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Sample records for petrobras eyes lng

  1. Petrobras eyes LNG project in Amazon region

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-07

    The Brazilian state oil company has proved gas reserves in the Rio Urucu area of the Amazon jungle totaling 1.84 tcf. That compares with 3.08 tcf contained in the offshore Campos basin, source of most of Brazil`s oil and gas production. The environmentally sensitive Urucu region is one of the most dense, remote jungles in the world. Because of environmental concerns about pipelines in the rain forest and a government emphasis on boosting the natural gas share of Brazil`s energy mix, a small liquefied natural gas project is shaping up as the best option for developing and marketing Urucu gas. The amazon campaign underscores a government initiative to boost Brazilian consumption of natural gas. In Brazil natural gas accounts for only 4% of primary energy consumption. Some years ago, the government set an official goal of boosting the gas share of the primary energy mix to 10% by 2000. The paper discusses current drilling activities, gas production and processing, the logistics of the upper Amazon, and gas markets.

  2. Petrobras experience on early production systems

    SciTech Connect

    Aramando, S.

    1983-05-01

    Beginning in 1974, PETROBRAS oil production was declining in spite of the significant growth of reserves due to the discovery of oil offshore in the Campos Basin. A project using platforms will require from four to eight years and require a large capital investment. The Early Production Systems were utilized to reduce the time for initial production from the Basin, better define the conditions of the reservoir, improve the cash flow, and acquire a more complete knowledge of maritime operations. The first system was installed in 1977 and today there are ten operating, two others are being installed and eight more are in the planning stage. This paper includes PETROBRAS' accomplishments and presents its plans for the future.

  3. Introduction to LNG vehicle safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bratvold, Delma; Friedman, David; Chernoff, Harry; Farkhondehpay, Dariush; Comay, Claudia

    1994-03-01

    Basic information on the characteristics of liquefied natural gas (LNG) is assembled to provide an overview of safety issues and practices for the use of LNG vehicles. This document is intended for those planning or considering the use of LNG vehicles, including vehicle fleet owners and operators, public transit officials and boards, local fire and safety officials, manufacturers and distributors, and gas industry officials. Safety issues and mitigation measures that should be considered for candidate LNG vehicle projects are addressed.

  4. 77 FR 73627 - 2012 LNG Export Study

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ... Charles Exports, LLC, FE Docket No. 11-59-LNG, 76 FR 34212 (June 13, 2011); Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP, FE Docket No. 11-128-LNG, 76 FR 76698 (December 8, 2011); Carib Energy (USA) LLC, FE Docket No. 11-141-LNG, 76 FR 80913 (December 12, 2011); Freeport LNG Expansion, L.P. and FLNG Liquefaction, LLC,...

  5. LNG risk management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martino, P.

    1980-12-01

    A general methodology is presented for conducting an analysis of the various aspects of the hazards associated with the storage and transportation of liquefied natural gas (LNG) which should be considered during the planning stages of a typical LNG ship terminal. The procedure includes the performance of a hazards and system analysis of the proposed site, a probability analysis of accident scenarios and safety impacts, an analysis of the consequences of credible accidents such as tanker accidents, spills and fires, the assessment of risks and the design and evaluation of risk mitigation measures.

  6. LNG annotated bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Bomelburg, H.J.; Counts, C.A.; Cowan, C.E.; Davis, W.E.; DeSteese, J.G.; Pelto, P.J.

    1982-09-01

    This document updates the bibliography published in Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program: third status report (PNL-4172) and is a complete listing of literature reviewed and reported under the LNG Technical Surveillance Task. The bibliography is organized alphabetically by author.

  7. Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) dispenser verification device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Maotao; Yang, Jie-bin; Zhao, Pu-jun; Yu, Bo; Deng, Wan-quan

    2013-01-01

    The composition of working principle and calibration status of LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) dispenser in China are introduced. According to the defect of weighing method in the calibration of LNG dispenser, LNG dispenser verification device has been researched. The verification device bases on the master meter method to verify LNG dispenser in the field. The experimental results of the device indicate it has steady performance, high accuracy level and flexible construction, and it reaches the international advanced level. Then LNG dispenser verification device will promote the development of LNG dispenser industry in China and to improve the technical level of LNG dispenser manufacture.

  8. LNG Observer: Second Qatargas train goes onstream

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    The January-February, 1997 issue of the LNG Observer is presented. The following topics are discussed: second Qatargas train goes onstream; financing for the eighth Indonesian liquefaction train; Koreans take stakes in Oman LNG; US imports and exports of LNG in 1996; A 60% increase in proved reserves on the North West Shelf; proposals for Indian LNG terminal CEDIGAZ forecasts world LNG trade by 2010; growth for North African gas production and exports; and new forecast sees strong growth for Asian gas.

  9. North American LNG Project Sourcebook

    SciTech Connect

    2007-06-15

    The report provides a status of the development of LNG Import Terminal projects in North America, and includes 1-2 page profiles of 63 LNG projects in North America which are either in operation, under construction, or under development. For each project, the sourcebook provides information on the following elements: project description, project ownership, project status, projected operation date, storage capacity, sendout capacity, and pipeline interconnection.

  10. Petrobras' Garoupa: Where it stands, how it got there

    SciTech Connect

    de Alvarenga, M.U.; Bleakley, W.B.

