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Sample records for pestis outer membrane

  1. Yersinia pestis uses the Ail outer membrane protein to recruit vitronectin.

    PubMed

    Bartra, Sara Schesser; Ding, Yi; Fujimoto, L Miya; Ring, Joshua G; Jain, Vishal; Ram, Sanjay; Marassi, Francesca M; Plano, Gregory V

    2015-11-01

    Yersinia pestis, the agent of plague, requires the Ail (attachment invasion locus) outer membrane protein to survive in the blood and tissues of its mammalian hosts. Ail is important for both attachment to host cells and for resistance to complement-dependent bacteriolysis. Previous studies have shown that Ail interacts with components of the extracellular matrix, including fibronectin, laminin and heparan sulfate proteoglycans, and with the complement inhibitor C4b-binding protein. Here, we demonstrate that Ail-expressing Y. pestis strains bind vitronectin - a host protein with functions in cell attachment, fibrinolysis and inhibition of the complement system. The Ail-dependent recruitment of vitronectin resulted in efficient cleavage of vitronectin by the outer membrane Pla (plasminogen activator protease). Escherichia coli DH5α expressing Y. pestis Ail bound vitronectin, but not heat-treated vitronectin. The ability of Ail to directly bind vitronectin was demonstrated by ELISA using purified refolded Ail in nanodiscs. PMID:26377177

  2. Plasminogen activator/coagulase gene of Yersinia pestis is responsible for degradation of plasmid-encoded outer membrane proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Sodeinde, O A; Sample, A K; Brubaker, R R; Goguen, J D

    1988-01-01

    The related family of virulence plasmids found in the three major pathogens of the genus Yersinia all have the ability to encode a set of outer membrane proteins. In Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis, these proteins are major constituents of the outer membrane when their synthesis is fully induced. In contrast, they have been difficult to detect in Y. pestis. It has recently been established that Y. pestis does synthesize these proteins, but that they are rapidly degraded due to some activity determined by the 9.5-kilobase plasmid commonly found in Y. pestis strains. We show that mutations in the pla gene of this plasmid, which encodes both the plasminogen activator and coagulase activities, blocked this degradation. A cloned 1.4-kilobase DNA fragment carrying pla was also sufficient to cause degradation in the absence of the 9.5-kilobase plasmid. Images PMID:2843471

  3. Virulence genes regulated at the transcriptional level by Ca2+ in Yersinia pestis include structural genes for outer membrane proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Straley, S C; Bowmer, W S

    1986-01-01

    Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, has a virulence determinant called the low-Ca2+ response (Lcr+ phenotype) that confers on the bacterium Ca2+ dependence for growth at 37 degrees C and expression of V antigen. This virulence determinant is common to the three species of Yersinia and is mediated by Lcr plasmids (called pCD in Y. pestis). In this study, we generated insertions of Mu dI1(Ap lac) in pCD1 of Y. pestis KIM, screened for cells showing transcriptional regulation by Ca2+, and obtained inserts that define at least four pCD1 genes. Their patterns of transcription under different growth conditions closely paralleled the pattern of expression of the V antigen. We tested for expression of Lcr-specific yersinial outer membrane proteins (Yops) by the pCD1::Mu dI1(Ap lac) plasmids. Four of the inserts each eliminated expression of a different Yop; one of these Yops was unique to Y. pestis. Two of the insertions affecting Yops caused avirulence, and one caused strongly decreased virulence of Y. pestis in mice. These data indicate that Yops, like the V antigen, are virulence attributes regulated in the low-Ca2+ response. Images PMID:3002984

  4. Solid-state NMR of the Yersinia pestis outer membrane protein Ail in lipid bilayer nanodiscs sedimented by ultracentrifugation

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yi; Fujimoto, L. Miya; Yao, Yong; Marassi, Francesca M.

    2015-01-01

    Solid-state NMR studies of sedimented soluble proteins has been recently developed as an attractive approach for overcoming the size limitations of solution NMR spectroscopy and bypassing the need for sample crystallization or precipitation (Bertini et al. 2011). Inspired by the potential benefits of this method, we have investigated the ability to sediment lipid bilayer nanodiscs reconstituted with a membrane protein. In this study, we show that nanodiscs containing the outer membrane protein Ail from Yersinia pestis can be sedimented for solid-state NMR structural studies, without the need for precipitation or lyophilization. Optimized preparations of Ail in phospholipid nanodiscs support both the structure and the fibronectin binding activity of the protein. The same sample can be used for solution NMR, solid-state NMR and activity assays, facilitating structure-activity correlation experiments across a wide range of timescales. PMID:25578899

  5. Solid-state NMR of the Yersinia pestis outer membrane protein Ail in lipid bilayer nanodiscs sedimented by ultracentrifugation.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yi; Fujimoto, L Miya; Yao, Yong; Marassi, Francesca M

    2015-04-01

    Solid-state NMR studies of sedimented soluble proteins has been developed recently as an attractive approach for overcoming the size limitations of solution NMR spectroscopy while bypassing the need for sample crystallization or precipitation (Bertini et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 108(26):10396-10399, 2011). Inspired by the potential benefits of this method, we have investigated the ability to sediment lipid bilayer nanodiscs reconstituted with a membrane protein. In this study, we show that nanodiscs containing the outer membrane protein Ail from Yersinia pestis can be sedimented for solid-state NMR structural studies, without the need for precipitation or lyophilization. Optimized preparations of Ail in phospholipid nanodiscs support both the structure and the fibronectin binding activity of the protein. The same sample can be used for solution NMR, solid-state NMR and activity assays, facilitating structure-activity correlation experiments across a wide range of timescales. PMID:25578899

  6. The Outer Membrane Protein A (OmpA) of Y. pestis promotes intracellular survival and virulence in mice

    PubMed Central

    Bartra, Sara Schesser; Gong, Xin; Lorica, Cherish D.; Jain, Chaitanya; Nair, Manoj K. M.; Schifferli, Dieter; Qian, Lianfen; Li, Zhongwei; Plano, Gregory V.; Schesser, Kurt

    2011-01-01

    The plague bacterium Yersinia pestis has a number of well-described strategies to protect itself from both host cells and soluble factors. In an effort to identify additional anti-host factors, we employed a transposon site hybridization (TraSH)-based approach to screen 105 Y. pestis mutants in an in vitro infection system. In addition to loci encoding various components of the well-characterized type III secretion system (T3SS), our screen unambiguously identified ompA as a pro-survival gene. We go on to show that an engineered Y. pestis ΔompA strain, as well as a ΔompA strain of the closely related pathogen Y. pseudotuberculosis, have fully functioning T3SSs but are specifically defective in surviving within macrophages. Additionally, the Y. pestis ΔompA strain was outcompeted by the wild-type strain in a mouse co-infection assay. Unlike in other bacterial pathogens in which OmpA can promote adherence, invasion, or serum resistance, the OmpA of Y. pestis is restricted to enhancing intracellular survival. Our data show that OmpA of the pathogenic Yersinia is a virulence factor on par with the T3SS. PMID:22023991

  7. Methanotroph outer membrane preparation.

    PubMed

    Karlsen, Odd A; Berven, Frode S; Jensen, Harald B; Fjellbirkeland, Anne

    2011-01-01

    All presently known methanotrophs are gram-negative bacteria suggesting that they are surrounded by a two-layered membrane: an inner or cytoplasmic membrane and an outer membrane. In the methanotroph Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath), separation of the two membranes has allowed studies on protein and lipid composition of the outer membrane. Its outer membrane can be isolated from purified cell envelopes by selective solubilization of the inner membranes with the detergent Triton X-100. The proteins associated with the outer membrane can further be fractionated into integral and tightly associated proteins and peripheral loosely associated proteins. We present here protocols for this fractionation and show how the proteins associated with the outer leaflet of the outer membrane can be isolated and identified by whole-cell biotin surface labeling. PMID:21419921

  8. Outer membrane protein purification.

    PubMed

    Arigita, C; Jiskoot, W; Graaf, M R; Kersten, G F

    2001-01-01

    The major outer membrane proteins (OMPs) from Neisseria meningitidis, which are expressed at high levels, are subdivided in five classes based on molecular weight (1,2) (see Table 1). Table 1 Major Meningococcal Outer-Membrane Proteins Outer-membrane proteins Name Molecular maass Function/characteristics Class 1 PorA 44-47 kDa Porin Class 2/3 PorB 37-42 kDa Porin Class 4 Rmp Reductionmodifiableprotein, unknown Class 5 Opa 26-30 kDa Adhesion,opacity protein Opc 25 kDa Invasion, opacity protein Iron-regulated proteins Mirp 37 kDa Iron acquisition (?);majoriron-regulatedprotein FrpB 70 kDa Ferric enterobactin receptor (also FetA) Adapted from ref. (1). PMID:21336748

  9. The Leptospiral Outer Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Haake, David A; Zückert, Wolfram R

    2015-01-01

    The outer membrane (OM) is the front line of leptospiral interactions with their environment and the mammalian host. Unlike most invasive spirochetes, pathogenic leptospires must be able survive in both free-living and host-adapted states. As organisms move from one set of environmental conditions to another, the OM must cope with a series of conflicting challenges. For example, the OM must be porous enough to allow nutrient uptake, yet robust enough to defend the cell against noxious substances. In the host, the OM presents a surface decorated with adhesins and receptors for attaching to, and acquiring, desirable host molecules such as the complement regulator, Factor H. On the other hand, the OM must enable leptospires to evade detection by the host’s immune system on their way from sites of invasion through the bloodstream to the protected niche of the proximal tubule. The picture that is emerging of the leptospiral OM is that, while it shares many of the characteristics of the OMs of spirochetes and Gram-negative bacteria, it is also unique and different in ways that make it of general interest to microbiologists. For example, unlike most other pathogenic spirochetes, the leptospiral OM is rich in lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Leptospiral LPS is similar to that of Gram-negative bacteria but has a number of unique structural features that may explain why it is not recognized by the LPS-specific Toll-like receptor 4 of humans. As in other spirochetes, lipoproteins are major components of the leptospiral OM, though their roles are poorly understood. The functions of transmembrane OMPs in many cases are better understood thanks to homologies with their Gram-negative counterparts and the emergence of improved genetic techniques. This chapter will review recent discoveries involving the leptospiral OM and its role in leptospiral physiology and pathogenesis. Readers are referred to earlier, excellent summaries related to this subject (Adler and de la Peña Moctezuma

  10. Dioxygenases in Burkholderia ambifaria and Yersinia pestis that hydroxylate the outer Kdo unit of lipopolysaccharide

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Hak Suk; Raetz, Christian R. H.

    2011-01-01

    Several Gram-negative pathogens, including Yersinia pestis, Burkholderia cepacia, and Acinetobacter haemolyticus, synthesize an isosteric analog of 3-deoxy-d-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid (Kdo), known as d-glycero-d-talo-oct-2-ulosonic acid (Ko), in which the axial hydrogen atom at the Kdo 3-position is replaced with OH. Here we report a unique Kdo 3-hydroxylase (KdoO) from Burkholderia ambifaria and Yersinia pestis, encoded by the bamb_0774 (BakdoO) and the y1812 (YpkdoO) genes, respectively. When expressed in heptosyl transferase-deficient Escherichia coli, these genes result in conversion of the outer Kdo unit of Kdo2-lipid A to Ko in an O2-dependent manner. KdoO contains the putative iron-binding motif, HXDXn>40H. Reconstitution of KdoO activity in vitro with Kdo2-lipid A as the substrate required addition of Fe2+, α-ketoglutarate, and ascorbic acid, confirming that KdoO is a Fe2+/α-ketoglutarate/O2-dependent dioxygenase. Conversion of Kdo to Ko in Kdo2-lipid A conferred reduced susceptibility to mild acid hydrolysis. Although two enzymes that catalyze Fe2+/α-ketoglutarate/O2-dependent hydroxylation of deoxyuridine in fungal extracts have been reported previously, kdoO is the first example of a gene encoding a deoxy-sugar hydroxylase. Homologues of KdoO are found exclusively in Gram-negative bacteria, including the human pathogens Burkholderia mallei, Yersinia pestis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Legionella longbeachae, and Coxiella burnetii, as well as the plant pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum. PMID:21178073

  11. Outer Membrane Permeability and Antibiotic Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Delcour, Anne H.

    2009-01-01

    Summary To date most antibiotics are targeted at intracellular processes, and must be able to penetrate the bacterial cell envelope. In particular, the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria provides a formidable barrier that must be overcome. There are essentially two pathways that antibiotics can take through the outer membrane: a lipid-mediated pathway for hydrophobic antibiotics, and general diffusion porins for hydrophilic antibiotics. The lipid and protein compositions of the outer membrane have a strong impact on the sensitivity of bacteria to many types of antibiotics, and drug resistance involving modifications of these macromolecules is common. This review will describe the molecular mechanisms for permeation of antibiotics through the outer membrane, and the strategies that bacteria have deployed to resist antibiotics by modifications of these pathways. PMID:19100346

  12. Outer membrane proteins of pathogenic spirochetes

    PubMed Central

    Cullen, Paul A.; Haake, David A.; Adler, Ben

    2009-01-01

    Pathogenic spirochetes are the causative agents of several important diseases including syphilis, Lyme disease, leptospirosis, swine dysentery, periodontal disease and some forms of relapsing fever. Spirochetal bacteria possess two membranes and the proteins present in the outer membrane are at the site of interaction with host tissue and the immune system. This review describes the current knowledge in the field of spirochetal outer membrane protein (OMP) biology. What is known concerning biogenesis and structure of OMPs, with particular regard to the atypical signal peptide cleavage sites observed amongst the spirochetes, is discussed. We examine the functions that have been determined for several spirochetal OMPs including those that have been demonstrated to function as adhesins, porins or to have roles in complement resistance. A detailed description of the role of spirochetal OMPs in immunity, including those that stimulate protective immunity or that are involved in antigenic variation, is given. A final section is included which covers experimental considerations in spirochetal outer membrane biology. This section covers contentious issues concerning cellular localization of putative OMPs, including determination of surface exposure. A more detailed knowledge of spirochetal OMP biology will hopefully lead to the design of new vaccines and a better understanding of spirochetal pathogenesis. PMID:15449605

  13. Outer membrane proteins of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath).

    PubMed

    Fjellbirkeland, A; Kleivdal, H; Joergensen, C; Thestrup, H; Jensen, H B

    1997-08-01

    Membranes obtained from whole-cell lysates of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) were separated by Triton X-100 extraction. The resulting insoluble fraction was enriched in outer membranes as assessed by electron microscopy and by the content of beta-hydroxy palmitic acid and particulate methane monooxygenase. Major proteins with molecular masses of approximately 27, 40, 46, 59, and 66 kDa were detected by SDS-PAGE of the Triton-X-100-insoluble membranes. MopA, MopB, MopC, MopD, and MopE (Methylococcus outer membrane protein) are proposed to designate these proteins. Several of the Mop proteins exhibited heat-modifiable properties in SDS-PAGE and were influenced by the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol in the sample buffer. The 46- and 59-kDa bands migrated as a single high-molecular-mass 95-kDa oligomer under mild denaturing conditions. When reconstituted into black lipid membranes, this oligomer was shown to serve as a channel with an estimated single-channel conductance of 1.4 nS in 1 M KCl. PMID:9238104

  14. Towards Simulations of Outer Membrane Proteins in Lipopolysaccharide Membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Soares, Thereza A.; Straatsma, TP

    2007-12-26

    Biomolecular simulation derived properties of LPS membranes that impact the structural and internal dynamics of transmembrane proteins are shown to exhibit good agreement with available experimental data within the time scale simulated, chosen force field and simulation conditions. The molecular model used offers an accurate representation of the LPS layer, including the high asymmetry and low fluidity characteristics of outer membranes. This contribution describes the data intensive analysis of the large molecular time trajectories generated for these systems using massively parallel computing resources.

  15. Yersinia pestis Ail: multiple roles of a single protein

    PubMed Central

    Kolodziejek, Anna M.; Hovde, Carolyn J.; Minnich, Scott A.

    2012-01-01

    Yersinia pestis is one of the most virulent bacteria identified. It is the causative agent of plague—a systemic disease that has claimed millions of human lives throughout history. Y. pestis survival in insect and mammalian host species requires fine-tuning to sense and respond to varying environmental cues. Multiple Y. pestis attributes participate in this process and contribute to its pathogenicity and highly efficient transmission between hosts. These include factors inherited from its enteric predecessors; Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis, as well as phenotypes acquired or lost during Y. pestis speciation. Representatives of a large Enterobacteriaceae Ail/OmpX/PagC/Lom family of outer membrane proteins (OMPs) are found in the genomes of all pathogenic Yersiniae. This review describes the current knowledge regarding the role of Ail in Y. pestis pathogenesis and virulence. The pronounced role of Ail in the following areas are discussed (1) inhibition of the bactericidal properties of complement, (2) attachment and Yersinia outer proteins (Yop) delivery to host tissue, (3) prevention of PMNL recruitment to the lymph nodes, and (4) inhibition of the inflammatory response. Finally, Ail homologs in Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis are compared to illustrate differences that may have contributed to the drastic bacterial lifestyle change that shifted Y. pestis from an enteric to a vector-born systemic pathogen. PMID:22919692

  16. Isolation of the outer membrane and characterization of the major outer membrane protein from Spirochaeta aurantia.

    PubMed Central

    Kropinski, A M; Parr, T R; Angus, B L; Hancock, R E; Ghiorse, W C; Greenberg, E P

    1987-01-01

    The outer membrane of Spirochaeta aurantia was isolated after cells were extracted with sodium lauryl sarcosinate and was subsequently purified by differential centrifugation and KBr isopycnic gradient centrifugation. The purified outer membrane was obtained in the form of carotenoid-containing vesicles. Four protein species with apparent molecular weights of 26,000 (26K), 36.5K, 41K, and 48.5K were readily observed as components of the vesicles. The 36.5K protein was the major polypeptide and constituted approximately 90% of the outer membrane protein observed on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. Under mild denaturing conditions the 36.5K major protein exhibited an apparent molecular weight of approximately 90,000. This, together with the results of protein cross-linking studies, indicates that the 36.5K polypeptide has an oligomeric conformation in the native state. Reconstitution of solubilized S. aurantia outer membrane into lipid bilayer membranes revealed the presence of a porin, presumably the 36.5K protein, with an estimated channel diameter of 2.3 nm based on the measured single channel conductance of 7.7 nS in 1 M KCl. Images PMID:3025168

  17. Biogenesis of outer membranes in Gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Tokuda, Hajime

    2009-03-23

    The outer membrane, an essential organelle of Gram-negative bacteria, is composed of four major components: lipopolysaccharide, phospholipids, beta-barrel proteins, and lipoproteins. The mechanisms underlying the transport of these components to outer membranes are currently under extensive examination. Among them, the sorting of lipoproteins to the outer membrane of Escherichia coli has been clarified in detail. The Lol system, composed of five proteins, catalyzes outer membrane sorting of lipoproteins. Various Lpt proteins have recently been identified as factors involved in the transport of lipopolysaccharide to the outer membrane, although the mechanism remains largely unknown. Proteins with alpha-helical membrane spanning segments are found in the inner membrane, whereas amphipathic beta-barrel proteins span the outer membrane. These beta-barrel proteins are inserted into the outer membranes through a central core protein BamA (YaeT) with the help of four outer membrane lipoproteins. In contrast, little is known about how phospholipids are transported to the outer membrane. PMID:19270402

  18. Purified outer membranes of Serpulina hyodysenteriae contain cholesterol.

    PubMed Central

    Plaza, H; Whelchel, T R; Garczynski, S F; Howerth, E W; Gherardini, F C

    1997-01-01

    We have isolated outer and inner membranes of Serpulina hyodysenteriae by using discontinuous sucrose density gradients. The outer and inner membrane fractions contained less than 1 and 2%, respectively, of the total NADH oxidase activity (soluble marker) in the cell lysate. Various membrane markers including lipooligosaccharide (LOS), the 16-kDa outer membrane lipoprotein (SmpA), and the C subunit of the F1F0 ATPase indicated that the lowest-density membrane fraction contained outer membranes while the high-density membrane fraction contained inner membranes and that both are essentially free of contamination by the periplasmic flagella, a major contaminant of membranes isolated by other techniques. The outer membrane fractions (rho = 1.10 g/cm3) contained 0.25 mg of protein/mg (dry weight), while the inner membrane samples (rho = 1.16 g/cm3) contained significantly more protein (0.55 mg of protein/mg [dry weight]). Lipid analysis revealed that the purified outer membranes contained cholesterol as a major component of the membrane lipids. Treatment of intact S. hyodysenteriae with different concentrations of digitonin, a steroid glycoside that interacts with cholesterol, indicated that the outer membrane could be selectively removed at concentrations as low as 0.125%. PMID:9286995

  19. Characterization of the major outer membrane antigens of Treponema hyodysenteriae.

    PubMed Central

    Wannemuehler, M J; Hubbard, R D; Greer, J M

    1988-01-01

    Outer membrane extracts of Treponema hyodysenteriae were used to evaluate the antibody responses in immunized or convalescent pigs. Western blot (immunoblot) analysis identified antibodies in sera reactive with 14- to 19-kilodalton (kDa) antigens. Reactivity against these antigens could be removed only by absorption of sera with butanol-water-extracted endotoxin from the homologous strain of T. hyodysenteriae. Treatment of the outer membrane extracts with 0.1 M sodium meta-periodate, but not with proteinase K, abolished reactivity with both outer membrane and endotoxin antigens (14 and 19 kDa). These results indicate that swine vaccinated with the outer membrane extract of T. hyodysenteriae develop antibody responses to outer membrane antigens qualitatively similar to those of swine convalescing from active infection, especially antibodies against low-molecular-mass antigens. The nature of the 14- to 19-kDa antigens appears consistent with that of treponemal endotoxin and lipopolysaccharide. Images PMID:2460406

  20. Bacterial Outer Membrane Vesicles and Vaccine Applications

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo, Reinaldo; Fernández, Sonsire; Zayas, Caridad; Acosta, Armando; Sarmiento, Maria Elena; Ferro, Valerie A.; Rosenqvist, Einar; Campa, Concepcion; Cardoso, Daniel; Garcia, Luis; Perez, Jose Luis

    2014-01-01

    Vaccines based on outer membrane vesicles (OMV) were developed more than 20 years ago against Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B. These nano-sized structures exhibit remarkable potential for immunomodulation of immune responses and delivery of meningococcal antigens or unrelated antigens incorporated into the vesicle structure. This paper reviews different applications in OMV Research and Development (R&D) and provides examples of OMV developed and evaluated at the Finlay Institute in Cuba. A Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) process was developed at the Finlay Institute to produce OMV from N. meningitidis serogroup B (dOMVB) using detergent extraction. Subsequently, OMV from N. meningitidis, serogroup A (dOMVA), serogroup W (dOMVW), and serogroup X (dOMVX) were obtained using this process. More recently, the extraction process has also been applied effectively for obtaining OMV on a research scale from Vibrio cholerae (dOMVC), Bordetella pertussis (dOMVBP), Mycobacterium smegmatis (dOMVSM), and BCG (dOMVBCG). The immunogenicity of the OMV has been evaluated for specific antibody induction, and together with functional bactericidal and challenge assays in mice has shown their protective potential. dOMVB has been evaluated with non-neisserial antigens, including with a herpes virus type 2 glycoprotein, ovalbumin, and allergens. In conclusion, OMV are proving to be more versatile than first conceived and remain an important technology for development of vaccine candidates. PMID:24715891

  1. Bacterial outer membrane vesicles and vaccine applications.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, Reinaldo; Fernández, Sonsire; Zayas, Caridad; Acosta, Armando; Sarmiento, Maria Elena; Ferro, Valerie A; Rosenqvist, Einar; Campa, Concepcion; Cardoso, Daniel; Garcia, Luis; Perez, Jose Luis

    2014-01-01

    Vaccines based on outer membrane vesicles (OMV) were developed more than 20 years ago against Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B. These nano-sized structures exhibit remarkable potential for immunomodulation of immune responses and delivery of meningococcal antigens or unrelated antigens incorporated into the vesicle structure. This paper reviews different applications in OMV Research and Development (R&D) and provides examples of OMV developed and evaluated at the Finlay Institute in Cuba. A Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) process was developed at the Finlay Institute to produce OMV from N. meningitidis serogroup B (dOMVB) using detergent extraction. Subsequently, OMV from N. meningitidis, serogroup A (dOMVA), serogroup W (dOMVW), and serogroup X (dOMVX) were obtained using this process. More recently, the extraction process has also been applied effectively for obtaining OMV on a research scale from Vibrio cholerae (dOMVC), Bordetella pertussis (dOMVBP), Mycobacterium smegmatis (dOMVSM), and BCG (dOMVBCG). The immunogenicity of the OMV has been evaluated for specific antibody induction, and together with functional bactericidal and challenge assays in mice has shown their protective potential. dOMVB has been evaluated with non-neisserial antigens, including with a herpes virus type 2 glycoprotein, ovalbumin, and allergens. In conclusion, OMV are proving to be more versatile than first conceived and remain an important technology for development of vaccine candidates. PMID:24715891

  2. Outer membrane vesicles as platform vaccine technology

    PubMed Central

    Stork, Michiel; van der Ley, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are released spontaneously during growth by many Gram‐negative bacteria. They present a range of surface antigens in a native conformation and have natural properties like immunogenicity, self‐adjuvation and uptake by immune cells which make them attractive for application as vaccines against pathogenic bacteria. In particular with Neisseria meningitidis, they have been investigated extensively and an OMV‐containing meningococcal vaccine has recently been approved by regulatory agencies. Genetic engineering of the OMV‐producing bacteria can be used to improve and expand their usefulness as vaccines. Recent work on meningitis B vaccines shows that OMVs can be modified, such as for lipopolysaccharide reactogenicity, to yield an OMV product that is safe and effective. The overexpression of crucial antigens or simultaneous expression of multiple antigenic variants as well as the expression of heterologous antigens enable expansion of their range of applications. In addition, modifications may increase the yield of OMV production and can be combined with specific production processes to obtain high amounts of well‐defined, stable and uniform OMV particle vaccine products. Further improvement can facilitate the development of OMVs as platform vaccine product for multiple applications. PMID:26912077

  3. Bax inserts into the mitochondrial outer membrane by different mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Cartron, Pierre-François; Bellot, Grégory; Oliver, Lisa; Grandier-Vazeille, Xavier; Manon, Stephen; Vallette, François M

    2008-09-01

    Bax insertion into the mitochondrial outer membrane is essential for the implementation of apoptosis. However, little is known about the first stage of Bax integration into the mitochondrial outer membrane. We have recently shown that TOM22, a mitochondrial outer membrane receptor, is important for insertion, although other reports have suggested that only mitochondrial lipids are involved in this process. Here, we show that monomers, but not dimers, of Bax require the presence of TOM22 and TOM40 to integrate into mitochondria. In addition we show that once inserted into the membrane, Bax can act as a receptor for cytosolic Bax. PMID:18687331

  4. Utilization of Nitrophenylphosphates and Oxime-Based Ligation for the Development of Nanomolar Affinity Inhibitors of the Yersinia pestis Outer Protein H (YopH) Phosphatase

    SciTech Connect

    Bahta, Medhanit; Lountos, George T.; Dyas, Beverly; Kim, Sung-Eun; Ulrich, Robert G.; Waugh, David S.; Burke, Jr., Terrence R.

    2012-08-10

    Our current study reports the first K{sub M} optimization of a library of nitrophenylphosphate-containing substrates for generating an inhibitor lead against the Yersinia pestis outer protein phosphatase (YopH). A high activity substrate identified by this method (K{sub M} = 80 {micro}M) was converted from a substrate into an inhibitor by replacement of its phosphate group with difluoromethylphosphonic acid and by attachment of an aminooxy handle for further structural optimization by oxime ligation. A cocrystal structure of this aminooxy-containing platform in complex with YopH allowed the identification of a conserved water molecule proximal to the aminooxy group that was subsequently employed for the design of furanyl-based oxime derivatives. By this process, a potent (IC{sub 50} = 190 nM) and nonpromiscuous inhibitor was developed with good YopH selectivity relative to a panel of phosphatases. The inhibitor showed significant inhibition of intracellular Y. pestis replication at a noncytotoxic concentration. The current work presents general approaches to PTP inhibitor development that may be useful beyond YopH.

  5. Proteomics of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans Outer Membrane Vesicles.

    PubMed

    Kieselbach, Thomas; Zijnge, Vincent; Granström, Elisabeth; Oscarsson, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is an oral and systemic pathogen associated with aggressive forms of periodontitis and with endocarditis. Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) released by this species have been demonstrated to deliver effector proteins such as cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) and leukotoxin (LtxA) into human host cells and to act as triggers of innate immunity upon carriage of NOD1- and NOD2-active pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). To improve our understanding of the pathogenicity-associated functions that A. actinomycetemcomitans exports via OMVs, we studied the proteome of density gradient-purified OMVs from a rough-colony type clinical isolate, strain 173 (serotype e) using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). This analysis yielded the identification of 151 proteins, which were found in at least three out of four independent experiments. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002509. Through this study, we not only confirmed the vesicle-associated release of LtxA, and the presence of proteins, which are known to act as immunoreactive antigens in the human host, but we also identified numerous additional putative virulence-related proteins in the A. actinomycetemcomitans OMV proteome. The known and putative functions of these proteins include immune evasion, drug targeting, and iron/nutrient acquisition. In summary, our findings are consistent with an OMV-associated proteome that exhibits several offensive and defensive functions, and they provide a comprehensive basis to further disclose roles of A. actinomycetemcomitans OMVs in periodontal and systemic disease. PMID:26381655

  6. Proteomics of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans Outer Membrane Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Kieselbach, Thomas; Zijnge, Vincent; Granström, Elisabeth; Oscarsson, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is an oral and systemic pathogen associated with aggressive forms of periodontitis and with endocarditis. Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) released by this species have been demonstrated to deliver effector proteins such as cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) and leukotoxin (LtxA) into human host cells and to act as triggers of innate immunity upon carriage of NOD1- and NOD2-active pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). To improve our understanding of the pathogenicity-associated functions that A. actinomycetemcomitans exports via OMVs, we studied the proteome of density gradient-purified OMVs from a rough-colony type clinical isolate, strain 173 (serotype e) using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). This analysis yielded the identification of 151 proteins, which were found in at least three out of four independent experiments. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002509. Through this study, we not only confirmed the vesicle-associated release of LtxA, and the presence of proteins, which are known to act as immunoreactive antigens in the human host, but we also identified numerous additional putative virulence-related proteins in the A. actinomycetemcomitans OMV proteome. The known and putative functions of these proteins include immune evasion, drug targeting, and iron/nutrient acquisition. In summary, our findings are consistent with an OMV-associated proteome that exhibits several offensive and defensive functions, and they provide a comprehensive basis to further disclose roles of A. actinomycetemcomitans OMVs in periodontal and systemic disease. PMID:26381655

  7. Comparative Proteome Analysis of Spontaneous Outer Membrane Vesicles and Purified Outer Membranes of Neisseria meningitidis

    PubMed Central

    Otto, Andreas; Becher, Dörte; Vogel, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) of Gram-negative bacteria receive increasing attention because of various biological functions and their use as vaccines. However, the mechanisms of OMV release and selective sorting of proteins into OMVs remain unclear. Comprehensive quantitative proteome comparisons between spontaneous OMVs (SOMVs) and the outer membrane (OM) have not been conducted so far. Here, we established a protocol for metabolic labeling of neisserial proteins with 15N. SOMV and OM proteins labeled with 15N were used as an internal standard for proteomic comparison of the SOMVs and OMs of two different strains. This labeling approach, coupled with high-sensitivity mass spectrometry, allowed us to comprehensively unravel the proteome of the SOMVs and OMs. We quantified the relative distribution of 155 proteins between SOMVs and the OM. Complement regulatory proteins, autotransporters, proteins involved in iron and zinc acquisition, and a two-partner secretion system were enriched in SOMVs. The highly abundant porins PorA and PorB and proteins connecting the OM with peptidoglycan or the inner membrane, such as RmpM, MtrE, and PilQ, were depleted in SOMVs. Furthermore, the three lytic transglycosylases MltA, MltB, and Slt were less abundant in SOMVs. In conclusion, SOMVs are likely to be released from surface areas with a low local abundance of membrane-anchoring proteins and lytic transglycosylases. The enrichment of complement regulatory proteins, autotransporters, and trace metal binding and transport proteins needs to be explored in the context of the pathogenesis of meningococcal disease. PMID:23893116

  8. Structural Aspects of Bacterial Outer Membrane Protein Assembly.

    PubMed

    Calmettes, Charles; Judd, Andrew; Moraes, Trevor F

    2015-01-01

    The outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria is predominantly populated by β-Barrel proteins and lipid anchored proteins that serve a variety of biological functions. The proper folding and assembly of these proteins is essential for bacterial viability and often plays a critical role in virulence and pathogenesis. The β-barrel assembly machinery (Bam) complex is responsible for the proper assembly of β-barrels into the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, whereas the localization of lipoproteins (Lol) system is required for proper targeting of lipoproteins to the outer membrane. PMID:26621472

  9. Decreasing Outer Hair Cell Membrane Cholesterol Increases Cochlear Electromechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brownell, William E.; Jacob, Stefan; Hakizimana, Pierre; Ulfendahl, Mats; Fridberger, Anders

    2011-11-01

    The effect of decreasing membrane cholesterol on the mechanical response of the cochlea to acoustic and/or electrical stimulation was monitored using laser interferometry. In contrast to pharmacological interventions that typically decrease cochlear electromechanics, reducing membrane cholesterol increased the response. The electromechanical response in untreated preparations was asymmetric with greater displacements in response to positive currents and cholesterol depletion increased the asymmetry. The results confirm that outer hair cell electromotility is enhanced by low membrane cholesterol. The asymmetry of the response indicates the outer hair cell resting membrane potential is hyperpolarized relative to the voltage of maximum gain for the outer hair cell voltage-displacement function. The magnitude of the response increase suggests a non-uniform distribution of cholesterol along the lateral wall of normal adult outer hair cells.

  10. Proteome analysis of mitochondrial outer membrane from Neurospora crassa

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitt, Simone; Prokisch, Holger; Schlunk, Tilman; Camp, David G.; Ahting, Uwe; Waizenegger, Thomas; Scharfe, Curt M.; Meitinger, Thomas; Imhof, Axel; Neupert, Walter; Oefner, Peter J.; Rapaport, Doron

    2006-01-01

    The mitochondrial outer membrane mediates numerous interactions between the metabolic and genetic systems of mitochondria and the rest of the eukaryotic cell. We performed a proteomic study to discover novel functions of components of the mitochondrial outer membrane. Proteins of highly pure outer membrane vesicles (OMV) from Neurospora crassa were identified by a combination of liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry of tryptic peptide digests and gel electrophoresis of solubilized OMV proteins, followed by their identification using MALDI-MS peptide fingerprinting. Among the 30 proteins found in at least three of four separate analyses were 23 proteins with known functions in the outer membrane. These included components of the import machinery (the TOM and TOB complexes), a pore-forming component (Porin), and proteins that control fusion and fission of the organelle. In addition, proteins playing a role in various biosynthetic pathways, whose intracellular location had not been established previously, could be localized to the mitochondrial outer membrane. Thus, the proteome of the outer membrane can help in identifying new mitochondria-related functions.

  11. Virulent strain associated outer membrane proteins of Borrelia burgdorferi.

    PubMed Central

    Skare, J T; Shang, E S; Foley, D M; Blanco, D R; Champion, C I; Mirzabekov, T; Sokolov, Y; Kagan, B L; Miller, J N; Lovett, M A

    1995-01-01

    We have isolated and purified outer membrane vesicles (OMV) from Borrelia burgdorferi strain B31 based on methods developed for isolation of Treponema pallidum OMV. Purified OMV exhibited distinct porin activities with conductances of 0.6 and 12.6 nano-Siemen and had no detectable beta-NADH oxidase activity indicating their outer membrane origin and their lack of inner membrane contamination, respectively. Hydrophobic proteins were identified by phase partitioning with Triton X-114. Most of these hydrophobic membrane proteins were not acylated, suggesting that they are outer membrane-spanning proteins. Identification of palmitate-labeled lipoproteins revealed that several were enriched in the OMV, several were enriched in the protoplasmic cylinder inner membrane fraction, and others were found exclusively associated with the inner membrane. The protein composition of OMV changed significantly with successive in vitro cultivation of strain B31. Using antiserum with specificity for virulent strain B31, we identified OMV antigens on the surface of the spirochete and identified proteins whose presence in OMV could be correlated with virulence and protective immunity in the rabbit Lyme disease model. These virulent strain associated outer membrane-spanning proteins may provide new insight into the pathogenesis of Lyme disease. Images PMID:7593626

  12. Simulations of outer membrane channels and their permeability.

    PubMed

    Pothula, Karunakar R; Solano, Carlos J F; Kleinekathöfer, Ulrich

    2016-07-01

    Channels in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria provide essential pathways for the controlled and unidirectional transport of ions, nutrients and metabolites into the cell. At the same time the outer membrane serves as a physical barrier for the penetration of noxious substances such as antibiotics into the bacteria. Most antibiotics have to pass through these membrane channels to either reach cytoplasmic bound targets or to further cross the hydrophobic inner membrane. Considering the pharmaceutical significance of antibiotics, understanding the functional role and mechanism of these channels is of fundamental importance in developing strategies to design new drugs with enhanced permeation abilities. Due to the biological complexity of membrane channels and experimental limitations, computer simulations have proven to be a powerful tool to investigate the structure, dynamics and interactions of membrane channels. Considerable progress has been made in computer simulations of membrane channels during the last decade. The goal of this review is to provide an overview of the computational techniques and their roles in modeling the transport across outer membrane channels. A special emphasis is put on all-atom molecular dynamics simulations employed to better understand the transport of molecules. Moreover, recent molecular simulations of ion, substrate and antibiotics translocation through membrane pores are briefly summarized. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Membrane Proteins edited by J.C. Gumbart and Sergei Noskov. PMID:26721326

  13. Substrate Specificity within a Family of Outer Membrane Carboxylate Channels

    SciTech Connect

    Eren, Elif; Vijayaraghavan, Jagamya; Liu, Jiaming; Cheneke, Belete R.; Touw, Debra S.; Lepore, Bryan W.; Indic, Mridhu; Movileanu, Liviu; van den Berg, Bert; Dutzler, Raimund

    2012-01-17

    Many Gram-negative bacteria, including human pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, do not have large-channel porins. This results in an outer membrane (OM) that is highly impermeable to small polar molecules, making the bacteria intrinsically resistant towards many antibiotics. In such microorganisms, the majority of small molecules are taken up by members of the OprD outer membrane protein family. Here we show that OprD channels require a carboxyl group in the substrate for efficient transport, and based on this we have renamed the family Occ, for outer membrane carboxylate channels. We further show that Occ channels can be divided into two subfamilies, based on their very different substrate specificities. Our results rationalize how certain bacteria can efficiently take up a variety of substrates under nutrient-poor conditions without compromising membrane permeability. In addition, they explain how channel inactivation in response to antibiotics can cause resistance but does not lead to decreased fitness.

  14. A Molecularly Complete Planar Bacterial Outer Membrane Platform.

    PubMed

    Hsia, Chih-Yun; Chen, Linxiao; Singh, Rohit R; DeLisa, Matthew P; Daniel, Susan

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial outer membrane (OM) is a barrier containing membrane proteins and liposaccharides that fulfill crucial functions for Gram-negative bacteria. With the advent of drug-resistant bacteria, it is necessary to understand the functional role of this membrane and its constituents to enable novel drug designs. Here we report a simple method to form an OM-like supported bilayer (OM-SB), which incorporates native lipids and membrane proteins of gram-negative bacteria from outer membrane vesicles (OMVs). We characterize the formation of OM-SBs using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) and fluorescence microscopy. We show that the orientation of proteins in the OM-SB matches the native bacterial membrane, preserving the characteristic asymmetry of these membranes. As a demonstration of the utility of the OM-SB platform, we quantitatively measure antibiotic interactions between OM-SBs and polymyxin B, a cationic peptide used to treat Gram-negative infections. This data enriches understanding of the antibacterial mechanism of polymyxin B, including disruption kinetics and changes in membrane mechanical properties. Combining OM-SBs with microfluidics will enable higher throughput screening of antibiotics. With a broader view, we envision that a molecularly complete membrane-scaffold could be useful for cell-free applications employing engineered membrane proteins in bacterial membranes for myriad technological purposes. PMID:27600663

  15. A Molecularly Complete Planar Bacterial Outer Membrane Platform

    PubMed Central

    Hsia, Chih-Yun; Chen, Linxiao; Singh, Rohit R.; DeLisa, Matthew P.; Daniel, Susan

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial outer membrane (OM) is a barrier containing membrane proteins and liposaccharides that fulfill crucial functions for Gram-negative bacteria. With the advent of drug-resistant bacteria, it is necessary to understand the functional role of this membrane and its constituents to enable novel drug designs. Here we report a simple method to form an OM-like supported bilayer (OM-SB), which incorporates native lipids and membrane proteins of gram-negative bacteria from outer membrane vesicles (OMVs). We characterize the formation of OM-SBs using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) and fluorescence microscopy. We show that the orientation of proteins in the OM-SB matches the native bacterial membrane, preserving the characteristic asymmetry of these membranes. As a demonstration of the utility of the OM-SB platform, we quantitatively measure antibiotic interactions between OM-SBs and polymyxin B, a cationic peptide used to treat Gram-negative infections. This data enriches understanding of the antibacterial mechanism of polymyxin B, including disruption kinetics and changes in membrane mechanical properties. Combining OM-SBs with microfluidics will enable higher throughput screening of antibiotics. With a broader view, we envision that a molecularly complete membrane-scaffold could be useful for cell-free applications employing engineered membrane proteins in bacterial membranes for myriad technological purposes. PMID:27600663

  16. Molecular Basis of Bacterial Outer Membrane Permeability Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Nikaido, Hiroshi

    2003-01-01

    Gram-negative bacteria characteristically are surrounded by an additional membrane layer, the outer membrane. Although outer membrane components often play important roles in the interaction of symbiotic or pathogenic bacteria with their host organisms, the major role of this membrane must usually be to serve as a permeability barrier to prevent the entry of noxious compounds and at the same time to allow the influx of nutrient molecules. This review summarizes the development in the field since our previous review (H. Nikaido and M. Vaara, Microbiol. Rev. 49:1-32, 1985) was published. With the discovery of protein channels, structural knowledge enables us to understand in molecular detail how porins, specific channels, TonB-linked receptors, and other proteins function. We are now beginning to see how the export of large proteins occurs across the outer membrane. With our knowledge of the lipopolysaccharide-phospholipid asymmetric bilayer of the outer membrane, we are finally beginning to understand how this bilayer can retard the entry of lipophilic compounds, owing to our increasing knowledge about the chemistry of lipopolysaccharide from diverse organisms and the way in which lipopolysaccharide structure is modified by environmental conditions. PMID:14665678

  17. Role of mitochondrial inner membrane organizing system in protein biogenesis of the mitochondrial outer membrane

    PubMed Central

    Bohnert, Maria; Wenz, Lena-Sophie; Zerbes, Ralf M.; Horvath, Susanne E.; Stroud, David A.; von der Malsburg, Karina; Müller, Judith M.; Oeljeklaus, Silke; Perschil, Inge; Warscheid, Bettina; Chacinska, Agnieszka; Veenhuis, Marten; van der Klei, Ida J.; Daum, Günther; Wiedemann, Nils; Becker, Thomas; Pfanner, Nikolaus; van der Laan, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondria contain two membranes, the outer membrane and the inner membrane with folded cristae. The mitochondrial inner membrane organizing system (MINOS) is a large protein complex required for maintaining inner membrane architecture. MINOS interacts with both preprotein transport machineries of the outer membrane, the translocase of the outer membrane (TOM) and the sorting and assembly machinery (SAM). It is unknown, however, whether MINOS plays a role in the biogenesis of outer membrane proteins. We have dissected the interaction of MINOS with TOM and SAM and report that MINOS binds to both translocases independently. MINOS binds to the SAM complex via the conserved polypeptide transport–associated domain of Sam50. Mitochondria lacking mitofilin, the large core subunit of MINOS, are impaired in the biogenesis of β-barrel proteins of the outer membrane, whereas mutant mitochondria lacking any of the other five MINOS subunits import β-barrel proteins in a manner similar to wild-type mitochondria. We show that mitofilin is required at an early stage of β-barrel biogenesis that includes the initial translocation through the TOM complex. We conclude that MINOS interacts with TOM and SAM independently and that the core subunit mitofilin is involved in biogenesis of outer membrane β-barrel proteins. PMID:22918945

  18. Structural biology of membrane-intrinsic β-barrel enzymes: Sentinels of the bacterial outer membrane

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Russell E.

    2016-01-01

    The outer membranes of Gram-negative bacteria are replete with integral membrane proteins that exhibit antiparallel β-barrel structures, but very few of these proteins function as enzymes. In Escherichia coli, only three β-barrel enzymes are known to exist in the outer membrane; these are the phospholipase OMPLA, the protease OmpT, and the phospholipid::lipid A palmitoyltransferase PagP, all of which have been characterized at the structural level. Structural details have also emerged for the outer membrane β-barrel enzyme PagL, a lipid A 3-O-deacylase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Lipid A can be further modified in the outer membrane by two β-barrel enzymes of unknown structure; namely, the Salmonella enterica 3′-acyloxyacyl hydrolase LpxR, and the Rhizobium leguminosarum oxidase LpxQ, which employs O2 to convert the proximal glucosamine unit of lipid A into 2-aminogluconate. Structural biology now indicates how β-barrel enzymes can function as sentinels that remain dormant when the outer membrane permeability barrier is intact. Host immune defenses and antibiotics that perturb this barrier can directly trigger β-barrel enzymes in the outer membrane. The ensuing adaptive responses occur instantaneously and rapidly outpace other signal transduction mechanisms that similarly function to restore the outer membrane permeability barrier. PMID:17880914

  19. Identification of outer membrane proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Song, Houhui; Sandie, Reatha; Wang, Ying; Andrade-Navarro, Miguel A; Niederweis, Michael

    2008-11-01

    The cell wall of mycobacteria includes an unusual outer membrane of extremely low permeability. While Escherichia coli uses more than 60 proteins to functionalize its outer membrane, only two mycobacterial outer membrane proteins (OMPs) are known. The porin MspA of Mycobacterium smegmatis provided the proof of principle that integral mycobacterial OMPs share the beta-barrel structure, the absence of hydrophobic alpha-helices and the presence of a signal peptide with OMPs of gram-negative bacteria. These properties were exploited in a multi-step bioinformatic approach to predict OMPs of M. tuberculosis. A secondary structure analysis was performed for 587 proteins of M. tuberculosis predicted to be exported. Scores were calculated for the beta-strand content and the amphiphilicity of the beta-strands. Reference OMPs of gram-negative bacteria defined threshold values for these parameters that were met by 144 proteins of unknown function of M. tuberculosis. Two of them were verified as OMPs by a novel two-step experimental approach. Rv1698 and Rv1973 were detected only in the total membrane fraction of M. bovis BCG in Western blot experiments, while proteinase K digestion of whole cells showed the surface accessibility of these proteins. These findings established that Rv1698 and Rv1973 are indeed localized in the outer membrane and tripled the number of known OMPs of M. tuberculosis. Significantly, these results provide evidence for the usefulness of the bioinformatic approach to predict mycobacterial OMPs and indicate that M. tuberculosis likely has many OMPs with beta-barrel structure. Our findings pave the way to identify the set of proteins which functionalize the outer membrane of M. tuberculosis. PMID:18439872

  20. Investigating the ?Trojan Horse? Mechanism of Yersinia pestis Virulence

    SciTech Connect

    McCutchen-Maloney, S L; Fitch, J P

    2005-02-08

    Yersinia pestis, the etiological agent of plague, is a Gram-negative, highly communicable, enteric bacterium that has been responsible for three historic plague pandemics. Currently, several thousand cases of plague are reported worldwide annually, and Y. pestis remains a considerable threat from a biodefense perspective. Y. pestis infection can manifest in three forms: bubonic, septicemic, and pneumonic plague. Of these three forms, pneumonic plague has the highest fatality rate ({approx}100% if left untreated), the shortest intervention time ({approx}24 hours), and is highly contagious. Currently, there are no rapid, widely available vaccines for plague and though plague may be treated with antibiotics, the emergence of both naturally occurring and potentially engineered antibiotic resistant strains makes the search for more effective therapies and vaccines for plague of pressing concern. The virulence mechanism of this deadly bacterium involves induction of a Type III secretion system, a syringe-like apparatus that facilitates the injection of virulence factors, termed Yersinia outer membrane proteins (Yops), into the host cell. These virulence factors inhibit phagocytosis and cytokine secretion, and trigger apoptosis of the host cell. Y. pestis virulence factors and the Type III secretion system are induced thermally, when the bacterium enters the mammalian host from the flea vector, and through host cell contact (or conditions of low Ca{sup 2+} in vitro). Apart from the temperature increase from 26 C to 37 C and host cell contact (or low Ca{sup 2+} conditions), other molecular mechanisms that influence virulence induction in Y. pestis are largely uncharacterized. This project focused on characterizing two novel mechanisms that regulate virulence factor induction in Y. pestis, immunoglobulin G (IgG) binding and quorum sensing, using a real-time reporter system to monitor induction of virulence. Incorporating a better understanding of the mechanisms of virulence

  1. Regulation and expression of Lcr plasmid-mediated peptides in pesticinogenic Yersinia pestis

    SciTech Connect

    Sample, A.K.

    1987-01-01

    It is shown in this thesis that cells of Lcr/sup +/, Pst/sup -/ Y. pestis KIM are able to express Yops at levels comparable to that of Lcr/sup +/ Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Pulse-chase radiolabeling with /sup 35/S-methionine was used to demonstrate that Lcr/sup +/, Pst/sup +/ Y. pestis synthesized at least 11 distinct peptides during the low calcium response and that seven of the labeled peptides were rapidly degraded. These seven peptides were stably expressed in Lcr/sup +/, Pst/sup -/ Y. pestis and were of identical molecular weights as the Yops expressed by that strain. Radiolabeled fragments of low molecular weight accumulated in the extracellular medium of Pst/sup +/ cultures and were assumed to be stable degradation fragments derived from Yops. It was also shown that the set of stable peptides, including V antigen, were made during restriction by both Pst/sup +/ and Pst/sup -/ Y. pestis KIM and were located primarily within the cytoplasm. Those radiolabeled peptides which underwent proteolytic degradation in Pst/sup +/ Y. pestis were localized to the outer membrane and extracellular medium in the Pst/sup -/ strain. It is concluded that the failure of Lcr/sup +/, Pst/sup +/ Y. pestis to express Yops is the result of post-translational degradation and is not a block in the synthesis of Yops.

  2. Disulfide-bonded outer membrane proteins in the genus Legionella.

    PubMed Central

    Butler, C A; Street, E D; Hatch, T P; Hoffman, P S

    1985-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila and related species were examined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis for outer membrane proteins. Of the 10 species examined, 9 contained a 24-kilodalton (kDa) major outer membrane protein (MOMP) that was resolvable only when outer membrane material was heated in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol. Labeling studies with [35S]cysteine indicated that the protein contained cysteine, and disulfide cross-linking of the unreduced complex was demonstrated by labeling with iodoacetamide. The unreduced outer membrane preparation contained peptidoglycan, and after treatment with lysozyme to remove peptidoglycan, a protein complex of 95 kDa was observed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the absence of 2-mercaptoethanol. Reduction of the 95-kDa complex yielded 24-kDa monomers, suggesting that the 95-kDa complex was composed of four subunits. The 24-kDa MOMP from L. pneumophila was purified, and antibody produced to this protein cross-reacted with all species of Legionella as determined from an immunoblot of a sodium dodecyl sulfate gel. Only serogroup 1 strains of L. bozemanii lacked the 24-kDa MOMP and showed no cross-reactivity. These results suggest that the 24-kDa MOMP common to most species of Legionella contains a genus-specific epitope. Images PMID:3980079

  3. Topology of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I in the mitochondrial outer membrane.

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, F; Corstorphine, C G; Zammit, V A

    1997-01-01

    The topology of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT I) in the outer membrane of rat liver mitochondria was studied using several approaches. 1. The accessibility of the active site and malonyl-CoA-binding site of the enzyme from the cytosolic aspect of the membrane was investigated using preparations of octanoyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA immobilized on to agarose beads to render them impermeant through the outer membrane. Both immobilized ligands were fully able to interact effectively with CPT I. 2. The effects of proteinase K and trypsin on the activity and malonyl-CoA sensitivity of CPT I were studied using preparations of mitochondria that were either intact or had their outer membranes ruptured by hypo-osmotic swelling (OMRM). Proteinase K had a marked but similar effect on CPT I activity irrespective of whether only the cytosolic or both sides of the membrane were exposed to it. However, it affected sensitivity more rapidly in OMRM. By contrast, trypsin only reduced CPT I activity when incubated with OMRM. The sensitivity of the residual CPT I activity was unaffected by trypsin. 3. The proteolytic fragments generated by these treatments were studied by Western blotting using three anti-peptide antibodies raised against linear epitopes of CPT I. These showed that a proteinase K-sensitive site close to the N-terminus was accessible from the cytosolic side of the membrane. No trypsin-sensitive sites were accessible in intact mitochondria. In OMRM, both proteinase K and trypsin acted from the inter-membrane space side of the membrane. 4. The ability of intact mitochondria and OMRM to bind to each of the three anti-peptide antibodies was used to study the accessibility of the respective epitopes on the cytosolic and inter-membrane space sides of the membrane. 5. The results of all these approaches indicate that CPT I adopts a bitopic topology within the mitochondrial outer membrane; it has two transmembrane domains, and both the N- and C-termini are exposed on the

  4. Contribution of bacterial outer membrane vesicles to innate bacterial defense

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are constitutively produced by Gram-negative bacteria throughout growth and have proposed roles in virulence, inflammation, and the response to envelope stress. Here we investigate outer membrane vesiculation as a bacterial mechanism for immediate short-term protection against outer membrane acting stressors. Antimicrobial peptides as well as bacteriophage were used to examine the effectiveness of OMV protection. Results We found that a hyper-vesiculating mutant of Escherichia coli survived treatment by antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) polymyxin B and colistin better than the wild-type. Supplementation of E. coli cultures with purified outer membrane vesicles provided substantial protection against AMPs, and AMPs significantly induced vesiculation. Vesicle-mediated protection and induction of vesiculation were also observed for a human pathogen, enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), challenged with polymyxin B. When ETEC with was incubated with low concentrations of vesicles concomitant with polymyxin B treatment, bacterial survival increased immediately, and the culture gained resistance to polymyxin B. By contrast, high levels of vesicles also provided immediate protection but prevented acquisition of resistance. Co-incubation of T4 bacteriophage and OMVs showed fast, irreversible binding. The efficiency of T4 infection was significantly reduced by the formation of complexes with the OMVs. Conclusions These data reveal a role for OMVs in contributing to innate bacterial defense by adsorption of antimicrobial peptides and bacteriophage. Given the increase in vesiculation in response to the antimicrobial peptides, and loss in efficiency of infection with the T4-OMV complex, we conclude that OMV production may be an important factor in neutralizing environmental agents that target the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:22133164

  5. LPS Remodeling Triggers Formation of Outer Membrane Vesicles in Salmonella

    PubMed Central

    Elhenawy, Wael; Bording-Jorgensen, Michael; Valguarnera, Ezequiel; Haurat, M. Florencia; Wine, Eytan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Outer membrane vesicles (OMV) are proposed to mediate multiple functions during pathogenesis and symbiosis. However, the mechanisms responsible for OMV formation remain poorly understood. It has been shown in eukaryotic membranes that lipids with an inverted-cone shape favor the formation of positive membrane curvatures. Based on these studies, we formulated the hypothesis that lipid A deacylation might impose shape modifications that result in the curvature of the outer membrane (OM) and subsequent OMV formation. We tested the effect of lipid A remodeling on OMV biogenesis employing Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium as a model organism. Expression of the lipid A deacylase PagL resulted in increased vesiculation, without inducing an envelope stress response. Mass spectrometry analysis revealed profound differences in the patterns of lipid A in OM and OMV, with accumulation of deacylated lipid A forms exclusively in OMV. OMV biogenesis by intracellular bacteria upon macrophage infection was drastically reduced in a pagL mutant strain. We propose a novel mechanism for OMV biogenesis requiring lipid A deacylation in the context of a multifactorial process that involves the orchestrated remodeling of the outer membrane. PMID:27406567

  6. Mitochondrial outer-membrane permeabilization and remodelling in apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Jourdain, Alexis; Martinou, Jean-Claude

    2009-10-01

    Many human pathologies are associated with defects in mitochondria such as diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases or cancer. This tiny organelle is involved in a plethora of processes in mammalian cells, including energy production, lipid metabolism and cell death. In the so-called intrinsic apoptotic pathway, the outer mitochondrial membrane (MOM) is premeabilized by the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 members Bax and Bak, allowing the release of apoptogenic factors such as cytochrome c from the inter-membrane space into the cytosol. At the same time, mitochondria fragment in response to Drp-1 activation suggesting that mitochondrial fission could play a role in mitochondrial outer-membrane permeabilization (MOMP). In this review, we will discuss the link that could exist between mitochondrial fission and fusion machinery, Bcl-2 family members and MOMP. PMID:19439192

  7. Composition and Localization of Treponema denticola Outer Membrane Complexes ▿

    PubMed Central

    Godovikova, Valentina; Goetting-Minesky, M. Paula; Fenno, J. Christopher

    2011-01-01

    The Treponema denticola outer membrane lipoprotein-protease complex (dentilisin) contributes to periodontal disease by degrading extracellular matrix components and disrupting intercellular host signaling pathways. We recently demonstrated that prcB, located upstream of and cotranscribed with prcA and prtP, encodes a 22-kDa lipoprotein that interacts with PrtP and is required for its activity. Here we further characterize products of the protease locus and their roles in expression, formation, and localization of outer membrane complexes. PrcB migrates in native gels as part of a >400-kDa complex that includes PrtP and PrcA, as well as the major outer sheath protein Msp. PrcB is detectable as a minor constituent of the purified active protease complex, which was previously reported to consist of only PrtP and auxiliary polypeptides PrcA1 and PrcA2. Though it lacks the canonical ribosome binding site present upstream of both prcA and prtP, PrcB is present at levels similar to those of PrtP in whole-cell extracts. Immunofluorescence microscopy demonstrated cell surface exposure of the mature forms of PrtP, PrcA1, PrcB, and Msp. The 16-kDa N-terminal acylated fragment of PrtP (predicted to be released during activation of PrtP) was present in cell extracts but was detected neither in the purified active protease complex nor on the cell surface. PrcA2, detectable on the surface of Msp-deficient cells but not that of wild-type cells, coimmunoprecipitated with Msp. Our results indicate that PrcB is a component of the outer membrane lipoprotein protease complex and that Msp and PrcA2 interaction may mediate formation of a very-high-molecular-weight outer membrane complex. PMID:21986628

  8. DNA Inversion Regulates Outer Membrane Vesicle Production in Bacteroides fragilis

    PubMed Central

    Nakayama-Imaohji, Haruyuki; Hirota, Katsuhiko; Yamasaki, Hisashi; Yoneda, Saori; Nariya, Hirofumi; Suzuki, Motoo; Secher, Thomas; Miyake, Yoichiro; Oswald, Eric; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Kuwahara, Tomomi

    2016-01-01

    Phase changes in Bacteroides fragilis, a member of the human colonic microbiota, mediate variations in a vast array of cell surface molecules, such as capsular polysaccharides and outer membrane proteins through DNA inversion. The results of the present study show that outer membrane vesicle (OMV) formation in this anaerobe is also controlled by DNA inversions at two distantly localized promoters, IVp-I and IVp-II that are associated with extracellular polysaccharide biosynthesis and the expression of outer membrane proteins. These promoter inversions are mediated by a single tyrosine recombinase encoded by BF2766 (orthologous to tsr19 in strain NCTC9343) in B. fragilis YCH46, which is located near IVp-I. A series of BF2766 mutants were constructed in which the two promoters were locked in different configurations (IVp-I/IVp-II = ON/ON, OFF/OFF, ON/OFF or OFF/ON). ON/ON B. fragilis mutants exhibited hypervesiculating, whereas the other mutants formed only a trace amount of OMVs. The hypervesiculating ON/ON mutants showed higher resistance to treatment with bile, LL-37, and human β-defensin 2. Incubation of wild-type cells with 5% bile increased the population of cells with the ON/ON genotype. These results indicate that B. fragilis regulates the formation of OMVs through DNA inversions at two distantly related promoter regions in response to membrane stress, although the mechanism underlying the interplay between the two regions controlled by the invertible promoters remains unknown. PMID:26859882

  9. Structural Basis for Alginate Secretion Across the Bacterial Outer Membrane

    SciTech Connect

    J Whitney; I Hay; C Li; P Eckford; H Robinson; M Amaya; L Wood; D Ohman; C Bear; et al.

    2011-12-31

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the predominant pathogen associated with chronic lung infection among cystic fibrosis patients. During colonization of the lung, P. aeruginosa converts to a mucoid phenotype characterized by the overproduction of the exopolysaccharide alginate. Secretion of newly synthesized alginate across the outer membrane is believed to occur through the outer membrane protein AlgE. Here we report the 2.3 {angstrom} crystal structure of AlgE, which reveals a monomeric 18-stranded {beta}-barrel characterized by a highly electropositive pore constriction formed by an arginine-rich conduit that likely acts as a selectivity filter for the negatively charged alginate polymer. Interestingly, the pore constriction is occluded on either side by extracellular loop L2 and an unusually long periplasmic loop, T8. In halide efflux assays, deletion of loop T8 ({Delta}T8-AlgE) resulted in a threefold increase in anion flux compared to the wild-type or {Delta}L2-AlgE supporting the idea that AlgE forms a transport pathway through the membrane and suggesting that transport is regulated by T8. This model is further supported by in vivo experiments showing that complementation of an algE deletion mutant with {Delta}T8-AlgE impairs alginate production. Taken together, these studies support a mechanism for exopolysaccharide export across the outer membrane that is distinct from the Wza-mediated translocation observed in canonical capsular polysaccharide export systems.

  10. Structural basis for alginate secretion across the bacterial outer membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Whitney, J.C.; Robinson, H.; Hay, I. D.; Li, C.; Eckford, P. D. W.; Amaya, M. F.; Wood, L. F.; Ohman, D. E.; Bear, C. E.; Rehm, B. H.; Howell, P. L.

    2011-08-09

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the predominant pathogen associated with chronic lung infection among cystic fibrosis patients. During colonization of the lung, P. aeruginosa converts to a mucoid phenotype characterized by the overproduction of the exopolysaccharide alginate. Secretion of newly synthesized alginate across the outer membrane is believed to occur through the outer membrane protein AlgE. Here we report the 2.3 {angstrom} crystal structure of AlgE, which reveals a monomeric 18-stranded {beta}-barrel characterized by a highly electropositive pore constriction formed by an arginine-rich conduit that likely acts as a selectivity filter for the negatively charged alginate polymer. Interestingly, the pore constriction is occluded on either side by extracellular loop L2 and an unusually long periplasmic loop, T8. In halide efflux assays, deletion of loop T8 ({Delta}T8-AlgE) resulted in a threefold increase in anion flux compared to the wild-type or {Delta}L2-AlgE supporting the idea that AlgE forms a transport pathway through the membrane and suggesting that transport is regulated by T8. This model is further supported by in vivo experiments showing that complementation of an algE deletion mutant with {Delta}T8-AlgE impairs alginate production. Taken together, these studies support a mechanism for exopolysaccharide export across the outer membrane that is distinct from the Wza-mediated translocation observed in canonical capsular polysaccharide export systems.

  11. Characterization of an outer membrane mannanase from Bacteroides ovatus.

    PubMed Central

    Gherardini, F C; Salyers, A A

    1987-01-01

    Bacteroides ovatus utilizes guar gum, a high-molecular-weight branched galactomannanan, as a sole source of carbohydrate. No extracellular activity was detectable. Approximately 30% of the total cell-associated mannanase activity partitioned with cell membranes. When inner and outer membranes of B. ovatus were separated on sucrose gradients, the mannanase activity was associated mainly with fractions containing outer membranes. Enzyme activity was solubilized by 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate (CHAPS) or by Triton X-100 at a detergent-to-protein ratio of 1:1. The enzyme was stable for only 4 h at 37 degrees C and for 50 to 60 h at 4 degrees C. Analysis of the products of the CHAPS-solubilized mannanase on Bio-Gel A-5M and Bio-Gel P-10 gel filtration columns indicated that the enzyme breaks guar gum into high-molecular-weight fragments. The CHAPS-solubilized mannanase was partially purified by chromatography on a FPLC Mono Q column. The partially purified mannanase preparation contained three major polypeptides (Mr 94,500, 61,000, and 43,000) and several minor ones. High mannanase activity was seen only when B. ovatus was grown on guar gum. Cross-absorbed antiserum detected two other guar gum-associated outer membrane proteins: a CHAPS-extractable 49,000-dalton polypeptide and a 120,000-dalton polypeptide that was not solubilized by CHAPS. Neither of these polypeptides was detectable in the partially purified mannanase preparation. These results indicate that there are at least two guar gum-associated outer membrane polypeptides other than the mannanase. Images PMID:3553153

  12. Protective role of E. coli outer membrane vesicles against antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Heramb M; Nagaraj, R; Jagannadham, Medicharla V

    2015-12-01

    The outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) from bacteria are known to posses both defensive and protective functions and thus participate in community related functions. In the present study, outer membrane vesicles have been shown to protect the producer bacterium and two other bacterial species from the growth inhibitory effects of some antibiotics. The OMVs isolated from E. coli MG1655 protected the bacteria against membrane-active antibiotics colistin, melittin. The OMVs of E. coli MG1655 could also protect P. aeruginosa NCTC6751 and A. radiodioresistens MMC5 against these membrane-active antibiotics. However, OMVs could not protect any of these bacteria against the other antibiotics ciprofloxacin, streptomycin and trimethoprim. Hence, OMVs appears to protect the bacterial community against membrane-active antibiotics and not other antibiotics, which have different mechanism of actions. The OMVs of E. coli MG1655 sequester the antibiotic colistin, whereas their protein components degrade the antimicrobial peptide melittin. Proteomic analysis of OMVs revealed the presence of proteases and peptidases which appear to be involved in this process. Thus, the protection of bacteria by OMVs against antibiotics is situation dependent and the mechanism differs for different situations. These studies suggest that OMVs of bacteria form a common defense for the bacterial community against specific antibiotics. PMID:26640046

  13. Immunogenicity of Pasteurella multocida and Mannheimia haemolytica outer membrane vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Roier, Sandro; Fenninger, Judith C.; Leitner, Deborah R.; Rechberger, Gerald N.; Reidl, Joachim; Schild, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida is able to cause disease in humans and in a wide range of animal hosts, including fowl cholera in birds, atrophic rhinitis in pigs, and snuffles in rabbits. Together with Mannheimia haemolytica, P. multocida also represents a major bacterial causative agent of bovine respiratory disease (BRD), which is one of the most important causes for economic losses for the cattle backgrounding and feedlot industry. Commercially available vaccines only partially prevent infections caused by P. multocida and M. haemolytica. Thus, this study characterized the immunogenicity of P. multocida and M. haemolytica outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) upon intranasal immunization of BALB/c mice. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) revealed that OMVs derived from P. multocida or M. haemolytica are able to induce robust humoral and mucosal immune responses against the respective donor strain. In addition, also significant cross-immunogenic potential was observed for both OMV types. Colonization studies showed that a potential protective immune response against P. multocida is not only achieved by immunization with P. multocida OMVs, but also by immunization with OMVs derived from M. haemolytica. Immunoblot and immunoprecipitation analyses demonstrated that M. haemolytica OMVs induce a more complex immune response compared to P. multocida OMVs. The outer membrane proteins OmpA, OmpH, and P6 were identified as the three major immunogenic proteins of P. multocida OMVs. Amongst others, the serotype 1-specific antigen, an uncharacterized outer membrane protein, as well as the outer membrane proteins P2 and OmpA were found to be the most important antigens of M. haemolytica OMVs. These findings are useful for the future development of broad-spectrum OMV based vaccines against BRD and other infections caused by P. multocida or M. haemolytica. PMID:23731905

  14. TMBETA-NET: discrimination and prediction of membrane spanning beta-strands in outer membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Gromiha, M Michael; Ahmad, Shandar; Suwa, Makiko

    2005-07-01

    We have developed a web-server, TMBETA-NET for discriminating outer membrane proteins and predicting their membrane spanning beta-strand segments. The amino acid compositions of globular and outer membrane proteins have been systematically analyzed and a statistical method has been proposed for discriminating outer membrane proteins. The prediction of membrane spanning segments is mainly based on feed forward neural network and refined with beta-strand length. Our program takes the amino acid sequence as input and displays the type of the protein along with membrane-spanning beta-strand segments as a stretch of highlighted amino acid residues. Further, the probability of residues to be in transmembrane beta-strand has been provided with a coloring scheme. We observed that outer membrane proteins were discriminated with an accuracy of 89% and their membrane spanning beta-strand segments at an accuracy of 73% just from amino acid sequence information. The prediction server is available at http://psfs.cbrc.jp/tmbeta-net/. PMID:15980447

  15. Gibbs motif sampling: detection of bacterial outer membrane protein repeats.

    PubMed Central

    Neuwald, A. F.; Liu, J. S.; Lawrence, C. E.

    1995-01-01

    The detection and alignment of locally conserved regions (motifs) in multiple sequences can provide insight into protein structure, function, and evolution. A new Gibbs sampling algorithm is described that detects motif-encoding regions in sequences and optimally partitions them into distinct motif models; this is illustrated using a set of immunoglobulin fold proteins. When applied to sequences sharing a single motif, the sampler can be used to classify motif regions into related submodels, as is illustrated using helix-turn-helix DNA-binding proteins. Other statistically based procedures are described for searching a database for sequences matching motifs found by the sampler. When applied to a set of 32 very distantly related bacterial integral outer membrane proteins, the sampler revealed that they share a subtle, repetitive motif. Although BLAST (Altschul SF et al., 1990, J Mol Biol 215:403-410) fails to detect significant pairwise similarity between any of the sequences, the repeats present in these outer membrane proteins, taken as a whole, are highly significant (based on a generally applicable statistical test for motifs described here). Analysis of bacterial porins with known trimeric beta-barrel structure and related proteins reveals a similar repetitive motif corresponding to alternating membrane-spanning beta-strands. These beta-strands occur on the membrane interface (as opposed to the trimeric interface) of the beta-barrel. The broad conservation and structural location of these repeats suggests that they play important functional roles. PMID:8520488

  16. Ligand-gated Diffusion Across the Bacterial Outer Membrane

    SciTech Connect

    B Lepore; M Indic; H Pham; E Hearn; D Patel; B van den Berg

    2011-12-31

    Ligand-gated channels, in which a substrate transport pathway is formed as a result of the binding of a small-molecule chemical messenger, constitute a diverse class of membrane proteins with important functions in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. Despite their widespread nature, no ligand-gated channels have yet been found within the outer membrane (OM) of Gram-negative bacteria. Here we show, using in vivo transport assays, intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence and X-ray crystallography, that high-affinity (submicromolar) substrate binding to the OM long-chain fatty acid transporter FadL from Escherichia coli causes conformational changes in the N terminus that open up a channel for substrate diffusion. The OM long-chain fatty acid transporter FadL from E. coli is a unique paradigm for OM diffusion-driven transport, in which ligand gating within a {beta}-barrel membrane protein is a prerequisite for channel formation.

  17. Structural Insights into Ail-Mediated Adhesion in Yersinia pestis

    SciTech Connect

    Yamashita, Satoshi; Lukacik, Petra; Barnard, Travis J.; Noinaj, Nicholas; Felek, Suleyman; Tsang, Tiffany M.; Krukonis, Eric S.; Hinnebusch, B. Joseph; Buchanan, Susan K.

    2012-01-30

    Ail is an outer membrane protein from Yersinia pestis that is highly expressed in a rodent model of bubonic plague, making it a good candidate for vaccine development. Ail is important for attaching to host cells and evading host immune responses, facilitating rapid progression of a plague infection. Binding to host cells is important for injection of cytotoxic Yersinia outer proteins. To learn more about how Ail mediates adhesion, we solved two high-resolution crystal structures of Ail, with no ligand bound and in complex with a heparin analog called sucrose octasulfate. We identified multiple adhesion targets, including laminin and heparin, and showed that a 40 kDa domain of laminin called LG4-5 specifically binds to Ail. We also evaluated the contribution of laminin to delivery of Yops to HEp-2 cells. This work constitutes a structural description of how a bacterial outer membrane protein uses a multivalent approach to bind host cells.

  18. Detection of outer membrane vesicles in Synechocystis PCC 6803.

    PubMed

    Pardo, Yehudah A; Florez, Catalina; Baker, Kristopher M; Schertzer, Jeffrey W; Mahler, Gretchen J

    2015-10-01

    It has been well established that many species of Gram-negative bacteria release nanoscale outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) during normal growth. Furthermore, the roles of these structures in heterotrophic bacteria have been extensively characterized. However, little is known about the existence or function of OMVs in photoautotrophs. In the present study, we report for the first time the production of OMVs by the model photosynthetic organism Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, a species of biotechnological importance. We detected extracellular proteins and lipids in cell-free supernatants derived from Synechocystis culture, yet the cytoplasmic and thylakoid membrane markers NADH oxidase and chlorophyll were absent. This indicated that the extracellular proteins and lipids derived from the outer membrane, and not from cell lysis. Furthermore, we identified spherical structures within the expected size range of OMVs in Synechocystis culture using scanning electron microscopy. Taken together, these results suggest that the repertoire of Gram-negative bacteria that are known to produce OMVs may be expanded to include Synechocystis PCC6803. Because of the considerable genetic characterization of Synechocystis in particular, our discovery has the potential to support novel biotechnological applications as well. PMID:26363014

  19. Bacterial Outer Membrane Vesicles Induce Plant Immune Responses.

    PubMed

    Bahar, Ofir; Mordukhovich, Gideon; Luu, Dee Dee; Schwessinger, Benjamin; Daudi, Arsalan; Jehle, Anna Kristina; Felix, Georg; Ronald, Pamela C

    2016-05-01

    Gram-negative bacteria continuously pinch off portions of their outer membrane, releasing membrane vesicles. These outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are involved in multiple processes including cell-to-cell communication, biofilm formation, stress tolerance, horizontal gene transfer, and virulence. OMVs are also known modulators of the mammalian immune response. Despite the well-documented role of OMVs in mammalian-bacterial communication, their interaction with plants is not well studied. To examine whether OMVs of plant pathogens modulate the plant immune response, we purified OMVs from four different plant pathogens and used them to treat Arabidopsis thaliana. OMVs rapidly induced a reactive oxygen species burst, medium alkalinization, and defense gene expression in A. thaliana leaf discs, cell cultures, and seedlings, respectively. Western blot analysis revealed that EF-Tu is present in OMVs and that it serves as an elicitor of the plant immune response in this form. Our results further show that the immune coreceptors BAK1 and SOBIR1 mediate OMV perception and response. Taken together, our results demonstrate that plants can detect and respond to OMV-associated molecules by activation of their immune system, revealing a new facet of plant-bacterial interactions. PMID:26926999

  20. Protein secretion and outer membrane assembly in Alphaproteobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Gatsos, Xenia; Perry, Andrew J; Anwari, Khatira; Dolezal, Pavel; Wolynec, P Peter; Likić, Vladimir A; Purcell, Anthony W; Buchanan, Susan K; Lithgow, Trevor

    2008-01-01

    The assembly of β-barrel proteins into membranes is a fundamental process that is essential in Gram-negative bacteria, mitochondria and plastids. Our understanding of the mechanism of β-barrel assembly is progressing from studies carried out in Escherichia coli and Neisseria meningitidis. Comparative sequence analysis suggests that while many components mediating β-barrel protein assembly are conserved in all groups of bacteria with outer membranes, some components are notably absent. The Alphaproteobacteria in particular seem prone to gene loss and show the presence or absence of specific components mediating the assembly of β-barrels: some components of the pathway appear to be missing from whole groups of bacteria (e.g. Skp, YfgL and NlpB), other proteins are conserved but are missing characteristic domains (e.g. SurA). This comparative analysis is also revealing important structural signatures that are vague unless multiple members from a protein family are considered as a group (e.g. tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) motifs in YfiO, β-propeller signatures in YfgL). Given that the process of the β-barrel assembly is conserved, analysis of outer membrane biogenesis in Alphaproteobacteria, the bacterial group that gave rise to mitochondria, also promises insight into the assembly of β-barrel proteins in eukaryotes. PMID:18759741

  1. Lipids assist the membrane insertion of a BAM-independent outer membrane protein

    PubMed Central

    Huysmans, Gerard H. M.; Guilvout, Ingrid; Chami, Mohamed; Nickerson, Nicholas N.; Pugsley, Anthony P.

