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Sample records for pet cyclotron vault

  1. Spectra and Neutron Dosimetry Inside a PET Cyclotron Vault Room

    SciTech Connect

    Vega-Carrillo, Hector Rene; Mendez, Roberto; Iniguez, Maria Pilar; Marti-Climent, Joseph; Penuelas, Ivan; Barquero, Raquel

    2006-09-08

    The neutron field around a PET cyclotron was investigated during 18F radioisotope production with an 18 MeV proton beam. Pairs of thermoluminescent dosemeters, TLD600 and TLD700, were used as thermal neutron detector inside a Bonner Spheres Spectrometer to measure the neutron spectra at three different positions inside the cyclotron's vault room. Neutron spectra were also determined by Monte Carlo calculations. The hardest spectrum was observed in front of cyclotron target and the softest was noticed at the antipode of target. Neutron doses derived from the measured spectra vary between 11 and 377 mSv/{mu}A-h of proton integrated current, Doses were also measured with a single-moderator remmeter, with an active thermal neutron detector, whose response in affected by the radiation field in the vault room.

  2. Predicting long-lived, neutron-induced activation of concrete in a cyclotron vault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, L. R.

    2001-07-01

    Many elements in concrete can become activated by neutrons in a cyclotron vault, but only a few of the activation products are long-lived. The most prominent of these are Eu-152, Eu-154, Co-60, and Cs-134 which build up over time from (n, γ) reactions in trace amounts of stable Europium, Cobalt, and Cesium that are normally present in concrete in concentrations of a few parts per million, or less, by weight. A retrospective analysis of data taken in connection with a previous decommissioning of a cyclotron vault, coupled with independent published data, gives us an estimate of the concentrations of these elements in concrete. With that estimate as a benchmark, we then employ a Monte Carlo Radiation Transport Code to estimate the long-term activation profile in concrete for arbitrary irradiation conditions.

  3. Evaluation of the latent radiation dose from the activated radionuclides in a cyclotron vault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyunduk; Cho, Gyuseong; Kim, Sun A.; Kang, Bo Sun

    2015-02-01

    The production of short-lived radioisotopes for the synthesis of radiopharmaceuticals typically takes advantage of a cyclotron that accelerates a proton beam up to a few tens of MeV. The number of cyclotrons has been continuously increasing since the first operation of the MC-50 for the production of radiopharmaceuticals at the Korea Institute of Radiological & Medical Sciences (KIRAMS) in 1986, and currently 35 cyclotrons are under operation throughout the nation. As the number of operating cyclotrons has increased, concerns about radiation safety for the persons who are working at the facilities and dwelling in the vicinity of the facilities are becoming important issues. Radiation that could emit a time-dependent dose was shown to exist in a cyclotron vault after its shutdown. The calculation of the latent radiation dose rate was performed by using the MCNPX and the FISPACT. The calculated results for the activated long-lived radioisotopes in the concrete wall and the structural components of the cyclotron facility were compared with the measured data that were obtained by using gamma-ray spectroscopy with a HPGe detector.

  4. PET computer programs for use with the 88-inch cyclotron

    SciTech Connect

    Gough, R.A.; Chlosta, L.

    1981-06-01

    This report describes in detail several offline programs written for the PET computer which provide an efficient data management system to assist with the operation of the 88-Inch Cyclotron. This function includes the capability to predict settings for all cyclotron and beam line parameters for all beams within the present operating domain of the facility. The establishment of a data base for operational records is also described from which various aspects of the operating history can be projected.

  5. Long-distance transport of radionuclides between PET cyclotron and PET radiochemistry.

    PubMed

    PreuscheS; Füchtner, F; Steinbach, J; Zessin, J; Krug, H; Neumann, W

    1999-12-01

    At the Rossendorf PET Centre the PET cyclotron and the radiochemical laboratories are 500 m away from each other. The distance is bridged by a radionuclide transport system (RATS) whose details such as layout, technical parameters, control system and radiation protection are described along with our experience in long-distance transport of radionuclides. PMID:10581677

  6. Distribution of thermal neutron flux around a PET cyclotron.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Yoshimune; Ishigure, Nobuhito; Mochizuki, Shingo; Ito, Kengo; Hatano, Kentaro; Abe, Junichiro; Miyahara, Hiroshi; Masumoto, Kazuyoshi; Nakamura, Hajime

    2011-05-01

    The number of positron emission tomography (PET) examinations has greatly increased world-wide. Since positron emission nuclides for the PET examinations have short half-lives, they are mainly produced using on-site cyclotrons. During the production of the nuclides, significant quantities of neutrons are generated from the cyclotrons. Neutrons have potential to activate the materials around the cyclotrons and cause exposure to the staff. To investigate quantities and distribution of the thermal neutrons, thermal neutron fluxes were measured around a PET cyclotron in a laboratory associating with a hospital. The cyclotron accelerates protons up to 18 MeV, and the mean particle current is 20 μA. The neutron fluxes were measured during both 18F production and C production. Gold foils and thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) badges were used to measure the neutron fluxes. The neutron fluxes in the target box averaged 9.3 × 10(6) cm(-2) s(-1) and 1.7 × 10(6) cm(-2) s(-1) during 18F and 11C production, respectively. Those in the cyclotron room averaged 4.1 × 10(5) cm(-2) s(-1) and 1.2 × 10(5) cm(-2) s(-1), respectively. Those outside the concrete wall shielding were estimated as being equal to or less than ∼3 cm s, which corresponded to 0.1 μSv h(-1) in effective dose. The neutron fluxes outside the concrete shielding were confirmed to be quite low compared to the legal limit. PMID:21451309

  7. Neutron spectra due (13)N production in a PET cyclotron.

    PubMed

    Benavente, J A; Vega-Carrillo, H R; Lacerda, M A S; Fonseca, T C F; Faria, F P; da Silva, T A

    2015-05-01

    Monte Carlo and experimental methods have been used to characterize the neutron radiation field around PET (Positron Emission Tomography) cyclotrons. In this work, the Monte Carlo code MCNPX was used to estimate the neutron spectra, the neutron fluence rates and the ambient dose equivalent (H*(10)) in seven locations around a PET cyclotron during (13)N production. In order to validate these calculations, H*(10) was measured in three sites and were compared with the calculated doses. All the spectra have two peaks, one above 0.1MeV due to the evaporation neutrons and another in the thermal region due to the room-return effects. Despite the relatively large difference between the measured and calculated H*(10) for one point, the agreement was considered good, compared with that obtained for (18)F production in a previous work. PMID:25699664

  8. Five Years of Cyclotron Radioisotope Production Experiences at the First PET-CT in Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Colmenter, L.; Coelho, D.; Esteves, L. M.; Ruiz, N.; Morales, L.; Lugo, I.; Sajo-Bohus, L.; Liendo, J. A.; Greaves, E. D.; Barros, H.; Castillo, J.

    2007-10-26

    Five years operation of a compact cyclotron installed at PET-CT facility in Caracas, Venezuela is given. Production rate of {sup 18}F labeled FDG, operation and radiation monitoring experience are included. We conclude that {sup 18}FDG CT-PET is the most effective technique for patient diagnosis.

  9. Cyclotrons for clinical and biomedical research with PET

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, A.P.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this commentary is to present some background material on cyclotrons and other particle accelerators particularly with a view toward the considerations behind acquiring and installing such a machine for purely clinical and/or biomedical research use.

  10. Design study of a 9 MeV compact cyclotron system for PET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Byeong-No; Shin, Seung-Wook; Song, Hoseung; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Chai, Jong-Seo

    2013-06-01

    A cyclotron is an accelerator which can be applied to both cancer diagnosis and treatment. Among commercially sold cyclotrons, the major energy is used for positron emission tomography (PET) ranges from 10 to 20 MeV. In this research, 9 MeV compact cyclotron for PET was designed. The research was conducted on the response cross section and the yield for the energy distribution to decide the design features. Also, it was determined the specifications on the basis of the fluoro-deoxy-glucose (FDG) maximum dose. The machine, which has a 20 uA beam current, is designed to be installed in small-to-medium-sized hospitals in local cities because of its relatively light weight (6 tons). This compact cyclotron, which provides 9-MeV proton beams, is composed of a azimuthally varying field (AVF) electromagnet, 83-MHz RF systems with a 20 kW amplifier, a panning ion gauge (PIG) type ion-source for negative hydrogen, and a double-stage high-vacuum system. The basic model design was done by using 3-D CAD program, CATIA and all the field calculations were performed using commercial electromagnetic field analysis code, OPERA-3D TOSCA. From this research, we expect a time reduction for FDG production, a decrease of radioactive exposure for workers, and an equipment cost reduction.

  11. Effective dose to immuno-PET patients due to metastable impurities in cyclotron produced zirconium-89

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfuraih, Abdulrahman; Alzimami, Khalid; Ma, Andy K.; Alghamdi, Ali; Al Jammaz, Ibrahim

    2014-11-01

    Immuno-PET is a nuclear medicine technique that combines positron emission tommography (PET) with radio-labeled monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for tumor characterization and therapy. Zirconium-89 (89Zr) is an emerging radionuclide for immuno-PET imaging. Its long half-life (78.4 h) gives ample time for the production, the administering and the patient uptake of the tagged radiopharmaceutical. Furthermore, the nuclides will remain in the tumor cells after the mAbs are catabolized so that time series studies are possible without incurring further administration of radiopharmarceuticals. 89Zr can be produced in medical cyclotrons by bombarding an yttrium-89 (89Y) target with a proton beam through the 89Y(p,n)89Zr reaction. In this study, we estimated the effective dose to the head and neck cancer patients undergoing 89Zr-based immune-PET procedures. The production of 89Zr and the impurities from proton irradiation of the 89Y target in a cyclotron was calculated with the Monte Carlo code MCNPX and the nuclear reaction code TALYS. The cumulated activities of the Zr isotopes were derived from real patient data in literature and the effective doses were estimated using the MIRD specific absorbed fraction formalism. The estimated effective dose from 89Zr is 0.5±0.2 mSv/MBq. The highest organ dose is 1.8±0.2 mSv/MBq in the liver. These values are in agreement with those reported in literature. The effective dose from 89mZr is about 0.2-0.3% of the 89Zr dose in the worst case. Since the ratio of 89mZr to 89Zr depends on the cooling time as well as the irradiation details, contaminant dose estimation is an important aspect in optimizing the cyclotron irradiation geometry, energy and time.

  12. Low energy cyclotron production of multivalent transition metals for PET imaging and therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avila-Rodriguez, Miguel Angel

    Recent advances in high-resolution tomographs for small animals require the production of nonconventional long-lived positron emitters to label novel radiopharmaceuticals for PET-based molecular imaging. Radioisotopes with an appropriate half life to match the kinetics of slow biological processes will allow to researchers to study the phamacokinetics of PET ligands over several hours, or even days, on the same animal, with the injection of a single dose. In addition, radionuclides with a suitable half life can potentially be distributed from a central production site making them available in PET facilities that lack an in-house cyclotron. In the last few years there has been a growing interest in the use of PET ligands labeled with radiometals, particularly isotopes of copper, yttrium and zirconium. Future clinical applications of these tracers will require them to be produced reliably and efficiently. This thesis work deals with implementing and optimizing the production of the multivalent transition metals 61,64Cu, 86Y and 89Zr for molecular PET imaging and therapy. Our findings in the production of these radionuclides at high specific activity on an 11 MeV proton-only cyclotron are presented. Local applications of these tracers, including Cu-ATSM for in vivo quantification of hypoxia, synthesis of targeted radiopharmaceuticals using activated esters of DOTA, and a novel development of positron emitting resin microspheres, are also be discussed. As a result of this thesis work, metallic radionuclides are now efficiently produced on a weekly basis in sufficient quality and quantity for collaborating scientists at UW-Madison and external users in other Universities across the country.

  13. A solid target system with remote handling of irradiated targets for PET cyclotrons.

    PubMed

    Siikanen, J; Tran, T A; Olsson, T G; Strand, S-E; Sandell, A

    2014-12-01

    A solid target system was developed for a PET cyclotron. The system is compatible with many different target materials in the form of foils and electroplated/sputtered targets which makes it useful for production of a wide variety of different PET radionuclides. The target material is manually loaded into the system. Remote handling of irradiated target material is managed with a pneumatic piston and a vacuum technique which allows the targets to be dropped into a shielded transport container. To test the target performance, proton irradiations (12.8 MeV, 45 μA) of monoisotopic yttrium foils (0.64 mm, direct water cooling) were performed to produce 89Zr. The yields were 2200±200 MBq (1 h, n=13) and 6300±65 MBq (3 h, n=3). PMID:25265518

  14. Optimization of A Commercial PET Cyclotron For Increased 18F- Production

    SciTech Connect

    Bergstrom, Jan Olof; Eriksson, Tomas

    2003-08-26

    Commercial cyclotron systems used for 18F- production through 18O (p, n) 18F reaction face several conflicting requirements that include: reliability/uptime, quantity of consumables, safety, cost and yield. With commercialization of PET tracer distribution, higher yield has become one of the most important requirements. Maximizing yield for commercial cyclotrons require engineering trade-off amongst several requirements, and often, to be conservative, significant design margin is kept while field feedback is collected. With maturing of technology, substantial experience has been obtained for a commercial cyclotron (PETtrace, GE Medical Systems), which is in use for several years. In this paper, we describe key elements of PETtrace commercial cyclotron technology undergoing enhancements, and share our works-in-progress experiments in performing critical engineering trade-offs to improve 18F- yield. Three key parameters were tuned in this study within the design margin of the current equipment. First, we designed a second-generation target assembly with optimized 18O water volume for accepting increased beam currents while maintaining cooling performance. Second, we increased the beam current of the ion source. And finally, a new RF driver amplifier was designed to enhance the RF power ratings to enable higher beam currents. Initial tests performed in the factory indicate substantially higher yield performance (> 50%) reaching a peak yield of over 4 Ci per hour of bombardment in the new target. On dual targets, this extrapolates to 13.5 Ci/2hr of bombardment for a total target current of 120 {mu}A. A target current of 100 {mu}A is available in the existing design thus providing an 18F- production capacity exceeding 11 Ci/2hr. The preliminary experimental results are promising and illustrate successful exploitation of design margin to achieve increased yield for a commercial cyclotron. Long-term studies to assess impact on life of ion source are underway along with a

  15. The radioprotection management of a PET department with a cyclotron and radiopharmacy laboratory, in accordance with Italian legislation.

    PubMed

    Russo, A A; Ferrari, P; Casale, M; Delia, R

    2011-09-01

    The possibility of setting up a positron emission tomography (PET) facility with a cyclotron and radiopharmaceutical laboratory in situ, at a feasible price and in a very restricted space, has led to a steady increase both in the use of the PET technique in diagnostic clinical routine imaging and in the number of cyclotrons for drug production. Owing to the progress made in the PET procedures, it is now possible to have not only a highly innovative system of diagnostic examination, with a remarkable improvement in the diagnostic quality and patient care, but also a considerable increase in the number of daily examinations. In this paper, the authors show how the acquired know-how, with respect to radioprotection, has applied to the planning, running and management of the PET/CT unit, installed in the Imaging Diagnostic Department of the Policlinico Tor Vergata (PTV), at Tor Vergata University, Rome. PMID:22039292

  16. Beam tracking simulation in the central region of a 13 MeV PET cyclotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anggraita, Pramudita; Santosa, Budi; Taufik, Mulyani, Emy; Diah, Frida Iswinning

    2012-06-01

    This paper reports the trajectories simulation of proton beam in the central region of a 13 MeV PET cyclotron, operating with negative proton beam (for easier beam extraction using a stripper foil), 40 kV peak accelerating dee voltage at fourth harmonic frequency of 77.88 MHz, and average magnetic field of 1.275 T. The central region covers fields of 240mm × 240mm × 30mm size at 1mm resolution. The calculation was also done at finer 0.25mm resolution covering fields of 30mm × 30mm × 4mm size to see the effects of 0.55mm horizontal width of the ion source window and the halted trajectories of positive proton beam. The simulations show up to 7 turns of orbital trajectories, reaching about 1 MeV of beam energy. The distribution of accelerating electric fields and magnetic fields inside the cyclotron were calculated in 3 dimension using Opera3D code and Tosca modules for static magnetic and electric fields. The trajectory simulation was carried out using Scilab 5.3.3 code.

  17. Electrophilic FLUORIDE-18 from AN 11 Mev Proton Cyclotron for Radiolabeling of Presynaptic Dopaminergic PET Tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunderland, John Joseph

    1990-01-01

    The reliable production of (^{18 }F) F_2 from an 11 MeV proton cyclotron has been achieved through the implementation of two accelerator targets built to exploit the copious ^{18}O(p,n)^ {18}F cross-section. Yields of electrophilic (^{18}F) F_2 from the targets reached deciCurie levels with specific activities approaching 3 Ci/mmole with 75 minute irradiations at 10 muA. Higher specific activities are expected with longer bombardments and increased beam current. The targets, one nickel, the other with a gold -plated target chamber, have been tested for (^ {18}F) F_2 production efficiency under two bombardment protocols. An economic two-step protocol cryogenically reclaims the precious enriched ^{18}O_{2 } target material following ^ {18}F production, followed by a second (^{18}F) F_2 recovery irradiation of Kr + F_2 . Studies of target performance using this protocol under variable irradiation conditions suggest a five compartment model governing the in-target kinetics. Similarly, the (^{18}F) F_2 yields have been tested using a single irradiation protocol consisting of bombardment of ^{18}O_{2} + F _2. Theoretical descriptions of beam induced phenomena in the irradiated target are also presented. The behavior of these targets cannot be judged solely on the amount of reactive ^{18 }F which elutes from the target; successful radiochemical synthesis utilizing this ^ {18}F activity in a model reaction is the true test. Synthesis of 6- (^{18 }F) fluoro-L-DOPA (6-FD) by the fluoro-demercuration method of Luxen served this purpose, testing the eletrophilic (^{18}F) F_2 gas from the two targets and two irradiation protocols. Elution of Kr + (^{18}F) F _2 from the two-step method achieved the expected 12% radiochemical yields from (^ {18}F) F_2, while experience with ^{18}F activity eluted with oxygen from the single irradiation protocol suffered lower yields. Solutions to problems associated with 6-FD studies for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) are addressed. A

  18. On-line measurements of proton beam current from a PET cyclotron using a thin aluminum foil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghithan, S.; do Carmo, S. J. C.; Ferreira Marques, R.; Fraga, F. A. F.; Simões, H.; Alves, F.; Crespo, P.

    2013-07-01

    The number of cyclotrons capable of accelerating protons to about 20 MeV is increasing throughout the world. Originally aiming at the production of positron emission tomography (PET) radionuclides, some of these facilities are equipped with several beam lines suitable for scientific research. Radiobiology, radiophysiology, and other dosimetric studies can be performed using these beam lines. In this work, we measured the Bragg peak of the protons from a PET cyclotron using a stacked target consisting of several aluminum foils interleaved with polyethylene sheets, readout by in-house made transimpedance electronics. The measured Bragg peak is consistent with simulations performed using the SRIM/TRIM simulation toolkit. Furthermore, we report on experimental results aiming at measuring proton beam currents down to 10 pA using a thin aluminum foil (20-μm-thick). The aluminum was chosen for this task because it is radiation hard, it has low density and low radiation activity, and finally because it is easily available at negligible cost. This method allows for calculating the dose delivered to a target during an irradiation with high efficiency, and with minimal proton energy loss and scattering.

  19. The new bern PET cyclotron, its research beam line, and the development of an innovative beam monitor detector

    SciTech Connect

    Braccini, Saverio

    2013-04-19

    The new Bern cyclotron laboratory aims at industrial radioisotope production for PET diagnostics and multidisciplinary research by means of a specifically conceived beam transfer line, terminated in a separate bunker. In this framework, an innovative beam monitor detector based on doped silica and optical fibres has been designed, constructed, and tested. Scintillation light produced by Ce and Sb doped silica fibres moving across the beam is measured, giving information on beam position, shape, and intensity. The doped fibres are coupled to commercial optical fibres, allowing the read-out of the signal far away from the radiation source. This general-purpose device can be easily adapted for any accelerator used in medical applications and is suitable either for low currents used in hadrontherapy or for currents up to a few {mu}A for radioisotope production, as well as for both pulsed and continuous beams.

  20. A real-time beam-profile monitor for a PET cyclotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoehr, C.; Uittenbosch, T.; Verzilov, V.; English, W.; Buckley, K.; Gray, D.; Kellog, S.; Cameron, D.; Schaffer, P.

    2012-12-01

    Beam profiles in medical cyclotrons are traditionally measured using techniques that do not provide any information about short-term fluctuations of the beam shape or beam intensity. To overcome this, we have developed a real-time harp beam profile monitor which can withstand beam power in excess of 300 W. The monitor and electronics were constructed and applied toward a 13 MeV proton beam with current of up to 25 μA. Herein are reported preliminary beam-profile measurement results.

  1. A real-time beam-profile monitor for a PET cyclotron

    SciTech Connect

    Hoehr, C.; Uittenbosch, T.; Verzilov, V.; English, W.; Buckley, K.; Gray, D.; Kellog, S.; Cameron, D.; Schaffer, P.

    2012-12-19

    Beam profiles in medical cyclotrons are traditionally measured using techniques that do not provide any information about short-term fluctuations of the beam shape or beam intensity. To overcome this, we have developed a real-time harp beam profile monitor which can withstand beam power in excess of 300 W. The monitor and electronics were constructed and applied toward a 13 MeV proton beam with current of up to 25 {mu}A. Herein are reported preliminary beam-profile measurement results.

  2. PET - radiopharmaceutical facilities at Washington University Medical School - an overview

    SciTech Connect

    Dence, C.S.; Welch, M.J.

    1994-12-31

    The PET program at Washington University has evolved over more than three decades of research and development in the use of positron-emitting isotopes in medicine and biology. In 1962 the installation of the first hospital cyclotron in the USA was accomplished. This first machine was an Allis Chalmers (AC) cyclotron and it was operated until July, 1990. Simultaneously with this cyclotron the authors also ran a Cyclotron Corporation (TCC) CS-15 cyclotron that was purchased in 1977. Both of these cyclotrons were maintained in-house and operated with a relatively small downtime (approximately 3.5%). After the dismantling of the AC machine in 1990, a Japanese Steel Works 16/8 (JSW-16/8) cyclotron was installed in the vault. Whereas the AC cyclotron could only accelerate deuterons (6.2 MeV), the JSW - 16/8 machine can accelerate both protons and deuterons, so all of the radiopharmaceuticals can be produced on either of the two presently owned accelerators. At the end of May 1993, the medical school installed the first clinical Tandem Cascade Accelerator (TCA) a collaboration with Science Research Laboratories (SRL) of Somerville, MA. Preliminary target testing, design and development are presently under way. In 1973, the University installed the first operational PETT device in the country, and at present there is a large basic science and clinical research program involving more than a hundred staff in nuclear medicine, radiation sciences, neurology, neurosurgery, psychiatry, cardiology, pulmonary medicine, oncology, and surgery.

  3. The vault complex.

    PubMed

    van Zon, A; Mossink, M H; Scheper, R J; Sonneveld, P; Wiemer, E A C

    2003-09-01

    Vaults are large ribonucleoprotein particles found in eukaryotic cells. They are composed of multiple copies of a Mr 100,000 major vault protein and two minor vault proteins of Mr 193,000 and 240,000, as well as small untranslated RNAs of 86-141 bases. The vault components are arranged into a highly characteristic hollow barrel-like structure of 35 x 65 nm in size. Vaults are predominantly localized in the cytoplasm where they may associate with cytoskeletal elements. A small fraction of vaults are found to be associated with the nucleus. As of yet, the precise cellular function of the vault complex is unknown. However, their distinct morphology and intracellular distribution suggest a role in intracellular transport processes. Here we review the current knowledge on the vault complex, its structure, components and possible functions. PMID:14523546

  4. The Digital Vaults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaacs, Suzanne; Potter, Lee Ann

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the Digital Vaults and offers suggestions in introducing this site to students. The Digital Vaults, inspired by the permanent Public Vaults exhibition launched by the National Archives in 2004, is not just another website, but it designed to be an online exhibit and teaching tool, by offering both exposure to historical…

  5. The planning and design of a new PET radiochemistry facility.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Mark S; Hung, Joseph C; Mays, Trenton L; Mullan, Brian P

    2002-03-01

    The objectives of the Mayo positron emission tomography (PET) radiochemistry facility are the production of PET drugs for clinical service of our in-house patients, commercial distribution of PET drug products, and development of new PET drugs. The factors foremost in the planning and design phases were the current regulatory climate for PET drug production, radiation safety issues, and effective production flow. A medium-energy cyclotron was preferred for its small footprint to allow a compact vault, its high-proton energy to offer a higher product radioactivity; and its research capabilities. A vault installation was chosen instead of a self-shielded machine for improved access and ease of maintenance. Adjacent to the cyclotron is an area that houses the support equipment and a large dedicated workshop to support machine maintenance and targetry development. The total floor area of the PET radiochemistry facility is 344.2 m(2) (3,705.5 ft(2)), of which the radiochemistry laboratory occupies 130.7 m(2) (1,407 ft(2)). To reduce environmental contamination of PET drug products, the laboratory contains a controlled-air environment class 10,000 (M5.5) clean room with access via an interlocking entry change area. A fully shielded isolator (class 100 [M3.5]) is located in the clean room. The PET drugs are delivered via shielded tubing between the synthesizer and isolator. Inside the isolator, there is an automated device for dispensing the PET drug into either a bulk-activity vial or a unit-dose syringe. The dispensed PET radiopharmaceutical then passes through a hatch to a dedicated area where it is packaged for in-house use or commercial distribution. Unit doses for in-house patients are transported via pneumatic tube to the PET imaging area 76.2 m (250 ft) away. There is extensive radiation area monitoring throughout the facility that continuously measures radiation levels. We believe that our new PET radiochemistry facility not only meets overall objectives, but

  6. Interior of southwest vault, opened southwest vault door, closed southeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of southwest vault, opened southwest vault door, closed southeast vault door, and evidence of forced entry in north interior wall. View from west interior wall of southwest vault. Facing east. - Travis Air Force Base, Building No. 925, W Street, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  7. Cyclotrons and positron emitting radiopharmaceuticals

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, A.P.; Fowler, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    The state of the art of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) technology as related to cyclotron use and radiopharmaceutical production is reviewed. The paper discusses available small cyclotrons, the positron emitters which can be produced and the yields possible, target design, and radiopharmaceutical development and application. 97 refs., 12 tabs. (ACR)

  8. Vault Area (original section), east corridor, interior of Vault No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Vault Area (original section), east corridor, interior of Vault No. 7, looking up flue - Fort McNair, Film Store House, Fort Lesley J. McNair, P Street between Third & Fourth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  9. Vault Area (original section), east corridor, interior of Vault No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Vault Area (original section), east corridor, interior of Vault No. 7, view west - Fort McNair, Film Store House, Fort Lesley J. McNair, P Street between Third & Fourth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  10. Vault Area (original section), east corridor, Vault No. 3 showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Vault Area (original section), east corridor, Vault No. 3 showing inside surface of outer door - Fort McNair, Film Store House, Fort Lesley J. McNair, P Street between Third & Fourth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  11. Vault Area (original section), east corridor, looking north (Vault Nos. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Vault Area (original section), east corridor, looking north (Vault Nos. 1-9 - Fort McNair, Film Store House, Fort Lesley J. McNair, P Street between Third & Fourth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  12. Vault Area (original section), east corridor, Vault No. 5, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Vault Area (original section), east corridor, Vault No. 5, showing inner set of doors on vault - Fort McNair, Film Store House, Fort Lesley J. McNair, P Street between Third & Fourth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  13. The formation of vault-tubes: a dynamic interaction between vaults and vault PARP.

    PubMed

    van Zon, Arend; Mossink, Marieke H; Schoester, Martijn; Houtsmuller, Adriaan B; Scheffer, George L; Scheper, Rik J; Sonneveld, Pieter; Wiemer, Erik A C

    2003-11-01

    Vaults are barrel-shaped cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein particles that are composed of a major vault protein (MVP), two minor vault proteins [telomerase-associated protein 1 (TEP1), vault poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (VPARP)] and small untranslated RNA molecules. Not all expressed TEP1 and VPARP in cells is bound to vaults. TEP1 is known to associate with the telomerase complex, whereas VPARP is also present in the nuclear matrix and in cytoplasmic clusters (VPARP-rods). We examined the subcellular localization and the dynamics of the vault complex in a non-small cell lung cancer cell line expressing MVP tagged with green fluorescent protein. Using quantitative fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) it was shown that vaults move temperature independently by diffusion. However, incubation at room temperature (21 degrees C) resulted in the formation of distinct tube-like structures in the cytoplasm. Raising the temperature could reverse this process. When the vault-tubes were formed, there were fewer or no VPARP-rods present in the cytoplasm, suggesting an incorporation of the VPARP into the vault-tubes. MVP molecules have to interact with each other via their coiled-coil domain in order to form vault-tubes. Furthermore, the stability of microtubules influenced the efficiency of vault-tube formation at 21 degrees C. The dynamics and structure of the tubes were examined using confocal microscopy. Our data indicate a direct and dynamic relationship between vaults and VPARP, providing further clues to unravel the function of vaults. PMID:13130096

  14. Inside the Vault, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffitts, Dawn

    2001-01-01

    This "Inside the Vault" newsletter contains two issues. Issue 1 contains a lead article, "Reading the Fed's Playbook," a question-and-answer section, and a bulletin board. The Federal Reserve's primary mission is to ensure that enough money and credit are available to sustain economic growth without inflation. The article explains the Federal…

  15. Structural stability of vault particles.

    PubMed

    Esfandiary, Reza; Kickhoefer, Valerie A; Rome, Leonard H; Joshi, Sangeeta B; Middaugh, C Russell

    2009-04-01

    Vaults, at 13 MDa, are the largest ribonucleoprotein particles known. In vitro, expression of the major vault protein (MVP) alone in Sf9 insect cells results in the production of recombinant particles with characteristic vault structure. With the ultimate goal of using recombinant vaults as nanocapsules for the delivery of biomolecules, we have employed a variety of spectroscopic techniques (i.e., circular dichroism, fluorescence spectroscopy, and light scattering) along with electron microscopy, to characterize the structural stability of vaults over a wide range of pH (3-8) and temperature (10-90 degrees C). Ten different conformational states of the vaults were identified over the pH and temperature range studied with the most stable region at pH 6-8 below 40 degrees C and least stable at pH 4-6 above 60 degrees C. A unique intermediate molten globulelike state was also identified at pH 6 and approximately 55 degrees C. EM imaging showed the opening of intact vaults into flowerlike structures when transitioning from neutral to acidic pH. This information has potential use in the development of recombinant vaults into nanocapsules for drug delivery since one mechanism by which therapeutic agents entrapped in vaults could be released is through an opening of the intact vault structure. PMID:18683860

  16. Vaginal Vault Prolapse

    PubMed Central

    Uzoma, Azubuike; Farag, K. A.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction. Vaginal vault prolapse is a common complication following vaginal hysterectomy with negative impact on women's quality of life due to associated urinary, anorectal and sexual dysfunction. A clear understanding of the supporting mechanism for the uterus and vagina is important in making the right choice of corrective procedure. Management should be individualised, taking into consideration the surgeon's experience, patients age, comorbidities, previous surgery and sex life. Result. Preexisting pelvic floor defect prior to hysterectomy is the single most important risk factor for vault prolapse. Various surgical techniques have been advanced at hysterectomy to prevent vault prolapse. Studies have shown the McCall's culdoplasty under direct visualisation to be superior. Vault prolapse repair rely on either the use of patient's tissue or synthetic materials and can be carried out abdominally or vaginally. Sacrospinous fixation and abdominal sacrocolpopexy are the commonly performed procedures, with literature in favour of abdominal sacrocolpopexy over sacrospinous fixation due to its reported higher success rate of about 90%. Other less commonly performed procedures include uterosacral ligament suspension and illiococcygeal fixation, both of which are equally effective, with the former having a high risk of ureteric injury. Colpoclesis will play a greater role in the future as the aging population increases. Mesh procedures are gaining in popularity, and preliminary data from vaginal mesh procedures is encouraging. Laparoscopic techniques require a high level of skill and experience. There are many controversies on the mechanism of prolapse and management techniques, which we have tried to address in this article. Conclusion. As the aging population increases, the incidence of prolapse will also rise, older techniques using native tissue will continue, while new techniques using the mesh needs to be studied further. The later may well be the way forward

  17. Cyclotron Production of Medical Radioisotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Avila-Rodriguez, M. A.; Zarate-Morales, A.; Flores-Moreno, A.

    2010-08-04

    The cyclotron production of radioisotopes for medical applications is gaining increased significance in diagnostic molecular imaging techniques such as PET and SPECT. In this regard, radioisotope production has never been easier or more convenient until de introduction of compact medical cyclotrons in the last few decades, which allowed the use of short-lived radioisotopes in in vivo nuclear medicine studies on a routine basis. This review outlines some general considerations about the production of radioisotopes using charged particle accelerators.

  18. Accurate Monte Carlo modeling of cyclotrons for optimization of shielding and activation calculations in the biomedical field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Infantino, Angelo; Marengo, Mario; Baschetti, Serafina; Cicoria, Gianfranco; Longo Vaschetto, Vittorio; Lucconi, Giulia; Massucci, Piera; Vichi, Sara; Zagni, Federico; Mostacci, Domiziano

    2015-11-01

    Biomedical cyclotrons for production of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) radionuclides and radiotherapy with hadrons or ions are widely diffused and established in hospitals as well as in industrial facilities and research sites. Guidelines for site planning and installation, as well as for radiation protection assessment, are given in a number of international documents; however, these well-established guides typically offer analytic methods of calculation of both shielding and materials activation, in approximate or idealized geometry set up. The availability of Monte Carlo codes with accurate and up-to-date libraries for transport and interactions of neutrons and charged particles at energies below 250 MeV, together with the continuously increasing power of nowadays computers, makes systematic use of simulations with realistic geometries possible, yielding equipment and site specific evaluation of the source terms, shielding requirements and all quantities relevant to radiation protection. In this work, the well-known Monte Carlo code FLUKA was used to simulate two representative models of cyclotron for PET radionuclides production, including their targetry; and one type of proton therapy cyclotron including the energy selection system. Simulations yield estimates of various quantities of radiological interest, including the effective dose distribution around the equipment, the effective number of neutron produced per incident proton and the activation of target materials, the structure of the cyclotron, the energy degrader, the vault walls and the soil. The model was validated against experimental measurements and comparison with well-established reference data. Neutron ambient dose equivalent H*(10) was measured around a GE PETtrace cyclotron: an average ratio between experimental measurement and simulations of 0.99±0.07 was found. Saturation yield of 18F, produced by the well-known 18O(p,n)18F reaction, was calculated and compared with the IAEA recommended

  19. BEST medical radioisotope production cyclotrons

    SciTech Connect

    Sabaiduc, Vasile; Milton, Bruce; Suthanthiran, Krishnan; Johnson, Richard R.; Gelbart, W. Z.

    2013-04-19

    Best Cyclotron Systems Inc (BCSI) is currently developing 14 MeV, 25 MeV, 35MeV and 70MeV cyclotrons for radioisotope production and research applications as well as the entire spectrum of targets and nuclear synthesis modules for the production of Positron Emission Tomography (PET), Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) and radiation therapy isotopes. The company is a subsidiary of Best Medical International, renowned in the field of medical instrumentation and radiation therapy. All cyclotrons have external negative hydrogen ion sources, four radial sectors with two dees in opposite valleys, cryogenic vacuum system and simultaneous beam extraction on opposite lines. The beam intensity ranges from 400 {mu}A to 1000 {mu}A, depending on the cyclotron energy and application.

  20. BEST medical radioisotope production cyclotrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabaiduc, Vasile; Milton, Bruce; Suthanthiran, Krishnan; Gelbart, W. Z.; Johnson, Richard R.

    2013-04-01

    Best Cyclotron Systems Inc (BCSI) is currently developing 14 MeV, 25 MeV, 35MeV and 70MeV cyclotrons for radioisotope production and research applications as well as the entire spectrum of targets and nuclear synthesis modules for the production of Positron Emission Tomography (PET), Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) and radiation therapy isotopes. The company is a subsidiary of Best Medical International, renowned in the field of medical instrumentation and radiation therapy. All cyclotrons have external negative hydrogen ion sources, four radial sectors with two dees in opposite valleys, cryogenic vacuum system and simultaneous beam extraction on opposite lines. The beam intensity ranges from 400 μA to 1000 μA, depending on the cyclotron energy and application [1].

  1. Structural studies of large nucleoprotein particles, vaults.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hideaki; Tsukihara, Tomitake

    2012-01-01

    Vault is the largest nonicosahedral cytosolic nucleoprotein particle ever described. The widespread presence and evolutionary conservation of vaults suggest important biologic roles, although their functions have not been fully elucidated. X-ray structure of vault from rat liver was determined at 3.5 Å resolution. It exhibits an ovoid shape with a size of 40 × 40 × 67 nm(3). The cage structure of vault consists of a dimer of half-vaults, with each half-vault comprising 39 identical major vault protein (MVP) chains. Each MVP monomer folds into 12 domains: nine structural repeat domains, a shoulder domain, a cap-helix domain and a cap-ring domain. Interactions between the 42-turn-long cap-helix domains are key to stabilizing the particle. The other components of vaults, telomerase-associated proteins, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases and small RNAs, are in location in the vault particle by electron microscopy. PMID:23060231

  2. Radiological dose assessment for vault storage concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Richard, R.F.

    1997-02-25

    This radiological dose assessment presents neutron and photon dose rates in support of project W-460. Dose rates are provided for a single 3013 container, the ``infloor`` storage vault concept, and the ``cubicle`` storage vault concept.

  3. Movement Regulation of Handsprings on Vault

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinen, Thomas; Vinken, Pia M.; Jeraj, Damian; Velentzas, Konstantinos

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Visual information is utilized in gymnastics vaulting. The question remains as to which informational sources are used to regulate handspring performance. The purpose of this study was to examine springboard and vaulting table position as informational sources in gymnastics vaulting. The hypothesis tested was that the approach-run and…

  4. Vaults engineered for hydrophobic drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Buehler, Daniel C; Toso, Daniel B; Kickhoefer, Valerie A; Zhou, Z Hong; Rome, Leonard H

    2011-05-23

    The vault nanoparticle is one of the largest known ribonucleoprotein complexes in the sub-100 nm range. Highly conserved and almost ubiquitously expressed in eukaryotes, vaults form a large nanocapsule with a barrel-shaped morphology surrounding a large hollow interior. These properties make vaults an ideal candidate for development into a drug delivery vehicle. In this study, the first example of using vaults towards this goal is reported. Recombinant vaults are engineered to encapsulate the highly insoluble and toxic hydrophobic compound all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) using a vault-binding lipoprotein complex that forms a lipid bilayer nanodisk. These recombinant vaults offer protection to the encapsulated ATRA from external elements. Furthermore, a cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) reconstruction shows the vault-binding lipoprotein complex sequestered within the vault lumen. Finally, these ATRA-loaded vaults show enhanced cytotoxicity against the hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2. The ability to package therapeutic compounds into the vault is an important achievement toward their development into a viable and versatile platform for drug delivery. PMID:21506266

  5. PRTR ion exchange vault column sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Cornwell, B.C.

    1995-03-14

    This report documents ion exchange column sampling and Non Destructive Assay (NDA) results from activities in 1994, for the Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) ion exchange vault. The objective was to obtain sufficient information to prepare disposal documentation for the ion exchange columns found in the PRTR Ion exchange vault. This activity also allowed for the monitoring of the liquid level in the lower vault. The sampling activity contained five separate activities: (1) Sampling an ion exchange column and analyzing the ion exchange media for purpose of waste disposal; (2) Gamma and neutron NDA testing on ion exchange columns located in the upper vault; (3) Lower vault liquid level measurement; (4) Radiological survey of the upper vault; and (5) Secure the vault pending waste disposal.

  6. Structural Dynamics of the Vault Ribonucleoprotein Particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casañas, Arnau; Querol, Jordi; Fita, Ignasi; Verdaguer, Núria

    Vaults are ubiquitous, highly conserved, 13 MDa ribonucleoprotein particles, involved in a diversity of cellular processes, including multidrug resistance, transport mechanisms and signal transmission. There are between 104 and 106 vault particles per mammalian cell and they do not trigger autoimmunity. The vault particle shows a hollow barrel-shaped structure organized in two identical moieties, each consisting of 39 copies of the major vault protein (MVP). Other data indicated that vault halves can dissociate at acidic pH. The high resolution, crystal structure of the of the seven N-terminal domains (R1-R7) of MVP, forming the central vault barrel, together with that of the native vault particle (solved at 8 Å resolution), revealed the interactions governing vault association and suggested a pH-dependent mechanism for a reversible dissociation induced by low pH. Vault particles posses many features making them very promising vehicles for the delivery of therapeutic agents including self-assembly, 100 nm size range, emerging atomic-level structural information, natural presence in humans ensuring biocompability, recombinant production system, existing features for targeting species to the large lumen and a dynamic structure that may be controlled for manipulation of drug release kinetics. All these attributes provide vaults with enormous potential as a drug/gene delivery platform.

  7. PRTR ion exchange vault water removal

    SciTech Connect

    Ham, J.E.

    1995-11-01

    This report documents the removal of radiologically contaminated water from the Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) ion exchange vault. Approximately 57,000 liters (15,000 gallons) of water had accumulated in the vault due to the absence of a rain cover. The water was removed and the vault inspected for signs of leakage. No evidence of leakage was found. The removal and disposal of the radiologically contaminated water decreased the risk of environmental contamination.

  8. Smart vaults: thermally-responsive protein nanocapsules.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Nicholas M; Prabhakaran, Panchami; Rome, Leonard H; Maynard, Heather D

    2013-01-22

    Synthetic modification of a recombinant protein cage called a vault with stimuli-responsive smart polymers provides access to a new class of biohybrid materials; the polymer nanocapsules retain the structure of the protein cage and exhibit the responsive nature of the polymer. Vaults are naturally occurring ubiquitous ribonucleoprotein particles 41 × 41 × 72.5 nm composed of a protein shell enclosing multiple copies of two proteins and multiple copies of one or more small untranslated RNAs. Recombinant vaults are structurally identical but lack the vault content. Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (pNIPAAm), a polymer responsive to heat, was conjugated to recombinant vaults that were composed of ~78 copies of the major vault protein (MVP) modified to contain a cysteine rich region at the N-terminus (CP-MVP). The polymer was synthesized using reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization to have a dansyl group at the alpha end and modified to have a thiol-reactive pyridyl disulfide at the omega end, which readily coupled to CP-MVP vaults. The resulting vault nanocapsules underwent reversible aggregation upon heating above the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of the polymer as determined by electron microscopy (EM), dynamic light scattering experiments, and UV-vis turbidity analysis. The vault structure remained entirely intact throughout the phase transition; suggesting its use in a myriad of biomedical and biotechnology applications. PMID:23259767

  9. Derivation of the mammalian skull vault

    PubMed Central

    MORRISS-KAY, GILLIAN M.

    2001-01-01

    This review describes the evolutionary history of the mammalian skull vault as a basis for understanding its complex structure. Current information on the developmental tissue origins of the skull vault bones (mesoderm and neural crest) is assessed for mammals and other tetrapods. This information is discussed in the context of evolutionary changes in the proportions of the skull vault bones at the sarcopterygian-tetrapod transition. The dual tissue origin of the skull vault is considered in relation to the molecular mechanisms underlying osteogenic cell proliferation and differentiation in the sutural growth centres and in the proportionate contributions of different sutures to skull growth. PMID:11523816

  10. Vaults. III. Vault ribonucleoprotein particles open into flower-like structures with octagonal symmetry.

    PubMed

    Kedersha, N L; Heuser, J E; Chugani, D C; Rome, L H

    1991-01-01

    The structure of rat liver vault ribonucleoprotein particles was examined using several different staining techniques in conjunction with EM and digestion with hydrolytic enzymes. Quantitative scanning transmission EM demonstrates that each vault particle has a total mass of 12.9 +/- 1 MD and contains two centers of mass, suggesting that each vault particle is a dimer. Freeze-etch reveals that each vault opens into delicate flower-like structures, in which eight rectangular petals are joined to a central ring, each by a thin hook. Vaults examined by negative stain and conventional transmission EM (CTEM) also reveal the flower-like structure. Trypsin treatment of vaults resulted exclusively in cleavage of the major vault protein (p104) and concurrently alters their structure as revealed by negative stain/CTEM, consistent with a localization of p104 to the flower petals. We propose a structural model that predicts the stoichiometry of vault proteins and RNA, defines vault dimer-monomer interactions, and describes two possible modes for unfolding of vaults into flowers. These highly dynamic structural variations are likely to play a role in vault function. PMID:1988458

  11. Vaults and the major vault protein: novel roles in signal pathway regulation and immunity.

    PubMed

    Berger, W; Steiner, E; Grusch, M; Elbling, L; Micksche, M

    2009-01-01

    The unique and evolutionary highly conserved major vault protein (MVP) is the main component of ubiquitous, large cellular ribonucleoparticles termed vaults. The 100 kDa MVP represents more than 70% of the vault mass which contains two additional proteins, the vault poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (vPARP) and the telomerase-associated protein 1 (TEP1), as well as several short untranslated RNAs (vRNA). Vaults are almost ubiquitously expressed and, besides chemotherapy resistance, have been implicated in the regulation of several cellular processes including transport mechanisms, signal transmissions and immune responses. Despite a growing amount of data from diverse species and systems, the definition of precise vault functions is still highly complex and challenging. Here we review the current knowledge on MVP and vaults with focus on regulatory functions in intracellular signal transduction and immune defence. PMID:18759128

  12. 49 CFR 192.749 - Vault maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vault maintenance. 192.749 Section 192.749 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 192.749 Vault maintenance. (a) Each...

  13. 49 CFR 192.185 - Vaults: Accessibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vaults: Accessibility. 192.185 Section 192.185 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...: Accessibility. Each vault must be located in an accessible location and, so far as practical, away from:...

  14. Security analysis for fingerprint fuzzy vaults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartloff, Jesse; Bileschi, Maxwell; Tulyakov, Sergey; Dobler, Jimmy; Rudra, Atri; Govindaraju, Venu

    2013-05-01

    In this work we place some of the traditional biometrics work on fingerprint verification via the fuzzy vault scheme within a cryptographic framework. We show that the breaking of a fuzzy vault leads to decoding of Reed-Solomon codes from random errors, which has been proposed as a hard problem in the cryptography community. We provide a security parameter for the fuzzy vault in terms of the decoding problem, which gives context for the breaking of the fuzzy vault, whereas most of the existing literature measures the strength of the fuzzy vault in terms of its resistance to pre-defined attacks or by the entropy of the vault. We keep track of our security parameter, and provide it alongside ROC statistics. We also aim to be more aware of the nature of the fingerprints when placing them in the fuzzy vault, noting that the distribution of minutiae is far from uniformly random. The results we show provide additional support that the fuzzy vault can be a viable scheme for secure fingerprint verification.

  15. Development of a Medical Cyclotron Production Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Danny R.

    2003-08-01

    Development of a Cyclotron manufacturing facility begins with a business plan. Geographics, the size and activity of the medical community, the growth potential of the modality being served, and other business connections are all considered. This business used the customer base established by NuTech, Inc., an independent centralized nuclear pharmacy founded by Danny Allen. With two pharmacies in operation in Tyler and College Station and a customer base of 47 hospitals and clinics the existing delivery system and pharmacist staff is used for the cyclotron facility. We then added cyclotron products to contracts with these customers to guarantee a supply. We partnered with a company in the process of developing PET imaging centers. We then built an independent imaging center attached to the cyclotron facility to allow for the use of short-lived isotopes.

  16. [Microeconomics of introduction of a PET system based on the revised Japanese National Insurance reimbursement system].

    PubMed

    Abe, Katsumi; Kosuda, Shigeru; Kusano, Shoichi; Nagata, Masayoshi

    2003-11-01

    It is crucial to evaluate an annual balance before-hand when an institution installs a PET system because the revised Japanese national insurance reimbursement system set the cost of a FDG PET study as 75,000 yen. A break-even point was calculated in an 8-hour or a 24-hour operation of a PET system, based on the total costs reported. The break-even points were as follows: 13.4, 17.7, 22.1 studies per day for the 1 cyclotron-1 PET camera, 1 cyclotron-2 PET cameras, 1 cyclotron-3 PET cameras system, respectively, in an ordinary PET system operation of 8 hours. The break-even points were 19.9, 25.5, 31.2 studies per day for the 1 cyclotron-1 PET camera, 1 cyclotron-2 PET cameras, 1 cyclotron-3 PET cameras system, respectively, in a full PET system operation of 24 hours. The results indicate no profit would accrue in an ordinary PET system operation of 8 hours. The annual profit and break-even point for the total cost including the initial investment would be respectively 530 million yen and 2.8 years in a 24-hour operation with 1 cyclotron-3 PET cameras system. PMID:14733110

  17. Axonal transport of ribonucleoprotein particles (vaults).

    PubMed

    Li, J Y; Volknandt, W; Dahlstrom, A; Herrmann, C; Blasi, J; Das, B; Zimmermann, H

    1999-01-01

    RNA was previously shown to be transported into both dendritic and axonal compartments of nerve cells, presumably involving a ribonucleoprotein particle. In order to reveal potential mechanisms of transport we investigated the axonal transport of the major vault protein of the electric ray Torpedo marmorata. This protein is the major protein component of a ribonucleoprotein particle (vault) carrying a non-translatable RNA and has a wide distribution in the animal kingdom. It is highly enriched in the cholinergic electromotor neurons and similar in size to synaptic vesicles. The axonal transport of vaults was investigated by immunofluorescence, using the anti-vault protein antibody as marker, and cytofluorimetric scanning, and was compared to that of the synaptic vesicle membrane protein SV2 and of the beta-subunit of the F1-ATPase as a marker for mitochondria. Following a crush significant axonal accumulation of SV2 proximal to the crush could first be observed after 1 h, that of mitochondria after 3 h and that of vaults after 6 h, although weekly fluorescent traces of accumulations of vault protein were observed in the confocal microscope as early as 3 h. Within the time-period investigated (up to 72 h) the accumulation of all markers increased continuously. Retrograde accumulations also occurred, and the immunofluorescence for the retrograde component, indicating recycling, was weaker than that for the anterograde component, suggesting that more than half of the vaults are degraded within the nerve terminal. High resolution immunofluorescence revealed a granular structure-in accordance with the biochemical characteristics of vaults. Of interest was the observation that the increase of vault immunoreactivity proximal to the crush accelerated with time after crushing, while that of SV2-containing particles appeared to decelerate, indicating that the crush procedure with time may have induced perikaryal alterations in the production and subsequent export to the axon

  18. Assembly of vault-like particles in insect cells expressing only the major vault protein.

    PubMed

    Stephen, A G; Raval-Fernandes, S; Huynh, T; Torres, M; Kickhoefer, V A; Rome, L H

    2001-06-29

    Vaults are the largest (13 megadalton) cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein particles known to exist in eukaryotic cells. They have a unique barrel-shaped structure with 8-fold symmetry. Although the precise function of vaults is unknown, their wide distribution and highly conserved morphology in eukaryotes suggests that their function is essential and that their structure must be important for their function. The 100-kDa major vault protein (MVP) constitutes approximately 75% of the particle mass and is predicted to form the central barrel portion of the vault. To gain insight into the mechanisms for vault assembly, we have expressed rat MVP in the Sf9 insect cell line using a baculovirus vector. Our results show that the expression of the rat MVP alone can direct the formation of particles that have biochemical characteristics similar to endogenous rat vaults and display the distinct vault-like morphology when negatively stained and examined by electron microscopy. These particles are the first example of a single protein polymerizing into a non-spherically, non-cylindrically symmetrical structure. Understanding vault assembly will enable us to design agents that disrupt vault formation and hence aid in elucidating vault function in vivo. PMID:11349122

  19. 49 CFR 192.189 - Vaults: Drainage and waterproofing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Components § 192.189 Vaults: Drainage and waterproofing. (a) Each vault must be designed so as to minimize the entrance of water. (b) A vault containing gas piping may not be connected by means of a drain connection to any other underground structure. (c) Electrical equipment in vaults must conform to...

  20. CLOVERLEAF CYCLOTRON

    DOEpatents

    McMillan, E.M.; Judd, D.L.

    1959-02-01

    A cyclotron is presented embodying a unique magnetic field configuration, which configuration increases in intensity with radius and therefore compensates for the reltivistic mass effect, the field having further convolutions productive of axial stability in the particle beam. By reconciling the seemingly opposed requirements of mass increase compensation on one hand and anial stability on the other, the production of extremely high current particle beams in the relativistie energy range is made feasible. Certain further advantages inhere in the invention, notably an increase in the usable magnet gap, simplified and more efficient extraction of the beam from the accelerator, and ready adaptation to the use of multiply phased excitation as contrasted with the single phased systems herstofore utilized. General

  1. Pre-flight characteristics of Hecht vaults.

    PubMed

    Yeadon, M R; King, M A; Sprigings, E J

    1998-05-01

    This study reports the techniques used by gymnasts to perform the Hecht vault and compares them with techniques used for the handspring somersault vault (Takei and Kim, 1990). Our main aim was to establish how the pre-flight characteristics of the Hecht vault influence post-flight performance. Data were obtained on 27 elite gymnasts performing the Hecht vault at the 1993 Canadian National Championships using two-dimensional video analysis with the direct linear transformation (DLT) technique. The maximum height reached by the mass centre during post-flight was significantly correlated (P < 0.001) with the vertical velocity of the mass centre and the body angle at horse contact. The backwards rotation of the body was significantly correlated (P = 0.015) with the shoulder angle at horse contact. The competition score was significantly correlated (P = 0.043) with the body angle at horse contact and was also related to the maximum height of the mass centre during post-flight. For the Hecht vault, the gymnasts had longer, lower and faster pre-flights with slower rotation at horse contact compared with the handspring somersault vaults. PMID:9663959

  2. The vault exterior shell is a dynamic structure that allows incorporation of vault-associated proteins into its interior.

    PubMed

    Poderycki, Michael J; Kickhoefer, Valerie A; Kaddis, Catherine S; Raval-Fernandes, Sujna; Johansson, Erik; Zink, Jeffrey I; Loo, Joseph A; Rome, Leonard H

    2006-10-01

    Vaults are 13 million Da ribonucleoprotein particles with a highly conserved structure. Expression and assembly by multimerization of an estimated 96 copies of a single protein, termed the major vault protein (MVP), is sufficient to form the minimal structure and entire exterior shell of the barrel-shaped vault particle. Multiple copies of two additional proteins, VPARP and TEP1, and a small untranslated vault RNA are also associated with vaults. We used the Sf9 insect cell expression system to form MVP-only recombinant vaults and performed a series of protein-mixing experiments to test whether this particle shell is able to exclude exogenous proteins from interacting with the vault interior. Surprisingly, we found that VPARP and TEP1 are able to incorporate into vaults even after the formation of the MVP vault particle shell is complete. Electrospray molecular mobility analysis and spectroscopic studies of vault-interacting proteins were used to confirm this result. Our results demonstrate that the protein shell of the recombinant vault particle is a dynamic structure and suggest a possible mechanism for in vivo assembly of vault-interacting proteins into preformed vaults. Finally, this study suggests that the vault interior may functionally interact with the cellular milieu. PMID:17002318

  3. Oak Ridge Isotope Production Cyclotron Facility and Target Handling

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, Eric Craig; Varma, Venugopal Koikal; Egle, Brian; Binder, Jeffrey L; Mirzadeh, Saed; Tatum, B Alan; Burgess, Thomas W; Devore, Joe; Rennich, Mark; Saltmarsh, Michael John; Caldwell, Benjamin Cale

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The Nuclear Science Advisory Committee issued in August 2009 an Isotopes Subcommittee report that recommended the construction and operation of a variable-energy, high-current, multiparticle accelerator for producing medical radioisotopes. To meet the needs identified in the report, Oak Ridge National Laboratory is developing a technical concept for a commercial 70 MeV dual-port-extraction, multiparticle cyclotron to be located at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility. The conceptual design of the isotope production facility as envisioned would provide two types of targets for use with this new cyclotron. One is a high-power target cooled by water circulating on both sides, and the other is a commercial target cooled only on one side. The isotope facility concept includes an isotope target vault for target irradiation and a shielded transfer station for radioactive target handling. The targets are irradiated in the isotope target vault. The irradiated targets are removed from the target vault and packaged in an adjoining shielded transfer station before being sent out for postprocessing. This paper describes the conceptual design of the target-handling capabilities required for dealing with these radioactive targets and for minimizing the contamination potential during operations.

  4. Cyclotrons as mass spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.J.

    1984-04-01

    The principles and design choices for cyclotrons as mass spectrometers are described. They are illustrated by examples of cyclotrons developed by various groups for this purpose. The use of present high energy cyclotrons for mass spectrometry is also described. 28 references, 12 figures.