    1983-08-01

    A little more than 4 years after first oil was produced, the world's largest subsea production system using dry, atmospheric pressure, ocean floor chambers installed at water depths ranging from 390 to 545 ft is delivering about 23,200 b/d of oil. Planned as a provisional system to accomplish two main objectives - the gathering of reservoir data under a wide spacing configuration not attainable by directional wells drilled from a single site, and early production of oil from the limestone pays of Garoupa and the sandstone pays of Namorado - the system achieved both goals. Up to the end of March 1983, cumulative production reached 28.2 million bbl of oil, and the reservoir's history shows that Namorado field bears the largest individual proved reserve among Brazilian oil fields. Besides that, reservoir pressure and gas-oil ratio profiles from Garoupa indicate that gas lift operations will be scheduled for the second half of 1983 in two or three wells. Solving problems that would cause many to give up, Petrobras engineers, working with CanOcean personnel, now have seven of the scheduled nine wells in the Garoupa and Namorado fields offshore Brazil, on production, with wellheads housed in dry wellhead cellars delivering crude to a dry manifold center. An eighth well was severely damaged by an anchor cable which bent the conductor pipe at an approximate 45/sup 0/ angle. The wellhead cellar is not damaged, however, and can be used on a subsequent installation. The ninth well was drilled but never completed.

  11. Recommended research on LNG safety

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, H.J.; Gilmore, F.R.

    1981-03-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting research on the safety and other environmental aspects of liquefied energy gases including liquefied natural gas (LNG). The effort reported here was conducted as part of the planning for further research into the safety aspects of transporting and storing LNG, with primary emphasis on public safety. Although the modern LNG industry has enjoyed excellent success in providing for safe operations, significant questions remain on the part of many, the expressions of which were intensified with the addition of marine-based LNG import terminals. Public safety with regard to large-scale importation of this fuel has received widespread attention in the US Congress, state legislatures, county and city governments, and from various individuals and public groups, with coverage in all the news media, including books published on the subject. The safety concerns have centered around the consequences to the public of a large spill of the cryogenic liquid from an ocean tanker or a larger storage tank, either of which might hold as much as 125,000 m/sup 3/ of LNG.

  12. LNG to CNG refueling stations

    SciTech Connect

    Branson, J.D.

    1995-12-31

    While the fleet operator is concerned about the environment, he or she is going to make the choice based primarily on economics. Which fuel provides the lowest total operating cost? The calculation of this costing must include the price-per-gallon of the fuel delivered, as well as the tangible and intangible components of fuel delivery, such as downtime for vehicles during the refueling process, idle time for drivers during refueling, emissions costings resulting from compressor oil blow-by, inclusion of non-combustible constituents in the CNG, and energy consumption during the refueling process. Also, the upfront capital requirement of similar delivery capabilities must be compared. The use of LNG as the base resource for the delivered CNG, in conjunction with the utilization of a fully temperature-compressed LNG/CNG refueling system, eliminates many of the perceived shortfalls of CNG. An LNG/CNG refueling center designed to match the capabilities of the compressor-based station will have approximately the same initial capital requirement. However, because it derives its CNG sales product from the {minus}260 F LNG base product, thus availing itself of the natural physical properties of the cryogenic product, all other economic elements of the system favor the LNG/CNG product.

  13. LNG vehicle technology, economics, and safety assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powars, Charles A.; Moyer, Carl B.; Lowell, Douglas D.

    1994-02-01

    Liquid natural gas (LNG) is an attractive transportation fuel because of its high heating value and energy density (i.e., Btu/lb. and Btu/gal.), clean burning characteristics, relatively low cost ($/Btu), and domestic availability. This research evaluated LNG vehicle and refueling system technology, economics, and safety. Prior and current LNG vehicle projects were studied to identify needed technology improvements. Life-cycle cost analyses considered various LNG vehicle and fuel supply options. Safety records, standards, and analysis methods were reviewed. The LNG market niche is centrally fueled heavy-duty fleet vehicles with high fuel consumption. For these applications, fuel cost savings can amortize equipment capital costs.

  14. LNG Safety Assessment Evaluation Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Muna, Alice Baca; LaFleur, Angela Christine

    2015-05-01

    Sandia National Laboratories evaluated published safety assessment methods across a variety of industries including Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), hydrogen, land and marine transportation, as well as the US Department of Defense (DOD). All the methods were evaluated for their potential applicability for use in the LNG railroad application. After reviewing the documents included in this report, as well as others not included because of repetition, the Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Safety Plan Checklist is most suitable to be adapted to the LNG railroad application. This report was developed to survey industries related to rail transportation for methodologies and tools that can be used by the FRA to review and evaluate safety assessments submitted by the railroad industry as a part of their implementation plans for liquefied or compressed natural gas storage ( on-board or tender) and engine fueling delivery systems. The main sections of this report provide an overview of various methods found during this survey. In most cases, the reference document is quoted directly. The final section provides discussion and a recommendation for the most appropriate methodology that will allow efficient and consistent evaluations to be made. The DOE Hydrogen Safety Plan Checklist was then revised to adapt it as a methodology for the Federal Railroad Administration’s use in evaluating safety plans submitted by the railroad industry.

  15. 33 CFR 127.321 - Release of LNG.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Release of LNG. 127.321 Section... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Operations § 127.321 Release of LNG. (a) The operator of the waterfront facility handling LNG shall ensure that— (1) No person releases LNG into the...

  16. 49 CFR 193.2181 - Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. 193.2181... Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. Each impounding system serving an LNG storage tank must have a minimum volumetric liquid impoundment capacity of: (a) 110 percent of the LNG tank's maximum...