    2015-01-01

    Like several other large, multimeric bacterial outer membrane proteins (OMPs), the assembly of the Klebsiella oxytoca OMP PulD does not rely on the universally conserved β-barrel assembly machinery (BAM) that catalyses outer membrane insertion. The only other factor known to interact with PulD prior to or during outer membrane targeting and assembly is the cognate chaperone PulS. Here, in vitro translation-transcription coupled PulD folding demonstrated that PulS does not act during the membrane insertion of PulD, and engineered in vivo site-specific cross-linking between PulD and PulS showed that PulS binding does not prevent membrane insertion. In vitro folding kinetics revealed that PulD is atypical compared to BAM-dependent OMPs by inserting more rapidly into membranes containing E. coli phospholipids than into membranes containing lecithin. PulD folding was fast in diC14:0-phosphatidylethanolamine liposomes but not diC14:0-phosphatidylglycerol liposomes, and in diC18:1-phosphatidylcholine liposomes but not in diC14:1-phosphatidylcholine liposomes. These results suggest that PulD efficiently exploits the membrane composition to complete final steps in insertion and explain how PulD can assemble independently of any protein-assembly machinery. Lipid-assisted assembly in this manner might apply to other large OMPs whose assembly is BAM-independent. PMID:26463896

  2. Characterization and Immunogenicity of Outer Membrane Vesicles from Brucella abortus.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Gagandeep; Singh, Satparkash; Sunil Kumar, B V; Mahajan, Kanika; Verma, Ramneek

    2016-01-01

    Bovine brucellosis is a worldwide spread zoonotic disease. The objectives of this study were characterization of outer membrane vesicles from B. abortus and to evaluate their immunogenicity in mice. For this purpose, OMVs were derived from B. abortus strain 99 using ultracentrifugation method. Isolated OMVs were characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and transmission electron microscopy which revealed spherical 20-300 nm structures rich in proteins. OMVs also showed immuno-reactivity with mice antisera in Western blot. Further, indirect ELISA showed specific and high-titer immune responses against the antigens present in OMVs suggesting their potential for a safe acellular vaccine candidate. PMID:26684926

  3. Mitogenic effects of purified outer membrane proteins from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Y H; Hancock, R E; Mishell, R I

    1980-01-01

    Three major outer membrane proteins from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 were purified and tested for their ability to stimulate resting murine lymphocytes to proliferate. It was demonstrated that picomole amounts of all three proteins were mitogenic for both intact and T-lymphocyte-depleted populations of spleen cells from C3H/HeJ mice. In contrast, they had no activity against either mature or immature thymocytes. Since the strain of mice used is unable to respond to lipopolysaccharide, we condlude that the three proteins are B-cell mitogens. Images Fig. 2 PMID:6769818

  4. Identification of Outer Membrane Vesicles Derived from Orientia tsutsugamushi

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sun-Myoung; Kwon, Hea Yoon; Im, Jae-Hyong; Baek, Ji Hyeon; Kang, Jae-Seung

    2015-01-01

    Orientia tsutsugamushi, a causative pathogen of Scrub typhus, is a gram-negative intracellular bacterium. Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are produced from the membrane of bacteria and play many roles related to the survival of the pathogen. However, there have been no reports confirming whether O. tsutsugamushi indeed produce OMVs. O. tsutsugamushi boryong was cultured in ECV-304 cells for the purification of OMVs. Western blot analysis and immunoenrichment using anti-O. tsutsugamushi monoclonal antibody and electron microscopy were employed for identification and characterization of OMVs. We confirm the presence of OMVs derived from O. tsutsugamushi, and also found that those OMVs contain a major surface antigen of 56-kDa protein and variant immunogenic antigens. PMID:26130947

  5. A Supercomplex Spanning the Inner and Outer Membranes Mediates the Biogenesis of β-Barrel Outer Membrane Proteins in Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Wang, Rui; Jin, Feng; Liu, Yang; Yu, Jiayu; Fu, Xinmiao; Chang, Zengyi

    2016-08-01

    β-barrel outer membrane proteins (OMPs) are ubiquitously present in Gram-negative bacteria, mitochondria and chloroplasts, and function in a variety of biological processes. The mechanism by which the hydrophobic nascent β-barrel OMPs are transported through the hydrophilic periplasmic space in bacterial cells remains elusive. Here, mainly via unnatural amino acid-mediated in vivo photo-crosslinking studies, we revealed that the primary periplasmic chaperone SurA interacts with nascent β-barrel OMPs largely via its N-domain but with β-barrel assembly machine protein BamA mainly via its satellite P2 domain, and that the nascent β-barrel OMPs interact with SurA via their N- and C-terminal regions. Additionally, via dual in vivo photo-crosslinking, we demonstrated the formation of a ternary complex involving β-barrel OMP, SurA, and BamA in cells. More importantly, we found that a supercomplex spanning the inner and outer membranes and involving the BamA, BamB, SurA, PpiD, SecY, SecE, and SecA proteins appears to exist in living cells, as revealed by a combined analyses of sucrose-gradient ultra-centrifugation, Blue native PAGE and mass spectrometry. We propose that this supercomplex integrates the translocation, transportation, and membrane insertion events for β-barrel OMP biogenesis. PMID:27298319

  6. Cell outer membrane mimetic chitosan nanoparticles: preparation, characterization and cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Liang, Fei; Kong, Lingheng; Zheng, Lina; Fan, Tao

    2015-01-01

    A negatively charged copolymer poly (MPC-co-AMPS) of 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) and 2-acrylamide-2-methyl propane sulfonic acid (AMPS) was designed and synthesized. Chitosan nanoparticles with cell outer membrane mimetic structure were prepared by electrostatic interaction between the sulfonic acid groups of poly (MPC-co-AMPS) and the protonated amino groups of chitosan. Effects of factors on influencing the particle size, distribution, and stability were investigated. The experimental results showed that cell membrane mimetic chitosan nanoparticles with controllable and homogeneous size ranged from 100 to 300 nm were prepared at the concentration of 0.1-2.0 mg/mL and the charge ratio of 0.5-1.1. Chitosan nanoparticles prepared can exist stably for more than 45 days when placed at 4 °C and pH < 7.5. The cytotoxicity of the chitosan nanoparticles reduced significantly after surface modification with cell membrane mimetic structure, meeting the basic requirements of biomedical materials. The results suggest cell membrane mimetic chitosan nanoparticles prepared with polyanion and polycation obtain good biological compatibility and immune stealth ability, which has important academic significance and great application prospects. PMID:26230052

  7. Dynamic periplasmic chaperone reservoir facilitates biogenesis of outer membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Costello, Shawn M; Plummer, Ashlee M; Fleming, Patrick J; Fleming, Karen G

    2016-08-16

    Outer membrane protein (OMP) biogenesis is critical to bacterial physiology because the cellular envelope is vital to bacterial pathogenesis and antibiotic resistance. The process of OMP biogenesis has been studied in vivo, and each of its components has been studied in isolation in vitro. This work integrates parameters and observations from both in vivo and in vitro experiments into a holistic computational model termed "Outer Membrane Protein Biogenesis Model" (OMPBioM). We use OMPBioM to assess OMP biogenesis mathematically in a global manner. Using deterministic and stochastic methods, we are able to simulate OMP biogenesis under varying genetic conditions, each of which successfully replicates experimental observations. We observe that OMPs have a prolonged lifetime in the periplasm where an unfolded OMP makes, on average, hundreds of short-lived interactions with chaperones before folding into its native state. We find that some periplasmic chaperones function primarily as quality-control factors; this function complements the folding catalysis function of other chaperones. Additionally, the effective rate for the β-barrel assembly machinery complex necessary for physiological folding was found to be higher than has currently been observed in vitro. Overall, we find a finely tuned balance between thermodynamic and kinetic parameters maximizes OMP folding flux and minimizes aggregation and unnecessary degradation. In sum, OMPBioM provides a global view of OMP biogenesis that yields unique insights into this essential pathway. PMID:27482090

  8. Bacterial Origin of a Mitochondrial Outer Membrane Protein Translocase

    PubMed Central

    Harsman, Anke; Niemann, Moritz; Pusnik, Mascha; Schmidt, Oliver; Burmann, Björn M.; Hiller, Sebastian; Meisinger, Chris; Schneider, André; Wagner, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondria are of bacterial ancestry and have to import most of their proteins from the cytosol. This process is mediated by Tom40, an essential protein that forms the protein-translocating pore in the outer mitochondrial membrane. Tom40 is conserved in virtually all eukaryotes, but its evolutionary origin is unclear because bacterial orthologues have not been identified so far. Recently, it was shown that the parasitic protozoon Trypanosoma brucei lacks a conventional Tom40 and instead employs the archaic translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane (ATOM), a protein that shows similarities to both eukaryotic Tom40 and bacterial protein translocases of the Omp85 family. Here we present electrophysiological single channel data showing that ATOM forms a hydrophilic pore of large conductance and high open probability. Moreover, ATOM channels exhibit a preference for the passage of cationic molecules consistent with the idea that it may translocate unfolded proteins targeted by positively charged N-terminal presequences. This is further supported by the fact that the addition of a presequence peptide induces transient pore closure. An in-depth comparison of these single channel properties with those of other protein translocases reveals that ATOM closely resembles bacterial-type protein export channels rather than eukaryotic Tom40. Our results support the idea that ATOM represents an evolutionary intermediate between a bacterial Omp85-like protein export machinery and the conventional Tom40 that is found in mitochondria of other eukaryotes. PMID:22778261

  9. New Salmonella typhimurium mutants with altered outer membrane permeability.

    PubMed Central

    Sukupolvi, S; Vaara, M; Helander, I M; Viljanen, P; Mäkelä, P H

    1984-01-01

    We describe three new classes of Salmonella typhimurium mutants with increased sensitivity to hydrophobic agents. In contrast to many previously described mutants, the phage sensitivity pattern of these mutants did not give any indication of defective lipopolysaccharide. Furthermore, they had no detectable changes in their phospholipid or outer membrane protein composition, and their growth rate and cell morphology were normal. Class B mutants were nearly as sensitive to novobiocin, fusidic acid, erythromycin, rifampin, and clindamycin as are deep rough (heptoseless) mutants; in addition they were sensitive to methicillin, penicillin (to which heptoseless mutants are resistant), gentian violet, and anionic and cationic detergents. Class A and C mutants had less sensitive, but characteristic phenotypes. None of the three classes were sensitive to serum bactericidal action. The class B mutation mapped between map positions 7 and 11 on the S. typhimurium chromosome, and the class C mutation mapped between positions 5 and 7. The map position for the class A mutation remained undefined, but it was separate from the class B and C mutations and, like those, did not correspond to any gene loci known to participate in the synthesis of major outer membrane constituents. Images PMID:6378889

  10. Supramolecular assemblies underpin turnover of outer membrane proteins in bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Rassam, Patrice; Copeland, Nikki A.; Birkholz, Oliver; Tóth, Csaba; Chavent, Matthieu; Duncan, Anna L.; Cross, Stephen J.; Housden, Nicholas G.; Kaminska, Renata; Seger, Urban; Quinn, Diana M.; Garrod, Tamsin J.; Sansom, Mark S.P.; Piehler, Jacob; Baumann, Christoph G.; Kleanthous, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Gram-negative bacteria inhabit a broad range of ecological niches. For Escherichia coli, this includes river water as well as humans and animals where it can be both a commensal and a pathogen1–3. Intricate regulatory mechanisms ensure bacteria have the right complement of β-barrel outer membrane proteins (OMPs) to enable adaptation to a particular habitat4,5. Yet no mechanism is known for replacing OMPs in the outer membrane (OM), a biological enigma further confounded by the lack of an energy source and the high stability6 and abundance of OMPs5. Here, we uncover the process underpinning OMP turnover in E. coli and show it to be passive and binary in nature wherein old OMPs are displaced to the poles of growing cells as new OMPs take their place. Using fluorescent colicins as OMP-specific probes, in combination with ensemble and single-molecule fluorescence microscopy in vivo and in vitro, as well as molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we established the mechanism for binary OMP partitioning. OMPs clustered to form islands of ~0.5 μm diameter where their diffusion was restricted by promiscuous interactions with other OMPs. OMP islands were distributed throughout the cell and contained the Bam complex, which catalyses the insertion of OMPs in the OM7,8. However, OMP biogenesis occurred as a gradient that was highest at mid-cell but largely absent at cell poles. The cumulative effect is to push old OMP islands towards the poles of growing cells, leading to a binary distribution when cells divide. Hence the OM of a Gram-negative bacterium is a spatially and temporally organised structure and this organisation lies at the heart of how OMPs are turned over in the membrane. PMID:26061769

  11. Sorting of bacterial lipoproteins to the outer membrane by the Lol system.

    PubMed

    Narita, Shin-ichiro; Tokuda, Hajime

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial lipoproteins comprise a subset of membrane proteins with a lipid-modified cysteine residue at their amino termini through which they are anchored to the membrane. In Gram-negative bacteria, lipoproteins are localized on either the inner or the outer membrane. The Lol system is responsible for the transport of lipoproteins to the outer membrane.The Lol system comprises an inner-membrane ABC transporter LolCDE complex, a periplasmic carrier protein, LolA, and an outer membrane receptor protein, LolB. Lipoproteins are synthesized as precursors in the cytosol and then translocated across the inner membrane by the Sec translocon to the outer leaflet of the inner membrane, where lipoprotein precursors are processed to mature lipoproteins. The LolCDE complex then mediates the release of outer membrane-specific lipoproteins from the inner membrane while the inner membrane-specific lipoproteins possessing Asp at position 2 are not released by LolCDE because it functions as a LolCDE avoidance signal, causing the retention of these lipoproteins in the inner membrane. A water-soluble lipoprotein-LolA complex is formed as a result of the release reaction mediated by LolCDE. This complex traverses the hydrophilic periplasm to reach the outer membrane, where LolB accepts a lipoprotein from LolA and then catalyzes its incorporation into the inner leaflet of the outer membrane. PMID:20419407

  12. Homology analysis and cross-immunogenicity of OmpA from pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia pestis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuhuang; Duan, Ran; Li, Xu; Li, Kewei; Liang, Junrong; Liu, Chang; Qiu, Haiyan; Xiao, Yuchun; Jing, Huaiqi; Wang, Xin

    2015-12-01

    The outer membrane protein A (OmpA) is one of the intra-species conserved proteins with immunogenicity widely found in the family of Enterobacteriaceae. Here we first confirmed OmpA is conserved in the three pathogenic Yersinia: Yersinia pestis, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica, with high homology at the nucleotide level and at the amino acid sequence level. The identity of ompA sequences for 262 Y. pestis strains, 134 Y. pseudotuberculosis strains and 219 pathogenic Y. enterocolitica strains are 100%, 98.8% and 97.7% similar. The main pattern of OmpA of pathogenic Yersinia are 86.2% and 88.8% identical at the nucleotide and amino acid sequence levels, respectively. Immunological analysis showed the immunogenicity of each OmpA and cross-immunogenicity of OmpA for pathogenic Yersinia where OmpA may be a vaccine candidate for Y. pestis and other pathogenic Yersinia. PMID:26435220

  13. Functions of outer membrane receptors in mitochondrial protein import.

    PubMed

    Endo, Toshiya; Kohda, Daisuke

    2002-09-01

    Most mitochondrial proteins are synthesized in the cytosol as precursor proteins and are imported into mitochondria. The targeting signals for mitochondria are encoded in the presequences or in the mature parts of the precursor proteins, and are decoded by the receptor sites in the translocator complex in the mitochondrial outer membrane. The recently determined NMR structure of the general import receptor Tom20 in a complex with a presequence peptide reveals that, although the amphiphilicity and positive charges of the presequence is essential for the import ability of the presequence, Tom20 recognizes only the amphiphilicity, but not the positive charges. This leads to a new model that different features associated with the mitochondrial targeting sequence of the precursor protein can be recognized by the mitochondrial protein import system in different steps during the import. PMID:12191763

  14. Pseudomonas aeruginosa outer membrane adhesins for human respiratory mucus glycoproteins.

    PubMed Central

    Carnoy, C; Scharfman, A; Van Brussel, E; Lamblin, G; Ramphal, R; Roussel, P

    1994-01-01

    The attachment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to human respiratory mucus represents an important step in the development of lung infection, especially in cases of cystic fibrosis. For this purpose, microtiter plate adhesion assays have been developed and have suggested that nonpilus adhesins of P. aeruginosa are the most important ones for binding to human respiratory mucins. In order to characterize these mucin-binding adhesins, outer membrane proteins (OMP) from two adhesive strains, 1244-NP and PAK-NP, and their poorly adhesive rpoN mutants, 1244-N3 and PAK-N1, were prepared by a mild extraction with Zwittergent 3-14. Mucin-binding adhesins were detected after polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and blotting of the OMP on nitrocellulose replicas, using human bronchial mucins labeled with 125I. The binding properties of these OMP with lactotransferrin, another glycoprotein abundant in respiratory mucus, were also studied. Radiolabeled mucins detected four bands at 48, 46, 28, and 25 kDa with strain PAK-NP. With the nonmucoid strain 1244-NP, five bands were observed at 48, 46, 42, 28, and 25 kDa. The bands at 48 and 25 kDa were also visualized by radiolabeled lactotransferrin. These bands were partially or completely displaced by nonradiolabeled respiratory mucin glycopeptides but not by tetramethylurea, suggesting that they recognized carbohydrate sites. In contrast, the poorly adhesive strains showed weakly binding bands. These results demonstrate that outer membranes from two different nonpiliated P. aeruginosa strains express multiple adhesins with an affinity for human respiratory mucins and/or lactotransferrin. Images PMID:8168955

  15. Outer membrane lipoprotein biogenesis: Lol is not the end.

    PubMed

    Konovalova, Anna; Silhavy, Thomas J

    2015-10-01

    Bacterial lipoproteins are lipid-anchored proteins that contain acyl groups covalently attached to the N-terminal cysteine residue of the mature protein. Lipoproteins are synthesized in precursor form with an N-terminal signal sequence (SS) that targets translocation across the cytoplasmic or inner membrane (IM). Lipid modification and SS processing take place at the periplasmic face of the IM. Outer membrane (OM) lipoproteins take the localization of lipoproteins (Lol) export pathway, which ends with the insertion of the N-terminal lipid moiety into the inner leaflet of the OM. For many lipoproteins, the biogenesis pathway ends here. We provide examples of lipoproteins that adopt complex topologies in the OM that include transmembrane and surface-exposed domains. Biogenesis of such lipoproteins requires additional steps beyond the Lol pathway. In at least one case, lipoprotein sequences reach the cell surface by being threaded through the lumen of a beta-barrel protein in an assembly reaction that requires the heteropentomeric Bam complex. The inability to predict surface exposure reinforces the importance of experimental verification of lipoprotein topology and we will discuss some of the methods used to study OM protein topology. PMID:26370942

  16. The lethal cargo of Myxococcus xanthus outer membrane vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Berleman, James E.; Allen, Simon; Danielewicz, Megan A.; Remis, Jonathan P.; Gorur, Amita; Cunha, Jack; Hadi, Masood Z.; Zusman, David R.; Northen, Trent R.; Witkowska, H. Ewa; Auer, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    Myxococcus xanthus is a bacterial micro-predator known for hunting other microbes in a wolf pack-like manner. Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are produced in large quantities by M. xanthus and have a highly organized structure in the extracellular milieu, sometimes occurring in chains that link neighboring cells within a biofilm. OMVs may be a vehicle for mediating wolf pack activity by delivering hydrolytic enzymes and antibiotics aimed at killing prey microbes. Here, both the protein and small molecule cargo of the OMV and membrane fractions of M. xanthus were characterized and compared. Our analysis indicates a number of proteins that are OMV-specific or OMV-enriched, including several with putative hydrolytic function. Secondary metabolite profiling of OMVs identifies 16 molecules, many associated with antibiotic activities. Several hydrolytic enzyme homologs were identified, including the protein encoded by MXAN_3564 (mepA), an M36 protease homolog. Genetic disruption of mepA leads to a significant reduction in extracellular protease activity suggesting MepA is part of the long-predicted (yet to date undetermined) extracellular protease suite of M. xanthus. PMID:25250022

  17. Energy-coupled outer membrane transport proteins and regulatory proteins.

    PubMed

    Braun, Volkmar; Endriss, Franziska

    2007-06-01

    FhuA and FecA are two examples of energy-coupled outer membrane import proteins of gram-negative bacteria. FhuA transports iron complexed by the siderophore ferrichrome and serves as a receptor for phages, a toxic bacterial peptide, and a toxic protein. FecA transports diferric dicitrate and regulates transcription of an operon encoding five ferric citrate (Fec) transport genes. Properties of FhuA mutants selected according to the FhuA crystal structure are described. FhuA mutants in the TonB box, the hatch, and the beta-barrel are rather robust. TonB box mutants in FhuA FecA, FepA, Cir, and BtuB are compared; some mutations are suppressed by mutations in TonB. Mutant studies have not revealed a ferrichrome diffusion pathway, and tolerance to mutations in the region linking the TonB box to the hatch does not disclose a mechanism for how energy transfer from the cytoplasmic membrane to FhuA changes the conformation of FhuA such that bound substrates are released, the pore is opened, and substrates enter the periplasm, or how surface loops change their conformation such that TonB-dependent phages bind irreversibly and release their DNA into the cells. The FhuA and FecA crystal structures do not disclose the mechanism of these proteins, but they provide important information for specific functional studies. FecA is also a regulatory protein that transduces a signal from the cell surface into the cytoplasm. The interacting subdomains of the proteins in the FecA --> FecR --> FecI --> RNA polymerase signal transduction pathway resulting in fecABCDE transcription have been determined. Energy-coupled transporters transport not only iron and vitamin B12, but also other substrates of very low abundance such as sugars across the outer membrane; transcription regulation of the transport genes may occur similarly to that of the Fec transport genes. PMID:17370038

  18. ULTRASTRUCTURE OF VEILLONELLA AND MORPHOLOGICAL CORRELATION OF AN OUTER MEMBRANE WITH PARTICLES ASSOCIATED WITH ENDOTOXIC ACTIVITY

    PubMed Central

    Bladen, Howard A.; Mergenhagen, Stephan E.

    1964-01-01

    Bladen, Howard A. (National Institute of Dental Research, Bethesda, Md.), and Stephan E. Mergenhagen. Ultrastructure of Veillonella and morphological correlation of an outer membrane with particles associated with endotoxic activity. J. Bacteriol. 88:1482–1492. 1964.—Normal, phenol-water extracted, and lysozyme-treated Veillonella cells were embedded in Vestopal W, sectioned, and examined by electron microscopy. Normal cells as well as the phenol-water extract (endotoxin) were examined by negative and positive contrast techniques. In thin sections of normal cells, three separate structural entities were observed surrounding the protoplasm, and were referred to as the outer membrane, the solid membrane, and the plasma membrane. The outer membrane was a membrane composed of two dense layers (30 A) separated by a less-dense layer (20 A), and followed a convoluted and continuous path around the cell. The solid membrane appeared as a taut, dense structure 100 to 500 A wide, and was separated from the outer membrane by up to several hundred Ångstroms. The plasma membrane was a unit-type membrane. After cells were treated with phenol-water, the outer membrane was absent, but the cells remained intact owing to the solid membrane. Observation of the phenol-water extract (endotoxin) revealed predominantly circular particles or discs which had approximately the same dimensions in height as the outer membrane had in width. Negatively stained whole cells showed similar structures on their surface. Lysozyme treatment of the cells did not affect the outer membrane; however, the solid membrane became diffuse and often disappeared, suggesting that the outer membrane and the solid membrane were separate structures. Images PMID:14234809

  19. Living on the edge: Simulations of bacterial outer-membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Pavlova, Anna; Hwang, Hyea; Lundquist, Karl; Balusek, Curtis; Gumbart, James C

    2016-07-01

    Gram-negative bacteria are distinguished in part by a second, outer membrane surrounding them. This membrane is distinct from others, possessing an outer leaflet composed not of typical phospholipids but rather large, highly charged molecules known as lipopolysaccharides. Therefore, modeling the structure and dynamics of proteins embedded in the outer membrane requires careful consideration of their native environment. In this review, we examine how simulations of such outer-membrane proteins have evolved over the last two decades, culminating most recently in detailed, highly accurate atomistic models of the outer membrane. We also draw attention to how the simulations have coupled with experiments to produce novel insights unattainable through a single approach. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Membrane Proteins edited by J.C. Gumbart and Sergei Noskov. PMID:26826270

  20. Inactivation of Peroxiredoxin 6 by the Pla Protease of Yersinia pestis

    PubMed Central

    Zimbler, Daniel L.; Eddy, Justin L.; Schroeder, Jay A.

    2015-01-01

    Pneumonic plague represents the most severe form of disease caused by Yersinia pestis due to its ease of transmission, rapid progression, and high mortality rate. The Y. pestis outer membrane Pla protease is essential for the development of pneumonic plague; however, the complete repertoire of substrates cleaved by Pla in the lungs is not known. In this study, we describe a proteomic screen to identify host proteins contained within the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of mice that are cleaved and/or processed by Y. pestis in a Pla-dependent manner. We identified peroxiredoxin 6 (Prdx6), a host factor that contributes to pulmonary surfactant metabolism and lung defense against oxidative stress, as a previously unknown substrate of Pla. Pla cleaves Prdx6 at three distinct sites, and these cleavages disrupt both the peroxidase and phospholipase A2 activities of Prdx6. In addition, we found that infection with wild-type Y. pestis reduces the abundance of extracellular Prdx6 in the lungs compared to that after infection with Δpla Y. pestis, suggesting that Pla cleaves Prdx6 in the pulmonary compartment. However, following infection with either wild-type or Δpla Y. pestis, Prdx6-deficient mice exhibit no differences in bacterial burden, host immune response, or lung damage from wild-type mice. Thus, while Pla is able to disrupt Prdx6 function in vitro and reduce Prdx6 levels in vivo, the cleavage of Prdx6 has little detectable impact on the progression or outcome of pneumonic plague. PMID:26553463

  1. Inactivation of Peroxiredoxin 6 by the Pla Protease of Yersinia pestis.

    PubMed

    Zimbler, Daniel L; Eddy, Justin L; Schroeder, Jay A; Lathem, Wyndham W

    2016-01-01

    Pneumonic plague represents the most severe form of disease caused by Yersinia pestis due to its ease of transmission, rapid progression, and high mortality rate. The Y. pestis outer membrane Pla protease is essential for the development of pneumonic plague; however, the complete repertoire of substrates cleaved by Pla in the lungs is not known. In this study, we describe a proteomic screen to identify host proteins contained within the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of mice that are cleaved and/or processed by Y. pestis in a Pla-dependent manner. We identified peroxiredoxin 6 (Prdx6), a host factor that contributes to pulmonary surfactant metabolism and lung defense against oxidative stress, as a previously unknown substrate of Pla. Pla cleaves Prdx6 at three distinct sites, and these cleavages disrupt both the peroxidase and phospholipase A2 activities of Prdx6. In addition, we found that infection with wild-type Y. pestis reduces the abundance of extracellular Prdx6 in the lungs compared to that after infection with Δpla Y. pestis, suggesting that Pla cleaves Prdx6 in the pulmonary compartment. However, following infection with either wild-type or Δpla Y. pestis, Prdx6-deficient mice exhibit no differences in bacterial burden, host immune response, or lung damage from wild-type mice. Thus, while Pla is able to disrupt Prdx6 function in vitro and reduce Prdx6 levels in vivo, the cleavage of Prdx6 has little detectable impact on the progression or outcome of pneumonic plague. PMID:26553463

  2. Iron uptake and iron-repressible polypeptides in Yersinia pestis.

    PubMed Central

    Lucier, T S; Fetherston, J D; Brubaker, R R; Perry, R D

    1996-01-01

    Pigmented (Pgm+) cells of Yersinia pestis are virulent, are sensitive to pesticin, adsorb exogenous hemin at 26 degrees C (Hms+), produce iron-repressible outer membrane proteins, and grow at 37 degrees C in iron-deficient media. These traits are lost upon spontaneous deletion of a chromosomal 102-kb pgm locus (Pgm-). Here we demonstrate that an Hms+ but pesticin-resistant (Pst(r)) mutant acquired a 5-bp deletion in the pesticin receptor gene (psn) encoding IrpB to IrpD. Growth and assimilation of iron by Pgm- and Hms+ Pst(r) mutants were markedly inhibited by ferrous chelators at 37 degrees C; inhibition by ferric and ferrous chelators was less effective at 26 degrees C. Iron-deficient growth at 26 degrees C induced iron-regulated outer membrane proteins of 34, 28.5, and 22.5 kDa and periplasmic polypeptides of 33.5 and 30 kDa. These findings provide a basis for understanding the psn-driven system of iron uptake, indicate the existence of at least one additional 26 degrees C-dependent iron assimilation system, and define over 30 iron-repressible proteins in Y. pestis. PMID:8757829

  3. Anti-Outer membrane protein C antibodies in colorectal neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Kohoutova, D; Drahosova, M; Cihak, M; Moravkova, P; Bures, J

    2016-07-01

    Sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC) represents an enormous problem worldwide. Large intestinal microbiota play an important role in the colorectal carcinogenesis. The aim of the study was to investigate anti-Outer membrane protein C (anti-OmpC) antibodies, aimed at porin C, which is embedded in the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria, in patients with colorectal adenoma (CRA), CRC and controls. The study included 22 patients with CRA (11 men, 11 women, aged 26-79, mean 65 ± 12), 11 patients with CRC (9 men, 2 women, aged 50-83, mean 66 ± 11) and 45 controls, blood donors (24 men, 21 women, aged 20-58, mean 38 ± 10). Serum anti-OmpC antibodies were investigated by means of ELISA. Values of 0-20 U/mL were considered to be negative; values >25 U/mL were assessed as positive. A total of 9/11 (82 %) patients with CRC had positive anti-OmpC antibodies. Anti-OmpC antibodies were negative or grey-zone in 37/45 (82 %) controls. Serum anti-OmpC were found to be significantly higher in patients with CRC (median 42.4, interquartile range (IQR) 22.2) compared to controls (median 18.3, IQR 12.4), p < 0.001. No statistically significant difference in anti-OmpC was found between controls (median 18.3, IQR 12.4) and CRA patients (median 17.7, IQR 16.5), p = 0.326. Anti-OmpC were significantly higher in patients with CRC (median 42.4, IQR 22.2) compared to patients with CRA (median 17.7, IQR 16.5), p = 0.011. Positivity of anti-OmpC antibodies was found in patients with CRC, which supports the contribution of gram-negative large intestinal microbiota to the pathogenesis of CRC. PMID:26612659

  4. Interactions between magainin 2 and Salmonella typhimurium outer membranes: Effect of lipopolysaccharide structure

    SciTech Connect

    Rana, F.R.; Macias, E.A.; Sultany, C.M.; Modzrakowski, M.C.; Blazyk, J. )

    1991-06-18

    The role of the outer membrane and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the interaction between the small cationic antimicrobial peptide magainin 2 and the Gram-negative cell envelope was studied by FT-IR spectroscopy. Magainin 2 alters the thermotropic properties of the outer membrane-peptidoglycan complexes from wild-type Salmonella typhimurium and a series of LPS mutants which display differential susceptibility to the bactericidal activity of cationic antibiotics. These results are correlated with the LPS phosphorylation pattern and charge (characterized by high-resolution {sup 31}P NMR) and outer membrane lipid composition, and are compared to the bactericidal susceptibility. LPS mutants show a progressive loss of resistance to killing by magainin 2 as the length of the LPS polysaccharide moiety decreases. Disordering of the outer membrane lipid fatty acyl chains by magainin 2, however, depends primarily upon the magnitude of PLS charge rather than the length of the LPS polysaccharide. While disruption of outer membrane structure most likely is not the primary factor leading to cell death, the susceptibility of Gram-negative cells to magainin 2 is associated with factors that facilitate the transport of the peptide across the outer membrane, such as the magnitude and location of LPS charge, and concentration of LPS in the outer membrane, outer membrane molecular architecture, and the presence or absence of the O-antigen side chain.

  5. Virulence and Immunomodulatory Roles of Bacterial Outer Membrane Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Terri N.; Kuehn, Meta J.

    2010-01-01

    Summary: Outer membrane (OM) vesicles are ubiquitously produced by Gram-negative bacteria during all stages of bacterial growth. OM vesicles are naturally secreted by both pathogenic and nonpathogenic bacteria. Strong experimental evidence exists to categorize OM vesicle production as a type of Gram-negative bacterial virulence factor. A growing body of data demonstrates an association of active virulence factors and toxins with vesicles, suggesting that they play a role in pathogenesis. One of the most popular and best-studied pathogenic functions for membrane vesicles is to serve as natural vehicles for the intercellular transport of virulence factors and other materials directly into host cells. The production of OM vesicles has been identified as an independent bacterial stress response pathway that is activated when bacteria encounter environmental stress, such as what might be experienced during the colonization of host tissues. Their detection in infected human tissues reinforces this theory. Various other virulence factors are also associated with OM vesicles, including adhesins and degradative enzymes. As a result, OM vesicles are heavily laden with pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), virulence factors, and other OM components that can impact the course of infection by having toxigenic effects or by the activation of the innate immune response. However, infected hosts can also benefit from OM vesicle production by stimulating their ability to mount an effective defense. Vesicles display antigens and can elicit potent inflammatory and immune responses. In sum, OM vesicles are likely to play a significant role in the virulence of Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. PMID:20197500

  6. How does the TOM complex mediate insertion of precursor proteins into the mitochondrial outer membrane?

    PubMed Central

    Rapaport, Doron

    2005-01-01

    A multisubunit translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane (TOM complex) mediates both the import of mitochondrial precursor proteins into the internal compartments of the organelle and the insertion of proteins residing in the mitochondrial outer membrane. The proposed β-barrel structure of Tom40, the pore-forming component of the translocase, raises the question of how the apparent uninterrupted β-barrel topology can be compatible with a role of Tom40 in releasing membrane proteins into the lipid core of the bilayer. In this review, I discuss insertion mechanisms of proteins into the outer membrane and present alternative models based on the opening of a multisubunit β-barrel TOM structure or on the interaction of outer membrane precursors with the outer face of the Tom40 β-barrel structure. PMID:16260501

  7. Glycoengineered Outer Membrane Vesicles: A Novel Platform for Bacterial Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Price, Nancy L.; Goyette-Desjardins, Guillaume; Nothaft, Harald; Valguarnera, Ezequiel; Szymanski, Christine M.; Segura, Mariela; Feldman, Mario F.

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization has indicated that we are entering into a post-antibiotic era in which infections that were routinely and successfully treated with antibiotics can now be lethal due to the global dissemination of multidrug resistant strains. Conjugate vaccines are an effective way to create a long-lasting immune response against bacteria. However, these vaccines present many drawbacks such as slow development, high price, and batch-to-batch inconsistencies. Alternate approaches for vaccine development are urgently needed. Here we present a new vaccine consisting of glycoengineered outer membrane vesicles (geOMVs). This platform exploits the fact that the initial steps in the biosynthesis of most bacterial glycans are similar. Therefore, it is possible to easily engineer non-pathogenic Escherichia coli lab strains to produce geOMVs displaying the glycan of the pathogen of interest. In this work we demonstrate the versatility of this platform by showing the efficacy of geOMVs as vaccines against Streptococcus pneumoniae in mice, and against Campylobacter jejuni in chicken. This cost-effective platform could be employed to generate vaccines to prevent infections caused by a wide variety of microbial agents in human and animals. PMID:27103188

  8. Myxobacteria Produce Outer Membrane-Enclosed Tubes in Unstructured Environments

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xueming; Vassallo, Christopher N.; Pathak, Darshankumar T.

    2014-01-01

    Myxobacteria are social microbes that exhibit complex multicellular behaviors. By use of fluorescent reporters, we show that Myxococcus xanthus isolates produce long narrow filaments that are enclosed by the outer membrane (OM) and contain proteins. We show that these OM tube (OMT) structures are produced at surprisingly high levels when cells are placed in liquid medium or buffer without agitation. OMTs can be long and easily exceed multiple cell lengths. When viewed by transmission electron microscopy, their morphology varies between tubes and chain-like structures. Intermediate-like structures are also found, suggesting that OMTs may transition between these two morphotypes. In support of this, video epifluorescence microscopy found that OMTs in solution dynamically twist and jiggle. On hard surfaces, myxobacteria glide, and upon cell-cell contact, they can efficiently exchange their OM proteins and lipids by a TraAB-dependent mechanism. Although the structure of OMTs hints at a possible role as conduits for exchange, evidence is presented to the contrary. For example, abundant OMT production occurs in traA or traB mutants and when cells are grown in liquid medium, yet transfer cannot occur under these conditions. Thus, genetic and environmental conditions that promote OMT production are incongruent with OM exchange. PMID:24391054

  9. Glycoengineered Outer Membrane Vesicles: A Novel Platform for Bacterial Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Price, Nancy L; Goyette-Desjardins, Guillaume; Nothaft, Harald; Valguarnera, Ezequiel; Szymanski, Christine M; Segura, Mariela; Feldman, Mario F

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization has indicated that we are entering into a post-antibiotic era in which infections that were routinely and successfully treated with antibiotics can now be lethal due to the global dissemination of multidrug resistant strains. Conjugate vaccines are an effective way to create a long-lasting immune response against bacteria. However, these vaccines present many drawbacks such as slow development, high price, and batch-to-batch inconsistencies. Alternate approaches for vaccine development are urgently needed. Here we present a new vaccine consisting of glycoengineered outer membrane vesicles (geOMVs). This platform exploits the fact that the initial steps in the biosynthesis of most bacterial glycans are similar. Therefore, it is possible to easily engineer non-pathogenic Escherichia coli lab strains to produce geOMVs displaying the glycan of the pathogen of interest. In this work we demonstrate the versatility of this platform by showing the efficacy of geOMVs as vaccines against Streptococcus pneumoniae in mice, and against Campylobacter jejuni in chicken. This cost-effective platform could be employed to generate vaccines to prevent infections caused by a wide variety of microbial agents in human and animals. PMID:27103188

  10. Proteomic analysis of Vibrio cholerae outer membrane vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Altindis, Emrah; Fu, Yang; Mekalanos, John J.

    2014-01-01

    Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) produced by Gram-negative bacteria provide an interesting research material for defining cell-envelope proteins without experimental cell disruption. OMVs are also promising immunogenic platforms and may play important roles in bacterial survival and pathogenesis. We used in-solution trypsin digestion coupled to mass spectrometry to identify 90 proteins present in OMVs of Vibrio cholerae when grown under conditions that activate the TCP pilus virulence regulatory protein (ToxT) virulence regulon. The ToxT expression profile and potential contribution to virulence of these proteins were assessed using ToxT and in vivo RNA-seq, Tn-seq, and cholera stool proteomic and other genome-wide data sets. Thirteen OMV-associated proteins appear to be essential for cell growth, and therefore may represent antibacterial drug targets. Another 12 nonessential OMV proteins, including DegP protease, were required for intestinal colonization in rabbits. Comparative proteomics of a degP mutant revealed the importance of DegP in the incorporation of nine proteins into OMVs, including ones involved in biofilm matrix formation and various substrates of the type II secretion system. Taken together, these results suggest that DegP plays an important role in determining the content of OMVs and also affects phenotypes such as intestinal colonization, proper function of the type II secretion system, and formation of biofilm matrix. PMID:24706774

  11. Outer membrane vesicles – offensive weapons or good Samaritans?

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Ingar; Amano, Atsuo

    2015-01-01

    Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) from Gram-negative bacteria were first considered as artifacts and were followed with disbelief and bad reputation. Later, their existence was accepted and they became characterized as bacterial bombs, virulence bullets, and even decoys. Today, we know that OMVs also can be involved in cell–cell signaling/communication and be mediators of immune regulation and cause disease protection. Furthermore, OMVs represent a distinct bacterial secretion pathway selecting and protecting their cargo, and they can even be good Samaritans providing nutrients to the gut microbiota maintaining commensal homeostasis beneficial to the host. The versatility in functions of these nanostructures is remarkable and includes both defense and offense. The broad spectrum of usability does not stop with that, as it now seems that OMVs can be used as vaccines and adjuvants or vehicles engineered for drug treatment of emerging and new diseases not only caused by bacteria but also by virus. They may even represent new ways of selective drug treatment. PMID:25840612

  12. Vibrio fischeri-derived outer membrane vesicles trigger host development.

    PubMed

    Aschtgen, Marie-Stephanie; Wetzel, Keith; Goldman, William; McFall-Ngai, Margaret; Ruby, Edward

    2016-04-01

    Outer membrane vesicles (OMV) are critical elements in many host-cell/microbe interactions. Previous studies of the symbiotic association between Euprymna scolopes and Vibrio fischeri had shown that within 12 h of colonizing crypts deep within the squid's light organ, the symbionts trigger an irreversible programme of tissue development in the host. Here, we report that OMV produced by V. fischeri are powerful contributors to this process. The first detectable host response to the OMV is an increased trafficking of macrophage-like cells called haemocytes into surface epithelial tissues. We showed that exposing the squid to other Vibrio species fails to induce this trafficking; however, addition of a high concentration of their OMV, which can diffuse into the crypts, does. We also provide evidence that tracheal cytotoxin released by the symbionts, which can induce haemocyte trafficking, is not part of the OMV cargo, suggesting two distinct mechanisms to induce the same morphogenesis event. By manipulating the timing and localization of OMV signal delivery, we showed that haemocyte trafficking is fully induced only when V. fischeri, the sole species able to reach and grow in the crypts, succeeds in establishing a sustained colonization. Further, our data suggest that the host's detection of OMV serves as a symbiotic checkpoint prior to inducing irreversible morphogenesis. PMID:26399913

  13. Crystal structure of a COG4313 outer membrane channel

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Bert van den; Bhamidimarri, Satya Prathyusha; Winterhalter, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    COG4313 proteins form a large and widespread family of outer membrane channels and have been implicated in the uptake of a variety of hydrophobic molecules. Structure-function studies of this protein family have so far been hampered by a lack of structural information. Here we present the X-ray crystal structure of Pput2725 from the biodegrader Pseudomonas putida F1, a COG4313 channel of unknown function, using data to 2.3 Å resolution. The structure shows a 12-stranded barrel with an N-terminal segment preceding the first β-strand occluding the lumen of the barrel. Single channel electrophysiology and liposome swelling experiments suggest that while the narrow channel visible in the crystal structure does allow passage of ions and certain small molecules in vitro, Pput2725 is unlikely to function as a channel for hydrophilic molecules. Instead, the presence of bound detergent molecules inside the barrel suggests that Pput2725 mediates uptake of hydrophobic molecules. Sequence alignments and the locations of highly conserved residues suggest the presence of a dynamic lateral opening through which hydrophobic molecules might gain entry into the cell. Our results provide the basis for structure-function studies of COG4313 family members with known function, such as the SphA sphingosine uptake channel of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PMID:26149193

  14. Regulation of peptidoglycan synthesis by outer membrane proteins

    PubMed Central

    Typas, Athanasios; Banzhaf, Manuel; van den Berg van Saparoea, Bart; Verheul, Jolanda; Biboy, Jacob; Nichols, Robert J.; Zietek, Matylda; Beilharz, Katrin; Kannenberg, Kai; von Rechenberg, Moritz; Breukink, Eefjan; den Blaauwen, Tanneke; Gross, Carol A.; Vollmer, Waldemar

    2011-01-01

    Summary Growth of the meshlike peptidoglycan (PG) sacculus located between the bacterial inner and outer membranes (OM) is tightly regulated to ensure cellular integrity, maintain cell shape and orchestrate division. Cytoskeletal elements direct placement and activity of PG synthases from inside the cell but precise spatiotemporal control over this process is poorly understood. We demonstrate that PG synthases are also controlled from outside the sacculus. Two OM lipoproteins, LpoA and LpoB, are essential for the function respectively of PBP1A and PBP1B, the major E. coli bifunctional PG synthases. Each Lpo protein binds specifically to its cognate PBP and stimulates its transpeptidase activity, thereby facilitating attachment of new PG to the sacculus. LpoB shows partial septal localization and our data suggest that the LpoB-PBP1B complex contributes to OM constriction during cell division. LpoA/ LpoB and their PBP docking regions are restricted to γ-proteobacteria, providing models for niche-specific regulation of sacculus growth. PMID:21183073

  15. Comparative Proteomic Studies of Yersinia pestis Strains Isolated from Natural Foci in the Republic of Georgia

    PubMed Central

    Nozadze, Maia; Zhgenti, Ekaterine; Meparishvili, Maia; Tsverava, Lia; Kiguradze, Tamar; Chanturia, Gvantsa; Babuadze, Giorgi; Kekelidze, Merab; Bakanidze, Lela; Shutkova, Tatiana; Imnadze, Paata; Francesconi, Stephen C.; Obiso, Richard; Solomonia, Revaz

    2015-01-01

    Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, is a highly virulent bacterium responsible for millions of human deaths throughout history. In the last decade, two natural plague foci have been described in the Republic of Georgia from which dozens of Y. pestis strains have been isolated. Analyses indicate that there are genetic differences between these strains, but it is not known if these differences are also reflected in protein expression. We chose four strains of Y. pestis (1390, 1853, 2944, and 8787) from the National Center for Disease Control and Public Health collection for proteomic studies based on neighbor-joining tree genetic analysis and geographical loci of strain origin. Proteomic expression was analyzed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Select Y. pestis strains were grown under different physiological conditions and their proteomes were compared: (1) 28°C without calcium; (2) 28°C with calcium; (3) 37°C without calcium; and (4) 37°C with calcium. Candidate proteins were identified and the differences in expression of F1 antigen, tellurium-resistance protein, and outer membrane protein C, porin were validated by Western blotting. The in vitro cytotoxicity activity of these strains was also compared. The results indicate that protein expression and cytotoxic activities differ significantly among the studied strains; these differences could contribute to variations in essential physiological functions in these strains. PMID:26528469

  16. Reconstitution of the native mitochondrial outer membrane in planar bilayers. Comparison with the outer membrane in a patch pipette and effect of aluminum compounds.

    PubMed

    Mirzabekov, T; Ballarin, C; Nicolini, M; Zatta, P; Sorgato, M C

    1993-04-01

    Detergent-free rat brain outer mitochondrial membranes were incorporated in planar lipid bilayers in the presence of an osmotic gradient, and studied at high (1 M KCl) and low (150 mM KCl) ionic strength solutions. By comparison, the main outer mitochondrial membrane protein, VDAC, extracted from rat liver with Triton X-100, was also studied in 150 mM KCl. In 1 M KCl, brain outer membranes gave rise to electrical patterns which resembled very closely those widely described for detergent-extracted VDAC, with transitions to several subconducting states upon increase of the potential difference, and sensitivity to polyanion. The potential dependence of the conductance of the outer membrane, however, was steeper and the extent of closure higher than that observed previously for rat brain VDAC. In 150 mM KCl, bilayers containing only one channel had a conductance of 700 +/- 23 pS for rat brain outer membranes, and 890 +/- 29 pS for rat liver VDAC. Use of a fast time resolution setup allowed demonstration of open-close transitions in the millisecond range, which were independent of the salt concentration and of the protein origin. We also found that a potential difference higher than approx. +/- 60 mV induced an almost irreversible decrease of the single channel conductance to few percentages of the full open state and a change in the ionic selectivity. These results show that the behavior of the outer mitochondrial membrane in planar bilayers is close to that detected with the patch clamp (Moran et al., 1992, Eur. Biophys. J. 20:311-319). The neurotoxicological action of aluminum was studied in single outer membrane channels from rat brain mitochondria. We found that microM concentrations of Al Cl3 and aluminum lactate decreased the conductance by about 50%, when the applied potential difference was positive relative to the side of the metal addition. PMID:7685821

  17. Mitochondrial outer membrane forms bridge between two mitochondria in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Akihiro; Fujimoto, Masaru; Katayama, Kenta; Tsutsumi, Nobuhiro; Arimura, Shin-Ichi

    2016-05-01

    Mitochondria are double-membrane organelles that move around and change their shapes dynamically. In plants, the dynamics of the outer membrane is not well understood. We recently demonstrated that mitochondria had tubular protrusions of the outer membrane with little or no matrix, called MOPs (mitochondrial outer-membrane protrusions; MOPs). Here we show that a MOP can form a bridge between two mitochondria in Arabidopsis thaliana. The bridge does not appear to involve the inner membranes. Live imaging revealed stretching of the MOP bridge, demonstrating the flexibility of the outer membrane. Mitochondria frequently undergo fission and fusion. These observations raise the possibility that MOPs bridges have a role in these processes. PMID:27031262

  18. Leptospirosis serodiagnosis by ELISA based on recombinant outer membrane protein.

    PubMed

    Chalayon, Piyanart; Chanket, Phanita; Boonchawalit, Toungporn; Chattanadee, Siriporn; Srimanote, Potjanee; Kalambaheti, Thareerat

    2011-05-01

    The outer membrane protein LipL21, LipL32, LipL41 and Loa22 of Leptospira interrogans serovar Copenhageni were previously revealed by immunoproteomic analysis, using sera from acute phase infection in a guinea pig. The full-length DNA of each protein was then cloned from the same serovar and expressed in pRSET vector. The obtained molecular weight (MW) of recombinant proteins rLipL21, rLipL32 and rLoa22 were slightly higher than the MW predicted from nucleotide sequences of each inserted gene, while only the N-terminal half of rLipL41 was obtained. Mice antiserum raised against each purified recombinant protein could react with the whole cell lysate of leptospiral serovars, implying that leptospiral native proteins shared a common epitope with recombinant protein. Serodiagnosis using recombinant protein antigen based on indirect ELISA procedure was developed in this study. The optimization of the ELISA components lead to determination of optical density (OD) from a single serum-dilution of 1:1000 in the leptospirosis patients group and normal healthy control group. The cut off OD values for both IgG and IgM class were investigated, and based on this fixed dilution only the IgG class could be used for differential diagnosis of patients and normal individuals. Compared with the MAT assay, ELISA assay utilizing both rLipL32 and rLoa22 as antigen, gave high accuracy and could thus be useful as a confirmative serology test. PMID:21353274

  19. Delivery of foreign antigens by engineered outer membrane vesicle vaccines.

    PubMed

    Chen, David J; Osterrieder, Nikolaus; Metzger, Stephan M; Buckles, Elizabeth; Doody, Anne M; DeLisa, Matthew P; Putnam, David

    2010-02-16

    As new disease threats arise and existing pathogens grow resistant to conventional interventions, attention increasingly focuses on the development of vaccines to induce protective immune responses. Given their admirable safety records, protein subunit vaccines are attractive for widespread immunization, but their disadvantages include poor immunogenicity and expensive manufacture. We show here that engineered Escherichia coli outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are an easily purified vaccine-delivery system capable of greatly enhancing the immunogenicity of a low-immunogenicity protein antigen without added adjuvants. Using green-fluorescent protein (GFP) as the model subunit antigen, genetic fusion of GFP with the bacterial hemolysin ClyA resulted in a chimeric protein that elicited strong anti-GFP antibody titers in immunized mice, whereas immunization with GFP alone did not elicit such titers. Harnessing the specific secretion of ClyA to OMVs, the ClyA-GFP fusion was found localized in OMVs, resulting in engineered recombinant OMVs. The anti-GFP humoral response in mice immunized with the engineered OMV formulations was indistinguishable from the response to the purified ClyA-GFP fusion protein alone and equal to purified proteins absorbed to aluminum hydroxide, a standard adjuvant. In a major improvement over current practice, engineered OMVs containing ClyA-GFP were easily isolated by ultracentrifugation, effectively eliminating the need for laborious antigen purification from cell-culture expression systems. With the diverse collection of heterologous proteins that can be functionally localized with OMVs when fused with ClyA, this work signals the possibility of OMVs as a robust and tunable technology platform for a new generation of prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines. PMID:20133740

  20. Outer membrane vesicles displaying engineered glycotopes elicit protective antibodies.

    PubMed

    Chen, Linxiao; Valentine, Jenny L; Huang, Chung-Jr; Endicott, Christine E; Moeller, Tyler D; Rasmussen, Jed A; Fletcher, Joshua R; Boll, Joseph M; Rosenthal, Joseph A; Dobruchowska, Justyna; Wang, Zhirui; Heiss, Christian; Azadi, Parastoo; Putnam, David; Trent, M Stephen; Jones, Bradley D; DeLisa, Matthew P

    2016-06-28

    The O-antigen polysaccharide (O-PS) component of lipopolysaccharides on the surface of gram-negative bacteria is both a virulence factor and a B-cell antigen. Antibodies elicited by O-PS often confer protection against infection; therefore, O-PS glycoconjugate vaccines have proven useful against a number of different pathogenic bacteria. However, conventional methods for natural extraction or chemical synthesis of O-PS are technically demanding, inefficient, and expensive. Here, we describe an alternative methodology for producing glycoconjugate vaccines whereby recombinant O-PS biosynthesis is coordinated with vesiculation in laboratory strains of Escherichia coli to yield glycosylated outer membrane vesicles (glycOMVs) decorated with pathogen-mimetic glycotopes. Using this approach, glycOMVs corresponding to eight different pathogenic bacteria were generated. For example, expression of a 17-kb O-PS gene cluster from the highly virulent Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis (type A) strain Schu S4 in hypervesiculating E. coli cells yielded glycOMVs that displayed F. tularensis O-PS. Immunization of BALB/c mice with glycOMVs elicited significant titers of O-PS-specific serum IgG antibodies as well as vaginal and bronchoalveolar IgA antibodies. Importantly, glycOMVs significantly prolonged survival upon subsequent challenge with F. tularensis Schu S4 and provided complete protection against challenge with two different F. tularensis subsp. holarctica (type B) live vaccine strains, thereby demonstrating the vaccine potential of glycOMVs. Given the ease with which recombinant glycotopes can be expressed on OMVs, the strategy described here could be readily adapted for developing vaccines against many other bacterial pathogens. PMID:27274048

  1. The Taz1p transacylase is imported and sorted into the outer mitochondrial membrane via a membrane anchor domain.

    PubMed

    Herndon, Jenny D; Claypool, Steven M; Koehler, Carla M

    2013-12-01

    Mutations in the mitochondrial transacylase tafazzin, Taz1p, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cause Barth syndrome, a disease of defective cardiolipin remodeling. Taz1p is an interfacial membrane protein that localizes to both the outer and inner membranes, lining the intermembrane space. Pathogenic point mutations in Taz1p that alter import and membrane insertion result in accumulation of monolysocardiolipin. In this study, we used yeast as a model to investigate the biogenesis of Taz1p. We show that to achieve this unique topology in mitochondria, Taz1p follows a novel import pathway in which it crosses the outer membrane via the translocase of the outer membrane and then uses the Tim9p-Tim10p complex of the intermembrane space to insert into the mitochondrial outer membrane. Taz1p is then transported to membranes of an intermediate density to reach a location in the inner membrane. Moreover, a pathogenic mutation within the membrane anchor (V224R) alters Taz1p import so that it bypasses the Tim9p-Tim10p complex and interacts with the translocase of the inner membrane, TIM23, to reach the matrix. Critical targeting information for Taz1p resides in the membrane anchor and flanking sequences, which are often mutated in Barth syndrome patients. These studies suggest that altering the mitochondrial import pathway of Taz1p may be important in understanding the molecular basis of Barth syndrome. PMID:24078306

  2. Role of outer membrane proteins in imipenem diffusion in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Lian, Z; Tianjue, Y

    1999-03-01

    The present study identified the properties of porins in the outer membrane in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and showed the role of outer membrane in determining imipenem diffusion in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The molecular weight of the major outer membrane protein was analyzed by SDS-PAGE. The purification of the porins in Pseudomonas aeruginosa was achieved by DEAE ion-exchange HPLC. The purified outer membrane proteins were reconstituted with phosphatidylcholine and dicetylphosphate into membrane vesicles, and were tested by the liposomes swelling method for the diffusion of imipenem. The permeability assay showed that OprC (70 kD), OprD2 (46 kD), and OprE (43 kD) were the channel-forming proteins. But only OprD2 was thought to be the likely route of imipenem diffusion. PMID:12899386

  3. ABC transporters involved in the biogenesis of the outer membrane in gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Narita, Shin-ichiro

    2011-01-01

    The outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria is an asymmetric lipid bilayer with phospholipids and lipopolysaccharides (LPSs). β-Barreled outer membrane proteins and lipoproteins are embedded in the outer membrane. All of these constituents are essential to the function of the outer membrane. The transport systems for lipoproteins have been characterized in detail. An ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter, LolCDE, initiates sorting by mediating the detachment of lipoproteins from the inner membrane to form a water-soluble lipoprotein-LolA complex in the periplasm. Lipoproteins are then transferred to LolB at the outer membrane and are incorporated into the lipid bilayer. A model analogous to the Lol system has been suggested for the transport of LPS, where an ABC transporter, LptBFG, mediates the detachment of LPS from the inner membrane. Recent developments in the functional characterization of ABC transporters involved in the biogenesis of the outer membrane in gram-negative bacteria are discussed. PMID:21670534

  4. Outer membrane ultrastructure explains the limited antigenicity of virulent Treponema pallidum.

    PubMed

    Radolf, J D; Norgard, M V; Schulz, W W

    1989-03-01

    Freeze fracture and deep etching were used to investigate the ultrastructural basis for the observation that anti-treponemal antibodies bind poorly to the surface of virulent Treponema pallidum. Fractures of T. pallidum outer membranes contained scarce, uniformly sized intramembranous particles (IMPs). IMPs on the convex faces often appeared to form linear arrays that wound in spirals about the organism. In contrast to the outer membrane, IMPs of the cytoplasmic membrane were randomly distributed, numerous, and heterogeneous in size. In Escherichia coli and T. pallidum cofractures, IMPs of the E. coli outer membranes were densely packed within the concave fracture faces, while the T. pallidum fractures were identical to the experiments lacking the E. coli internal controls. Outer membranes of two representative nonpathogenic treponemes, Treponema phagedenis biotype Reiter and Treponema denticola, contained numerous IMPs, which segregated preferentially with the concave halves. Examination of apposed replicas and deep-etched specimens indicated that at least some of the IMPs extend through the T. pallidum outer membrane and are exposed on the surface of the organism. The outer membrane of intact T. pallidum appears to contain a paucity of integral membrane proteins that can serve as targets for specific antibodies. These findings appear to represent an unusual parasitic strategy for evasion of host humoral defenses. PMID:2648388

  5. Protein–protein interactions and the spatiotemporal dynamics of bacterial outer membrane proteins

    PubMed Central

    Kleanthous, Colin; Rassam, Patrice; Baumann, Christoph G

    2015-01-01

    It has until recently been unclear whether outer membrane proteins (OMPs) of Gram-negative bacteria are organized or distributed randomly. Studies now suggest promiscuous protein–protein interactions (PPIs) between β-barrel OMPs in Escherichia coli govern their local and global dynamics, engender spatiotemporal patterning of the outer membrane into micro-domains and are the basis of β-barrel protein turnover. We contextualize these latest advances, speculate on areas of bacterial cell biology that might be influenced by the organization of OMPs into supramolecular assemblies, and highlight the new questions and controversies this revised view of the bacterial outer membrane raises. PMID:26629934

  6. A novel pathway for outer membrane protein biogenesis in Gram‐negative bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Jeeves, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Summary The understanding of the biogenesis of the outer membrane of Gram‐negative bacteria is of critical importance due to the emergence of bacteria that are becoming resistant to available antibiotics. A problem that is most serious for Gram‐negative bacteria, with essentially few antibiotics under development or likely to be available for clinical use in the near future. The understanding of the Gram‐negative bacterial outer membrane is therefore critical to developing new antimicrobial agents, as this membrane makes direct contact with the external milieu, and the proteins present within this membrane are the instruments of microbial warfare, playing key roles in microbial pathogenesis, virulence and multidrug resistance. To date, a single outer membrane complex has been identified as essential for the folding and insertion of proteins into the outer membrane, this is the β‐barrel assembly machine (BAM) complex, which in some cases is supplemented by the Translocation and Assembly Module (TAM). In this issue of Molecular Microbiology, Dunstan et al. have identified a novel pathway for the insertion of a subset of integral membrane proteins into the Gram‐negative outer membrane that is independent of the BAM complex and TAM. PMID:26059329

  7. A novel pathway for outer membrane protein biogenesis in Gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Jeeves, Mark; Knowles, Timothy J

    2015-08-01

    The understanding of the biogenesis of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria is of critical importance due to the emergence of bacteria that are becoming resistant to available antibiotics. A problem that is most serious for Gram-negative bacteria, with essentially few antibiotics under development or likely to be available for clinical use in the near future. The understanding of the Gram-negative bacterial outer membrane is therefore critical to developing new antimicrobial agents, as this membrane makes direct contact with the external milieu, and the proteins present within this membrane are the instruments of microbial warfare, playing key roles in microbial pathogenesis, virulence and multidrug resistance. To date, a single outer membrane complex has been identified as essential for the folding and insertion of proteins into the outer membrane, this is the β-barrel assembly machine (BAM) complex, which in some cases is supplemented by the Translocation and Assembly Module (TAM). In this issue of Molecular Microbiology, Dunstan et al. have identified a novel pathway for the insertion of a subset of integral membrane proteins into the Gram-negative outer membrane that is independent of the BAM complex and TAM. PMID:26059329

  8. Presence of methyl sterol and bacteriohopanepolyol in an outer-membrane preparation from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahnke, Linda L.; Stan-Lotter, Helga; Kato, Katharine; Hochstein, Lawrence I.

    1992-01-01

    Cytoplasmic/intracytoplasmic and outer membrane preparations of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) were isolated by sucrose density gradient centrifugation of a total membrane fraction prepared by disruption using a French pressure cell. The cytoplasmic and/or intracytoplasmic membrane fraction consisted of two distinct bands, Ia and Ib (buoyant densities 1.16 and 1.18 g ml (exp -1), respectively) that together contained 57% of the protein, 68% of the phospholipid, 73% of the ubiquinone and 89% of the CN-sensitive NADH oxidase activity. The only apparent difference between these two cytoplasmic bands was a much higher phospholipid content for Ia. The outer membrane fraction (buoyant density 1.23-1.24 g ml (exp -1)) contained 60% of the lipopolysaccharide-associated, beta-hydroxypalmitic acid, 74% of the methylsterol, and 66% of the bacteriohopanepolyol (BHP); phospholipid to methyl sterol or BHP ratios were 6:1. Methanol dehydrogenase activity and a c-type cytochrome were also present in this outer membrane fraction. Phospholipase A activity was present in borh the cytoplasmic membrane and outer membrane fractions. The unique distribution of cyclic triterpenes may reflect a specific role in conferring outer membrane stability in this methanotrophic bacterium.

  9. Membrane Composition Tunes the Outer Hair Cell Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajagopalan, L.; Sfondouris, J.; Oghalai, J. S.; Pereira, F. A.; Brownell, W. E.

    2009-02-01

    Cholesterol and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an ω-3 fatty acid, affect membrane mechanical properties in different ways and modulate the function of membrane proteins. We have probed the functional consequence of altering cholesterol and DHA levels in the membranes of OHCs and prestin expressing HEK cells. Large, dynamic and reversible changes in prestin-associated charge movement and OHC motor activity result from altering the concentration of membrane cholesterol. Increasing membrane cholesterol shifts the q/V function ~ 50 mV in the hyperpolarizing direction, possibly a response related to increases in membrane stiffness. The voltage shift is linearly related to total membrane cholesterol. Increasing cholesterol also decreases the total charge moved in a linear fashion. Decreasing membrane cholesterol shifts the q/V function ~ 50 mV in the depolarizing direction with little or no effect on the amount of charge moved. In vivo increases in membrane cholesterol transiently increase but ultimately lead to decreases in DPOAE. Docosahexaenoic acid shifts the q/V function in the hyperpolarizing direction < 15 mV and increases total charge moved. Tuning of cochlear function by membrane cholesterol contributes to the exquisite temporal and frequency processing of mammalian hearing by optimizing the cochlear amplifier.

  10. Localization of cytochromes to the outer membrane of anaerobically grown Shewanella putrefaciens MR-1.

    PubMed Central

    Myers, C R; Myers, J M

    1992-01-01

    In gram-negative bacteria, numerous cell functions, including respiration-linked electron transport, have been ascribed to the cytoplasmic membrane. Gram-negative bacteria which use solid substrates (e.g., oxidized manganese or iron) as terminal electron acceptors for anaerobic respiration are presented with a unique problem: they must somehow establish an electron transport link across the outer membrane between large particulate metal oxides and the electron transport chain in the cytoplasmic membrane. When the metal-reducing bacterium Shewanella putrefaciens MR-1 is grown under anaerobic conditions and membrane fractions are purified from cells lysed by an EDTA-lysozyme-polyoxyethylene cetyl ether (Brij 58) protocol, approximately 80% of its membrane-bound cytochromes are localized in its outer membrane. These outer membrane cytochromes could not be dislodged by treatment with chaotropic agents or by increased concentrations of the nonionic detergent Brij 58, suggesting that they are integral membrane proteins. Cytochrome distribution in cells lysed by a French press protocol confirm the localization of cytochromes to the outer membrane of anaerobically grown cells. This novel cytochrome distribution could play a key role in the anaerobic respiratory capabilities of this bacterium, especially in its ability to mediate manganese and iron reduction. Images PMID:1592800

  11. Outer membrane of Salmonella typhimurium: chemical analysis and freeze-fracture studies with lipopolysaccharide mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Smit, J; Kamio, Y; Nikaido, H

    1975-01-01

    The outer membrane layer of the cell wall was isolated from wild-type Salmonella typhimurium LT2 as well as from its mutants producing lipopolysaccharides with shorter saccharide chains. Chemical analysis of these preparations indicated the following. (i) The number of lipopolysaccharide molecules per unit area was constant, regardless of the length of the saccharide side chain in lipopolysaccharide. (ii) In contrast, in "deep rough" (Rd or Re) mutants producing the lipopolysaccharides with very short saccharide chains, the amount of outer membrane protein per unit surface area decreased to about 60% of the value in the wild type. (iii) In the wild type, the amount of phospholipids is slightly less than what is needed to cover one side of the membrane as a monolayer. In comparison with the wild type, the outer membrane of Rd and Re mutants contains about 70% more phospholipids, which therefore must be distributed in both the outer and inner leaflets of the membrane. Freeze-fracture studies showed that the outer membrane of Re mutants were easily fractured, but fracture became increasingly difficult in strains producing lipopolysaccharides with longer side chains. The convex fracture face was always nearly smooth, but the concave fracture face or the outer half of the membrane was densely covered with particles 8 to 10 nm in diameter. The density of particles was decreased in Re mutants to the same extent as the reduction in proteins, suggesting the largely proteinaceous nature of particles. A model for the supramolecular structure of the outer membrane is presented on the basis of these and other results. Images PMID:1102538

  12. Identification of Pasteurella multocida CHAPS-soluble outer membrane proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fowl cholera continues to be of concern to the poultry industry, especially for turkey growers. This disease costs the turkey industry millions of dollars annually. In order to gain a better understanding of Pasteurella multocida virulence factors involved in colonization and pathogenesis, the outer...

  13. Mycobacterial outer membrane is a lipid bilayer and the inner membrane is unusually rich in diacyl phosphatidylinositol dimannosides

    PubMed Central

    Bansal-Mutalik, Ritu; Nikaido, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium species, including the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis, are unique among Gram-positive bacteria in producing a complex cell wall that contains unusual lipids and functions as a permeability barrier. Lipids in the cell wall were hypothesized to form a bilayer or outer membrane that would prevent the entry of chemotherapeutic agents, but this could not be tested because of the difficulty in extracting only the cell-wall lipids. We used reverse micellar extraction to achieve this goal and carried out a quantitative analysis of both the cell wall and the inner membrane lipids of Mycobacterium smegmatis. We found that the outer leaflet of the outer membrane contains a similar number of hydrocarbon chains as the inner leaflet composed of mycolic acids covalently linked to cell-wall arabinogalactan, thus validating the outer membrane model. Furthermore, we found that preliminary extraction with reverse micelles permitted the subsequent complete extraction of inner membrane lipids with chloroform–methanol–water, revealing that one-half of hydrocarbon chains in this membrane are contributed by an unusual lipid, diacyl phosphatidylinositol dimannoside. The inner leaflet of this membrane likely is composed nearly entirely of this lipid. Because it contains four fatty acyl chains within a single molecule, it may produce a bilayer environment of unusually low fluidity and may slow the influx of drugs, contributing to the general drug resistance phenotype of mycobacteria. PMID:24639491

  14. Characterization of the Outer Membrane Protein OprF of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a Lipopolysaccharide Membrane by Computer Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Straatsma, TP; Soares, Thereza A.

    2009-02-01

    The N-terminal domain of outer membrane protein OprF of Pseudomonas aeruginosa forms a membrane spanning eight-stranded anti-parallel β-barrel domain that folds into a membrane channel with low conductance. The structure of this protein has been modeled after the crystal structure of the homologous protein OmpA of Escherichia coli. A number of molecular dynamics simulations have been carried out for the homology modeled structure of OprF in an explicit molecular model for the rough lipopolysaccharide (LPS) outer membrane of P. aeruginosa. The structural stability of the outer membrane model as a result of the strong electrostatic interactions compared to simple lipid bilayers is restricting both the conformational flexibility and the lateral diffusion of the porin in the membrane. Constricting side-chain interactions within the pore are similar to those found in reported simulations of the protein in a solvated lipid bilayer membrane. Because of the strong interactions between the loop regions of OprF and functional groups in the saccharide core of the LPS, the entrance to the channel from the extracellular space is widened compared to the lipid bilayer simulations in which the loops are extruding in the solvent. The specific electrostatic signature of the LPS membrane, which results in a net intrinsic dipole across the membrane, is found to be altered by the presence of OprF, resulting in a small electrically positive patch at the position of the channel.

  15. The outer membrane, not a coat of host proteins, limits antigenicity of virulent Treponema pallidum.

    PubMed Central

    Cox, D L; Chang, P; McDowall, A W; Radolf, J D

    1992-01-01

    Virulent Treponema pallidum reacts poorly with the specific antibodies present in human and rabbit syphilitic sera, a phenomenon often attributed to an outer coat of host serum proteins. Here we present additional evidence that the limited antigenicity of virulent organisms actually is due to a paucity of proteins in the outer membrane. Initially, we used electron microscopy to demonstrate that the outer membrane is highly susceptible to damage from physical manipulation (i.e., centrifugation and resuspension) and nonionic detergents. Organisms with disrupted outer membranes were markedly more antigenic than intact treponemes as determined by immunoelectron microscopy (IEM) with rabbit syphilitic and antiendoflagellar antisera. Data obtained with a new radioimmunoassay, designated the T. pallidum surface-specific radioimmunoassay, corroborated these IEM findings by demonstrating that the major T. pallidum immunogens are not surface exposed; the assay also was unable to detect serum proteins, including fibronectin, on the surfaces of intact organisms. Furthermore, IEM of T. pallidum on ultrathin cryosections with monospecific anti-47-kDa-immunogen antiserum confirmed the intracellular location of the 47-kDa immunogen. On the basis of these and previous findings, we proposed a new model for T. pallidum ultrastructure in which the outer membrane contains a small number of transmembrane proteins and the major membrane immunogens are anchored by lipids to the periplasmic leaflet of the cytoplasmic membrane. This unique ultrastructure explains the remarkable ability of virulent organisms to evade the humoral immune response of the T. pallidum-infected host. Images PMID:1541522

  16. The Enolase of Borrelia burgdorferi Is a Plasminogen Receptor Released in Outer Membrane Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Toledo, A.; Coleman, J. L.; Kuhlow, C. J.; Crowley, J. T.

    2012-01-01

    The agent of Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, has a number of outer membrane proteins that are differentially regulated during its life cycle. In addition to their physiological functions in the organism, these proteins also likely serve different functions in invasiveness and immune evasion. In borreliae, as well as in other bacteria, a number of membrane proteins have been implicated in binding plasminogen. The activation and transformation of plasminogen into its proteolytically active form, plasmin, enhances the ability of the bacteria to disseminate in the host. Outer membrane vesicles of B. burgdorferi contain enolase, a glycolytic-cycle enzyme that catalyzes 2-phosphoglycerate to form phosphoenolpyruvate, which is also a known plasminogen receptor in Gram-positive bacteria. The enolase was cloned, expressed, purified, and used to generate rabbit antienolase serum. The enolase binds plasminogen in a lysine-dependent manner but not through ionic interactions. Although it is present in the outer membrane, microscopy and proteinase K treatment showed that enolase does not appear to be exposed on the surface. However, enolase in the outer membrane vesicles is accessible to proteolytic degradation by proteinase K. Samples from experimentally and tick-infected mice and rabbits as well as from Lyme disease patients exhibit recognition of enolase in serologic assays. Thus, this immunogenic plasminogen receptor released in outer membrane vesicles could be responsible for external proteolysis in the pericellular environment and have roles in nutrition and in enhancing dissemination. PMID:22083700

  17. Rv1698 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis represents a new class of channel-forming outer membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Siroy, Axel; Mailaender, Claudia; Harder, Daniel; Koerber, Stephanie; Wolschendorf, Frank; Danilchanka, Olga; Wang, Ying; Heinz, Christian; Niederweis, Michael

    2008-06-27

    Mycobacteria contain an outer membrane composed of mycolic acids and a large variety of other lipids. Its protective function is an essential virulence factor of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Only OmpA, which has numerous homologs in Gram-negative bacteria, is known to form channels in the outer membrane of M. tuberculosis so far. Rv1698 was predicted to be an outer membrane protein of unknown function. Expression of rv1698 restored the sensitivity to ampicillin and chloramphenicol of a Mycobacterium smegmatis mutant lacking the main porin MspA. Uptake experiments showed that Rv1698 partially complemented the permeability defect of the M. smegmatis porin mutant for glucose. These results indicated that Rv1698 provides an unspecific pore that can partially substitute for MspA. Lipid bilayer experiments demonstrated that purified Rv1698 is an integral membrane protein that indeed produces channels. The main single channel conductance is 4.5 +/- 0.3 nanosiemens in 1 M KCl. Zero current potential measurements revealed a weak preference for cations. Whole cell digestion of recombinant M. smegmatis with proteinase K showed that Rv1698 is surface-accessible. Taken together, these experiments demonstrated that Rv1698 is a channel protein that is likely involved in transport processes across the outer membrane of M. tuberculosis. Rv1698 has single homologs of unknown functions in Corynebacterineae and thus represents the first member of a new class of channel proteins specific for mycolic acid-containing outer membranes. PMID:18434314

  18. A discrete pathway for the transfer of intermembrane space proteins across the outer membrane of mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Gornicka, Agnieszka; Bragoszewski, Piotr; Chroscicki, Piotr; Wenz, Lena-Sophie; Schulz, Christian; Rehling, Peter; Chacinska, Agnieszka

    2014-12-15

    Mitochondrial proteins are synthesized on cytosolic ribosomes and imported into mitochondria with the help of protein translocases. For the majority of precursor proteins, the role of the translocase of the outer membrane (TOM) and mechanisms of their transport across the outer mitochondrial membrane are well recognized. However, little is known about the mode of membrane translocation for proteins that are targeted to the intermembrane space via the redox-driven mitochondrial intermembrane space import and assembly (MIA) pathway. On the basis of the results obtained from an in organello competition import assay, we hypothesized that MIA-dependent precursor proteins use an alternative pathway to cross the outer mitochondrial membrane. Here we demonstrate that this alternative pathway involves the protein channel formed by Tom40. We sought a translocation intermediate by expressing tagged versions of MIA-dependent proteins in vivo. We identified a transient interaction between our model substrates and Tom40. Of interest, outer membrane translocation did not directly involve other core components of the TOM complex, including Tom22. Thus MIA-dependent proteins take another route across the outer mitochondrial membrane that involves Tom40 in a form that is different from the canonical TOM complex. PMID:25318675

  19. Bax assembles into large ring-like structures remodeling the mitochondrial outer membrane in apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Große, Lena; Wurm, Christian A; Brüser, Christian; Neumann, Daniel; Jans, Daniel C; Jakobs, Stefan

    2016-02-15

    The Bcl-2 family proteins Bax and Bak are essential for the execution of many apoptotic programs. During apoptosis, Bax translocates to the mitochondria and mediates the permeabilization of the outer membrane, thereby facilitating the release of pro-apoptotic proteins. Yet the mechanistic details of the Bax-induced membrane permeabilization have so far remained elusive. Here, we demonstrate that activated Bax molecules, besides forming large and compact clusters, also assemble, potentially with other proteins including Bak, into ring-like structures in the mitochondrial outer membrane. STED nanoscopy indicates that the area enclosed by a Bax ring is devoid of mitochondrial outer membrane proteins such as Tom20, Tom22, and Sam50. This strongly supports the view that the Bax rings surround an opening required for mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP). Even though these Bax assemblies may be necessary for MOMP, we demonstrate that at least in Drp1 knockdown cells, these assemblies are not sufficient for full cytochrome c release. Together, our super-resolution data provide direct evidence in support of large Bax-delineated pores in the mitochondrial outer membrane as being crucial for Bax-mediated MOMP in cells. PMID:26783364

  20. A discrete pathway for the transfer of intermembrane space proteins across the outer membrane of mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Gornicka, Agnieszka; Bragoszewski, Piotr; Chroscicki, Piotr; Wenz, Lena-Sophie; Schulz, Christian; Rehling, Peter; Chacinska, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial proteins are synthesized on cytosolic ribosomes and imported into mitochondria with the help of protein translocases. For the majority of precursor proteins, the role of the translocase of the outer membrane (TOM) and mechanisms of their transport across the outer mitochondrial membrane are well recognized. However, little is known about the mode of membrane translocation for proteins that are targeted to the intermembrane space via the redox-driven mitochondrial intermembrane space import and assembly (MIA) pathway. On the basis of the results obtained from an in organello competition import assay, we hypothesized that MIA-dependent precursor proteins use an alternative pathway to cross the outer mitochondrial membrane. Here we demonstrate that this alternative pathway involves the protein channel formed by Tom40. We sought a translocation intermediate by expressing tagged versions of MIA-dependent proteins in vivo. We identified a transient interaction between our model substrates and Tom40. Of interest, outer membrane translocation did not directly involve other core components of the TOM complex, including Tom22. Thus MIA-dependent proteins take another route across the outer mitochondrial membrane that involves Tom40 in a form that is different from the canonical TOM complex. PMID:25318675

  1. Rapid detection of Yersinia pestis recombinant fraction 1 capsular antigen.

    PubMed

    Tsui, Pei-Yi; Tsai, Hui-Ping; Chiao, Der-Jiang; Liu, Cheng-Che; Shyu, Rong-Hwa

    2015-09-01

    Yersinia pestis, an infectious bacterium that is a causative agent of plague, a disease which has been shown to be one of the most feared in history and which has caused millions of deaths. The capsule-like fraction 1 (F1) antigen expressed by Y. pestis is a known specific marker for the identification of the bacteria; therefore, the detection of F1 is important for Y. pestis recognition. In this study, a rapid, sensitive, and specific technique, the lateral flow assay (LFA), was successfully developed to detect Y. pestis by the recombinant F1 antigen. The assay that utilized an anti-F1 polyclonal antibody (Pab) to identify the bacteria was based on a double-antibody sandwich format on a nitrocellulose membrane. With the LFA method, 50 ng/ml of recombinant F1 protein and 10(5) CFU/mL of Y. pestis could be detected in less than 10 min. This assay also showed no cross-reaction with other Yersinia spp. or with some selected capsule-producing Enterobacteriaceae strains. Furthermore, detection of Y. pestis in simulated samples has been evaluated. The detection sensitivity of Y. pestis in various matrices was 10(5) CFU/mL, which was identical to that in PBS buffer. The results obtained suggest that LFA is an excellent tool for detection of Y. pestis contamination in an environment and hence can be used to monitor plague diseases when they emerge. PMID:25994256

  2. The Xylella fastidiosa PD1063 protein is secreted in association with outer membrane vesicles.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Brittany K; Voegel, Tanja; Kirkpatrick, Bruce C

    2014-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a gram-negative, xylem-limited plant pathogenic bacterium that causes disease in a variety of economically important agricultural crops including Pierce's disease of grapevines. Xylella fastidiosa biofilms formed in the xylem vessels of plants play a key role in early colonization and pathogenicity by providing a protected niche and enhanced cell survival. Here we investigate the role of Xylella fastidiosa PD1063, the predicted ortholog of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae PXO_03968, which encodes an outer membrane protein. To assess the function of the Xylella fastidiosa ortholog, we created Xylella fastidiosa mutants deleted for PD1063 and then assessed biofilm formation, cell-cell aggregation and cell growth in vitro. We also assessed disease severity and pathogen titers in grapevines mechanically inoculated with the Xylella fastidiosa PD1063 mutant. We found a significant decrease in cell-cell aggregation among PD1063 mutants but no differences in cell growth, biofilm formation, disease severity or titers in planta. Based on the demonstration that Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae PXO_03968 encodes an outer membrane protein, secreted in association with outer membrane vesicles, we predicted that PD1063 would also be secreted in a similar manner. Using anti-PD1063 antibodies, we found PD1063 in the supernatant and secreted in association with outer membrane vesicles. PD1063 purified from the supernatant, outer membrane fractions and outer membrane vesicles was 19.2 kD, corresponding to the predicted size of the processed protein. Our findings suggest Xylella fastidiosa PD1063 is not essential for development of Pierce's disease in Vitis vinifera grapevines although further research is required to determine the function of the PD1063 outer membrane protein in Xylella fastidiosa. PMID:25426629

  3. The Xylella fastidiosa PD1063 Protein Is Secreted in Association with Outer Membrane Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, Brittany K.; Voegel, Tanja; Kirkpatrick, Bruce C.