  5. Detail of bricked up storage vault opening Central of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of bricked up storage vault opening - Central of Georgia Railway, Savannah Repair Shops & Terminal Facilities, Brick Storage Vaults under Jones Street, Bounded by West Broad, Jones, West Boundary & Hull Streets, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  6. 27. RECORDS VAULT UNDER STAIRWAY IN NORTHEAST CORNER OF MAIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. RECORDS VAULT UNDER STAIRWAY IN NORTHEAST CORNER OF MAIN MEETING ROOM. It is not known when this vault was built. It has cavity walls. - Twelfth Street Meeting House, 20 South Twelfth Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  7. Hazard evaluation for 244-AR vault facility

    SciTech Connect

    BRAUN, D.J.

    1999-08-25

    This document presents the results of a hazard identification and evaluation performed on the 244-AR Vault Facility to close a USQ (USQ No.TF-98-0785, Potential Inadequacy in Authorization Basis (PIAB): To Evaluate Miscellaneous Facilities Listed In HNF-2503 And Not Addressed In The TWRS Authorization Basis) that was generated as part of an evaluation of inactive TWRS facilities. A hazard evaluation for the Hanford Site 244-AR Vault Facility was performed. The process and results of the hazard evaluation are provided in this document. A previous hazard evaluation was performed for the 244-AR Vault Facility in 1996 in support of the Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) (HNF-SD-WM-BIO-001, 1998, Revision 1) of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS). The results of that evaluation are provided in the BIO. Upon review of those results it was determined that hazardous conditions that could lead to the release of radiological and toxicological material from the 244-AR vaults due to flooding was not addressed in the original hazards evaluation. This supplemental hazard evaluation addresses this oversight of the original hazard evaluation. The results of the hazard evaluation were compared to the current TWRS BIO to identify any hazardous conditions where Authorization Basis (AB) controls may not be sufficient or may not exist. This document is not part of the AB and is not a vehicle for requesting changes to the AB. It is only intended to provide information about hazardous conditions associated with the condition and configuration of the 244-AR vault facility. The AB Control Decision process could be used to determine the applicability and adequacy of existing AB controls as well as any new controls that may be needed for the identified hazardous conditions associated with 244-AR vault flooding. This hazard evaluation does not constitute an accident analysis.

  8. Palmprint based multidimensional fuzzy vault scheme.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hailun; Sun, Dongmei; Xiong, Ke; Qiu, Zhengding

    2014-01-01

    Fuzzy vault scheme (FVS) is one of the most popular biometric cryptosystems for biometric template protection. However, error correcting code (ECC) proposed in FVS is not appropriate to deal with real-valued biometric intraclass variances. In this paper, we propose a multidimensional fuzzy vault scheme (MDFVS) in which a general subspace error-tolerant mechanism is designed and embedded into FVS to handle intraclass variances. Palmprint is one of the most important biometrics; to protect palmprint templates; a palmprint based MDFVS implementation is also presented. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme not only can deal with intraclass variances effectively but also could maintain the accuracy and meanwhile enhance security. PMID:24892094

  9. Palmprint Based Multidimensional Fuzzy Vault Scheme

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hailun; Sun, Dongmei; Xiong, Ke; Qiu, Zhengding

    2014-01-01

    Fuzzy vault scheme (FVS) is one of the most popular biometric cryptosystems for biometric template protection. However, error correcting code (ECC) proposed in FVS is not appropriate to deal with real-valued biometric intraclass variances. In this paper, we propose a multidimensional fuzzy vault scheme (MDFVS) in which a general subspace error-tolerant mechanism is designed and embedded into FVS to handle intraclass variances. Palmprint is one of the most important biometrics; to protect palmprint templates; a palmprint based MDFVS implementation is also presented. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme not only can deal with intraclass variances effectively but also could maintain the accuracy and meanwhile enhance security. PMID:24892094

  10. Synchrotrons in cyclotron territory

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.J.; Gough, R.A.

    1986-10-01

    Synchrotrons and cyclotrons have an overlap in their particle and energy ranges. In proton radiotherapy, synchrotrons are proposed at 250 MeV, an energy usually served by cyclotrons. Heavy ion therapy has been synchrotron territory, but cyclotrons may be competitive. In nuclear science, heavy ion synchrotrons can be used in the cyclotron energy range of 10-200 MeV/u. Storage rings are planned to increase the flexibility of several cyclotrons. For atomic physics research, several storage rings are under construction for the energy range of 10 MeV/u and below.

  11. 49 CFR 192.183 - Vaults: Structural design requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Vaults: Structural design requirements. 192.183... TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Design of Pipeline Components § 192.183 Vaults: Structural design requirements. (a) Each underground vault or pit for...

  12. Rupture Loop Annex (RLA) ion exchange vault entry and characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Ham, J.E.

    1996-01-04

    This engineering report documents the entry and characterization of the Rupture Loop Annex Ion Exchange (RLAIX) Vault located near the 309 Building`s Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR). Twelve ion exchange columns were found in the vault. Some of which contained transuranics, Cs 137, and Co 60. The characterization information is necessary for future vault cleanout and column disposal.

  13. 41. MAIN SHEAVE VAULT 1955: Photocopy of June 1955 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. MAIN SHEAVE VAULT - 1955: Photocopy of June 1955 photograph of the main sheave vault below the southeast corner of the Washington and Mason powerhouse. View towards the southeast. Two of the deflecting sheaves in the vault are visible at the upper left and right rear of the photograph. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  14. Characterization of MVP and VPARP assembly into vault ribonucleoprotein complexes.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Chun-Lei; Sumizawa, Tomoyuki; Che, Xiao-Fang; Tsuyama, Shinichiro; Furukawa, Tatsuhiko; Haraguchi, Misako; Gao, Hui; Gotanda, Takenari; Jueng, Hei-Cheul; Murata, Fusayoshi; Akiyama, Shin-Ichi

    2005-01-01

    Vaults are barrel-shaped cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein particles composed of three proteins: the major vault protein (MVP), the vault poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (VPARP), and the telomerase-associated protein 1, together with one or more small untranslated RNAs. To date, little is known about the process of vault assembly or about the stability of vault components. In this study, we analyzed the biosynthesis of MVP and VPARP, and their half-lives within the vault particle in human ACHN renal carcinoma cells. Using an immunoprecipitation assay, we found that it took more than 4h for newly synthesized MVPs to be incorporated into vault particles but that biosynthesized VPARPs were completely incorporated into vaults within 1.5h. Once incorporated into the vault complex, both MVP and VPARP were very stable. Expression of human MVP alone in Escherichia coli resulted in the formation of particles that had a distinct vault morphology. The C-terminal region of VPARP that lacks poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase activity co-sedimented with MVP particles. This suggests that the activity of VPARP is not essential for interaction with MVP-self-assembled vault-like particles. In conclusion, our findings provide an insight into potential mechanisms of physiological vault assembly. PMID:15567158

  15. 1. VIEW OF ONE OF THE INNER ROOMS WITHIN VAULT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF ONE OF THE INNER ROOMS WITHIN VAULT 996. THE UNDERGROUND VAULTS WERE USED TO STORE SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL AWAITING ON- AND OFF-SITE SHIPMENT. - Rocky Flats Plant, Storage Vault, Southeast corner of protected area, Northwest of Building 991, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  16. 49 CFR 192.187 - Vaults: Sealing, venting, and ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... minimize the formation of combustible atmosphere in the vault or pit; and (3) The ducts must be high enough... explosive mixture might be ignited, and there must be a means for testing the internal atmosphere before... of ignition from reaching the vault atmosphere; or (3) If the vault or pit is ventilated,...

  17. 49 CFR 192.187 - Vaults: Sealing, venting, and ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... minimize the formation of combustible atmosphere in the vault or pit; and (3) The ducts must be high enough... explosive mixture might be ignited, and there must be a means for testing the internal atmosphere before... of ignition from reaching the vault atmosphere; or (3) If the vault or pit is ventilated,...

  18. 49 CFR 192.183 - Vaults: Structural design requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Vaults: Structural design requirements. 192.183... TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Design of Pipeline Components § 192.183 Vaults: Structural design requirements. (a) Each underground vault or pit for...

  19. Postirradiation angiosarcoma of the vaginal vault

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, W.W.; SenGupta, S.K. )

    1991-05-01

    We describe a unique case of an angiosarcoma arising in the vaginal vault 21 years after hysterectomy and radiotherapy for stage I carcinoma of the cervix. We also review the literature regarding angiosarcomas arising after previous radiation therapy for gynecologic malignancies.

  20. Hazard Evaluation for 244-CR Vault

    SciTech Connect

    GRAMS, W.H.

    1999-08-19

    This document presents the results of a hazards identification and evaluation performed on the 244-CR Vault to close a USQ (USQ No.TF-98-0785, Potential Inadequacy in Authorization Basis (PIAB): To Evaluate Miscellaneous Facilities Listed In HNF-2503 And Not Addressed In The TWRS Authorization Basis) that was generated as part of an evaluation of inactive TWRS facilities.

  1. Dynamic soil pressures on rigid cylindrical vaults

    SciTech Connect

    Veletsos, A.S.; Younan, A.H )

    1993-02-01

    A critical evaluation is made of the dynamic pressures and the associated forces induced by ground shaking on an upright, circular, rigid vault that is embedded in a uniform viscoelastic stratum of constant thickness and infinite extent in the horizontal plane. Both the vault and the stratum are presumed to be supported on a non- deformable base undergoing a space-invariant, uniform horizontal motion. The effects of both harmonic and earthquake-induced excitations are examined. Simple approximate expressions for the responses of the system are formulated, and comprehensive numerical data are presented which elucidate the underlying response mechanisms and the effects and relative importance of the various parameters involved. The parameters investigated include the height to radius ratio for the vault, the conditions at the vault-medium interface, and the material properties of the stratum. In addition to valuable insights into the response of the particular system being examined, the results presented provide a conceptual framework for the analysis and interpretation of solutions for more involved systems as well.

  2. 36 CFR 910.70 - Vault.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Vault. 910.70 Section 910.70 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION GENERAL GUIDELINES AND UNIFORM STANDARDS FOR URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN OF DEVELOPMENT WITHIN THE PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE...

  3. 36 CFR 910.70 - Vault.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Vault. 910.70 Section 910.70 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION GENERAL GUIDELINES AND UNIFORM STANDARDS FOR URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN OF DEVELOPMENT WITHIN THE PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE...

  4. 36 CFR 910.70 - Vault.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Vault. 910.70 Section 910.70 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION GENERAL GUIDELINES AND UNIFORM STANDARDS FOR URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN OF DEVELOPMENT WITHIN THE PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE...

  5. 36 CFR 910.70 - Vault.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vault. 910.70 Section 910.70 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION GENERAL GUIDELINES AND UNIFORM STANDARDS FOR URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN OF DEVELOPMENT WITHIN THE PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE...

  6. 36 CFR 910.70 - Vault.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vault. 910.70 Section 910.70 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION GENERAL GUIDELINES AND UNIFORM STANDARDS FOR URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN OF DEVELOPMENT WITHIN THE PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE...

  7. Structural domains of vault proteins: a role for the coiled coil domain in vault assembly.

    PubMed

    van Zon, Arend; Mossink, Marieke H; Schoester, Martijn; Scheffer, George L; Scheper, Rik J; Sonneveld, Pieter; Wiemer, Erik A C

    2002-03-01

    Vaults consist of multiple copies of three proteins (MVP, VPARP, and TEP1) and several untranslated RNAs. The function of vaults is unknown but the typical and evolutionary conserved structure indicates a role in intracellular transport. Although all vault components have been identified and characterized, not much is known about vault protein assembly. In this study we identified and analyzed structural domains involved in vault assembly with emphasis on protein-protein interactions. Using a yeast two-hybrid system, we demonstrate within MVP an intramolecular binding site and show that MVP molecules interact with each other via their coiled coil domain. We show that purified MVP is able to bind calcium, most likely at calcium-binding EF-hands. No interactions could be detected between TEP1 and other vault proteins. However, the N-terminal half of MVP binds to a specific domain in the C-terminus of VPARP. Furthermore, VPARP contains amino acid stretches mediating intramolecular binding. PMID:11855821

  8. Rupture loop annex ion exchange RLAIX vault deactivation

    SciTech Connect

    Ham, J.E.; Harris, D.L., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-01

    This engineering report documents the deactivation, stabilization and final conditions of the Rupture Loop Annex Ion Exchange (RLAIX) Vault located northwest of the 309 Building`s Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR). Twelve ion exchange columns, piping debris, and column liquid were removed from the vault, packaged and shipped for disposal. The vault walls and floor were decontaminated, and portions of the vault were painted to fix loose contamination. Process piping and drains were plugged, and the cover blocks and rain cover were installed. Upon closure,the vault was empty, stabilized, isolated.

  9. Cardiac applications of PET.

    PubMed

    Sarikaya, Ismet

    2015-10-01

    Routine use of cardiac positron emission tomography (PET) applications has been increasing but has not replaced cardiac single-photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) studies yet. The majority of cardiac PET tracers, with the exception of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG), are not widely available, as they require either an onsite cyclotron or a costly generator for their production. 18F-FDG PET imaging has high sensitivity for the detection of hibernating/viable myocardium and has replaced Tl-201 SPECT imaging in centers equipped with a PET/CT camera. PET myocardial perfusion imaging with various tracers such as Rb-82, N-13 ammonia, and O-15 H2O has higher sensitivity and specificity than myocardial perfusion SPECT for the detection of coronary artery disease (CAD). In particular, quantitative PET measurements of myocardial perfusion help identify subclinical coronary stenosis, better define the extent and severity of CAD, and detect ischemia when there is balanced reduction in myocardial perfusion due to three-vessel or main stem CAD. Fusion images of PET perfusion and CT coronary artery calcium scoring or CT coronary angiography provide additional complementary information and improve the detection of CAD. PET studies with novel 18F-labeled perfusion tracers such as 18F-flurpiridaz and 18F-FBnTP have yielded high sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of CAD. These tracers are still being tested in humans, and, if approved for clinical use, they will be commercially and widely available. In addition to viability studies, 18F-FDG PET can also be utilized to detect inflammation/infection in various conditions such as endocarditis, sarcoidosis, and atherosclerosis. Some recent series have obtained encouraging results for the detection of endocarditis in patients with intracardiac devices and prosthetic valves. PET tracers for cardiac neuronal imaging, such as C-11 HED, help assess the severity of heart failure and post-transplant cardiac

  10. Targeting vault nanoparticles to specific cell surface receptors.

    PubMed

    Kickhoefer, Valerie A; Han, Muri; Raval-Fernandes, Sujna; Poderycki, Michael J; Moniz, Raymond J; Vaccari, Dana; Silvestry, Mariena; Stewart, Phoebe L; Kelly, Kathleen A; Rome, Leonard H

    2009-01-27

    As a naturally occurring nanocapsule abundantly expressed in nearly all-eukaryotic cells, the barrel-shaped vault particle is perhaps an ideal structure to engineer for targeting to specific cell types. Recombinant vault particles self-assemble from 96 copies of the major vault protein (MVP), have dimensions of 72.5 x 41 nm, and have a hollow interior large enough to encapsulate hundreds of proteins. In this study, three different tags were engineered onto the C-terminus of MVP: an 11 amino acid epitope tag, a 33 amino acid IgG-binding peptide, and the 55 amino acid epidermal growth factor (EGF). These modified vaults were produced using a baculovirus expression system. Our studies demonstrate that recombinant vaults assembled from MVPs containing C-terminal peptide extensions display these tags at the top and bottom of the vault on the outside of the particle and can be used to specifically bind the modified vaults to epithelial cancer cells (A431) via the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), either directly (EGF modified vaults) or as mediated by a monoclonal antibody (anti-EGFR) bound to recombinant vaults containing the IgG-binding peptide. The ability to target vaults to specific cells represents an essential advance toward using recombinant vaults as delivery vehicles. PMID:19206245

  11. SU-D-BRE-07: Neutron Shielding Assessment for a Compact Proton Therapy Vault

    SciTech Connect

    Prusator, M; Ahmad, S; Chen, Y

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To perform a neutron shielding assessment of a commercially available compact proton therapy system. Methods: TOPAS (TOol for PArticle Simulation) beta release was used to model beam line components for Mevion S250 proton treatment system the design of which is that the cyclotron is present in the treatment room. Three neutron production sources were taken into account in the simulation. These are the cyclotron, the treatment nozzle and the patient itself, respectively. The cyclotron was modeled as a cylindrical iron target (r =5 cm, length = 8 cm). A water phantom (10 cm ×10 cm ×60 cm) was used to model the patient and various structures (scattering foils, range modulator wheel, applicator and compensator) defaulted in TOPAS were used to model the passive scattering treatment nozzle. Neutron fluences and energy spectra were counted in a spherical scoring geometry per incident proton in 18 angular bins (10 degree each). Fluence to dose conversion factors from ICRU publication 74 were used to acquire neutron ambient dose equivalent H*(10). A point source line of sight model was then used to calculate neutron dose at eight locations beyond shielding barriers. Results: The neutron ambient dose equivalent was calculated at the 8 points of interest around the proton treatment vault. The highest dose was found to be less than 0.781 mSv/year outside south barrier wall. However, the dose is less than 0.05 mSv/year at the control room area of the proton vault. Conclusion: All Points of interest were well under annual dose limits. This suggests that the shielding design of this compact proton therapy system is sufficient for radiation protection purpose. However, it is important to note that the workload and the occupancy factors are direct multipliers for dose calculations beyond the barrier and must be accurately estimated for validation of our results.

  12. E-Area Vault Concrete Material Property And Vault Durability/Degradation Projection Recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Phifer, M. A.

    2014-03-11

    Subsequent to the 2008 E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility (ELLWF) Performance Assessment (PA) (WSRC 2008), two additional E-Area vault concrete property testing programs have been conducted (Dixon and Phifer 2010 and SIMCO 2011a) and two additional E-Area vault concrete durability modeling projections have been made (Langton 2009 and SIMCO 2012). All the information/data from these reports has been evaluated and consolidated herein by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) at the request of Solid Waste Management (SWM) to produce E-Area vault concrete hydraulic and physical property data and vault durability/degradation projection recommendations that are adequately justified for use within associated Special Analyses (SAs) and future PA updates. The Low Activity Waste (LAW) and Intermediate Level (IL) Vaults structural degradation predictions produced by Carey 2006 and Peregoy 2006, respectively, which were used as the basis for the 2008 ELLWF PA, remain valid based upon the results of the E-Area vault concrete durability simulations reported by Langton 2009 and those reported by SIMCO 2012. Therefore revised structural degradation predictions are not required so long as the mean thickness of the closure cap overlying the vaults is no greater than that assumed within Carey 2006 and Peregoy 2006. For the LAW Vault structural degradation prediction (Carey 2006), the mean thickness of the overlying closure cap was taken as nine feet. For the IL Vault structural degradation prediction (Peregoy 2006), the mean thickness of the overlying closure cap was taken as eight feet. The mean closure cap thicknesses as described here for both E-Area Vaults will be included as a key input and assumption (I&A) in the next revision to the closure plan for the ELLWF (Phifer et al. 2009). In addition, it has been identified as new input to the PA model to be assessed in the ongoing update to the new PA Information UDQE (Flach 2013). Once the UDQE is approved, the SWM Key I

  13. Development of polymer concrete vaults for natural gas regulator stations

    SciTech Connect

    Fontana, J.J.; Miller, C.A.; Reams, W.; Elling, D.

    1990-08-01

    Vaults for natural gas regulator stations have traditionally been fabricated with steel-reinforced portland cement concrete. Since these vaults are installed below ground level, they are usually coated with a water-proofing material to prevent the ingress of moisture into the vault. In some cases, penetrations for piping that are normally cast into the vault do not line up with the gas lines in the streets. This necessitates off-setting the lines to line up with the penetrations in the vault or breaking out new penetrations which could weaken the structure and/or allow water ingress. By casting the vaults using a new material of construction such as polymer concrete, a longer maintenance free service life is possible because the physical and durability properties of polymer concrete composites are much superior to those of portland cement concrete. The higher strengths of polymer concrete allow the design engineer to reduce the wall, floor, and ceiling thicknesses making the vaults lighter for easier transportation and installation. Penetrations can be cut after casting to match existing street lines, thus making the vault more universal and reducing the number of vaults that are normally in stock. The authors developed a steel-fiber reinforced polymer concrete composite that could be used for regulator vaults. Based on the physical properties of his new composite, vaults were designed to replace the BUG PV-008 and Con Ed GR-6 regulator vaults made of reinforced portland cement concrete. Quarter-scale models of the polymer concrete vaults were tested and the results reaffirmed the reduced wall thickness design. Two sets of vaults, cast by Hardinge Bros., were inspected by representatives of the utilities and BNL (Brookhaven National Laboratory), and were accepted for delivery. 6 refs., 5 figs., 12 tabs.

  14. 244-CR Vault Interim Stabilization Project Plan

    SciTech Connect

    PARKMAN, D.B.

    2000-04-25

    The 244-CR Vault is a two-level, multi-cell structure of reinforced concrete constructed below grade. The lower cell contains four individual compartments, each containing a steel process storage tank and equipped with a concrete sump. The upper cell contains the piping and support equipment, and has two compartments for each of the tanks. The ''pump pit'' is accessed by the removal of concrete cover blocks, while the smaller ''riser pit'' is accessed by steel cover plates. The facility most recently was used as a double-contained receiver tank (DCRT). A DCRT is a type of waste transfer tank that together with its related equipment constitutes a short-term storage area for liquid waste and has a pump pit for waste transfer operations. This vault most recently was used for short-term storage and waste routing for saltwell liquid pumped from the 241-C Tank Farm in the 200 East Area. Waste transfer lines are connected inside the pump pit by a jumper installed between connecting nozzles. An active ventilation system is in operation at the 244-CR vault. Ventilation supply air enters the upper vault section through an inlet header with some leakage through the spaces between the cell cover blocks. The upper and lower vaults are connected by exhauster ports, which allow airflow between the two sections. Normal flow moves air from the upper cell to the lower cell where it is removed and routed into a filter plenum; there the air is treated by a bank of four prefilters and two banks of high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters (each containing four HEPAs). The air is exhausted to the atmosphere through the 296-C-05 Stack. The stack is equipped with a record sampler and continuous air monitor. Two fans (each rated at 4,200 cubic feet per minute) installed downstream of the filtration system provide the motive force for exhausting the vaults and the tanks. As an active system, it is operated continuously with only one of the two fans required to operate at a time. A

  15. Design Study Of Cyclotron Magnet With Permanent Magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyun Wook; Chai, Jong Seo

    2011-06-01

    Low energy cyclotrons for Positron emission tomography (PET) have been wanted for the production of radio-isotopes after 2002. In the low energy cyclotron magnet design, increase of magnetic field between the poles is needed to make a smaller size of magnet and decrease power consumption. The Permanent magnet can support this work without additional electric power consumption in the cyclotron. In this paper the study of cyclotron magnet design using permanent magnet is shown and also the comparison between normal magnet and the magnet which is designed with permanent magnet is shown. Maximum energy of proton is 8 MeV and RF frequency is 79.3 MHz. 3D CAD design was done by CATIA P3 V5 R18 and the All field calculations had been performed by OPERA-3D TOSCA. The self-made beam dynamics program OPTICY is used for making isochronous field and other calculations.

  16. Vaults: a ribonucleoprotein particle involved in drug resistance?

    PubMed

    Mossink, Marieke H; van Zon, Arend; Scheper, Rik J; Sonneveld, Pieter; Wiemer, Erik A C

    2003-10-20

    Vaults are ribonucleoprotein particles found in the cytoplasm of eucaryotic cells. The 13 MDa particles are composed of multiple copies of three proteins: an M(r) 100 000 major vault protein (MVP) and two minor vault proteins of M(r) 193 000 (vault poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase) and M(r) 240 000 (telomerase-associated protein 1), as well as small untranslated RNA molecules of approximately 100 bases. Although the existence of vaults was first reported in the mid-1980s no function has yet been attributed to this organelle. The notion that vaults might play a role in drug resistance was suggested by the molecular identification of the lung resistance-related (LRP) protein as the human MVP. MVP/LRP was found to be overexpressed in many chemoresistant cancer cell lines and primary tumor samples of different histogenetic origin. Several, but not all, clinico-pathological studies showed that MVP expression at diagnosis was an independent adverse prognostic factor for response to chemotherapy. The hollow barrel-shaped structure of the vault complex and its subcellular localization indicate a function in intracellular transport. It was therefore postulated that vaults contributed to drug resistance by transporting drugs away from their intracellular targets and/or the sequestration of drugs. Here, we review the current knowledge on the vault complex and critically discuss the evidence that links vaults to drug resistance. PMID:14576851

  17. Immobilization of recombinant vault nanoparticles on solid substrates.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yun; Ramgopal, Yamini; Li, Hai; Shang, Lei; Srinivas, Parisa; Kickhoefer, Valerie A; Rome, Leonard H; Preiser, Peter R; Boey, Freddy; Zhang, Hua; Venkatraman, Subbu S

    2010-03-23

    Native vaults are nanoscale particles found abundantly in the cytoplasm of most eukaryotic cells. They have a capsule-like structure with a thin shell surrounding a "hollow" interior compartment. Recombinant vault particles were found to self-assemble following expression of the major vault protein (MVP) in a baculovirus expression system, and these particles are virtually identical to native vaults. Such particles have been recently studied as potential delivery vehicles. In this study, we focus on immobilization of vault particles on a solid substrate, such as glass, as a first step to study their interactions with cells. To this end, we first engineered the recombinant vaults by fusing two different tags to the C-terminus of MVP, a 3 amino acid RGD peptide and a 12 amino acid RGD-strep-tag peptide. We have demonstrated two strategies for immobilizing vaults on solid substrates. The barrel-and-cap structure of vault particles was observed for the first time, by atomic force microscopy (AFM), in a dry condition. This work proved the feasibility of immobilizing vault nanoparticles on a material surface, and the possibility of using vault nanoparticles as localized and sustainable drug carriers as well as a biocompatible surface moiety. PMID:20146454

  18. The La RNA-binding protein interacts with the vault RNA and is a vault-associated protein.

    PubMed

    Kickhoefer, Valerie A; Poderycki, Michael J; Chan, Edward K L; Rome, Leonard H

    2002-10-25

    Vaults are highly conserved ubiquitous ribonucleoprotein particles with an undefined function. Three protein species (p240/TEP1, p193/VPARP, and p100/MVP) and a small RNA comprise the 13-MDa vault particle. The expression of the unique 100-kDa major vault protein is sufficient to form the basic vault structure. Previously, we have shown that stable association of the vault RNA with the vault particle is dependent on its interaction with the p240/TEP1 protein. To identify other proteins that interact with the vault RNA, we used a UV-cross-linking assay. We find that a portion of the vault RNA is complexed with the La autoantigen in a separate smaller ribonucleoprotein particle. La interacts with the vault RNA (both in vivo and in vitro) presumably through binding to 3'-uridylates. Moreover, we also demonstrate that the La autoantigen is the 50-kDa protein that we have previously reported as a protein that co-purifies with vaults. PMID:12196535

  19. Cranial vault thickness in primates: Homo erectus does not have uniquely thick vault bones.

    PubMed

    Copes, Lynn E; Kimbel, William H

    2016-01-01

    Extremely thick cranial vaults have been noted as a diagnostic characteristic of Homo erectus since the first fossil of the species was identified, but relatively little work has been done on elucidating its etiology or variation across fossils, living humans, or extant non-human primates. Cranial vault thickness (CVT) is not a monolithic trait, and the responsiveness of its layers to environmental stimuli is unknown. We obtained measurements of cranial vault thickness in fossil hominins from the literature and supplemented those data with additional measurements taken on African fossil specimens. Total CVT and the thickness of the cortical and diploë layers individually were compared to measures of CVT in extant species measured from more than 500 CT scans of human and non-human primates. Frontal and parietal CVT in fossil primates was compared to a regression of CVT on cranial capacity calculated for extant species. Even after controlling for cranial capacity, African and Asian H. erectus do not have uniquely high frontal or parietal thickness residuals, either among hominins or extant primates. Extant primates with residual CVT thickness similar to or exceeding H. erectus (depending on the sex and bone analyzed) include Nycticebus coucang, Perodicticus potto, Alouatta caraya, Lophocebus albigena, Galago alleni, Mandrillus sphinx, and Propithecus diadema. However, the especially thick vaults of extant non-human primates that overlap with H. erectus values are composed primarily of cortical bone, while H. erectus and other hominins have diploë-dominated vault bones. Thus, the combination of thick vaults comprised of a thickened diploë layer may be a reliable autapomorphy for members of the genus Homo. PMID:26767964

  20. 15. VIEW LOOKING EAST AT UNDERGROUND VAULT, BUILDING 997, UNDER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. VIEW LOOKING EAST AT UNDERGROUND VAULT, BUILDING 997, UNDER CONSTRUCTION. THE VAULTS WERE USED TO STORE TRIGGERS AWAITING OFF-SITE SHIPMENT, OR RETURNED TRIGGERS AWAITING TO BE TRANSPORTED TO A BUILDING FOR RECOVERY OF THE PLUTONIUM. THE VAULT WALLS WERE CONSTRUCTED 14.5 FEET THICK. BUILDING 991, IN THE BACKGROUND, WAS THE FIRST OPERATIONAL BUILDING ON SITE (2/1/52). - Rocky Flats Plant, Bounded by Indiana Street & Routes 93, 128 & 72, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  1. Radiological air quality in a depleted uranium storage vault

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, T.; Cucchiara, A.L.

    1999-03-01

    The radiological air quality of two storage vaults, one with depleted uranium (DU) and one without, was evaluated and compared. The intent of the study was to determine if the presence of stored DU would significantly contribute to the gaseous/airborne radiation level compared to natural background. Both vaults are constructed out of concrete and are dimensionally similar. The vaults are located on the first floor of the same building. Neither vault has air supply or air exhaust. The doors to both vaults remained closed during the evaluation period, except for brief and infrequent access by the operational group. One vault contained 700 KG of depleted uranium, and the other vault contained documents inside of file cabinets. Radon detectors and giraffe air samplers were used to gather data on the quantity of gaseous/airborne radionuclides in both vaults. The results of this study indicated that there was no significant difference in the quantity of gaseous/airborne radionuclides in the two vaults. This paper gives a discussion of the effects of the stored DU on the air quality, and poses several theories supporting the results.

  2. MVP and vaults: a role in the radiation response.

    PubMed

    Lara, Pedro C; Pruschy, Martin; Zimmermann, Martina; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Vaults are evolutionary highly conserved ribonucleoproteins particles with a hollow barrel-like structure. The main component of vaults represents the 110 kDa major vault protein (MVP), whereas two minor vaults proteins comprise the 193 kDa vault poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (vPARP) and the 240 kDa telomerase-associated protein-1 (TEP-1). Additionally, at least one small and untranslated RNA is found as a constitutive component. MVP seems to play an important role in the development of multidrug resistance. This particle has also been implicated in the regulation of several cellular processes including transport mechanisms, signal transmission and immune responses. Vaults are considered a prognostic marker for different cancer types. The level of MVP expression predicts the clinical outcome after chemotherapy in different tumour types. Recently, new roles have been assigned to MVP and vaults including the association with the insulin-like growth factor-1, hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha, and the two major DNA double-strand break repair machineries: non-homologous endjoining and homologous recombination. Furthermore, MVP has been proposed as a useful prognostic factor associated with radiotherapy resistance. Here, we review these novel actions of vaults and discuss a putative role of MVP and vaults in the response to radiotherapy. PMID:22040803

  3. Professor Pet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pet Information Bureau, New York, NY.

    This manual outlines ways in which observation and care of classroom pet animals may be used to enrich the education of elementary school children. Part one deals with the benefits of having pets in the classroom. Part two illustrates ways in which pets can serve as valuable teaching tools and gives examples of lessons in which the use of pets can…

  4. Cyclotron Institute Upgrade Project

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Henry; Yennello, Sherry; Tribble, Robert

    2014-08-26

    The Cyclotron Institute at Texas A&M University has upgraded its accelerator facilities to extend research capabilities with both stable and radioactive beams. The upgrade is divided into three major tasks: (1) re-commission the K-150 (88”) cyclotron, couple it to existing beam lines to provide intense stable beams into the K-500 experimental areas and use it as a driver to produce radioactive beams; (2) develop light ion and heavy ion guides for stopping radioactive ions created with the K-150 beams; and (3) transport 1+ ions from the ion guides into a charge-breeding electron-cyclotron-resonance ion source (CB-ECR) to produce highly-charged radioactive ions for acceleration in the K-500 cyclotron. When completed, the upgraded facility will provide high-quality re-accelerated secondary beams in a unique energy range in the world.

  5. 62. VIEW TO NORTHWEST IN MAIN SHEAVE VAULT: View towards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    62. VIEW TO NORTHWEST IN MAIN SHEAVE VAULT: View towards the northwest in the main sheave vault showing the Powell-Hyde and Powell-Mason inbound deflecting sheaves. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  6. 61. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST IN MAIN SHEAVE VAULT: View towards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    61. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST IN MAIN SHEAVE VAULT: View towards the southeast in the main sheave vault under the southeast corner of the Washington and Mason Street powerhouse. Photograph shows the Powell-Mason and Powell-Hyde outbound deflecting sheaves. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  7. 63. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST IN MAIN SHEAVE VAULT: View towards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    63. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST IN MAIN SHEAVE VAULT: View towards the southwest in the main sheave vault showing the double sheave used to deflect the California Street cable in and out of the powerhouse. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  8. Vault Area (original section), east corridor, looking north, showing tops ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Vault Area (original section), east corridor, looking north, showing tops of individual vaults and vent housings - Fort McNair, Film Store House, Fort Lesley J. McNair, P Street between Third & Fourth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  9. A vault ribonucleoprotein particle exhibiting 39-fold dihedral symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Koji; Tanaka, Hideaki; Sumizawa, Tomoyuki; Yoshimura, Masato; Yamashita, Eiki; Iwasaki, Kenji; Tsukihara, Tomitake

    2008-05-01

    A vault from rat liver was crystallized in space group C2. Rotational symmetry searches indicated that the particle has 39-fold dihedral symmetry. Vault is a 12.9 MDa ribonucleoprotein particle with a barrel-like shape, two protruding caps and an invaginated waist structure that is highly conserved in a wide variety of eukaryotes. Multimerization of the major vault protein (MVP) is sufficient to assemble the entire exterior shell of the barrel-shaped vault particle. Multiple copies of two additional proteins, vault poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (VPARP) and telomerase-associated protein 1 (TEP1), as well as a small vault RNA (vRNA), are also associated with vault. Here, the crystallization of vault particles is reported. The crystals belong to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 708.0, b = 385.0, c = 602.9 Å, β = 124.8°. Rotational symmetry searches based on the R factor and correlation coefficient from noncrystallographic symmetry (NCS) averaging indicated that the particle has 39-fold dihedral symmetry.

  10. Mechanical Stability and Reversible Fracture of Vault Particles

    PubMed Central

    Llauró, Aida; Guerra, Pablo; Irigoyen, Nerea; Rodríguez, José F.; Verdaguer, Núria; de Pablo, Pedro J.

    2014-01-01

    Vaults are the largest ribonucleoprotein particles found in eukaryotic cells, with an unclear cellular function and promising applications as vehicles for drug delivery. In this article, we examine the local stiffness of individual vaults and probe their structural stability with atomic force microscopy under physiological conditions. Our data show that the barrel, the central part of the vault, governs both the stiffness and mechanical strength of these particles. In addition, we induce single-protein fractures in the barrel shell and monitor their temporal evolution. Our high-resolution atomic force microscopy topographies show that these fractures occur along the contacts between two major vault proteins and disappear over time. This unprecedented systematic self-healing mechanism, which enables these particles to reversibly adapt to certain geometric constraints, might help vaults safely pass through the nuclear pore complex and potentiate their role as self-reparable nanocontainers. PMID:24507609

  11. 244-AR Vault Interim Stabilization Project Plan

    SciTech Connect

    LANEY, T.

    2000-03-24

    The 244-AR Vault Facility, constructed between 1966 and 1968, was designed to provide lag storage and treatment for the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Facility (PUREX) tank farm sludges. Tank farm personnel transferred the waste from the 244-AR Vault Facility to B Plant for recovery of cesium and strontium. B Plant personnel then transferred the treatment residuals back to the tank farms for storage of the sludge and liquids. The last process operations, which transferred waste supporting the cesium/strontium recovery mission, occurred in April 1978. After the final transfer in 1978, the 244-AR facility underwent a cleanout. However, 2,271 L (600 gal) of sludge were left in Tank 004AR from an earlier transfer from Tank 241-AX-104. When the cleanout was completed, the facility was placed in a standby status. The sludge had been transferred to Tank 004AR to support Pacific Northwest National Laboratory [PNNL] vitrification work. Documentation of waste transfers suggests that a portion of the sludge may have been moved from Tank 004AR to Tank 002AR in preparation for transfer back to the AX Tank Farm; however, quantities of the sludge that were moved to Tank 002AR from that transfer must be estimated.

  12. Cellular functions of vaults and their involvement in multidrug resistance.

    PubMed

    Steiner, E; Holzmann, K; Elbling, L; Micksche, M; Berger, W

    2006-08-01

    Vaults are evolutionary highly conserved ribonucleoprotein (RNP) particles with a hollow barrel-like structure. They are 41 x 73 nm in size and are composed of multiple copies of three proteins and small untranslated RNA (vRNA). The main component of vaults represents the 110 kDa major vault protein (MVP), whereas the two minor vault proteins comprise the 193 kDa vault poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (VPARP) and the 240 kDa telomerase-associated protein-1 (TEP1). Vaults are abundantly present in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells and they were found to be associated with cytoskeletal elements as well as occasionally with the nuclear envelope. Vaults and MVP have been associated with several cellular processes which are also involved in cancer development like cell motility and differentiation. Due to the over-expression of MVP (also termed lung resistance-related protein or LRP) in several P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-negative chemoresistant cancer cell lines, vaults have been linked to multidrug resistance (MDR). Accordingly, high levels of MVP were found in tissues chronically exposed to xenobiotics. In addition, the expression of MVP correlated with the degree of malignancy in certain cancer types, suggesting a direct involvement in tumor development and/or progression. Based on the finding that MVP binds several phosphatases and kinases including PTEN, SHP-2 as well as Erk, evidence is accumulating that MVP might be involved in the regulation of important cell signalling pathways including the PI3K/Akt and the MAPK pathways. In this review we summarize the current knowledge concerning the vault particle and discuss its possible cellular functions, focusing on the role of vaults in chemotherapy resistance. PMID:16918321

  13. Improving cancer treatment with cyclotron produced radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, S.M.; Finn, R.D.

    1992-08-04

    Our goal is to improve the scientific basis for tumor diagnosis, treatment and treatment follow-up based on the use of cyclotron produced radiotracers in oncology. The grant includes 3 interactive components: Radiochemistry/Cyclotron; Pharmacology; and Immunology. The radiochemistry group seeks to develop innovative cyclotron targetry, radiopharmaceuticals, and radiolabeled antibodies, which are then used to assess important unanswered questions in tumor pharmacology and immunology. Examples include selected positron emitting radionuclides, such as Iodine-124, and Ga-66; I-124, I-123, I-131 labeled iododeoxyuridine, C-11 colchicine, and antimetabolites, like C-11 methotrexate; and radiolabeled antibodies, 3F8, M195, A33, and MRK16 for application in the pharmacology and immunology projects. The pharmacology program studies tumor resistance to chemotherapy, particularly the phenomenon of multidrug resistance and the relationship between tumor uptake and retention and the tumor response for anti-metabolite drugs. The immunology program studies the physiology of antibody localization at the tissue level as the basis for novel approaches to improving tumor localization such as through the use of an artificial lymphatic system which mechanically reduces intratumoral pressures in tumors in vivo. Quantitative imaging approaches based on PET and SPECT in radioimmunotherapy are studied to give greater insight into the physiology of tumor localization and dosimetry.

  14. Spatial cyclotron damping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, C. L.

    1970-01-01

    To examine spatial electron cyclotron damping in a uniform Vlasov plasma, it is noted that the plasma response to a steady-state transverse excitation consists of several terms (dielectric-pole, free-streaming, and branch-cut), but that the cyclotron-damped pole term is the dominant term for z l = c/w sub ce provided (w sub pe/w sub ce) squared (c/a) is much greater than 1. If the latter inequality does not hold, then the free-streaming and branch-cut terms persist well past z = c/w sub ce as w sub 1 approaches w sub ce, making experimental measurement of cyclotron damping essentially impossible. Considering only (w sub pe/w sub ce) squared (c/a) is much greater than 1, it is shown how collisional effects should be estimated and how a finite-width excitation usually has little effect on the cyclotron-damped part of the response. Criteria is established concerning collisional damping, measurable damping length sizes, and allowed uncertainty in the magnetic field Beta. Results of numerical calculations, showing the regions in the appropriate parameter spaces that meet these criteria, are presented. From these results, one can determine the feasibility of, or propose parameter values for, an experiment designed to measure spatial cyclotron damping. It is concluded that the electron temperature T sub e should be at least 1 ev., and preferably 10 ev. or higher, for a successful experiment.

  15. [Use of a cyclotron in the production of positron emitting radionuclides].

    PubMed

    Martí-Climent, J; Peñuelas, I; Calvo, R; Giménez, M; Gámez, C; Richter, J

    1999-08-01

    The experience acquired by our center during the first two years of using cyclotron 18/9 (IBA) dedicated to the production of clinical positron emission radionuclides is described. The cyclotron performance characteristics, production yields, quality control and synthesized radiotracers are analyzed. Cyclotron makes it possible to produce up to 3,300 mCi of 18F-, 270 mCi of 18F2, 3,100 mCi of 11C, 502 mCi of 13N (in 120, 60, 35 and 20 minutes respectively) and 540 mCi/min of 15O. In our center, about 85% of the PET studies are performed with 18F-FDG, whereas the remaining are done with 15O-water, 11C-bicarbonate, 11C-methionine, 13N-ammonia or 18F-. Cyclotron is included in the Radiopharmacy Unit of our PET facility and is subjected to a global quality control program. Follow-up of the bombardment parameters and periodic verifications of the cyclotron performance have made it possible to prevent equipment functioning problems, increase mean time between stoppage and decrease downtime. We conclude that cyclotron has high production capabilities and allows enough flexibility for a clinical and research positron emission tomography center; furthermore, it can also be used for regional distribution of 18F-FDG to satellite PET centers. PMID:10481107

  16. Vaults and telomerase share a common subunit, TEP1.

    PubMed

    Kickhoefer, V A; Stephen, A G; Harrington, L; Robinson, M O; Rome, L H

    1999-11-12

    Vaults are large cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein complexes of undetermined function. Mammalian vaults have two high molecular mass proteins of 193 and 240 kDa. We have identified a partial cDNA encoding the 240-kDa vault protein and determined it is identical to the mammalian telomerase-associated component, TEP1. TEP1 is the mammalian homolog of the Tetrahymena p80 telomerase protein and has been shown to interact specifically with mammalian telomerase RNA and the catalytic protein subunit hTERT. We show that while TEP1 is a component of the vault particle, vaults have no detectable telomerase activity. Using a yeast three-hybrid assay we demonstrate that several of the human vRNAs interact in a sequence-specific manner with TEP1. The presence of 16 WD40 repeats in the carboxyl terminus of the TEP1 protein is a convenient number for this protein to serve a structural or organizing role in the vault, a particle with eight-fold symmetry. The sharing of the TEP1 protein between vaults and telomerase suggests that TEP1 may play a common role in some aspect of ribonucleoprotein structure, function, or assembly. PMID:10551828

  17. Pet Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Before getting a pet, think carefully about which animal is best for your family. What is each ... Does anyone have pet allergies? What type of animal suits your lifestyle and budget? Once you own ...

  18. Computational Fluid Dynamics Model for Saltstone Vault 4 Vapor Sapce

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Si Young

    2005-06-27

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods have been used to estimate the flow patterns for vapor space inside the Saltstone Vault No.4 under different operating scenarios. The purpose of this work is to examine the gas motions inside the vapor space under the current vault configurations. A CFD model took three-dimensional transient momentum-energy coupled approach for the vapor space domain of the vault. The modeling calculations were based on prototypic vault geometry and expected normal operating conditions as defined by Waste Solidification Engineering. The modeling analysis was focused on the air flow patterns near the ventilated corner zones of the vapor space inside the Saltstone vault. The turbulence behavior and natural convection mechanism used in the present model were benchmarked against the literature information and theoretical results. The verified model was applied to the Saltstone vault geometry for the transient assessment of the air flow patterns inside the vapor space of the vault region using the boundary conditions as provided by the customer. The present model considered two cases for the estimations of the flow patterns within the vapor space. One is the reference baseline case. The other is for the negative temperature gradient between the roof inner and top grout surface temperatures intended for the potential bounding condition. The flow patterns of the vapor space calculated by the CFD model demonstrate that the ambient air comes into the vapor space of the vault through the lower-end ventilation hole, and it gets heated up by the Benard-cell type circulation before leaving the vault via the higher-end ventilation hole. The calculated results are consistent with the literature information.

  19. Intelligent low-level RF system by non-destructive beam monitoring device for cyclotrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharifi Asadi Malafeh, M. S.; Ghergherehchi, M.; Afarideh, H.; Chai, J. S.; Yoon, Sang Kim

    2016-04-01

    The project of a 10 MeV PET cyclotron accelerator for medical diagnosis and treatment was started at Amirkabir University of Technology in 2012. The low-level RF system of the cyclotron accelerator is designed to stabilize acceleration voltage and control the resonance frequency of the cavity. In this work an Intelligent Low Level Radio Frequency Circuit or ILLRF, suitable for most AVF cyclotron accelerators, is designed using a beam monitoring device and narrow band tunable band-pass filter. In this design, the RF phase detection does not need signal processing by a microcontroller.

  20. Encapsulation of Semiconducting Polymers in Vault Protein Cages

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, B.C.; Yu, M.; Gopal, A.; Rome, L.H.; Monbouquette, H.G.; Tolbert, S.H.

    2009-05-22

    We demonstrate that a semiconducting polymer [poly(2-methoxy-5-propyloxy sulfonate phenylene vinylene), MPS-PPV] can be encapsulated inside recombinant, self-assembling protein nanocapsules called 'vaults'. Polymer incorporation into these nanosized protein cages, found naturally at {approx}10,000 copies per human cell, was confirmed by fluorescence spectroscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering. Although vault cellular functions and gating mechanisms remain unknown, their large internal volume and natural prevalence within the human body suggests they could be used as carriers for therapeutics and medical imaging reagents. This study provides the groundwork for the use of vaults in encapsulation and delivery applications.

  1. Vault particles: a new generation of delivery nanodevices.

    PubMed

    Casañas, Arnau; Guerra, Pablo; Fita, Ignasi; Verdaguer, Núria

    2012-12-01

    Vault particles possess many attributes that can be exploited in nanobiotechnology, particularly in the creation of drug delivery nanodevices. These include self-assembly, 100 nm size range, a dynamic structure that may be controlled for manipulation of drug release kinetics and natural presence in humans ensuring biocompatibility. The flexibility and the adaptability of this system have been greatly enhanced by the emerging atomic-level information and improved comprehension of vault structure and dynamics. It seems likely that this information will allow their specific tailoring to the individual requirements of each drug and target tissue. These properties provide vaults with an enormous potential as a versatile delivery platform. PMID:22677067

  2. New Regression Models to Evaluate the Relationship between Biomechanics of Gymnastic Vault and Initial Vault Difficulty Values.

    PubMed

    Atiković, Almir

    2012-12-01

    The main objective of this paper was to determine the relationship between biomechanical parameters of vault flights with respect to new models of initial vault difficulty values in men's artistic gymnastic. The study sample included vaults (n=64) and models (n=5) from the 2009 Code of Points (CoP) of the Federation International of Gymnastics (FIG). The dependent variable included all difficulty values ranging from 2-7.2 points, while the sample of independent variables included twelve biomechanical parameters. After implementing the regression analysis, it could be established that the best model derived only the second flight phase with 95% of explained variance. PMID:23487176

  3. Radionuclide limits for vault disposal at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, J.R.

    1992-02-04

    The Savannah River Site is developing a facility called the E-Area Vaults which will serve as the new radioactive waste disposal facility beginning early in 1992. The facility will employ engineered below-grade concrete vaults for disposal and above-grade storage for certain long-lived mobile radionuclides. This report documents the determination of interim upper limits for radionuclide inventories and concentrations which should be allowed in the disposal structures. The work presented here will aid in the development of both waste acceptance criteria and operating limits for the E-Area Vaults. Disposal limits for forty isotopes which comprise the SRS waste streams were determined. The limits are based on total facility and vault inventories for those radionuclides which impact groundwater, and or waste package concentrations for those radionuclides which could affect intruders.

  4. Detail of Bright Angel stone vault, containing condenser, Hoffman condensation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of Bright Angel stone vault, containing condenser, Hoffman condensation pump, Jennings vacuum heating pump, and misc. pipes and valves. - Grand Canyon Village Utilities, Grand Canyon National Park, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  5. Perspective of Bright Angel stone vault, view south, with HAER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective of Bright Angel stone vault, view south, with HAER field team measuring (Michael Lee and Dominic Duran foreground, Christopher Marston rear). - Grand Canyon Village Utilities, Grand Canyon National Park, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  6. A quality control program for waste disposal vault closure

    SciTech Connect

    Benny, H.L.

    1994-07-01

    This paper provides a review of the quality control program employed for closure for a radioactive waste disposal vault at Hanford Washington. The major elements of the program are discussed, as well as the testing results and lessons learned.

  7. NORTH SIDE FACING TRACK, SHOWING ELECTRICAL BOX AND CONCRETE VAULT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTH SIDE FACING TRACK, SHOWING ELECTRICAL BOX AND CONCRETE VAULT - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Electrical Distribution Station, South side of Sled Track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  8. View of a subsurface Concrete Vault (Feature 9), looking westsouthwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of a subsurface Concrete Vault (Feature 9), looking west-southwest - Orphan Lode Mine, North of West Rim Road between Powell Point and Maricopa Point, South Rim, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  9. 9. Interior of Building 1001 (administration building), Room 204, vault, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Interior of Building 1001 (administration building), Room 204, vault, looking east - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1001, Independence Street, .45 mile south of intersection of Texas State Highway & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  10. Vault Area (original section), south corridor, looking west Fort ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Vault Area (original section), south corridor, looking west - Fort McNair, Film Store House, Fort Lesley J. McNair, P Street between Third & Fourth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  11. Interior view, barrel vaulted store room opening from the south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view, barrel vaulted store room opening from the south side of the ground floors central east-west passage (PA-1622-A-51) looking northeast. - U. S. Naval Asylum, Biddle Hall, Gray's Ferry Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  12. Original blackandwhite print, VIEW OF UNFINISHED COURT AND VAULT ROOF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Original black-and-white print, VIEW OF UNFINISHED COURT AND VAULT ROOF AT ELEVENTH STREET - Internal Revenue Service Headquarters Building, 1111 Constitution Avenue Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  13. 4. View from chief clerk's office into clerk room. Vault ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. View from chief clerk's office into clerk room. Vault at center in background. View to south. - Duluth & Iron Range Rail Road Company Shops, Office, Southwest of downtown Two Harbors, northwest of Agate Bay, Two Harbors, Lake County, MN

  14. 33. July 1958 PARABOLIC BRICK VAULT IN SERVICE MAGAZINE UNDER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. July 1958 PARABOLIC BRICK VAULT IN SERVICE MAGAZINE UNDER RAVELIN (CIVIL WAR PERIOD) - Fort McHenry National Monument & Historic Shrine, East Fort Avenue at Whetstone Point, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  15. Detail of northeast stair entry with vaulted stair landing and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of northeast stair entry with vaulted stair landing and ghost of former stair arch below stepped rail, facing west. - Marine Barracks, Panama Canal, Barracks Building, 100' North of Thatcher Highway, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  16. Bright Angel stone vault, with HAER field team members Dominic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Bright Angel stone vault, with HAER field team members Dominic Duran, Christopher Marston, and Michael Lee (l to r). - Grand Canyon Village Utilities, Grand Canyon National Park, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  17. Cyclotron targets and production technologies used for radiopharmaceuticals in NPI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fišer, M.; Kopička, K.; Hradilek, P.; Hanč, P.; Lebeda, O.; Pánek, J.; Vognar, M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper deals with some technical aspects of the development and production of cyclotronmade radiopharmaceuticals (excluding PET). In this field, nuclear chemistry and pharmacy are in a close contact; therefore, requirements of the both should be taken into account. The principles of cyclotron targetry, separation/recovery of materials and synthesis of active substances are given, as well as issues connected with formulation of pharmaceutical forms. As the radiopharmaceuticals should fulfil the requirements on in vivo preparations, there exist a variety of demands pertaining to Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) concept, which is also briefly discussed. A typical production chain is presented and practical examples of real technologies based on cyclotron-made radionuclides are given as they have been used in Nuclear Physics Institute of CAS (NPI). Special attention is devoted to the technology of enriched cyclotron targets. Frequently used medicinal products employing cyclotron-produced active substances are characterised (Rb/Kr generators, 123I-labelled MIBG, OIH and MAB's). The cyclotron produced radioactive implants for transluminal coronary angioplasty (radioactive stents) are introduced as an example of a medical device developed for therapeutic application.

  18. MTR BASEMENT. DOORWAY TO SOURCE STORAGE VAULT IS AT CENTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR BASEMENT. DOORWAY TO SOURCE STORAGE VAULT IS AT CENTER OF VIEW; TO DECONTAMINATION ROOM, AT RIGHT. PART OF MAZE ENTRY IS VISIBLE INSIDE VAULT DOORWAY. INL NEGATIVE NO. 7763. Unknown Photographer, photo was dated as 3/30/1953, but this was probably an error. The more likely date is 3/30/1952. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  19. Reversible PH Lability of Cross-Linked Vault Nanocapsules

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, M.; Ng, B.C.; Rome, L.H.; Tolbert, S.H.; Monbouquette, H.G.

    2009-05-28

    Vaults are ubiquitous, self-assembled protein nanocapsules with dimension in the sub-100 nm range that are conserved across diverse phyla from worms to humans. Their normal presence in humans at a copy number of over 10 000/cell makes them attractive as potential drug delivery vehicles. Toward this goal, bifunctional amine-reactive reagents are shown to be useful for the reversible cross-linking of recombinant vaults such that they may be closed and opened in a controllable manner.

  20. 14. END VIEW OF THE PLUTONIUM STORAGE VAULT FROM THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. END VIEW OF THE PLUTONIUM STORAGE VAULT FROM THE REMOTE CONTROL STATION. THE STACKER-RETRIEVER, A REMOTELY-OPERATED, MECHANIZED TRANSPORT SYSTEM, RETRIEVES CONTAINERS OF PLUTONIUM FROM SAFE GEOMETRY PALLETS STORED ALONG THE LENGTH OF THE VAULT. THE STACKER-RETRIEVER RUNS ALONG THE AISLE BETWEEN THE PALLETS OF THE STORAGE CHAMBER. (3/2/86) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Recovery Facility, Northwest portion of Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  1. Properties of an ideal PET perfusion tracer: new PET tracer cases and data.