  17. 49 CFR 193.2181 - Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. 193.2181... Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. Each impounding system serving an LNG storage tank must have a minimum volumetric liquid impoundment capacity of: (a) 110 percent of the LNG tank's maximum...

  18. 33 CFR 127.321 - Release of LNG.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Release of LNG. 127.321 Section... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Operations § 127.321 Release of LNG. (a) The operator of the waterfront facility handling LNG shall ensure that— (1) No person releases LNG into the...

  19. Strategic evaluation central to LNG project formation

    SciTech Connect

    Nissen, D.; DiNapoli, R.N.; Yost, C.C.

    1995-07-03

    An efficient-scale, grassroots LNG facility of about 6 million metric tons/year capacity requires a prestart-up outlay of $5 billion or more for the supply facilities--production, feedgas pipeline, liquefaction, and shipping. The demand side of the LNG chain requires a similar outlay, counting the import-regasification terminal and a combination of 5 gigawatts or more of electric power generation or the equivalent in city gas and industrial gas-using facilities. There exist no well-developed commodity markets for free-on-board (fob) or delivered LNG. A new LNG supply project is dedicated to its buyers. Indeed, the buyers` revenue commitment is the project`s only bankable asset. For the buyer to make this commitment, the supply venture`s capability and commitment must be credible: to complete the project and to deliver the LNG reliably over the 20+ years required to recover capital committed on both sides. This requirement has technical, economic, and business dimensions. In this article the authors describe a LNG project evaluation system and show its application to typical tasks: project cost of service and participant shares; LNG project competition; alternative project structures; and market competition for LNG-supplied electric power generation.

  20. 76 FR 2677 - Southern LNG Company, LLC; Notice of Public Scoping Meeting for the Proposed LNG Truck Loading...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern LNG Company, LLC; Notice of Public Scoping Meeting for the Proposed LNG Truck Loading Project January 7, 2011. On February 2, 2011, the Office of Energy Projects staff... Southern LNG Company, LLC's (Southern) LNG Truck Loading Project. We scheduled this meeting to...

  1. How Gaz de France optimizes LNG regasification

    SciTech Connect

    Colonna, J.L.; Lecomte, B.; Caudron, S.

    1986-05-05

    A regasification optimization program was implemented at Montoir-de-Bretagne in 1984, and rapidly accepted by the operators. It has been an important tool for decision-making in the optimizing operation of this liquefied natural gas (LNG) storage and regasification terminal. The models used are regularly and easily updated on the basis of equipment behavior: aging or fouling. The Montoir-de-Bretagne LNG terminal is in the port area of Nates-Saint Nazaire on the Atlantic coast. It was commissioned in 1982 by Gaz de France. This terminal is used for receiving, storing, and regasifying the Algerian LNG received under a contract between Gaz de France and Sonatrach, as well as the LNG imported by Belgium and temporarily routed through France. It is designed to receive 25,000 to 200,000 cu m LNG carriers and has three 120,000 cm m LNG storage tanks. The daily sendout ranges between 6.7 million cu m and 36 million cu m. Monitor terminal supplies mainly Brittany and the Paris area. Two identifical berths allow the simultaneous reception of two LNG carriers. LNG is carried to the storage tanks in 32-in. lines at a rate of 12,000 cu m/hr. Each storage tank is equipped with three submerged 450 cu m/hr pumps with which the LNG is sent from the tanks to the secondary pumps at 8 bar. The nine high-pressure (HP) secondary pumps, with a capacity of either 450 cu m/hr or 180 cu m/hr, raise the LNG pressure to a level at least equal to pipeline pressure prior to revaporization.

  2. Eye Infections

    MedlinePlus

    Your eyes can get infections from bacteria, fungi, or viruses. Eye infections can occur in different parts of the eye and can affect just one eye or both. Two common eye infections are Conjunctivitis - also known as pinkeye. Conjunctivitis is ...

  3. LNG fire and vapor control system technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Konzek, G.J.; Yasutake, K.M.; Franklin, A.L.

    1982-06-01

    This report provides a review of fire and vapor control practices used in the liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry. Specific objectives of this effort were to summarize the state-of-the-art of LNG fire and vapor control; define representative LNG facilities and their associated fire and vapor control systems; and develop an approach for a quantitative effectiveness evaluation of LNG fire and vapor control systems. In this report a brief summary of LNG physical properties is given. This is followed by a discussion of basic fire and vapor control design philosophy and detailed reviews of fire and vapor control practices. The operating characteristics and typical applications and application limitations of leak detectors, fire detectors, dikes, coatings, closed circuit television, communication systems, dry chemicals, water, high expansion foam, carbon dioxide and halogenated hydrocarbons are described. Summary descriptions of a representative LNG peakshaving facility and import terminal are included in this report together with typical fire and vapor control systems and their locations in these types of facilities. This state-of-the-art review identifies large differences in the application of fire and vapor control systems throughout the LNG industry.

  4. LNG -- A paradox of propulsion potential

    SciTech Connect

    McKay, D.J.

    1995-12-31

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) has been demonstrating its viability as a clean-burning alternative fuel for buses and medium- and heavy-duty trucks for the past 30 years. The first known LNG vehicle project began in San Diego in 1965, When San Diego Gas and Electric converted 22 utility trucks and three passenger vehicles to dedicated LNG. A surge in LNG vehicle project activity over the past five years has led to a fairly robust variety of vehicles testing the fuel, from Class 8 tractors, refuse haulers and transit buses to railroad locomotives and ferry boats. Recent technology improvements in engine design, cryogenic tanks, fuel nozzles and other related equipment have made LNG more practical to use than in the 1960s. LNG delivers more than twice the driving range from the same-sized fuel tank as a vehicle powered by compressed natural gas (CNG). Although technical and economic hurdles must be overcome before this fuel can achieve widespread use, various ongoing demonstration projects are showing LNG`s practicality, while serving the vital role of pinpointing those areas of performance that are the prime candidates for improvement.

