperm abnormalities, decreased fertility, a deficit of male children, spontaneous abortion, birth defects or fetal growth retardation. Pesticides from workplace or environmental exposures enter breast milk. Certain pesticides have been linked to developmental neurobehavioral problems, altered function of immune cells and possibly childhood leukemia. In well-designed epidemiologic studies, adverse reproductive or developmental effects have been associated with mixed pesticide exposure in occupational settings, particularly when personal protective equipment is not used. Every class of pesticides has at least one agent capable of affecting a reproductive or developmental endpoint in laboratory animals or people, including organophosphates, carbamates, pyrethroids, herbicides, fungicides, fumigants and especially organochlorines. Many of the most toxic pesticides have been banned or restricted in developed nations, but high exposures to these agents are still occurring in the most impoverished countries around the globe. Protective clothing, masks and gloves are more difficult to tolerate in hot, humid weather, or may be unavailable or unaffordable. Counseling patients who are concerned about reproductive and developmental effects of pesticides often involves helping them assess their exposure levels, weigh risks and benefits, and adopt practices to reduce or eliminate their absorbed dose. Patients may not realize that by the first prenatal care visit, most disruptions of organogenesis have already occurred. Planning ahead provides the best chance of lowering risk from pesticides and remediating other risk factors before conception. PMID:18032334

  14. Assessing occupational exposure to sea lamprey pesticides

    PubMed Central

    Ceballos, Diana M; Beaucham, Catherine C; Kurtz, Kristine; Musolin, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sea lampreys are parasitic fish found in lakes of the United States and Canada. Sea lamprey is controlled through manual application of the pesticides 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) and BayluscideTM into streams and tributaries. 3-Trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol may cause irritation and central nervous system depression and Bayluscide may cause irritation, dermatitis, blisters, cracking, edema, and allergic skin reactions. Objectives: To assess occupational exposures to sea lamprey pesticides. Methods: We developed a wipe method for evaluating surface and skin contamination with these pesticides. This method was field tested at a biological field station and at a pesticide river application. We also evaluated exposures using control banding tools. Results: We verified TFM surface contamination at the biological station. At the river application, we found surfaces and worker’s skin contaminated with pesticides. Conclusion: We recommended minimizing exposures by implementing engineering controls and improved use of personal protective equipment. PMID:25730600

  15. RESULTS FROM THE AHS PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agricultural Health Study/Pesticide Exposure Study (AHS/PES) measured exposures resulting from agricultural use of 2,4-D and chlorpyrifos for a subset of applicators in the AHS cohort. Through on-farm measurements and observations, data collected in the exposure study will...

  16. THE EPA CHILDREN'S PESTICIDE EXPOSURE MEASUREMENT PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory conducts research in support of the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA)) of 1996. FQPA requires that children's risks to pesticide exposures be considered during the tolerance-setting process. FQPA requires exposure assessme...

  17. EPA CHILDREN'S PESTICIDE EXPOSURE MEASUREMENT PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory conducts research in support of the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) of 1996. FQPA requires that children's risks to pesticide exposures be considered during the tolerance-setting process. FQPA requires exposure assessme...

  18. Neurobehavioural and neurodevelopmental effects of pesticide exposures

    PubMed Central

    London, Leslie; Beseler, Cheryl; Bouchard, Maryse F.; Bellinger, David C.; Colosio, Claudio; Grandjean, Philippe; Harari, Raul; Kootbodien, Tahira; Kromhout, Hans; Little, Francesca; Meijster, Tim; Moretto, Angelo; Rohlman, Diane S.; Stallones, Lorann

    2012-01-01

    The association between pesticide exposure and neurobehavioral and neurodevelopmental effects is an area of increasing concern. This symposium brought together participants to explore the neurotoxic effects of pesticides across the lifespan. Endpoints examined included neurobehavioral, affective and neurodevelopmental outcomes amongst occupational (both adolescent and adult workers) and non-occupational populations (children). The symposium discussion highlighted many challenges for researchers concerned with the prevention of neurotoxic illness due to pesticides and generated a number of directions for further research and policy interventions for the protection of human health, highlighting the importance of examining potential long-term effects across the lifespan arising from early adolescent, childhood or pre-natal exposure. PMID:22269431

  19. Environmental exposure to pesticides and respiratory health.

    PubMed

    Mamane, Ali; Raherison, Chantal; Tessier, Jean-François; Baldi, Isabelle; Bouvier, Ghislaine

    2015-09-01

    Respiratory effects of environmental exposure to pesticides are debated. Here we aimed to review epidemiological studies published up until 2013, using the PubMed database. 20 studies dealing with respiratory health and non-occupational pesticide exposure were identified, 14 carried out on children and six on adults. In four out of nine studies in children with biological measurements, mothers' dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) blood levels during pregnancy were associated with asthma and wheezing in young children. An association was also found between permethrin in indoor air during pregnancy and wheezing in children. A significant association between asthma and DDE measured in children's blood (aged 7-10 years) was observed in one study. However, in three studies, no association was found between asthma or respiratory infections in children and pesticide levels in breast milk and/or infant blood. Lastly, in three out of four studies where post-natal pesticide exposure of children was assessed by parental questionnaire an association with respiratory symptoms was found. Results of the fewer studies on pesticide environmental exposure and respiratory health of adults were much less conclusive: indeed, the associations observed were weak and often not significant. In conclusion, further studies are needed to confirm whether there is a respiratory risk associated with environmental exposure to pesticides. PMID:26324808

  20. Estimating terrestrial amphibian pesticide body burden through dermal exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dermal exposure presents a potentially significant but understudied route for pesticide uptake in terrestrial amphibians. Our study measured dermal uptake of pesticides of varying hydrophobicity (logKow) in frogs. Amphibians were indirectly exposed to one of five pesticide active...

  1. COMMUNICATING THE RISKS OF PESTICIDE EXPOSURE TO AGRICULTURAL WORKERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goals of the USEPA pesticide worker safety program are to protect human health and the environment by ensuring the competency of pesticide applicators to minimize pesticide exposure to occupational pesticide users and agricultural field workers, to assure use of pesticides, a...

  2. Biomarkers of human exposure to pesticides.

    PubMed Central

    Anwar, W A

    1997-01-01

    For centuries, several hundred pesticides have been used to control insects. These pesticides differ greatly in their mode of action, uptake by the body, metabolism, elimination from the body, and toxicity to humans. Potential exposure from the environment can be estimated by environmental monitoring. Actual exposure (uptake) is measured by the biological monitoring of human tissues and body fluids. Biomarkers are used to detect the effects of pesticides before adverse clinical health effects occur. Pesticides and their metabolites are measured in biological samples, serum, fat, urine, blood, or breast milk by the usual analytical techniques. Biochemical responses to environmental chemicals provide a measure of toxic effect. A widely used biochemical biomarker, cholinesterase depression, measures exposure to organophosphorus insecticides. Techniques that measure DNA damage (e.g., detection of DNA adducts) provide a powerful tool in measuring environmental effects. Adducts to hemoglobin have been detected with several pesticides. Determination of chromosomal aberration rates in cultured lymphocytes is an established method of monitoring populations occupationally or environmentally exposed to known or suspected mutagenic-carcinogenic agents. There are several studies on the cytogenetic effects of work with pesticide formulations. The majority of these studies report increases in the frequency of chromosomal aberrations and/or sister chromatid exchanges among the exposed workers. Biomarkers will have a major impact on the study of environmental risk factors. The basic aim of scientists exploring these issues is to determine the nature and consequences of genetic change or variation, with the ultimate purpose of predicting or preventing disease. PMID:9255564

  3. Modeling and Predicting Pesticide Exposures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Models provide a means for representing a real system in an understandable way. They take many forms, beginning with conceptual models that explain the way a system works, such as delineation of all the factors and parameters of how a pesticide particle moves in the air after a s...

  4. Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation Model for Pesticides

    EPA Science Inventory

    SHEDS-Pesticides (Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation Model for Pesticides) is a physically-based stochastic model developed to quantify exposure and dose of humans to multimedia, multipathway pollutants. Probabilistic inputs are combined in physical/mechanistic algorit...

  5. PESTICIDE EXPOSURE AND IMMUNE FUNCTION AMONG TODDLERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Response to vaccination may be a sensitive indicator of immunollogic health in young children. Toddlers residing in an intenseive agricultural area along the US/Mexican border were enrolled in a pilot study investigating immunologic function and pesticide exposure by multiple ...

  6. STUDIES OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN'S EXPOSURES TO PESTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Young children, especially those of the preschool ages, are hypothesized to have greater exposures than do older children or adults to persistent organic pesticides and other persistent organic pollutants, including some compounds that may have endocrine-disrupting effects or d...

  7. MINIMIZING OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE TO PESTICIDES: PERSONNEL MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This communication is presented with two objectives in mind. The first objective is to provide an introduction to personnel monitoring of occupational exposure to pesticides for those who are not familiar with this field of investigation. The second objective is to stimulate disc...

  8. STREAM, AN EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY FOR AGRICULTURAL PESTICIDES RUNOFF

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure assessments for pesticides used in agriculture require the estimation of both pesticide runoff from fields and resulting concentrations in streams in order to predict the potential aquatic and/or health risk posed by pesticide usage. he and duration of pesticide concentr...

  9. Metabolism of pesticides after dermal exposure to amphibians

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding how pesticide exposure to non-target species influences toxicity is necessary to accurately assess the ecological risks these compounds pose. Aquatic, terrestrial, and arboreal amphibians are often exposed to pesticides during their agricultural application resultin...

  10. MODELING OF MACROSCALE AGRICULTURAL ELEMENTS IN PESTICIDE EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Yuma County, Arizona, is the site of year around agriculture. To understand the role of agricultural pesticide exposures experienced by children, urinary metabolite concentrations were compared with agricultural use of pesticides. The urinary metabolite and household data wer...

  11. The Impact of Chronic Pesticide Exposure on Neuropsychological Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Caitlin G.; Ferraro, F. Richard

    2013-01-01

    This study compared neuropsychological test performance of individuals (n = 18) with an occupational history of pesticide exposure to individuals (n = 35) with no such exposure history. Results showed that a history of pesticide-related occupation exposure led to deficits in only Digit Symbol performance. Additionally, the correlation between…

  12. AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY/PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a prospective epidemiologic study of a large cohort of pesticide applicators and their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. The Pesticide Exposure Study is a sub-study to evaluate exposure factors and to provide data to assess exposure cla...

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF EXPOSURE FACTORS FOR PESTICIDE RISK ASSESSMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pesticides are used in the agricultural and residential settings to control unwanted species of plants, insects, and animals. However, pesticides may adverse effects on humans. Children especially are at greater risk from pesticide exposure than most adults because, pound for pou...

  14. 76 FR 72404 - Pesticides: Availability of Pesticide Registration Notice Regarding the Non-Dietary Exposure Task...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ...The Agency is announcing the availability of a Pesticide Registration Notice (PR Notice) regarding the data development efforts of the Non-Dietary Exposure Task Force (NDETF). This PR Notice (PR Notice 2011-2) was issued by the Agency on November 10, 2011. PR Notices are issued by the Office of Pesticide Programs to inform pesticide registrants and other interested persons about important......

  15. A Review of Nonoccupational Pathways for Pesticide Exposure in Women Living in Agricultural Areas

    PubMed Central

    Friesen, Melissa C.; Hoppin, Jane A.; Hines, Cynthia J.; Thomas, Kent; Freeman, Laura E. Beane

    2015-01-01

    Background Women living in agricultural areas may experience high pesticide exposures compared with women in urban or suburban areas because of their proximity to farm activities. Objective Our objective was to review the evidence in the published literature for the contribution of nonoccupational pathways of pesticide exposure in women living in North American agricultural areas. Methods We evaluated the following nonoccupational exposure pathways: paraoccupational (i.e., take-home or bystander exposure), agricultural drift, residential pesticide use, and dietary ingestion. We also evaluated the role of hygiene factors (e.g., house cleaning, shoe removal). Results Among 35 publications identified (published 1995–2013), several reported significant or suggestive (p < 0.1) associations between paraoccupational (n = 19) and agricultural drift (n = 10) pathways and pesticide dust or biomarker levels, and 3 observed that residential use was associated with pesticide concentrations in dust. The 4 studies related to ingestion reported low detection rates of most pesticides in water; additional studies are needed to draw conclusions about the importance of this pathway. Hygiene factors were not consistently linked to exposure among the 18 relevant publications identified. Conclusions Evidence supported the importance of paraoccupational, drift, and residential use pathways. Disentangling exposure pathways was difficult because agricultural populations are concurrently exposed to pesticides via multiple pathways. Most evidence was based on measurements of pesticides in residential dust, which are applicable to any household member and are not specific to women. An improved understanding of nonoccupational pesticide exposure pathways in women living in agricultural areas is critical for studying health effects in women and for designing effective exposure-reduction strategies. Citation Deziel NC, Friesen MC, Hoppin JA, Hines CJ, Thomas K, Beane Freeman LE. 2015. A review

  16. Pesticides

    MedlinePlus

    ... and rats. Because of the widespread use of agricultural chemicals in food production, people are exposed to ... effects of these pesticide residues. Results from the Agricultural Health Study, an ongoing study of pesticide exposures ...

  17. Pesticides

    MedlinePlus

    ... are applied during farming and how much pesticide residue can remain in foods sold in stores. Exposure ... to pesticides at work should carefully clean any residue from their skin and remove their clothes and ...

  18. Pesticide Exposure, Safety Issues, and Risk Assessment Indicators

    PubMed Central

    Damalas, Christos A.; Eleftherohorinos, Ilias G.

    2011-01-01

    Pesticides are widely used in agricultural production to prevent or control pests, diseases, weeds, and other plant pathogens in an effort to reduce or eliminate yield losses and maintain high product quality. Although pesticides are developed through very strict regulation processes to function with reasonable certainty and minimal impact on human health and the environment, serious concerns have been raised about health risks resulting from occupational exposure and from residues in food and drinking water. Occupational exposure to pesticides often occurs in the case of agricultural workers in open fields and greenhouses, workers in the pesticide industry, and exterminators of house pests. Exposure of the general population to pesticides occurs primarily through eating food and drinking water contaminated with pesticide residues, whereas substantial exposure can also occur in or around the home. Regarding the adverse effects on the environment (water, soil and air contamination from leaching, runoff, and spray drift, as well as the detrimental effects on wildlife, fish, plants, and other non-target organisms), many of these effects depend on the toxicity of the pesticide, the measures taken during its application, the dosage applied, the adsorption on soil colloids, the weather conditions prevailing after application, and how long the pesticide persists in the environment. Therefore, the risk assessment of the impact of pesticides either on human health or on the environment is not an easy and particularly accurate process because of differences in the periods and levels of exposure, the types of pesticides used (regarding toxicity and persistence), and the environmental characteristics of the areas where pesticides are usually applied. Also, the number of the criteria used and the method of their implementation to assess the adverse effects of pesticides on human health could affect risk assessment and would possibly affect the characterization of the already

  19. Depression and Pesticide Exposures among Private Pesticide Applicators Enrolled in the Agricultural Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Beseler, Cheryl L.; Stallones, Lorann; Hoppin, Jane A.; Alavanja, Michael C.R.; Blair, Aaron; Keefe, Thomas; Kamel, Freya

    2008-01-01

    Background We evaluated the relationship between diagnosed depression and pesticide exposure using information from private pesticide applicators enrolled in the Agricultural Health Study between 1993 and 1997 in Iowa and North Carolina. Methods There were 534 cases who self-reported a physician-diagnosed depression and 17,051 controls who reported never having been diagnosed with depression and did not feel depressed more than once a week in the past year. Lifetime pesticide exposure was categorized in three mutually exclusive groups: low (< 226 days, the reference group), intermediate (226–752 days), and high (> 752 days). Two additional measures represented acute high-intensity pesticide exposures: an unusually high pesticide exposure event (HPEE) and physician-diagnosed pesticide poisoning. Logistic regression analyses were performed relating pesticide exposure to depression. Results After adjusting for state, age, education, marital status, doctor visits, alcohol use, smoking, solvent exposure, not currently having crops or animals, and ever working a job off the farm, pesticide poisoning was more strongly associated with depression [odds ratio (OR) = 2.57; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.74–3.79] than intermediate (OR = 1.07; 95% CI, 0.87–1.31) or high (OR = 1.11; 95% CI, 0.87–1.42) cumulative exposure or an HPEE (OR = 1.65; 95% CI, 1.33–2.05). In analysis of a subgroup without a history of acute poisoning, high cumulative exposure was significantly associated with depression (OR = 1.54; 95% CI, 1.16–2.04). Conclusion These findings suggest that both acute high-intensity and cumulative pesticide exposure may contribute to depression in pesticide applicators. Our study is unique in reporting that depression is also associated with chronic pesticide exposure in the absence of a physician-diagnosed poisoning. PMID:19079725

  20. 76 FR 552 - Pesticides; Availability of Pesticide Registration Notice Regarding the Residential Exposure...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-05

    ... of the Residential Exposure Joint Venture, L.L.C. This PR Notice (PR Notice 2011-1) issued by the... AGENCY Pesticides; Availability of Pesticide Registration Notice Regarding the Residential Exposure Joint Venture AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Agency is...

  1. Assessing pesticide exposure of the aquatic environment in tropical catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Frederik; Zurbrügg, Christian; Eggen, Rik; Castillo, Luisa; Ruepert, Clemens; Stamm, Christian

    2015-04-01

    Today, pesticides are intensively used in agriculture across the globe. Worldwide about 2.4×106 tons of pesticides are used annually on 1.6×109 ha of arable land. This yields a global average use of pesticides of 1.53 kg ha-1 year-1. Available data suggest that the use in the agricultural sector will continue to grow. Recently it was estimated that within the last decade, the world pesticide market increased by 93% and the Brazilian market alone by 190%. Though pesticides are intensively used in many low and middle income countries (LAMICs), scientifically sound data of amounts and types of pesticide use and the resulting impact on water quality are lacking in many of these countries. Therefore it is highly relevant to: i) identify risk areas where pesticides affect environmental health, ii) understand the environmental behavior of pesticides in vulnerable tropical ecosystems; and iii) develop possible mitigation options to reduce their exposure to ecosystems and humans. Here we present a project that will focus on assessing pesticide exposure of the aquatic environment and humans in tropical catchments of LAMICs. A catchment in the Zarcero province in Costa Rica will be the test case. Pesticide exposure will be assessed by passive sampling. In order to cover a broad range of compounds of possible use, two sampling devices will be used: SDB membranes for collecting polar compounds and silicon sheets for accumulating apolar pesticides. Extracts will be subsequently analysed by GC-MSMS and LC-HRMS.

  2. Environmental Exposure Assessment of Pesticides in Farmworker Homes

    PubMed Central

    Hoppin, Jane A.; Adgate, John L.; Eberhart, Monty; Nishioka, Marcia; Ryan, P. Barry

    2006-01-01

    Farmworkers and their families are exposed to pesticides both at work and in their homes. Environmental exposure assessment provides a means to evaluate pesticides in the environment and human contact with these chemicals through identification of sources and routes of exposure. To date, a variety of methods have been used to assess pesticide exposure among farmworker families, mostly focusing on dust and handwipe samples. While many of the methods are similar, differences in the collection, chemical analysis, and statistical analysis, can limit the comparability of results from farm-worker studies. This mini-monograph discusses the strategies used to assess pesticide exposures, presents limitations in the available data for farmworkers, and suggests research needs for future studies of pesticide exposure among farmworker families. PMID:16759997

  3. Pesticide Exposure in the Caribbean: A Case From Nutmeg Processing.

    PubMed

    Akpinar-Elci, Muge; Nguyen, MyNgoc Thuy; Bidaisee, Satesh; Elci, Omur Cinai

    2016-01-01

    Many developed countries around the world have implemented regulations to phase out or greatly restrict the use of pesticides. Pesticides are still utilized with minimal restrictions, however, in fumigating agricultural commodities in developing countries such as Grenada. This special report presents the case of a nutmeg factory worker in Grenada who worked with various pesticides including methyl bromide, magnesium phosphide (magtoxin), and aluminum phosphide (phostoxin) without the proper awareness and utilization of health and safety measures. The nutmeg factory worker later developed metastatic bladder cancer, which may have been triggered by a combination of individual risk factors along with long-term occupational exposure to these pesticides. In this special report, the occupational health importance of prevention in a work environment with significant exposure to pesticides is highlighted as well as some of the fundamental deficiencies in awareness among workers in developing nations concerning the deleterious effects of frequent exposure to pesticides. PMID:26867293

  4. Pesticides and inner-city children: exposures, risks, and prevention.

    PubMed

    Landrigan, P J; Claudio, L; Markowitz, S B; Berkowitz, G S; Brenner, B L; Romero, H; Wetmur, J G; Matte, T D; Gore, A C; Godbold, J H; Wolff, M S

    1999-06-01

    Six million children live in poverty in America's inner cities. These children are at high risk of exposure to pesticides that are used extensively in urban schools, homes, and day-care centers for control of roaches, rats, and other vermin. The organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos and certain pyrethroids are the registered pesticides most heavily applied in cities. Illegal street pesticides are also in use, including tres pasitos (a carbamate), tiza china, and methyl parathion. In New York State in 1997, the heaviest use of pesticides in all counties statewide was in the urban boroughs of Manhattan and Brooklyn. Children are highly vulnerable to pesticides. Because of their play close to the ground, their hand-to-mouth behavior, and their unique dietary patterns, children absorb more pesticides from their environment than adults. The long persistence of semivolatile pesticides such as chlorpyrifos on rugs, furniture, stuffed toys, and other absorbent surfaces within closed apartments further enhances urban children's exposures. Compounding these risks of heavy exposures are children's decreased ability to detoxify and excrete pesticides and the rapid growth, development, and differentiation of their vital organ systems. These developmental immaturities create early windows of great vulnerability. Recent experimental data suggest, for example, that chlorpyrifos may be a developmental neurotoxicant and that exposure in utero may cause biochemical and functional aberrations in fetal neurons as well as deficits in the number of neurons. Certain pyrethroids exert hormonal activity that may alter early neurologic and reproductive development. Assays currently used for assessment of the toxicity of pesticides are insensitive and cannot accurately predict effects to children exposed in utero or in early postnatal life. Protection of American children, and particularly of inner-city children, against the developmental hazards of pesticides requires a comprehensive

  5. Pesticides and inner-city children: exposures, risks, and prevention.

    PubMed Central

    Landrigan, P J; Claudio, L; Markowitz, S B; Berkowitz, G S; Brenner, B L; Romero, H; Wetmur, J G; Matte, T D; Gore, A C; Godbold, J H; Wolff, M S

    1999-01-01

    Six million children live in poverty in America's inner cities. These children are at high risk of exposure to pesticides that are used extensively in urban schools, homes, and day-care centers for control of roaches, rats, and other vermin. The organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos and certain pyrethroids are the registered pesticides most heavily applied in cities. Illegal street pesticides are also in use, including tres pasitos (a carbamate), tiza china, and methyl parathion. In New York State in 1997, the heaviest use of pesticides in all counties statewide was in the urban boroughs of Manhattan and Brooklyn. Children are highly vulnerable to pesticides. Because of their play close to the ground, their hand-to-mouth behavior, and their unique dietary patterns, children absorb more pesticides from their environment than adults. The long persistence of semivolatile pesticides such as chlorpyrifos on rugs, furniture, stuffed toys, and other absorbent surfaces within closed apartments further enhances urban children's exposures. Compounding these risks of heavy exposures are children's decreased ability to detoxify and excrete pesticides and the rapid growth, development, and differentiation of their vital organ systems. These developmental immaturities create early windows of great vulnerability. Recent experimental data suggest, for example, that chlorpyrifos may be a developmental neurotoxicant and that exposure in utero may cause biochemical and functional aberrations in fetal neurons as well as deficits in the number of neurons. Certain pyrethroids exert hormonal activity that may alter early neurologic and reproductive development. Assays currently used for assessment of the toxicity of pesticides are insensitive and cannot accurately predict effects to children exposed in utero or in early postnatal life. Protection of American children, and particularly of inner-city children, against the developmental hazards of pesticides requires a comprehensive

  6. Association between environmental exposure to pesticides and neurodegenerative diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Parron, Tesifon; Requena, Mar; Hernandez, Antonio F.; Alarcon, Raquel

    2011-11-15

    Preliminary studies have shown associations between chronic pesticide exposure in occupational settings and neurological disorders. However, data on the effects of long-term non-occupational exposures are too sparse to allow any conclusions. This study examines the influence of environmental pesticide exposure on a number of neuropsychiatric conditions and discusses their underlying pathologic mechanisms. An ecological study was conducted using averaged prevalence rates of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, cerebral degeneration, polyneuropathies, affective psychosis and suicide attempts in selected Andalusian health districts categorized into areas of high and low environmental pesticide exposure based on the number of hectares devoted to intensive agriculture and pesticide sales per capita. A total of 17,429 cases were collected from computerized hospital records (minimum dataset) between 1998 and 2005. Prevalence rates and the risk of having Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis and suicide were significantly higher in districts with greater pesticide use as compared to those with lower pesticide use. The multivariate analyses showed that the population living in areas with high pesticide use had an increased risk for Alzheimer's disease and suicide attempts and that males living in these areas had increased risks for polyneuropathies, affective disorders and suicide attempts. In conclusion, this study supports and extends previous findings and provides an indication that environmental exposure to pesticides may affect the human health by increasing the incidence of certain neurological disorders at the level of the general population. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Environmental exposure to pesticides and neurodegenerative-psychiatric disorders. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increased risk for Alzheimer's disease and suicide attempts in high exposure areas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Males from

  7. Trends of Pesticide Exposure and Related Cases in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jinky Leilanie; Cosca, Katherine Z.; Del mundo, Jocelyn

    2010-01-01

    The study aims to provide a comprehensive trend of pesticide poisoning cases in the Philippines as well as pesticide exposures, and risk factors related to the adverse effects of pesticide. Records were gathered from the National Poison Control and Management Center (NPCMC), the Philippine General Hospital, De La Salle Medical Center, and other hospitals, and reviewed research studies conducted in the Philippines. Based on hospital surveys, the number of pesticide cases as well as mortality trends have been increasing. Studies from 2006 to 2010 showed that human health especially those of the farmers is at risk due to pesticide exposure. Illnesses and symptoms such as headache, skin abnormalities, fatigue, fever, and weaknesses were the common health complaints experienced by the farmers as reported in the research studies. Moreover, the studies showed risk factors to pesticide exposure, work practices, and pesticide residues in environmental media that could be contributory to pesticide poisoning cases. Government agencies should intensify their surveillance and regulation on both household and agricultural pesticides. The state of pesticide-related illnesses mirrors the poor safety practices among farmers as well as lack of necessary supervision from the government agencies. PMID:25649374

  8. Exposure to non-persistent pesticides and thyroid function: A systematic review of epidemiological evidence.

    PubMed

    Campos, Élida; Freire, Carmen

    2016-08-01

    Numerous pesticides are recognized for their endocrine-disrupting properties. Non-persistent pesticides such as organophosphates, dithiocarbamates and pyrethroids may interfere with thyroid function as suggested by animal studies. However, the influence of chronic exposure to these compounds on thyroidal functions in humans remains to be determined. The present study aimed to review epidemiological evidence for an association between exposure to non-persistent pesticides and circulating levels of thyroid hormones (thyroxin [T4] and triiodothyronine [T3]) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). A systematic review was conducted using MEDLINE, SCOPUS and Virtual Health Library (BVS) databases. Articles were limited to original studies and reports published in English, Portuguese or Spanish. Nineteen epidemiological studies were identified, 17 of which were cross-sectional, 14 were of occupationally exposed workers and 11 used exposure biomarkers. Fungicides and organophosphates (OP) insecticides were the most studied pesticides. Although methodological heterogeneity between studies was noted, particularly regarding study design, exposure assessment, and control of confounding, most of them showed associations with changes in T3 and T4, and/or TSH levels, while results from a few of these are consistent with experimental data supporting the findings that non-persistent pesticide exposure exerts hypothyroid-like effects. However, reporting quality was moderate to poor in 50% of the studies, particularly regarding method of selection of participants and discussion of external validity. Overall, current knowledge regarding the impact of non-persistent pesticides on human thyroid function is still limited. Given the widespread use of pesticides, future research should assess effects of exposure to currently-used pesticides in cohort studies combining comprehensive questionnaire-based assessment and biomarkers. Investigators need to pay particular attention to exposure

  9. Measurement of the exposure of workers to pesticides*

    PubMed Central

    Durham, William F.; Wolfe, Homer R.

    1962-01-01

    There is not a single pesticide for which the interrelationships between occupational exposure by different routes, the fate of the compound in the human body, and its clinical effects are all adequately known. Results of the direct measurement of exposure to pesticides may be used in evaluating the relative hazard of different routes of exposure, different operational procedures, and different protective devices. Results of the indirect measurement of exposure may be of use for the same purpose; in addition, these indirect measures may be used in relating exposures under observed conditions to clinical effects. This paper describes and evaluates detailed procedures for the use of air samples, pads, and washes in the direct measurement of the dermal and respiratory exposure of workers to pesticides. Good methods are not available for measuring oral exposure. Any measure of the absorption, storage, physiological effect, or excretion of a compound constitutes an indirect indication of exposure to it. ImagesFIG. 2 PMID:13888659

  10. Assessing Diet as a Modifiable Risk Factor for Pesticide Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Oates, Liza; Cohen, Marc

    2011-01-01

    The effects of pesticides on the general population, largely as a result of dietary exposure, are unclear. Adopting an organic diet appears to be an obvious solution for reducing dietary pesticide exposure and this is supported by biomonitoring studies in children. However, results of research into the effects of organic diets on pesticide exposure are difficult to interpret in light of the many complexities. Therefore future studies must be carefully designed. While biomonitoring can account for differences in overall exposure it cannot necessarily attribute the source. Due diligence must be given to appropriate selection of participants, target pesticides and analytical methods to ensure that the data generated will be both scientifically rigorous and clinically useful, while minimising the costs and difficulties associated with biomonitoring studies. Study design must also consider confounders such as the unpredictable nature of chemicals and inter- and intra-individual differences in exposure and other factors that might influence susceptibility to disease. Currently the most useful measures are non-specific urinary metabolites that measure a range of organophosphate and synthetic pyrethroid insecticides. These pesticides are in common use, frequently detected in population studies and may provide a broader overview of the impact of an organic diet on pesticide exposure than pesticide-specific metabolites. More population based studies are needed for comparative purposes and improvements in analytical methods are required before many other compounds can be considered for assessment. PMID:21776202

  11. FOR HEALTHY KIDS: REDUCTION OF HOME PESTICIDE RESIDUE EXPOSURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    For Healthy Kids focuses on preventing children's exposure to pesticides by educating agricultural workers on preventing "the take home pathway" for pesticide residue. A baseline survey encompassing over 570 households in the Yakima valley was conducted in the summer of 1999. Ho...

  12. MODELING EXPOSURES TO PESTICIDES APPROACHES AND MODELING NEEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estimation of exposures of children to pesticides requires careful consideration of sources and concentrations of pesticides that may be present in different environmental media and in foods and beverages consumed by children, as well as the different routes and pathways of exp...