    PubMed

    Maddahi, Jamshid

    2012-02-01

    An ideal positron emission tomography (PET) tracer should be highly extractable by the myocardium and able to provide high-resolution images, should enable quantification of absolute myocardial blood flow (MBF), should be compatible with both pharmacologically induced and exercise-induced stress imaging, and should not require an on-site cyclotron. The PET radionuclides nitrogen-13 ammonia and oxygen-15 water require an on-site cyclotron. Rubidium-82 may be available locally due to the generator source, but greater utilization is limited because of its relatively low myocardial extraction fraction, long positron range, and generator cost. Flurpiridaz F 18, a novel PET tracer in development, has a high-extraction fraction, short positron range, and relatively long half-life (as compared to currently available tracers), and may be produced at regional cyclotrons. Results of early clinical trials suggest that both pharmacologically and exercise-induced stress PET imaging protocols can be completed more rapidly and with lower patient radiation exposure than with single-photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) tracers. As compared to SPECT images in the same patients, flurpiridaz F 18 PET images showed better defect contrast. Flurpiridaz F 18 is a potentially promising tracer for assessment of myocardial perfusion, measurement of absolute MBF, calculation of coronary flow reserves, and assessment of cardiac function at the peak of the stress response. PMID:22259007

  2. Optimal technique for maximal forward rotating vaults in men's gymnastics.

    PubMed

    Hiley, Michael J; Jackson, Monique I; Yeadon, Maurice R

    2015-08-01

    In vaulting a gymnast must generate sufficient linear and angular momentum during the approach and table contact to complete the rotational requirements in the post-flight phase. This study investigated the optimization of table touchdown conditions and table contact technique for the maximization of rotation potential for forwards rotating vaults. A planar seven-segment torque-driven computer simulation model of the contact phase in vaulting was evaluated by varying joint torque activation time histories to match three performances of a handspring double somersault vault by an elite gymnast. The closest matching simulation was used as a starting point to maximize post-flight rotation potential (the product of angular momentum and flight time) for a forwards rotating vault. It was found that the maximized rotation potential was sufficient to produce a handspring double piked somersault vault. The corresponding optimal touchdown configuration exhibited hip flexion in contrast to the hyperextended configuration required for maximal height. Increasing touchdown velocity and angular momentum lead to additional post-flight rotation potential. By increasing the horizontal velocity at table touchdown, within limits obtained from recorded performances, the handspring double somersault tucked with one and a half twists, and the handspring triple somersault tucked became theoretically possible. PMID:26026290

  3. Exploratory Investigation of Impact Loads During the Forward Handspring Vault.

    PubMed

    Penitente, Gabriella; Sands, William A

    2015-06-27

    The purpose of this study was to examine kinematic and kinetic differences in low and high intensity hand support impact loads during a forward handspring vault. A high-speed video camera (500 Hz) and two portable force platforms (500 Hz) were installed on the surface of the vault table. Two-dimensional analyses were conducted on 24 forward handspring vaults performed by 12 senior level, junior Olympic program female gymnasts (16.9 ±1.4 yr; body height 1.60 ±0.1 m; body mass 56.7 ±7.8 kg). Load intensities at impact with the vault table were classified as low (peak force < 0.8 × body weight) and high (peak force > 0.8 × body weight). These vaults were compared via crucial kinetic and kinematic variables using independent t-tests and Pearson correlations. Statistically significant (p < 0.001) differences were observed in peak force (t(24) = 4.75, ES = 3.37) and time to peak force (t(24) = 2.07, ES = 1.56). Statistically significant relationships between the loading rate and time to peak force were observed for high intensity loads. Peak force, time to peak force, and a shoulder angle at impact were identified as primary variables potentially involved in the determination of large repetitive loading rates on the forward handspring vault. PMID:26240649

  4. Exploratory Investigation of Impact Loads During the Forward Handspring Vault

    PubMed Central

    Penitente, Gabriella; Sands, William A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine kinematic and kinetic differences in low and high intensity hand support impact loads during a forward handspring vault. A high-speed video camera (500 Hz) and two portable force platforms (500 Hz) were installed on the surface of the vault table. Two-dimensional analyses were conducted on 24 forward handspring vaults performed by 12 senior level, junior Olympic program female gymnasts (16.9 ±1.4 yr; body height 1.60 ±0.1 m; body mass 56.7 ±7.8 kg). Load intensities at impact with the vault table were classified as low (peak force < 0.8 × body weight) and high (peak force > 0.8 × body weight). These vaults were compared via crucial kinetic and kinematic variables using independent t-tests and Pearson correlations. Statistically significant (p < 0.001) differences were observed in peak force (t(24) = 4.75, ES = 3.37) and time to peak force (t(24) = 2.07, ES = 1.56). Statistically significant relationships between the loading rate and time to peak force were observed for high intensity loads. Peak force, time to peak force, and a shoulder angle at impact were identified as primary variables potentially involved in the determination of large repetitive loading rates on the forward handspring vault. PMID:26240649

  5. Design study of an ultra-compact superconducting cyclotron for isotope production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, V.; Vorozhtsov, S.; Vincent, J.

    2014-11-01

    A 12.5 MeV, 25 μA, proton compact superconducting cyclotron for medical isotope production has been designed and is currently in fabrication. The machine is initially aimed at producing 13N ammonia for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) cardiology applications. With an ultra-compact size and cost-effective price point, this system will offer clinicians unprecedented access to the preferred radiopharmaceutical isotope for cardiac PET imaging. A systems approach that carefully balanced the subsystem requirements coupled to precise beam dynamics calculations was followed. The system is designed to irradiate a liquid target internal to the cyclotron and to minimize the need for radiation shielding. The main parameters of the cyclotron, its design, and principal steps of the development work are presented here.

  6. Hand placement techniques in long horse vaulting.

    PubMed

    Kerwin, D G; Harwood, M J; Yeadon, M R

    1993-08-01

    In this study, the effects of two different hand placement techniques used by gymnasts to perform Tsukahara and Kasamatsu long horse vaults were examined. Selected linear and angular flight descriptors were calculated to determine whether those gymnasts making initial hand contact on the end of the horse gained additional lift, range or rotation when compared to those gymnasts making the more traditional initial hand contact on top of the horse. Three-dimensional cine-film analysis using the Direct Linear Transformation (DLT) was used to obtain data on 17 elite gymnasts competing in the 1991 World Student Games at Sheffield, UK. The gymnasts were divided into two groups according to the techniques used: group E in which the first hand contact was made on the vertical surface of the near end and the second on the top of the horse, and group T in which both hands were placed on top of the horse. The vertical and horizontal motion of each gymnast's mass centre and the somersault rotation during pre-flight (board take-off to horse contact) and post-flight (horse take-off to ground landing) were determined. The projections of linear displacements of each gymnast's mass centre onto a vertical plane were determined from the three-dimensional mass centre co-ordinates, and somersault angles were calculated using the line joining the midpoints of each gymnast's shoulders and knees. Whole body mass centre linear velocity and somersault angular velocity were determined using quintic splines.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8230392

  7. Thermal analysis of the failed equipment storage vault system

    SciTech Connect

    Jerrell, J.; Lee, S.Y.; Shadday, A.

    1995-07-01

    A storage facility for failed glass melters is required for radioactive operation of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). It is currently proposed that the failed melters be stored in the Failed Equipment Storage Vaults (FESV`s) in S area. The FESV`s are underground reinforced concrete structures constructed in pairs, with adjacent vaults sharing a common wall. A failed melter is to be placed in a steel Melter Storage Box (MSB), sealed, and lowered into the vault. A concrete lid is then placed over the top of the FESV. Two melters will be placed within the FESV/MSB system, separated by the common wall. There is no forced ventilation within the vault so that the melter is passively cooled. Temperature profiles in the Failed Equipment Storage Vault Structures have been generated using the FLOW3D software to model heat conduction and convection within the FESV/MSB system. Due to complexities in modeling radiation with FLOW3D, P/THERMAL software has been used to model radiation using the conduction/convection temperature results from FLOW3D. The final conjugate model includes heat transfer by conduction, convection, and radiation to predict steady-state temperatures. Also, the FLOW3D software has been validated as required by the technical task request.

  8. Neutron monitoring of plutonium at the ZPPR storage vault

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, J.T.; Kuckertz, T.H.; Bieri, J.M.; France, S.W.; Goin, R.W.; Hastings, R.D.; Pratt, J.C.; Shunk, E.R.

    1981-12-01

    We investigated a method for monitoring a typical large storage vault for unauthorized removal of plutonium. The method is based on the assumption that the neutron field in a vault produced by a particular geometric configuration of bulk plutonium remains constant in time and space as long as the configuration is undisturbed. To observe such a neutron field, we installed an array of 25 neutron detectors in the ceiling of a plutonium storage vault at Argonne National Laboratory West. Each neutron detector provided an independent spatial measurement of the vault neutron field. Data collected by each detector were processed to determine whether statistically significant changes had occurred in the neutron field. Continuous observation experiments measured the long-term stability of the system. Removal experiments were performed in which known quantities of plutonium were removed from the vault. Both types of experiments demonstrated that the neutron monitoring system can detect removal or addition of bulk plutonium (11% /sup 240/Pu) whose mass is as small as 0.04% of the total inventory.

  9. Data Vault: providing simple web access to NRAO data archives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DuPlain, Ron; Benson, John; Sessoms, Eric

    2008-08-01

    In late 2007, the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) launched Data Vault, a feature-rich web application for simplified access to NRAO data archives. This application allows users to submit a Google-like free-text search, and browse, download, and view further information on matching telescope data. Data Vault uses the model-view-controller design pattern with web.py, a minimalist open-source web framework built with the Python Programming Language. Data Vault implements an Ajax client built on the Google Web Toolkit (GWT), which creates structured JavaScript applications. This application supports plug-ins for linking data to additional web tools and services, including Google Sky. NRAO sought the inspiration of Google's remarkably elegant user interface and notable performance to create a modern search tool for the NRAO science data archive, taking advantage of the rapid development frameworks of web.py and GWT to create a web application on a short timeline, while providing modular, easily maintainable code. Data Vault provides users with a NRAO-focused data archive while linking to and providing more information wherever possible. Free-text search capabilities are possible (and even simple) with an innovative query parser. NRAO develops all software under an open-source license; Data Vault is available to developers and users alike.

  10. PET scan

    MedlinePlus

    You may feel a sharp sting when the needle with the tracer is placed into your vein. A PET scan causes no pain. The table may be ... The amount of radiation used in a PET scan is about the same amount as used in most CT scans. These scans use ...

  11. Target foil rupture scenario and provision for handling different models of medical cyclotrons used in India

    PubMed Central

    Shaiju, V. S.; Sharma, S. D.; Kumar, Rajesh; Sarin, B.

    2009-01-01

    Medical cyclotron is a particle accelerator used in producing short lived radiotracers such as 18F, 11C, 15O, 13N etc. These radiotracers are labeled with suitable pharmaceuticals for use to gather information related to metabolic activity of the cell using Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scan. Target foil rupture is considered one of the major emergency situations during medical cyclotron operations because there is a potential of over exposure to the working personnel. Radiation protection survey of a self-shielded medical cyclotron installation was carried out during normal and emergency conditions. It is found that the induced activity in the target foil increases with its successive usages. As a case study, we have evaluated the emergency handling procedures of GE PETtrace-6 medical cyclotron. Recommendations have also been made to reduce personal exposure while handling the target foil rupture condition such as the use of L-Bench near the target area and participation of experienced personnel. PMID:20098564

  12. Performance assessment of engineered barriers using the vault model

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.H.

    1993-12-31

    The Vault Model for assessing engineered barrier performance has been developed as part of the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement to be presented to a Federal Environmental Assessment Review Panel reviewing the Canadian nuclear fuel waste disposal concept. The model describes the behavior of titanium containers, radionuclide release from used fuel, and migration of radionuclides through buffer and backfill materials and into the surrounding geosphere. Vault Model simulations have shown that the release of radionuclides from the engineered barrier system is dominated by the release from the fuel-sheath gap and grain boundaries in used fuel. Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses have illustrated how releases from the vault are affected by both the uncertainty in model parameters and the assumptions made in the development of the models. It is likely that the combined effects of a number of conservatisms in the model result in the releases from the engineered barrier system being overpredicted by several orders of magnitude.

  13. Inner and outer waste storage vaults with leak-testing accessibility

    SciTech Connect

    Splinter, B.C.

    1985-04-23

    A storage arrangement for waste materials of the type which tend to pollute the environment consists of a waterproof reinforced concrete vault, preferably located underground, and a permanent reinforced concrete storage vault within the underground vault and spaced from the walls thereof by a water lock. Sealed containers filled with chemical or nuclear waste are deposited in the permanent storage vault and sealed therein with bitumen. The underground vault is provided with an access opening to the water lock to enable testing of the water periodically for contamination due to leakage from the permanent storage vault. If no leakage is evident after a predetermined time period has elapsed, the permanent storage vault is removed from the underground vault and shipped to a permanent storage site.

  14. Vault lining for 340 waste handling facility, 300 area

    SciTech Connect

    Hollenbeck, R.G.

    1997-04-28

    Coating systems by Protection Enterprises, Ameron, Carboline, and Steelcote were evaluated. Each manufacturer has a coating system that is acceptable for use in the 340 Vault (see Appendix A). The choice of which system to use will be made after in-place adhesion tests are complete. The Protection Enterprises coating has the greatest potential for acceptable adhesion with minimal surface preparation. Total project cost for engineering and construction is $1,220,000 including 50% for contingency (see Appendix B). If the existing vault coverblock access hatch can satisfy entry requirements, $95,000 can be saved from the removal of coverblocks and the erection and disassembly of the greenhouse.

  15. Seismic Behaviour of Masonry Vault-Slab Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Chesi, Claudio; Butti, Ferdinando; Ferrari, Marco

    2008-07-08

    Spandrel walls typically play a structural role in masonry buildings, transferring load from a slab to the supporting vault. Some indications are given in the literature on the behaviour of spandrels under the effect of vertical loads, but little attention is given to the effect coming from lateral forces acting on the building. An opportunity to investigate this problem has come from the need of analyzing a monumental building which was damaged by the Nov. 24, 2004 Val Sabbia earthquake in the north of Italy. The finite element model set up for the analysis of the vault-spandrel-slab system is presented and the structural role resulting for the spandrels is discussed.

  16. Seismic analysis of the mirror fusion test facility shielding vault

    SciTech Connect

    Gabrielsen, B.L.; Tsai, K.

    1981-04-01

    This report presents a seismic analysis of the vault in Building 431 at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory which houses the mirror Fusion Test Facility. The shielding vault structure is approximately 120 ft long by 80 ft wide and is constructed of concrete blocks approximately 7 x 7 x 7 ft. The north and south walls are approximately 53 ft high and the east wall is approximately 29 ft high. These walls are supported on a monolithic concrete foundation that surrounds a 21-ft deep open pit. Since the 53-ft walls appeared to present the greatest seismic problem they were the first investigated.

  17. HYDRAULIC AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SALTSTONE GROUTS AND VAULT CONCRETES

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, K; John Harbour, J; Mark Phifer, M

    2008-11-25

    The Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF), located in the Z-Area of the Savannah River Site (SRS), is used for the disposal of low-level radioactive salt solution. The SDF currently contains two vaults: Vault 1 (6 cells) and Vault 4 (12 cells). Additional disposal cells are currently in the design phase. The individual cells of the saltstone facility are filled with saltstone. Saltstone is produced by mixing the low-level radioactive salt solution, with blast furnace slag, fly ash, and cement (dry premix) to form a dense, micro-porous, monolithic, low-level radioactive waste form. The saltstone is pumped into the disposal cells where it subsequently solidifies. Significant effort has been undertaken to accurately model the movement of water and contaminants through the facility. Key to this effort is an accurate understanding of the hydraulic and physical properties of the solidified saltstone. To date, limited testing has been conducted to characterize the saltstone. The primary focus of this task was to estimate the hydraulic and physical properties of three types of saltstone and two vault concretes. The saltstone formulations included saltstone premix batched with (1) Deliquification, Dissolution, and Adjustment (DDA) salt simulant (w/pm 0.60), (2) Actinide Removal Process (ARP)/Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) salt simulant (w/pm 0.60), and (3) Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) salt simulant (w/pm 0.60). The vault concrete formulations tested included the Vault 1/4 concrete and two variations of the Vault 2 concrete (Mix 1 and Mix 2). Wet properties measured for the saltstone formulations included yield stress, plastic viscosity, wet unit weight, bleed water volume, gel time, set time, and heat of hydration. Hydraulic and physical properties measured on the cured saltstone and concrete samples included saturated hydraulic conductivity, moisture retention, compressive strength, porosity, particle density, and dry bulk density. These properties

  18. Seismic Behaviour of Masonry Vault-Slab Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chesi, Claudio; Butti, Ferdinando; Ferrari, Marco

    2008-07-01

    Spandrel walls typically play a structural role in masonry buildings, transferring load from a slab to the supporting vault. Some indications are given in the literature on the behaviour of spandrels under the effect of vertical loads, but little attention is given to the effect coming from lateral forces acting on the building. An opportunity to investigate this problem has come from the need of analyzing a monumental building which was damaged by the Nov. 24, 2004 Val Sabbia earthquake in the north of Italy. The finite element model set up for the analysis of the vault-spandrel-slab system is presented and the structural role resulting for the spandrels is discussed.

  19. Lung PET scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... emission tomography; PET - chest; PET - lung; PET - tumor imaging ... Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2015: ...

  20. Ion cyclotron resonance cell

    DOEpatents

    Weller, R.R.

    1995-02-14

    An ion cyclotron resonance cell is disclosed having two adjacent sections separated by a center trapping plate. The first section is defined by the center trapping plate, a first end trapping plate, and excitation and detector electrodes. The second section includes a second end trapping plate spaced apart from the center plate, a mirror, and an analyzer. The analyzer includes a wavelength-selective light detector, such as a detector incorporating an acousto-optical device (AOD) and a photodetector. One or more ion guides, grounded plates with holes for the ion beam, are positioned within the vacuum chamber of the mass spectrometer between the ion source and the cell. After ions are trapped and analyzed by ion cyclotron resonance techniques in the first section, the ions of interest are selected according to their mass and passed into the second section for optical spectroscopic studies. The trapped ions are excited by light from a laser and caused thereby to fluoresce. The fluorescent light emitted by the excited ions is reflected by the mirror and directed onto the detector. The AOD is scanned, and the photodetector output is recorded and analyzed. The ions remain in the second section for an extended period, enabling multiple studies to be carried out on the same ensemble of ions. 5 figs.

  1. Ion cyclotron resonance cell

    DOEpatents

    Weller, Robert R.

    1995-01-01

    An ion cyclotron resonance cell having two adjacent sections separated by a center trapping plate. The first section is defined by the center trapping plate, a first end trapping plate, and excitation and detector electrodes. The second section includes a second end trapping plate spaced apart from the center plate, a mirror, and an analyzer. The analyzer includes a wavelength-selective light detector, such as a detector incorporating an acousto-optical device (AOD) and a photodetector. One or more ion guides, grounded plates with holes for the ion beam, are positioned within the vacuum chamber of the mass spectrometer between the ion source and the cell. After ions are trapped and analyzed by ion cyclotron resonance techniques in the first section, the ions of interest are selected according to their mass and passed into the second section for optical spectroscopic studies. The trapped ions are excited by light from a laser and caused thereby to fluoresce. The fluorescent light emitted by the excited ions is reflected by the mirror and directed onto the detector. The AOD is scanned, and the photodetector output is recorded and analyzed. The ions remain in the second section for an extended period, enabling multiple studies to be carried out on the same ensemble of ions.

  2. Cyclotron produced radiopharmaceuticals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopička, K.; Fišer, M.; Hradilek, P.; Hanč, P.; Lebeda, O.

    2003-01-01

    Some of the cyclotron-produced radionuclides may serve as important materials for the production of radiopharmaceuticals. This lecture deals with basic information relating to various aspects of these compounds. In comparison with radionuclides/compounds used for non-medical purposes, radiopharmaceuticals are subject to a broader scale of regulations, both from the safety and efficacy point of view; besides that, there are both radioactive and medical aspects that must be taken into account for any radiopharmaceutical. According to the regulations and in compliance with general rules of work with radioactivity, radiopharmaceuticals should only be prepared/manufactured under special conditions, using special areas and special equipment and applying special procedures (e.g. sterilisation, disinfection, aseptic work). Also, there are special procedures for cleaning and maintenance. Sometimes the requirements for the product safety clash with those for the safety of the personnel; several examples of solutions pertaining to these cases are given in the lecture. Also, the specific role of cyclotron radiopharmaceuticals is discussed.

  3. JSW's baby cyclotron

    SciTech Connect

    Toda, Y.; Kaneda, Y.; Satoh, Y.; Suzukawa, I.; Yamada, T.

    1983-04-01

    Designed by The Japan Steel Works, Ltd., specially for installation in a hospital's medical department and nuclear research laboratory, '' JSW BABY CYCLOTRON '' has been developed to produce short-lived radioisotopes such as 11C, 13N, 15O and 18F. JSW's Baby Cyclotron has some design features. 1) Fixed energy and four sector azimuthally varying field. 2) Compact figure desired for hospital's nuclear medical department 3) A bitter type magnet yoke shielding activity 4) Simple control and operation 5) Easy maintenance without skilled personnel. Type BC105 (P:10MeV, d:5MeV), BC107 (P:10MeV, d:7MeV), BC168 (P:16MeV, d:8MeV) and BC1710 (P:17MeV, d:10MeV) are available according to required amount of radioisotopes. In our radioisotope production test, yield and purity of 11C, 13N, 15O and 18F are usable to clinical diagnosis.

  4. 2. EAST FACADE, ENTRANCE TO CATWALK OVER CONCRETE TANK VAULT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. EAST FACADE, ENTRANCE TO CATWALK OVER CONCRETE TANK VAULT. BUILDING 742 TO RIGHT OF PHOTOGRAPH. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Tank House, Quadrant 1, approximately 1000 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 2200 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  5. 49 CFR 192.183 - Vaults: Structural design requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vaults: Structural design requirements. 192.183 Section 192.183 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY...

  6. Storage Area (1942 section), looking east, showing all of Vault ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Storage Area (1942 section), looking east, showing all of Vault No. 1 door behind wall opening and sprinkler system - Fort McNair, Film Store House, Fort Lesley J. McNair, P Street between Third & Fourth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  7. Spent fuel storage: Progress with modular vault dry storage

    SciTech Connect

    Bower, C.C.F.

    1995-12-31

    This paper discusses the Modular Vault Dry Store (MVDS) for spent fuels at the Wylfa nuclear power plant in North Wales and at Fort St Vrain in Colorado. It goes on to discuss Scottish Nuclear`s decision not to proceed with MVDS facilities. It concludes by discussing Paks NPP contract with GEC Alsthom for the design and safety case for MDVS.

  8. 49 CFR 192.187 - Vaults: Sealing, venting, and ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Design of Pipeline... minimize the formation of combustible atmosphere in the vault or pit; and (3) The ducts must be high enough above grade to disperse any gas-air mixtures that might be discharged. (b) When the internal volume...

  9. 49 CFR 192.187 - Vaults: Sealing, venting, and ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Design of Pipeline... minimize the formation of combustible atmosphere in the vault or pit; and (3) The ducts must be high enough above grade to disperse any gas-air mixtures that might be discharged. (b) When the internal volume...

  10. 49 CFR 192.187 - Vaults: Sealing, venting, and ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Design of Pipeline... minimize the formation of combustible atmosphere in the vault or pit; and (3) The ducts must be high enough above grade to disperse any gas-air mixtures that might be discharged. (b) When the internal volume...

  11. Assembly of nuclear pore complexes mediated by major vault protein.

    PubMed

    Vollmar, Friederike; Hacker, Christian; Zahedi, René-Peiman; Sickmann, Albert; Ewald, Andrea; Scheer, Ulrich; Dabauvalle, Marie-Christine

    2009-03-15

    During interphase growth of eukaryotic cells, nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) are continuously incorporated into the intact nuclear envelope (NE) by mechanisms that are largely unknown. De novo formation of NPCs involves local fusion events between the inner and outer nuclear membrane, formation of a transcisternal membranous channel of defined diameter and the coordinated assembly of hundreds of nucleoporins into the characteristic NPC structure. Here we have used a cell-free system based on Xenopus egg extract, which allows the experimental separation of nuclear-membrane assembly and NPC formation. Nuclei surrounded by a closed double nuclear membrane, but devoid of NPCs, were first reconstituted from chromatin and a specific membrane fraction. Insertion of NPCs into the preformed pore-free nuclei required cytosol containing soluble nucleoporins or nucleoporin subcomplexes and, quite unexpectedly, major vault protein (MVP). MVP is the main component of vaults, which are ubiquitous barrel-shaped particles of enigmatic function. Our results implicate MVP, and thus also vaults, in NPC biogenesis and provide a functional explanation for the association of a fraction of vaults with the NE and specifically with NPCs in intact cells. PMID:19240118

  12. Expression of the vault RNA protects cells from undergoing apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Amort, Melanie; Nachbauer, Birgit; Tuzlak, Selma; Kieser, Arnd; Schepers, Aloys; Villunger, Andreas; Polacek, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    Non-protein-coding RNAs are a functionally versatile class of transcripts exerting their biological roles on the RNA level. Recently, we demonstrated that the vault complex-associated RNAs (vtRNAs) are significantly upregulated in Epstein–Barr virus (EBV)-infected human B cells. Very little is known about the function(s) of the vtRNAs or the vault complex. Here, we individually express latent EBV-encoded proteins in B cells and identify the latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) as trigger for vtRNA upregulation. Ectopic expression of vtRNA1-1, but not of the other vtRNA paralogues, results in an improved viral establishment and reduced apoptosis, a function located in the central domain of vtRNA1-1. Knockdown of the major vault protein has no effect on these phenotypes revealing that vtRNA1-1 and not the vault complex contributes to general cell death resistance. This study describes a NF-κB-mediated role of the non-coding vtRNA1-1 in inhibiting both the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways. PMID:25952297

  13. 3. View, piping and stack associated with the oxidizer vault ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View, piping and stack associated with the oxidizer vault storage area in foreground with Systems Integration Laboratory (T-28) in background, looking northwest. - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  14. The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Special Nuclear Material vault upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.C.; Holloway, E.R.

    1992-06-24

    This document discusses storage space in a Special Nuclear Material (SNM) product storage vault at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) which has been recently expanded by approximately 175%. This expansion required a minimum of space and funding and resulted in a large increase in net storage capacity. Security for the additional storage is provided by standard intrusion sensors and by a real-time monitoring system, which monitors the weight of the material as it rests on weight sensors (load cells). The monitoring system also feeds weight data to a Safeguards processor which provides further confidence to Safeguards personnel. The Department of Energy requirements for bimonthly inventories for SNM stored in a particular part of this facility have been eliminated because of the guarantees provided by a real-time monitoring system. A higher efficiency has been obtained by using the expensive real estate inside a hardened product storage vault. This project has provided the ICPP with a relatively inexpensive vault upgrade and when product material is placed in this area of the vault the manpower requirements to inventory it will be reduced, resulting in a net reduction in plant worker radiation exposure.

  15. 1. INTERIOR VIEW WITH NAVE, BARREL VAULTED SOLEA, ICONOSTAS WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. INTERIOR VIEW WITH NAVE, BARREL VAULTED SOLEA, ICONOSTAS WITH ICON AND SANCTUARY. IN ARCH ABOVE THE SANCTUARY IS THE TABLE OF ABRAHAM. THE ICONOSTAS INCLUDES ICONS OF THE ARCHANGEL MICHAEL, THE HOLY TRINITY, MOTHER OF GOD HOLDING THE CHRIST CHILD, JESUS. - Holy Trinity-Holy Cross Greek Orthodox Church, 200 Nineteenth Street South, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  16. 7. Photocopy of Elevations drawing (from the BPA Engineering Vault, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photocopy of Elevations drawing (from the BPA Engineering Vault, Drawing C13-J2-342-D1, Sheet 3, 13 March 1939) - Bonneville Power Administration South Bank Substation, I-84, South of Bonneville Dam Powerhouse, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  17. View west of the front of the brick vault built ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View west of the front of the brick vault built into the northern slope of Mount Zion Cemetery. - Mount Zion Cemetery/ Female Union Band Cemetery, Bounded by 27th Street right-of-way N.W. (formerly Lyons Mill Road), Q Street N.W., & Mill Road N.W., Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  18. View north of the brick vault built into the northern ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View north of the brick vault built into the northern slope of Mount Zion Cemetery with Rock Creek and Rock Creek Park beyond the trees. - Mount Zion Cemetery/ Female Union Band Cemetery, Bounded by 27th Street right-of-way N.W. (formerly Lyons Mill Road), Q Street N.W., & Mill Road N.W., Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  19. BASE OF BULLWHEEL DRIVE SHAFT IN VAULT MOTOR ROOM, CONNECTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BASE OF BULLWHEEL DRIVE SHAFT IN VAULT MOTOR ROOM, CONNECTING TO REDUCTION GEAR SHAFTING. FERREL SPEED REDUCER IN FOREGROUND, FACING WEST. NOTE TWO DIAGONAL LINES: TORQUE CONVERTER CABLE (IN PIECE OF WHITE GUTTER), THROTTLE CABLE (IN LOWER STEEL TUBING). - Mad River Glen, Single Chair Ski Lift, 62 Mad River Glen Resort Road, Fayston, Washington County, VT

  20. Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) assesses biochemical processes in the living subject, producing images of function rather than form. Using PET, physicians are able to obtain not the anatomical information provided by other medical imaging techniques, but pictures of physiological activity. In metaphoric terms, traditional imaging methods supply a map of the body's roadways, its, anatomy; PET shows the traffic along those paths, its biochemistry. This document discusses the principles of PET, the radiopharmaceuticals in PET, PET research, clinical applications of PET, the cost of PET, training of individuals for PET, the role of the United States Department of Energy in PET, and the futures of PET. 22 figs.

  1. Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Welch, M. J.

    1990-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) assesses biochemical processes in the living subject, producing images of function rather than form. Using PET, physicians are able to obtain not the anatomical information provided by other medical imaging techniques, but pictures of physiological activity. In metaphoric terms, traditional imaging methods supply a map of the body's roadways, its, anatomy; PET shows the traffic along those paths, its biochemistry. This document discusses the principles of PET, the radiopharmaceuticals in PET, PET research, clinical applications of PET, the cost of PET, training of individuals for PET, the role of the United States Department of Energy in PET, and the futures of PET.

  2. Imaging quality of (44)Sc in comparison with five other PET radionuclides using Derenzo phantoms and preclinical PET.

    PubMed

    Bunka, Maruta; Müller, Cristina; Vermeulen, Christiaan; Haller, Stephanie; Türler, Andreas; Schibli, Roger; van der Meulen, Nicholas P

    2016-04-01

    PET is the favored nuclear imaging technique because of the high sensitivity and resolution it provides, as well as the possibility for quantification of accumulated radioactivity. (44)Sc (T1/2=3.97h, Eβ(+)=632keV) was recently proposed as a potentially interesting radionuclide for PET. The aim of this study was to investigate the image quality, which can be obtained with (44)Sc, and compare it with five other, frequently employed PET nuclides using Derenzo phantoms and a small-animal PET scanner. The radionuclides were produced at the medical cyclotron at CRS, ETH Zurich ((11)C, (18)F), at the Injector II research cyclotron at CRS, PSI ((64)Cu, (89)Zr, (44)Sc), as well as via a generator system ((68)Ga). Derenzo phantoms, containing solutions of each of these radionuclides, were scanned using a GE Healthcare eXplore VISTA small-animal PET scanner. The image resolution was determined for each nuclide by analysis of the intensity signal using the reconstructed PET data of a hole diameter of 1.3mm. The image quality of (44)Sc was compared to five frequently-used PET radionuclides. In agreement with the positron range, an increasing relative resolution was determined in the sequence of (68)Ga<(44)Sc<(89)Zr<(11)C<(64)Cu<(18)F. The performance of (44)Sc was in agreement with the theoretical expectations based on the energy of the emitted positrons. PMID:26774390

  3. Direct visualization of vaults within intact cells by electron cryo-tomography.

    PubMed

    Woodward, Cora L; Mendonça, Luiza M; Jensen, Grant J

    2015-09-01

    The vault complex is the largest cellular ribonucleoprotein complex ever characterized and is present across diverse Eukarya. Despite significant information regarding the structure, composition and evolutionary conservation of the vault, little is know about the complex's actual biological function. To determine if intracellular vaults are morphologically similar to previously studied purified and recombinant vaults, we have used electron cryo-tomography to characterize the vault complexes found in the thin edges of primary human cells growing in tissue culture. Our studies confirm that intracellular vaults are similar in overall size and shape to purified and recombinant vaults previously analyzed. Results from subtomogram averaging indicate that densities within the vault lumen are not ordered, but randomly distributed. We also observe that vaults located in the extreme periphery of the cytoplasm predominately associate with granule-like structures and actin. Our ultrastructure studies augment existing biochemical, structural and genetic information on the vault, and provide important intracellular context for the ongoing efforts to understand the biological function of the native cytoplasmic vault. PMID:25864047

  4. Draft crystal structure of the vault shell at 9-A resolution.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Daniel H; Kickhoefer, Valerie A; Sievers, Stuart A; Rome, Leonard H; Eisenberg, David

    2007-11-01

    Vaults are the largest known cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein structures and may function in innate immunity. The vault shell self-assembles from 96 copies of major vault protein and encapsulates two other proteins and a small RNA. We crystallized rat liver vaults and several recombinant vaults, all among the largest non-icosahedral particles to have been crystallized. The best crystals thus far were formed from empty vaults built from a cysteine-tag construct of major vault protein (termed cpMVP vaults), diffracting to about 9-A resolution. The asymmetric unit contains a half vault of molecular mass 4.65 MDa. X-ray phasing was initiated by molecular replacement, using density from cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM). Phases were improved by density modification, including concentric 24- and 48-fold rotational symmetry averaging. From this, the continuous cryo-EM electron density separated into domain-like blocks. A draft atomic model of cpMVP was fit to this improved density from 15 domain models. Three domains were adapted from a nuclear magnetic resonance substructure. Nine domain models originated in ab initio tertiary structure prediction. Three C-terminal domains were built by fitting poly-alanine to the electron density. Locations of loops in this model provide sites to test vault functions and to exploit vaults as nanocapsules. PMID:18044992

  5. Structural and seismic analyses of waste facility reinforced concrete storage vaults

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.Y.

    1995-07-01

    Facility 317 of Argonne National Laboratory consists of several reinforced concrete waste storage vaults designed and constructed in the late 1940`s through the early 1960`s. In this paper, structural analyses of these concrete vaults subjected to various natural hazards are described, emphasizing the northwest shallow vault. The natural phenomenon hazards considered include both earthquakes and tornados. Because these vaults are deeply embedded in the soil, the SASSI (System Analysis of Soil-Structure Interaction) code was utilized for the seismic calculations. The ultimate strength method was used to analyze the reinforced concrete structures. In all studies, moment and shear strengths at critical locations of the storage vaults were evaluated. Results of the structural analyses show that almost all the waste storage vaults meet the code requirements according to ACI 349--85. These vaults also satisfy the performance goal such that confinement of hazardous materials is maintained and functioning of the facility is not interrupted.

  6. NeuroVault.org: A repository for sharing unthresholded statistical maps, parcellations, and atlases of the human brain.

    PubMed

    Gorgolewski, Krzysztof J; Varoquaux, Gael; Rivera, Gabriel; Schwartz, Yannick; Sochat, Vanessa V; Ghosh, Satrajit S; Maumet, Camille; Nichols, Thomas E; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Yarkoni, Tal; Margulies, Daniel S; Poldrack, Russell A

    2016-01-01

    NeuroVault.org is dedicated to storing outputs of analyses in the form of statistical maps, parcellations and atlases, a unique strategy that contrasts with most neuroimaging repositories that store raw acquisition data or stereotaxic coordinates. Such maps are indispensable for performing meta-analyses, validating novel methodology, and deciding on precise outlines for regions of interest (ROIs). NeuroVault is open to maps derived from both healthy and clinical populations, as well as from various imaging modalities (sMRI, fMRI, EEG, MEG, PET, etc.). The repository uses modern web technologies such as interactive web-based visualization, cognitive decoding, and comparison with other maps to provide researchers with efficient, intuitive tools to improve the understanding of their results. Each dataset and map is assigned a permanent Universal Resource Locator (URL), and all of the data is accessible through a REST Application Programming Interface (API). Additionally, the repository supports the NIDM-Results standard and has the ability to parse outputs from popular FSL and SPM software packages to automatically extract relevant metadata. This ease of use, modern web-integration, and pioneering functionality holds promise to improve the workflow for making inferences about and sharing whole-brain statistical maps. PMID:25869863

  7. NeuroVault.org: A repository for sharing unthresholded statistical maps, parcellations, and atlases of the human brain

    PubMed Central

    Gorgolewski, Krzysztof J.; Varoquaux, Gael; Rivera, Gabriel; Schwartz, Yannick; Sochat, Vanessa V.; Ghosh, Satrajit S.; Maumet, Camille; Nichols, Thomas E.; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Yarkoni, Tal; Margulies, Daniel S.; Poldrack, Russell A.

    2016-01-01

    NeuroVault.org is dedicated to storing outputs of analyses in the form of statistical maps, parcellations and atlases, a unique strategy that contrasts with most neuroimaging repositories that store raw acquisition data or stereotaxic coordinates. Such maps are indispensable for performing meta-analyses, validating novel methodology, and deciding on precise outlines for regions of interest (ROIs). NeuroVault is open to maps derived from both healthy and clinical populations, as well as from various imaging modalities (sMRI, fMRI, EEG, MEG, PET, etc.). The repository uses modern web technologies such as interactive web-based visualization, cognitive decoding, and comparison with other maps to provide researchers with efficient, intuitive tools to improve the understanding of their results. Each dataset and map is assigned a permanent Universal Resource Locator (URL), and all of the data is accessible through a REST Application Programming Interface (API). Additionally, the repository supports the NIDM-Results standard, and has the ability to parse outputs from popular FSL and SPM software packages to automatically extract relevant metadata. This ease of use, modern web-integration, and pioneering functionality holds promise to improve the workflow for making inferences about and sharing whole-brain statistical maps. PMID:25869863

  8. Technical Note: Building a combined cyclotron and MRI facility: Implications for interference

    SciTech Connect

    Hofman, Mark B. M.; Kuijer, Joost P. A.; Ridder, Jan Willem de; Perk, Lars R.; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf M.

    2013-01-15

    Purpose: With the introduction of hybrid PET/MRI systems, it has become more likely that the cyclotron and MRI systems will be located close to each other. This study considered the interference between a cyclotron and a superconducting MRI system. Methods: Interactions between cyclotrons and MRIs are theoretically considered. The main interference is expected to be the perturbation of the magnetic field in the MRI due to switching on or off the magnetic field of the cyclotron. MR imaging is distorted by a dynamic spatial gradient of an external inplane magnetic field larger than 0.5-0.04 {mu}T/m, depending on the specific MR application. From the design of a cyclotron, it is expected that the magnetic fringe field at large distances behaves as a magnetic dipolar field. This allows estimation of the full dipolar field and its spatial gradients from a single measurement. Around an 18 MeV cyclotron (Cyclone, IBA), magnetic field measurements were performed on 5 locations and compared with calculations based upon a dipolar field model. Results: At the measurement locations the estimated and measured values of the magnetic field component and its spatial gradients of the inplane component were compared, and found to agree within a factor 1.1 for the magnetic field and within a factor of 1.5 for the spatial gradients of the field. In the specific case of the 18 MeV cyclotron with a vertical magnetic field and a 3T superconducting whole body MR system, a minimum distance of 20 m has to be considered to prevent interference. Conclusions: This study showed that a dipole model is sufficiently accurate to predict the interference of a cyclotron on a MRI scanner, for site planning purposes. The cyclotron and a whole body MRI system considered in this study need to be placed more than 20 m apart, or magnetic shielding should be utilized.

  9. New Cyclotron Targetry to Enhance F-18 clinical Position Emission Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    J. Michael Doster

    2008-12-19

    This project proposes to develop cyclotron targets that produce F-18 for clinical Positron Emission Tomography (PET) at significantly higher rates than that available from current targetry. This production rate of 18F is directly proportional to the beam current. Higher beam currents would result in increased 18F production but would be accompanied by higher heat loads to the target. The beam power available in most commercial cyclotrons exceeds the heat removal capacity of current target technology by a factor of two to four, significantly limiting the production rate of Fluorine-18.

  10. ECR (Electron Cyclotron Resonance) ion sources for cyclotrons

    SciTech Connect

    Lyneis, C.M.

    1986-10-01

    In the last decade ECR (Electron Cyclotron Resonance) ion sources have evolved from a single large, power consuming, complex prototype into a variety of compact, simple, reliable, efficient, high performance sources of high charge state ions for accelerators and atomic physics. The coupling of ECR sources to cyclotrons has resulted in significant performance gains in energy, intensity, reliability, and variety of ion species. Seven ECR sources are in regular operation with cyclotrons and numerous other projects are under development or in the planning stag. At least four laboratories have ECR sources dedicated for atomic physics research and other atomic physics programs share ECR sources with cyclotrons. An ECR source is now installed on the injector for the CERN SPS synchrotron to accelerate O/sup 8 +/ to relativistic energies. A project is underway at Argonne to couple an ECR source to a superconducting heavy-ion linac. Although tremendous progress has been made, the field of ECR sources is still a relatively young technology and there is still the potential for further advances both in source development and understanding of the plasma physics. The development of ECR sources is reviewed. The important physics mechanisms which come into play in the operation of ECR Sources are discussed, along with various models for charge state distributions (CSD). The design and performance of several ECR sources are compared. The 88-Inch Cyclotron and the LBL ECR is used as an example of cyclotron+ECR operation. The future of ECR sources is considered.

  11. EC-5 fifth international workshop on electron cyclotron emission and electron cyclotron heating

    SciTech Connect

    Prater, R.; Lohr, J.

    1985-12-31

    This report contains papers on the following topics: electron cyclotron emission measurements; electron cyclotron emission theory; electron cyclotron heating; gyrotron development; and ECH systems and waveguide development. These paper have been indexed separately elsewhere. (LSP).

  12. FEL on slow cyclotron wave

    SciTech Connect

    Silivra, A.

    1995-12-31

    A physical mechanism of interaction of fast electromagnetic wave with slow cyclotron wave of relativistic electron beam in a FEL with helical wiggler field is described. It is shown that: (1) interaction is possible for both group of steady state electron trajectories (2) positive gain is achieved within certain interval of guide field strength (3) operation wavelength for group 1 trajectories ({Omega}{sub 0}/{gamma} < k{omega}{upsilon}{parallel}) is shorter than for the conventional FEL synchronism. A nonlinear analysis shows that efficiency of slow cyclotron FEL is restricted mainly by a breakdown of a single electron synchronism due to dependence of (modified) electron cyclotron frequency on an energy of electron. Nevertheless, as numerical simulation shows, typical efficiency of 15 % order is achieved in millimeter wavelength band for the midrelativistic ({gamma}= 3 {divided_by} 4) slow cyclotron wave FEL. Tapering of magnetic field results in a substantial increase of efficiency.

  13. Special Analysis: Revision of Saltstone Vault 4 Disposal Limits (U)

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, J

    2005-05-26

    New disposal limits have been computed for Vault 4 of the Saltstone Disposal Facility based on several revisions to the models in the existing Performance Assessment and the Special Analysis issued in 2002. The most important changes are the use of a more rigorous groundwater flow and transport model, and consideration of radon emanation. Other revisions include refinement of the aquifer mesh to more accurately model the footprint of the vault, a new plutonium chemistry model accounting for the different transport properties of oxidation states III/IV and V/VI, use of variable infiltration rates to simulate degradation of the closure system, explicit calculation of gaseous releases and consideration of the effects of settlement and seismic activity on the vault structure. The disposal limits have been compared with the projected total inventory expected to be disposed in Vault 4. The resulting sum-of-fractions of the 1000-year disposal limits is 0.2, which indicates that the performance objectives and requirements of DOE 435.1 will not be exceeded. This SA has not altered the conceptual model (i.e., migration of radionuclides from the Saltstone waste form and Vault 4 to the environment via the processes of diffusion and advection) of the Saltstone PA (MMES 1992) nor has it altered the conclusions of the PA (i.e., disposal of the proposed waste in the SDF will meet DOE performance measures). Thus a PA revision is not required and this SA serves to update the disposal limits for Vault 4. In addition, projected doses have been calculated for comparison with the performance objectives laid out in 10 CFR 61. These doses are 0.05 mrem/year to a member of the public and 21.5 mrem/year to an inadvertent intruder in the resident scenario over a 10,000-year time-frame, which demonstrates that the 10 CFR 61 performance objectives will not be exceeded. This SA supplements the Saltstone PA and supersedes the two previous SAs (Cook et al. 2002; Cook and Kaplan 2003).

  14. Vault poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase is associated with mammalian telomerase and is dispensable for telomerase function and vault structure in vivo.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yie; Snow, Bryan E; Kickhoefer, Valerie A; Erdmann, Natalie; Zhou, Wen; Wakeham, Andrew; Gomez, Marla; Rome, Leonard H; Harrington, Lea

    2004-06-01

    Vault poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (VPARP) was originally identified as a minor protein component of the vault ribonucleoprotein particle, which may be involved in molecular assembly or subcellular transport. In addition to the association of VPARP with the cytoplasmic vault particle, subpopulations of VPARP localize to the nucleus and the mitotic spindle, indicating that VPARP may have other cellular functions. We found that VPARP was associated with telomerase activity and interacted with exogenously expressed telomerase-associated protein 1 (TEP1) in human cells. To study the possible role of VPARP in telomerase and vault complexes in vivo, mVparp-deficient mice were generated. Mice deficient in mVparp were viable and fertile for up to five generations, with no apparent changes in telomerase activity or telomere length. Vaults purified from mVparp-deficient mouse liver appeared intact, and no defect in association with other vault components was observed. Mice deficient in mTep1, whose disruption alone does not affect telomere function but does affect the stability of vault RNA, showed no additional telomerase or telomere-related phenotypes when the mTep1 deficiency was combined with an mVparp deficiency. These data suggest that murine mTep1 and mVparp, alone or in combination, are dispensable for normal development, telomerase catalysis, telomere length maintenance, and vault structure in vivo. PMID:15169895

  15. Osseous expansion of the cranial vault by craniotasis.

    PubMed

    Remmler, D; McCoy, F J; O'Neil, D; Willoughby, L; Patterson, B; Gerald, K; Morris, D C

    1992-05-01

    A study of cranial vault lengthening using a custom expandable fixation-distraction (craniotatic) appliance was performed in the young-adult rabbit model. Ten 24-week-old rabbits underwent circumferential suturectomy plus expansion (expanded group), 10 underwent circumferential suturectomy without expansion (sham control group), and 10 served as normal controls. The appliance was lengthened at a rate of 2.5 mm per week for 5 weeks. Serial lateral cephalometry, comparative dry-skull anthropometric measurements, and histologic examinations were performed. The expanded group demonstrated a significantly longer skull, cranial vault, anterior cranial base, posterior face, and orbit as compared with the control groups (p less than 0.05). Callus bone filled the distracted suturectomy and united the frontofacial complex to the posterior cranium. In conclusion, skull lengthening by distraction osteogenesis is possible in the rabbit model and offers a new technique for future investigation in the treatment of coronal synostosis. PMID:1561249

  16. Multimegawatt cyclotron autoresonance accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Hirshfield, J.L.; LaPointe, M.A.; Ganguly, A.K.; Yoder, R.B.; Wang, C.

    1996-05-01

    Means are discussed for generation of high-quality multimegawatt gyrating electron beams using rf gyroresonant acceleration. TE{sub 111}-mode cylindrical cavities in a uniform axial magnetic field have been employed for beam acceleration since 1968; such beams have more recently been employed for generation of radiation at harmonics of the gyration frequency. Use of a TE{sub 11}-mode waveguide for acceleration, rather than a cavity, is discussed. It is shown that the applied magnetic field and group velocity axial tapers allow resonance to be maintained along a waveguide, but that this is impractical in a cavity. In consequence, a waveguide cyclotron autoresonance accelerator (CARA) can operate with near-100{percent} efficiency in power transfer from rf source to beam, while cavity accelerators will, in practice, have efficiency values limited to about 40{percent}. CARA experiments are described in which an injected beam of up to 25 A, 95 kV has had up to 7.2 MW of rf power added, with efficiencies of up to 96{percent}. Such levels of efficiency are higher than observed previously in any fast-wave interaction, and are competitive with efficiency values in industrial linear accelerators. Scaling arguments suggest that good quality gyrating megavolt beams with peak and average powers of 100 MW and 100 kW can be produced using an advanced CARA, with applications in the generation of high-power microwaves and for possible remediation of flue gas pollutants. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  17. Improving cancer treatment with cyclotron produced radionuclides. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, S.M.; Finn, R.D.

    1992-08-04

    Our goal is to improve the scientific basis for tumor diagnosis, treatment and treatment follow-up based on the use of cyclotron produced radiotracers in oncology. The grant includes 3 interactive components: Radiochemistry/Cyclotron; Pharmacology; and Immunology. The radiochemistry group seeks to develop innovative cyclotron targetry, radiopharmaceuticals, and radiolabeled antibodies, which are then used to assess important unanswered questions in tumor pharmacology and immunology. Examples include selected positron emitting radionuclides, such as Iodine-124, and Ga-66; I-124, I-123, I-131 labeled iododeoxyuridine, C-11 colchicine, and antimetabolites, like C-11 methotrexate; and radiolabeled antibodies, 3F8, M195, A33, and MRK16 for application in the pharmacology and immunology projects. The pharmacology program studies tumor resistance to chemotherapy, particularly the phenomenon of multidrug resistance and the relationship between tumor uptake and retention and the tumor response for anti-metabolite drugs. The immunology program studies the physiology of antibody localization at the tissue level as the basis for novel approaches to improving tumor localization such as through the use of an artificial lymphatic system which mechanically reduces intratumoral pressures in tumors in vivo. Quantitative imaging approaches based on PET and SPECT in radioimmunotherapy are studied to give greater insight into the physiology of tumor localization and dosimetry.

  18. The cyclotron laboratory and the RFQ accelerator in Bern

    SciTech Connect

    Braccini, S.; Ereditato, A.; Kreslo, I.; Nirkko, M.; Weber, M.; Scampoli, P.; Bremen, K. von

    2013-07-18

    Two proton accelerators have been recently put in operation in Bern: an 18 MeV cyclotron and a 2 MeV RFQ linac. The commercial IBA 18/18 cyclotron, equipped with a specifically conceived 6 m long external beam line ending in a separate bunker, will provide beams for routine 18-F and other PET radioisotope production as well as for novel detector, radiation biophysics, radioprotection, radiochemistry and radiopharmacy developments. The accelerator is embedded into a complex building hosting two physics laboratories and four Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) laboratories. This project is the result of a successful collaboration between the Inselspital, the University of Bern and private investors, aiming at the constitution of a combined medical and research centre able to provide the most cutting-edge technologies in medical imaging and cancer radiation therapy. The cyclotron is complemented by the RFQ with the primary goals of elemental analysis via Particle Induced Gamma Emission (PIGE), and the detection of potentially dangerous materials with high nitrogen content using the Gamma-Resonant Nuclear Absorption (GRNA) technique. In this context, beam instrumentation devices have been developed, in particular an innovative beam profile monitor based on doped silica fibres and a setup for emittance measurements using the pepper-pot technique. On this basis, the establishment of a proton therapy centre on the campus of the Inselspital is in the phase of advanced study.

  19. The cyclotron laboratory and the RFQ accelerator in Bern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braccini, S.; Ereditato, A.; Kreslo, I.; Nirkko, M.; Scampoli, P.; von Bremen, K.; Weber, M.

    2013-07-01

    Two proton accelerators have been recently put in operation in Bern: an 18 MeV cyclotron and a 2 MeV RFQ linac. The commercial IBA 18/18 cyclotron, equipped with a specifically conceived 6 m long external beam line ending in a separate bunker, will provide beams for routine 18-F and other PET radioisotope production as well as for novel detector, radiation biophysics, radioprotection, radiochemistry and radiopharmacy developments. The accelerator is embedded into a complex building hosting two physics laboratories and four Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) laboratories. This project is the result of a successful collaboration between the Inselspital, the University of Bern and private investors, aiming at the constitution of a combined medical and research centre able to provide the most cutting-edge technologies in medical imaging and cancer radiation therapy. The cyclotron is complemented by the RFQ with the primary goals of elemental analysis via Particle Induced Gamma Emission (PIGE), and the detection of potentially dangerous materials with high nitrogen content using the Gamma-Resonant Nuclear Absorption (GRNA) technique. In this context, beam instrumentation devices have been developed, in particular an innovative beam profile monitor based on doped silica fibres and a setup for emittance measurements using the pepper-pot technique. On this basis, the establishment of a proton therapy centre on the campus of the Inselspital is in the phase of advanced study.

  20. Pet Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Know the signs of medical problems. Take your pet to the veterinarian if you notice: Loss of appetite Drinking a lot of water Gaining or losing a lot of weight quickly Strange behavior Being sluggish and tired Trouble getting up or down Strange lumps

  1. 60. VIEW OF THE CURRENT TRANSFORMER VAULT. THIS CURRENT TRANSFORMER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. VIEW OF THE CURRENT TRANSFORMER VAULT. THIS CURRENT TRANSFORMER WAS USED TO SENSE HIGH CURRENT BEING GENERATED ON GENERATOR NUMBER 3 AND REDUCE IT TO A LOWER, EXACT ANALOG VALUE THAT COULD BE SAFELY HANDLED AND MONITORED WITH THE CONTROL CIRCUITRY. THE CURRENT TRANSFORMER IS LOCATED IN THE CENTER OF THE PHOTOGRAPH. THE CONNECTING BUS ABOVE THE TRANSFORMER WAS REMOVED FOR SALVAGE. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  2. Conference room 211, adjacent to commander's quarters, with vault door ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Conference room 211, adjacent to commander's quarters, with vault door at right. Projection area at center is equipped with automatic security drapes. Projection room uses a 45 degree mirror to reflect the image onto the frosted glass screen. Door on far left leads to display area senior battle staff viewing bridge, and the commander's quarters - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  3. 20. Interior view of fuel storage pit or vault adjacent ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Interior view of fuel storage pit or vault adjacent to Test Cell 9 in Component Test Laboratory (T-27), looking west. Photograph shows upgraded instrumentation, piping, tanks, and technological modifications installed in 1997-99 to accommodate component testing requirements for the Atlas V missile. - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Components Test Laboratory, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  4. Cyclotron resonance in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henriksen, Erik Alfred

    We present a study of cyclotron resonance in graphene. Graphene is a novel two-dimensional system consisting of a single sheet of atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice, and exhibits a unique, linear low-energy dispersion. Bilayer graphene, two sheets stacked together, is an equally interesting system displaying a second unique, but hyperbolic, dispersion. In this work, we study the quantized Landau levels of these systems in strong magnetic fields, via Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. We have fabricated large area single layer and bilayer graphene devices on infrared-transparent Si/SiO2 substrates, using standard electron beam lithography and thin-film liftoff techniques. At cryogenic temperatures and high magnetic fields, we measure the infrared transmission through these devices as a function of the back gate voltage, which changes the Fermi level and hence the carrier density. We analyze the normalized transmission traces, assigning the observed minima to the cyclotron resonance wherein carriers are excited between Landau levels. In single layer graphene, we study Landau level transitions near the charge neutral Dirac point, and find a set of particle-hole symmetric transitions, both within the conduction and valence band, and between the bands. These experiments confirm the unusual B- and n -dependencies of the LL energies, where B is the magnetic field and n the LL index. The CR selection rule is determined to be Delta n = |nfinal| -- |n initial| = +/-1. The ratio of the observed interband and intraband transitions exceeds the expected value by 5%, and this excess is interpreted as an additional contribution to the transition energy from many-particle effects. We explore several higher LL transitions for both electron and hole doping of single layer graphene. The data are consistent with a renormalization of the carrier band velocity near the Dirac point, and suggest that impurity scattering strengthens at low energies. We also study the CR at the

  5. PHASE II VAULT TESTING OF THE ARGONNE RFID SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Willoner, T.; Turlington, R.; Koenig, R.

    2012-06-25

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) (Environmental Management [EM], Office of Packaging and Transportation [EM-45]) Packaging and Certification Program (DOE PCP) has developed a Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tracking and monitoring system, called ARG-US, for the management of nuclear materials packages during transportation and storage. The performance of the ARG-US RFID equipment and system has been fully tested in two demonstration projects in April 2008 and August 2009. With the strong support of DOE-SR and DOE PCP, a field testing program was completed in Savannah River Site's K-Area Material Storage (KAMS) Facility, an active Category I Plutonium Storage Facility, in 2010. As the next step (Phase II) of continued vault testing for the ARG-US system, the Savannah River Site K Area Material Storage facility has placed the ARG-US RFIDs into the 910B storage vault for operational testing. This latest version (Mark III) of the Argonne RFID system now has the capability to measure radiation dose and dose rate. This paper will report field testing progress of the ARG-US RFID equipment in KAMS, the operability and reliability trend results associated with the applications of the system, and discuss the potential benefits in enhancing safety, security and materials accountability. The purpose of this Phase II K Area test is to verify the accuracy of the radiation monitoring and proper functionality of the ARG-US RFID equipment and system under a realistic environment in the KAMS facility. Deploying the ARG-US RFID system leads to a reduced need for manned surveillance and increased inventory periods by providing real-time access to status and event history traceability, including environmental condition monitoring and radiation monitoring. The successful completion of the testing program will provide field data to support a future development and testing. This will increase Operation efficiency and cost effectiveness for vault operation. As the next step (Phase

  6. Theory of relativistic cyclotron masers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nusinovich, G. S.; Latham, P. E.; Dumbrajs, O.

    1995-07-01

    In this paper we have made an attempt to review the present status of the theory of cyclotron masers with relativistic electron beams. After discussing the basic features of electron-cyclotron radiation under conditions of normal and anomalous Doppler frequency shifts, we consider particle deceleration by a constant amplitude electromagnetic wave in a constant magnetic field using the formalism developed earlier for cyclotron autoresonance acceleration of electrons. An optimal cyclotron resonance mismatch was found that corresponds to the possibility of complete deceleration of relativistic electrons. Then, interaction of relativistic electrons with resonator fields is considered and the efficiency increase due to electron prebunching is demonstrated in a simple model. Since an efficient interaction of relativistic electrons with the large amplitude electromagnetic field of a resonator occurs at a short distance, where electrons make a small number of electron orbits, the issue of the simultaneous interaction of electrons with the field at several cyclotron harmonics is discussed. Finally, we consider deceleration of a prebunched electron beam by a traveling electromagnetic wave in a tapered magnetic field. This simple modeling is illustrated with a number of simulations of relativistic gyroklystrons and gyrotwistrons (gyrodevices in which the bunching cavity of the gyroklystron is combined with the output waveguide of the gyro-traveling-wave-tube).