    2014-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a gram-negative, xylem-limited plant pathogenic bacterium that causes disease in a variety of economically important agricultural crops including Pierce's disease of grapevines. Xylella fastidiosa biofilms formed in the xylem vessels of plants play a key role in early colonization and pathogenicity by providing a protected niche and enhanced cell survival. Here we investigate the role of Xylella fastidiosa PD1063, the predicted ortholog of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae PXO_03968, which encodes an outer membrane protein. To assess the function of the Xylella fastidiosa ortholog, we created Xylella fastidiosa mutants deleted for PD1063 and then assessed biofilm formation, cell-cell aggregation and cell growth in vitro. We also assessed disease severity and pathogen titers in grapevines mechanically inoculated with the Xylella fastidiosa PD1063 mutant. We found a significant decrease in cell-cell aggregation among PD1063 mutants but no differences in cell growth, biofilm formation, disease severity or titers in planta. Based on the demonstration that Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae PXO_03968 encodes an outer membrane protein, secreted in association with outer membrane vesicles, we predicted that PD1063 would also be secreted in a similar manner. Using anti-PD1063 antibodies, we found PD1063 in the supernatant and secreted in association with outer membrane vesicles. PD1063 purified from the supernatant, outer membrane fractions and outer membrane vesicles was 19.2 kD, corresponding to the predicted size of the processed protein. Our findings suggest Xylella fastidiosa PD1063 is not essential for development of Pierce's disease in Vitis vinifera grapevines although further research is required to determine the function of the PD1063 outer membrane protein in Xylella fastidiosa. PMID:25426629

  4. Membrane tether formation from voltage-clamped outer hair cells using optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Feng; Ermilov, Sergey A.; Murdock, David R.; Brownell, William E.; Anvari, Bahman

    2004-06-01

    Outer hair cells contribute an active mechanical feedback to the vibrations of the cochlear structures resulting in the high sensitivity and frequency selectivity of normal hearing. We have designed and implemented a novel experimental setup that combines optical tweezers with patch-clamp apparatus to investigate the electromechanical properties of cellular plasma membranes. A micron-size bead trapped by the optical tweezers is brought in contact with the membrane of a voltage-clamped cell, and subsequently moved away to form a plasma membrane tether. Bead displacement during tether elongation is monitored by a quadrant photodetector to obtain time-resolved measurements of the tethering force. Salient information associated with the mechanical properties of the membrane tether can thus be obtained. Tethers can be pulled from the cell membrane at different holding potentials, and the tether force response can be measured while changing transmembrane potential. Experimental results from outer hair cells and human embryonic kidney cells are presented.

  5. Rhodopsin Forms Nanodomains in Rod Outer Segment Disc Membranes of the Cold-Blooded Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Rakshit, Tatini; Senapati, Subhadip; Sinha, Satyabrata; Whited, A M; Park, Paul S-H

    2015-01-01

    Rhodopsin forms nanoscale domains (i.e., nanodomains) in rod outer segment disc membranes from mammalian species. It is unclear whether rhodopsin arranges in a similar manner in amphibian species, which are often used as a model system to investigate the function of rhodopsin and the structure of photoreceptor cells. Moreover, since samples are routinely prepared at low temperatures, it is unclear whether lipid phase separation effects in the membrane promote the observed nanodomain organization of rhodopsin from mammalian species. Rod outer segment disc membranes prepared from the cold-blooded frog Xenopus laevis were investigated by atomic force microscopy to visualize the organization of rhodopsin in the absence of lipid phase separation effects. Atomic force microscopy revealed that rhodopsin nanodomains form similarly as that observed previously in mammalian membranes. Formation of nanodomains in ROS disc membranes is independent of lipid phase separation and conserved among vertebrates. PMID:26492040

  6. High-throughput Isolation and Characterization of Untagged Membrane Protein Complexes: Outer Membrane Complexes of Desulfovibrio vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Cell membranes represent the “front line” of cellular defense and the interface between a cell and its environment. To determine the range of proteins and protein complexes that are present in the cell membranes of a target organism, we have utilized a “tagless” process for the system-wide isolation and identification of native membrane protein complexes. As an initial subject for study, we have chosen the Gram-negative sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris. With this tagless methodology, we have identified about two-thirds of the outer membrane- associated proteins anticipated. Approximately three-fourths of these appear to form homomeric complexes. Statistical and machine-learning methods used to analyze data compiled over multiple experiments revealed networks of additional protein–protein interactions providing insight into heteromeric contacts made between proteins across this region of the cell. Taken together, these results establish a D. vulgaris outer membrane protein data set that will be essential for the detection and characterization of environment-driven changes in the outer membrane proteome and in the modeling of stress response pathways. The workflow utilized here should be effective for the global characterization of membrane protein complexes in a wide range of organisms. PMID:23098413

  7. Chemical Analysis of the Outer Membrane and Other Layers of the Cell Envelope of Acinetobacter sp

    PubMed Central

    Thorne, Kareen J. I.; Thornley, Margaret J.; Glauert, Audrey M.

    1973-01-01

    Chemical analysis of fractions of the cell envelope of Acinetobacter sp. strain MJT/F5/199A, prepared by breakage in the French press and removal of plasma membranes, followed by sequential treatment with lysozyme and with papain, confirmed the existence of layers previously identified by electron microscopy. Outside the plasma membrane and periplasmic space, the envelope is composed of (i) a peptidoglycan-containing dense layer, (ii) an intermediate layer, (iii) a lipopolysaccharide-containing outer membrane, and (iv) an ordered array of protein subunits. A small amount of carbohydrate (3%) is found associated with protein in the fraction containing both the surface subunits and the intermediate layer. The papain-treated outer membranes contain 67% protein, 24% lipid, together with 11% lipopolysaccharide, and about 6% of non-lipopolysaccharide hexosamine. Lipid is located only in the papain-treated outer-membrane and is mainly phospholipid: 29% phosphatidyl glycerol, 30% phosphatidyl ethanolamine, and 40% cardiolipin. The principal fatty acid is C18:1. Significant amounts of alcohols16:1 and alcohols18:1, which are found in Acinetobacter waxes, were recovered from the outer membrane. Images PMID:4745422

  8. Brucella ovis PA mutants for outer membrane proteins Omp10, Omp19, SP41, and BepC are not altered in their virulence and outer membrane properties.

    PubMed

    Sidhu-Muñoz, Rebeca S; Sancho, Pilar; Vizcaíno, Nieves

    2016-04-15

    Mutants in several genes have been obtained on the genetic background of virulent rough (lacking O-polysaccharide) Brucella ovis PA. The target genes encode outer membrane proteins previously associated with the virulence of smooth (bearing O-polysaccharide chains in the lipopolysaccharide) Brucella strains. Multiple attempts to delete omp16, coding for a homologue to peptidoglycan-associated lipoproteins, were unsuccessful, which suggests that Omp16 is probably essential for in vitro survival of B. ovis PA. Single deletion of omp10 or omp19-that encode two other outer membrane lipoproteins--was achieved, but the simultaneous removal of both genes failed, suggesting an essential complementary function between both proteins. Two other deletion mutants, defective in the Tol-C-homologue BepC or in the SP41 adhesin, were also obtained. Surprisingly when compared to previous results obtained with smooth Brucella, none of the B. ovis mutants showed attenuation in the virulence, either in the mouse model or in cellular models of professional and non-professional phagocytes. Additionally, and in contrast to the observations reported with smooth Brucella strains, several properties related to the outer membrane remained almost unaltered. These results evidence new distinctive traits between naturally rough B. ovis and smooth brucellae. PMID:27016758

  9. Genome-Wide Assessment of Outer Membrane Vesicle Production in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Kulp, Adam J.; Sun, Bo; Ai, Teresa; Manning, Andrew J.; Orench-Rivera, Nichole

    2015-01-01

    The production of outer membrane vesicles by Gram-negative bacteria has been well documented; however, the mechanism behind the biogenesis of these vesicles remains unclear. Here a high-throughput experimental method and systems-scale analysis was conducted to determine vesiculation values for the whole genome knockout library of Escherichia coli mutant strains (Keio collection). The resultant dataset quantitatively recapitulates previously observed phenotypes and implicates nearly 150 new genes in the process of vesiculation. Gene functional and biochemical pathway analyses suggest that mutations that truncate outer membrane structures such as lipopolysaccharide and enterobacterial common antigen lead to hypervesiculation, whereas mutants in oxidative stress response pathways result in lower levels. This study expands and refines the current knowledge regarding the cellular pathways required for outer membrane vesiculation in E. coli. PMID:26406465

  10. Crystal structure of the open state of the Neisseria gonorrhoeae MtrE outer membrane channel.

    PubMed

    Lei, Hsiang-Ting; Chou, Tsung-Han; Su, Chih-Chia; Bolla, Jani Reddy; Kumar, Nitin; Radhakrishnan, Abhijith; Long, Feng; Delmar, Jared A; Do, Sylvia V; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R; Shafer, William M; Yu, Edward W

    2014-01-01

    Active efflux of antimicrobial agents is one of the most important strategies used by bacteria to defend against antimicrobial factors present in their environment. Mediating many cases of antibiotic resistance are transmembrane efflux pumps, composed of one or more proteins. The Neisseria gonorrhoeae MtrCDE tripartite multidrug efflux pump, belonging to the hydrophobic and amphiphilic efflux resistance-nodulation-cell division (HAE-RND) family, spans both the inner and outer membranes of N. gonorrhoeae and confers resistance to a variety of antibiotics and toxic compounds. We here describe the crystal structure of N. gonorrhoeae MtrE, the outer membrane component of the MtrCDE tripartite multidrug efflux system. This trimeric MtrE channel forms a vertical tunnel extending down contiguously from the outer membrane surface to the periplasmic end, indicating that our structure of MtrE depicts an open conformational state of this channel. PMID:24901251

  11. Gene cloning and prokaryotic expression of recombinant outer membrane protein from Vibrio parahaemolyticus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Ye; Wang, Xiuli; Guo, Sheping; Qiu, Xuemei

    2011-06-01

    Gram-negative Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a common pathogen in humans and marine animals. The outer membrane protein of bacteria plays an important role in the infection and pathogenicity to the host. Thus, the outer membrane proteins are an ideal target for vaccines. We amplified a complete outer membrane protein gene (ompW) from V. parahaemolyticus ATCC 17802. We then cloned and expressed the gene into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) cells. The gene coded for a protein that was 42.78 kDa. We purified the protein using Ni-NTA affinity chromatography and Anti-His antibody Western blotting, respectively. Our results provide a basis for future application of the OmpW protein as a vaccine candidate against infection by V. parahaemolyticus. In addition, the purified OmpW protein can be used for further functional and structural studies.

  12. Cold Stress Makes Escherichia coli Susceptible to Glycopeptide Antibiotics by Altering Outer Membrane Integrity.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Jonathan M; French, Shawn; Ovchinnikova, Olga G; Bouwman, Catrien; Whitfield, Chris; Brown, Eric D

    2016-02-18

    A poor understanding of the mechanisms by which antibiotics traverse the outer membrane remains a considerable obstacle to the development of novel Gram-negative antibiotics. Herein, we demonstrate that the Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli becomes susceptible to the narrow-spectrum antibiotic vancomycin during growth at low temperatures. Heterologous expression of an Enterococcus vanHBX vancomycin resistance cluster in E. coli confirmed that the mechanism of action was through inhibition of peptidoglycan biosynthesis. To understand the nature of vancomycin permeability, we screened for strains of E. coli that displayed resistance to vancomycin at low temperature. Surprisingly, we observed that mutations in outer membrane biosynthesis suppressed vancomycin activity. Subsequent chemical analysis of lipopolysaccharide from vancomycin-sensitive and -resistant strains confirmed that suppression was correlated with truncations in the core oligosaccharide of lipopolysaccharide. These unexpected observations challenge the current understanding of outer membrane permeability, and provide new chemical insights into the susceptibility of E. coli to glycopeptide antibiotics. PMID:26853624

  13. Targeting of a Transporter to the Outer Apicoplast Membrane in the Human Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Christopher D.; McFadden, Geoffrey I.

    2016-01-01

    Apicoplasts are vestigial plastids in apicomplexan parasites like Plasmodium, the causative agent of malaria. Apicomplexan parasites are dependant on their apicoplasts for synthesis of various molecules that they are unable to scavenge in sufficient quantity from their host, which makes apicoplasts attractive drug targets. Proteins known as plastid phosphate translocators (pPTs) are embedded in the outer apicoplast membrane and are responsible for the import of carbon, energy and reducing power to drive anabolic synthesis in the organelle. We investigated how a pPT is targeted into the outer apicoplast membrane of the human malaria parasite P. falciparum. We showed that a transmembrane domain is likely to act as a recessed signal anchor to direct the protein into the endomembrane system, and that a tyrosine in the cytosolic N-terminus of the protein is essential for targeting, but one or more, as yet unidentified, factors are also essential to direct the protein into the outer apicoplast membrane. PMID:27442138

  14. Outer Membrane Permeability Barrier Disruption by Polymyxin in Polymyxin-Susceptible and -Resistant Salmonella typhimurium

    PubMed Central

    Vaara, Martti; Vaara, Timo

    1981-01-01

    In contrast to their polymyxin-susceptible parent strains, polymyxin-resistant Salmonella typhimurium mutants (pmrA strains) did not lose their outer membrane permeability barrier to macromolecules such as lysozyme and periplasmic proteins upon polymyxin treatment. The sensitization of pmrA strains to deoxycholate-induced lysis required 10-times-higher polymyxin concentrations than did the sensitization of the parent strains. These findings indicate that the pmrA mutation affects the outer membrane and decreases its susceptibility to polymyxin. By contrast, the pmrA mutants did not differ from their parents in the uptake of gentian violet after treatment with polymyxin, suggesting a degree of specificity in the pmrA effect in the outer membrane. Images PMID:6264852

  15. Mitochondrial Outer Membrane Proteome of Trypanosoma brucei Reveals Novel Factors Required to Maintain Mitochondrial Morphology*

    PubMed Central

    Niemann, Moritz; Wiese, Sebastian; Mani, Jan; Chanfon, Astrid; Jackson, Christopher; Meisinger, Chris; Warscheid, Bettina; Schneider, André

    2013-01-01

    Trypanosoma brucei is a unicellular parasite that causes devastating diseases in humans and animals. It diverged from most other eukaryotes very early in evolution and, as a consequence, has an unusual mitochondrial biology. Moreover, mitochondrial functions and morphology are highly regulated throughout the life cycle of the parasite. The outer mitochondrial membrane defines the boundary of the organelle. Its properties are therefore key for understanding how the cytosol and mitochondria communicate and how the organelle is integrated into the metabolism of the whole cell. We have purified the mitochondrial outer membrane of T. brucei and characterized its proteome using label-free quantitative mass spectrometry for protein abundance profiling in combination with statistical analysis. Our results show that the trypanosomal outer membrane proteome consists of 82 proteins, two-thirds of which have never been associated with mitochondria before. 40 proteins share homology with proteins of known functions. The function of 42 proteins, 33 of which are specific to trypanosomatids, remains unknown. 11 proteins are essential for the disease-causing bloodstream form of T. brucei and therefore may be exploited as novel drug targets. A comparison with the outer membrane proteome of yeast defines a set of 17 common proteins that are likely present in the mitochondrial outer membrane of all eukaryotes. Known factors involved in the regulation of mitochondrial morphology are virtually absent in T. brucei. Interestingly, RNAi-mediated ablation of three outer membrane proteins of unknown function resulted in a collapse of the network-like mitochondrion of procyclic cells and for the first time identified factors that control mitochondrial shape in T. brucei. PMID:23221899

  16. Subdominant Outer Membrane Antigens in Anaplasma marginale: Conservation, Antigenicity, and Protective Capacity Using Recombinant Protein

    PubMed Central

    Ducken, Deirdre R.; Brown, Wendy C.; Alperin, Debra C.; Brayton, Kelly A.; Reif, Kathryn E.; Turse, Joshua E.; Palmer, Guy H.; Noh, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Anaplasma marginale is a tick-borne rickettsial pathogen of cattle with a worldwide distribution. Currently a safe and efficacious vaccine is unavailable. Outer membrane protein (OMP) extracts or a defined surface protein complex reproducibly induce protective immunity. However, there are several knowledge gaps limiting progress in vaccine development. First, are these OMPs conserved among the diversity of A. marginale strains circulating in endemic regions? Second, are the most highly conserved outer membrane proteins in the immunogens recognized by immunized and protected animals? Lastly, can this subset of OMPs recognized by antibody from protected vaccinates and conserved among strains recapitulate the protection of outer membrane vaccines? To address the first goal, genes encoding OMPs AM202, AM368, AM854, AM936, AM1041, and AM1096, major subdominant components of the outer membrane, were cloned and sequenced from geographically diverse strains and isolates. AM202, AM936, AM854, and AM1096 share 99.9 to 100% amino acid identity. AM1041 has 97.1 to 100% and AM368 has 98.3 to 99.9% amino acid identity. While all four of the most highly conserved OMPs were recognized by IgG from animals immunized with outer membranes, linked surface protein complexes, or unlinked surface protein complexes and shown to be protected from challenge, the highest titers and consistent recognition among vaccinates were to AM854 and AM936. Consequently, animals were immunized with recombinant AM854 and AM936 and challenged. Recombinant vaccinates and purified outer membrane vaccinates had similar IgG and IgG2 responses to both proteins. However, the recombinant vaccinates developed higher bacteremia after challenge as compared to adjuvant-only controls and outer membrane vaccinates. These results provide the first evidence that vaccination with specific antigens may exacerbate disease. Progressing from the protective capacity of outer membrane formulations to recombinant vaccines

  17. Lysyl-derived aldehydes in outer membrane proteins of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Diedrich, D L; Schnaitman, C A

    1978-01-01

    The major outer membrane proteins from Escherichia coli K-12 are modified to contain alpha-aminoadipic acid delta-semialdehyde (allysine). The allysine was found to be derived from lysine and it was identified by derivatizing it to chloronorleucine by reduction, alpha-aminoadipic acid by oxidation, and to alpha,epsilon-diaminopimelic acid by reacting it with CN- and NH3. The alpha-aminoadipic acid was identified by mass spectrometry. Two major outer membrane proteins were found to possess allysine, a modified lysine characteristically found to connective tissue. PMID:358196

  18. Energized outer membrane and spatial separation of metabolic processes in the hyperthermophilic Archaeon Ignicoccus hospitalis

    PubMed Central

    Küper, Ulf; Meyer, Carolin; Müller, Volker; Rachel, Reinhard; Huber, Harald

    2010-01-01

    ATP synthase catalyzes ATP synthesis at the expense of an electrochemical ion gradient across a membrane that can be generated by different exergonic reactions. Sulfur reduction is the main energy-yielding reaction in the hyperthermophilic strictly anaerobic Crenarchaeon Ignicoccus hospitalis. This organism is unusual in having an inner and an outer membrane that are separated by a huge intermembrane compartment. Here we show, on the basis of immuno-EM analyses of ultrathin sections and immunofluorescence experiments with whole I. hospitalis cells, that the ATP synthase and H2:sulfur oxidoreductase complexes of this organism are located in the outer membrane. These two enzyme complexes are mandatory for the generation of an electrochemical gradient and for ATP synthesis. Thus, among all prokaryotes possessing two membranes in their cell envelope (including Planctomycetes, Gram-negative bacteria), I. hospitalis is a unique organism, with an energized outer membrane and ATP synthesis within the periplasmic space. In addition, DAPI staining and EM analyses showed that DNA and ribosomes are localized in the cytoplasm, leading to the conclusion that in I. hospitalis energy conservation is separated from information processing and protein biosynthesis. This raises questions regarding the function of the two membranes, the interaction between these compartments, and the general definition of a cytoplasmic membrane. PMID:20133662

  19. Current noise spectrum and capacitance due to the membrane motor of the outer hair cell: theory.

    PubMed Central

    Iwasa, K H

    1997-01-01

    The voltage-dependent motility of the outer hair cell is based on a membrane motor densely distributed in the lateral membrane. The gating charge of the membrane motor is manifested as a bell-shaped membrane potential dependence of the membrane capacitance. In this paper it is shown that movements of the gating charge should produce a high-pass current noise described by an inverse Lorentzian similar to the one shown by Kolb and Läuger for ion carriers. The frequency dependence of the voltage-dependent capacitance is also derived. These derivations are based on membrane motor models with two or three states. These two models lead to similar predictions on the capacitance and current noise. It is expected that the examination of the spectral properties of these quantities would be a useful means of determining the relaxation time for conformational transitions of the membrane motor. PMID:9414211

  20. Formation of Mitochondrial Outer Membrane Derived Protrusions and Vesicles in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Akihiro; Fujimoto, Masaru; Katayama, Kenta; Yamaoka, Shohei; Tsutsumi, Nobuhiro; Arimura, Shin-Ichi

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that have inner and outer membranes. In plants, the inner membrane has been well studied but relatively little is known about the outer membrane. Here we report that Arabidopsis cells have mitochondrial outer membrane-derived structures, some of which protrude from the main body of mitochondria (mitochondrial outer-membrane protrusions; MOPs), while others form vesicle-like structures without a matrix marker. The latter vesicle-like structures are similar to some mammalian MDVs (mitochondrial-derived vesicles). Live imaging demonstrated that a plant MDV budded off from the tip of a MOP. MDVs were also observed in the drp3a drp3b double mutant, indicating that they could be formed without the mitochondrial fission factors DRP3A and DRP3B. Double staining studies showed that the MDVs were not peroxisomes, endosomes, Golgi apparatus or trans-Golgi network (TGN). The numbers of MDVs and MOPs increased in senescent leaves and after dark treatment. Together, these results suggest that MDVs and MOPs are related to leaf senescence. PMID:26752045

  1. Formation of Mitochondrial Outer Membrane Derived Protrusions and Vesicles in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Akihiro; Fujimoto, Masaru; Katayama, Kenta; Yamaoka, Shohei; Tsutsumi, Nobuhiro; Arimura, Shin-ichi

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that have inner and outer membranes. In plants, the inner membrane has been well studied but relatively little is known about the outer membrane. Here we report that Arabidopsis cells have mitochondrial outer membrane-derived structures, some of which protrude from the main body of mitochondria (mitochondrial outer-membrane protrusions; MOPs), while others form vesicle-like structures without a matrix marker. The latter vesicle-like structures are similar to some mammalian MDVs (mitochondrial-derived vesicles). Live imaging demonstrated that a plant MDV budded off from the tip of a MOP. MDVs were also observed in the drp3a drp3b double mutant, indicating that they could be formed without the mitochondrial fission factors DRP3A and DRP3B. Double staining studies showed that the MDVs were not peroxisomes, endosomes, Golgi apparatus or trans-Golgi network (TGN). The numbers of MDVs and MOPs increased in senescent leaves and after dark treatment. Together, these results suggest that MDVs and MOPs are related to leaf senescence. PMID:26752045

  2. Heat Modifiability of Outer Membrane Proteins from Gram-Negative Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Noinaj, Nicholas; Kuszak, Adam J; Buchanan, Susan K

    2015-01-01

    β-barrel membrane proteins are somewhat unique in that their folding states can be monitored using semi-native SDS-PAGE methods to determine if they are folded properly or not. This property, which is commonly referred to as heat modifiability, has been used for many years on both purified protein and on whole cells to monitor folded states of proteins of interest. Additionally, heat modifiability assays have proven indispensable in studying the BAM complex and its role in folding and inserting β-barrel membrane proteins into the outer membrane. Here, we describe the protocol our lab uses for performing the heat modifiability assay in our studies on outer membrane proteins. PMID:26427675

  3. Heat Modifiability of Outer Membrane Proteins from Gram-Negative Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Noinaj, Nicholas; Kuszak, Adam J.; Buchanan, Susan K.

    2016-01-01

    Summary β-barrel membrane proteins are somewhat unique in that their folding states can be monitored using semi-native SDS-PAGE methods to determine if they are folded properly or not. This property, which is commonly referred to as heat modifiability, has been used for many years on both purified protein and on whole cells to monitor folded states of proteins of interest. Additionally, heat modifiability assays have proven indispensable in studying the BAM complex and its role in folding and inserting β-barrel membrane proteins into the outer membrane. Here, we describe the protocol our lab uses for performing the heat modifiability assay in our studies on outer membrane proteins. PMID:26427675

  4. Expression and Association of the Yersinia pestis Translocon Proteins, YopB and YopD, Are Facilitated by Nanolipoprotein Particles

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Coleman, Matthew A.; Cappuccio, Jenny A.; Blanchette, Craig D.; Gao, Tingjuan; Arroyo, Erin S.; Hinz, Angela K.; Bourguet, Feliza A.; Segelke, Brent; Hoeprich, Paul D.; Huser, Thomas; et al

    2016-03-25

    Yersinia pestis enters host cells and evades host defenses, in part, through interactions between Yersinia pestis proteins and host membranes. One such interaction is through the type III secretion system, which uses a highly conserved and ordered complex for Yersinia pestis outer membrane effector protein translocation called the injectisome. The portion of the injectisome that interacts directly with host cell membranes is referred to as the translocon. The translocon is believed to form a pore allowing effector molecules to enter host cells. To facilitate mechanistic studies of the translocon, we have developed a cell-free approach for expressing translocon pore proteinsmore » as a complex supported in a bilayer membrane mimetic nano-scaffold known as a nanolipoprotein particle (NLP) Initial results show cell-free expression of Yersinia pestis outer membrane proteins YopB and YopD was enhanced in the presence of liposomes. However, these complexes tended to aggregate and precipitate. With the addition of co-expressed (NLP) forming components, the YopB and/or YopD complex was rendered soluble, increasing the yield of protein for biophysical studies. Biophysical methods such as Atomic Force Microscopy and Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy were used to confirm that the soluble YopB/D complex was associated with NLPs. An interaction between the YopB/D complex and NLP was validated by immunoprecipitation. The YopB/D translocon complex embedded in a NLP provides a platform for protein interaction studies between pathogen and host proteins. Ultimately, these studies will help elucidate the poorly understood mechanism which enables this pathogen to inject effector proteins into host cells, thus evading host defenses.« less

  5. Expression and Association of the Yersinia pestis Translocon Proteins, YopB and YopD, Are Facilitated by Nanolipoprotein Particles

    PubMed Central

    Blanchette, Craig D.; Gao, Tingjuan; Arroyo, Erin S.; Hinz, Angela K.; Bourguet, Feliza A.; Segelke, Brent; Hoeprich, Paul D.; Huser, Thomas; Laurence, Ted A.; Motin, Vladimir L.; Chromy, Brett A.

    2016-01-01

    Yersinia pestis enters host cells and evades host defenses, in part, through interactions between Yersinia pestis proteins and host membranes. One such interaction is through the type III secretion system, which uses a highly conserved and ordered complex for Yersinia pestis outer membrane effector protein translocation called the injectisome. The portion of the injectisome that interacts directly with host cell membranes is referred to as the translocon. The translocon is believed to form a pore allowing effector molecules to enter host cells. To facilitate mechanistic studies of the translocon, we have developed a cell-free approach for expressing translocon pore proteins as a complex supported in a bilayer membrane mimetic nano-scaffold known as a nanolipoprotein particle (NLP) Initial results show cell-free expression of Yersinia pestis outer membrane proteins YopB and YopD was enhanced in the presence of liposomes. However, these complexes tended to aggregate and precipitate. With the addition of co-expressed (NLP) forming components, the YopB and/or YopD complex was rendered soluble, increasing the yield of protein for biophysical studies. Biophysical methods such as Atomic Force Microscopy and Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy were used to confirm that the soluble YopB/D complex was associated with NLPs. An interaction between the YopB/D complex and NLP was validated by immunoprecipitation. The YopB/D translocon complex embedded in a NLP provides a platform for protein interaction studies between pathogen and host proteins. These studies will help elucidate the poorly understood mechanism which enables this pathogen to inject effector proteins into host cells, thus evading host defenses. PMID:27015536

  6. Expression and Association of the Yersinia pestis Translocon Proteins, YopB and YopD, Are Facilitated by Nanolipoprotein Particles.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Matthew A; Cappuccio, Jenny A; Blanchette, Craig D; Gao, Tingjuan; Arroyo, Erin S; Hinz, Angela K; Bourguet, Feliza A; Segelke, Brent; Hoeprich, Paul D; Huser, Thomas; Laurence, Ted A; Motin, Vladimir L; Chromy, Brett A

    2016-01-01

    Yersinia pestis enters host cells and evades host defenses, in part, through interactions between Yersinia pestis proteins and host membranes. One such interaction is through the type III secretion system, which uses a highly conserved and ordered complex for Yersinia pestis outer membrane effector protein translocation called the injectisome. The portion of the injectisome that interacts directly with host cell membranes is referred to as the translocon. The translocon is believed to form a pore allowing effector molecules to enter host cells. To facilitate mechanistic studies of the translocon, we have developed a cell-free approach for expressing translocon pore proteins as a complex supported in a bilayer membrane mimetic nano-scaffold known as a nanolipoprotein particle (NLP) Initial results show cell-free expression of Yersinia pestis outer membrane proteins YopB and YopD was enhanced in the presence of liposomes. However, these complexes tended to aggregate and precipitate. With the addition of co-expressed (NLP) forming components, the YopB and/or YopD complex was rendered soluble, increasing the yield of protein for biophysical studies. Biophysical methods such as Atomic Force Microscopy and Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy were used to confirm that the soluble YopB/D complex was associated with NLPs. An interaction between the YopB/D complex and NLP was validated by immunoprecipitation. The YopB/D translocon complex embedded in a NLP provides a platform for protein interaction studies between pathogen and host proteins. These studies will help elucidate the poorly understood mechanism which enables this pathogen to inject effector proteins into host cells, thus evading host defenses. PMID:27015536

  7. Purification and partial characterization of the major outer membrane protein of Chlamydia trachomatis

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, H.D.; Kromhout, J.; Schachter, J.

    1981-03-01

    Elementary bodies (EB) of Chlamydia trachomatis serotypes C, E, and L2 were extrinsically radioiodinated, and whole-cell lysates of these serotypes were compared by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Autoradiography of the polypeptide profiles identified a major surface protein with an apparent subunit molecular weight of 39,500 that was common to each C. trachomatis serotype. The abilities of nonionic (Triton X-100), dipolar ionic (Zwittergent TM-314), mild (sodium deoxycholate and sodium N-lauroyl sarcosine), and strongly anionic (SDS) detergents to extract this protein from intact EB of the L2 serotype were investigated by SDS-PAGE analysis of the soluble and insoluble fractions obtained after each detergent treatment. Only SDS readily extracted this protein from intact EB. Sarkosyl treatment selectively solubilized the majority of other EB proteins, leaving the 39,500-dalton protein associated with the Sarkosyl-insoluble fraction. Ultrastructural studies of the Sarkosyl-insoluble EB pellet showed it to consist of empty EB particles possessing an apparently intact outer membrane. No structural evidence for a peptidoglycan-like cell wall was found. Morphologically these chlamydial outer membrane complexes (COMC) resembled intact chlamydial EB outer membranes. The 39,500-dalton outer membrane protein was quantitatively extracted from COMC by treating them with 2% SDS at 60 degrees C. This protein accounted for 61% of the total COMC-associated protein, and its extraction resulted in a concomitant loss of the COMC membrane structure and morphology. The 39,500-dalton major outer membrane protein is a serogroup antigen of C. trachomatis organisms.

  8. A novel role for the nuclear membrane protein emerin in association of the centrosome to the outer nuclear membrane

    PubMed Central

    Salpingidou, Georgia; Smertenko, Andrei; Hausmanowa-Petrucewicz, Irena; Hussey, Patrick J.; Hutchison, Chris J.

    2007-01-01

    The type II inner nuclear membrane protein emerin is a component of the LINC complex that connects the nuclear lamina to the actin cytoskeleton. In emerin-null or -deficient human dermal fibroblasts we find that the centrosome is detached from the nucleus. Moreover, following siRNA knockdown of emerin in wild-type fibroblasts, the centrosome also becomes detached from the nucleus. We show that emerin interacts with tubulin, and that nocadozole-treated wild-type cells phenocopy the detached centrosome characteristic of emerin-null/deficient cells. We also find that a significant fraction of emerin is located at the outer nuclear membrane and peripheral ER, where it interacts directly with the centrosome. Our data provide the first evidence in mammalian cells as to the nature of the linkage of the centrosome, and therefore the tubulin cytoskeleton, with the outer nuclear membrane. PMID:17785515

  9. From Constructs to Crystals - Towards Structure Determination of β-barrel Outer Membrane Proteins.

    PubMed

    Noinaj, Nicholas; Mayclin, Stephen; Stanley, Ann M; Jao, Christine C; Buchanan, Susan K

    2016-01-01

    Membrane proteins serve important functions in cells such as nutrient transport, motility, signaling, survival and virulence, yet constitute only ~1% percent of known structures. There are two types of membrane proteins, α-helical and β-barrel. While α-helical membrane proteins can be found in nearly all cellular membranes, β-barrel membrane proteins can only be found in the outer membranes of mitochondria, chloroplasts, and Gram-negative bacteria. One common bottleneck in structural studies of membrane proteins in general is getting enough pure sample for analysis. In hopes of assisting those interested in solving the structure of their favorite β-barrel outer membrane protein (OMP), general protocols are presented for the production of target β-barrel OMPs at levels useful for structure determination by either X-ray crystallography and/or NMR spectroscopy. Here, we outline construct design for both native expression and for expression into inclusion bodies, purification using an affinity tag, and crystallization using detergent screening, bicelle, and lipidic cubic phase techniques. These protocols have been tested and found to work for most OMPs from Gram-negative bacteria; however, there are some targets, particularly for mitochondria and chloroplasts that may require other methods for expression and purification. As such, the methods here should be applicable for most projects that involve OMPs from Gram-negative bacteria, yet the expression levels and amount of purified sample will vary depending on the target OMP. PMID:27404000

  10. NMR structural studies of the bacterial outer membrane protein OmpX in oriented lipid bilayer membranes

    PubMed Central

    Mahalakshmi, Radhakrishnan; Franzin, Carla M.; Choi, Jungyuen; Marassi, Francesca M.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY The β-barrels found in the outer membranes of prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms constitute an important functional class of proteins. Here we present solid-state NMR spectra of the bacterial outer membrane protein OmpX in oriented lipid bilayer membranes. We show that OmpX is folded in both glass-supported oriented lipid bilayers and in lipid bicelles that can be magnetically oriented with the membrane plane parallel or perpendicular to the direction of the magnetic field. The presence of resolved peaks in these spectra demonstrates that OmpX undergoes rotational diffusion around an axis perpendicular to the membrane surface. A tightly hydrogen-bonded domain of OmpX resists exchange with D2O for days and is assigned to the transmembrane β-barrel, while peaks at isotropic resonance frequencies that disappear rapidly in D2O are assigned to the extracellular and periplasmic loops. The two-dimensional 1H/15N separated local field spectra of OmpX have several resolved peaks, and agree well with the spectra calculated from the crystal structure of OmpX rotated with the barrel axis nearly parallel (5° tilt) to the direction of the magnetic field. The data indicate that it will be possible to obtain site-specific resonance assignments and to determine the structure, tilt, and rotation of OmpX in membranes using the solid-state NMR methods that are currently being applied to α-helical membrane proteins. PMID:17916325

  11. Porin Loss Impacts the Host Inflammatory Response to Outer Membrane Vesicles of Klebsiella pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Kelli L.; Cahill, Bethaney K.; Dilello, Sarah K.; Gutel, Dedra; Brunson, Debra N.; Albertí, Sebastián

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic-resistant strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae often exhibit porin loss. In this study, we investigated how porin loss impacted the composition of secreted outer membrane vesicles as well as their ability to trigger proinflammatory cytokine secretion by macrophages. We hypothesize that porin loss associated with antibiotic resistance will directly impact both the composition of outer membrane vesicles and their interactions with phagocytic cells. Using clonally related clinical isolates of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-positive Klebsiella pneumoniae with different patterns of porin expression, we demonstrated that altered expression of OmpK35 and OmpK36 results in broad alterations to the protein profile of secreted vesicles. Additionally, the level of OmpA incorporation was elevated in strains lacking a single porin. Porin loss significantly impacted macrophage inflammatory responses to purified vesicles. Outer membrane vesicles lacking both OmpK35 and OmpK36 elicited significantly lower levels of proinflammatory cytokine secretion than vesicles from strains expressing one or both porins. These data demonstrate that antibiotic resistance-associated porin loss has a broad and significant effect on both the composition of outer membrane vesicles and their interactions with phagocytic cells, which may impact bacterial survival and inflammatory reactions in the host. PMID:26666932

  12. Subdominant outer membrane antigens in anaplasma marginale: conservation, antigenicity, and protective capacity using recombinant protein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anaplasma marginale is a tick-borne rickettsial pathogen of cattle with a worldwide distribution. Currently a safe and efficacious vaccine is unavailable. Outer membrane protein (OMP) extracts or a well- defined surface protein complex reproducibly induce protective immunity. However, there are seve...

  13. Assessment of cell-surface exposure and vaccinogenic potentials of Treponema pallidum candidate outer membrane proteins

    PubMed Central

    Tomson, Farol L.; Conley, Patrick G.; Norgard, Michael V.; Hagman, Kayla E.

    2007-01-01

    Syphilis, a sexually transmitted infection caused by the spirochetal bacterium Treponema pallidum, remains a global public health problem. T. pallidum is believed to be an extracellular pathogen and, as such, the identification of T. pallidum outer membrane proteins that could serve as targets for opsonic or bactericidal antibodies has remained a high research priority for vaccine development. However, the identification of T. pallidum outer membrane proteins has remained highly elusive. Recent studies and bioinformatics have implicated four treponemal proteins as potential outer membrane proteins (TP0155, TP0326, TP0483 and TP0956). Indirect immunofluorescence assays performed on treponemes encapsulated within agarose gel microdroplets failed to provide evidence that any of these four molecules were surface-exposed in T. pallidum. Second, recombinant fusion proteins corresponding to all four candidate outer membrane proteins were used separately, or in combination, to vaccinate New Zealand White rabbits. Despite achieving high titers (>1:50,000) of serum antibodies, none of the rabbits displayed chancre immunity after intradermal challenge with viable T. pallidum. PMID:17890130

  14. TonB-Dependent outer-membrane proteins and siderophore utilization in Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The soil bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5 produces two siderophores, a pyoverdine and enantio-pyochelin, and its proteome includes 45 TonB-dependent outer-membrane proteins, which commonly function in uptake of siderophores and other substrates from the environment. The 45 proteins share the ...

  15. Clueless is a conserved ribonucleoprotein that binds the ribosome at the mitochondrial outer membrane

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Aditya; Cox, Rachel T.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mitochondrial function is tied to the nucleus, in that hundreds of proteins encoded by nuclear genes must be imported into mitochondria. While post-translational import is fairly well understood, emerging evidence supports that mitochondrial site-specific import, or co-translational import, also occurs. However, the mechanism and the extent to which it is used are not fully understood. We have previously shown Clueless (Clu), a conserved multi-domain protein, associates with mitochondrial outer membrane proteins, including Translocase of outer membrane 20, and genetically and physically interacts with the PINK1–Parkin pathway. The human ortholog of Clu, Cluh, was shown to bind nuclear-encoded mitochondrially destined mRNAs. Here we identify the conserved tetratricopeptide domain of Clu as predominantly responsible for binding mRNA. In addition, we show Clu interacts with the ribosome at the mitochondrial outer membrane. Taken together, these data support a model whereby Clu binds to and mitochondrially targets mRNAs to facilitate mRNA localization to the outer mitochondrial membrane, potentially for site-specific or co-translational import. This role may link the presence of efficient mitochondrial protein import to mitochondrial quality control through the PINK1–Parkin pathway. PMID:26834020

  16. Damage of the outer membrane of enteric gram-negative bacteria by lactoferrin and transferrin.

    PubMed Central

    Ellison, R T; Giehl, T J; LaForce, F M

    1988-01-01

    Many studies have shown that lactoferrin and transferrin have antimicrobial activity against gram-negative bacteria, but a mechanism of action has not been defined. We hypothesized that the iron-binding proteins could affect the gram-negative outer membrane in a manner similar to that of the chelator EDTA. The ability of lactoferrin and transferrin to release radiolabeled lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from a UDP-galactose epimerase-deficient Escherichia coli mutant and from wild-type Salmonella typhimurium strains was tested. Initial studies in barbital-acetate buffer showed that EDTA and lactoferrin cause significant release of LPS from all three strains. Further studies found that LPS release was blocked by iron saturation of lactoferrin, occurred between pH 6 and 7.5, was comparable for bacterial concentrations from 10(4) to 10(7) CFU/ml, and increased with increasing lactoferrin concentrations. Studies using Hanks balanced salt solution lacking calcium and magnesium showed that transferrin also could cause LPS release. Additionally, both lactoferrin and transferrin increased the antibacterial effect of a subinhibitory concentration of rifampin, a drug excluded by the bacterial outer membrane. This work demonstrates that these iron-binding proteins damage the gram-negative outer membrane and alter bacterial outer membrane permeability. Images PMID:3169987

  17. Role of Phosphatidylethanolamine in the Biogenesis of Mitochondrial Outer Membrane Proteins*

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Thomas; Horvath, Susanne E.; Böttinger, Lena; Gebert, Natalia; Daum, Günther; Pfanner, Nikolaus

    2013-01-01

    The mitochondrial outer membrane contains proteinaceous machineries for the import and assembly of proteins, including TOM (translocase of the outer membrane) and SAM (sorting and assembly machinery). It has been shown that the dimeric phospholipid cardiolipin is required for the stability of TOM and SAM complexes and thus for the efficient import and assembly of β-barrel proteins and some α-helical proteins of the outer membrane. Here, we report that mitochondria deficient in phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), the second non-bilayer-forming phospholipid, are impaired in the biogenesis of β-barrel proteins, but not of α-helical outer membrane proteins. The stability of TOM and SAM complexes is not disturbed by the lack of PE. By dissecting the import steps of β-barrel proteins, we show that an early import stage involving translocation through the TOM complex is affected. In PE-depleted mitochondria, the TOM complex binds precursor proteins with reduced efficiency. We conclude that PE is required for the proper function of the TOM complex. PMID:23625917

  18. Distinct Pathways Mediate the Sorting of Tail-anchored Mitochondrial Outer Membrane Proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known about the biogenesis of tail-anchored (TA) proteins localized to the mitochondrial outer membrane in plant cells. To address this issue, we screened all of the (>600) known and predicted TA proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana for those annotated, based on Gene Ontology, to possess mitoc...

  19. Distinct Pathways Mediate the Sorting of Tail-anchored Mitochondrial Outer Membrane Proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known about the biogenesis of tail-anchored (TA) proteins localized to the mitochondrial outer membrane in plant cells. To address this issue, we screened all of the (>500) known and predicted TA proteins in Arabidopsis for those annotated, based on Gene Ontology, to possess mitochondrial...

  20. OmpW of Caulobacter crescentus Functions as an Outer Membrane Channel for Cations

    PubMed Central

    Benz, Roland; Jones, Michael D.; Younas, Farhan; Maier, Elke; Modi, Niraj; Mentele, Reinhard; Lottspeich, Friedrich; Kleinekathöfer, Ulrich; Smit, John

    2015-01-01

    Caulobacter crescentus is an oligotrophic bacterium that lives in dilute organic environments such as soil and freshwater. This bacterium represents an interesting model for cellular differentiation and regulation because daughter cells after division have different forms: one is motile while the other is non-motile and can adhere to surfaces. Interestingly, the known genome of C. crescentus does not contain genes predicted to code for outer membrane porins of the OmpF/C general diffusion type present in enteric bacteria or those coding for specific porins selective for classes of substrates. Instead, genes coding for 67 TonB-dependent outer membrane receptors have been identified, suggesting that active transport of specific nutrients may be the norm. Here, we report that high channel-forming activity was observed with crude outer membrane extracts of C. crescentus in lipid bilayer experiments, indicating that the outer membrane of C. crescentus contained an ion-permeable channel with a single-channel conductance of about 120 pS in 1M KCl. The channel-forming protein with an apparent molecular mass of about 20 kDa was purified to homogeneity. Partial protein sequencing of the protein indicated it was a member of the OmpW family of outer membrane proteins from Gram-negative bacteria. This channel was not observed in reconstitution experiments with crude outer membrane extracts of an OmpW deficient C. crescentus mutant. Biophysical analysis of the C. crescentus OmpW suggested that it has features that are special for general diffusion porins of Gram-negative outer membranes because it was not a wide aqueous channel. Furthermore, OmpW of C. crescentus seems to be different to known OmpW porins and has a preference for ions, in particular cations. A putative model for OmpW of C. crescentus was built on the basis of the known 3D-structures of OmpW of Escherichia coli and OprG of Pseudomonas aeruginosa using homology modeling. A comparison of the two known structures

  1. Single-point single-molecule FRAP distinguishes inner and outer nuclear membrane protein distribution

    PubMed Central

    Mudumbi, Krishna C; Schirmer, Eric C; Yang, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    The normal distribution of nuclear envelope transmembrane proteins (NETs) is disrupted in several human diseases. NETs are synthesized on the endoplasmic reticulum and then transported from the outer nuclear membrane (ONM) to the inner nuclear membrane (INM). Quantitative determination of the distribution of NETs on the ONM and INM is limited in available approaches, which moreover provide no information about translocation rates in the two membranes. Here we demonstrate a single-point single-molecule FRAP microscopy technique that enables determination of distribution and translocation rates for NETs in vivo. PMID:27558844

  2. Single-point single-molecule FRAP distinguishes inner and outer nuclear membrane protein distribution.

    PubMed

    Mudumbi, Krishna C; Schirmer, Eric C; Yang, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    The normal distribution of nuclear envelope transmembrane proteins (NETs) is disrupted in several human diseases. NETs are synthesized on the endoplasmic reticulum and then transported from the outer nuclear membrane (ONM) to the inner nuclear membrane (INM). Quantitative determination of the distribution of NETs on the ONM and INM is limited in available approaches, which moreover provide no information about translocation rates in the two membranes. Here we demonstrate a single-point single-molecule FRAP microscopy technique that enables determination of distribution and translocation rates for NETs in vivo. PMID:27558844

  3. Efficient quantification and characterization of bacterial outer membrane derived nano-particles with flow cytometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Wieser, Andreas; Storz, Enno; Liegl, Gabriele; Peter, Annabell; Pritsch, Michael; Shock, Jonathan; Wai, Sun Nyunt; Schubert, Sören

    2014-11-01

    There currently exists no efficient and easy method for size profiling and counting of membranous nano-scale particles, such as bacterial outer membrane vesicles (OMVs). We present here a cost-effective and fast method capable of profiling and counting small sample volumes of nano-scale membranous vesicles with standard laboratory equipment without the need for any washing steps. OMV populations of different bacterial species are compared and even subpopulations of OMVs can be identified after a simple labelling procedure. Counting is possible over three orders of magnitude without any changes to the protocol. Protein contaminations do not alter the described measurements. PMID:25139826

  4. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis Outer Membrane Channel Protein CpnT Confers Susceptibility to Toxic Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Danilchanka, Olga; Pires, David

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis, is protected from toxic solutes by an effective outer membrane permeability barrier. Recently, we showed that the outer membrane channel protein CpnT is required for efficient nutrient uptake by M. tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis BCG. In this study, we found that the cpnT mutant of M. bovis BCG is more resistant than the wild type to a large number of drugs and antibiotics, including rifampin, ethambutol, clarithromycin, tetracycline, and ampicillin, by 8- to 32-fold. Furthermore, the cpnT mutant of M. bovis BCG was 100-fold more resistant to nitric oxide, a major bactericidal agent required to control M. tuberculosis infections in mice. Thus, CpnT constitutes the first outer membrane susceptibility factor in slow-growing mycobacteria. The dual functions of CpnT in uptake of nutrients and mediating susceptibility to toxic molecules are reflected in macrophage infection experiments: while loss of CpnT was detrimental for M. bovis BCG in macrophages that enable bacterial replication, presumably due to inadequate nutrient uptake, it conferred a survival advantage in macrophages that mount a strong bactericidal response. Importantly, the cpnT gene showed a significantly higher density of nonsynonymous mutations in drug-resistant clinical M. tuberculosis strains, indicating that CpnT is under selective pressure in human tuberculosis and/or during chemotherapy. Our results indicate that the CpnT channel constitutes an outer membrane gateway controlling the influx of nutrients and toxic molecules into slow-growing mycobacteria. This study revealed that reducing protein-mediated outer membrane permeability might constitute a new drug resistance mechanism in slow-growing mycobacteria. PMID:25645841

  5. Localization of MRP-1 to the outer mitochondrial membrane by the chaperone protein HSP90β.

    PubMed

    Roundhill, Elizabeth; Turnbull, Doug; Burchill, Susan

    2016-05-01

    Overexpression of plasma membrane multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP-1) in Ewing's sarcoma (ES) predicts poor outcome. MRP-1 is also expressed in mitochondria, and we have examined the submitochondrial localization of MRP-1 and investigated the mechanism of MRP-1 transport and role of this organelle in the response to doxorubicin. The mitochondrial localization of MRP-1 was examined in ES cell lines by differential centrifugation and membrane solubilization by digitonin. Whether MRP-1 is chaperoned by heat shock proteins (HSPs) was investigated by immunoprecipitation, immunofluorescence microscopy, and HSP knockout using small hairpin RNA and inhibitors (apoptozole, 17-AAG, and NVPAUY). The effect of disrupting mitochondrial MRP-1-dependent efflux activity on the cytotoxic effect of doxorubicin was investigated by counting viable cell number. Mitochondrial MRP-1 is glycosylated and localized to the outer mitochondrial membrane, where it is coexpressed with HSP90. MRP-1 binds to both HSP90 and HSP70, although only inhibition of HSP90β decreases expression of MRP-1 in the mitochondria. Disruption of mitochondrial MRP-1-dependent efflux significantly increases the cytotoxic effect of doxorubicin (combination index, <0.9). For the first time, we have demonstrated that mitochondrial MRP-1 is expressed in the outer mitochondrial membrane and is a client protein of HSP90β, where it may play a role in the doxorubicin-induced resistance of ES.-Roundhill, E., Turnbull, D., Burchill, S. Localization of MRP-1 to the outer mitochondrial membrane by the chaperone protein HSP90β. PMID:26722004

  6. RND transporters protect Corynebacterium glutamicum from antibiotics by assembling the outer membrane

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Liang; Lu, Shuo; Belardinelli, Juan; Huc-Claustre, Emilie; Jones, Victoria; Jackson, Mary; Zgurskaya, Helen I

    2014-01-01

    Corynebacterium–Mycobacterium–Nocardia (CMN) group are the causative agents of a broad spectrum of diseases in humans. A distinctive feature of these Gram-positive bacteria is the presence of an outer membrane of unique structure and composition. Recently, resistance–nodulation–division (RND) transporters (nicknamed MmpLs, Mycobacterial membrane protein Large) have emerged as major contributors to the biogenesis of the outer membranes in mycobacteria and as promising drug targets. In this study, we investigated the role of RND transporters in the physiology of Corynebacterium glutamicum and analyzed properties of these proteins. Our results show that in contrast to Gram-negative species, in which RND transporters actively extrude antibiotics from cells, in C. glutamicum and relatives these transporters protect cells from antibiotics by playing essential roles in the biogenesis of the low-permeability barrier of the outer membrane. Conditional C. glutamicum mutants lacking RND proteins and with the controlled expression of either NCgl2769 (CmpL1) or NCgl0228 (CmpL4) are hypersusceptible to multiple antibiotics, have growth deficiencies in minimal medium and accumulate intracellularly trehalose monocorynomycolates, free corynomycolates, and the previously uncharacterized corynomycolate-containing lipid. Our results also suggest that similar to other RND transporters, Corynebacterial membrane proteins Large (CmpLs) functions are dependent on a proton-motive force. PMID:24942069

  7. Mathematical Modeling of Plate–gap Biosensors with an Outer Porous Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Baronas, Romas; Ivanauskas, Feliksas; Kaunietis, Irmantas; Laurinavicius, Valdas

    2006-01-01

    A plate–gap model of a porous enzyme doped electrode covered by a porous inert membrane has been proposed and analyzed. The two–dimensional–in–space mathematical model of the plate–gap biosensors is based on the reaction–diffusion equations containing a nonlinear term related to the Michaelis–Menten kinetics. Using numerical simulation of the biosensor action, the influence of the geometry of the outer membrane on the biosensor response was investigated at wide range of analyte concentrations as well as of the reaction rates. The numerical simulation was carried out using finite–difference technique. The behavior of the plate–gap biosensors was compared with that of a flat electrode deposited with a layer of enzyme and covered with the same outer membrane.

  8. Histochemical and biochemical urease localization in the periplasm and outer membrane of two Proteus mirabilis strains.

    PubMed

    McLean, R J; Cheng, K J; Gould, W D; Nickel, J C; Costerton, J W

    1986-10-01

    Proteus mirabilis, a gram-negative bacillus, is often implicated in the formation of infectious kidney stones. As ureolytic activity of this organism is thought to play a major role in its pathogenesis, we adapted our recently described urease localization technique to visualize urease activity in vivo. Urease activity was ultrastructurally localized in two clinically isolated P. mirabilis strains by precipitating the enzymatic reaction product (ammonia) with sodium tetraphenylboron. Subsequent silver staining of the cells revealed urease activity to be predominantly associated with the periplasm and outer membranes of each strain. Biochemical measurements of urease activity in P. mirabilis cell fractions correlated well with histochemical observations in that the majority of urease activity was associated with the periplasm. Membrane-bound urease activity of these strains was associated mainly with the peptidoglycan in the detergent-insoluble (outer membrane) fraction. PMID:3539291

  9. The Protein Import Channel in the Outer Mitosomal Membrane of Giardia intestinalis

    PubMed Central

    Dagley, Michael J.; Dolezal, Pavel; Likić, Vladimir A.; Smid, Ondrej; Purcell, Anthony W.; Buchanan, Susan K.; Tachezy, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The identification of mitosomes in Giardia generated significant debate on the evolutionary origin of these organelles, whether they were highly reduced mitochondria or the product of a unique endosymbiotic event in an amitochondrial organism. As the protein import pathway is a defining characteristic of mitochondria, we sought to discover a TOM (translocase in the outer mitochondrial membrane) complex in Giardia. A Hidden Markov model search of the Giardia genome identified a Tom40 homologous sequence (GiTom40), where Tom40 is the protein translocation channel of the TOM complex. The GiTom40 protein is located in the membrane of mitosomes in a ∼200-kDa TOM complex. As Tom40 was derived in the development of mitochondria to serve as the protein import channel in the outer membrane, its presence in Giardia evidences the mitochondrial ancestry of mitosomes. PMID:19531743

  10. A Modular BAM Complex in the Outer Membrane of the α-Proteobacterium Caulobacter crescentus

    PubMed Central

    Anwari, Khatira; Poggio, Sebastian; Perry, Andrew; Gatsos, Xenia; Ramarathinam, Sri Harsha; Williamson, Nicholas A.; Noinaj, Nicholas; Buchanan, Susan; Gabriel, Kipros; Purcell, Anthony W.; Jacobs-Wagner, Christine; Lithgow, Trevor

    2010-01-01

    Mitochondria are organelles derived from an intracellular α-proteobacterium. The biogenesis of mitochondria relies on the assembly of β-barrel proteins into the mitochondrial outer membrane, a process inherited from the bacterial ancestor. Caulobacter crescentus is an α-proteobacterium, and the BAM (β-barrel assembly machinery) complex was purified and characterized from this model organism. Like the mitochondrial sorting and assembly machinery complex, we find the BAM complex to be modular in nature. A ∼150 kDa core BAM complex containing BamA, BamB, BamD, and BamE associates with additional modules in the outer membrane. One of these modules, Pal, is a lipoprotein that provides a means for anchorage to the peptidoglycan layer of the cell wall. We suggest the modular design of the BAM complex facilitates access to substrates from the protein translocase in the inner membrane. PMID:20062535

  11. Cross-linking of anaplasma marginale outer membrane proteins enhances immunogenicity, but is not required for protection from challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial outer membrane proteins are the primary targets of a protective immune response. The specific characteristics of outer membrane-based immunogens, in terms of antigen content and context that are required for protective immunity remain unknown for a wide variety of bacterial pathogens. Usin...

  12. The Lipopeptide Antibiotic Paenibacterin Binds to the Bacterial Outer Membrane and Exerts Bactericidal Activity through Cytoplasmic Membrane Damage

    PubMed Central

    Huang, En

    2014-01-01

    Paenibacterin is a broad-spectrum lipopeptide antimicrobial agent produced by Paenibacillus thiaminolyticus OSY-SE. The compound consists of a cyclic 13-residue peptide and an N-terminal C15 fatty acyl chain. The mechanism of action of paenibacterin against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was investigated in this study. The cationic lipopeptide paenibacterin showed a strong affinity for the negatively charged lipopolysaccharides (LPS) from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. Addition of LPS (100 μg/ml) completely eliminated the antimicrobial activity of paenibacterin against E. coli. The electrostatic interaction between paenibacterin and LPS may have displaced the divalent cations on the LPS network and thus facilitated the uptake of antibiotic into Gram-negative cells. Paenibacterin also damaged the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane, as evidenced by the depolarization of membrane potential and leakage of intracellular potassium ions from cells of E. coli and S. aureus. Therefore, the bactericidal activity of paenibacterin is attributed to disruption of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria and damage of the cytoplasmic membrane of both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Despite the evidence of membrane damage, this study does not rule out additional bactericidal mechanisms potentially exerted by paenibacterin. PMID:24561581

  13. Solid-state NMR Study of the YadA Membrane-Anchor Domain in the Bacterial Outer Membrane.

    PubMed

    Shahid, Shakeel A; Nagaraj, Madhu; Chauhan, Nandini; Franks, Trent W; Bardiaux, Benjamin; Habeck, Michael; Orwick-Rydmark, Marcella; Linke, Dirk; van Rossum, Barth-J

    2015-10-19

    MAS-NMR was used to study the structure and dynamics at ambient temperatures of the membrane-anchor domain of YadA (YadA-M) in a pellet of the outer membrane of E. coli in which it was expressed. YadA is an adhesin from the pathogen Yersinia enterocolitica that is involved in interactions with the host cell, and it is a model protein for studying the autotransport process. Existing assignments were sucessfully transferred to a large part of the YadA-M protein in the E. coli lipid environment by using (13) C-(13) C DARR and PDSD spectra at different mixing times. The chemical shifts in most regions of YadA-M are unchanged relative to those in microcrystalline YadA-M preparations from which a structure has previously been solved, including the ASSA region that is proposed to be involved in transition-state hairpin formation for transport of the soluble domain. Comparisons of the dynamics between the microcrystalline and membrane-embedded samples indicate greater flexibility of the ASSA region in the outer-membrane preparation at physiological temperatures. This study will pave the way towards MAS-NMR structure determination of membrane proteins, and a better understanding of functionally important dynamic residues in native membrane environments. PMID:26332158

  14. Surface-Localized Spermidine Protects the Pseudomonas aeruginosa Outer Membrane from Antibiotic Treatment and Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Lori; Mulcahy, Heidi; Kanevets, Uliana; Shi, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Extracellular DNA acts as a cation chelator and induces the expression of antibiotic resistance genes regulated by Mg2+ levels. Here we report the characterization of novel DNA-induced genes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa that are annotated as homologs of the spermidine synthesis genes speD (PA4773) and speE (PA4774). The addition of sublethal concentrations of DNA and membrane-damaging antibiotics induced expression of the genes PA4773 to PA4775, as shown using transcriptional lux fusions and quantitative RT-PCR. Exogenous polyamine addition prevented DNA- and peptide-mediated gene induction. Mutation of PA4774 resulted in an increased outer membrane (OM) susceptibility phenotype upon polymyxin B, CP10A, and gentamicin treatment. When the membrane-localized fluorescent probe C11-BODIPY581/591 was used as an indicator of peroxidation of membrane lipids, the PA4774::lux mutant demonstrated an increased susceptibility to oxidative membrane damage from H2O2 treatment. Addition of exogenous polyamines protected the membranes of the PA4774::lux mutant from polymyxin B and H2O2 treatment. Polyamines from the outer surface were isolated and shown to contain putrescine and spermidine by using high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. The PA4774::lux mutant did not produce spermidine on the cell surface, but genetic complementation restored surface spermidine production as well as the antibiotic and oxidative stress resistance phenotypes of the membrane. We have identified new functions for spermidine on the cell surface and propose that polyamines are produced under Mg2+-limiting conditions as an organic polycation to bind lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and to stabilize and protect the outer membrane against antibiotic and oxidative damage. PMID:22155771

  15. Outer Membrane Remodeling: The Structural Dynamics and Electrostatics of Rough Lipopolysaccharide Chemotypes.

    PubMed

    Dias, Roberta P; da Hora, Gabriel C A; Ramstedt, Madeleine; Soares, Thereza A

    2014-06-10

    Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are the primary constituent of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Gram-negative bacteria can synthesize modified forms of LPS in response to environmental stimuli or due to genetic mutations, a process known as outer membrane remodeling. Chemical modifications of the LPS modulate the integrity and antibiotic susceptibility of bacterial outer membranes. It also governs microbial adhesion to tissues and artificial material surfaces. We have extended a previous model of the rough LPS to include four novel chemotypes rmlC, galU, LPS Re, and Lipid-A. Atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed for outer membrane models constituted of each LPS chemotypes and 1,2-dipalmitoyl-3-phosphatidylethanolamine. It is shown that the decrease in the LPS polysaccharide chain length leads to a significant increase in the diffusion coefficients for the Ca(2+) counterions, increase in acyl chain packing (decrease in membrane fluidity), and attenuation of the negative potential across the LPS surface as positive counterions becomes more exposed to the solvent. The electrostatic potential on the LPS surfaces reflects heterogeneous charge distributions with increasingly larger patches of positive and negative potentials as the polysaccharide chain length decreases. Such a pattern originates from the spatial arrangement of charged phosphate-Ca(2+) clusters in the LPS inner-core that becomes exposed in the membrane surface as monosaccharide units are lost in the shortest chemotypes LPS Re and Lipid-A. These MD-derived conformational ensembles reproduce experimental trends and provide atom-level structural information on the rough LPS chemotypes that can help to rationalize antibiotic resistance and bacterial adhesion processes. PMID:26580769

  16. Influence of Core Oligosaccharide of Lipopolysaccharide to Outer Membrane Behavior of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhou; Wang, Jianli; Ren, Ge; Li, Ye; Wang, Xiaoyuan

    2015-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharides, major molecules in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, play important roles on membrane integrity of the cell. However, how the core oligosaccharide of lipopolysaccharide affect the membrane behavior is not well understood. In this study, the relationship between the core oligosaccharide of lipopolysaccharide and the membrane behavior was investigated using a series of Escherichia coli mutants defective in genes to affect the biosynthesis of core oligosaccharide of lipopolysaccharide. Cell surface hydrophobicity, outer membrane permeability, biofilm formation and auto-aggregation of these mutant cells were compared. Compared to the wild type W3110, cell surface hydrophobicities of mutant ΔwaaC, ΔwaaF, ΔwaaG, ΔwaaO, ΔwaaP, ΔwaaY and ΔwaaB were enhanced, outer membrane permeabilities of ΔwaaC, ΔwaaF, ΔwaaG and ΔwaaP were significantly increased, abilities of biofilm formation by ΔwaaC, ΔwaaF, ΔwaaG, ΔwaaO, ΔwaaR, ΔwaaP, ΔwaaQ and ΔwaaY decreased, and auto-aggregation abilities of ΔwaaC, ΔwaaF, ΔwaaG, ΔwaaO, ΔwaaR, ΔwaaU, ΔwaaP and ΔwaaY were strongly enhanced. These results give new insight into the influence of core oligosaccharide of lipopolysaccharide on bacterial cell membrane behavior. PMID:26023839

  17. The transport machinery for the import of preproteins across the outer mitochondrial membrane.

    PubMed

    Ryan, M T; Wagner, R; Pfanner, N

    2000-01-01

    In order for proteins to be imported into subcellular compartments, they must first traverse the organellar membranes. In mitochondria, hydrophilic protein channels in both the outer and inner membranes serve such a purpose. Recently, the channel protein of the outer mitochondrial membrane was identified to be Tom40. Tom40 is found in a high molecular weight complex termed the general import pore (GIP) complex where it is tightly associated with the receptor protein Tom22 along with Tom7, Tom6 and Tom5. Tom7 and Tom6 seem to modulate the dynamics of the GIP complex while Tom5 is involved in preprotein transfer from receptors to Tom40. The receptor proteins Tom70 and Tom20 associate with this complex in a weaker manner where they are involved in the initial recognition of preproteins. This review focuses on the identification and characterisation of the transport machinery of the outer mitochondrial membrane and how they are involved in the co-ordination and regulation of events required for the translocation of preproteins into mitochondria. PMID:10661891

  18. Role of outer membrane barrier in efflux-mediated tetracycline resistance of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Thanassi, D G; Suh, G S; Nikaido, H

    1995-01-01

    Accumulation of tetracycline in Escherichia coli was studied to determine its permeation pathway and to provide a basis for understanding efflux-mediated resistance. Passage of tetracycline across the outer membrane appeared to occur preferentially via the porin OmpF, with tetracycline in its magnesium-bound form. Rapid efflux of magnesium-chelated tetracycline from the periplasm was observed. In E. coli cells that do not contain exogenous tetracycline resistance genes, the steady-state level of tetracycline accumulation was decreased when porins were absent or when the fraction of Mg(2+)-chelated tetracycline was small. This is best explained by assuming the presence of a low-level endogenous active efflux system that bypasses the outer membrane barrier. When influx of tetracycline is slowed, this efflux is able to reduce the accumulation of tetracycline in the cytoplasm. In contrast, we found no evidence of a special outer membrane bypass mechanism for high-level efflux via the Tet protein, which is an inner membrane efflux pump coded for by exogenous tetA genes. Fractionation and equilibrium density gradient centrifugation experiments showed that the Tet protein is not localized to regions of inner and outer membrane adhesion. Furthermore, a high concentration of tetracycline was found in the compartment that rapidly equilibrated with the medium, most probably the periplasm, of Tet-containing E. coli cells, and the level of tetracycline accumulation in Tet-containing cells was not diminished by the mutational loss of the OmpF porin. These results suggest that the Tet protein, in contrast to the endogenous efflux system(s), pumps magnesium-chelated tetracycline into the periplasm. A quantitative model of tetracycline fluxes in E. coli cells of various types is presented. PMID:7860612

  19. Functional properties of the major outer membrane protein in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yih-Yuan; Wu, Han-Chiang; Lin, Juey-Wen; Weng, Shu-Fen

    2015-08-01

    Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an opportunistic pathogen that is closely associated with high morbidity and mortality in debilitated and immunocompromised individuals. Therefore, to investigate the pathogenesis mechanism is urgently required. However, there are very few studies to evaluate the functional properties of outer membrane protein, which may contribute to the pathogenesis in S. maltophilia. In this study, three abundant proteins in the outer membrane fraction of S. maltophilia were identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry as OmpW1, MopB, and a hypothetical protein. MopB, a member of the OmpA family, was firstly chosen for functional investigation in this study because many OmpA-family proteins are known to be involved in pathogenesis and offer potential as vaccines. Membrane fractionation analyses demonstrated that MopB was indeed the most abundant outer membrane protein (OMP) in S. maltophilia. For functional studies, the mopB mutant of S. maltophilia (SmMopB) was constructed by insertional mutation. MopB deficiency resulted in a change in the protein composition of OMPs and altered the architecture of the outer membrane. The SmMopB strain exhibited reduced cytotoxicity toward L929 fibroblasts and was more sensitive to numerous stresses, including human serum, sodium dodecyl sulfate, and hydrogen peroxide compared with wildtype S. maltophilia. These results suggest that MopB may be a good candidate for the design of vaccines or anti-MopB drugs for controlling serious nosocomial infections of multidrug-resistant S. maltophilia, especially in immunosuppressed patients. PMID:26224456

  20. Organization of cGMP sensing structures on the rod photoreceptor outer segment plasma membrane

    PubMed Central

    Nemet, Ina; Tian, Guilian; Imanishi, Yoshikazu

    2014-01-01

    A diffusion barrier segregates the plasma membrane of the rod photoreceptor outer segment into 2 domains; one which is optimized for the conductance of ions in the phototransduction cascade and another for disk membrane synthesis. We propose the former to be named “phototransductive plasma membrane domain," and the latter to be named “disk morphogenic plasma membrane domain." Within the phototransductive plasma membrane, cGMP-gated channels are concentrated in striated membrane features, which are proximally located to the sites of active cGMP production within the disk membranes. For proper localization of cGMP-gated channel to the phototransductive plasma membrane, the glutamic acid-rich protein domain encoded in the β subunit plays a critical role. Quantitative study suggests that the disk morphogenic domain likely plays an important role in enriching rhodopsin prior to its sequestration into closed disk membranes. Thus, this and our previous studies provide new insight into the mechanism that spatially organizes the vertebrate phototransduction cascade. PMID:25616687

  1. Outer-Inner Membrane Vesicles Naturally Secreted by Gram-Negative Pathogenic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Cruz, Carla; Delgado, Lidia; López-Iglesias, Carmen; Mercade, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Outer-inner membrane vesicles (O-IMVs) were recently described as a new type of membrane vesicle secreted by the Antarctic bacterium Shewanella vesiculosa M7T. Their formation is characterized by the protrusion of both outer and plasma membranes, which pulls cytoplasmic components into the vesicles. To demonstrate that this is not a singular phenomenon in a bacterium occurring in an extreme environment, the identification of O-IMVs in pathogenic bacteria was undertaken. With this aim, a structural study by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Cryo-transmission electron microscopy (Cryo-TEM) was carried out, confirming that O-IMVs are also secreted by Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria such as Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and Acinetobacter baumannii AB41, in which they represent between 0.23% and 1.2% of total vesicles produced. DNA and ATP, which are components solely found in the cell cytoplasm, were identified within membrane vesicles of these strains. The presence of DNA inside the O-IMVs produced by N. gonorrhoeae was confirmed by gold DNA immunolabeling with a specific monoclonal IgM against double-stranded DNA. A proteomic analysis of N. gonorrhoeae-derived membrane vesicles identified proteins from the cytoplasm and plasma membrane. This confirmation of O-IMV extends the hitherto uniform definition of membrane vesicles in Gram-negative bacteria and explains the presence of components in membrane vesicles such as DNA, cytoplasmic and inner membrane proteins, as well as ATP, detected for the first time. The production of these O-IMVs by pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria opens up new areas of study related to their involvement in lateral gene transfer, the transfer of cytoplasmic proteins, as well as the functionality and role of ATP detected in these new vesicles. PMID:25581302

  2. Effect of Divalent Cation Removal on the Structure of Gram-Negative Bacterial Outer Membrane Models

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Clifton, Luke A.; Skoda, Maximilian W. A.; Le Brun, Anton P.; Ciesielski, Filip; Kuzmenko, Ivan; Holt, Stephen A.; Lakey, Jeremy H.

    2014-12-09

    The Gram-negative bacterial outer membrane (GNB-OM) is asymmetric in its lipid composition with a phospholipid-rich inner leaflet and an outer leaflet predominantly composed of lipopolysaccharides (LPS). LPS are polyanionic molecules, with numerous phosphate groups present in the lipid A and core oligosaccharide regions. The repulsive forces due to accumulation of the negative charges are screened and bridged by the divalent cations (Mg2+ and Ca2+) that are known to be crucial for the integrity of the bacterial OM. Indeed, chelation of divalent cations is a well-established method to permeabilize Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli. Here, we use X-ray and neutronmore » reflectivity (XRR and NR, respectively) techniques to examine the role of calcium ions in the stability of a model GNB-OM. Using XRR we show that Ca2+ binds to the core region of the rough mutant LPS (RaLPS) films, producing more ordered structures in comparison to divalent cation free monolayers. Using recently developed solid-supported models of the GNB-OM, we study the effect of calcium removal on the asymmetry of DPPC:RaLPS bilayers. We show that without the charge screening effect of divalent cations, the LPS is forced to overcome the thermodynamically unfavorable energy barrier and flip across the hydrophobic bilayer to minimize the repulsive electrostatic forces, resulting in about 20% mixing of LPS and DPPC between the inner and outer bilayer leaflets. These results reveal for the first time the molecular details behind the well-known mechanism of outer membrane stabilization by divalent cations. This confirms the relevance of the asymmetric models for future studies of outer membrane stability and antibiotic penetration.« less

  3. Effect of Divalent Cation Removal on the Structure of Gram-Negative Bacterial Outer Membrane Models

    SciTech Connect

    Clifton, Luke A.; Skoda, Maximilian W. A.; Le Brun, Anton P.; Ciesielski, Filip; Kuzmenko, Ivan; Holt, Stephen A.; Lakey, Jeremy H.

    2014-12-09

    The Gram-negative bacterial outer membrane (GNB-OM) is asymmetric in its lipid composition with a phospholipid-rich inner leaflet and an outer leaflet predominantly composed of lipopolysaccharides (LPS). LPS are polyanionic molecules, with numerous phosphate groups present in the lipid A and core oligosaccharide regions. The repulsive forces due to accumulation of the negative charges are screened and bridged by the divalent cations (Mg2+ and Ca2+) that are known to be crucial for the integrity of the bacterial OM. Indeed, chelation of divalent cations is a well-established method to permeabilize Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli. Here, we use X-ray and neutron reflectivity (XRR and NR, respectively) techniques to examine the role of calcium ions in the stability of a model GNB-OM. Using XRR we show that Ca2+ binds to the core region of the rough mutant LPS (RaLPS) films, producing more ordered structures in comparison to divalent cation free monolayers. Using recently developed solid-supported models of the GNB-OM, we study the effect of calcium removal on the asymmetry of DPPC:RaLPS bilayers. We show that without the charge screening effect of divalent cations, the LPS is forced to overcome the thermodynamically unfavorable energy barrier and flip across the hydrophobic bilayer to minimize the repulsive electrostatic forces, resulting in about 20% mixing of LPS and DPPC between the inner and outer bilayer leaflets. These results reveal for the first time the molecular details behind the well-known mechanism of outer membrane stabilization by divalent cations. This confirms the relevance of the asymmetric models for future studies of outer membrane stability and antibiotic penetration.