  13. Pesticides in Brazilian freshwaters: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, A F; Ribeiro, J S; Kummrow, F; Nogueira, A J A; Montagner, C C; Umbuzeiro, G A

    2016-07-13

    The widespread use of pesticides in agriculture can lead to water contamination and cause adverse effects on non-target organisms. Brazil has been the world's top pesticide market consumer since 2008, with 381 approved pesticides for crop use. This study provides a comprehensive literature review on the occurrence of pesticide residues in Brazilian freshwaters. We searched for information in official agency records and peer-reviewed scientific literature. Risk quotients were calculated to assess the potential risk posed to aquatic life by the individual pesticides based on their levels of water contamination. Studies about the occurrence of pesticides in freshwaters in Brazil are scarce and concentrated in few sampling sites in 5 of the 27 states. Herbicides (21) accounted for the majority of the substances investigated, followed by fungicides (11), insecticides (10) and plant growth regulators (1). Insecticides are the class of major concern. Brazil would benefit from the implementation of a nationwide pesticide freshwater monitoring program to support preventive, remediation and enforcement actions. PMID:27367607

  14. APPROACHES FOR MEASURING APPLICATOR EXPOSURE IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY/PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a prospective epidemiologic study of a large cohort of pesticide applicators and their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. The Pesticide Exposure Study is a sub-study to evaluate exposure factors and to provide data to assess exposure cla...

  15. EXPOSURE OF PESTICIDE FORMULATING PLANT WORKERS TO PARATHION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential hazard to workers exposed to the organophosphorus pesticide, parathion, in formulating plants was studied. Potential dermal and respiratory exposure near certain work stations was determined. Calculations were based on the use of minimum protection (no respirator, s...

  16. Neonicotinoid pesticide exposure impairs crop pollination services provided by bumblebees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley, Dara A.; Garratt, Michael P. D.; Wickens, Jennifer B.; Wickens, Victoria J.; Potts, Simon G.; Raine, Nigel E.

    2015-12-01

    Recent concern over global pollinator declines has led to considerable research on the effects of pesticides on bees. Although pesticides are typically not encountered at lethal levels in the field, there is growing evidence indicating that exposure to field-realistic levels can have sublethal effects on bees, affecting their foraging behaviour, homing ability and reproductive success. Bees are essential for the pollination of a wide variety of crops and the majority of wild flowering plants, but until now research on pesticide effects has been limited to direct effects on bees themselves and not on the pollination services they provide. Here we show the first evidence to our knowledge that pesticide exposure can reduce the pollination services bumblebees deliver to apples, a crop of global economic importance. Bumblebee colonies exposed to a neonicotinoid pesticide provided lower visitation rates to apple trees and collected pollen less often. Most importantly, these pesticide-exposed colonies produced apples containing fewer seeds, demonstrating a reduced delivery of pollination services. Our results also indicate that reduced pollination service delivery is not due to pesticide-induced changes in individual bee behaviour, but most likely due to effects at the colony level. These findings show that pesticide exposure can impair the ability of bees to provide pollination services, with important implications for both the sustained delivery of stable crop yields and the functioning of natural ecosystems.

  17. Neonicotinoid pesticide exposure impairs crop pollination services provided by bumblebees

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Dara A.; Garratt, Michael P.D.; Wickens, Jennifer B.; Wickens, Victoria J.; Potts, Simon G.; Raine, Nigel E.

    2015-01-01

    Recent concern over global pollinator declines has led to considerable research on the effects of pesticides on bees1-5. Although pesticides are typically not encountered at lethal levels in the field, there is growing evidence indicating that exposure to field-realistic levels can have sub-lethal effects on bees affecting their foraging behaviour1,6,7, homing ability8,9 and reproductive success2,5. Bees are essential for the pollination of a wide variety of crops and the majority of wild flowering plants10-12, but until now research on pesticide impacts has been limited to direct effects on bees themselves and not on the pollination services they provide. Here we show the first evidence that pesticide exposure can reduce the pollination services bumblebees deliver to apples, a crop of global economic importance. Colonies exposed to a neonicotinoid pesticide provided lower visitation rates to apple trees and collected pollen less often. Most importantly these pesticide exposed colonies produced apples containing fewer seeds demonstrating a reduced delivery of pollination services. Our results also suggest reduced pollination service delivery is not due to pesticide-induced changes in individual bee behaviour but most likely due to impacts at the colony level. These findings show that pesticide exposure can impair the ability of bees to provide pollination services, with important implications for both the sustained delivery of stable crop yields and the function of natural ecosystems. PMID:26580009

  18. THE CHALLENGE OF ASSESSING CHILDREN'S EXPOSURE TO PESTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    In implementing the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has adopted a policy that the exposure factors and models used to assess and predict exposure to pesticides should generally be conservative. Some elements of exposure assess...

  19. Modeling flight attendants' exposures to pesticide in disinsected aircraft cabins.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Isukapalli, Sastry; Georgopoulos, Panos; Weisel, Clifford

    2013-12-17

    Aircraft cabin disinsection is required by some countries to kill insects that may pose risks to public health and native ecological systems. A probabilistic model has been developed by considering the microenvironmental dynamics of the pesticide in conjunction with the activity patterns of flight attendants, to assess their exposures and risks to pesticide in disinsected aircraft cabins under three scenarios of pesticide application. Main processes considered in the model are microenvironmental transport and deposition, volatilization, and transfer of pesticide when passengers and flight attendants come in contact with the cabin surfaces. The simulated pesticide airborne mass concentration and surface mass loadings captured measured ranges reported in the literature. The medians (means ± standard devitions) of daily total exposure intakes were 0.24 (3.8 ± 10.0), 1.4 (4.2 ± 5.7), and 0.15 (2.1 ± 3.2) μg day(-1) kg(-1) of body weight for scenarios of residual application, preflight, and top-of-descent spraying, respectively. Exposure estimates were sensitive to parameters corresponding to pesticide deposition, body surface area and weight, surface-to-body transfer efficiencies, and efficiency of adherence to skin. Preflight spray posed 2.0 and 3.1 times higher pesticide exposure risk levels for flight attendants in disinsected aircraft cabins than top-of-descent spray and residual application, respectively. PMID:24251734

  20. Pesticide/environmental exposures and Parkinson's disease in East Texas.

    PubMed

    Dhillon, Amanpreet S; Tarbutton, G Lester; Levin, Jeffrey L; Plotkin, George M; Lowry, Larry K; Nalbone, J Torey; Shepherd, Sara

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that pesticides and other environmental exposures may have a role in the etiology of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). However, there is little human data on risk associated with specific pesticide products, including organic pesticides such as rotenone with PD. Using a case-control design, this study examined self-reports of exposure to pesticide products, organic pesticides such as rotenone, and other occupational and environmental exposures on the risk of PD in an East Texas population. The findings demonstrated significantly increased risk of PD with use of organic pesticides such as rotenone in the past year in gardening (OR = 10.9; 95% CI = 2.5-48.0) and any rotenone use in the past (OR = 10.0; 95% CI = 2.9-34.3). Use of chlorpyrifos products (OR = 2.0; 95% CI = 1.02-3.8), past work in an electronics plant (OR = 5.1; 95% CI = 1.1-23.6), and exposure to fluorides (OR = 3.3; 95% CI = 1.03-10.3) were also associated with significantly increased risk. A trend of increased PD risk was observed with work history in paper/lumber mill (OR = 6.35; 95% CI = 0.7-51.8), exposure to cadmium (OR = 5.3; 95% CI = 0.6-44.9), exposure to paraquat (OR = 3.5; 95% CI = 0.4-31.6), and insecticide applications to farm animals/animal areas and agricultural processes (OR = 4.4; 95% CI = 0.5-38.1). Cigarette smoking, alcohol use, and fish intake were associated with reduced risk. In summary, this study demonstrates an increased risk of PD associated with organic pesticides such as rotenone and certain other pesticides and environmental exposures in this population. PMID:19042691

  1. PESTICIDE EXPOSURE AND AMYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCLEROSIS

    PubMed Central

    Kamel, Freya; Umbach, David M; Bedlack, Richard S; Richards, Marie; Watson, Mary; Alavanja, Michael CR; Blair, Aaron; Hoppin, Jane A; Schmidt, Silke; Sandler, Dale P

    2012-01-01

    Our objectives were to summarize literature on the association of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) with pesticides as a group and to evaluate associations of ALS with specific pesticides. We conducted a meta-analysis of published studies of ALS and pesticides as a group and investigated the association of ALS with specific pesticides, using data from the Agricultural Health Study (AHS), a cohort including 84,739 private pesticide applicators and spouses. AHS participants provided information on pesticide use at enrollment in 1993-1997. In mortality data collected through February, 2010, ALS was recorded on death certificates of 41 individuals whom we compared to the remaining cohort (controls), using unconditional logistic regression adjusted for age and gender to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals. In the meta-analysis, ALS was associated with use of pesticides as a group (1.9, 1.1-3.1). In the AHS, ALS was not associated with pesticides as a group, but was associated with use of organochlorine insecticides (OCs) (1.6, 0.8-3.5), pyrethroids (1.4, 0.6-3.4), herbicides (1.6, 0.7-3.7), and fumigants (1.8, 0.8-3.9). ORs were elevated for ever use of the specific OCs aldrin (2.1, 0.8-5.1), dieldrin (2.6, 0.9-7.3), DDT (2.1, 0.9-5.0), and toxaphene (2.0, 0.8-4.9). None of these associations was statistically significant. Similar results were observed in an analysis restricted to men. In conclusion, the meta-analysis suggests that ALS risk is associated with use of pesticides as a group, and our analysis of AHS data points to OC use in particular. The latter results are novel but based on a small number of cases and require replication in other populations. PMID:22521219

  2. Repeated Pesticide Exposure among North Carolina Migrant and Seasonal Farmworkers

    PubMed Central

    Arcury, Thomas A.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Talton, Jennifer W.; Chen, Haiying; Vallejos, Quirina M.; Galvan, Leonardo; Barr, Dana B.; Quandt, Sara A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Limited data document the multiple and repeated pesticide absorption experienced by farmworkers in an agricultural season or their risk factors. Methods Data were collected from 196 farmworkers 4 times at monthly intervals in 2007. Urine samples were tested for 12 pesticide urinary metabolites. Questionnaire data provided measures of exposure risks. Results Farmworkers had at least one detection for many pesticide urinary metabolites; e.g. 84.2% had at least one detection for acephate, 88.8% for 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol. Most farmworkers had multiple detections for specific metabolites; e.g., 64.8% had 2 or more detections for acephate, 64.8% for 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol, 79.1% for 3-phenoxybenzoic acid, and 86.7% for 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Housing type had a consistent significant association with metabolite detections. Conclusions Farmworkers are exposed to multiple pesticides across an agricultural season, and they experience repeated exposures to the same pesticides. Reducing farmworker pesticide exposure and delineating the health outcomes of this exposure require more detailed data. PMID:20623661

  3. Childhood and adolescent pesticide exposure and breast cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Niehoff, Nicole M.; Nichols, Hazel B; White, Alexandra J.; Parks, Christine G.; D’Aloisio, Aimee A; Sandler, Dale P.

    2016-01-01

    Background To date, epidemiological studies have not strongly supported an association between pesticide exposure and breast cancer. However, few previous studies had the ability to assess specific time periods of exposure. Studies that relied on adult serum levels of metabolites of organochlorine pesticides may not accurately reflect exposure during developmental periods. Further, exposure assessment often occurred after diagnosis and key tumor characteristics, such as hormone receptor status, have rarely been available to evaluate tumor-subtype specific associations. We examine the association between pesticide exposure during childhood and adolescence and breast cancer risk in the prospective Sister Study cohort (N=50,844 women) to assess this relation by tumor subtype. Methods During an average 5-year follow-up, 2,134 incident invasive and in situ breast cancer diagnoses were identified. Residential and farm exposure to pesticides were self-reported at study enrollment during standardized interviews. Multivariable hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals for breast cancer risk were calculated with Cox proportional hazards regression. Results HRs were near null for the association between childhood/adolescent pesticide exposure and breast cancer risk overall or among ER+/PR+ invasive tumors. However, among women who were ages 0–18 before the ban of DDT in the U.S., exposure to fogger trucks or planes was associated with a HR=1.3 for premenopausal breast cancer (95% CI: 0.92, 1.7). Conclusion These findings do not support an overall association between childhood and adolescent pesticide exposure and breast cancer risk. However, modest increases in breast cancer risk were associated with acute events in a subgroup of young women. PMID:26808595

  4. ORGANOPHOSPHATE PESTICIDE EXPOSURES - WHERE ARE THE HIGH RISK CHILDREN?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methods to identify children at high-risk for organophosphate (OP) pesticide exposure are difficult to develop because biological markers reflect only recent "snapshots" of exposure due to the short half-life of OP compounds (generally about 24 hours). We conducted a series of p...

  5. STUDIES OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN'S EXPOSURES TO PERSISTENT PESTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Young children may have greater exposures than do older children or adults to some persistent organic pesticides, because of differences in their diet and activities. The physical impact of those exposures may also be increased by their small body size, immature body systems, ...

  6. RESIDENTIAL INDOOR EXPOSURES OF CHILDREN TO PESTICIDES FOLLOWING LAWN APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methods have been developed to estimate children's residential exposures to pesticide residues and applied in a small field study of indoor exposures resulting from the intrusion of lawn-applied herbicide into the home. Sampling methods included size-selective indoor air sampli...

  7. MODELING ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES TO PARTICULATE MATTER AND PESTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes initial results from on-going research at EPA on modeling human exposures to particulate matter and residential pesticides. A first generation probabilistic population exposure model for Particulate Matter (PM), specifically for predicting PM1o and P...

  8. Parkinson’s disease risk from ambient exposure to pesticides

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Anthony; Costello, Sadie; Cockburn, Myles; Zhang, Xinbo; Bronstein, Jeff; Ritz, Beate

    2013-01-01

    Due to the heavy and expanding agricultural use of neurotoxic pesticides suspected to affect dopaminergic neurons, it is imperative to closely examine the role of pesticides in the development of Parkinson’s disease (PD). We focus our investigation on pesticide use in California’s heavily agricultural central valley by utilizing a unique pesticide use reporting system. From 2001 to 2007, we enrolled 362 incident PD cases and 341 controls living in the Central Valley of California. Employing our geographic information system model, we estimated ambient exposures to the pesticides ziram, maneb, and paraquat at work places and residences from 1974 to 1999. At workplaces, combined exposure to ziram, maneb, and paraquat increased risk of PD three-fold (OR: 3.09; 95% CI: 1.69, 5.64) and combined exposure to ziram and paraquat, excluding maneb exposure, was associated with a 80% increase in risk (OR:1.82; 95% CI: 1.03, 3.21). Risk estimates for ambient workplace exposure were greater than for exposures at residences and were especially high for younger onset PD patients and when exposed in both locations. Our study is the first to implicate ziram in PD etiology. Combined ambient exposure to ziram and paraquat as well as combined ambient exposure to maneb and paraquat at both workplaces and residences increased PD risk substantially. Those exposed to ziram, maneb, and paraquat together experienced the greatest increase in PD risk. Our results suggest that pesticides affecting different mechanisms that contribute to dopaminergic neuron death may act together to increase the risk of PD considerably. PMID:21505849

  9. Stakeholder attitudes towards cumulative and aggregate exposure assessment of pesticides.

    PubMed

    Verbeke, Wim; Van Loo, Ellen J; Vanhonacker, Filiep; Delcour, Ilse; Spanoghe, Pieter; van Klaveren, Jacob D

    2015-05-01

    This study evaluates the attitudes and perspectives of different stakeholder groups (agricultural producers, pesticide manufacturers, trading companies, retailers, regulators, food safety authorities, scientists and NGOs) towards the concepts of cumulative and aggregate exposure assessment of pesticides by means of qualitative in-depth interviews (n = 15) and a quantitative stakeholder survey (n = 65). The stakeholders involved generally agreed that the use of chemical pesticides is needed, primarily for meeting the need of feeding the growing world population, while clearly acknowledging the problematic nature of human exposure to pesticide residues. Current monitoring was generally perceived to be adequate, but the timeliness and consistency of monitoring practices across countries were questioned. The concept of cumulative exposure assessment was better understood by stakeholders than the concept of aggregate exposure assessment. Identified pitfalls were data availability, data limitations, sources and ways of dealing with uncertainties, as well as information and training needs. Regulators and food safety authorities were perceived as the stakeholder groups for whom cumulative and aggregate pesticide exposure assessment methods and tools would be most useful and acceptable. Insights obtained from this exploratory study have been integrated in the development of targeted and stakeholder-tailored dissemination and training programmes that were implemented within the EU-FP7 project ACROPOLIS. PMID:25455887

  10. Neurodevelopmental effects in children associated with exposure to organophosphate pesticides: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Quezada, María Teresa; Lucero, Boris A; Barr, Dana B; Steenland, Kyle; Levy, Karen; Ryan, P Barry; Iglesias, Veronica; Alvarado, Sergio; Concha, Carlos; Rojas, Evelyn; Vega, Catalina

    2013-12-01

    Many studies have investigated the neurodevelopmental effects of prenatal and early childhood exposures to organophosphate (OP) pesticides among children, but they have not been collectively evaluated. The aim of the present article is to synthesize reported evidence over the last decade on OP exposure and neurodevelopmental effects in children. The Data Sources were PubMed, Web of Science, EBSCO, SciVerse Scopus, SpringerLink, SciELO and DOAJ. The eligibility criteria considered were studies assessing exposure to OP pesticides and neurodevelopmental effects in children from birth to 18 years of age, published between 2002 and 2012 in English or Spanish. Twenty-seven articles met the eligibility criteria. Studies were rated for evidential consideration as high, intermediate, or low based upon the study design, number of participants, exposure measurement, and neurodevelopmental measures. All but one of the 27 studies evaluated showed some negative effects of pesticides on neurobehavioral development. A positive dose-response relationship between OP exposure and neurodevelopmental outcomes was found in all but one of the 12 studies that assessed dose-response. In the ten longitudinal studies that assessed prenatal exposure to OPs, cognitive deficits (related to working memory) were found in children at age 7 years, behavioral deficits (related to attention) seen mainly in toddlers, and motor deficits (abnormal reflexes) seen mainly in neonates. No meta-analysis was possible due to different measurements of exposure assessment and outcomes. Eleven studies (all longitudinal) were rated high, 14 studies were rated intermediate, and two studies were rated low. Evidence of neurological deficits associated with exposure to OP pesticides in children is growing. The studies reviewed collectively support the hypothesis that exposure to OP pesticides induces neurotoxic effects. Further research is needed to understand effects associated with exposure in critical windows of

  11. DNA methylation alterations in response to pesticide exposure in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao; Wallace, Andrew D.; Du, Pan; Kibbe, Warren A.; Jafari, Nadereh; Xie, Hehuang; Lin, Simon; Baccarelli, Andrea; Soares, Marcelo Bento; Hou, Lifang

    2013-01-01

    Although pesticides are subject to extensive carcinogenicity testing before regulatory approval, pesticide exposure has repeatedly been associated with various cancers. This suggests that pesticides may cause cancer via non-mutagenicity mechanisms. The present study provides evidence to support the hypothesis that pesticide-induced cancer may be mediated in part by epigenetic mechanisms. We examined whether exposure to 7 commonly used pesticides (i.e., fonofos, parathion, terbufos, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, malathion, and phorate) induces DNA methylation alterations in vitro. We conducted genome-wide DNA methylation analyses on DNA samples obtained from the human hematopoietic K562 cell line exposed to ethanol (control) and several OPs using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation27 BeadChip. Bayesian-adjusted t-tests were used to identify differentially methylated gene promoter CpG sites. In this report, we present our results on three pesticides (fonofos, parathion, and terbufos) that clustered together based on principle component analysis and hierarchical clustering. These three pesticides induced similar methylation changes in the promoter regions of 712 genes, while also exhibiting their own OP-specific methylation alterations. Functional analysis of methylation changes specific to each OP, or common to all three OPs, revealed that differential methylation was associated with numerous genes that are involved in carcinogenesis-related processes. Our results provide experimental evidence that pesticides may modify gene promoter DNA methylation levels, suggesting that epigenetic mechanisms may contribute to pesticide-induced carcinogenesis. Further studies in other cell types and human samples are required, as well as determining the impact of these methylation changes on gene expression. PMID:22847954

  12. Pesticide Exposure and Depression among Male Private Pesticide Applicators in the Agricultural Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Beard, John D.; Umbach, David M.; Hoppin, Jane A.; Richards, Marie; Alavanja, Michael C.R.; Blair, Aaron; Sandler, Dale P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pesticide exposure may be positively associated with depression. Few previous studies have considered the episodic nature of depression or examined individual pesticides. Objective: We evaluated associations between pesticide exposure and depression among male private pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study. Methods: We analyzed data for 10 pesticide classes and 50 specific pesticides used by 21,208 applicators enrolled in 1993–1997 who completed a follow-up telephone interview in 2005–2010. We divided applicators who reported a physician diagnosis of depression (n = 1,702; 8%) into those who reported a previous diagnosis of depression at enrollment but not follow-up (n = 474; 28%), at both enrollment and follow-up (n = 540; 32%), and at follow-up but not enrollment (n = 688; 40%) and used polytomous logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs. We used inverse probability weighting to adjust for potential confounders and to account for the exclusion of 3,315 applicators with missing covariate data and 24,619 who did not complete the follow-up interview. Results: After weighting for potential confounders, missing covariate data, and dropout, ever-use of two pesticide classes, fumigants and organochlorine insecticides, and seven individual pesticides—the fumigants aluminum phosphide and ethylene dibromide; the phenoxy herbicide (2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy)acetic acid (2,4,5-T); the organochlorine insecticide dieldrin; and the organophosphate insecticides diazinon, malathion, and parathion—were all positively associated with depression in each case group, with ORs between 1.1 and 1.9. Conclusions: Our study supports a positive association between pesticide exposure and depression, including associations with several specific pesticides. Citation: Beard JD, Umbach DM, Hoppin JA, Richards M, Alavanja MCR, Blair A, Sandler DP, Kamel F. 2014. Pesticide exposure and depression among male private pesticide applicators in the

  13. The use of parasites as bioindicators of pesticide exposure

    PubMed Central

    Sabo, Rastislav; Sabová, Lucia; Legáth, Jaroslav

    2009-01-01

    Organisms used in risk assessment of pesticides must be the most sensitive ones to pesticides exposure. The aim of this study was to observe the effect of two commercial pesticide products (containing glyphosate and tolylfluanid) to larval stages of parasites Cooperia curticei, Ostertagia circumcincta, Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus axei. There were two concentrations tested for each product vs. control group. Larvae (500 individuals/Petri dish) were incubated at 27 °C and observed daily for 42 days. We found out that T. axei larvae are the most resistant ones to tolylfluanid exposure – there was no statistical significance in any concentration tested after 42 days of tolylfluanid exposure. 100% of dead larvae were found on 33rd day of experiment at higher concentration, resp. on 37th day at lower tested concentration of glyphosate. C. curticei, O. circumcincta and H. contortus showed similar statistical significance in both pesticides tested (there was high statistical significance (p<0.0001) at both concentrations of glyphosate and only at higher tested concentration of tolylfluanid). C. curticei and H. contortus larvae were found dead, spiral shaped and without movement at all concentrations tested, spiral shape was not observed in other two tested larvae. O. circumcincta larvae reacted to pesticides exposure very quickly; rapid death was recorded on second day of experiment at both concentrations of glyphosate and at higher tested concentration of tolylfluanid. From four tested small ruminant parasites (L3), O. circumcincta larvae seem to be the most sensitive ones and need further research. PMID:21217852

  14. Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia and Exposure to Pesticides

    PubMed Central

    Soldin, Offie P.; Nsouly-Maktabi, Hala; Genkinger, Jeanine M.; Loffredo, Christopher A.; Ortega-Garcia, Juan Antonio; Colantino, Drew; Barr, Dana B.; Luban, Naomi L.; Shad, Aziza T.; Nelson, David

    2013-01-01

    Organophosphates are pesticides ubiquitous in the environment and have been hypothesized as one of the risk factors for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). In this study, we evaluated the associations of pesticide exposure in a residential environment with the risk for pediatric ALL. This is a case–control study of children newly diagnosed with ALL, and their mothers (n = 41 child–mother pairs) were recruited from Georgetown University Medical Center and Children's National Medical Center in Washington, DC, between January 2005 and January 2008. Cases and controls were matched for age, sex, and county of residence. Environmental exposures were determined by questionnaire and by urinalysis of pesticide metabolites using isotope dilution gas chromatography–high-resolution mass spectrometry. We found that more case mothers (33%) than controls (14%) reported using insecticides in the home (P < 0.02). Other environmental exposures to toxic substances were not significantly associated with the risk of ALL. Pesticide levels were higher in cases than in controls (P < 0.05). Statistically significant differences were found between children with ALL and controls for the organophosphate metabolites diethylthiophosphate (P < 0.03) and diethyldithiophosphate (P < 0.05). The association of ALL risk with pesticide exposure merits further studies to confirm the association. PMID:19571777

  15. Bumblebee learning and memory is impaired by chronic exposure to a neonicotinoid pesticide.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Dara A; Smith, Karen E; Raine, Nigel E

    2015-01-01

    Bumblebees are exposed to pesticides applied for crop protection while foraging on treated plants, with increasing evidence suggesting that this sublethal exposure has implications for pollinator declines. The challenges of navigating and learning to manipulate many different flowers underline the critical role learning plays for the foraging success and survival of bees. We assessed the impacts of both acute and chronic exposure to field-realistic levels of a widely applied neonicotinoid insecticide, thiamethoxam, on bumblebee odour learning and memory. Although bees exposed to acute doses showed conditioned responses less frequently than controls, we found no difference in the number of individuals able to learn at field-realistic exposure levels. However, following chronic pesticide exposure, bees exposed to field-realistic levels learnt more slowly and their short-term memory was significantly impaired following exposure to 2.4 ppb pesticide. These results indicate that field-realistic pesticide exposure can have appreciable impacts on learning and memory, with potential implications for essential individual behaviour and colony fitness. PMID:26568480

  16. Bumblebee learning and memory is impaired by chronic exposure to a neonicotinoid pesticide

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Dara A.; Smith, Karen E.; Raine, Nigel E.

    2015-01-01

    Bumblebees are exposed to pesticides applied for crop protection while foraging on treated plants, with increasing evidence suggesting that this sublethal exposure has implications for pollinator declines. The challenges of navigating and learning to manipulate many different flowers underline the critical role learning plays for the foraging success and survival of bees. We assessed the impacts of both acute and chronic exposure to field-realistic levels of a widely applied neonicotinoid insecticide, thiamethoxam, on bumblebee odour learning and memory. Although bees exposed to acute doses showed conditioned responses less frequently than controls, we found no difference in the number of individuals able to learn at field-realistic exposure levels. However, following chronic pesticide exposure, bees exposed to field-realistic levels learnt more slowly and their short-term memory was significantly impaired following exposure to 2.4 ppb pesticide. These results indicate that field-realistic pesticide exposure can have appreciable impacts on learning and memory, with potential implications for essential individual behaviour and colony fitness. PMID:26568480

  17. Characterizing exposures and neurobehavioral performance in Egyptian adolescent pesticide applicators

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Ahmed A.; Abdel-Rasoul, Gaafar; Lasarev, Michael; Hendy, Olfat; Olson, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Children and adolescents may have occupational exposure to pesticides. Although previous studies examining prenatal pesticide exposure have identified neurobehavioral deficits in children, there are limited studies examining the impact of occupational exposure in children. The objectives of this study are to estimate exposures to the organophosphorus pesticide, chlorpyrifos (CPF), by measuring urinary levels of 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy), a specific CPF metabolite, and blood cholinesterase (ChE) activities and to characterize neurobehavioral performance in adolescents working as seasonal pesticide applicators and non-applicator controls. A neurobehavioral test battery, consisting of 14 tests, was used to assess a broad range of functions. Applicators performed worse than controls on the majority of tests. Principal component analysis was used to reduce the number of outcome variables and two components, focused on reasoning-short-term memory and attention-executive functioning, showed significant deficits in applicators compared to non-applicators. Elevated metabolite levels were found in the applicators compared to the non-applicators, confirming CPF exposure in the applicators. Although this study is limited by a small sample size, it provides preliminary evidence of moderate CPF exposures, decreased blood ChE in some applicators and decreased neurobehavioral performance in an adolescent working population. PMID:24833556

  18. Pesticide Exposures and Body Mass Index (BMI) of Pesticide Applicators From the Agricultural Health Study.

    PubMed

    LaVerda, Nancy L; Goldsmith, David F; Alavanja, Michael C R; Hunting, Katherine L

    2015-01-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals, including pesticides, may be associated with weight gain. This is the first longitudinal study to examine a potential association between weight gain and pesticides using data on 8,365 male pesticide applicators from the Agricultural Health Study (AHS) cohort established in 1993. The relationship between total cumulative days of exposure to pesticide functional/chemical classes and to the four most frequently used individual pesticides was studied in relation to body mass index (BMI) at the time of 5-yr follow-up (beginning in 1998) with the length of the exposure period dating back to age 20 yr. Multiple regression, Spearman correlation, ordinal logistic regression, and logistic regression models all utilized a Bonferroni-adjusted p value, were adjusted for relevant covariates, and were stratified by state of residence (Iowa/North Carolina) and presence/absence of weight-related health conditions. Adjusted multiple regression yielded statistically significant positive parameter estimates for the study sample and Iowa subgroups with consistent findings for triazine herbicides and atrazine: Change in BMI per 100 cumulative pesticide exposure days ranged from 0.07 to 0.11 for triazine herbicides and from 0.10 to 0.19 for atrazine. Ordinal logistic regression compared normal weight with overweight and with obese using the zero exposure category as referent. Statistically significant adjusted odds ratios identified for the study sample and both state subgroups for the highest level of atrazine exposure ranged from 1.4 to 1.7. Further investigation is warranted to evaluate the associations identified here. PMID:26479458

  19. Parameterization models for pesticide exposure via crop consumption.

    PubMed

    Fantke, Peter; Wieland, Peter; Juraske, Ronnie; Shaddick, Gavin; Itoiz, Eva Sevigné; Friedrich, Rainer; Jolliet, Olivier

    2012-12-01

    An approach for estimating human exposure to pesticides via consumption of six important food crops is presented that can be used to extend multimedia models applied in health risk and life cycle impact assessment. We first assessed the variation of model output (pesticide residues per kg applied) as a function of model input variables (substance, crop, and environmental properties) including their possible correlations using matrix algebra. We identified five key parameters responsible for between 80% and 93% of the variation in pesticide residues, namely time between substance application and crop harvest, degradation half-lives in crops and on crop surfaces, overall residence times in soil, and substance molecular weight. Partition coefficients also play an important role for fruit trees and tomato (Kow), potato (Koc), and lettuce (Kaw, Kow). Focusing on these parameters, we develop crop-specific models by parametrizing a complex fate and exposure assessment framework. The parametric models thereby reflect the framework's physical and chemical mechanisms and predict pesticide residues in harvest using linear combinations of crop, crop surface, and soil compartments. Parametric model results correspond well with results from the complex framework for 1540 substance-crop combinations with total deviations between a factor 4 (potato) and a factor 66 (lettuce). Predicted residues also correspond well with experimental data previously used to evaluate the complex framework. Pesticide mass in harvest can finally be combined with reduction factors accounting for food processing to estimate human exposure from crop consumption. All parametric models can be easily implemented into existing assessment frameworks. PMID:23136826

  20. ANALYSIS OF NHEXAS DATA FROM THE CHILDREN'S PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY IN MINNESOTA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The "Minnesota Children's Pesticide Exposure Study" (MNCPES) evaluated the feasibility of conducting a multipathway exposure monitoring study with a sample of children, and implemented a strategy for collection and integration of survey information (e.g., pesticide usage and act...