  7. Interaction of vault particles with estrogen receptor in the MCF-7 breast cancer cell.

    PubMed

    Abbondanza, C; Rossi, V; Roscigno, A; Gallo, L; Belsito, A; Piluso, G; Medici, N; Nigro, V; Molinari, A M; Moncharmont, B; Puca, G A

    1998-06-15

    A 104-kD protein was coimmunoprecipitated with the estrogen receptor from the flowtrough of a phosphocellulose chromatography of MCF-7 cell nuclear extract. mAbs to this protein identified several cDNA clones coding for the human 104-kD major vault protein. Vaults are large ribonucleoprotein particles of unknown function present in all eukaryotic cells. They have a complex morphology, including several small molecules of RNA, but a single protein species, the major vault protein, accounts for >70% of their mass. Their shape is reminiscent of the nucleopore central plug, but no proteins of known function have been described to interact with them. Western blot analysis of vaults purified on sucrose gradient showed the presence of estrogen receptor co-migrating with the vault peak. The AER317 antibody to estrogen receptor coimmunoprecipitated the major vault protein and the vault RNA also in the 20,000 g supernatant fraction. Reconstitution experiments of estrogen receptor fragments with the major vault protein mapped the site of the interaction between amino acids 241 and 280 of human estrogen receptor, where the nuclear localization signal sequences are located. Estradiol treatment of cells increased the amount of major vault protein present in the nuclear extract and coimmunoprecipitated with estrogen receptor, whereas the anti-estrogen ICI182,780 had no effect. The hormone-dependent interaction of vaults with estrogen receptor was reproducible in vitro and was prevented by sodium molybdate. Antibodies to progesterone and glucocorticoid receptors were able to coimmunoprecipitate the major vault protein. The association of nuclear receptors with vaults could be related to their intracellular traffic. PMID:9628887

  8. Interaction of Vault Particles with Estrogen Receptor in the MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cell

    PubMed Central

    Abbondanza, Ciro; Rossi, Valentina; Roscigno, Annarita; Gallo, Luigi; Belsito, Angela; Piluso, Giulio; Medici, Nicola; Nigro, Vincenzo; Molinari, Anna Maria; Moncharmont, Bruno; Puca, Giovanni A.

    1998-01-01

    A 104-kD protein was coimmunoprecipitated with the estrogen receptor from the flowtrough of a phosphocellulose chromatography of MCF-7 cell nuclear extract. mAbs to this protein identified several cDNA clones coding for the human 104-kD major vault protein. Vaults are large ribonucleoprotein particles of unknown function present in all eukaryotic cells. They have a complex morphology, including several small molecules of RNA, but a single protein species, the major vault protein, accounts for >70% of their mass. Their shape is reminiscent of the nucleopore central plug, but no proteins of known function have been described to interact with them. Western blot analysis of vaults purified on sucrose gradient showed the presence of estrogen receptor co-migrating with the vault peak. The AER317 antibody to estrogen receptor coimmunoprecipitated the major vault protein and the vault RNA also in the 20,000 g supernatant fraction. Reconstitution experiments of estrogen receptor fragments with the major vault protein mapped the site of the interaction between amino acids 241 and 280 of human estrogen receptor, where the nuclear localization signal sequences are located. Estradiol treatment of cells increased the amount of major vault protein present in the nuclear extract and coimmunoprecipitated with estrogen receptor, whereas the anti-estrogen ICI182,780 had no effect. The hormone-dependent interaction of vaults with estrogen receptor was reproducible in vitro and was prevented by sodium molybdate. Antibodies to progesterone and glucocorticoid receptors were able to coimmunoprecipitate the major vault protein. The association of nuclear receptors with vaults could be related to their intracellular traffic. PMID:9628887

  9. Low current performance of the Bern medical cyclotron down to the pA range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auger, M.; Braccini, S.; Ereditato, A.; Nesteruk, K. P.; Scampoli, P.

    2015-09-01

    A medical cyclotron accelerating H- ions to 18 MeV is in operation at the Bern University Hospital (Inselspital). It is the commercial IBA 18/18 cyclotron equipped with a specifically conceived 6 m long external beam line ending in a separate bunker. This feature is unique for a hospital-based facility and makes it possible to conduct routine radioisotope production for PET diagnostics in parallel with multidisciplinary research activities, among which are novel particle detectors, radiation biophysics, radioprotection, radiochemistry and radiopharmacy developments. Several of these activities, such as radiobiology experiments for example, require low current beams down to the pA range, while medical cyclotrons are designed for high current operation above 10 μA. In this paper, we present the first results on the low current performance of a PET medical cyclotron obtained by ion source, radio-frequency and main coil tuning. With this method, stable beam currents down to (1.5+/- 0.5 ) pA were obtained and measured with a high-sensitivity Faraday cup located at the end of the beam transport line.

  10. Use of cyclotrons in medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qaim, S. M.

    2004-10-01

    Cyclotrons are versatile ion-accelerating machines which find many applications in medicine. In this short review their use in hadron therapy is briefly discussed. Proton therapy is gaining significance because of its capability to treat deep-lying tumours. A strong area of application of cyclotrons involves the production of short-lived neutron deficient radiotracers for use in emission tomography, especially positron emission tomography. This fast and quantitative in vivo diagnostic technique is being increasingly used in neurology, cardiology and oncology. Besides routine patient care, considerable interdisciplinary work on development of new positron emitters is under way. A short account of those efforts is given. The use of cyclotrons in the production of radionuclides for internal radiotherapy is also briefly described.

  11. Electron cyclotron harmonic wave acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karimabadi, H.; Menyuk, C. R.; Sprangle, P.; Vlahos, L.

    1987-01-01

    A nonlinear analysis of particle acceleration in a finite bandwidth, obliquely propagating electromagnetic cyclotron wave is presented. It has been suggested by Sprangle and Vlahos in 1983 that the narrow bandwidth cyclotron radiation emitted by the unstable electron distribution inside a flaring solar loop can accelerate electrons outside the loop by the interaction of a monochromatic wave propagating along the ambient magnetic field with the ambient electrons. It is shown here that electrons gyrating and streaming along a uniform, static magnetic field can be accelerated by interacting with the fundamental or second harmonic of a monochromatic, obliquely propagating cyclotron wave. It is also shown that the acceleration is virtually unchanged when a wave with finite bandwidth is considered. This acceleration mechanism can explain the observed high-energy electrons in type III bursts.

  12. Bioengineered vaults: self-assembling protein shell-lipophilic core nanoparticles for drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Buehler, Daniel C; Marsden, Matthew D; Shen, Sean; Toso, Daniel B; Wu, Xiaomeng; Loo, Joseph A; Zhou, Z Hong; Kickhoefer, Valerie A; Wender, Paul A; Zack, Jerome A; Rome, Leonard H

    2014-08-26

    We report a novel approach to a new class of bioengineered, monodispersed, self-assembling vault nanoparticles consisting of a protein shell exterior with a lipophilic core interior designed for drug and probe delivery. Recombinant vaults were engineered to contain a small amphipathic α-helix derived from the nonstructural protein 5A of hepatitis C virus, thereby creating within the vault lumen a lipophilic microenvironment into which lipophilic compounds could be reversibly encapsulated. Multiple types of electron microscopy showed that attachment of this peptide resulted in larger than expected additional mass internalized within the vault lumen attributable to incorporation of host lipid membrane constituents spanning the vault waist (>35 nm). These bioengineered lipophilic vaults reversibly associate with a sample set of therapeutic compounds, including all-trans retinoic acid, amphotericin B, and bryostatin 1, incorporating hundreds to thousands of drug molecules per vault nanoparticle. Bryostatin 1 is of particular therapeutic interest because of its ability to potently induce expression of latent HIV, thus representing a preclinical lead in efforts to eradicate HIV/AIDS. Vaults loaded with bryostatin 1 released free drug, resulting in activation of HIV from provirus latency in vitro and induction of CD69 biomarker expression following intravenous injection into mice. The ability to preferentially and reversibly encapsulate lipophilic compounds into these novel bioengineered vault nanoparticles greatly advances their potential use as drug delivery systems. PMID:25061969

  13. Utilization of a protein "shuttle" to load vault nanocapsules with gold probes and proteins.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, Lisa E; Pupols, Melody; Kickhoefer, Valerie A; Rome, Leonard H; Monbouquette, Harold G

    2009-10-27

    Vaults are large protein nanocapsules that may be useful as drug delivery vehicles due to their normal presence in humans, their large interior volume, their simple structural composition consisting of multiple copies of one protein, and a recombinant production system that also provides a means to tailor their structure. However, for vaults to be effective in such applications, efficient means to load the interiors of the capsules must be demonstrated. Here we describe the use of a domain derived from a vault lumen-associated protein as a carrier to target both gold nanoclusters and heterologous His-tagged proteins to specific binding sites on the vault interior wall. PMID:19775119

  14. Bioengineered Vaults: Self-Assembling Protein Shell–Lipophilic Core Nanoparticles for Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We report a novel approach to a new class of bioengineered, monodispersed, self-assembling vault nanoparticles consisting of a protein shell exterior with a lipophilic core interior designed for drug and probe delivery. Recombinant vaults were engineered to contain a small amphipathic α-helix derived from the nonstructural protein 5A of hepatitis C virus, thereby creating within the vault lumen a lipophilic microenvironment into which lipophilic compounds could be reversibly encapsulated. Multiple types of electron microscopy showed that attachment of this peptide resulted in larger than expected additional mass internalized within the vault lumen attributable to incorporation of host lipid membrane constituents spanning the vault waist (>35 nm). These bioengineered lipophilic vaults reversibly associate with a sample set of therapeutic compounds, including all-trans retinoic acid, amphotericin B, and bryostatin 1, incorporating hundreds to thousands of drug molecules per vault nanoparticle. Bryostatin 1 is of particular therapeutic interest because of its ability to potently induce expression of latent HIV, thus representing a preclinical lead in efforts to eradicate HIV/AIDS. Vaults loaded with bryostatin 1 released free drug, resulting in activation of HIV from provirus latency in vitro and induction of CD69 biomarker expression following intravenous injection into mice. The ability to preferentially and reversibly encapsulate lipophilic compounds into these novel bioengineered vault nanoparticles greatly advances their potential use as drug delivery systems. PMID:25061969

  15. Cyclotron radiation in hot magnetoplasmas.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trulsen, J.

    1971-01-01

    The effects of thermal motions on the cyclotron radiation from test particles gyrating in a homogeneous magnetoplasma are studied. These effects take care of all singularities that exist in the theory of cyclotron radiation in cold magnetoplasma - e.g., the divergence in energy loss for small particle energies. Around the hybrid frequencies thermal corrections become of dominant importance. At these frequencies cold-plasma theory breaks down. Thermal effects arise in two ways: by modifying the wave modes known from cold plasma theory, and by the introduction of a new longitudinal wave mode, known as the Bernstein mode. All wave modes are damped (in stable plasmas).

  16. The Basic Principles of FDG-PET/CT Imaging.

    PubMed

    Basu, Sandip; Hess, Søren; Nielsen Braad, Poul-Erik; Olsen, Birgitte Brinkmann; Inglev, Signe; Høilund-Carlsen, Poul Flemming

    2014-10-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with 2-[(18)F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) forms the basis of molecular imaging. FDG-PET imaging is a multidisciplinary undertaking that requires close interdisciplinary collaboration in a broad team comprising physicians, technologists, secretaries, radio-chemists, hospital physicists, molecular biologists, engineers, and cyclotron technicians. The aim of this review is to provide a brief overview of important basic issues and considerations pivotal to successful patient examinations, including basic physics, instrumentation, radiochemistry, molecular and cell biology, patient preparation, normal distribution of tracer, and potential interpretive pitfalls. PMID:26050942

  17. Spreader flaps for middle vault contour and stabilization.

    PubMed

    Kovacevic, Milos; Wurm, Jochen

    2015-02-01

    Nasal hump excision is common during septorhinoplasty. Without appropriate restoration of the middle nasal vault, cosmetic and functional problems may ensue. Recently, spreader flaps have become an established alternative to traditional spreader grafts. Typical indications include primary rhinoplasty patients with hump noses, hump/tension noses, and moderately hooked or crooked noses. When suitable patients are selected, spreader flaps and their modifications represent a reliable alternative to the standard spreader graft, and when all of the necessary prerequisites are met, this technique obviates the need for additional cartilage grafting in most cases. PMID:25430925

  18. Evaluating secondary neutron doses of a refined shielded design for a medical cyclotron using the TLD approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jye-Bin; Tseng, Hsien-Chun; Liu, Wen-Shan; Lin, Ding-Bang; Hsieh, Teng-San; Chen, Chien-Yi

    2013-11-01

    An increasing number of cyclotrons at medical centers in Taiwan have been installed to generate radiopharmaceutical products. An operating cyclotron generates immense amounts of secondary neutrons from reactions such the 18O(p, n)18F, used in the production of FDG. This intense radiation can be hazardous to public health, particularly to medical personnel. To increase the yield of 18F-FDG from 4200 GBq in 2005 to 48,600 GBq in 2011, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital (CSMUH) has prolonged irradiation time without changing the target or target current to meet requirements regarding the production 18F. The CSMUH has redesigned the CTI Radioisotope Delivery System shield. The lack of data for a possible secondary neutron doses has increased due to newly designed cyclotron rooms. This work aims to evaluate secondary neutron doses at a CTI cyclotron center using a thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD-600). Two-dimensional neutron doses were mapped and indicated that neutron doses were high as neutrons leaked through self-shielded blocks and through the L-shaped concrete shield in vault rooms. These neutron doses varied markedly among locations close to the H218O target. The Monte Carlo simulation and minimum detectable dose are also discussed and demonstrated the reliability of using the TLD-600 approach. Findings can be adopted by medical centers to identify radioactive hot spots and develop radiation protection.

  19. Pet Problems at Home: Pet Problems in the Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soltow, Willow

    1984-01-01

    Discusses problems of pets in the community, examining the community's role related to disruptive pets and pet overpopulation. Also discusses pet problems at home, offering advice on selecting a pet, meeting a pet's needs, and disciplining pets. Includes a list of books, films/filmstrips, teaching materials, and various instructional strategies.…

  20. Pet Bonding and Pet Bereavement among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Brenda H.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Studied adolescent-pet bonding and bereavement following pet loss (n=55). Hypothesized that highly-bonded adolescents experience more intense grief when a pet dies than do those less bonded; degree of bonding is greater for girls than for boys; and intensity of bereavement is greater for girls than for boys. Results supported the hypotheses. (RB)

  1. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-F-7, 100-F Miscellaneous Hardware Storage Vault

    SciTech Connect

    M. J. Appel

    2006-11-02

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-F-7, 100-F Miscellaneous Hardware Storage Vault. The site consisted of an inactive solid waste storage vault used for temporary storage of slightly contaminated reactor parts that could be recovered and reused for the 100-F Area reactor operations.

  2. Risk Management in the Original Extreme Sporting Event: The Pole Vault

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bemiller, Jim; Hardin, Robin

    2010-01-01

    The pole vault was considered the ultimate test of physical ability and daring before the advent of modern extreme sports such as skateboarding, snowboarding, and mountain biking. The inherent risks of the pole vault have been well documented. The National Center for Catastrophic Sport Injury Research reported in 2007 that the catastrophic injury…

  3. 105. VIEW NORTH FROM SLC3W CABLE TUNNEL INTO CABLE VAULT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    105. VIEW NORTH FROM SLC-3W CABLE TUNNEL INTO CABLE VAULT AND SLC-3E CABLE TUNNEL. NOTE WOODEN PLANKING ON FLOOR OF TUNNEL AND CABLE TRAYS LINING TUNNEL WALLS. STAIRS ON EAST WALL OF CABLE VAULT LEAD INTO LANDLINE INSTRUMENTATION ROOM. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  4. Vault nanoparticles containing an adenovirus-derived membrane lytic protein facilitate toxin and gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Lai, Cheng-Yu; Wiethoff, Chris M; Kickhoefer, Valerie A; Rome, Leonard H; Nemerow, Glen R

    2009-03-24

    Nonviral methods of gene delivery possess several advantages over that of viral-based vectors, including having increased safety. However, the ability to achieve effective transport of therapeutic molecules across host cell membranes via nonviral methods remains a significant goal. Cell-derived nanoparticles known as vaults have been proposed as novel candidate transfer vehicles for various foreign molecules. Recombinant vault particles enter cells via macropinocytosis or phagocytosis but lack demonstrable membrane penetrating activity. To explore the feasibility of improving vault penetration into target cells, we incorporated the membrane lytic domain of adenovirus protein VI (pVI) into the interior of recombinant vault particles via fusion to the vault poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (VPARP) interaction domain. The membrane lytic activity of the pVI domain was retained upon incorporation into vault particles. Moreover, internalization of vault-pVI complexes into murine macrophages promoted co-delivery of a soluble ribotoxin or a cDNA plasmid encoding GFP. These findings indicate that vault particles can be modified to enhance cell transfer of selected biomolecules. PMID:19226129

  5. Effect of Materials and Manufacturing on the Bending Stiffness of Vaulting Poles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, C. L.; Kukureka, S. N.

    2012-01-01

    The increase in the world record height achieved in pole vaulting can be related to the improved ability of the athletes, in terms of their fitness and technique, and to the change in materials used to construct the pole. For example in 1960 there was a change in vaulting pole construction from bamboo to glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP)…

  6. The structure of rat liver vault at 3.5 angstrom resolution.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hideaki; Kato, Koji; Yamashita, Eiki; Sumizawa, Tomoyuki; Zhou, Yong; Yao, Min; Iwasaki, Kenji; Yoshimura, Masato; Tsukihara, Tomitake

    2009-01-16

    Vaults are among the largest cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein particles and are found in numerous eukaryotic species. Roles in multidrug resistance and innate immunity have been suggested, but the cellular function remains unclear. We have determined the x-ray structure of rat liver vault at 3.5 angstrom resolution and show that the cage structure consists of a dimer of half-vaults, with each half-vault comprising 39 identical major vault protein (MVP) chains. Each MVP monomer folds into 12 domains: nine structural repeat domains, a shoulder domain, a cap-helix domain, and a cap-ring domain. Interactions between the 42-turn-long cap-helix domains are key to stabilizing the particle. The shoulder domain is structurally similar to a core domain of stomatin, a lipid-raft component in erythrocytes and epithelial cells. PMID:19150846

  7. Singular stress fields for masonry-like vaults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelillo, Maurizio; Babilio, Enrico; Fortunato, Antonio

    2013-03-01

    In the present paper, we apply the theorems of limit analysis to vaults modeled as masonry-like materials, that is, unilateral continuous bodies. On allowing for singular stresses, we consider statically admissible stress field concentrated on surfaces lying inside the masonry. Such structures are unilateral membranes, whose geometry is described a la Monge, and the equilibrium of them, under vertical loads, is formulated in the Pucher form. The problem is reduced to a singular partial differential equation of the second order where the shape f and the stress function F appear symmetrically. The unilateral restrictions require that the membrane surface lies in between the extrados and intrados surfaces of the vault and that the stress function be concave. Such a constraint is, in general, not satisfied on a given shape for given loads: in such a case, the shape has to be modified to fit the constraint. In a sense, the unilateral assumption renders the membrane an underdetermined structure that must adapt its shape in order to satisfy the unilateral restrictions. A number of simple examples are presented to illustrate how the method works.

  8. 25 CFR 543.18 - What are the minimum internal control standards for the cage, vault, kiosk, cash and cash...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... cage, vault, kiosk, cash and cash equivalents? 543.18 Section 543.18 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING... § 543.18 What are the minimum internal control standards for the cage, vault, kiosk, cash and cash equivalents? (a) Supervision. Supervision must be provided as needed for cage, vault, kiosk, and...

  9. 25 CFR 543.18 - What are the minimum internal control standards for the cage, vault, kiosk, cash and cash...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... cage, vault, kiosk, cash and cash equivalents? 543.18 Section 543.18 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING... § 543.18 What are the minimum internal control standards for the cage, vault, kiosk, cash and cash equivalents? (a) Supervision. Supervision must be provided as needed for cage, vault, kiosk, and...

  10. Vault Nanoparticles Packaged with Enzymes as an Efficient Pollutant Biodegradation Technology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng; Abad, Danny; Kickhoefer, Valerie A; Rome, Leonard H; Mahendra, Shaily

    2015-11-24

    Vault nanoparticles packaged with enzymes were synthesized as agents for efficiently degrading environmental contaminants. Enzymatic biodegradation is an attractive technology for in situ cleanup of contaminated environments because enzyme-catalyzed reactions are not constrained by nutrient requirements for microbial growth and often have higher biodegradation rates. However, the limited stability of extracellular enzymes remains a major challenge for practical applications. Encapsulation is a recognized method to enhance enzymatic stability, but it can increase substrate diffusion resistance, lower catalytic rates, and increase the apparent half-saturation constants. Here, we report an effective approach for boosting enzymatic stability by single-step packaging into vault nanoparticles. With hollow core structures, assembled vault nanoparticles can simultaneously contain multiple enzymes. Manganese peroxidase (MnP), which is widely used in biodegradation of organic contaminants, was chosen as a model enzyme in the present study. MnP was incorporated into vaults via fusion to a packaging domain called INT, which strongly interacts with vaults' interior surface. MnP fused to INT and vaults packaged with the MnP-INT fusion protein maintained peroxidase activity. Furthermore, MnP-INT packaged in vaults displayed stability significantly higher than that of free MnP-INT, with slightly increased Km value. Additionally, vault-packaged MnP-INT exhibited 3 times higher phenol biodegradation in 24 h than did unpackaged MnP-INT. These results indicate that the packaging of MnP enzymes in vault nanoparticles extends their stability without compromising catalytic activity. This research will serve as the foundation for the development of efficient and sustainable vault-based bioremediation approaches for removing multiple contaminants from drinking water and groundwater. PMID:26493711

  11. The development, past achievements, and future directions of brain PET

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Terry; Rabiner, Eugenii A

    2012-01-01

    The early developments of brain positron emission tomography (PET), including the methodological advances that have driven progress, are outlined. The considerable past achievements of brain PET have been summarized in collaboration with contributing experts in specific clinical applications including cerebrovascular disease, movement disorders, dementia, epilepsy, schizophrenia, addiction, depression and anxiety, brain tumors, drug development, and the normal healthy brain. Despite a history of improving methodology and considerable achievements, brain PET research activity is not growing and appears to have diminished. Assessments of the reasons for decline are presented and strategies proposed for reinvigorating brain PET research. Central to this is widening the access to advanced PET procedures through the introduction of lower cost cyclotron and radiochemistry technologies. The support and expertize of the existing major PET centers, and the recruitment of new biologists, bio-mathematicians and chemists to the field would be important for such a revival. New future applications need to be identified, the scope of targets imaged broadened, and the developed expertize exploited in other areas of medical research. Such reinvigoration of the field would enable PET to continue making significant contributions to advance the understanding of the normal and diseased brain and support the development of advanced treatments. PMID:22434067

  12. The development, past achievements, and future directions of brain PET.

    PubMed

    Jones, Terry; Rabiner, Eugenii A

    2012-07-01

    The early developments of brain positron emission tomography (PET), including the methodological advances that have driven progress, are outlined. The considerable past achievements of brain PET have been summarized in collaboration with contributing experts in specific clinical applications including cerebrovascular disease, movement disorders, dementia, epilepsy, schizophrenia, addiction, depression and anxiety, brain tumors, drug development, and the normal healthy brain. Despite a history of improving methodology and considerable achievements, brain PET research activity is not growing and appears to have diminished. Assessments of the reasons for decline are presented and strategies proposed for reinvigorating brain PET research. Central to this is widening the access to advanced PET procedures through the introduction of lower cost cyclotron and radiochemistry technologies. The support and expertize of the existing major PET centers, and the recruitment of new biologists, bio-mathematicians and chemists to the field would be important for such a revival. New future applications need to be identified, the scope of targets imaged broadened, and the developed expertize exploited in other areas of medical research. Such reinvigoration of the field would enable PET to continue making significant contributions to advance the understanding of the normal and diseased brain and support the development of advanced treatments. PMID:22434067

  13. Preliminary production of 211At at the Texas A&M University Cyclotron Institute.

    PubMed

    Martin, Thomas Michael; Bhakta, Vihar; Al-Harbi, Abeer; Hackemack, Michael; Tabacaru, Gabriel; Tribble, Robert; Shankar, Sriram; Akabani, Gamal

    2014-07-01

    A feasibility study for the production of the alpha particle-emitting radionuclide At was performed at the Texas A&M University Cyclotron Institute as part of the Interdisciplinary Radioisotope Production and Radiochemistry Program. The mission of this program centers upon the production of radionuclides for use in diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine with the primary focus on development of novel therapeutic strategies. As a first step in establishing this program, two goals were outlined: (i) verify production of At and compare results to published data, and (ii) evaluate shielding and radiological safety issues for large-scale implementation using an external target. The radionuclide At was produced via the Bi (α, 2n) At reaction using the K500 cyclotron. Two experiments were conducted, using beam energies of 27.8 MeV and 25.3 MeV, respectively. The resulting yields for At were found to be 36.0 MBq μA h and 12.4 MBq μA h, respectively, which fall within the range of published yield data. Strategies for increasing absolute yield and production efficiency were also evaluated, which focused chiefly on using a new target designed for use with the K150 cyclotron, which will enable the use of a higher beam current. Finally, neutron and gamma dose rates during production were evaluated by using the Monte Carlo code MCNPX. It was determined that a simple structure consisting of 4-in thick borated polyethylene will reduce the neutron dose rate within the cyclotron production vault by approximately a factor of 2, thereby decreasing activation of equipment. PMID:24849899

  14. PRODUCTION CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE CLASSICAL PET NUCLIDES.

    SciTech Connect

    FINN,R.; SCHLYER,D.

    2001-06-25

    Nuclear Medicine is the specialty of medical imaging, which utilizes a variety of radionuclides incorporated into specific compounds for diagnostic imaging and therapeutic applications. During recent years, research efforts associated with this discipline have concentrated on the decay characteristics of particular radionuclides and the design of unique radiolabeled tracers necessary to achieve time-dependent molecular images. The specialty is expanding with specific Positron emission tomography (PET) and SPECT radiopharmaceuticals allowing for an extension from functional process imaging in tissue to pathologic processes and nuclide directed treatments. PET is an example of a technique that has been shown to yield the physiologic information necessary for clinical oncology diagnoses based upon altered tissue metabolism. Most PET drugs are currently produced using a cyclotron at locations that are in close proximity to the hospital or academic center at which the radiopharmaceutical will be administered. In November 1997, a law was enacted called the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997 which directed the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to establish appropriate procedures for the approval of PET drugs in accordance with section 505 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and to establish current good manufacturing practice requirements for such drugs. At this time the FDA is considering adopting special approval procedures and cGMP requirements for PET drugs. The evolution of PET radiopharmaceuticals has introduced a new class of ''drugs'' requiring production facilities and product formulations that must be closely aligned with the scheduled clinical utilization. The production of the radionuclide in the appropriate synthetic form is but one critical component in the manufacture of the finished radiopharmaceutical.

  15. Cyclotron Resonance in Accreting Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Dipankar

    2016-07-01

    Cyclotron Resonance Absorption/Scattering features provide direct measurement of magnetic field strength in the line forming region. This has enabled the estimation of magnetic field strengths of nearly two dozen neutron stars in accreting high mass binary systems. With improved spectroscopic sensitivity, new X-ray observatories such as NuSTAR, Astrosat and Hitomi are opening the doors to studying detailed features such as the line shape and phase dependence with high significance. Such studies will help understand the nature of matter accumulation in, and outflow from, the magnetically confined accretion column on the neutron star. This talk will describe the results of MHD simulations of the matter flow in such systems, the diagnostics of such flows using cyclotron lines, and comparison with recent observations from NuSTAR and Astrosat.

  16. Initial experience with an 11 MeV self-shielded medical cyclotron on operation and radiation safety

    PubMed Central

    Pant, G. S.; Senthamizhchelvan, S.

    2007-01-01

    A self-shielded medical cyclotron (11 MeV) was commissioned at our center, to produce positron emitters, namely, 18F, 15O, 13N and 11C for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. Presently the cyclotron has been exclusively used for the production of 18F- for 18F-FDG imaging. The operational parameters which influence the yield of 18F- production were monitored. The radiation levels in the cyclotron and radiochemistry laboratory were also monitored to assess the radiation safety status in the facility. The target material, 18O water, is bombarded with proton beam from the cyclotron to produce 18F- ion that is used for the synthesis of 18F-FDG. The operational parameters which influence the yield of 18F- were observed during 292 production runs out of a total of more than 400 runs. The radiation dose levels were also measured in the facility at various locations during cyclotron production runs and in the radiochemistry laboratory during 18F-FDG syntheses. It was observed that rinsing the target after delivery increased the number of production runs in a given target, as well as resulted in a better correlation between the duration of bombardment and the end of bombardment 18F- activity with absolutely clean target after being rebuilt. The radiation levels in the cyclotron and radiochemistry laboratory were observed to be well within prescribed limits with safe work practice. PMID:21157531

  17. Commercial compact cyclotrons in the 90`s

    SciTech Connect

    Milton, B.F.

    1995-09-01

    Cyclotrons continue to be efficient accelerators for radio-isotope production. In recent years, developments in the accelerator technology have greatly increased the practical beam current in these machines while also improving the overall system reliability. These developments combined with the development of new isotopes for medicine and industry, and a retiring of older machines indicate a strong future for commercial cyclotrons. In this paper the authors will survey recent developments in the areas of cyclotron technology, as they relate to the new generation of commercial cyclotrons. Design criteria for the different types of commercial cyclotrons will be presented, with reference to those demands that differ from those in a research oriented cyclotron project. The authors also discuss the possibility of systems designed for higher energies and capable of extracted beam currents of up to 2.0 mA.

  18. Method and apparatus for ion cyclotron spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    Dahl, David A [Idaho Falls, ID; Scott, Jill R [Idaho Falls, ID; McJunkin, Timothy R [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-08-17

    An ion cyclotron spectrometer may include a vacuum chamber that extends at least along a z-axis and means for producing a magnetic field within the vacuum chamber so that a magnetic field vector is generally parallel to the z-axis. The ion cyclotron spectrometer may also include means for producing a trapping electric field within the vacuum chamber that includes at least a first section that induces a first magnetron effect that increases a cyclotron frequency of an ion and at least a second section that induces a second magnetron effect that decreases the cyclotron frequency of an ion. The cyclotron frequency changes induced by the first and second magnetron effects substantially cancel one another so that an ion traversing the at least first and second sections will experience no net change in cyclotron frequency.

  19. Activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome by vault nanoparticles expressing a chlamydial epitope

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Ye; Jiang, Janina; Said-Sadier, Najwane; Boxx, Gale; Champion, Cheryl; Tetlow, Ashley; Kickhoefer, Valerie A.; Rome, Leonard H.; Ojcius, David M.; Kelly, Kathleen A.

    2014-01-01

    The full potential of vaccines relies on development of effective delivery systems and adjuvants and is critical for development of successful vaccine candidates. We have shown that recombinant vaults engineered to encapsulate microbial epitopes are highly stable structures and are an ideal vaccine vehicle for epitope delivery which does not require the inclusion of an adjuvant. We studied the ability of vaults which were engineered for use as a vaccine containing an immunogenic epitope of C. trachomatis, polymorphic membrane protein G (PmpG), to be internalized into human monocytes and behave as a “natural adjuvant”. We here show that incubation of monocytes with the PmpG-1-vaults activates caspase-1 and stimulates IL-1β secretion through a process requiring the NLRP3 inflammasome and that cathepsin B and Syk are involved in the inflammasome activation. We also observed that the PmpG-1-vaults are internalized through a pathway that is transiently acidic and leads to destabilization of lysosomes. In addition, immunization of mice with PmpG-1-vaults induced PmpG-1 responsive CD4+ cells upon re-stimulation with PmpG peptide in vitro, suggesting that vault vaccines can be engineered for specific adaptive immune responses. We conclude that PmpG-1-vault vaccines can stimulate NLRP3 inflammasomes and induce PmpG-specific T cell responses. PMID:25448112

  20. In silico resurrection of the major vault protein suggests it is ancestral in modern eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Daly, Toni K; Sutherland-Smith, Andrew J; Penny, David

    2013-01-01

    Vaults are very large oligomeric ribonucleoproteins conserved among a variety of species. The rat vault 3D structure shows an ovoid oligomeric particle, consisting of 78 major vault protein monomers, each of approximately 861 amino acids. Vaults are probably the largest ribonucleoprotein structures in eukaryote cells, being approximately 70 nm in length with a diameter of 40 nm--the size of three ribosomes and with a lumen capacity of 50 million Å(3). We use both protein sequences and inferred ancestral sequences for in silico virtual resurrection of tertiary and quaternary structures to search for vaults in a wide variety of eukaryotes. We find that the vault's phylogenetic distribution is widespread in eukaryotes, but is apparently absent in some notable model organisms. Our conclusion from the distribution of vaults is that they were present in the last eukaryote common ancestor but they have apparently been lost from a number of groups including fungi, insects, and probably plants. Our approach of inferring ancestral 3D and quaternary structures is expected to be useful generally. PMID:23887922

  1. Breakdown of cyclotron resonance in semiconductor superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffield, T.; Bhat, R.; Koza, M.; Hwang, D. M.; DeRosa, F.; Grabbe, P.; Allen, S. J.

    1988-03-01

    We have observed breakdown of cyclotron resonance in large magnetic fields oriented perpendicular to the growth direction in semiconductor superlattices. At small magnetic fields conventional cyclotron resonance is observed with the mass related to the miniband mass. At large magnetic fields, when the cyclotron diameter approaches the superlattice period, the resonance frequency appears to saturate and is determined by orbits impaled on the barrier. A model calculation gives good account of the magnetic field dependence of the resonance position and line width.

  2. Composite analysis E-area vaults and saltstone disposal facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, J.R.

    1997-09-01

    This report documents the Composite Analysis (CA) performed on the two active Savannah River Site (SRS) low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities. The facilities are the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility and the E-Area Vaults (EAV) Disposal Facility. The analysis calculated potential releases to the environment from all sources of residual radioactive material expected to remain in the General Separations Area (GSA). The GSA is the central part of SRS and contains all of the waste disposal facilities, chemical separations facilities and associated high-level waste storage facilities as well as numerous other sources of radioactive material. The analysis considered 114 potential sources of radioactive material containing 115 radionuclides. The results of the CA clearly indicate that continued disposal of low-level waste in the saltstone and EAV facilities, consistent with their respective radiological performance assessments, will have no adverse impact on future members of the public.

  3. Surgical management and prevention of vaginal vault prolapse.

    PubMed

    Imparato, E; Aspesi, G; Rovetta, E; Presti, M

    1992-09-01

    From 1984 to 1988, we corrected and prevented the prolapse of the vaginal vault of patients who wanted to maintain a satisfactory sexual function. This was done by adopting two different surgical techniques. The first, generally favored technique, was performed upon 179 patients and consisted of a colposuspension to the sacrospinous ligaments. The second technique, a colposacropexis, was performed upon 71 patients, in which abdominal associated pathologic changes required an abdominal surgical approach. Colposacropexis was performed, whenever possible, directly to the anterior longitudinal vertebral ligament or using synthetic materials (Mersilene [polyester fiber], Teflon [polytetrafluoroethylene] and Gore-Tex [expanded, reinforced polytetrafluoroethylene]). Both colposacropexis and vaginal suspension to sacrospinous ligaments have had comparable results in vaginal accommodation and long term fixation. Vaginal approach has a lower incidence of operative complications than the abdominal approach and seems to ensure a lower risk of recurrent cystocele, even if simple and asymptomatic. PMID:1514157

  4. CSER 96-028: PFP vault number 2 storage racks

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, D.G., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-12-01

    A nuclear criticality safety analysis has been performed to increase the approved plutonium mass limit for the Vault {number_sign}2 storage racks at PFP. There are three racks in the room with separate cubicles used to hold cans of plutonium oxide (PuO,). The racks were approved to hold up to 2.5 Kg of plutonium in each storage cubicle. The purpose of this CSER is to increase the limit to 4.4 Kg plutonium in PuO, per storage cubicle in one rack. The highest k{sub eff} calculated for all possible scenarios was 0.893 {+-} 0.003, which is well below the criticality safety limit of k{sub eff}= 0.935. Consequently, an increase of plutonium mass to 4.4 Kg per can is within acceptable safety limits.

  5. RNA location and modeling of a WD40 repeat domain within the vault.

    PubMed Central

    Kong, L B; Siva, A C; Kickhoefer, V A; Rome, L H; Stewart, P L

    2000-01-01

    The vault complex is a ubiquitous 13-MDa ribonucleoprotein assembly, composed of three proteins (TEP1, 240 kDa; VPARP, 193 kDa; and MVP, 100 kDa) that are highly conserved in eukaryotes and an untranslated RNA (vRNA). The vault has been shown to affect multidrug resistance in cancer cells, and one particular component, MVP, is thought to play a role in the transport of drug from the nucleus. To locate the position of the vRNA, vaults were treated with RNases, and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) was performed on the resulting complexes. Using single-particle reconstruction techniques, 3,476 particle images were combined to generate a 22-A-resolution structure. Difference mapping between the RNase-treated vault and the previously calculated intact vault reconstructions reveals the vRNA to be at the ends of the vault caps. In this position, the vRNA may interact with both the interior and exterior environments of the vault. The finding of a 16-fold density ring at the top of the cap has allowed modeling of the WD40 repeat domain of the vault TEP1 protein within the cryo-EM vault density. Both stoichiometric considerations and the finding of higher resolution for the computationally selected and refined "barrel only" images indicate a possible symmetry mismatch between the barrel and the caps. The molecular architecture of the complex is emerging, with 96 copies of MVP composing the eightfold symmetric barrel, and the vRNA together with one copy of TEP1 and four predicted copies of VPARP comprising each cap. PMID:10864046

  6. RNA location and modeling of a WD40 repeat domain within the vault.

    PubMed

    Kong, L B; Siva, A C; Kickhoefer, V A; Rome, L H; Stewart, P L

    2000-06-01

    The vault complex is a ubiquitous 13-MDa ribonucleoprotein assembly, composed of three proteins (TEP1, 240 kDa; VPARP, 193 kDa; and MVP, 100 kDa) that are highly conserved in eukaryotes and an untranslated RNA (vRNA). The vault has been shown to affect multidrug resistance in cancer cells, and one particular component, MVP, is thought to play a role in the transport of drug from the nucleus. To locate the position of the vRNA, vaults were treated with RNases, and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) was performed on the resulting complexes. Using single-particle reconstruction techniques, 3,476 particle images were combined to generate a 22-A-resolution structure. Difference mapping between the RNase-treated vault and the previously calculated intact vault reconstructions reveals the vRNA to be at the ends of the vault caps. In this position, the vRNA may interact with both the interior and exterior environments of the vault. The finding of a 16-fold density ring at the top of the cap has allowed modeling of the WD40 repeat domain of the vault TEP1 protein within the cryo-EM vault density. Both stoichiometric considerations and the finding of higher resolution for the computationally selected and refined "barrel only" images indicate a possible symmetry mismatch between the barrel and the caps. The molecular architecture of the complex is emerging, with 96 copies of MVP composing the eightfold symmetric barrel, and the vRNA together with one copy of TEP1 and four predicted copies of VPARP comprising each cap. PMID:10864046

  7. Comparative Tests Between Shallow Downhole Installation and Classical Seismic Vaults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charade, Olivier; Vergne, Jérôme; Bonaimé, Sébastien; Bonnin, Mickaël; Louis-Xavier, Thierry; Beucler, Eric; Manhaval, Bertrand; Arnold, Benoît

    2016-04-01

    The French permanent broadband network is engaged in a major evolution with the installation of a hundred of new stations within the forthcoming years. Since most of them will be located in open field environments, we are looking for a standardized installation method able to provide good noise level performance at a reasonable cost. Nowadays, the use of posthole seismometers that can be deployed at the bottom of shallow boreholes appears to be an affordable and alternative solution to more traditional installation methods such as seismic vaults or dedicated underground cellars. Here we present some comparative tests performed at different sites (including two GEOSCOPE stations), spanning various geological conditions. On each site, posthole sensors were deployed for several weeks to months at various depths from 1.5m up to 20m. We compare the seismic noise levels measured in the different boreholes with the one for a reference sensor either directly buried or installed in a tunnel, a cellar or a seismic vault. Apart from the microseism frequency band, seismic noise level in most of the boreholes equals or outperforms the one obtained for the reference sensors. At periods higher than 20s we observe a strong reduction of the seismic noise on the horizontal components in the deepest boreholes compared to near surface installations. This improvement can reach up to 30dB and appears to be mostly due to a reduction in tilt noise induced by wind or local pressure variations. However, the absolute noise level that can be achieved strongly depends on the local geology.

  8. Trends in PET imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, William W.

    2000-11-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging is a well established method for obtaining information on the status of certain organs within the human body or in animals. This paper presents an overview of recent trends PET instrumentation. Significant effort is being expended to develop new PET detector modules, especially those capable of measuring depth of interaction. This is aided by recent advances in scintillator and pixellated photodetector technology. The other significant area of effort is development of special purpose PET cameras (such as for imaging breast cancer or small animals) or cameras that have the ability to image in more than one modality (such as PET / SPECT or PET / X-Ray CT).

  9. The p80 homology region of TEP1 is sufficient for its association with the telomerase and vault RNAs, and the vault particle.

    PubMed

    Poderycki, Michael J; Rome, Leonard H; Harrington, Lea; Kickhoefer, Valerie A

    2005-01-01

    TEP1 is a protein component of two ribonucleoprotein complexes: vaults and telomerase. The vault-associated small RNA, termed vault RNA (VR), is dependent upon TEP1 for its stable association with vaults, while the association of telomerase RNA with the telomerase complex is independent of TEP1. Both of these small RNAs have been shown to interact with amino acids 1-871 of TEP1 in an indirect yeast three-hybrid assay. To understand the determinants of TEP1-RNA binding, we generated a series of TEP1 deletions and show by yeast three-hybrid assay that the entire Tetrahymena p80 homology region of TEP1 is required for its interaction with both telomerase and VRs. This region is also sufficient to target the protein to the vault particle. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays using the recombinant TEP1 RNA-binding domain (TEP1-RBD) demonstrate that it binds RNA directly, and that telomerase and VRs compete for binding. VR binds weakly to TEP1-RBD in vitro, but mutation of VR sequences predicted to disrupt helices near its central loop enhances binding. Antisense oligonucleotide-directed RNase H digestion of endogenous VR indicates that this region is largely single stranded, suggesting that TEP1 may require access to the VR central loop for efficient binding. PMID:15701761

  10. Electroplated targets for production of unique PET radionuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bui, V.; Sheh, Y.; Finn, R.; Francesconi, L.; Cai, S.; Schlyer, D.; Wieland, B.

    1995-12-01

    The past decade has witnessed the applications of positron emission tomography (PET) evolving from a purely research endeavor to a procedure which has specific clinical applications in the areas of cardiology, neurology and oncology. The growth of PET has been facilitated by developments in both medical instrumentation and radiopharmaceutical chemistry efforts. Included in this latter effort has been the low energy accelerator production and processing of unique PET radionuclides appropriate for the radiolabeling of biomolecules, i.e. monoclonal antibodies and peptides. The development and application of electroplated targets of antimony and copper for the production of iodine-124 and gallium-66 respectively, utilizing the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) cyclotron are examples of target design and development applicable to many medical accelerators.

  11. Electroplating targets for production of unique PET radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Bui, V.; Sheh, Y.; Finn, R.

    1994-12-31

    The past decade has witnessed the applications of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) evolving from a purely research endeavour to a procedure which has specific clinical applications in the areas of cardiology, neurology and oncology. The growth of PET has been facilitated by developments in medical instrumentation and radiopharmaceutical chemistry efforts. Included in this latter effort has been the low energy accelerator production and processing of unique PET radionuclides appropriate for the radiolabeling of biomolecules i.e. monoclonal antibodies and pepetides. The development and application of electroplated targets of antimony and copper for the production of iodine-124 and gallium-66 respectively, utilizing the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center cyclotron are examples of target design and development applicable to many medical accelerators.

  12. Quality assurance plan for placement of cold-cap grout, demonstration vault, Hanford Grout Vault Program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Harrington, P.T.; Wakeley, L.D.; Ernzen, J.J.; Walley, D.M.

    1992-08-01

    During FY 91, the U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES) developed a grout to be used as a cold cap, a nonradioactive layer, between the solidified waste and the cover blocks of a demonstration waste disposal vault at the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Facility. This document recommends requirements for a quality assurance (QA) plan for field mixing and placing of the cold-cap grout during final closure of the demonstration vault. Preplacement activities emphasize selection and testing of materials that will match the performance of materials used in the WES grout. Materials sources and applicable American Society of Testing and Materials, American Concrete Institute, and American Petroleum Institute specifications and requirements are provided. Archiving of physical samples of materials is essential, in addition to careful maintenance of test reports and laboratory data. Full-scale field trial mixing and a detailed preconstruction conference are recommended. Placement activities focus on production and placement of a grout that remains sufficiently constant throughout all batches and meets performance requirements. QA activities must be coordinated between the batch plant and delivery site. Recommended sampling during placement includes cylinders cast for subsequent tests of compressive strength and for nondestructive evaluation and prisms cast for monitoring volume stability. A minimum of two lifts is recommended. Postplacement activities include long-term monitoring of the properties of grout specimens cast during placement. Minimum testing of cylinders includes pulse velocity, fundamental frequency, and unconfined compressive strength. Monitoring characteristics of the microstructure also are recommended. The QA plan should designate an organization to have responsibility for maintaining complete records, reports, and archived samples, including details of deviations from plans written before field placement.

  13. Cyclotron laboratory of the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonev, D.; Goutev, N.; Georgiev, L. S.

    2016-06-01

    An accelerator laboratory is presently under construction in Sofia at the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. The laboratory will use a TR24 type of cyclotron, which provides a possibility to accelerate a proton beam with an energy of 15 to 24 MeV and current of up to 0.4 mA. An accelerator with such parameters allows to produce a large variety of radioisotopes for development of radiopharmaceuticals. The most common radioisotopes that could be produced with such a cyclotron are PET isotopes like: 11C, 13N, 15O, 18F, 124I, 64Cu, 68Ge/68Ga, and SPECT isotopes like: 123I, 111In, 67Ga, 57Co, 99m Tc. Our aim is to use the cyclotron facility for research in the fields of radiopharmacy, radiochemistry, radiobiology, nuclear physics, solid state physics, applied research, new materials and for education in all these fields including nuclear energy. The building of the laboratory will be constructed nearby the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy and the cyclotron together with all the equipment needed will be installed there.

  14. Cyclotron Line Measurements with INTEGRAL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pottschmidt, K.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Caballero, I.; Fritz, S.; Schoenherr, G.; Kretschmar, P.; Wilms, J.; McBride, V. A.; Suchy, S.; Rothschild, R. E.

    2008-01-01

    Due to its broadband energy coverage, INTEGRAL has made important contributions to observing and interpreting cyclotron lines, which are present in the 10-100 keV range of a sample of accreting pulsars. In these systems photons with energies fulfilling the resonance condition inelastically Compton scatter off electrons quantized in the accretion column above the neutron star's magnetic pole(s). This process gives rise to the broad, absorption-like lines or 'cyclotron resonant scattering features' (CRSF). The observed lines allow to directly measure the B-fields of these sources, resulting in values of a few times 1E12G. In this overview I will present recent highlights regarding CRSF observations as well as discuss current ideas and models for the physical conditions in the accretion column. Among the former are the stability of the spectrum of Vela X-1 during giant flares in 2003, the observation of three cyclotron lines during the 2004 outburst of V0332+53, the confirmation of the fundamental line at approximately 45 keV during a 2005 normal outburst of A0535-26, and the simultaneous detection of the two lines in the dipping source 4U 1907+09 (for which also a torque reversal was detected for the first time). Through these and other observations it has become increasingly apparent that two types of observations can potentially be used to constrain the accretion column geometry: the determination of energy ratios for multiple harmonic lines (only two sources with greater than 2 lines are known), was well as the evolution of the fundamental line centroid, which, for different sources, may or may not be correlated with flux. Furthermore, first steps have been taken away from the usual phenomenological description of the lines, towards a physical approach based on self-consistent CRSF modeling. Initial applications are presented.

  15. Ion cyclotron waves at Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, C. T.; Wei, H. Y.; Cowee, M. M.; Neubauer, F. M.; Dougherty, M. K.

    2016-03-01

    During the interaction of Titan's thick atmosphere with the ambient plasma, it was expected that ion cyclotron waves would be generated by the free energy of the highly anisotropic velocity distribution of the freshly ionized atmospheric particles created in the interaction. However, ion cyclotron waves are rarely observed near Titan, due to the long growth times of waves associated with the major ion species from Titan's ionosphere, such as CH4+ and N2+. In the over 100 Titan flybys obtained by Cassini to date, there are only two wave events, for just a few minutes during T63 flyby and for tens of minutes during T98 flyby. These waves occur near the gyrofrequencies of proton and singly ionized molecular hydrogen. They are left-handed, elliptically polarized, and propagate nearly parallel to the field lines. Hybrid simulations are performed to understand the wave growth under various conditions in the Titan environment. The simulations using the plasma and field conditions during T63 show that pickup protons with densities ranging from 0.01 cm-3 to 0.02 cm-3 and singly ionized molecular hydrogens with densities ranging from 0.015 cm-3 to 0.25 cm-3 can drive ion cyclotron waves with amplitudes of ~0.02 nT and of ~0.04 nT within appropriate growth times at Titan, respectively. Since the T98 waves were seen farther upstream than the T63 waves, it is possible that the instability was stronger and grew faster on T98 than T63.

  16. Heart PET scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... nuclear medicine scan; Heart positron emission tomography; Myocardial PET scan ... A PET scan requires a small amount of radioactive material (tracer). This tracer is given through a vein (IV), ...

  17. Breast PET scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007469.htm Breast PET scan To use the sharing features on this page, ... enable JavaScript. A breast positron emission tomography (PET) scan is an imaging test that uses a radioactive ...

  18. Lawrence's Legacy : Seaborg's Cyclotron - The 88-Inch Cyclotron turns 40

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMahan, Margaret; Clark, David

    2003-04-01

    In 1958, Sputnik had recently been launched by the Russians, leading to worry in Congress and increased funding for science and technology. Ernest Lawrence was director of the "Rad Lab" at Berkeley. Another Nobel Prize winner, Glenn Seaborg, was Associate Laboratory Director and Director of the Nuclear Chemistry Division. In this atmosphere, Lawrence was phoned by commissioners of the Atomic Energy Commission and asked what they could do for Seaborg, "because he did such a fine job of setting up the chemistry for extracting plutonium from spent reactor fuel" [1]. In this informal way, the 90-Inch (eventually 88-Inch) Cyclotron became a line item in the federal budget at a cost of 3M (later increased to 5M). The 88-Inch Cyclotron achieved first internal beam on Dec. 12, 1961 and first external beam in May 1962. Forty years later it is still going strong. Pieced together from interviews with the retirees who built it, Rad Lab reports and archives from the Seaborg and Lawrence collections, the story of its design and construction - on-time and under-budget - provides a glimpse into the early days of big science. [1] remarks made by Elmer Kelly, "Physicist-in-charge' of the project on the occasion of the 40th anniversary celebration.

  19. Cardiac PET perfusion tracers: current status and future directions.

    PubMed

    Maddahi, Jamshid; Packard, René R S

    2014-09-01

    PET myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is increasingly being used for noninvasive detection and evaluation of coronary artery disease. However, the widespread use of PET MPI has been limited by the shortcomings of the current PET perfusion tracers. The availability of these tracers is limited by the need for an onsite ((15)O water and (13)N ammonia) or nearby ((13)N ammonia) cyclotron or commitment to costly generators ((82)Rb). Owing to the short half-lives, such as 76 seconds for (82)Rb, 2.06 minutes for (15)O water, and 9.96 minutes for (13)N ammonia, their use in conjunction with treadmill exercise stress testing is either not possible ((82)Rb and (15)O water) or not practical ((13)N ammonia). Furthermore, the long positron range of (82)Rb makes image resolution suboptimal and its low myocardial extraction limits its defect resolution. In recent years, development of an (18)F-labeled PET perfusion tracer has gathered considerable interest. The longer half-life of (18)F (109 minutes) would make the tracer available as a unit dose from regional cyclotrons and allow use in conjunction with treadmill exercise testing. Furthermore, the short positron range of (18)F would result in better image resolution. Flurpiridaz F 18 is by far the most thoroughly studied in animal models and is the only (18)F-based PET MPI radiotracer currently undergoing clinical evaluation. Preclinical and clinical experience with Flurpiridaz F 18 demonstrated a high myocardial extraction fraction, high image and defect resolution, high myocardial uptake, slow myocardial clearance, and high myocardial-to-background contrast that was stable over time-important properties of an ideal PET MPI radiotracer. Preclinical data from other (18)F-labeled myocardial perfusion tracers are encouraging. PMID:25234078

  20. Cardiac PET Perfusion Tracers: Current Status and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Maddahi, Jamshid; Packard, René R. S.

    2015-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is increasingly used for non-invasive detection and evaluation of coronary artery disease (CAD). However, the widespread use of PET MPI has been limited by shortcomings of the current PET perfusion tracers. Availability of these tracers is limited by need for an on-site (15O water and 13N ammonia) or nearby (13N ammonia) cyclotron or commitment to costly generators (82Rb). Due to short half-lives ranging from 76sec for 82Rb, to 2.1min for 15O water and 10min for 13N ammonia, their use in conjunction with treadmill exercise stress testing is either not possible (82Rb and 15O water) or is not practical (13N ammonia). Furthermore, the long positron range of 82Rb makes image resolution suboptimal and its low extraction limits its defect resolution. In recent years, development of an 18F labeled PET perfusion tracer has gathered considerable interest. The longer half-life of 18F (108 minutes) would make the tracer available as a unit dose from regional cyclotrons and allow use in conjunction with treadmill exercise testing. Furthermore, the short positron range of 18F would result in better image resolution. 18F flurpiridaz is by far the most thoroughly studied in animal models, and is the only F18-based PET MPI radiotracer currently undergoing clinical evaluation. Pre-clinical and clinical experience with 18F flurpiridaz demonstrated a high myocardial extraction fraction, high image and defect resolution, high myocardial uptake, slow myocardial clearance, and high myocardial-to-background contrast which was stable over time – important properties of an ideal PET MPI radiotracer. Pre-clinical data from other 18F labeled myocardial perfusion tracers are encouraging. PMID:25234078

  1. Polyribosomes Are Molecular 3D Nanoprinters That Orchestrate the Assembly of Vault Particles

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Ribosomes are molecular machines that function in polyribosome complexes to translate genetic information, guide the synthesis of polypeptides, and modulate the folding of nascent proteins. Here, we report a surprising function for polyribosomes as a result of a systematic examination of the assembly of a large ribonucleoprotein complex, the vault particle. Structural and functional evidence points to a model of vault assembly whereby the polyribosome acts like a 3D nanoprinter to direct the ordered translation and assembly of the multi-subunit vault homopolymer, a process which we refer to as polyribosome templating. Structure-based mutagenesis and cell-free in vitro expression studies further demonstrated the critical importance of the polyribosome in vault assembly. Polyribosome templating prevents chaos by ensuring efficiency and order in the production of large homopolymeric protein structures in the crowded cellular environment and might explain the origin of many polyribosome-associated molecular assemblies inside the cell. PMID:25354757

  2. GardnerDenver compressor, now occupying the former transformer vault to the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Gardner-Denver compressor, now occupying the former transformer vault to the West of the plant switch house - Bureau of Mines Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Original Building, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  3. Addendum to the composite analysis for the E-Area Vaults and Saltstone Disposal Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, J.R.

    2000-03-13

    This report documents the composite analysis performed on the two active SRS low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The facilities are the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility and the E-Area Vaults Disposal Facility.

  4. LPT. EBOR (TAN646) reactor vault. Concrete blocks for reactor shielding ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LPT. EBOR (TAN-646) reactor vault. Concrete blocks for reactor shielding going into shield test facility pool. Photographer: Comiskey. Date: February 19, 1965. INEEL negative no. 65-933 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  5. Cyclotrons for the production of radioactive beams

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the characteristics and design choices for modern cyclotrons. Cyclotrons can be used in 3 areas in the radioactive beam field: the production of high energy heavy ion beams for use in fragmentation, the spallation of targets with high energy protons, and the acceleration of radioactive beams from low energy to the MeV/u range. 16 refs., 6 figs.