  4. Effect of Divalent Cation Removal on the Structure of Gram-Negative Bacterial Outer Membrane Models

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The Gram-negative bacterial outer membrane (GNB-OM) is asymmetric in its lipid composition with a phospholipid-rich inner leaflet and an outer leaflet predominantly composed of lipopolysaccharides (LPS). LPS are polyanionic molecules, with numerous phosphate groups present in the lipid A and core oligosaccharide regions. The repulsive forces due to accumulation of the negative charges are screened and bridged by the divalent cations (Mg2+ and Ca2+) that are known to be crucial for the integrity of the bacterial OM. Indeed, chelation of divalent cations is a well-established method to permeabilize Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli. Here, we use X-ray and neutron reflectivity (XRR and NR, respectively) techniques to examine the role of calcium ions in the stability of a model GNB-OM. Using XRR we show that Ca2+ binds to the core region of the rough mutant LPS (RaLPS) films, producing more ordered structures in comparison to divalent cation free monolayers. Using recently developed solid-supported models of the GNB-OM, we study the effect of calcium removal on the asymmetry of DPPC:RaLPS bilayers. We show that without the charge screening effect of divalent cations, the LPS is forced to overcome the thermodynamically unfavorable energy barrier and flip across the hydrophobic bilayer to minimize the repulsive electrostatic forces, resulting in about 20% mixing of LPS and DPPC between the inner and outer bilayer leaflets. These results reveal for the first time the molecular details behind the well-known mechanism of outer membrane stabilization by divalent cations. This confirms the relevance of the asymmetric models for future studies of outer membrane stability and antibiotic penetration. PMID:25489959

  5. Membrane recycling at the infranuclear pole of the outer hair cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harasztosi, Csaba; Harasztosi, Emese; Gummer, Anthony W.

    2015-12-01

    Rapid endocytic activity of outer hair cells (OHCs) in the guinea-pig cochlea has been already studied using the fluorescent membrane marker FM1-43. It was demonstrated that vesicles were endocytosed at the apical pole of OHCs and transcytosed to the basolateral membrane and through a central strand towards the nucleus. The significance of endocytic activity in the infranuclear region is still not clear. Therefore, in this study endocytic activity at the synaptic pole of OHCs was investigated. Confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to visualize dye uptake of OHCs isolated from the guinea-pig cochlea. Signal intensity changes were quantified in the apical and basal poles relative to the signal at the membrane. Data showed no significant difference in fluorescent signal intensity changes between the opposite poles of the OHC. These results suggest that endocytic activities in both the basal and the apical poles contribute equally to the membrane recycling of OHCs.

  6. The Design and Structure of Outer Membrane Receptors from Peroxisomes, Mitochondria, and Chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Panigrahi, Rashmi; Kubiszewski-Jakubiak, Szymon; Whelan, James; Vrielink, Alice

    2015-10-01

    The eukaryotic cell is defined by compartments that allow specialization of function. This compartmental structure generates a new concept in cell biology compared with the simpler prokaryotic cell structure, namely the specific targeting of proteins to intracellular compartments. Protein targeting is achieved by the action of specialized signals on proteins destined for organelles that are recognized by cognate receptors. An understanding of the specificity of targeting signal recognition leading to import requires an understanding of the receptor structures. Here, we focus on the structures of receptors of different import machineries located on the outer membrane of three organelles: peroxisomes, mitochondria, and chloroplasts. This review provides an overview of the structural features of outer membrane import receptors that recognize targeting signals. Finally, we briefly discuss combinatorial approaches that might aid in understanding the structural factors mediating receptor targeting signal recognition. PMID:26365798

  7. The molecular mechanism of Zinc acquisition by the neisserial outer-membrane transporter ZnuD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calmettes, Charles; Ing, Christopher; Buckwalter, Carolyn M.; El Bakkouri, Majida; Chieh-Lin Lai, Christine; Pogoutse, Anastassia; Gray-Owen, Scott D.; Pomès, Régis; Moraes, Trevor F.

    2015-08-01

    Invading bacteria from the Neisseriaceae, Acinetobacteriaceae, Bordetellaceae and Moraxellaceae families express the conserved outer-membrane zinc transporter zinc-uptake component D (ZnuD) to overcome nutritional restriction imposed by the host organism during infection. Here we demonstrate that ZnuD is required for efficient systemic infections by the causative agent of bacterial meningitis, Neisseria meningitidis, in a mouse model. We also combine X-ray crystallography and molecular dynamics simulations to gain insight into the mechanism of zinc recognition and transport across the bacterial outer-membrane by ZnuD. Because ZnuD is also considered a promising vaccine candidate against N. meningitidis, we use several ZnuD structural intermediates to map potential antigenic epitopes, and propose a mechanism by which ZnuD can maintain high sequence conservation yet avoid immune recognition by altering the conformation of surface-exposed loops.

  8. The molecular mechanism of Zinc acquisition by the neisserial outer-membrane transporter ZnuD

    PubMed Central

    Calmettes, Charles; Ing, Christopher; Buckwalter, Carolyn M.; El Bakkouri, Majida; Chieh-Lin Lai, Christine; Pogoutse, Anastassia; Gray-Owen, Scott D.; Pomès, Régis; Moraes, Trevor F.

    2015-01-01

    Invading bacteria from the Neisseriaceae, Acinetobacteriaceae, Bordetellaceae and Moraxellaceae families express the conserved outer-membrane zinc transporter zinc-uptake component D (ZnuD) to overcome nutritional restriction imposed by the host organism during infection. Here we demonstrate that ZnuD is required for efficient systemic infections by the causative agent of bacterial meningitis, Neisseria meningitidis, in a mouse model. We also combine X-ray crystallography and molecular dynamics simulations to gain insight into the mechanism of zinc recognition and transport across the bacterial outer-membrane by ZnuD. Because ZnuD is also considered a promising vaccine candidate against N. meningitidis, we use several ZnuD structural intermediates to map potential antigenic epitopes, and propose a mechanism by which ZnuD can maintain high sequence conservation yet avoid immune recognition by altering the conformation of surface-exposed loops. PMID:26282243

  9. A novel insertion pathway of mitochondrial outer membrane proteins with multiple transmembrane segments

    PubMed Central

    Otera, Hidenori; Taira, Yohsuke; Horie, Chika; Suzuki, Yurina; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Setoguchi, Kiyoko; Kato, Hiroki; Oka, Toshihiko; Mihara, Katsuyoshi

    2007-01-01

    The central channel Tom40 of the preprotein translocase of outer membrane (TOM) complex is thought to be responsible for the import of virtually all preproteins synthesized outside the mitochondria. In this study, we analyze the topogenesis of the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR), which integrates into the mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM) through five hydrophobic transmembrane segments (TMSs) and functions in cholesterol import into the inner membrane. Analyses of in vitro and in vivo import into TOM component–depleted mitochondria reveal that PBR import (1) depends on the import receptor Tom70 but requires neither the Tom20 and Tom22 import receptors nor the import channel Tom40, (2) shares the post-Tom70 pathway with the C-tail–anchored proteins, and (3) requires factors of the mitochondrial intermembrane space. Furthermore, membrane integration of mitofusins and mitochondrial ubiquitin ligase, the MOM proteins with two and four TMSs, respectively, proceeds through the same initial pathway. These findings reveal a previously unidentified pathway of the membrane integration of MOM proteins with multiple TMSs. PMID:18158327

  10. A novel insertion pathway of mitochondrial outer membrane proteins with multiple transmembrane segments.

    PubMed

    Otera, Hidenori; Taira, Yohsuke; Horie, Chika; Suzuki, Yurina; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Setoguchi, Kiyoko; Kato, Hiroki; Oka, Toshihiko; Mihara, Katsuyoshi

    2007-12-31

    The central channel Tom40 of the preprotein translocase of outer membrane (TOM) complex is thought to be responsible for the import of virtually all preproteins synthesized outside the mitochondria. In this study, we analyze the topogenesis of the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR), which integrates into the mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM) through five hydrophobic transmembrane segments (TMSs) and functions in cholesterol import into the inner membrane. Analyses of in vitro and in vivo import into TOM component-depleted mitochondria reveal that PBR import (1) depends on the import receptor Tom70 but requires neither the Tom20 and Tom22 import receptors nor the import channel Tom40, (2) shares the post-Tom70 pathway with the C-tail-anchored proteins, and (3) requires factors of the mitochondrial intermembrane space. Furthermore, membrane integration of mitofusins and mitochondrial ubiquitin ligase, the MOM proteins with two and four TMSs, respectively, proceeds through the same initial pathway. These findings reveal a previously unidentified pathway of the membrane integration of MOM proteins with multiple TMSs. PMID:18158327

  11. Distinct constrictive processes, separated in time and space,divide Caulobacter inner and outer membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Judd, Ellen M.; Comolli, Luis R.; Chen, Joseph C.; Downing,Kenneth H.; Moerner, W.E.; McAdams, Harley H.

    2005-05-01

    Cryo-electron microscope tomography (cryoEM) and a fluorescence loss in photobleaching (FLIP) assay were used to characterize progression of the terminal stages of Caulobacter crescentus cell division. Tomographic cryoEM images of the cell division site show separate constrictive processes closing first the inner, and then the outer, membrane in a manner distinctly different from septum-forming bacteria. The smallest observed pre-fission constrictions were 60 nm for both the inner and outer membrane. FLIP experiments had previously shown cytoplasmic compartmentalization, when cytoplasmic proteins can no longer diffuse between the two nascent progeny cell compartments, occurring 18 min before daughter cell separation in a 135 min cell cycle. Here, we used FLIP experiments with membrane-bound and periplasmic fluorescent proteins to show that (1) periplasmic compartmentalization occurs after cytoplasmic compartmentalization, consistent with the cryoEM observations, and (2) inner membrane and periplasmic proteins can diffuse past the FtsZ constriction site, indicating that the cell division machinery does not block membrane diffusion.

  12. Differential proteomic analysis of outer membrane enriched extracts of Bacteroides fragilis grown under bile salts stress.

    PubMed

    Boente, Renata F; Pauer, Heidi; Silva, Deborah N S; Filho, Joaquim Santos; Sandim, Vanessa; Antunes, Luis Caetano M; Ferreira, Rosana Barreto Rocha; Zingali, Russolina B; Domingues, Regina M C P; Lobo, Leandro A

    2016-06-01

    Bacteroides fragilis is the most commonly isolated anaerobic bacteria from infectious processes. Several virulence traits contribute to the pathogenic nature of this bacterium, including the ability to tolerate the high concentrations of bile found in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The activity of bile salts is similar to detergents and may lead to membrane permeabilization and cell death. Modulation of outer membrane proteins (OMPs) is considered a crucial event to bile salts resistance. The primary objective of the current work was to identify B. fragilis proteins associated with the stress induced by high concentration of bile salts. The outer membrane of B. fragilis strain 638R was isolated after growth either in the presence of 2% conjugated bile salts or without bile salts. The membrane fractions were separated on SDS-PAGE and analyzed by ESI-Q/TOF tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 37 proteins were identified; among them nine were found to be expressed exclusively in the absence of bile salts whereas eight proteins were expressed only in the presence of bile salts. These proteins are related to cellular functions such as transport through membrane, nutrient uptake, and protein-protein interactions. This study demonstrates the alteration of OMPs composition in B. fragilis during bile salts stress resistance and adaptation to environmental changes. Proteomics of OMPs was also shown to be a useful approach in the identification of new targets for functional analyses. PMID:26948242

  13. Intra- and Interspecies Effects of Outer Membrane Vesicles from Stenotrophomonas maltophilia on β-Lactam Resistance.

    PubMed

    Devos, Simon; Stremersch, Stephan; Raemdonck, Koen; Braeckmans, Kevin; Devreese, Bart

    2016-04-01

    The treatment ofStenotrophomonas maltophiliainfection with β-lactam antibiotics leads to increased release of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs), which are packed with two chromosomally encoded β-lactamases. Here, we show that these β-lactamase-packed OMVs are capable of establishing extracellular β-lactam degradation. We also show that they dramatically increase the apparent MICs of imipenem and ticarcillin for the cohabituating speciesPseudomonas aeruginosaandBurkholderia cenocepacia. PMID:26787686

  14. Protein-translocating outer membrane porins of Gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Yen, Ming Ren; Peabody, Christopher R; Partovi, Salar M; Zhai, Yufeng; Tseng, Yi Hsiung; Saier, Milton H

    2002-05-01

    Five families of outer membrane porins that function in protein secretion in Gram-negative bacteria are currently recognized. In this report, these five porin families are analyzed from structural and phylogenetic standpoints. They are the fimbrial usher protein (FUP), outer membrane factor (OMF), autotransporter (AT), two-partner secretion (TPS) and outer membrane secretin (Secretin) families. All members of these families in the current databases were identified, and all full-length homologues were multiply aligned for structural and phylogenetic analyses. The organismal distribution of homologues in each family proved to be unique with some families being restricted to proteobacteria and others being widespread in other bacterial kingdoms as well as eukaryotes. The compositions of and size differences between subfamilies provide evidence for specific orthologous relationships, which agree with available functional information and intra-subfamily phylogeny. The results reveal that horizontal transfer of genes encoding these proteins between phylogenetically distant organisms has been exceptionally rare although transfer within select bacterial kingdoms may have occurred. The resultant in silico analyses are correlated with available experimental evidence to formulate models relevant to the structures and evolutionary origins of these proteins. PMID:11988218

  15. Human antibody response to outer membrane proteins of Campylobacter jejuni during infection.

    PubMed Central

    Mills, S D; Bradbury, W C

    1984-01-01

    Two techniques were used to isolate outer membrane proteins from Campylobacter jejuni, EDTA-lysozyme extraction and sodium-N-lauroylsarcosinate (Sarkosyl) solubilization. The protein profiles of the two preparations were similar, with a few additional bands in the EDTA-lysozyme preparations. The major outer membrane protein was 43,000 (43K) daltons, and there were 8 to 10 minor bands ranging from 92K to 14K daltons. There was no difference in the protein profile of a strain causing an infection (strain 17) and the resulting stool isolate (strain 17J). Sera collected before the infection and during the acute and convalescent stages were used with Western blotting and immunoautoradiographic techniques to determine the antigenicity of outer membrane proteins. A number of antigenic proteins were detected before the infection by their reaction with preinfection serum (61K, 51K, 43K, 40K, 34K, and 31K daltons), and three additional bands appeared during the infection when acute and convalescent sera were used (92K, 56K, and 19K daltons). Furthermore, an area of the gel at less than 14.4K daltons that did not stain with Coomassie brilliant blue became visible in the immune blots when the convalescent serum was used. Images PMID:6198286

  16. The mitochondrial outer membrane protein MDI promotes local protein synthesis and mtDNA replication.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Chen, Yong; Gucek, Marjan; Xu, Hong

    2016-05-17

    Early embryonic development features rapid nuclear DNA replication cycles, but lacks mtDNA replication. To meet the high-energy demands of embryogenesis, mature oocytes are furnished with vast amounts of mitochondria and mtDNA However, the cellular machinery driving massive mtDNA replication in ovaries remains unknown. Here, we describe a Drosophila AKAP protein, MDI that recruits a translation stimulator, La-related protein (Larp), to the mitochondrial outer membrane in ovaries. The MDI-Larp complex promotes the synthesis of a subset of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial proteins by cytosolic ribosomes on the mitochondrial surface. MDI-Larp's targets include mtDNA replication factors, mitochondrial ribosomal proteins, and electron-transport chain subunits. Lack of MDI abolishes mtDNA replication in ovaries, which leads to mtDNA deficiency in mature eggs. Targeting Larp to the mitochondrial outer membrane independently of MDI restores local protein synthesis and rescues the phenotypes of mdi mutant flies. Our work suggests that a selective translational boost by the MDI-Larp complex on the outer mitochondrial membrane might be essential for mtDNA replication and mitochondrial biogenesis during oogenesis. PMID:27053724

  17. Porin activity of the native and recombinant outer membrane protein Oms28 of Borrelia burgdorferi.

    PubMed Central

    Skare, J T; Champion, C I; Mirzabekov, T A; Shang, E S; Blanco, D R; Erdjument-Bromage, H; Tempst, P; Kagan, B L; Miller, J N; Lovett, M A

    1996-01-01

    The outer membrane-spanning (Oms) proteins of Borrelia burgdorferi have been visualized by freeze-fracture analysis but, until recently, not further characterized. We developed a method for the isolation of B. burgdorferi outer membrane vesicles and described porin activities with single-channel conductances of 0.6 and 12.6 nS in 1 M KCI. By using both nondenaturing isoelectric focusing gel electrophoresis and fast-performance liquid chromatography separation after detergent solubilization, we found that the 0.6-nS porin activity resided in a 28-kDa protein, designated Oms28. The oms28 gene was cloned, and its nucleotide sequence was determined. The deduced amino acid sequence of Oms28 predicted a 257-amino-acid precursor protein with a putative 24-amino-acid leader peptidase I signal sequence. Processed Oms28 yielded a mature protein with a predicted molecular mass of 25,363 Da. When overproduced in Escherichia coli, the Oms28 porin fractionated in part to the outer membrane. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel-purified recombinant Oms28 from E. coli retained functional activity as demonstrated by an average single-channel conductance of 1.1 nS in the planar lipid bilayer assay. These findings confirmed that Oms28 is a B. burgdorferi porin, the first to be described. As such, it is potential relevance to the pathogenesis of Lyme borreliosis and to the physiology of the spirochete. PMID:8759855

  18. Detection of apoptosis through the lipid order of the outer plasma membrane leaflet.

    PubMed

    Darwich, Zeinab; Klymchenko, Andrey S; Kucherak, Oleksandr A; Richert, Ludovic; Mély, Yves

    2012-12-01

    Cell plasma membranes of living cells maintain their asymmetry, so that the outer leaflet presents a large quantity of sphingomyelin, which is critical for formation of ordered lipid domains. Here, a recently developed probe based on Nile Red (NR12S) was applied to monitor changes in the lipid order specifically at the outer leaflet of cell membranes. Important key features of NR12S are its ratiometric response exclusively to lipid order (liquid ordered vs. liquid disordered phase) and not to surface charge, the possibility of using it at very low concentrations (10-20nM) and the very simple staining protocol. Cholesterol extraction, oxidation and sphingomyelin hydrolysis were found to red shift the emission spectrum of NR12S, indicating a decrease in the lipid order at the outer plasma membrane leaflet. Remarkably, apoptosis induced by three different agents (actinomycin D, camptothecin, staurosporine) produced very similar spectroscopic effects, suggesting that apoptosis also significantly decreases the lipid order at this leaflet. The applicability of NR12S to detect apoptosis was further validated by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry, using the ratio between the blue and red parts of its emission band. Thus, for the first time, an environment-sensitive probe, sensitive to lipid order, is shown to detect apoptosis, suggesting a new concept in apoptosis sensing. PMID:22846507

  19. Mitochondrial Outer Membrane Proteins Assist Bid in Bax-mediated Lipidic Pore Formation

    PubMed Central

    Schafer, Blanca; Quispe, Joel; Choudhary, Vineet; Chipuk, Jerry E.; Ajero, Teddy G.; Du, Han; Schneiter, Roger

    2009-01-01

    Mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP) is a critical step in apoptosis and is regulated by Bcl-2 family proteins. In vitro systems using cardiolipin-containing liposomes have demonstrated the key features of MOMP induced by Bax and cleaved Bid; however, the nature of the “pores” and how they are formed remain obscure. We found that mitochondrial outer membranes contained very little cardiolipin, far less than that required for liposome permeabilization, despite their responsiveness to Bcl-2 family proteins. Strikingly, the incorporation of isolated mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM) proteins into liposomes lacking cardiolipin conferred responsiveness to cleaved Bid and Bax. Cardiolipin dependence was observed only when permeabilization was induced with cleaved Bid but not with Bid or Bim BH3 peptide or oligomerized Bax. Therefore, we conclude that MOM proteins specifically assist cleaved Bid in Bax-mediated permeabilization. Cryoelectron microscopy of cardiolipin-liposomes revealed that cleaved Bid and Bax produced large round holes with diameters of 25–100 nm, suggestive of lipidic pores. In sum, we propose that activated Bax induces lipidic pore formation and that MOM proteins assist cleaved Bid in this process in the absence of cardiolipin. PMID:19244344

  20. Characterization of outer membrane vesicles released by the psychrotolerant bacterium Pseudoalteromonas antarctica NF3

    PubMed Central

    Nevot, Maria; Deroncelé, Víctor; Messner, Paul; Guinea, Jesús; Mercadé, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Summary Pseudoalteromonas antarctica NF3 is an Antarctic psychrotolerant Gram-negative bacterium that accumulates large amounts of an extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) with high protein content. Transmission electron microscopy analysis after high-pressure freezing and freeze substitution (HPF-FS) shows that the EPS is composed of a capsular polymer and large numbers of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs). These vesicles are bilayered structures and predominantly spherical in shape, with an average diameter of 25–70 nm, which is similar to what has been observed in OMVs from other Gram-negative bacteria. Analyses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), phospholipids and protein profiles of OMVs are consistent with the bacterial outer membrane origin of these vesicles. In an initial attempt to elucidate the functions of OMVs proteins, we conducted a proteomic analysis on 1D SDS-PAGE bands. Those proteins putatively identified match with outer membrane proteins and proteins related to nutrient processing and transport in Gram-negative bacteria. This approach suggests that OMVs present in the EPS from P. antarctica NF3, might function to deliver proteins to the external media, and therefore play an important role in the survival of the bacterium in the extreme Antarctic environment. PMID:16913913

  1. Prediction of structural features and application to outer membrane protein identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Renxiang; Wang, Xiaofeng; Huang, Lanqing; Yan, Feidi; Xue, Xiaoyu; Cai, Weiwen

    2015-06-01

    Protein three-dimensional (3D) structures provide insightful information in many fields of biology. One-dimensional properties derived from 3D structures such as secondary structure, residue solvent accessibility, residue depth and backbone torsion angles are helpful to protein function prediction, fold recognition and ab initio folding. Here, we predict various structural features with the assistance of neural network learning. Based on an independent test dataset, protein secondary structure prediction generates an overall Q3 accuracy of ~80%. Meanwhile, the prediction of relative solvent accessibility obtains the highest mean absolute error of 0.164, and prediction of residue depth achieves the lowest mean absolute error of 0.062. We further improve the outer membrane protein identification by including the predicted structural features in a scoring function using a simple profile-to-profile alignment. The results demonstrate that the accuracy of outer membrane protein identification can be improved by ~3% at a 1% false positive level when structural features are incorporated. Finally, our methods are available as two convenient and easy-to-use programs. One is PSSM-2-Features for predicting secondary structure, relative solvent accessibility, residue depth and backbone torsion angles, the other is PPA-OMP for identifying outer membrane proteins from proteomes.

  2. Molecular characterization of enterobacterial pldA genes encoding outer membrane phospholipase A.

    PubMed Central

    Brok, R G; Brinkman, E; van Boxtel, R; Bekkers, A C; Verheij, H M; Tommassen, J

    1994-01-01

    The pldA gene of Escherichia coli encodes an outer membrane phospholipase A. A strain carrying the most commonly used mutant pldA allele appeared to express a correctly assembled PldA protein in the outer membrane. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that the only difference between the wild type and the mutant is the replacement of the serine residue in position 152 by phenylalanine. Since mutants that lack the pldA gene were normally viable under laboratory conditions and had no apparent phenotype except for the lack of outer membrane phospholipase activity, the exact role of the enzyme remains unknown. Nevertheless, the enzyme seems to be important for the bacteria, since Western blotting (immunoblotting) and enzyme assays showed that it is widely spread among species of the family Enterobacteriaceae. To characterize the PldA protein further, the pldA genes of Salmonella typhimurium, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Proteus vulgaris were cloned and sequenced. The cloned genes were expressed in E. coli, and their gene products were enzymatically active. Comparison of the predicted PldA primary structures with that of E. coli PldA revealed a high degree of homology, with 79% of the amino acid residues being identical in all four proteins. Implications of the sequence comparison for the structure and the structure-function relationship of PldA protein are discussed. Images PMID:8300539

  3. The participation of outer membrane proteins in the bacterial sensitivity to nanosilver.

    PubMed

    Kędziora, Anna; Krzyżewska, Eva; Dudek, Bartłomiej; Bugla-Płoskońska, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    The presented study is to analyze the participation of outer membrane proteins of Gram- negative bacteria in sensitivity to silver nanomaterials. The mechanism of interaction of silver with the bacterial cell is best described in this group of microorganisms. There are several theories regarding the effectiveness of antimicrobial ions and nanosilver, and at the indicated differences in the way they work. Outer membrane proteins of Gram-negative bacteria are involved in the procurement of silver from the environment and contribute to the development mechanisms of resistance to nanometals. They are measurable parameter in the field of cell phenotypic response to the presence of Gram-negative bacteria in the environment silver nanoforms: its properties, chemical composition, content or times of action. Proteomic methods (including two dimensional electrophoresis and MALDI‑TOF MS) are therefore relevant techniques for determining the susceptibility of bacteria to silver and the changes taking place in the outer membrane under the influence: uptime/exposure and physical and chemical parameters of silver nanomaterials. Many products containing nanosilver is still in the research phase in terms of physico‑chemical characteristics and biological activity, others have been already implemented in many industries. During the very fast nanotechnology developing and introduction to the market products based on the nanosilver the bacterial answer to nanosilver is needed. PMID:27333931

  4. Permissive linker insertion sites in the outer membrane protein of 987P fimbriae of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Schifferli, D M; Alrutz, M A

    1994-01-01

    The FasD protein is essential for the biogenesis of 987P fimbriae of Escherichia coli. In this study, subcellular fractionation was used to demonstrate that FasD is an outer membrane protein. In addition, the accessibility of FasD to proteases established the presence of surface-exposed FasD domains on both sides of the outer membrane. The fasD gene was sequenced, and the deduced amino acid sequence was shown to share homologous domains with a family of outer membrane proteins from various fimbrial systems. Similar to porins, fimbrial outer membrane proteins are relatively polar, lack typical hydrophobic membrane-spanning domains, and posses secondary structures predicted to be rich in turns and amphipathic beta-sheets. On the basis of the experimental data and structural predictions, FasD is postulated to consist essentially of surface-exposed turns and loops and membrane-spanning interacting amphipathic beta-strands. In an attempt to test this prediction, the fasD gene was submitted to random in-frame linker insertion mutagenesis. Preliminary experiments demonstrated that it was possible to produce fasD mutants, whose products remain functional for fimbrial export and assembly. Subsequently, 11 fasD alleles, containing linker inserts encoding beta-turn-inducing residues, were shown to express functional proteins. The insertion sites were designated permissive sites. The inserts used are expected to be least detrimental to the function of FasD when they are inserted into surface-exposed domains not directly involved in fimbrial export. In contrast, FasD is not expected to accommodate such residues in its amphipathic beta-strands without being destabilized in the membrane and losing function. All permissive sites were sequenced and shown to be located in or one residue away from predicted turns. In contrast, 5 of 10 sequenced nonpermissive sites were mapped to predicted amphipathic beta-strands. These results are consistent with the structural predictions for Fas

  5. Susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates to ceftazidime is unrelated to the expression of the outer membrane protein OprC.

    PubMed

    Pérez, F J; Navarro, D; Gimeno, C; García-de-Lomas, J

    1997-01-01

    Previously, it has been postulated that the porin OprC facilitates the diffusion of ceftazidime through the outer membrane of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. To further investigate this claim, the outer membrane protein (OMP) profiles of 22 ceftazidime-susceptible clinical isolates were analyzed. No correlation was found between MIC values and the level of expression of OprC. Further, OprC was either undetectable or expressed in reduced amounts in 12 isolates. In contrast, OprF and OprE were present in all isolates studied. This study suggests that OprC is dispensable for the permeation of ceftazidime through the outer membrane of P. aeruginosa. PMID:8996738

  6. Outer Membrane Protein Folding and Topology from a Computational Transfer Free Energy Scale.

    PubMed

    Lin, Meishan; Gessmann, Dennis; Naveed, Hammad; Liang, Jie

    2016-03-01

    Knowledge of the transfer free energy of amino acids from aqueous solution to a lipid bilayer is essential for understanding membrane protein folding and for predicting membrane protein structure. Here we report a computational approach that can calculate the folding free energy of the transmembrane region of outer membrane β-barrel proteins (OMPs) by combining an empirical energy function with a reduced discrete state space model. We quantitatively analyzed the transfer free energies of 20 amino acid residues at the center of the lipid bilayer of OmpLA. Our results are in excellent agreement with the experimentally derived hydrophobicity scales. We further exhaustively calculated the transfer free energies of 20 amino acids at all positions in the TM region of OmpLA. We found that the asymmetry of the Gram-negative bacterial outer membrane as well as the TM residues of an OMP determine its functional fold in vivo. Our results suggest that the folding process of an OMP is driven by the lipid-facing residues in its hydrophobic core, and its NC-IN topology is determined by the differential stabilities of OMPs in the asymmetrical outer membrane. The folding free energy is further reduced by lipid A and assisted by general depth-dependent cooperativities that exist between polar and ionizable residues. Moreover, context-dependency of transfer free energies at specific positions in OmpLA predict regions important for protein function as well as structural anomalies. Our computational approach is fast, efficient and applicable to any OMP. PMID:26860422

  7. Outer Hair Cell Lateral Wall Structure Constrains the Mobility of Plasma Membrane Proteins.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Tetsuji; Hakizimana, Pierre; Wu, Siva; Hassan, Ahmed; Jacob, Stefan; Temirov, Jamshid; Fang, Jie; Mellado-Lagarde, Marcia; Gursky, Richard; Horner, Linda; Leibiger, Barbara; Leijon, Sara; Centonze, Victoria E; Berggren, Per-Olof; Frase, Sharon; Auer, Manfred; Brownell, William E; Fridberger, Anders; Zuo, Jian

    2015-09-01

    Nature's fastest motors are the cochlear outer hair cells (OHCs). These sensory cells use a membrane protein, Slc26a5 (prestin), to generate mechanical force at high frequencies, which is essential for explaining the exquisite hearing sensitivity of mammalian ears. Previous studies suggest that Slc26a5 continuously diffuses within the membrane, but how can a freely moving motor protein effectively convey forces critical for hearing? To provide direct evidence in OHCs for freely moving Slc26a5 molecules, we created a knockin mouse where Slc26a5 is fused with YFP. These mice and four other strains expressing fluorescently labeled membrane proteins were used to examine their lateral diffusion in the OHC lateral wall. All five proteins showed minimal diffusion, but did move after pharmacological disruption of membrane-associated structures with a cholesterol-depleting agent and salicylate. Thus, our results demonstrate that OHC lateral wall structure constrains the mobility of plasma membrane proteins and that the integrity of such membrane-associated structures are critical for Slc26a5's active and structural roles. The structural constraint of membrane proteins may exemplify convergent evolution of cellular motors across species. Our findings also suggest a possible mechanism for disorders of cholesterol metabolism with hearing loss such as Niemann-Pick Type C diseases. PMID:26352669

  8. Outer Hair Cell Lateral Wall Structure Constrains the Mobility of Plasma Membrane Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Tetsuji; Hakizimana, Pierre; Wu, Siva; Hassan, Ahmed; Jacob, Stefan; Temirov, Jamshid; Fang, Jie; Mellado-Lagarde, Marcia; Gursky, Richard; Horner, Linda; Leibiger, Barbara; Leijon, Sara; Centonze, Victoria E.; Berggren, Per-Olof; Frase, Sharon; Auer, Manfred; Brownell, William E.; Fridberger, Anders; Zuo, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Nature’s fastest motors are the cochlear outer hair cells (OHCs). These sensory cells use a membrane protein, Slc26a5 (prestin), to generate mechanical force at high frequencies, which is essential for explaining the exquisite hearing sensitivity of mammalian ears. Previous studies suggest that Slc26a5 continuously diffuses within the membrane, but how can a freely moving motor protein effectively convey forces critical for hearing? To provide direct evidence in OHCs for freely moving Slc26a5 molecules, we created a knockin mouse where Slc26a5 is fused with YFP. These mice and four other strains expressing fluorescently labeled membrane proteins were used to examine their lateral diffusion in the OHC lateral wall. All five proteins showed minimal diffusion, but did move after pharmacological disruption of membrane-associated structures with a cholesterol-depleting agent and salicylate. Thus, our results demonstrate that OHC lateral wall structure constrains the mobility of plasma membrane proteins and that the integrity of such membrane-associated structures are critical for Slc26a5’s active and structural roles. The structural constraint of membrane proteins may exemplify convergent evolution of cellular motors across species. Our findings also suggest a possible mechanism for disorders of cholesterol metabolism with hearing loss such as Niemann-Pick Type C diseases. PMID:26352669

  9. The potential and electric field in the cochlear outer hair cell membrane

    PubMed Central

    Harland, Ben; Lee, Wen-han; Brownell, William E.; Sun, Sean X.; Spector, Alexander A.

    2015-01-01

    Outer hair cell electromechanics, critically important to mammalian active hearing, is driven by the cell membrane potential. The membrane protein prestin is a crucial component of the active outer hair cell’s motor. The focus of the paper is the analysis of the local membrane potential and electric field resulting from the interaction of electric charges involved. Here the relevant charges are the ions inside and outside the cell, lipid bilayer charges, and prestin-associated charges (mobile-transferred by the protein under the action of the applied field and stationary-relatively unmoved by the field). The electric potentials across and along the membrane are computed for the case of an applied DC-field. The local amplitudes and phases of the potential under different frequencies are analyzed for the case of a DC+AC-field. We found that the effect of the system of charges alters the electric potential and internal field, which deviate significantly from their traditional linear and constant distributions. Under DC+AC conditions, the strong frequency dependence of the prestin mobile charge has a relatively small effect on the amplitude and phase of the resulting potential. The obtained results can help in a better understanding and experimental verification of the mechanism of prestin performance. PMID:25687712

  10. The potential and electric field in the cochlear outer hair cell membrane.

    PubMed

    Harland, Ben; Lee, Wen-han; Brownell, William E; Sun, Sean X; Spector, Alexander A

    2015-05-01

    Outer hair cell electromechanics, critically important to mammalian active hearing, is driven by the cell membrane potential. The membrane protein prestin is a crucial component of the active outer hair cell's motor. The focus of the paper is the analysis of the local membrane potential and electric field resulting from the interaction of electric charges involved. Here the relevant charges are the ions inside and outside the cell, lipid bilayer charges, and prestin-associated charges (mobile-transferred by the protein under the action of the applied field, and stationary-relatively unmoved by the field). The electric potentials across and along the membrane are computed for the case of an applied DC-field. The local amplitudes and phases of the potential under different frequencies are analyzed for the case of a DC + AC-field. We found that the effect of the system of charges alters the electric potential and internal field, which deviate significantly from their traditional linear and constant distributions. Under DC + AC conditions, the strong frequency dependence of the prestin mobile charge has a relatively small effect on the amplitude and phase of the resulting potential. The obtained results can help in a better understanding and experimental verification of the mechanism of prestin performance. PMID:25687712

  11. The motion of a single molecule, the lambda-receptor, in the bacterial outer membrane.

    PubMed Central

    Oddershede, Lene; Dreyer, Jakob Kisbye; Grego, Sonia; Brown, Stanley; Berg-Sørensen, Kirstine

    2002-01-01

    Using optical tweezers and single particle tracking, we have revealed the motion of a single protein, the lambda-receptor, in the outer membrane of living Escherichia coli bacteria. We genetically modified the lambda-receptor placing a biotin on an extracellular site of the receptor in vivo. The efficiency of this in vivo biotinylation is very low, thus enabling the attachment of a streptavidin-coated bead binding specifically to a single biotinylated lambda-receptor. The bead was used as a handle for the optical tweezers and as a marker for the single particle tracking routine. We propose a model that allows extraction of the motion of the protein from measurements of the mobility of the bead-molecule complex; these results are equally applicable to analyze bead-protein complexes in other membrane systems. Within a domain of radius approximately 25 nm, the receptor diffuses with a diffusion constant of (1.5 +/- 1.0) x 10(-9) cm(2)/s and sits in a harmonic potential as if it were tethered by an elastic spring of spring constant of ~1.0 x 10(-2) pN/nm to the bacterial membrane. The purpose of the protein motion might be to facilitate transport of maltodextrins through the outer bacterial membrane. PMID:12496085

  12. Appoptosin interacts with mitochondrial outer-membrane fusion proteins and regulates mitochondrial morphology.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cuilin; Shi, Zhun; Zhang, Lingzhi; Zhou, Zehua; Zheng, Xiaoyuan; Liu, Guiying; Bu, Guojun; Fraser, Paul E; Xu, Huaxi; Zhang, Yun-Wu

    2016-03-01

    Mitochondrial morphology is regulated by fusion and fission machinery. Impaired mitochondria dynamics cause various diseases, including Alzheimer's disease. Appoptosin (encoded by SLC25A38) is a mitochondrial carrier protein that is located in the mitochondrial inner membrane. Appoptosin overexpression causes overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and caspase-dependent apoptosis, whereas appoptosin downregulation abolishes β-amyloid-induced mitochondrial fragmentation and neuronal death during Alzheimer's disease. Herein, we found that overexpression of appoptosin resulted in mitochondrial fragmentation in a manner independent of its carrier function, ROS production or caspase activation. Although appoptosin did not affect levels of mitochondrial outer-membrane fusion (MFN1 and MFN2), inner-membrane fusion (OPA1) and fission [DRP1 (also known as DNM1L) and FIS1] proteins, appoptosin interacted with MFN1 and MFN2, as well as with the mitochondrial ubiquitin ligase MITOL (also known as MARCH5) but not OPA1, FIS1 or DRP1. Appoptosin overexpression impaired the interaction between MFN1 and MFN2, and mitochondrial fusion. By contrast, co-expression of MFN1, MITOL and a dominant-negative form of DRP1, DRP1(K38A), partially rescued appoptosin-induced mitochondrial fragmentation and apoptosis, whereas co-expression of FIS1 aggravated appoptosin-induced apoptosis. Together, our results demonstrate that appoptosin can interact with mitochondrial outer-membrane fusion proteins and regulates mitochondrial morphology. PMID:26813789

  13. A Novel Mitosomal β-Barrel Outer Membrane Protein in Entamoeba

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Herbert J.; Imai, Kenichiro; Makiuchi, Takashi; Tomii, Kentaro; Horton, Paul; Nozawa, Akira; Ibrahim, Mohamed; Tozawa, Yuzuru; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Entamoeba possesses a highly divergent mitochondrion-related organelle known as the mitosome. Here, we report the discovery of a novel protein in Entamoeba, which we name Mitosomal β-barrel Outer Membrane Protein of 30 kDa (MBOMP30). Initially identified through in silico analysis, we experimentally confirmed that MBOMP30 is indeed a β-barrel protein. Circular dichroism analysis showed MBOMP30 has a predominant β-sheet structure. Localization to Entamoeba histolytica mitosomes was observed through Percoll-gradient fractionation and immunofluorescence assay. Mitosomal membrane integration was demonstrated by carbonate fractionation, proteinase K digestion, and immunoelectron microscopy. Interestingly, the deletion of the putative β-signal, a sequence believed to guide β-barrel outer membrane protein (BOMP) assembly, did not affect membrane integration, but abolished the formation of a ~240 kDa complex. MBOMP30 represents only the seventh subclass of eukaryotic BOMPs discovered to date and lacks detectable homologs outside Entamoeba, suggesting that it may be unique to Entamoeba mitosomes. PMID:25711150

  14. Outer mitochondrial membrane localization of apoptosis-inducing factor: mechanistic implications for release

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Seong-Woon; Wang, Yingfei; Frydenlund, Didrik S; Ottersen, Ole Petter; Dawson, Valina L; Dawson, Ted M

    2009-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1-dependent cell death (known as parthanatos) plays a pivotal role in many clinically important events including ischaemia/reperfusion injury and glutamate excitotoxicity. A recent study by us has shown that uncleaved AIF (apoptosis-inducing factor), but not calpain-hydrolysed truncated-AIF, was rapidly released from the mitochondria during parthanatos, implicating a second pool of AIF that might be present in brain mitochondria contributing to the rapid release. In the present study, a novel AIF pool is revealed in brain mitochondria by multiple biochemical analyses. Approx. 30% of AIF loosely associates with the outer mitochondrial membrane on the cytosolic side, in addition to its main localization in the mitochondrial intermembrane space attached to the inner membrane. Immunogold electron microscopic analysis of mouse brain further supports AIF association with the outer, as well as the inner, mitochondrial membrane in vivo. In line with these observations, approx. 20% of uncleaved AIF rapidly translocates to the nucleus and functionally causes neuronal death upon NMDA (N-methyl-d-aspartate) treatment. In the present study we show for the first time a second pool of AIF in brain mitochondria and demonstrate that this pool does not require cleavage and that it contributes to the rapid release of AIF. Moreover, these results suggest that this outer mitochondrial pool of AIF is sufficient to cause cell death during parthanatos. Interfering with the release of this outer mitochondrial pool of AIF during cell injury paradigms that use parthanatos hold particular promise for novel therapies to treat neurological disorders. PMID:19863494

  15. Phylogenomic analysis supports the ancestral presence of LPS-outer membranes in the Firmicutes.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Luisa Cs; Poppleton, Daniel; Klingl, Andreas; Criscuolo, Alexis; Dupuy, Bruno; Brochier-Armanet, Céline; Beloin, Christophe; Gribaldo, Simonetta

    2016-01-01

    One of the major unanswered questions in evolutionary biology is when and how the transition between diderm (two membranes) and monoderm (one membrane) cell envelopes occurred in Bacteria. The Negativicutes and the Halanaerobiales belong to the classically monoderm Firmicutes, but possess outer membranes with lipopolysaccharide (LPS-OM). Here, we show that they form two phylogenetically distinct lineages, each close to different monoderm relatives. In contrast, their core LPS biosynthesis enzymes were inherited vertically, as in the majority of bacterial phyla. Finally, annotation of key OM systems in the Halanaerobiales and the Negativicutes shows a puzzling combination of monoderm and diderm features. Together, these results support the hypothesis that the LPS-OMs of Negativicutes and Halanaerobiales are remnants of an ancient diderm cell envelope that was present in the ancestor of the Firmicutes, and that the monoderm phenotype in this phylum is a derived character that arose multiple times independently through OM loss. PMID:27580370

  16. A growing toolbox of techniques for studying β-barrel outer membrane protein folding and biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Horne, Jim E.; Radford, Sheena E.

    2016-01-01

    Great strides into understanding protein folding have been made since the seminal work of Anfinsen over 40 years ago, but progress in the study of membrane protein folding has lagged behind that of their water soluble counterparts. Researchers in these fields continue to turn to more advanced techniques such as NMR, mass spectrometry, molecular dynamics (MD) and single molecule methods to interrogate how proteins fold. Our understanding of β-barrel outer membrane protein (OMP) folding has benefited from these advances in the last decade. This class of proteins must traverse the periplasm and then insert into an asymmetric lipid membrane in the absence of a chemical energy source. In this review we discuss old, new and emerging techniques used to examine the process of OMP folding and biogenesis in vitro and describe some of the insights and new questions these techniques have revealed. PMID:27284045

  17. Three-dimensional organization of nascent rod outer segment disk membranes

    PubMed Central

    Volland, Stefanie; Hughes, Louise C.; Kong, Christina; Burgess, Barry L.; Linberg, Kenneth A.; Luna, Gabriel; Zhou, Z. Hong; Fisher, Steven K.; Williams, David S.

    2015-01-01

    The vertebrate photoreceptor cell contains an elaborate cilium that includes a stack of phototransductive membrane disks. The disk membranes are continually renewed, but how new disks are formed remains poorly understood. Here we used electron microscope tomography to obtain 3D visualization of the nascent disks of rod photoreceptors in three mammalian species, to gain insight into the process of disk morphogenesis. We observed that nascent disks are invariably continuous with the ciliary plasma membrane, although, owing to partial enclosure, they can appear to be internal in 2D profiles. Tomographic analyses of the basal-most region of the outer segment show changes in shape of the ciliary plasma membrane indicating an invagination, which is likely a first step in disk formation. The invagination flattens to create the proximal surface of an evaginating lamella, as well as membrane protrusions that extend between adjacent lamellae, thereby initiating a disk rim. Immediately distal to this initiation site, lamellae of increasing diameter are evident, indicating growth outward from the cilium. In agreement with a previous model, our data indicate that mature disks are formed once lamellae reach full diameter, and the growth of a rim encloses the space between adjacent surfaces of two lamellae. This study provides 3D data of nascent and mature rod photoreceptor disk membranes at unprecedented z-axis depth and resolution, and provides a basis for addressing fundamental questions, ranging from protein sorting in the photoreceptor cilium to photoreceptor electrophysiology. PMID:26578801

  18. Actuation of flexoelectric membranes in viscoelastic fluids with applications to outer hair cells.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Valencia, E E; Rey, Alejandro D

    2014-11-28

    Liquid crystal flexoelectric actuation uses an imposed electric field to create membrane bending, and it is used by the outer hair cells (OHCs) located in the inner ear, whose role is to amplify sound through generation of mechanical power. Oscillations in the OHC membranes create periodic viscoelastic flows in the contacting fluid media. A key objective of this work on flexoelectric actuation relevant to OHCs is to find the relations and impact of the electromechanical properties of the membrane, the rheological properties of the viscoelastic media, and the frequency response of the generated mechanical power output. The model developed and used in this work is based on the integration of: (i) the flexoelectric membrane shape equation applied to a circular membrane attached to the inner surface of a circular capillary and (ii) the coupled capillary flow of contacting viscoelastic phases, such that the membrane flexoelectric oscillations drive periodic viscoelastic capillary flows, as in OHCs. By applying the Fourier transform formalism to the governing equation, analytical expressions for the transfer function associated with the curvature and electrical field and for the power dissipation of elastic storage energy were found. PMID:25332388

  19. Ergosterol content specifies targeting of tail-anchored proteins to mitochondrial outer membranes

    PubMed Central

    Krumpe, Katrin; Frumkin, Idan; Herzig, Yonatan; Rimon, Nitzan; Özbalci, Cagakan; Brügger, Britta; Rapaport, Doron; Schuldiner, Maya

    2012-01-01

    Tail-anchored (TA) proteins have a single C-terminal transmembrane domain, making their biogenesis dependent on posttranslational translocation. Despite their importance, no dedicated insertion machinery has been uncovered for mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM) TA proteins. To decipher the molecular mechanisms guiding MOM TA protein insertion, we performed two independent systematic microscopic screens in which we visualized the localization of model MOM TA proteins on the background of mutants in all yeast genes. We could find no mutant in which insertion was completely blocked. However, both screens demonstrated that MOM TA proteins were partially localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in ∆spf1 cells. Spf1, an ER ATPase with unknown function, is the first protein shown to affect MOM TA protein insertion. We found that ER membranes in ∆spf1 cells become similar in their ergosterol content to mitochondrial membranes. Indeed, when we visualized MOM TA protein distribution in yeast strains with reduced ergosterol content, they phenocopied the loss of Spf1. We therefore suggest that the inherent differences in membrane composition between organelle membranes are sufficient to determine membrane integration specificity in a eukaryotic cell. PMID:22918956

  20. Linkage between anaplasma marginale outer membrane proteins enhances immunogenicity, but is not required for protection from challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prevention of bacterial infections via immunization presents particular challenges. While outer membrane extracts are often protective; they are difficult and expensive to isolate and standardize, and thus often impractical for development and implementation in vaccination programs. In contrast, ind...

  1. Involvement of Neisseria meningitidis Lipoprotein GNA2091 in the Assembly of a Subset of Outer Membrane Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Bos, Martine P.; Grijpstra, Jan; Tommassen-van Boxtel, Ria; Tommassen, Jan

    2014-01-01

    GNA2091 of Neisseria meningitidis is a lipoprotein of unknown function that is included in the novel 4CMenB vaccine. Here, we investigated the biological function and the subcellular localization of the protein. We demonstrate that GNA2091 functions in the assembly of outer membrane proteins (OMPs) because its absence resulted in the accumulation of misassembled OMPs. Cell fractionation and protease accessibility experiments showed that the protein is localized at the periplasmic side of the outer membrane. Pulldown experiments revealed that it is not stably associated with the β-barrel assembly machinery, the previously identified complex for OMP assembly. Thus, GNA2091 constitutes a novel outer membrane-based lipoprotein required for OMP assembly. Furthermore, its location at the inner side of the outer membrane indicates that protective immunity elicited by this antigen cannot be due to bactericidal or opsonic activity of antibodies. PMID:24755216

  2. The role of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria in antibiotic resistance: Ajax' shield or Achilles' heel?

    PubMed

    Page, Malcolm G P

    2012-01-01

    There has been an enormous increase in our knowledge of the fundamental steps in the biosynthesis and assembly of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. Lipopolysaccharide is a major component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria as is peptidoglycan. Porins, efflux pumps and other transport proteins of the outer membrane are also present. It is clear that there are numerous essential proteins that have the potential to be targets for novel antimicrobial agents. Progress, however, has been slow. Much of the emphasis has been on cytoplasmic processes that were better understood earlier on, but have the drawback that two penetration barriers, with different permeability properties, have to be crossed. With the increased understanding of the late-stage events occurring in the periplasm, it may be possible to shift focus to these more accessible targets. Nevertheless, getting drugs across the outer membrane will remain a challenge to the ingenuity of the medicinal chemist. PMID:23090596

  3. A novel mechanism for the biogenesis of outer membrane vesicles in Gram-negative bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Roier, Sandro; Zingl, Franz G.; Cakar, Fatih; Durakovic, Sanel; Kohl, Paul; Eichmann, Thomas O.; Klug, Lisa; Gadermaier, Bernhard; Weinzerl, Katharina; Prassl, Ruth; Lass, Achim; Daum, Günther; Reidl, Joachim; Feldman, Mario F.; Schild, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) have important biological roles in pathogenesis and intercellular interactions, but a general mechanism of OMV formation is lacking. Here we show that the VacJ/Yrb ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transport system, a proposed phospholipid transporter, is involved in OMV formation. Deletion or repression of VacJ/Yrb increases OMV production in two distantly related Gram-negative bacteria, Haemophilus influenzae and Vibrio cholerae. Lipidome analyses demonstrate that OMVs from VacJ/Yrb-defective mutants in H. influenzae are enriched in phospholipids and certain fatty acids. Furthermore, we demonstrate that OMV production and regulation of the VacJ/Yrb ABC transport system respond to iron starvation. Our results suggest a new general mechanism of OMV biogenesis based on phospholipid accumulation in the outer leaflet of the outer membrane. This mechanism is highly conserved among Gram-negative bacteria, provides a means for regulation, can account for OMV formation under all growth conditions, and might have important pathophysiological roles in vivo. PMID:26806181

  4. The outer membrane protease PgtE of Salmonella enterica interferes with the alternative complement pathway by cleaving factors B and H.

    PubMed

    Riva, Rauna; Korhonen, Timo K; Meri, Seppo

    2015-01-01

    The virulence factor PgtE is an outer membrane protease (omptin) of the zoonotic pathogen Salmonella enterica that causes diseases ranging from gastroenteritis to severe enteric fever. It is surface exposed in bacteria that have a short-chain, i.e., rough LPS, as observed e.g., in bacteria residing inside macrophages or just emerging from them. We investigated whether PgtE cleaves the complement factors B (B) and H (H), key proteins controlling formation and inactivation of the complement protein C3b and thereby the activity of the complement system. S. enterica serovar Typhimurium or omptin-expressing recombinant E. coli bacteria were incubated with purified human complement proteins or recombinant H fragments. PgtE cleaved both B and H, whereas its close homolog Pla of Yersinia pestis cleaved only H. H was cleaved at both N- and C-termini, while the central region resisted proteolysis. Because of multiple effects of PgtE on complement components (cleavage of C3, C3b, B, and H) we assessed its effect on the opsonophagocytosis of Salmonella. In human serum, C3 cleavage was dependent on proteolytically active PgtE. Human neutrophils interacted less with serum-opsonized FITC-stained S. enterica 14028R than with the isogenic ΔpgtE strain, as analyzed by flow cytometry. In conclusion, cleavage of B and H by PgtE, together with C3 cleavage, affects the C3-mediated recognition of S. enterica by human neutrophils, thus thwarting the immune protection against Salmonella. PMID:25705210

  5. The outer membrane protease PgtE of Salmonella enterica interferes with the alternative complement pathway by cleaving factors B and H

    PubMed Central

    Riva, Rauna; Korhonen, Timo K.; Meri, Seppo

    2015-01-01

    The virulence factor PgtE is an outer membrane protease (omptin) of the zoonotic pathogen Salmonella enterica that causes diseases ranging from gastroenteritis to severe enteric fever. It is surface exposed in bacteria that have a short-chain, i.e., rough LPS, as observed e.g., in bacteria residing inside macrophages or just emerging from them. We investigated whether PgtE cleaves the complement factors B (B) and H (H), key proteins controlling formation and inactivation of the complement protein C3b and thereby the activity of the complement system. S. enterica serovar Typhimurium or omptin-expressing recombinant E. coli bacteria were incubated with purified human complement proteins or recombinant H fragments. PgtE cleaved both B and H, whereas its close homolog Pla of Yersinia pestis cleaved only H. H was cleaved at both N- and C-termini, while the central region resisted proteolysis. Because of multiple effects of PgtE on complement components (cleavage of C3, C3b, B, and H) we assessed its effect on the opsonophagocytosis of Salmonella. In human serum, C3 cleavage was dependent on proteolytically active PgtE. Human neutrophils interacted less with serum-opsonized FITC-stained S. enterica 14028R than with the isogenic ΔpgtE strain, as analyzed by flow cytometry. In conclusion, cleavage of B and H by PgtE, together with C3 cleavage, affects the C3-mediated recognition of S. enterica by human neutrophils, thus thwarting the immune protection against Salmonella. PMID:25705210

  6. Structural basis of outer membrane protein insertion by the BAM complex.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yinghong; Li, Huanyu; Dong, Haohao; Zeng, Yi; Zhang, Zhengyu; Paterson, Neil G; Stansfeld, Phillip J; Wang, Zhongshan; Zhang, Yizheng; Wang, Wenjian; Dong, Changjiang

    2016-03-01

    All Gram-negative bacteria, mitochondria and chloroplasts have outer membrane proteins (OMPs) that perform many fundamental biological processes. The OMPs in Gram-negative bacteria are inserted and folded into the outer membrane by the β-barrel assembly machinery (BAM). The mechanism involved is poorly understood, owing to the absence of a structure of the entire BAM complex. Here we report two crystal structures of the Escherichia coli BAM complex in two distinct states: an inward-open state and a lateral-open state. Our structures reveal that the five polypeptide transport-associated domains of BamA form a ring architecture with four associated lipoproteins, BamB-BamE, in the periplasm. Our structural, functional studies and molecular dynamics simulations indicate that these subunits rotate with respect to the integral membrane β-barrel of BamA to induce movement of the β-strands of the barrel and promote insertion of the nascent OMP. PMID:26901871

  7. Antigen-specific serotyping of Neisseria gonorrhoeae: characterization based upon principal outer membrane protein.

    PubMed Central

    Buchanan, T M; Hildebrandt, J F

    1981-01-01

    Principal outer membrane protein (protein I) of Neisseria gonorrhoeae was prepared nearly free of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and substantially purified from other membrane proteins by chromatography of partially purified gonococcal outer membranes over Sepharose 6B in the presence of deoxycholate at pH 9.0. This protein I of nine separate antigenic types was coated to polystyrene tubes and used in the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to measure antibody to protein I or in inhibition tests to quantitate protein I antigen. No significant inhibition of the ELISA test was produced by purified LPS from the strain used to prepare each of the protein I types or by whole gonococci bearing the same LPS but different protein I antigens as the strain used to produce a given protein I antigen. Of 125 strains of gonococci used as whole organisms to inhibit the protein I ELISA, 124 (99%) typed with one or more of the nine protein I types, and 35% of these typed with a single protein I serotype. Sixty-one of 65 (94%) strains from Seattle and Atlanta patients with disseminated gonococcal infection contained protein I serotype 1, and 16 of 24 (64%) strains from Seattle patients with salpingitis bore one or both of protein I serotypes 1 and 2. Images PMID:6166568

  8. The fusogenic lipid phosphatidic acid promotes the biogenesis of mitochondrial outer membrane protein Ugo1

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Michael; Taskin, Asli A.; Horvath, Susanne E.; Guan, Xue Li; Prinz, Claudia; Opalińska, Magdalena; Zorzin, Carina; van der Laan, Martin; Wenk, Markus R.; Schubert, Rolf; Wiedemann, Nils; Holzer, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Import and assembly of mitochondrial proteins depend on a complex interplay of proteinaceous translocation machineries. The role of lipids in this process has been studied only marginally and so far no direct role for a specific lipid in mitochondrial protein biogenesis has been shown. Here we analyzed a potential role of phosphatidic acid (PA) in biogenesis of mitochondrial proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In vivo remodeling of the mitochondrial lipid composition by lithocholic acid treatment or by ablation of the lipid transport protein Ups1, both leading to an increase of mitochondrial PA levels, specifically stimulated the biogenesis of the outer membrane protein Ugo1, a component of the mitochondrial fusion machinery. We reconstituted the import and assembly pathway of Ugo1 in protein-free liposomes, mimicking the outer membrane phospholipid composition, and found a direct dependency of Ugo1 biogenesis on PA. Thus, PA represents the first lipid that is directly involved in the biogenesis pathway of a mitochondrial membrane protein. PMID:26347140

  9. Cytotoxic effects of Kingella kingae outer membrane vesicles on human cells

    PubMed Central

    Maldonado, R; Wei, R; Kachlany, SC; Kazi, M; Balashova, NV

    2011-01-01

    Kingella kingae is an emerging pathogen causing osteoarticular infections in pediatric patients. Electron microscopy of K. kingae clinical isolates revealed the heterogeneously-sized membranous structures blebbing from the outer membrane that were classified as outer membrane vesicles (OMVs). OMVs purified from the secreted fraction of a septic arthritis K. kingae isolate were characterized. Among several major proteins, K. kingae OMVs contained virulence factors RtxA toxin and PilC2 pilus adhesin. RtxA was also found secreted as a soluble protein in the extracellular environment indicating that the bacterium may utilize different mechanisms for the toxin delivery. OMVs were shown to be hemolytic and possess some leukotoxic activity while high leukotoxicity was detected in the non-hemolytic OMV-free component of the secreted fraction. OMVs were internalized by human osteoblasts and synovial cells. Upon interaction with OMVs, the cells produced increased levels of human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleuskin 6 (IL-6) suggesting that these cytokines might be involved in the signaling response of infected joint and bone tissues during natural K. kingae infection. This study is the first report of OMV production by K. kingae and demonstrates that OMVs are a complex virulence factor of the organism causing cytolytic and inflammatory effects on host cells. PMID:21443941

  10. Allosteric signalling in the outer membrane translocation domain of PapC usher

    PubMed Central

    Farabella, Irene; Pham, Thieng; Henderson, Nadine S; Geibel, Sebastian; Phan, Gilles; Thanassi, David G; Delcour, Anne H; Waksman, Gabriel; Topf, Maya

    2014-01-01

    PapC ushers are outer-membrane proteins enabling assembly and secretion of P pili in uropathogenic E. coli. Their translocation domain is a large β-barrel occluded by a plug domain, which is displaced to allow the translocation of pilus subunits across the membrane. Previous studies suggested that this gating mechanism is controlled by a β-hairpin and an α-helix. To investigate the role of these elements in allosteric signal communication, we developed a method combining evolutionary and molecular dynamics studies of the native translocation domain and mutants lacking the β-hairpin and/or the α-helix. Analysis of a hybrid residue interaction network suggests distinct regions (residue ‘communities’) within the translocation domain (especially around β12–β14) linking these elements, thereby modulating PapC gating. Antibiotic sensitivity and electrophysiology experiments on a set of alanine-substitution mutants confirmed functional roles for four of these communities. This study illuminates the gating mechanism of PapC ushers and its importance in maintaining outer-membrane permeability. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03532.001 PMID:25271373

  11. Structural Basis for Translocation of a Biofilm-supporting Exopolysaccharide across the Bacterial Outer Membrane.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Andole Pannuri, Archana; Ni, Dongchun; Zhou, Haizhen; Cao, Xiou; Lu, Xiaomei; Romeo, Tony; Huang, Yihua

    2016-05-01

    The partially de-N-acetylated poly-β-1,6-N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (dPNAG) polymer serves as an intercellular biofilm adhesin that plays an essential role for the development and maintenance of integrity of biofilms of diverse bacterial species. Translocation of dPNAG across the bacterial outer membrane is mediated by a tetratricopeptide repeat-containing outer membrane protein, PgaA. To understand the molecular basis of dPNAG translocation, we determined the crystal structure of the C-terminal transmembrane domain of PgaA (residues 513-807). The structure reveals that PgaA forms a 16-strand transmembrane β-barrel, closed by four loops on the extracellular surface. Half of the interior surface of the barrel that lies parallel to the translocation pathway is electronegative, suggesting that the corresponding negatively charged residues may assist the secretion of the positively charged dPNAG polymer. In vivo complementation assays in a pgaA deletion bacterial strain showed that a cluster of negatively charged residues proximal to the periplasm is necessary for biofilm formation. Biochemical analyses further revealed that the tetratricopeptide repeat domain of PgaA binds directly to the N-deacetylase PgaB and is critical for biofilm formation. Our studies support a model in which the positively charged PgaB-bound dPNAG polymer is delivered to PgaA through the PgaA-PgaB interaction and is further targeted to the β-barrel lumen of PgaA potentially via a charge complementarity mechanism, thus priming the translocation of dPNAG across the bacterial outer membrane. PMID:26957546

  12. VDAC electronics: 1. VDAC-hexo(gluco)kinase generator of the mitochondrial outer membrane potential.

    PubMed

    Lemeshko, Victor V

    2014-05-01

    The simplest mechanism of the generation of the mitochondrial outer membrane potential (OMP) by the VDAC (voltage-dependent anion channel)-hexokinase complex (VHC), suggested earlier, and by the VDAC-glucokinase complex (VGC), was computationally analyzed. Even at less than 4% of VDACs bound to hexokinase, the calculated OMP is high enough to trigger the electrical closure of VDACs beyond the complexes at threshold concentrations of glucose. These results confirmed our previous hypothesis that the Warburg effect is caused by the electrical closure of VDACs, leading to global restriction of the outer membrane permeability coupled to aerobic glycolysis. The model showed that the inhibition of the conductance and/or an increase in the voltage sensitivity of a relatively small fraction of VDACs by factors like tubulin potentiate the electrical closure of the remaining free VDACs. The extrusion of calcium ions from the mitochondrial intermembrane space by the generated OMP, positive inside, might increase cancer cell resistance to death. Within the VGC model, the known effect of induction of ATP release from mitochondria by accumulated glucose-6-phosphate in pancreatic beta cells might result not only of the known effect of GK dissociation from the VDAC-GK complex, but also of a decrease in the free energy of glucokinase reaction, leading to the OMP decrease and VDAC opening. We suggest that the VDAC-mediated electrical control of the mitochondrial outer membrane permeability, dependent on metabolic conditions, is a fundamental physiological mechanism of global regulation of mitochondrial functions and of cell death. PMID:24412217

  13. Borrelia burgdorferi BBA74, a Periplasmic Protein Associated with the Outer Membrane, Lacks Porin-Like Properties▿

    PubMed Central

    Mulay, Vishwaroop; Caimano, Melissa J.; Liveris, Dionysios; Desrosiers, Daniel C.; Radolf, Justin D.; Schwartz, Ira

    2007-01-01

    The outer membrane of Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, contains very few integral membrane proteins, in contrast to other gram-negative bacteria. BBA74, a Borrelia burgdorferi plasmid-encoded protein, was proposed to be an integral outer membrane protein with putative porin function and designated as a 28-kDa outer membrane-spanning porin (Oms28). In this study, the biophysical properties of BBA74 and its subcellular localization were investigated. BBA74 is posttranslationally modified by signal peptidase I cleavage to a mature 25-kDa protein. The secondary structure of BBA74 as determined by circular dichroism spectroscopy consists of at least 78% α-helix with little β-sheet structure. BBA74 in intact B. burgdorferi cells was insensitive to proteinase K digestion, and indirect immunofluorescence microscopy showed that BBA74 was not exposed on the cell surface. Triton X-114 extraction of outer membrane vesicle preparations indicated that BBA74 is not an integral membrane protein. Taken together, the data indicate that BBA74 is a periplasmic, outer membrane-associated protein that lacks properties typically associated with porins. PMID:17189354

  14. Borrelia burgdorferi BBA74, a periplasmic protein associated with the outer membrane, lacks porin-like properties.

    PubMed

    Mulay, Vishwaroop; Caimano, Melissa J; Liveris, Dionysios; Desrosiers, Daniel C; Radolf, Justin D; Schwartz, Ira

    2007-03-01

    The outer membrane of Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, contains very few integral membrane proteins, in contrast to other gram-negative bacteria. BBA74, a Borrelia burgdorferi plasmid-encoded protein, was proposed to be an integral outer membrane protein with putative porin function and designated as a 28-kDa outer membrane-spanning porin (Oms28). In this study, the biophysical properties of BBA74 and its subcellular localization were investigated. BBA74 is posttranslationally modified by signal peptidase I cleavage to a mature 25-kDa protein. The secondary structure of BBA74 as determined by circular dichroism spectroscopy consists of at least 78% alpha-helix with little beta-sheet structure. BBA74 in intact B. burgdorferi cells was insensitive to proteinase K digestion, and indirect immunofluorescence microscopy showed that BBA74 was not exposed on the cell surface. Triton X-114 extraction of outer membrane vesicle preparations indicated that BBA74 is not an integral membrane protein. Taken together, the data indicate that BBA74 is a periplasmic, outer membrane-associated protein that lacks properties typically associated with porins. PMID:17189354

  15. SNAREs Interact with Retinal Degeneration Slow and Rod Outer Segment Membrane Protein-1 during Conventional and Unconventional Outer Segment Targeting

    PubMed Central

    Zulliger, Rahel; Conley, Shannon M.; Mwoyosvi, Maggie L.; Stuck, Michael W.; Azadi, Seifollah; Naash, Muna I.

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the photoreceptor protein peripherin-2 (also known as RDS) cause severe retinal degeneration. RDS and its homolog ROM-1 (rod outer segment protein 1) are synthesized in the inner segment and then trafficked into the outer segment where they function in tetramers and covalently linked larger complexes. Our goal is to identify binding partners of RDS and ROM-1 that may be involved in their biosynthetic pathway or in their function in the photoreceptor outer segment (OS). Here we utilize several methods including mass spectrometry after affinity purification, in vitro co-expression followed by pull-down, in vivo pull-down from mouse retinas, and proximity ligation assay to identify and confirm the SNARE proteins Syntaxin 3B and SNAP-25 as novel binding partners of RDS and ROM-1. We show that both covalently linked and non-covalently linked RDS complexes interact with Syntaxin 3B. RDS in the mouse is trafficked from the inner segment to the outer segment by both conventional (i.e., Golgi dependent) and unconventional secretory pathways, and RDS from both pathways interacts with Syntaxin3B. Syntaxin 3B and SNAP-25 are enriched in the inner segment (compared to the outer segment) suggesting that the interaction with RDS/ROM-1 occurs in the inner segment. Syntaxin 3B and SNAP-25 are involved in mediating fusion of vesicles carrying other outer segment proteins during outer segment targeting, so could be involved in the trafficking of RDS/ROM-1. PMID:26406599

  16. Overexpression and immunogenicity of the Oma87 outer membrane protein of Pasteurella multocida.

    PubMed

    Mitchison, M; Wei, L; Kwang, J; Wilkie, I; Adler, B

    2000-03-01

    The outer membrane protein of Oma87 from Pasteurella multocida A:1 has significant similarity to the D15 protective antigen of Haemophilus influenzae (Ruffolo and Adler, 1996). Four fragments of Oma87 from a P. multocida serotype D strain were cloned into a pGEX expression vector and transformed into E. coli JM105. Western blot analysis revealed that convalescent chicken sera reacted with only GST-F1 fusion protein which contained amino acids 18 through to 130 of Oma87 fused to the GST protein. Vaccination with the GST-F1 protein failed to protect chickens against challenge with a virulent P. multocida serotype A. PMID:10699506

  17. Folding of outer membrane protein A in the anionic biosurfactant rhamnolipid.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Kell K; Otzen, Daniel E

    2014-05-21

    Folding and stability of bacterial outer membrane proteins (OMPs) are typically studied in vitro using model systems such as phospholipid vesicles or surfactant. OMP folding requires surfactant concentrations above the critical micelle concentration (cmc) and usually only occurs in neutral or zwitterionic surfactants, but not in anionic or cationic surfactants. Various Gram-negative bacteria produce the anionic biosurfactant rhamnolipid. Here we show that the OMP OmpA can be folded in rhamnolipid at concentrations above the cmc, though the thermal stability is reduced compared to the non-ionic surfactant dodecyl maltoside. We discuss implications for possible interactions between OMPs and biosurfactants in vivo. PMID:24735722

  18. Bordetella pertussis major outer membrane porin protein forms small, anion-selective channels in lipid bilayer membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, S K; Parr, T R; Parker, C D; Hancock, R E

    1986-01-01

    The major outer membrane protein of molecular weight 40,000 (the 40K protein) of a virulent isolate of Bordetella pertussis was purified to apparent homogeneity. The purified protein formed an oligomer band (of apparent molecular weight 90,000) on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels after solubilization at low temperatures. The porin function of this protein was characterized by the black lipid bilayer method. The 40K protein formed channels smaller than all other constitutive major outer membrane porins studied to date. The average single-channel conductance in 1 M KCl was 0.56 nS. This was less than a third of the conductance previously observed for Escherichia coli porins. Zero-current potential measurements made of the porin to determine its ion selectivity revealed the porin to be more than 100-fold selective for anions over cations. The single-channel conductance was measured as a function of salt concentration. The data could be fitted to a Lineweaver-Burk plot suggesting an anion binding site with a Kd of 1.17 M Cl- and a maximum possible conductance through the channel of 1.28 nS. Images PMID:2420780

  19. Characterization of new outer membrane proteins of Pseudomonas aeruginosa using a combinatorial peptide ligand library.

    PubMed

    Ben Mlouka, Mohamed Amine; Khemiri, Arbia; Seyer, Damien; Hardouin, Julie; Chan Tchi Song, Philippe; Dé, Emmanuelle; Jouenne, Thierry; Cosette, Pascal

    2015-02-01

    Most often, the use of ProteoMiner beads has been restricted to human serum proteins for the normalization of major proteins, such as albumin. However, there are other situations of interest in which the presence of major proteins would quench the signals of low abundance polypeptides. We propose the use of these beads for investigating the envelope of the gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Initially, we performed comparative 2D electrophoresis to qualitatively evaluate the incidence of the normalization stage. This demonstrated a significant reduction of the major membrane proteins. Thereafter, using shotgun analysis, the same protein extract was targeted by using combinatorial peptide ligand library capture. This treatment yielded 154 additional outer membrane proteins (OMPs) uncovered by the study of the crude sample. PMID:25471289

  20. Lipopolysaccharide transport and assembly at the outer membrane: the PEZ model.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Suguru; Sherman, David J; Silhavy, Thomas J; Ruiz, Natividad; Kahne, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Gram-negative bacteria have a double-membrane cellular envelope that enables them to colonize harsh environments and prevents the entry of many clinically available antibiotics. A main component of most outer membranes is lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a glycolipid containing several fatty acyl chains and up to hundreds of sugars that is synthesized in the cytoplasm. In the past two decades, the proteins that are responsible for transporting LPS across the cellular envelope and assembling it at the cell surface in Escherichia coli have been identified, but it remains unclear how they function. In this Review, we discuss recent advances in this area and present a model that explains how energy from the cytoplasm is used to power LPS transport across the cellular envelope to the cell surface. PMID:27026255

  1. Characterization of the insertase for β-barrel proteins of the outer mitochondrial membrane

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Astrid; Israel, Lars; Lackey, Sebastian W.K.; Nargang, Frank E.; Imhof, Axel; Baumeister, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    The TOB–SAM complex is an essential component of the mitochondrial outer membrane that mediates the insertion of β-barrel precursor proteins into the membrane. We report here its isolation and determine its size, composition, and structural organization. The complex from Neurospora crassa was composed of Tob55–Sam50, Tob38–Sam35, and Tob37–Sam37 in a stoichiometry of 1:1:1 and had a molecular mass of 140 kD. A very minor fraction of the purified complex was associated with one Mdm10 protein. Using molecular homology modeling for Tob55 and cryoelectron microscopy reconstructions of the TOB complex, we present a model of the TOB–SAM complex that integrates biochemical and structural data. We discuss our results and the structural model in the context of a possible mechanism of the TOB insertase. PMID:23128244

  2. Mitochondrial shape and function in trypanosomes requires the outer membrane protein, TbLOK1

    PubMed Central

    Povelones, Megan L.; Tiengwe, Calvin; Gluenz, Eva; Gull, Keith; Englund, Paul T.; Jensen, Robert E.

    2016-01-01

    Summary In an RNAi library screen for loss of kinetoplast DNA (kDNA), we identified an uncharacterized Trypanosoma brucei protein, named TbLOK1, required for maintenance of mitochondrial shape and function. We found the TbLOK1 protein located in discrete patches in the mitochondrial outer membrane. Knockdown of TbLOK1 in procyclic trypanosomes caused the highly interconnected mitochondrial structure to collapse, forming an unbranched tubule remarkably similar to the streamlined organelle seen in the bloodstream form. Following RNAi, defects in mitochondrial respiration, inner membrane potential, and mitochondrial transcription were observed. At later times following TbLOK1 depletion, kDNA was lost and a more drastic alteration in mitochondrial structure was found. Our results demonstrate the close relationship between organelle structure and function in trypanosomes. PMID:23336702

  3. Diffusion of aminoglycoside antibiotics across the outer membrane of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Nakae, R; Nakae, T

    1982-01-01

    The diffusion of aminoglycoside antibiotics (gentamicin, kanamycin, streptomycin, fradiomycin, lividomycin, and mannosylparomomycin) through porin pores was examined in vitro by the liposome swelling technique, using vesicle membranes reconstituted from phospholipids and purified porin trimers. Results showed that aminoglycoside antibiotics diffuse through porin-pores very efficiently, as rapidly as hexoses and disaccharides, despite the fact that the molecular weights of the aminoglycosides used were higher than or close to the exclusion limit of porin pores. The susceptibility to aminoglycoside antibiotics of mutant strains producing 3 to 4% of porin was not significantly different from that of a strain producing a wild-type quantity of porin. These results were interpreted to mean that aminoglycoside antibiotics diffuse through porin-pores very efficiently. Therefore, the diffusion of these drugs through the mutant outer membranes producing 3 to 4% of porin is not a rate-limiting step for aminoglycoside diffusion and its action. PMID:6758685

  4. Electron crystallography of PhoE porin, an outer membrane, channel- forming protein from E. coli

    SciTech Connect

    Walian, P.J.

    1989-11-01

    One approach to studying the structure of membrane proteins is the use of electron crystallography. Dr. Bing Jap has crystallized PhoE pore-forming protein (porin) from the outer membrane of escherichia coli (E. coli) into monolayer crystals. The findings of this research and those of Jap (1988, 1989) have determined these crystals to be highly ordered, yielding structural information to a resolution of better than 2.8 angstroms. The task of this thesis has been to collect and process the electron diffraction patterns necessary to generate a complete three-dimensional set of high resolution structure factor amplitudes of PhoE porin. Fourier processing of these amplitudes when combined with the corresponding phase data is expected to yield the three-dimensional structure of PhoE porin at better than 3.5 angstroms resolution. 92 refs., 33 figs., 3 tabs. (CBS)

  5. Ultrastructure of the outer membrane of Salmonella typhimurium bacteriocin-resistant mutants deficient in the 33K protein.

    PubMed Central

    Lounatmaa, K

    1979-01-01

    Outer membrane mutants of Salmonella typhimurium deficient in one, two, or three of the 33,000-dalton (33K), 34K, and 36K outer membrane proteins (7) were studied by using thin sectioning and freeze-fracturing electron microscopy techniques. The outer concave fracture face of all mutants deficient in the 33K protein had numerous particleless patches. In contrast to all previously examined 34K to 36K-deficient mutants, the 33K-deficient mutants showed marked heterogeneity in the size and distribution of such "empty" patches between cells of a culture. One mutant was deficient in both the 33K and the 34K to 36K "porin" protein complex; its outer membrane had very large particleless smooth areas. It is concluded that the 33K protein on one hand and the porin on the other are both able to form intramembraneous particles. Images PMID:378982

  6. Deuterium Labeling Strategies for Creating Contrast in Structure-Function Studies of Model Bacterial Outer Membranes Using Neutron Reflectometry.