  1. PHYSIOLOGICAL DYSFUNCTION IN ESTUARINE MYSIDS AND LARVAL DECAPODS WITH CHRONIC PESTICIDE EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A variety of physiological functions was examined in an estuarine mysid (Mysidopsis bahia) during life-cycle exposures to four classes of pesticides. Pesticide exposure initially elevated respiration rates of juveniles. These increased metabolic requirements reduced the amount of...

  2. ANALYSIS OF NHEXAS DATA FROM THE CHILDREN,S PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY IN MINNESOTA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The "Minnesota Children's Pesticide Exposure Study" (MNCPES) evaluated the feasibility of conducting a multipathway exposure monitoring study with a sample of children, and implemented a strategy for collection and integration of survey information (e.g., pesticide usage and acti...

  3. Pesticides

    MedlinePlus

    ... ACMT Recognition Awards Annual Scientific Meeting Travel Scholarships Pesticides Public Health > Public > Toxicology FAQ's > Pesticides Pesticides What are pesticides ? How do pesticides work ? How ...

  4. Prioritization of pesticides based on daily dietary exposure potential as determined from the SHEDS model

    EPA Science Inventory

    A major pathway for exposure to many pesticides is through diet. The objectives were to rank pesticides by comparing their calculated daily dietary exposure as determined by EPA's Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation (SHEDS) to single pesticides for different age groups ...

  5. POSTNATAL ALTERATIONS IN DEVELOPMENT RESULTING FROM PRENATAL EXPOSURE TO PESTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Alterations in the developmental processes of embryos resulting from exposure to chemicals are not limited to morphological abnormalities that can be observed in the near term fetus. In the research on the developmental toxicology of pesticides the authors have noted morphologica...

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL PCB AND PESTICIDE EXPOSURE AND RISK OF ENDOMETRIOSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental PCB and Pesticide Exposure and Risk of Endometriosis

    Germaine M. Buck1, John M. Weiner2, Hebe Greizerstein3, Brian Whitcomb1, Enrique Schisterman1, Paul Kostyniak3, Danelle Lobdell4, Kent Crickard5, and Ralph Sperrazza5

    1Epidemiology Branch, Division o...

  7. DETERMINANTS OF CHILDREN'S PESTICIDE EXPOSURE IN YUMA COUNTY, ARIZONA

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1999-2000, researchers from US EPA's Office of Research and Development in collaboration with several government and academic institutions conducted pesticide exposure assessment studies in Yuma county. Results from these studies have been previously reported (Gordon SM, et a...

  8. Agricultural pesticide exposure and perinatal mortality in central Sudan.

    PubMed Central

    Taha, T. E.; Gray, R. H.

    1993-01-01

    Hospital- and community-based studies were conducted in central Sudan to investigate the association between pesticide exposure and perinatal mortality. The cases were 197 stillbirths in the hospital and 36 perinatal deaths in the community; the controls were 812 liveborn, normal-birth-weight infants in the hospital, and 1505 liveborn infants who survived for the first 7 days after birth in the community. The odds ratio (OR) of perinatal death associated with pesticide exposure was estimated using multiple logistic regression. There was a consistent and significant association between pesticide exposure and perinatal mortality in the hospital (adjusted OR = 1.9; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.3-2.8) and the community populations (adjusted OR = 2.7; 95% CI: 1.1-6.4). The OR was significantly higher among women engaged in farming (3.6; 95% CI: 1.6-8.0), but not among women in nonfarming occupations (1.6; 95% CI: 0.8-3.3). The estimated attributable risks of perinatal death owing to pesticide exposure were 22.6% for hospital stillbirths and 15.7% for community perinatal deaths; but among women engaged in farming in the hospital population the attributable risks were substantially higher (34.5%). PMID:8324850

  9. Pesticide exposure and depression among agricultural workers in France.

    PubMed

    Weisskopf, Marc G; Moisan, Frédéric; Tzourio, Christophe; Rathouz, Paul J; Elbaz, Alexis

    2013-10-01

    Pesticides are ubiquitous neurotoxicants, and several lines of evidence suggest that exposure may be associated with depression. Epidemiologic evidence has focused largely on organophosphate exposures, while research on other pesticides is limited. We collected detailed pesticide use history from farmers recruited in 1998-2000 in France. Among 567 farmers aged 37-78 years, 83 (14.6%) self-reported treatment or hospitalization for depression. On the basis of the reported age at the first such instance, we used adjusted Cox proportional hazards models to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for depression (first treatment or hospitalization) by exposure to different pesticides. The hazard ratio for depression among those who used herbicides was 1.93 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.95, 3.91); there was no association with insecticides or fungicides. Compared with nonusers, those who used herbicides for <19 years and ≥19 years (median for all herbicide users, 19 years) had hazard ratios of 1.51 (95% CI: 0.62, 3.67) and 2.31 (95% CI: 1.05, 5.10), respectively. Similar results were found for total hours of use. Results were stronger when adjusted for insecticides and fungicides. There is widespread use of herbicides by the general public, although likely at lower levels than in agriculture. Thus, determining whether similar associations are seen at lower levels of exposure should be explored. PMID:23851580

  10. Potential exposure of larval and juvenile delta smelt to dissolved pesticides in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuivila, K.M.; Moon, G.E.

    2004-01-01

    The San Francisco Estuary is critical habitat for delta smelt Hypomesus transpacificus, a fish whose abundance has declined greatly since 1983 and is now listed as threatened. In addition, the estuary receives drainage from the Central Valley, an urban and agricultural region with intense and diverse pesticide usage. One possible factor of the delta smelt population decline is pesticide toxicity during vulnerable larval and juvenile stages, but pesticide concentrations are not well characterized in delta smelt spawning and nursery habitat. The objective of this study was to estimate the potential exposure of delta smelt during their early life stages to dissolved pesticides. For 3 years (1998-2000), water samples from the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta were collected during April-June in coordination with the California Department of Fish and Game's delta smelt early life stage monitoring program. Samples were analyzed for pesticides using solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Water samples contained multiple pesticides, ranging from 2 to 14 pesticides in each sample. In both 1999 and 2000, elevated concentrations of pesticides overlapped in time and space with peak densities of larval and juvenile delta smelt. In contrast, high spring outflows in 1998 transported delta smelt away from the pesticide sampling sites so that exposure could not be estimated. During 2 years, larval and juvenile delta smelt were potentially exposed to a complex mixture of pesticides for a minimum of 2-3 weeks. Although the measured concentrations were well below short-term (96-h) LC50 values for individual pesticides, the combination of multiple pesticides and lengthy exposure duration could potentially have lethal or sublethal effects on delta smelt, especially during early larval development.

  11. Pesticides re-entry dermal exposure of workers in greenhouses.

    PubMed

    Caffarelli, V; Conte, E; Correnti, A; Gatti, R; Musmeci, F; Morali, G; Spagnoli, G; Tranfo, G; Triolo, L; Vita, M; Zappa, G

    2004-01-01

    This research has the aim to evaluate the risk of pesticide dermal exposure for workers in greenhouses. We considered the following crops: tomato, cucumber and strawberry, largely spread in Bracciano lake district. The pesticides monitored were: tetradifon on strawberry: metalaxyl, azoxystrobin and fenarimol on cucumber; acrinathrin, azoxystrobin and chlorpyrifos ethyl on tomato. The dermal exposure was evaluated by Dislodgeable Foliar Residue (DFR) measurements employing transfer coefficients got from literature. For risk evaluation, we have compared the dermal exposures with Acceptable Operator Exposure Levels (AOEL). The re-entry time were obtained intercepting the dose decay curves with AOEL values. The re-entry times result higher than two days in the cases of chlorpyrifos on tomato (re-entry time: 3 days), azoxystrobin on tomato (4 days), and tetradifon on strawberry (8 days). The need of measuring specific transfer coefficients is pointed out. PMID:15756864

  12. Chronic pesticide exposure: Health effects among pesticide sprayers in Southern India

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Philip; Jose, Arun; Alex, Reginald George; Mohan, Venkata Raghava

    2015-01-01

    Background: Occupational health has never been a priority for policy makers in India, despite 63% of the Indian population being in the economically productive age group. Objectives: The study was designed to find out the morbidity as a result of long-term exposure to pesticides among professional pesticide sprayers in a rural block in Tamil Nadu. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional study was done in Kaniyambadi block of Vellore district, Tamil Nadu, during July to October 2013. A total of 70 professional pesticide sprayers and 66 people engaged in other occupations were enrolled into the study. The participants were administered a standardized questionnaire apart from measuring pulmonary function and peripheral sensations. Venous blood samples were collected for measuring serum cholinesterase. Results: The pesticide sprayers had higher prevalence of breathlessness on activities of daily living (odds ratio [OR]: 3.14, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.22–8.07), chronic cough/phlegm (OR: 3.53, 95% CI: 1.09–11.46), symptoms of peripheral sensory neuropathy (OR: 6.66, 95% CI: 2.53–17.51) and recurrent abdominal pain (OR: 3.05, 95% CI: 1.03–9.01), when compared to people engaged in other occupations. Pesticide sprayers also had significantly lower mean peak expiratory low rates and poor peripheral sensations. The serum cholinesterase levels were not statistically different between the groups. Conclusion: The pesticide sprayers had a higher morbidity when compared to people engaged in other occupations, and further research is needed to find out methods to prevent the same. Serum cholinesterase may not be a good marker for quantifying exposure to pesticide among sprayers, during a spraying season. PMID:26500412

  13. THE EPA NATIONAL EXPOSURE RESEARCH LABORATORY CHILDREN'S PESTICIDE EXPOSURE MEASUREMENT PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) conducts research in support of the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) of 1996. FQPA requires that children's risks to pesticide exposures be considered during the tolerance-setting process. The Act requires exposure...

  14. Prioritization of pesticides based on daily dietary exposure potential as determined from the SHEDS model.

    PubMed

    Melnyk, Lisa Jo; Wang, Zhaohui; Li, Zhilin; Xue, Jianping

    2016-10-01

    A major pathway for exposure to many pesticides is through diet. The objectives were to rank pesticides by comparing their calculated daily dietary exposure as determined by EPA's Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation (SHEDS) to single pesticides for different age groups to acceptable daily intakes (ADI), characterize pesticide trends in exposures over different time periods, and determine commodities contributing to pesticide exposures. SHEDS was applied, using Pesticide Data Program (PDP) (1991-2011) and pesticide usage data on crops from USDA combined with NHANES dietary consumption data, to generate exposure estimates by age group. ADI data collected from EPA, WHO, and other sources were used to rank pesticides based on relativeness of the dietary exposure potential to ADI by age groups. Sensitivity analysis provided trends in pesticide exposures. Within SHEDS, commodities contributing the majority of pesticides with greatest exposure potential were determined. The results indicated that the highest ranking pesticides were methamidophos and diazinon which exceeded 100% of the ADI. Sensitivity analysis indicated that exposure to methamidophos, diazinon, malathion, ethion and formetanate hydrochloride had a marked decrease from 1991-1999 to 2000-2011. Contributions analysis indicated that apples, mushroom, carrots, and lettuce contributed to diazinon exposure. Beans and pepper contributed to methamidophos exposure. PMID:27497764

  15. Modeling the dietary pesticide exposures of young children.

    PubMed

    Pennycook, Frank R; Diamand, Emily M; Watterson, Andrew; Howard, C Vyvyan

    2004-01-01

    A stepped approach was used to assess the exposures of 1 1/2-4 1/2-year-old children in the United Kingdom to residues of pesticides (dithiocarbamates; phosmet; carbendazim) found in apples and pears. The theoretical possibility that the acute reference dose (ARD) was being exceeded for a particular pesticide/fruit was tested by applying a combination of maximal variability and maximum measured residue relative to an average-body-weight consumer. The actual risk was then quantified by stochastically modeling consumption, from dietary survey data, with individual body weights, against published residue results for 2000-2002 and the variability of residue distribution within batches. The results, expressed as numbers of children per day likely to ingest more than the ARD, were in the range of 10-226.6 children per day, depending upon the pesticide and year of sampling. The implications for regulatory action are discussed. PMID:15473085

  16. UNDERSTANDING CHILDREN'S TOTAL DIETARY EXPOSURE TO PESTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent residential monitoring studies have demonstrated that significant portion of total exposure of infants and children to environmental contaminants can result from contamination of food in the home. Children's foods become contaminated through handling and contact with surf...

  17. Linkage of the California Pesticide Use Reporting Database with Spatial Land Use Data for Exposure Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Nuckols, John R.; Gunier, Robert B.; Riggs, Philip; Miller, Ryan; Reynolds, Peggy; Ward, Mary H.

    2007-01-01

    Background The State of California maintains a comprehensive Pesticide Use Reporting Database (CPUR). The California Department of Water Resources (CDWR) maps all crops in agricultural counties in California about once every 5 years. Objective We integrated crop maps with CPUR to more accurately locate where pesticides are applied and evaluated the effects for exposure assessment. Methods We mapped 577 residences and used the CPUR and CDWR data to compute two exposure metrics based on putative pesticide use within a 500-m buffer. For the CPUR metric, we assigned pesticide exposure to the residence proportionally for all square-mile Sections that intersected the buffer. For the CDWR metric, we linked CPUR crop-specific pesticide use to crops mapped within the buffer and assigned pesticide exposure. We compared the metrics for six pesticides: simazine, trifluralin (herbicides), dicofol, propargite (insecticides), methyl bromide, and metam sodium (fumigants). Results For all six pesticides we found good agreement (88–98%) as to whether the pesticide use was predicted. When we restricted the analysis to residences with reported pesticide use in Sections within 500 m, agreement was greatly reduced (35–58%). The CPUR metric estimates of pesticide use within 500 m were significantly higher than the CDWR metric for all six pesticides. Conclusions Our findings may have important implications for exposure classification in epidemiologic studies of agricultural pesticide use using CPUR. There is a need to conduct environmental and biological measurements to ascertain which, if any, of these metrics best represent exposure. PMID:17520053

  18. Glove accumulation of pesticide residues for strawberry harvester exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanhong; Chen, Li; Chen, Zhenshan; Coehlo, Joe; Cui, Li; Liu, Yu; Lopez, Terry; Sankaran, Gayatri; Vega, Helen; Krieger, Robert

    2011-06-01

    We investigated the accumulation of pesticide residues on rubber latex gloves that are used by strawberry harvesters to protect their skin, reduce pesticide exposure and promote food safety. Gloves accumulated residues of 16 active ingredients including azoxystrobin, bifenthrin, boscalid, captan, cyprodinil, fenhexamid, fenpropathrin, fludioxonil, hexythiazox, malathion, methomyl, naled, propiconazole, pyraclostrobin, quinoline, and quinoxyfen at different times. Glove residue accumulation (t(½) 2.8-3.7 d) was very similar to the dissipation of DFRs (t(½) 2.1-3.0 d) during the first 3 weeks after malathion applications. Dermal malathion dose was 0.2 mg/kg at the preharvest interval and declined to trace levels during the following 3 months. Glove accumulation of malathion indicated trace surface residue availability and was used to assess the relationship between dislodgable foliar residues and potential hand exposure. PMID:21503692

  19. Captan exposure and evaluation of a pesticide exposure algorithm among orchard pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study.

    PubMed

    Hines, Cynthia J; Deddens, James A; Jaycox, Larry B; Andrews, Ronnee N; Striley, Cynthia A F; Alavanja, Michael C R

    2008-04-01

    Pesticide exposure assessment in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS) has relied upon two exposure metrics: lifetime exposure days and intensity-weighted lifetime exposure days, the latter incorporating an intensity score computed from a questionnaire-based algorithm. We evaluated this algorithm using actual fungicide exposure measurements from AHS private orchard applicators. Captan was selected as a marker of fungicide exposure. Seventy-four applicators from North Carolina and Iowa growing apples and/or peaches were sampled on 2 days they applied captan in 2002 and 2003. Personal air, hand rinse, 10 dermal patches, a pre-application first-morning urine and a subsequent 24-h urine sample were collected from each applicator per day. Environmental samples were analyzed for captan, and urine samples were analyzed for cis-1,2,3,6-tetrahydrophthalimide (THPI). Task and personal protective equipment information needed to compute an individual's algorithm score was also collected. Differences in analyte detection frequency were tested in a repeated logistic regression model. Mixed-effects models using maximum-likelihood estimation were employed to estimate geometric mean exposures and to evaluate the measured exposure data against the algorithm. In general, captan and THPI were detected significantly more frequently in environmental and urine samples collected from applicators who used air blast sprayers as compared to those who hand sprayed. The AHS pesticide exposure intensity algorithm, while significantly or marginally predictive of thigh and forearm captan exposure, respectively, did not predict air, hand rinse or urinary THPI exposures. The algorithm's lack of fit with some exposure measures among orchard fungicide applicators may be due in part to the assignment of equal exposure weights to air blast and hand spray application methods in the current algorithm. Some modification of the algorithm is suggested by these results. PMID:18326518

  20. THE EPA NATIONAL EXPOSURE RESEARCH LABORATORY CHILDREN'S PESTICIDE EXPOSURE MEASUREMENT PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) is performing research in support of the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) of 1996. This act requires that pesticide exposure assessments to be conducted for all potential sources, rou...

  1. Impact of Pesticide Exposure Misclassification on Estimates of Related Risks in the Agricultural Health Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a prospective study of licensed pesticide applicators (largely fanners) and their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. We evaluate the impact of occupational pesticide exposure misclassification on relative risks using data from t...

  2. Advective and diffusive dermal processes for estimating terrestrial amphibian pesticide exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background/Question/Methods Dermal exposure presents a potentially significant but understudied route for pesticide uptake in terrestrial amphibians. Historically, evaluation of pesticide risk to both amphibians and reptiles has been achieved by comparing ingestion and inhalat...

  3. FINAL REPORT OF THE NON-OCCUPATIONAL PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY (NOPES)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Non-occupational pesticide Exposure Study was the first attempt to develop a methodology for measuring the potential exposure of specified populations to pesticides. n this study, as in other studies utilizing the Tota1 Exposure Asessment Methodology (TEAM), the exposures wer...

  4. Developmental pesticide exposure reproduces features of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Jason R; Taylor, Michele M; Shalat, Stuart L; Guillot, Thomas S; Caudle, W Michael; Hossain, Muhammad M; Mathews, Tiffany A; Jones, Sara R; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A; Miller, Gary W

    2015-05-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is estimated to affect 8-12% of school-age children worldwide. ADHD is a complex disorder with significant genetic contributions. However, no single gene has been linked to a significant percentage of cases, suggesting that environmental factors may contribute to ADHD. Here, we used behavioral, molecular, and neurochemical techniques to characterize the effects of developmental exposure to the pyrethroid pesticide deltamethrin. We also used epidemiologic methods to determine whether there is an association between pyrethroid exposure and diagnosis of ADHD. Mice exposed to the pyrethroid pesticide deltamethrin during development exhibit several features reminiscent of ADHD, including elevated dopamine transporter (DAT) levels, hyperactivity, working memory and attention deficits, and impulsive-like behavior. Increased DAT and D1 dopamine receptor levels appear to be responsible for the behavioral deficits. Epidemiologic data reveal that children aged 6-15 with detectable levels of pyrethroid metabolites in their urine were more than twice as likely to be diagnosed with ADHD. Our epidemiologic finding, combined with the recapitulation of ADHD behavior in pesticide-treated mice, provides a mechanistic basis to suggest that developmental pyrethroid exposure is a risk factor for ADHD. PMID:25630971

  5. Environmental and Occupational Pesticide Exposure and Human Sperm Parameters: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Martenies, Sheena E.; Perry, Melissa J.

    2013-01-01

    Of continuing concern are the associations between environmental or occupational exposures to pesticides and semen quality parameters. Prior research has indicated that there may be associations between exposure to pesticides of a variety of classes and decreased sperm health. The intent of this review was to summarize the most recent evidence related to pesticide exposures and commonly used semen quality parameters, including concentration, motility and morphology. The recent literature was searched for studies published between January, 2007 and August, 2012 that focused on environmental or occupational pesticide exposures. Included in the review are 17 studies, 15 of which reported significant associations between exposure to pesticides and semen quality indicators. Two studies also investigated the roles genetic polymorphisms may play in the strength or directions of these associations. Specific pesticides targeted for study included dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), and abamectin. Pyrethroids and organophosphates were analyzed as classes of pesticides rather than as individual compounds, primarily due to the limitations of exposure assessment techniques. Overall, a majority of the studies reported significant associations between pesticide exposure and sperm parameters. A decrease in sperm concentration was the most commonly reported finding among all of the pesticide classes investigated. Decreased motility was also associated with exposures to each of the pesticide classes, although these findings were less frequent across studies. An association between pesticide exposure and sperm morphology was less clear, with only two studies reporting an association. The evidence presented in this review continues to support the hypothesis that exposures to pesticides at environmentally or occupationally relevant levels may be associated with decreased sperm health. Future work in this area should focus on associations between specific

  6. Farmworker Exposure to Pesticides: Methodologic Issues for the Collection of Comparable Data

    PubMed Central

    Arcury, Thomas A.; Quandt, Sara A.; Barr, Dana B.; Hoppin, Jane A.; McCauley, Linda; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Robson, Mark G.

    2006-01-01

    The exposure of migrant and seasonal farmworkers and their families to agricultural and residential pesticides is a continuing public health concern. Pesticide exposure research has been spurred on by the development of sensitive and reliable laboratory techniques that allow the detection of minute amounts of pesticides or pesticide metabolites. The power of research on farmworker pesticide exposure has been limited because of variability in the collection of exposure data, the predictors of exposure considered, the laboratory procedures used in analyzing the exposure, and the measurement of exposure. The Farmworker Pesticide Exposure Comparable Data Conference assembled 25 scientists from diverse disciplinary and organizational backgrounds to develop methodologic consensus in four areas of farmworker pesticide exposure research: environmental exposure assessment, biomarkers, personal and occupational predictors of exposure, and health outcomes of exposure. In this introduction to this mini-monograph, first, we present the rationale for the conference and its organization. Second, we discuss some of the important challenges in conducting farmworker pesticide research, including the definition and size of the farmworker population, problems in communication and access, and the organization of agricultural work. Third, we summarize major findings from each of the conference’s four foci—environmental exposure assessment, biomonitoring, predictors of exposure, and health outcomes of exposure—as well as important laboratory and statistical analysis issues that cross-cut the four foci. PMID:16759996

  7. Reducing Farmworker Residential Pesticide Exposure: Evaluation of a Lay Health Advisor Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Arcury, Thomas A.; Marín, Antonio; Snively, Beverly M.; Hernández-Pelletier, Mercedes; Quandt, Sara A.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this analysis is to evaluate the effectiveness of a promotora program for teaching women in Latino farmworker families about pesticide safety and increasing pesticide safety behaviors. Volunteer promotoras delivered a pesticide safety curriculum (intervention) and nutrition curriculum (control) to farmworker women residing in western North Carolina and Virginia. Pre- and post-intervention interviews assessed differences in delivery of the intervention, recognition of the intervention, pesticide knowledge, pesticide exposures behaviors, and integrated pest management behaviors. Participants in the intervention group reported significantly more receipt of pesticide education and greater recognition of the key messages. However, their knowledge, pesticide exposure behaviors, and integrated pest management behaviors did not change. A more structured program is needed to be sure that the dose of interventions is large enough to overcome educational and cultural characteristics of immigrant communities. Policy changes are needed to address circumstances outside of farmworkers’ control that affect pesticide exposure. PMID:18287581

  8. EXPOSURE TO PESTICIDES BY MEDIUM AND ROUTE: THE 90TH PERCENTILE AND RELATED UNCERTAINTIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study investigates distributions of exposure to chlorpyrifos and diazinon using the database generated in the state of Arizona by the National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS-AZ). Exposure to pesticide and associated uncertainties are estimated using probabilistic...

  9. Dermal Exposure Associated with Occupational End Use of Pesticides and the Role of Protective Measures

    PubMed Central

    MacFarlane, Ewan; Carey, Renee; Keegel, Tessa; El-Zaemay, Sonia; Fritschi, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Background Occupational end users of pesticides may experience bodily absorption of the pesticide products they use, risking possible health effects. The purpose of this paper is to provide a guide for researchers, practitioners, and policy makers working in the field of agricultural health or other areas where occupational end use of pesticides and exposure issues are of interest. Methods This paper characterizes the health effects of pesticide exposure, jobs associated with pesticide use, pesticide-related tasks, absorption of pesticides through the skin, and the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) for reducing exposure. Conclusions Although international and national efforts to reduce pesticide exposure through regulatory means should continue, it is difficult in the agricultural sector to implement engineering or system controls. It is clear that use of PPE does reduce dermal pesticide exposure but compliance among the majority of occupationally exposed pesticide end users appears to be poor. More research is needed on higher-order controls to reduce pesticide exposure and to understand the reasons for poor compliance with PPE and identify effective training methods. PMID:24106643

  10. Preventing Agricultural Chemical Exposure: A Safety Program Manual. Participatory Education with Farmworkers in Pesticide Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wake Forest Univ., Winston-Salem, NC. Dept. of Family and Community Medicine.

    Preventing Agricultural Chemical Exposure among North Carolina Farmworkers (PACE) is a project designed to describe farmworker pesticide exposure and to develop an educational intervention to reduce farmworker pesticide exposure. The PACE project used a community participation framework to ensure that the community played a significant role in…

  11. Biomonitoring: Uses and Considerations for Assessing Non-Occupational Human Exposure to Pesticides

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biomonitoring is an important tool that can be used to evaluate human exposure to pesticides by measuring the levels of pesticides, pesticide metabolites, or altered biological structures or functions in biological specimens or tissues (Barr et al., 2005b; Needham et al., 2005, 2...

  12. Exposure of Delta Smelt to dissolved pesticides in 1998 and 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moon, G. Edward; Kuivila, Kathryn; Ruhl, Catherine A.; Schoellhamer, David H.

    2000-01-01

    This article reviews delta smelt habitat and early life stages followed by an explanation of the study design for assessing pesticide exposure. Results show the co-occurrence of multiple pesticides and delta smelt in their native habitat; these results are presented within the context of possible toxic effects to delta smelt. Finally, the annual variability of pesticide distributions is discussed.

  13. STUDY DESIGN FOR A PILOT STUDY OF CHILDREN'S TOTAL EXPOSURE TO PERSISTENT PESTICIDES AND OTHER PERSISTENT ORGANIC PESTICIDES "CTEPP"

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Children's Total Exposure to Persistent Pesticides and Other Persistent Pollutant (CTEPP) study is one of the largest aggregate exposure studies of young children in the United States. The CTEPP study examines the exposures of about 260 preschool children and their primary ad...

  14. DESIGN STRATEGY FOR ASSESSING MULTI-PATHWAY EXPOSURE FOR CHILDREN: THE MINNESOTA CHILDREN'S PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY (MNCPES)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although children are exposed to a variety of environmental hazards, including pesticides, there is a scarcity of information available to estimate exposures realistically. This article reports on one of the first attempts to measure multi-pathway pesticide exposures in a popu...

  15. Assessing a Pesticide Exposure Intensity Algorithm in the Agricultural Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Kent W.; Dosemeci, Mustafa; Coble, Joseph B.; Hoppin, Jane A.; Sheldon, Linda S.; Chapa, Guadalupe; Croghan, Carry W.; Jones, Paul A.; Knott, Charles E.; Lynch, Charles F.; Sandler, Dale P.; Blair, Aaron E.; Alavanja, Michael C.

    2010-01-01

    The accuracy of the exposure assessment is a critical factor in epidemiological investigations of pesticide exposures and health in agricultural populations. However, few studies have been conducted to evaluate questionnaire-based exposure metrics. The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a prospective cohort study of pesticide applicators who provided detailed questionnaire information on their use of specific pesticides. A field study was performed for a subset of the applicators enrolled in the AHS to assess a pesticide exposure algorithm through comparison of algorithm intensity scores with measured exposures. Pre- and post-application urinary biomarker measurements were made for 2,4-D (n = 69) and chlorpyrifos (n = 17) applicators. Dermal patch, hand wipe, and personal air samples were also collected. Intensity scores were calculated using information from technician observations and an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Correlations between observer and questionnaire intensity scores were high (Spearman r = 0.92 and 0.84 for 2,4-D and chlorpyrifos, respectively). Intensity scores from questionnaires for individual applications were significantly correlated with post-application urinary concentrations for both 2,4-D (r = 0.42, p < 0.001) and chlorpyrifos (r = 0.53, p = 0.035) applicators. Significant correlations were also found between intensity scores and estimated hand loading, estimated body loading, and air concentrations for 2,4-D applicators (r-values 0.28–0.50, p-values<0.025). Across all chlorpyrifos applicators, body loading measurements were significantly correlated with intensity scores from questionnaires (r=0.50, p=0.039) but not from observations (r=0.18, p=0.482). Dermal measures for in-furrow granular applications of chlorpyrifos (n = 12) were very low and not correlated with intensity scores. A linear regression model indicated that the algorithm factors for individual applications explained 24% of the variability in post

  16. Pesticide flow analysis to assess human exposure in greenhouse flower production in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Lesmes-Fabian, Camilo; Binder, Claudia R

    2013-04-01

    Human exposure assessment tools represent a means for understanding human exposure to pesticides in agricultural activities and managing possible health risks. This paper presents a pesticide flow analysis modeling approach developed to assess human exposure to pesticide use in greenhouse flower crops in Colombia, focusing on dermal and inhalation exposure. This approach is based on the material flow analysis methodology. The transfer coefficients were obtained using the whole body dosimetry method for dermal exposure and the button personal inhalable aerosol sampler for inhalation exposure, using the tracer uranine as a pesticide surrogate. The case study was a greenhouse rose farm in the Bogota Plateau in Colombia. The approach was applied to estimate the exposure to pesticides such as mancozeb, carbendazim, propamocarb hydrochloride, fosetyl, carboxin, thiram, dimethomorph and mandipropamide. We found dermal absorption estimations close to the AOEL reference values for the pesticides carbendazim, mancozeb, thiram and mandipropamide during the study period. In addition, high values of dermal exposure were found on the forearms, hands, chest and legs of study participants, indicating weaknesses in the overlapping areas of the personal protective equipment parts. These results show how the material flow analysis methodology can be applied in the field of human exposure for early recognition of the dispersion of pesticides and support the development of measures to improve operational safety during pesticide management. Furthermore, the model makes it possible to identify the status quo of the health risk faced by workers in the study area. PMID:23528812

  17. Pesticide Flow Analysis to Assess Human Exposure in Greenhouse Flower Production in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Lesmes-Fabian, Camilo; Binder, Claudia R.