  6. Birds Kept as Pets

    MedlinePlus

    ... restricts the importation of pet birds from certain countries and enforces a 30-day quarantine for all imported birds except those that come from Canada. People interested in importing pet birds should visit the USDA non-US Origin Pet Bird Importation website . Choosing a bird Match ...

  7. The cyclotron development activities at CIAE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tianjue; Li, Zhenguo; An, Shizhong; Yin, Zhiguo; Yang, Jianjun; Yang, Fang

    2011-12-01

    The cyclotron has an obvious advantage in offering high average current and beam power. Cyclotron development for various applications, e.g. radioactive ion-beam (RIB) generation, clean nuclear energy systems, medical diagnostics and isotope production, were performed at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE) for over 50 years. At the moment two cyclotrons are being built at CIAE, the 100 MeV, CYCIAE-100, and a 14 MeV, the CYCIAE-14. Meanwhile, we are designing and proposing to build a number of cyclotrons with different energies, among them are the CYCIAE-70, the CYCIAE-800, and the upgrading of CYCIAE-CRM, which is going to increase its beam current to mA level. The contribution will present an overall introduction to the cyclotron development activities conducted at CIAE, with different emphasis to each project in order to demonstrate the design and construction highlights.

  8. K-130 Cyclotron vacuum system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, R. C.; Bhattacharya, S.; Bhole, R. B.; Roy, Anindya; Pal, Sarbajit; Mallik, C.; Bhandari, R. K.

    2012-11-01

    The vacuum system for K-130 cyclotron has been operational since 1977. It consists of two sub-systems, main vacuum system and beam line vacuum system. The main vacuum system is designed to achieve and maintain vacuum of about 1 × 10-6 mbar inside the 23 m3 volume of acceleration chamber comprising the Resonator tank and the Dee tank. The beam line vacuum system is required for transporting the extracted beam with minimum loss. These vacuum systems consist of diffusion pumps backed by mechanical pumps like roots and rotary pumps. The large vacuum pumps and valves of the cyclotron vacuum system were operational for more than twenty five years. In recent times, problems of frequent failures and maintenance were occurring due to aging and lack of appropriate spares. Hence, modernisation of the vacuum systems was taken up in order to ensure a stable high voltage for radio frequency system and the extraction system. This is required for efficient acceleration and transportation of high intensity ion beam. The vacuum systems have been upgraded by replacing several pumps, valves, gauges and freon units. The relay based control system for main vacuum system has also been replaced by PLC based state of the art control system. The upgraded control system enables inclusion of additional operational logics and safety interlocks into the system. The paper presents the details of the vacuum system and describes the modifications carried out for improving the performance and reliability of the vacuum system.

  9. Solution structure of a two-repeat fragment of major vault protein.

    PubMed

    Kozlov, Guennadi; Vavelyuk, Olga; Minailiuc, Ovidiu; Banville, Denis; Gehring, Kalle; Ekiel, Irena

    2006-02-17

    Major vault protein (MVP) is the main constituent of vaults, large ribonucleoprotein particles implicated in resistance to cancer therapy and correlated with poor survival prognosis. Here, we report the structure of the main repeat element in human MVP. The approximately 55 amino acid residue MVP domain has a unique, novel fold that consists of a three-stranded antiparallel beta-sheet. The solution NMR structure of a two-domain fragment reveals the interdomain contacts and relative orientations of the two MVP domains. We use these results to model the assembly of 672 MVP domains from 96 MVP molecules into the ribs of the 13MDa vault structure. The unique features include a thin, skin-like structure with polar residues on both the cytoplasmic and internal surface, and a pole-to-pole arrangement of MVP molecules. These studies provide a starting point for understanding the self-assembly of MVP into vaults and their interactions with other proteins. Chemical shift perturbation studies identified the binding site of vault poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, another component of vault particles, indicating that MVP domains form a new class of interaction-mediating modules. PMID:16373071

  10. In Silico Resurrection of the Major Vault Protein Suggests It Is Ancestral in Modern Eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Daly, Toni K.; Sutherland-Smith, Andrew J.; Penny, David

    2013-01-01

    Vaults are very large oligomeric ribonucleoproteins conserved among a variety of species. The rat vault 3D structure shows an ovoid oligomeric particle, consisting of 78 major vault protein monomers, each of approximately 861 amino acids. Vaults are probably the largest ribonucleoprotein structures in eukaryote cells, being approximately 70 nm in length with a diameter of 40 nm—the size of three ribosomes and with a lumen capacity of 50 million Å3. We use both protein sequences and inferred ancestral sequences for in silico virtual resurrection of tertiary and quaternary structures to search for vaults in a wide variety of eukaryotes. We find that the vault’s phylogenetic distribution is widespread in eukaryotes, but is apparently absent in some notable model organisms. Our conclusion from the distribution of vaults is that they were present in the last eukaryote common ancestor but they have apparently been lost from a number of groups including fungi, insects, and probably plants. Our approach of inferring ancestral 3D and quaternary structures is expected to be useful generally. PMID:23887922

  11. An estimation of tritium inventory limits for the E-Area vaults

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, A.D.; Cook, J.R.

    1991-12-02

    At the request of Waste Management, Interim Waste Technology has conducted a modeling study to estimate the tritium inventory limits for the E-Area vaults. These inventory limits are based on the groundwater impact of the planned waste disposal. The tritium inventory limit for an Intermediate Level Tritium Vault (ILTV) is estimated to be 400,000 Curies with a 100 year storage period. During this period, it is assumed that the ILTV will be vented, any leachate will be extracted, and its performance will be carefully monitored. The tritium inventory limits for a Low Activity Waste Vault (LAWV) and an Intermediate Level Non-Tritium Vault (ILNTV) are estimated to be 15,000 and 11,000 Curies, respectively. Venting and leachate extraction were not assumed necessary. These operational alternatives would further enhance the performance of these vaults. These limits are significantly higher than the forecasted maximum tritium inventories for the vaults. Details of the modeling study are described in the attached report.

  12. Cryoelectron microscopy imaging of recombinant and tissue derived vaults: localization of the MVP N termini and VPARP.

    PubMed

    Mikyas, Yeshi; Makabi, Miriam; Raval-Fernandes, Sujna; Harrington, Lea; Kickhoefer, Valerie A; Rome, Leonard H; Stewart, Phoebe L

    2004-11-12

    The vault is a highly conserved ribonucleoprotein particle found in all higher eukaryotes. It has a barrel-shaped structure and is composed of the major vault protein (MVP); vault poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (VPARP); telomerase-associated protein 1 (TEP1); and small untranslated RNA (vRNA). Although its strong conservation and high abundance indicate an important cellular role, the function of the vault is unknown. In humans, vaults have been implicated in multidrug resistance during chemotherapy. Recently, assembly of recombinant vaults has been established in insect cells expressing only MVP. Here, we demonstrate that co-expression of MVP with one or both of the other two vault proteins results in their co-assembly into regularly shaped vaults. Particles assembled from MVP with N-terminal peptide tags of various length are compared. Cryoelectron microscopy (cryoEM) and single-particle image reconstruction methods were used to determine the structure of nine recombinant vaults of various composition, as well as wild-type and TEP1-deficient mouse vaults. Recombinant vaults with MVP N-terminal peptide tags showed internal density that varied in size with the length of the tag. Reconstruction of a recombinant vault with a cysteine-rich tag revealed 48-fold rotational symmetry for the vault. A model is proposed for the organization of MVP within the vault with all of the MVP N termini interacting non-covalently at the vault midsection and 48 copies of MVP forming each half vault. CryoEM difference mapping localized VPARP to three density bands lining the inner surface of the vault. Difference maps designed to localize TEP1 showed only weak density inside of the caps, suggesting that TEP1 may interact with MVP via a small interaction region. In the absence of atomic-resolution structures for either VPARP or TEP1, fold recognition methods were applied. A total of 21 repeats were predicted for the TEP1 WD-repeat domain, suggesting an unusually large beta-propeller fold

  13. The mechanism of vault opening from the high resolution structure of the N-terminal repeats of MVP.

    PubMed

    Querol-Audí, Jordi; Casañas, Arnau; Usón, Isabel; Luque, Daniel; Castón, José R; Fita, Ignasi; Verdaguer, Nuria

    2009-11-01

    Vaults are ubiquitous ribonucleoprotein complexes involved in a diversity of cellular processes, including multidrug resistance, transport mechanisms and signal transmission. The vault particle shows a barrel-shaped structure organized in two identical moieties, each consisting of 39 copies of the major vault protein MVP. Earlier data indicated that vault halves can dissociate at acidic pH. The crystal structure of the vault particle solved at 8 A resolution, together with the 2.1-A structure of the seven N-terminal domains (R1-R7) of MVP, reveal the interactions governing vault association and provide an explanation for a reversible dissociation induced by low pH. The structural comparison with the recently published 3.5 A model shows major discrepancies, both in the main chain tracing and in the side chain assignment of the two terminal domains R1 and R2. PMID:19779459

  14. cDNA cloning and disruption of the major vault protein alpha gene (mvpA) in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Vasu, S K; Kedersha, N L; Rome, L H

    1993-07-25

    Vaults are large cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein particles found in nearly all eukaryotic cells. Dictyostelium vaults contain two major proteins, MVP alpha (94.2 kDa) and MVP beta (approximately 92 kDa). Using an anti-rat vault antibody, we screened a Dictyostelium cDNA expression library and isolated a 2.8-kilobase pair clone that contained a single full-length reading frame. The identity of the clone was established by the presence of a predicted 20-amino acid sequence identical to that found in a peptide sequenced from purified MVP alpha. We have disrupted the single copy gene using homologous recombination and have demonstrated a loss of MVP alpha. Although the cells still produce MVP beta, they do not contain characteristic vault particles, suggesting that MVP alpha is required for normal vault structure. These cells should be a valuable tool for elucidating the function of vaults. PMID:8340365

  15. 324 Building radiochemical engineering cells, high-level vault, low-level vault, and associated areas closure plan

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, J.M.

    1998-03-25

    The Hanford Site, located adjacent to and north of Richland, Washington, is operated by the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL). The 324 Building is located in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. The 324 Building was constructed in the 1960s to support materials and chemical process research and development activities ranging from laboratory/bench-scale studies to full engineering-scale pilot plant demonstrations. In the mid-1990s, it was determined that dangerous waste and waste residues were being stored for greater than 90 days in the 324 Building Radiochemical Engineering Cells (REC) and in the High-Level Vault/Low-Level Vault (HLV/LLV) tanks. [These areas are not Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) permitted portions of the 324 Building.] Through the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-89, agreement was reached to close the nonpermitted RCRA unit in the 324 Building. This closure plan, managed under TPA Milestone M-20-55, addresses the identified building areas targeted by the Tri-Party Agreement and provides commitments to achieve the highest degree of compliance practicable, given the special technical difficulties of managing mixed waste that contains high-activity radioactive materials, and the physical limitations of working remotely in the areas within the subject closure unit. This closure plan is divided into nine chapters. Chapter 1.0 provides the introduction, historical perspective, 324 Building history and current mission, and the regulatory basis and strategy for managing the closure unit. Chapters 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, and 5.0 discuss the detailed facility description, process information, waste characteristics, and groundwater monitoring respectively. Chapter 6.0 deals with the closure strategy and performance standard, including the closure activities for the B-Cell, D-Cell, HLV, LLV; piping and miscellaneous associated building areas. Chapter 7.0 addresses the

  16. Cyclotrons: From Science to Human Health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craddock, Michael

    2011-04-01

    Lawrence's invention of the cyclotron, whose 80th anniversary we have just celebrated, not only revolutionized nuclear physics, but proved the starting point for a whole variety of recirculating accelerators, from the smallest microtron to the largest synchrotron, that have had an enormous impact in almost every branch of science and in several areas of medicine and industry. Cyclotrons themselves have proved remarkably adaptable, incorporating a variety of new ideas and technologies over the years: frequency modulation, edge focusing, AG focusing, separate magnet sectors, axial and azimuthal injection, ring geometries, stripping extraction, superconducting magnets and rf...... Even FFAGs, those most complex members of the cyclotron (fixed-magnetic-field) family, are making a comeback. Currently there are more than 50 medium or large cyclotrons around the world devoted to research. These provide intense primary beams of protons or stable ions, and correspondingly intense secondary beams of neutrons, pions, muons and radioactive ions, for experiments in nuclear, particle and condensed-matter physics, and in the materials and life sciences. Far outnumbering these, however, are the 800 or so small and medium cyclotrons used to produce radioisotopes for medical and other purposes. In addition, a rapidly growing number of 230-MeV proton cyclotrons are being built for cancer therapy -12 brought into operation since 1998 and as many more in the works. Altogether, cyclotrons are flourishing!

  17. Electron cyclotron resonance plasma photos

    SciTech Connect

    Racz, R.; Palinkas, J.; Biri, S.

    2010-02-15

    In order to observe and study systematically the plasma of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources (ECRIS) we made a high number of high-resolution visible light plasma photos and movies in the ATOMKI ECRIS Laboratory. This required building the ECR ion source into an open ECR plasma device, temporarily. An 8MP digital camera was used to record photos of plasmas made from Ne, Ar, and Kr gases and from their mixtures. We studied and recorded the effect of ion source setting parameters (gas pressure, gas composition, magnetic field, and microwave power) to the shape, color, and structure of the plasma. The analysis of the photo series gave us many qualitative and numerous valuable physical information on the nature of ECR plasmas.

  18. Radiological performance assessment for the E-Area Vaults Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, J.R.; Hunt, P.D.

    1994-04-15

    The E-Area Vaults (EAVs) located on a 200 acre site immediately north of the current LLW burial site at Savannah River Site will provide a new disposal and storage site for solid, low-level, non-hazardous radioactive waste. The EAV Disposal Facility will contain several large concrete vaults divided into cells. Three types of structures will house four designated waste types. The Intermediate Level Non-Tritium Vaults will receive waste radiating greater than 200 mR/h at 5 cm from the outer disposal container. The Intermediate Level Tritium Vaults will receive waste with at least 10 Ci of tritium per package. These two vaults share a similar design, are adjacent, share waste handling equipment, and will be closed as one facility. The second type of structure is the Low Activity Waste Vaults which will receive waste radiating less than 200 mR/h at 5 cm from the outer disposal container and containing less than 10 Ci of tritium per package. The third facility, the Long Lived Waste Storage Building, provides covered, long term storage for waste containing long lived isotopes. Two additional types of disposal are proposed: (1) trench disposal of suspect soil, (2) naval reactor component disposal. To evaluate the long-term performance of the EAVs, site-specific conceptual models were developed to consider: (1) exposure pathways and scenarios of potential importance; (2) potential releases from the facility to the environment; (3) effects of degradation of engineered features; (4) transport in the environment; (5) potential doses received from radionuclides of interest in each vault type.

  19. Analysis of a cDNA encoding the major vault protein from the electric ray Discopyge ommata.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, C; Zimmermann, H; Volknandt, W

    1997-03-25

    The major vault protein is the predominant constituent of vaults ubiquitous large cytosolic ribonucleoprotein particles. A cDNA clone encoding the 100-kDa major vault protein (MVP100) was isolated from an electric lobe library of Discopyge ommata. The complete nucleotide sequence was determined. Northern blot analysis revealed a 2.8-kb transcript with a high expression in neural tissue. Southern blot analysis indicates that the electric ray MVP100 is a single copy-gene with at least two introns. The primary structure of major vault proteins characterized in slime mold, ray, rat and human is evolutionary highly conserved. PMID:9099863

  20. X-ray Crystal Structure of the Vault, Largest Ribonucleoprotein Particle, with a Molecular Weight of 10 MDa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Hideaki; Kato, Koji; Yamashita, Eiki

    Vaults are among the largest cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein particles and are found in numerous eukaryotic species. Although roles in multidrug resistance and innate immunity have been suggested, the cellular function remains unclear. We have determined the X-ray structure of rat liver vault at 3.5 Å resolution. A vault particle shell was composed of 78 MVP (Major vault protein) chains with 39-fold dihedral symmetry. The shoulder domain of MVP is structurally similar to SPFH (stomatin/prohibitin/flotillin/HflK/C) domain involved in lipid raft association.

  1. All-magnetic extraction for cyclotron beam reacceleration

    DOEpatents

    Hudson, E.D.; Mallory, M.L.

    1975-07-22

    An isochronous cyclotron can be modified to provide an initial electron stripping stage, a complete acceleration of the stripped ions through the cyclotron to a first energy state, means for returning the ions to an intermediate cyclotron orbit through a second stripping stage, further acceleration of the now higher energy stripped ions through the cyclotron to their final energy, and final extraction of the ions from the cyclotron. (auth)

  2. Microfluidics: a groundbreaking technology for PET tracer production?

    PubMed

    Rensch, Christian; Jackson, Alexander; Lindner, Simon; Salvamoser, Ruben; Samper, Victor; Riese, Stefan; Bartenstein, Peter; Wängler, Carmen; Wängler, Björn

    2013-01-01

    Application of microfluidics to Positron Emission Tomography (PET) tracer synthesis has attracted increasing interest within the last decade. The technical advantages of microfluidics, in particular the high surface to volume ratio and resulting fast thermal heating and cooling rates of reagents can lead to reduced reaction times, increased synthesis yields and reduced by-products. In addition automated reaction optimization, reduced consumption of expensive reagents and a path towards a reduced system footprint have been successfully demonstrated. The processing of radioactivity levels required for routine production, use of microfluidic-produced PET tracer doses in preclinical and clinical imaging as well as feasibility studies on autoradiolytic decomposition have all given promising results. However, the number of microfluidic synthesizers utilized for commercial routine production of PET tracers is very limited. This study reviews the state of the art in microfluidic PET tracer synthesis, highlighting critical design aspects, strengths, weaknesses and presenting several characteristics of the diverse PET market space which are thought to have a significant impact on research, development and engineering of microfluidic devices in this field. Furthermore, the topics of batch- and single-dose production, cyclotron to quality control integration as well as centralized versus de-centralized market distribution models are addressed. PMID:23884128

  3. Method and apparatuses for ion cyclotron spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    Dahl, David A.; Scott, Jill R.; McJunkin, Timothy R.

    2012-03-06

    An ion cyclotron spectrometer may include a vacuum chamber that extends at least along a z-axis and means for producing a magnetic field within the vacuum chamber so that a magnetic field vector is generally parallel to the z-axis. The ion cyclotron spectrometer may also include means for producing a trapping electric field within the vacuum chamber. The trapping electric field may comprise a field potential that, when taken in cross-section along the z-axis, includes at least one section that is concave down and at least one section that is concave up so that ions traversing the field potential experience a net magnetron effect on a cyclotron frequency of the ions that is substantially equal to zero. Other apparatuses and a method for performing ion cyclotron spectrometry are also disclosed herein.

  4. RCNP cyclotron facility and application program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatanaka, Kichiji

    2013-05-01

    The RCNP cyclotron cascade system consists of K140 AVF cyclotron and K400 ring cyclotron and is providing high quality beams for various experiments. Three kinds of neutron sources are developed for applications as well as fundamental physics. They provide monoenergetic neutrons at 10-400 MeV, white neutrons with the same energy spectra as terrestrial neutrons on the earth, and ultra cold neutrons with energies below 210 neV. There are increasing demands for high intensity beams and even to improve the quality. In order to increase the physics research opportunities, a new injector cyclotron is proposed, which has four separated sector magnets and two accelerating cavities. Sector magnets are designed to use High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) wire. At RCNP, we have been developing magnets with HTS wires for a decade.

  5. Electron cyclotron wave generation by relativistic electrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, H. K.; Goldstein, M. L.

    1994-01-01

    We show that an energetic electron distribution which has a temperature anisotropy (T perpendicular to b is greater than T parallel to b), or which is gyrating about a DC magnetic field, can generate electron cyclotron waves with frequencies below the electron cyclotron frequency. Relativistic effects are included in solving the dispersion equation and are shown to be quantitatively important. The basic idea of the mechanism is the coupling of the beam mode to slow waves. The unstable electron cyclotron waves are predominantly electromagnetic and right-hand polarized. For a low-density plasma in which the electron plasma frequency is less than the electron cyclotron frequency, the excited waves can have frequencies above or below the electron plasma frequency, depending upon the parameters of the energetic electron distribution. This instability may account for observed Z mode waves in the polar magnetosphere of the Earth and other planets.

  6. Low energy cyclotron for radiocarbon dating

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    The author built and tested a low energy cyclotron for radiocarbon dating similar to a conventional mass spectrometer. These tests clearly show that with the addition of a conventional ion source, the low energy cyclotron can perform the extremely high sensitivity /sup 14/C measurements that are now done at accelerator facilities. The author found that no significant background is present when the cyclotron is tuned to accelerate /sup 14/C negative ions and the transmission efficiency is adequate to perform radiocarbon dating on milligram samples of carbon. The internal ion source used did not produce sufficient current to detect /sup 14/C directly at modern concentrations. The author shows how a conventional carbon negative ion source located outside the cyclotron magnet, would produce sufficient beam and provide for quick sample changing to make radiocarbon dating milligram samples with a modest laboratory instrument feasible.

  7. New Generation Dresden NPP Demineralizer Vault Cleanup Project

    SciTech Connect

    Denton, M.S.; CET, Ph.D.; Forrester, K.; Azar, M.

    2008-07-01

    Electro-coagulation (EC) is a technique that facilitates rapid destabilization and flocculation of colloidal suspensions to cause the suspended solids to separate from slurry phase. It is generally accepted that coagulation is brought about primarily by the reduction of the net surface charge to a point where the colloidal particles, previously stabilized by electrostatic repulsion, can approach closely enough for van der Waals forces to hold them together and allow aggregation. In the EC process, the coagulant is generated in situ by electrolytic oxidation of an appropriate anode material (aluminum in this case). In this process, charged ionic species, metals or otherwise, and suspended solids are removed from wastewater by allowing them to interact with an ion having opposite charge, or with floc of metallic hydroxides generated electrochemically within the effluent. Typically, no supplementary organic polymer coagulant addition is required. Thus, electro-coagulation (EC) was found to be an attractive treatment option to rapidly destabilize the colloidal particulate phase, allowing more facile particulate removal by decantation and/or coarse filtration. However, the liquid medium must have some conductivity (> 100 {mu}mho is preferred), in order to allow effective electrical coupling with the EC electrodes. A very small amount of aluminum or sodium sulfate salts can be added to the feed slurry, adjusting the water quality parameters to a conductivity of >100 {mu}mho and a pH value near 6.0-7.0. The EC-treated vault slurry had a pH value near 6.5 (within the pH range for minimal solubility of amphoteric aluminum hydroxide). In contrast to untreated wastewater, the agglomerated particles in the EC-treated aliquot could be filtered relatively rapidly, yielding a clear filtrate, indicating that the flocs that have been formed are now > 20- {mu}m in size, are pumpable (high shear strength), and filterable/dewaterable with ease (low water content). Final waste volumes

  8. Effect of materials and manufacturing on the bending stiffness of vaulting poles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, C. L.; Kukureka, S. N.

    2012-09-01

    The increase in the world record height achieved in pole vaulting can be related to the improved ability of the athletes, in terms of their fitness and technique, and to the change in materials used to construct the pole. For example in 1960 there was a change in vaulting pole construction from bamboo to glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) composites. The lighter GFRP pole enabled the athletes to have a faster run-up, resulting in a greater take-off speed, giving them more kinetic energy to convert into potential energy and hence height. GFRP poles also have a much higher failure stress than bamboo, so the poles were engineered to bend under the load of the athlete, thereby storing elastic strain energy that can be released as the pole straightens, resulting in greater energy efficiency. The bending also allowed athletes to change their vaulting technique from a style that involved the body remaining almost upright during the vault to one where the athlete goes over the bar with their feet upwards. Modern vaulting poles can be made from GFRP and/or carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites. The addition of carbon fibres maintains the mechanical properties of the pole, but allows a reduction in the weight. The number and arrangement of the fibres determines the mechanical properties, in particular the bending stiffness. Vaulting poles are also designed for an individual athlete to take into account each athlete’s ability and physical characteristics. The poles are rated by ‘weight’ to allow athletes to select an appropriate pole for their ability. This paper will review the development of vaulting poles and the requirements to maximize performance. The properties (bending stiffness and pre-bend) and microstructure (fibre volume fraction and lay-up) of typical vaulting poles will be discussed. Originally published as Davis C L and Kukureka S N (2004) Effect of materials and manufacturing on the bending stiffness of vaulting poles The Engineering of

  9. Building 211 cyclotron characterization survey report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-30

    The Building 211 Cyclotron Characterization Survey includes an assessment of the radioactive and chemical inventory of materials stored within the facility; an evaluation of the relative distribution of accelerator-produced activation products within various cyclotron components and adjacent structures; measurement of the radiation fields throughout the facility; measurement and assessment of internal and external radioactive surface contamination on various equipment, facility structures, and air-handling systems; and an assessment of lead (Pb) paint and asbestos hazards within the facility.

  10. Cyclotron axial ion-beam-buncher system

    SciTech Connect

    Hamm, R.W.; Swenson, D.A.; Wangler, T.P.

    1982-02-11

    Adiabatic ion bunching is achieved in a cyclotron axial ion injection system through the incorporation of a radio frequency quadrupole system, which receives ions from an external ion source via an accelerate-decelerate system and a focusing einzel lens system, and which adiabatically bunches and then injects the ions into the median plane of a cyclotron via an electrostatic quadrupole system and an inflection mirror.

  11. A new method for generating an invariant iris private key based on the fuzzy vault system.

    PubMed

    Lee, Youn Joo; Park, Kang Ryoung; Lee, Sung Joo; Bae, Kwanghyuk; Kim, Jaihie

    2008-10-01

    Cryptographic systems have been widely used in many information security applications. One main challenge that these systems have faced has been how to protect private keys from attackers. Recently, biometric cryptosystems have been introduced as a reliable way of concealing private keys by using biometric data. A fuzzy vault refers to a biometric cryptosystem that can be used to effectively protect private keys and to release them only when legitimate users enter their biometric data. In biometric systems, a critical problem is storing biometric templates in a database. However, fuzzy vault systems do not need to directly store these templates since they are combined with private keys by using cryptography. Previous fuzzy vault systems were designed by using fingerprint, face, and so on. However, there has been no attempt to implement a fuzzy vault system that used an iris. In biometric applications, it is widely known that an iris can discriminate between persons better than other biometric modalities. In this paper, we propose a reliable fuzzy vault system based on local iris features. We extracted multiple iris features from multiple local regions in a given iris image, and the exact values of the unordered set were then produced using the clustering method. To align the iris templates with the new input iris data, a shift-matching technique was applied. Experimental results showed that 128-bit private keys were securely and robustly generated by using any given iris data without requiring prealignment. PMID:18784013

  12. The Hecht vault performed at the 1995 World Gymnastics Championships: deterministic model and judges' scores.

    PubMed

    Takei, Y; Blucker, E P; Nohara, H; Yamashita, N

    2000-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the mechanical variables that govern success of the Hecht vault. The participants were 122 male gymnasts from 30 countries performing the vault at the 1995 World Gymnastics Championships. The vaults were filmed using a Photosonics 16-mm motion picture camera operating at 100 Hz. Approximately 80 frames were digitized for each vault analysed. The method of Hay and Reid was used to develop a theoretical model to identify the mechanical and physical variables that determine linear and angular motions of the vault. Correlational analysis was used to establish the strength of the relationship between the causal mechanical variables identified in the model and the judges' scores. Significant correlations (P < 0.005) indicated that the following were important determinants of success: large horizontal and vertical velocities at take-off from the board and the horse; large vertical and angular distances of pre-flight; large vertical impulses of high force and short duration exerted on the horse and the resulting large changes in vertical velocity on the horse; and large horizontal and vertical distances and long times of post-flight. Of the 18 significant variables identified in the present study, the angular distance of pre- and post-flights, the horizontal velocity and angular momentum at take-off from the horse, and the average moment of inertia and duration of post-flight collectively accounted for 57% of the variation in the judges' scores. PMID:11144862

  13. Positron emission tomography: a technology assessment of PET imaging--past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Frazee, David

    2004-01-01

    Emerging from its origins in the basements of research laboratories, positron emission tomography (PET), has established itself as a premier clinical imaging modality. It just took 50 years to get there. PET and the ever-popular, dual imaging modality combination of positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) have taken hold of the spotlight at the national meetings of the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA) and the Society of Nuclear Medicine (SNM)--and they are not about to give it up. Many major imaging manufacturers--those companies that make up the majority of imaging sales in the US--now offer some type of PET and or PET/CT scanner. The technology of PET imaging continues to improve in image resolution, speed, and acceptance by its skeptical, but continually growing, referral base. With the increasing number of regional cyclotron facilities throughout the US each year, the abundance of mobile PET companies competing for business, and, most important, the number of clinical procedures that now qualify for reimbursement, more facilities now have the ability to implement PETimaging. This article discusses the progress of PET, from its beginnings 50 years ago, to where it is today--and the direction it is headed in the future. PMID:15633509

  14. Rotatable superconducting cyclotron adapted for medical use

    DOEpatents

    Blosser, Henry G.; Johnson, David A.; Riedel, Jack; Burleigh, Richard J.

    1985-01-01

    A superconducting cyclotron (10) rotatable on a support structure (11) in an arc of about 180.degree. around a pivot axis (A--A) and particularly adapted for medical use is described. The rotatable support structure (13, 15) is balanced by being counterweighted (14) so as to allow rotation of the cyclotron and a beam (12), such as a subparticle (neutron) or atomic particle beam, from the cyclotron in the arc around a patient. Flexible hose (25) is moveably attached to the support structure for providing a liquified gas which is supercooled to near 0.degree. K. to an inlet means (122) to a chamber (105) around superconducting coils (101, 102). The liquid (34) level in the cyclotron is maintained approximately half full so that rotation of the support structure and cyclotron through the 180.degree. can be accomplished without spilling the liquid from the cyclotron. With the coils vertically oriented, each turn of the winding is approximately half immersed in liquid (34) and half exposed to cold gas and adequate cooling to maintain superconducting temperatures in the section of coil above the liquid level is provided by the combination of cold gas/vapor and by the conductive flow of heat along each turn of the winding from the half above the liquid to the half below.

  15. Posterior Cranial Vault Distraction Osteogenesis with Barrel Stave Osteotomy in the Treatment of Craniosynostosis

    PubMed Central

    KOMURO, Yuzo; SHIMIZU, Azusa; SHIMOJI, Kazuaki; MIYAJIMA, Masakazu; ARAI, Hajime

    2015-01-01

    Twenty years have passed since distraction osteogenesis was introduced into the field of craniomaxillofacial surgery, with distraction osteogenesis gradually consolidating its position for midface advancement in syndromic craniosynostosis. On the other hand, no consensus has been reached regarding its adaptation to calvarial bone. We reported that distraction osteogenesis was useful in posterior cranial vault expansion, and subsequently, similar reports have been successively observed worldwide. In posterior cranial vault distraction, intracranial capacity could be greatly expanded due to its simultaneous expansion with the scalp, with little risk of relapse because new bone is regenerated in the distraction gap. The possibility was suggested that the standard of first carrying out fronto-orbital advancement (FOA) for brachycephaly observed in syndromic craniosynostosis will greatly change posterior cranial vault distraction. PMID:26226978

  16. A radiographic study on the utility of cranial vault outlines for positive identifications.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Ashley B; Ross, Ann H

    2014-03-01

    A standard method for positive identification is the use of antemortem and postmortem radiographic comparisons. The purpose of this research is to test the visual accuracy of antemortem and postmortem radiographic comparisons of cranial vault outlines and to evaluate their uniqueness using geometric morphometric methods. A sample of 106 individuals with varying levels of education and forensic case experience participated in a visual accuracy test. Of the 106 individuals, only 42% correctly assigned all of the radiographs, with accuracy rates ranging from 70 to 93% for each radiographic comparison. Vault shape was further examined using elliptic Fourier analysis, and paired t-tests were computed on the first 10 principal components accounting for 100% of the variance, which found no significant differences. The visual accuracy test and elliptic Fourier analysis shows that vault outlines may not be unique enough for positive identifications when used as a sole indicator. PMID:24745071

  17. Beyond BLASTing: tertiary and quaternary structure analysis helps identify major vault proteins.

    PubMed

    Daly, Toni K; Sutherland-Smith, Andrew J; Penny, David

    2013-01-01

    We examine the advantages of going beyond sequence similarity and use both protein three-dimensional (3D) structure prediction and then quaternary structure (docking) of inferred 3D structures to help evaluate whether comparable sequences can fold into homologous structures with sufficient lateral associations for quaternary structure formation. Our test case is the major vault protein (MVP) that oligomerizes in multiple copies to form barrel-like vault particles and is relatively widespread among eukaryotes. We used the iterative threading assembly refinement server (I-TASSER) to predict whether putative MVP sequences identified by BLASTp and PSI Basic Local Alignment Search Tool are structurally similar to the experimentally determined rodent MVP tertiary structures. Then two identical predicted quaternary structures from I-TASSER are analyzed by RosettaDock to test whether a pair-wise association occurs, and hence whether the oligomeric vault complex is likely to form for a given MVP sequence. Positive controls for the method are the experimentally determined rat (Rattus norvegicus) vault X-ray crystal structure and the purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) MVP sequence that forms experimentally observed vaults. These and two kinetoplast MVP structural homologs were predicted with high confidence value, and RosettaDock predicted that these MVP sequences would dock laterally and therefore could form oligomeric vaults. As the negative control, I-TASSER did not predict an MVP-like structure from a randomized rat MVP sequence, even when constrained to the rat MVP crystal structure (PDB:2ZUO), thus further validating the method. The protocol identified six putative homologous MVP sequences in the heterobolosean Naegleria gruberi within the excavate kingdom. Two of these sequences are predicted to be structurally similar to rat MVP, despite being in excess of 300 residues shorter. The method can be used generally to help test predictions of homology via

  18. Preliminary analysis of two and three dimensional crystals of vault ribonucleoprotein particles.

    PubMed

    Querol-Audí, Jordi; Perez-Luque, Rosa; Fita, Ignacio; Lopéz-Iglesias, Carmen; Castón, José R; Carrascosa, José L; Verdaguer, Nuria

    2005-07-01

    Vaults are large ribonucleoprotein particles found in a wide variety of eukaryotes. When imaged by electron-microscopy vaults present a strikingly conserved barrel-shaped structure with an invaginated waist and two protruding caps. In this work, we present two dimensional (2D) and three dimensional (3D) crystals of naturally produced vaults in murine and monkey cells, respectively. The 2D-crystals presented a hexagonal packing with the lattice parameter defined by the diameter of the vault barrel. Fourier transforms from images of the negatively stained 2D-crystals showed spots till about 45 A resolution. The 3D-crystals reached about 0.15 x 0.15 x 0.02 mm3 in size and presented a flat triangular morphology with well-developed faces. The preliminary characterization of these 3D-crystals, which diffract very weakly to approximately 10 A resolution, suggests a trigonal packing with the R32 space group symmetry. The 3D-crystals appear to be formed by adding layers of vaults, which retain the hexagonal organization seen in the 2D-crystals, with relative shifts that maximize the interdigitation of particles in adjacent layers. Accurate crystal symmetry in the 2D- and 3D-crystals requires neighbor particles interacting according to a 6-fold and a 3-fold dihedral symmetry, respectively. Compatibility with the reported 8-fold symmetry would imply multiples of 24-fold rotational symmetry, in agreement with the recently proposed 48-fold dihedral symmetry for reconstituted recombinant vaults. PMID:15964767

  19. Development of the RF cavity for the SKKUCY-9 compact cyclotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Seungwook; Lee, Jongchul; LEE, Byeong-No; Ha, Donghyup; Namgoong, Ho; Chai, Jongseo

    2015-09-01

    A 9 MeV compact cyclotron, named SKKUCY-9, for a radiopharmaceutical compound especially fludeoxyglucose (FDG) production for a positron emission tomography (PET) machine was developed at Sungkyunkwan University. H- ions which are produced from a Penning Ionization Gauge(PIG) ion source, travel through a normal conducting radio frequency (RF) cavity which operates at 83.2 MHz for an acceleration and electro-magnet for a beam focusing until the ions acquire energy of about 9 MeV. For installation at a small local hospital, our SKKUCY-9 cyclotron is developed to be compact and light-weight, comparable to conventional medical purpose cyclotrons. For compactness, we adapted a deep valley and large angle hill type for the electro-magnet design. Normally a RF cavity is installed inside of the empty space of the magnet valley region, which is extremely small in our case. We faced problems such as difficulties of installing the RF cavity, low Q-value. Despite of those difficulties, a compact RF cavity and its system including a RF power coupler to feed amplified RF power to the RF cavity and a fine tuner to compensate RF frequency variations was successfully developed and tested.

  20. Review: comparison of PET rubidium-82 with conventional SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging

    PubMed Central

    Ghotbi, Adam A; Kjær, Andreas; Hasbak, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear cardiology has for many years been focused on gamma camera technology. With ever improving cameras and software applications, this modality has developed into an important assessment tool for ischaemic heart disease. However, the development of new perfusion tracers has been scarce. While cardiac positron emission tomography (PET) so far largely has been limited to centres with on-site cyclotron, recent developments with generator produced perfusion tracers such as rubidium-82, as well as an increasing number of PET scanners installed, may enable a larger patient flow that may supersede that of gamma camera myocardial perfusion imaging. PMID:24028171

  1. In-situ radiation measurements of the C1 and C2 waste storage tank vault

    SciTech Connect

    Yong, L.K.; Womble, P.C.; Weems, L.D.

    1996-09-01

    In August of 1996, the Applied Radiation Measurements Department (ARMD) of the Waste Management and Remedial Action Division (WMRAD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was tasked with characterizing the radiation fields in the C{sub 1} and C{sub 2} Liquid Low Level Waste (LLLW) tank vault located at ORNL. These in-situ measurements were made to provide data for evaluating the potential radiological conditions for personnel working in or around the vault during future planned activities. This report describes the locations where measurements were made, the types of radiation detection instruments used, the methods employed, the problems encountered and resolved, and discusses the results obtained.

  2. Development and Growth of the Normal Cranial Vault : An Embryologic Review.

    PubMed

    Jin, Sung-Won; Sim, Ki-Bum; Kim, Sang-Dae

    2016-05-01

    Understanding the development of a skull deformity requires an understanding of the normal morphogenesis of the cranium. Craniosynostosis is the premature, pathologic ossification of one or more cranial sutures leading to skull deformities. A review of the English medical literature using textbooks and standard search engines was performed to gather information about the prenatal development and growth of the cranial vault of the neurocranium. A process of morphogenic sequencing begins during prenatal development and growth, continues postnatally, and contributes to the basis for the differential manner of growth of cranial vault bones. This improved knowledge might facilitate comprehension of the pathophysiology of craniosynostosis. PMID:27226848

  3. Development and Growth of the Normal Cranial Vault : An Embryologic Review

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Sung-Won; Kim, Sang-Dae

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the development of a skull deformity requires an understanding of the normal morphogenesis of the cranium. Craniosynostosis is the premature, pathologic ossification of one or more cranial sutures leading to skull deformities. A review of the English medical literature using textbooks and standard search engines was performed to gather information about the prenatal development and growth of the cranial vault of the neurocranium. A process of morphogenic sequencing begins during prenatal development and growth, continues postnatally, and contributes to the basis for the differential manner of growth of cranial vault bones. This improved knowledge might facilitate comprehension of the pathophysiology of craniosynostosis. PMID:27226848

  4. Improving Instruction through PET.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Pamela Roland

    1982-01-01

    Outlines the content and training methods used in the Program for Effective Teaching (PET), the successful staff development program of Newport News (Virginia). PET promotes application of five instructional skills: selecting learning objectives, teaching to the objectives, establishing learner focus, monitoring learner progress, and enhancing…

  5. My Pet Rock

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lark, Adam; Kramp, Robyne; Nurnberger-Haag, Julie

    2008-01-01

    Many teachers and students have experienced the classic pet rock experiment in conjunction with a geology unit. A teacher has students bring in a "pet" rock found outside of school, and the students run geologic tests on the rock. The tests include determining relative hardness using Mohs scale, checking for magnetization, and assessing luster.…

  6. Ultra-High Resolution Observations of the Upper Chromosphere: First Results From the NRL VAULT Sounding Rocket Payload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vourlidas, A.; Korendyke, C. M.; Dere, K. P.; Klimchuk, J. A.

    2001-05-01

    The Very high resolution Advanced ULtraviolet Telescope (VAULT) is a new spectroscopic imaging instrument. The instrument was launched on May 7, 1999 as a sounding rocket payload. The goal of the first VAULT flight was to obtain sub-arcsecond images of the Sun in the light of Lya (1216 Å). VAULT directly imaged an active region plage, fliaments and the fine structures in the supergranule boundaries and network with the unprecented spatial resolution of 0.33 arcseconds. We present the VAULT images and the first results from the comparison of the Lya data to observations from other instruments and in particular with a sequence of TRACE 171 Å images taken during the VAULT flight.

  7. [Oncology PET imaging].

    PubMed

    Inubushi, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    At the beginning of this article, likening medical images to "Where is Waldo?" I indicate the concept of diagnostic process of PET/CT imaging, so that medical physics specialists could understand the role of each imaging modality and infer our distress for image diagnosis. Then, I state the present situation of PET imaging and the basics (e.g. health insurance coverage, clinical significance, principle, protocol, and pitfall) of oncology FDG-PET imaging which accounts for more than 99% of all clinical PET examinations in Japan. Finally, I would like to give a wishful prospect of oncology PET that will expand to be more cancer-specific in order to assess therapeutic effects of emerging molecular targeted drugs targeting the "hallmarks of cancer". PMID:25199271

  8. Healthy pets, healthy people.

    PubMed

    Wong, S K; Feinstein, L H; Heidmann, P

    1999-08-01

    Zoonoses, diseases that can be transmitted from animals to humans, can pose serious health risks to immunocompromised people. Although pets can carry zoonoses, owning and caring for animals can benefit human health. Information exists about preventing transmission of zoonoses, but not all physicians and veterinarians provide adequate and accurate information to immunocompromised pet owners. This disease prevention/health promotion project provides physicians and veterinarians with information, created specifically to share with patients and clients, about the health risks and benefits of pet ownership. Further, "Healthy Pets, Healthy People" encourages communication between veterinarians, physicians, clients, and patients and can serve as a model program for a nation-wide effort to aid health professionals in making recommendations about pet ownership for immunocompromised people. PMID:10434969

  9. Low energy cyclotron for radiocarbon dating

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, J.J.

    1984-12-01

    The measurement of naturally occurring radioisotopes whose half lives are less than a few hundred million years but more than a few years provides information about the temporal behavior of geologic and climatic processes, the temporal history of meteoritic bodies as well as the production mechanisms of these radioisotopes. A new extremely sensitive technique for measuring these radioisotopes at tandem Van de Graaff and cyclotron facilities has been very successful though the high cost and limited availability have been discouraging. We have built and tested a low energy cyclotron for radiocarbon dating similar in size to a conventional mass spectrometer. These tests clearly show that with the addition of a conventional ion source, the low energy cyclotron can perform the extremely high sensitivity /sup 14/C measurements that are now done at accelerator facilities. We found that no significant background is present when the cyclotron is tuned to accelerate /sup 14/C negative ions and the transmission efficiency is adequate to perform radiocarbon dating on milligram samples of carbon. The internal ion source used did not produce sufficient current to detect /sup 14/C directly at modern concentrations. We show how a conventional carbon negative ion source, located outside the cyclotron magnet, would produce sufficient beam and provide for quick sampling to make radiocarbon dating milligram samples with a modest laboratory instrument feasible.

  10. Interpretive Experiments: An Interpretive Experiment in Ion Cyclotron Resonance Spectroscopy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnier, R. C.; Freiser, B. S.

    1979-01-01

    Provides a discussion which is intended for chemistry college students on the ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) spectroscopy, the physical basis for ion cyclotron resonance, and the experimental methodology employed by ICR spectroscopists. (HM)

  11. Computer modeling of a compact isochronous cyclotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, V. L.

    2015-11-01

    The computer modeling methods of a compact isochronous cyclotron are described. The main stages of analysis of accelerator facilities systems are considered. The described methods are based on theoretical fundamentals of cyclotron physics and mention highlights of creation of the physical project of a compact cyclotron. The main attention is paid to the analysis of the beam dynamics, formation of a magnetic field, stability of the movement, and a realistic assessment of intensity of the generated bunch of particles. In the article, the stages of development of the accelerator computer model, analytical ways of assessment of the accelerator parameters, and the basic technique of the numerical analysis of dynamics of the particles are described.

  12. Improving cancer treatment with cyclotron produced radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, S.M. Finn, R.D.

    1992-08-04

    This report describes the author's continuing long term goal of promoting nuclear medicine applications by improving the scientific basis for tumor diagnosis treatment and treatment follow-up based on the use of cyclotron produced radiotracers in oncology. The program has 3 interactive components: Radiochemistry /Cyclotron; Pharmacology; and Immunology. An essential strategy is as follows: novel radionuclides and radiotracers developed in the Radiochemistry/Cyclotron section under the DOE grant during the 1989--1992 grant period, will be employed in the Pharmacology and Immunology sections of the DOE grant during the 1992--1995 grant period. The development of novel radionuclides and tracers is of course useful in and of itself, but their utility is greatly enhanced by the interaction with the immunology and pharmacology components of the program.

  13. Cyclotron maser emission: Stars, planets, and laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Vorgul, I.; Cairns, R. A.; Kellett, B. J.; Bingham, R.; Ronald, K.; Speirs, D. C.; McConville, S. L.; Gillespie, K. M.; Phelps, A. D. R.

    2011-05-15

    This paper is a review of results by the group over the past decade on auroral kilometric radiation and similar cyclotron emissions from stars and planets. These emissions are often attributed to a horseshoe or crescent shaped momentum distribution of energetic electrons moving into the convergent magnetic field which exists around polar regions of dipole-type stars and planets. We have established a laboratory-based facility that has verified many of the details of our original theoretical description and agrees well with numerical simulations. The experiment has demonstrated that the horseshoe distribution does indeed produce cyclotron emission at a frequency just below the local cyclotron frequency, with polarization close to X-mode and propagating nearly perpendicularly to the beam motion. We discuss recent developments in the theory and simulation of the instability including addressing a radiation escape problem and the effect of competing instabilities, relating these to the laboratory, space, and astrophysical observations.

  14. The electromagnetic ion cyclotron beam anisotropy instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peter Gary, S.; Schriver, David

    1987-01-01

    Electromagnetic instabilities driven by an anisotropic, relatively cool ion beam are studied for the case in which both the beam and the instabilities propagate parallel or antiparallel to a uniform magnetic field. At modest beam-core relative drift speeds, sufficiently large perpendicular-to-parallel beam temperature ratios and sufficiently large plasma beta, the mode of fastest growth rate is the ion cyclotron beam anisotropy instability. Because the right-hand polarized waves observed upstream of slow shocks in the earth's magnetotail can lead to the appropriate beam anisotropy, the ion cyclotron instability may be present and account for the left-hand polarized magnetic waves observed there. Also, because of its relatively low phase speed, the ion cyclotron beam anisotropy instability may provide the scattering necessary for ion Fermi acceleration at slow shocks of sufficiently high plasma beta.

  15. Improvements and applications at NIRS cyclotron facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honma, T.; Hojo, S.; Miyahara, N.; Nemoto, K.; Sato, Y.; Suzuki, K.; Takada, M.; Yamada, S.; Kuramochi, Y.; Okada, T.; Hanagasaki, M.; Komatsu, K.; Ogawa, H.

    2001-12-01

    The NIRS-Chiba isochronous cyclotron has been working in routinely, and providing the stable beams for bio-medical studies and various kind of related experiments since 1975. The clinical trail of eye melanoma has been under continued. Recently two new beam lines were constructed in order to carry out the bio-physical study, and to produce the long-lived R.I.s for SPECT. Some progressive improvements, such as updating the magnetic-channel and development of a floating septum system, were performed for stable operation of the cyclotron. A brief review of the current status of the cyclotron and typical application of latest experiments in the various fields are described.

  16. BRINE STORAGE PIT AND PUMP HOUSE, TRA631. ELEVATIONS. CONCRETE VAULT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BRINE STORAGE PIT AND PUMP HOUSE, TRA-631. ELEVATIONS. CONCRETE VAULT FOR BRINE PITS. CONCRETE BLOCK BUILDING FOR BRINE PUMPS. CONCRETE PIPE TRENCH. BLAW-KNOX 3150-808-3, 1/1951. INL INDEX NO. 531-0608-00-098-100677. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  17. Disposal Analysis of I-129 Bearing Waste Streams at the Intermediate Level Vault

    SciTech Connect

    Collard, L.B.

    2001-01-25

    This report examines the effects of new waste-specific sorption characteristics reported for I-129 bearing wastes on inventory limits in the Intermediate Level Vault (ILV). Inventory limits are described based on the revised performance assessment model using the waste-specific Kd's. Results are compared with inventory projections of waste streams for the next ten years.

  18. MTR, TRA603. SOURCE STORAGE VAULT IN BASEMENT. MAZE ENTRY. SOLID ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR, TRA-603. SOURCE STORAGE VAULT IN BASEMENT. MAZE ENTRY. SOLID CONCRETE WALLS. CONCRETE PLUGS, ONE LINED WITH LEAD, AND LIFT HANDLES. FLOOR WELLS SIX FEET DEEP BELOW FLOOR. IDO MTR-603-IDO-5, 12/1952. INL INDEX NO. 531-0603-00-396-110469, REV. 0. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  19. The Comprehensive AOCMF Classification: Skull Base and Cranial Vault Fractures – Level 2 and 3 Tutorial

    PubMed Central

    Ieva, Antonio Di; Audigé, Laurent; Kellman, Robert M.; Shumrick, Kevin A.; Ringl, Helmut; Prein, Joachim; Matula, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The AOCMF Classification Group developed a hierarchical three-level craniomaxillofacial classification system with increasing level of complexity and details. The highest level 1 system distinguish four major anatomical units, including the mandible (code 91), midface (code 92), skull base (code 93), and cranial vault (code 94). This tutorial presents the level 2 and more detailed level 3 systems for the skull base and cranial vault units. The level 2 system describes fracture location outlining the topographic boundaries of the anatomic regions, considering in particular the endocranial and exocranial skull base surfaces. The endocranial skull base is divided into nine regions; a central skull base adjoining a left and right side are divided into the anterior, middle, and posterior skull base. The exocranial skull base surface and cranial vault are divided in regions defined by the names of the bones involved: frontal, parietal, temporal, sphenoid, and occipital bones. The level 3 system allows assessing fracture morphology described by the presence of fracture fragmentation, displacement, and bone loss. A documentation of associated intracranial diagnostic features is proposed. This tutorial is organized in a sequence of sections dealing with the description of the classification system with illustrations of the topographical skull base and cranial vault regions along with rules for fracture location and coding, a series of case examples with clinical imaging and a general discussion on the design of this classification. PMID:25489394

  20. Grout to meet physical and chemical requirements for closure at Hanford grout vaults. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-21

    The US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES) developed a grout based on portland cement, Class F fly ash, and bentonite clay, for the Hanford Grout Vault Program. The purpose of this grout was to fill the void between a wasteform containing 106-AN waste and the vault cover blocks. Following a successful grout development program, heat output, volume change, and compressive strength were monitored with time in simulated repository conditions and in full-depth physical models. This research indicated that the cold-cap grout could achieve and maintain adequate volume stability and other required physical properties in the internal environment of a sealed vault. To determine if contact with 106-AN liquid waste would cause chemical deterioration of the cold-cap grout, cured specimens were immersed in simulated waste. Over a period of 21 days at 150 F, specimens increased in mass without significant changes in volume. X-ray diffraction of reacted specimens revealed crystallization of sodium aluminum silicate hydrate. Scanning electron microscopy used with X-ray fluorescence showed that clusters if this phase had formed in grout pores, increasing grout density and decreasing its effective porosity. Physical and chemical tests collectively indicate a sealing component. However, the Hanford Grout Vault Program was cancelled before completion of this research. This report summarizes close-out Waterways Experiment Station when the Program was cancelled.

  1. 14. Photocopy of1931 drawing titled: BUILDING 78, FIRE PROOF VAULTS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Photocopy of1931 drawing titled: BUILDING 78, FIRE PROOF VAULTS FOR GENERAL FILES; PLAN, ELEVATION, SECTIONS. HABS photograph is an 8x10' contact print made from a high contrast copy negative of the original drawing in the collection of Department of Public Works, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Bremerton, WA. - Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Administration Building, Farragut Avenue, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  2. Veterans' Accelerated Urban Learning for Teaching (V.A.U.L.T.); Program Development and Projection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster Coll., St. Louis, MO.

    The Webster College Veterans' Accelerated Urban Learning for Teaching (VAULT) program, initiated in 1968-69, is designed to train the disadvantaged (primarily Negro veterans who would not normally attend college) to teach in ghetto elementary schools. Its purpose is to serve veterans and to control the following deficiencies in higher education:…

  3. Grout for closure of the demonstration vault at the US DOE Hanford Facility. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wakeley, L.D.; Ernzen, J.J.

    1992-08-01

    The Waterways Experiment Station (WES) developed a grout to be used as a cold- (nonradioactive) cap or void-fill grout between the solidified low-level waste and the cover blocks of a demonstration vault for disposal of phosphate-sulfate waste (PSW) at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Facility. The project consisted of formulation and evaluation of candidate grouts and selection of the best candidate grout, followed by a physical scale-model test to verify grout performance under project-specific conditions. Further, the project provided data to verify numerical models (accomplished elsewhere) of stresses and isotherms inside the Hanford demonstration vault. Evaluation of unhardened grout included obtaining data on segregation, bleeding, flow, and working time. For hardened grout, strength, volume stability, temperature rise, and chemical compatibility with surrogate wasteform grout were examined. The grout was formulated to accommodate unique environmental boundary conditions (vault temperature = 45 C) and exacting regulatory requirements (mandating less than 0.1% shrinkage with no expansion and no bleeding); and to remain pumpable for a minimum of 2 hr. A grout consisting of API Class H oil-well cement, an ASTM C 618 Class F fly ash, sodium bentonite clay, and a natural sand from the Hanford area met performance requirements in laboratory studies. It is recommended for use in the DOE Hanford demonstration PSW vault.

  4. Effect of roof slope and thickness on the performance of a saltstone vault

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, A.D.; Lam, Poh-Sang; Hsu, R.H.

    1995-09-01

    At the Savannah River Site, low-level radioactive decontaminated salt solution is mixed with slag, flyash, and cement to form a grout-like material called ``Saltstone.`` The Saltstone is poured into concrete vaults constructed at the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). The SDF is designed for the release of contaminants in a slow, controlled manner over thousands of years. The impact of SDF on groundwater has been studied in a radiological performance assessment (PA). Groundwater models were used to predict the fluid flow and contaminant transport at SDF. The models predicted a spatial contaminant concentration distribution in groundwater as a function of time. This study focuses on the roof configuration of Saltstone vault, with special interests in cost-effectiveness. We conducted a study to evaluate the effect of roof slope and thickness on the performance of a Saltstone vault. Four roof configurations were simulated. The tool used for the simulation was ECLIPSE, a finite-difference petroleum reservoir engineering code with an environmental tracer option. Nitrate was used as the ``tracer`` contaminant. In this study, ECLIPSE solves the two-phase two-dimensional flow and transport problem up to 10,000 years. This paper describes a modeling study used to evaluate roof design options for the Saltstone vault.

  5. The major vault protein is related to the toxic anion resistance protein (TelA) family.

    PubMed

    Suprenant, Kathy A; Bloom, Nathan; Fang, Jianwen; Lushington, Gerald

    2007-03-01

    Vaults are barrel-shaped ribonucleoprotein particles that are abundant in certain tumors and multidrug resistant cancer cells. Prokaryotic relatives of the major vault protein, MVP, have not been identified. We used sequence analysis and molecular modeling to show that MVP and the toxic anion resistance protein, TelA of Rhodobacter sphaeroides strain 2.4.1, share a novel fold that consists of a three-stranded antiparallel beta-sheet. Because of this strong structural correspondence, we examined whether mammalian cell vaults respond to tellurite treatment. In the presence of the oxyanion tellurite, large vault aggregates, or vaultosomes, appear at the cell periphery in 15 min or less. Vaultosome formation is temperature-dependent, reversible, and occurs in normal human umbilical vein endothelial cells as well as transformed HeLa cervical cancer cells. Vaultosome formation is not restricted to tellurite and occurs in the presence of other toxic oxyanions (selenate, selinite, arsenate, arsenite, vanadate). In addition, vaultosomes form independently from other stress-induced ribonucleoprotein complexes, stress granules and aggresomes. Vaultosome formation is therefore a unique cellular response to an environmental toxin. PMID:17337707

  6. 78 FR 23969 - In the Matter of the Estate Vault, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION In the Matter of the Estate Vault, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading April 19, 2013. It appears to the Securities and Exchange Commission that there is a lack of current and accurate...