  5. Raley's LNG Truck Site Final Data Report

    SciTech Connect

    Battelle

    1999-07-01

    Raley's is a 120-store grocery chain with headquarters in Sacramento, California, that has been operating eight heavy-duty LNG trucks (Kenworth T800 trucks with Cummins L10-300G engines) and two LNG yard tractors (Ottawa trucks with Cummins B5.9G engines) since April 1997. This report describes the results of data collection and evaluation of the eight heavy-duty LNG trucks compared to similar heavy-duty diesel trucks operating at Raley's. The data collection and evaluation are a part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)/National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Alternative Fuel Truck Evaluation Project.

  6. Research of design challenges and new technologies for floating LNG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dong-Hyun; Ha, Mun-Keun; Kim, Soo-Young; Shin, Sung-Chul

    2014-06-01

    With the rate of worldwide LNG demand expected to grow faster than that of gas demand, most major oil companies are currently investing their resources to develop floating LNG-FLNG (i.e. LNG FSRU and LNG FPSO). The global Floating LNG (FLNG) market trend will be reviewed based on demand and supply chain relationships. Typical technical issues associated with FLNG design are categorized in terms of global performance evaluation. Although many proven technologies developed through LNG carrier and oil FPSO projects are available for FLNG design, we are still faced with several technical challenges to clear for successful FLNG projects. In this study, some of the challenges encountered during development of the floating LNG facility (i.e. LNG FPSO and FSRU) will be reviewed together with their investigated solution. At the same time, research of new LNG-related technologies such as combined containment system will be presented.

  7. Gas treating alternatives for LNG plants

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, D.S.; Sibal, P.W.

    1998-12-31

    This paper covers the various gas treating processes available for treating sour natural gas to specifications required for LNG production. The LNG product specification requires that the total sulfur level be less than 30--40 ppmv, the CO{sub 2} level be less than 50 ppmv and the water level be less than 100 ppmv to prevent freezing problems in the LNG cryogenic column. A wide variety of natural gas compositions are encountered in the various fields and the gas treating process selection is dependent on the type of impurities present in the gas, namely, levels of H{sub 2}S, CO{sub 2}, mercaptans and other organic sulfur compounds. This paper discusses the implications various components in the feed to the LNG plant can have on process selection, and the various treating processes that are available to condition the gas. Process selection criteria, design and operating philosophies are discussed. An economic comparison for two treating schemes is provided.

  8. LNG carrier using membrane tank system delivered

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-06

    The world's first LNG carrier that incorporates the Technigaz Mark 3 membrane tank system was delivered in October to its owner, Asia LNG Transport Sdn. Bhd., a joint venture between Nippon Yusen K.K. and Perbadanan Nasional Shipping Line Berhad of Malaysia. NKK built the 18,800 cu m, fully double-hull carrier Aman Bintulu at its Tsu works. Construction was completed in September with more than 2 months of sea trials and gas tests using [minus]190 C. Liquid nitrogen and final gas trails with LNG. The orthogonally corrugated stainless membrane primary barrier and the triplex (aluminum foil/fiber glass cloth) composite-material secondary barrier prevent LNG from leaking in the event of an accident.

  9. Norcal Prototype LNG Truck Fleet: Final Results

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-07-01

    U.S. DOE and National Renewable Energy Laboratory evaluated Norcal Waste Systems liquefied natural gas (LNG) waste transfer trucks. Trucks had prototype Cummins Westport ISXG engines. Report gives final evaluation results.

  10. Eye redness

    MedlinePlus

    Bloodshot eyes; Red eyes; Scleral infection; Conjunctival infection ... There are many causes of a red eye or eyes. Some are medical emergencies and some are a cause for concern, but not an emergency. Others are nothing to worry about. ...

  11. Eye Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eye Cancer - Overview Request Permissions Print to PDF Eye Cancer - Overview Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , ... Cancer Research and Advocacy Survivorship Blog About Us Eye Cancer Guide Cancer.Net Guide Eye Cancer Overview Statistics ...

  12. Eye emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trauma A black eye is usually caused by direct trauma to the eye or face. The bruise ... can cause bruising around the eyes, even without direct injury to the eye. Sometimes, serious damage to ...

  13. Eye pain

    MedlinePlus

    Ophthalmalgia; Pain - eye ... Pain in the eye can be an important symptom of a health problem. Make sure you tell your health care provider if you have eye pain that does not go away. Tired eyes or ...