    2013-01-01

    Human exposure assessment tools represent a means for understanding human exposure to pesticides in agricultural activities and managing possible health risks. This paper presents a pesticide flow analysis modeling approach developed to assess human exposure to pesticide use in greenhouse flower crops in Colombia, focusing on dermal and inhalation exposure. This approach is based on the material flow analysis methodology. The transfer coefficients were obtained using the whole body dosimetry method for dermal exposure and the button personal inhalable aerosol sampler for inhalation exposure, using the tracer uranine as a pesticide surrogate. The case study was a greenhouse rose farm in the Bogota Plateau in Colombia. The approach was applied to estimate the exposure to pesticides such as mancozeb, carbendazim, propamocarb hydrochloride, fosetyl, carboxin, thiram, dimethomorph and mandipropamide. We found dermal absorption estimations close to the AOEL reference values for the pesticides carbendazim, mancozeb, thiram and mandipropamide during the study period. In addition, high values of dermal exposure were found on the forearms, hands, chest and legs of study participants, indicating weaknesses in the overlapping areas of the personal protective equipment parts. These results show how the material flow analysis methodology can be applied in the field of human exposure for early recognition of the dispersion of pesticides and support the development of measures to improve operational safety during pesticide management. Furthermore, the model makes it possible to identify the status quo of the health risk faced by workers in the study area. PMID:23528812

  18. Pesticide Exposure and Self-Reported Incident Depression among Wives in the Agricultural Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Beard, John D.; Hoppin, Jane A.; Richards, Marie; Alavanja, Michael C. R.; Blair, Aaron; Sandler, Dale P.; Kamel, Freya

    2013-01-01

    Background Depression in women is a public health problem. Studies have reported positive associations between pesticides and depression, but few studies were prospective or presented results for women separately. Objectives We evaluated associations between pesticide exposure and incident depression among farmers’ wives in the Agricultural Health Study, a prospective cohort study in Iowa and North Carolina. Methods We used data on 16,893 wives who did not report physician-diagnosed depression at enrollment (1993-1997) and who completed a follow-up telephone interview (2005-2010). Among these wives, 1,054 reported physician diagnoses of depression at follow-up. We collected information on potential confounders and on ever use of any pesticide, 11 functional and chemical classes of pesticides, and 50 specific pesticides by wives and their husbands via self-administered questionnaires at enrollment. We used inverse probability weighting to adjust for potential confounders and to account for possible selection bias induced by the death or loss of 10,639 wives during follow-up. We used log-binomial regression models to estimate risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Results After weighting for age at enrollment, state of residence, education level, diabetes diagnosis, and not dropping out of the cohort, wives’ incident depression was positively associated with diagnosed pesticide poisoning, but was not associated with ever using any pesticide. Use of individual pesticides or functional or chemical classes of pesticides was generally not associated with wives’ depression. Among wives who never used pesticides, husbands’ ever use of individual pesticides or functional or chemical classes of pesticides was generally not associated with wives’ incident depression. Conclusions Our study adds further evidence that high level pesticide exposure, such as pesticide poisoning, is associated with increased risk of depression and sets a lower bound on the level of

  19. Work Characteristics and Pesticide Exposures among Migrant Agricultural Families: A Community-Based Research Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCauley, Linda A.; Lasarev, Michael R.; Higgins, Gregory; Rothlein, Joan; Muniz, Juan; Ebbert, Caren; Phillips, Jacki

    2001-01-01

    Assessment of pesticide exposure in 96 homes of migrant Latino farmworkers with preschool children found the most frequent pesticide residue to be azinphos-methyl (AZM). AZM levels in farmworker homes were related to distance from fields and number of resident agricultural workers. Children's play areas had potential for disproportionate exposure.…

  20. AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY/PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY: STATUS UPDATE AND PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a prospective epidemiological study of pesticide applicators and their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. Exposure to 2,4-D or chlorpyrifos is being measured for a subset of applicators in the AHS Pesticide Exposure Study to assess expos...

  1. SUMMARY OF BIOLOGICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING RESULTS FROM THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY/PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a prospective epidemiologic study of pesticide applicators and spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. Exposure to 2,4-D or chlorpyrifos was measured for a subset of applicators and their families in the AHS Pesticide Exposure Study to assess...

  2. INTERIM RESULTS FROM THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY/PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a prospective epidemiological study of pesticide applicators and their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. Exposure to 2,4-D or chlorpyrifos is being measured for a subset of applicators in the AHS Pesticide Exposure Study to assess expos...

  3. A PILOT STUDY OF CHILDREN'S TOTAL EXPOSURE TO PERSISTENT PESTICIDES AND OTHER PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (CTEPP)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pilot Study of Children's Total Exposure to Persistent Pesticides and Other Persistent Organic Pollutants (CTEPP) investigated the aggregate exposures of 257 preschool children and their primary adult caregivers to pollutants commonly detected in their everyday environments. ...

  4. RELIABILITY OF BIOMARKERS OF PESTICIDE EXPOSURE AMONG CHILDREN AND ADULTS IN CTEPP OHIO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urinary biomarkers offer the potential for providing an efficient tool for exposure classification by reflecting the aggregate of all exposure routes. Substantial variability observed in urinary pesticide metabolite concentrations over short periods of time, however, has cast so...

  5. A fish of many scales: extrapolating sublethal pesticide exposures to the productivity of wild salmon populations.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, David H; Spromberg, Julann A; Collier, Tracy K; Scholz, Nathaniel L

    2009-12-01

    For more than a decade, numerous pesticides have been detected in river systems of the western United States that support anadromous species of Pacific salmon and steelhead. Over the same interval, several declining wild salmon populations have been listed as either threatened or endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA). Because pesticides occur in surface waters that provide critical habitat for ESA-listed stocks, they are an ongoing concern for salmon conservation and recovery throughout California and the Pacific Northwest. Because pesticide exposures are typically sublethal, a key question is whether toxicological effects at (or below) the scale of the individual animal ultimately reduce the productivity and recovery potential of wild populations. In this study we evaluate how the sublethal impacts of pesticides on physiology and behavior can reduce the somatic growth of juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and, by extension, subsequent size-dependent survival when animals migrate to the ocean and overwinter in their first year. Our analyses focused on the organophosphate and carbamate classes of insecticides. These neurotoxic chemicals have been widely detected in aquatic environments. They inhibit acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme in the salmon nervous system that regulates neurotransmitter-mediated signaling at synapses. Based on empirical data, we developed a model that explicitly links sublethal reductions in acetylcholinesterase activity to reductions in feeding behavior, food ration, growth, and size at migration. Individual size was then used to estimate size-dependent survival during migration and transition to the sea. Individual survival estimates were then integrated into a life-history population projection matrix and used to calculate population productivity and growth rate. Our results indicate that short-term (i.e., four-day) exposures that are representative of seasonal pesticide use may be sufficient to reduce the

  6. Job Exposure Matrix (JEM) derived estimates of life-time occupational pesticide exposure and the risk of Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Liew, Zeyan; Wang, Anthony; Bronstein, Jeff; Ritz, Beate

    2013-01-01

    Studies that report an association between Parkinson’s disease (PD) and occupational pesticide exposure often use self-reported exposure and none adjust for concomitant ambient pesticide exposure. For a population-based case-control study of PD conducted in California’s heavily agricultural region we developed a comprehensive Job Exposure Matrix (JEM) to assess occupational exposure to pesticides. Relying on 357 incident cases and 750 population controls enrolled between 2001 to 2011 we estimated more than a two-fold risk increase for PD among men classified as highly occupationally exposed. We also observed an exposure-response pattern and farming tasks with direct and intense pesticide exposures such as spraying and handling of pesticides resulted in greater risks than indirect by-stander exposures. Results did not change after adjustment for ambient pesticide exposure. We provide further evidence that occupational pesticide exposure increases the risk of PD. PMID:24499252

  7. Long- and Short-Term Health Effects of Pesticide Exposure: A Cohort Study from China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yifan; Zhang, Chao; Yin, Yanhong; Chen, Zhaohui; Jin, Yanhong; Cai, Jinyang; Cui, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Pesticides are extensively used by farmers in China. However, the effects of pesticides on farmers’ health have not yet been systematically studied. This study evaluated the effects of pesticides exposure on hematological and neurological indicators over 3 years and 10 days respectively. A cohort of 246 farmers was randomly selected from 3 provinces (Guangdong, Jiangxi, and Hebei) in China. Two rounds of health investigations, including blood tests and neurological examinations, were conducted by medical doctors before and after the crop season in 2012. The data on pesticide use in 2009–2011 were collected retrospectively via face-to-face interviews and the 2012 data were collected from personal records maintained by participants prospectively. Ordinary least square (OLS), Probit, and fixed effect models were used to evaluate the relationship between pesticides exposure frequency and the health indicators. Long-term pesticide exposure was found to be associated with increased abnormality of nerve conductions, especially in sensory nerves. It also affected a wide spectrum of health indicators based on blood tests and decreased the tibial nerve compound muscle action potential amplitudes. Short-term health effects included alterations in complete blood count, hepatic and renal functions, and nerve conduction velocities and amplitudes. However, these effects could not be detected after 3 days following pesticide exposure. Overall, our results demonstrate that pesticide exposure adversely affects blood cells, the liver, and the peripheral nervous system. Future studies are needed to elucidate the specific effects of each pesticide and the mechanisms of these effects. PMID:26042669

  8. Environmental pesticide exposure in Honduras following hurricane Mitch.

    PubMed Central

    Balluz, L.; Moll, D.; Diaz Martinez, M. G.; Merida Colindres, J. E.; Malilay, J.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether environmental contamination occurred in the wake of hurricane Mitch (30-31 October 1998), we conducted a population-based cross-sectional household survey in the barrio of Istoca, Department of Choluteca, Honduras. The goals were to evaluate chemical contamination of potable water and the extent of human exposure to chemicals as a result of extensive flooding. METHODS: The survey consisted of an environmental exposure assessment, which included assaying water and soil samples for contaminants, and taking blood and urine samples from 45 adolescents aged 15-18 years. We also made a subjective questionnaire assessment of 155 households. FINDINGS: There was significant contamination of the soil in Istoca, but no water contamination in the aftermath of hurricane Mitch. The soil levels of chlopyrifos and parathion were 30- and 1000-times higher, respectively, than the Environmental Data Quality Level. However, the most striking finding was the detection of elevated levels of chlorinated and organophosphate pesticides in adolescents. Toxicological analyses of serum specimens showed that 51% of the samples had elevated levels of 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis-(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene (p,p-DDE) (range, 1.16-96.9 ng/ml) (US reference mean = 3.5 ng/ml) in adults). Dieldrin levels > 0.2 ng/ml were also present in 23% of the serum specimens (serum levels of this analyte in US adolescents are < 0.2 ng/ml). Of 43 urine samples analysed for organophosphate metabolites, 18.6% contained diethyl phosphate (DEP) at levels which were greater that the reference mean of 6.45 micrograms/g creatinine. We also detected elevated levels of p-nitrophenol (p-NP) and of 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (3,5,6-TCPY) in 91% and 42% of the samples, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The elevated levels of chlorinated pesticides were surprising, since although these substances were banned in Honduras 15 years ago it appears that they are still being used in the country. Moreover

  9. Linking Pesticide Exposure with Pediatric Leukemia: Potential Underlying Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, Antonio F.; Menéndez, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Leukemia is the most common cancer in children, representing 30% of all childhood cancers. The disease arises from recurrent genetic insults that block differentiation of hematopoietic stem and/or progenitor cells (HSPCs) and drives uncontrolled proliferation and survival of the differentiation-blocked clone. Pediatric leukemia is phenotypically and genetically heterogeneous with an obscure etiology. The interaction between genetic factors and environmental agents represents a potential etiological driver. Although information is limited, the principal toxic mechanisms of potential leukemogenic agents (e.g., etoposide, benzene metabolites, bioflavonoids and some pesticides) include topoisomerase II inhibition and/or excessive generation of free radicals, which may induce DNA single- and double-strand breaks (DNA-DSBs) in early HSPCs. Chromosomal rearrangements (duplications, deletions and translocations) may occur if these lesions are not properly repaired. The initiating hit usually occurs in utero and commonly leads to the expression of oncogenic fusion proteins. Subsequent cooperating hits define the disease latency and occur after birth and may be of a genetic, epigenetic or immune nature (i.e., delayed infection-mediated immune deregulation). Here, we review the available experimental and epidemiological evidence linking pesticide exposure to infant and childhood leukemia and provide a mechanistic basis to support the association, focusing on early initiating molecular events. PMID:27043530

  10. Pesticide Exposure and Occupational Safety Training of Indigenous Farmworkers in Oregon

    PubMed Central

    Samples, Julie; Bergstad, Elizabeth A.; Ventura, Santiago; Sanchez, Valentin; Shadbeh, Nargess

    2009-01-01

    This follow-up study assessed indigenous and Latino farmworkers' occupational health and safety needs and measured variables related to pesticide exposure and pesticide safety training among this population. Results yielded differences between indigenous workers and Latino workers related to language barriers, experiences of workplace discrimination, preferred modes of information dissemination, pesticide exposures, and sufficiency of pesticide training. Employing more people who speak indigenous languages as interpreters, community and organizational leaders, and health workers may remove some of the linguistic and cultural barriers to occupational safety training. PMID:19890161

  11. Pesticide exposure and occupational safety training of indigenous farmworkers in Oregon.

    PubMed

    Samples, Julie; Bergstad, Elizabeth A; Ventura, Santiago; Sanchez, Valentin; Farquhar, Stephanie Ann; Shadbeh, Nargess

    2009-11-01

    This follow-up study assessed indigenous and Latino farmworkers' occupational health and safety needs and measured variables related to pesticide exposure and pesticide safety training among this population. Results yielded differences between indigenous workers and Latino workers related to language barriers, experiences of workplace discrimination, preferred modes of information dissemination, pesticide exposures, and sufficiency of pesticide training. Employing more people who speak indigenous languages as interpreters, community and organizational leaders, and health workers may remove some of the linguistic and cultural barriers to occupational safety training. PMID:19890161

  12. Pesticide residues in food--acute dietary exposure.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Denis; Ambrus, Arpád; Dieterle, Roland; Felsot, Allan; Harris, Caroline; Petersen, Barbara; Racke, Ken; Wong, Sue-Sun; Gonzalez, Roberto; Tanaka, Keiji; Earl, Mike; Roberts, Graham; Bhula, Raj

    2004-04-01

    Consumer risk assessment is a crucial step in the regulatory approval of pesticide use on food crops. Recently, an additional hurdle has been added to the formal consumer risk assessment process with the introduction of short-term intake or exposure assessment and a comparable short-term toxicity reference, the acute reference dose. Exposure to residues during one meal or over one day is important for short-term or acute intake. Exposure in the short term can be substantially higher than average because the consumption of a food on a single occasion can be very large compared with typical long-term or mean consumption and the food may have a much larger residue than average. Furthermore, the residue level in a single unit of a fruit or vegetable may be higher by a factor (defined as the variability factor, which we have shown to be typically x3 for the 97.5th percentile unit) than the average residue in the lot. Available marketplace data and supervised residue trial data are examined in an investigation of the variability of residues in units of fruit and vegetables. A method is described for estimating the 97.5th percentile value from sets of unit residue data. Variability appears to be generally independent of the pesticide, the crop, crop unit size and the residue level. The deposition of pesticide on the individual unit during application is probably the most significant factor. The diets used in the calculations ideally come from individual and household surveys with enough consumers of each specific food to determine large portion sizes. The diets should distinguish the different forms of a food consumed, eg canned, frozen or fresh, because the residue levels associated with the different forms may be quite different. Dietary intakes may be calculated by a deterministic method or a probabilistic method. In the deterministic method the intake is estimated with the assumptions of large portion consumption of a 'high residue' food (high residue in the sense

  13. Pesticides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherma, Joseph

    1989-01-01

    This review is devoted to methods for the determination of residues of pesticides and some related industrial chemicals. Topics include: residue methods, sampling, chromatography, organochlorine pesticides, organophosphorus pesticides, carbamate insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, pyrethrins, fumigants, and related chemicals. (MVL)

  14. Pesticide exposure and sprayer design: ergonomics evaluation to reduce pesticide exposure.

    PubMed

    Grimbuhler, Sonia; Lambert, Mandy; Nelson, Julien; Richardson, James

    2012-01-01

    Plant protection products are used in agriculture to improve yields, but this use can cause contamination of the environment and is also likely to have adverse short and long term effects on agricultural workers. This poster describes a systems approach to reducing the risk of operator exposure to plant protection products through the introduction of ergonomics to the design process of large agricultural sprayers. PMID:22317563

  15. Revised framework for pesticide aquatic environmental exposure assessment that accounts for vegetative filter strips.

    PubMed

    Sabbagh, George J; Fox, Garey A; Muñoz-Carpena, Rafael; Lenz, Mark F

    2010-05-15

    For pesticides that do not pass higher-level environmental exposure assessments, vegetated filter strips (VFS) are often mandated for use of the compound. However, VFS physiographic characteristics (i.e., width) are not currently specified based on predictive modeling of VFS performance. This has been due to the lack of predictive tools that can explain the wide range of field-reported efficacies. This research hypothesizes that mechanistic modeling of VFS runoff and sediment trapping, integrated with an empirical, regression-based pesticide trapping equation and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) exposure framework, is able to effectively derive these VFS characteristics. To test this hypothesis, a well-tested process-based model for VFS (VFSMOD) was coupled with the pesticide trapping equation and integrated with EPA's PRZM/EXAMS exposure package. The revised framework was applied to a prescribed U.S. EPA assessment scenario for four hypothetical pesticides: more mobile (i.e., organic carbon (OC) sorption coefficients, K(oc), of 100 L/kg OC) and less mobile (2000 L/kg OC) pesticides that are fast degrading or stable (i.e., 10 or 10,000 d aquatic dissipation half-lives). A nonlinear and complex relationship was observed between pesticide reduction, VFS length, and rainfall plus runon event size. The impact of VFS on environmental exposure concentrations (EECs) was found to be dependent on the pesticide sorption and dissipation half-life and whether calculating an acute or chronic EEC. While acute and chronic EECs were equivalent for stable pesticides, for fast degrading pesticides the acute EEC depended on specific loading events. Therefore, while VFS may reduce the cumulative pesticide loading, a corresponding reduction in the acute EEC may not always be observed. Such results emphasize the need to incorporate physically based modeling of VFS reductions for pesticides that do not pass the current U.S. EPA exposure assessment framework. PMID:20394426

  16. Terrestrial pesticide exposure of amphibians: An underestimated cause of global decline?

    PubMed Central

    Brühl, Carsten A.; Schmidt, Thomas; Pieper, Silvia; Alscher, Annika

    2013-01-01

    Amphibians, a class of animals in global decline, are present in agricultural landscapes characterized by agrochemical inputs. Effects of pesticides on terrestrial life stages of amphibians such as juvenile and adult frogs, toads and newts are little understood and a specific risk assessment for pesticide exposure, mandatory for other vertebrate groups, is currently not conducted. We studied the effects of seven pesticide products on juvenile European common frogs (Rana temporaria) in an agricultural overspray scenario. Mortality ranged from 100% after one hour to 40% after seven days at the recommended label rate of currently registered products. The demonstrated toxicity is alarming and a large-scale negative effect of terrestrial pesticide exposure on amphibian populations seems likely. Terrestrial pesticide exposure might be underestimated as a driver of their decline calling for more attention in conservation efforts and the risk assessment procedures in place do not protect this vanishing animal group. PMID:23350038

  17. Reduction of pesticide exposure with protective clothing for applicators and mixers

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, J.E.; Freed, V.H.; Enos, H.F.; Duncan, R.C.; Barquet, A.; Morgade, C.; Peters, L.J.; Danauskas, J.X.

    1982-06-01

    Systemic pesticide illness in agricultural workers may result from excessive dermal exposure to pesticides. Workers who apply and mix pesticides (applicators and mixers) are not at special risk. Both acute and chronic exposures can occur from spillage or by environmental contamination of clothing. Two exposure assessment studies were conducted of Central Florida citrus grove workers who applied ethion daily. Measuring the percentage of penetration of ethion through clothing and measuring the daily urinary excretion of diethyl phosphate (DEP) were the techniques used to assess the protection afforded by changing daily to freshly laundered 100% cotton coveralls. Coveralls provided significantly greater protection than did regular clothing and the use of respirators.

  18. Pesticides

    MedlinePlus

    ... or cause harm to crops, people, or animals. Pesticides can help get rid of them. Pesticides are not just insect killers. They also include ... mildew, germs, and more. Many household products contain pesticides. Pesticides can protect your health by killing germs, ...

  19. A COMPARISON OF MULTIPLE TOXICITIES FOLLOWING DEVELOPMENTAL EXPOSURE TO PESTICIDES: NEUROTOXICITY, IMMUNOTOXICITY, AND REPRODUCTIVE TOXICITY.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The NAS report (Pesticides in the Diets of Infants and Children, 1993) called for significant research effort into the long-term effects of perinatal pesticide exposure on the nervous, immune, and reproductive systems. In response, the US EPA and NIEHS collaborated on a series o...

  20. AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY/PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY: YEAR 1 MEASUREMENT RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a prospective epidemiologic study of pesticide applicators and their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. Exposure to targeted applied pesticides (2,4-D or chlorpyrifos) is being measured for a subset of applicators and their families in t...

  1. PESTICIDE EXPOSURE AND POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS IN YOUNG CHILDREN ALONG THE U.S.-MEXICO BORDER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The pesticides in young children border states program includes a series of studies designed to develop and implement an approach to examine the cumulative risks and potential health effects in children from repeated exposure to pesticides via multiple sources and pathways. Rese...

  2. TRANSFER OF PESTICIDES FROM SURFACES TO FOODS FOR THE ESTIMATION OF DIETARY EXPOSURE OF CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since small children spend much of their time in contact with contaminated surfaces, residues of pesticides found on floors and other surfaces contribute to their aggregate exposures. Any dislodgeable pesticide residues on hands and surfaces may be transferred to foods while bei...

  3. Review of Pesticide Urinary Biomarker Measurements from Selected US EPA Children's Observational Exposure Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Children are exposed to a wide variety of pesticides originating from both outdoor and indoor sources. Several studies were conducted or funded by the EPA over the past decade to investigate children’s exposure to organophosphate and pyrethroid pesticides and the factors that im...

  4. Information resources for assessing health effects from chemical exposure: Office of pesticides programs

    SciTech Connect

    Fenner-Crisp, P.

    1990-12-31

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Pesticide Programs is trying to develop a complete picture of a chemical`s toxicity and exposure profile. It is also important to share information in the office`s files because of pesticides, particularly as a consequence of agricultural use, find their way into places not necessarily intended.

  5. PESTICIDE EXPOSURE AND POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS IN YOUNG CHILDREN ALONG THE US/MEXICO BORDER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The pesticides in young children border states program includes a series of studies designed to develop and implement an approach to examine the cumulative risks and potential health effects in children from repeated exposure to pesticides via multiple sources and pathways. Rese...

  6. PESTICIDE EXPOSURE AND POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS IN YOUNG CHILDREN ALONG THE U.S. - MEXICO BORDER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the Pesticides in Young Children - Border States Program is to assess the relationship between health status in children living along the United States and Mexico border and repeated pesticide exposures via multiple sources and pathways. Children's health has bee...

  7. A QUANTITATIVE APPROACH FOR ESTIMATING EXPOSURE TO PESTICIDES IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    We developed a quantitative method to estimate chemical-specific pesticide exposures in a large prospective cohort study of over 58,000 pesticide applicators in North Carolina and Iowa. An enrollment questionnaire was administered to applicators to collect basic time- and inten...

  8. A quantitative approach for estimating exposure to pesticides in the Agricultural Health Study.

    PubMed

    Dosemeci, Mustafa; Alavanja, Michael C R; Rowland, Andrew S; Mage, David; Zahm, Shelia Hoar; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lubin, Jay H; Hoppin, Jane A; Sandler, Dale P; Blair, Aaron

    2002-03-01

    We developed a quantitative method to estimate long-term chemical-specific pesticide exposures in a large prospective cohort study of more than 58000 pesticide applicators in North Carolina and Iowa. An enrollment questionnaire was administered to applicators to collect basic time- and intensity-related information on pesticide exposure such as mixing condition, duration and frequency of application, application methods and personal protective equipment used. In addition, a detailed take-home questionnaire was administered to collect further intensity-related exposure information such as maintenance or repair of mixing and application equipment, work practices and personal hygiene. More than 40% of the enrolled applicators responded to this detailed take-home questionnaire. Two algorithms were developed to identify applicators' exposure scenarios using information from the enrollment and take-home questionnaires separately in the calculation of subject-specific intensity of exposure score to individual pesticides. The 'general algorithm' used four basic variables (i.e. mixing status, application method, equipment repair status and personal protective equipment use) from the enrollment questionnaire and measurement data from the published pesticide exposure literature to calculate estimated intensity of exposure to individual pesticides for each applicator. The 'detailed' algorithm was based on variables in the general algorithm plus additional exposure information from the take-home questionnaire, including types of mixing system used (i.e. enclosed or open), having a tractor with enclosed cab and/or charcoal filter, frequency of washing equipment after application, frequency of replacing old gloves, personal hygiene and changing clothes after a spill. Weighting factors applied in both algorithms were estimated using measurement data from the published pesticide exposure literature and professional judgment. For each study subject, chemical-specific lifetime

  9. Pesticide Uptake Across the Amphibian Dermis Through Soil and Overspray Exposures.

    PubMed

    Van Meter, Robin J; Glinski, Donna A; Henderson, W Matthew; Garrison, A Wayne; Cyterski, Mike; Purucker, S Thomas

    2015-11-01

    For terrestrial amphibians, accumulation of pesticides through dermal contact is a primary route of exposure in agricultural landscapes and may be contributing to widespread amphibian declines. To show pesticide transfer across the amphibian dermis at permitted label application rates, our study was designed to measure pesticide body burdens after two simulated exposure scenarios. We compared direct exposures, where amphibians were present when spraying occurred, to indirect exposures, where amphibians were exposed to soils after pesticide application. During summer 2012, we reared barking (Hyla gratiosa) and green treefrogs (H. cinerea) through 60-90 days post-metamorphosis at a United States Environmental Protection Agency research laboratory. We tested exposure for 8 h to five pesticide active ingredients (imidacloprid, atrazine, triadimefon, fipronil, or pendimethalin) in glass aquaria lined with soil in the laboratory. We quantified total pesticide body burden and soil concentrations using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. All individuals in both treatments had measurable body burdens at the end of the study. A randomized block design analysis of variance (n = 18) showed that body burdens (p = 0.03) and bioconcentration factors (BCFs) (p = 0.01) were significantly greater in the direct overspray treatment relative to the indirect soil spray treatment for both species and tested pesticides. BCFs ranged from 0.1 to 1.16 and from 0.013 to 0.78 in the direct and indirect treatments, respectively. Our study shows dermal uptake for multiple pesticides from both direct spray and indirect soil exposures and provides empirical support for the degree to which terrestrial phase amphibians have higher body burdens after overspray pesticide exposure. PMID:26135301

  10. Investigating the Influence of Environmental Factors on Pesticide Exposure in Amphibians

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental factors such as temporal weather patterns and soil characterization coupled with pesticide application rates are known to influence exposure and subsequent absorption of these compounds in amphibians. Amphibians are a unique class of vertebrates due to their varied ...

  11. Methodologies for Estimating Cumulative Human Exposures to Current-Use Pyrethroid Pesticides

    EPA Science Inventory

    We estimated cumulative residential pesticide exposures for a group of nine young children (4–6 years) using three different methodologies developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency and compared the results with estimates derived from measured urinary metabolite concentr...

  12. Pesticide exposure of children in an agricultural community: evidence of household proximity to farmland and take home exposure pathways.