  7. LPT. EBOR (TAN646) interior, installing reactor in STF pool ("vault"). ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LPT. EBOR (TAN-646) interior, installing reactor in STF pool ("vault"). Pressure vessel shows core barrel and outlet nozzle (next to man below) to inner duct weld, which is prepared and in position for stress relieving. Camera facing southeast. Photographer: Comiskey. Date: January 20, 1965. INEEL negative no. 65-239 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  8. Reliability and variability of day-to-day vault training measures in artistic gymnastics.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, Elizabeth; Hume, Patria; Calton, Mark; Aisbett, Brad

    2010-06-01

    Inter-day training reliability and variability in artistic gymnastics vaulting was determined using a customised infra-red timing gate and contact mat timing system. Thirteen Australian high performance gymnasts (eight males and five females) aged 11-23 years were assessed during two consecutive days of normal training. Each gymnast completed a number of vault repetitions per daily session. Inter-day variability of vault run-up velocities (at -18 to -12 m, -12 to -6 m, -6 to -2 m, and -2 to 0 m from the nearest edge of the beat board), and board contact, pre-flight, and table contact times were determined using mixed modelling statistics to account for random (within-subject variability) and fixed effects (gender, number of subjects, number of trials). The difference in the mean (Mdiff) and Cohen's effect sizes for reliability assessment and intra-class correlation coefficients, and the coefficient of variation percentage (CV%) were calculated for variability assessment. Approach velocity (-18 to -2m, CV = 2.4-7.8%) and board contact time (CV = 3.5%) were less variable measures when accounting for day-to-day performance differences, than pre-flight time (CV = 17.7%) and table contact time (CV = 20.5%). While pre-flight and table contact times are relevant training measures, approach velocity and board contact time are more reliable when quantifying vaulting performance. PMID:20806844

  9. The ADNI PET Core

    PubMed Central

    Jagust, William J.; Bandy, Dan; Chen, Kewei; Foster, Norman L.; Landau, Susan M.; Mathis, Chester A.; Price, Julie C.; Reiman, Eric M.; Skovronsky, Daniel; Koeppe, Robert A.

    2010-01-01

    Background This is a progress report of the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) PET Core. Methods The Core has supervised the acquisition, quality control, and analysis of longitudinal [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose PET (FDG-PET) data in approximately half of the ADNI cohort. In an “add on” study, approximately 100 subjects also underwent scanning with [11C]PIB-PET for amyloid imaging. The Core developed quality control procedures and standardized image acquisition by developing an imaging protocol that has been widely adopted in academic and pharmaceutical industry studies. Data processing provides users with scans that have identical orientation and resolution characteristics despite acquisition on multiple scanner models. The Core labs have used a number of different approaches to characterize differences between subject groups (AD, MCI, controls), to examine longitudinal change over time in glucose metabolism and amyloid deposition, and to assess the use of FDG-PET as a potential outcome measure in clinical trials. Results ADNI data indicate that FDG-PET increases statistical power over traditional cognitive measures, might aid subject selection, and could substantially reduce the sample size in a clinical trial. PIB-PET data showed expected group differences, and identified subjects with significant annual increases in amyloid load across the subject groups. The next activities of the PET core in ADNI will entail developing standardized protocols for amyloid imaging using the [18F]-labeled amyloid imaging agent AV45, which can be delivered to virtually all ADNI sites. Conclusions ADNI has demonstrated the feasibility and utility of multicenter PET studies and is helping to clarify the role of biomarkers in the study of aging and dementia. PMID:20451870

  10. A room temperature electron cyclotron resonance ion source for the DC-110 cyclotron

    SciTech Connect

    Efremov, A. Bogomolov, S.; Lebedev, A.; Loginov, V.; Yazvitsky, N.

    2014-02-15

    The project of the DC-110 cyclotron facility to provide applied research in the nanotechnologies (track pore membranes, surface modification of materials, etc.) has been designed by the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Dubna). The facility includes the isochronous cyclotron DC-110 for accelerating the intensive Ar, Kr, Xe ion beams with 2.5 MeV/nucleon fixed energy. The cyclotron is equipped with system of axial injection and ECR ion source DECRIS-5, operating at the frequency of 18 GHz. This article reviews the design and construction of DECRIS-5 ion source along with some initial commissioning results.

  11. A vertical-beam target station and high-power targetry for the cyclotron production of radionuclides with medium energy protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steyn, G. F.; Vermeulen, C.; Botha, A. H.; Conradie, J. L.; Crafford, J. P. A.; Delsink, J. L. G.; Dietrich, J.; du Plessis, H.; Fourie, D. T.; Kormány, Z.; van Niekerk, M. J.; Rohwer, P. F.; Stodart, N. P.; de Villiers, J. G.

    2013-11-01

    A vertical-beam target station (VBTS) is described to exploit the high-intensity proton beams delivered by the upgraded separated-sector cyclotron of iThemba LABS for the production of longer-lived, high value radionuclides such as 22Na, 68Ge and 82Sr. Aspects of the targetry are discussed as well as a beam splitter, which makes it possible to perform radionuclide production bombardments simultaneously in two irradiation vaults. With tandem targets in two stations, four targets can be bombarded simultaneously. The delivery of 66 MeV proton beams of higher intensity has been realized by installing fixed frequency, flat-top RF resonators on both the main cyclotron and an injector cyclotron. The increase in beam intensity also required new non-destructive diagnostic components in the relevant high-energy beamlines. An overview is given of the current radionuclide production target stations, their similarities and differences and the role of the VBTS in the production programme.

  12. Effects of Run-Up Velocity on Performance, Kinematics, and Energy Exchanges in The Pole Vault

    PubMed Central

    Linthorne, Nicholas P.; Weetman, A. H. Gemma

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effect of run-up velocity on the peak height achieved by the athlete in the pole vault and on the corresponding changes in the athlete's kinematics and energy exchanges. Seventeen jumps by an experienced male pole vaulter were video recorded in the sagittal plane and a wide range of run-up velocities (4.5-8.5 m/s) was obtained by setting the length of the athlete's run-up (2-16 steps). A selection of performance variables, kinematic variables, energy variables, and pole variables were calculated from the digitized video data. We found that the athlete's peak height increased linearly at a rate of 0.54 m per 1 m/s increase in run-up velocity and this increase was achieved through a combination of a greater grip height and a greater push height. At the athlete's competition run-up velocity (8.4 m/s) about one third of the rate of increase in peak height arose from an increase in grip height and about two thirds arose from an increase in push height. Across the range of run-up velocities examined here the athlete always performed the basic actions of running, planting, jumping, and inverting on the pole. However, he made minor systematic changes to his jumping kinematics, vaulting kinematics, and selection of pole characteristics as the run-up velocity increased. The increase in run-up velocity and changes in the athlete's vaulting kinematics resulted in substantial changes to the magnitudes of the energy exchanges during the vault. A faster run-up produced a greater loss of energy during the take-off, but this loss was not sufficient to negate the increase in run-up velocity and the increase in work done by the athlete during the pole support phase. The athlete therefore always had a net energy gain during the vault. However, the magnitude of this gain decreased slightly as run-up velocity increased. Key pointsIn the pole vault the optimum technique is to run-up as fast as possible.The athlete's vault height increases at a rate of about 0.5 m

  13. Factors influencing performance in the Hecht vault and implications for modelling.

    PubMed

    King, Mark A; Yeadon, Maurice R

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigated the factors that influence Hecht vault performance and assessed the level of model complexity required to give an adequate representation of vaulting. A five-segment planar simulation model with a visco-elastic shoulder joint and a torque generator at the shoulder joint was used to simulate the contact phase in vaulting. The model was customized to an elite gymnast by determining subject-specific segmental inertia and joint torque parameters. The simulation model was matched to a performance of the Hecht vault by varying the visco-elastic characteristics of the shoulders and the arm-horse interface and the activation time history of the shoulder torque generator until the best match was found. Perturbing the matching simulation demonstrated that appropriate initial kinematics are necessary for a successful performance. Fixing the hip and knee angles at their initial values had a small effect with 3 degrees less rotation. Applying shoulder torque during the contact phase also had a small effect with only a 7 degrees range in landing angles. Excluding the hand segment from the model was found to have a moderate effect with 15 degrees less rotation and the time of contact reduced by 38%. Removing shoulder elasticity resulted in 50 degrees less rotation. The use of a five-segment simulation model confirmed that the use of shoulder torque plays a minor role in vaulting performance and that having appropriate initial kinematics at touchdown is essential. However, factors such as shoulder elasticity and the hands which have previously been ignored also have a substantial influence on performance. PMID:15519350

  14. Thickened cranial vault and parasagittal keeling: correlated traits and autapomorphies of Homo erectus?

    PubMed

    Balzeau, Antoine

    2013-06-01

    Homo erectus sensu lato (s.l.) is a key species in the hominin fossil record for the study of human evolution, being one of the first species discovered and perhaps the most documented, but also because of its long temporal range and having dispersed out of Africa earlier than any other human species. Here I test two proposed autapomorphic traits of H. erectus, namely the increased thickness of the upper cranial vault and parasagittal keeling. The definition of these two anatomical features and their expression and variation among hominids are discussed. The results of this study indicate that the upper vault in Asian H. erectus is not absolutely thicker compared with fossil anatomically modern Homo sapiens, whereas Broken Hill and Petralona have values above the range of variation of H. erectus. Moreover, this anatomical region in Asian H. erectus is not significantly thicker compared with Pan paniscus. In addition, these results demonstrate that cranial vault thickness should not be used to make hypotheses regarding sexual attribution of fossil hominin specimens. I also show that the relation between relief on the external surface of the upper vault, parasagittal keeling and bregmatic eminence, and bone thickness is complex. In this context, the autapomorphic status of the two analysed traits in H. erectus may be rejected. Nevertheless, different patterns in the distribution of bone thickness on the upper vault were identified. Some individual variations are visible, but specificities are observable in samples of different species. The pattern of bone thickness distribution observed in Asian H. erectus, P. paniscus, possibly australopiths, and early Homo or Homo ergaster/erectus appears to be shared by these different species and would be a plesiomorphic trait among hominids. In contrast, two apomorphic states for this feature were identified for Neandertals and H. sapiens. PMID:23541383

  15. Heart PET scan

    MedlinePlus

    Heart nuclear medicine scan; Heart positron emission tomography; Myocardial PET scan ... Udelson JE, Dilsizian V, Bonow RO. Nuclear cardiology. In: Mann DL, ... A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine . 10th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  16. Healthy Pets and People

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pregnant women should avoid adopting or handling stray cats, especially kittens. They particularly should not clean litter ... may be sick. Many pets, such as dogs, cats, reptiles, rodents, and birds, carry germs that can ...

  17. Pets and Parasites

    MedlinePlus

    ... make me sick? Household pets such as dogs, cats, birds and reptiles can carry diseases or parasites ... might be used as litter boxes by neighborhood cats. Keep your children out of the dirt in ...

  18. Household Hazards to Pets

    MedlinePlus

    ... health by becoming aware of the most common health hazards found in many pet-owning households. Hazards in the Kitchen Foods Many foods are perfectly safe for humans, but could be harmful or potentially deadly to ...

  19. Brain PET scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... tests, such as magnetic resonance imaging ( MRI ) and computed tomography ( CT ) scans only reveal the structure of the ... a PET/CT. Alternative Names ... PT, Rijntjes M, Weiller C. Neuroimaging: Functional neuroimaging. In: Daroff RB, Fenichel GM, Jankovic ...

  20. PET studies in epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Sarikaya, Ismet

    2015-01-01

    Various PET studies, such as measurements of glucose, serotonin and oxygen metabolism, cerebral blood flow and receptor bindings are availabe for epilepsy. 18Fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (18F-FDG) PET imaging of brain glucose metabolism is a well established and widely available technique. Studies have demonstrated that the sensitivity of interictal FDG-PET is higher than interictal SPECT and similar to ictal SPECT for the lateralization and localization of epileptogenic foci in presurgical patients refractory to medical treatments who have noncontributory EEG and MRI. In addition to localizing epileptogenic focus, FDG-PET provide additional important information on the functional status of the rest of the brain. The main limitation of interictal FDG-PET is that it cannot precisely define the surgical margin as the area of hypometabolism usually extends beyond the epileptogenic zone. Various neurotransmitters (GABA, glutamate, opiates, serotonin, dopamine, acethylcholine, and adenosine) and receptor subtypes are involved in epilepsy. PET receptor imaging studies performed in limited centers help to understand the role of neurotransmitters in epileptogenesis, identify epileptic foci and investigate new treatment approaches. PET receptor imaging studies have demonstrated reduced 11C-flumazenil (GABAA-cBDZ) and 18F-MPPF (5-HT1A serotonin) and increased 11C-cerfentanil (mu opiate) and 11C-MeNTI (delta opiate) bindings in the area of seizure. 11C-flumazenil has been reported to be more sensitive than FDG-PET for identifying epileptic foci. The area of abnormality on GABAAcBDZ and opiate receptor images is usually smaller and more circumscribed than the area of hypometabolism on FDG images. Studies have demonstrated that 11C-alpha-methyl-L-tryptophan PET (to study synthesis of serotonin) can detect the epileptic focus within malformations of cortical development and helps in differentiating epileptogenic from non-epileptogenic tubers in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex

  1. PET/CT Artifacts

    PubMed Central

    Blodgett, Todd M.; Mehta, Ajeet S.; Mehta, Amar S.; Laymon, Charles M.; Carney, Jonathan; Townsend, David W.

    2014-01-01

    There are several artifacts encountered in PET/CT imaging, including attenuation correction (AC) artifacts associated with using CT for attenuation correction. Several artifacts can mimic a 2-deoxy-2-[18F] fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) avid malignant lesions and therefore recognition of these artifacts is clinically relevant. Our goal was to identify and characterize these artifacts and also discuss some protocol variables that may affect image quality in PET/CT. PMID:21237418

  2. Pet-related infections.

    PubMed

    Rabinowitz, Peter M; Gordon, Zimra; Odofin, Lynda

    2007-11-01

    Human contact with cats, dogs, and other pets results in several million infections each year in the United States, ranging from self-limited skin conditions to life-threatening systemic illnesses. Toxoplasmosis is one of the most common pet-related parasitic infections. Although toxoplasmosis is usually asymptomatic or mild, it may cause serious congenital infection if a woman is exposed during pregnancy, particularly in the first trimester. Common pet-borne fungal infections include tinea corporis/capitis (ringworm); campylobacteriosis and salmonellosis are among the most common bacterial infections associated with pet ownership. Less commonly, pets can transmit arthropod-borne and viral illnesses (e.g., scabies, rabies). Infection in a pet can provide sentinel warning of local vectors and endemic conditions, such as Lyme disease risk. Treatment is infection-specific, although many infections are self-limited. Prevention involves common sense measures such as adequate hand washing, proper disposal of animal waste, and ensuring that infected animals are diagnosed and treated. Special precautions are indicated for immunocompromised persons. Increased communication between primary care physicians and veterinarians could improve treatment and prevention of these conditions. PMID:18019874

  3. Imaging Cyclotron Orbits of Electrons in Graphene.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, Sagar; Lee, Gil-Ho; Klales, Anna; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Heller, Eric; Kim, Philip; Westervelt, Robert M

    2016-03-01

    Electrons in graphene can travel for several microns without scattering at low temperatures, and their motion becomes ballistic, following classical trajectories. When a magnetic field B is applied perpendicular to the plane, electrons follow cyclotron orbits. Magnetic focusing occurs when electrons injected from one narrow contact focus onto a second contact located an integer number of cyclotron diameters away. By tuning the magnetic field B and electron density n in the graphene layer, we observe magnetic focusing peaks. We use a cooled scanning gate microscope to image cyclotron trajectories in graphene at 4.2 K. The tip creates a local change in density that casts a shadow by deflecting electrons flowing nearby; an image of flow can be obtained by measuring the transmission between contacts as the tip is raster scanned across the sample. On the first magnetic focusing peak, we image a cyclotron orbit that extends from one contact to the other. In addition, we study the geometry of orbits deflected into the second point contact by the tip. PMID:26845290

  4. Ion-cyclotron instability in magnetic mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Pearlstein, L.D.

    1987-02-02

    This report reviews the role of ion-cyclotron frequency instability in magnetic mirrors. The modes discussed here are loss-cone or anisotropy driven. The discussion includes quasilinear theory, explosive instabilities of 3-wave interaction and non-linear Landau damping, and saturation due to non-linear orbits. (JDH)

  5. Cyclotron-based neutron source for BNCT

    SciTech Connect

    Mitsumoto, T.; Yajima, S.; Tsutsui, H.; Ogasawara, T.; Fujita, K.; Tanaka, H.; Sakurai, Y.; Maruhashi, A.

    2013-04-19

    Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KURRI) and Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd. (SHI) have developed a cyclotron-based neutron source for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). It was installed at KURRI in Osaka prefecture. The neutron source consists of a proton cyclotron named HM-30, a beam transport system and an irradiation and treatment system. In the cyclotron, H- ions are accelerated and extracted as 30 MeV proton beams of 1 mA. The proton beams is transported to the neutron production target made by a beryllium plate. Emitted neutrons are moderated by lead, iron, aluminum and calcium fluoride. The aperture diameter of neutron collimator is in the range from 100 mm to 250 mm. The peak neutron flux in the water phantom is 1.8 Multiplication-Sign 109 neutrons/cm{sup 2}/sec at 20 mm from the surface at 1 mA proton beam. The neutron source have been stably operated for 3 years with 30 kW proton beam. Various pre-clinical tests including animal tests have been done by using the cyclotron-based neutron source with {sup 10}B-p-Borono-phenylalanine. Clinical trials of malignant brain tumors will be started in this year.

  6. Numerical investigation of auroral cyclotron maser processes

    SciTech Connect

    Speirs, D. C.; Ronald, K.; McConville, S. L.; Gillespie, K. M.; Phelps, A. D. R.; Cross, A. W.; Robertson, C. W.; Whyte, C. G.; He, W.; Bingham, R.; Vorgul, I.; Cairns, R. A.; Kellett, B. J.

    2010-05-15

    When a mainly rectilinear electron beam is subject to significant magnetic compression, conservation of magnetic moment results in the formation of a horseshoe shaped velocity distribution. It has been shown that such a distribution is unstable to cyclotron emission and may be responsible for the generation of auroral kilometric radiation--an intense rf emission sourced at high altitudes in the terrestrial auroral magnetosphere. Particle-in-cell code simulations have been undertaken to investigate the dynamics of the cyclotron emission process in the absence of cavity boundaries with particular consideration of the spatial growth rate, spectral output and rf conversion efficiency. Computations reveal that a well-defined cyclotron emission process occurs albeit with a low spatial growth rate compared with waveguide bounded simulations. The rf output is near perpendicular to the electron beam with a slight backward-wave character reflected in the spectral output with a well defined peak at 2.68 GHz, just below the relativistic electron cyclotron frequency. The corresponding rf conversion efficiency of 1.1% is comparable to waveguide bounded simulations and consistent with the predictions of kinetic theory that suggest efficient, spectrally well defined emission can be obtained from an electron horseshoe distribution in the absence of radiation boundaries.

  7. Cyclotron-based neutron source for BNCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitsumoto, T.; Yajima, S.; Tsutsui, H.; Ogasawara, T.; Fujita, K.; Tanaka, H.; Sakurai, Y.; Maruhashi, A.

    2013-04-01

    Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KURRI) and Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd. (SHI) have developed a cyclotron-based neutron source for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). It was installed at KURRI in Osaka prefecture. The neutron source consists of a proton cyclotron named HM-30, a beam transport system and an irradiation & treatment system. In the cyclotron, H- ions are accelerated and extracted as 30 MeV proton beams of 1 mA. The proton beams is transported to the neutron production target made by a beryllium plate. Emitted neutrons are moderated by lead, iron, aluminum and calcium fluoride. The aperture diameter of neutron collimator is in the range from 100 mm to 250 mm. The peak neutron flux in the water phantom is 1.8×109 neutrons/cm2/sec at 20 mm from the surface at 1 mA proton beam. The neutron source have been stably operated for 3 years with 30 kW proton beam. Various pre-clinical tests including animal tests have been done by using the cyclotron-based neutron source with 10B-p-Borono-phenylalanine. Clinical trials of malignant brain tumors will be started in this year.

  8. Physics of Cyclotron Resonance Scattering Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sschoenherr, Gabriele; Schwarm, Fritz-Walter; Falkner, Sebastian; Dauser, Thomas; Pottschmidt, Katja; Kretschmar, Peter; Klochkov, Dmitry; Ferrigno, Carlo; Britton Hemphill, Paul; Wilms, Joern

    2016-04-01

    Cyclotron resonant scattering features (short: cyclotron lines) are sensitive tracers of the physics of the accretion columns and mounds of X-ray pulsars. They form by interaction of X-ray photons with magnetically quantized electrons in the accreted plasma close to the neutron star. Such lines have been observed as absorption-like features for about 20 X-ray pulsars. Their energies provide a direct measure of the magnetic field strength in the line-forming region. By detailed modelling of the lines and of their parameter dependencies we can further decipher the physical conditions in the accretion column. For instance the fact that the complex scattering cross sections have a strong angle-dependence relates the phase-resolved cyclotron line shapes to parameters that constrain the systems’ still poorly understood geometry. Modelling the physics of cyclotron lines to a degree that allows for detailed and solid comparison to data therefore provides a unique access also to a better understanding of the overall picture of magnetically accreting neutron star systems.

  9. Tokamak startup with electron cyclotron heating

    SciTech Connect

    Holly, D J; Prager, S C; Shepard, D A; Sprott, J C

    1980-04-01

    Experiments are described in which the startup voltage in a tokamak is reduced by approx. 60% by the use of a modest amount of electron cyclotron resonance heating power for preionization. A 50% reduction in volt-second requirement and impurity reflux are also observed.

  10. Cyclotron resonance cooling by strong laser field

    SciTech Connect

    Tagcuhi, Toshihiro; Mima, Kunioka

    1995-12-31

    Reduction of energy spread of electron beam is very important to increase a total output radiation power in free electron lasers. Although several cooling systems of particle beams such as a stochastic cooling are successfully operated in the accelerator physics, these cooling mechanisms are very slow and they are only applicable to high energy charged particle beams of ring accelerators. We propose here a new concept of laser cooling system by means of cyclotron resonance. Electrons being in cyclotron motion under a strong magnetic field can resonate with circular polarized electromagnetic field, and the resonance take place selectively depending on the velocity of the electrons. If cyclotron frequency of electrons is equal to the frequency of the electromagnetic field, they absorb the electromagnetic field energy strongly, but the other electrons remain unchanged. The absorbed energy will be converted to transverse kinetic energy, and the energy will be dumped into the radiation energy through bremastrahlung. To build a cooling system, we must use two laser beams, where one of them is counter-propagating and the other is co-propagating with electron beam. When the frequency of the counter-propagating laser is tuned with the cyclotron frequency of fast electrons and the co-propagating laser is tuned with the cyclotron frequency of slow electrons, the energy of two groups will approach and the cooling will be achieved. We solve relativistic motions of electrons with relativistic radiation dumping force, and estimate the cooling rate of this mechanism. We will report optimum parameters for the electron beam cooling system for free electron lasers.

  11. Development of an Accelerator Mass Spectrometer based on a Cyclotron

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dogyun; Bhang, Hyeongchan; Kim, Jongwon

    2011-12-13

    An accelerator mass spectrometer based on a cyclotron has been developed, and a prototype of the injection beam line has been constructed. Mass resolution of the cyclotron is designed to be over 4000. A sawtooth RF buncher in the beam line and a flat-topping RF system for the cyclotron were utilized to enhance beam transmission efficiency, which is a primary factor for improvement compared to previous cyclotron mass spectrometers. The injection beam line comprises an ion source, Einzel lens, RF buncher, 90 deg. dipole magnet and a slit box containing beam diagnostic devices. A carbon beam was measured at the location of the slit box, and beam phase spaces will be measured. The design of a cyclotron magnet was done, and orbit tracking was carried out using cyclotron optics codes. A scheme of radial injection was chosen to place a beam on the equilibrium orbit of the cyclotron. The injection scheme will be optimized after the beam measurements are completed.

  12. Posthole Broadband Sensor Emplacement vs. Surface Vaults: Observations of Comparative Noise Performance and Trade-offs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweet, J. R.; Beaudoin, B. C.; Barstow, N.; Pfeifer, M.; Anderson, K. R.; Frassetto, A.

    2015-12-01

    Advances in seismometer design have diversified the range of instruments available for use in temporary field installations. IRIS programs, primarily PASSCAL and the Transportable Array (TA), have helped steer development of these new instruments to meet these evolving needs. PASSCAL operates a small pool of posthole broadband sensors, purpose built for direct burial. Near surface posthole installations are a new, cost effective, and logistically simple technique for broadband emplacement that is an alternative to the vault installations used in portable broadband seismic experiments for nearly 30 years. Direct burial installation is limited to the time and effort required to dig the borehole and emplace the sensor, thus reducing both material costs and time to install. Also, in Alaska, extreme environments and difficult logistics make standard TA tank vaults inappropriate for most sites. TA has developed improved deployment strategies for these environments. There, holes for posthole sensors are hammer- drilled or augered to several meters depth in soil, permafrost, or bedrock and then cased. These emplacement costs are generally less than standard TA vaults. We compare various installation techniques for test cases as well as general deployments of PASSCAL and TA stations. Automated noise performance analyses have been part of the TA throughout its operation, but until recently vault performance for portable installations supported by the PASSCAL program was sparse. In this study, we select a suite of co-located direct burial and surface vault installations and compare their noise performance using probability density functions. Our initial analyses suggest that direct burial sensors have lower noise levels than vault installations on both horizontal and vertical channels across a range of periods spanning <1 s to 100 s. However, most of these initial experiments for PASSCAL were with sensors not purpose built for direct burial and it became obvious that a sensor

  13. Direct burial and vault emplacement data quality comparison at Dotson Ranch, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaudoin, B. C.; Aderhold, K.; Anderson, K.; Pfeifer, M.; Parker, T.; Miller, P. E.; Slad, G. W.; Reusch, A.

    2013-12-01

    We compare the data quality of two emplacement methods for portable broadband seismic stations, traditional vault and direct burial, using power spectral density analysis to examine temporal trends in noise, the ratio of signal-to-noise for local, regional and teleseismic earthquakes, coherence of both noise and earthquake signal recordings as well as overall data return. Sensor emplacement in the past has been overwhelmingly dominated by traditional vaults requiring more materials, manpower and time. A new technique of directly burying sensors drastically reduces the expense, personnel and time required to install a seismic station. Comparisons between the data quality of vault and direct buried sensors are needed to show that the time and money saved in emplacement does not downgrade the quality of the data collected. Two identical shallow vaults were installed adjacent to two identical direct burial sites at Dotson Ranch in San Antonio, New Mexico, in a deliberately-chosen noisy, wet and generally inhospitable location. These four sites each used a Guralp 3T sensor retrofitted with a waterproof lid and connector. Eight months of data recorded during 2012 from these four sensors are compared in order to determine if the emplacement method has a profound and systematic effect on data quality using several different metrics that mimic the actual use of seismic data in research. A posthole installation with a Nanometrics Trillium 120PH sensor was also installed at the site for a portion of the study and six months of data are included in the analysis. Overall the variability in data quality metrics used in this study is comparable between sites with differing emplacement method as it is between sites with the same emplacement method. Noise in the vaults is higher in amplitude during the transition from spring to summer as compared to the direct burials and is especially evident on the horizontal components at long periods between 20-170 seconds. Diurnal changes in

  14. Restoration of accelerator facilities damaged by Great East Japan Earthquake at Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center, Tohoku University.

    PubMed

    Wakui, Takashi; Itoh, Masatoshi; Shimada, Kenzi; Yoshida, Hidetomo P; Shinozuka, Tsutomu; Sakemi, Yasuhiro

    2014-01-01

    The Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center (CYRIC) of Tohoku University is a joint-use institution for education and research in a wide variety of fields ranging from physics to medicine. Accelerator facilities at the CYRIC provide opportunities for implementing a broad research program, including medical research using positron emission tomography (PET), with accelerated ions and radioisotopes. At the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, no human injuries occurred and a smooth evacuation was made in the CYRIC, thanks to the anti-earthquake measures such as the renovation of the cyclotron building in 2009 mainly to provide seismic strengthening, fixation of shelves to prevent the falling of objects, and securement of the width of the evacuation route. The preparation of an emergency response manual was also helpful. However, the accelerator facilities were damaged because of strong shaking that continued for a few minutes. For example, two columns on which a 930 cyclotron was placed were damaged, and thereby the 930 cyclotron was inclined. All the elements of beam transport lines were deviated from the beam axis. Some peripheral devices in a HM12 cyclotron were broken. Two shielding doors fell from the carriage onto the floor and blocked the entrances to the rooms. The repair work on the accelerator facilities was started at the end of July 2011. During the repair work, the joint use of the accelerator facilities was suspended. After the repair work was completed, the joint use was re-started at October 2012, one and a half years after the earthquake. PMID:25030295

  15. The Structure and Dynamics of the Upper Chromosphere and Lower Transition Region as Revealed by the Subarcsecond VAULT Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vourlidas, A.; Sanchez Andrade-Nuño, B.; Landi, E.; Patsourakos, S.; Teriaca, L.; Schühle, U.; Korendyke, C. M.; Nestoras, I.

    2010-01-01

    The Very high Angular resolution ULtraviolet Telescope (VAULT) is a sounding rocket payload built to study the crucial interface between the solar chromosphere and the corona by observing the strongest line in the solar spectrum, the Ly α line at 1216 Å. In two flights, VAULT succeeded in obtaining the first ever subarcsecond ( 0.5^'' ) images of this region with high sensitivity and cadence. Detailed analyses of those observations contributed significantly to new ideas about the nature of the transition region. Here, we present a broad overview of the Ly α atmosphere as revealed by the VAULT observations and bring together past results and new analyses from the second VAULT flight to create a synthesis of our current knowledge of the high-resolution Ly α Sun. We hope that this work will serve as a good reference for the design of upcoming Ly α telescopes and observing plans.

  16. Cardiac PET/CT for the Evaluation of Known or Suspected Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Murthy, Venkatesh L.

    2011-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is increasingly being applied in the evaluation of myocardial perfusion. Cardiac PET can be performed with an increasing variety of cyclotron- and generator-produced radiotracers. Compared with single photon emission computed tomography, PET offers lower radiation exposure, fewer artifacts, improved spatial resolution, and, most important, improved diagnostic performance. With its capacity to quantify rest–peak stress left ventricular systolic function as well as coronary flow reserve, PET is superior to other methods for the detection of multivessel coronary artery disease and, potentially, for risk stratification. Coronary artery calcium scoring may be included for further risk stratification in patients with normal perfusion imaging findings. Furthermore, PET allows quantification of absolute myocardial perfusion, which also carries substantial prognostic value. Hybrid PET–computed tomography scanners allow functional evaluation of myocardial perfusion combined with anatomic characterization of the epicardial coronary arteries, thereby offering great potential for both diagnosis and management. Additional studies to further validate the prognostic value and cost effectiveness of PET are warranted. © RSNA, 2011 PMID:21918042

  17. A THERMAL MODEL OF THE IMMOBILIZATION OF LOW-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE AS GROUT IN CONCRETE VAULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Shadday, M

    2008-10-27

    Salt solution will be mixed with cement and flyash/slag to form a grout which will be immobilized in above ground concrete vaults. The curing process is exothermic, and a transient thermal model of the pouring and curing process is herein described. A peak temperature limit of 85 C for the curing grout restricts the rate at which it can be poured into a vault. The model is used to optimize the pouring.

  18. Vaginal Vault Suspension at Hysterectomy for Prolapse – Myths and Facts, Anatomical Requirements, Fixation Techniques, Documentation and Cost Accounting

    PubMed Central

    Graefe, F.; Marschke, J.; Dimpfl, T.; Tunn, R.

    2012-01-01

    Vaginal vault suspension during hysterectomy for prolapse is both a therapy for apical insufficiency and helps prevent recurrence. Numerous techniques exist, with different anatomical results and differing complications. The description of the different approaches together with a description of the vaginal vault suspension technique used at the Department for Urogynaecology at St. Hedwig Hospital could serve as a basis for reassessment and for recommendations by scientific associations regarding general standards. PMID:25278621

  19. Radiological Assessment for the Vance Road Facility Source Vault, Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    J. R. Morton

    2000-09-01

    From the 1950s, the Vance Road laboratories had been used for a broad range of nuclear medicine research involving numerous radionuclides. These radionuclides were stored in the a source vault located on the first floor of the facility. The Environmental Survey and Site Assessment Program (ESSAP) of ORISE performed a radiological assessment survey of the source vault after it had been remediated and in preparation for converting the area to office space.

  20. Analysis of the radiation shielding of the bunker of a 230MeV proton cyclotron therapy facility; comparison of analytical and Monte Carlo techniques.

    PubMed

    Sunil, C

    2016-04-01

    The neutron ambient dose equivalent outside the radiation shield of a proton therapy cyclotron vault is estimated using the unshielded dose equivalent rates and the attenuation lengths obtained from the literature and by simulations carried out with the FLUKA Monte Carlo radiation transport code. The source terms derived from the literature and that obtained from the FLUKA calculations differ by a factor of 2-3, while the attenuation lengths obtained from the literature differ by 20-40%. The instantaneous dose equivalent rates outside the shield differ by a few orders of magnitude, not only in comparison with the Monte Carlo simulation results, but also with the results obtained by line of sight attenuation calculations with the different parameters obtained from the literature. The attenuation of neutrons caused by the presence of bulk iron, such as magnet yokes is expected to reduce the dose equivalent by as much as a couple of orders of magnitude outside the shield walls. PMID:26844542

  1. The ADNI PET Core: 2015

    PubMed Central

    Jagust, William J.; Landau, Susan M.; Koeppe, Robert A.; Reiman, Eric M.; Chen, Kewei; Mathis, Chester A.; Price, Julie C.; Foster, Norman L.; Wang, Angela Y.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This paper reviews the work done in the ADNI PET core over the past 5 years, largely concerning techniques, methods, and results related to amyloid imaging in ADNI. METHODS The PET Core has utilized [18F]florbetapir routinely on ADNI participants, with over 1600 scans available for download. Four different laboratories are involved in data analysis, and have examined factors such as longitudinal florbetapir analysis, use of FDG-PET in clinical trials, and relationships between different biomarkers and cognition. RESULTS Converging evidence from the PET Core has indicated that cross-sectional and longitudinal florbetapir analyses require different reference regions. Studies have also examined the relationship between florbetapir data obtained immediately after injection, which reflects perfusion, and FDG-PET results. Finally, standardization has included the translation of florbetapir PET data to a centiloid scale. CONCLUSION The PET Core has demonstrated a variety of methods for standardization of biomarkers such as florbetapir PET in a multicenter setting. PMID:26194311

  2. Pet Loss: Implications for Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharkin, Bruce S.; Bahrick, Audrey S.

    1990-01-01

    Attempts to increase awareness of counselors about topic of pet loss. Discusses how counselors can be actively involved through practice, consultation, and research to help people deal with emotional impact of pet loss. (Author/NB)

  3. Phase-resolved cyclotron spectroscopy of polars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Ryan

    In this thesis we use phase-resolved cyclotron spectroscopy to study polars. Polars are a subset of cataclysmic variables where the primary WD is highly magnetic. In this case, the accretion flow is constrained along the magnetic field lines and eventually deposited on the WD, where the accreting material interacts with the atmosphere, forming a standing hydrodynamic shock at a location termed the accretion region, and emitting cyclotron radiation. Due to its field strength, cyclotron radiation from polars falls at either UV, optical or NIR wavelengths. While a substantial amount of optical cyclotron spectra have been published on polars, the NIR remains relatively unstudied. In this thesis, we present NIR spectroscopy for fifteen polars. Additionally, while a single cyclotron spectrum is needed to constrain the shock parameters, phase- resolved spectroscopy allows for a more in-depth analysis of the shock structure and the geometry of the accretion region. Of the fifteen polars observed, eight yielded spectra of adequate quality to be modeled in this manner: EF Eri, EQ Cet, AN UMa, VV Pup, AM Her, ST LMi, MR Ser, and MQ Dra. Initially, we used the industry standard "Constant Lambda (CL)" code to model each object. The code is fast, but produces only globally averaged values of the salient shock parameters: B - the magnetic field strength, kT - the plasma temperature, logL - the "size parameter" of the accretion column, and TH- the viewing angle between the observer and the magnetic field. For each object we present CL models for our NIR phase-resolved cyclotron spectra. Subsequently, we use a more advanced "Structured-Shock" code built by Fischer & Beuermann (2001)("F&B") to remodel three objects: EQ Cet, MQ Dra, and EF Eri. The F&B code allows for input of more physical parameters and most importantly does ray tracing through a simulated one-dimensional accretion column. To determine the outgoing spectrum, temperature and velocity profiles are needed to

  4. Central nervous system nocardiosis with granulomatous pachymeningitis and osteomyelitis of skull vault.

    PubMed

    Nalini, Atchayaram; Saini, Jitender; Mahadevan, Anita

    2014-01-01

    A 34-year-old immunocompetent man weighing 95 kg was operated for a small left parietal scalp swelling in the year 2002. He was well until 2008, when he developed chronic diffuse headache, vomiting and drowsiness. The left parietal dura and overlying vault biopsy showed evidence of granulomatous pachymeningitis with osteomyelitis secondary to nocardiosis. He had responded well to inadequate antibiotic therapy. After a dormant period of 3 years, there was recrudescence of severe raised intracranial tension symptoms in 2011. Magnetic resonance imaging showed diffuse pachymeningeal thickening mainly involving the occipital dura, posterior falx, and tentorium cerebelli. In addition, well-defined small nodules with hypointense signals on both T1- and T2-weighted images were seen in occipital lobes. Patient was treated with three drug regime with good recovery at 3 months follow-up. This is a rare case of central nervous system nocardiosis with skull vault osteomyelitis and a protracted clinical course. PMID:24943782

  5. An underground characterization program for a nuclear fuel waste disposal vault in plutonic rock

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, P.M.; Everitt, R.A.

    1993-12-31

    The Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program (CNFWMP) is developing a concept for disposing of nuclear fuel waste that involves placing and sealing it in a disposal vault excavated 500 to 1,000 m deep in the stable plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield. In this concept, engineered and natural barriers serve to isolate the waste from the biosphere. Since 1983, underground characterization and testing in support of the CNFWMP has been ongoing at the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) in southeastern Manitoba. This paper draws on experience gained at the URL to recommend an approach to underground characterization that would provide the necessary information to make design decisions for a disposal vault in plutonic rock.

  6. Application of modular vault dry storage to Public Service of Colorado-Fort St. Vrain

    SciTech Connect

    Lehr, M. ); Ealing, C.J. ); Agarwal, B.K. )

    1990-05-01

    This paper discusses NRC approval for the first dry vault storage system to be submitted for nonsite specific design approval. It describes the first site specific application of the FW/GEC modular vault dry store (MVDS) for the Public Service of Colorado---Fort St. Vrain site. The decision to permanently shut down the Fort St. Vrain high temperature gas-cooled reactor provides the need to store on site 1,482 irradiated fuel blocks and a quantity of other reactor core components categorized as greater than Class C wastes. The MVDS system has been selected for the safe storage of these items in a facility designed to receive, store and discharge fuel to the repository totally independent from the original reactor facilities.

  7. Development of a New Cryptographic Construct Using Palmprint-Based Fuzzy Vault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Amioy; Kumar, Ajay

    2009-12-01

    The combination of cryptology and biometrics has emerged as promising component of information security. Despite the current popularity of palmprint biometric, there has not been any attempt to investigate its usage for the fuzzy vault. This paper therefore investigates the possible usage of palmprint in fuzzy vault to develop a user friendly and reliable crypto system. We suggest the use of both symmetric and asymmetric approach for the encryption. The ciphertext of any document is generated by symmetric cryptosystem; the symmetric key is then encrypted by asymmetric approach. Further, Reed and Solomon codes are used on the generated asymmetric key to provide some error tolerance while decryption. The experimental results from the proposed approach on the palmprint images suggest its possible usage in an automated palmprint-based key generation system.

  8. Disruption of the murine major vault protein (MVP/LRP) gene does not induce hypersensitivity to cytostatics.

    PubMed

    Mossink, Marieke H; van Zon, Arend; Fränzel-Luiten, Erna; Schoester, Martijn; Kickhoefer, Valerie A; Scheffer, George L; Scheper, Rik J; Sonneveld, Pieter; Wiemer, Erik A C

    2002-12-15

    Vaults are ribonucleoprotein particles with a distinct structure and a high degree of conservation between species. Although no function has been assigned to the complex yet, there is some evidence for a role of vaults in multidrug resistance. To confirm a direct relation between vaults and multidrug resistance, and to investigate other possible functions of vaults, we have generated a major vault protein (MVP/lung resistance-related protein) knockout mouse model. The MVP(-/-) mice are viable, healthy, and show no obvious abnormalities. We investigated the sensitivity of MVP(-/-) embryonic stem cells and bone marrow cells derived from the MVP-deficient mice to various cytostatic agents with different mechanisms of action. Neither the MVP(-/-) embryonic stem cells nor the MVP(-/-) bone marrow cells showed an increased sensitivity to any of the drugs examined, as compared with wild-type cells. Furthermore, the activities of the ABC-transporters P-glycoprotein, multidrug resistance-associated protein and breast cancer resistance protein were unaltered on MVP deletion in these cells. In addition, MVP wild-type and deficient mice were treated with the anthracycline doxorubicin. Both groups of mice responded similarly to the doxorubicin treatment. Our results suggest that MVP/vaults are not directly involved in the resistance to cytostatic agents. PMID:12499273

  9. Effect of Plyometric Training on Handspring Vault Performance and Functional Power in Youth Female Gymnasts

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Emma; Bishop, Daniel C.; Gee, Thomas I.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of plyometric training (PT) when added to habitual gymnastic training (HT) on handspring vault (HV) performance variables. Twenty youth female competitive gymnasts (Age: 12.5 ± 1.67 y) volunteered to participate and were randomly assigned to two independent groups. The experimental plyometric training group (PTG) undertook a six-week plyometric program, involving two additional 45 min PT sessions a week, alongside their HT, while the control group (CG) performed regular HT only. Videography was used (120 Hz) in the sagittal plane to record both groups performing three HVs for both the baseline and post-intervention trials. Furthermore, participants completed a countermovement jump test (CMJ) to assess the effect of PT on functional power. Through the use of Quintic biomechanics software, significant improvements (P < 0.05) were found for the PTG for run-up velocity, take-off velocity, hurdle to board distance, board contact time, table contact time and post-flight time and CMJ height. However, there were no significant improvements on pre-flight time, shoulder angle or hip angle on the vault for the PTG. The CG demonstrated no improvement for all HV measures. A sport-specific PT intervention improved handspring vault performance measures and functional power when added to the habitual training of youth female gymnasts. The additional two hours plyometric training seemingly improved the power generating capacity of movement-specific musculature, which consequently improved aspects of vaulting performance. Future research is required to examine the whether the improvements are as a consequence of the additional volume of sprinting and jumping activities, as a result of the specific PT method or a combination of these factors. PMID:26859381

  10. Radiological performance assessment for the E-Area Vaults Disposal Facility. Appendices A through M

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, J.R.

    1994-04-15

    These document contains appendices A-M for the performance assessment. They are A: details of models and assumptions, B: computer codes, C: data tabulation, D: geochemical interactions, E: hydrogeology of the Savannah River Site, F: software QA plans, G: completeness review guide, H: performance assessment peer review panel recommendations, I: suspect soil performance analysis, J: sensitivity/uncertainty analysis, K: vault degradation study, L: description of naval reactor waste disposal, M: porflow input file. (GHH)

  11. Crosstalk between Src and major vault protein in epidermal growth factor-dependent cell signalling.

    PubMed

    Kim, Euikyung; Lee, Seunghwan; Mian, Md Firoz; Yun, Sang Uk; Song, Minseok; Yi, Kye-Sook; Ryu, Sung Ho; Suh, Pann-Ghill

    2006-02-01

    Vaults are highly conserved, ubiquitous ribonucleoprotein (RNP) particles with an unidentified function. For the three protein species (TEP1, VPARP, and MVP) and a small RNA that comprises vault, expression of the unique 100-kDa major vault protein (MVP) is sufficient to form the basic vault structure. To identify and characterize proteins that interact with the Src homology 2 (SH2) domain of Src and potentially regulate Src activity, we used a pull-down assay using GST-Src-SH2 fusion proteins. We found MVP as a Src-SH2 binding protein in human stomach tissue. Interaction of Src and MVP was also observed in 253J stomach cancer cells. A subcellular localization study using immunofluorescence microscopy shows that epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulation triggers MVP translocation from the nucleus to the cytosol and perinuclear region where it colocalizes with Src. We found that the interaction between Src and MVP is critically dependent on Src activity and protein (MVP) tyrosyl phosphorylation, which are induced by EGF stimulation. Our results also indicate MVP to be a novel substrate of Src and phosphorylated in an EGF-dependent manner. Interestingly, purified MVP inhibited the in vitro tyrosine kinase activity of Src in a concentration-dependent manner. MVP overexpression downregulates EGF-dependent ERK activation in Src overexpressing cells. To our knowledge, this is the first report of MVP interacting with a protein tyrosine kinase involved in a distinct cell signalling pathway. It appears that MVP is a novel regulator of Src-mediated signalling cascades. PMID:16441665

  12. The genomic sequence of the murine major vault protein and its promoter.

    PubMed

    Mossink, Marieke; van Zon, Arend; Fränzel-Luiten, Erna; Schoester, Martijn; Scheffer, George L; Scheper, Rik J; Sonneveld, Pieter; Wiemer, Erik A C

    2002-07-10

    Vaults are ribonucleoproteins of unknown function, consisting of three different proteins and multiple copies of small untranslated RNA molecules. One of the protein subunits has been identified as TEP1, a protein that is also associated with the telomerase complex. Another protein appears to contain a functional PARP domain and is hence called VPARP. The third protein, major vault protein (MVP), is believed to make up 70% of the total mass of the vault complex and to be responsible for the typical barrel-shaped structure of vaults. We have isolated the murine MVP cDNA and compared the amino acid sequence with MVP from other species. Over 90% of sequence identity was found between mouse, human and rat, and a considerable degree of identity between mouse and MVPs from lower eukaryotes. We also found that the genomic structure of the murine MVP gene closely resembles the organization of the human MVP gene, both consisting of 15 exons of which most have exactly the same size. Finally we have isolated a genomic region upstream (and partially overlapping) the first untranslated exon, that displayed promoter activity in a luciferase reporter assay. Furthermore, we showed that the sequences from the first exon together with the 5'-end of the first intron enhance the promoter activity, implying the presence of essential promoter elements in this region. Alignment of the murine promoter region with the homologous sequences of the human gene revealed an identity of 58%. The apparent presence of conserved promoter elements suggests a similar regulation of human and murine MVP expression. PMID:12234684

  13. Effect of Plyometric Training on Handspring Vault Performance and Functional Power in Youth Female Gymnasts.

    PubMed

    Hall, Emma; Bishop, Daniel C; Gee, Thomas I

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of plyometric training (PT) when added to habitual gymnastic training (HT) on handspring vault (HV) performance variables. Twenty youth female competitive gymnasts (Age: 12.5 ± 1.67 y) volunteered to participate and were randomly assigned to two independent groups. The experimental plyometric training group (PTG) undertook a six-week plyometric program, involving two additional 45 min PT sessions a week, alongside their HT, while the control group (CG) performed regular HT only. Videography was used (120 Hz) in the sagittal plane to record both groups performing three HVs for both the baseline and post-intervention trials. Furthermore, participants completed a countermovement jump test (CMJ) to assess the effect of PT on functional power. Through the use of Quintic biomechanics software, significant improvements (P < 0.05) were found for the PTG for run-up velocity, take-off velocity, hurdle to board distance, board contact time, table contact time and post-flight time and CMJ height. However, there were no significant improvements on pre-flight time, shoulder angle or hip angle on the vault for the PTG. The CG demonstrated no improvement for all HV measures. A sport-specific PT intervention improved handspring vault performance measures and functional power when added to the habitual training of youth female gymnasts. The additional two hours plyometric training seemingly improved the power generating capacity of movement-specific musculature, which consequently improved aspects of vaulting performance. Future research is required to examine the whether the improvements are as a consequence of the additional volume of sprinting and jumping activities, as a result of the specific PT method or a combination of these factors. PMID:26859381

  14. PET/CT imaging artifacts.

    PubMed

    Sureshbabu, Waheeda; Mawlawi, Osama

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce the principles of PET/CT imaging and describe the artifacts associated with it. PET/CT is a new imaging modality that integrates functional (PET) and structural (CT) information into a single scanning session, allowing excellent fusion of the PET and CT images and thus improving lesion localization and interpretation accuracy. Moreover, the CT data can also be used for attenuation correction, ultimately leading to high patient throughput. These combined advantages have rendered PET/CT a preferred imaging modality over dedicated PET. Although PET/CT imaging offers many advantages, this dual-modality imaging also poses some challenges. CT-based attenuation correction can induce artifacts and quantitative errors that can affect the PET emission images. For instance, the use of contrast medium and the presence of metallic implants can be associated with focal radiotracer uptake. Furthermore, the patient's breathing can introduce mismatches between the CT attenuation map and the PET emission data, and the discrepancy between the CT and PET fields of view can lead to truncation artifacts. After reading this article, the technologist should be able to describe the principles of PET/CT imaging, identify at least 3 types of image artifacts, and describe the differences between PET/CT artifacts of different causes: metallic implants, respiratory motion, contrast medium, and truncation. PMID:16145223

  15. An Educational PET Camera Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansson, K. E.; Nilsson, Ch.; Tegner, P. E.

    2006-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) cameras are now in widespread use in hospitals. A model of a PET camera has been installed in Stockholm House of Science and is used to explain the principles of PET to school pupils as described here.

  16. Improvement of fuzzy vault scheme for securing key distribution in body sensor network.

    PubMed

    Cao, Cun-Zhang; He, Chen-Guang; Bao, Shu-Di; Li, Ye

    2011-01-01

    The security of Body Sensor Network (BSN) has become a vital concern, as the massive development of BSN applications in healthcare. A family of biometrics based security methods has been proposed in the last several years, where the bio-information derived from physiological signals is used as entity identifiers (EIs) for multiple security purposes, including node recognition and keying material protection. Among them, a method named as Physiological Signal based Key Agreement (PSKA) was proposed to use frequency-domain information of physiological signals together with Fuzzy Vault scheme to secure key distribution in BSN. In this study, the PSKA scheme was firstly analyzed and evaluated for its practical usage in terms of fuzzy performance, the result of which indicates that the scheme is not as good as claimed. An improved scheme with the deployment of Fuzzy Vault and error correcting coding was then proposed, followed by simulation analysis. The results indicate that the improved scheme is able to improve the performance of Fuzzy Vault and thus the success rate of authentication or key distribution between genuine nodes of a BSN. PMID:22255109

  17. Secure voice-based authentication for mobile devices: vaulted voice verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, R. C.; Scheirer, Walter J.; Boult, Terrance E.

    2013-05-01

    As the use of biometrics becomes more wide-spread, the privacy concerns that stem from the use of biometrics are becoming more apparent. As the usage of mobile devices grows, so does the desire to implement biometric identification into such devices. A large majority of mobile devices being used are mobile phones. While work is being done to implement different types of biometrics into mobile phones, such as photo based biometrics, voice is a more natural choice. The idea of voice as a biometric identifier has been around a long time. One of the major concerns with using voice as an identifier is the instability of voice. We have developed a protocol that addresses those instabilities and preserves privacy. This paper describes a novel protocol that allows a user to authenticate using voice on a mobile/remote device without compromising their privacy. We first discuss the Vaulted Verification protocol, which has recently been introduced in research literature, and then describe its limitations. We then introduce a novel adaptation and extension of the Vaulted Verification protocol to voice, dubbed Vaulted Voice Verification (V3). Following that we show a performance evaluation and then conclude with a discussion of security and future work.

  18. Ion cyclotron waves observed near the plasmapause

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fraser, B. J.; Samson, J. C.; Mcpherron, R. L.; Russell, C. T.

    1986-01-01

    Pc2 electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves at 0.1 Hz, near the oxygen cyclotron frequency, have been observed by ISEE-1 and -2 between L = 7.6 - 5.8 on an inbound near equatorial pass in the dusk sector. The waves occurred in a thick plasmapause of width about 1 earth radius and penetrated about 1 earth radius into the plasmasphere. Wave onset was accompanied by significant increases in the thermal (0-100 eV) He(+) and the warm (0.1-16 keV/e) O(+) and He(+) heavy ion populations. Wave polarization is predominantly left-handed with propagation almost parallel to the ambient magnetic field, and the spectral slot and polarization reversal predicted by multicomponent cold plasma propagation theory are identified in the wave data. The results are considered as an example of wave-particle interactions occurring during the outer plasmasphere refilling process at the time of the substorm recovery phase.

  19. New magnet pole shape for isochronous cyclotrons

    SciTech Connect

    Thorn, C.E.; Chasman, C.; Baltz, A.J.

    1981-01-01

    A new design has been developed for shaping pole tips to produce the radially increasing fields required for isochronous cyclotrons. The conventional solid hill poles are replaced by poles mounted over a small secondary gap which tapers radially from maximum at the magnet edge to zero near the center. Field measurements with a model magnet and calculations with the code TRIM show an increase in field at the edge of the magnet without the usual corresponding large increase in fringing, and a radial field shape more nearly field independent than for conventional hills. The flying hills have several advantages for variable energy multiparticle cyclotrons: (1) a large reduction in the power dissipated by isochronizing trim coils; (2) a more constant shape and magnitude flutter factor, eliminating flutter coils and increasing the operating range; and (3) a sharper fall-off of the fringe field, simplifying beam extraction.

  20. New magnet pole shape for isochronous cyclotrons

    SciTech Connect

    Thorn, C.E.; Chasman, C.; Baltz, A.J.

    1981-06-01

    A new design has been developed for shaping pole tips to produce the radially increasing fields required for isochronous cyclotrons. The conventional solid hillpoles are replaced by poles mounted over a small secondary gap which tapers radially from maximum at the magnet edge to zero near the center. Field measurements with a model magnet and calculations with the code TRIM show an increase in field at the edge of the magnet without the usual corresponding large increase in fringing, and a radial field shape more nearly field independent than for conventional hills. The flying hills have several advantages for variable energy multiparticle cyclotrons: (1) a large reduction in the power dissipated by isochronizing trim coils; (2) a more constant shape and magnitude flutter factor, eliminating flutter coils and increasing the operating range; and (3) a sharper fall-off of the fringe field, simplifying beam extraction. 6 figures.

  1. Xe/+/ -induced ion-cyclotron harmonic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, D.

    Xenon ion sources on an ejectable package separated from the main payload during the flights of Porcupine rockets F3 and F4 which were launched from Kiruna, Sweden on March 19 and 31, 1979, respectively. The effects of the xenon ion beam, detected by the LF (f less than 16 kHz) wideband electric field experiment and analyzed by using a sonograph, are discussed. Particular attention is given to the stimulation of the ion-cyclotron harmonic waves which are usually linked to the local proton gyro-frequency, but are sometimes related to half that frequency. It was found that in a plasma dominated by O(+) ions, a small amount (1-10%) of protons could cause an effect such that the O(+) cyclotron harmonic waves are set up by the hydrogen ions, the net result being the observation of harmonic emissions separated by the hydrogen ion gyro frequency.

  2. The mirror and ion cyclotron anisotropy instabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, S. P.

    1992-01-01

    The linear dispersion equation for fully electromagnetic waves and instabilities at arbitrary directions of propagation relative to a background magnetic field B(0) in a homogeneous Vlasov plasma is solved numerically for bi-Maxwellian particle distributions. For isotropic plasmas the dispersion and damping of the three modes below the proton cyclotron frequency are studied as functions of Beta(i) and T(e)/T(i). The transport ratios of helicity, cross-helicity, Alfven ratio, compressibility, and parallel compressibility are defined. Under the condition that the proton temperature perpendicular to B(0) is greater than the parallel temperature, the growth rates and transport ratios of the mirror instability and the ion cyclotron anisotropy instability are examined and compared. Both the proton parallel compressibility and the proton Alfven ratio are significantly different for the two growing modes.

  3. Electrostatic ion cyclotron velocity shear instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemons, D. S.; Winske, D.; Gary, S. P.

    1992-01-01

    A local electrostatic dispersion equation is derived for a shear flow perpendicular to an ambient magnetic field, which includes all kinetic effects and involves only one important parameter. The dispersion equation is cast in the form of Gordeyev integrals and is solved numerically. Numerical solutions indicate that an ion cyclotron instability is excited. The instability occurs roughly at multiples of the ion cyclotron frequency (modified by the shear), with the growth rate or the individual harmonics overlapping in the wavenumber. At large values of the shear parameter, the instability is confined to long wavelengths, but at smaller shear, a second distinct branch at shorter wavelengths also appears. The properties of the instability obtained are compared with those obtained in the nonlocal limit by Ganguli et al. (1985, 1988).