    PubMed

    Le Brun, Anton P; Clifton, Luke A; Holt, Stephen A; Holden, Peter J; Lakey, Jeremy H

    2016-01-01

    Studying the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria is challenging due to the complex nature of its structure. Therefore, simplified models are required to undertake structure-function studies of processes that occur at the outer membrane/fluid interface. Model membranes can be created by immobilizing bilayers to solid supports such as gold or silicon surfaces, or as monolayers on a liquid support where the surface pressure and fluidity of the lipids can be controlled. Both model systems are amenable to having their structure probed by neutron reflectometry, a technique that provides a one-dimensional depth profile through a membrane detailing its thickness and composition. One of the strengths of neutron scattering is the ability to use contrast matching, allowing molecules containing hydrogen and those enriched with deuterium to be highlighted or matched out against the bulk isotopic composition of the solvent. Lipopolysaccharides, a major component of the outer membrane, can be isolated for incorporation into model membranes. Here, we describe the deuteration of lipopolysaccharides from rough strains of Escherichia coli for incorporation into model outer membranes, and how the use of deuterated materials enhances structural analysis of model membranes by neutron reflectometry. PMID:26791981

  7. Quantification of Fluoroquinolone Uptake through the Outer Membrane Channel OmpF of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Cama, Jehangir; Bajaj, Harsha; Pagliara, Stefano; Maier, Theresa; Braun, Yvonne; Winterhalter, Mathias; Keyser, Ulrich F

    2015-11-01

    Decreased drug accumulation is a common cause of antibiotic resistance in microorganisms. However, there are few reliable general techniques capable of quantifying drug uptake through bacterial membranes. We present a semiquantitative optofluidic assay for studying the uptake of autofluorescent drug molecules in single liposomes. We studied the effect of the Escherichia coli outer membrane channel OmpF on the accumulation of the fluoroquinolone antibiotic, norfloxacin, in proteoliposomes. Measurements were performed at pH 5 and pH 7, corresponding to two different charge states of norfloxacin that bacteria are likely to encounter in the human gastrointestinal tract. At both pH values, the porins significantly enhance drug permeation across the proteoliposome membranes. At pH 5, where norfloxacin permeability across pure phospholipid membranes is low, the porins increase drug permeability by 50-fold on average. We estimate a flux of about 10 norfloxacin molecules per second per OmpF trimer in the presence of a 1 mM concentration gradient of norfloxacin. We also performed single channel electrophysiology measurements and found that the application of transmembrane voltages causes an electric field driven uptake in addition to concentration driven diffusion. We use our results to propose a physical mechanism for the pH mediated change in bacterial susceptibility to fluoroquinolone antibiotics. PMID:26478537

  8. Getting to the Outer Leaflet: Physiology of Phosphatidylserine Exposure at the Plasma Membrane.

    PubMed

    Bevers, Edouard M; Williamson, Patrick L

    2016-04-01

    Phosphatidylserine (PS) is a major component of membrane bilayers whose change in distribution between inner and outer leaflets is an important physiological signal. Normally, members of the type IV P-type ATPases spend metabolic energy to create an asymmetric distribution of phospholipids between the two leaflets, with PS confined to the cytoplasmic membrane leaflet. On occasion, membrane enzymes, known as scramblases, are activated to facilitate transbilayer migration of lipids, including PS. Recently, two proteins required for such randomization have been identified: TMEM16F, a scramblase regulated by elevated intracellular Ca(2+), and XKR8, a caspase-sensitive protein required for PS exposure in apoptotic cells. Once exposed at the cell surface, PS regulates biochemical reactions involved in blood coagulation, and bone mineralization, and also regulates a variety of cell-cell interactions. Exposed on the surface of apoptotic cells, PS controls their recognition and engulfment by other cells. This process is exploited by parasites to invade their host, and in specialized form is used to maintain photoreceptors in the eye and modify synaptic connections in the brain. This review discusses what is known about the mechanism of PS exposure at the surface of the plasma membrane of cells, how actors in the extracellular milieu sense surface exposed PS, and how this recognition is translated to downstream consequences of PS exposure. PMID:26936867

  9. Bacterial Social Networks: Structure and composition of Myxococcus xanthus outer membrane vesicle chains

    PubMed Central

    Remis, Jonathan P.; Wei, Doug; Gorur, Amita; Zemla, Marcin; Haraga, Jessica; Allen, Simon; Witkowska, H. Ewa; Costerton, J. William; Berleman, James E.; Auer, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    Summary The social soil bacterium, Myxococcus xanthus, displays a variety of complex and highly coordinated behaviors, including social motility, predatory rippling and fruiting body formation. Here we show that M. xanthus cells produce a network of outer membrane extensions in the form of vesicles and vesicle chains that interconnect cells. We observed peritrichous display of vesicles and vesicle chains and increased abundance in biofilms compared to planktonic cultures. By applying a range of imaging techniques, including 3D Focused Ion Beam Scanning Electron Microscopy (FIB/SEM), we determined these structures to range between 30-60 nm in width and up to 5 μm in length. Purified vesicle chains consist of typical M. xanthus lipids, fucose, mannose, N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) and N-acetylgalactoseamine (GalNAc) carbohydrates and a small set of cargo protein. The protein content includes CglB and Tgl membrane proteins transferred in a contact-dependent manner. Most significantly, the 3D organization of cells within biofilms indicates that cells are connected via an extensive network of membrane extensions that may connect cells at the level of the periplasmic space. Such a network would allow the transfer of membrane proteins and other molecules between cells, and likely provides a mechanism for the coordination of social activities. PMID:23848955

  10. Outer membrane Protein A plays a role in pathogenesis of Acinetobacter nosocomialis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Woo; Oh, Man Hwan; Jun, So Hyun; Jeon, Hyejin; Kim, Seung Il; Kim, Kwangho; Lee, Yoo Chul; Lee, Je Chul

    2016-05-18

    Acinetobacter nosocomialis is an important nosocomial pathogen that causes a variety of human infections. However, the specific virulence factors of this microorganism have not yet been determined. We investigated the role of outer membrane protein A (OmpA) in the pathogenesis of A. nosocomialis. A ΔompA mutant of the A. nosocomialis ATCC 17903(T) strain was constructed using markerless gene deletion. The ΔompA mutant displayed reduced biofilm formation in polystyrene tubes and reduced adherence to A549 cells in comparison to the wild-type strain. These virulence traits of the ΔompA mutant strain were restored when the ompA gene was complemented. Cytotoxicity was not significantly different between the wild-type strain and the ΔompA mutant when A549 cells were infected with bacteria or treated with outer membrane vesicles (OMVs). However, OMVs from the wild-type strain induced cytotoxicity in HEp-2 cells, whereas OMVs from the ΔompA mutant did not induce cytotoxicity. Proteomic analysis of OMVs revealed that OmpA influenced the distribution of envelope and periplasmic proteins. Overall, this study is the first report that links OmpA to A. nosocomialis pathogenesis, and highlights OmpA as a putative target to develop anti-virulence agents or vaccines against A. nosocomialis infection. PMID:26759990

  11. Outer Membrane Vesicle Biosynthesis in Salmonella: Is There More to Gram-Negative Bacteria?

    PubMed

    Reidl, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has focused on the biological role of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs), which are derived from the outer membranes (OMs) of Gram-negative bacteria, and their potential exploitation as therapeutics. OMVs have been characterized in many ways and functions. Until recently, research focused on hypothetical and empirical models that addressed the molecular mechanisms of OMV biogenesis, such as vesicles bulging from the OM in various ways. The recently reported study by Elhenawy et al. (mBio 7:e00940-16, 2016, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.00940-16) provided further insights into OMV biogenesis of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. That study showed that deacylation of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) influences the level of OMV production and, furthermore, determines a sorting of high versus low acylated LPS in OMs and OMVs, respectively. Interestingly, deacylation may inversely correlate with other LPS modifications, suggesting some synergy toward optimized host resistance via best OM compositions for S Typhimurium. PMID:27531914

  12. An Outer Membrane Receptor of Neisseria meningitidis Involved in Zinc Acquisition with Vaccine Potential

    PubMed Central

    Jongerius, Ilse; de Kok, Natasja; Schilders, Ingrid; Weynants, Vincent E.; Poolman, Jan T.; Tommassen, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Since the concentration of free iron in the human host is low, efficient iron-acquisition mechanisms constitute important virulence factors for pathogenic bacteria. In Gram-negative bacteria, TonB-dependent outer membrane receptors are implicated in iron acquisition. It is far less clear how other metals that are also scarce in the human host are transported across the bacterial outer membrane. With the aim of identifying novel vaccine candidates, we characterized in this study a hitherto unknown receptor in Neisseria meningitidis. We demonstrate that this receptor, designated ZnuD, is produced under zinc limitation and that it is involved in the uptake of zinc. Upon immunization of mice, it was capable of inducing bactericidal antibodies and we could detect ZnuD-specific antibodies in human convalescent patient sera. ZnuD is highly conserved among N. meningitidis isolates and homologues of the protein are found in many other Gram-negative pathogens, particularly in those residing in the respiratory tract. We conclude that ZnuD constitutes a promising candidate for the development of a vaccine against meningococcal disease for which no effective universal vaccine is available. Furthermore, the results suggest that receptor-mediated zinc uptake represents a novel virulence mechanism that is particularly important for bacterial survival in the respiratory tract. PMID:20617164

  13. Structure of BamA, an essential factor in outer membrane protein biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Reinhard; Schütz, Monika; Oberhettinger, Philipp; Faulstich, Michaela; Bermejo, Ivan; Rudel, Thomas; Diederichs, Kay; Zeth, Kornelius

    2014-06-01

    Outer membrane protein (OMP) biogenesis is an essential process for maintaining the bacterial cell envelope and involves the β-barrel assembly machinery (BAM) for OMP recognition, folding and assembly. In Escherichia coli this function is orchestrated by five proteins: the integral outer membrane protein BamA of the Omp85 superfamily and four associated lipoproteins. To unravel the mechanism underlying OMP folding and insertion, the structure of the E. coli BamA β-barrel and P5 domain was determined at 3 Å resolution. These data add information beyond that provided in the recently published crystal structures of BamA from Haemophilus ducreyi and Neisseria gonorrhoeae and are a valuable basis for the interpretation of pertinent functional studies. In an `open' conformation, E. coli BamA displays a significant degree of flexibility between P5 and the barrel domain, which is indicative of a multi-state function in substrate transfer. E. coli BamA is characterized by a discontinuous β-barrel with impaired β1-β16 strand interactions denoted by only two connecting hydrogen bonds and a disordered C-terminus. The 16-stranded barrel surrounds a large cavity which implies a function in OMP substrate binding and partial folding. These findings strongly support a mechanism of OMP biogenesis in which substrates are partially folded inside the barrel cavity and are subsequently released laterally into the lipid bilayer. PMID:24914988

  14. Intranasal Immunization with Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Outer Membrane Vesicles Induces Cross-Protective Immunity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Roier, Sandro; Leitner, Deborah R.; Iwashkiw, Jeremy; Schild-Prüfert, Kristina; Feldman, Mario F.; Krohne, Georg; Reidl, Joachim; Schild, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Haemophilus influenzae is a Gram-negative human-restricted bacterium that can act as a commensal and a pathogen of the respiratory tract. Especially nontypeable H. influenzae (NTHi) is a major threat to public health and is responsible for several infectious diseases in humans, such as pneumonia, sinusitis, and otitis media. Additionally, NTHi strains are highly associated with exacerbations in patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Currently, there is no licensed vaccine against NTHi commercially available. Thus, this study investigated the utilization of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) as a potential vaccine candidate against NTHi infections. We analyzed the immunogenic and protective properties of OMVs derived from various NTHi strains by means of nasopharyngeal immunization and colonization studies with BALB/c mice. The results presented herein demonstrate that an intranasal immunization with NTHi OMVs results in a robust and complex humoral and mucosal immune response. Immunoprecipitation revealed the most important immunogenic proteins, such as the heme utilization protein, protective surface antigen D15, heme binding protein A, and the outer membrane proteins P1, P2, P5 and P6. The induced immune response conferred not only protection against colonization with a homologous NTHi strain, which served as an OMV donor for the immunization mixtures, but also against a heterologous NTHi strain, whose OMVs were not part of the immunization mixtures. These findings indicate that OMVs derived from NTHi strains have a high potential to act as a vaccine against NTHi infections. PMID:22880074

  15. Effect of growth temperature on the lipids, outer membrane proteins, and lipopolysaccharides of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO.

    PubMed Central

    Kropinski, A M; Lewis, V; Berry, D

    1987-01-01

    Growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 at 15 to 45 degrees C in tryptic soy broth resulted in changes in the lipids, lipopolysaccharides (LPSs), and outer membrane proteins of the cells. Cells grown at 15 degrees C contained, relative to those cultivated at 45 degrees C, increased levels of the phospholipid fatty acids hexadecenoate and octadecenoate and reduced levels of the corresponding saturated fatty acids. Furthermore, the lipid A fatty acids also showed thermoadaptation with decreases in dodecanoic and hexadecanoic acids and increases in the level of 3-hydroxydecanoate and 2-hydroxdodecanoate as the growth temperature decreased. In addition, LPS extracted from cells cultivated at the lower temperatures contained a higher content of long-chain S-form molecules than that isolated from cells grown at higher temperatures. On the other hand, the percentage of LPS cores substituted with side-chain material decreased from 37.6 mol% at 45 degrees C to 19.3 mol% at 15 degrees C. The outer membrane protein profiles indicated that at low growth temperatures there was an increase in a polypeptide with an apparent molecular weight of 43,000 and decreases in the content of 21,000 (protein H1)- and 27,500-molecular-weight proteins. Images PMID:3106325

  16. A Novel Treponema pallidum Antigen, TP0136, Is an Outer Membrane Protein That Binds Human Fibronectin▿

    PubMed Central

    Brinkman, Mary Beth; McGill, Melanie A.; Pettersson, Jonas; Rogers, Arthur; Matějková, Petra; Šmajs, David; Weinstock, George M.; Norris, Steven J.; Palzkill, Timothy

    2008-01-01

    The antigenicity, structural location, and function of the predicted lipoprotein TP0136 of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum were investigated based on previous screening studies indicating that anti-TP0136 antibodies are present in the sera of syphilis patients and experimentally infected rabbits. Recombinant TP0136 (rTP0136) protein was purified and shown to be strongly antigenic during human and experimental rabbit infection. The TP0136 protein was exposed on the surface of the bacterial outer membrane and bound to the host extracellular matrix glycoproteins fibronectin and laminin. In addition, the TP0136 open reading frame was shown to be highly polymorphic among T. pallidum subspecies and strains at the nucleotide and amino acid levels. Finally, the ability of rTP0136 protein to act as a protective antigen to subsequent challenge with infectious T. pallidum in the rabbit model of infection was assessed. Immunization with rTP0136 delayed ulceration but did not prevent infection or the formation of lesions. These results demonstrate that TP0136 is expressed on the outer membrane of the treponeme during infection and may be involved in attachment to host extracellular matrix components. PMID:18332212

  17. Outer Membrane Proteome of Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei From Diverse Growth Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Schell, Mark A.; Zhao, Peng; Wells, Lance

    2016-01-01

    Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia pseudomallei are closely related, aerosol-infective human pathogens that cause life-threatening diseases. Biochemical analyses requiring large-scale growth and manipulation at biosafety level 3 under select agent regulations are cumbersome and hazardous. We developed a simple, safe, and rapid method to prepare highly purified outer membrane (OM) fragments from these pathogens. Shotgun proteomic analyses of OMs by trypsin shaving and mass spectrometry identified >155 proteins, the majority of which are clearly outer membrane proteins (OMPs). These included: 13 porins, 4 secretins for virulence factor export, 11 efflux pumps, multiple components of a Type VI secreton, metal transport receptors, polysaccharide exporters, and hypothetical OMPs of unknown function. We also identified 20 OMPs in each pathogen that are abundant under a wide variety of conditions, including in serum and with macrophages, suggesting these are fundamental for growth and survival and may represent prime drug or vaccine targets. Comparison of the OM proteomes of B. mallei and B. pseudomallei showed many similarities but also revealed a few differences, perhaps reflecting evolution of B. mallei away from environmental survival toward host-adaptation. PMID:21391724

  18. Structural modifications of outer membrane vesicles to refine them as vaccine delivery vehicles

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Keun-Su; Lee, Sang-Rae; Kim, Ekyune; Kim, Myeong-Su; Lee, Eun-Young; Gho, Yong Song; Kim, Jung-Woo; Bishop, Russell E.; Chang, Kyu-Tae

    2016-01-01

    In an effort to devise a safer and more effective vaccine delivery system, outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) were engineered to have properties of intrinsically low endotoxicity sufficient for the delivery of foreign antigens. Our strategy involved mutational inactivation of the MsbB (LpxM) lipid A acyltransferase to generate OMVs of reduced endotoxicity from Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157:H7. The chromosomal tagging of a foreign FLAG epitope within an OmpA-fused protein was exploited to localize the FLAG epitope in the OMVs produced by the E. coli mutant having the defined msbB and the ompA::FLAG mutations. It was confirmed that the desired fusion protein (OmpA::FLAG) was expressed and destined to the outer membrane (OM) of the E. coli mutant from which the OMVs carrying OmpA::FLAG are released during growth. A luminal localization of the FLAG epitope within the OMVs was inferred from its differential immunoprecipitation and resistance to proteolytic degradation. Thus, by using genetic engineering-based approaches, the native OMVs were modified to have both intrinsically low endotoxicity and a foreign epitope tag to establish a platform technology for development of multifunctional vaccine delivery vehicles. PMID:19695218

  19. Proteomic characterization of the outer membrane vesicle of Pseudomonas putida KT2440.

    PubMed

    Choi, Chi-Won; Park, Edmond Changkyun; Yun, Sung Ho; Lee, Sang-Yeop; Lee, Yeol Gyun; Hong, Yeonhee; Park, Kyeong Ryang; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Gun-Hwa; Kim, Seung Il

    2014-10-01

    Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are produced by various pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii. In this study, we isolated OMVs from a representative soil bacterium, Pseudomonas putida KT2440, which has a biodegradative activity toward various aromatic compounds. Proteomic analysis identified the outer membrane proteins (OMPs) OprC, OprD, OprE, OprF, OprH, OprG, and OprW as major components of the OMV of P. putida KT2440. The production of OMVs was dependent on the nutrient availability in the culture media, and the up- or down-regulation of specific OMPs was observed according to the culture conditions. In particular, porins (e.g., benzoate-specific porin, BenF-like porin) and enzymes (e.g., catechol 1,2-dioxygenase, benzoate dioxygenase) for benzoate degradation were uniquely found in OMVs prepared from P. putida KT2440 that were cultured in media containing benzoate as the energy source. OMVs of P. putida KT2440 showed low pathological activity toward cultured cells that originated from human lung cells, which suggests their potential as adjuvants or OMV vaccine carriers. Our results suggest that the protein composition of the OMVs of P. putida KT2440 reflects the characteristics of the total proteome of P. putida KT2440. PMID:25198519

  20. Leptospiral outer membrane protein LipL32 induces inflammation and kidney injury in zebrafish larvae

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ming-Yang; Cheng, Yi-Chuan; Hsu, Shen-Hsing; Ma, Tsu-Lin; Chou, Li-Fang; Hsu, Hsiang-Hao; Tian, Ya-Chung; Chen, Yung-Chang; Sun, Yuh-Ju; Hung, Cheng-Chieh; Pan, Rong-Long; Yang, Chih-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Leptospirosis is an often overlooked cause of acute kidney injury that can lead to multiple organ failure and even death. The principle protein that conserved in many pathogenic leptospires is the outer membrane protein LipL32. However, the role of LipL32 in the pathogenesis of renal injury in leptospirosis is not entirely clear. Here we studied the effects of LipL32 on the developing kidney in zebrafish larvae. Incubation of zebrafish larvae with Leptospira santarosai serovar Shermani induced acute tubular injury predominantly in the proximal pronephric ducts. Furthermore, microinjection of lipl32 mRNA or recombinant LipL32 protein into zebrafish larvae increased macrophage accumulation and disrupted the basolateral location of NA-K-ATPase in pronephric ducts. These changes led to substantial impairment of the pronephric kidney structure. We further demonstrated that morpholino knockdown of tlr2, but not tlr4, reduced the LipL32-induced leukocyte infiltration and kidney injury. These data demonstrate that LipL32 contributes to the renal pathology in leptospirosis and gives some clues to the potential virulence of LipL32. Our results support the use of zebrafish as a model organism for studying the disease mechanism of leptospiral infection. This model might permit the future exploration of the virulence and molecular pathways of different leptospiral outer membrane proteins. PMID:27278903

  1. Induction and repression of outer membrane proteins by anaerobic growth of Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    PubMed Central

    Clark, V L; Campbell, L A; Palermo, D A; Evans, T M; Klimpel, K W

    1987-01-01

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae is generally considered to be an obligate aerobe; it can, however, grow in the absence of oxygen by anaerobic respiration by using nitrite as a terminal electron acceptor. The outer membrane protein compositions of aerobically and anaerobically grown N. gonorrhoeae strains were compared by one- and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Anaerobically grown strains expressed at least three proteins (Pan 1 to Pan 3) at much higher levels than did aerobically grown cells. Conversely, at least five other proteins (Pox 1 to Pox 5) were found to be expressed at significantly higher levels in aerobically grown cells. None of the Pan or Pox proteins were heat modifiable, and none of the heat-modifiable protein IIs or other major outer membrane proteins (protein I, protein III, pilin, or H-8 protein) were significantly altered in expression by anaerobic growth. There were also no apparent differences in lipopolysaccharide composition in aerobically and anaerobically grown gonococci. The regulation of protein expression by oxygen availability suggests that anaerobic growth is a physiologically significant state for this organism. Images PMID:3106220

  2. Outer membrane protein functions as integrator of protein import and DNA inheritance in mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Käser, Sandro; Oeljeklaus, Silke; Týč, Jiří; Vaughan, Sue; Warscheid, Bettina; Schneider, André

    2016-08-01

    Trypanosomatids are one of the earliest diverging eukaryotes that have fully functional mitochondria. pATOM36 is a trypanosomatid-specific essential mitochondrial outer membrane protein that has been implicated in protein import. Changes in the mitochondrial proteome induced by ablation of pATOM36 and in vitro assays show that pATOM36 is required for the assembly of the archaic translocase of the outer membrane (ATOM), the functional analog of the TOM complex in other organisms. Reciprocal pull-down experiments and immunofluorescence analyses demonstrate that a fraction of pATOM36 interacts and colocalizes with TAC65, a previously uncharacterized essential component of the tripartite attachment complex (TAC). The TAC links the single-unit mitochondrial genome to the basal body of the flagellum and mediates the segregation of the replicated mitochondrial genomes. RNAi experiments show that pATOM36, in line with its dual localization, is not only essential for ATOM complex assembly but also for segregation of the replicated mitochondrial genomes. However, the two functions are distinct, as a truncated version of pATOM36 lacking the 75 C-terminal amino acids can rescue kinetoplast DNA missegregation but not the lack of ATOM complex assembly. Thus, pATOM36 has a dual function and integrates mitochondrial protein import with mitochondrial DNA inheritance. PMID:27436903

  3. Leptospiral outer membrane protein LipL32 induces inflammation and kidney injury in zebrafish larvae.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ming-Yang; Cheng, Yi-Chuan; Hsu, Shen-Hsing; Ma, Tsu-Lin; Chou, Li-Fang; Hsu, Hsiang-Hao; Tian, Ya-Chung; Chen, Yung-Chang; Sun, Yuh-Ju; Hung, Cheng-Chieh; Pan, Rong-Long; Yang, Chih-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Leptospirosis is an often overlooked cause of acute kidney injury that can lead to multiple organ failure and even death. The principle protein that conserved in many pathogenic leptospires is the outer membrane protein LipL32. However, the role of LipL32 in the pathogenesis of renal injury in leptospirosis is not entirely clear. Here we studied the effects of LipL32 on the developing kidney in zebrafish larvae. Incubation of zebrafish larvae with Leptospira santarosai serovar Shermani induced acute tubular injury predominantly in the proximal pronephric ducts. Furthermore, microinjection of lipl32 mRNA or recombinant LipL32 protein into zebrafish larvae increased macrophage accumulation and disrupted the basolateral location of NA-K-ATPase in pronephric ducts. These changes led to substantial impairment of the pronephric kidney structure. We further demonstrated that morpholino knockdown of tlr2, but not tlr4, reduced the LipL32-induced leukocyte infiltration and kidney injury. These data demonstrate that LipL32 contributes to the renal pathology in leptospirosis and gives some clues to the potential virulence of LipL32. Our results support the use of zebrafish as a model organism for studying the disease mechanism of leptospiral infection. This model might permit the future exploration of the virulence and molecular pathways of different leptospiral outer membrane proteins. PMID:27278903

  4. Analysing the outer membrane subproteome of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) using proteomics and novel biocomputing tools.

    PubMed

    Berven, Frode S; Karlsen, Odd André; Straume, Anne Hege; Flikka, Kristian; Murrell, J Colin; Fjellbirkeland, Anne; Lillehaug, Johan R; Eidhammer, Ingvar; Jensen, Harald B

    2006-02-01

    High-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry has been used to identify the outer membrane (OM) subproteome of the Gram-negative bacterium Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath). Twenty-eight unique polypeptide sequences were identified from protein samples enriched in OMs. Only six of these polypeptides had previously been identified. The predictions from novel bioinformatic methods predicting beta-barrel outer membrane proteins (OMPs) and OM lipoproteins were compared to proteins identified experimentally. BOMP ( http://www.bioinfo.no/tools/bomp ) predicted 43 beta-barrel OMPs (1.45%) from the 2,959 annotated open reading frames. This was a lower percentage than predicted from other Gram-negative proteomes (1.8-3%). More than half of the predicted BOMPs in M. capsulatus were annotated as (conserved) hypothetical proteins with significant similarity to very few sequences in Swiss-Prot or TrEMBL. The experimental data and the computer predictions indicated that the protein composition of the M. capsulatus OM subproteome was different from that of other Gram-negative bacteria studied in a similar manner. A new program, Lipo, was developed that can analyse entire predicted proteomes and give a list of recognised lipoproteins categorised according to their lipo-box similarity to known Gram-negative lipoproteins ( http://www.bioinfo.no/tools/lipo ). This report is the first using a proteomics and bioinformatics approach to identify the OM subproteome of an obligate methanotroph. PMID:16311759

  5. Proteomic analysis of Lawsonia intracellularis reveals expression of outer membrane proteins during infection.

    PubMed

    Watson, Eleanor; Alberdi, M Pilar; Inglis, Neil F; Lainson, Alex; Porter, Megan E; Manson, Erin; Imrie, Lisa; Mclean, Kevin; Smith, David G E

    2014-12-01

    Lawsonia intracellularis is the aetiological agent of the commercially significant porcine disease, proliferative enteropathy. Current understanding of host-pathogen interaction is limited due to the fastidious microaerophilic obligate intracellular nature of the bacterium. In the present study, expression of bacterial proteins during infection was investigated using a mass spectrometry approach. LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of two isolates of L. intracellularis from heavily-infected epithelial cell cultures and database mining using fully annotated L. intracellularis genome sequences identified 19 proteins. According to the Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG) functional classification, proteins were identified with roles in cell metabolism, protein synthesis and oxidative stress protection; seven proteins with putative or unknown function were also identified. Detailed bioinformatic analyses of five uncharacterised proteins, which were expressed by both isolates, identified domains and motifs common to other outer membrane-associated proteins with important roles in pathogenesis including adherence and invasion. Analysis of recombinant proteins on Western blots using immune sera from L. intracellularis-infected pigs identified two proteins, LI0841 and LI0902 as antigenic. The detection of five outer membrane proteins expressed during infection, including two antigenic proteins, demonstrates the potential of this approach to interrogate L. intracellularis host-pathogen interactions and identify novel targets which may be exploited in disease control. PMID:25457368

  6. Increased outer membrane resistance to ethylenediaminetetraacetate and cations in novel lipid A mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Vaara, M

    1981-01-01

    Polymyxin-resistant pmrA mutants of Salmonella typhimurium differed from their parents in that they were resistant to tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane-ethylenediaminetetraacetate-lysozyme, tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane-ethylenediaminetetraacetate-deoxycholate, and tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane-ethylenediaminetetraacetate-bacitracin. Tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane-ethylenediaminetetraacetate released about 50% less lipopolysaccharide from the pmrA strains than from the parental strains when the bacteria were grown in L-broth containing 2 mM Ca2+. Protamine, polylysine, octapeptin, benzalkonium chloride, cold NaCl, cold MgCl2, or cold tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane hydrochloride (pH 7.2) caused no leakage or markedly less leakage of periplasmic beta-lactamase from a pmrA mutant than from its parent strain. pmrA mutants were more resistant than their parent strains to protamine and polylysine but not to octapeptin or benzalkonium chloride, as measured by the ability of these agents to kill the bacteria or to sensitize them to deoxycholate-induced lysis. The pmrA strains did not differ from their parent strains in sensitivity to several antibiotics, in porin function (as measured by cephaloridine diffusion across the outer membrane), or in outer membrane-associated phospholipase A activity. PMID:6795177

  7. Iron- and molybdenum-repressible outer membrane proteins in competent Azotobacter vinelandii.

    PubMed

    Page, W J; von Tigerstrom, M

    1982-07-01

    Azotobacter vinelandii produced three major proteins of 93,000, 85,000, and 81,000 daltons and a minor 77,000-dalton protein in the outer membrane of Fe-limited cells, and these cells were competent for transformation by DNA. The synthesis of these proteins was repressed in Fe-sufficient medium. Mo limitation of nitrogen-fixing cells resulted in the hyperproduction of a 44,000-dalton protein and the production of a minor 77,000-dalton protein in the outer membrane. Mo limitation enhanced competence in Fe-limited medium and induced competence in Fe-sufficient medium. The 44,000-dalton protein was replaced by a 45,000-dalton protein when Fe-sufficient medium also contained NH4+, but the cells were noncompetent. The synthesis of these proteins was repressed in Mo-sufficient medium and by NH4+ in Fe-limited medium. All of the culture supernatants contained a blue-white fluorescent material (absorbance maximum, 214 nm) which appeared to coordinate Fe3+, Fe2+, MoO4(2-), WO3(2-), and VO3(-). PMID:7085558

  8. Outer Membrane Vesicle Biosynthesis in Salmonella: Is There More to Gram-Negative Bacteria?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Recent research has focused on the biological role of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs), which are derived from the outer membranes (OMs) of Gram-negative bacteria, and their potential exploitation as therapeutics. OMVs have been characterized in many ways and functions. Until recently, research focused on hypothetical and empirical models that addressed the molecular mechanisms of OMV biogenesis, such as vesicles bulging from the OM in various ways. The recently reported study by Elhenawy et al. (mBio 7:e00940-16, 2016, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.00940-16) provided further insights into OMV biogenesis of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. That study showed that deacylation of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) influences the level of OMV production and, furthermore, determines a sorting of high versus low acylated LPS in OMs and OMVs, respectively. Interestingly, deacylation may inversely correlate with other LPS modifications, suggesting some synergy toward optimized host resistance via best OM compositions for S. Typhimurium. PMID:27531914

  9. Toward Understanding the Outer Membrane Uptake of Small Molecules by Pseudomonas aeruginosa*

    PubMed Central

    Eren, Elif; Parkin, Jamie; Adelanwa, Ayodele; Cheneke, Belete; Movileanu, Liviu; Khalid, Syma; van den Berg, Bert

    2013-01-01

    Because small molecules enter Gram-negative bacteria via outer membrane (OM) channels, understanding OM transport is essential for the rational design of improved and new antibiotics. In the human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, most small molecules are taken up by outer membrane carboxylate channel (Occ) proteins, which can be divided into two distinct subfamilies, OccD and OccK. Here we characterize substrate transport mediated by Occ proteins belonging to both subfamilies. Based on the determination of the OccK2-glucuronate co-crystal structure, we identify the channel residues that are essential for substrate transport. We further show that the pore regions of the channels are rigid in the OccK subfamily and highly dynamic in the OccD subfamily. We also demonstrate that the substrate carboxylate group interacts with central residues of the basic ladder, a row of arginine and lysine residues that leads to and away from the binding site at the channel constriction. Moreover, the importance of the basic ladder residues corresponds to their degree of conservation. Finally, we apply the generated insights by converting the archetype of the entire family, OccD1, from a basic amino acid-specific channel into a channel with a preference for negatively charged amino acids. PMID:23467408

  10. Effect of ethylenediaminetetraacetate on phospholipids and outer membrane function in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Hardaway, K L; Buller, C S

    1979-01-01

    Treatment of Escherichia coli K-12 strain S15, containing a normal amount of phospholipase A, with ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) resulted in an increase in sensitivity of the organism to actinomycin D. Strain S17, a mutant deficient in both detergent-resistant phospholipase A and detergent-sensitive phospholipase A, was considerably less sensitive to the antibiotic after the treatment. Both strains released lipopolysaccharide after EDTA treatment, indicating that this outer membrane component alone is not the barrier to actinomycin in these organisms. The phospholipase A-deficient strain released less alkaline phosphatase, a periplasmic enzyme. EDTA treatment of S15 resulted in the accumulation of free fatty acids, indicative of phospholipase A activation. Cells briefly treated with EDTA regained the barrier to actinomycin when incubated in growth media, and the cessation of the accumulation of free fatty acids was in approximate temporal agreement with restoration of the barrier. Cells in which phospholipase A was activated by brief exposure to EDTA synthesized relatively more phosphatidylethanolamine than did untreated cells in the initial period after dilution into growth media. These experiments suggest that the EDTA-induced loss of outer membrane barrier function of E. coli K-12 is mediated through the activation of phospholipase A. PMID:104974

  11. Bcl-2 and porin follow different pathways of TOM-dependent insertion into the mitochondrial outer membrane.

    PubMed

    Motz, Christian; Martin, Heiko; Krimmer, Thomas; Rassow, Joachim

    2002-11-01

    The bcl-2 gene encodes a 26kDa protein which functions as a central regulator of apoptosis. Here we investigated the pathway of Bcl-2alpha into the mitochondrial outer membrane using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model organism. We found that interactions of Bcl-2alpha with the mitochondrial import receptor Tom20 are dependent on two positively charged lysine residues in the immediate vicinity of the carboxy-terminal hydrophobic membrane anchor. The targeting function of these residues is independent of Tom22. Subsequent insertion of Bcl-2alpha into the mitochondrial outer membrane does not require Tom5 or Tom40, indicating that Bcl-2alpha bypasses the general import pore (GIP). Bcl-2alpha shows a unique pattern of interactions with the components of the mitochondrial TOM complex, demonstrating that at least two different pathways lead from the import receptor Tom20 into the mitochondrial outer membrane. PMID:12419260

  12. Surface display of a borrelial lipoprotein on meningococcal outer membrane vesicles.

    PubMed

    Salverda, Merijn L M; Meinderts, Sanne M; Hamstra, Hendrik-Jan; Wagemakers, Alex; Hovius, Joppe W R; van der Ark, Arno; Stork, Michiel; van der Ley, Peter

    2016-02-17

    Outer Membrane Vesicles (OMVs) are gaining attention as vaccine candidates. The successful expression of heterologous antigens in OMVs, with the OMV functioning both as adjuvant and delivery vehicle, has greatly enhanced their vaccine potential. Since there are indications that surface exposed antigens might induce a superior immune response, targeting of heterologous antigens to the OMV surface is of special interest. Several systems for surface display of heterologous antigens on OMVs have been developed. However, these systems have not been used to display lipidated membrane-associated proteins known as lipoproteins, which are emerging as key targets for protective immunity. We were therefore interested to see whether we could express a foreign lipoprotein on the outer surface of OMVs. When outer surface protein A (OspA), a borrelial surface-exposed lipoprotein, was expressed in meningococci, it was found that although OspA was present in OMVs, it was no longer surface-exposed. Therefore, a set of fusions of OspA to different regions of factor H binding protein (fHbp), a meningococcal surface-exposed lipoprotein, were designed and tested for their surface-exposure. An N-terminal part of fHbp was found to be necessary for the successful surface display of OspA on meningococcal OMVs. When mice were immunized with this set of OMVs, an OspA-specific antibody response was only elicited by OMVs with clearly surface-exposed OspA, strengthening the idea that the exact positioning of an antigen in the OMV affects the immune response. This method for the surface display of heterologous lipoproteins on OMVs is a step forward in the development of OMVs as a vaccine platform. PMID:26801064

  13. Survival protein A is essential for virulence in Yersinia pestis.

    PubMed

    Southern, Stephanie J; Scott, Andrew E; Jenner, Dominic C; Ireland, Philip M; Norville, Isobel H; Sarkar-Tyson, Mitali

    2016-03-01

    Plague is a highly pathogenic disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis. There is currently no vaccine available for prophylaxis and antibiotic resistant strains have been isolated, thus there is a need for the development of new countermeasures to treat this disease. Survival protein A (SurA) is a chaperone that has been linked to virulence in several species of bacteria, including the close relative Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the role of SurA in virulence of the highly pathogenic Y. pestis by creating an unmarked surA deletion mutant. The Y. pestis ΔsurA mutant was found to be more susceptible to membrane perturbing agents and was completely avirulent in a mouse infection model when delivered up to 2.1 × 10(5) CFU by the subcutaneous route. This provides strong evidence that SurA would make a promising antimicrobial target. PMID:26724738

  14. An Active Site Water Network in the Plasminogen Activator Pla from Yersinia pestis

    SciTech Connect

    Eren, Elif; Murphy, Megan; Goguen, Jon; van den Berg, Bert

    2010-08-13

    The plasminogen activator Pla from Yersinia pestis is an outer membrane protease (omptin) that is important for the virulence of plague. Here, we present the high-resolution crystal structure of wild-type, enzymatically active Pla at 1.9 {angstrom}. The structure shows a water molecule located between active site residues D84 and H208, which likely corresponds to the nucleophilic water. A number of other water molecules are present in the active site, linking residues important for enzymatic activity. The R211 sidechain in loop L4 is close to the nucleophilic water and possibly involved in the stabilization of the oxyanion intermediate. Subtle conformational changes of H208 result from the binding of lipopolysaccharide to the outside of the barrel, explaining the unusual dependence of omptins on lipopolysaccharide for activity. The Pla structure suggests a model for the interaction with plasminogen substrate and provides a more detailed understanding of the catalytic mechanism of omptin proteases.

  15. Deletions or duplications in the BtuB protein affect its level in the outer membrane of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Köster, W; Gudmundsdottir, A; Lundrigan, M D; Seiffert, A; Kadner, R J

    1991-01-01

    The Escherichia coli btuB product is an outer membrane protein that mediates the TonB-coupled active transport of cobalamins and the uptake of the E colicins and bacteriophage BF23. The roles of various segments of the BtuB protein in its function or cellular localization were investigated by analysis of several genetic constructs. Hybrid proteins in which various lengths from the amino terminus of BtuB were linked to alkaline phosphatase (btuB::phoA genes) were all secreted across the cytoplasmic membrane. The BtuB-PhoA proteins that carried up to 327 amino acids of BtuB appeared to reside in the periplasmic space, whereas hybrid proteins containing at least 399 amino acids of BtuB were associated with the outer membrane. Eleven in-frame internal deletion mutations that spanned more than half of the mature sequence were prepared by combining appropriate restriction fragments from btuB variants with 6-bp linker insertions. None of the deleted proteins was able to complement any BtuB functions, and only three of them were detectable in the outer membrane, suggesting that most of the deletions affected sequences needed for stable association with the outer membrane. Duplications covering the same portions of BtuB were prepared in the same manner. All of these partial duplication variants complemented all BtuB functions, although some gave substantially reduced levels of activity. These proteins were found in the outer membrane, although some were subject to proteolytic cleavage within or near the duplicated segment. These results indicate that the insertion of BtuB into the outer membrane requires the presence of several regions of teh BtuB protein and that the presence of extra or redundant segments of the protein can be tolerated during its insertion and function. Images PMID:1885541

  16. BB0172, a Borrelia burgdorferi Outer Membrane Protein That Binds Integrin α3β1

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Elaine; Tamborero, Silvia; Mingarro, Ismael

    2013-01-01

    Lyme disease is a multisystemic disorder caused by Borrelia burgdorferi infection. Upon infection, some B. burgdorferi genes are upregulated, including members of the microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecule (MSCRAMM) protein family, which facilitate B. burgdorferi adherence to extracellular matrix components of the host. Comparative genome analysis has revealed a new family of B. burgdorferi proteins containing the von Willebrand factor A (vWFA) domain. In the present study, we characterized the expression and membrane association of the vWFA domain-containing protein BB0172 by using in vitro transcription/translation systems in the presence of microsomal membranes and with detergent phase separation assays. Our results showed evidence of BB0172 localization in the outer membrane, the orientation of the vWFA domain to the extracellular environment, and its function as a metal ion-dependent integrin-binding protein. This is the first report of a borrelial adhesin with a metal ion-dependent adhesion site (MIDAS) motif that is similar to those observed in eukaryotic integrins and has a similar function. PMID:23687274

  17. [The differentiation of Opisthorchis eggs by the ultrastructure of their outer membranes].

    PubMed

    Beér, S A; Giboda, M; Ditrich, O

    1990-01-01

    Using a TESLA-BS-300 scanning electron microscope, the ultrastructure of the outer membranes of oocysts of 8 opisthorchis species (Opisthorchis felineus, O. viverrini, O. geminus, Clonorchis sinesis, Amphimerus anatis, Metorchis albidus, Pseudamphistomum truncatum, Erchoviorchis lintoni) belonging to 4 subfamilies, as well as that of O. felineus oocysts of various geographical isolates (from the Ukraine, the Volga region, West Siberia, Kazakhstan) have been investigated. The nature of the ultrastructure of the membranes differs from species to species and can be used for the differentiation of opisthorchis oocysts. Marked differences have been observed in different opisthorchis subfamilies (Opisthorchinae, Metorchinae, Pseudamphistominae, Pseudamphimerinae). The membrane ultrastructure was not significantly different in O. felineus oocysts from various geographical isolates, however, there are some distinctions in the size of oocysts and the form of apical thorns and opercular endings. The work has been done within the framework of the international scientific cooperation between the E. I. Martsinovskiĭ Institute of Medical Parasitology and Tropical Medicine, USSR Ministry of Public Health and the Institute of Parasitology, the Czechoslovakian Academy of Sciences. PMID:2266905

  18. Phylogenomic analysis supports the ancestral presence of LPS-outer membranes in the Firmicutes

    PubMed Central

    Antunes, Luisa CS; Poppleton, Daniel; Klingl, Andreas; Criscuolo, Alexis; Dupuy, Bruno; Brochier-Armanet, Céline; Beloin, Christophe; Gribaldo, Simonetta

    2016-01-01

    One of the major unanswered questions in evolutionary biology is when and how the transition between diderm (two membranes) and monoderm (one membrane) cell envelopes occurred in Bacteria. The Negativicutes and the Halanaerobiales belong to the classically monoderm Firmicutes, but possess outer membranes with lipopolysaccharide (LPS-OM). Here, we show that they form two phylogenetically distinct lineages, each close to different monoderm relatives. In contrast, their core LPS biosynthesis enzymes were inherited vertically, as in the majority of bacterial phyla. Finally, annotation of key OM systems in the Halanaerobiales and the Negativicutes shows a puzzling combination of monoderm and diderm features. Together, these results support the hypothesis that the LPS-OMs of Negativicutes and Halanaerobiales are remnants of an ancient diderm cell envelope that was present in the ancestor of the Firmicutes, and that the monoderm phenotype in this phylum is a derived character that arose multiple times independently through OM loss. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14589.001 PMID:27580370

  19. BB0172, a Borrelia burgdorferi outer membrane protein that binds integrin α3β1.

    PubMed

    Wood, Elaine; Tamborero, Silvia; Mingarro, Ismael; Esteve-Gassent, Maria D

    2013-08-01

    Lyme disease is a multisystemic disorder caused by Borrelia burgdorferi infection. Upon infection, some B. burgdorferi genes are upregulated, including members of the microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecule (MSCRAMM) protein family, which facilitate B. burgdorferi adherence to extracellular matrix components of the host. Comparative genome analysis has revealed a new family of B. burgdorferi proteins containing the von Willebrand factor A (vWFA) domain. In the present study, we characterized the expression and membrane association of the vWFA domain-containing protein BB0172 by using in vitro transcription/translation systems in the presence of microsomal membranes and with detergent phase separation assays. Our results showed evidence of BB0172 localization in the outer membrane, the orientation of the vWFA domain to the extracellular environment, and its function as a metal ion-dependent integrin-binding protein. This is the first report of a borrelial adhesin with a metal ion-dependent adhesion site (MIDAS) motif that is similar to those observed in eukaryotic integrins and has a similar function. PMID:23687274

  20. Isolation and characterization of the outer membrane of Escherichia coli with autodisplayed Z-domains.

    PubMed

    Park, Min; Yoo, Gu; Bong, Ji-Hong; Jose, Joachim; Kang, Min-Jung; Pyun, Jae-Chul

    2015-03-01

    "Autodisplay technology" is an expression technique used to display the various recombinant proteins on the outer membrane (OM) of Escherichia coli. The resulting autodisplayed Z-domain has been used to improve the sensitivity of immunoassays. In this work, a facile isolation method of the OM fraction of E. coli with autodisplayed Z-domains was presented using (1) an enzyme reaction for the hydrolysis of the peptidoglycan layer and (2) short centrifugation steps. The purity of the isolated OM fraction was analyzed. For the estimation of contamination with bacterial proteins from other parts of E. coli, Western blots of marker proteins for the OM (OmpA), periplasm (β-lactamase), inner membrane (SecA), and cytoplasm (β-galactosidase) were performed. Additionally, assays of marker components or enzymes from each part of E. coli were carried out including the OM (KDO), inner membrane (NADH oxidase), periplasm (β-lactamase), and cytoplasm (β-galactosidase). The yield of OM isolation using this new method was determined to be 80% of the total OM amount, with less than 1% being contaminants from other parts of E. coli. PMID:25528472

  1. Sorting of an integral outer membrane protein via the lipoprotein-specific Lol pathway and a dedicated lipoprotein pilotin.

    PubMed

    Collin, Séverine; Guilvout, Ingrid; Nickerson, Nicholas N; Pugsley, Anthony P

    2011-05-01

    The lipoprotein PulS is a dedicated chaperone that is required to target the secretin PulD to the outer membrane in Klebsiella or Escherichia coli, and to protect it from proteolysis. Here, we present indirect evidence that PulD protomers do not assemble into the secretin dodecamer before they reach the outer membrane, and that PulS reaches the outer membrane in a soluble heterodimer with the general lipoprotein chaperone LolA. However, we could not find any direct evidence for PulD protomer association with the PulS-LolA heterodimer. Instead, in cells producing PulD and a permanently locked PulS-LolA dimer (in which LolA carries an R43L substitution that prevents lipoprotein transfer to LolB in the outer membrane), LolAR43L was found in the inner membrane, probably still associated with PulS bound to PulD that had been incorrectly targeted because of the LolAR43L substitution. It is speculated that PulD protomers normally cross the periplasm together with PulS bound to LolA but when the latter cannot be separated (due to the mutation in lolA), the PulD protomers form dodecamers that insert into the inner membrane. PMID:21338419

  2. Fractionation of human liver mitochondria: enzymic and morphological characterization of the inner and outer membranes as compared to rat liver mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Benga, G; Hodarnau, A; Tilinca, R; Porutiu, D; Dancea, S; Pop, V; Wrigglesworth, J

    1979-02-01

    The fractionation of human liver mitochondria into inner membrane, outer membrane and matrix material is reported. Compared with rat, human liver mitochondria are more fragile. Fractionation can be achieved in only 2 steps, a digitonin treatment for removal of the outer membrane and centrifugation of the inner membrane plus matrix particles through a linear sucrose gradient resulting in purified inner membranes and matrix. PMID:422680

  3. Sequence analysis and recombinant expression of a 28-kilodalton Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum rare outer membrane protein (Tromp2).

    PubMed Central

    Champion, C I; Blanco, D R; Exner, M M; Erdjument-Bromage, H; Hancock, R E; Tempst, P; Miller, J N; Lovett, M A

    1997-01-01

    In this study, we report the cloning, sequencing, and expression of the gene encoding a 28-kDa Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum rare outer membrane protein (TROMP), designated Tromp2. The tromp2 gene encodes a precursor protein of 242 amino acids including a putative signal peptide of 24 amino acids ending in a type I signal peptidase cleavage site of Leu-Ala-Ala. The mature protein of 218 amino acids has a calculated molecular weight of 24,759 and a calculated pI of 7.3. The predicted secondary structure of Tromp2 shows nine transmembrane segments of amphipathic beta-sheets typical of outer membrane proteins. Recombinant Tromp2 (rTromp2) was expressed with its native signal peptide, using a tightly regulated T7 RNA polymerase expression vector. Under high-level expression conditions, rTromp2 fractionated exclusively with the Escherichia coli outer membrane. Antiserum raised against rTromp2 was generated and used to identify native Tromp2 in cellular fractionations. Following Triton X-114 extraction and phase separation of T. pallidum, the 28-kDa Tromp2 protein was detected prominently in the detergent phase. Alkali and high-salt treatment of purified outer membrane from T. pallidum, conditions which remove peripherally associated membrane proteins, demonstrated that Tromp2 is an integral membrane protein. Whole-mount immunoelectron microscopy of E. coli cells expressing rTromp2 showed specific surface antibody binding. These findings demonstrate that Tromp2 is a membrane-spanning outer membrane protein, the second such protein to be identified for T. pallidum. PMID:9023206

  4. The mitochondrial morphology protein Mdm10 functions in assembly of the preprotein translocase of the outer membrane.

    PubMed

    Meisinger, Chris; Rissler, Michael; Chacinska, Agnieszka; Szklarz, Luiza K Sanjuán; Milenkovic, Dusanka; Kozjak, Vera; Schönfisch, Birgit; Lohaus, Christiane; Meyer, Helmut E; Yaffe, Michael P; Guiard, Bernard; Wiedemann, Nils; Pfanner, Nikolaus

    2004-07-01

    The biogenesis of mitochondrial outer membrane proteins involves the general translocase of the outer membrane (TOM complex) and the sorting and assembly machinery (SAM complex). The two known subunits of the SAM complex, Mas37 and Sam50, are required for assembly of the abundant outer membrane proteins porin and Tom40. We have identified an unexpected subunit of the SAM complex, Mdm10, which is involved in maintenance of mitochondrial morphology. Mitochondria lacking Mdm10 are selectively impaired in the final steps of the assembly pathway of Tom40, including the association of Tom40 with the receptor Tom22 and small Tom proteins, while the biogenesis of porin is not affected. Yeast mutants of TOM40, MAS37, and SAM50 also show aberrant mitochondrial morphology. We conclude that Mdm10 plays a specific role in the biogenesis of the TOM complex, indicating a connection between the mitochondrial protein assembly apparatus and the machinery for maintenance of mitochondrial morphology. PMID:15239954

  5. In vivo evidence of TonB shuttling between the cytoplasmic and outer membrane in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Ray A; Letain, Tracy E; Postle, Kathleen

    2003-07-01

    Gram-negative bacteria are able to convert potential energy inherent in the proton gradient of the cytoplasmic membrane into active nutrient transport across the outer membrane. The transduction of energy is mediated by TonB protein. Previous studies suggest a model in which TonB makes sequential and cyclic contact with proteins in each membrane, a process called shuttling. A key feature of shuttling is that the amino-terminal signal anchor must quit its association with the cytoplasmic membrane, and TonB becomes associated solely with the outer membrane. However, the initial studies did not exclude the possibility that TonB was artifactually pulled from the cytoplasmic membrane by the fractionation process. To resolve this ambiguity, we devised a method to test whether the extreme TonB amino-terminus, located in the cytoplasm, ever became accessible to the cys-specific, cytoplasmic membrane-impermeant molecule, Oregon Green(R) 488 maleimide (OGM) in vivo. A full-length TonB and a truncated TonB were modified to carry a sole cysteine at position 3. Both full-length TonB and truncated TonB (consisting of the amino-terminal two-thirds) achieved identical conformations in the cytoplasmic membrane, as determined by their abilities to cross-link to the cytoplasmic membrane protein ExbB and their abilities to respond conformationally to the presence or absence of proton motive force. Full-length TonB could be amino-terminally labelled in vivo, suggesting that it was periplasmically exposed. In contrast, truncated TonB, which did not associate with the outer membrane, was not specifically labelled in vivo. The truncated TonB also acted as a control for leakage of OGM across the cytoplasmic membrane. Further, the extent of labelling for full-length TonB correlated roughly with the proportion of TonB found at the outer membrane. These findings suggest that TonB does indeed disengage from the cytoplasmic membrane during energy transduction and shuttle to the outer membrane

  6. Pore-forming ability of major outer membrane proteins from Wolinella recta ATCC 33238.

    PubMed Central

    Kennell, W L; Egli, C; Hancock, R E; Holt, S C

    1992-01-01

    Three major outer membrane proteins with apparent molecular masses of 43, 45, and 51 kDa were purified from Wolinella recta ATCC 33238, and their pore-forming abilities were determined by the black lipid bilayer method. The non-heat-modifiable 45-kDa protein (Omp 45) showed no pore-forming activity even at high KCl concentrations. The single-channel conductances in 1 M KCl of the heat-modifiable proteins with apparent molecular masses of 43 kDa (Omp 43) and 51 kDa (Omp 51) were 0.49 and 0.60 nS, respectively. The proteins formed nonselective channels and, as determined by experiments of ion selectivity and zero-current potential, were weakly anion selective. Images PMID:1370429

  7. Outer eggshell membrane as delivery vehicle for polysaccharide/protein microcapsules incorporated with vitamin E.

    PubMed

    Chai, Zhi; Li, Yuanyuan; Liu, Fei; Du, Bingjian; Jiao, Tong; Zhang, Chunyue; Leng, Xiaojing

    2013-01-23

    This study investigates the features of a new type of delivery system prepared by combining a natural outer eggshell membrane (OESM) with emulsified microcapsules. The loading efficiency, controlled release properties, and forming mechanisms of the prepared system were studied. The polysaccharide/protein microcapsules incorporated with vitamin E can be attached to highly cross-linked protein fiber networks of OESM. This attachment could be reinforced more than 2-fold using glutaraldehyde as a cross-linking agent. The combined OESM/microcapsule delivery system significantly exhibited better controlled release properties than the microcapsules alone because of the steric blocking effect. Moreover, the OESM delivery system incorporated with microcapsules formed by pectin/protein as wall material showed more resistance against enzymatic attacks because of the formation of compact aggregates promoted by electrostatic effects. PMID:23244530

  8. D-AKAP1a is a signal-anchored protein in the mitochondrial outer membrane.

    PubMed

    Jun, Yong-Woo; Park, Heeju; Lee, You-Kyung; Kaang, Bong-Kiun; Lee, Jin-A; Jang, Deok-Jin

    2016-04-01

    Dual A-kinase anchoring protein 1a (D-AKAP1a, AKAP1) regulates cAMP signaling in mitochondria. However, it is not clear how D-AKAP1a is associated with mitochondria. In this study, we show that D-AKAP1a is a transmembrane protein in the mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM). We revealed that the N-terminus of D-AKAP1a is exposed to the intermembrane space of mitochondria and that its C-terminus is located on the cytoplasmic side of the MOM. Moderate hydrophobicity and the positively charged flanking residues of the transmembrane domain of D-AKAP1a were important for targeting. Taken together, D-AKAP1a can be classified as a signal-anchored protein in the MOM. Our topological study provides valuable information about the molecular and cellular mechanisms of mitochondrial targeting of AKAP1. PMID:26950402

  9. Evaluation of a Burkholderia pseudomallei Outer Membrane Vesicle Vaccine in Nonhuman Primates.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Hailey; Nieves, Wildaliz; Russell-Lodrigue, Kasi; Roy, Chad J; Morici, Lisa A

    2014-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei (Bps)is the causative agent of melioidosis and is endemic in regions of northern Australia and Southeast Asia. Bps is inherently resistant to multiple antibiotics and is considered a potential biological warfare agent by the U.S. DHHS. Therefore, effective vaccines are necessary to prevent natural infection and to safeguard against biological attack with this organism. In our previous work we have shown that immunization with naturally derived outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) from Bps provides significant protection against lethal aerosol and systemic infection in BALB/c mice. In this work, we evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of escalating doses of OMV vaccine in rhesus macaques. We show that immunization of rhesus macaques with Bps OMVs generates humoral immuneresponses to protective protein and polysaccharide antigens without any associated toxicity or reactogenicity. These results lay the groundwork for evaluation of protective efficacy of the OMV vaccine in the nonhuman primate model of melioidosis. PMID:25165491

  10. Purification of outer membrane vesicles from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and their activation of an IL-8 response

    PubMed Central

    Bauman, Susanne J.; Kuehn, Meta J.

    2012-01-01

    Considerable lung injury results from the inflammatory response to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). The P. aeruginosa laboratory strain PAO1, an environmental isolate, and isolates from CF patients were cultured in vitro and outer membrane vesicles from those cultures were quantitated, purified, and characterized. Vesicles were produced throughout the growth phases of the culture and vesicle yield was strain-independent. Strain-dependent differences in the protein composition of vesicles were quantitated and identified. The aminopeptidase PaAP (PA2939) was highly enriched in vesicles from CF isolates. Vesicles from all strains elicited IL-8 secretion by lung epithelial cells. These results suggest that P. aeruginosa colonizing the CF lung may produce vesicles with a particular composition and that the vesicles could contribute to inflammation. PMID:16807039

  11. Hexokinase inhibits flux of fluorescently labeled ATP through mitochondrial outer membrane porin.

    PubMed

    Perevoshchikova, Irina V; Zorov, Savva D; Kotova, Elena A; Zorov, Dmitry B; Antonenko, Yuri N

    2010-06-01

    Mitochondrial function requires maintaining metabolite fluxes across the mitochondrial outer membrane, which is mediated primarily by the voltage dependent anion channel (VDAC). We applied fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) to study regulation of the VDAC functional state by monitoring distribution of fluorescently labeled ATP (BODIPY-FL-ATP) in isolated intact rat liver and heart mitochondria. Addition of mitochondria to BODIPY-FL-ATP solution resulted in accumulation of the fluorescent probe in these organelles. The addition of hexokinase II (HKII) isolated from rat heart led to a decrease in the BODIPY-FL-ATP accumulation, while a 15-residue peptide corresponding to the N-terminal domain of hexokinase did not produce this effect. Therefore, the hexokinase-induced inhibition of the ATP flow mediated by VDAC was revealed in isolated mitochondria. PMID:20412805

  12. Genetic Manipulation of Outer Membrane Permeability: Generating Porous Heterogeneous Catalyst Analogs in Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, TN; Park, AHA; Bantat, S

    2014-12-01

    The limited permeability of the E. coli outer membrane can significantly hinder whole-cell biocatalyst performance. In this study, the SARS coronavirus small envelope protein (SCVE) was expressed in E. coli cells previously engineered for periplasmic expression of carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity. This maneuver increased small molecule uptake by the cells, resulting in increased apparent CA activity of the biocatalysts. The enhancements in activity were quantified using methods developed for traditional heterogeneous catalysis. The expression of the SCVE protein was found to significantly reduce the Thiele moduli (phi), as well as increase the effectiveness factors (eta), effective diffusivities (D-e), and permeabilities (P) of the biocatalysts. These catalytic improvements translated into superior performance of the biocatalysts for the precipitation of calcium carbonate from solution which is an attractive strategy for long-term sequestration of captured carbon dioxide. Overall, these results demonstrate that synthetic biology approaches can be used to enhance heterogeneous catalysts incorporated into microbial whole-cell scaffolds.

  13. Secretion of nuclease across the outer membrane of Serratia marcescens and its energy requirements.

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Y; Benedik, M J

    1997-01-01

    Extracellular secretion of Serratia marcescens nuclease occurs as a two-step process via a periplasmic intermediate. Unlike other extracellular proteins secreted by gram-negative bacteria by the general secretory pathway, nuclease accumulates in the periplasm in its active form for an unusually long time before its export into the growth medium. The energy requirements for extracellular secretion of nuclease from the periplasm were investigated. Our results suggest that the second step of secretion across the outer membrane is dependent upon the external pH; acidic pH effectively but reversibly blocks extracellular secretion. However, electrochemical proton gradient, and possibly ATP hydrolysis, are not required for this step. We suggest that nuclease uses a novel mechanism for the second step of secretion in S. marcescens. PMID:9006020

  14. Haemophilus influenzae vaccine candidate outer membrane protein P6 is not conserved in all strains

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Arthur; Kaur, Ravinder; Michel, Lea Vacca; Casey, Janet R

    2011-01-01

    An outer membrane protein (OMP) of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi), P6, is a vaccine candidate because it has been characterized as conserved among all H. influenzae strains. Among 151 isolates from children, age 6 to 30 months, evaluating NTHi nasopharyngeal (NP) and oropharyngeal (OP) colonization and tympanocentesis confirmed acute otitis media we identified 14 strains (9.3%) that had variant protein sequences of P6. One atypical omp P6 isolate had sequence mutations in the binding site of a proposed major antigenic epitope of omp P6 identified by monoclonal antibody 7F3. Eight strains (5.3%) had non-homologous variations in amino acids that could result in significant changes to the protein structure of P6, and 5 other strains had amino acid substitutions at four previously described key residue sites. These results show that NTHi omp P6 is not invariant in its structure among respiratory isolates from children. PMID:21285530

  15. Outer membrane biogenesis in Escherichia coli, Neisseria meningitidis, and Helicobacter pylori: paradigm deviations in H. pylori.

    PubMed

    Liechti, George; Goldberg, Joanna B

    2012-01-01

    The bacterial pathogen Helicobacter pylori is capable of colonizing the gastric mucosa of the human stomach using a variety of factors associated with or secreted from its outer membrane (OM). Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and numerous OM proteins have been shown to be involved in adhesion and immune stimulation/evasion. Many of these factors are essential for colonization and/or pathogenesis in a variety of animal models. Despite this wide array of potential targets present on the bacterial surface, the ability of H. pylori to vary its OM profile limits the effectiveness of vaccines or therapeutics that target any single one of these components. However, it has become evident that the proteins comprising the complexes that transport the majority of these molecules to the OM are highly conserved and often essential. The field of membrane biogenesis has progressed remarkably in the last few years, and the possibility now exists for targeting the mechanisms by which β-barrel proteins, lipoproteins, and LPS are transported to the OM, resulting in loss of bacterial fitness and significant altering of membrane permeability. In this review, the OM transport machinery for LPS, lipoproteins, and outer membrane proteins (OMPs) are discussed. While the principal investigations of these transport mechanisms have been conducted in Escherichia coli and Neisseria meningitidis, here these systems will be presented in the genetic context of ε proteobacteria. Bioinformatic analysis reveals that minimalist genomes, such as that of Helicobacter pylori, offer insight into the smallest number of components required for these essential pathways to function. Interestingly, in the majority of ε proteobacteria, while the inner and OM associated apparatus of LPS, lipoprotein, and OMP transport pathways appear to all be intact, most of the components associated with the periplasmic compartment are either missing or are almost unrecognizable when compared to their E. coli counterparts. Eventual

  16. Permissive sites and topology of an outer membrane protein with a reporter epitope.

    PubMed Central

    Charbit, A; Ronco, J; Michel, V; Werts, C; Hofnung, M

    1991-01-01

    We are developing a genetic approach to study with a single antibody the folding and topology of LamB, an integral outer membrane protein from Escherichia coli K-12. This approach consists of inserting the same reporter foreign antigenic determinant (the C3 epitope from poliovirus) at different sites of LamB so that the resulting hybrid proteins have essentially kept the in vivo biological properties of LamB and therefore its cellular location and structure; the corresponding sites are called permissive sites. A specific monoclonal antibody can then be used to examine the position of the reporter epitope with respect to the protein and the membrane. We present an improved and efficient procedure that led us to identify eight new permissive sites in LamB. These sites appear to be distributed on both sides of the membrane. At one of them (after residue 253), the C3 epitope was detected on intact bacteria, providing the first direct argument for exposure of the corresponding LamB region at the cell surface. At this site as well as at four others (after residues 183, 219, 236, and 352), the C3 epitope could be detected with the C3 monoclonal antibody at the surface of the extracted trimeric LamB-C3 hybrid proteins. We provide a number of convergent arguments showing that the hybrid proteins are not strongly distorted with respect to the wild-type protein so that the conclusions drawn are also valid for this protein. These conclusions are essentially in agreement with the proposed folding model for the LamB protein. They agree, in particular, with the idea that regions 183 and 352 are exposed to the periplasm. In addition, they suggest that region 236 is buried at the external face of the outer membrane and that region 219 is exposed to the periplasm. Including the 3 sites previously determined, 11 permissive sites are now available in LamB, including 3 at the cell surface and most probably at least 3 in the periplasm. We discuss the nature of such sites, the

  17. Recombinant outer membrane protein C of Aeromonas hydrophila elicits mixed immune response and generates agglutinating antibodies.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Sunita Kumari; Meena, Jitendra Kumar; Sharma, Mahima; Dixit, Aparna

    2016-08-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is a gram-negative fish pathogenic bacterium, also responsible for causing opportunistic pathological conditions in humans. It causes a number of diseases in fish due to which the fish industry incurs huge economic losses annually. Due to problems of antibiotic resistance, and the rapidity with which the infection spreads among fishes, vaccination remains the most effective strategy to combat this infection in fish populations. Among various virulence factors associated with bacterial virulence, outer membrane proteins have been widely evaluated for their vaccine potential owing to their surface exposure and related role in pathogenicity. In the present study, we have investigated the immunogenic potential of a non-specific porin, outer membrane protein C (OmpC) whose expression is regulated by the two-component regulatory system and plays a major role in the survival of A. hydrophila under different osmolaric conditions. The full-length gene (~1 kb) encoding OmpC of A. hydrophila was cloned, characterized and expressed in E. coli. High yield (~112 mg/L at shake flask level) of the recombinant OmpC (rOmpC) (~40 kDa) of A. hydrophila was obtained upon purification from inclusion bodies using Ni(2+)-NTA affinity chromatography. Immunization with purified rOmpC in murine model generated high endpoint (>1:40,000) titers. IgG isotyping, ELISA and ELISPOT assay indicated mixed immune response with a TH2 bias. Also, the anti-rOmpC antibodies were able to agglutinate A. hydrophila in vitro and exhibited specific cross-reactivity with different Aeromonas strains, which will facilitate easy detection of different Aeromonas isolates in infected samples. Taken together, these data clearly indicate that rOmpC could serve as an effective vaccine against different strains of Aeromonas, a highly heterogenous group of bacteria. PMID:27328672

  18. Detection of β -Lactamases and Outer Membrane Porins among Klebsiella pneumoniae Strains Isolated in Iran.

    PubMed

    Hashemi, Ali; Fallah, Fatemeh; Erfanimanesh, Soroor; Hamedani, Parastu; Alimehr, Shadi; Goudarzi, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    This descriptive study was accomplished on 83 K. pneumoniae strains isolated from two hospitals in Tehran, Iran. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed by disc diffusion and broth microdilution methods. ESBLs, MBL, Amp-C, and KPC producing strains were detected by phenotypic confirmatory test, combination disk diffusion test (CDDT), Amp-C detection kit, and modified Hodge test, respectively. OXA-48, NDM-1, and CTX-M-15 genes were detected by PCR and sequencing methods. The outer membrane porins such as OmpK35 and OmpK36 were analysed by SDS-PAGE, PCR, and sequencing methods. From 83 K. pneumoniae isolates, 48 (57.5%), 3 (3.5%), 23 (28%), and 5 (6%) were ESBL, MBL, Amp-C, and KPC positive, respectively. The CTX-M-15 gene was detected in 30 (62.5%) and OXA-48 gene was found in 2 (4.1%) of the 48 ESBL-producing isolates. Two isolates harboured both OXA-48 and CTX-M-15; NDM-1 gene was not detected in this study. Outer membrane porin, OmpK35, was detected in 30 (62.5%) of 48 ESBL-producing isolates while OmpK36 was found in 35 (72.91%) of 48 ESBL-producing isolates. In this study, fosfomycin and tigecycline were more effective than other antibiotics. The high prevalence of β-lactamase-producing K. pneumoniae detected in this study is of great concern, which requires infection control measures including antibacterial management and identification of β-lactamases-producing isolates. PMID:25548718

  19. Detection of β-Lactamases and Outer Membrane Porins among Klebsiella pneumoniae Strains Isolated in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Fallah, Fatemeh; Hamedani, Parastu; Alimehr, Shadi; Goudarzi, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    This descriptive study was accomplished on 83 K. pneumoniae strains isolated from two hospitals in Tehran, Iran. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed by disc diffusion and broth microdilution methods. ESBLs, MBL, Amp-C, and KPC producing strains were detected by phenotypic confirmatory test, combination disk diffusion test (CDDT), Amp-C detection kit, and modified Hodge test, respectively. OXA-48, NDM-1, and CTX-M-15 genes were detected by PCR and sequencing methods. The outer membrane porins such as OmpK35 and OmpK36 were analysed by SDS-PAGE, PCR, and sequencing methods. From 83 K. pneumoniae isolates, 48 (57.5%), 3 (3.5%), 23 (28%), and 5 (6%) were ESBL, MBL, Amp-C, and KPC positive, respectively. The CTX-M-15 gene was detected in 30 (62.5%) and OXA-48 gene was found in 2 (4.1%) of the 48 ESBL-producing isolates. Two isolates harboured both OXA-48 and CTX-M-15; NDM-1 gene was not detected in this study. Outer membrane porin, OmpK35, was detected in 30 (62.5%) of 48 ESBL-producing isolates while OmpK36 was found in 35 (72.91%) of 48 ESBL-producing isolates. In this study, fosfomycin and tigecycline were more effective than other antibiotics. The high prevalence of β-lactamase-producing K. pneumoniae detected in this study is of great concern, which requires infection control measures including antibacterial management and identification of β-lactamases-producing isolates. PMID:25548718

  20. Extraction, purification, and characterization of major outer membrane proteins from Wolinella recta ATCC 33238.

    PubMed Central

    Kennell, W L; Holt, S C

    1991-01-01

    The outer membrane of Wolinella recta ATCC 33238 was isolated by French pressure cell disruption and differential centrifugation. Outer membrane proteins (OMPs) were solubilized by Zwittergent 3.14 extraction and separated by DEAE-Sephacel ion-exchange chromatography. The major OMPs that were found in W. recta ATCC 33238 and in several other Wolinella spp. consisted of proteins with apparent molecular masses of 51, 45, and 43 kDa. These three conserved proteins were purified to essential homogeneity by one- and two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and characterized chemically. Heating at between 75 and 100 degrees C revealed both the 43- and 51-kDa proteins to be heat modified from apparent molecular masses of 32 and 38 kDa, respectively. The 45-kDa protein was unmodified at all temperatures tested. Two-dimensional isoelectric focusing-SDS-PAGE revealed the 51-kDa protein to be composed of multiple pIs between a pH of 5.0 and greater than 8.0 while the 43- and 45-kDa proteins had a pI of approximately 6.0. N'-terminal amino acid sequence analysis of the first 30 to 40 amino acids and search of the Protein Identification Resource data base for similar proteins only revealed the 43-kDa protein to be similar to the P.69 OMP of Bordetella pertussis; however, the homology was weak (33%). Amino acid analysis revealed the 43-kDa protein to be noncharged and the 45- and 51-kDa proteins to be hydrophilic, containing between 38 to 42% polar residues but no cysteine. This study reports the purification and partial characterization of three conserved proteins in W. recta ATCC 33238. Images PMID:1894372

  1. Can direct extracellular electron transfer occur in the absence of outer membrane cytochromes in Desulfovibrio vulgaris?

    SciTech Connect

    Elias, Dwayne A; Zane, Mr. Grant M.; Auer, Dr. Manfred; Fields, Dr. Matthew Wayne; Wall, Judy D.; Gorby, Dr. Yuri A.

    2010-01-01

    Extracellular electron transfer has been investigated over several decades via forms of soluble electron transfer proteins that are exported for extracellular reoxidation. More recently, several organisms have been shown to reduce extracellular metals via the direct transfer of electron through appendages; also known as nanowires. They have been reported most predominantly in Shewanella and Geobacter. While the relevancy and composition of these structures in each genus has been debated, both possess outer membrane cytochrome complexes that could theoretically come into direct contact with solid phase oxidized metals. Members of the genus Desulfovibrio apparently have no such cytochromes although similar appendages are present, are electrically conductive, and are different from flagella. Upon U(VI)-reduction, the structures in Desulfovibrio become coated with U(IV). Deletion of flagellar genes did not alter soluble or amorphous Fe(III) or U(VI) reduction, or appendage appearance. Removal of the chromosomal pilA gene hampered amorphous Fe(III)-reduction by ca. 25%, but cells lacking the native plasmid, pDV1, reduced soluble Fe(III) and U(VI) at ca. 50% of the wild type rate while amorphous Fe(III)-reduction slowed to ca. 20% of the wild type rate. Appendages were present in all deletions as well as pDV1, except pilA. Gene complementation restored all activities and morphologies to wild type levels. This suggests that pilA encodes the structural component, whereas genes within pDV1 may provide the reactive members. How such appendages function without outer membrane cytochromes is under investigation.

  2. Decoration of Outer Membrane Vesicles with Multiple Antigens by Using an Autotransporter Approach

    PubMed Central

    Felix, Tristan; Soprova, Zora; ten Hagen-Jongman, Corinne M.; Vikström, David; Majlessi, Laleh; Beskers, Joep; Follmann, Frank; de Punder, Karin; van der Wel, Nicole N.; Baumgarten, Thomas; Pham, Thang V.; Piersma, Sander R.; Jiménez, Connie R.; van Ulsen, Peter; de Gier, Jan-Willem; Leclerc, Claude; Jong, Wouter S. P.

    2014-01-01

    Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are spherical nanoparticles that naturally shed from Gram-negative bacteria. They are rich in immunostimulatory proteins and lipopolysaccharide but do not replicate, which increases their safety profile and renders them attractive vaccine vectors. By packaging foreign polypeptides in OMVs, specific immune responses can be raised toward heterologous antigens in the context of an intrinsic adjuvant. Antigens exposed at the vesicle surface have been suggested to elicit protection superior to that from antigens concealed inside OMVs, but hitherto robust methods for targeting heterologous proteins to the OMV surface have been lacking. We have exploited our previously developed hemoglobin protease (Hbp) autotransporter platform for display of heterologous polypeptides at the OMV surface. One, two, or three of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens ESAT6, Ag85B, and Rv2660c were targeted to the surface of Escherichia coli OMVs upon fusion to Hbp. Furthermore, a hypervesiculating ΔtolR ΔtolA derivative of attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SL3261 was generated, enabling efficient release and purification of OMVs decorated with multiple heterologous antigens, exemplified by the M. tuberculosis antigens and epitopes from Chlamydia trachomatis major outer membrane protein (MOMP). Also, we showed that delivery of Salmonella OMVs displaying Ag85B to antigen-presenting cells in vitro results in processing and presentation of an epitope that is functionally recognized by Ag85B-specific T cell hybridomas. In conclusion, the Hbp platform mediates efficient display of (multiple) heterologous antigens, individually or combined within one molecule, at the surface of OMVs. Detection of antigen-specific immune responses upon vesicle-mediated delivery demonstrated the potential of our system for vaccine development. PMID:25038093

  3. The β-Barrel Outer Membrane Protein Assembly Complex of Neisseria meningitidis▿

    PubMed Central

    Volokhina, Elena B.; Beckers, Frank; Tommassen, Jan; Bos, Martine P.

    2009-01-01

    The evolutionarily conserved protein Omp85 is required for outer membrane protein (OMP) assembly in gram-negative bacteria and in mitochondria. Its Escherichia coli homolog, designated BamA, functions with four accessory lipoproteins, BamB, BamC, BamD, and BamE, together forming the β-barrel assembly machinery (Bam). Here, we addressed the composition of this machinery and the function of its components in Neisseria meningitidis, a model organism for outer membrane biogenesis studies. Analysis of genome sequences revealed homologs of BamC, BamD (previously described as ComL), and BamE and a second BamE homolog, Mlp. No homolog of BamB was found. As in E. coli, ComL/BamD appeared essential for viability and for OMP assembly, and it could not be replaced by its E. coli homolog. BamE was not essential but was found to contribute to the efficiency of OMP assembly and to the maintenance of OM integrity. A bamC mutant showed only marginal OMP assembly defects, but the impossibility of creating a bamC bamE double mutant further indicated the function of BamC in OMP assembly. An mlp mutant was unaffected in OMP assembly. The results of copurification assays demonstrated the association of BamC, ComL, and BamE with Omp85. Semi-native gel electrophoresis identified the RmpM protein as an additional component of the Omp85 complex, which was confirmed in copurification assays. RmpM was not required for OMP folding but stabilized OMP complexes. Thus, the Bam complex in N. meningitidis consists of Omp85/BamA plus RmpM, BamC, ComL/BamD, and BamE, of which ComL/BamD and BamE appear to be the most important accessory components for OMP assembly. PMID:19767435

  4. Stereospecificity of the siderophore pyochelin outer membrane transporters in fluorescent pseudomonads.

    PubMed

    Hoegy, Françoise; Lee, Xiaoyun; Noel, Sabrina; Rognan, Didier; Mislin, Gaëtan L A; Reimmann, Cornelia; Schalk, Isabelle J

    2009-05-29

    Pyochelin (Pch) and enantio-pyochelin (EPch) are enantiomer siderophores that are produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas fluorescens, respectively, under iron limitation. Pch promotes growth of P. aeruginosa when iron is scarce, and EPch carries out the same biological function in P. fluorescens. However, the two siderophores are unable to promote growth in the heterologous species, indicating that siderophore-mediated iron uptake is highly stereospecific. In the present work, using binding and iron uptake assays, we found that FptA, the Fe-Pch outer membrane transporter of P. aeruginosa, recognized (K(d) = 2.5 +/- 1.1 nm) and transported Fe-Pch but did not interact with Fe-EPch. Likewise, FetA, the Fe-EPch receptor of P. fluorescens, was specific for Fe-EPch (K(d) = 3.7 +/- 2.1 nm) but did not bind and transport Fe-Pch. Growth promotion experiments performed under iron-limiting conditions confirmed that FptA and FetA are highly specific for Pch and EPch, respectively. When fptA and fetA along with adjacent transport genes involved in siderophore uptake were swapped between the two bacterial species, P. aeruginosa became able to utilize Fe-EPch as an iron source, and P. fluorescens was able to grow with Fe-Pch. Docking experiments using the FptA structure and binding assays showed that the stereospecificity of Pch recognition by FptA was mostly due to the configuration of the siderophore chiral centers C4'' and C2'' and was only weakly dependent on the configuration of the C4' carbon atom. Together, these findings increase our understanding of the stereospecific interaction between Pch and its outer membrane receptor FptA. PMID:19297329

  5. Epoxide-Mediated Differential Packaging of Cif and Other Virulence Factors into Outer Membrane Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Ballok, Alicia E.; Filkins, Laura M.; Bomberger, Jennifer M.; Stanton, Bruce A.