    PubMed

    Lu, C; Fenske, R A; Simcox, N J; Kalman, D

    2000-11-01

    Children's exposure to organophosphorus (OP) pesticides in an agricultural community in central Washington State was determined. Spot urine and hand wipe samples were collected from 109 children 9 months to 6 years of age, as were house dust samples, and wipe samples from various surfaces. Children were categorized based on parental occupation (agricultural vs nonagricultural) and on household proximity to pesticide-treated orchards. Median house dust concentrations of dimethyl OP pesticides in homes of agricultural families were seven times higher than those of reference families (1. 92 vs 0.27 microg/g; P<0.001). Median pesticide metabolite concentrations in agricultural children were five times higher than those in reference children (0.05 vs 0.01 microg/ml; P=0.09). Median pesticide concentrations in housedust (P=0.01) and metabolite concentrations in urine (P=0.01) from agricultural families were significantly higher in the children living near treated orchards (within 200 ft or 60 m) than those living more distant. Ten of 61 agricultural children had detectable OP pesticide levles on their hands, whereas none of the reference children had detectable levels. These findings indicate that children living with parents who work with agricultural pesticides, or who live in proximity to pesticide-treated farmland, have higher exposures than do other children living in the same community PMID:11097803

  13. In Utero Pesticide Exposure and Leukemia in Brazilian Children < 2 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Jeniffer Dantas; Couto, Arnaldo Cézar; Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: An association between pesticide exposure and cancer has been suggested. Infant leukemia is a rare neoplasm and its association with maternal pesticide exposure has been poorly explored. Objectives: We investigated the association between pesticide exposure during pregnancy and leukemia in children < 2 years of age. Methods: A hospital-based case–control study was carried out in 13 Brazilian states during 1999–2007. Mothers of 252 cases and those of 423 controls were interviewed. Information on pesticide exposures 3 months before pregnancy, throughout pregnancy, and during breastfeeding was obtained. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aORs) for associations between pesticide exposures and leukemia. Results: Associations with ever use of pesticides during pregnancy were observed for acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL) (aOR = 2.10; 95% CI: 1.14, 3.86) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) (aOR = 5.01; 95% CI: 1.97, 12.7) in children 0–11 months of age, and with ALL (aOR = 1.88; 95% CI: 1.05, 5.23) at 12–23 months of age. According to reported maternal exposure to permethrin, higher risk estimates were verified for children 0–11 months of age (aOR = 2.47; 95% CI: 1.17, 5.25 for ALL; and aOR = 7.28; 95% CI: 2.60, 20.38 for AML). Maternal pesticide exposure related to agricultural activities showed an aOR of 5.25 (95% CI: 1.83, 15.08) for ALL, and an aOR of 7.56 (95% CI: 1.83, 31.23) for AML. Conclusions: These results support the hypothesis that pesticide exposure during pregnancy may be involved in the etiology of acute leukemia in children < 2 years of age. PMID:23092909

  14. Gestational Hypertension and Organophosphorus Pesticide Exposure: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Ledda, Caterina; Fiore, Maria; Santarelli, Lory; Bracci, Massimo; Mascali, Giuseppe; D'Agati, Maria Grazia; Busà, Alfredo; Ferrante, Margherita; Rapisarda, Venerando

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension is the most common medical problem encountered during pregnancy, complicating 2-3% of pregnancies. High blood pressure (BP) with diastolic BP ≥ 90 mm Hg and/or systolic BP ≥ 140 mm Hg arising after week 22 of pregnancy and resolving after delivery is defined as gestational hypertension (GHY). The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate whether occupational and/or environmental exposure to organophosphorus (OP) pesticide affects GHY. Women at approximately 22 weeks of gestation were recruited. OP pesticide exposure in the first trimester of pregnancy was classified into four categories: no exposure, indirect exposure, domestic exposure, and occupational exposure. Application of the exclusion criteria left 2203 participants (mean age 30.4 ± 11.6 years). Data analysis showed that in women with indirect OP pesticide exposure the incidence of GHY was slightly higher than that in the world population, whereas domestic exposure involved a 7% increase and occupational exposure a 12% increase. Analysis of the pesticides used by participants highlighted a possible role for malathion and diazinon (adjusted OR 1.09 and 1.14, resp.). Further investigation of exposed workers and the general population is clearly warranted given the broad diffusion of OP pesticides and their possible public health impact, maybe by including a wider range of health outcomes. PMID:26339602

  15. Exposure of native bees foraging in an agricultural landscape to current-use pesticides.

    PubMed

    Hladik, Michelle L; Vandever, Mark; Smalling, Kelly L

    2016-01-15

    The awareness of insects as pollinators and indicators of environmental quality has grown in recent years, partially in response to declines in honey bee (Apis mellifera) populations. While most pesticide research has focused on honey bees, there has been less work on native bee populations. To determine the exposure of native bees to pesticides, bees were collected from an existing research area in northeastern Colorado in both grasslands (2013-2014) and wheat fields (2014). Traps were deployed bi-monthly during the summer at each land cover type and all bees, regardless of species, were composited as whole samples and analyzed for 136 current-use pesticides and degradates. This reconnaissance approach provides a sampling of all species and represents overall pesticide exposure (internal and external). Nineteen pesticides and degradates were detected in 54 composite samples collected. Compounds detected in >2% of the samples included: insecticides thiamethoxam (46%), bifenthrin (28%), clothianidin (24%), chlorpyrifos (17%), imidacloprid (13%), fipronil desulfinyl (7%; degradate); fungicides azoxystrobin (17%), pyraclostrobin (11%), fluxapyroxad (9%), and propiconazole (9%); herbicides atrazine (19%) and metolachlor (9%). Concentrations ranged from 1 to 310 ng/g for individual pesticides. Pesticides were detected in samples collected from both grasslands and wheat fields; the location of the sample and the surrounding land cover at the 1000 m radius influenced the pesticides detected but because of a small number of temporally comparable samples, correlations between pesticide concentration and land cover were not significant. The results show native bees collected in an agricultural landscape are exposed to multiple pesticides, these results can direct future research on routes/timing of pesticide exposure and the design of future conservation efforts for pollinators. PMID:26520270

  16. Exposure of native bees foraging in an agricultural landscape to current-use pesticides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hladik, Michelle L.; Vandever, Mark; Smalling, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    The awareness of insects as pollinators and indicators of environmental quality has grown in recent years, partially in response to declines in honey bee (Apis mellifera) populations. While most pesticide research has focused on honey bees, there has been less work on native bee populations. To determine the exposure of native bees to pesticides, bees were collected from an existing research area in northeastern Colorado from two land cover types: grasslands (2013-2014) and wheat fields (2014). Traps were deployed bi-monthly during the summer at each land cover type and all bees, regardless of species, were composited as whole samples and analyzed for 136 current-use pesticides and degradates. This reconnaissance approach provides a sampling of all species and represents overall pesticide exposure (internal and external). Nineteen pesticides and degradates were detected in 54 composite samples collected. Compounds detected in >10% of the samples included the insecticides thiamethoxam (46%), bifenthrin (28%), clothianidin (24%), chlorpyrifos (17%), and imidacloprid (13%), the fungicides azoxystrobin (17%), and pyraclostrobin (11%), and the herbicide atrazine (19%). Concentrations ranged from 1.1 to 312 ng/g for individual pesticides. Pesticides were detected in samples collected from both grasslands and wheat fields; the location of the sample and the surrounding land cover at the 1000 m buffer influenced the pesticides detected but because of a small number of temporally comparable samples, correlations between pesticide concentration and land cover were not significant. The results show native bees collected in both grasslands and wheat fields are exposed to multiple pesticides, these results can direct future research on routes/timing of pesticide exposure and the design of future conservation efforts for pollinators.

  17. An Updated Algorithm for Estimation of Pesticide Exposure Intensity in the Agricultural Health Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    An algorithm developed to estimate pesticide exposure intensity for use in epidemiologic analyses was revised based on data from two exposure monitoring studies. In the first study, we estimated relative exposure intensity based on the results of measurements taken during the app...

  18. The Childrens Total Exposure to Persistent Pesticides and Other Persistent Organic Pollutants (CTEPP) Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Children's Total Exposure to Persistent Pesticides and Other Persistent Pollutant (CTEPP) study was one of the largest aggregate exposure studies of young children in the United States. The CTEPP study examined the exposures of about 260 preschool children and their primary a...

  19. The Childrens Total Exposure to Persistent Pesticides and Other Persistent Organic Pollutants (CTEPP) Study -- Ohio

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Children's Total Exposure to Persistent Pesticides and Other Persistent Pollutant (CTEPP) study was one of the largest aggregate exposure studies of young children in the United States. The CTEPP study examined the exposures of about 260 preschool children and their primary a...

  20. THE CHILDRENS TOTAL EXPOSURE TO PERSISTENT PESTICIDES AND OTHER PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (CTEPP) STUDY -- NORTH CAROLINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Children's Total Exposure to Persistent Pesticides and Other Persistent Pollutant (CTEPP) study was one of the largest aggregate exposure studies of young children in the United States. The CTEPP study examined the exposures of about 260 preschool children and their primary a...

  1. A COMMUNITY-BASED CHILDREN'S PESTICIDE EXPOSURE MEASUREMENT STUDY IN JACKSONVILLE, FLORIDA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Children's exposures to pesticides and chemicals in consumer products may be different, and in some cases, higher than exposures for adults. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is conducting research to gain a better understanding of children's exposures and the fac...

  2. Pesticide exposure and risk of Alzheimer's disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yan, Dandan; Zhang, Yunjian; Liu, Liegang; Yan, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Evidence suggests that lifelong cumulative exposure to pesticides may generate lasting toxic effects on the central nervous system and contribute to the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). A number of reports indicate a potential association between long-term/low-dose pesticide exposure and AD, but the results are inconsistent. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to clarify this association. Relevant studies were identified according to inclusion criteria. Summary odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using fixed-effects models. A total of seven studies were included in our meta-analysis. A positive association was observed between pesticide exposure and AD (OR = 1.34; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.08, 1.67; n = 7). The summary ORs with 95% CIs from the crude and adjusted effect size studies were 1.14 (95% CI = 0.94, 1.38; n = 7) and 1.37 (95% CI = 1.09, 1.71; n = 5), respectively. The sensitivity analyses of the present meta-analysis did not substantially modify the association between pesticide exposure and AD. Subgroup analyses revealed that high-quality studies tended to show significant relationships. The present meta-analysis suggested a positive association between pesticide exposure and AD, confirming the hypothesis that pesticide exposure is a risk factor for AD. Further high-quality cohort and case-control studies are required to validate a causal relationship. PMID:27581992

  3. Pesticide exposure and risk of Alzheimer’s disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Dandan; Zhang, Yunjian; Liu, Liegang; Yan, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Evidence suggests that lifelong cumulative exposure to pesticides may generate lasting toxic effects on the central nervous system and contribute to the development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). A number of reports indicate a potential association between long-term/low-dose pesticide exposure and AD, but the results are inconsistent. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to clarify this association. Relevant studies were identified according to inclusion criteria. Summary odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using fixed-effects models. A total of seven studies were included in our meta-analysis. A positive association was observed between pesticide exposure and AD (OR = 1.34; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.08, 1.67; n = 7). The summary ORs with 95% CIs from the crude and adjusted effect size studies were 1.14 (95% CI = 0.94, 1.38; n = 7) and 1.37 (95% CI = 1.09, 1.71; n = 5), respectively. The sensitivity analyses of the present meta-analysis did not substantially modify the association between pesticide exposure and AD. Subgroup analyses revealed that high-quality studies tended to show significant relationships. The present meta-analysis suggested a positive association between pesticide exposure and AD, confirming the hypothesis that pesticide exposure is a risk factor for AD. Further high-quality cohort and case-control studies are required to validate a causal relationship. PMID:27581992

  4. Comparison of International Guidelines of Dermal Absorption Tests Used in Pesticides Exposure Assessment for Operators

    PubMed Central

    So, Jaehwan; Ahn, Junyoung; Lee, Tae-Hee; Park, Kyung-Hun; Paik, Min-Kyoung; Jeong, Mihye; Cho, Myung-Haing

    2014-01-01

    The number of farmers who have suffered from non-fatal acute pesticide poisoning has been reported to vary from 5.7% to 86.7% in South Korea since 1975. Absorption through the skin is the main route of exposure to pesticides for farmers who operate with them. Several in vitro tests using the skins of humans or animal and in vivo tests using laboratory animals are introduced for the assessment of human dermal absorption level of pesticides. The objective of this study is to evaluate and compare international guidelines and strategies of dermal absorption assessments and to propose unique approaches for applications into pesticide registration process in our situation. Until present in our situation, pesticide exposure level to operator is determined just using default value of 10 as for skin absorption ratio because of data shortage. Dermal absorption tests are requested to get exposure level of pesticides and to ultimately know the safety of pesticides for operators through the comparison with the value of AOEL. When the exposure level is higher than AOEL, the pesticide cannot be approved. We reviewed the skin absorption test guidelines recommended by OECD, EFSA and EPA. The EPA recommends assessment of skin absorption of pesticides for humans through the TPA which includes all the results of in vitro human and animal and animal in vivo skin absorption studies. OECD and EFSA, employ a tiered approach, which the requirement of further study depends on the results of the former stage study. OECD guidelines accept the analysis of pesticide level absorbed through skin without radioisotope when the recovery using the non-labeled method is within 80~120%. Various factors are reviewed in this study, including the origin of skin (gender, animal species and sites of skin), thickness, temperature and, etc., which can influence the integrity of results. PMID:25584144

  5. Application of brain cholinesterase reactivation to differentiate between organophosphorus and carbamate pesticide exposure in wild birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, W.R.; Thomas, N.J.; Hulse, C.

    1995-01-01

    Brain cholinesterase activity was measured to evaluate pesticide exposure in wild birds. Thermal reactivation of brain cholinesterase was used to differentiate between carbamate and organophosphorus pesticide exposure. Brain cholinesterase activity was compared with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry of stomach contents. Pesticides were identified and confirmed in 86 of 102 incidents of mortality from 29 states within the USA from 1986 through 1991. Thermal reactivation of cholinesterase activity was used to correctly predict carbamates in 22 incidents and organophosphates in 59 incidents. Agreement (P < 0.001) between predictions based on cholinesterase activities and GC/MS results was significant.

  6. Occupational Behaviors and Farmworkers’ Pesticide Exposure: Findings From a Study in Monterey County, California

    PubMed Central

    Salvatore, Alicia L.; Bradman, Asa; Castorina, Rosemary; Camacho, José; López, Jesús; Barr, Dana B.; Snyder, John; Jewell, Nicholas P.; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2008-01-01

    Background We studied the relationship between behaviors promoted through the US Environmental Protection Agency Worker Protection Standard (WPS) and other programs and agricultural pesticide exposures in 73 strawberry fieldworkers employed in Monterey County, California. Methods Farmworkers’ behaviors were assessed via self-report and organophosphorus (OP) pesticide exposure was measured using dimethyl alkylphosphate (DMAP) and malathion dicarboxylic acid (MDA) urinary metabolite levels. Results Wearing WPS-recommended clothing, wearing clean work clothes, and the combination of handwashing with soap and wearing gloves were associated with decreases in DMAP and MDA metabolite levels. Despite these protective behaviors, however, participants had significantly higher levels of exposure as compared with a national reference sample. Conclusions Interventions that facilitate compliance with these behaviors may be effective in decreasing fieldworkers’ pesticide exposures. However, further efforts are needed to reduce the exposure disparities experienced by farmworkers and decrease the potential for “take home” exposures to farmworkers’ families. PMID:18702096

  7. Sampling and Analysis for Non-Occupational Pesticide Exposure Assessments

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pesticides are used extensively in the United States to control a variety of pests. Commercial agriculture and non-agricultural industries account for about 80% of the total pesticide use in the United States, while the remaining 20% is used for pest control associated with home,...

  8. Exposures of children to organophosphate pesticides and their potential adverse health effects.

    PubMed Central

    Eskenazi, B; Bradman, A; Castorina, R

    1999-01-01

    Recent studies show that young children can be exposed to pesticides during normal oral exploration of their environment and their level of dermal contact with floors and other surfaces. Children living in agricultural areas may be exposed to higher pesticide levels than other children because of pesticides tracked into their homes by household members, by pesticide drift, by breast milk from their farmworker mother, or by playing in nearby fields. Nevertheless, few studies have assessed the extent of children's pesticide exposure, and no studies have examined whether there are adverse health effects of chronic exposure. There is substantial toxicologic evidence that repeated low-level exposure to organophosphate (OP) pesticides may affect neurodevelopment and growth in developing animals. For example, animal studies have reported neurobehavorial effects such as impairment on maze performance, locomotion, and balance in neonates exposed (italic)in utero(/italic) and during early postnatal life. Possible mechanisms for these effects include inhibition of brain acetylcholinesterase, downregulation of muscarinic receptors, decreased brain DNA synthesis, and reduced brain weight in offspring. Research findings also suggest that it is biologically plausible that OP exposure may be related to respiratory disease in children through dysregulation of the autonomic nervous system. The University of California Berkeley Center for Children's Environmental Health Research is working to build a community-university partnership to study the environmental health of rural children. This Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas, or CHAMACOS in Monterey County, California, will assess (italic)in utero(/italic) and postnatal OP pesticide exposure and the relationship of exposure to neurodevelopment, growth, and symptoms of respiratory illness in children. The ultimate goal of the center is to translate research findings into a reduction of children

  9. Assessment of pesticide exposure in the agricultural population of Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Monge, Patricia; Partanen, Timo; Wesseling, Catharina; Bravo, Viria; Ruepert, Clemens; Burstyn, Igor

    2005-07-01

    We describe a model for the retrospective assessment of parental exposure to 26 pesticides, selected by toxicity-based prioritization, in a population-based case-control study of childhood leukaemia in Costa Rica (301 cases, 582 controls). The model was applied to a subset of 227 parents who had been employed or self-employed in agriculture or livestock breeding. It combines external data on pesticide use for 14 crops, 21 calendar years and 14 regions, and individual interview data on determinants (task and technology, personal protective equipment, field reentry, storing of pesticides, personal hygiene) of exposure. Recall was enhanced by use of checklists of pesticides in the interview. An external database provided information on the application rate (proxy for intensity of potential exposure) for each pesticide. The calendar time was individually converted to five time windows (year before conception, first, second and third trimester, and first year of the child). Time-windowed individual data on determinants of exposure and their expert-based general weights and their category-specific hazard values jointly provided an individual determinant score. This score was multiplied by the application rate to obtain an individual index of exposure intensity during application. Finally, average exposure intensity during entire time windows was estimated by incorporating in the model the individual time fraction of exposure during application. Estimates of exposure intensities were proxies assumed to be proportional to dermal exposure intensity, which represents the major pathway of occupational exposure to pesticides. A simulated sensitivity analysis resulted in a correlation coefficient of 0.91 between two sets of 10 000 values of individual exposure indices, based on two different but realistic sets expert-assigned weights. Lack of measurement data on concurrent exposures in comparable circumstances precluded direct validation of the model. PMID:15650018

  10. Environmental exposure to pesticides and cancer risk in multiple human organ systems.

    PubMed

    Parrón, Tesifón; Requena, Mar; Hernández, Antonio F; Alarcón, Raquel

    2014-10-15

    There is growing evidence on the association between long-term exposure to pesticides in occupational settings and an elevated rate of chronic diseases, including different types of cancer. However, data on non-occupational exposures are scarce to draw any conclusion. The objective of this study was to investigate the putative associations of environmental pesticide exposures in the general population with several cancer sites and to discuss potential carcinogenic mechanisms by which pesticides develop cancer. A population-based case-control study was conducted among people residing in 10 Health districts from Andalusia (South Spain) to estimate the risk of cancer at different sites. Health districts were categorized into areas of high and low environmental pesticide exposure based on two quantitative criteria: number of hectares devoted to intensive agriculture and pesticide sales per capita. The study population consisted of 34,205 cancer cases and 1,832,969 age and health district matched controls. Data were collected by computerized hospital records (minimum dataset) between 1998 and 2005. Prevalence rates and the risk of cancer at most organ sites were significantly higher in districts with greater pesticide use related to those with lower pesticide use. Conditional logistic regression analyses showed that the population living in areas with high pesticide use had an increased risk of cancer at all sites studied (odds ratios between 1.15 and 3.45) with the exception of Hodgkin's disease and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The results of this study support and extend previous evidence from occupational studies indicating that environmental exposure to pesticides may be a risk factor for different types of cancer at the level of the general population. PMID:24269242

  11. Human exposure to mosquito-control pesticides--Mississippi, North Carolina, and Virginia, 2002 and 2003.

    PubMed

    2005-06-01

    Public health officials weigh the risk for mosquito-borne diseases against the risk for human exposure to pesticides sprayed to control mosquitoes. Response to outbreaks of mosquito-borne diseases has focused on vector control through habitat reduction and application of pesticides that kill mosquito larvae. However, in certain situations, public health officials control adult mosquito populations by spraying ultra-low volume (ULV) (<3 fluid ounces per acre [oz/acre]) mosquito-control (MC) pesticides, such as naled, permethrin, and d-phenothrin. These ULV applications generate aerosols of fine droplets of pesticides that stay aloft and kill mosquitoes on contact while minimizing the risk for exposure to persons, wildlife, and the environment. This report summarizes the results of studies in Mississippi, North Carolina, and Virginia that assessed human exposure to ULV naled, permethrin, and d-phenothrin used in emergency, large-scale MC activities. The findings indicated ULV application in MC activities did not result in substantial pesticide exposure to humans; however, public health interventions should focus on the reduction of home and workplace exposure to pesticides. PMID:15931155

  12. Pesticide use, exposure, and risk: A joint Israeli-Palestinian perspective.

    PubMed

    Richter, E D; Safi, J

    1997-01-01

    The major predictors of health risk from pesticide exposure are quantity and toxicity of pesticides reaching end-users, field workers, and persons (including children) with casual and indirect exposures to field and food residues, drift, and contaminated groundwater. Past work in Israel and the Palestinian National Authority has documented risks for acute poisoning, daily illness, transient neurotoxic effects, and potential cancer hazards in workers, populations exposed to pesticide drift, and the general population. Risk assessment predicts that reduction in use of agents with high toxicity and pesticide substitution are desired strategies for achieving the largest reductions in risk, but successful implementation and program sustainability depend on maintaining crop yield and increasing farmer earnings. A joint pilot Israeli-Palestinian-NGO program aims to determine whether crop yields and profits can be sustained while reducing pesticide use, promoting integrated pest management, and restricting ecosystem damage. The project involves six components: (1) assessments of health risk and crop yield in relation to pesticide use and exposure; (2) training health-agricultural teams to introduce and evaluate crop growth and managements with reduced pesticide use; (3) tracing and stopping import and trade in banned or restricted pesticides; (4) restricting child labor; (5) promoting information delivery and worker and community right-to-know and right-to-act; and (6) establishing a uniform regional standard for protection of workers and the general public. Preliminary evidence (organochlorines and breast cancer, organophosphates and illness in field workers) indicates that (1) a reduction of use is the foremost determinant of a reduction in health risk; (2) cotton yield can be increased despite a reduction in pesticide use (organophosphates); and (3) a reduction in pesticide use (organophosphates and organochlorines) has to be part of a crop rotation program for food

  13. Risk of pesticide exposure for reptile species in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Mingo, Valentin; Lötters, Stefan; Wagner, Norman

    2016-08-01

    Environmental pollution has an especially high impact on wildlife. This is especially the case in industrialized countries. Although, many species within the European Union benefit from protection by the Habitats Directive, no special consideration is given to possible detrimental effects of pesticides. This is in particular remarkable as negative effects, which may lead to a regional diversity loss, have already been identified in laboratory and mesocosm studies. We conducted a pesticide exposure risk evaluation for all European reptile species with sufficient literature data on the considered biological and ecological aspects and occurrence data within agricultural areas with regular pesticide applications (102 out of 141). By using three evaluation factors - (i) pesticide exposure, (ii) physiology and (iii) life history - a taxon-specific pesticide exposure risk factor (ERF) was created. The results suggest that about half of all evaluated species, and thus at least 1/3 of all European species exhibited a high exposure risk. At the same time, two of them (Mauremys leprosa and Testudo graeca) are globally classified as threatened with extinction in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Variation regarding species occurrence in exposed landscapes between pesticide admission zones within the EU is rather large. This variation is mainly caused by differing land use and species abundances between zones. At the taxonomic level, significant differences in exposure risk can be observed between threatened and non-threatened species, which can be explained by the formers remote distribution areas. Lizards display the highest sensitivity toward pesticides, although no differences in overall ERFs can be observed between taxonomic groups. By identifying species at above-average risk to pesticide exposure, species-based risk evaluations can improve conservation actions for reptiles from cultivated landscapes. PMID:27182977

  14. An evaluation of metrics for assessing maternal exposure to agricultural pesticides

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Joshua L.; Luben, Thomas J.; Sanders, Alison P.; Brownstein, Naomi C.; Herring, Amy H.; Meyer, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluate the use of three different exposure metrics to estimate maternal agricultural pesticide exposure during pregnancy. Using a geographic information system-based method of pesticide exposure estimation, we combine data on crop density and specific pesticide application amounts/dates to create the three exposure metrics. For illustration purposes, we create each metric for a North Carolina cohort of pregnant women, 2003–2005, and analyze the risk of congenital anomaly development with a focus on metric comparisons. Based on the results, and the need to balance data collection efforts/computational efficiency with accuracy, the metric which estimates total chemical exposure using application dates based on crop-specific earliest planting and latest harvesting information is preferred. Benefits and drawbacks of each metric are discussed and recommendations for extending the analysis to other states are provided. PMID:24149974

  15. Multiple exposure routes of a pesticide exacerbate effects on a grazing mayfly.

    PubMed

    Pristed, Mathias Joachim Skov; Bundschuh, Mirco; Rasmussen, Jes Jessen

    2016-09-01

    Hydrophobic pesticides such as pyrethroid insecticides tend to occur in their soluble form mainly as transient pulses in streams. In addition, they are regularly detected in significant quantities adsorbed to stream sediments and other organic in-stream structures. Consequently, stream biota is likely subjected to pesticide exposure via multiple routes. In this study we aimed at investigating the influence of exposure routes for the pyrethroid insecticide lambda-cyhalothrin on the grazing mayfly Heptagenia sulphurea. Therefore, H. sulphurea was exposed to lambda-cyhalothrin via single- (water or biofilm) or biphasic exposure (water and biofilm) at environmentally realistic concentrations (0, 0.1, 1μgL(-1)) and exposure duration (2h) in a full factorial design (n=5). Mortality, moulting frequency, and biofilm accrual (proxy for feeding rate) were recorded subsequent to a 7 d post exposure period. Mortality significantly increased and moulting frequency significantly decreased with increasing concentrations of lambda-cyhalothrin in the water phase whereas exposure via biofilm prompted no significant effects on these endpoints (α=0.05). Effect predictions systematically underestimated and overestimated effects for mortality and moulting frequency, respectively. Similarly, mayfly feeding rate was significantly reduced by water phase exposure whereas pre-exposed biofilm did not significantly affect this variable. However, we found a significant but non-systematic interaction between water phase and biofilm exposure on mayfly feeding rate. Our results show that exposure to the same pesticide via multiple exposure routes may increase the magnitude of effects beyond the level predicted from single phase exposures which has clear implications for the aquatic risk assessment of hydrophobic pesticides. However, our results additionally reveal that interactions between pesticide exposure routes may vary between selected dependent variables. We emphasize that unravelling the

  16. Design strategy for assessing multi-pathway exposure for children: the Minnesota Children's Pesticide Exposure Study (MNCPES).

    PubMed

    Quackenboss, J J; Pellizzari, E D; Shubat, P; Whitmore, R W; Adgate, J L; Thomas, K W; Freeman, N C; Stroebel, C; Lioy, P J; Clayton, A C; Sexton, K

    2000-01-01

    Although children are exposed to a variety of environmental hazards, including pesticides, there is a scarcity of information available to estimate exposures realistically. This article reports on one of the first attempts to measure multi-pathway pesticide exposures in a population-based sample of urban and non-urban children. A design strategy was developed to assess multi-pathway pesticide exposures in children using personal exposure measurements in combination with complimentary measurements of biological markers of exposure, concentrations in relevant environmental media, and time spent in important microenvironments and participating in exposure-related activities. Sample collection and analysis emphasized measurement of three insecticides (i.e., chlorpyrifos, diazinon, and malathion) and one herbicide (i.e., atrazine). These compounds were selected because of their frequent use, presence in multiple environmental media, expected population exposures, and related hazard/toxicity. The study was conducted during the summer of 1997 in Minnesota and involved a stratified sample of households with children ages 3-12 years. Participants resided in either (a) the cities of Minneapolis and St. Paul (urban households), or (b) Rice and Goodhue Counties just south of the metropolitan area (non-urban households). Results from a residential inventory documenting storage and use of products containing the target pesticides were used to preferentially select households where children were likely to have higher exposures. The study successfully obtained pesticide exposure data for 102 children, including measurements of personal exposures (air, hand rinse, duplicate diet), environmental concentrations (residential indoor/outdoor air, drinking water, residential surfaces, soil), activity patterns (obtained by questionnaire, diary, videotaping), and internal dose (metabolites in urine). PMID:10791596

  17. Biological monitoring of pesticide exposures in residents living near agricultural land

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is currently a lack of reliable information on the exposures of residents and bystanders to pesticides in the UK. Previous research has shown that the methods currently used for assessing pesticide exposure for regulatory purposes are appropriate for farm workers [1]. However, there were indications that the exposures of bystanders may sometimes be underestimated. The previous study did not collect data for residents. Therefore, this study aims to collect measurements to determine if the current methods and tools are appropriate for assessing pesticide exposure for residents living near agricultural fields. Methods/design The study will recruit owners of farms and orchards (hereafter both will be referred to as farms) that spray their agricultural crops with certain specified pesticides, and which have residential areas in close proximity to these fields. Recruited farms will be asked to provide details of their pesticide usage throughout the spray season. Informed consenting residents (adults (18 years and over) and children (aged 4-12 years)) will be asked to provide urine samples and accompanying activity diaries during the spraying season and in addition for a limited number of weeks before/after the spray season to allow background pesticide metabolite levels to be determined. Selected urine samples will be analysed for the pesticide metabolites of interest. Statistical analysis and mathematical modelling will use the laboratory results, along with the additional data collected from the farmers and residents, to determine systemic exposure levels amongst residents. Surveys will be carried out in selected areas of the United Kingdom over two years (2011 and 2012), covering two spraying seasons and the time between the spraying seasons. Discussion The described study protocol was implemented for the sample and data collection procedures carried out in 2011. Based on experience to date, no major changes to the protocol are anticipated for the

  18. Pesticide residue transfer in Thai farmer families: using structural equation modeling to determine exposure pathways.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hanhua; Hanchenlaksh, Chalalai; Povey, Andrew C; de Vocht, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Use of pesticides in agriculture may lead to downstream exposure of farmers' families to pesticide residues inadvertently taken home. Identification of the independent contribution of different exposure pathways from the farmer to their children can provide clear targets to reduce exposure of farmers' children. Individual contributions of different pesticide transfer exposure pathways were investigated using structural equation modeling methods, and the benefits of these methods compared to standard multiple regression are described. A total of 72 Thai families, consisting of a farmer, a spouse, and a child, participated in this study. Family members completed a questionnaire and self-collected three spot morning urine samples in the spraying season. Urine samples were analyzed for diethyl phosphate, diethyl thiophosphate, diethyl dithiophosphate, dimethyl phosphate, dimethyl thiophosphate, and dimethyl dithiophosphate. A path model was developed based on an a priori hypothesized framework to examine the individual contributions of different exposure pathways that may directly or indirectly affect transfer of pesticide residues from farmers to their children. Transfer from the farmer to the child occurs indirectly, primarily through transfer to the spouse in the first instance, but also through contamination of the home environment. Clear targets for interventions are directly the reduction of farmers' take-home exposures and indirectly frequent cleaning of the home to avoid buildup of pesticide residues. PMID:25407029

  19. CHILDREN'S RESIDENTIAL EXPOSURE TO CHLORPYRIFOS: APPLICATION OF CPPAES FIELD MEASUREMENTS OF CHLORPYRIFOS AND TCPY WITHIN MENTOR/SHEDS PESTICIDES MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The comprehensive individual field-measurements on non-dietary exposure collected in the Children's-Post-Pesticide-Application-Exposure-Study (CPPAES) were used within MENTOR/SHEDS-Pesticides, a physically based stochastic human exposure and dose model. In this application, howev...

  20. Assessing Children’s Dietary Pesticide Exposure: Direct Measurement of Pesticide Residues in 24-Hr Duplicate Food Samples

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chensheng; Schenck, Frank J.; Pearson, Melanie A.; Wong, Jon W.