  4. Orbit correction in an orbit separated cyclotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plostinar, C.; Rees, G. H.

    2014-04-01

    The orbit separated proton cyclotron (OSC) described in [1] differs in concept from that of a separated orbit cyclotron (SOC) [2]. Synchronous acceleration in an OSC is based on harmonic number jumps and orbit length adjustments via reverse bending. Four-turn acceleration in the OSC enables it to have four times fewer cryogenic-cavity systems than in a superconducting linac of the same high beam power and energy range. Initial OSC studies identified a progressive distortion of the spiral beam orbits by the off-axis, transverse deflecting fields in its accelerating cavities. Compensation of the effects of these fields involves the repeated use of a cavity field map, in a 3-D linac tracking code, to determine the modified arc bends required for the OSC ring. Subsequent tracking studies confirm the compensation scheme and show low emittance growth in acceleration.

  5. Cyclotron emission from nonuniformly magnetized plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, D.G.; Shvets, V.F. )

    1992-05-18

    A new quantitative representation of the generalized Kirchhoff's law relating the emission from each propagating branch to the absorption along the corresponding branch is established, including for the first time the effects of inhomogeneous magnetic fields on cyclotron and synchrotron radiation from mode conversion theory. The concept of optical depth is revised to include effects of reflection and conversion in addition to transmission. Via the use of a variational principle, the source distribution function for the inhomogeneous emitting layer is calculated.

  6. PET in Cerebrovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Powers, William J.; Zazulia, Allyson R.

    2010-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Investigation of the interplay between the cerebral circulation and brain cellular function is fundamental to understanding both the pathophysiology and treatment of stroke. Currently, PET is the only technique that provides accurate, quantitative in vivo regional measurements of both cerebral circulation and cellular metabolism in human subjects. We review normal human cerebral blood flow and metabolism and human PET studies of ischemic stroke, carotid artery disease, vascular dementia, intracerebral hemorrhage and aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and discuss how these studies have added to our understanding of the pathophysiology of human cerebrovascular disease. PMID:20543975

  7. Microfluidics for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Imaging Probe Development

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ming-Wei; Lin, Wei-Yu; Liu, Kan; Masterman-Smith, Michael; Shen, Clifton Kwang-Fu

    2012-01-01

    Due to increased needs for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scanning, high demands for a wide variety of radiolabeled compounds will have to be met by exploiting novel radiochemistry and engineering technologies to improve the production and development of PET probes. The application of microfluidic reactors to perform radiosyntheses is currently attracting a great deal of interest because of their potential to deliver many advantages over conventional labeling systems. Microfluidic-based radiochemistry can lead to the use of smaller quantities of precursors, accelerated reaction rates and easier purification processes with greater yield and higher specific activity of desired probes. Several ‘proof-of-principle’ examples, along with basics of device architecture and operation, and potential limitations of each design are discussed here. Along with the concept of radioisotope distribution from centralized cyclotron facilities to individual imaging centers and laboratories (“decentralized model”), an easy-to-use, standalone, flexible, fully-automated radiochemical microfluidic platform can open up to simpler and more cost-effective procedures for molecular imaging using PET. PMID:20643021

  8. Imaging Microglial Activation with TSPO PET: Lighting Up Neurologic Diseases?

    PubMed

    Vivash, Lucy; O'Brien, Terence J

    2016-02-01

    Neuroinflammation is implicated in the pathogenesis of a wide range of neurologic and neuropsychiatric diseases. For over 20 years, (11)C-PK11195 PET, which aims to image expression of the translocator protein (TSPO) on activated microglia in the brain, has been used in preclinical and clinical research to investigate neuroinflammation in vivo in patients with brain diseases. However, (11)C-PK11195 suffers from two major limitations: its low brain permeability and high nonspecific and plasma binding results in a low signal-to-noise ratio, and the use of (11)C restricts its use to PET research centers and hospitals with an on-site cyclotron. In recent years, there has been a great deal of work into the development of new TSPO-specific PET radiotracers. This work has focused on fluorinated radiotracers, which would enable wider use and improved signal-to-noise ratios. These radiotracers have been utilized in preclinical and clinical studies of several neurologic diseases with varying degrees of success. Unfortunately, the application of these second-generation TSPO radiotracers has revealed additional problems, including a polymorphism that affects TSPO binding. In this review, the developments in TSPO imaging are discussed, and current limitations and suggestions for future directions are explored. PMID:26697963

  9. Transparency of Magnetized Plasma at Cyclotron Frequency

    SciTech Connect

    G. Shvets; J.S. Wurtele

    2002-03-14

    Electromagnetic radiation is strongly absorbed by a magnetized plasma if the radiation frequency equals the cyclotron frequency of plasma electrons. It is demonstrated that absorption can be completely canceled in the presence of a magnetostatic field of an undulator or a second radiation beam, resulting in plasma transparency at the cyclotron frequency. This effect is reminiscent of the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) of the three-level atomic systems, except that it occurs in a completely classical plasma. Unlike the atomic systems, where all the excited levels required for EIT exist in each atom, this classical EIT requires the excitation of the nonlocal plasma oscillation. The complexity of the plasma system results in an index of refraction at the cyclotron frequency that differs from unity. Lagrangian description was used to elucidate the physics and enable numerical simulation of the plasma transparency and control of group and phase velocity. This control naturally leads to applications for electromagnetic pulse compression in the plasma and electron/ion acceleration.

  10. ITER Ion Cyclotron Heating and Fueling Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen, D.A.; Baylor, L.R.; Combs, S.K.; Fredd, E.; Goulding, R.H.; Hosea, J.; Swain, D.W.

    2005-04-15

    The ITER burning plasma and advanced operating regimes require robust and reliable heating and current drive and fueling systems. The ITER design documents describe the requirements and reference designs for the ion cyclotron and pellet fueling systems. Development and testing programs are required to optimize, validate and qualify these systems for installation on ITER.The ITER ion cyclotron system offers significant technology challenges. The antenna must operate in a nuclear environment and withstand heat loads and disruption forces beyond present-day designs. It must operate for long pulse lengths and be highly reliable, delivering power to a plasma load with properties that will change throughout the discharge. The ITER ion cyclotron system consists of one eight-strap antenna, eight rf sources (20 MW, 35-65 MHz), associated high-voltage DC power supplies, transmission lines and matching and decoupling components.The ITER fueling system consists of a gas injection system and multiple pellet injectors for edge fueling and deep core fueling. Pellet injection will be the primary ITER fuel delivery system. The fueling requirements will require significant extensions in pellet injector pulse length ({approx}3000 s), throughput (400 torr-L/s,) and reliability. The proposed design is based on a centrifuge accelerator fed by a continuous screw extruder. Inner wall pellet injection with the use of curved guide tubes will be utilized for deep fueling.

  11. Laboratory study of auroral cyclotron emission processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronald, Kevin

    2007-11-01

    Electrons encounter an increasing magnetic field and increase in pitch angle as they descend towards the auroral ionosphere, according to the conservation of the magnetic moment. This process results in a horseshoe shaped distribution function in electron velocity space which has been observed by satellites [1]. Research has shown this distribution to be unstable to a cyclotron maser instability [2] and the emitted Auroral Kilometric Radiation is observed to be polarised in the extraordinary mode. Experimental results are presented based on an electron beam of energy 75keV having a cyclotron frequency of 4.45GHz, compressed using magnet coils to mimic the naturally occurring phenomenon. The emitted radiation spectrum was observed to be close to the cyclotron frequency. Electron transport measurements confirmed that the horseshoe distribution function was obtained. Measurements of the antenna pattern radiated from the output window demonstrated the radiation to be polarised and propagating perpendicular to the static magnetic field. The radiation generation efficiency was estimated to be 2% in close agreement to the numerical predictions of the 2D PiC code KARAT. The efficiency was also comparable with estimates of the astrophysical phenomenon. [1] R. J. Strangeway et al, Geophys. Rev. Lett., 25, 1998, pp. 2065-2068 [2] I Vorgul et al, Physics of Plasmas, 12, 2005, pp. 1-8

  12. EVALUATION OF SULFATE ATTACK ON SALTSTONE VAULT CONCRETE AND SALTSTONESIMCO TECHNOLOGIES, INC. PART1 FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C

    2008-08-19

    This report summarizes the preliminary results of a durability analysis performed by SIMCO Technologies Inc. to assess the effects of contacting saltstone Vaults 1/4 and Disposal Unit 2 concretes with highly alkaline solutions containing high concentrations of dissolved sulfate. The STADIUM{reg_sign} code and data from two surrogate concretes which are similar to the Vaults 1/4 and Disposal Unit 2 concretes were used in the preliminary durability analysis. Simulation results for these surrogate concrete mixes are provided in this report. The STADIUM{reg_sign} code will be re-run using transport properties measured for the SRS Vaults 1/4 and Disposal Unit 2 concrete samples after SIMCO personnel complete characterization testing on samples of these materials. Simulation results which utilize properties measured for samples of Vaults 1/4 and Disposal Unit 2 concretes will be provided in Revision 1 of this report after property data become available. The modeling performed to date provided the following information on two concrete mixes that will be used to support the Saltstone PA: (1) Relationship between the rate of advancement of the sulfate front (depth of sulfate ion penetration into the concrete) and the rate of change of the concrete permeability and diffusivity. (2) Relationship between the sulfate ion concentration in the corrosive leachate and the rate of the sulfate front progression. (3) Equation describing the change in hydraulic properties (hydraulic conductivity and diffusivity) as a function of sulfate ion concentration in the corrosive leachate. These results have been incorporated into the current Saltstone PA analysis by G. Flach (Flach, 2008). In addition, samples of the Saltstone Vaults 1/4 and Disposal Unit 2 concretes have been prepared by SIMCO Technologies, Inc. Transport and physical properties for these materials are currently being measured and sulfate exposure testing to three high alkaline, high sulfate leachates provided by SRNL is

  13. PERMEABILITY TESTING OF SIMULATED SALTSTONE CORE AND VAULT 4 CELL E SALTSTONE

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, R.; Dixon, K.

    2011-08-22

    The Engineering Process Development Group (EPD) of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) prepared simulated saltstone core samples to evaluate the effect of sample collection by coring on the permeability of saltstone. The Environmental Restoration Technology Section (ERTS) of the SRNL was given the task of measuring the permeability of cores of simulated saltstone. Saltstone samples collected from Vault 4 Cell E using both dry and wet coring methods were also submitted for permeability analysis. The cores from Vault 4 Cell E were in multiple pieces when they were recovered (Smith, 2008 Cheng et.al, 2009). Permeability testing was only performed on the portions of the core sample that were intact, had no visible fractures or cracks, and met the specifications for 'undisturbed specimens' identified in Method ASTM D5084-03 Standard Test Methods for Measurement of Hydraulic Conductivity of Saturated Porous Materials Using a Flexible Wall Permeameter that was used for the testing. Permeability values for cores of simulated saltstone compared with values from permeability tests conducted on molded saltstone samples by an independent laboratory using the same method. All hydraulic conductivity results for Vault 4 samples exceeded results for both molded and cored saltstone simulant samples. The average hydraulic conductivity result for Vault 4 Cell E samples of 3.9 x 10{sup -7} cm/sec is approximately two orders of magnitude greater than that of the simulated saltstone with an average of 4.1 x 10{sup -9} cm/sec. Numerical flow and transport simulations of moisture movement through saltstone performed for the performance assessment of the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) used 2.0 x 10{sup -9} cm/sec for the hydraulic conductivity of saltstone (Flach et al, 2009). The results for simulated versus actual saltstone were further compared using non-parametric statistics. The results from non-parametric statistical analysis of results indicate that there is at least a

  14. Simulations of ion cyclotron anisotropy instabilities in the terrestrial magnetosheath

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, S. P.; Winske, Dan

    1993-01-01

    Enhanced transverse magnetic fluctuations observed below the proton cyclotron frequency in the terrestrial magnetosheath have been identified as due to the proton cyclotron and helium cyclotron instabilities driven by the T-perpendicular greater than T-parallel condition of the sheath ions. One-dimensional hybrid computer simulations are used here to examine the nonlinear properties of these two growing modes at relatively weak fluctuation energies and for wave vectors parallel to the background magnetic field. Second-order theory predicts fluctuating magnetic field energies at saturation of the proton cyclotron anisotropy instability in semiquantitative agreement with the simulation results. Introduction of the helium component enhances the wave-particle exchange rate for proton anisotropy reduction by that instability, thereby reducing the saturation energy of that mode. The simulations demonstrate that wave-particle interactions by the proton cyclotron and helium cyclotron instabilities lead to the anticorrelation observed by Anderson and Fuselier (1993).

  15. Current driven electrostatic and electromagnetic ion cyclotron instabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forslund, D. W.; Kennel, C. F.; Kindel, J. M.

    1971-01-01

    Growth rates and parameter dependences are calculated for the current driven instabilities of electrostatic (with finite-beta corrections) and electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves. For 0.25 (T sub e)/(T sub i) 2.5, ion cyclotron waves have large growth rates, while ion acoustic waves are still stable. In fusion devices, where electrostatic waves may be stable, electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves are unstable for beta sub i 0.001.

  16. [Pets, veterinarians, and multicultural society].

    PubMed

    Klumpers, M; Endenburg, N

    2009-01-15

    Dutch society comprises a growing percentage of non-Western ethnic minority groups. Little is known about pet ownership among these groups. This study explores some aspects of pet ownership, and the position of veterinarians, among the four largest non-Western ethnic minority groups in the Netherlands. Information was gathered through street interviews with people from a Moroccan, Turkish, Surinamese, or Antillean (including Aruban) background. Five hundred people where interviewed, including 41 pet owners. Results showed that people from non-Western ethnic minorities kept pets less often than Dutch people, with fish and birds being the most frequently kept pets. The number of visits to the veterinary clinic was comparable to that of Dutch pet owners; however, reasons given for the last visit were different. People from non-Western ethnic minorities mostly visited a veterinarian if their pet was ill whereas Dutch people visited the veterinarian if their pet needed to be vaccinated. People from non-Western ethnic minorities were positive about veterinarians, considering that they had sufficient knowledge about and concern for their pets. Moreover, veterinarians were trusted and provided understandable information--the respondents felt that they could go to their veterinarian with any question or problem regarding their pets. Although most respondents considered a visit to the veterinarian expensive, they were more than willing to invest in their pet's health. PMID:19235301

  17. Suppression of cyclotron instability in Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion sources by two-frequency heating

    SciTech Connect

    Skalyga, V.; Izotov, I.; Mansfeld, D.; Kalvas, T.; Koivisto, H.; Komppula, J.; Kronholm, R.; Laulainen, J.; Tarvainen, O.

    2015-08-15

    Multiple frequency heating is one of the most effective techniques to improve the performance of Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion sources. The method increases the beam current and average charge state of the extracted ions and enhances the temporal stability of the ion beams. It is demonstrated in this paper that the stabilizing effect of two-frequency heating is connected with the suppression of electron cyclotron instability. Experimental data show that the interaction between the secondary microwave radiation and the hot electron component of ECR ion source plasmas plays a crucial role in mitigation of the instabilities.

  18. The Michigan State University Cyclotron Laboratory: Its Early Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, Sam M.

    2016-01-01

    The Michigan State University Cyclotron Laboratory was founded in 1958 and over the years grew in stature, becoming the highest-ranked university-based program in nuclear science. Its K50 cyclotron had unmatched capability as a light-ion accelerator and helped to define what a modern cyclotron could do to advance our understanding of nuclei. This paper describes the first twenty years of the Cyclotron Laboratory's evolution and gives some insight into the cultural characteristics of the laboratory, and of its early members, that led it to thrive.

  19. New features of vault architecture and dynamics revealed by novel refinement using the deformable elastic network approach.

    PubMed

    Casañas, Arnau; Querol-Audí, Jordi; Guerra, Pablo; Pous, Joan; Tanaka, Hideaki; Tsukihara, Tomitake; Verdaguer, Nuria; Fita, Ignasi

    2013-06-01

    The vault particle, with a molecular weight of about 10 MDa, is the largest ribonucleoprotein that has been described. The X-ray structure of intact rat vault has been solved at a resolution of 3.5 Å [Tanaka et al. (2009), Science, 323, 384-388], showing an overall barrel-shaped architecture organized into two identical moieties, each consisting of 39 copies of the major vault protein (MVP). The model deposited in the PDB includes 39 MVP copies (half a vault) in the crystal asymmetric unit. A 2.1 Å resolution structure of the seven N-terminal repeats (R1-7) of MVP has also been determined [Querol-Audí et al. (2009), EMBO J. 28, 3450-3457], revealing important discrepancies with respect to the MVP models for repeats R1 and R2. Here, the re-refinement of the vault structure by incorporating the high-resolution information available for the R1-7 domains, using the deformable elastic network (DEN) approach and maintaining strict 39-fold noncrystallographic symmetry is reported. The new refinement indicates that at the resolution presently available the MVP shell can be described well as only one independent subunit organized with perfect D39 molecular symmetry. This refinement reveals that significant rearrangements occur in the N-terminus of MVP during the closing of the two vault halves and that the 39-fold symmetry breaks in the cap region. These results reflect the highly dynamic nature of the vault structure and represent a necessary step towards a better understanding of the biology and regulation of this particle. PMID:23695250

  20. Broad distribution of the multidrug resistance-related vault lung resistance protein in normal human tissues and tumors.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, M A; Scheffer, G L; Flens, M J; Giaccone, G; Broxterman, H J; Meijer, C J; van der Valk, P; Scheper, R J

    1996-03-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) to anticancer drugs is a major cause of treatment failure in cancer. The lung resistance protein LRP is a newly described protein related to MDR in several in vitro models. LRP has been shown to be a strong predictor of poor response to chemotherapy and prognosis in acute myeloid leukemia and in ovarian carcinoma patients. Recently, based on a 57% and 88% amino acid identity with major vault proteins from Dictyostelium discoideum and Rattus norvegicus, respectively, we identified LRP as the human major vault protein, the main component of highly conserved cellular organelles named vaults. We have studied the immunohistochemical expression of LRP in freshly frozen normal human tissues and 174 cancer specimens of 28 tumor types. LRP was broadly distributed in normal and malignant cells, but distinct patterns of expression were noticed. High LRP expression was seen in bronchus, digestive tract, renal proximal tubules, keratinocytes, macrophages, and adrenal cortex whereas varying ing levels were observed in other organs. LRP was detected in all tumor types examined, but its frequency varied, fairly reflecting the chemosensitivity of different cancers. For example, low rates of LRP positivity were seen in testicular cancer, neuroblastoma, and acute myeloid leukemia; intermediate in ovarian cancer; and high in colon, renal, and pancreatic carcinomas. The wide occurrence of LRP in normal and transformed cells in humans, its similar distribution to that of vaults in other species, as well as the high level of conservation among eukaryotic cells of both the amino acid sequence of the major vault protein and the composition and structure of vaults, suggest that vault function is important to eukaryotic cells. PMID:8774142

  1. A comparison of Coulomb and pseudo-Coulomb friction implementations: Application to the table contact phase of gymnastics vaulting.

    PubMed

    Jackson, M I; Hiley, M J; Yeadon, M R

    2011-10-13

    In the table contact phase of gymnastics vaulting both dynamic and static friction act. The purpose of this study was to develop a method of simulating Coulomb friction that incorporated both dynamic and static phases and to compare the results with those obtained using a pseudo-Coulomb implementation of friction when applied to the table contact phase of gymnastics vaulting. Kinematic data were obtained from an elite level gymnast performing handspring straight somersault vaults using a Vicon optoelectronic motion capture system. An angle-driven computer model of vaulting that simulated the interaction between a seven segment gymnast and a single segment vaulting table during the table contact phase of the vault was developed. Both dynamic and static friction were incorporated within the model by switching between two implementations of the tangential frictional force. Two vaulting trials were used to determine the model parameters using a genetic algorithm to match simulations to recorded performances. A third independent trial was used to evaluate the model and close agreement was found between the simulation and the recorded performance with an overall difference of 13.5%. The two-state simulation model was found to be capable of replicating performance at take-off and also of replicating key contact phase features such as the normal and tangential motion of the hands. The results of the two-state model were compared to those using a pseudo-Coulomb friction implementation within the simulation model. The two-state model achieved similar overall results to those of the pseudo-Coulomb model but obtained solutions more rapidly. PMID:21889150

  2. MR/PET or PET/MRI: does it matter?

    PubMed

    Beyer, Thomas; Moser, Ewald

    2013-02-01

    After the very successful clinical introduction of combined PET/CT imaging a decade ago, a hardware combination of PET and MR is following suit. Today, three different approaches towards integrated PET/MR have been proposed: (1) a triple-modality system with a 3T MRI and a time-of-flight PET/CT installed in adjacent rooms, (2) a tandem system with a 3T MRI and a time-of-flight PET/CT in a co-planar installation with a joint patient handling system, and (3) a fully-integrated system with a whole-body PET system mounted inside a 3T MRI system. This special issue of MAGMA brings together contributions from key experts in the field of PET/MR, PET/CT and CT. The various papers share the author's perspectives on the state-of-the-art PET/MR imaging with any of the three approaches mentioned above. In addition to several reviews discussing advantages and challenges of combining PET and MRI for clinical diagnostics, first clinical data are also presented. We expect this special issue to nurture future improvements in hardware, clinical protocols, and efficient post-processing strategies to further assess the diagnostic value of combined PET/MR imaging. It remains to be seen whether a so-called "killer application" for PET/MRI will surface. In that case PET/MR is likely to excel in pre-clinical and selected research applications for now. This special issue helps the readers to stay on track of this exciting development. PMID:23385880

  3. 24 CFR 960.707 - Pet ownership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pet ownership. 960.707 Section 960... ADMISSION TO, AND OCCUPANCY OF, PUBLIC HOUSING Pet Ownership in Public Housing § 960.707 Pet ownership. (a..., may own one or more common household pets or have one or more common household pets present in...

  4. 24 CFR 960.707 - Pet ownership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pet ownership. 960.707 Section 960... ADMISSION TO, AND OCCUPANCY OF, PUBLIC HOUSING Pet Ownership in Public Housing § 960.707 Pet ownership. (a..., may own one or more common household pets or have one or more common household pets present in...

  5. Talking with Children about Furry Classroom Pets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Child Care, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Notes that rodents and rabbits share many characteristics that make them suitable classroom pets and gives background information on rabbits, guinea pigs, hamsters, and gerbils. Offers advice on buying a classroom pet, the pet's home, feeding, helping the children handle the pet, and pet health and family planning. (TJQ)

  6. [The PET, Past and Future].

    PubMed

    Fujii, Hirofumi

    2015-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a unique nuclear medicine test using positron emitters such as 18F and 11C. In PET tests, various kinds of functional aspects of human bodies can be evaluated by using compounds labeled by these positron emitters. Recently, combined scanners of PET and anatomical imaging modalities such as CT and MRI have been developed and functional information with anatomical location can be easily obtained, increasing the usefulness of PET tests. PET tests are now essential imaging tools to diagnose various kinds of disease with functional abnormalities. In the field of oncology, 18F-fluorodeoxy glucose PET tests are routinely used in clinical practice under health insurance. In the field of neurology, PET tests are actively used to investigate cerebral function by labeled neurotransmitters and so on. Currently, brain PET tests to detect beta-amyloid are applied to the diagnosis of dementia. In the field of cardiology, cardiac perfusion and myocardial metabolism are quantitatively measured by using PET and obtained results have successfully revealed the pathogenesis of intractable cardiac diseases. Future technical advances will enhance the usefulness of PET tests more and more. PMID:26753390

  7. Cyclotron Mode Frequency Shifts in Multi-Species Ion Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Affolter, Matthew

    2014-10-01

    Plasmas exhibit a variety of cyclotron modes, which are used in a broad range of devices to manipulate and diagnose charged particles. Here we discuss cyclotron modes in trapped plasmas with a single sign of charge. Collective effects and electric fields shift these cyclotron mode frequencies away from the ``bare'' cyclotron frequencies Ωs ≡ qB /ms c for each species s. These electric fields may arise from applied trap potentials, from space charge including collective effects, and from image charge in the trap walls. We will describe a new laser-thermal cyclotron spectroscopy technique, applied to well-diagnosed pure ion plasmas. This technique enables detailed observations of cos (mθ) surface cyclotron modes with m = 0 , 1, and 2 in near rigid-rotor multi-species ion plasmas. For each species s, we observe cyclotron mode frequency shifts which are dependent on the plasma density through the E × B rotation frequency, and on the charge concentration of species s, in close agreement with recent theory. This includes the novel m = 0 radial ``breathing'' mode, which generates no external electric field except at the plasma ends. These cyclotron frequencies can be used to determine the plasma E × B rotation frequency and the species charge concentrations, in close agreement with our laser diagnostics. Here, this plasma characterization permits a determination of the ``bare'' cyclotron frequencies to an accuracy of 2 parts in 104. These new results give a physical basis for the ``space charge'' and ``amplitude'' calibration equations of cyclotron mass spectroscopy, widely used in molecular chemistry and biology. Also, at high temperatures there is preliminary evidence that radially-standing electrostatic Bernstein waves couple to the surface cyclotron modes, producing new resonant frequencies. Supported by NSF/DOE Partnership grants PHY-0903877 and DE-SC0002451.

  8. A prediction of an optimal performance of the handspring 1 1/2 front salto longhorse vault.

    PubMed

    Gervais, P

    1994-01-01

    The handspring 1 1/2 front salto vault in the tucked position is deemed to be an important high-level vault. It was the compulsory vault of the 1988 Olympics and is a building block for more advanced skills in the handspring family. The purpose of this study was to predict an individual's optimal performance of a handspring 1 1/2 front salto vault. An assessment of the athlete's present performance ability was determined using cinematographical analysis of three trials. These trials were judged as being typical high-level performances of the vault. Secondly, an objective function was identified based on the performance result of points awarded. The objective function was composed of those performance variables that, if maximized, would result in minimal deductions. Postflight height and distance were identified as those variables. Angular momentum was included in a penalty function form to ensure that sufficient angular momentum was present for successful completion of the skill. A Lagrangian approach was used to derive the equations of motion and a Rayleigh-Ritz procedure, using fifth-degree polynomials, was used to represent and discretize the state variables. The predicted optimal performance of the skill displayed greater virtuosity in postflight height, distance and angular momentum when compared to the individual's best trial performance. The results of this study generally fall within the limits observed for elite vaulters. PMID:8106537

  9. (68)Ga PET Ventilation and Perfusion Lung Imaging-Current Status and Future Challenges.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Dale L; Eslick, Enid M; Schembri, Geoffrey P; Roach, Paul J

    2016-09-01

    Gallium-68 ((68)Ga) is a positron-emitting radionuclide suitable for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging that has a number of convenient features-it has a physical half life of 68 minutes, it is generator produced at the PET facility and needs no local cyclotron, and being a radiometal is able to be chelated to a number of useful molecules for diagnostic imaging with PET. (68)Ga has recently been investigated as a radiotracer for ventilation and perfusion (V/Q) lung imaging. It is relatively easy to produce both V/Q radiopharmaceuticals labeled with (68)Ga for PET studies, it offers higher spatial resolution than equivalent SPECT studies, the short half life allows for multiple (repeated) scans on the same day, and low amounts of radiotracer can be used thus limiting the radiation dose to the subject. In the usual clinical setting requiring a V/Q scan, that of suspected pulmonary embolism, the role of (68)Ga V/Q PET may be limited from a logistical perspective, however, in nonacute applications such as lung function evaluation, radiotherapy treatment planning, and respiratory physiology investigations it would appear to be an ideal modality to employ. PMID:27553468

  10. Electron cyclotron heating in TMX-Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Stallard, B.W.; Hooper, E.B. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    TMX-Upgrade, an improved tandem mirror experiment under construction at LLNL, will use electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) to create thermal barriers and to increase the center cell ion confining potential. Gyrotron oscillators (200 kW, 28 GHz) supply the heating power for the potential confined electron (fundamental heating) and the mirror-confined electrons (harmonic heating) in the thermal barriers. Important issues are temperature limitation and microstability for the hot electrons. Off-midplane heating can control anisotropy-driven microstability. Spacially restricting heating offers the possibility of temperature control by limiting the energy for resonant interaction.

  11. Method of enhancing cyclotron beam intensity

    DOEpatents

    Hudson, Ed D.; Mallory, Merrit L.

    1977-01-01

    When an easily ionized support gas such as xenon is added to the cold cathode in sources of the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron, large beam enhancements are produced. For example, .sup.20 Ne.sup.7+ is increased from 0.05 enA to 27 enA, and .sup.16 O.sup.5+ intensities in excess of 35 e.mu.A have been extracted for periods up to 30 minutes. Approximately 0.15 cc/min of the easily ionized support gas is supplied to the ion source through a separate gas feed line and the primary gas flow is reduced by about 30%.

  12. Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating System on EAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lei

    2009-08-01

    Ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) system which will provide at least than 10 MW heating power, with a frequency range from 25 MHz to 100 MHz, is being built up for the EAST. The system includes high-power and wide-frequency radio amplifier, transmission line as well as resonant double loop (RDL) antenna. As a part of this system a sub-ICRH system unit with a ultimate output power of 2.5 MW was set up and employed for heating experiment. The maximum of the launched power reached 200 kW in 2008.

  13. Electron cyclotron emission diagnostics on KSTAR tokamak.

    PubMed

    Jeong, S H; Lee, K D; Kogi, Y; Kawahata, K; Nagayama, Y; Mase, A; Kwon, M

    2010-10-01

    A new electron cyclotron emission (ECE) diagnostics system was installed for the Second Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) campaign. The new ECE system consists of an ECE collecting optics system, an overmode circular corrugated waveguide system, and 48 channel heterodyne radiometer with the frequency range of 110-162 GHz. During the 2 T operation of the KSTAR tokamak, the electron temperatures as well as its radial profiles at the high field side were measured and sawtooth phenomena were also observed. We also discuss the effect of a window on in situ calibration. PMID:21033954

  14. Electron cyclotron emission diagnostics on KSTAR tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, S. H.; Lee, K. D.; Kwon, M.; Kogi, Y.; Kawahata, K.; Nagayama, Y.; Mase, A.

    2010-10-15

    A new electron cyclotron emission (ECE) diagnostics system was installed for the Second Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) campaign. The new ECE system consists of an ECE collecting optics system, an overmode circular corrugated waveguide system, and 48 channel heterodyne radiometer with the frequency range of 110-162 GHz. During the 2 T operation of the KSTAR tokamak, the electron temperatures as well as its radial profiles at the high field side were measured and sawtooth phenomena were also observed. We also discuss the effect of a window on in situ calibration.

  15. The military health system's personal health record pilot with Microsoft HealthVault and Google Health

    PubMed Central

    Barnhill, Rick; Heermann-Do, Kimberly A; Salzman, Keith L; Gimbel, Ronald W

    2011-01-01

    Objective To design, build, implement, and evaluate a personal health record (PHR), tethered to the Military Health System, that leverages Microsoft® HealthVault and Google® Health infrastructure based on user preference. Materials and methods A pilot project was conducted in 2008–2009 at Madigan Army Medical Center in Tacoma, Washington. Our PHR was architected to a flexible platform that incorporated standards-based models of Continuity of Document and Continuity of Care Record to map Department of Defense-sourced health data, via a secure Veterans Administration data broker, to Microsoft® HealthVault and Google® Health based on user preference. The project design and implementation were guided by provider and patient advisory panels with formal user evaluation. Results The pilot project included 250 beneficiary users. Approximately 73.2% of users were <65 years of age, and 38.4% were female. Of the users, 169 (67.6%) selected Microsoft® HealthVault, and 81 (32.4%) selected Google® Health as their PHR of preference. Sample evaluation of users reflected 100% (n=60) satisfied with convenience of record access and 91.7% (n=55) satisfied with overall functionality of PHR. Discussion Key lessons learned related to data-transfer decisions (push vs pull), purposeful delays in reporting sensitive information, understanding and mapping PHR use and clinical workflow, and decisions on information patients may choose to share with their provider. Conclusion Currently PHRs are being viewed as empowering tools for patient activation. Design and implementation issues (eg, technical, organizational, information security) are substantial and must be thoughtfully approached. Adopting standards into design can enhance the national goal of portability and interoperability. PMID:21292705

  16. A Continuous Automated Vault Inventory System (CAVIS) for accountability monitoring of stored nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Pickett, C.A.; Barham, M.A.; Gafford, T.A.; Hutchinson, D.P.; Jordan, J.K.; Maxey, L.C.; Moran, B.W.; Muhs, J.; Nodine, R.; Simpson, M.L.

    1994-12-08

    Nearly all facilities that store hazardous (radioactive or non-radioactive) materials must comply with prevailing federal, state, and local laws. These laws usually have components that require periodic physical inspections to insure that all materials remain safely and securely stored. The inspections are generally labor intensive, slow, put personnel at risk, and only find anomalies after they have occurred. The system described in this paper was developed for monitoring stored nuclear materials resulting from weapons dismantlement, but its applications extend to any storage facility that meets the above criteria. The traditional special nuclear material (SNM) accountability programs, that are currently used within most of the Department of Energy (DOE) complex, require the physical entry of highly trained personnel into SNM storage vaults. This imposes the need for additional security measures, which typically mandate that extra security personnel be present while SNM inventories are performed. These requirements increase labor costs and put additional personnel at risk to radiation exposure. In some cases, individuals have received radiation exposure equivalent to the annual maximum during just one inventory verification. With increasing overhead costs, the current system is rapidly becoming too expensive to operate, the need for an automated method of inventory verification is evident. The Continuous Automated Vault Inventory System (CAVIS) described in this paper was designed and prototyped as a low cost, highly reliable, and user friendly system that is capable of providing, real-time weight, gamma. and neutron energy confirmation from each item stored in a SNM vault. This paper describes the sensor technologies, the CAVIS prototype system (built at Y- 12 for highly enriched uranium storage), the technical requirements that must be achieved to assure successful implementation, and descriptions of sensor technologies needed for a plutonium facility.

  17. 324 Radiochemical engineering cells and high level vault tanks mixed waste compliance status

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-29

    The 324 Building in the Hanford 300 Area contains Radiochemical Engineering Cells and High Level Vault tanks (the {open_quotes}REC/HLV{close_quotes}) for research and development activities involving radioactive materials. Radioactive mixed waste within this research installation, found primarily in B-Cell and three of the high level vault tanks, is subject to RCRA/DWR ({open_quotes}RCRA{close_quotes}) regulations for storage. This white paper provides a baseline RCRA compliance summary of MW management in the REC/HLV, based on best available knowledge. The REC/HLV compliance project, of which this paper is a part, is intended to achieve the highest degree of compliance practicable given the special technical difficulties of managing high activity radioactive materials, and to assure protection of human health and safety and the environment. The REC/HLV was constructed in 1965 to strict standards for the safe management of highly radioactive materials. Mixed waste in the REC/HLV consists of discarded tools and equipment, dried feed stock from nuclear waste melting experiments, contaminated particulate matter, and liquid feed stock from various experimental programs in the vault tanks. B-Cell contains most of these materials. Total radiological inventory in B-Cell is estimated at 3 MCi, about half of which is potentially {open_quotes}dispersible{close_quotes}, that is, it is in small pieces or mobile particles. Most of the mixed waste currently in the REC/HLV was generated or introduced before mixed wastes were subjected to RCRA in 1987.

  18. Computational Vision in Uv-Mapping of Textured Meshes Coming from Photogrammetric Recovery: Unwrapping Frescoed Vaults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robleda, P. G.; Caroti, G.; Martínez-Espejo Zaragoza, I.; Piemonte, A.

    2016-06-01

    Sometimes it is difficult to represent "on paper" the existing reality of architectonic elements, depending on the complexity of his geometry, but not only in cases with complex geometries: non-relief surfaces, can need a "special planar format" for its graphical representation. Nowadays, there are a lot of methods to obtain tridimensional recovery of our Cultural Heritage with different ranges of the relationship accuracy / costs, even getting high accuracy using "low-cost" recovery methods as digital photogrammetry, which allow us easily to obtain a graphical representation "on paper": ortho-images of different points of view. This can be useful for many purposes but, for others, an orthographic projection is not really very interesting. In non-site restoration tasks of frescoed vaults, a "planar format" representation in needed to see in true magnitude the paintings represented on the intrados vault, because of the general methodology used: gluing the fresco on a fabric, removing the fresco-fabric from the support, moving to laboratory, removing the fresco from the fabric, restoring the fresco, gluing back the restored fresco on another fabric, laying the restored fresco on the original location and removing the fabric. Because of this, many times, an unfolded model is needed, in a similar way a cylinder or cone can be unfolded, but in this case with a texture included: UV unwrapping. Unfold and fold-back processes, can be especially interesting in restoration field of frescoed vaults and domes at: chromatic recovery of paintings, reconstruction of partially missed geometries, transference of paintings on surfaces, etc.

  19. Progress reported in PET recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-06-01

    The Goodyear Polyester Division has demonstrated its ability to break down polyethylene terephthalate (PET) from recycled plastic soft drink bottles and remanufacture the material into PET suitable for containers. Most people are familiar with PET in the form of lightweight, shatter resistant beverage bottles. About 20 percent of these beverage containers currently are being recycled. The recycled PET is currently used in many applications such as carpeting, pillow stuffing, sleeping bag filling, insulation for water heaters and non-food containers. This is the first step of Goodyear's increased efforts to recycle PET from containers into a material suitable for food packing. The project is extremely complex, involving sophisticated understanding of the chemical reactions involved, PET production and the technology testing protocols necessary to design a process that addresses all the technical, safety, and regulatory concerns. The research conducted so far indicated that additional processing beyond simply cleaning the shredded material, called flake, will be required to assure a quality polymer.

  20. Radiological performance assessment for the E-Area Vaults Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, J.R.

    2000-04-11

    This report is the first revision to ``Radiological Performance Assessment for the E-Area Vaults Disposal Facility, Revision 0'', which was issued in April 1994 and received conditional DOE approval in September 1994. The title of this report has been changed to conform to the current name of the facility. The revision incorporates improved groundwater modeling methodology, which includes a large data base of site specific geotechnical data, and special Analyses on disposal of cement-based wasteforms and naval wastes, issued after publication of Revision 0.

  1. Effect of Saltstone Vault Roof Configuration on the Rate of Contaminant Transport

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, R.H.; Yu, A.D.; Lam, Poh-Sang

    1994-12-28

    At the Savannah River Site, low-level radioactive decontaminated salt solution is mixed with slag, flyash, and cement to form a grout-like material called ``Saltstone``. The Saltstone is poured into concrete vaults constructed at the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). The impact of SDF on groundwater has been studied in a radiological performance assessment (PA). Sophisticated groundwater models were used to predict the groundwater flow and contaminant transport problems. The modeling effort was divided into two parts: the unsaturated-zone model and the saturated zone model. One of the major performance objectives is to show that the impacted groundwater will be in compliance with the Safe Drinking Water Act.

  2. Total vaginectomy for refractory vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia III of the vaginal vault

    PubMed Central

    Youn, Ju Hyun; Lee, Min Ah; Ju, Woong; Kim, Seoung Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia III, is a relatively rare disease. Consequently standard treatments for this disease were not established until recently. Although several convenient methods, such as laser ablation, 5-fluorouracil topical injection, and radiation therapy, have been applied for treating these lesions, surgical treatments, including vaginectomy, have not yet been attempted, as they would likely be accompanied by technical difficulties and various complications. Herein, we report a case of refractory vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia III in the vaginal vault that was successfully treated with a total vaginectomy. PMID:26866041

  3. Development of accelerator mass spectrometer based on a compact cyclotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.-W.; Kim, D.-G.

    2011-07-01

    A small cyclotron has been designed for accelerator mass spectrometry, and the injection beam line is constructed as part of prototyping. Mass resolution of the cyclotron is estimated to be around 4000. The design of the cyclotron was performed with orbit-tracking computations using 3D magnetic and electric fields, and beam optics of the injection line was calculated using the codes such as IGUN and TRANSPORT. The radial injection scheme is chosen to place a beam on equilibrium orbit of the cyclotron. The injection line includes an ion source, Einzel lens, rf buncher, 90° dipole magnet, and quadrupole triplet magnet. A carbon beam was extracted from the front part of the injection line. An rf cavity system for the cyclotron was built and tested. A multi channel plates (MCP) detector to measure low-current ion beams was also tested. Design considerations are given to analyzing a few different radioisotopes in form of positive ions as well as negative ions.

  4. Design Studies for an Ultra High Field K80 Cyclotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, Jeff; Blosser, Henry

    1996-05-01

    We are investigating the use of a wide-bore, 8 T magnet as a component of an ultra high field cyclotron. Such a machine would use the highest magnetic field of any cyclotron, to date. The K80 `Eight Tesla Cyclotron' would have roughly the same magnetic rigidity (Bρ) as the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron in a package of only one fourth the radius, with a corresponding reduction in cost. This cyclotron could accelerate particles with a charge state Q/A = 1/4 to a final energy of between 5 and 6 MeV/nucleon, the energy range currently being used to study superdeformed, high angular momentum nuclei that result from glancing collisions. Studies thus far have stressed achieving sufficient vertical focusing (ν_z) despite the high magnetic field level. The high field also reduces the space available for central region structures, which complicates early-turn focusing, orbit centering and the design of the spiral inflector.

  5. A new generation of medical cyclotrons for the 90`s

    SciTech Connect

    Milton, B.F.

    1995-08-01

    Cyclotrons continue to be efficient accelerators for use in radio-isotope production. In recent years, developments in accelerator technology have greatly increased the practical beam current in these machines while also improving the overall system reliability. These developments combined with the development of new isotopes for medicine and industry, and a retiring of older machines indicates a strong future for commercial cyclotrons. In this paper the authors will survey recent developments in the areas of cyclotron technology as they relate to the new generation of commercial cyclotrons. Existing and potential markets for these cyclotrons will be presented. They will also discuss the possibility of systems capable of extracted energies up to 150 MeV and extracted beam currents of up to 2.0 mA.

  6. Cyclotron resonance effects on stochastic acceleration of light ionospheric ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, N.; Schunk, R. W.; Sojka, J. J.

    1982-01-01

    The production of energetic ions with conical pitch angle distributions along the auroral field lines is a subject of considerable current interest. There are several theoretical treatments showing the acceleration (heating) of the ions by ion cyclotron waves. The quasi-linear theory predicts no acceleration when the ions are nonresonant. In the present investigation, it is demonstrated that the cyclotron resonances are not crucial for the transverse acceleration of ions by ion cyclotron waves. It is found that transverse energization of ionospheric ions, such as He(+), He(++), O(++), and O(+), is possible by an Electrostatic Hydrogen Cyclotron (EHC) wave even in the absence of cyclotron resonance. The mechanism of acceleration is the nonresonant stochastic heating. However, when there are resonant ions both the total energy gain and the number of accelerated ions increase with increasing parallel wave number.

  7. Cyclotron resonance effects on stochastic acceleration of light ionospheric ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, N.; Schunk, R. W.; Sojka, J. J.

    1982-09-01

    The production of energetic ions with conical pitch angle distributions along the auroral field lines is a subject of considerable current interest. There are several theoretical treatments showing the acceleration (heating) of the ions by ion cyclotron waves. The quasi-linear theory predicts no acceleration when the ions are nonresonant. In the present investigation, it is demonstrated that the cyclotron resonances are not crucial for the transverse acceleration of ions by ion cyclotron waves. It is found that transverse energization of ionospheric ions, such as He(+), He(++), O(++), and O(+), is possible by an Electrostatic Hydrogen Cyclotron (EHC) wave even in the absence of cyclotron resonance. The mechanism of acceleration is the nonresonant stochastic heating. However, when there are resonant ions both the total energy gain and the number of accelerated ions increase with increasing parallel wave number.

  8. Numerical and experimental analysis of an in-scale masonry cross-vault prototype up to failure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Michela; Calderini, Chiara; Milani, Gabriele; Lagomarsino, Sergio

    2015-12-01

    A heterogeneous full 3D non-linear FE approach is validated against experimental results obtained on an in-scale masonry cross vault assembled with dry joints, and subjected to various loading conditions consisting on imposed displacement combinations to the abutments. The FE model relies into a discretization of the blocks by means of few rigid-infinitely resistant parallelepiped elements interacting by means of planar four-noded interfaces, where all the deformation (elastic and inelastic) occurs. The investigated response mechanisms of vault are the shear in-plane distortion and the longitudinal opening and closing mechanism at the abutments. After the validation of the approach on the experimentally tested cross-vault, a sensitivity analysis is conducted on the same geometry, but in real scale, varying mortar joints mechanical properties, in order to furnish useful hints for safety assessment, especially in presence of seismic action.

  9. Sustained raised intracranial pressure implicated only by pattern reversal visual evoked potentials after cranial vault expansion surgery.

    PubMed

    Liasis, Alki; Thompson, Dorothy A; Hayward, Richard; Nischal, Ken K

    2003-07-01

    Craniosynostosis, the premature fusion of cranial sutures, may be associated with raised intracranial pressure (ICP) with or without a reduced intracranial volume. Regardless of the aetiology, raised ICP may result in optic neuropathy, the timely detection of which can prevent further visual deterioration. Raised ICP is usually treated with craniofacial surgery such as cranial vault expansion. In this case study, we recorded serial pattern reversal visual evoked potentials (pVEPs) and obtained digital optic disc images before and after cranial vault expansion surgery. The amplitude of the pVEPs continued to decrease after cranial vault expansion surgery, prompting further neuroimaging that implicated a blocked ventriculo-peritoneal shunt. Only after shunt revision did the pVEP amplitude increase. Throughout the monitoring period, there was no change in the appearance of either the right or left optic disk, nor a consistent change in visual acuity. PMID:12845197

  10. Numerical and experimental analysis of an in-scale masonry cross-vault prototype up to failure

    SciTech Connect

    Rossi, Michela; Calderini, Chiara; Lagomarsino, Sergio; Milani, Gabriele

    2015-12-31

    A heterogeneous full 3D non-linear FE approach is validated against experimental results obtained on an in-scale masonry cross vault assembled with dry joints, and subjected to various loading conditions consisting on imposed displacement combinations to the abutments. The FE model relies into a discretization of the blocks by means of few rigid-infinitely resistant parallelepiped elements interacting by means of planar four-noded interfaces, where all the deformation (elastic and inelastic) occurs. The investigated response mechanisms of vault are the shear in-plane distortion and the longitudinal opening and closing mechanism at the abutments. After the validation of the approach on the experimentally tested cross-vault, a sensitivity analysis is conducted on the same geometry, but in real scale, varying mortar joints mechanical properties, in order to furnish useful hints for safety assessment, especially in presence of seismic action.

  11. RPC PET: Status and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couceiro, M.; Blanco, A.; Ferreira, Nuno C.; Ferreira Marques, R.; Fonte, P.; Lopes, L.

    2007-10-01

    The status of the resistive plate chamber (RPC)-PET technology for small animals is briefly reviewed and its sensitivity performance for human PET studied through Monte-Carlo simulations. The cost-effectiveness of these detectors and their very good timing characteristics open the possibility to build affordable Time of Flight (TOF)-PET systems with very large fields of view. Simulations suggest that the sensitivity of such systems for human whole-body screening, under reasonable assumptions, may exceed the present crystal-based PET technology by a factor up to 20.

  12. Extended suicide with a pet.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Brian K

    2013-01-01

    The combination of the killing of a pet and a suicide is a perplexing scenario that is largely unexplored in the literature. Many forensic psychiatrists and psychologists may be unaccustomed to considering the significance of the killing of a pet. The subject is important, however, because many people regard their pets as members of their family. A case is presented of a woman who killed her pet dog and herself by carbon monoxide poisoning. The purpose of this article is to provide an initial exploration of the topic of extended suicide with a pet. Forensic mental health evaluations may have a role in understanding the etiology of this event and in opining as to the culpability of individuals who attempt to or successfully kill a pet and then commit suicide. Because the scientific literature is lacking, there is a need to understand this act from a variety of perspectives. First, a social and anthropological perspective will be presented that summarizes the history of the practice of killing of one's pet, with a focus on the ancient Egyptians. A clinical context will examine what relationship animals have to mental illness. A vast body of existing scientific data showing the relevance of human attachment to pets suggests that conclusions from the phenomena of homicide-suicide and filicide-suicide are applicable to extended suicide with a pet. Finally, recommendations will be proposed for both clinical and forensic psychiatrists faced with similar cases. PMID:24051598

  13. Acceleration of tritons with a compact cyclotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegmann, H.; Huenges, E.; Muthig, H.; Morinaga, H.

    1981-01-01

    With the compact cyclotron at the Faculty of the Technical University of Munich, tritons have been accelerated to an energy of 7 MeV. A safe and reliable operation of the gas supply for the ion source was obtained by a new tritium storage system. A quantity of 1500 Ci tritium is stored by two special Zr-Al getter pumps in a non-gaseous phase. The tritium can be released in well-defined amounts by heating the getter material. During triton acceleration the pressure in the cyclotron vacuum chamber is maintained only by a large titanium sputter-ion pump, thus forming a closed vacuum system without any exhaust of tritium contaminated gas. Any tritium contaminations in the air can be detected by an extremely sensitive tritium monitoring system. The triton beam with a maximum intensity of 30 μA has been used so far to produce neutron-rich radioisotopes such as 28Mg, 43K or 72Zn, which are successfully applied in tracer techniques in the studies of biological systems.

  14. Ion cyclotron bands in VLF saucers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maeda, Kaichi; Fung, Shing F.; Calvert, Wynne

    1990-01-01

    In the wideband VLF data obtained by the polar orbiting DE-1 satellite over the polar night ion trough region of the upper ionosphere, conspicuous frequency-band structures are found to occur both in absorption and emission, particularly associating with VLF saucers. The attenuation bands indicate that the ions of atomic hydrogen from the polar ionosphere are accelerated by the ac electric fields of VLF waves oscillating normal to the static magnetic field, analogous to a cyclotron accelerator. The observed frequencies of the cyclotron harmonics suggest that the acceleration is taking place in the layer below the satellite at a geocentric distance of less than about 1.5 earth radii. This example indicates the existence of upward propagating hiss at those altitudes inside the auroral zone. On the other hand, the frequency shifts of the emission bands are attributed to a combination of two different types of Doppler shift, one due to the orbital motion of the satellite and the other due to the upward motion of the medium at the emission source. This indicates the existence of an upward plasma flow at the source, with a velocity of the order of 20 km/s inside the saucer. The amount of this frequency shift decreases with increasing harmonic order, indicating a higher phase velocity for the electrostatic waves of higher harmonic order.

  15. Ion cyclotron emission studies: Retrospects and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorelenkov, N. N.

    2016-05-01

    Ion cyclotron emission (ICE) studies emerged in part from the papers by A.B. Mikhailovskii published in the 1970s. Among the discussed subjects were electromagnetic compressional Alfvénic cyclotron instabilities with the linear growth rate √ {n_α /n_e } driven by fusion products, -particles which draw a lot of attention to energetic particle physics. The theory of ICE excited by energetic particles was significantly advanced at the end of the 20th century motivated by first DT experiments on TFTR and subsequent JET experimental studies which we highlight. More recently ICE theory was advanced by detailed theoretical and experimental studies on spherical torus (ST) fusion devices where the instability signals previously indistinguishable in high aspect ratio tokamaks due to high toroidal magnetic field became the subjects of experiments. We discuss further prospects of ICE theory applications for future burning plasma (BP) experiments such as those to be conducted in ITER device in France, where neutron and gamma rays escaping the plasma create extremely challenging conditions fusion alpha particle diagnostics.

  16. Loss cone-driven cyclotron maser instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang-Yun; Yi, Sibaek; Lim, Dayeh; Kim, Hee-Eun; Seough, Jungjoon; Yoon, Peter H.

    2013-11-01

    The weakly (or mildly) relativistic cyclotron maser instability has been successfully applied to explain the Earth's auroral kilometric radiation and other radio sources in nature and laboratory. Among the most important physical parameters that determine the instability criteria is the ratio of plasma-to-electron cyclotron frequencies, ωp/Ω. It is therefore instructive to consider how the normalized maximum growth rate, γmax/Ω, varies as a function of ωp/Ω. Although many authors have already discussed this problem, in order to complete the analysis, one must also understand how the radiation emission angle corresponding to the maximum growth, θmax, scales with ωp/Ω, since the propagation angle determines the radiation beaming pattern. Also, the behavior of the frequency corresponding to the maximum growth rate at each harmonic, (ωmax-sΩ)/Ω, where s=1,2,3,ċ , as a function of ωp/Ωis of importance for a complete understanding of the maser excitation. The present paper computes these additional quantities for the first time, making use of a model loss cone electron distribution function.

  17. Cyclotron Resonances in Electron Cloud Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Celata, C. M.; Furman, Miguel A.; Vay, J.-L.; Ng, J. S.T.; Grote, D. P.; Pivi, M. T. F.; Wang, L. F.

    2009-04-29

    A new set of resonances for electron cloud dynamics in the presence of a magnetic field has been found. For short beam bunch lengths and low magnetic fields where lb<< 2pi c/omega c (with lb = bunch length, omega c = non-relativistic cyclotron frequency) resonances between the bunch frequency and harmonics of the electron cyclotron frequency cause an increase in the electron cloud density in narrow ranges of magnetic field near the resonances. For ILC parameters the increase in the density is up to a factor ~;;3, and the spatial distribution of the electrons is broader near resonances, lacking the well-defined vertical density"stripes" found for non-resonant cases. Simulations with the 2D computer code POSINST, as well as a single-particle tracking code, were used to elucidate the physics of the dynamics. The existence of the resonances has been confirmed in experiments at PEP-II. The resonances are expected to affect the electron cloud dynamics in the fringe fields of conventional lattice magnets and in wigglers, where the magnetic fields are low. Results of the simulations and experimental observations, the reason for the bunch-length dependence, and details of the dynamics are discussed here.

  18. Cyclotron Resonances in Electron Cloud Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Celata, C M; Furman, M A; Vay, J L; Grote, D P; Ng, J T; Pivi, M F; Wang, L F

    2009-05-05

    A new set of resonances for electron cloud dynamics in the presence of a magnetic field has been found. For short beam bunch lengths and low magnetic fields where l{sub b} << 2{pi}{omega}{sub c}, (l{sub b} = bunch duration, {omega}{sub c} = non-relativistic cyclotron frequency) resonances between the bunch frequency and harmonics of the cyclotron frequency cause an increase in the electron cloud density in narrow ranges of magnetic field near the resonances. For ILC parameters the increase in the density is up to a factor {approx} 3, and the spatial distribution of the electrons is broader near resonances, lacking the well-defined density 'stripes' of multipactoring found for non-resonant cases. Simulations with the 2D computer code POSINST, as well as a single-particle tracking code, were used to elucidate the physics of the dynamics. The resonances are expected to affect the electron cloud dynamics in the fringe fields of conventional lattice magnets and in wigglers, where the magnetic fields are low. Results of the simulations, the reason for the bunch-length dependence, and details of the dynamics will be discussed.

  19. Cyclotron and linac production of Ac-225.

    PubMed

    Melville, Graeme; Allen, Barry J

    2009-04-01

    Radium needles that were once implanted into tumours as a cancer treatment are now obsolete and constitute a radioactive waste problem, as their half-life is 1600 years. The reduction of radium by photonuclear transmutation by bombarding Ra-226 with high-energy photons from a medical linear accelerator (linac) has been investigated. A linac dose of 2800 Gy produced about 2.4 MBq (64 microCi) of Ra-225, which decays to Ac-225 and can then be used for 'Targeted Alpha Therapy' (TAT) of cancer. This result, while consistent with theoretical calculations, is far too low to be of practical use unless much larger quantities of radium are irradiated. The increasing application of Ac-225 for cancer therapy indicates the potential need for its increased production and availability. This paper investigates the possibility of producing of Ac-225 in commercial quantities, which could potentially reduce obsolete radioactive material and displace the need for expensive importation of Ac-225 from the USA and Russia in the years ahead. Scaled up production of Ac-225 could theoretically be achieved by the use of a high current cyclotron or linac. Production specifications are determined for a linac in terms of current, pulse length and frequency, as well as an examination of other factors such as radiation issues and radionuclei separation. Yields are compared with those calculated for the Australian National Cyclotron in Sydney. PMID:19135381

  20. Fundamental and harmonic electron cyclotron maser emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winglee, R. M.

    1985-10-01

    The plasma conditions and features of the energetic electron distribution in electron cyclotron maser emission for which growth in a particular mode is favored when the ratio of the plasma frequency omega(p) to the electron cyclotron frequency Omega(e) is greater than about 0.3 are determined. It is shown that growth at the fundamental is suppressed as omega(p)/Omega(e) increases and emission at harmonics of Omega(e) dominates. Growth at harmonics of Omega(e) is not restricted to the O and X modes, but can also occur for the Z mode. Whether or not growth in a particular mode dominates depends both on omega(p)/Omega(e) and on the form of the distribution. If the density of the energetic electrons is sufficiently large, the dispersion relations of the O and X modes are modified so that the group velocities of the growing O and X mode waves can be comparable to that of the growing Z mode waves.

  1. Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating on TEXTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Westerhof, E.; Hoekzema, J.A.; Hogeweij, G.M.D.