  14. Effects of lng Mutations on LngA Expression, Processing, and CS21 Assembly in Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli E9034A

    PubMed Central

    Saldaña-Ahuactzi, Zeus; Rodea, Gerardo E.; Cruz-Córdova, Ariadnna; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Viridiana; Espinosa-Mazariego, Karina; González-Montalvo, Martín A.; Ochoa, Sara A.; González-Pedrajo, Bertha; Eslava-Campos, Carlos A.; López-Villegas, Edgar O.; Hernández-Castro, Rigoberto; Arellano-Galindo, José; Patiño-López, Genaro; Xicohtencatl-Cortes, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major cause of morbidity in children under 5 years of age in low- and middle-income countries and a leading cause of traveler's diarrhea worldwide. The ability of ETEC to colonize the intestinal epithelium is mediated by fimbrial adhesins, such as CS21 (Longus). This adhesin is a type IVb pilus involved in adherence to intestinal cells in vitro and bacterial self-aggregation. Fourteen open reading frames have been proposed to be involved in CS21 assembly, hitherto only the lngA and lngB genes, coding for the major (LngA) and minor (LngB) structural subunit, have been characterized. In this study, we investigated the role of the LngA, LngB, LngC, LngD, LngH, and LngP proteins in the assembly of CS21 in ETEC strain E9034A. The deletion of the lngA, lngB, lngC, lngD, lngH, or lngP genes, abolished CS21 assembly in ETEC strain E9034A and the adherence to HT-29 cells was reduced 90%, compared to wild-type strain. Subcellular localization prediction of CS21 proteins was similar to other well-known type IV pili homologs. We showed that LngP is the prepilin peptidase of LngA, and that ETEC strain E9034A has another peptidase capable of processing LngA, although with less efficiency. Additionally, we present immuno-electron microscopy images to show that the LngB protein could be localized at the tip of CS21. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the LngA, LngB, LngC, LngD, LngH, and LngP proteins are essential for CS21 assembly, as well as for bacterial aggregation and adherence to HT-29 cells. PMID:27536289

  15. Effects of lng Mutations on LngA Expression, Processing, and CS21 Assembly in Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli E9034A.

    PubMed

    Saldaña-Ahuactzi, Zeus; Rodea, Gerardo E; Cruz-Córdova, Ariadnna; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Viridiana; Espinosa-Mazariego, Karina; González-Montalvo, Martín A; Ochoa, Sara A; González-Pedrajo, Bertha; Eslava-Campos, Carlos A; López-Villegas, Edgar O; Hernández-Castro, Rigoberto; Arellano-Galindo, José; Patiño-López, Genaro; Xicohtencatl-Cortes, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major cause of morbidity in children under 5 years of age in low- and middle-income countries and a leading cause of traveler's diarrhea worldwide. The ability of ETEC to colonize the intestinal epithelium is mediated by fimbrial adhesins, such as CS21 (Longus). This adhesin is a type IVb pilus involved in adherence to intestinal cells in vitro and bacterial self-aggregation. Fourteen open reading frames have been proposed to be involved in CS21 assembly, hitherto only the lngA and lngB genes, coding for the major (LngA) and minor (LngB) structural subunit, have been characterized. In this study, we investigated the role of the LngA, LngB, LngC, LngD, LngH, and LngP proteins in the assembly of CS21 in ETEC strain E9034A. The deletion of the lngA, lngB, lngC, lngD, lngH, or lngP genes, abolished CS21 assembly in ETEC strain E9034A and the adherence to HT-29 cells was reduced 90%, compared to wild-type strain. Subcellular localization prediction of CS21 proteins was similar to other well-known type IV pili homologs. We showed that LngP is the prepilin peptidase of LngA, and that ETEC strain E9034A has another peptidase capable of processing LngA, although with less efficiency. Additionally, we present immuno-electron microscopy images to show that the LngB protein could be localized at the tip of CS21. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the LngA, LngB, LngC, LngD, LngH, and LngP proteins are essential for CS21 assembly, as well as for bacterial aggregation and adherence to HT-29 cells. PMID:27536289

  16. Exergy of LNG regasification - possible utilization method. Case study of LNG - ANG coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roszak, E. A.; Chorowski, M.

    2014-01-01

    This article gives an overview on new exergy recovery methods for LNG. The concept is based on coupling the LNG regasification unit with the filling process of Adsorbed Natural Gas (ANG) tanks. The latent heat of the LNG vaporization is directly used for precooling the ANG adsorption bed. This reduces the back pressure from filling ANG tanks due to strong adsorption temperature dependency. This improves the economic attractiveness of ANG storage (no need for compressors, longer lifetime cycle of adsorbent). This case study presents the concept of LNG - ANG coupling. Presented results are based on experimental adsorption data. A brief exergy analysis of the process shows an advantage of this method over others. This LNG-ANG method is worth consideration as a cost optimizing solution, especially for periodically working regasification stations.

  17. Keys to modeling LNG spills on water.

    PubMed

    Hissong, D W

    2007-02-20

    Although no LNG ship has experienced a loss of containment in over 40 years of shipping, it is important for risk management planning to understand the predicted consequences of a spill. A key parameter in assessing the impact of an LNG spill is the pool size. LNG spills onto water generally result in larger pools than land spills because they are unconfined. Modeling of LNG spills onto water is much more difficult than for land spills because the phenomena are more complex and the experimental basis is more limited. The most prevalent practice in predicting pool sizes is to treat the release as instantaneous or constant-rate, and to calculate the pool size using an empirical evaporation or burn rate. The evaporation or burn rate is particularly difficult to estimate for LNG spills on water, because the available data are so limited, scattered, and difficult to extrapolate to the large releases of interest. A more effective modeling of possible spills of LNG onto water calculates, rather than estimating, the evaporation or burn rate. The keys to this approach are to: * Use rigorous multicomponent physical properties. * Use a time-varying analysis of spill and evaporation. * Use a material and energy balance approach. * Estimate the heat transfer from water to LNG in a way that reflects the turbulence. These keys are explained and demonstrated by predictions of a model that incorporates these features. The major challenges are describing the effects of the LNG-water turbulence and the heat transfer from the pool fire to the underlying LNG pool. The model includes a fundamentally based framework for these terms, and the current formulation is based on some of the largest tests to-date. The heat transfer coefficient between the water and LNG is obtained by applying a "turbulence factor" to the value from correlations for quiescent film and transition boiling. The turbulence factor is based on two of the largest unignited tests on water to-date. The heat transfer from

  18. 76 FR 73609 - Cameron LNG, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ... operate a boil-off gas (BOG) liquefaction system at its LNG import terminal in Cameron Parish, Louisiana... terminal to liquefy BOG and return such gas in the form of LNG to its storage tanks. Cameron states...