    2010-01-01

    Background The data presented here are a response to calls for more direct measurements of pesticide residues in foods consumed by children and provide an opportunity to compare direct measures of pesticide residues in foods representing actual consumption with those reported by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Pesticide Data Program. Objective We measured pesticide residues in 24-hr duplicate food samples collected from a group of 46 young children participating in the Children’s Pesticide Exposure Study (CPES). Methods Parents were instructed to collect 24-hr duplicate food samples of all conventional fruits, vegetables, and fruit juices equal to the quantity consumed by their children, similarly prewashed/prepared, and from the same source or batch. Individual or composite food items were analyzed for organophosphate (OP) and pyrethroid insecticide residues. Results We collected a total of 239 24-hr duplicate food samples collected from the 46 CPES children. We found 14% or 5% of those food samples contained at least one OP or pyrethroid insecticide, respectively. We measured a total of 11 OP insecticides, at levels ranging from 1 to 387 ng/g, and three pyrethroid insecticides, at levels ranging from 2 to 1,133 ng/g, in children’s food samples. We found that many of the food items consumed by the CPES children were also on the list of the most contaminated food commodities reported by the Environmental Working Group. Conclusions The frequent consumption of food commodities with episodic presence of pesticide residues that are suspected to cause developmental and neurological effects in young children supports the need for further mitigation. PMID:20639183

  1. Occupational exposure to pesticides and prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Lewis-Mikhael, Anne-Mary; Bueno-Cavanillas, Aurora; Ofir Guiron, Talia; Olmedo-Requena, Rocío; Delgado-Rodríguez, Miguel; Jiménez-Moleón, José Juan

    2016-02-01

    Epidemiological studies on exposure to pesticides and risk of prostate cancer (PC) provide inconsistent results. We aimed to explore various potential sources of heterogeneity not previously assessed and to derive updated risk estimates from homogenous studies. We searched PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus databases for case-control and cohort studies published from 1985 to April 2014. We assessed the quality of the articles using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Pooled estimates were calculated using random-effects models. Heterogeneity was explored using subset analyses and metaregression. Fifty-two studies were included in the review and 25 in the meta-analysis. No association was found between low exposure to pesticides and PC, but association was significant for high exposure, pooled OR 1.33 (1.02 to 1.63), I(2)=44.8%, p=0.024. Heterogeneity was explained by a number of variables including method used to assess exposure. Pooled OR was weak and non-significant for studies measuring serum pesticide level, 1.12 (0.74 to 1.50), I(2)=0.00%, p=0.966. For studies applying self-reporting of exposure, pooled estimate was 1.34 (0.91 to 1.77), I(2)=0.00%, p=0.493, while a high significant association was detected for grouped exposure assessment, 2.24 (1.36 to 3.11), I(2)=0.00%, p=0.955. In spite of a weak significant association detected when pooling ORs for high occupational exposure to pesticides, the magnitude of the association was related to the method of exposure assessment used by the original studies. A family history-pesticide exposure interaction was also observed for a number of pesticides. PMID:26644457

  2. Predicting children's short-term exposure to pesticides: results of a questionnaire screening approach.

    PubMed Central

    Sexton, Ken; Adgate, John L; Eberly, Lynn E; Clayton, C Andrew; Whitmore, Roy W; Pellizzari, Edo D; Lioy, Paul J; Quackenboss, James J

    2003-01-01

    The ability of questionnaires to predict children's exposure to pesticides was examined as part of the Minnesota Children's Pesticide Exposure Study (MNCPES). The MNCPES focused on a probability sample of 102 children between the ages of 3 and 13 years living in either urban (Minneapolis and St. Paul, MN) or nonurban (Rice and Goodhue Counties in Minnesota) households. Samples were collected in a variety of relevant media (air, food, beverages, tap water, house dust, soil, urine), and chemical analyses emphasized three organophosphate insecticides (chlorpyrifos, diazinon, malathion) and a herbicide (atrazine). Results indicate that the residential pesticide-use questions and overall screening approach used in the MNCPES were ineffective for identifying and oversampling children/households with higher levels of individual target pesticides. PMID:12515690

  3. Platelet Mitochondrial Activity and Pesticide Exposure in Early Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bronstein, Jeff M.; Paul, Kimberly; Yang, Laurice; Haas, Richard H.; Shults, Clifford W.; Le, Thuy; Ritz, Beate

    2015-01-01

    Background Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD) but the cause of this dysfunction is unclear. Methods Platelet mitochondrial complex I and I/III (NADH cytochrome c reductase, NCCR) activities were measured in early PD patients and matched controls enrolled in a population based case-control study. Ambient agricultural pesticide exposures were assessed with a geographic information system and California Pesticide Use Registry. Results In contrast to some previous reports, we found no differences in complex I and I/III activities in subjects with PD and controls. We did find that NCCR activity correlated with subjects’ exposure to pesticides known to inhibit mitochondrial activity regardless of their diagnosis. Conclusions ETC activity is not altered in PD in this well-characterized cohort when compared to community-matched controls but appears to be affected by environmental toxins, such as mitochondria-inhibiting pesticides. PMID:25757798

  4. Insights into reptile dermal contaminant exposure: Reptile skin permeability to pesticides.

    PubMed

    Weir, Scott M; Talent, Larry G; Anderson, Todd A; Salice, Christopher J

    2016-07-01

    There is growing interest in improving ecological risk assessment exposure estimation, specifically by incorporating dermal exposure. At the same time, there is a growing interest in amphibians and reptiles as receptors in ecological risk assessment, despite generally receiving less research than more traditional receptors. Previous research has suggested that dermal exposure may be more important than previously considered for reptiles. We measured reptile skin permeability to four pesticides (thiamethoxam, malathion, tebuthiuron, trifluralin) using ventral skin samples. All four pesticides penetrated the skin but generally had low permeability. There was no apparent relationship between physicochemical properties and permeability coefficients. Malathion had a significantly greater permeability rate at all time points compared to the other pesticides. Tebuthiuron had a greater permeability than thiamethoxam. Reptiles and mammals appear to have similar skin permeability suggesting that dermal exposure estimates for mammals may be representative of reptiles. PMID:27037770

  5. Genomic analysis of the interaction between pesticide exposure and nutrition in honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    PubMed

    Schmehl, Daniel R; Teal, Peter E A; Frazier, James L; Grozinger, Christina M

    2014-12-01

    Populations of pollinators are in decline worldwide. These declines are best documented in honey bees and are due to a combination of stressors. In particular, pesticides have been linked to decreased longevity and performance in honey bees; however, the molecular and physiological pathways mediating sensitivity and resistance to pesticides are not well characterized. We explored the impact of coumaphos and fluvalinate, the two most abundant and frequently detected pesticides in the hive, on genome-wide gene expression patterns of honey bee workers. We found significant changes in 1118 transcripts, including genes involved in detoxification, behavioral maturation, immunity, and nutrition. Since behavioral maturation is regulated by juvenile hormone III (JH), we examined effects of these miticides on hormone titers; while JH titers were unaffected, titers of methyl farnesoate (MF), the precursor to JH, were decreased. We further explored the association between nutrition- and pesticide-regulated gene expression patterns and demonstrated that bees fed a pollen-based diet exhibit reduced sensitivity to a third pesticide, chlorpyrifos. Finally, we demonstrated that expression levels of several of the putative pesticide detoxification genes identified in our study and previous studies are also upregulated in response to pollen feeding, suggesting that these pesticides and components in pollen modulate similar molecular response pathways. Our results demonstrate that pesticide exposure can substantially impact expression of genes involved in several core physiological pathways in honey bee workers. Additionally, there is substantial overlap in responses to pesticides and pollen-containing diets at the transcriptional level, and subsequent analyses demonstrated that pollen-based diets reduce workers' pesticide sensitivity. Thus, providing honey bees and other pollinators with high quality nutrition may improve resistance to pesticides. PMID:25450567

  6. Levels of Pesticides and Their Metabolites in Wistar Rat Amniotic Fluids and Maternal Urine upon Gestational Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Bossi, Rossana; Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Taxvig, Camilla; Boberg, Julie; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2013-01-01

    Concentrations of pesticides and selected metabolites in rat urine and amniotic fluid were determined as biomarker upon oral administration of Wistar rats to two pesticide mixtures consisting of three to five pesticides (bitertanol, propiconazole, cypermethrin, malathion, and terbuthylazine). The pesticides and their metabolites were found in rat amniotic fluid and urine, generally in dose-response concentrations in relation to dosage. The measurement of the substances in the amniotic fluid indicated that the fetus was exposed to the pesticides as well as their metabolites. Moreover, the pesticides detected in urine demonstrated the exposure as well as the ability of the rat to excrete these compounds. PMID:23736656

  7. Multidrug Resistance 1 Gene Variants, Pesticide Exposure, and Increased Risk of DNA Damage

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chun-Chieh; Huang, Chun-Huang; Wu, Man-Tzu Marcie; Chou, Chia-Hsuan; Huang, Chia-Chen; Tseng, Tzu-Yen; Chang, Fang-Yu; Li, Ying-Ti; Tsai, Chun-Cheng; Wang, Tsung-Shing

    2014-01-01

    The P-glycoprotein, encoded by the multidrug resistance (MDR)1 gene, extrudes fat-soluble compounds to the extracellular environment. However, the DNA damage of pesticides in subjects with genetic variation in MDR1 has not been investigated. In this study, the comet assay was applied to examine the extent of DNA damage in the peripheral blood of 195 fruit growers who had been exposed to pesticides and 141 unexposed controls. The MDR1 polymorphisms were identified. Questionnaires were administered to obtain demographic data and occupational history. Results showed subjects experiencing high (2.14 μm/cell, P < 0.01) or low pesticide exposure (2.18 μm/cell, P < 0.01) had a significantly greater DNA tail moment than controls (1.28 μm/cell). Compared to the MDR1 T-129C (rs3213619) TC/CC carriers, the TT carriers had increased DNA tail moment in controls (1.30 versus 1.12 μm/cell, P < 0.01). Similar results were observed in the high and low pesticide-exposed groups. Combined analysis revealed that pesticide-exposed fruit growers with MDR1 -129 TT genotype had the greatest DNA damage in the subjects with the combinations of pesticide exposure and MDR1 -129 genotypes. In conclusion, pesticide exposed individuals with susceptible MDR1 -129 genotypes may experience increased risk of DNA damage. PMID:24791009

  8. DETERMINATION OF ROUTES OF EXPOSURE OF INFANTS AND TODDLERS TO HOUSEHOLD PESTICIDES: A PILOT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA recently completed a study of nonoccupational exposure to household pesticides. uring that study, house dust and yard soil were recognized to be potential major sources of exposure for infants and toddlers. onsequently, a pilot study was initiated in the fall of 1990...

  9. A Review of Non-occupational Pathways for Pesticide Exposure in Women Living in Agricultural Areas

    EPA Science Inventory

    Women living in agricultural areas may experience relatively high pesticide exposures compared to women in urban or suburban areas due to their proximity to farm activities. However, exposure pathways in these women are not well-characterized. We reviewed the evidence for the con...

  10. Paraoxonase 1 Polymorphism and Prenatal Pesticide Exposure Associated with Adverse Cardiovascular Risk Profiles at School Age

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Helle R.; Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine; Dalgård, Christine; Christiansen, Lene; Main, Katharina M.; Nellemann, Christine; Murata, Katsuyuki; Jensen, Tina K.; Skakkebæk, Niels E.; Grandjean, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Background Prenatal environmental factors might influence the risk of developing cardiovascular disease later in life. The HDL-associated enzyme paraoxonase 1 (PON1) has anti-oxidative functions that may protect against atherosclerosis. It also hydrolyzes many substrates, including organophosphate pesticides. A common polymorphism, PON1 Q192R, affects both properties, but a potential interaction between PON1 genotype and pesticide exposure on cardiovascular risk factors has not been investigated. We explored if the PON1 Q192R genotype affects cardiovascular risk factors in school-age children prenatally exposed to pesticides. Methods Pregnant greenhouse-workers were categorized as high, medium, or not exposed to pesticides. Their children underwent a standardized examination at age 6-to-11 years, where blood pressure, skin folds, and other anthropometric parameters were measured. PON1-genotype was determined for 141 children (88 pesticide exposed and 53 unexposed). Serum was analyzed for insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP3), insulin and leptin. Body fat percentage was calculated from skin fold thicknesses. BMI results were converted to age and sex specific Z-scores. Results Prenatally pesticide exposed children carrying the PON1 192R-allele had higher abdominal circumference, body fat content, BMI Z-scores, blood pressure, and serum concentrations of leptin and IGF-I at school age than unexposed children. The effects were related to the prenatal exposure level. For children with the PON1 192QQ genotype, none of the variables was affected by prenatal pesticide exposure. Conclusion Our results indicate a gene-environment interaction between prenatal pesticide exposure and the PON1 gene. Only exposed children with the R-allele developed adverse cardiovascular risk profiles thought to be associated with the R-allele. PMID:22615820

  11. Neurobehavioral effects of exposure to organophosphates and pyrethroid pesticides among Thai children

    PubMed Central

    Fiedler, Nancy; Rohitrattana, Juthasiri; Siriwong, Wattasit; Suttiwan, Panrapee; Strickland, Pam Ohman; Ryan, P. Barry; Rohlman, Diane S.; Panuwet, Parinya; Barr, Dana Boyd; Robson, Mark G.

    2015-01-01

    The use of pesticides for crop production has grown rapidly in Thailand during the last decade, resulting in significantly greater potential for exposure among children living on farms. Although some previous studies assessed exposures to pesticides in this population, no studies have been conducted to evaluate corresponding health effects. Twenty-four children from a rice farming community (exposed) and 29 from an aquaculture (shrimp) community (control) completed the study. Participants completed a neurobehavioral test battery three times at 6 month intervals: Session I: preliminary orientation; Session II: high pesticide use season; Session III: low pesticide-use season. Only sessions II and III were used in the analyses. High and low pesticide use seasons were determined by pesticide use on rice farms. Urinary metabolites of organophosphates (OPs) and pyrethroids (PYR) were analyzed from first morning void samples collected the day of neurobehavioral testing. Rice farm participants had significantly higher concentrations of dialkylphosphates (DAPs) (common metabolites of OPs) and TCPy (a specific metabolite of chlorpyrifos) than aquaculture farm children regardless of season. But, TCPy was significantly higher during the low rather than the high pesticide use season for both participant groups. Rice farm children had significantly higher DCCA, a metabolite of PYR, than aquaculture participants only during the high exposure season. Otherwise, no significant differences in PYR metabolites were noted between the participant groups or seasons. No significant adverse neurobehavioral effects were observed between participant groups during either the high or low pesticide use season. After controlling for differences in age and the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) scores, DAPs, TCPy, and PYR were not significant predictors of adverse neurobehavioral performance during either season. Increasing DAP and PYR metabolites predicted some relatively

  12. Characterization of Pesticide Exposure in a Sample of Pregnant Women in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Handal, Alexis J; Hund, Lauren; Páez, Maritza; Bear, Samantha; Greenberg, Carolyn; Fenske, Richard A; Barr, Dana Boyd

    2016-05-01

    Few studies have detailed the prenatal pesticide exposure levels of women employed in or residing near large-scale agricultural industries. This study reports pesticide metabolite levels during and shortly after pregnancy in a pilot study of workers in Ecuador. Urine samples were collected for 16 rose workers and 10 nonagricultural workers enrolled into the study in early pregnancy. We measured six nonspecific organophosphatedialkylphosphate (DAP) pesticide metabolites, two alkylenebis-dithiocarbamate pesticide metabolites [ethylene thiourea (ETU) and propylene thiourea (PTU)], 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy), malathion dicarboxylic acid, and two pyrethroid metabolites (2,2-dimethylcyclo propanecarboxylic acid and 3-phenooxybenzoic acid). We collected 141 urine samples (mean: 5.4 per woman). We observed high detection frequencies for five DAP metabolites and ETU, PTU, and TCPy. We report elevated levels of ETU in the entire sample (median 4.24 ng/mL, IQR 2.23, 7.18), suggesting other possible non-occupational pathways of exposure. We found no statistical differences in pesticide levels by current employment status, although the highest pesticide levels were among rose workers. We observed within-woman correlation in TCPy and PTU levels, but not in ETU or DAP levels. The present study is the first to characterize prenatal pesticide exposure levels among working women in Ecuador. Limitations include a small sample size and use of a convenience sample. Strengths include a longitudinal design and multiple urine samples per woman. Results provide an initial characterization of prenatal pesticide exposure levels and how these levels vary over pregnancy in a community impacted by agricultural industry and will inform further studies in the region. PMID:26311023

  13. Pesticide exposures, cholinesterase depression, and symptoms among North Carolina migrant farmworkers.

    PubMed Central

    Ciesielski, S; Loomis, D P; Mims, S R; Auer, A

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. We conducted a clinic-based study of erythrocyte cholinesterase levels, pesticide exposures, and health effects among farmworkers and nonfarmworkers to determine risks for exposure and associated morbidity. METHODS. Two hundred two farmworkers and 42 nonfarmworkers were recruited sequentially at two community health centers. Erythrocyte cholinesterase levels were measured colorimetrically. Questionnaires obtained data on demographics, occupational history, exposures, and symptoms. RESULTS. Cholinesterase levels were significantly lower among farmworkers (30.28 U/g hemoglobin) than among nonfarmworkers (32.3 U/g hemoglobin). Twelve percent of farmworkers, but no nonfarmworkers, had very low levels. Farmworkers applying pesticides also had lower cholinesterase levels. One half of farmworkers reported being sprayed by pesticides and working in fields with an obvious chemical smell. Of reported symptoms, only diarrhea was associated with cholinesterase levels. Reported exposures, however, were strongly associated with symptoms. CONCLUSIONS. Farmworkers reported many pesticide exposures that violate state and federal regulations. Farmworkers had cholinesterase levels significantly lower than those of nonfarmworkers, although only spraying pesticides was associated with very low levels. PMID:8129063

  14. Association between pesticide exposure and risk of kidney cancer: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Bo; Hu, Yingfang; Liang, Zhen; Liu, Ben; Zheng, Xiangyi; Xie, Liping

    2016-01-01

    This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the correlation between pesticide exposure and kidney cancer. We conducted a systematic search of the Cochrane Library, Embase, Web of Knowledge, and Medline (updated to March 1, 2015) to identify all relevant studies. References of the retrieved articles were also identified. Fixed- or random-effect models were used to summarize the estimates of relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence interval for the association between exposure of pesticide and risk of kidney cancer. The pooled RR estimate indicated that pesticide exposure might have an elevated risk for kidney cancer (RR =1.10, 95% confidence interval 1.01–1.19). In a subgroup analysis of high quality articles, we detected that pesticide exposure is a significant risk factor for kidney cancer in a subgroup analysis of case-control studies, (Newcastle–Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale score >6) (RR =1.31, 95% confidence interval 1.12–1.51). North America studies, odds ratio studies, and studies with effect estimate adjusted for more than two confounder studies. In conclusion, pesticide exposure may be a risk factor for kidney cancer. PMID:27418833

  15. Farmers' knowledge, practices and injuries associated with pesticide exposure in rural farming villages in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pesticides in Tanzania are extensively used for pest control in agriculture. Their usage and unsafe handling practices may potentially result in high farmer exposures and adverse health effects. The aim of this study was to describe farmers’ pesticide exposure profile, knowledge about pesticide hazards, experience of previous poisoning, hazardous practices that may lead to Acute Pesticide Poisoning (APP) and the extent to which APP is reported. Methods The study involved 121 head- of-household respondents from Arumeru district in Arusha region. Data collection involved administration of a standardised questionnaire to farmers and documentation of storage practices. Unsafe pesticide handling practices were assessed through observation of pesticide storage, conditions of personal protective equipment (PPE) and through self-reports of pesticide disposal and equipment calibration. Results Past lifetime pesticide poisoning was reported by 93% of farmers. The agents reported as responsible for poisoning were Organophosphates (42%) and WHO Class II agents (77.6%). Storage of pesticides in the home was reported by 79% of farmers. Respondents with higher education levels were significantly less likely to store pesticides in their home (PRR High/Low = 0.3; 95% CI = 0.1-0.7) and more likely to practice calibration of spray equipment (PRR High/Low = 1.2; 95% CI = 1.03-1.4). However, knowledge of routes of exposure was not associated with safety practices particularly for disposal, equipment wash area, storage and use of PPE . The majority of farmers experiencing APP in the past (79%) did not attend hospital and of the 23 farmers who did so in the preceding year, records could be traced for only 22% of these cases. Conclusions The study found a high potential for pesticide exposure in the selected community in rural Tanzania, a high frequency of self-reported APP and poor recording in hospital records. Farmers’ knowledge levels appeared to be unrelated to their

  16. Development of a fieldable rapid pesticide exposure analysis sensing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, Kevin M.; Clauson, Susan L.; Spencer, Sarah A.; Sylvia, James M.; Vallejos, Quirina M.; Quandt, Sara A.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2010-04-01

    Despite the recent interest in organically grown foods, most agricultural crops use multiple pesticides to optimize yield. There are many persons whose health may be affected by the spraying; there is the active applicator and the passive neighbors. In between these extremes are the farm workers who pick the crops anywhere from days to weeks after application. How much pesticide residue are these workers exposed to during a workday and how much is transferred back to the residence? Despite the low vapor pressures, what is the true concentration of pesticides surrounding a person when pesticides adsorbed to particulate matter are included? What is the relationship between the concentration around an individual and the amount adsorbed/ingested? To answer these questions on a statistically significant scale in actual field conditions, a portable, fast, inexpensive measurement device is required. We present herein results obtained using Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) that demonstrate the capability to detect < 100 organophosphate, organochlorine and carbamate-based pesticides in the vapor phase as well as the ability of SERS sensors to detect a particular analyte in a synthetic urine matrix. We will also present data collected from CDC quantified urine samples and will present results obtained in a field test wherein SERS sensors wore worn as dosimeters in the field and real-time vapor sampling of the farm workers barracks was performed. The issue of potential interferences will also be discussed.

  17. Exposure profiles of pesticides among greenhouse workers: implications for epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Tielemans, Erik; Bretveld, Reini; Schinkel, Jody; Van Wendel De Joode, Berna; Kromhout, Hans; Gerritsen-Ebben, Rianda; Roeleveld, Nel; Preller, Liesbeth

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess exposure to pesticides for a longitudinal epidemiological study on adverse reproduction effects among greenhouse workers. Detailed information on pesticide use among greenhouse workers was obtained on a monthly basis through self-administered questionnaires and subsequent workplace surveys. Questionnaires were filled in for a whole year. Dermal exposure rankings were developed for each task using the observational method Dermal Exposure Assessment Method (DREAM). Exposure scores were calculated for each worker for each month during the year, taking into account frequency, duration and exposure intensity for each task. A total number of 116 different active ingredients were used in the population, whereas a mean number of 15 active ingredients were applied per greenhouse. DREAM observations provided insight into the exposure intensity of 12 application techniques and three mixing and loading activities. Relatively high DREAM scores were obtained for scattering, fogging, dusting, and mixing and loading of powders. Observations with DREAM indicated that application with a horizontal ground-boom, motor driven boom, and bulb shower resulted in low dermal exposure. Exposure scores showed substantial variation between workers and over the year. It can be concluded that exposure variation between- and within greenhouses is very large, both in terms of chemical composition and exposure intensity. This may be a significant contributor to the inconsistent results of studies evaluating health effects of pesticide exposure. PMID:17299530

  18. Effect of pesticide exposure on acetylcholinesterase activity in subsistence farmers from Campeche, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rendón von Osten, Jaime; Epomex, Centro; Tinoco-Ojanguren, Rolando; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Guilhermino, Lucia

    2004-08-01

    The authors surveyed agricultural production methods and pesticide use among subsistence farmers (campesinos) in 4 rural communities of Campeche, Mexico. Self-reports of symptoms of poisoning resulting from occupational pesticide exposure were elicited by questionnaire (N = 121), and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity during insecticide use was evaluated from blood samples (N = 127). In individuals from 2 of the 4 communities, AChE activity was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than the mean of activity determined for individuals in a reference group. Results of this study show that erythrocyte AChE inhibition provides a good biomarker of exposure to organophosphate pesticides in field studies with human populations. Carbamates, particularly carbofuran, seem to be more associated with exuberant and diversified symptomatology of pesticide exposure than organophosphates. Studies in field communities where both carbamates and organophosphates are suspected to exist should include blood AChE determinations, symptomatology surveys, and socioeconomic questionnaires. The authors recommend that the Mexican National Health Ministry authorities specify additional provisions regarding the use of protective equipment and the adoption of other safety practices during field work, increase information campaigns about the risks of pesticide use and the value of safety practices, and increase programs of medical monitoring and assistance for rural communities dealing with pesticides. PMID:16268118

  19. Association of occupational pesticide exposure with accelerated longitudinal decline in lung function.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Kim; Boezen, H Marike; Kromhout, Hans; Vermeulen, Roel; Postma, Dirkje S; Vonk, Judith M

    2014-06-01

    Cross-sectional studies have shown that occupational exposure to vapors, gases, dusts, and fumes (VGDF) and pesticides is associated with a lower level of lung function. These associations seem to be stronger in ever smokers. In the current study, we aimed to assess whether occupational exposure to VGDF and pesticides is associated with longitudinal decline in lung function. We used 12,772 observations from 2,527 participants in the Vlagtwedde-Vlaardingen Study, a general-population-based cohort study that followed subjects for 25 years, from 1965 to the last survey in 1989/1990. Job-specific exposure was estimated with the ALOHA+ job exposure matrix. Associations between exposures and annual changes in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and FEV1 as a percentage of inspiratory vital capacity (FEV1%VC) were assessed with linear mixed-effect models including sex, age, and level of lung function at the first measurement and pack-years of smoking at the last measurement. We tested for interaction between smoking and occupational exposure and assessed associations separately for never smokers and ever smokers. Exposure to VGDF was not associated with accelerated lung function decline after adjustment for co-exposure to pesticides. Exposure to pesticides, both in the last-held job and as a cumulative measure, was associated with accelerated decline in FEV1 and FEV1%VC, especially among ever smokers, where we found an excess change in FEV1 of -6.9 mL/year (95% confidence interval: -10.2, -3.7) associated with high pesticide exposure. PMID:24780843

  20. Xeno‐oestrogenic activity in serum as marker of occupational pesticide exposure

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Helle Raun; Nielsen, Flemming; Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Kjaerstad, Mia Birkhoej; Baelum, Jesper; Grandjean, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    Background An increasing number of currently used pesticides are reported to possess oestrogen‐like properties or to disturb the endocrine system in other ways. Objectives To investigate if xeno‐oestrogenic activity in serum can be used as a biomarker of the combined exposure to pesticides with oestrogen‐like properties in an occupational setting. Methods Serum samples were obtained from two separate cohorts representing non‐pregnant and pregnant female greenhouse workers in Denmark. Serum samples from 270 non‐pregnant women and 173 pregnant women were analysed for xeno‐oestrogenic activity. A fraction containing major xeno‐oestrogens but without pharmaceutical and endogenously produced oestrogens was isolated from each serum sample by solid‐phase extraction and tested for oestrogenic response in a MCF‐7 cell proliferation assay. The pesticide exposure for each woman was categorised as low, medium or high based on information collected by detailed interviews of the women and the employers. Results In both cohorts, an exposure‐associated increase in the xeno‐oestrogenic activity in serum was demonstrated. Among the pregnant women, the association between pesticide exposure and xeno‐oestrogenic activity in serum was statistically significant for women who had been at work within the last week, while no association was observed for women who had not been at work during the most recent week. Conclusions The study illustrates the usefulness of this biomarker for qualitative assessment of the combined exposure to mixtures of oestrogen‐like pesticides. Although the individual pesticides responsible for the xeno‐oestrogenic response were not identified, the study demonstrates that, even within highly‐controlled greenhouse operations, occupational exposure to oestrogen‐like pesticides can result in detectable impacts on hormonal activity in the blood. PMID:17478572

  1. Breast cancer risk and historical exposure to pesticides from wide-area applications assessed with GIS.

    PubMed Central

    Brody, Julia Green; Aschengrau, Ann; McKelvey, Wendy; Rudel, Ruthann A; Swartz, Christopher H; Kennedy, Theresa

    2004-01-01

    Pesticides are of interest in etiologic studies of breast cancer because many mimic estrogen, a known breast cancer risk factor, or cause mammary tumors in animals, but most previous studies have been limited by using one-time tissue measurements of residues of only a few pesticides long banned in the United States. As an alternative method to assess historical exposures to banned and current-use pesticides, we used geographic information system (GIS) technology in a population-based case-control study of 1,165 women residing in Cape Cod, Massachusetts, who were diagnosed with breast cancer in 1988-1995 and 1,006 controls. We assessed exposures dating back to 1948 (when DDT was first used there) from pesticides applied for tree pests (e.g., gypsy moths), cranberry bogs, other agriculture, and mosquito control on wetlands. We found no overall pattern of association between pesticide use and breast cancer. We found modest increases in risk associated with aerial application of persistent pesticides on cranberry bogs and less persistent pesticides applied for tree pests or agriculture. Adjusted odds ratios for these exposures were 1.8 or lower, and, with a few exceptions, confidence intervals did not exclude the null. The study is limited by uncertainty about locations of home addresses (particularly before 1980) and unrecorded tree pest and mosquito control events as well as lack of information about exposures during years when women in the study lived off Cape Cod and about women with potentially important early life exposures on Cape Cod who were not included because they moved away. PMID:15175178

  2. Exposure to Atrazine and Selected Non-Persistent Pesticides among Corn Farmers during a Growing Season

    PubMed Central

    Bakke, Berit; De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Barr, Dana B.; Stewart, Patricia A.; Blair, Aaron; Freeman, Laura Beane; Lynch, Charles F.; Allen, Ruth H.; Alavanja, Michael C.R.; Vermeulen, Roel

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The aim was to develop quantitative estimates of farmers’ pesticide exposure to atrazine and to provide an overview of background levels of selected non-persistent pesticides among corn farmers in a longitudinal molecular epidemiologic study. Methods The study population consisted of 30 Agricultural Health Study farmers from Iowa and 10 nonfarming controls. Farmers completed daily and weekly diaries from March to November in 2002 and 2003 on pesticide use and other exposure determinants. Urine samples were collected at 10 timepoints relative to atrazine application and other farming activities. Pesticide exposure was assessed using urinary metabolites and diaries. Results The analytical limit of detection (LOD) ranged between 0.1–0.2 μg/l for all pesticide analytes except for isazaphos (1.5 μg/l) and diazinon (0.7 μg/l). Farmers had higher geometric mean urinary atrazine mercapturate (AZM) values than controls during planting (1.1 vs. exposure in epidemiologic studies. Elevated background levels of non-persistent pesticides, especially 2,4-D, indicate importance in epidemiologic studies of capturing pesticide exposures that might not be directly related to the actual application. PMID:19052531

  3. Use of biomarkers to indicate exposure of children to organophosphate pesticides: implications for a longitudinal study of children's environmental health.

    PubMed Central

    Wessels, Denise; Barr, Dana B; Mendola, Pauline

    2003-01-01

    Because of their history of widespread use in the United States and unknown long-term health effects, organophosphate pesticides (OPs) are being considered as a chemical class of interest in planning for the National Children's Study, a longitudinal study of children's environmental health. The availability and appropriate use of biomarkers to determine absorbed doses of environmental chemicals such as OPs are critical issues. Biomarkers of OP exposure are typically measured in blood and urine; however, postpartum meconium has been shown to be a promising matrix for assessing cumulative in utero exposure to the fetus, and studies are currently in progress to determine the utility of using saliva and amniotic fluid as matrices. In this article, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the currently available OP exposure monitoring methods (cholinesterase inhibition in blood, pesticides in blood, metabolites in urine and alternative matrices); study design issues for a large, long-term study of children's environmental health; and current research and future research needs. Because OPs are rapidly metabolized and excreted, the utility of one-time spot measurements of OP biomarkers is questionable unless background exposure levels are relatively stable over time or a specific time frame of interest for the study is identified and samples are collected accordingly. Biomarkers of OP exposure can be a valuable tool in epidemiology of children's environmental health, as long as they are applied and interpreted appropriately. PMID:14644670

  4. Pesticide exposures in a malarious and predominantly farming area in Central Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Ae-Ngibise, Kenneth Ayuurebobi; Kinney, Patrick L.; Asante, Kwaku Poku; Jack, Darby; Boamah, Ellen Abrafi; Whyatt, Robin; Mujtaba, Mohammed; Manu, Alexander; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Wylie, Blair J.