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) that contain a number of secreted bacterial proteins, including phospholipases, alkaline phosphatase, and the CFTR inhibitory factor (Cif). Previously, Cif, an epoxide hydrolase, was shown to be regulated at the transcriptional level by epoxides, which serve as ligands of the repressor, CifR. Here, we tested whether epoxides have an effect on Cif levels in OMVs. We showed that growth of P. aeruginosa in the presence of specific epoxides but not a hydrolysis product increased Cif packaging into OMVs in a CifR-independent fashion. The outer membrane protein, OprF, was also increased under these conditions, but alkaline phosphatase activity was not significantly altered. Additionally, we demonstrated that OMV shape and density were affected by epoxide treatment, with two distinct vesicle fractions present when cells were treated with epibromohydrin (EBH), a model epoxide. Vesicles isolated from the two density fractions exhibited different protein profiles in Western blotting and silver staining. We have shown that a variety of clinically or host-relevant treatments, including antibiotics, also alter the proteins packaged in OMVs. Proteomic analysis of purified OMVs followed by an analysis of transposon mutant OMVs yielded mutants with altered vesicle packaging. Finally, epithelial cell cytotoxicity was reduced in the vesicles formed in the presence of EBH, suggesting that this epoxide alters the function of the OMVs. Our data support a model whereby clinically or host-relevant signals mediate differential packaging of virulence factors in OMVs, which results in functional consequences for host-pathogen interactions. PMID:25112474

  6. Outer membrane protein DsrA is the major fibronectin-binding determinant of Haemophilus ducreyi.

    PubMed

    Leduc, Isabelle; White, C Dinitra; Nepluev, Igor; Throm, Robert E; Spinola, Stanley M; Elkins, Christopher

    2008-04-01

    The ability to bind extracellular matrix proteins is a critical virulence determinant for skin pathogens. Haemophilus ducreyi, the etiological agent of the genital ulcer disease chancroid, binds extracellular matrix components, including fibronectin (FN). We investigated H. ducreyi FN binding and report several important findings about this interaction. First, FN binding by H. ducreyi was greatly increased in bacteria grown on heme and almost completely inhibited by hemoglobin. Second, wild-type strain 35000HP bound significantly more FN than did a dsrA mutant in two different FN binding assays. Third, the expression of dsrA in the dsrA mutant restored FN binding and conferred the ability to bind FN to a non-FN-binding Haemophilus influenzae strain. Fourth, an anti-DsrA monoclonal antibody partially blocked FN binding by H. ducreyi. The hemoglobin receptor, the collagen-binding protein, the H. ducreyi lectin, the fine-tangle pili, and the outer membrane protein OmpA2 were not involved in H. ducreyi FN binding, since single mutants bound FN as well as the parent strain did. However, the major outer membrane protein may have a minor role in FN binding by H. ducreyi, since a double dsrA momp mutant bound less FN than did the single dsrA mutant. Finally, despite major sequence differences, DsrA proteins from both class I and class II H. ducreyi strains mediated FN and vitronectin binding. We concluded that DsrA is the major factor involved in FN binding by both classes of H. ducreyi strains. PMID:18212073

  7. Targeting and insertion of the cholesterol-binding translocator protein into the outer mitochondrial membrane.

    PubMed

    Rone, Malena B; Liu, Jun; Blonder, Josip; Ye, Xiaoying; Veenstra, Timothy D; Young, Jason C; Papadopoulos, Vassilios

    2009-07-28

    Translocator protein (18 kDa, TSPO), previously known as the peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor, is an outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM) protein necessary for cholesterol import and steroid production. We reconstituted the mitochondrial targeting and insertion of TSPO into the OMM to analyze the signals and mechanisms required for this process. Initial studies indicated the formation of a mitochondrial 66 kDa complex through Blue Native-PAGE analysis. The formation of this complex was found to be dependent on the presence of ATP and the cytosolic chaperone Hsp90. Through mutational analysis we identified two areas necessary for TSPO targeting, import, and function: amino acids 103-108 (Schellman motif), which provide the necessary structural orientation for import, and the cholesterol-binding C-terminus required for insertion. Although the translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane (TOM) complex proteins Tom22 and Tom40 were present in the OMM, the TOM complex did not interact with TSPO. In search of proteins involved in TSPO import, we analyzed complexes known to interact with TSPO by mass spectrometry. Formation of the 66 kDa complex was found to be dependent on an identified protein, Metaxin 1, for formation and TSPO import. The level of import of TSPO into steroidogenic cell mitochondria was increased following treatment of the cells with cAMP. These findings suggest that the initial targeting of TSPO to mitochondria is dependent upon the presence of cytosolic chaperones interacting with the import receptor Tom70. The C-terminus plays an important role in targeting TSPO to mitochondria, whereas its import into the OMM is dependent upon the presence of the Schellman motif. Final integration of TSPO into the OMM occurs via its interaction with Metaxin 1. Import of TSPO into steroidogenic cell mitochondria is regulated by cAMP. PMID:19552401

  8. Dissociation of immune determinants of outer membrane proteins of Chlamydia psittaci strain guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis.

    PubMed Central

    Westbay, T D; Dascher, C C; Hsia, R C; Bavoil, P M; Zauderer, M

    1994-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is an important human pathogen. Research to develop a Chlamydia vaccine has focused on the major outer membrane protein (MOMP). Determinants of this protein elicit serovar-specific neutralizing antibodies which are thought to play a critical role in protective immunity. MOMP-specific antibody responses are highly variable in the polymorphic population. Genetic factors which might influence the MOMP-specific immune response are consequently of particular interest. The C. psittaci strain guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis (GPIC) is a natural pathogen of the guinea pig that causes both ocular and genital tract infections that closely resemble those caused by C. trachomatis in humans. As such, it provides an excellent model for disease. In this report, we explore the influence of major histocompatibility complex-linked genes on the MOMP-specific antibody response in mice immunized with either whole GPIC elementary bodies or recombinant GPIC MOMP. Our results indicate that the MOMP-specific antibody response is major histocompatibility complex linked such that mice of the H-2d haplotype are high responders while mice of the H-2k haplotype are low responders. We demonstrate that MOMP-specific B cells are present in H-2k strains which are, however, deficient in MOMP-specific helper T cells. Although immunization of low-MOMP-responder strains with whole chlamydial elementary bodies induces high levels of immunoglobulin G antibody specific for Omp2, the cysteine-rich outer membrane protein, MOMP-specific B cells are unable to receive help from Omp2-specific T cells. The failure of intermolecular help from Omp2-specific T cells and related observations raise important issues regarding the processing and presentation of chlamydial antigens and the design of optimal subunit vaccines. Images PMID:7525489

  9. An ABC transporter and an outer membrane lipoprotein participate in posttranslational activation of type VI secretion in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Casabona, Maria G; Silverman, Julie M; Sall, Khady M; Boyer, Frédéric; Couté, Yohann; Poirel, Jessica; Grunwald, Didier; Mougous, Joseph D; Elsen, Sylvie; Attree, Ina

    2013-02-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is capable of injecting protein toxins into other bacterial cells through one of its three type VI secretion systems (T6SSs). The activity of this T6SS is tightly regulated on the posttranslational level by phosphorylation-dependent and -independent pathways. The phosphorylation-dependent pathway consists of a Threonine kinase/phosphatase pair (PpkA/PppA) that acts on a forkhead domain-containing protein, Fha1, and a periplasmic protein, TagR, that positively regulates PpkA. In the present work, we biochemically and functionally characterize three additional proteins of the phosphorylation-dependent regulatory cascade that controls T6S activation: TagT, TagS and TagQ. We show that similar to TagR, these proteins act upstream of the PpkA/PppA checkpoint and influence phosphorylation of Fha1 and, apparatus assembly and effector export. Localization studies demonstrate that TagQ is an outer membrane lipoprotein and TagR is associated with the outer membrane. Consistent with their homology to lipoprotein outer membrane localization (Lol) components, TagT and TagS form a stable inner membrane complex with ATPase activity. However, we find that outer membrane association of T6SS lipoproteins TagQ and TssJ1, and TagR, is unaltered in a ΔtagTS background. Notably, we found that TagQ is indispensible for anchoring of TagR to the outer membrane fraction. As T6S-dependent fitness of P. aeruginosa requires TagT, S, R and Q, we conclude that these proteins likely participate in a trans-membrane signalling pathway that promotes H1-T6SS activity under optimal environmental conditions. PMID:22765374

  10. Action of Polymyxin B on Bacterial Membranes: Morphological Changes in the Cytoplasm and in the Outer Membrane of Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli B

    PubMed Central

    Schindler, Peter R. G.; Teuber, Michael

    1975-01-01

    Though the primary action of the cationic antibiotic polymyxin B is against the membrane of susceptible bacteria, severe morphological changes are detected in the cytoplasm. Using fluorescence microscopy and a mono-N-dansyl-polymyxin B derivative, we could demonstrate aggregations of the antibiotic with cellular material, possibly nucleic acids and/or ribosomes. These aggregations were only produced by minimum inhibitory or higher concentrations of the antibiotic as shown with Salmonella and Escherichia strains differing in their polymyxin susceptibility. The outer membrane of Salmonella typhimurium revealed characteristic blebs when treated with polymyxin B. This was investigated by the gentle methods of spray-freezing and freeze-etching. The obtained electron micrographs suggest that the polymyxin-induced blebs are projections of the outer monolayer of the outer membrane. A possible mechanism of penetration of polymyxin B through the cell envelope of gram-negative bacteria is presented. Images PMID:169730

  11. Ligand-specific opening of a gated-porin channel in the outer membrane of living bacteria.

    PubMed

    Jiang, X; Payne, M A; Cao, Z; Foster, S B; Feix, J B; Newton, S M; Klebba, P E

    1997-05-23

    Ligand-gated membrane channels selectively facilitate the entry of iron into prokaryotic cells. The essential role of iron in metabolism makes its acquisition a determinant of bacterial pathogenesis and a target for therapeutic strategies. In Gram-negative bacteria, TonB-dependent outer membrane proteins form energized, gated pores that bind iron chelates (siderophores) and internalize them. The time-resolved operation of the Escherichia coli ferric enterobactin receptor FepA was observed in vivo with electron spin resonance spectroscopy by monitoring the mobility of covalently bound nitroxide spin labels. A ligand-binding surface loop of FepA, which normally closes its transmembrane channel, exhibited energy-dependent structural changes during iron and toxin (colicin) transport. These changes were not merely associated with ligand binding, but occurred during ligand uptake through the outer membrane bilayer. The results demonstrate by a physical method that gated-porin channels open and close during membrane transport in vivo. PMID:9157886

  12. Focus on the Outer Membrane Factor OprM, the Forgotten Player from Efflux Pumps Assemblies.

    PubMed

    Phan, Gilles; Picard, Martin; Broutin, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotics have been used extensively during several decades and we are now facing the emergence of multidrug resistant strains. It has become a major public concern, urging the need to discover new strategies to combat them. Among the different ways used by bacteria to resist antibiotics, the active efflux is one of the main mechanisms. In Gram-negative bacteria the efflux pumps are comprised of three components forming a long edifice crossing the complete cell wall from the inside to the outside of the cell. Blocking these pumps would permit the restoration of the effectiveness of the current antibiotherapy which is why it is important to increase our knowledge on the different proteins involved in these complexes. A tremendous number of experiments have been performed on the inner membrane protein AcrB from Escherichia coli and, to a lesser extent, the protein partners forming the AcrAB-TolC pump, but less information is available concerning the efflux pumps from other virulent Gram-negative bacteria. The present review will focus on the OprM outer membrane protein from the MexAB-OprM pump of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, highlighting similarities and differences compare to the archetypal AcrAB-TolC in terms of structure, function, and assembly properties. PMID:27025640

  13. Outer-membrane Transport of Aromatic Hydrocarbons as a First Step in Biodegradation

    SciTech Connect

    Hearn,E.; Patel, D.; van den Berg, B.

    2008-01-01

    Bacterial biodegradation of hydrocarbons, an important process for environmental remediation, requires the passage of hydrophobic substrates across the cell membrane. Here, we report crystal structures of two outer membrane proteins, Pseudomonas putida TodX and Ralstonia pickettii TbuX, which have been implicated in hydrocarbon transport and are part of a subfamily of the FadL fatty acid transporter family. The structures of TodX and TbuX show significant differences with those previously determined for Escherichia coli FadL, which may provide an explanation for the substrate-specific transport of TodX and TbuX observed with in vivo transport assays. The TodX and TbuX structures revealed 14-stranded {beta}-barrels with an N-terminal hatch domain blocking the barrel interior. A hydrophobic channel with bound detergent molecules extends from the extracellular surface and is contiguous with a passageway through the hatch domain, lined by both hydrophobic and polar or charged residues. The TodX and TbuX structures support a mechanism for transport of hydrophobic substrates from the extracellular environment to the periplasm via a channel through the hatch domain.

  14. Characterization and Vaccine Potential of Outer Membrane Vesicles Produced by Haemophilus parasuis

    PubMed Central

    McCaig, William D.; Loving, Crystal L.; Hughes, Holly R.; Brockmeier, Susan L.

    2016-01-01

    Haemophilus parasuis is a Gram-negative bacterium that colonizes the upper respiratory tract of swine and is capable of causing a systemic infection, resulting in high morbidity and mortality. H. parasuis isolates display a wide range of virulence and virulence factors are largely unknown. Commercial bacterins are often used to vaccinate swine against H. parasuis, though strain variability and lack of cross-reactivity can make this an ineffective means of protection. Outer membrane vesicles (OMV) are spherical structures naturally released from the membrane of bacteria and OMV are often enriched in toxins, signaling molecules and other bacterial components. Examination of OMV structures has led to identification of virulence factors in a number of bacteria and they have been successfully used as subunit vaccines. We have isolated OMV from both virulent and avirulent strains of H. parasuis, have examined their protein content and assessed their ability to induce an immune response in the host. Vaccination with purified OMV derived from the virulent H. parasuis Nagasaki strain provided protection against challenge with a lethal dose of the bacteria. PMID:26930282

  15. Purification of Legionella pneumophila major outer membrane protein and demonstration that it is a porin.

    PubMed Central

    Gabay, J E; Blake, M; Niles, W D; Horwitz, M A

    1985-01-01

    We have purified the major outer membrane protein (MOMP) of Legionella pneumophila, determined that it is associated with peptidoglycan, and characterized it as a porin. To purify the MOMP, we used a simple, rapid, three-step procedure that gave us the protein in high yield. The first step of the purification procedure involved selectively extracting the MOMP from whole bacterial cells with calcium and zwitterionic detergent. The second and third steps achieved purification by ion-exchange and molecular-sieve chromatography. The dissociation of the MOMP into monomers was dependent upon the presence of a reducing agent and was enhanced by treatment at 100 degrees C. To study the relationship of the MOMP to peptidoglycan, we extracted the protein by a modification of the Rosenbusch procedure. Like the Escherichia coli porins, the MOMP was peptidoglycan associated. The MOMP was at least partially dissociated from peptidoglycan in sodium dodecyl sulfate and a high salt concentration. To study the ion channel-forming properties of the MOMP, we reconstituted the MOMP in planar lipid membranes. The MOMP formed ion-permeable channels with a single-channel conductance size of 100 picoSiemens. The MOMP channels exhibited a fourfold selectivity for cations over anions and voltage-independent gating. These findings demonstrate that the MOMP is a porin with properties similar to those of E. coli porins. Images PMID:2579942

  16. Type IV Pilus Proteins Form an Integrated Structure Extending from the Cytoplasm to the Outer Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chengyun; Wallace, Regina A.; Black, Wesley P.; Li, Yue-zhong; Yang, Zhaomin

    2013-01-01

    The bacterial type IV pilus (T4P) is the strongest biological motor known to date as its retraction can generate forces well over 100 pN. Myxococcus xanthus, a δ-proteobacterium, provides a good model for T4P investigations because its social (S) gliding motility is powered by T4P. In this study, the interactions among M. xanthus T4P proteins were investigated using genetics and the yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) system. Our genetic analysis suggests that there is an integrated T4P structure that crosses the inner membrane (IM), periplasm and the outer membrane (OM). Moreover, this structure exists in the absence of the pilus filament. A systematic Y2H survey provided evidence for direct interactions among IM and OM proteins exposed to the periplasm. For example, the IM lipoprotein PilP interacted with its cognate OM protein PilQ. In addition, interactions among T4P proteins from the thermophile Thermus thermophilus were investigated by Y2H. The results indicated similar protein-protein interactions in the T4P system of this non-proteobacterium despite significant sequence divergence between T4P proteins in T. thermophilus and M. xanthus. The observations here support the model of an integrated T4P structure in the absence of a pilus in diverse bacterial species. PMID:23922942

  17. Characterization and vaccine potential of outer membrane vesicles produced by Haemophilus parasuis

    DOE PAGESBeta

    McCaig, William D.; Loving, Crystal L.; Hughes, Holly R.; Brockmeier, Susan L.; Charbit, Alain

    2016-03-01

    Haemophilus parasuis is a Gram-negative bacterium that colonizes the upper respiratory tract of swine and is capable of causing a systemic infection, resulting in high morbidity and mortality. H. parasuis isolates display a wide range of virulence and virulence factors are largely unknown. Commercial bacterins are often used to vaccinate swine against H. parasuis, though strain variability and lack of cross-reactivity can make this an ineffective means of protection. Outer membrane vesicles (OMV) are spherical structures naturally released from the membrane of bacteria and OMV are often enriched in toxins, signaling molecules and other bacterial components. Examination of OMV structuresmore » has led to identification of virulence factors in a number of bacteria and they have been successfully used as subunit vaccines. We have isolated OMV from both virulent and avirulent strains of H. parasuis, have examined their protein content and assessed their ability to induce an immune response in the host. Lastly, vaccination with purified OMV derived from the virulent H. parasuis Nagasaki strain provided protection against challenge with a lethal dose of the bacteria.« less

  18. Metabolically derived potential on the outer membrane of mitochondria: a computational model.

    PubMed Central

    Lemeshko, S V; Lemeshko, V V

    2000-01-01

    The outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM) is permeable to various small substances because of the presence of a voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC). The voltage dependence of VDAC's permeability is puzzling, because the existence of membrane potential on the OMM has never been shown. We propose that steady-state metabolically derived potential (MDP) may be generated on the OMM as the result of the difference in its permeability restriction for various charged metabolites. To demonstrate the possibility of MDP generation, two models were considered: a liposomal model and a simplified cell model with a creatine kinase energy channeling system. Quantitative computational analysis of the simplified cell model shows that a MDP of up to -5 mV, in addition to the Donnan potential, may be generated at high workloads, even if the OMM is highly permeable to small inorganic ions, including potassium. Calculations show that MDP and DeltapH, generated on the OMM, depend on the cytoplasmic pH and energy demand rate. Computational modeling suggests that MDP may be important for cell energy metabolism regulation in multiple ways, including VDAC's permeability modulation and the effect of electrodynamic compartmentation. The osmotic pressure difference between the mitochondrial intermembrane space and the cytoplasm, as related to the electrodynamic compartmentation effects, might explain the morphological changes in mitochondria under intense workloads. PMID:11106589

  19. Unconventional PINK1 localization to the outer membrane of depolarized mitochondria drives Parkin recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Okatsu, Kei; Kimura, Mayumi; Oka, Toshihiko; Tanaka, Keiji; Matsuda, Noriyuki

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dysfunction of PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1), a Ser/Thr kinase with an N-terminal mitochondrial-targeting sequence (MTS), causes familial recessive parkinsonism. Reduction of the mitochondrial membrane potential limits MTS-mediated matrix import and promotes PINK1 accumulation on the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM) of depolarized mitochondria. PINK1 then undergoes autophosphorylation and phosphorylates ubiquitin and Parkin, a cytosolic ubiquitin ligase, for clearance of damaged mitochondria. The molecular basis for PINK1 localization on the OMM of depolarized mitochondria rather than release to the cytosol is poorly understood. Here, we disentangle the PINK1 localization mechanism using deletion mutants and a newly established constitutively active PINK1 mutant. Disruption of the MTS through N-terminal insertion of aspartic acid residues results in OMM localization of PINK1 in energized mitochondria. Unexpectedly, the MTS and putative transmembrane domain (TMD) are dispensable for OMM localization, whereas mitochondrial translocase Tom40 (also known as TOMM40) and an alternative mitochondrial localization signal that resides between the MTS and TMD are required. PINK1 utilizes a mitochondrial localization mechanism that is distinct from that of conventional MTS proteins and that presumably functions in conjunction with the Tom complex in OMM localization when the conventional N-terminal MTS is inhibited. PMID:25609704

  20. Coordination of peptidoglycan synthesis and outer membrane constriction during Escherichia coli cell division

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Andrew N; Egan, Alexander JF; van't Veer, Inge L; Verheul, Jolanda; Colavin, Alexandre; Koumoutsi, Alexandra; Biboy, Jacob; Altelaar, A F Maarten; Damen, Mirjam J; Huang, Kerwyn Casey; Simorre, Jean-Pierre; Breukink, Eefjan; den Blaauwen, Tanneke; Typas, Athanasios; Gross, Carol A; Vollmer, Waldemar

    2015-01-01

    To maintain cellular structure and integrity during division, Gram-negative bacteria must carefully coordinate constriction of a tripartite cell envelope of inner membrane, peptidoglycan (PG), and outer membrane (OM). It has remained enigmatic how this is accomplished. Here, we show that envelope machines facilitating septal PG synthesis (PBP1B-LpoB complex) and OM constriction (Tol system) are physically and functionally coordinated via YbgF, renamed CpoB (Coordinator of PG synthesis and OM constriction, associated with PBP1B). CpoB localizes to the septum concurrent with PBP1B-LpoB and Tol at the onset of constriction, interacts with both complexes, and regulates PBP1B activity in response to Tol energy state. This coordination links PG synthesis with OM invagination and imparts a unique mode of bifunctional PG synthase regulation by selectively modulating PBP1B cross-linking activity. Coordination of the PBP1B and Tol machines by CpoB contributes to effective PBP1B function in vivo and maintenance of cell envelope integrity during division. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07118.001 PMID:25951518

  1. The bilayer enhances rhodopsin kinetic stability in bovine rod outer segment disk membranes.

    PubMed

    Corley, Scott C; Sprangers, Peter; Albert, Arlene D

    2011-06-22

    Rhodopsin is a kinetically stable protein constituting >90% of rod outer segment disk membrane protein. To investigate the bilayer contribution to rhodopsin kinetic stability, disk membranes were systematically disrupted by octyl-β-D-glucopyranoside. Rhodopsin kinetic stability was examined under subsolubilizing (rhodopsin in a bilayer environment perturbed by octyl-β-D-glucopyranoside) and under fully solubilizing conditions (rhodopsin in a micelle with cosolubilized phospholipids). As determined by DSC, rhodopsin exhibited a scan-rate-dependent irreversible endothermic transition at all stages of solubilization. The transition temperature (T(m)) decreased in the subsolubilizing stage. However, once the rhodopsin was in a micelle environment there was little change of the T(m) as the phospholipid/rhodopsin ratio in the mixed micelles decreased during the fully solubilized stage. Rhodopsin thermal denaturation is consistent with the two-state irreversible model at all stages of solubilization. The activation energy of denaturation (E(act)) was calculated from the scan rate dependence of the T(m) and from the rate of rhodopsin thermal bleaching at all stages of solubilization. The E(act) as determined by both techniques decreased in the subsolubilizing stage, but remained constant once fully solubilized. These results indicate the bilayer structure increases the E(act) to rhodopsin denaturation. PMID:21689528

  2. Focus on the Outer Membrane Factor OprM, the Forgotten Player from Efflux Pumps Assemblies

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Gilles; Picard, Martin; Broutin, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotics have been used extensively during several decades and we are now facing the emergence of multidrug resistant strains. It has become a major public concern, urging the need to discover new strategies to combat them. Among the different ways used by bacteria to resist antibiotics, the active efflux is one of the main mechanisms. In Gram-negative bacteria the efflux pumps are comprised of three components forming a long edifice crossing the complete cell wall from the inside to the outside of the cell. Blocking these pumps would permit the restoration of the effectiveness of the current antibiotherapy which is why it is important to increase our knowledge on the different proteins involved in these complexes. A tremendous number of experiments have been performed on the inner membrane protein AcrB from Escherichia coli and, to a lesser extent, the protein partners forming the AcrAB-TolC pump, but less information is available concerning the efflux pumps from other virulent Gram-negative bacteria. The present review will focus on the OprM outer membrane protein from the MexAB-OprM pump of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, highlighting similarities and differences compare to the archetypal AcrAB-TolC in terms of structure, function, and assembly properties. PMID:27025640

  3. Multistep assembly of the protein import channel of the mitochondrial outer membrane.

    PubMed

    Model, K; Meisinger, C; Prinz, T; Wiedemann, N; Truscott, K N; Pfanner, N; Ryan, M T

    2001-04-01

    Proteins targeted to mitochondria are transported into the organelle through a high molecular weight complex called the translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane (TOM). At the core of this machinery is a multisubunit general import pore (GIP) of 400 kDa. Here we report the assembly of the yeast GIP that involves two successive intermediates of 250 kDa and 100 kDa. The precursor of the channel-lining Tom40 is first targeted to the membrane via the receptor proteins Tom20 and Tom22; it then assembles with Tom5 to form the 250 kDa intermediate exposed to the intermembrane space. The 250 kDa intermediate is followed by the formation of the 100 kDa intermediate that associates with Tom6. Maturation to the 400 kDa complex occurs by association of Tom7 and Tom22. Tom7 functions by promoting both the dissociation of the 400 kDa complex and the transition from the 100 kDa intermediate to the mature complex. These results indicate that the dynamic conversion between the 400 kDa complex and the 100 kDa late intermediate allows integration of new precursor subunits into pre-existing complexes. PMID:11276259

  4. Apocytochrome c requires the TOM complex for translocation across the mitochondrial outer membrane.

    PubMed

    Diekert, K; de Kroon, A I; Ahting, U; Niggemeyer, B; Neupert, W; de Kruijff, B; Lill, R

    2001-10-15

    The import of proteins into the mitochondrial intermembrane space differs in various aspects from the classical import pathway into the matrix. Apocytochrome c defines one of several pathways known to reach the intermembrane space, yet the components and pathways involved in outer membrane translocation are poorly defined. Here, we report the reconstitution of the apocytochrome c import reaction using proteoliposomes harbouring purified components. Import specifically requires the protease-resistant part of the TOM complex and is driven by interactions of the apoprotein with internal parts of the complex (involving Tom40) and the 'trans-side receptor' cytochrome c haem lyase. Despite the necessity of TOM complex function, the translocation pathway of apocytochrome c does not overlap with that of presequence-containing preproteins. We conclude that the TOM complex is a universal preprotein translocase that mediates membrane passage of apocytochrome c and other preproteins along distinct pathways. Apocytochrome c may provide a paradigm for the import of other small proteins into the intermembrane space such as factors used in apoptosis and protection from stress. PMID:11598006

  5. DipM links peptidoglycan remodeling to outer membrane organization in Caulobacter

    PubMed Central

    Goley, Erin D.; Comolli, Luis R.; Fero, Katherine E.; Downing, Kenneth H.; Shapiro, Lucy

    2010-01-01

    Summary Cell division in Gram-negative organisms requires coordinated invagination of the multi-layered cell envelope such that each daughter receives an intact inner membrane (IM), peptidoglycan (PG) layer, and outer membrane (OM). Here, we identify DipM, a putative LytM endopeptidase in Caulobacter crescentus, and show that it plays a critical role in maintaining cell envelope architecture during growth and division. DipM localized to the division site in an FtsZ-dependent manner via its peptidoglycan binding LysM domains. Although not essential for viability, ΔdipM cells exhibited gross morphological defects, including cell widening and filamentation, indicating a role in cell shape maintenance and division that we show requires its LytM domain. Strikingly, cells lacking DipM also showed OM blebbing at the division site, at cell poles, and along the cell body. Cryo electron tomography of sacculi isolated from cells depleted of DipM revealed marked thickening of the peptidoglycan as compared to wild type, which we hypothesize leads to loss of trans-envelope contacts between components of the Tol-Pal complex. We conclude that DipM is required for normal envelope invagination during division and to maintain a sacculus of constant thickness that allows for maintenance of OM connections throughout the cell envelope. PMID:20497504

  6. Dual effect of local anesthetics on the function of excitable rod outer segment disk membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Mashimo, T.; Abe, K.; Yoshiya, I.

    1986-04-01

    The effects of local anesthetics and a divalent cation, Ca2+, on the function of rhodopsin were estimated from the measurements of light-induced proton uptake. The light-induced proton uptake by rhodopsin in the rod outer segment disk membrane was enhanced at lower pH (4) but depressed at higher pHs (6 to 8) by the tertiary amine local anesthetics lidocaine, bupivacaine, tetracaine, and dibucaine. The order of local anesthetic-induced depression of the proton uptake followed that of their clinical anesthetic potencies. The depression of the proton uptake versus the concentration of the uncharged form of local anesthetic nearly describes the same curve for small and large dose of added anesthetic. Furthermore, a neutral local anesthetic, benzocaine, depressed the proton uptake at all pHs between 4 and 7. These results indicate that the depression of the proton uptake is due to the effect of only the uncharged form. It is hypothesized that the uncharged form of local anesthetics interacts hydrophobically with the rhodopsin in the disk membrane. The dual effect of local anesthetics on the proton uptake, on the other hand, suggests that the activation of the function of rhodopsin may be caused by the charged form. There was no significant change in the light-induced proton uptake by rhodopsin when 1 mM of Ca2+ was introduced into the disk membrane at varying pHs in the absence or presence of local anesthetics. This fact indicates that Ca2+ ion does not influence the diprotonating process of metarhodopsin; neither does it interfere with the local anesthetic-induced changes in the rhodopsin molecule.

  7. Direct Measurements of the Outer Membrane Stage of Ferric Enterobactin Transport

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Salete M.; Trinh, Vy; Pi, Hualiang; Klebba, Phillip E.

    2010-01-01

    When Gram-negative bacteria acquire iron, the metal crosses both the outer membrane (OM) and the inner membrane, but existing radioisotopic uptake assays only measure its passage through the latter bilayer, as the accumulation of the radionuclide in the cytoplasm. We devised a methodology that exclusively observes OM transport and used it to study the uptake of ferric enterobactin (FeEnt) by Escherichia coli FepA. This technique, called postuptake binding, revealed previously unknown aspects of TonB-dependent transport reactions. The experiments showed, for the first time, that despite the discrepancy in cell envelope concentrations of FepA and TonB (∼35:1), all FepA proteins were active and equivalent in FeEnt uptake, with a maximum turnover number of ∼5/min. FepA-mediated transport of FeEnt progressed through three distinct phases with successively decreasing rates, and from its temperature dependence, the activation energy of the OM stage was 33–35 kcal/mol. The accumulation of FeEnt in the periplasm required the binding protein and inner membrane permease components of its overall transport system; postuptake binding assays on strains devoid of FepB, FepD, or FepG did not show uptake of FeEnt through the OM. However, fluorescence labeling data implied that FepA was active in the ΔfepB strain, suggesting that FeEnt entered the periplasm but then leaked out. Further experiments confirmed this futile cycle; cells without FepB transported FeEnt across the OM, but it immediately escaped through TolC. PMID:20335169

  8. Characterization and comparative analysis of the genes encoding Haemophilus parasuis outer membrane proteins P2 and P5

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Haemophilus parasuis is a swine pathogen of significant industry concern, but little is known about how this organism causes disease. A related human pathogen, Haemophilus influenza, has been better studied and many of its virulence factors have been identified. Two of these, outer membrane protei...

  9. Identification and Comparative Analysis of Genes Encoding Outer Membrane Proteins P2 and P5 in Haemophilus parsuis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Haemophilus parasuis is a serious swine pathogen but little is known about how it causes disease. A related human pathogen, Haemophilus influenzae, has been better studied and many of its virulence factors have been identified. Two of these, outer membrane proteins P2 and P5, have been shown to ha...

  10. Haemophilus influenzae Outer Membrane Protein P6 Molecular Characterization May Not Differentiate All Strains of H. Influenzae from H. haemolyticus▿

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Arthur; Adlowitz, Diana G.; Yellamatty, Edna; Pichichero, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Distinguishing nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus haemolyticus isolates by outer membrane protein (OMP) P6 gene sequencing is complicated by sequence variants in isolates. Further testing using RapID NH and multilocus sequence analysis may not help identify some isolates. Translated OMP P6 gene sequences are not conserved among all isolates presumed to be H. influenzae. PMID:20686092

  11. C1q binding and activation of the complement classical pathway by Klebsiella pneumoniae outer membrane proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Albertí, S; Marqués, G; Camprubí, S; Merino, S; Tomás, J M; Vivanco, F; Benedí, V J

    1993-01-01

    The mechanisms of killing of Klebsiella pneumoniae serum-sensitive strains in nonimmune serum by the complement classical pathway have been studied. The bacterial cell surface components that bind C1q more efficiently were identified as two major outer membrane proteins, presumably the porins of this bacterial species. These two outer membrane proteins were isolated from a representative serum-sensitive strain. We have demonstrated that in their purified form, they bind C1q and activate the classical pathway in an antibody-independent manner, with the subsequent consumption of C4 and reduction of the serum total hemolytic activity. Activation of the classical pathway has been observed in human nonimmune serum and agammaglobulinemic serum (both depleted in factor D). Binding of C1q to other components of the bacterial outer membrane, in particular the rough lipopolysaccharide, could not be demonstrated. Activation of the classical pathway by this lipopolysaccharide was also much less efficient than activation by the two outer membrane proteins. The antibody-independent binding of C1q to serum-sensitive strains was independent of the presence of capsular polysaccharide, while strains possessing lipopolysaccharide O antigen bind less C1q and are resistant to complement-mediated killing. Images PMID:8432605

  12. Methylation and in vivo expression of the surface-exposed Leptospira interrogans outer membrane protein OmpL32

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent studies have revealed that bacterial protein methylation is a widespread post-translational modification that is required for virulence in selected pathogenic bacteria. In particular, altered methylation of outer membrane proteins has been shown to modulate the effectiveness of the host immu...

  13. Diversity of TonB-dependent outer-membrane proteins in plant-associated strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomic sequences of ten strains of plant-associated Pseudomonas spp. were surveyed for the presence of TonB-dependent outer-membrane proteins (TBDPs), which function in the uptake of substrates from the environment by many Gram-negative bacteria. The ten strains, representing P. fluorescens, P. ch...

  14. Variation in the TonB-dependent Outer-Membrane Proteins in Plant-Associated Strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutrient acquisition is key to the ecological fitness of environmental bacteria such as Pseudomonas fluorescens and TonB-dependent outer-membrane proteins are important components of the cellular machinery for the uptake of substrates from the environment. Genomic sequences of ten strains of plant-a...

  15. Photoreceptor Outer Segment on Internal Limiting Membrane after Macular Hole Surgery: Implications for Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Grinton, Michael E.; Sandinha, Maria T.; Steel, David H.W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This report presents a case, which highlights key principles in the pathophysiology of macular holes. It has been hypothesized that anteroposterior (AP) and tangential vitreous traction on the fovea are the primary underlying factors causing macular holes [Nischal and Pearson; in Kanski and Bowling: Clinical Ophthalmology: A Systemic Approach, 2011, pp 629–631]. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) has subsequently corroborated this theory in part but shown that AP vitreofoveal traction is the more common scenario [Steel and Lotery: Eye 2013;27:1–21]. Methods This study was conducted as a single case report. Results A 63-year old female presented to her optician with blurred and distorted vision in her left eye. OCT showed a macular hole with a minimum linear diameter of 370 µm, with persistent broad vitreofoveal attachment on both sides of the hole edges. The patient underwent combined left phacoemulsification and pars plana vitrectomy, internal limiting membrane (ILM) peel and gas injection. The ILM was examined by electron microscopy and showed the presence of a cone outer segment on the retinal side. Post-operative OCT at 11 weeks showed a closed hole with recovery of the foveal contour and good vision. Conclusion Our case shows the presence of a photoreceptor outer segment on the retinal side of the ILM and reinforces the importance of tangential traction in the development of some macula holes. The case highlights the theory of transmission of inner retinal forces to the photoreceptors via Müller cells and how a full thickness macular hole defect can occur in the absence of AP vitreomacular traction. PMID:26557083

  16. Diffusion of beta-lactam antibiotics through liposome membranes reconstituted from purified porins of the outer membrane of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed Central

    Satake, S; Yoshihara, E; Nakae, T

    1990-01-01

    Determination of the rates of diffusion of beta-lactam antibiotics through purified Pseudomonas aeruginosa porins C, D2, and E in liposomes yielded the following results. (i) The rates of carbapenem (imipenem and meropenem) diffusion through the protein D2 pore were roughly 2 to 70 times higher than those through other porin pores. It is not clear why the protein D2 pore allowed rapid diffusion of carbapenems. The rates of diffusion of glucosamine and triglycine through the protein D2 pore were about 14 and 4 times higher, respectively, than that of an uncharged test solute with a similar Mr, glucose. (ii) The rates of diffusion of antipseudomonal anionic beta-lactams such as piperacillin, ceftazidime, cefsulodin, and aztreonam through the protein C pore were higher than those through other porin pores. This was probably due to the slightly larger pore size and the slight anion selectivity of protein C, since the apparent exclusion limit of the protein C pore for uncharged saccharides is higher than that of other porins and the rate of diffusion of gluconic acid through the protein C pore is about double that for glucose. (iii) The rates of diffusion of cefoperazone through all three species of porin were relatively high. These results indicate that the antipseudomonal beta-lactams permeate the P. aeruginosa outer membrane via newly identified porins. Images PMID:2163239

  17. Immunogenicity of a Haemophilus influenzae polysaccharide-Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane protein complex conjugate vaccine.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, J J; Deck, R R; Liu, M A

    1990-11-01

    Polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines made with different carriers vary in their ability to elicit antipolysaccharide IgG antibody responses in young infants and an adult mouse model, suggesting that the carrier proteins used in the conjugate vaccines differ in their ability to act as carriers, or that additional mechanisms of immunogenicity play a role. A conjugate vaccine of Haemophilus influenzae PRP coupled to the outer membrane protein complex (OMPC) of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B is immunogenic in children as young as 2 mo of age and is immunogenic in infant rhesus monkeys, an animal model for infant humans. In the present study, PRP-OMPC was found to induce efficient IgM to IgG switching of anti-PRP serum antibody in adult mice, whereas PRP conjugated to two other protein carriers did not. Thus the PRP-OMPC conjugate was examined in order to determine why PRP coupled to OMPC was so immunogenic, even more immunogenic than conjugates made with other carrier proteins. The OMPC carrier differs from the other protein carriers in that the proteins are present in a liposomal form containing lipids (including LPS) derived from the outer membrane of N. meningitidis. We studied the OMPC to see whether the different components or the nature of the OMPC carrier could contribute to its enhanced immunogenicity. Specifically we evaluated the OMPC for both classic Th cell carrier activity and adjuvanticity, and the LPS component of OMPC for systemic polyclonal B cell activation. Carrier recognition of the OMPC moiety of PRP-OMPC was demonstrated. In addition the PRP-OMPC conjugate vaccine was observed to have adjuvant properties for both T cell-dependent and T cell-independent Ag in the absence of LPS-induced systemic polyclonal B cell activation. These observations suggest that in addition to functioning as a classic protein carrier whereby the proteins in OMPC provide Th cell epitopes, the OMPC also has adjuvant activity that distinguishes it from other protein

  18. Pseudomonas aeruginosa fur Overlaps with a Gene Encoding a Novel Outer Membrane Lipoprotein, OmlA

    PubMed Central

    Ochsner, Urs A.; Vasil, Adriana I.; Johnson, Zaiga; Vasil, Michael L.

    1999-01-01

    A novel outer membrane lipoprotein in Pseudomonas aeruginosa is encoded by the omlA gene, which was identified immediately upstream of the fur (ferric uptake regulator) gene. The omlA and fur genes were divergently transcribed and had overlapping promoter regions. The proximal fur P2 promoter and the omlA promoter shared a 5-bp DNA motif for their −10 promoter elements. The distal fur P1 promoter was located within the omlA coding sequence, and the omlA and fur T1 mRNAs overlapped by 154 nucleotides. Optimal expression of both fur and omlA required roughly 200 bp of DNA upstream of the promoter regions, suggesting the presence of cis-acting transcriptional activation elements located within the omlA and fur genes, respectively. The levels of Fur and OmlA proteins had no influence on omlA or fur expression, excluding any trans-acting cross-regulation between fur and omlA. Expression of omlA was constitutive regardless of growth phase, oxygen tension, iron concentration, pH, and temperature. OmlA contained a signal sequence typical of bacterial lipoproteins, with a cysteine as a putative cleavage and lipid attachment site. Inhibition of signal peptidase II by globomycin resulted in failure to process OmlA, thus giving strong evidence that OmlA is a lipoprotein. Cell fractionation followed by Western blot analysis indicated that all OmlA protein is localized in the outer membrane. Mature OmlA was an acidic (pI = 4.5) protein of 17.3 kDa and had close to 40% amino acid sequence identity to SmpA (small protein A) of Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, and Haemophilus influenzae, a protein of unknown function. All P. aeruginosa strains tested as well as Pseudomonas fluorescens were found to produce OmlA. A mutant strain with impaired production of OmlA but no change in the expression of the overlapping fur gene was constructed. The omlA mutant was hypersusceptible to anionic detergents such as sodium dodecyl sulfate and deoxycholate, and it showed increased

  19. Outer membrane porin M35 of Moraxella catarrhalis mediates susceptibility to aminopenicillins

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The outer membrane protein M35 is a conserved porin of type 1 strains of the respiratory pathogen Moraxella catarrhalis. It was previously shown that M35 is involved in the uptake of essential nutrients required for bacterial growth and for nasal colonization in mice. The aim of this study was (i) to characterize the potential roles of M35 in the host-pathogen interactions considering the known multifunctionality of porins and (ii) to characterize the degree of conservation in the phylogenetic older subpopulation (type 2) of M. catarrhalis. Results Isogenic m35 mutants of the type 1 strains O35E, 300 and 415 were tested for their antimicrobial susceptibility against 15 different agents. Differences in the MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration) between wild-type and mutant strains were found for eight antibiotics. For ampicillin and amoxicillin, we observed a statistically significant 2.5 to 2.9-fold MIC increase (p < 0.03) in the m35 mutants. Immunoblot analysis demonstrated that human saliva contains anti-M35 IgA. Wild-type strains and their respective m35 mutants were indistinguishable with respect to the phenotypes of autoagglutination, serum resistance, iron acquisition from human lactoferrin, adherence to and invasion of respiratory tract epithelial cells, and proinflammatory stimulation of human monocytes. DNA sequencing of m35 from the phylogenetic subpopulation type 2 strain 287 revealed 94.2% and 92.8% identity on the DNA and amino acid levels, respectively, in comparison with type 1 strains. Conclusion The increase in MIC for ampicillin and amoxicillin, respectively, in the M35-deficient mutants indicates that this porin affects the outer membrane permeability for aminopenicillins in a clinically relevant manner. The presence of IgA antibodies in healthy human donors indicates that M35 is expressed in vivo and recognized as a mucosal antigen by the human host. However, immunoblot analysis of human saliva suggests the possibility of antigenic

  20. A trans-outer membrane porin-cytochrome protein complex for extracellular electron transfer by Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yimo; Wang, Zheming; Liu, Juan; Levar, Caleb; Edwards, Marcus J; Babauta, Jerome T; Kennedy, David W; Shi, Zhi; Beyenal, Haluk; Bond, Daniel R; Clarke, Thomas A; Butt, Julea N; Richardson, David J; Rosso, Kevin M; Zachara, John M; Fredrickson, James K; Shi, Liang

    2014-01-01

    The multi-heme, outer membrane c-type cytochrome (c-Cyt) OmcB of Geobacter sulfurreducens was previously proposed to mediate electron transfer across the outer membrane. However, the underlying mechanism has remained uncharacterized. In G. sulfurreducens, the omcB gene is part of two tandem four-gene clusters, each is predicted to encode a transcriptional factor (OrfR/OrfS), a porin-like outer membrane protein (OmbB/OmbC), a periplasmic c-type cytochrome (OmaB/OmaC) and an outer membrane c-Cyt (OmcB/OmcC) respectively. Here, we showed that OmbB/OmbC, OmaB/OmaC and OmcB/OmcC of G. sulfurreducens PCA formed the porin-cytochrome (Pcc) protein complexes, which were involved in transferring electrons across the outer membrane. The isolated Pcc protein complexes reconstituted in proteoliposomes transferred electrons from reduced methyl viologen across the lipid bilayer of liposomes to Fe(III)-citrate and ferrihydrite. The pcc clusters were found in all eight sequenced Geobacter and 11 other bacterial genomes from six different phyla, demonstrating a widespread distribution of Pcc protein complexes in phylogenetically diverse bacteria. Deletion of ombB-omaB-omcB-orfS-ombC-omaC-omcC gene clusters had no impact on the growth of G. sulfurreducens PCA with fumarate but diminished the ability of G. sulfurreducens PCA to reduce Fe(III)-citrate and ferrihydrite. Complementation with the ombB-omaB-omcB gene cluster restored the ability of G. sulfurreducens PCA to reduce Fe(III)-citrate and ferrihydrite. PMID:25139405

  1. A trans-outer membrane porin-cytochrome protein complex for extracellular electron transfer by Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yimo; Wang, Zheming; Liu, Juan; Levar, Caleb; Edwards, Marcus; Babauta, Jerome T.; Kennedy, David W.; Shi, Zhi; Beyenal, Haluk; Bond, Daniel R.; Clarke, Thomas A.; Butt, Julea N.; Richardson, David J.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Zachara, John M.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Shi, Liang

    2014-09-24

    The multiheme, outer membrane c-type cytochrome (c-Cyt) OmcB of Geobacter sulfurreducens was previously proposed to mediate electron transfer across the outer membrane. However, the underlying mechanism has remained uncharacterized. In G. sulfurreducens, the omcB gene is part of two tandem four-gene clusters, each is predicted to encode a transcriptional factor (OrfR/OrfS), a porin-like outer membrane protein (OmbB/OmbC), a periplasmic c-type cytochrome (OmaB/OmaC), and an outer membrane c-Cyt (OmcB/OmcC), respectively. Here we showed that OmbB/OmbC, OmaB/OmaC and OmcB/OmcC of G. sulfurreducens PCA formed the porin-cytochrome (Pcc) protein complexes, which were involved in transferring electrons across the outer membrane. The isolated Pcc protein complexes reconstituted in proteoliposomes transferred electrons from reduced methyl viologen across the lipid bilayer of liposomes to Fe(III)-citrate and ferrihydrite. The pcc clusters were found in all eight sequenced Geobacter and 11 other bacterial genomes from six different phyla, demonstrating a widespread distribution of Pcc protein complexes in phylogenetically diverse bacteria. Deletion of ombB-omaB-omcB-orfS-ombC-omaC-omcC gene clusters had no impact on the growth of G. sulfurreducens PCA with fumarate, but diminished the ability of G. sulfurreducens PCA to reduce Fe(III)-citrate and ferrihydrite. Finally, complementation with the ombB-omaB-omcB gene cluster restored the ability of G. sulfurreducens PCA to reduce Fe(III)-citrate and ferrihydrite.

  2. A trans-outer membrane porin-cytochrome protein complex for extracellular electron transfer by Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yimo; Wang, Zheming; Liu, Juan; Levar, Caleb; Edwards, Marcus; Babauta, Jerome T.; Kennedy, David W.; Shi, Zhi; Beyenal, Haluk; Bond, Daniel R.; Clarke, Thomas A.; Butt, Julea N.; Richardson, David J.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Zachara, John M.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Shi, Liang

    2014-09-24

    The multiheme, outer membrane c-type cytochrome (c-Cyt) OmcB of Geobacter sulfurreducens was previously proposed to mediate electron transfer across the outer membrane. However, the underlying mechanism has remained uncharacterized. In G. sulfurreducens, the omcB gene is part of two tandem four-gene clusters, each is predicted to encode a transcriptional factor (OrfR/OrfS), a porin-like outer membrane protein (OmbB/OmbC), a periplasmic c-type cytochrome (OmaB/OmaC), and an outer membrane c-Cyt (OmcB/OmcC), respectively. Here we showed that OmbB/OmbC, OmaB/OmaC and OmcB/OmcC of G. sulfurreducens PCA formed the porin-cytochrome (Pcc) protein complexes, which were involved in transferring electrons across the outer membrane. The isolated Pcc protein complexes reconstituted in proteoliposomes transferred electrons from reduced methyl viologen across the lipid bilayer of liposomes to Fe(III)-citrate and ferrihydrite. The pcc clusters were found in all eight sequenced Geobacter and 11 other bacterial genomes from six different phyla, demonstrating a widespread distribution of Pcc protein complexes in phylogenetically diverse bacteria. Deletion of ombB-omaB-omcB-orfS-ombC-omaC-omcC gene clusters had no impact on the growth of G. sulfurreducens PCA with fumarate, but diminished the ability of G. sulfurreducens PCA to reduce Fe(III)-citrate and ferrihydrite. Complementation with the ombB-omaB-omcB gene cluster restored the ability of G. sulfurreducens PCA to reduce Fe(III)-citrate and ferrihydrite.

  3. A trans-outer membrane porin-cytochrome protein complex for extracellular electron transfer by Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Liu, Yimo; Wang, Zheming; Liu, Juan; Levar, Caleb; Edwards, Marcus; Babauta, Jerome T.; Kennedy, David W.; Shi, Zhi; Beyenal, Haluk; Bond, Daniel R.; et al

    2014-09-24

    The multiheme, outer membrane c-type cytochrome (c-Cyt) OmcB of Geobacter sulfurreducens was previously proposed to mediate electron transfer across the outer membrane. However, the underlying mechanism has remained uncharacterized. In G. sulfurreducens, the omcB gene is part of two tandem four-gene clusters, each is predicted to encode a transcriptional factor (OrfR/OrfS), a porin-like outer membrane protein (OmbB/OmbC), a periplasmic c-type cytochrome (OmaB/OmaC), and an outer membrane c-Cyt (OmcB/OmcC), respectively. Here we showed that OmbB/OmbC, OmaB/OmaC and OmcB/OmcC of G. sulfurreducens PCA formed the porin-cytochrome (Pcc) protein complexes, which were involved in transferring electrons across the outer membrane. The isolated Pccmore » protein complexes reconstituted in proteoliposomes transferred electrons from reduced methyl viologen across the lipid bilayer of liposomes to Fe(III)-citrate and ferrihydrite. The pcc clusters were found in all eight sequenced Geobacter and 11 other bacterial genomes from six different phyla, demonstrating a widespread distribution of Pcc protein complexes in phylogenetically diverse bacteria. Deletion of ombB-omaB-omcB-orfS-ombC-omaC-omcC gene clusters had no impact on the growth of G. sulfurreducens PCA with fumarate, but diminished the ability of G. sulfurreducens PCA to reduce Fe(III)-citrate and ferrihydrite. Finally, complementation with the ombB-omaB-omcB gene cluster restored the ability of G. sulfurreducens PCA to reduce Fe(III)-citrate and ferrihydrite.« less

  4. Genetic and biochemical characterization of ISP6, a small mitochondrial outer membrane protein associated with the protein translocation complex.

    PubMed Central

    Kassenbrock, C K; Cao, W; Douglas, M G

    1993-01-01

    To search genetically for additional components of the protein translocation apparatus of mitochondria, we have used low fidelity PCR mutagenesis to generate temperature-sensitive mutants in the outer membrane translocation pore component ISP42. A high copy number suppressor of temperature-sensitive isp42 has been isolated and sequenced. This novel gene, denoted ISP6, encodes a 61 amino acid integral membrane protein of the mitochondrial outer membrane, which is oriented with its amino-terminus facing the cytosol. Disruption of the ISP6 gene is without apparent effect in wild type yeast cells, but is lethal in temperature-sensitive isp42 mutants. Immunoprecipitation of the gene product, ISP42p, from mitochondria solubilized under mild conditions reveals a multi-protein complex containing ISP6p and ISP42p. Images PMID:8344244

  5. Crystal Structure of Escherichia coli CusC the Outer Membrane Component of a Heavy Metal Efflux Pump

    SciTech Connect

    R Kulathila; R Kulathila; M Indic; B van den Berg

    2011-12-31

    While copper has essential functions as an enzymatic co-factor, excess copper ions are toxic for cells, necessitating mechanisms for regulating its levels. The cusCBFA operon of E. coli encodes a four-component efflux pump dedicated to the extrusion of Cu(I) and Ag(I) ions. We have solved the X-ray crystal structure of CusC, the outer membrane component of the Cus heavy metal efflux pump, to 2.3 {angstrom} resolution. The structure has the largest extracellular opening of any outer membrane factor (OMF) protein and suggests, for the first time, the presence of a tri-acylated N-terminal lipid anchor. The CusC protein does not have any obvious features that would make it specific for metal ions, suggesting that the narrow substrate specificity of the pump is provided by other components of the pump, most likely by the inner membrane component CusA.

  6. Intraspecific Diversity of Yersinia pestis

    PubMed Central

    Anisimov, Andrey P.; Lindler, Luther E.; Pier, Gerald B.

    2004-01-01

    Increased interest in the pathogenic potential of Yersinia pestis has emerged because of the potential threats from bioterrorism. Pathogenic potential is based on genetic factors present in a population of microbes, yet most studies evaluating the role of specific genes in virulence have used a limited number of strains. For Y. pestis this issue is complicated by the fact that most strains available for study in the Americas are clonally derived and thus genetically restricted, emanating from a strain of Y. pestis introduced into the United States in 1902 via marine shipping and subsequent spread of this strain throughout North and South America. In countries from the former Soviet Union (FSU), Mongolia, and China there are large areas of enzootic foci of Y. pestis infection containing genetically diverse strains that have been intensely studied by scientists in these countries. However, the results of these investigations are not generally known outside of these countries. Here we describe the variety of methods used in the FSU to classify Y. pestis strains based on genetic and phenotypic variation and show that there is a high level of diversity in these strains not reflected by ones obtained from sylvatic areas and patients in the Americas. PMID:15084509

  7. A new Vibrio cholerae sRNA modulates colonization and affects release of outer membrane vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Song, Tianyan; Mika, Franziska; Lindmark, Barbro; Liu, Zhi; Schild, Stefan; Bishop, Anne; Zhu, Jun; Camilli, Andrew; Johansson, Jörgen; Vogel, Jörg; Wai, Sun Nyunt

    2008-01-01

    We discovered a new small non-coding RNA (sRNA) gene, vrrA of Vibrio cholerae O1 strain A1552. A vrrA mutant overproduces OmpA porin, and we demonstrate that the 140 nt VrrA RNA represses ompA translation by base-pairing with the 5′ region of the mRNA. The RNA chaperone Hfq is not stringently required for VrrA action, but expression of the vrrA gene requires the membrane stress sigma factor, σE, suggesting that VrrA acts on ompA in response to periplasmic protein folding stress. We also observed that OmpA levels inversely correlated with the number of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs), and that VrrA increased OMV production comparable to loss of OmpA. VrrA is the first sRNA known to control OMV formation. Moreover, a vrrA mutant showed a fivefold increased ability to colonize the intestines of infant mice as compared with the wild type. There was increased expression of the main colonization factor of V. cholerae, the toxin co-regulated pili, in the vrrA mutant as monitored by immunoblot detection of the TcpA protein. VrrA overproduction caused a distinct reduction in the TcpA protein level. Our findings suggest that VrrA contributes to bacterial fitness in certain stressful environments, and modulates infection of the host intestinal tract. PMID:18681937

  8. Perinuclear Localization of Internalized Outer Membrane Vesicles Carrying Active Cytolethal Distending Toxin from Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans

    PubMed Central

    Rompikuntal, Pramod Kumar; Thay, Bernard; Khan, Muhammad Khanzeb; Alanko, Jonna; Penttinen, Anna-Maija; Asikainen, Sirkka; Wai, Sun Nyunt

    2012-01-01

    Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is implicated in aggressive forms of periodontitis. Similarly to several other Gram-negative species, this organism produces and excretes a cytolethal distending toxin (CDT), a genotoxin associated with cell distention, G2 cell cycle arrest, and/or apoptosis in many mammalian cell types. In this study, we have identified A. actinomycetemcomitans outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) as a vehicle for simultaneous delivery of multiple proteins, including CDT, into human cells. The OMV proteins were internalized in both HeLa cells and human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) via a mechanism of OMV fusion with lipid rafts in the plasma membrane. The active toxin unit, CdtB, was localized inside the nucleus of the intoxicated cells, whereas OmpA and proteins detected using an antibody specific to whole A. actinomycetemcomitans serotype a cells had a perinuclear distribution. In accordance with a tight association of CdtB with OMVs, vesicles isolated from A. actinomycetemcomitans strain D7SS (serotype a), in contrast to OMVs from a D7SS cdtABC mutant, induced a cytolethal distending effect on HeLa and HGF cells, indicating that OMV-associated CDT was biologically active. Association of CDT with OMVs was also observed in A. actinomycetemcomitans isolates belonging to serotypes b and c, indicating that OMV-mediated release of CDT may be conserved in A. actinomycetemcomitans. Although the role of A. actinomycetemcomitans OMVs in periodontal disease has not yet been elucidated, our present data suggest that OMVs could deliver biologically active CDT and additional virulence factors into susceptible cells of the periodontium. PMID:22025516

  9. A conformational landscape for alginate secretion across the outer membrane of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Jingquan; Rouse, Sarah L.; Li, Dianfan; Pye, Valerie E.; Vogeley, Lutz; Brinth, Alette R.; El Arnaout, Toufic; Whitney, John C.; Howell, P. Lynne; Sansom, Mark S. P.; Caffrey, Martin

    2014-08-01

    Crystal structures of the β-barrel porin AlgE reveal a mechanism whereby alginate is exported from P. aeruginosa for biofilm formation. The exopolysaccharide alginate is an important component of biofilms produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a major pathogen that contributes to the demise of cystic fibrosis patients. Alginate exits the cell via the outer membrane porin AlgE. X-ray structures of several AlgE crystal forms are reported here. Whilst all share a common β-barrel constitution, they differ in the degree to which loops L2 and T8 are ordered. L2 and T8 have been identified as an extracellular gate (E-gate) and a periplasmic gate (P-gate), respectively, that reside on either side of an alginate-selectivity pore located midway through AlgE. Passage of alginate across the membrane is proposed to be regulated by the sequential opening and closing of the two gates. In one crystal form, the selectivity pore contains a bound citrate. Because citrate mimics the uronate monomers of alginate, its location is taken to highlight a route through AlgE taken by alginate as it crosses the pore. Docking and molecular-dynamics simulations support and extend the proposed transport mechanism. Specifically, the P-gate and E-gate are flexible and move between open and closed states. Citrate can leave the selectivity pore bidirectionally. Alginate docks stably in a linear conformation through the open pore. To translate across the pore, a force is required that presumably is provided by the alginate-synthesis machinery. Accessing the open pore is facilitated by complex formation between AlgE and the periplasmic protein AlgK. Alginate can thread through a continuous pore in the complex, suggesting that AlgK pre-orients newly synthesized exopolysaccharide for delivery to AlgE.

  10. Characterization of outer membranes isolated from Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease spirochete.

    PubMed Central

    Radolf, J D; Goldberg, M S; Bourell, K; Baker, S I; Jones, J D; Norgard, M V

    1995-01-01

    The lack of methods for isolating Borrelia burgdorferi outer membranes (OMs) has hindered efforts to characterize borrelial surface-exposed proteins. Here we isolated OMs by immersion of motile spirochetes in hypertonic sucrose followed by isopycnic ultracentrifugation of the plasmolyzed cells. The unilamellar vesicles thus obtained were shown to be OMs by the following criteria: (i) they contained OspA and OspB; (ii) they did not contain flagellin, NADH oxidase activity, or the 60-kDa heat shock protein; and (iii) their morphology by freeze-fracture electron microscopy was identical to that of OMs of intact organisms. Consistent with previous studies which employed immunoelectron microscopy and detergent-based solubilization of B. burgdorferi OMs, only small proportions of the total cellular content of OspA or OspB were OM associated. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) fluorography of OMs from spirochetes metabolically radiolabeled with [3H]palmitate or 35S-amino acids demonstrated that the OMs contained both nonlipidated and lipidated proteins. This fractionation procedure was also used to isolate OMs from virulent and avirulent isolates of the well-characterized B. burgdorferi N40 strain. SDS-PAGE fluorography revealed that OMs from the two isolates differed with respect to both nonlipoprotein and lipoprotein constituents. When whole cells, protoplasmic cylinders, and OMs were immunoblotted against sera from mice persistently infected with B. burgdorferi N40, the majority of antibody reactivity was directed against intracellular proteins. The availability of isolated OMs should facilitate efforts to elucidate the complex relationship(s) between B. burgdorferi membrane composition and Lyme disease pathogenesis. PMID:7768594

  11. In silico local structure approach: a case study on outer membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Martin, Juliette; de Brevern, Alexandre G; Camproux, Anne-Claude

    2008-04-01

    The detection of Outer Membrane Proteins (OMP) in whole genomes is an actual question, their sequence characteristics have thus been intensively studied. This class of protein displays a common beta-barrel architecture, formed by adjacent antiparallel strands. However, due to the lack of available structures, few structural studies have been made on this class of proteins. Here we propose a novel OMP local structure investigation, based on a structural alphabet approach, i.e., the decomposition of 3D structures using a library of four-residue protein fragments. The optimal decomposition of structures using hidden Markov model results in a specific structural alphabet of 20 fragments, six of them dedicated to the decomposition of beta-strands. This optimal alphabet, called SA20-OMP, is analyzed in details, in terms of local structures and transitions between fragments. It highlights a particular and strong organization of beta-strands as series of regular canonical structural fragments. The comparison with alphabets learned on globular structures indicates that the internal organization of OMP structures is more constrained than in globular structures. The analysis of OMP structures using SA20-OMP reveals some recurrent structural patterns. The preferred location of fragments in the distinct regions of the membrane is investigated. The study of pairwise specificity of fragments reveals that some contacts between structural fragments in beta-sheets are clearly favored whereas others are avoided. This contact specificity is stronger in OMP than in globular structures. Moreover, SA20-OMP also captured sequential information. This can be integrated in a scoring function for structural model ranking with very promising results. PMID:17932925

  12. A conformational landscape for alginate secretion across the outer membrane of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jingquan; Rouse, Sarah L; Li, Dianfan; Pye, Valerie E; Vogeley, Lutz; Brinth, Alette R; El Arnaout, Toufic; Whitney, John C; Howell, P Lynne; Sansom, Mark S P; Caffrey, Martin

    2014-08-01

    The exopolysaccharide alginate is an important component of biofilms produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a major pathogen that contributes to the demise of cystic fibrosis patients. Alginate exits the cell via the outer membrane porin AlgE. X-ray structures of several AlgE crystal forms are reported here. Whilst all share a common β-barrel constitution, they differ in the degree to which loops L2 and T8 are ordered. L2 and T8 have been identified as an extracellular gate (E-gate) and a periplasmic gate (P-gate), respectively, that reside on either side of an alginate-selectivity pore located midway through AlgE. Passage of alginate across the membrane is proposed to be regulated by the sequential opening and closing of the two gates. In one crystal form, the selectivity pore contains a bound citrate. Because citrate mimics the uronate monomers of alginate, its location is taken to highlight a route through AlgE taken by alginate as it crosses the pore. Docking and molecular-dynamics simulations support and extend the proposed transport mechanism. Specifically, the P-gate and E-gate are flexible and move between open and closed states. Citrate can leave the selectivity pore bidirectionally. Alginate docks stably in a linear conformation through the open pore. To translate across the pore, a force is required that presumably is provided by the alginate-synthesis machinery. Accessing the open pore is facilitated by complex formation between AlgE and the periplasmic protein AlgK. Alginate can thread through a continuous pore in the complex, suggesting that AlgK pre-orients newly synthesized exopolysaccharide for delivery to AlgE. PMID:25084326

  13. Model of mouth-to-mouth transfer of bacterial lipoproteins through inner membrane LolC, periplasmic LolA, and outer membrane LolB.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Suguru; Tokuda, Hajime

    2009-04-01

    Outer membrane-specific lipoproteins in Escherichia coli are released from the inner membrane by an ATP-binding cassette transporter, the LolCDE complex, which causes the formation of a soluble complex with a periplasmic molecular chaperone, LolA. LolA then transports lipoproteins to the outer membrane where an outer membrane receptor, LolB, incorporates lipoproteins into the outer membrane. The molecular mechanisms underlying the Lol-dependent lipoprotein sorting have been clarified in detail. However, it remained unclear how Lol factors interact with each other to conduct very efficient lipoprotein transfer in the periplasm where ATP is not available. To address this issue, a photo-reactive phenylalanine analogue, p-benzoyl-phenylalanine, was introduced at various positions of LolA and LolB, of which the overall structures are very similar and comprise an incomplete beta-barrel with a hydrophobic cavity inside. Cells expressing LolA or LolB derivatives containing the above analogue were irradiated with UV for in vivo photo-cross-linking. These analyses revealed a hot area in the same region of LolA and LolB, through which LolA and LolB interact with each other. This area is located at the entrance of the hydrophobic cavity. Moreover, this area in LolA is involved in the interaction with a membrane subunit, LolC, whereas no cross-linking occurs between LolA and the other membrane subunit, LolE, or ATP-binding subunit LolD, despite the structural similarity between LolC and LolE. The hydrophobic cavities of LolA and LolB were both found to bind lipoproteins inside. These results indicate that the transfer of lipoproteins through Lol proteins occurs in a mouth-to-mouth manner. PMID:19307584

  14. Molecular cloning and characterization of protective outer membrane protein P.69 from Bordetella pertussis.

    PubMed Central

    Charles, I G; Dougan, G; Pickard, D; Chatfield, S; Smith, M; Novotny, P; Morrissey, P; Fairweather, N F

    1989-01-01

    Protein P.69 is localized on the outer membrane of Bordetella pertussis and is one of the virulence factors believed to contribute to the disease state of whooping cough. We demonstrate that protein synthesis of P.69 is under genetic control of the vir locus. Using oligonucleotide probes derived from the protein sequence of a cyanogen bromide fragment, we have cloned the gene for P.69 from B. pertussis CN2992. Analysis of the DNA sequence reveals a G + C-rich gene capable of encoding a protein of 910 amino acids with a Mr of 93,478, suggesting that P.69 is a processed form of a larger precursor. In common with some of the genes in the pertussis toxin operon, the sequence CCTGG was found 5' to the ATG initiation codon. At the 3' end, 29 bases after the TAA stop codon, the sequence GTTTTTCCT was found and may have some function in transcription termination. A full-length clone of the gene for P.69 carried by the cosmid pBPI69 was unable to direct the expression of P.69 protein in an Escherichia coli host. The generation of P.69-fusion products allowed the detection of P.69-specific protein products synthesized in E. coli. Images PMID:2542937

  15. Flocculation of Escherichia coli Cells in Association with Enhanced Production of Outer Membrane Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Minh Hong; Yajima, Reiki; Taya, Masahito

    2015-01-01

    Microbial flocculation is a phenomenon of aggregation of dispersed bacterial cells in the form of flocs or flakes. In this study, the mechanism of spontaneous flocculation of Escherichia coli cells by overexpression of the bcsB gene was investigated. The flocculation induced by overexpression of bcsB was consistent among the various E. coli strains examined, including the K-12, B, and O strains, with flocs that resembled paper scraps in structure being about 1 to 2 mm. The distribution of green fluorescent protein-labeled E. coli cells within the floc structure was investigated by three-dimensional confocal laser scanning microscopy. Flocs were sensitive to proteinase K, indicating that the main component of the flocs was proteinous. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and nano-liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analyses of the flocs strongly suggested the involvement of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) in E. coli flocculation. The involvement of OMVs in flocculation was supported by transmission electron microscopy observation of flocs. Furthermore, bcsB-induced E. coli flocculation was greatly suppressed in strains with hypovesiculation phenotypes (ΔdsbA and ΔdsbB strains). Thus, our results demonstrate the strong correlation between spontaneous flocculation and enhanced OMV production of E. coli cells. PMID:26092467

  16. Monoclonal Antibodies Directed Against the Outer Membrane Protein of Bordetella avium

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guanhua; Liang, Manfei; Zuo, Xuemei; Zhao, Xue; Guo, Fanxia; Yang, Shifa

    2013-01-01

    Bordetella avium is the etiologic agent of coryza and rhinotracheitis in poultry. This respiratory disease is responsible for substantial economic losses in the poultry industry. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were produced against the outer membrane proteins (OMPs) of B. avium isolated from diseased chickens. BALB/c mice were immunized with the extracted B. avium OMPs. Then the splenocytes from immunized mice and SP2/0 myeloma cells were fused using PEG 4000. Three stable hybridoma clones (designated as 3G10, 4A3, and 4E8) were produced via indirect ELISA and three rounds of subcloning. The MAbs were classified as IgG1, and can recognize the 58 kDa OMP band by Western blot assays. No MAb cross-reactivity with chicken Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella was observed. A double antibody sandwich ELISA (DAS-ELISA) was developed using the rabbit polyclonal antibodies as the capture antibody and MAb 4A3 as the detection antibody. Under the DAS-ELISA, the minimum detectable concentration of B. avium was 1×104 CFU/mL, and no cross-reactivity occurred with chicken Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella. Results showed that the DAS-ELISA has good sensitivity and specificity. Clinical application showed the DAS-ELISA was more sensitive than the plate agglutination test. This study may be used to develop a quick and specific diagnostic kit, analyze epitopes, and establish systems for typing B. avium. PMID:23909425

  17. Nesprin-3, a novel outer nuclear membrane protein, associates with the cytoskeletal linker protein plectin

    PubMed Central

    Wilhelmsen, Kevin; Litjens, Sandy H.M.; Kuikman, Ingrid; Tshimbalanga, Ntambua; Janssen, Hans; van den Bout, Iman; Raymond, Karine; Sonnenberg, Arnoud

    2005-01-01

    Despite their importance in cell biology, the mechanisms that maintain the nucleus in its proper position in the cell are not well understood. This is primarily the result of an incomplete knowledge of the proteins in the outer nuclear membrane (ONM) that are able to associate with the different cytoskeletal systems. Two related ONM proteins, nuclear envelope spectrin repeat (nesprin)–1 and –2, are known to make direct connections with the actin cytoskeleton through their NH2-terminal actin-binding domain (ABD). We have now isolated a third member of the nesprin family that lacks an ABD and instead binds to the plakin family member plectin, which can associate with the intermediate filament (IF) system. Overexpression of nesprin-3 results in a dramatic recruitment of plectin to the nuclear perimeter, which is where these two molecules are colocalized with both keratin-6 and -14. Importantly, plectin binds to the integrin α6β4 at the cell surface and to nesprin-3 at the ONM in keratinocytes, suggesting that there is a continuous connection between the nucleus and the extracellular matrix through the IF cytoskeleton. PMID:16330710

  18. A Shigella flexneri virulence plasmid encoded factor controls production of outer membrane vesicles.

    PubMed

    Sidik, Saima; Kottwitz, Haila; Benjamin, Jeremy; Ryu, Julie; Jarrar, Ameer; Garduno, Rafael; Rohde, John R

    2014-12-01

    Shigella spp. use a repertoire of virulence plasmid-encoded factors to cause shigellosis. These include components of a Type III Secretion Apparatus (T3SA) that is required for invasion of epithelial cells and many genes of unknown function. We constructed an array of 99 deletion mutants comprising all genes encoded by the virulence plasmid (excluding those known to be required for plasmid maintenance) of Shigella flexneri. We screened these mutants for their ability to bind the dye Congo red: an indicator of T3SA function. This screen focused our attention on an operon encoding genes that modify the cell envelope including virK, a gene of partially characterized function. We discovered that virK is required for controlled release of proteins to the culture supernatant. Mutations in virK result in a temperature-dependent overproduction of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs). The periplasmic chaperone/protease DegP, a known regulator of OMV production in Escherichia coli (encoded by a chromosomal gene), was found to similarly control OMV production in S. flexneri. Both virK and degP show genetic interactions with mxiD, a structural component of the T3SA. Our results are consistent with a model in which VirK and DegP relieve the periplasmic stress that accompanies assembly of the T3SA. PMID:25378474

  19. A Shigella flexneri Virulence Plasmid Encoded Factor Controls Production of Outer Membrane Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Sidik, Saima; Kottwitz, Haila; Benjamin, Jeremy; Ryu, Julie; Jarrar, Ameer; Garduno, Rafael; Rohde, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Shigella spp. use a repertoire of virulence plasmid-encoded factors to cause shigellosis. These include components of a Type III Secretion Apparatus (T3SA) that is required for invasion of epithelial cells and many genes of unknown function. We constructed an array of 99 deletion mutants comprising all genes encoded by the virulence plasmid (excluding those known to be required for plasmid maintenance) of Shigella flexneri. We screened these mutants for their ability to bind the dye Congo red: an indicator of T3SA function. This screen focused our attention on an operon encoding genes that modify the cell envelope including virK, a gene of partially characterized function. We discovered that virK is required for controlled release of proteins to the culture supernatant. Mutations in virK result in a temperature-dependent overproduction of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs). The periplasmic chaperone/protease DegP, a known regulator of OMV production in Escherichia coli (encoded by a chromosomal gene), was found to similarly control OMV production in S. flexneri. Both virK and degP show genetic interactions with mxiD, a structural component of the T3SA. Our results are consistent with a model in which VirK and DegP relieve the periplasmic stress that accompanies assembly of the T3SA. PMID:25378474

  20. Protecting enzymatic function through directed packaging into bacterial outer membrane vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Nathan J.; Turner, Kendrick B.; Medintz, Igor L.; Walper, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria possess innate machinery to transport extracellular cargo between cells as well as package virulence factors to infect host cells by secreting outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) that contain small molecules, proteins, and genetic material. These robust proteoliposomes have evolved naturally to be resistant to degradation and provide a supportive environment to extend the activity of encapsulated cargo. In this study, we sought to exploit bacterial OMV formation to package and maintain the activity of an enzyme, phosphotriesterase (PTE), under challenging storage conditions encountered for real world applications. Here we show that OMV packaged PTE maintains activity over free PTE when subjected to elevated temperatures (>100-fold more activity after 14 days at 37 °C), iterative freeze-thaw cycles (3.4-fold post four-cycles), and lyophilization (43-fold). We also demonstrate how lyophilized OMV packaged PTE can be utilized as a cell free reagent for long term environmental remediation of pesticide/chemical warfare contaminated areas. PMID:27117743

  1. Electron tunneling properties of outer-membrane decaheme cytochromes from Shewanella oneidensis

    SciTech Connect

    Wigginton, Nicholas S; Rosso, Kevin M; Lower, Brian H; Shi, Liang; Hochella, Michael F

    2007-02-01

    In this report, we describe the characterization of two outer-membrane decaheme cytochromes OmcA and MtrC purified from the metal-reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and tunneling spectroscopy (TS). OmcA and MtrC were solubilized with a common detergent and irreversibly bound to Au (111) substrates as self-assembled cytochrome films. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) verified that OmcA and MtrC were covalently bound to the Au surface via thiol bonds to cysteine residues. Initial STM images show that a layer of detergent covers and protects the cytochrome films. Temporary application of high bias voltage causes the detergent film to reorganize around the tip, opening a window for direct STM imaging of the cytochrome layer underneath. The STM apparent sizes of both OmcA and MtrC are 58 nanometers in diameter consistent with expectations from their molecular masses. Current-voltage TS over individual cytochromes showed that OmcA and MtrC have different abilities to mediate the tunneling current, reflecting differences in their electronic structures. The data suggest that the two cytochromes could have different roles in the electron transport chain during metal reduction.