  19. 78 FR 41047 - UGI LNG, Inc.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-09

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission UGI LNG, Inc.; Notice of Application On June 17, 2013, UGI LNG, Inc. (UGI... Ontelaunee Township, Berks County, Pennsylvania. As more fully described in the application, the new.... Questions regarding this application may be directed to Frank H. Markle, Counsel for UGI LNG, by calling...

  20. 49 CFR 193.2019 - Mobile and temporary LNG facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS General § 193.2019 Mobile and temporary LNG facilities. (a) Mobile and temporary LNG facilities for peakshaving application, for service maintenance... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mobile and temporary LNG facilities....

  1. 49 CFR 193.2019 - Mobile and temporary LNG facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS General § 193.2019 Mobile and temporary LNG facilities. (a) Mobile and temporary LNG facilities for peakshaving application, for service maintenance... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mobile and temporary LNG facilities....

  2. 49 CFR 193.2019 - Mobile and temporary LNG facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS General § 193.2019 Mobile and temporary LNG facilities. (a) Mobile and temporary LNG facilities for peakshaving application, for service maintenance... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mobile and temporary LNG facilities....

  3. 49 CFR 193.2019 - Mobile and temporary LNG facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS General § 193.2019 Mobile and temporary LNG facilities. (a) Mobile and temporary LNG facilities for peakshaving application, for service maintenance... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mobile and temporary LNG facilities....

  4. 49 CFR 193.2019 - Mobile and temporary LNG facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS General § 193.2019 Mobile and temporary LNG facilities. (a) Mobile and temporary LNG facilities for peakshaving application, for service maintenance... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mobile and temporary LNG facilities....

  5. 75 FR 26744 - Cameron LNG, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Cameron LNG, LLC; Notice of Application May 5, 2010. On April 22, 2010, Cameron LNG, LLC filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission) an application under... this application may be directed to William D. Rapp, Senior Regulatory Counsel at Cameron LNG, LLC,...

  6. 46 CFR 154.1854 - Methane (LNG) as fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Methane (LNG) as fuel. 154.1854 Section 154.1854... STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1854 Methane (LNG) as fuel. (a) If methane (LNG) vapors are used as fuel in the main propulsion system of a vessel,...

  7. 46 CFR 154.1854 - Methane (LNG) as fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Methane (LNG) as fuel. 154.1854 Section 154.1854... STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1854 Methane (LNG) as fuel. (a) If methane (LNG) vapors are used as fuel in the main propulsion system of a vessel,...

  8. 46 CFR 154.1854 - Methane (LNG) as fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Methane (LNG) as fuel. 154.1854 Section 154.1854... STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1854 Methane (LNG) as fuel. (a) If methane (LNG) vapors are used as fuel in the main propulsion system of a vessel,...

  9. 46 CFR 154.1854 - Methane (LNG) as fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Methane (LNG) as fuel. 154.1854 Section 154.1854... STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1854 Methane (LNG) as fuel. (a) If methane (LNG) vapors are used as fuel in the main propulsion system of a vessel,...

  10. 46 CFR 154.1854 - Methane (LNG) as fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Methane (LNG) as fuel. 154.1854 Section 154.1854... STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1854 Methane (LNG) as fuel. (a) If methane (LNG) vapors are used as fuel in the main propulsion system of a vessel,...

  11. E&P data lifecycle: a case study in Petrobras Company

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastella, Laura; Campinho, Vania; Alonso, João

    2013-04-01

    Petrobras, the biggest Brazilian Petroleum Company, has been studying and working on Brazilian sedimentary basins for nearly 60 years. The corporate database currently registers over 25000 wells and all their associated products (geophysical logs, cores, sidewall samples) and analyses. There are thousands of samples, descriptions, pictures, measures, and other scientific data resulted from petroleum exploration and production. This data constitutes a huge scientific database which is applied to support Petrobras economic strategy. Geological models built during the exploration phase continue to be refined during both the development and production phases: data should be continually manipulated, correlated and integrated. As E&P assets reach maturity, a new cycle starts: data is re-analyzed and new hypotheses are made in order to increase hydrocarbon productivity. Initial geological models then evolve from accumulated knowledge throughout all the E&P phases. Therefore the quality control must be performed in the first phases of data acquisition, i.e., during the exploration phase, to avoid reworking and loss of information. The last decade witnessed a great evolution in petroleum industry technology. As a consequence, the complexity and particulars of the information generated have increased accordingly. Current technology has also facilitated access to networks and databases, making it possible to store large amounts of information. This scenario makes available a large mass of information from difference sources, which uses heterogeneous vocabulary as well as different scales and measurement units. In this context, knowledge might be diluted and the total amount of information cannot be applied in E&P process. In order to provide adequate data governance, data input is controlled by rules, standards and policies, implemented by corporate software systems. Petrobras' integrated E&P database is a centralized repository to which all E&P systems can have access. The

  12. LNG systems for natural gas propelled ships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chorowski, M.; Duda, P.; Polinski, J.; Skrzypacz, J.