    2016-01-01

    In areas where malaria is endemic, pesticides are widely deployed for vector control, which has contributed to reductions in malaria deaths. Pesticide use for agrarian purposes reduces pest populations, thus improving crop production and post-harvest losses. However, adverse health effects have been associated with pesticide exposure, ranging from skin irritation to neurotoxicity and carcinogenicity. Though misuse of these pesticides can lead to widespread potential dangers, the debilitating effects are usually underappreciated in many developing countries. To evaluate the pattern of pesticide usage among rural communities in the Kintampo area of Ghana, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among 1455 heads of households randomly sampled from among 29,073 households in the Kintampo Health and Demographic Surveillance System area of Ghana to estimate the prevalence of pesticide use and indications for use among this rural populace. Seventy-one percent (1040/1455) of household heads reported having used pesticides on either their farms or homes, most commonly for control of weeds (96.4%, 1003/1040) or insects (85.4%, 888/1040). Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) was used by 22.9% (238/1040) of respondents. The majority of households who reported use of pesticides said women in their households assisted in the spraying efforts (69.3%, 721/1040); of these women, 50.8% (366/721) did so while carrying their babies on their backs. Only 28.9% (301/1040) of the study participants wore protective devices during pesticide applications. Frequent symptoms that were reported after spraying, included cough (32.3%; 336/1040), difficulty in breathing (26.7%; 278/1040) and skin irritation (39.0%; 406/1040). Pesticide use among community members in the Kintampo area of Ghana is common and its potential health impacts warrant further investigation. PMID:27239261

  5. Pesticide exposure and risk of Parkinson's disease: A family-based case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Hancock, Dana B; Martin, Eden R; Mayhew, Gregory M; Stajich, Jeffrey M; Jewett, Rita; Stacy, Mark A; Scott, Burton L; Vance, Jeffery M; Scott, William K

    2008-01-01

    Background Pesticides and correlated lifestyle factors (e.g., exposure to well-water and farming) are repeatedly reported risk factors for Parkinson's disease (PD), but few family-based studies have examined these relationships. Methods Using 319 cases and 296 relative and other controls, associations of direct pesticide application, well-water consumption, and farming residences/occupations with PD were examined using generalized estimating equations while controlling for age-at-examination, sex, cigarette smoking, and caffeine consumption. Results Overall, individuals with PD were significantly more likely to report direct pesticide application than their unaffected relatives (odds ratio = 1.61; 95% confidence interval, 1.13–2.29). Frequency, duration, and cumulative exposure were also significantly associated with PD in a dose-response pattern (p ≤ 0.013). Associations of direct pesticide application did not vary by sex but were modified by family history of PD, as significant associations were restricted to individuals with no family history. When classifying pesticides by functional type, both insecticides and herbicides were found to significantly increase risk of PD. Two specific insecticide classes, organochlorines and organophosphorus compounds, were significantly associated with PD. Consuming well-water and living/working on a farm were not associated with PD. Conclusion These data corroborate positive associations of broadly defined pesticide exposure with PD in families, particularly for sporadic PD. These data also implicate a few specific classes of pesticides in PD and thus emphasize the need to consider a more narrow definition of pesticides in future studies. PMID:18373838

  6. Exposure to pesticides and metal contaminants of fertilizer among tree planters.

    PubMed

    Gorman Ng, Melanie; Stjernberg, Ernst; Koehoorn, Mieke; Demers, Paul A; Davies, Hugh W

    2011-08-01

    In British Columbia, Canada, harvested forests are manually replanted by seasonal workers. The work is known to be physically demanding and ergonomically difficult, and recently, there have been concerns over chemical exposures due to pesticide residues on seedlings, fertilizers (often applied alongside seedlings), and potential metal contamination of these fertilizers. This study aimed to characterize metal and pesticide exposure among a sample of British Columbia tree planters. Between May 2006 and April 2007, exposure measurements were taken from 54 tree planters at five geographically disperse worksites throughout British Columbia. Four worksites were using fertilizer and one was not. Metal concentrations were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry on post-shift hand wipes, full-shift personal air sample, bulk soil, seedling root balls, and fertilizer samples. Pesticides were measured on post-shift hand wipes and on bulk seedling samples. Seedling nursery pesticide application records were used to focus pesticide analyses on pesticides known to have been applied to the seedlings used at the study sites. Carbamate pesticides were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy and all other pesticides by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. No evidence was found that tree planters who worked with fertilizer were at an elevated risk of exposure to arsenic, lead, cadmium, chromium, and nickel relative to tree planters who did not. Pesticide residues were found on seedlings taken from work sites early in the tree planting season in April 2007. At these worksites, the fungicides chlorothalonil and iprodione were found on the skin of workers at low levels (range 0.37-106.3 ng cm(-2) and 0.48-15.9 ng cm(-2), respectively), providing evidence for exposure potential. Very poor hygiene conditions were observed at all tree planting work sites. Hand washing facilities were not available at work sites and only 5.6% of subjects

  7. Occurrence of biomarkers of pesticide exposure in non-invasive human specimens.

    PubMed

    Yusa, Vicent; Millet, Maurice; Coscolla, Clara; Pardo, Olga; Roca, Marta

    2015-11-01

    Biomonitoring has been used in many types of investigations, including national programmes and epidemiological studies, to explore the occurrence of biomarkers of pesticide exposure in the general population or relevant groups. This review discusses recent studies that measure levels of biomarkers of pesticide exposure in non-invasive human specimens such as urine, breast milk, meconium and hair. Specific and non-specific metabolites of organophosphate and pyrethroid insecticides have been widely investigated in urine, where some of the suitable biomarkers present rates of detection higher than 80%, which stand for an ongoing chronic exposure to traces of these chemicals. Hair is a promising emerging matrix, but some issues on its suitability and the biological relevance needs further research. Breast milk was used in research investigations focused mainly on legacy pesticides, which provide useful information about time trends. PMID:26070147

  8. A pilot program using promotoras de salud to educate farmworker families about the risk from pesticide exposure.

    PubMed

    Liebman, Amy K; Juárez, Patricia M; Leyva, Claudia; Corona, Adriana

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews a successful community-based education effort to minimize pesticide exposure to migrant and seasonal farmworkers and their families through innovative training curricula, informal participatory educational techniques and culturally sensitive outreach methods. In 2004, Migrant Clinicians Network, Inc., trained lay health educators, or promotoras de salud, from local agencies in southern New Mexico in pesticide safety and in ways to successfully promote safety information in the farmworker community. Through home visits and small group workshops, the promotoras trained 273 farmworkers and farmworker family members on ways to reduce exposures to pesticides in their homes and at work, with an emphasis on protecting children. The families received a Spanish language comic book that reinforced the pesticide safety information, emphasizing the health effects of acute and chronic pesticide exposure and steps to protect farmworker children from pesticide exposure. The project resulted in a significant increase in knowledge regarding the routes of exposure, the vulnerability of children, the signs and symptoms of pesticide poisonings and the ways to minimize pesticide exposures. Additionally, the project showed improved behaviors aimed at minimizing pesticide exposure through accidental poisonings in the home. This pilot project proved the efficacy of an in-home, one-on-one approach with a culturally appropriate educational comic book as an instrument to help transfer education to the community. Moreover, the educational method involving promotoras offers a training-of- trainer approach that is easy to implement and potentially replicate. PMID:18086652

  9. CURRENT-USE PESTICIDES: ASSESSING EXPOSURE AND SPERMATOXICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    We recently reported that higher levels of urinary metabolite (mercapturates) of the current-use pesticides alachlor, atrazine and diazinon were significantly associated with decreased semen quality in fertile men from mid-Missouri. The primary goal of this stud...

  10. Semen quality in relation to biomarkers of pesticide exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Swan, Shanna H; Kruse, Robin L; Liu, Fan; Barr, Dana B; Drobnis, Erma Z; Redmon, J Bruce; Wang, Christina; Brazil, Charlene; Overstreet, James W

    2003-01-01

    We previously reported reduced sperm concentration and motility in fertile men in a U.S. agrarian area (Columbia, MO) relative to men from U.S. urban centers (Minneapolis, MN; Los Angeles, CA; New York, NY). In the present study we address the hypothesis that pesticides currently used in agriculture in the Midwest contributed to these differences in semen quality. We selected men in whom all semen parameters (concentration, percentage sperm with normal morphology, and percentage motile sperm) were low (cases) and men in whom all semen parameters were within normal limits (controls) within Missouri and Minnesota (sample sizes of 50 and 36, respectively) and measured metabolites of eight current-use pesticides in urine samples provided at the time of semen collection. All pesticide analyses were conducted blind with respect to center and case-control status. Pesticide metabolite levels were elevated in Missouri cases, compared with controls, for the herbicides alachlor and atrazine and for the insecticide diazinon [2-isopropoxy-4-methyl-pyrimidinol (IMPY)]; for Wilcoxon rank test, p = 0.0007, 0.012, and 0.0004 for alachlor, atrazine, and IMPY, respectively. Men from Missouri with high levels of alachlor or IMPY were significantly more likely to be cases than were men with low levels [odds ratios (ORs) = 30.0 and 16.7 for alachlor and IMPY, respectively], as were men with atrazine levels higher than the limit of detection (OR = 11.3). The herbicides 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) and metolachlor were also associated with poor semen quality in some analyses, whereas acetochlor levels were lower in cases than in controls (p = 0.04). No significant associations were seen for any pesticides within Minnesota, where levels of agricultural pesticides were low, or for the insect repellent DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide) or the malathion metabolite malathion dicarboxylic acid. These associations between current-use pesticides and reduced semen quality suggest that

  11. Brain tumours and exposure to pesticides: a case–control study in southwestern France

    PubMed Central

    Provost, Dorothée; Cantagrel, Anne; Lebailly, Pierre; Jaffré, Anne; Loyant, Véronique; Loiseau, Hugues; Vital, Anne; Brochard, Patrick; Baldi, Isabelle

    2007-01-01

    Background Brain tumours are often disabling and rapidly lethal; their aetiology is largely unknown. Among potential risk factors, pesticides are suspected. Objective To examine the relationship between exposure to pesticides and brain tumours in adults in a population‐based case–control study in southwestern France. Methods Between May 1999 and April 2001, 221 incident cases of brain tumours and 442 individually matched controls selected from the general population were enrolled. Histories of occupational and environmental exposures, medical and lifestyle information were collected. A cumulative index of occupational exposure to pesticides was created, based on expert review of lifelong jobs and tasks. Separate analyses were performed for gliomas and meningiomas. Results A non‐statistically significant increase in risk was found for brain tumours when all types of occupational exposure to pesticides were considered (OR = 1.29, 95% CI 0.87 to 1.91) and slightly higher but still non‐statistically significant when gliomas were considered separately (OR = 1.47, 95% CI 0.81 to 2.66). In the highest quartile of the cumulative index, a significant association was found for brain tumours (OR = 2.16, 95% CI 1.10 to 4.23) and for gliomas (OR = 3.21, 95% CI 1.13 to 9.11), but not for meningiomas. A significant increase in risk was also seen for the treatment of home plants (OR = 2.24, 95% CI 1.16 to 4.30) owing to environmental exposure to pesticides. Conclusions These data suggest that a high level of occupational exposure to pesticides might be associated with an excess risk of brain tumours, and especially of gliomas. PMID:17537748

  12. Dietary patterns among the Metro Atlanta Cohort: implications for population-based longitudinal dietary pesticide exposure and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Riederer, Anne M; Pearson, Melanie A; Lu, Chensheng

    2011-01-01

    Characterizing dietary consumption patterns is critical to dietary pesticide exposure assessment. We compared consumption patterns between adults (age 18-60) in the Metro Atlanta Cohort (MAC), a longitudinal study of pesticide exposure among Atlanta residents, and US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) adults. We focused on foods commonly eaten by US adults and foods likely to contain certain pesticide residues. MAC participants provided consumption data for 6 days per month for 1 year using a web-based data collection tool. We defined "percent eaters" as the percent of participants who reported eating a particular food in 24 h. We computed the NHANES weighted percent eaters and 95% confidence limits (CLs) using the 24-h dietary recall data. We calculated the MAC percent eaters for each sampling day and the percent of days this number fell below, within, or above the NHANES 95% CLs. We also re-sampled the MAC percent eaters across sampling days to find whether the resulting distribution resembled the NHANES estimate, and used the Kruskal-Wallis test to evaluate whether season affected the number of MAC eaters of a particular food on a given sampling day. In general, across all sampling days, a greater proportion of MAC participants reported eating banana, broccoli, cream, grapes, lettuce, onion, peach, pear, peas, strawberries, string beans, and tomatoes than the national estimate, whereas the proportion of apple, spinach, ketchup and white bread/roll eaters was similar, and the proportion of milk drinkers was lower. Season predicted the number of MAC peach and strawberry eaters but not other foods. The data show how a higher proportion of Atlanta adults may eat certain foods (e.g., peaches in summer or strawberries in spring) than the national average depending on season or other factors. An exposure assessment that ignored this difference could underestimate dietary pesticide intakes. PMID:20354565

  13. Pesticide Exposure and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes: Review of the Epidemiologic and Animal Studies

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Carol J.; McIntosh, Laura J.; Mink, Pamela J.; Jurek, Anne M.; Li, Abby A.

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of whether pesticide exposure is associated with neurodevelopmental outcomes in children can best be addressed with a systematic review of both the human and animal peer-reviewed literature. This review analyzed epidemiologic studies testing the hypothesis that exposure to pesticides during pregnancy and/or early childhood is associated with neurodevelopmental outcomes in children. Studies that directly queried pesticide exposure (e.g., via questionnaire or interview) or measured pesticide or metabolite levels in biological specimens from study participants (e.g., blood, urine, etc.) or their immediate environment (e.g., personal air monitoring, home dust samples, etc.) were eligible for inclusion. Consistency, strength of association, and dose response were key elements of the framework utilized for evaluating epidemiologic studies. As a whole, the epidemiologic studies did not strongly implicate any particular pesticide as being causally related to adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in infants and children. A few associations were unique for a health outcome and specific pesticide, and alternative hypotheses could not be ruled out. Our survey of the in vivo peer-reviewed published mammalian literature focused on effects of the specific active ingredient of pesticides on functional neurodevelopmental endpoints (i.e., behavior, neuropharmacology and neuropathology). In most cases, effects were noted at dose levels within the same order of magnitude or higher compared to the point of departure used for chronic risk assessments in the United States. Thus, although the published animal studies may have characterized potential neurodevelopmental outcomes using endpoints not required by guideline studies, the effects were generally observed at or above effect levels measured in repeated-dose toxicology studies submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Suggestions for improved exposure assessment in epidemiology studies and more effective

  14. Temporal association of children's pesticide exposure and agricultural spraying: report of a longitudinal biological monitoring study.

    PubMed

    Koch, Denise; Lu, Chensheng; Fisker-Andersen, Jennifer; Jolley, Lance; Fenske, Richard A

    2002-08-01

    We measured organophosphorus (OP) pesticide exposures of young children living in an agricultural community over an entire year and evaluated the impact of agricultural spraying on exposure. We also examined the roles of age, sex, parental occupation, and residential proximity to fields. We recruited 44 children (2-5 years old) through a Women, Infants, and Children clinic. We collected urine samples on a biweekly basis over a 21-month period. Each child provided at least 16 urine samples, and most provided 26. We analyzed samples for the dialkylphosphate (DAP) metabolites common to the OP pesticides. DAP concentrations were elevated in months when OP pesticides were sprayed in the region's orchards. The geometric means of dimethyl and diethyl DAPs during spray months were higher than those during nonspray months (p = 0.009 for dimethyl; p = 0.018 for diethyl). Dimethyl DAP geometric means were 0.1 and 0.07 micro mol/L for spray months and nonspray months, respectively (57% difference); diethyl DAP geometric means were 0.49 and 0.35, respectively (40% difference). We also observed differences for sex of the child, with male levels higher than female levels (p = 0.005 for dimethyl; p = 0.046 for diethyl). We observed no differences due to age, parental occupation, or residential proximity to fields. This study reports for the first time the temporal pattern of pesticide exposures over the course of a full year and indicates that pesticide spraying in an agricultural region can increase children's exposure in the absence of parental work contact with pesticides or residential proximity to pesticide-treated farmland. PMID:12153767

  15. Pesticide exposure, risk factors and health problems among cutflower farmers: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Del Prado-Lu, Jinky Leilanie

    2007-01-01

    This was a cross-sectional study which aimed to determine associations between hematologic indices such as red blood cell cholinesterase (RBC) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV), with illnesses related to pesticide exposure among cutflower farmers in La Trinidad, Benguet. One hundred two (102) randomly selected cutflower farmers underwent comprehensive, personal physical health and laboratory examinations and answered a questionnaire on work practices and illness. Majority were males (52%) and most belonged to the 20–35 age group (45%). Majority of exposed farmers were symptomatic, with most common complaints being headache (48%), easy fatigability (46.1%) and cough (40.2%). Analysis showed that RBC cholinesterase levels were positively associated with age (p = 0.02), and selling pesticide containers (p = 0.008). number of years of using pesticides (p = 0.022), use of contaminated cloth (p = 0.033), incorrect mixing of pesticides (p = 0.041), sex (p = 0.002) and illness due to pesticides (p = 0.005) were correlated with abnormal MCV. Significant associations were also found for hemoglobin, hematocrit, RBC, white blood cell (WBC) and platelet count. Predictors of RBC cholinesterase were years of pesticide use (p = 0.037) and abnormalities on health (p = 0.029). The findings of the study can be used for information dissemination and pesticide reduction programs for the cutflower farmers. PMID:17877808

  16. Sampling strategies for estimating acute and chronic exposures of pesticides in streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crawford, Charles G.

    2004-01-01

    The Food Quality Protection Act of 1996 requires that human exposure to pesticides through drinking water be considered when establishing pesticide tolerances in food. Several systematic and seasonally weighted systematic sampling strategies for estimating pesticide concentrations in surface water were evaluated through Monte Carlo simulation, using intensive datasets from four sites in northwestern Ohio. The number of samples for the strategies ranged from 4 to 120 per year. Sampling strategies with a minimal sampling frequency outside the growing season can be used for estimating time weighted mean and percentile concentrations of pesticides with little loss of accuracy and precision, compared to strategies with the same sampling frequency year round. Less frequent sampling strategies can be used at large sites. A sampling frequency of 10 times monthly during the pesticide runoff period at a 90 km 2 basin and four times monthly at a 16,400 km2 basin provided estimates of the time weighted mean, 90th, 95th, and 99th percentile concentrations that fell within 50 percent of the true value virtually all of the time. By taking into account basin size and the periodic nature of pesticide runoff, costs of obtaining estimates of time weighted mean and percentile pesticide concentrations can be minimized.

  17. Dietary exposure to organophosphorus pesticides for young children in Tokyo and neighboring area.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Junko; Yoshinaga, Jun; Yanagisawa, Yukio

    2007-06-01

    Dietary ingestion is a significant pathway of human exposure to organophosphorus (OP) pesticides. This study aims to determine the occurrence of OP pesticide in the diet of young children in Japan and estimate their exposure. The study was conducted by analyzing duplicate diet samples collected from 33 children aged 3 to 6 years old in Tokyo and the nearby area in Japan. Seven OP pesticides that are mainly used for agriculture in Japan (fenitrothion, trichlorfon, dichlorvos, diazinon, chlorpyrifos, malathion, and EPN) were targeted for analysis. As a result of the study, fenitrothion was frequently found in the week's diet (21%) of children, followed by diazinon (14%), chlorpyrifos (11%), and malathion (4%); the daily intake of pesticides was also estimated to range from < 110 to 180 ng/day, < 70 to 800 ng/day, < 70 to 100 ng/day, and < or = 110 ng/day, respectively. Daily intake of diazinon per kg body weight was relatively higher than other target pesticides and the maximum value was 50 times below the acceptable daily intake set by Japan Ministry of Health and Labor Welfare. Occurrence of malathion in the diet of children in the present study was lower than that reported in 1980s, supposed due to the decreasing level of malathion in wheat and wheat products. Frequent detection of fenitrothion in diet is a significant trend observed in Japan, and is considered due to the high and widespread usage of the pesticide inside of the country. PMID:17412399

  18. Work characteristics and pesticide exposures among migrant agricultural families: a community-based research approach.

    PubMed Central

    McCauley, L A; Lasarev, M R; Higgins, G; Rothlein, J; Muniz, J; Ebbert, C; Phillips, J

    2001-01-01

    There are few data on pesticide exposures of migrant Latino farmworker children, and access to this vulnerable population is often difficult. In this paper we describe a community-based approach to implement culturally appropriate research methods with a migrant Latino farmworker community in Oregon. Assessments were conducted in 96 farmworker homes and 24 grower homes in two agricultural communities in Oregon. Measurements included surveys of pesticide use and work protection practices and analyses of home-dust samples for pesticide residues of major organophosphates used in area crops. Results indicate that migrant farmworker housing is diverse, and the amounts and types of pesticide residues found in homes differ. Azinphos-methyl (AZM) was the pesticide residue found most often in both farmworker and grower homes. The median level of AZM in farmworker homes was 1.45 ppm compared to 1.64 ppm in the entry area of grower homes. The median level of AZM in the play areas of grower homes was 0.71 ppm. The levels of AZM in migrant farmworker homes were most associated with the distance from fields and the number of agricultural workers in the home. Although the levels of AZM in growers and farmworker homes were comparable in certain areas, potential for disproportionate exposures occur in areas of the homes where children are most likely to play. The relationship between home resident density, levels of pesticide residues, and play behaviors of children merit further attention. PMID:11401767

  19. Integrating Landsat and California pesticide exposure estimation at aggregated analysis scales: Accuracy assessment of rurality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vopham, Trang Minh

    Pesticide exposure estimation in epidemiologic studies can be constrained to analysis scales commonly available for cancer data - census tracts and ZIP codes. Research goals included (1) demonstrating the feasibility of modifying an existing geographic information system (GIS) pesticide exposure method using California Pesticide Use Reports (PURs) and land use surveys to incorporate Landsat remote sensing and to accommodate aggregated analysis scales, and (2) assessing the accuracy of two rurality metrics (quality of geographic area being rural), Rural-Urban Commuting Area (RUCA) codes and the U.S. Census Bureau urban-rural system, as surrogates for pesticide exposure when compared to the GIS gold standard. Segments, derived from 1985 Landsat NDVI images, were classified using a crop signature library (CSL) created from 1990 Landsat NDVI images via a sum of squared differences (SSD) measure. Organochlorine, organophosphate, and carbamate Kern County PUR applications (1974-1990) were matched to crop fields using a modified three-tier approach. Annual pesticide application rates (lb/ac), and sensitivity and specificity of each rurality metric were calculated. The CSL (75 land use classes) classified 19,752 segments [median SSD 0.06 NDVI]. Of the 148,671 PUR records included in the analysis, Landsat contributed 3,750 (2.5%) additional tier matches. ZIP Code Tabulation Area (ZCTA) rates ranged between 0 and 1.36 lb/ac and census tract rates between 0 and 1.57 lb/ac. Rurality was a mediocre pesticide exposure surrogate; higher rates were observed among urban areal units. ZCTA-level RUCA codes offered greater specificity (39.1-60%) and sensitivity (25-42.9%). The U.S. Census Bureau metric offered greater specificity (92.9-97.5%) at the census tract level; sensitivity was low (≤6%). The feasibility of incorporating Landsat into a modified three-tier GIS approach was demonstrated. Rurality accuracy is affected by rurality metric, areal aggregation, pesticide chemical

  20. A GIS-based method for household recruitment in a prospective pesticide exposure study

    PubMed Central

    Allpress, Justine LE; Curry, Ross J; Hanchette, Carol L; Phillips, Michael J; Wilcosky, Timothy C

    2008-01-01

    Background Recent advances in GIS technology and remote sensing have provided new opportunities to collect ecologic data on agricultural pesticide exposure. Many pesticide studies have used historical or records-based data on crops and their associated pesticide applications to estimate exposure by measuring residential proximity to agricultural fields. Very few of these studies collected environmental and biological samples from study participants. One of the reasons for this is the cost of identifying participants who reside near study fields and analyzing samples obtained from them. In this paper, we present a cost-effective, GIS-based method for crop field selection and household recruitment in a prospective pesticide exposure study in a remote location. For the most part, our multi-phased approach was carried out in a research facility, but involved two brief episodes of fieldwork for ground truthing purposes. This method was developed for a larger study designed to examine the validity of indirect pesticide exposure estimates by comparing measured exposures in household dust, water and urine with records-based estimates that use crop location, residential proximity and pesticide application data. The study focused on the pesticide atrazine, a broadleaf herbicide used in corn production and one of the most widely-used pesticides in the U.S. Results We successfully used a combination of remotely-sensed data, GIS-based methods and fieldwork to select study fields and recruit participants in Illinois, a state with high corn production and heavy atrazine use. Our several-step process consisted of the identification of potential study fields and residential areas using aerial photography; verification of crop patterns and land use via site visits; development of a GIS-based algorithm to define recruitment areas around crop fields; acquisition of geocoded household-level data within each recruitment area from a commercial vendor; and confirmation of final

  1. The importance of pesticide exposure duration and mode on the foraging of an agricultural pest predator.

    PubMed

    Brown, Caitlyn; Hanna, Chadwick J; Hanna, Catherine J B

    2015-02-01

    The striped lynx spider (Oxyopes salticus), is a natural predator of crop pests and therefore frequently encounters pesticides on its substrate and its prey. While pesticide exposure may negatively impact the lifespan of spiders, sublethal effects can also alter their normal behaviors. This study examined how prey capture was affected when spiders and their prey were exposed to bifenthrin and malathion. When spiders were continually exposed to bifenthrin residues, prey capture decreased over time, but mortality was not affected. Malathion exposed spiders, however, showed increased mortality, but their ability to catch prey was unaltered. When spiders encountered pesticide dosed prey, predation was unaffected, implying that spiders are unable to detect residues on prey. These results improve the understanding of how pesticides affect natural pest control and raise questions about the functional roles that spiders play when exposed to different chemicals. PMID:25413219

  2. DOSE-RESPONSE MODELING FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF CUMULATIVE RISK DUE TO EXPOSURE TO N-METHYL CARBAMATE PESTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPAs N-Methyl Carbamate Cumulative Risk Assessment (NMCRA) assesses the effect on acetylcholine esterase (AChE) activity of exposure to 10 N-methyl carbamate (NMC) pesticides through dietary, drinking water, and residential exposures.

  3. Interactive effects of ultraviolet-B radiation and pesticide exposure on DNA photo-adduct accumulation and expression of DNA damage and repair genes in Xenopus laevis embryos.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shuangying; Tang, Song; Mayer, Gregory D; Cobb, George P; Maul, Jonathan D

    2015-02-01

    though expression of XPC and CSA were induced by exposure to UVB or pesticides, XPA was the limiting factor in the NER pathway. Our results suggest that pesticides may increase the accumulation of UVB-induced DNA photo-adducts and one likely mechanism is the alteration of critical NER gene expression. The present study provides important implications for evaluating the combined risks of pesticide usage and potentially increasing UVB radiation in aquatic ecosystems. PMID:25569846

  4. Combined pesticide exposure severely affects individual- and colony-level traits in bees

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Richard J.; Ramos-Rodriguez, Oscar; Raine, Nigel E.

    2012-01-01

    Reported widespread declines of wild and managed insect pollinators have serious consequences for global ecosystem services and agricultural production1-3. Bees contribute around 80% of insect pollination, so it is imperative we understand and mitigate the causes of current declines4-6. Recent studies have implicated the role of pesticides as exposure to these chemicals has been associated with changes in bee behaviour7-11 and reductions in colony queen production12. However the key link between changes in individual behaviour and consequent impact at the colony level has not been shown. Social bee colonies depend on the collective performance of numerous individual workers. So whilst field-level pesticide concentrations can have a subtle/sublethal effect at the individual level8, it is not known whether bee societies can buffer such effects or if it results in a severe cumulative effect at the colony level. Furthermore, widespread agricultural intensification means bees are exposed to numerous pesticides when foraging13-15, yet the possible combinatorial effects of pesticide exposure have rarely been investigated16,17. Here we show that chronic exposure of bumblebees to two pesticides (neonicotinoid and pyrethroid) at concentrations that could approximate field-level exposure impairs natural foraging behaviour and increases worker mortality leading to significant reductions in brood development and colony success. We found worker foraging performance, particularly pollen collecting efficiency, was significantly reduced with observed knock-on effects for forager recruitment, worker losses and overall worker productivity. Moreover, we provide evidence that combinatorial exposure to pesticides increases the propensity of colonies to fail. PMID:23086150

  5. Organophosphorus pesticide exposure and neurobehavioral performance in Latino children living in an orchard community.