  2. Nucleotide sequence of ompV, the gene for a major Vibrio cholerae outer membrane protein.

    PubMed

    Pohlner, J; Meyer, T F; Jalajakumari, M B; Manning, P A

    1986-12-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the ompV gene of Vibrio cholerae was determined. The product of the gene is a 28,000 dalton protein which, after the removal of a 19 amino acid signal sequence, produces a mature outer membrane protein of 26,000 daltons. The cleavage site was determined by amino-terminal amino acid sequencing of the purified mature protein. The DNA upstream of the gene shows the presence of a typical promoter region as judged from the Escherichia coli consensus information; however, the Shine-Dalgarno sequence is associated with a region capable of forming a secondary structure in the mRNA. The formation of this structure would inhibit binding of the mRNA to the ribosome and reduce translation. It is proposed that this structure is recognized by a positive activator in V. cholerae and because of its absence in E. coli ompV is poorly expressed. The distribution of rare codons within ompV suggests that they may serve to slow down the translation of particular domains such that the nascent polypeptide has an opportunity to take up its conformation without interference from the later formed regions. Such a mechanism could aid localization of the protein if export were by a contranslational secretion system. PMID:3031428

  3. A novel, bipartite transit peptide targets OEP75 to the outer membrane of the chloroplastic envelope.

    PubMed Central

    Tranel, P J; Keegstra, K

    1996-01-01

    OEP75 is an outer envelope membrane component of the chloroplastic protein import apparatus and is synthesized in the cytoplasm as a higher molecular weight precursor (prOEP75). During its own import, prOEP75 is processed first to an intermediate (iOEP75) and subsequently to the mature form (mOEP75). Experiments conducted with stromal extracts indicated that iOEP75 was generated from prOEP75 by the activity of the stromal processing peptidase. The specific processing site was determined and used to divide the prOEP75 transit peptide into N- and C-terminal domains. To determine the targeting functions of the two domains of the transit peptide and of the mature region of prOEP75, we created a deletion mutant construct from prOEP75 and chimeric constructs between domains of prOEP75 and the precursor to a small subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase. Analysis of these constructs by in vitro chloroplastic protein import assays revealed that the transit peptide of prOEP75 is bipartite in that the N- and C-terminal portions contain chloroplastic and intraorganellar targeting information, respectively. PMID:8953773

  4. Proteomic analysis of outer membrane vesicles from the probiotic strain Escherichia coli Nissle 1917.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Laura; Toloza, Lorena; Giménez, Rosa; Odena, Antonia; Oliveira, Eliandre; Aguilar, Juan; Badia, Josefa; Baldomà, Laura

    2014-02-01

    Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) is a probiotic used for the treatment of intestinal disorders. EcN improves gastrointestinal homeostasis and microbiota balance; however, little is known about how this probiotic delivers effector molecules to the host. Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are constitutively produced by Gram-negative bacteria and have a relevant role in bacteria-host interactions. Using 1D SDS-PAGE and highly sensitive LC-MS/MS analysis we identified in this study 192 EcN vesicular proteins with high confidence in three independent biological replicates. Of these proteins, 18 were encoded by strain-linked genes and 57 were common to pathogen-derived OMVs. These proteins may contribute to the ability of this probiotic to colonize the human gut as they fulfil functions related to adhesion, immune modulation or bacterial survival in host niches. This study describes the first global OMV proteome of a probiotic strain and provides evidence that probiotic-derived OMVs contain proteins that can target these vesicles to the host and mediate their beneficial effects on intestinal function. All MS data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000367 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD000367). PMID:24307187

  5. Outer Membrane Vesicle-Mediated Export of Processed PrtV Protease from Vibrio cholerae

    PubMed Central

    Duperthuy, Marylise; Johnson, Tanya L.; Åhlund, Monika; Lundmark, Richard; Oscarsson, Jan; Sandkvist, Maria; Uhlin, Bernt Eric; Wai, Sun Nyunt

    2015-01-01

    Background Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are known to release from almost all Gram-negative bacteria during normal growth. OMVs carry different biologically active toxins and enzymes into the surrounding environment. We suggest that OMVs may therefore be able to transport bacterial proteases into the target host cells. We present here an analysis of the Vibrio cholerae OMV-associated protease PrtV. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we demonstrated that PrtV was secreted from the wild type V. cholerae strain C6706 via the type II secretion system in association with OMVs. By immunoblotting and electron microscopic analysis using immunogold labeling, the association of PrtV with OMVs was examined. We demonstrated that OMV-associated PrtV was biologically active by showing altered morphology and detachment of cells when the human ileocecum carcinoma (HCT8) cells were treated with OMVs from the wild type V. cholerae strain C6706 whereas cells treated with OMVs from the prtV isogenic mutant showed no morphological changes. Furthermore, OMV-associated PrtV protease showed a contribution to bacterial resistance towards the antimicrobial peptide LL-37. Conclusion/Significance Our findings suggest that OMVs released from V. cholerae can deliver a processed, biologically active form of PrtV that contributes to bacterial interactions with target host cells. PMID:26222047

  6. Outer membrane protein (OMP) based vaccine for Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Subramonia; Howell, Alan; Alexander, Kristin; Bentley, B Erin; Jiang, Han-Qian; Ambrose, Karita; Zhu, Duzhang; Zlotnick, Gary

    2005-03-18

    A family of outer membrane lipoproteins of Neisseria meningitidis, LP2086, has been shown to induce serum bactericidal activity against a broad variety of meningococcal strains. Two sub-families of serologically distinct LP2086 proteins (A and B) have been identified. In the present study, we have shown that polyclonal anti-serum against rLP2086 is protective in vivo in an infant rat passive-protection model. Additionally, the LP2086 protein is displayed on the surface of 91% meningococcal strains as measured in a whole cell ELISA using polyclonal anti-sera raised against these proteins. We also demonstrate based on the reactivity of anti-rLP2086 antibody with recombinantly expressed C- and N-terminal fragments of rLP2086 in a Western blot assay that the C-terminal fragment of LP2086 dictates sub-family specificity and the N-terminal fragment determines the family specificity. A formulation containing family A and B of LP2086 potentially would provide broad protection against a majority of Neisseria meningitidis strains. PMID:15755596

  7. Selection for mutants altered in the expression or export of outer membrane porin OmpF.

    PubMed Central

    Sodergren, E J; Davidson, J; Taylor, R K; Silhavy, T J

    1985-01-01

    Strains in which the lacZ gene (which specifies beta-galactosidase) is fused to a gene encoding an envelope protein often exhibit a phenotype termed overproduction lethality. In such strains, high-level synthesis of the cognate hybrid protein interferes with the process of protein export, and this leads ultimately to cell death. A variation of this phenomenon has been discovered with lacZ fusions to the gene specifying the major outer membrane porin protein OmpF. In this case, we find that lambda transducing phage carrying an ompF-lacZ fusion will not grow on a host strain that constitutively overexpresses ompF. We have exploited this observation to develop a selection for ompF mutants. Using this protocol, we have isolated mutants altered in ompF expression and have identified mutations that block OmpF export. Our results suggest that it should be possible to adapt this selection for use with other genes specifying exported proteins. Images PMID:2987179

  8. Differences in outer membrane proteins of the lymphogranuloma venereum and trachoma biovars of Chlamydia trachomatis

    SciTech Connect

    Batteiger, B.E.; Jones, R.B.

    1985-11-01

    The lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) and trachoma biovars of Chlamydia trachomatis exhibit differences in biological properties both in vivo and in vitro. To identify analogous biochemical differences, the authors studied the molecular charges of chlamydial outer membrane proteins (OMPs) by means of isoelectric focusing and nonequilibrium pH gradient electrophoresis. Analysis of proteins of whole elementary bodies biosynthetically labeled with L-(35S)cysteine revealed that most chlamydial proteins were neutral or acidic. The major OMPs (MOMPs) of all strains tested were acidic and had apparent isoelectric points (pIs) that varied within narrow limits despite differences in molecular mass of up to 3,000 daltons (Da). However, a low-molecular-mass cysteine-rich OMP analogous to that previously described for Chlamydia psittaci varied consistently in molecular mass (12,500 versus 12,000 Da) and pI (5.4 versus 6.9) between LGV strains and trachoma strains, respectively. OMPs with a molecular mass of 60,000 Da in the trachoma biovar strains had pIs in the 7.3 to 7.7 range. However, analogous OMPs in the LGV strains existed as a doublet with a molecular mass of about 60,000 Da. These data indicate substantial differences in biochemical characteristics of analogous OMPs in the LGV and trachoma biovars. Such differences are the first structural differences described between LGV and trachoma strains which support their distinction into separate biovars and may be related to some of their biological differences.

  9. Long-Distance Delivery of Bacterial Virulence Factors by Pseudomonas aeruginosa Outer Membrane Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Bomberger, Jennifer M.; MacEachran, Daniel P.; Coutermarsh, Bonita A.; Ye, Siying; O'Toole, George A.; Stanton, Bruce A.

    2009-01-01

    Bacteria use a variety of secreted virulence factors to manipulate host cells, thereby causing significant morbidity and mortality. We report a mechanism for the long-distance delivery of multiple bacterial virulence factors, simultaneously and directly into the host cell cytoplasm, thus obviating the need for direct interaction of the pathogen with the host cell to cause cytotoxicity. We show that outer membrane–derived vesicles (OMV) secreted by the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa deliver multiple virulence factors, including β-lactamase, alkaline phosphatase, hemolytic phospholipase C, and Cif, directly into the host cytoplasm via fusion of OMV with lipid rafts in the host plasma membrane. These virulence factors enter the cytoplasm of the host cell via N-WASP–mediated actin trafficking, where they rapidly distribute to specific subcellular locations to affect host cell biology. We propose that secreted virulence factors are not released individually as naked proteins into the surrounding milieu where they may randomly contact the surface of the host cell, but instead bacterial derived OMV deliver multiple virulence factors simultaneously and directly into the host cell cytoplasm in a coordinated manner. PMID:19360133

  10. Outer membrane vesicles of Lysobacter sp. XL1: biogenesis, functions, and applied prospects.

    PubMed

    Kudryakova, Irina V; Shishkova, Nina A; Vasilyeva, Natalia V

    2016-06-01

    Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) produced by Gram-negative bacteria have been intensively investigated in recent times. Vesicle formation models have been proposed, some factors affecting the process were established, and important roles vesicles play in vital activities of their producing cells were determined. Studies of pathogenic bacterial vesicles contribute to understanding the causes of acute infection and developing drugs on their basis. Despite intensive research, issues associated with the understanding of vesicle biogenesis, the mechanisms of bacterium-bacterium and pathogen-host interactions with participation of vesicles, still remain unresolved. This review discusses some results obtained in the research into OMVs of Lysobacter sp. XL1 VKM B-1576. This bacterium secretes into the environment a spectrum of bacteriolytic enzymes that hydrolyze peptidoglycan of competing bacteria, thus leading to their lysis. One of these enzymes, lytic endopeptidase L5, has been shown not only to be secreted by means of vesicles but also to be involved in their formation. As part of vesicles, the antimicrobial potential of L5 enzyme has been found to be considerably expanded. Vesicles have been shown to have a therapeutic effect in respect of anthrax infection and staphylococcal sepsis modelled in mice. The scientific basis for constructing liposomal antimicrobial preparations from vesicle phospholipids and recombinant bacteriolytic enzyme L5 has been formed. PMID:27098257

  11. Crystal Structure of the Outer Membrane Protein OpdK from Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas,S.; Mohammad, M.; Movileanu, L.; van den Berg, B.

    2008-01-01

    In Gram-negative bacteria that do not have porins, most water-soluble and small molecules are taken up by substrate-specific channels belonging to the OprD family. We report here the X-ray crystal structure of OpdK, an OprD family member implicated in the uptake of vanillate and related small aromatic acids. The OpdK structure reveals a monomeric, 18-stranded {beta} barrel with a kidney-shaped central pore. The OpdK pore constriction is relatively wide for a substrate-specific channel ({approx}8 Angstroms diameter), and it is lined by a positively charged patch of arginine residues on one side and an electronegative pocket on the opposite side--features likely to be important for substrate selection. Single-channel electrical recordings of OpdK show binding of vanillate to the channel, and they suggest that OpdK forms labile trimers in the outer membrane. Comparison of the OpdK structure with that of Pseudomonas aeruginosa OprD provides the first qualitative insights into the different substrate specificities of these closely related channels.

  12. Antibody response to Brucella ovis outer membrane proteins in ovine brucellosis.

    PubMed Central

    Riezu-Boj, J I; Moriyón, I; Blasco, J M; Gamazo, C; Díaz, R

    1990-01-01

    Hot saline extracts of Brucella ovis were composed of vesicles with outer membrane proteins (OMPs), lipopolysaccharide, and phospholipid as constituents. Extraction with petroleum ether-chloroform-phenol yielded a protein fraction free of detectable lipopolysaccharide, in which group 3 OMPs (28,500 apparent molecular weight [28.5K], 27.0K, and 25.5K) represented 81% of the total. Group 1 OMPs and 67.0K, 22.5K to 21.5K, and 19.5K to 18.0K proteins were also detected. Adsorption of immune sera with whole bacteria suggested that group 3 OMPs and 67.0K, 22.5K to 21.5K, and 19.5K to 18.0K proteins had antigenic determinants exposed on the surfaces of both B. ovis and rough B. melitensis cells but not on smooth B. melitensis cells. Antibodies to group 3 OMPs and the 67.0K protein in the sera of 93 and 87%, respectively, of B. ovis-infected rams were found by immunoblotting. Antibodies to other proteins were present in 67% of these animals. Compared with B. ovis-infected rams which had not developed lesions, rams with epididymo-orchitis had antibodies to a larger variety of proteins. Although ewes infected with B. melitensis also showed antibodies to OMPs, the immunoblot reactions were less intense. Images PMID:2298488

  13. Ferric-Pyoverdine Recognition by Fpv Outer Membrane Proteins of Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5

    PubMed Central

    Hartney, Sierra L.; Mazurier, Sylvie; Girard, Maëva K.; Mehnaz, Samina; Davis, Edward W.; Gross, Harald; Lemanceau, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The soil bacterium Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5 (previously called P. fluorescens Pf-5) produces two siderophores, enantio-pyochelin and a compound in the large and diverse pyoverdine family. Using high-resolution mass spectroscopy, we determined the structure of the pyoverdine produced by Pf-5. In addition to producing its own siderophores, Pf-5 also utilizes ferric complexes of some pyoverdines produced by other strains of Pseudomonas spp. as sources of iron. Previously, phylogenetic analysis of the 45 TonB-dependent outer membrane proteins in Pf-5 indicated that six are in a well-supported clade with ferric-pyoverdine receptors (Fpvs) from other Pseudomonas spp. We used a combination of phylogenetics, bioinformatics, mutagenesis, pyoverdine structural determinations, and cross-feeding bioassays to assign specific ferric-pyoverdine substrates to each of the six Fpvs of Pf-5. We identified at least one ferric-pyoverdine that was taken up by each of the six Fpvs of Pf-5. Functional redundancy of the Pf-5 Fpvs was also apparent, with some ferric-pyoverdines taken up by all mutants with a single Fpv deletion but not by a mutant having deletions in two of the Fpv-encoding genes. Finally, we demonstrated that phylogenetically related Fpvs take up ferric complexes of structurally related pyoverdines, thereby establishing structure-function relationships that can be employed in the future to predict the pyoverdine substrates of Fpvs in other Pseudomonas spp. PMID:23222724

  14. Molecular Evolution of the Yersinia Major Outer Membrane Protein C (OmpC).

    PubMed

    Stenkova, Anna M; Bystritskaya, Evgeniya P; Guzev, Konstantin V; Rakin, Alexander V; Isaeva, Marina P

    2016-01-01

    The genus Yersinia includes species with a wide range of eukaryotic hosts (from fish, insects, and plants to mammals and humans). One of the major outer membrane proteins, the porin OmpC, is preferentially expressed in the host gut, where osmotic pressure, temperature, and the concentrations of nutrients and toxic products are relatively high. We consider here the molecular evolution and phylogeny of Yersinia ompC. The maximum likelihood gene tree reflects the macroevolution processes occurring within the genus Yersinia. Positive selection and horizontal gene transfer are the key factors of ompC diversification, and intraspecies recombination was revealed in two Yersinia species. The impact of recombination on ompC evolution was different from that of another major porin gene, ompF, possibly due to the emergence of additional functions and conservation of the basic transport function. The predicted antigenic determinants of OmpC were located in rapidly evolving regions, which may indicate the evolutionary mechanisms of Yersinia adaptation to the host immune system. PMID:27578962

  15. Peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor: a protein of mitochondrial outer membranes utilizing porphyrins as endogenous ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, S.H.; Verma, A.; Trifiletti, R.R.

    1987-10-01

    The peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor is a site identified by its nanomolar affinity for (/sup 3/H)diazepam, similar to the affinity of diazepam for the central-type benzodiazepine receptor in the brain. The peripheral type benzodiazepine receptor occurs in many peripheral tissues but has discrete localizations as indicated by autoradiographic studies showing uniquely high densities of the receptors in the adrenal cortex and in Leydig cells of the testes. Subcellular localization studies reveal a selective association of the receptors with the outer membrane of mitochondria. Photoaffinity labeling of the mitochondrial receptor with (/sup 3/H)flunitrazepam reveals two discrete labeled protein bands of 30 and 35 kDa, respectively. The 35-kDa band appears to be identical with the voltage-dependent anion channel protein porin. Fractionation of numerous peripheral tissues reveals a single principal endogenous ligand for the receptor, consisting of porphyrins, which display nanomolar affinity. Interactions of porphyrins with the mitochondrial receptor may clarify its physiological role and account for many pharmacological actions of benzodiazepines.

  16. Molecular Evolution of the Yersinia Major Outer Membrane Protein C (OmpC)

    PubMed Central

    Stenkova, Anna M.; Bystritskaya, Evgeniya P.; Guzev, Konstantin V.; Rakin, Alexander V.; Isaeva, Marina P.

    2016-01-01

    The genus Yersinia includes species with a wide range of eukaryotic hosts (from fish, insects, and plants to mammals and humans). One of the major outer membrane proteins, the porin OmpC, is preferentially expressed in the host gut, where osmotic pressure, temperature, and the concentrations of nutrients and toxic products are relatively high. We consider here the molecular evolution and phylogeny of Yersinia ompC. The maximum likelihood gene tree reflects the macroevolution processes occurring within the genus Yersinia. Positive selection and horizontal gene transfer are the key factors of ompC diversification, and intraspecies recombination was revealed in two Yersinia species. The impact of recombination on ompC evolution was different from that of another major porin gene, ompF, possibly due to the emergence of additional functions and conservation of the basic transport function. The predicted antigenic determinants of OmpC were located in rapidly evolving regions, which may indicate the evolutionary mechanisms of Yersinia adaptation to the host immune system. PMID:27578962

  17. Proteomic characterization of the whole secretome of Legionella pneumophila and functional analysis of outer membrane vesicles.

    PubMed

    Galka, Frank; Wai, Sun Nyunt; Kusch, Harald; Engelmann, Susanne; Hecker, Michael; Schmeck, Bernd; Hippenstiel, Stefan; Uhlin, Bernt Eric; Steinert, Michael

    2008-05-01

    Secretion of effector molecules is one of the major mechanisms by which the intracellular human pathogen Legionella pneumophila interacts with host cells during infection. Specific secretion machineries which are responsible for the subfraction of secreted proteins (soluble supernatant proteins [SSPs]) and the production of bacterial outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) both contribute to the protein composition of the extracellular milieu of this lung pathogen. Here we present comprehensive proteome reference maps for both SSPs and OMVs. Protein identification and assignment analyses revealed a total of 181 supernatant proteins, 107 of which were specific to the SSP fraction and 33 of which were specific to OMVs. A functional classification showed that a large proportion of the identified OMV proteins are involved in the pathogenesis of Legionnaires' disease. Zymography and enzyme assays demonstrated that the SSP and OMV fractions possess proteolytic and lipolytic enzyme activities which may contribute to the destruction of the alveolar lining during infection. Furthermore, it was shown that OMVs do not kill host cells but specifically modulate their cytokine response. Binding of immunofluorescently stained OMVs to alveolar epithelial cells, as visualized by confocal laser scanning microscopy, suggested that there is delivery of a large and complex group of proteins and lipids in the infected tissue in association with OMVs. On the basis of these new findings, we discuss the relevance of protein sorting and compartmentalization of virulence factors, as well as environmental aspects of the vesicle-mediated secretion. PMID:18250176

  18. Protecting enzymatic function through directed packaging into bacterial outer membrane vesicles.

    PubMed

    Alves, Nathan J; Turner, Kendrick B; Medintz, Igor L; Walper, Scott A

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria possess innate machinery to transport extracellular cargo between cells as well as package virulence factors to infect host cells by secreting outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) that contain small molecules, proteins, and genetic material. These robust proteoliposomes have evolved naturally to be resistant to degradation and provide a supportive environment to extend the activity of encapsulated cargo. In this study, we sought to exploit bacterial OMV formation to package and maintain the activity of an enzyme, phosphotriesterase (PTE), under challenging storage conditions encountered for real world applications. Here we show that OMV packaged PTE maintains activity over free PTE when subjected to elevated temperatures (>100-fold more activity after 14 days at 37 °C), iterative freeze-thaw cycles (3.4-fold post four-cycles), and lyophilization (43-fold). We also demonstrate how lyophilized OMV packaged PTE can be utilized as a cell free reagent for long term environmental remediation of pesticide/chemical warfare contaminated areas. PMID:27117743

  19. Ferric-pyoverdine recognition by Fpv outer membrane proteins of Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5.

    PubMed

    Hartney, Sierra L; Mazurier, Sylvie; Girard, Maëva K; Mehnaz, Samina; Davis, Edward W; Gross, Harald; Lemanceau, Philippe; Loper, Joyce E

    2013-02-01

    The soil bacterium Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5 (previously called P. fluorescens Pf-5) produces two siderophores, enantio-pyochelin and a compound in the large and diverse pyoverdine family. Using high-resolution mass spectroscopy, we determined the structure of the pyoverdine produced by Pf-5. In addition to producing its own siderophores, Pf-5 also utilizes ferric complexes of some pyoverdines produced by other strains of Pseudomonas spp. as sources of iron. Previously, phylogenetic analysis of the 45 TonB-dependent outer membrane proteins in Pf-5 indicated that six are in a well-supported clade with ferric-pyoverdine receptors (Fpvs) from other Pseudomonas spp. We used a combination of phylogenetics, bioinformatics, mutagenesis, pyoverdine structural determinations, and cross-feeding bioassays to assign specific ferric-pyoverdine substrates to each of the six Fpvs of Pf-5. We identified at least one ferric-pyoverdine that was taken up by each of the six Fpvs of Pf-5. Functional redundancy of the Pf-5 Fpvs was also apparent, with some ferric-pyoverdines taken up by all mutants with a single Fpv deletion but not by a mutant having deletions in two of the Fpv-encoding genes. Finally, we demonstrated that phylogenetically related Fpvs take up ferric complexes of structurally related pyoverdines, thereby establishing structure-function relationships that can be employed in the future to predict the pyoverdine substrates of Fpvs in other Pseudomonas spp. PMID:23222724

  20. TonB-dependent outer-membrane proteins and siderophore utilization in Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5.

    PubMed

    Hartney, Sierra L; Mazurier, Sylvie; Kidarsa, Teresa A; Quecine, Maria Carolina; Lemanceau, Philippe; Loper, Joyce E

    2011-04-01

    The soil bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5 produces two siderophores, a pyoverdine and enantio-pyochelin, and its proteome includes 45 TonB-dependent outer-membrane proteins, which commonly function in uptake of siderophores and other substrates from the environment. The 45 proteins share the conserved β-barrel and plug domains of TonB-dependent proteins but only 18 of them have an N-terminal signaling domain characteristic of TonB-dependent transducers (TBDTs), which participate in cell-surface signaling systems. Phylogenetic analyses of the 18 TBDTs and 27 TonB-dependent receptors (TBDRs), which lack the N-terminal signaling domain, suggest a complex evolutionary history including horizontal transfer among different microbial lineages. Putative functions were assigned to certain TBDRs and TBDTs in clades including well-characterized orthologs from other Pseudomonas spp. A mutant of Pf-5 with deletions in pyoverdine and enantio-pyochelin biosynthesis genes was constructed and characterized for iron-limited growth and utilization of a spectrum of siderophores. The mutant could utilize as iron sources a large number of pyoverdines with diverse structures as well as ferric citrate, heme, and the siderophores ferrichrome, ferrioxamine B, enterobactin, and aerobactin. The diversity and complexity of the TBDTs and TBDRs with roles in iron uptake clearly indicate the importance of iron in the fitness and survival of Pf-5 in the environment. PMID:21080032

  1. Bacterial Outer Membrane Vesicles Mediate Cytosolic Localization of LPS and Caspase-11 Activation.

    PubMed

    Vanaja, Sivapriya Kailasan; Russo, Ashley J; Behl, Bharat; Banerjee, Ishita; Yankova, Maya; Deshmukh, Sachin D; Rathinam, Vijay A K

    2016-05-19

    Sensing of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the cytosol triggers caspase-11 activation and is central to host defense against Gram-negative bacterial infections and to the pathogenesis of sepsis. Most Gram-negative bacteria that activate caspase-11, however, are not cytosolic, and the mechanism by which LPS from these bacteria gains access to caspase-11 in the cytosol remains elusive. Here, we identify outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) produced by Gram-negative bacteria as a vehicle that delivers LPS into the cytosol triggering caspase-11-dependent effector responses in vitro and in vivo. OMVs are internalized via endocytosis, and LPS is released into the cytosol from early endosomes. The use of hypovesiculating bacterial mutants, compromised in their ability to generate OMVs, reveals the importance of OMVs in mediating the cytosolic localization of LPS. Collectively, these findings demonstrate a critical role for OMVs in enabling the cytosolic entry of LPS and, consequently, caspase-11 activation during Gram-negative bacterial infections. PMID:27156449

  2. Flocculation of Escherichia coli Cells in Association with Enhanced Production of Outer Membrane Vesicles.

    PubMed

    Ojima, Yoshihiro; Nguyen, Minh Hong; Yajima, Reiki; Taya, Masahito

    2015-09-01

    Microbial flocculation is a phenomenon of aggregation of dispersed bacterial cells in the form of flocs or flakes. In this study, the mechanism of spontaneous flocculation of Escherichia coli cells by overexpression of the bcsB gene was investigated. The flocculation induced by overexpression of bcsB was consistent among the various E. coli strains examined, including the K-12, B, and O strains, with flocs that resembled paper scraps in structure being about 1 to 2 mm. The distribution of green fluorescent protein-labeled E. coli cells within the floc structure was investigated by three-dimensional confocal laser scanning microscopy. Flocs were sensitive to proteinase K, indicating that the main component of the flocs was proteinous. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and nano-liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analyses of the flocs strongly suggested the involvement of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) in E. coli flocculation. The involvement of OMVs in flocculation was supported by transmission electron microscopy observation of flocs. Furthermore, bcsB-induced E. coli flocculation was greatly suppressed in strains with hypovesiculation phenotypes (ΔdsbA and ΔdsbB strains). Thus, our results demonstrate the strong correlation between spontaneous flocculation and enhanced OMV production of E. coli cells. PMID:26092467

  3. Dual orientation of the outer membrane lipoprotein Pal in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Juliana; MacPherson, Victoria; Barnard, David; Bettinger, John; D'Arcy, Brooke; Surendran, Naveen; Hellman, Judith; Pichichero, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Peptidoglycan associated lipoprotein (Pal) of Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a characteristic bacterial lipoprotein, with an N-terminal lipid moiety anchoring it to the outer membrane. Since its discovery over three decades ago, Pal has been well studied for its participation in the Tol–Pal complex which spans the periplasm and has been proposed to play important roles in bacterial survival, pathogenesis and virulence. Previous studies of Pal place the lipoprotein in the periplasm of E. coli, allowing it to interact with Tol proteins and the peptidoglycan layer. Here, we describe for the first time, a subpopulation of Pal which is present on the cell surface of E. coli. Flow cytometry and confocal microscopy detect anti-Pal antibodies on the surface of intact E. coli cells. Interestingly, Pal is surface exposed in an ‘all or nothing’ manner, such that most of the cells contain only internal Pal, with fewer cells ( < 20  %) exhibiting surface Pal. PMID:25808171

  4. TSPO, a Mitochondrial Outer Membrane Protein, Controls Ethanol-Related Behaviors in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ran; Rittenhouse, Danielle; Sweeney, Katelyn; Potluri, Prasanth; Wallace, Douglas C.

    2015-01-01

    The heavy consumption of ethanol can lead to alcohol use disorders (AUDs) which impact patients, their families, and societies. Yet the genetic and physiological factors that predispose humans to AUDs remain unclear. One hypothesis is that alterations in mitochondrial function modulate neuronal sensitivity to ethanol exposure. Using Drosophila genetics we report that inactivation of the mitochondrial outer membrane translocator protein 18kDa (TSPO), also known as the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor, affects ethanol sedation and tolerance in male flies. Knockdown of dTSPO in adult male neurons results in increased sensitivity to ethanol sedation, and this effect requires the dTSPO depletion-mediated increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and inhibition of caspase activity in fly heads. Systemic loss of dTSPO in male flies blocks the development of tolerance to repeated ethanol exposures, an effect that is not seen when dTSPO is only inactivated in neurons. Female flies are naturally more sensitive to ethanol than males, and female fly heads have strikingly lower levels of dTSPO mRNA than males. Hence, mitochondrial TSPO function plays an important role in ethanol sensitivity and tolerance. Since a large array of benzodiazepine analogues have been developed that interact with the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor, the mitochondrial TSPO might provide an important new target for treating AUDs. PMID:26241038

  5. Outer-membrane translocation of bulky small molecules by passive diffusion

    PubMed Central

    van den Berg, Bert; Prathyusha Bhamidimarri, Satya; Dahyabhai Prajapati, Jigneshkumar; Kleinekathöfer, Ulrich; Winterhalter, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    The outer membrane (OM) of gram-negative bacteria forms a protective layer around the cell that serves as a permeability barrier to prevent unrestricted access of noxious substances. The permeability barrier of the OM results partly from the limited pore diameters of OM diffusion channels. As a consequence, there is an “OM size-exclusion limit,” and the uptake of bulky molecules with molecular masses of more than ∼600 Da is thought to be mediated by TonB-dependent, active transporters. Intriguingly, the OM protein CymA from Klebsiella oxytoca does not depend on TonB but nevertheless mediates efficient OM passage of cyclodextrins with diameters of up to ∼15 Å. Here we show, by using X-ray crystallography, molecular dynamics simulations, and single-channel electrophysiology, that CymA forms a monomeric 14-stranded β-barrel with a large pore that is occluded on the periplasmic side by the N-terminal 15 residues of the protein. Representing a previously unidentified paradigm in OM transport, CymA mediates the passive diffusion of bulky molecules via an elegant transport mechanism in which a mobile element formed by the N terminus acts as a ligand-expelled gate to preserve the permeability barrier of the OM. PMID:26015567

  6. Differential Responses of Pattern Recognition Receptors to Outer Membrane Vesicles of Three Periodontal Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Cecil, Jessica D; O'Brien-Simpson, Neil M; Lenzo, Jason C; Holden, James A; Chen, Yu-Yen; Singleton, William; Gause, Katelyn T; Yan, Yan; Caruso, Frank; Reynolds, Eric C

    2016-01-01

    Highly purified outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) of the periodontal pathogens, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola and Tannerella forsythia were produced using tangential flow ultrafiltration, ultracentrifugation and Optiprep density gradient separation. Cryo-TEM and light scattering showed OMVs to be single lipid-bilayers with modal diameters of 75 to 158 nm. Enumeration of OMVs by nanoparticle flow-cytometry at the same stage of late exponential culture indicated that P. gingivalis was the most prolific OMV producer. P. gingivalis OMVs induced strong TLR2 and TLR4-specific responses and moderate responses in TLR7, TLR8, TLR9, NOD1 and NOD2 expressing-HEK-Blue cells. Responses to T. forsythia OMVs were less than those of P. gingivalis and T. denticola OMVs induced only weak responses. Compositional analyses of OMVs from the three pathogens demonstrated differences in protein, fatty acids, lipopolysaccharide, peptidoglycan fragments and nucleic acids. Periodontal pathogen OMVs induced differential pattern recognition receptor responses that have implications for their role in chronic periodontitis. PMID:27035339

  7. Differential Responses of Pattern Recognition Receptors to Outer Membrane Vesicles of Three Periodontal Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Lenzo, Jason C.; Holden, James A.; Chen, Yu-Yen; Singleton, William; Gause, Katelyn T.; Yan, Yan; Caruso, Frank; Reynolds, Eric C.

    2016-01-01

    Highly purified outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) of the periodontal pathogens, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola and Tannerella forsythia were produced using tangential flow ultrafiltration, ultracentrifugation and Optiprep density gradient separation. Cryo-TEM and light scattering showed OMVs to be single lipid-bilayers with modal diameters of 75 to 158 nm. Enumeration of OMVs by nanoparticle flow-cytometry at the same stage of late exponential culture indicated that P. gingivalis was the most prolific OMV producer. P. gingivalis OMVs induced strong TLR2 and TLR4-specific responses and moderate responses in TLR7, TLR8, TLR9, NOD1 and NOD2 expressing-HEK-Blue cells. Responses to T. forsythia OMVs were less than those of P. gingivalis and T. denticola OMVs induced only weak responses. Compositional analyses of OMVs from the three pathogens demonstrated differences in protein, fatty acids, lipopolysaccharide, peptidoglycan fragments and nucleic acids. Periodontal pathogen OMVs induced differential pattern recognition receptor responses that have implications for their role in chronic periodontitis. PMID:27035339

  8. Analysis of bacteria-derived outer membrane vesicles using tunable resistive pulse sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogomolny, Evgeny; Hong, Jiwon; Blenkiron, Cherie; Simonov, Denis; Dauros, Priscila; Swift, Simon; Phillips, Anthony; Willmott, Geoff R.

    2015-03-01

    Accurate characterization of submicron particles within biological fluids presents a major challenge for a wide range of biomedical research. Detection, characterization and classification are difficult due to the presence of particles and debris ranging from single molecules up to particles slightly smaller than cells. Especial interest arises from extracellular vesicles (EVs) which are known to play a pivotal role in cell-signaling in multicellular organisms. Tunable resistive pulse sensing (TRPS) is increasingly proving to be a useful tool for high throughput particle-by-particle analysis of EVs and other submicron particles. This study examines the capability of TRPS for characterization of EVs derived from bacteria, also called outer membrane vesicles (OMVs). Measurement of a size distribution (124 +/- 3 nm modal diameter) and concentration (lower bound 7.4 x 109 mL-1) are demonstrated using OMVs derived from uropathogenic Escherichia coli. Important aspects of measurement are discussed, including sample preparation and size selection. Application of TRPS to study EVs could assist the development of these particles in clinical diagnostics and therapeutics.

  9. GPAT2, a mitochondrial outer membrane protein, in piRNA biogenesis in germline stem cells.

    PubMed

    Shiromoto, Yusuke; Kuramochi-Miyagawa, Satomi; Daiba, Akito; Chuma, Shinichiro; Katanaya, Ami; Katsumata, Akiko; Nishimura, Ken; Ohtaka, Manami; Nakanishi, Mahito; Nakamura, Toshinobu; Yoshinaga, Koichi; Asada, Noriko; Nakamura, Shota; Yasunaga, Teruo; Kojima-Kita, Kanako; Itou, Daisuke; Kimura, Tohru; Nakano, Toru

    2013-06-01

    piRNA (PIWI-interacting RNA) is a germ cell-specific small RNA in which biogenesis PIWI (P-element wimpy testis) family proteins play crucial roles. MILI (mouse Piwi-like), one of the three mouse PIWI family members, is indispensable for piRNA production, DNA methylation of retrotransposons presumably through the piRNA, and spermatogenesis. The biogenesis of piRNA has been divided into primary and secondary processing pathways; in both of these MILI is involved in mice. To analyze the molecular function of MILI in piRNA biogenesis, we utilized germline stem (GS) cells, which are derived from testicular stem cells and possess a spermatogonial phenotype. We established MILI-null GS cell lines and their revertant, MILI-rescued GS cells, by introducing the Mili gene with Sendai virus vector. Comparison of wild-type, MILI-null, and MILI-rescued GS cells revealed that GS cells were quite useful for analyzing the molecular mechanisms of piRNA production, especially the primary processing pathway. We found that glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 2 (GPAT2), a mitochondrial outer membrane protein for lysophosphatidic acid, bound to MILI using the cells and that gene knockdown of GPAT2 brought about impaired piRNA production in GS cells. GPAT2 is not only one of the MILI bound proteins but also a protein essential for primary piRNA biogenesis. PMID:23611983

  10. The TOM core complex: the general protein import pore of the outer membrane of mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Ahting, U; Thun, C; Hegerl, R; Typke, D; Nargang, F E; Neupert, W; Nussberger, S

    1999-11-29

    Translocation of nuclear-encoded preproteins across the outer membrane of mitochondria is mediated by the multicomponent transmembrane TOM complex. We have isolated the TOM core complex of Neurospora crassa by removing the receptors Tom70 and Tom20 from the isolated TOM holo complex by treatment with the detergent dodecyl maltoside. It consists of Tom40, Tom22, and the small Tom components, Tom6 and Tom7. This core complex was also purified directly from mitochondria after solubilization with dodecyl maltoside. The TOM core complex has the characteristics of the general insertion pore; it contains high-conductance channels and binds preprotein in a targeting sequence-dependent manner. It forms a double ring structure that, in contrast to the holo complex, lacks the third density seen in the latter particles. Three-dimensional reconstruction by electron tomography exhibits two open pores traversing the complex with a diameter of approximately 2.1 nm and a height of approximately 7 nm. Tom40 is the key structural element of the TOM core complex. PMID:10579717

  11. Temperature regulation of the hemin storage (Hms+) phenotype of Yersinia pestis is posttranscriptional.

    PubMed

    Perry, Robert D; Bobrov, Alexander G; Kirillina, Olga; Jones, Heather A; Pedersen, Lisa; Abney, Jennifer; Fetherston, Jacqueline D

    2004-03-01

    In Yersinia pestis, the Congo red (and hemin) binding that is characteristic of the Hms+ phenotype occurs at temperatures up to 34 degrees C but not at higher temperatures. Manifestation of the Hms+ phenotype requires at least five proteins (HmsH, -F, -R, -S, and -T) that are organized into two separate operons: hmsHFRS and hmsT. HmsH and HmsF are outer membrane proteins, while HmsR, HmsS, and HmsT are predicted to be inner membrane proteins. We have used transcriptional reporter constructs, RNA dot blots, and Western blots to examine the expression of hms operons and proteins. Our studies indicate that transcription from the hmsHFRS and hmsT promoters is not regulated by the iron status of the cells, growth temperature, or any of the Hms proteins. In addition, the level of mRNA for both operons is not significantly affected by growth temperature. However, protein levels of HmsH, HmsR, and HmsT in cells grown at 37 degrees C are very low compared to those in cells grown at 26 degrees C, while the amounts of HmsF and HmsS show only a moderate reduction at the higher growth temperature. Neither the Pla protease nor a putative endopeptidase (Y2360) encoded upstream of hmsH is essential for temperature regulation of the Hms+ phenotype. However, HmsT at 37 degrees C is sensitive to degradation by Lon and/or ClpPX. Thus, the stability of HmsH, HmsR, and HmsT proteins likely plays a role in temperature regulation of the Hms+ phenotype of Y. pestis. PMID:14996794

  12. Essential Role of the ESX-5 Secretion System in Outer Membrane Permeability of Pathogenic Mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Commandeur, Susanna; van der Weerd, Robert; Sparrius, Marion; Weerdenburg, Eveline; Alber, Marina; Kalscheuer, Rainer; Piersma, Sander R.; Abdallah, Abdallah M.; Abd El Ghany, Moataz; Abdel-Haleem, Alyaa M.; Pain, Arnab; Jiménez, Connie R.; Bitter, Wilbert; Houben, Edith N.G.

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacteria possess different type VII secretion (T7S) systems to secrete proteins across their unusual cell envelope. One of these systems, ESX-5, is only present in slow-growing mycobacteria and responsible for the secretion of multiple substrates. However, the role of ESX-5 substrates in growth and/or virulence is largely unknown. In this study, we show that esx-5 is essential for growth of both Mycobacterium marinum and Mycobacterium bovis. Remarkably, this essentiality can be rescued by increasing the permeability of the outer membrane, either by altering its lipid composition or by the introduction of the heterologous porin MspA. Mutagenesis of the first nucleotide-binding domain of the membrane ATPase EccC5 prevented both ESX-5-dependent secretion and bacterial growth, but did not affect ESX-5 complex assembly. This suggests that the rescuing effect is not due to pores formed by the ESX-5 membrane complex, but caused by ESX-5 activity. Subsequent proteomic analysis to identify crucial ESX-5 substrates confirmed that all detectable PE and PPE proteins in the cell surface and cell envelope fractions were routed through ESX-5. Additionally, saturated transposon-directed insertion-site sequencing (TraDIS) was applied to both wild-type M. marinum cells and cells expressing mspA to identify genes that are not essential anymore in the presence of MspA. This analysis confirmed the importance of esx-5, but we could not identify essential ESX-5 substrates, indicating that multiple of these substrates are together responsible for the essentiality. Finally, examination of phenotypes on defined carbon sources revealed that an esx-5 mutant is strongly impaired in the uptake and utilization of hydrophobic carbon sources. Based on these data, we propose a model in which the ESX-5 system is responsible for the transport of cell envelope proteins that are required for nutrient uptake. These proteins might in this way compensate for the lack of MspA-like porins in slow

  13. Essential Role of the ESX-5 Secretion System in Outer Membrane Permeability of Pathogenic Mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Ates, Louis S; Ummels, Roy; Commandeur, Susanna; van de Weerd, Robert; van der Weerd, Robert; Sparrius, Marion; Weerdenburg, Eveline; Alber, Marina; Kalscheuer, Rainer; Piersma, Sander R; Abdallah, Abdallah M; Abd El Ghany, Moataz; Abdel-Haleem, Alyaa M; Pain, Arnab; Jiménez, Connie R; Bitter, Wilbert; Houben, Edith N G

    2015-05-01

    Mycobacteria possess different type VII secretion (T7S) systems to secrete proteins across their unusual cell envelope. One of these systems, ESX-5, is only present in slow-growing mycobacteria and responsible for the secretion of multiple substrates. However, the role of ESX-5 substrates in growth and/or virulence is largely unknown. In this study, we show that esx-5 is essential for growth of both Mycobacterium marinum and Mycobacterium bovis. Remarkably, this essentiality can be rescued by increasing the permeability of the outer membrane, either by altering its lipid composition or by the introduction of the heterologous porin MspA. Mutagenesis of the first nucleotide-binding domain of the membrane ATPase EccC5 prevented both ESX-5-dependent secretion and bacterial growth, but did not affect ESX-5 complex assembly. This suggests that the rescuing effect is not due to pores formed by the ESX-5 membrane complex, but caused by ESX-5 activity. Subsequent proteomic analysis to identify crucial ESX-5 substrates confirmed that all detectable PE and PPE proteins in the cell surface and cell envelope fractions were routed through ESX-5. Additionally, saturated transposon-directed insertion-site sequencing (TraDIS) was applied to both wild-type M. marinum cells and cells expressing mspA to identify genes that are not essential anymore in the presence of MspA. This analysis confirmed the importance of esx-5, but we could not identify essential ESX-5 substrates, indicating that multiple of these substrates are together responsible for the essentiality. Finally, examination of phenotypes on defined carbon sources revealed that an esx-5 mutant is strongly impaired in the uptake and utilization of hydrophobic carbon sources. Based on these data, we propose a model in which the ESX-5 system is responsible for the transport of cell envelope proteins that are required for nutrient uptake. These proteins might in this way compensate for the lack of MspA-like porins in slow

  14. Plasmolysis and cell shape depend on solute outer-membrane permeability during hyperosmotic shock in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Pilizota, Teuta; Shaevitz, Joshua W

    2013-06-18

    The concentration of chemicals inside the bacterial cytoplasm generates an osmotic pressure, termed turgor, which inflates the cell and is necessary for cell growth and survival. In Escherichia coli, a sudden increase in external concentration causes a pressure drop across the cell envelope that drives changes in cell shape, such as plasmolysis, where the inner and outer membranes separate. Here, we use fluorescence imaging of single cells during hyperosmotic shock with a time resolution on the order of seconds to examine the response of cells to a range of different conditions. We show that shock using an outer-membrane impermeable solute results in total cell volume reduction with no plasmolysis, whereas a shock caused by outer-membrane permeable ions causes plasmolysis immediately upon shock. Slowly permeable solutes, such as sucrose, which cross the membrane in minutes, cause plasmolysis to occur gradually as the chemical potential equilibrates. In addition, we quantify the detailed morphological changes to cell shape during osmotic shock. Nonplasmolyzed cells shrink in length with an additional lateral size reduction as the magnitude of the shock increases. Quickly plasmolyzing cells shrink largely at the poles, whereas gradually plasmolyzing cells invaginate along the cell cylinder. Our results give a comprehensive picture of the initial response of E. coli to hyperosmotic shock and offer explanations for seemingly opposing results that have been reported previously. PMID:23790382

  15. Identification of mammalian TOM22 as a subunit of the preprotein translocase of the mitochondrial outer membrane.

    PubMed

    Saeki, K; Suzuki, H; Tsuneoka, M; Maeda, M; Iwamoto, R; Hasuwa, H; Shida, S; Takahashi, T; Sakaguchi, M; Endo, T; Miura, Y; Mekada, E; Mihara, K

    2000-10-13

    A mitochondrial outer membrane protein of approximately 22 kDa (1C9-2) was purified from Vero cells assessing immunoreactivity with a monoclonal antibody, and the cDNA was cloned based on the partial amino acid sequence of the trypsin-digested fragments. 1C9-2 had 19-20% sequence identity to fungal Tom22, a component of the preprotein translocase of the outer membrane (the TOM complex) with receptor and organizer functions. Despite such a low sequence identity, both shared a remarkable structural similarity in the hydrophobicity profile, membrane topology in the Ncyt-Cin orientation through a transmembrane domain in the middle of the molecule, and the abundant acidic amino acid residues in the N-terminal domain. The antibodies against 1C9-2 inhibited the import of a matrix-targeted preprotein into isolated mitochondria. Blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of digitonin-solubilized outer membranes revealed that 1C9-2 is firmly associated with TOM40 in the approximately 400-kDa complex, with a size and composition similar to those of the fungal TOM core complex. Furthermore, 1C9-2 complemented the defects of growth and mitochondrial protein import in Deltatom22 yeast cells. Taken together, these results demonstrate that 1C9-2 is a functional homologue of fungal Tom22 and functions as a component of the TOM complex. PMID:10900208

  16. Synthesis of outer membrane proteins in cpxA cpxB mutants of Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed Central

    McEwen, J; Sambucetti, L; Silverman, P M

    1983-01-01

    Two major proteins, the murein lipoprotein and the OmpF matrix porin, are deficient in the outer membrane of cpxA cpxB mutants of Escherichia coli K-12. We present evidence that the cpx mutations prevent or retard the translocation of these proteins to the outer membrane. The mutations had no effect on the rate of lipoprotein synthesis. Mutant cells labeled for 5 min with radioactive arginine accumulated as much lipoprotein as otherwise isogenic cpxA+ cpxB+ cells. This lipoprotein accumulated as such; no material synthesized in mutant cells and reactive with antilipoprotein antibodies had the electrophoretic mobility of prolipoprotein. Hence, the initial stages of prolipoprotein insertion into the inner membrane leading to its cleavage to lipoprotein appeared normal. However, after a long labeling interval, mutant cells were deficient in free lipoprotein and lacked lipoprotein covalently bound to peptidoglycan, suggesting that little if any of the lipoprotein synthesized in mutant cells reaches the outer membrane. Immunoreactive OmpF protein could also be detected in extracts of mutant cells labeled for 5 min, but the amount that accumulated was severalfold less in mutant cells than in cpxA+ cpxB+ cells. Analysis of beta-galactosidase synthesis from ompF-lacZ fusion genes showed this difference to be the result of a reduced rate of ompF transcription in mutant cells. Even so, little or none of the ompF protein synthesized in mutant cells was incorporated into the outer membrane. Images PMID:6339479

  17. Multiple Lines of Evidence Localize Signaling, Morphology, and Lipid Biosynthesis Machinery to the Mitochondrial Outer Membrane of Arabidopsis[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Owen; Taylor, Nicolas L.; Carrie, Chris; Eubel, Holger; Kubiszewski-Jakubiak, Szymon; Zhang, Botao; Narsai, Reena; Millar, A. Harvey; Whelan, James

    2011-01-01

    The composition of the mitochondrial outer membrane is notoriously difficult to deduce by orthology to other organisms, and biochemical enrichments are inevitably contaminated with the closely associated inner mitochondrial membrane and endoplasmic reticulum. In order to identify novel proteins of the outer mitochondrial membrane in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), we integrated a quantitative mass spectrometry analysis of highly enriched and prefractionated samples with a number of confirmatory biochemical and cell biology approaches. This approach identified 42 proteins, 27 of which were novel, more than doubling the number of confirmed outer membrane proteins in plant mitochondria and suggesting novel functions for the plant outer mitochondrial membrane. The novel components identified included proteins that affected mitochondrial morphology and/or segregation, a protein that suggests the presence of bacterial type lipid A in the outer membrane, highly stress-inducible proteins, as well as proteins necessary for embryo development and several of unknown function. Additionally, proteins previously inferred via orthology to be present in other compartments, such as an NADH:cytochrome B5 reductase required for hydroxyl fatty acid accumulation in developing seeds, were shown to be located in the outer membrane. These results also revealed novel proteins, which may have evolved to fulfill plant-specific requirements of the mitochondrial outer membrane, and provide a basis for the future functional characterization of these proteins in the context of mitochondrial intracellular interaction. PMID:21896887

  18. Evaluation of a multisubunit recombinant polymorphic membrane protein and major outer membrane protein T cell vaccine against Chlamydia muridarum genital infection in three strains of mice1

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hong; Karunakaran, Karuna P.; Jiang, Xiaozhou; Brunham, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    An efficacious vaccine is needed to control Chlamydia trachomatis infection. In the murine model of C. muridarum genital infection, multifunctional mucosal CD4 T cells are the foundation for protective immunity, with antibody playing a secondary role. We previously identified four Chlamydia outer membrane proteins (PmpE, PmpF, PmpG and PmpH) as CD4 T cell vaccine candidates using a dendritic cell-based immunoproteomic approach. We also demonstrated that these four polymorphic membrane proteins (Pmps) individually conferred protection as measured by accelerated clearance of Chlamydia infection in the C57BL/6 murine genital tract model. The major outer membrane protein, MOMP is also a well-studied protective vaccine antigen in this system. In the current study, we tested immunogenicity and protection of a multisubunit recombinant protein vaccine consisting of the four Pmps (PmpEFGH) with or without the major outer membrane protein (MOMP) formulated with a Th1 polarizing adjuvant in C57BL/6, Balb/c and C3H mice. We found that C57BL/6 mice vaccinated with PmpEFGH+MOMP elicited more robust cellular immune responses than mice immunized with individual protein antigens. Pmps elicited more variable cellular immune responses than MOMP among the three strains of mice. The combination vaccine accelerated clearance in the three strains of mice although at different rates. We conclude that the recombinant outer membrane protein combination constitutes a promising first generation Chlamydia vaccine construct that should provide broad immunogenicity in an outbred population. PMID:24992718

  19. Proteomic Profiling of the Outer Membrane Fraction of the Obligate Intracellular Bacterial Pathogen Ehrlichia ruminantium

    PubMed Central

    Moumène, Amal; Marcelino, Isabel; Ventosa, Miguel; Gros, Olivier; Lefrançois, Thierry; Vachiéry, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    The outer membrane proteins (OMPs) of Gram-negative bacteria play a crucial role in virulence and pathogenesis. Identification of these proteins represents an important goal for bacterial proteomics, because it aids in vaccine development. Here, we have developed such an approach for Ehrlichia ruminantium, the obligate intracellular bacterium that causes heartwater. A preliminary whole proteome analysis of elementary bodies, the extracellular infectious form of the bacterium, had been performed previously, but information is limited about OMPs in this organism and about their role in the protective immune response. Identification of OMPs is also essential for understanding Ehrlichia’s OM architecture, and how the bacterium interacts with the host cell environment. First, we developed an OMP extraction method using the ionic detergent sarkosyl, which enriched the OM fraction. Second, proteins were separated via one-dimensional electrophoresis, and digested peptides were analyzed via nano-liquid chromatographic separation coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MALDI-TOF/TOF). Of 46 unique proteins identified in the OM fraction, 18 (39%) were OMPs, including 8 proteins involved in cell structure and biogenesis, 4 in transport/virulence, 1 porin, and 5 proteins of unknown function. These experimental data were compared to the predicted subcellular localization of the entire E. ruminantium proteome, using three different algorithms. This work represents the most complete proteome characterization of the OM fraction in Ehrlichia spp. The study indicates that suitable subcellular fractionation experiments combined with straightforward computational analysis approaches are powerful for determining the predominant subcellular localization of the experimentally observed proteins. We identified proteins potentially involved in E. ruminantium pathogenesis, which are good novel targets for candidate vaccines. Thus, combining bioinformatics and proteomics, we discovered new OMPs

  20. Outer membrane protein shifts in biocide-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.

    PubMed

    Winder, C L; Al-Adham, I S; Abdel Malek, S M; Buultjens, T E; Horrocks, A J; Collier, P J

    2000-08-01

    Benzisothiazolone (BIT), N-methylisothiazolone (MIT) and 5-chloro-N-methylisothiazolone (CMIT) are highly effective biocidal agents and are used as preservatives in a variety of cosmetic preparations. The isothiazolones have proven efficacy against many fungal and bacterial species including Pseudomonas aeruginosa. However, some species are beginning to exhibit resistance towards this group of compounds after extended exposure. This experiment induced resistance in cultures of Ps. aeruginosa exposed to incrementally increasing sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the isothiazolones in their pure chemical forms. The induced resistance was observed as a gradual increase in MIC with each new passage. The MICs for all three test isothiazolones and a thiol-interactive control compound (thiomersal) increased by approximately twofold during the course of the experiment. The onset of resistance was also observed by reference to the altered presence of an outer membrane protein, designated the T-OMP, in SDS-PAGE preparations. T-OMP was observed to disappear from the biocide-exposed preparations and reappear when the resistance-induced cultures were passaged in the absence of biocide. This reappearance of T-OMP was not accompanied by a complete reversal of induced resistance, but by a small decrease in MIC. The induction of resistance towards one biocide resulted in the development of cross-resistance towards other members of the group and the control, thiomersal. It has been suggested that the disappearance of T-OMP from these preparations is associated with the onset of resistance to the isothiazolones in their Kathon form (CMIT and MIT). PMID:10971761

  1. A combined vaccine approach against Vibrio cholerae and ETEC based on outer membrane vesicles.

    PubMed

    Leitner, Deborah R; Lichtenegger, Sabine; Temel, Philipp; Zingl, Franz G; Ratzberger, Desiree; Roier, Sandro; Schild-Prüfert, Kristina; Feichter, Sandra; Reidl, Joachim; Schild, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Enteric infections induced by pathogens like Vibrio cholerae and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) remain a massive burden in developing countries with increasing morbidity and mortality rates. Previously, we showed that the immunization with genetically detoxified outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) derived from V. cholerae elicits a protective immune response based on the generation of O antigen antibodies, which effectively block the motility by binding to the sheathed flagellum. In this study, we investigated the potential of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-modified and toxin negative OMVs isolated from V. cholerae and ETEC as a combined OMV vaccine candidate. Our results indicate that the immunization with V. cholerae or ETEC OMVs induced a species-specific immune response, whereas the combination of both OMV species resulted in a high-titer, protective immune response against both pathogens. Interestingly, the immunization with V. cholerae OMVs alone resulted in a so far uncharacterized and cholera toxin B-subunit (CTB) independent protection mechanism against an ETEC colonization. Furthermore, we investigated the potential use of V. cholerae OMVs as delivery vehicles for the heterologously expression of the ETEC surface antigens, CFA/I, and FliC. Although we induced a detectable immune response against both heterologously expressed antigens, none of these approaches resulted in an improved protection compared to a simple combination of V. cholerae and ETEC OMVs. Finally, we expanded the current protection model from V. cholerae to ETEC by demonstrating that the inhibition of motility via anti-FliC antibodies represents a relevant protection mechanism of an OMV-based ETEC vaccine candidate in vivo. PMID:26322032

  2. Legionella pneumophila-Derived Outer Membrane Vesicles Promote Bacterial Replication in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Anna Lena; Stoiber, Cornelia; Herkt, Christina E.; Schulz, Christine; Bertrams, Wilhelm; Schmeck, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    The formation and release of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) is a phenomenon of Gram-negative bacteria. This includes Legionella pneumophila (L. pneumophila), a causative agent of severe pneumonia. Upon its transmission into the lung, L. pneumophila primarily infects and replicates within macrophages. Here, we analyzed the influence of L. pneumophila OMVs on macrophages. To this end, differentiated THP-1 cells were incubated with increasing doses of Legionella OMVs, leading to a TLR2-dependent classical activation of macrophages with the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Inhibition of TLR2 and NF-κB signaling reduced the induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, treatment of THP-1 cells with OMVs prior to infection reduced replication of L. pneumophila in THP-1 cells. Blocking of TLR2 activation or heat denaturation of OMVs restored bacterial replication in the first 24 h of infection. With prolonged infection-time, OMV pre-treated macrophages became more permissive for bacterial replication than untreated cells and showed increased numbers of Legionella-containing vacuoles and reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine induction. Additionally, miRNA-146a was found to be transcriptionally induced by OMVs and to facilitate bacterial replication. Accordingly, IRAK-1, one of miRNA-146a’s targets, showed prolonged activation-dependent degradation, which rendered THP-1 cells more permissive for Legionella replication. In conclusion, L. pneumophila OMVs are initially potent pro-inflammatory stimulators of macrophages, acting via TLR2, IRAK-1, and NF-κB, while at later time points, OMVs facilitate L. pneumophila replication by miR-146a-dependent IRAK-1 suppression. OMVs might thereby promote spreading of L. pneumophila in the host. PMID:27105429

  3. Immunological characteristics of outer membrane protein omp31 of goat Brucella and its monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Zheng, W Y; Wang, Y; Zhang, Z C; Yan, F

    2015-01-01

    We examined the immunological characteristics of outer membrane protein omp31 of goat Brucella and its monoclonal antibody. Genomic DNA from the M5 strain of goat Brucella was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pGEX-4T-1. The expression and immunological characteristics of the fusion protein GST-omp31 were subjected to preliminary western blot detection with goat Brucella rabbit immune serum. The Brucella immunized BALB/c mouse serum was detected using purified protein. The high-potency mouse splenocytes and myeloma Sp2/0 cells were fused. Positive clones were screened by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to establish a hybridoma cell line. Mice were inoculated intraperitoneally with hybridoma cells to prepare ascites. The mAb was purified using the n-caprylic acid-ammonium sulfate method. The characteristics of mAb were examined using western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A 680-base pair band was observed after polymerase chain reaction. Enzyme digestion identification and sequencing showed that the pGEX-4T-1-omp31 prokaryotic expression vector was successfully established; a target band of approximately 57 kDa with an apparent molecular weight consistent with the size of the target fusion protein. At 25°C, the expression of soluble expression increased significantly; the fusion protein GST-omp31 was detected by western blotting. Anti-omp31 protein mAb was obtained from 2 strains of Brucella. The antibody showed strong specificity and sensitivity and did not cross-react with Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, or Bacillus pyocyaneus. The pGEX-4T-1-omp31 prokaryotic expression vector was successfully established and showed good immunogenicity. The antibody also showed strong specificity and good sensitivity. PMID:26505344

  4. A Burkholderia pseudomallei outer membrane vesicle vaccine provides protection against lethal sepsis.

    PubMed

    Nieves, Wildaliz; Petersen, Hailey; Judy, Barbara M; Blumentritt, Carla A; Russell-Lodrigue, Kasi; Roy, Chad J; Torres, Alfredo G; Morici, Lisa A

    2014-05-01

    The environmental Gram-negative encapsulated bacillus Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis, a disease associated with high morbidity and mortality rates in areas of Southeast Asia and northern Australia in which the disease is endemic. B. pseudomallei is also classified as a tier I select agent due to the high level of lethality of the bacterium and its innate resistance to antibiotics, as well as the lack of an effective vaccine. Gram-negative bacteria, including B. pseudomallei, secrete outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) which are enriched with multiple protein, lipid, and polysaccharide antigens. Previously, we demonstrated that immunization with multivalent B. pseudomallei-derived OMVs protects highly susceptible BALB/c mice against an otherwise lethal aerosol challenge. In this work, we evaluated the protective efficacy of OMV immunization against intraperitoneal challenge with a heterologous strain because systemic infection with phenotypically diverse environmental B. pseudomallei strains poses another hazard and a challenge to vaccine development. We demonstrated that B. pseudomallei OMVs derived from strain 1026b afforded significant protection against septicemic infection with B. pseudomallei strain K96243. OMV immunization induced robust OMV-, lipopolysaccharide-, and capsular polysaccharide-specific serum IgG (IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG3) and IgM antibody responses. OMV-immune serum promoted bacterial killing in vitro, and passive transfer of B. pseudomallei OMV immune sera protected naive mice against a subsequent challenge. These results indicate that OMV immunization provides antibody-mediated protection against acute, rapidly lethal sepsis in mice. B. pseudomallei-derived OMVs may represent an efficacious multivalent vaccine strategy against melioidosis. PMID:24671550

  5. Outer membrane protein OmpQ of Bordetella bronchiseptica is required for mature biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Cattelan, Natalia; Villalba, María Inés; Parisi, Gustavo; Arnal, Laura; Serra, Diego Omar; Aguilar, Mario; Yantorno, Osvaldo

    2016-02-01

    Bordetella bronchiseptica, an aerobic Gram-negative bacterium, is capable of colonizing the respiratory tract of diverse animals and chronically persists inside the hosts by forming biofilm. Most known virulence factors in Bordetella species are regulated by the BvgAS two-component transduction system. The Bvg-activated proteins play a critical role during host infection. OmpQ is an outer membrane porin protein which is expressed under BvgAS control. Here, we studied the contribution of OmpQ to the biofilm formation process by B. bronchiseptica. We found that the lack of expression of OmpQ did not affect the growth kinetics and final biomass of B. bronchiseptica under planktonic growth conditions. The ΔompQ mutant strain displayed no differences in attachment level and in early steps of biofilm formation. However, deletion of the ompQ gene attenuated the ability of B. bronchiseptica to form a mature biofilm. Analysis of ompQ gene expression during the biofilm formation process by B. bronchiseptica showed a dynamic expression pattern, with an increase of biofilm culture at 48 h. Moreover, we demonstrated that the addition of serum anti-OmpQ had the potential to reduce the biofilm biomass formation in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, we showed for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, evidence of the contribution of OmpQ to a process of importance for B. bronchiseptica pathobiology. Our results indicate that OmpQ plays a role during the biofilm development process, particularly at later stages of development, and that this porin could be a potential target for strategies of biofilm formation inhibition. PMID:26673448

  6. Nitazoxanide Inhibits Pilus Biogenesis by Interfering with Folding of the Usher Protein in the Outer Membrane.

    PubMed

    Chahales, Peter; Hoffman, Paul S; Thanassi, David G

    2016-04-01

    Many bacterial pathogens assemble surface fibers termed pili or fimbriae that facilitate attachment to host cells and colonization of host tissues. The chaperone/usher (CU) pathway is a conserved secretion system that is responsible for the assembly of virulence-associated pili by many different Gram-negative bacteria. Pilus biogenesis by the CU pathway requires a dedicated periplasmic chaperone and an integral outer membrane (OM) assembly and secretion platform termed the usher. Nitazoxanide (NTZ), an antiparasitic drug, was previously shown to inhibit the function of aggregative adherence fimbriae and type 1 pili assembled by the CU pathway in enteroaggregativeEscherichia coli, an important causative agent of diarrhea. We show here that NTZ also inhibits the function of type 1 and P pili from uropathogenicE. coli(UPEC). UPEC is the primary causative agent of urinary tract infections, and type 1 and P pili mediate colonization of the bladder and kidneys, respectively. By analysis of the different stages of the CU pilus biogenesis pathway, we show that treatment of bacteria with NTZ causes a reduction in the number of usher molecules in the OM, resulting in a loss of pilus assembly on the bacterial surface. In addition, we determine that NTZ specifically prevents proper folding of the usher β-barrel domain in the OM. Our findings demonstrate that NTZ is a pilicide with a novel mechanism of action and activity against diverse CU pathways. This suggests that further development of the NTZ scaffold may lead to new antivirulence agents that target the usher to prevent pilus assembly. PMID:26824945

  7. Expression of the major outer membrane protein of Chlamydia trachomatis in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Manning, D S; Stewart, S J

    1993-01-01

    The major outer membrane protein (MOMP) of Chlamydia trachomatis was expressed in Escherichia coli. To assess whether it assembled into a conformationally correct structure at the cell surface, we characterized the recombinant MOMP (rMOMP) by Western immunoblot analysis, indirect immunofluorescence, and immunoprecipitation with monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that recognize contiguous and conformational MOMP epitopes. Western blot analysis showed that most of the rMOMP comigrated with authentic monomer MOMP, indicating that its signal peptide was recognized and cleaved by E. coli. The rMOMP could not be detected on the cell surface of viable or formalin-killed E. coli organisms by indirect immunofluorescence staining with a MAb specific for a MOMP contiguous epitope. In contrast, the same MAb readily stained rMOMP-expressing E. coli cells that had been permeabilized by methanol fixation. A MAb that recognizes a conformational MOMP epitope and reacted strongly with formalin- or methanol-fixed elementary bodies failed to stain formalin- or methanol-fixed E. coli expressing rMOMP. Moreover, this MAb did not immunoprecipitate rMOMP from expressing E. coli cells even though it precipitated the authentic protein from lysates of C. trachomatis elementary bodies. Therefore we concluded that rMOMP was not localized to the E. coli cell surface and was not recognizable by a conformation-dependent antibody. These results indicate that rMOMP expressed by E. coli is unlikely to serve as an accurate model of MOMP structure and function. They also question the utility of rMOMP as a source of immunogen for eliciting neutralizing antibodies against conformational antigenic sites of the protein. Images PMID:8406797

  8. The evolution of new lipoprotein subunits of the bacterial outer membrane BAM complex

    PubMed Central

    Anwari, Khatira; Webb, Chaille T; Poggio, Sebastian; Perry, Andrew J; Belousoff, Matthew; Celik, Nermin; Ramm, Georg; Lovering, Andrew; Sockett, R Elizabeth; Smit, John; Jacobs-Wagner, Christine; Lithgow, Trevor

    2012-01-01

    The β-barrel assembly machine (BAM) complex is an essential feature of all bacteria with an outer membrane. The core subunit of the BAM complex is BamA and, in Escherichia coli, four lipoprotein subunits: BamB, BamC, BamD and BamE, also function in the BAM complex. Hidden Markov model analysis was used to comprehensively assess the distribution of subunits of the BAM lipoproteins across all subclasses of proteobacteria. A patchwork distribution was detected which is readily reconciled with the evolution of the α-, β-, γ-, δ- and ε-proteobacteria. Our findings lead to a proposal that the ancestral BAM complex was composed of two subunits: BamA and BamD, and that BamB, BamC and BamE evolved later in a distinct sequence of events. Furthermore, in some lineages novel lipoproteins have evolved instead of the lipoproteins found in E. coli. As an example of this concept, we show that no known species of α-proteobacteria has a homologue of BamC. However, purification of the BAM complex from the model α-proteobacterium Caulobacter crescentus identified a novel subunit we refer to as BamF, which has a conserved sequence motif related to sequences found in BamC. BamF and BamD can be eluted from the BAM complex under similar conditions, mirroring the BamC:D module seen in the BAM complex of γ-proteobacteria such as E. coli. PMID:22524202

  9. Complexes of the outer mitochondrial membrane protein mitoNEET with resveratrol-3-sulfate.

    PubMed

    Arif, Waqar; Xu, Shu; Isailovic, Dragan; Geldenhuys, Werner J; Carroll, Richard T; Funk, Max O

    2011-06-28

    Binding of the thiazolidinedione antidiabetic drug pioglitazone led to the discovery of a novel outer mitochondrial membrane protein of unknown function called mitoNEET. The protein is homodimeric and contains a uniquely ligated two iron-two sulfur cluster in each of its two cytosolic domains. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry was employed to characterize solutions of the soluble cytosolic domain (amino acids 32--108) of the protein. Ions characteristic of dimers containing the cofactors were readily detected under native conditions. mitoNEET responded to exposure to solutions at low pH by dissociation to give monomers that retained the cofactor, followed by dissociation of the cofactor in a concerted fashion. mitoNEET formed complexes with resveratrol-3-sulfate, one of the primary metabolites of the natural product resveratrol. Resveratrol itself showed no tendency to interact with mitoNEET. The formation of complexes was evident in both electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and isothermal titration calorimetry measurements. Up to eight molecules of the compound associated with the dimeric form of the protein in a sequential fashion. Dissociation constants determined by micorcalorimetry were in the range 5-16 μM for the various binding sites. The only other known naturally occurring binding partner for mitoNEET at present is NADPH. It is very interesting that the iron-sulfur cluster containing protein interacts with two potentially redox active substances at the surface of mitochondria. These findings provide a new direction for research into two poorly understood, yet biomedically relevant, species. PMID:21591687

  10. A combined vaccine approach against Vibrio cholerae and ETEC based on outer membrane vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Leitner, Deborah R.; Lichtenegger, Sabine; Temel, Philipp; Zingl, Franz G.; Ratzberger, Desiree; Roier, Sandro; Schild-Prüfert, Kristina; Feichter, Sandra; Reidl, Joachim; Schild, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Enteric infections induced by pathogens like Vibrio cholerae and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) remain a massive burden in developing countries with increasing morbidity and mortality rates. Previously, we showed that the immunization with genetically detoxified outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) derived from V. cholerae elicits a protective immune response based on the generation of O antigen antibodies, which effectively block the motility by binding to the sheathed flagellum. In this study, we investigated the potential of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-modified and toxin negative OMVs isolated from V. cholerae and ETEC as a combined OMV vaccine candidate. Our results indicate that the immunization with V. cholerae or ETEC OMVs induced a species-specific immune response, whereas the combination of both OMV species resulted in a high-titer, protective immune response against both pathogens. Interestingly, the immunization with V. cholerae OMVs alone resulted in a so far uncharacterized and cholera toxin B-subunit (CTB) independent protection mechanism against an ETEC colonization. Furthermore, we investigated the potential use of V. cholerae OMVs as delivery vehicles for the heterologously expression of the ETEC surface antigens, CFA/I, and FliC. Although we induced a detectable immune response against both heterologously expressed antigens, none of these approaches resulted in an improved protection compared to a simple combination of V. cholerae and ETEC OMVs. Finally, we expanded the current protection model from V. cholerae to ETEC by demonstrating that the inhibition of motility via anti-FliC antibodies represents a relevant protection mechanism of an OMV-based ETEC vaccine candidate in vivo. PMID:26322032

  11. Discovery of Salmonella Virulence Factors Translocated via Outer Membrane Vesicles to Murine Macrophages.

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Hyunjin; Ansong, Charles; Adkins, Joshua N.; Heffron, Fred

    2011-06-01

    We have previously shown that the regulators SpvR, FruR, IHF, PhoP/PhoQ, SsrA/SsrB, SlyA, Hnr, RpoE, SmpB, CsrA, RpoS, Crp, OmpR/EnvZ, and Hfq are essential for Salmonella Typhimurium virulence in mice. Here we use quantitative LC-MS-based proteomics profiling of in-frame deletion mutants of these 14 regulators to identify proteins that are coordinately regulated by these virulence regulators and are thus presumably novel factors contributing to Salmonella pathogenesis. Putative candidate proteins from proteomics analysis were determined, which exhibited similar abundance profiles to those of Salmonella pathogenicity island (SPI)-2 type III secretion system (TTSS) proteins. A subset of 5 proteins including STM0082, STM1548, PdgL, STM1633, and STM3595 was selected for further analysis. All 5 proteins were expressed inside macrophage cells and STM0082 (SrfN) was secreted into host cytoplasm. Furthermore, deletion of STM0082 attenuated virulence in mice when administered intraperitoneally as determined by competitive index. srfN transcription was positively regulated by SsrAB, however, secretion was independent of SPI-2 TTSS as well as SPI-1 TTSS and flagella. Proteins including PagK and STM2585A, which are positively regulated by PhoP/PhoQ, have sec signal peptides as predicted for SrfN and were secreted into macrophage cytoplasm regardless of SPI-2 TTSS. Isolation of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) revealed the presence of SrfN, PagK, and STM2585A inside vesicle compartments. This result is the first case showing delivery of virulence effectors via OMVs in S. Typhimurium. Moreover, Hfq regulation of SrfN translation suggests that small non-coding RNAs may be responsible for regulating effector protein expression.