    2015-12-01

    In order to reduce the atmospheric pollution generated by ships, the International Marine Organization has established Emission Controlled Areas. In these areas, nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides and particulates emission is strongly controlled. From the beginning of 2015, the ECA covers waters 200 nautical miles from the coast of the US and Canada, the US Caribbean Sea area, the Baltic Sea, the North Sea and the English Channel. From the beginning of 2020, strong emission restrictions will also be in force outside the ECA. This requires newly constructed ships to be either equipped with exhaust gas cleaning devices or propelled with emission free fuels. In comparison to low sulphur Marine Diesel and Marine Gas Oil, LNG is a competitive fuel, both from a technical and economical point of view. LNG can be stored in vacuum insulated tanks fulfilling the difficult requirements of marine regulations. LNG must be vaporized and pressurized to the pressure which is compatible with the engine requirements (usually a few bar). The boil-off must be controlled to avoid the occasional gas release to the atmosphere. This paper presents an LNG system designed and commissioned for a Baltic Sea ferry. The specific technical features and exploitation parameters of the system will be presented. The impact of strict marine regulations on the system's thermo-mechanical construction and its performance will be discussed. The review of possible flow-schemes of LNG marine systems will be presented with respect to the system's cost, maintenance, and reliability.

  13. Safety implications of a large LNG tanker spill over water.

    SciTech Connect

    Hightower, Marion Michael; Gritzo, Louis Alan; Luketa-Hanlin, Anay Josephine

    2005-04-01

    The increasing demand for natural gas in the United States could significantly increase the number and frequency of marine LNG (liquefied natural gas) imports. Although many studies have been conducted to assess the consequences and risks of potential LNG spills, the increasing importance of LNG imports suggests that consistent methods and approaches be identified and implemented to help ensure protection of public safety and property from a potential LNG spill. For that reason the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, requested that Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) develop guidance on a risk-based analysis approach to assess and quantify potential threats to an LNG ship, the potential hazards and consequences of a large spill from an LNG ship, and review prevention and mitigation strategies that could be implemented to reduce both the potential and the risks of an LNG spill over water. Specifically, DOE requested: (1) An in-depth literature search of the experimental and technical studies associated with evaluating the safety and hazards of an LNG spill from an LNG ship; (2) A detailed review of four recent spill modeling studies related to the safety implications of a large-scale LNG spill over water; (3) Evaluation of the potential for breaching an LNG ship cargo tank, both accidentally and intentionally, identification of the potential for such breaches and the potential size of an LNG spill for each breach scenario, and an assessment of the potential range of hazards involved in an LNG spill; (4) Development of guidance on the use of modern, performance-based, risk management approaches to analyze and manage the threats, hazards, and consequences of an LNG spill over water to reduce the overall risks of an LNG spill to levels that are protective of public safety and property.

  14. Comparative safety analysis of LNG storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Fecht, B.A.; Gates, T.E.; Nelson, K.O.; Marr, G.D.

    1982-07-01

    LNG storage tank design and response to selected release scenarios were reviewed. The selection of the scenarios was based on an investigation of potential hazards as cited in the literature. A review of the structure of specific LNG storage facilities is given. Scenarios initially addressed included those that most likely emerge from the tank facility itself: conditions of overfill and overflow as related to liquid LNG content levels; over/underpressurization at respective tank vapor pressure boundaries; subsidence of bearing soil below tank foundations; and crack propagation in tank walls due to possible exposure of structural material to cryogenic temperatures. Additional scenarios addressed include those that result from external events: tornado induced winds and pressure drops; exterior tank missile impact with tornado winds and rotating machinery being the investigated mode of generation; thermal response due to adjacent fire conditions; and tank response due to intense seismic activity. Applicability of each scenario depended heavily on the specific tank configurations and material types selected. (PSB)

  15. Eye Emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emergencies Cardiac Emergencies Eye Emergencies Lung Emergencies Surgeries Eye Emergencies Marfan syndrome significantly increases your risk of ... light-sensitive membrane in the back of the eye (the retina) from its supporting layers. It is ...

  16. Eye Wear

    MedlinePlus

    Eye wear protects or corrects your vision. Examples are Sunglasses Safety goggles Glasses (also called eyeglasses) Contact ... jobs and some sports carry a risk of eye injury. Thousands of children and adults get eye ...

  17. Eye Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    The structure of your face helps protect your eyes from injury. Still, injuries can damage your eye, sometimes severely enough that you could lose your vision. Most eye injuries are preventable. If you play sports or ...

  18. Eye Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer of the eye is uncommon. It can affect the outer parts of the eye, such as the eyelid, which are made up ... adults are melanoma and lymphoma. The most common eye cancer in children is retinoblastoma, which starts in ...

  19. Eye Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... the back of the eye Macular degeneration - a disease that destroys sharp, central vision Diabetic eye problems ... defense is to have regular checkups, because eye diseases do not always have symptoms. Early detection and ...

  20. Eye Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... of your face helps protect your eyes from injury. Still, injuries can damage your eye, sometimes severely enough that you could lose your vision. Most eye injuries are preventable. If you play sports or work ...

  1. 46 CFR 154.703 - Methane (LNG).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Methane (LNG). 154.703 Section 154.703 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... system that meets § 154.702; (b) A waste heat or catalytic furnace that burns boil-off gas, and:...