    PubMed

    Butler-Dawson, Jaime; Galvin, Kit; Thorne, Peter S; Rohlman, Diane S

    2016-03-01

    Children living in agricultural communities have a greater risk from pesticides due to para-occupational pathways. The goal of this study was to assess the impact of exposure to organophosphorus pesticides on the neurobehavioral performance of school-aged Latino children over time. Two exposure measures were used to estimate children's pesticide exposure: parent's occupation (agricultural or non-agricultural) and organophosphate residues in home carpet dust samples. During 2008-2011, 206 school-aged children completed a battery of neurobehavioral tests two times, approximately one year apart. The associations between both exposure measures and neurobehavioral performance were examined. Pesticide residues were detected in dust samples from both agricultural and non-agricultural homes, however, pesticides were detected more frequently and in higher concentrations in agricultural homes compared to non-agricultural homes. Although few differences were found between agricultural and non-agricultural children at both visits, deficits in learning from the first visit to the second visit, or less improvement, was found in agricultural children relative to non-agricultural children. These differences were significant for the Divided Attention and Purdue Pegboard tests. These findings are consistent with previous research showing deficits in motor function. A summary measure of organophosphate residues was not associated with neurobehavioral performance. Results from this study indicate that children in agricultural communities are at increased risk from pesticides as a result of a parent working in agricultural. Our findings suggest that organophosphate exposure may be associated with deficits in learning on neurobehavioral performance, particularly in tests of with motor function. In spite of regulatory phasing out of organophosphates in the U.S., we still see elevated levels and higher detection rates of several organophosphates in agricultural households than non

  6. Dietary exposure to pesticide residues in Yaoundé: the Cameroonian total diet study.

    PubMed

    Gimou, M-M; Charrondiere, U R; Leblanc, J-C; Pouillot, R

    2008-04-01

    Dietary exposure to pesticide residues was assessed in Yaoundé, Cameroon, using the total diet study (TDS) method. Sixty-three composite samples, representative of the foods as consumed in Yaoundé, were collected, prepared, and analysed for residues of pesticides including organochlorine, organophosphorous, and pyrethroids. A multi-residue method was used with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.005 mg kg(-1). Additional analyses were performed for dithiocarbamates (LOD=0.050 mg kg(-1)), glyphosate (LOD=0.005 mg kg(-1)) and chlordecone (LOD=0.0008 mg kg(-1)) on certain composites samples. The overall contamination was low with 37 out of 46 pesticides below the LOD in all samples. The estimated upper bound (for values less than the LOD equal the LOD; and values less than the LOQ equal the LOQ) of the mean dietary exposures ranged from 0.24% (cypermethrin) to 3.03% (pirimiphos-methyl) of the acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) for pesticides for which at least one analysis was greater than the LOD. This study suggests a low dietary exposure to pesticide residues in Yaoundé. PMID:18348045

  7. Neurobehavioral effects of exposure to organophosphates and pyrethroid pesticides among Thai children.

    PubMed

    Fiedler, Nancy; Rohitrattana, Juthasiri; Siriwong, Wattasit; Suttiwan, Panrapee; Ohman Strickland, Pam; Ryan, P Barry; Rohlman, Diane S; Panuwet, Parinya; Barr, Dana Boyd; Robson, Mark G

    2015-05-01

    The use of pesticides for crop production has grown rapidly in Thailand during the last decade, resulting in significantly greater potential for exposure among children living on farms. Although some previous studies assessed exposures to pesticides in this population, no studies have been conducted to evaluate corresponding health effects. Twenty-four children from a rice farming community (exposed) and 29 from an aquaculture (shrimp) community (control) completed the study. Participants completed a neurobehavioral test battery three times at 6 month intervals: Session I: preliminary orientation; Session II: high pesticide use season; Session III: low pesticide-use season. Only sessions II and III were used in the analyses. High and low pesticide use seasons were determined by pesticide use on rice farms. Urinary metabolites of organophosphates (OPs) and pyrethroids (PYR) were analyzed from first morning void samples collected the day of neurobehavioral testing. Rice farm participants had significantly higher concentrations of dialkylphosphates (DAPs) (common metabolites of OPs) and TCPy (a specific metabolite of chlorpyrifos) than aquaculture farm children during both seasons. But, TCPy was significantly higher during the low rather than the high pesticide use season for both participant groups. Rice farm children had significantly higher DCCA, a metabolite of PYR, than aquaculture participants only during the high exposure season. Otherwise, no significant differences in PYR metabolites were noted between the participant groups or seasons. No significant adverse neurobehavioral effects were observed between participant groups during either the high or low pesticide use season. After controlling for differences in age and the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) scores, DAPs, TCPy, and PYR were not significant predictors of adverse neurobehavioral performance during either season. Increasing DAP and PYR metabolites predicted some relatively

  8. Farmers' perceptions of pesticides, and resultant health problems from exposures.

    PubMed

    Kishi, Misa

    2002-01-01

    As part of an evaluation study of the impacts of the Indonesian integrated pest management (IPM) Farmer Field Schools on farmers' health, focus group discussions were conducted with rice farmers who grew shallots in rotation. Farmers who had previously participated in IPM rice field schools and who were at the time participating in IPM shallot field schools were compared with farmers who had had no experience with IPM methods. The study found that farmers' knowledge concerning the health dangers of pesticides is not sufficient to change their behaviors. Their overriding concern is crop damage that leads to economic loss, not health. IPM field-school training offers farmers a viable alternative by concretely demonstrating the health, agricultural, environmental, and economic advantages of eliminating unnecessary pesticide use. If public health professionals aim to change behaviors through interventions, they must employ appropriate methods, meet the community's priorities and values, and offer feasible alternatives. PMID:12358073

  9. Monitoring health implications of pesticide exposure in factory workers in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khan, Dilshad Ahmed; Hashmi, Imran; Mahjabeen, Wajiha; Naqvi, Tatheer A

    2010-09-01

    The study aimed to determine the hazardous health effects of pesticides exposure in the factory workers by measuring plasma cholinesterase (PChE), pesticides residues, and renal and hepatic biochemical markers. In addition, we also assessed the knowledge, attitudes, and safety practices adopted by the industrial workers. The study was conducted in three different sizes of factories located in Lahore (large), Multan (medium), and Karachi (small) in Pakistan. Total 238 adult males consisting of 184 pesticide industrial workers (exposed group) from large-sized (67), medium-sized (61), small-sized (56) industrial formulation factories, and 54 controls (unexposed) were included in the study. All the participants were male of aged 18 to 58 years. PChE levels were estimated by Ellmann's method. Plasma pesticides residue analysis was performed by using reverse phase C-18 on high-performance liquid chromatograph and GC with NPD detector. Plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatinine, urea, and gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT) were measured on Selectra E auto analyzer. Plasma and C-reactive protein was analyzed by Immulite 1000. The results revealed a significant decrease in plasma post exposure PChE levels (<30%) as compared to baseline in the workers of small (29%) and medium (8%) industrial units (p < 0.001). Plasma cypermethrin, endosulfan, imidacloprid, thiodicarb, carbofuran, and methamidophos levels were found to be higher than allowable daily intake. Serum AST, ALT, creatinine GGT, malondialdehyde, total antioxidant, and CRP were significantly raised among the workers of small and medium pesticide formulation factories as compared to large industrial unit and controls (p < 0.001). The study demonstrated that unsafe practices among small- and medium-sized pesticides industrial workers cause significant increase in pesticide exposure, oxidative stress, and derangement of hepatic and renal function. PMID:19669582

  10. Workplace carcinogen and pesticide exposures in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Partanen, Timo; Chaves, Jorge; Wesseling, Catharina; Chaverri, Fabio; Monge, Patricia; Ruepert, Clemens; Aragón, Aurora; Kogevinas, Manolis; Hogstedt, Christer; Kauppinen, Timo

    2003-01-01

    The CAREX data system converts national workforce volumes and proportions of workers exposed to workplace carcinogens into numbers of exposed in 55 industrial categories. CAREX was adapted for Costa Rica for 27 carcinogens and seven groups of pesticides. Widespread workplace carcinogens in the 1.3 million workforce of Costa Rica are solar radiation (333,000 workers), diesel engine exhaust (278,000), environmental tobacco smoke (71,000), hexavalent chromium compounds (55,000), benzene (52,000), wood dust (32,000), silica dust (27,000), lead and inorganic lead compounds (19,000), and polycyclic aromatic compounds (17,000). The most ubiquitous pesticides were paraquat and diquat (175,000), mancozeb, maneb, and zineb (49,000), chlorothalonil (38,000), benomyl (19,000), and chlorophenoxy herbicides (11,000). Among women, formaldehyde, radon, and methylene chloride overrode pesticides, chromium, wood dust, and silica dust in numbers of exposed. High-risk sectors included agriculture, construction, personal and household services, land and water transport and allied services, pottery and similar industries, woodworks, mining, forestry and logging, fishing, manufacturing of electrical machinery, and bar and restaurant personnel. PMID:12848237

  11. A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Childhood Leukemia and Parental Occupational Pesticide Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Wigle, Donald T.; Turner, Michelle C.; Krewski, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Objectives We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of childhood leukemia and parental occupational pesticide exposure. Data sources Searches of MEDLINE (1950–2009) and other electronic databases yielded 31 included studies. Data extraction Two authors independently abstracted data and assessed the quality of each study. Data synthesis Random effects models were used to obtain summary odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). There was no overall association between childhood leukemia and any paternal occupational pesticide exposure (OR = 1.09; 95% CI, 0.88–1.34); there were slightly elevated risks in subgroups of studies with low total-quality scores (OR = 1.39; 95% CI, 0.99–1.95), ill-defined exposure time windows (OR = 1.36; 95% CI, 1.00–1.85), and exposure information collected after offspring leukemia diagnosis (OR = 1.34; 95% CI, 1.05–1.70). Childhood leukemia was associated with prenatal maternal occupational pesticide exposure (OR = 2.09; 95% CI, 1.51–2.88); this association was slightly stronger for studies with high exposure-measurement-quality scores (OR = 2.45; 95% CI, 1.68–3.58), higher confounder control scores (OR = 2.38; 95% CI, 1.56–3.62), and farm-related exposures (OR = 2.44; 95% CI, 1.53–3.89). Childhood leukemia risk was also elevated for prenatal maternal occupational exposure to insecticides (OR = 2.72; 95% CI, 1.47–5.04) and herbicides (OR = 3.62; 95% CI, 1.28–10.3). Conclusions Childhood leukemia was associated with prenatal maternal occupational pesticide exposure in analyses of all studies combined and in several subgroups. Associations with paternal occupational pesticide exposure were weaker and less consistent. Research needs include improved pesticide exposure indices, continued follow-up of existing cohorts, genetic susceptibility assessment, and basic research on childhood leukemia initiation and progression. PMID:20019898

  12. Pesticide exposure and respiratory health of indigenous women in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Fieten, Karin B; Kromhout, Hans; Heederik, Dick; van Wendel de Joode, Berna

    2009-06-15

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2007 to evaluate the relation between pesticide exposure and respiratory health in a population of indigenous women in Costa Rica. Exposed women (n = 69) all worked at plantain plantations. Unexposed women (n = 58) worked at organic banana plantations or other locations without pesticide exposure. Study participants were interviewed using questionnaires to estimate exposure and presence of respiratory symptoms. Spirometry tests were conducted to obtain forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 second. Among the exposed, prevalence of wheeze was 20% and of shortness of breath was 36% versus 9% and 26%, respectively, for the unexposed. Prevalence of chronic cough, asthma, and atopic symptoms was similar for exposed and unexposed women. Among nonsmokers (n = 105), reported exposures to the organophosphate insecticides chlorpyrifos (n = 25) and terbufos (n = 38) were strongly associated with wheeze (odd ratio = 6.7, 95% confidence interval: 1.6, 28.0; odds ratio = 5.9, 95% confidence interval: 1.4, 25.6, respectively). For both insecticides, a statistically significant exposure-effect association was found. Multiple organophosphate exposure was common; 81% of exposed women were exposed to both chlorpyrifos and terbufos. Consequently, their effects could not be separated. All findings were based on questionnaire data. No relation between pesticide exposure and ventilatory lung function was found. PMID:19372212

  13. Community exposures to airborne agricultural pesticides in California: ranking of inhalation risks.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sharon; McLaughlin, Robert; Harnly, Martha; Gunier, Robert; Kreutzer, Richard

    2002-12-01

    We assessed inhalation risks to California communities from airborne agricultural pesticides by probability distribution analysis using ambient air data provided by the California Air Resources Board and the California Department of Pesticide Regulation. The pesticides evaluated include chloropicrin, chlorothalonil, chlorpyrifos, S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate, diazinon, 1,3-dichloropropene, dichlorvos (naled breakdown product), endosulfan, eptam, methidathion, methyl bromide, methyl isothiocyanate (MITC; metam sodium breakdown product), molinate, propargite, and simazine. Risks were estimated for the median and 75th and 95th percentiles of probability (50, 25, and 5% of the exposed populations). Exposure estimates greater than or equal to noncancer reference values occurred for 50% of the exposed populations (adults and children) for MITC subchronic and chronic exposures, methyl bromide subchronic exposures (year 2000 monitoring), and 1,3-dichloropropene subchronic exposures (1990 monitoring). Short-term chlorpyrifos exposure estimates exceeded the acute reference value for 50% of children (not adults) in the exposed population. Noncancer risks were uniformly higher for children due to a proportionately greater inhalation rate-to-body weight ratio compared to adults and other factors. Target health effects of potential concern for these exposures include neurologic effects (methyl bromide and chlorpyrifos) and respiratory effects (1,3-dichloropropene and MITC). The lowest noncancer risks occurred for simazine and chlorothalonil. Lifetime cancer risks of one-in-a-million or greater were estimated for 50% of the exposed population for 1,3-dichloropropene (1990 monitoring) and 25% of the exposed populations for methidathion and molinate. Pesticide vapor pressure was found to be a better predictor of inhalation risk compared to other methods of ranking pesticides as potential toxic air contaminants. PMID:12460795

  14. Community exposures to airborne agricultural pesticides in California: ranking of inhalation risks.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sharon; McLaughlin, Robert; Harnly, Martha; Gunier, Robert; Kreutzer, Richard

    2002-01-01

    We assessed inhalation risks to California communities from airborne agricultural pesticides by probability distribution analysis using ambient air data provided by the California Air Resources Board and the California Department of Pesticide Regulation. The pesticides evaluated include chloropicrin, chlorothalonil, chlorpyrifos, S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate, diazinon, 1,3-dichloropropene, dichlorvos (naled breakdown product), endosulfan, eptam, methidathion, methyl bromide, methyl isothiocyanate (MITC; metam sodium breakdown product), molinate, propargite, and simazine. Risks were estimated for the median and 75th and 95th percentiles of probability (50, 25, and 5% of the exposed populations). Exposure estimates greater than or equal to noncancer reference values occurred for 50% of the exposed populations (adults and children) for MITC subchronic and chronic exposures, methyl bromide subchronic exposures (year 2000 monitoring), and 1,3-dichloropropene subchronic exposures (1990 monitoring). Short-term chlorpyrifos exposure estimates exceeded the acute reference value for 50% of children (not adults) in the exposed population. Noncancer risks were uniformly higher for children due to a proportionately greater inhalation rate-to-body weight ratio compared to adults and other factors. Target health effects of potential concern for these exposures include neurologic effects (methyl bromide and chlorpyrifos) and respiratory effects (1,3-dichloropropene and MITC). The lowest noncancer risks occurred for simazine and chlorothalonil. Lifetime cancer risks of one-in-a-million or greater were estimated for 50% of the exposed population for 1,3-dichloropropene (1990 monitoring) and 25% of the exposed populations for methidathion and molinate. Pesticide vapor pressure was found to be a better predictor of inhalation risk compared to other methods of ranking pesticides as potential toxic air contaminants. PMID:12460795

  15. Biological monitoring of organophosphorus pesticide exposure among children of agricultural workers in central Washington State.

    PubMed Central

    Loewenherz, C; Fenske, R A; Simcox, N J; Bellamy, G; Kalman, D

    1997-01-01

    Children up to 6 years of age who lived with pesticide applicators were monitored for increased risk of pesticide exposure: 48 pesticide applicator and 14 reference families were recruited from an agricultural region of Washington State in June 1995. A total of 160 spot urine samples were collected from 88 children, including repeated measures 3-7 days apart. Samples were assayed by gas chromatography flame photometric detector for dimethylphosphate metabolites. Dimethylthiophosphate (DMTP) was the dominant metabolite. DMTP levels were significantly higher in applicator children than in reference children (p = 0.015), with median concentrations of 0.021 and 0.005 microg/ml, respectively; maximum concentrations were 0.44 and 0.10 microg/ml, respectively. Percentages of detectable samples were 47% for applicator children and 27% for reference children. A marginally significant trend of increasing concentration was observed with decreasing age among applicator children (p = 0.060), and younger children within these families had significantly higher concentrations when compared to their older siblings (p = 0.040). Applicator children living less than 200 feet from an orchard were associated with higher frequency of detectable DMTP levels than nonproximal applicator children (p =0.036). These results indicate that applicator children experienced higher organophosphorus pesticide exposures than did reference children in the same community and that proximity to spraying is an important contributor to such exposures. Trends related to age suggest that child activity is an important variable for exposure. It is unlikely that any of the observed exposures posed a hazard of acute intoxication. This study points to the need for a more detailed understanding of pesticide exposure pathways for children of agricultural workers. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. PMID:9405329

  16. Assessment of serum biomarkers in rats after exposure to pesticides of different chemical classes.

    PubMed

    Moser, Virginia C; Stewart, Nicholas; Freeborn, Danielle L; Crooks, James; MacMillan, Denise K; Hedge, Joan M; Wood, Charles E; McMahen, Rebecca L; Strynar, Mark J; Herr, David W

    2015-01-15

    There is increasing emphasis on the use of biomarkers of adverse outcomes in safety assessment and translational research. We evaluated serum biomarkers and targeted metabolite profiles after exposure to pesticides (permethrin, deltamethrin, imidacloprid, carbaryl, triadimefon, fipronil) with different neurotoxic actions. Adult male Long-Evans rats were evaluated after single exposure to vehicle or one of two doses of each pesticide at the time of peak effect. The doses were selected to produce similar magnitude of behavioral effects across chemicals. Serum or plasma was analyzed using commercial cytokine/protein panels and targeted metabolomics. Additional studies of fipronil used lower doses (lacking behavioral effects), singly or for 14 days, and included additional markers of exposure and biological activity. Biomarker profiles varied in the number of altered analytes and patterns of change across pesticide classes, and discriminant analysis could separate treatment groups from control. Low doses of fipronil produced greater effects when given for 14 days compared to a single dose. Changes in thyroid hormones and relative amounts of fipronil and its sulfone metabolite also differed between the dosing regimens. Most cytokine changes reflected alterations in inflammatory responses, hormone levels, and products of phospholipid, fatty acid, and amino acid metabolism. These findings demonstrate distinct blood-based analyte profiles across pesticide classes, dose levels, and exposure duration. These results show promise for detailed analyses of these biomarkers and their linkages to biological pathways. PMID:25497286

  17. Spatial Exposure Analysis for Threatened and Endangered Species from Changing Pesticide Use Pattern in Southern Georgia

    EPA Science Inventory

    In recent decades, pesticide use patterns and crop distributions have changed; however, because there has not been a significant increase in usage disclosures, it is difficult to estimate the changes in potential exposure zones, this analysis focuses on the intersection of agricu...

  18. EJ SMALL GRANT: PESTICIDE RESEARCH PROJECT TO DETERMINE EXPOSURE AMONG WASHINGTON COUNTY, OREGON FARMWORKERS AND FAMILIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    CREATE (Creating Roads to Empowerent and Advancement through Education) has received an EJ Small Grant to implement a plan of reseaarch and evaluation of specific health outcomes associated with pesticide exposure in both workers and their children by identifying specific pestici...

  19. INVESTIGATION OF PERINATAL EXPOSURE TO ENDOCRINE-ACTIVE PESTICIDES AND SUBSEQUENT EFFECTS ON IMMUNOCOMPETENCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project addresses the issue of immune system dysregulation by endocrine-active xenobiotics when exposure occurs during immune system development. Elevated levels of pesticides have been documented in soil and household dust samples of families living or working on farms wher...

  20. CAN FLU-LIKE ILLNESS BE AN INDICATION OF RECENT ORGANOPHOSPHATE PESTICIDE EXPOSURE IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Can flu-like illness be an indication of recent organophosphate pesticide exposure in preschool children? P Mendola*, D Barr, D Walsh, S Hern, S Rhoney, L Needham, E Hilborn, M Gonzales, C Carty, G Robertson, J Creason (US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711)
    <...

  1. PERINATAL EXPOSURE TO THE PESTICIDE HEPTACHLOR PRODUCES ALTERATIONS IN IMMUNE FUNCTION PARAMETERS IN SPRAGUE DAWLEY RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    PERINATAL EXPOSURE TO THE PESTICIDE HEPTACHLOR PRODUCES ALTERATIONS IN IMMUNE FUNCTION PARAMETERS IN SPRAGUE DAWLEY RATS. R A Matulka1, AA Rooney3, W Williams2, CB Copeland2, and R J Smialowicz2. 1Curriculum in Toxicology, UNC, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 2US EPA, ITB, ETD, NHEERL, RT...

  2. QUANTITATIVE PESTICIDE EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT OF CHILDREN LIVING IN AN AGRICULTURAL COMMUNITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    In support of planning efforts for the National Children's Study, we conducted a pilot study to test field methods characterizing pesticide exposures to 20 farmworker children aged 6-24 months living in the Salinas Valley, Monterey County, California. Sample collection included d...

  3. PILOT STUDY FOR MEASURING ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES FROM AGRICULTURAL APPLICATIONS OF PESTICIDES: AN OVERVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    A four-farm pilot study was conducted during May and June 1992 in southeastern Minnesota to test and evaluate a variety of different sampling methods for determining the potential human exposure of farm applicators and their families to 26 different pesticides during routine agri...

  4. Effect of Leaf Type and Pesticide Exposure on Abundance of Bacterial Taxa in Mosquito Larval Habitats

    PubMed Central

    Muturi, Ephantus J.; Orindi, Benedict O.; Kim, Chang-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Lentic freshwater systems including those inhabited by aquatic stages of mosquitoes derive most of their carbon inputs from terrestrial organic matter mainly leaf litter. The leaf litter is colonized by microbial communities that provide the resource base for mosquito larvae. While the microbial biomass associated with different leaf species in container aquatic habitats is well documented, the taxonomic composition of these microbes and their response to common environmental stressors is poorly understood. We used indoor aquatic microcosms to determine the abundances of major taxonomic groups of bacteria in leaf litters from seven plant species and their responses to low concentrations of four pesticides with different modes of action on the target organisms; permethrin, malathion, atrazine and glyphosate. We tested the hypotheses that leaf species support different quantities of major taxonomic groups of bacteria and that exposure to pesticides at environmentally relevant concentrations alters bacterial abundance and community structure in mosquito larval habitats. We found support for both hypotheses suggesting that leaf litter identity and chemical contamination may alter the quality and quantity of mosquito food base (microbial communities) in larval habitats. The effect of pesticides on microbial communities varied significantly among leaf types, suggesting that the impact of pesticides on natural microbial communities may be highly complex and difficult to predict. Collectively, these findings demonstrate the potential for detritus composition within mosquito larval habitats and exposure to pesticides to influence the quality of mosquito larval habitats. PMID:23940789

  5. Probabilistic assessment of the cumulative dietary exposure of the population of Denmark to endocrine disrupting pesticides.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette; Christiansen, Sofie; Boberg, Julie; Axelstad, Marta; Herrmann, Susan S; Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Hass, Ulla

    2013-05-01

    The four pesticides epoxiconazole, prochloraz, procymidone and tebuconazole, are commonly used pesticides, all suspected of acting as endocrine disrupters. In the present study, we assessed the acute cumulative dietary exposure to the women of child bearing age and the general population of Denmark to these pesticides from the intake of fruit and vegetables. The assessment was carried out using the probabilistic approach combined with the relative potency factor (RPF) approach. Residue data for prochloraz, procymidone, and tebuconazole were obtained from the Danish monitoring programme 2006-2009, while residue data for epoxiconazole were obtained from the Swedish monitoring programme carried out in the period 2007-2009. Food consumption data were obtained from the Danish nationwide dietary survey conducted in 2000-2002. Relative potency factors for the four pesticides were obtained from rat studies. Prochloraz was used as the index compound. All four pesticides increased nipple retention in male offspring, and epoxiconazole, prochloraz, and tebuconazole also increased the gestation period in pregnant rat dams. For women of childbearing age, the high-end cumulative exposure (99.9th percentile) was calculated to 9% of the Adjusted Reference Value (ARV) for the effect on nipple retention and to 1% of the ARV for the effect on increased gestation period. PMID:23333574

  6. Does mechanistic modeling of filter strip pesticide mass balance and degradation processes affect environmental exposure assessments?

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Carpena, Rafael; Ritter, Amy; Fox, Garey A; Perez-Ovilla, Oscar

    2015-11-01

    Vegetative filter strips (VFS) are a widely adopted practice for limiting pesticide transport from adjacent fields to receiving waterbodies. The efficacy of VFS depends on site-specific input factors. To elucidate the complex and non-linear relationships among these factors requires a process-based modeling framework. Previous research proposed linking existing higher-tier environmental exposure models with a well-tested VFS model (VFSMOD). However, the framework assumed pesticide mass stored in the VFS was not available for transport in subsequent storm events. A new pesticide mass balance component was developed to estimate surface pesticide residue trapped in the VFS and its degradation between consecutive runoff events. The influence and necessity of the updated framework on acute and chronic estimated environmental concentrations (EECs) and percent reductions in EECs were investigated across three, 30-year U.S. EPA scenarios: Illinois corn, California tomato, and Oregon wheat. The updated framework with degradation predicted higher EECs than the existing framework without degradation for scenarios with greater sediment transport, longer VFS lengths, and highly sorbing and persistent pesticides. Global sensitivity analysis (GSA) assessed the relative importance of mass balance and degradation processes in the context of other input factors like VFS length (VL), organic-carbon sorption coefficient (Koc), and soil and water half-lives. Considering VFS pesticide residue and degradation was not important if single, large runoff events controlled transport, as is typical for higher percentiles considered in exposure assessments. Degradation processes become more important when considering percent reductions in acute or chronic EECs, especially under scenarios with lower pesticide losses. PMID:26218348

  7. Effect of chronic pesticide exposure in farm workers of a Mexico community.

    PubMed

    Payán-Rentería, Rolando; Garibay-Chávez, Guadalupe; Rangel-Ascencio, Raul; Preciado-Martínez, Veronica; Muñoz-Islas, Laura; Beltrán-Miranda, Claudia; Mena-Munguía, Salvador; Jave-Suárez, Luis; Feria-Velasco, Alfredo; De Celis, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Pesticides are frequently used substances worldwide, even when the use of some of them is forbidden due to the recognized adverse effect they have on the health of not only the people who apply the pesticides, but also of those that consume the contaminated products. The objectives of this study were to know the health issues of farm workers chronically exposed to pesticides, to evaluate possible damage at genetic level, as well as to explore some hepatic, renal, and hematological alterations. A transversal comparative study was performed between 2 groups, one composed of 25 farm workers engaged in pesticide spraying, and a control group of 21 workers not exposed to pesticides; both groups belonged to the Nextipac community in Jalisco, Mexico. Each member of both groups underwent a full medical history. Blood samples were taken from all farm workers in order to obtain a complete blood count and chemistry, clinical chemistry, lipid profile, liver and kidney function tests, erythrocyte cholinesterase quantification, lipid peroxidation profile, and free DNA fragment quantification. For the information analysis, central tendency and dispersion measurements were registered. In order to know the differences between groups, a cluster multivariate method was used, as well as prevalence reasons. The most used pesticides were mainly organophosphates, triazines and organochlorine compounds. The exposed group showed acute poisoning (20% of the cases) and diverse alterations of the digestive, neurological, respiratory, circulatory, dermatological, renal, and reproductive system probably associated to pesticide exposure. More importantly, they presented free DNA fragments in plasma (90.8 vs 49.05 ng/mL) as well as a higher level of lipid peroxidation (41.85 vs. 31.91 nmol/mL) in comparison with those data from unexposed farm workers. These results suggest that there exist health hazards for those farm workers exposed to pesticides, at organic and cellular levels. PMID:22315932

  8. Characterizing Exposures to Nonpersistent Pesticides during Pregnancy and Early Childhood in the National Children’s Study: A Review of Monitoring and Measurement Methodologies

    PubMed Central

    Bradman, Asa; Whyatt, Robin M.

    2005-01-01

    The National Children’s Study is a proposed longitudinal cohort study to evaluate the relationships between children’s health and the environment. Enrollment is estimated to begin in September 2005, and 100,000 children will be followed from preconception or early pregnancy until adulthood. Among multiple health outcomes, the study is proposing to investigate whether pre- and/or postnatal exposures to nonpersistent pesticides increase the risk of poor performance on neurobehavioral and cognitive exams during infancy and early childhood. Characterization of exposures will be challenging. Nonpersistent pesticides include many chemicals with biologic half-lives on the order of hours or days. Exposures can occur through multiple pathways (e.g., food and residential or agriculture pesticide use) and by multiple routes (inhalation, ingestion, dermal). Effects may depend on the developmental stage when exposure occurs. Sequential sampling is likely to be required and may involve a combination of environmental and biologic monitoring as well as collection of questionnaire data. In this article we review measurements that can be used to characterize exposures. These include biologic markers, personal and indoor air sampling techniques, collection of dust, surface and dermal wipe samples, and dietary assessment tools. Criteria for sample selection will necessitate evaluation of the time frame of exposure captured by the measurement in relationship to critical windows of susceptibility, the cost and validity of the measurements, participant burden, and variability in exposure routes across populations and at different age periods. PMID:16079084

  9. Association between organophosphate pesticides exposure and thyroid hormones in floriculture workers.

    PubMed

    Lacasaña, Marina; López-Flores, Inmaculada; Rodríguez-Barranco, Miguel; Aguilar-Garduño, Clemente; Blanco-Muñoz, Julia; Pérez-Méndez, Oscar; Gamboa, Ricardo; Bassol, Susana; Cebrian, Mariano E

    2010-02-15

    The ability of organophosphate pesticides to disturb thyroid gland function has been demonstrated by experimental studies on animal, but evidence of such effects on human remains scarce. The aim of this study was to assess the association between exposure to organophosphate compounds and serum levels of thyroid hormones in floriculture workers. A longitudinal study was conducted on 136 male subjects from the State of Mexico and Morelos, Mexico, occupationally exposed to organophosphate pesticides, during agricultural periods of high (rainy season) and low (dry season) levels of pesticide application. Using a structured questionnaire, a survey was carried out on sociodemographic characteristics, anthropometry, clinical history, alcohol and tobacco consumption, residential chemical exposure, and occupational history. Urine and blood samples were taken the day after pesticide application to determine urine dialkylphosphate (DAP) levels, serum levels of TSH, total T(3), total T(4), serum PON1 activity, and serum p,p'-DEE levels. The analysis of the association between DAP levels and thyroid hormonal profile was carried out using multivariate generalized estimating equation (GEE) models. Our results showed an increase in both TSH and T(4) hormones in serum associated with a increase in total dimethylphosphate levels (SigmaDMP) in urine (p-trend<0.001) and a decrease in total T(3) serum levels with an increase of SigmaDMP levels in the urine (p-trend=0.053). These results suggest that exposure to organophosphate pesticides may be responsible of increasing TSH and T(4) serum hormone levels and decreasing T(3) serum hormone levels, therefore supporting the hypothesis that organophosphate pesticides act as endocrine disruptors in humans. PMID:19914268

  10. Association between organophosphate pesticides exposure and thyroid hormones in floriculture workers

    SciTech Connect

    Lacasana, Marina; Lopez-Flores, Inmaculada; Rodriguez-Barranco, Miguel; Aguilar-Garduno, Clemente; Blanco-Munoz, Julia; Perez-Mendez, Oscar; Gamboa, Ricardo; Bassol, Susana; Cebrian, Mariano E.

    2010-02-15

    The ability of organophosphate pesticides to disturb thyroid gland function has been demonstrated by experimental studies on animal, but evidence of such effects on human remains scarce. The aim of this study was to assess the association between exposure to organophosphate compounds and serum levels of thyroid hormones in floriculture workers. A longitudinal study was conducted on 136 male subjects from the State of Mexico and Morelos, Mexico, occupationally exposed to organophosphate pesticides, during agricultural periods of high (rainy season) and low (dry season) levels of pesticide application. Using a structured questionnaire, a survey was carried out on sociodemographic characteristics, anthropometry, clinical history, alcohol and tobacco consumption, residential chemical exposure, and occupational history. Urine and blood samples were taken the day after pesticide application to determine urine dialkylphosphate (DAP) levels, serum levels of TSH, total T{sub 3}, total T{sub 4}, serum PON1 activity, and serum p,p'-DEE levels. The analysis of the association between DAP levels and thyroid hormonal profile was carried out using multivariate generalized estimating equation (GEE) models. Our results showed an increase in both TSH and T{sub 4} hormones in serum associated with a increase in total dimethylphosphate levels (SIGMADMP) in urine (p-trend < 0.001) and a decrease in total T{sub 3} serum levels with an increase of SIGMADMP levels in the urine (p-trend = 0.053). These results suggest that exposure to organophosphate pesticides may be responsible of increasing TSH and T{sub 4} serum hormone levels and decreasing T{sub 3} serum hormone levels, therefore supporting the hypothesis that organophosphate pesticides act as endocrine disruptors in humans.