    2005-02-15

    TEXTOR is equipped with two gyrotrons at 110 and 140 GHz, respectively. Both share a single power supply and a confocal quasi-optical transmission line. They cannot be operated simultaneously. The 110-GHz gyrotron with limited power and pulse length (300 kW; 200 ms) has been used in a first series of experiments on electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) and electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) and for collective Thomson scattering (CTS) diagnostics of energetic ions. In the future the 110-GHz gyrotron will be operated exclusively for CTS diagnostics, while for ECRH and ECCD, the newly installed 140-GHz, high-power (800-kW), long-pulse (>3-s) gyrotron is now available. The highlights of first ECRH experiments with the 110-GHz gyrotron are reported. These include observations of internal transport barriers with ECRH on various target plasmas: in the current plateau phase of both ohmic and radiation improved mode (RI-mode) discharges. In addition, sawtooth control by localized ECRH is demonstrated. First results on CTS include the observation of the slowing down of energetic ions and of the redistribution of energetic ions in sawtooth crashes.

  2. Coherent cyclotron motion beyond Kohn's theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maag, T.; Bayer, A.; Baierl, S.; Hohenleutner, M.; Korn, T.; Schüller, C.; Schuh, D.; Bougeard, D.; Lange, C.; Huber, R.; Mootz, M.; Sipe, J. E.; Koch, S. W.; Kira, M.

    2016-02-01

    In solids, the high density of charged particles makes many-body interactions a pervasive principle governing optics and electronics. However, Walter Kohn found in 1961 that the cyclotron resonance of Landau-quantized electrons is independent of the seemingly inescapable Coulomb interaction between electrons. Although this surprising theorem has been exploited in sophisticated quantum phenomena, such as ultrastrong light-matter coupling, superradiance and coherent control, the complete absence of nonlinearities excludes many intriguing possibilities, such as quantum-logic protocols. Here, we use intense terahertz pulses to drive the cyclotron response of a two-dimensional electron gas beyond the protective limits of Kohn's theorem. Anharmonic Landau ladder climbing and distinct terahertz four- and six-wave mixing signatures occur, which our theory links to dynamic Coulomb effects between electrons and the positively charged ion background. This new context for Kohn's theorem unveils previously inaccessible internal degrees of freedom of Landau electrons, opening up new realms of ultrafast quantum control for electrons.

  3. Ion cyclotron emission studies: Retrospects and prospects

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Gorelenkov, N. N.

    2016-06-05

    Ion cyclotron emission (ICE) studies emerged in part from the papers by A.B. Mikhailovskii published in the 1970s. Among the discussed subjects were electromagnetic compressional Alfv,nic cyclotron instabilities with the linear growth rate similar ~ √(nα/ne) driven by fusion products, -particles which draw a lot of attention to energetic particle physics. The theory of ICE excited by energetic particles was significantly advanced at the end of the 20th century motivated by first DT experiments on TFTR and subsequent JET experimental studies which we highlight. Recently ICE theory was advanced by detailed theoretical and experimental studies on spherical torus (ST) fusionmore » devices where the instability signals previously indistinguishable in high aspect ratio tokamaks due to high toroidal magnetic field became the subjects of experiments. Finally, we discuss prospects of ICE theory applications for future burning plasma (BP) experiments such as those to be conducted in ITER device in France, where neutron and gamma rays escaping the plasma create extremely challenging conditions fusion alpha particle diagnostics.« less

  4. Major vault protein supports glioblastoma survival and migration by upregulating the EGFR/PI3K signalling axis

    PubMed Central

    Lötsch, Daniela; Steiner, Elisabeth; Holzmann, Klaus; Spiegl-Kreinecker, Sabine; Pirker, Christine; Hlavaty, Juraj; Petznek, Helga; Hegedus, Balazs; Garay, Tamas; Mohr, Thomas; Sommergruber, Wolfgang; Grusch, Michael; Berger, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Despite their ubiquitous expression and high conservation during evolution, precise cellular functions of vault ribonucleoparticles, mainly built of multiple major vault protein (MVP) copies, are still enigmatic. With regard to cancer, vaults were shown to be upregulated during drug resistance development as well as malignant transformation and progression. Such in a previous study we demonstrated that human astrocytic brain tumours including glioblastoma are generally high in vault levels while MVP expression in normal brain is comparably low. However a direct contribution to the malignant phenotype in general and that of glioblastoma in particular has not been established so far. Thus we address the questions whether MVP itself has a pro-tumorigenic function in glioblastoma. Based on a large tissue collection, we re-confirm strong MVP expression in gliomas as compared to healthy brain. Further, the impact of MVP on human glioblastoma aggressiveness was analysed by using gene transfection, siRNA knock-down and dominant-negative genetic approaches. Our results demonstrate that MVP/vaults significantly support migratory and invasive competence as well as starvation resistance of glioma cells in vitro and in vivo. The enhanced aggressiveness was based on MVP-mediated stabilization of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/phosphatidyl-inositol-3-kinase (PI3K) signalling axis. Consequently, MVP overexpression resulted in enhanced growth and brain invasion in human glioblastoma xenograft models. Our study demonstrates, for the first time, that vaults have a tumour-promoting potential by stabilizing EGFR/PI3K-mediated migration and survival pathways in human glioblastoma. PMID:24243798

  5. Cyclotron Production of Technetium-99m

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagnon, Katherine M.

    Technetium-99m (99mTc) has emerged as the most widely used radionuclide in medicine and is currently obtained from a 99Mo/ 99mTc generator system. At present, there are only a handful of ageing reactors worldwide capable of producing large quantities of the parent isotope, 99Mo, and owing to the ever growing shutdown periods for maintenance and repair of these ageing reactors, the reliable supply 99mTc has been compromised in recent years. With an interest in alternative strategies for producing this key medical isotope, this thesis focuses on several technical challenges related to the direct cyclotron production of 99mTc via the 100Mo(p,2n)99mTc reaction. In addition to evaluating the 100Mo(p,2n)99mTc and 100Mo(p,x)99Mo reactions, this work presented the first experimental evaluation of the 100Mo(p,2n) 99gTc excitation function in the range of 8-18 MeV. Thick target calculations suggested that large quantities of cyclotron-produced 99mTc may be possible. For example, a 6 hr irradiation at 500 μA with an energy window of 18→10 MeV is expected to yield 1.15 TBq of 99mTc. The level of coproduced 99gTc contaminant was found to be on par with the current 99Mo/99mTc generator standard eluted with a 24 hr frequency. Highly enriched 100Mo was required as the target material for 99mTc production and a process for recycling of this expensive material is presented. An 87% recovery yield is reported, including metallic target preparation, irradiation, 99mTc extraction, molybdate isolation, and finally hydrogen reduction to the metal. Further improvements are expected with additional optimization experiments. A method for forming structurally stable metallic molybdenum targets has also been developed. These targets are capable of withstanding more than a kilowatt of beam power and the reliable production and extraction of Curie quantities of 99mTc has been demonstrated. With the end-goal of using the cyclotron-produced 99mTc clinically, the quality of the cyclotron

  6. Major vault protein forms complexes with hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1alpha and reduces HIF-1alpha level in ACHN human renal adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Iwashita, Ken-ichi; Ikeda, Ryuji; Takeda, Yasuo; Sumizawa, Tomoyuki; Furukawa, Tatsuhiko; Yamaguchi, Tatsuya; Akiyama, Shin-ichi; Yamada, Katsushi

    2010-04-01

    Vaults are evolutionarily highly conserved ribonucleoprotein (RNP) particles with a hollow barrel-like structure. Although roles in multidrug resistance and innate immunity have been suggested, the physiological function of vaults remains unclear. Major vault protein (MVP), the main component of the vault particle, has been reported to be induced by hypoxia. However, there are no reports about the effect of vaults on cellular responses to hypoxia. We thus examined whether vaults are implicated in cellular responses to hypoxia. In this study, we focused on hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha), which is a master regulator of hypoxic responses, and found that: (i) MVP knockdown by RNA interference increases HIF-1alpha protein levels induced by hypoxia and hypoxia mimetics; (ii) MVP knockdown does not affect HIF-1alpha mRNA levels, but decreases the ubiquitination and degradation of HIF-1alpha protein; and (iii) vaults form complexes with HIF-1alpha, PHD2, and pVHL. Taken together, these results suggest that vaults function as scaffolds in HIF-1alpha degradation pathway and promote the ubiquitination and degradation of HIF-1alpha. PMID:20175781

  7. NeuroVault.org: a web-based repository for collecting and sharing unthresholded statistical maps of the human brain

    PubMed Central

    Gorgolewski, Krzysztof J.; Varoquaux, Gael; Rivera, Gabriel; Schwarz, Yannick; Ghosh, Satrajit S.; Maumet, Camille; Sochat, Vanessa V.; Nichols, Thomas E.; Poldrack, Russell A.; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Yarkoni, Tal; Margulies, Daniel S.

    2015-01-01

    Here we present NeuroVault—a web based repository that allows researchers to store, share, visualize, and decode statistical maps of the human brain. NeuroVault is easy to use and employs modern web technologies to provide informative visualization of data without the need to install additional software. In addition, it leverages the power of the Neurosynth database to provide cognitive decoding of deposited maps. The data are exposed through a public REST API enabling other services and tools to take advantage of it. NeuroVault is a new resource for researchers interested in conducting meta- and coactivation analyses. PMID:25914639

  8. Cranial vault trauma and selective mortality in medieval to early modern Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Boldsen, Jesper L.; Milner, George R.; Weise, Svenja

    2015-01-01

    To date, no estimates of the long-term effect of cranial vault fractures on the risk of dying have been generated from historical or prehistoric skeletons. Excess mortality provides a perspective on the efficacy of modern treatment, as well as the human cost of cranial injuries largely related to interpersonal violence in past populations. Three medieval to early modern Danish skeletal samples are used to estimate the effect of selective mortality on males with cranial vault injuries who survived long enough for bones to heal. The risk of dying for these men was 6.2 times higher than it was for their uninjured counterparts, estimated through a simulation study based on skeletal observations. That is about twice the increased risk of dying experienced by modern people with traumatic brain injuries. The mortality data indicate the initial trauma was probably often accompanied by brain injury. Although the latter cannot be directly observed in skeletal remains, it can be inferred through the relative risks of dying. The ability to identify the effects of selective mortality in this skeletal sample indicates it must be taken into account in paleopathological research. The problem is analogous to extrapolating from death register data to modern communities, so epidemiological studies based on mortality data have the same inherent possibility of biases as analyses of ancient skeletons. PMID:25624493

  9. Range and Image Based Modelling: a way for Frescoed Vault Texturing Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caroti, G.; Martínez-Espejo Zaragoza, I.; Piemonte, A.

    2015-02-01

    In the restoration of the frescoed vaults it is not only important to know the geometric shape of the painted surface, but it is essential to document its chromatic characterization and conservation status. The new techniques of range-based and image-based modelling, each with its limitations and advantages, offer a wide range of methods to obtain the geometric shape. In fact, several studies widely document that laser scanning enable obtaining three-dimensional models with high morphological precision. However, the quality level of the colour obtained with built-in laser scanner cameras is not comparable to that obtained for the shape. It is possible to improve the texture quality by means of a dedicated photographic campaign. This procedure, however, requires to calculate the external orientation of each image identifying the control points on it and on the model through a costly step of post processing. With image-based modelling techniques it is possible to obtain models that maintain the colour quality of the original images, but with variable geometric precision, locally lower than the laser scanning model. This paper presents a methodology that uses the camera external orientation parameters calculated by image based modelling techniques to project the same image on the model obtained from the laser scan. This methodology is tested on an Italian mirror (a schifo) frescoed vault. In the paper the different models, the analysis of precision and the efficiency evaluation of proposed methodology are presented.

  10. A Computational Analysis of Bone Formation in the Cranial Vault in the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chanyoung; Richtsmeier, Joan T.; Kraft, Reuben H.

    2015-01-01

    Bones of the cranial vault are formed by the differentiation of mesenchymal cells into osteoblasts on a surface that surrounds the brain, eventually forming mineralized bone. Signaling pathways causative for cell differentiation include the actions of extracellular proteins driven by information from genes. We assume that the interaction of cells and extracellular molecules, which are associated with cell differentiation, can be modeled using Turing’s reaction–diffusion model, a mathematical model for pattern formation controlled by two interacting molecules (activator and inhibitor). In this study, we hypothesize that regions of high concentration of an activator develop into primary centers of ossification, the earliest sites of cranial vault bone. In addition to the Turing model, we use another diffusion equation to model a morphogen (potentially the same as the morphogen associated with formation of ossification centers) associated with bone growth. These mathematical models were solved using the finite volume method. The computational domain and model parameters are determined using a large collection of experimental data showing skull bone formation in mouse at different embryonic days in mice carrying disease causing mutations and their unaffected littermates. The results show that the relative locations of the five ossification centers that form in our model occur at the same position as those identified in experimental data. As bone grows from these ossification centers, sutures form between the bones. PMID:25853124

  11. Continuous dielectrophoretic particle separation using a microfluidic device with 3D electrodes and vaulted obstacles.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yankai; Ren, Yukun; Jiang, Hongyuan

    2015-08-01

    This paper reports a microfluidic separation device combining 3D electrodes and vaulted obstacles to continuously separate particles experiencing strong positive dielectrophoresis (DEP) from particles experiencing weak positive DEP, or from particles experiencing negative DEP. The separation is achieved by first focusing the particle mixture into a narrow stream by a hydrodynamic focusing flow, and then deviating them into different outlets by AC DEP. The vaulted obstacles facilitate the separation by both increasing the non-uniformity of the electric field, and influencing the particles to move in regions strongly affected by DEP. The 3D electrodes give rise to a spatially non-uniform electric field and extend DEP effect to the channel height. Numerical simulations are performed to investigate the effects of the obstacles on electric field distribution and particle trajectories so as to optimize the obstacle height and compare with the experimental results. The performance of the device is assessed by separating 25 μm gold-coated particles from 10 μm particles in different flow rates by positive DEP and negative DEP, and also separating 25 μm gold-coated particles from yeast cells using only positive DEP. The experimental observation shows a reasonable agreement with numerical simulation results. PMID:25962351

  12. The Quiet Sun Network at Subarcsecond Resolution: VAULT Observations and Radiative Transfer Modeling of Cool Loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patsourakos, S.; Gouttebroze, P.; Vourlidas, A.

    2007-08-01

    One of the most enigmatic regions of the solar atmosphere is the transition region (TR), corresponding to plasmas with temperatures intermediate of the cool, few thousand K, chromosphere and the hot, few million K, corona. The traditional view is that the TR emission originates from a thin thermal interface in hot coronal structures, connecting their chromosphere with their corona. This paradigm fails badly for cool plasmas (~T<105 K), since it predicts emission orders of magnitude less than what it is observed. It was therefore proposed that the ``missing'' TR emission could originate from tiny, isolated from the hot corona, cool loops at TR temperatures. A major problem in investigating this proposal is the very small sizes of the hypothesized cool loops. Here, we report the first spatially resolved observations of subarcsecond-scale looplike structures seen in the Lyα line made by the Very High Angular Resolution Ultraviolet Telescope (VAULT). The subarcsecond (~0.3") resolution of VAULT allows us to directly view and resolve looplike structures in the quiet Sun network. We compare the observed intensities of these structures with simplified radiative transfer models of cool loops. The reasonable agreement between the models and the observations indicates that an explanation of the observed fine structure in terms of cool loops is plausible.

  13. Diffuse large B cell lymphoma of the cranial vault: two case reports.

    PubMed

    Tashiro, Ryosuke; Kanamori, Masayuki; Suzuki, Hiroyoshi; Utsunomiya, Akihiro; Meguro, Kuniaki; Uenohara, Hiroshi; Tominaga, Teiji

    2015-10-01

    Malignant lymphoma of the cranial vault is a rare entity and the tumor growth patterns are not well understood. Here we report two cases of malignant lymphoma involving the scalp and epidural space with slight changes in the intervening skull. A 63-year-old woman presented with a scalp mass in her right frontal area. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging demonstrated mass lesions in the scalp and epidural space with slight osteolytic changes in the intervening skull. She underwent resection of the lesions. A 53-year-old man presented with a mass in his right frontal area. CT and MR imaging showed mass lesions in the scalp and epidural space without changes in the skull. He underwent resection of the lesions. The histopathological diagnosis was diffuse large B cell lymphoma in both cases. Microscopic examination of the intervening skull found that the bone marrow was diffusely replaced by lymphoma cells, and lymphoma cells extended to the extra- or intra-cranial space along the emissary veins without destruction of the cortical or trabecular bone. These histopathological findings explain the radiological findings and provide the clues to elucidate the mechanism of extension of cranial vault lymphoma. PMID:26177806

  14. An Order-of-Magnitude Estimation of Benzene Concentration in Saltstone Vault

    SciTech Connect

    ALEXANDER, CHOI

    2005-02-28

    The contents of Tank 48 that include the tetraphenylborate (TPB) precipitates of potassium and cesium will be grouted and stored in the Saltstone vault. The grouting process is exothermic, which should accelerate the decomposition of TPB precipitates eventually to benzene. Because the vault is not currently outfitted with an active ventilation system, there is a concern that a mixture of flammable gases may form in the vapor space of each cell filled with the curing grout. The purpose of this study was to determine if passive breathing induced by the diurnal oscillations of atmospheric pressure would provide any mitigating measure against potential flammability. Specifically, it was requested that a set of algorithms be developed that would predict the equilibrium concentration of benzene as a function of benzene generation rate, fill height, and the amplitude of the barometric pressure oscillations. These algorithms were to be derived based on several simplifying assumptions so that order of magnitude estimates could be made quickly for scoping purposes. This memo documents the resulting algorithms along with those key assumptions made. These algorithms were then applied to simulate several test cases, including the baseline case where the cell was filled to the maximum height of 25 ft at the bulk benzene generation rate of 3.4 g/hr.

  15. Electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves observed near the oxygen cyclotron frequency by ISEE 1 and 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fraser, B. J.; Samson, J. C.; Hu, Y. D.; Mcpherron, R. L.; Russell, C. T.

    1992-01-01

    The first results of observations of ion cyclotron waves by the elliptically orbiting ISEE 1 and 2 pair of spacecraft are reported. The most intense waves (8 nT) were observed in the outer plasmasphere where convection drift velocities were largest and the Alfven velocity was a minimum. Wave polarization is predominantly left-handed with propagation almost parallel to the ambient magnetic field, and the spectral slot and polarization reversal predicted by cold plasma propagation theory are identified in the wave data. Computations of the experimental wave spectra during the passage through the plasmapause show that the spectral slots relate to the local plasma parameters, possibly suggesting an ion cyclotron wave growth source near the spacecraft. A regular wave packet structure seen over the first 30 min of the event is attributed to the modulation of this energy source by the Pc 5 waves seen at the same time.

  16. PET/CT: fundamental principles.

    PubMed

    Seemann, Marcus D

    2004-05-28

    Positron emission tomography (PET) facilitates the evaluation of metabolic and molecular characteristics of a wide variety of cancers, but is limited in its ability to visualize anatomical structures. Computed tomography (CT) facilitates the evaluation of anatomical structures of cancers, but can not visualize their metabolic and molecular aspects. Therefore, the combination of PET and CT provides the ability to accurately register metabolic and molecular aspects of disease with anatomical findings, adding further information to the diagnosis and staging of tumors. The recent generation of high performance PET/CT scanners combines a state of the art full-ring 3D PET scanner and a high-end 16-slice CT scanner. In PET/CT scanners, a CT examination is used for attenuation correction of PET images rather than standard transmission scanning using superset 68 Ge sources. This reduces the examination time, but metallic objects and contrast agents that alter the CT image quality and quantitative measurements of standardized uptake values (SUV) may lead to artifacts in the PET images. Hybrid PET/CT imaging will be very important in oncological applications in the decades to come, and possibly for use in cancer screening and cardiac imaging. PMID:15257877

  17. Get Set for a Pet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeRosa, Bill

    1987-01-01

    Describes a game in which students deal with some of the factors involved in being a responsible pet owner. Includes a list of the materials needed for the game and provides the game board and the game pieces, along with a fold-out poster about neutering and spaying pets. (TW)

  18. Meet the Alpha-Pets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zitlaw, Jo Ann Bruce; Frank, Cheryl Standish

    1985-01-01

    "Alpha-Pets" are the focal point of an integrated, multidisciplinary curriculum. Each pet is featured for a week in a vocabulary-rich story and introduces related activities beginning with the featured letter, such as the four food groups during Freddie Fish's week or universe during Ulysses Unicorn's week. (MT)

  19. Electron cyclotron resonance ion source DECRIS-4 for the U400 cyclotron

    SciTech Connect

    Leporis, M.; Bekhterev, V.; Bogomolov, S.; Efremov, A.; Gulbekian, G.; Kostyukhov, Yu.; Lebedev, A.; Loginov, V.; Yazvitsky, N.

    2006-03-15

    The electron cyclotron resonance ion source DECRIS-4 has been designed and constructed at the FLNR to be used as a second injector of heavy multiply charged ions for the U-400 cyclotron. After the modification of the injection side this source can be also used as a 'charge breeder' (the ''1{sup +}{yields}n{sup +}'' method) for the second phase of the Dubna radioactive ion beams project. The main feature of the ion source design is the creation of the extended resonance zone in a comparatively compact electron cyclotron resonance ion source. For this purpose the axial magnetic field is formed with a flat minimum. In this case the superposition of the axial magnetic field and the radial field of the permanent-magnet hexapole, made from NdFeB, allows one to create a larger resonance volume. For the plasma heating a microwave frequency of 14 GHz is used. In this paper we will present the basic design features of the ion source, including the results of the magnetic-field measurements. Some preliminary results of ion source tests are also reported.

  20. Ion Cyclotron Waves in the Solar Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, H. Y.; Jian, L. K.; Russell, C. T.; Omidi, N.

    2016-02-01

    The ion cyclotron waves (ICWs) refer to electromagnetic transverse waves with nearly field-aligned propagation, circular polarization, and frequencies near the proton gyro-frequency. This chapter presents the ICW studies observed in the solar wind over a wide range of heliocentric distances, at all solar longitudes, and at locations far from planets or comets. To better understand the wave source region, case studies have been performed on a special group of ICW storm events, in which the left-handed (LH) and right-handed (RH) waves were observed simultaneously in the spacecraft frame. The study in the chapter assumes the waves are generated through one possible mechanism (i.e., the temperature anisotropy instability). The variations of the wave properties with heliocentric distances may also provide information on the possible wave generation sources and the effects of the wave to the solar wind plasma.

  1. Folded waveguide coupler for ion cyclotron heating

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, T.L.; Chen, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    A new type of waveguide coupler for plasma heating in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies is described. The coupler consists of a series of interleaved metallic vanes within a rectangular enclosure analogous to a wide rectangular waveguide that has been ''folded'' several times. At the mouth of the coupler, a plate is attached which contains coupling apertures in each fold or every other fold of the waveguide, depending upon the wavenumber spectrum desired. This plate serves primarily as a wave field polarizer that converts coupler fields to the polarization of the fast magnetosonic wave within the plasma. Theoretical estimates indicate that the folded waveguide is capable of high-efficiency, multimegawatt operation into a plasma. Bench tests have verified the predicted field structure within the waveguide in preparation for high-power tests on the Radio Frequency Test Facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  2. Cyclotron side band emissions from magnetospheric electrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maeda, K.

    1975-01-01

    Very low frequency emissions with subharmonic cyclotron frequency from magnetospheric electrons were detected by the S(3)-A satellite (Explorer 45) whose orbit is close to the magnetic equatorial plane where the wave-particle interaction is most efficient. These emissions were observed during the main phase of a geomagnetic storm in the nightside of the magnetosphere outside of the plasmasphere. During the event of these side-band emissions, the pitch angle distributions of high energy electrons (greater than 50 keV) and of energetic protons (greater than 100 keV) showed remarkable changes with time, whereas those of low energy electrons and protons remained approximately isotropic. In this type of event, emissions consist essentially of two bands, the one below the equatorial electron gyrofrequency, and the other above. The emissions below are whistler mode, and the emissions above are electrostatic mode.

  3. Single-pass ion cyclotron resonance absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Breizman, Boris N.; Arefiev, Alexey V.

    2001-03-01

    The ion response to the rf-field during single-pass ion-cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) can be essentially nonlinear. This paper presents a self-consistent theory of the rf-wave propagation and ion motion through the resonance. An important ingredient of the problem is the ion flow along the magnetic field. The flow velocity limits the time the ions spend at the resonance, which in turn limits the ion energy gain. A feature that makes the problem nonlinear is that the flow accelerates under the effect of the {nabla}B force and rf-pressure. This acceleration can produce a steep decrease in the plasma density at the resonance, resulting in partial reflection of the incident wave.

  4. Electron Cyclotron Resonances in Electron Cloud Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Celata, Christine; Celata, C.M.; Furman, Miguel A.; Vay, J.-L.; Yu, Jennifer W.

    2008-06-25

    We report a previously unknown resonance for electron cloud dynamics. The 2D simulation code"POSINST" was used to study the electron cloud buildup at different z positions in the International Linear Collider positron damping ring wiggler. An electron equilibrium density enhancement of up to a factor of 3 was found at magnetic field values for which the bunch frequency is an integral multiple of the electron cyclotron frequency. At low magnetic fields the effects of the resonance are prominent, but when B exceeds ~;;(2 pi mec/(elb)), with lb = bunch length, effects of the resonance disappear. Thus short bunches and low B fields are required for observing the effect. The reason for the B field dependence, an explanation of the dynamics, and the results of the 2D simulations and of a single-particle tracking code used to elucidate details of the dynamics are discussed.

  5. Improving cancer treatment with cyclotron produced radionuclides. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, S.M.; Finn, R.D.

    1993-11-01

    This report describes our continuing long term goal of promoting nuclear medicine applications by improving the scientific basis for tumor diagnosis, treatment and treatment follow-up based on the use of cyclotron produced radiotracers in oncology. The program includes 3 interactive components: Radiochemistry/Cyclotron; Pharmacology; and Immunology. An essential strategy is as follows: novel radionuclides and radiotracers developed in the Radiochemistry/Cyclotron section will be employed in the Pharmacology and Immunology sections during the next year. The development of novel radionuclides and tracers is of course useful in and of itself, but their utility is greatly enhanced by the interaction with the immunology and pharmacology components of the program.

  6. Evidence for cyclotron maser emission from the sun and stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dulk, G. A.; Winglee, R. M.

    1987-01-01

    Recent observational and theoretical work on cyclotron maser instability is reviewed, with emphasis on the similarities between microwave spike bursts from the sun and bursts from stars and planets. Results on particle-in-cell simulations are discussed, and it is suggested that such studies may provide further information on the amount and efficiency of energy transfer by the maser radiation. Observational tests of the cyclotron maser theory are considered, in addition to the role of the cyclotron maser as an energy transport mechanism in solar flares.

  7. Ionospheric modification at twice the electron cyclotron frequency.

    PubMed

    Djuth, F T; Pedersen, T R; Gerken, E A; Bernhardt, P A; Selcher, C A; Bristow, W A; Kosch, M J

    2005-04-01

    In 2004, a new transmission band was added to the HAARP high-frequency ionospheric modification facility that encompasses the second electron cyclotron harmonic at altitudes between approximately 220 and 330 km. Initial observations indicate that greatly enhanced airglow occurs whenever the transmission frequency approximately matches the second electron cyclotron harmonic at the height of the upper hybrid resonance. This is the reverse of what happens at higher electron cyclotron harmonics. The measured optical emissions confirm the presence of accelerated electrons in the plasma. PMID:15903924

  8. Global Simulation of Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khazanov, G. V.; Gamayunov, K.; Gallagher, D. L.; Kozyra, J. U.

    2007-01-01

    It is well known that the effects of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves on ring current (RC) ion and radiation belt (RB) electron dynamics strongly depend on such particle/wave characteristics as the phase-space distribution function, frequency, wave-normal angle, wave energy, and the form of wave spectral energy density. The consequence is that accurate modeling of EMIC waves and RC particles requires robust inclusion of the interdependent dynamics of wave growth/damping, wave propagation, and particles. Such a self-consistent model is being progressively developed by Khazanov et al. [2002 - 2007]. This model is based on a system of coupled kinetic equations for the RC and EMIC wave power spectral density along with the ray tracing equations. We will discuss the recent progress in understanding EMIC waves formation mechanisms in the inner magnetosphere. This problem remains unsettled in spite of many years of experimental and theoretical studies. Modern satellite observations by CRRES, Polar and Cluster still do not reveal the whole picture experimentally since they do not stay long enough in the generation region to give a full account of all the spatio-temporal structure of EMIC waves. The complete self-consistent theory taking into account all factors significant for EMIC waves generation remains to be developed. Several mechanisms are discussed with respect to formation of EMIC waves, among them are nonlinear modification of the ionospheric reflection by precipitating energetic protons, modulation of ion-cyclotron instability by long-period (Pc3/4) pulsations, reflection of waves from layers of heavy-ion gyroresonances, and nonlinearities of wave generation process. We show that each of these mechanisms have their attractive features and explains certain part experimental data but any of them, if taken alone, meets some difficulties when compared to observations. We conclude that development of a refined nonlinear theory and further correlated analysis

  9. Global Simulation of Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khazanov, George V.; Gallagher, D. L.; Kozyra, J. U.

    2007-01-01

    It is very well known that the effects of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves on ring current (RC) ion and radiation belt (RB) electron dynamics strongly depend on such particle/wave characteristics as the phase-space distribution function, frequency, wave-normal angle, wave energy, and the form of wave spectral energy density. The consequence is that accurate modeling of EMIC waves and RC particles requires robust inclusion of the interdependent dynamics of wave growth/damping, wave propagation, and particles. Such a self-consistent model is being progressively developed by Khazanov et al. This model is based on a system of coupled kinetic equations for the RC and EMIC wave power spectral density along with the ray tracing equations. We will discuss the recent progress in understanding EMIC waves formation mechanisms in the inner magnetosphere. This problem remains unsettled in spite of many years of experimental and theoretical studies. Modern satellite observations by CRRES, Polar and Cluster still do not reveal the whole picture experimentally since they do not stay long enough in the generation region to give a full account of all the spatio-temporal structure of EMIC waves. The complete self-consistent theory taking into account all factors significant for EMIC waves generation remains to be developed. Several mechanisms are discussed with respect to formation of EMIC waves, among them are nonlinear modification of the ionospheric reflection by precipitating energetic protons, modulation of ion-cyclotron instability by long-period (Pc3/4) pulsations, reflection of waves from layers of heavy-ion gyroresonances, and nonlinearities of wave generation process. We show that each of these mechanisms have their attractive features and explains certain part experimental data but any of them, if taken alone, meets some difficulties when compared to observations. We conclude that development of a refined nonlinear theory and further correlated analysis of modern

  10. The NSCL cyclotron gas stopper - Entering commissioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, S.; Bollen, G.; Chouhan, S.; Das, J. J.; Green, M.; Magsig, C.; Morrissey, D. J.; Ottarson, J.; Sumithrarachchi, C.; Villari, A. C. C.; Zeller, A.

    2016-06-01

    Linear gas stopping cells have been used successfully at NSCL to slow down ions produced by projectile fragmentation from the 100 MeV/u to the keV energy range. These 'stopped beams' have first been used for low-energy high precision experiments and more recently for NSCLs re-accelerator ReA. A gas-filled reverse cyclotron is currently under construction by the NSCL to complement the existing stopping cells: Due to its extended stopping length, efficient stopping and fast extraction is expected even for light and medium-mass ions, which are difficult to thermalize in linear gas cells. The device is based on a 2.6 T maximum-field cyclotron-type magnet to confine the injected beam while it is slowed down in ≈100 mbar of LN2-temperature helium gas. Once thermalized, the beam will be transported to the center of the device by a traveling-wave RF-carpet system, extracted along the symmetry axis with an ion conveyor and miniature RF-carpets, and accelerated to a few tens of keV of energy for delivery to the users. The superconducting magnet has been constructed on a 60 kV platform and energized to its nominal field strength. The magnet's two cryostats use 3 cryo-refrigerators each and liquid-nitrogen cooled thermal shields to cool the coil pair to superconductivity. This concept, chosen not to have to rely on external liquid helium, has been working well. Measurements of axial and radial field profiles confirm the field calculations. The individual RF-ion guiding components for low-energy ion transport through the device have been tested successfully. The beam stopping chamber with its 0.9 m-diameter RF carpet system and the ion extraction system are being prepared for installation inside the magnet for low-energy ion transport tests.

  11. The NSCL cyclotron gas stopper - Under construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, S.; Bollen, G.; Brodeur, M.; Chouhan, S. S.; DeKamp, J.; Gehring, A. E.; Joshi, N. S.; Magsig, C.; Morrissey, D. J.; Ringle, R.; Ottarson, J.; Zeller, A. F.

    2013-12-01

    Rare isotopes are produced at the NSCL by projectile fragmentation at energies on the order of 100 MeV/u for a wide range of research. In order to provide these exotic ions to low-energy high precision experiments such as the Penning-trap mass spectrometer LEBIT and the collinear laser spectroscopy setup, or to the NSCL's re-accelerator (ReA), the beam must be slowed down into the eV range by solid degraders and interaction with buffer gas. A novel gas-filled reverse cyclotron is currently under construction by the NSCL and will complement a recently installed linear gas-filled cell. The new device is based on a 2.6 T maximum-field cyclotron-type three-sectored magnet to confine the injected beam while it is slowed down in ≈100 mbar of high-purity helium gas, cooled to liquid-nitrogen temperature. Once thermalized, the beam is transported to the center of the device by a novel RF-carpet system, extracted along the symmetry axis and accelerated to a few tens of keV of energy for delivery to the users. The device has been characterized in numerous simulations with full 3D models of its magnetic field. The beam transport has been modeled from the fragment separator to the point where they reach thermal energies. The simulations indicate that very efficient stopping and fast extraction will be possible even for light and medium-mass ions, which are difficult to efficiently thermalize in linear gas cells. Construction of the device is well underway and initial tests are planned for later this year. The design and the predicted performance of the machine is discussed and its construction status is given.

  12. Recent development in PET instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Peng, By Hao; Levin, Craig S

    2010-09-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is used in the clinic and in vivo small animal research to study molecular processes associated with diseases such as cancer, heart disease, and neurological disorders, and to guide the discovery and development of new treatments. This paper reviews current challenges of advancing PET technology and some of newly developed PET detectors and systems. The paper focuses on four aspects of PET instrumentation: high photon detection sensitivity; improved spatial resolution; depth-of-interaction (DOI) resolution and time-of-flight (TOF). Improved system geometry, novel non-scintillator based detectors, and tapered scintillation crystal arrays are able to enhance the photon detection sensitivity of a PET system. Several challenges for achieving high resolution with standard scintillator-based PET detectors are discussed. Novel detectors with 3-D positioning capability have great potential to be deployed in PET for achieving spatial resolution better than 1 mm, such as cadmium-zinc-telluride (CZT) and position-sensitive avalanche photodiodes (PSAPDs). DOI capability enables a PET system to mitigate parallax error and achieve uniform spatial resolution across the field-of-view (FOV). Six common DOI designs, as well as advantages and limitations of each design, are discussed. The availability of fast scintillation crystals such as LaBr(3), and the silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) greatly advances TOF-PET development. Recent instrumentation and initial results of clinical trials are briefly presented. If successful, these technology advances, together with new probe molecules, will substantially enhance the molecular sensitivity of PET and thus increase its role in preclinical and clinical research as well as evaluating and managing disease in the clinic. PMID:20497121

  13. Regulation of cytochrome P450 3A4 by small vault RNAb derived from the non-coding vault RNA1 of multidrug resistance-linked vault particle.

    PubMed

    Meng, Chunjie; Wei, Zhiyun; Zhang, Yiting; Yan, Liang; He, Hang; Zhang, Lirong; Xing, Qinghe

    2016-07-01

    Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) is the most abundant cytochrome P450 enzyme in human liver and intestine, contributing to the metabolism of >60% of all pharmaceuticals. The expression levels of hepatic CYP3A4 show great inter‑individual variation. However, the detailed regulatory mechanism of CYP3A4 expression has remained largely elusive. It has been reported that the non‑coding RNA small vault (sv)RNAb targets the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of CYP3A4 in MCF7 cells. However, to date, the role of svRNAb has not been examined in human liver tissue and hepatic cell lines such as HepG2, which was the aim of the present study. Polymerase chain reaction analysis indicated that the expression of CYP3A4 was significantly different within a study cohort (n=19). In addition, a significant negative correlation was observed between svRNAb and CYP3A4 expression in human liver tissue samples. Furthermore, a luciferase assay on HepG2 cells verified that svRNAb directly targets CYP3A4 and regulates the expression of CYP3A4 by interacting with the validated binding sites of the CYP3A4 3'UTR. The results provided insight into the variation of the expression of CYP3A4 among individuals and provided a novel method for the adjustment of personalized drug treatment. Furthermore, the present study provided a mechanism of the regulatory role of svRNAb in multidrug‑resistant cells. PMID:27177257

  14. Gothic Churches in Paris ST Gervais et ST Protais Image Matching 3d Reconstruction to Understand the Vaults System Geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capone, M.; Campi, M.; Catuogno, R.

    2015-02-01

    This paper is part of a research about ribbed vaults systems in French Gothic Cathedrals. Our goal is to compare some different gothic cathedrals to understand the complex geometry of the ribbed vaults. The survey isn't the main objective but it is the way to verify the theoretical hypotheses about geometric configuration of the flamboyant churches in Paris. The survey method's choice generally depends on the goal; in this case we had to study many churches in a short time, so we chose 3D reconstruction method based on image dense stereo matching. This method allowed us to obtain the necessary information to our study without bringing special equipment, such as the laser scanner. The goal of this paper is to test image matching 3D reconstruction method in relation to some particular study cases and to show the benefits and the troubles. From a methodological point of view this is our workflow: - theoretical study about geometrical configuration of rib vault systems; - 3D model based on theoretical hypothesis about geometric definition of the vaults' form; - 3D model based on image matching 3D reconstruction methods; - comparison between 3D theoretical model and 3D model based on image matching;

  15. Response to requests by FMF and DWPF concerning disposal of FMF saltstone drums in Z-Area vaults

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C.A.; Cook, J.R.

    1989-07-25

    Disposal of FMF saltstone in 55 gallon drums in the Z-Area Industrial Waste Landfill requires modification of the landfill permit. Approximately 5000 drums of FMF saltstone are currently stored on SC DHEC-permitted concrete storage pads adjacent to the burial ground. At a meeting with DWPF, FMF, and EPS on July 18, 1989, IWT agreed to supply the following information: (1) Consequence of disposal of CCA (Cu, Cr, As) treated wood pallets in the Z-Area vaults. (Four drums of FMF saltstone are currently banded to each pallet.) (2) Consequence of placing partially filled FMF drums in the Z-Area vaults. (3) Formulation for clean grout back-fill. Grout will be emplaced around and over the drums, thereby isolating them from environment (rainwater) prior to vault capping. (4) Maximum loading of FMF saltstone drums in the Z-Area vaults. (5) Consequence of void volume in drums, in clean grout, or both on groundwater modeling results. This document is a response to the above requests.

  16. 7 CFR 502.11 - Pets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pets. 502.11 Section 502.11 Agriculture Regulations of... CONDUCT ON BELTSVILLE AGRICULTURE RESEARCH CENTER PROPERTY, BELTSVILLE, MARYLAND § 502.11 Pets. Pets... vaccinations. Pets that are the property of employees residing on BARC must be up to date on their...

  17. 36 CFR 1002.15 - Pets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pets. 1002.15 Section 1002.15....15 Pets. (a) The following are prohibited: (1) Possessing a pet in a public building, public... possession of pets by the Board. This paragraph shall not apply to guide dogs accompanying visually...

  18. 36 CFR 2.15 - Pets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pets. 2.15 Section 2.15 Parks... USE AND RECREATION § 2.15 Pets. (a) The following are prohibited: (1) Possessing a pet in a public... area closed to the possession of pets by the superintendent. This subparagraph shall not apply to...

  19. 7 CFR 502.11 - Pets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pets. 502.11 Section 502.11 Agriculture Regulations of... CONDUCT ON BELTSVILLE AGRICULTURE RESEARCH CENTER PROPERTY, BELTSVILLE, MARYLAND § 502.11 Pets. Pets... vaccinations. Pets that are the property of employees residing on BARC must be up to date on their...

  20. 7 CFR 502.11 - Pets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pets. 502.11 Section 502.11 Agriculture Regulations of... CONDUCT ON BELTSVILLE AGRICULTURE RESEARCH CENTER PROPERTY, BELTSVILLE, MARYLAND § 502.11 Pets. Pets... vaccinations. Pets that are the property of employees residing on BARC must be up to date on their...

  1. 36 CFR 2.15 - Pets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pets. 2.15 Section 2.15 Parks... USE AND RECREATION § 2.15 Pets. (a) The following are prohibited: (1) Possessing a pet in a public... area closed to the possession of pets by the superintendent. This subparagraph shall not apply to...

  2. 36 CFR 2.15 - Pets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pets. 2.15 Section 2.15 Parks... USE AND RECREATION § 2.15 Pets. (a) The following are prohibited: (1) Possessing a pet in a public... area closed to the possession of pets by the superintendent. This subparagraph shall not apply to...

  3. 36 CFR 1002.15 - Pets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Pets. 1002.15 Section 1002.15....15 Pets. (a) The following are prohibited: (1) Possessing a pet in a public building, public... possession of pets by the Board. This paragraph shall not apply to guide dogs accompanying visually...

  4. 36 CFR 1002.15 - Pets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pets. 1002.15 Section 1002.15....15 Pets. (a) The following are prohibited: (1) Possessing a pet in a public building, public... possession of pets by the Board. This paragraph shall not apply to guide dogs accompanying visually...

  5. 36 CFR 1002.15 - Pets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pets. 1002.15 Section 1002.15....15 Pets. (a) The following are prohibited: (1) Possessing a pet in a public building, public... possession of pets by the Board. This paragraph shall not apply to guide dogs accompanying visually...

  6. 36 CFR 2.15 - Pets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pets. 2.15 Section 2.15 Parks... USE AND RECREATION § 2.15 Pets. (a) The following are prohibited: (1) Possessing a pet in a public... area closed to the possession of pets by the superintendent. This subparagraph shall not apply to...

  7. 7 CFR 502.11 - Pets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pets. 502.11 Section 502.11 Agriculture Regulations of... CONDUCT ON BELTSVILLE AGRICULTURE RESEARCH CENTER PROPERTY, BELTSVILLE, MARYLAND § 502.11 Pets. Pets... vaccinations. Pets that are the property of employees residing on BARC must be up to date on their...

  8. 7 CFR 502.11 - Pets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pets. 502.11 Section 502.11 Agriculture Regulations of... CONDUCT ON BELTSVILLE AGRICULTURE RESEARCH CENTER PROPERTY, BELTSVILLE, MARYLAND § 502.11 Pets. Pets... vaccinations. Pets that are the property of employees residing on BARC must be up to date on their...

  9. A line-of-sight electron cyclotron emission receiver for electron cyclotron resonance heating feedback control of tearing modes.

    PubMed

    Oosterbeek, J W; Bürger, A; Westerhof, E; de Baar, M R; van den Berg, M A; Bongers, W A; Graswinckel, M F; Hennen, B A; Kruijt, O G; Thoen, J; Heidinger, R; Korsholm, S B; Leipold, F; Nielsen, S K

    2008-09-01

    An electron cyclotron emission (ECE) receiver inside the electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) transmission line has been brought into operation. The ECE is extracted by placing a quartz plate acting as a Fabry-Perot interferometer under an angle inside the electron cyclotron wave (ECW) beam. ECE measurements are obtained during high power ECRH operation. This demonstrates the successful operation of the diagnostic and, in particular, a sufficient suppression of the gyrotron component preventing it from interfering with ECE measurements. When integrated into a feedback system for the control of plasma instabilities this line-of-sight ECE diagnostic removes the need to localize the instabilities in absolute coordinates. PMID:19044409

  10. Somersaulting techniques used in high-scoring and low-scoring Roche vaults performed by male Olympic gymnasts.

    PubMed

    Takei, Yoshiaki; Dunn, J Hubert; Blucker, Erik P

    2007-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the somersaulting techniques used in the 16 highest-scoring and 16 lowest-scoring Roche vaults. Our hypothesis was that the gymnasts performing the highest-scoring Roche vaults would demonstrate a better technique than those performing the lowest-scoring Roche vaults while on the horse (pushing off the horse more effectively), somersaulting (executing most of the required somersaults higher in flight), and landing (showing a greater control). A 16-mm motion picture camera, operating at 100 Hz, recorded the vaults during the official competition. The two-dimensional direct linear transformation was used for spatial reconstruction. The results of t-tests (P < 0.05) indicated that, compared with the low-scoring gymnasts, the high-scoring gymnasts had: (1) greater height of body centre of mass and a more fully extended body position at the horse take-off; (2) greater height of body centre of mass at the peak of post-flight, knee release, and touchdown on the mat; (3) greater horizontal and vertical displacements of body centre of mass, greater somersaulting rotation, and longer time from the knee release to mat touchdown; and (d) markedly smaller landing point deductions. In conclusion, a successful Roche vault is likely when the focus is on: (a) leaving the horse with a large vertical velocity in an extended body position to achieve a high trajectory of centre of mass by first extending the legs, then immediately pushing off the horse vigorously, using the muscles of the upper extremity; (b) grasping the knees immediately after the take-off from the horse, achieving the tightly tucked body position early during the ascent to the peak, and completing two-thirds of the required somersaults at a great height; (c) releasing the knees and extending the body above the top level of the horse; and (d) contacting the mat with a high body centre of mass position. PMID:17454535

  11. The role of mode of delivery on elastic fiber architecture and vaginal vault elasticity: a rodent model study

    PubMed Central

    Downing, Keith; Billah, Mubashir; Raparia, Eva; Shah, Anup; Silverstein, Moshe; Ahmad, Amanda; Boutis, Gregory S.

    2013-01-01

    We report on an experimental study of the role of mode of delivery and pregnancy on the architecture of vaginal elastic fibers and vaginal vault elasticity in female Sprague-Dawley rats. In primiparous rats submitted to spontaneous or Cesarean delivery and virgin rats submitted to simulated delivery, the tortuosity of elastic fibers (defined as the ratio of length to end-to-end distance) was observed to decrease when measured two days to two weeks postpartum. In addition, the measured tortuosity of elastic fibers in multiparous rats was greater than that of virgin rats. The tortuosity of elastic fibers of all rats measured at two days postpartum were found to be similar to that of multiparous rats. At two weeks postpartum the measured tortuosity of vaginal elastic fibers was indistinguishable from virgin rats, regardless of the delivery method. Borrowing from the field of polymer physics, a model is suggested that connects elastic fiber tortuosity to the resulting tension under an applied stress; fibers having high tortuosity are expected to provide less structural support than more linear, low tortuosity fibers. To probe the macroscopic effects in elasticity due to architectural changes observed in elastic fibers, we have measured the stiffness of the vaginal vault in each cohort using a pressure-infusion system. The vaginal vault stiffness of all primiparous rats measured two weeks postpartum was greater than that measured two days postpartum. In addition, the vaginal vault of virgin rats was stiffer than that of multiparous rats. These observations confirmed that vaginal vault elastic fibers undergo significant remodeling due to pregnancy and parturition, and that the complex remodeling may be a significant contributor to tissue elasticity. Remarkably, regardless of the mode of delivery or simulated tissue trauma, elastic fiber tortuosity is observed to decrease from two days to two weeks postpartum indicating the onset of repair and recovery of tissue stiffness

  12. Global ex-situ crop diversity conservation and the Svalbard Global Seed Vault: assessing the current status.

    PubMed

    Westengen, Ola T; Jeppson, Simon; Guarino, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Ex-situ conservation of crop diversity is a global concern, and the development of an efficient and sustainable conservation system is a historic priority recognized in international law and policy. We assess the completeness of the safety duplication collection in the Svalbard Global Seed Vault with respect to data on the world's ex-situ collections as reported by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Currently, 774,601 samples are deposited at Svalbard by 53 genebanks. We estimate that more than one third of the globally distinct accessions of 156 crop genera stored in genebanks as orthodox seeds are conserved in the Seed Vault. The numbers of safety duplicates of Triticum (wheat), Sorghum (sorghum), Pennisetum (pearl millet), Eleusine (finger millet), Cicer (chickpea) and Lens (lentil) exceed 50% of the estimated numbers of distinct accessions in global ex-situ collections. The number of accessions conserved globally generally reflects importance for food production, but there are significant gaps in the safety collection at Svalbard in some genera of high importance for food security in tropical countries, such as Amaranthus (amaranth), Chenopodium (quinoa), Eragrostis (teff) and Abelmoschus (okra). In the 29 food-crop genera with the largest number of accessions stored globally, an average of 5.5 out of the ten largest collections is already represented in the Seed Vault collection or is covered by existing deposit agreements. The high coverage of ITPGRFA Annex 1 crops and of those crops for which there is a CGIAR mandate in the current Seed Vault collection indicates that existence of international policies and institutions are important determinants for accessions to be safety duplicated at Svalbard. As a back-up site for the global conservation system, the Seed Vault plays not only a practical but also a symbolic role for enhanced integration and cooperation for conservation of crop diversity. PMID:23671707

  13. Global Ex-Situ Crop Diversity Conservation and the Svalbard Global Seed Vault: Assessing the Current Status

    PubMed Central

    Westengen, Ola T.; Jeppson, Simon; Guarino, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Ex-situ conservation of crop diversity is a global concern, and the development of an efficient and sustainable conservation system is a historic priority recognized in international law and policy. We assess the completeness of the safety duplication collection in the Svalbard Global Seed Vault with respect to data on the world's ex-situ collections as reported by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Currently, 774,601 samples are deposited at Svalbard by 53 genebanks. We estimate that more than one third of the globally distinct accessions of 156 crop genera stored in genebanks as orthodox seeds are conserved in the Seed Vault. The numbers of safety duplicates of Triticum (wheat), Sorghum (sorghum), Pennisetum (pearl millet), Eleusine (finger millet), Cicer (chickpea) and Lens (lentil) exceed 50% of the estimated numbers of distinct accessions in global ex-situ collections. The number of accessions conserved globally generally reflects importance for food production, but there are significant gaps in the safety collection at Svalbard in some genera of high importance for food security in tropical countries, such as Amaranthus (amaranth), Chenopodium (quinoa), Eragrostis (teff) and Abelmoschus (okra). In the 29 food-crop genera with the largest number of accessions stored globally, an average of 5.5 out of the ten largest collections is already represented in the Seed Vault collection or is covered by existing deposit agreements. The high coverage of ITPGRFA Annex 1 crops and of those crops for which there is a CGIAR mandate in the current Seed Vault collection indicates that existence of international policies and institutions are important determinants for accessions to be safety duplicated at Svalbard. As a back-up site for the global conservation system, the Seed Vault plays not only a practical but also a symbolic role for enhanced integration and cooperation for conservation of crop diversity. PMID:23671707

  14. Transverse-longitudinal coupling by space charge in cyclotrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgarten, C.

    2011-11-01

    A method is presented that enables one to compute the parameters of matched beams with space charge in cyclotrons with emphasis on the effect of the transverse-longitudinal coupling. Equations describing the transverse-longitudinal coupling and corresponding tune shifts in first order are derived for the model of an azimuthally symmetric cyclotron. The eigenellipsoid of the beam is calculated and the transfer matrix is transformed into block-diagonal form. The influence of the slope of the phase curve on the transverse-longitudinal coupling is accounted for. The results are generalized and numerical procedures for the case of an azimuthally varying field cyclotron are presented. The algorithm is applied to the PSI injector II and ring cyclotron and the results are compared to TRANSPORT.

  15. Undergraduate Education with the Rutgers 12-Inch Cyclotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koeth, Timothy W.

    The Rutgers 12-Inch Cyclotron is a research grade accelerator dedicated to undergraduate education. From its inception, it has been intended for instruction and has been designed to demonstrate classic beam physics phenomena and provides students hands on experience with accelerator technology. The cyclotron is easily reconfigured, allowing experiments to be designed and performed within one academic semester. Our cyclotron offers students the opportunity to operate an accelerator and directly observe many fundamental beam physics concepts, including axial and radial betatron motion, destructive resonances, weak and azimuthally varying field (AVF) focusing schemes, RF and DEE voltage effects, diagnostic techniques, and perform low energy nuclear reactions. This paper emphasizes the unique beam physics measurements and beam manipulations capable at the Rutgers 12-Inch Cyclotron.

  16. 6D Muon Ionization Cooling with an Inverse Cyclotron

    SciTech Connect

    Summers, D. J.; Bracker, S. B.; Cremaldi, L. M.; Godang, R.; Palmer, R. B.

    2006-03-20

    A large admittance sector cyclotron filled with LiH wedges surrounded by helium or hydrogen gas is explored. Muons are cooled as they spiral adiabatically into a central swarm. As momentum approaches zero, the momentum spread also approaches zero. Long bunch trains coalesce. Energy loss is used to inject the muons into the outer rim of the cyclotron. The density of material in the cyclotron decreases adiabatically with radius. The sector cyclotron magnetic fields are transformed into an azimuthally symmetric magnetic bottle in the center. Helium gas is used to inhibit muonium formation by positive muons. Deuterium gas is used to allow captured negative muons to escape via the muon catalyzed fusion process. The presence of ionized gas in the center may automatically neutralize space charge. When a bunch train has coalesced into a central swarm, it is ejected axially with an electric kicker pulse.

  17. Heavy-ion injection from tandems into an isochronous cyclotron

    SciTech Connect

    LeVine, M.J.; Chasman, C.

    1981-01-01

    A design has been realized for the injection of heavy ion beams generated by the BNL 3-stage tandem facility into a proposed isochronous cyclotron. The tandem beams are bunched into +- 1/sup 0/ R.F. phase (less than or equal to 0.5 nsec) in two stages. The beam is then injected into the cyclotron through a valley, past a hill, and into the next valley on to a stripper foil. Only a single steerer is required to make trajectory corrections for the different beams. Two achromats are used to regulate the tandem potential and to provide phase control. A final section of the injection optics provides matching of transverse phase space to the acceptance of the cyclotron. The calculations use realistic tandem emittances and magnetic fields for the cyclotron based on measurements with a model magnet.

  18. Flat-top system of the DC-280 cyclotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulbekyan, G. G.; Buzmakov, V. A.; Zarubin, V. B.; Ivanenko, I. A.; Kazarinov, N. Yu.; Karamysheva, G. A.; Franko, I.

    2013-07-01

    The flat-top cavity of the radio-frequency accelerating system designed at the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, for the DC-280 cyclotron is described. The cyclotron is intended for increasing the capabilities and efficiency of experiments on the synthesis of super-heavy elements and an investigation of their nuclear physical and chemical properties. The DC-280 isochronous heavy-ion cyclotron will produce accelerated beam of ions in the range from neon to uranium. The parameters, design, and results of the experimental and 3D computer modeling of the flat-top cavity of the RF accelerating system of the DC-280 cyclotron are reported.

  19. Some calculations of the resonator in INR cyclotron

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, J.; Liu, X.L.

    1985-10-01

    Some calculation methods of the resonator parameters with single dee and two coaxial transmission lines in INR variable-energy cyclotron were described. Also calculated and experimental results have been compared with the original one (two dee system).

  20. Single-electron detection and spectroscopy via relativistic cyclotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Asner, David M.; Bradley, Rich; De Viveiros Souza Filho, Luiz A.; Doe, Peter J.; Fernandes, Justin L.; Fertl, M.; Finn, Erin C.; Formaggio, Joseph; Furse, Daniel L.; Jones, Anthony M.; Kofron, Jared N.; LaRoque, Benjamin; Leber, Michelle; MCBride, Lisa; Miller, M. L.; Mohanmurthy, Prajwal T.; Monreal, Ben; Oblath, Noah S.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Rosenberg, Leslie; Rybka, Gray; Rysewyk, Devyn M.; Sternberg, Michael G.; Tedeschi, Jonathan R.; Thummler, Thomas; VanDevender, Brent A.; Woods, N. L.

    2015-04-01

    It has been understood since 1897 that accelerating charges should emit electromagnetic radiation. Cyclotron radiation, the particular form of radiation emitted by an electron orbiting in a magnetic field, was first derived in 1904. Despite the simplicity of this concept, and the enormous utility of electron spectroscopy in nuclear and particle physics, single-electron cyclotron radiation has never been observed directly. Here we demonstrate single-electron detection in a novel radiofrequency spectrometer. We observe the cyclotron radiation emitted by individual electrons that are produced with mildly-relativistic energies by a gaseous radioactive source and are magnetically trapped. The relativistic shift in the cyclotron frequency permits a precise electron energy measurement. Precise beta electron spectroscopy from gaseous radiation sources is a key technique in modern efforts to measure the neutrino mass via the tritium decay endpoint, and this work is a proof-of-concept for future neutrino mass experiments using this technique.