  12. Legionella pneumophila-Derived Outer Membrane Vesicles Promote Bacterial Replication in Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Jung, Anna Lena; Stoiber, Cornelia; Herkt, Christina E; Schulz, Christine; Bertrams, Wilhelm; Schmeck, Bernd

    2016-04-01

    The formation and release of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) is a phenomenon of Gram-negative bacteria. This includes Legionella pneumophila (L. pneumophila), a causative agent of severe pneumonia. Upon its transmission into the lung, L. pneumophila primarily infects and replicates within macrophages. Here, we analyzed the influence of L. pneumophila OMVs on macrophages. To this end, differentiated THP-1 cells were incubated with increasing doses of Legionella OMVs, leading to a TLR2-dependent classical activation of macrophages with the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Inhibition of TLR2 and NF-κB signaling reduced the induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, treatment of THP-1 cells with OMVs prior to infection reduced replication of L. pneumophila in THP-1 cells. Blocking of TLR2 activation or heat denaturation of OMVs restored bacterial replication in the first 24 h of infection. With prolonged infection-time, OMV pre-treated macrophages became more permissive for bacterial replication than untreated cells and showed increased numbers of Legionella-containing vacuoles and reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine induction. Additionally, miRNA-146a was found to be transcriptionally induced by OMVs and to facilitate bacterial replication. Accordingly, IRAK-1, one of miRNA-146a's targets, showed prolonged activation-dependent degradation, which rendered THP-1 cells more permissive for Legionella replication. In conclusion, L. pneumophila OMVs are initially potent pro-inflammatory stimulators of macrophages, acting via TLR2, IRAK-1, and NF-κB, while at later time points, OMVs facilitate L. pneumophila replication by miR-146a-dependent IRAK-1 suppression. OMVs might thereby promote spreading of L. pneumophila in the host. PMID:27105429

  13. Deciphering the Function of the Outer Membrane Protein OprD Homologue of Acinetobacter baumannii

    PubMed Central

    Catel-Ferreira, Manuella; Nehmé, Rony; Molle, Virginie; Aranda, Jesús; Bouffartigues, Emeline; Chevalier, Sylvie; Bou, Germán; Jouenne, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    The increasing number of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolates is a major cause for concern which restricts therapeutic options to treat severe infections caused by this emerging pathogen. To identify the molecular mechanisms involved in carbapenem resistance, we studied the contribution of an outer membrane protein homologue of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa OprD porin. Suspected to be the preferred pathway of carbapenems in A. baumannii, the oprD homologue gene was inactivated in strain ATCC 17978. Comparison of wild-type and mutant strains did not confirm the expected increased resistance to any antibiotic tested. OprD homologue sequence analysis revealed that this protein actually belongs to an OprD subgroup but is closer to the P. aeruginosa OprQ protein, with which it could share some functions, e.g., allowing bacterial survival under low-iron or -magnesium growth conditions or under poor oxygenation. We thus overexpressed and purified a recombinant OprD homologue protein to further examine its functional properties. As a specific channel, this porin presented rather low single-channel conductance, i.e., 28 pS in 1 M KCl, and was partially closed by micro- and millimolar concentrations of Fe3+ and Mg2+, respectively, but not by imipenem and meropenem or basic amino acids. The A. baumannii OprD homologue is likely not involved in the carbapenem resistance mechanism, but as an OprQ-like protein, it could contribute to the adaptation of this bacterium to magnesium- and/or iron-depleted environments. PMID:22564848

  14. Involvement of outer membrane proteins and peroxide-sensor genes in Burkholderia cepacia resistance to isothiazolone.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Gang; Shi, Qing-shan; Ouyang, You-sheng; Chen, Yi-ben

    2014-04-01

    Isothiazolones are used as preservatives in various modern industrial products. Although microorganisms that exhibit resistance towards these biocides have been identified, the underlying resistance mechanisms are still unclear. Therefore, we investigated the resistance properties of the following Burkholderia cepacia strains to Kathon (a representative of isothiazolones): a wild-type (WT) strain; a laboratory resistance strain (BC-IR) induced from WT; and an isolated strain (BC-327) screened from industrial contamination samples. The bacterial cell structure was disrupted by 50 μg ml⁻¹ Kathon treatment. BC-IR and BC-327 did not display resistance in the presence of 1 ml L⁻¹ Tween 80, 1 ml L⁻¹ Triton X-100, 0.1 % sodium dodecyl sulfate or 1 mmol L⁻¹ EDTA-2Na. Additionally, BC-IR and BC-327 exhibited lower relative conductivity from 10 to 180 min. The types as well as the levels of outer-membrane proteins (OMPs) were altered among WT, BC-IR and BC-327. Finally, the two Kathon-resistance strains BC-IR and BC-327 presented higher resistance capacity to H₂O₂. We measured the levels of peroxide-sensor genes and observed that the transcriptional activator oxyR, superoxide dismutase sod1, sod2, catalase cat1 and cat3 were all up-regulated under oxidative conditions for all strains. Taken together, OMPs and peroxide-sensor genes in B. cepacia contributed to isothiazolone resistance; However, the laboratory strain BC-IR exhibited a different resistance mechanism and properties compared to the isolated strain BC-327. PMID:24197783

  15. The outer membranes of Brucella spp. are resistant to bactericidal cationic peptides.

    PubMed Central

    Martínez de Tejada, G; Pizarro-Cerdá, J; Moreno, E; Moriyón, I

    1995-01-01

    The actions of polymyxin B, rabbit polymorphonuclear lysosome extracts, 14 polycationic peptides (including defensin NP-2, cecropin P1, lactoferricin B, and active peptides from cationic protein 18 and bactenecin), EDTA, and Tris on Brucella spp. were studied, with other gram-negative bacteria as controls. Brucella spp. were comparatively resistant to all of the agents listed above and bound less polymyxin B, and their outer membranes (OMs) were neither morphologically altered nor permeabilized to lysozyme by polymyxin B concentrations, although both effects were observed for controls. EDTA and peptides increased or accelerated the partition of the hydrophobic probe N-phenyl-naphthylamine into Escherichia coli and Haemophilus influenzae OMs but had no effect on Brucella OMs. Since Brucella and H. influenzae OMs are permeable to hydrophobic compounds (G. Martínez de Tejada and I. Moriyón, J. Bacteriol. 175:5273-5275, 1993), the results show that such unusual permeability is not necessarily related to resistance to polycations. Although rough (R) B. abortus and B. ovis were more resistant than the controls were, there were qualitative and quantitative differences with smooth (S) brucellae; this may explain known host range and virulence differences. Brucella S-lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) had reduced affinities for polycations, and insertion of Brucella and Salmonella montevideo S-LPSs into the OM of a Brucella R-LPS mutant increased and decreased, respectively, its resistance to cationic peptides. The results show that the core lipid A of Brucella LPS plays a major role in polycation resistance and that O-chain density also contributes significantly. It is proposed that the features described above contribute to Brucella resistance to the oxygen-independent systems of phagocytes. PMID:7622230

  16. Identification and validation of T-cell epitopes in outer membrane protein (OMP) of Salmonella typhi.

    PubMed

    Tanu, Arifur Rahman; Ashraf, Mohammad Arif; Hossain, Md Faruk; Ismail, Md; Shekhar, Hossain Uddin

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to design epitope-based peptides for the utility of vaccine development by targeting outer membrane protein F (Omp F), because two available licensed vaccines, live oral Ty21a and injectable polysaccharide, are 50% to 80% protective with a higher rate of side effects. Conventional vaccines take longer time for development and have less differentiation power between vaccinated and infected cells. On the other hand, Peptide-based vaccines present few advantages over other vaccines, such as stability of peptide, ease to manufacture, better storage, avoidance of infectious agents during manufacture, and different molecules can be linked with peptides to enhance their immunogenicity. Omp F is highly conserved and facilitates attachment and fusion of Salmonella typhi with host cells. Using various databases and tools, immune parameters of conserved sequences from Omp F of different isolates of Salmonella typhi were tested to predict probable epitopes. Binding analysis of the peptides with MHC molecules, epitopes conservancy, population coverage, and linear B cell epitope prediction were analyzed. Among all those predicted peptides, ESYTDMAPY epitope interacted with six MHC alleles and it shows highest amount of interaction compared to others. The cumulative population coverage for these epitopes as vaccine candidates was approximately 70%. Structural analysis suggested that epitope ESYTDMAPY fitted well into the epitope-binding groove of HLA-C*12:03, as this HLA molecule was common which interact with each and every predicted epitopes. So, this potential epitope may be linked with other molecules to enhance its immunogenicity and used for vaccine development. PMID:25258481

  17. Identification and validation of T-cell epitopes in outer membrane protein (OMP) of Salmonella typhi

    PubMed Central

    Tanu, Arifur Rahman; Ashraf, Mohammad Arif; Hossain, Md Faruk; Ismail, Md; Shekhar, Hossain Uddin

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to design epitope-based peptides for the utility of vaccine development by targeting outer membrane protein F (Omp F), because two available licensed vaccines, live oral Ty21a and injectable polysaccharide, are 50% to 80% protective with a higher rate of side effects. Conventional vaccines take longer time for development and have less differentiation power between vaccinated and infected cells. On the other hand, Peptide-based vaccines present few advantages over other vaccines, such as stability of peptide, ease to manufacture, better storage, avoidance of infectious agents during manufacture, and different molecules can be linked with peptides to enhance their immunogenicity. Omp F is highly conserved and facilitates attachment and fusion of Salmonella typhi with host cells. Using various databases and tools, immune parameters of conserved sequences from Omp F of different isolates of Salmonella typhi were tested to predict probable epitopes. Binding analysis of the peptides with MHC molecules, epitopes conservancy, population coverage, and linear B cell epitope prediction were analyzed. Among all those predicted peptides, ESYTDMAPY epitope interacted with six MHC alleles and it shows highest amount of interaction compared to others. The cumulative population coverage for these epitopes as vaccine candidates was approximately 70%. Structural analysis suggested that epitope ESYTDMAPY fitted well into the epitope-binding groove of HLA-C*12:03, as this HLA molecule was common which interact with each and every predicted epitopes. So, this potential epitope may be linked with other molecules to enhance its immunogenicity and used for vaccine development. PMID:25258481

  18. Identification of Outer Membrane and Exoproteins of Carbapenem-Resistant Multilocus Sequence Type 258 Klebsiella pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Brinkworth, Amanda J.; Hammer, Carl H.; Olano, L. Renee; Kobayashi, Scott D.; Chen, Liang; Kreiswirth, Barry N.; DeLeo, Frank R.

    2015-01-01

    Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strains have emerged as a cause of life-threatening infections in susceptible individuals (e.g., transplant recipients and critically ill patients). Strains classified as multilocus sequence type (ST) 258 are among the most prominent causes of carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae infections worldwide, but the basis for the success of this lineage remains incompletely determined. To gain a more comprehensive view of the molecules potentially involved in the success of ST258, we used a proteomics approach to identify surface-associated and culture supernatant proteins produced by ST258. Protein samples were prepared from varied culture conditions in vitro, and were analyzed by a combination of two-dimensional electrophoresis and liquid chromatography followed by tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). We identified a total of 193 proteins in outer membrane preparations from bacteria cultured in Luria-Bertani broth (LB) or RPMI 1640 tissue culture media (RPMI). Compared with LB, several iron-acquisition proteins, including IutA, HmuR, HmuS, CirA, FepA, FitA, FoxA, FhuD, and YfeX, were more highly expressed in RPMI. Of the 177 proteins identified in spent media, only the fimbrial subunit, MrkA, was predicted to be extracellular, a finding that suggests few proteins (or a limited quantity) are freely secreted by ST258. Notably, we discovered 203 proteins not reported in previous K. pneumoniae proteome studies. In silico modeling of proteins with unknown function revealed several proteins with beta-barrel transmembrane structures typical of porins, as well as possible host-interacting proteins. Taken together, these findings contribute several new targets for the mechanistic study of drug-resistance and pathogenesis by ST258 K. pneumoniae isolates. PMID:25893665

  19. Sequence and transcriptional start site of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa outer membrane porin protein F gene.

    PubMed Central

    Duchêne, M; Schweizer, A; Lottspeich, F; Krauss, G; Marget, M; Vogel, K; von Specht, B U; Domdey, H

    1988-01-01

    Porin F is one of the major proteins of the outer membrane of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. It forms water-filled pores of variable size. Porin F is a candidate for a vaccine against P. aeruginosa because it antigenically cross-reacts in all serotype strains of the International Antigenic Typing Scheme. We have isolated the gene for porin F from a lambda EMBL3 bacteriophage library by using oligodeoxynucleotide hybridization probes and have determined its nucleotide sequence. Different peptide sequences obtained from isolated porin F confirmed the deduced protein sequence. The mature protein consists of 326 amino acid residues and has a molecular weight of 35,250. The precursor contains an N-terminal signal peptide of 24 amino acid residues. S1 protection and primer extension experiments, together with Northern (RNA) blots, indicate that the mRNA coding for porin F is monocistronic with short untranslated regions of about 58 bases at the 5' end and about 47 bases at the 3' end. The sequences in the -10 and -35 regions upstream of the transcriptional start site are closely related to the Escherichia coli promoter consensus sequences, which explains why the porin F gene is expressed in E. coli under the control of its own promoter. The amino acid sequence of porin F is not homologous to the different E. coli porins OmpF, OmpC, LamB, and PhoE. On the other hand, a highly homologous region of 30 amino acids between the OmpA proteins of different enteric bacteria and porin F of P. aeruginosa was detected. The core region of the homology to E. coli OmpA had 11 of 12 amino acid residues in common. Images PMID:2447060

  20. Xylella fastidiosa outer membrane vesicles modulate plant colonization by blocking attachment to surfaces.

    PubMed

    Ionescu, Michael; Zaini, Paulo A; Baccari, Clelia; Tran, Sophia; da Silva, Aline M; Lindow, Steven E

    2014-09-16

    Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) of Gram-negative bacteria have been studied intensively in recent years, primarily in their role in delivering virulence factors and antigens during pathogenesis. However, the near ubiquity of their production suggests that they may play other roles, such as responding to envelope stress or trafficking various cargoes to prevent dilution or degradation by other bacterial species. Here we show that OMVs produced by Xylella fastidiosa, a xylem-colonizing plant pathogenic bacterium, block its interaction with various surfaces such as the walls of xylem vessels in host plants. The release of OMVs was suppressed by the diffusible signal factor-dependent quorum-sensing system, and a X. fastidiosa ΔrpfF mutant in which quorum signaling was disrupted was both much more virulent to plants and less adhesive to glass and plant surfaces than the WT strain. The higher virulence of the ΔrpfF mutant was associated with fivefold higher numbers of OMVs recovered from xylem sap of infected plants. The frequency of attachment of X. fastidiosa to xylem vessels was 20-fold lower in the presence of OMVs than in their absence. OMV production thus is a strategy used by X. fastidiosa cells to adjust attachment to surfaces in its transition from adhesive cells capable of insect transmission to an "exploratory" lifestyle for systemic spread within the plant host which would be hindered by attachment. OMV production may contribute to the movement of other bacteria in porous environments by similarly reducing their contact with environmental constituents. PMID:25197068

  1. Impact of Reducing Complement Inhibitor Binding on the Immunogenicity of Native Neisseria meningitidis Outer Membrane Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Daniels-Treffandier, Helene; de Nie, Karlijn; Marsay, Leanne; Dold, Christina; Sadarangani, Manish; Reyes-Sandoval, Arturo; Langford, Paul R.; Wyllie, David; Hill, Fergal; Pollard, Andrew J.; Rollier, Christine S.

    2016-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis recruits host human complement inhibitors to its surface to down-regulate complement activation and enhance survival in blood. We have investigated whether such complement inhibitor binding occurs after vaccination with native outer membrane vesicles (nOMVs), and limits immunogenicity of such vaccines. To this end, nOMVs reactogenic lipopolysaccharide was detoxified by deletion of the lpxl1 gene (nOMVlpxl1). nOMVs unable to bind human complement factor H (hfH) were generated by additional deletions of the genes encoding factor H binding protein (fHbp) and neisserial surface protein A (NspA) (nOMVdis). Antibody responses elicited in mice with nOMVdis were compared to those elicited with nOMVlpxl1 in the presence of hfH. Results demonstrate that the administration of human fH to mice immunized with fHbp containing OMVlpxl1 decreased immunogenicity against fHbp (but not against the OMV as a whole). The majority of the OMV-induced bactericidal immune response (OMVlpxl1 or OMVdis) was versus PorA. Despite a considerable reduction of hfH binding to nOMVdis, and the absence of the vaccine antigen fHbp, immunogenicity in mice was not different from nOMVlpxl1, in the absence or presence of hfH (serum bactericidal titers of 1:64 vs 1:128 after one dose in the nOMVdis and nOMVlpxl1–immunized groups respectively). Therefore, partial inhibition of fH binding did not enhance immunity in this model. PMID:26871712

  2. Impact of Reducing Complement Inhibitor Binding on the Immunogenicity of Native Neisseria meningitidis Outer Membrane Vesicles.

    PubMed

    Daniels-Treffandier, Helene; de Nie, Karlijn; Marsay, Leanne; Dold, Christina; Sadarangani, Manish; Reyes-Sandoval, Arturo; Langford, Paul R; Wyllie, David; Hill, Fergal; Pollard, Andrew J; Rollier, Christine S

    2016-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis recruits host human complement inhibitors to its surface to down-regulate complement activation and enhance survival in blood. We have investigated whether such complement inhibitor binding occurs after vaccination with native outer membrane vesicles (nOMVs), and limits immunogenicity of such vaccines. To this end, nOMVs reactogenic lipopolysaccharide was detoxified by deletion of the lpxl1 gene (nOMVlpxl1). nOMVs unable to bind human complement factor H (hfH) were generated by additional deletions of the genes encoding factor H binding protein (fHbp) and neisserial surface protein A (NspA) (nOMVdis). Antibody responses elicited in mice with nOMVdis were compared to those elicited with nOMVlpxl1 in the presence of hfH. Results demonstrate that the administration of human fH to mice immunized with fHbp containing OMVlpxl1 decreased immunogenicity against fHbp (but not against the OMV as a whole). The majority of the OMV-induced bactericidal immune response (OMVlpxl1 or OMVdis) was versus PorA. Despite a considerable reduction of hfH binding to nOMVdis, and the absence of the vaccine antigen fHbp, immunogenicity in mice was not different from nOMVlpxl1, in the absence or presence of hfH (serum bactericidal titers of 1:64 vs 1:128 after one dose in the nOMVdis and nOMVlpxl1-immunized groups respectively). Therefore, partial inhibition of fH binding did not enhance immunity in this model. PMID:26871712

  3. Outer Membrane Vesicles Mediate Transport of Biologically Active Vibrio cholerae Cytolysin (VCC) from V. cholerae Strains

    PubMed Central

    Elluri, Sridhar; Enow, Constance; Vdovikova, Svitlana; Rompikuntal, Pramod K.; Dongre, Mitesh; Carlsson, Sven; Pal, Amit; Uhlin, Bernt Eric; Wai, Sun Nyunt

    2014-01-01

    Background Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) released from Gram-negative bacteria can serve as vehicles for the translocation of virulence factors. Vibrio cholerae produce OMVs but their putative role in translocation of effectors involved in pathogenesis has not been well elucidated. The V. cholerae cytolysin (VCC), is a pore-forming toxin that lyses target eukaryotic cells by forming transmembrane oligomeric β-barrel channels. It is considered a potent toxin that contributes to V. cholerae pathogenesis. The mechanisms involved in the secretion and delivery of the VCC have not been extensively studied. Methodology/Principal Findings OMVs from V. cholerae strains were isolated and purified using a differential centrifugation procedure and Optiprep centrifugation. The ultrastructure and the contents of OMVs were examined under the electron microscope and by immunoblot analyses respectively. We demonstrated that VCC from V. cholerae strain V:5/04 was secreted in association with OMVs and the release of VCC via OMVs is a common feature among V. cholerae strains. The biological activity of OMV-associated VCC was investigated using contact hemolytic assay and epithelial cell cytotoxicity test. It showed toxic activity on both red blood cells and epithelial cells. Our results indicate that the OMVs architecture might play a role in stability of VCC and thereby can enhance its biological activities in comparison with the free secreted VCC. Furthermore, we tested the role of OMV-associated VCC in host cell autophagy signalling using confocal microscopy and immunoblot analysis. We observed that OMV-associated VCC triggered an autophagy response in the target cell and our findings demonstrated for the first time that autophagy may operate as a cellular defence mechanism against an OMV-associated bacterial virulence factor. Conclusion/Significance Biological assays of OMVs from the V. cholerae strain V:5/04 demonstrated that OMV-associated VCC is indeed biologically active and

  4. Construction and Immunogenicity of Recombinant Swinepox Virus Expressing Outer Membrane Protein L of Salmonella.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yizhen; Lin, Huixing; Ma, Zhe; Fan, Hongjie

    2016-07-28

    Salmonella spp. are gram-negative flagellated bacteria that cause a variety of diseases in humans and animals, ranging from mild gastroenteritis to severe systemic infection. To explore development of a potent vaccine against Salmonella infections, the gene encoding outer membrane protein L (ompL) was inserted into the swinepox virus (SPV) genome by homologous recombination. PCR, western blot, and immunofluorescence assays were used to verify the recombinant swinepox virus rSPV-OmpL. The immune responses and protection efficacy of rSPV-OmpL were assessed in a mouse model. Forty mice were assigned to four groups, which were immunized with rSPV-OmpL, inactive Salmonella (positive control), wildtype SPV (wtSPV; negative control), or PBS (challenge control), respectively. The OmpLspecific antibody in the rSPV-OmpL-immunized group increased dramatically and continuously over time post-vaccination, and was present at a significantly higher level than in the positive control group (p < 0.05). The concentrations of IFN-γ and IL-4, which represent Th1-type and Th2-type cytokine responses, were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the rSPVOmpL- vaccinated group than in the other three groups. After intraperitoneal challenge with a lethal dose of Salmonella typhimurium CVCC542, eight out of ten mice in the rSPV-OmpLvaccinated group were protected, whereas all the mice in the negative control and challenge control groups died within 3 days. Passive immune protection assays showed that hyperimmune sera against OmpL could provide mice with effective protection against challenge from S. typhimurium. The recombinant swinepox virus rSPV-OmpL might serve as a promising vaccine against Salmonella infection. PMID:27012234

  5. Comparative proteomic analysis of outer membrane vesicles from Shigella flexneri under different culture conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yong; Liu, Liguo; Fu, Hua; Wei, Candong Jin, Qi

    2014-10-31

    Highlights: • We utilized mTRAQ-based quantification to study protein changes in Congo red-induced OMVs. • A total of 148 proteins were identified in S. flexneri-derived OMVs. • Twenty-eight and five proteins are significantly up- and down-regulated in the CR-induced OMV, respectively. • The result implied that a special sorting mechanism of particular proteins into OMVs may exist. • Key node proteins in the protein interaction network might be important for pathogenicity. - Abstract: The production of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) is a common and regulated process of gram-negative bacteria. Nonetheless, the processes of Shigella flexneri OMV production still remain unclear. S. flexneri is the causative agent of endemic shigellosis in developing countries. The Congo red binding of strains is associated with increased infectivity of S. flexneri. Therefore, understanding the modulation pattern of OMV protein expression induced by Congo red will help to elucidate the bacterial pathogenesis. In the present study, we investigated the proteomic composition of OMVs and the change in OMV protein expression induced by Congo red using mTRAQ-based quantitative comparative proteomics. mTRAQ labelling increased the confidence in protein identification, and 148 total proteins were identified in S. flexneri-derived OMVs. These include a variety of important virulence factors, including Ipa proteins, TolC family, murein hydrolases, and members of the serine protease autotransporters of Enterobacteriaceae (SPATEs) family. Among the identified proteins, 28 and five proteins are significantly up- and down-regulated in the Congo red-induced OMV, respectively. Additionally, by comprehensive comparison with previous studies focused on DH5a-derived OMV, we identified some key node proteins in the protein–protein interaction network that may be involved in OMV biogenesis and are common to all gram-negative bacteria.

  6. Dynamics of the preprotein translocation channel of the outer membrane of mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Poynor, Melissa; Eckert, Reiner; Nussberger, Stephan

    2008-08-01

    The protein translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane (TOM) serves as the main entry site for virtually all mitochondrial proteins. Like many other protein translocases it also has an ion channel activity that can be used to study the dynamical properties of this supramolecular complex. We have purified TOM core complex and Tom40, the main pore forming subunit, from mitochondria of the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa and incorporated them into planar lipid bilayers. We then examined their single channel properties to provide a detailed description of the conformational dynamics of this channel in the absence of its protein substrate. For isolated TOM core complex we have found at least six conductance states. Transitions between these states were voltage-dependent with a bell-shaped open probability distribution and distinct kinetics depending on the polarity of the applied voltage. The states with the largest conductance followed an Ohmic I/V characteristic consistent with a large cylindrical pore with very little interaction with the permeating ions. For the lower conductance states, however, we have observed inverted S-shaped nonlinear current-voltage curves reminiscent to those of much narrower pores where the permeating ions have to surmount an electrostatic energy barrier. At low voltages (<+/-70 mV), purified Tom40 protein did not show any transitions between its conductance states. Prolonged exposure to higher voltages induced similar gating behavior to what we observed for TOM core complex. This effect was time-dependent and reversible, indicating that Tom40 forms not only the pore but also contains the "gating machinery" of the complex. However, for proper functioning, additional proteins (Tom22, Tom7, Tom6, and Tom5) are required that act as a modulator of the pore dynamics by significantly reducing the energy barrier between different conformational states. PMID:18456827

  7. Proteins IA and IB exhibit different surface exposures and orientations in the outer membranes of Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    PubMed Central

    Barrera, O; Swanson, J

    1984-01-01

    Exposure of whole gonococci to proteinase K resulted in cleavage of protein I (P.I) of the organism in situ. P.I subunits in the P.IB group were cleaved into two membrane-associated fragments, whereas P.IA subunits were cleaved by proteinase K to yield a single membrane-associated fragment slightly smaller in apparent size than the intact P.IA subunit. These data suggest that P.IA and P.IB subunits are quite different in their surface exposures and orientations in the gonococcal outer membrane; P.IB subunits likely have both termini buried in the membrane, whereas P.IA subunits have one of their termini exposed on the surface of the organism. Images PMID:6427111

  8. A novel import route for an N-anchor mitochondrial outer membrane protein aided by the TIM23 complex.

    PubMed

    Song, Jiyao; Tamura, Yasushi; Yoshihisa, Tohru; Endo, Toshiya

    2014-06-01

    The membrane topology of Om45 in the yeast mitochondrial outer membrane (OM) is under debate. Here, we confirm that Om45 is anchored to the OM from the intermembrane space (IMS) by its N-terminal hydrophobic segment. We show that import of Om45 requires the presequence receptors, Tom20 and Tom22, and the import channel of Tom40. Unlike any of the known OM proteins, Om45 import requires the TIM23 complex in the inner membrane, a translocator for presequence-containing proteins, and the membrane potential (ΔΨ). Therefore, Om45 is anchored to the OM via the IMS by a novel import pathway involving the TIM23 complex. PMID:24781694

  9. Interactions of HasA, a bacterial haemophore, with haemoglobin and with its outer membrane receptor HasR.

    PubMed

    Létoffé, S; Nato, F; Goldberg, M E; Wandersman, C

    1999-08-01

    The major mechanism by which bacteria acquire free or haemoglobin-bound haem involves direct binding of haem to specific outer membrane receptors. Serratia marcescens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa have an alternative system, which involves an extracellular haemophore, HasA, that captures free or haemoglobin-bound haem and shuttles it to a specific cell surface outer membrane receptor, HasR. Both haem-free (apoprotein) and haem-loaded (holoprotein) HasA bind to HasR, evidence for direct protein-protein interactions between HasA and HasR. HasA binding to HasR takes place in a tonB mutant. TonB is thus required for a step subsequent to HasA binding. PMID:10417645

  10. Covalently linked hopanoid-lipid A improves outer-membrane resistance of a Bradyrhizobium symbiont of legumes.

    PubMed

    Silipo, Alba; Vitiello, Giuseppe; Gully, Djamel; Sturiale, Luisa; Chaintreuil, Clémence; Fardoux, Joel; Gargani, Daniel; Lee, Hae-In; Kulkarni, Gargi; Busset, Nicolas; Marchetti, Roberta; Palmigiano, Angelo; Moll, Herman; Engel, Regina; Lanzetta, Rosa; Paduano, Luigi; Parrilli, Michelangelo; Chang, Woo-Suk; Holst, Otto; Newman, Dianne K; Garozzo, Domenico; D'Errico, Gerardino; Giraud, Eric; Molinaro, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) are major components of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria and are essential for their growth and survival. They act as a structural barrier and play an important role in the interaction with eukaryotic hosts. Here we demonstrate that a photosynthetic Bradyrhizobium strain, symbiont of Aeschynomene legumes, synthesizes a unique LPS bearing a hopanoid covalently attached to lipid A. Biophysical analyses of reconstituted liposomes indicate that this hopanoid-lipid A structure reinforces the stability and rigidity of the outer membrane. In addition, the bacterium produces other hopanoid molecules not linked to LPS. A hopanoid-deficient strain, lacking a squalene hopene cyclase, displays increased sensitivity to stressful conditions and reduced ability to survive intracellularly in the host plant. This unusual combination of hopanoid and LPS molecules may represent an adaptation to optimize bacterial survival in both free-living and symbiotic states. PMID:25355435

  11. Meropenem permeation through the outer membrane of Pseudomonas aeruginosa can involve pathways other than the OprD porin channel.

    PubMed

    Pérez, F J; Gimeno, C; Navarro, D; García-de-Lomas, J

    1996-01-01

    The outer membrane protein (OMP) OprD is the major channel through which carbapenems permeate the outer membrane of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In this study, we analyzed the OMP profiles of several P. aeruginosa clinical isolates showing diminished susceptibility to imipenem while remaining susceptible to meropenem. All these isolates lacked OprD or showed a reduced expression of this porin. Susceptibility to meropenem was thus independent of the level of OprD expression, indicating that the antimicrobial could be taken up via an alternative route. The level of expression of OprC (70 kD) was also unrelated to meropenem susceptibility. Nevertheless, OMPs OprF and OprE were expressed by all isolates, suggesting that in the absence of OprD, these porins might be involved in the permeation of meropenem. PMID:8983889

  12. Mcp3 is a novel mitochondrial outer membrane protein that follows a unique IMP-dependent biogenesis pathway.

    PubMed

    Sinzel, Monika; Tan, Tao; Wendling, Philipp; Kalbacher, Hubert; Özbalci, Cagakan; Chelius, Xenia; Westermann, Benedikt; Brügger, Britta; Rapaport, Doron; Dimmer, Kai Stefan

    2016-07-01

    Mitochondria are separated from the remainder of the eukaryotic cell by the mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM). The MOM plays an important role in different transport processes like lipid trafficking and protein import. In yeast, the ER-mitochondria encounter structure (ERMES) has a central, but poorly defined role in both activities. To understand the functions of the ERMES, we searched for suppressors of the deficiency of one of its components, Mdm10, and identified a novel mitochondrial protein that we named Mdm10 complementing protein 3 (Mcp3). Mcp3 partially rescues a variety of ERMES-related phenotypes. We further demonstrate that Mcp3 is an integral protein of the MOM that follows a unique import pathway. It is recognized initially by the import receptor Tom70 and then crosses the MOM via the translocase of the outer membrane. Mcp3 is next relayed to the TIM23 translocase at the inner membrane, gets processed by the inner membrane peptidase (IMP) and finally integrates into the MOM. Hence, Mcp3 follows a novel biogenesis route where a MOM protein is processed by a peptidase of the inner membrane. PMID:27226123

  13. A multisubunit complex of outer and inner mitochondrial membrane protein translocases stabilized in vivo by translocation intermediates.

    PubMed

    Schülke, N; Sepuri, N B; Gordon, D M; Saxena, S; Dancis, A; Pain, D

    1999-08-01

    Translocation of nuclear encoded preproteins into the mitochondrial matrix requires the coordinated action of two translocases: one (Tom) located in the outer mitochondrial membrane and the other (Tim) located in the inner membrane. These translocases reversibly cooperate during protein import. We have previously constructed a chimeric precursor (pPGPrA) consisting of an authentic mitochondrial precursor at the N terminus (Delta(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase, pPut) linked, through glutathione S-transferase, to protein A. When pPGPrA is expressed in yeast, it becomes irreversibly arrested during translocation across the outer and inner mitochondrial membranes. Consequently, the two membranes of mitochondria become progressively "zippered" together, forming long stretches in which they are in close contact (Schülke, N., Sepuri, N. B. V., and Pain, D. (1997) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 94, 7314-7319). We now demonstrate that trapped PGPrA intermediates hold the import channels stably together and inhibit mitochondrial protein import and cell growth. Using IgG-Sepharose affinity chromatography of solubilized zippered membranes, we have isolated a multisubunit complex that contains all Tom and Tim components known to be essential for import of matrix-targeted proteins, namely Tom40, Tom22, Tim17, Tim23, Tim44, and matrix-localized Hsp70. Further characterization of this complex may shed light on structural features of the complete mitochondrial import machinery. PMID:10428870

  14. Assembly and Channel Opening of Outer Membrane Protein in Tripartite Drug Efflux Pumps of Gram-negative Bacteria*

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yongbin; Moeller, Arne; Jun, So-Young; Le, Minho; Yoon, Bo-Young; Kim, Jin-Sik; Lee, Kangseok; Ha, Nam-Chul

    2012-01-01

    Gram-negative bacteria are capable of expelling diverse xenobiotic substances from within the cell by use of three-component efflux pumps in which the energy-activated inner membrane transporter is connected to the outer membrane channel protein via the membrane fusion protein. In this work, we describe the crystal structure of the membrane fusion protein MexA from the Pseudomonas aeruginosa MexAB-OprM pump in the hexameric ring arrangement. Electron microscopy study on the chimeric complex of MexA and the outer membrane protein OprM reveals that MexA makes a tip-to-tip interaction with OprM, which suggests a docking model for MexA and OprM. This docking model agrees well with genetic results and depicts detailed interactions. Opening of the OprM channel is accompanied by the simultaneous exposure of a protein structure resembling a six-bladed cogwheel, which intermeshes with the complementary cogwheel structure in the MexA hexamer. Taken together, we suggest an assembly and channel opening model for the MexAB-OprM pump. This study provides a better understanding of multidrug resistance in Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:22308040

  15. Lipopolysaccharide Density and Structure Govern the Extent and Distance of Nanoparticle Interaction with Actual and Model Bacterial Outer Membranes.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Kurt H; Gunsolus, Ian L; Kuech, Thomas R; Troiano, Julianne M; Melby, Eric S; Lohse, Samuel E; Hu, Dehong; Chrisler, William B; Murphy, Catherine J; Orr, Galya; Geiger, Franz M; Haynes, Christy L; Pedersen, Joel A

    2015-09-01

    Design of nanomedicines and nanoparticle-based antimicrobial and antifouling formulations and assessment of the potential implications of nanoparticle release into the environment requires understanding nanoparticle interaction with bacterial surfaces. Here we demonstrate the electrostatically driven association of functionalized nanoparticles with lipopolysaccharides of Gram-negative bacterial outer membranes and find that lipopolysaccharide structure influences the extent and location of binding relative to the outer leaflet-solution interface. By manipulating the lipopolysaccharide content in Shewanella oneidensis outer membranes, we observed the electrostatically driven interaction of cationic gold nanoparticles with the lipopolysaccharide-containing leaflet. We probed this interaction by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) and second harmonic generation (SHG) using solid-supported lipopolysaccharide-containing bilayers. The association of cationic nanoparticles increased with lipopolysaccharide content, while no association of anionic nanoparticles was observed. The harmonic-dependence of QCM-D measurements suggested that a population of the cationic nanoparticles was held at a distance from the outer leaflet-solution interface of bilayers containing smooth lipopolysaccharides (those bearing a long O-polysaccharide). Additionally, smooth lipopolysaccharides held the bulk of the associated cationic particles outside of the interfacial zone probed by SHG. Our results demonstrate that positively charged nanoparticles are more likely to interact with Gram-negative bacteria than are negatively charged particles, and this interaction occurs primarily through lipopolysaccharides. PMID:26207769

  16. Lipopolysaccharide Density and Structure Govern the Extent and Distance of Nanoparticle Interaction with Actual and Model Bacterial Outer Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Kurt H.; Gunsolus, Ian L.; Kuech, Thomas R.; Troiano, Julianne M.; Melby, Eric S.; Lohse, Samuel E.; Hu, Dehong; Chrisler, William B.; Murphy, Catherine J.; Orr, Galya; Geiger, Franz M.; Haynes, Christy L.; Pedersen, Joel A.

    2015-01-01

    Design of nanomedicines and nanoparticle-based antimicrobial and antifouling formulations and assessment of the potential implications of nanoparticle release into the environment requires understanding nanoparticle interaction with bacterial surfaces. Here we demonstrate the electrostatically driven association of functionalized nanoparticles with lipopolysaccharides of Gram-negative bacterial outer membranes and find that lipopolysaccharide structure influences the extent and location of binding relative to the outer leaflet-solution interface. By manipulating the lipopolysaccharide content in Shewanella oneidensis outer membranes, we observed the electrostatically driven interaction of cationic gold nanoparticles with the lipopolysaccharide-containing leaflet. We probed this interaction by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) and second harmonic generation (SHG) using solid-supported lipopolysaccharide-containing bilayers. The association of cationic nanoparticles increased with lipopolysaccharide content, while no association of anionic nanoparticles was observed. The harmonic-dependence of QCM-D measurements suggested that a population of the cationic nanoparticles was held at a distance from the outer leaflet-solution interface of bilayers containing smooth lipopolysaccharides (those bearing a long O-polysaccharide). Additionally, smooth lipopolysaccharides held the bulk of the associated cationic particles outside of the interfacial zone probed by SHG. Our results demonstrate that positively charged nanoparticles are more likely to interact with Gram-negative bacteria than are negatively charged particles, and this interaction occurs primarily through lipopolysaccharides. PMID:26207769

  17. Immunogenicity and Cross-Protective Efficacy Induced by Outer Membrane Proteins from Salmonella Typhimurium Mutants with Truncated LPS in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qiong; Liu, Qing; Zhao, Xinxin; Liu, Tian; Yi, Jie; Liang, Kang; Kong, Qingke

    2016-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a major virulence factor present in the outer membrane of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium). Outer membrane proteins (OMPs) from Salmonella show high immunogenicity and provide protection against Salmonella infection, and truncated LPS alters the outer membrane composition of the cell wall. In our previous study, we demonstrated that Salmonella mutants carrying truncated LPS failed to induce strong immune responses and cross-reaction to other enteric bacteria, due to their high attenuation and low colonization in the host. Therefore, we plan to investigate whether outer membrane proteins from Salmonella mutants with truncated LPS resulting from a series of nonpolar mutations, including ∆waaC12, ∆waaF15, ∆waaG42, ∆rfaH49, ∆waaI43, ∆waaJ44, ∆waaL46, ∆wbaP45 and ∆wzy-48, affect immunogenicity and provide protection against diverse Salmonella challenge. In this study, the immunogenicity and cross-protection efficiency of purified OMPs from all mutants were investigated to explore a potential OMP vaccine to protect against homologous or heterologous serotype Salmonella challenge. The results demonstrated that OMPs from three Salmonella mutants (∆waaC12, ∆waaJ44 and ∆waaL46) induced higher immune responses and provided good protection against homologous S. Typhimurium. The OMPs from these three mutants were also selected to determine the cross-protective efficacy against homologous and heterologous serotype Salmonella. Our results indicated that the mutant ∆waaC12 can elicit higher cross-reactivity and can provide good protection against S. Choleraesuis and S. Enteritidis infection and that the cross-reactivity may be ascribed to an antigen of approximately 18.4–30 kDa. PMID:27011167

  18. Distribution of a protein antigenically related to the major anaerobically induced gonococcal outer membrane protein among other Neisseria species.

    PubMed

    Hoehn, G T; Clark, V L

    1990-12-01

    The Pan 1 protein of Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a novel 54-kDa outer membrane protein expressed only when gonococci are grown in the absence of oxygen. It is a major antigen recognized by sera from patients with gonococcal infection. We raised mouse monospecific polyclonal antiserum to gel-purified Pan 1 from gonococcal strain F62. The antiserum was broadly cross-reactive among gonococcal strains; all strains tested reacted in immunoblot analysis proportionate to the amount of Pan 1 visible in silver-stained sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-polyacrylamide gels. In immunoblot experiments, N. lactamica and N. cinerea reacted very strongly to the anti-Pan 1 antiserum, whereas N. sicca, N. flava, and N. mucosa did not react at all. The other commensals tested, N. subflava and N. perflava, exhibited only a minor reaction. These results correlated with the apparent amount of Pan 1 seen on SDS-polyacrylamide gels of outer membranes. SDS-polyacrylamide gel analysis of six meningococcal strains revealed no visible anaerobically induced outer membrane proteins, and the subsequent immunoblots showed only slight or no reaction to the anti-Pan 1 antibody. In the four meningococcal strains that did react slightly with the antiserum, a Pan 1-like protein was seen only in anaerobically grown cells. Thus, meningococci did not express Pan 1 at levels comparable to that found in gonococci; however, when Pan 1 was expressed in meningococcal strains, it was oxygen regulated. This is the first example of a protein found in the gonococcal outer membrane that, under identical growth conditions, is not expressed at similar levels in the meningococcus. PMID:2123827

  19. Protective Immunity to Vaccinia Virus Induced by Vaccination with Multiple Recombinant Outer Membrane Proteins of Intracellular and Extracellular Virions

    PubMed Central

    Fogg, Christiana; Lustig, Shlomo; Whitbeck, J. Charles; Eisenberg, Roselyn J.; Cohen, Gary H.; Moss, Bernard

    2004-01-01

    Infectious intracellular and extracellular forms of vaccinia virus have different outer membrane proteins, presenting multiple targets to the immune system. We investigated the immunogenicity of soluble forms of L1, an outer membrane protein of the intracellular mature virus, and of A33 and B5, outer membrane proteins of the extracellular enveloped virus. The recombinant proteins, in 10-μg amounts mixed with a Ribi- or saponin-type adjuvant, were administered subcutaneously to mice. Antibody titers to each protein rose sharply after the first and second boosts, reaching levels that surpassed those induced by percutaneous immunization with live vaccinia virus. Immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) antibody predominated after the protein immunizations, indicative of a T-helper cell type 2 response, whereas live vaccinia virus induced mainly IgG2a, indicative of a T-helper cell type 1 response. Mice immunized with any one of the recombinant proteins survived an intranasal challenge with 5 times the 50% lethal dose of the pathogenic WR strain of vaccinia virus. Measurements of weight loss indicated that the A33 immunization most effectively prevented disease. The superiority of protein combinations was demonstrated when the challenge virus dose was increased 20-fold. The best protection was obtained with a vaccine made by combining recombinant proteins of the outer membranes of intracellular and extracellular virus. Indeed, mice immunized with A33 plus B5 plus L1 or with A33 plus L1 were better protected than mice immunized with live vaccinia virus. Three immunizations with the three-protein combination were necessary and sufficient for complete protection. These studies suggest the feasibility of a multiprotein smallpox vaccine. PMID:15367588

  20. Distribution of a protein antigenically related to the major anaerobically induced gonococcal outer membrane protein among other Neisseria species.

    PubMed Central

    Hoehn, G T; Clark, V L

    1990-01-01

    The Pan 1 protein of Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a novel 54-kDa outer membrane protein expressed only when gonococci are grown in the absence of oxygen. It is a major antigen recognized by sera from patients with gonococcal infection. We raised mouse monospecific polyclonal antiserum to gel-purified Pan 1 from gonococcal strain F62. The antiserum was broadly cross-reactive among gonococcal strains; all strains tested reacted in immunoblot analysis proportionate to the amount of Pan 1 visible in silver-stained sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-polyacrylamide gels. In immunoblot experiments, N. lactamica and N. cinerea reacted very strongly to the anti-Pan 1 antiserum, whereas N. sicca, N. flava, and N. mucosa did not react at all. The other commensals tested, N. subflava and N. perflava, exhibited only a minor reaction. These results correlated with the apparent amount of Pan 1 seen on SDS-polyacrylamide gels of outer membranes. SDS-polyacrylamide gel analysis of six meningococcal strains revealed no visible anaerobically induced outer membrane proteins, and the subsequent immunoblots showed only slight or no reaction to the anti-Pan 1 antibody. In the four meningococcal strains that did react slightly with the antiserum, a Pan 1-like protein was seen only in anaerobically grown cells. Thus, meningococci did not express Pan 1 at levels comparable to that found in gonococci; however, when Pan 1 was expressed in meningococcal strains, it was oxygen regulated. This is the first example of a protein found in the gonococcal outer membrane that, under identical growth conditions, is not expressed at similar levels in the meningococcus. Images PMID:2123827

  1. An outer membrane protein (porin) as an eliciting antigen for delayed-type hypersensitivity in murine salmonellosis.

    PubMed Central

    Udhayakumar, V; Muthukkaruppan, V R

    1987-01-01

    The porin, an outer membrane protein of Salmonella typhimurium, was found to be a suitable antigen for eliciting delayed-type hypersensitivity in mouse salmonellosis. Histological examination of the reaction site revealed that the porin was superior to other antigenic preparations in eliciting a typical delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction consisting of mononuclear cell infiltration without polymorphonuclear cell contamination. This study indicates the importance of using a suitable protein antigen from S. typhi for human application. Images PMID:3028963

  2. The tolC locus of Escherichia coli affects the expression of three major outer membrane proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Morona, R; Reeves, P

    1982-01-01

    tolC mutants, which are resistant to colicin E1 and also highly sensitive to detergents and dyes, were shown to lack the OmpF outer membrane protein. There was little effect on transcription as judged by the use of an ompF-lac operon fusion strain, and the tolC effect was probably due to a post-transcriptional effect. The NmpC protein and protein 2 were also tolC dependent. Images PMID:6281230

  3. The Major Outer Sheath Protein (Msp) of Treponema denticola Has a Bipartite Domain Architecture and Exists as Periplasmic and Outer Membrane-Spanning Conformers

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Arvind; Luthra, Amit; Edmond, Maxwell E.; Ledoyt, Morgan; Caimano, Melissa J.

    2013-01-01

    The major outer sheath protein (Msp) is a primary virulence determinant in Treponema denticola, as well as the parental ortholog for the Treponema pallidum repeat (Tpr) family in the syphilis spirochete. The Conserved Domain Database (CDD) server revealed that Msp contains two conserved domains, major outer sheath proteinN (MOSPN) and MOSPC, spanning residues 77 to 286 and 332 to 543, respectively, within the N- and C-terminal regions of the protein. Circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, Triton X-114 (TX-114) phase partitioning, and liposome incorporation demonstrated that full-length, recombinant Msp (MspFl) and a recombinant protein containing MOSPC, but not MOSPN, form amphiphilic, β-sheet-rich structures with channel-forming activity. Immunofluorescence analysis of intact T. denticola revealed that only MOSPC contains surface-exposed epitopes. Data obtained using proteinase K accessibility, TX-114 phase partitioning, and cell fractionation revealed that Msp exists as distinct OM-integrated and periplasmic trimers. MspFl folded in Tris buffer contained slightly less β-sheet structure than detergent-folded MspFl; both forms, however, partitioned into the TX-114 detergent-enriched phase. CDD analysis of the nine Tpr paralogs predicted to be outer membrane proteins (OMPs) revealed that seven have an Msp-like bipartite structure; phylogenetic analysis revealed that the MOSPN and MOSPC domains of Msp are most closely related to those of TprK. Based upon our collective results, we propose a model whereby a newly exported, partially folded intermediate can be either processed for OM insertion by the β-barrel assembly machinery (BAM) or remain periplasmic, ultimately forming a stable, water-soluble trimer. Extrapolated to T. pallidum, our model enables us to explain how individual Tprs can localize to either the periplasmic (e.g., TprK) or OM (e.g., TprC) compartments. PMID:23457251

  4. Salicylate-inducible antibiotic resistance in Pseudomonas cepacia associated with absence of a pore-forming outer membrane protein.

    PubMed Central

    Burns, J L; Clark, D K

    1992-01-01

    The most common mechanism of antibiotic resistance in multiply resistant Pseudomonas cepacia is decreased porin-mediated outer membrane permeability. In some gram-negative organisms this form of antibiotic resistance can be induced by growth in the presence of weak acids, such as salicylates, which suppress porin synthesis. To determine the effects of salicylates on outer membrane permeability of P. cepacia, a susceptible laboratory strain, 249-2, was grown in 10 mM sodium salicylate. Antibiotic susceptibility and uptake, as well as outer membrane protein patterns, were compared between strain 249-2 grown with and without salicylates. The MICs of chloramphenicol, trimethoprim, ciprofloxacin, and ceftazidime were compared between organisms grown in standard and salicylate-containing medium and are as follows: chloramphenicol, 12.5 versus 100 micrograms/ml; trimethoprim, 0.78 versus 3.125 micrograms/ml; ciprofloxacin, 0.4 versus 1.56 micrograms/ml; ceftazidime, 3.125 versus 3.125 micrograms/ml. The permeability of beta-lactam antibiotics was calculated from the rate of hydrolysis of the chromogenic cephalosporin, PADAC. There was no significant difference between strains grown in the presence and absence of salicylate. By using high-pressure liquid chromatography quantitation of loss from culture medium, the effect of 10 mM salicylate on the cellular permeability of chloramphenicol was measured in strain 249-2 by introduction of a plasmid which encodes production of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase. After 1 h of incubation, 18.5% +/- 1.54% versus 70.1% +/- 3.52%, and after 2 h, 4.20% +/- 1.65% versus 41.90% +/- 2.16% remained in supernatants from organisms grown in the absence and presence of 10 mM salicylate, respectively. Outer membrane protein pattern analysis demonstrated the absence of a protein of apparent molecular weight of 40,000 when strain 249-2 was grown in the presence of 10 mM salicylate. To determine whether this protein functioned as a porin

  5. OEP40, a Regulated Glucose-permeable β-Barrel Solute Channel in the Chloroplast Outer Envelope Membrane.

    PubMed

    Harsman, Anke; Schock, Annette; Hemmis, Birgit; Wahl, Vanessa; Jeshen, Ingrid; Bartsch, Philipp; Schlereth, Armin; Pertl-Obermeyer, Heidi; Goetze, Tom Alexander; Soll, Jürgen; Philippar, Katrin; Wagner, Richard

    2016-08-19

    Chloroplasts and mitochondria are unique endosymbiotic cellular organelles surrounded by two membranes. Essential metabolic networking between these compartments and their hosting cells requires the exchange of a large number of biochemical pathway intermediates in a directed and coordinated fashion across their inner and outer envelope membranes. Here, we describe the identification and functional characterization of a highly specific, regulated solute channel in the outer envelope of chloroplasts, named OEP40. Loss of OEP40 function in Arabidopsis thaliana results in early flowering under cold temperature. The reconstituted recombinant OEP40 protein forms a high conductance β-barrel ion channel with subconductant states in planar lipid bilayers. The OEP40 channel is slightly cation-selective PK+/PCl- ≈ 4:1 and rectifying (i⃗/i⃖ ≅ 2) with a slope conductance of Ḡmax ≅ 690 picosiemens. The OEP40 channel has a restriction zone diameter of ≅1.4 nm and is permeable for glucose, glucose 1-phosphate and glucose 6-phosphate, but not for maltose. Moreover, channel properties are regulated by trehalose 6-phosphate, which cannot permeate. Altogether, our results indicate that OEP40 is a "glucose-gate" in the outer envelope membrane of chloroplasts, facilitating selective metabolite exchange between chloroplasts and the surrounding cell. PMID:27339897

  6. Assembly of the β-Barrel Outer Membrane Proteins in Gram-Negative Bacteria, Mitochondria, and Chloroplasts

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Rajeev

    2012-01-01

    In the last decade, there has been an explosion of publications on the assembly of β-barrel outer membrane proteins (OMPs), which carry out diverse cellular functions, including solute transport, protein secretion, and assembly of protein and lipid components of the outer membrane. Of the three outer membrane model systems—Gram-negative bacteria, mitochondria and chloroplasts—research on bacterial and mitochondrial systems has so far led the way in dissecting the β-barrel OMP assembly pathways. Many exciting discoveries have been made, including the identification of β-barrel OMP assembly machineries in bacteria and mitochondria, and potentially the core assembly component in chloroplasts. The atomic structures of all five components of the bacterial β-barrel assembly machinery (BAM) complex, except the β-barrel domain of the core BamA protein, have been solved. Structures reveal that these proteins contain domains/motifs known to facilitate protein-protein interactions, which are at the heart of the assembly pathways. While structural information has been valuable, most of our current understanding of the β-barrel OMP assembly pathways has come from genetic, molecular biology, and biochemical analyses. This paper provides a comparative account of the β-barrel OMP assembly pathways in Gram-negative bacteria, mitochondria, and chloroplasts.

  7. Molecular cloning and expression of Neisseria meningitidis class 1 outer membrane protein in Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed Central

    Barlow, A K; Heckels, J E; Clarke, I N

    1987-01-01

    A genomic library of meningococcal DNA from a clinical isolate of Neisseria meningitidis was constructed in the expression vector lambda gt11. Outer membrane complex was prepared from the same strain and used to immunize rabbits to raise polyclonal anti-outer membrane complex serum. The amplified library was probed with this polyclonal serum, and seven expressing recombinants were isolated; further investigations indicated these to be identical. The expressed meningococcal gene in these recombinants was fused to vector beta-galactosidase and shown to encode epitopes present on the 42-kilodalton class 1 outer membrane protein. Estimation of the size of the recombinant fusion protein suggests that up to 40 kilodaltons of protein-coding sequence is present. The lambda gt11 recombinant contains a 3.4-kilobase DNA insert, which has been recloned into a plasmid and characterized by restriction endonuclease analysis. A restriction fragment from the insert, representing the protein-coding region hybridizes to a single 2.2-kilobase XbaI fragment from the homologous strain and to similar-sized XbaI fragments in other strains of meningococci, expressing antigenically distinct class 1 proteins. Images PMID:3117690

  8. Transfer of palmitate from phospholipids to lipid A in outer membranes of Gram-negative bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Russell E.; Gibbons, Henry S.; Guina, Tina; Trent, M.Stephen; Miller, Samuel I.; Raetz, Christian R.H.

    2000-01-01

    Regulated covalent modifications of lipid A are implicated in virulence of pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. The Salmonella typhimurium PhoP/PhoQ-activated gene pagP is required both for biosynthesis of hepta-acylated lipid A species containing palmitate and for resistance to cationic anti-microbial peptides. Palmitoylated lipid A can also function as an endotoxin antagonist. We now show that pagP and its Escherichia coli homolog (crcA) encode an unusual enzyme of lipid A biosynthesis localized in the outer membrane. PagP transfers a palmitate residue from the sn-1 position of a phospholipid to the N-linked hydroxymyristate on the proximal unit of lipid A (or its precursors). PagP bearing a C-terminal His6-tag accumulated in outer membranes during overproduction, was purified with full activity and was shown by cross-linking to behave as a homodimer. PagP is the first example of an outer membrane enzyme involved in lipid A biosynthesis. Additional pagP homologs are encoded in the genomes of Yersinia and Bordetella species. PagP may provide an adaptive response toward both Mg2+ limitation and host innate immune defenses. PMID:11013210

  9. Secretion of curli fibre subunits is mediated by the outer membrane-localized CsgG protein

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Lloyd S.; Ashman, Elisabeth M.; Hultgren, Scott J.; Chapman, Matthew R.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Produced by many Enterobacteriaceae spp., curli are biologically important amyloid fibres that have been associated with biofilm formation, host cell adhesion and invasion, and immune system activation. CsgA is the major fibre subunit and CsgE, CsgF and CsgG are non-structural proteins involved in curli biogenesis. We have characterized the role of CsgG in curli subunit secretion across the outer membrane. Directed mutagenesis of CsgG confirmed that its activity is dependent on localization to the outer membrane. Rotary Shadow electron microscopy of purified CsgG suggested that this protein assembles into an oligomeric complex with an apparent central pore. Oligomeric CsgG complexes were confirmed using co-purification experiments. Antibiotic sensitivity assays demonstrated that overexpression of CsgG rendered Escherichia coli susceptible to the antibiotic erythromycin. A 22-amino-acid sequence at the N-terminus of CsgA was sufficient to direct heterologous proteins to the CsgG secretion apparatus. Finally, we determined that CsgG participates in an outer membrane complex with two other curli assembly proteins, CsgE and CsgF. PMID:16420357

  10. Overexpression, refolding, and purification of the histidine-tagged outer membrane efflux protein OprM of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Charbonnier, F; Köhler, T; Pechère, J C; Ducruix, A

    2001-10-01

    This paper describes the overproduction and purification of the C-terminus polyhistidine-tagged outer membrane protein OprM, which is a part of the MexA-MexB-OprM active efflux system of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Renaturation of the protein from inclusion bodies of Escherichia coli was achieved using guanidine-HCl as denaturing agent and n-octylpolyoxyethylene (C8POE) and n-octyltetraoxyethylene (C8E4) as nonionic detergents. The refolded protein was purified by ion-exchange and nickel-affinity chromatography. The final yield was 6 mg of pure histidine-tagged OprM per liter of E. coli culture. Renaturation was monitored by the effects of heating prior to SDS-PAGE, using a typical and exclusive property of outer membrane proteins. Immunoblotting revealed that the recombinant protein is addressed to the outer membrane of E. coli, after maturation by excision of its N-terminal signal sequence. Complementation of an oprM deletion mutant with the plasmid encoded histidine-tagged OprM protein restored antibiotic susceptibilities to wild-type levels, demonstrating functionality of recombinant OprM. PMID:11570853

  11. Molecular parasitism in the Escherichia coli-Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus system: translocation of the matrix protein from the host to the parasite outer membrane.

    PubMed Central

    Guerrini, F; Romano, V; Valenzi, M; Di Giulio, M; Mupo, M R; Sacco, M

    1982-01-01

    During the intracellular maturation in Escherichia coli of the parasite Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus the outer membrane, major protein I of E. coli (i.e., the matrix protein) becomes associated with the outer membrane of the emerging parasite cells. The binding properties of this protein with the outer membrane of the host and of the parasite are identical. An analogous phenomenon also occurs during Bdellovibrio parasitism on Klebsiella pneumoniae and on Salmonella typhimurium. Possible roles for this scavenging action of Bdellovibrio, and similar phenomena in other parasitic systems, are discussed. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:6765198

  12. Biogenesis of mitochondria: dual role of Tom7 in modulating assembly of the preprotein translocase of the outer membrane.

    PubMed

    Becker, Thomas; Wenz, Lena-Sophie; Thornton, Nicolas; Stroud, David; Meisinger, Chris; Wiedemann, Nils; Pfanner, Nikolaus

    2011-01-01

    Biogenesis of the translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane (TOM complex) involves the assembly of the central β-barrel forming protein Tom40 with six different subunits that are embedded in the membrane via α-helical transmembrane segments. The sorting and assembly machinery (SAM complex) of the outer membrane plays a central role in this process. The SAM complex mediates the membrane integration of β-barrel precursor proteins including Tom40. The small Tom proteins Tom5 and Tom6 associate with the precursor of Tom40 at the SAM complex at an early stage of the assembly process and play a stimulatory role in the formation of the mature TOM complex. A fraction of the SAM components interacts with the outer membrane protein mitochondrial distribution and morphology protein 10 (Mdm10) to form the SAM-Mdm10 machinery; however, different views exist on the function of the SAM-Mdm10 complex. We report here that the third small Tom protein, Tom7, plays an inhibitory role at two distinct steps in the biogenesis of the TOM complex. First, Tom7 plays an antagonistic role to Tom5 and Tom6 at the early stage of Tom40 assembly at the SAM complex. Second, Tom7 interacts with Mdm10 that is not bound to the SAM complex, and thus promotes dissociation of the SAM-Mdm10 complex. Since the SAM-Mdm10 complex is required for the biogenesis of Tom22, Tom7 delays the assembly of Tom22 with Tom40 at a late stage of assembly of the TOM complex. Thus, Tom7 modulates the biogenesis of topologically different proteins, the β-barrel forming protein Tom40 and Tom22 that contains a transmembrane α-helix. PMID:21059357

  13. Surface hydrolysis of sphingomyelin by the outer membrane protein Rv0888 supports replication of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Speer, Alexander; Sun, Jim; Danilchanka, Olga; Meikle, Virginia; Rowland, Jennifer L; Walter, Kerstin; Buck, Bradford R; Pavlenok, Mikhail; Hölscher, Christoph; Ehrt, Sabine; Niederweis, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Sphingomyelinases secreted by pathogenic bacteria play important roles in host-pathogen interactions ranging from interfering with phagocytosis and oxidative burst to iron acquisition. This study shows that the Mtb protein Rv0888 possesses potent sphingomyelinase activity cleaving sphingomyelin, a major lipid in eukaryotic cells, into ceramide and phosphocholine, which are then utilized by Mtb as carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus sources, respectively. An Mtb rv0888 deletion mutant did not grow on sphingomyelin as a sole carbon source anymore and replicated poorly in macrophages indicating that Mtb utilizes sphingomyelin during infection. Rv0888 is an unusual membrane protein with a surface-exposed C-terminal sphingomyelinase domain and a putative N-terminal channel domain that mediated glucose and phosphocholine uptake across the outer membrane in an M. smegmatis porin mutant. Hence, we propose to name Rv0888 as SpmT (sphingomyelinase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis). Erythrocyte membranes contain up to 27% sphingomyelin. The finding that Rv0888 accounts for half of Mtb's hemolytic activity is consistent with its sphingomyelinase activity and the observation that Rv0888 levels are increased in the presence of erythrocytes and sphingomyelin by 5- and 100-fold, respectively. Thus, Rv0888 is a novel outer membrane protein that enables Mtb to utilize sphingomyelin as a source of several essential nutrients during intracellular growth. PMID:26036301

  14. Outer-selective pressure-retarded osmosis hollow fiber membranes from vacuum-assisted interfacial polymerization for osmotic power generation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shi-Peng; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2013-11-19

    In this paper, we report the technical breakthroughs to synthesize outer-selective thin-film composite (TFC) hollow fiber membranes, which is in an urgent need for osmotic power generation with the pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO) process. In the first step, a defect-free thin-film composite membrane module is achieved by vacuum-assisted interfacial polymerization. The PRO performance is further enhanced by optimizing the support in terms of pore size and mechanical strength and the TFC layer with polydopamine coating and molecular engineering of the interfacial polymerization solution. The newly developed membranes can stand over 20 bar with a peak power density of 7.63 W/m(2), which is equivalent to 13.72 W/m(2) of its inner-selective hollow fiber counterpart with the same module size, packing density, and fiber dimensions. The study may provide insightful guidelines for optimizing the interfacial polymerization procedures and scaling up of the outer-selective TFC hollow fiber membrane modules for PRO power generation. PMID:24117418

  15. Ultrastructural aspects and amino acid composition of the purified inner and outer membranes of human liver mitochondria as compared to rat liver mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Benga, G; Poruţiu, D; Hodârnău, A; Ferdinand, W

    1992-05-01

    1. The mitochondria isolated from human or rat liver were fractionated into submitochondrial particles and purified inner and outer membrane. According to different marker enzymes the inner membranes were enriched about 5-6-fold and the outer membranes about 12-14-fold. The electron microscopical appearance of the membranes was that expected on the basis of enzymic characterization. 2. A comparison of the average amino acid composition of the membrane proteins from the two types of mitochondria has been made. In the case of submitochondrial particles there were statistically significant differences between the human and rat hydrolysates for only five amino acids. Analysing the purified mitochondrial membranes there were significant differences between the two species for nine amino acids in the case of outer membranes and for 12 amino acids in the case of inner membranes. 3. With one exception all amino acids that were increased or decreased in the outer membrane exhibited a similar trend in the inner membrane of human compared with rat liver mitochondria. It appears that liver mitochondrial membranes have a species-dependent pattern of amino acid composition of their proteins. PMID:1526116

  16. Improving the immunogenicity of a trivalent Neisseria meningitidis native outer membrane vesicle vaccine by genetic modification.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lan; Wen, Zhiyun; Lin, Jing; Xu, Hui; Herbert, Paul; Wang, Xin-Min; Mehl, John T; Ahl, Patrick L; Dieter, Lance; Russell, Ryann; Kosinski, Mike J; Przysiecki, Craig T

    2016-07-29

    Trivalent native outer membrane vesicles (nOMVs) derived from three genetically modified Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B strains have been previously evaluated immunologically in mice and rabbits. This nOMV vaccine elicited serum bactericidal activity (SBA) against multiple N. meningitidis serogroup B strains as well as strains from serogroups C, Y, W, and X. In this study, we used trivalent nOMVs isolated from the same vaccine strains and evaluated their immunogenicity in an infant Rhesus macaque (IRM) model whose immune responses to the vaccine are likely to be more predictive of the responses in human infants. IRMs were immunized with trivalent nOMV vaccines and sera were evaluated for exogenous human serum complement-dependent SBA (hSBA). Antibody responses to selected hSBA generating antigens contained within the trivalent nOMVs were also measured and we found that antibody titers against factor H binding protein variant 2 (fHbpv2) were very low in the sera from animals immunized with these original nOMV vaccines. To increase the fHbp content in the nOMVs, the vaccine strains were further genetically altered by addition of another fHbp gene copy into the porB locus. Trivalent nOMVs from the three new vaccine strains had higher fHbp antigen levels and generated higher anti-fHbp antibody responses in immunized mice and IRMs. As expected, fHbp insertion into the porB locus resulted in no PorB expression. Interestingly, higher expression of PorA, an hSBA generating antigen, was observed for all three modified vaccine strains. Compared to the trivalent nOMVs from the original strains, higher PorA levels in the improved nOMVs resulted in higher anti-PorA antibody responses in mice and IRMs. In addition, hSBA titers against other strains with PorA as the only hSBA antigen in common with the vaccine strains also increased. PMID:27269057

  17. Assessment of outer membrane vesicles of periodontopathic bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis as possible mucosal immunogen.

    PubMed

    Nakao, Ryoma; Hasegawa, Hideki; Dongying, Bai; Ohnishi, Makoto; Senpuku, Hidenobu

    2016-08-31

    Periodontitis is the most prevalent infectious disease and related to oral and systemic health, therefore novel prophylaxis to prevent the disease is highly desirable. Here, we assessed the outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) of a keystone periodontal pathogen, Porphyromonas gingivalis, as a candidate mucosal immunogen and adjuvant for a periodontitis vaccine. The structural and functional stability of OMVs, demonstrated by proteinase K resistance and ability to withstand long-term storage, are considered advantageous for carrying the OMV components into the host immune system. Intranasal vaccination of OMVs in mice elicited production of P. gingivalis-specific antibodies in blood and saliva by OMVs in a dose-dependent manner, which was dramatically enhanced by addition of a TLR3 agonist, Poly(I:C). Serum samples from mice immunized with OMVs plus Poly(I:C) adjuvant [OMV+Poly(I:C)] showed significant inhibition of gingipain proteolytic activity of not only the vaccine strain, but also heterologous strains. The viability of P. gingivalis was also decreased by preincubation with OMV+Poly(I:C)-immunized sera, while the killing effect was partially blocked by heat-inactivation of the sera. Saliva samples from mice immunized with OMV+Poly(I:C) enhanced bacterial agglutination of both the vaccine and heterologous strains. In an oral infection mouse model, the numbers of P. gingivalis in the oral cavity were significantly decreased in mice intranasally immunized with OMV+Poly(I:C) as compared to mock (only Poly[I:C])-immunized mice. The high levels of serum IgG (including IgG1 and IgG2a) and salivary S-IgA were elicited in mice intranasally immunized with OMV+Poly(I:C), which were maintained for at least 28 and 18weeks, respectively, after immunization. An experiment examining the accumulation of OMVs after intranasal immunization in proximal organs and an intracerebral injection experiment confirmed the safety of OMVs. Based on our results, we propose that intranasal

  18. Sialylation of Outer Membrane Porin Protein D: A Mechanistic Basis of Antibiotic Uptake in Pseudomonas aeruginosa*

    PubMed Central

    Khatua, Biswajit; Vleet, Jeremy Van; Choudhury, Biswa Pronab; Chaudhry, Rama; Mandal, Chitra

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) is an environmentally ubiquitous, extracellular, opportunistic pathogen, associated with severe infections of immune-compromised host. We demonstrated earlier the presence of both α2,3- and α2,6-linked sialic acids (Sias) on PA (PA+Sias) and normal human serum is their source of Sias. PA+Sias showed decreased complement deposition and exhibited enhanced association with immune-cells through sialic acid binding immunoglobulin like lectins (Siglecs). Such Sias-siglec-9 interaction between PA+Sias and neutrophils helped to subvert host immunity. Additionally, PA+Sias showed more resistant to β-lactam antibiotics as reflected in their minimum inhibitory concentration required to inhibit the growth of 50% than PA−Sias. Accordingly, we have affinity purified sialoglycoproteins of PA+Sias. They were electrophoresed and identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis. Sequence study indicated the presence of a few α2,6-linked, α2,3-linked, and both α2,3- and α2,6-linked sialylated proteins in PA. The outer membrane porin protein D (OprD), a specialized channel-forming protein, responsible for uptake of β-lactam antibiotics, is one such identified sialoglycoprotein. Accordingly, sialylated (OprD+Sias) and non-sialylated (OprD−Sias) porin proteins were separately purified by using anion exchange chromatography. Sialylation of purified OprD+Sias was confirmed by several analytical and biochemical procedures. Profiling of glycan structures revealed three sialylated N-glycans and two sialylated O-glycans in OprD+Sias. In contrast, OprD−Sias exhibit only one sialylated N-glycans. OprD−Sias interacts with β-lactam antibiotics more than OprD+Sias as demonstrated by surface plasmon resonance study. Lyposome-swelling assay further exhibited that antibiotics have more capability to penetrate through OprD−Sias purified from four clinical isolates of PA. Taken together, it

  19. Tromp1, a putative rare outer membrane protein, is anchored by an uncleaved signal sequence to the Treponema pallidum cytoplasmic membrane.

    PubMed Central

    Akins, D R; Robinson, E; Shevchenko, D; Elkins, C; Cox, D L; Radolf, J D

    1997-01-01

    Treponema pallidum rare outer membrane protein 1 (Tromp1) has extensive sequence homology with substrate-binding proteins of ATP-binding cassette transporters. Because such proteins typically are periplasmic or cytoplasmic membrane associated, experiments were conducted to clarify Tromp1's physicochemical properties and cellular location in T. pallidum. Comparison of the sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis mobilities of (i) native Tromp1 and Tromp1 synthesized by coupled in vitro transcription-translation and (ii) native Tromp1 and recombinant Tromp1 lacking the N-terminal signal sequence revealed that the native protein is not processed. Other studies demonstrated that recombinant Tromp1 lacks three basic porin-like properties: (i) the ability to form aqueous channels in liposomes which permit the influx of small hydrophilic solutes, (ii) an extensive beta-sheet secondary structure, and (iii) amphiphilicity. Subsurface localization of native Tromp1 was demonstrated by immunofluorescence analysis of treponemes encapsulated in gel microdroplets, while opsonization assays failed to detect surface-exposed Tromp1. Incubation of motile treponemes with 3-(trifluoromethyl)-3-(m-[125I]iodophenyl)-diazarine, a photoactivatable, lipophilic probe, also did not result in the detection of Tromp1 within the outer membranes of intact treponemes but, instead, resulted in the labeling of a basic 30.5-kDa presumptive outer membrane protein. Finally, analysis of fractionated treponemes revealed that native Tromp1 is associated predominantly with cell cylinders. These findings comprise a body of evidence that Tromp1 actually is anchored by an uncleaved signal sequence to the periplasmic face of the T. pallidum cytoplasmic membrane, where it likely subserves a transport-related function. PMID:9260949

  20. Spatial arrangement of rhodopsin in retinal rod outer segment membranes studied by spin-labeling and pulsed electron double resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Yasuda, Satoshi; Hara, Hideyuki; Tokunaga, Fumio; Arata, Toshiaki

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Use of spin labeling and PELDOR to measure inter-rhodopsin distance in ROS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Strong decay of PELDOR signal indicated a high density (mM range) of rhodopsin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The decay was modeled by rhodopsin monomers dispersed in a planar membrane. -- Abstract: We have determined the spatial arrangement of rhodopsin in the retinal rod outer segment (ROS) membrane by measuring the distances between rhodopsin molecules in which native cysteines were spin-labeled at {approx}1.0 mol/mol rhodopsin. The echo modulation decay of pulsed electron double resonance (PELDOR) from spin-labeled ROS curved slightly with strong background decay. This indicated that the rhodopsin was densely packed in the retina and that the rhodopsin molecules were not aligned well. The curve was simulated by a model in which rhodopsin is distributed randomly as monomers in a planar membrane.

  1. Colicin Occlusion of OmpF and TolC Channels: Outer Membrane Translocons for Colicin Import

    PubMed Central

    Zakharov, Stanislav D.; Eroukova, Veronika Y.; Rokitskaya, Tatyana I.; Zhalnina, Mariya V.; Sharma, Onkar; Loll, Patrick J.; Zgurskaya, Helen I.; Antonenko, Yuri N.; Cramer, William A.

    2004-01-01

    The interaction of colicins with target cells is a paradigm for protein import. To enter cells, bactericidal colicins parasitize Escherichia coli outer membrane receptors whose physiological purpose is the import of essential metabolites. Colicins E1 and E3 initially bind to the BtuB receptor, whose β-barrel pore is occluded by an N-terminal globular “plug”. The x-ray structure of a complex of BtuB with the coiled-coil BtuB-binding domain of colicin E3 did not reveal displacement of the BtuB plug that would allow passage of the colicin (Kurisu, G., S. D. Zakharov, M. V. Zhalnina, S. Bano, V. Y. Eroukova, T. I. Rokitskaya, Y. N. Antonenko, M. C. Wiener, and W. A. Cramer. 2003. Nat. Struct. Biol. 10:948–954). This correlates with the inability of BtuB to form ion channels in planar bilayers, shown in this work, suggesting that an additional outer membrane protein(s) is required for colicin import across the outer membrane. The identity and interaction properties of this OMP were analyzed in planar bilayer experiments.OmpF and TolC channels in planar bilayers were occluded by colicins E3 and E1, respectively, from the trans-side of the membrane. Occlusion was dependent upon a cis-negative transmembrane potential. A positive potential reversibly opened OmpF and TolC channels. Colicin N, which uses only OmpF for entry, occludes OmpF in planar bilayers with the same orientation constraints as colicins E1 and E3. The OmpF recognition sites of colicins E3 and N, and the TolC recognition site of colicin E1, were found to reside in the N-terminal translocation domains. These data are considered in the context of a two-receptor translocon model for colicin entry into cells. PMID:15465872

  2. Outer membrane proteins preferentially load MHC class II peptides: Implications for as a Chlamydia trachomatis T cell vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Karunakaran, Karuna P.; Yu, Hong; Jiang, Xiaozhou; Chan, Queenie; Moon, Kyung-Mee; Foster, Leonard J.; Brunham, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    CD4 T cell immune responses such as interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α secretion are necessary for Chlamydia immunity. We used an immunoproteomic approach in which Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia muridarum-derived peptides presented by MHC class II molecules on the surface of infected dendritic cells (DCs) were identified by tandem mass spectrometry using bone marrow derived DCs (BMDCs) from mice of different MHC background. We first compared the C. muridarum immunoproteome in C3H mice to that previously identified in C57BL/6 mice. Fourteen MHC class II binding peptides from 11 Chlamydia proteins were identified from C3H infected BMDCs. Two C. muridarum proteins overlapped between C3H and C57B/6 mice and both were polymorphic membrane proteins (Pmps) which presented distinct class II binding peptides. Next we studied DCs from C57BL/6 mice infected with the human strain, C. trachomatis serovar D. Sixty MHC class II binding peptides derived from 27 C. trachomatis proteins were identified. Nine proteins were orthologous T cell antigens between C. trachomatis and C. muridarum and 2 of the nine were Pmps which generated MHC class II binding epitopes at distinct sequences within the proteins. As determined by antigen specific splenocyte responses outer membrane proteins PmpF, -G and -H and the major outer membrane protein (MOMP) were antigenic in mice previously infected with C. muridarum or C. trachomatis. Furthermore a recombinant protein vaccine consisting of the four Pmps (PmpEFGH) with MOMP formulated with a Th1 polarizing adjuvant significantly accelerated (p < 0.001) clearance in the C57BL/6 mice C. trachomatis transcervical infection model. We conclude that Chlamydia outer membrane proteins are important T cell antigens useful in the development of a C. trachomatis subunit vaccine. PMID:25738816

  3. Purification of integral outer-membrane protein OmpC, a surface antigen from Salmonella typhi for structure-function studies: a method applicable to enterobacterial major outer-membrane protein.

    PubMed

    Arockiasamy, A; Krishnaswamy, S

    2000-07-15

    Extraction of the outer-membrane porin, OmpC, from Salmonella typhi Ty21a was done by using a modified salt-extraction procedure. It was possible to extract only the major outer-membrane protein (OMP) from the crude membrane using this method. Aberrant lipopolysaccharide (LPS) production in the galE mutant Ty21a has resulted in more isoforms of OmpC and subsequently led to anomalous mobility in SDS-PAGE. The purity of the preparation was confirmed by denaturing urea SDS-PAGE and N-terminal sequencing. The major OMP extracts had LPS of both bound and free forms. The free form of LPS could be removed by gel filtration and the bound form, largely, was removed using ion-exchange chromatography and by passing through ultrafiltration devices. This method has been used to extract the native trimer of OmpC, the major OMP, in a large scale, for structure-function studies. S. typhi Ty21a OmpC preparation yielded reproducible diffraction-quality crystals. Extracts of porin from wild-type Escherichia coli HB101, grown under high osmolarity conditions, showed a single species of OMP on SDS-PAGE. This suggests the possible application of the method to other gram-negative bacterial porins. PMID:10929809

  4. Lipopolysaccharide Density and Structure Govern the Extent and Distance of Nanoparticle Interaction with Actual and Model Bacterial Outer Membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, Kurt H.; Gunsolus, Ian L.; Kuech, Thomas R.; Troiano, Julianne M.; Melby, Eric S.; Lohse, Samuel E.; Hu, Dehong; Chrisler, William B.; Murphy, Catherine J.; Orr, Galya; Geiger, Franz M.; Haynes, Christy L.; Pedersen, Joel A.

    2015-07-24

    We report that design of nanomedicines and nanoparticle-based antimicrobial and antifouling formulations, and assessment of the potential implications of nanoparticle release into the environment require understanding nanoparticle interaction with bacterial surfaces. Here we demonstrate electrostatically driven association of functionalized nanoparticles with lipopolysaccharides of Gram-negative bacterial outer membranes and find that lipopolysaccharide structure influences the extent and location of binding relative to the lipid-solution interface. By manipulating the lipopolysaccharide content in Shewanella oneidensis outer membranes, we observed electrostatically driven interaction of cationic gold nanoparticles with the lipopolysaccharide-containing leaflet. We probed this interaction by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) and second harmonic generation (SHG) using solid-supported lipopolysaccharide-containing bilayers. Association of cationic nanoparticles increased with lipopolysaccharide content, while no association of anionic nanoparticles was observed. The harmonic-dependence of QCM-D measurements suggested that a population of the cationic nanoparticles was held at a distance from the outer leaflet-solution interface of bilayers containing smooth lipopolysaccharides (those bearing a long O-polysaccharide). Additionally, smooth lipopolysaccharides held the bulk of the associated cationic particles outside of the interfacial zone probed by SHG. Lastly, our results demonstrate that positively charged nanoparticles are more likely to interact with Gram-negative bacteria than are negatively charged particles, and this interaction occurs primarily through lipopolysaccharides.

  5. Lipopolysaccharide Density and Structure Govern the Extent and Distance of Nanoparticle Interaction with Actual and Model Bacterial Outer Membranes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Jacobson, Kurt H.; Gunsolus, Ian L.; Kuech, Thomas R.; Troiano, Julianne M.; Melby, Eric S.; Lohse, Samuel E.; Hu, Dehong; Chrisler, William B.; Murphy, Catherine J.; Orr, Galya; et al

    2015-07-24

    We report that design of nanomedicines and nanoparticle-based antimicrobial and antifouling formulations, and assessment of the potential implications of nanoparticle release into the environment require understanding nanoparticle interaction with bacterial surfaces. Here we demonstrate electrostatically driven association of functionalized nanoparticles with lipopolysaccharides of Gram-negative bacterial outer membranes and find that lipopolysaccharide structure influences the extent and location of binding relative to the lipid-solution interface. By manipulating the lipopolysaccharide content in Shewanella oneidensis outer membranes, we observed electrostatically driven interaction of cationic gold nanoparticles with the lipopolysaccharide-containing leaflet. We probed this interaction by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) andmore » second harmonic generation (SHG) using solid-supported lipopolysaccharide-containing bilayers. Association of cationic nanoparticles increased with lipopolysaccharide content, while no association of anionic nanoparticles was observed. The harmonic-dependence of QCM-D measurements suggested that a population of the cationic nanoparticles was held at a distance from the outer leaflet-solution interface of bilayers containing smooth lipopolysaccharides (those bearing a long O-polysaccharide). Additionally, smooth lipopolysaccharides held the bulk of the associated cationic particles outside of the interfacial zone probed by SHG. Lastly, our results demonstrate that positively charged nanoparticles are more likely to interact with Gram-negative bacteria than are negatively charged particles, and this interaction occurs primarily through lipopolysaccharides.« less

  6. Structure of the monomeric outer-membrane porin OmpG in the open and closed conformation

    PubMed Central

    Yildiz, Özkan; Vinothkumar, Kutti R; Goswami, Panchali; Kühlbrandt, Werner

    2006-01-01

    OmpG, a monomeric pore-forming protein from Escherichia coli outer membranes, was refolded from inclusion bodies and crystallized in two different conformations. The OmpG channel is a 14-stranded β-barrel, with short periplasmic turns and seven extracellular loops. Crystals grown at neutral pH show the channel in the open state at 2.3 Å resolution. In the 2.7 Å structure of crystals grown at pH 5.6, the pore is blocked by loop 6, which folds across the channel. The rearrangement of loop 6 appears to be triggered by a pair of histidine residues, which repel one another at acidic pH, resulting in the breakage of neighbouring