  2. 46 CFR 154.703 - Methane (LNG).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Methane (LNG). 154.703 Section 154.703 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Cargo Pressure and Temperature Control § 154.703 Methane...

  3. U.S. LNG Imports - The Next Wave

    EIA Publications

    2007-01-01

    U.S. LNG imports - The Next Wave, is now available as a special supplement to the January 2007 issue of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO). Although liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports still account for less than 3% of total U.S. natural gas supplies, the global market is growing and the Energy Information Administration (EIA) foresees another wave of U.S. LNG import growth over the next two years. The supplement focuses on recent trends in global and U.S. LNG trade, and presents factors expected to influence LNG imports through 2008. EIA expects year-over-year increases in LNG imports of 34.5% and 38.5% in 2007 and 2008, respectively.

  4. Beauty of Simplicity: Phillips Optimized Cascade LNG Liquefaction Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andress, D. L.; Watkins, R. J.

    2004-06-01

    Paper describes how use of single component refrigerants yields an LNG liquefaction process that is safe, simple to operate, easy to understand, and robust in reliability. The 34-year operating history of Kenai LNG has proven the inherent advantages of the Phillips Optimized Cascade LNG Process. The paper is written from an operational point of view, and describes basic design parameters and operation of the processes.

  5. Healthy Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn Javascript on. Healthy Eyes Maintaining Your Vision Click for more information Taking good care of ... are qualified to perform eye exams. Aging and Vision Changes As you age, it is normal to ...

  6. Eye Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... adults are melanoma and lymphoma. The most common eye cancer in children is retinoblastoma, which starts in the cells of the retina. ... from other parts of the body. Treatment for eye cancer varies by the type and by how advanced ...

  7. Eye Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... News About Us Donate In This Section Eye Anatomy en Español email Send this article to a ... You at Risk For Glaucoma? Childhood Glaucoma Eye Anatomy Five Common Glaucoma Tests Glaucoma Facts and Stats ...

  8. Your Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... the eye and keeps it healthy. previous continue Light, Lens, Action These next parts are really cool, ... the eye. previous continue Rods and Cones Process Light The retina uses special cells called rods and ...

  9. High efficiency Brayton cycles using LNG

    DOEpatents

    Morrow, Charles W.

    2006-04-18

    A modified, closed-loop Brayton cycle power conversion system that uses liquefied natural gas as the cold heat sink media. When combined with a helium gas cooled nuclear reactor, achievable efficiency can approach 68 76% (as compared to 35% for conventional steam cycle power cooled by air or water). A superheater heat exchanger can be used to exchange heat from a side-stream of hot helium gas split-off from the primary helium coolant loop to post-heat vaporized natural gas exiting from low and high-pressure coolers. The superheater raises the exit temperature of the natural gas to close to room temperature, which makes the gas more attractive to sell on the open market. An additional benefit is significantly reduced costs of a LNG revaporization plant, since the nuclear reactor provides the heat for vaporization instead of burning a portion of the LNG to provide the heat.

  10. Eye Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... Do you have diabetes, and have you noticed any changes in your vision? Yes Over time, too much glucose (sugar) in the ... eye pink, red or irritated, and are there any secretions or mucus from the eye? Yes CONJUNCTIVITIS, also called "PINK EYE," can be caused ...

  11. Eye floaters

    MedlinePlus

    ... eyes are not on the surface of your eyes, but inside them. These floaters are bits of cell debris that drift around ... is the layer in the back of the eye.) If you notice a sudden increase in floaters or if you see floaters along with flashes ...

  12. Lessons learned from LNG safety research.

    PubMed

    Koopman, Ronald P; Ermak, Donald L

    2007-02-20

    During the period from 1977 to 1989, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) conducted a liquefied gaseous fuels spill effects program under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy, Department of Transportation, Gas Research Institute and others. The goal of this program was to develop and validate tools that could be used to predict the effects of a large liquefied gas spill through the execution of large scale field experiments and the development of computer models to make predictions for conditions under which tests could not be performed. Over the course of the program, three series of LNG spill experiments were performed to study cloud formation, dispersion, combustion and rapid phase transition (RPT) explosions. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of this program, the lessons learned from 12 years of research as well as some recommendations for the future. The general conclusion from this program is that cold, dense gas related phenomena can dominate the dispersion of a large volume, high release rate spill of LNG especially under low ambient wind speed and stable atmospheric conditions, and therefore, it is necessary to include a detailed and validated description of these phenomena in computer models to adequately predict the consequences of a release. Specific conclusions include: * LNG vapor clouds are lower and wider than trace gas clouds and tend to follow the downhill slope of terrain due to dampened vertical turbulence and gravity flow within the cloud. Under low wind speed, stable atmospheric conditions, a bifurcated, two lobed structure develops. * Navier-Stokes models provide the most complete description of LNG dispersion, while more highly parameterized Lagrangian models were found to be well suited to emergency response applications. * The measured heat flux from LNG vapor cloud burns exceeded levels necessary for third degree burns and were large enough to ignite most flammable materials. * RPTs are of two

  13. 75 FR 51989 - Southern LNG Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-24

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern LNG Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application August 16, 2010. Take notice that on August 4, 2010, Southern LNG Company, L.L.C. (Southern LNG), Post Office Box 2563... Regulatory, Southern LNG Company, L.L.C., 569 Brookwood Village, Suite 501, Birmingham, Alabama 35209 at...

  14. 78 FR 20312 - Downeast LNG, Inc., Downeast Pipeline, LLC.; Notice of Availability of the Supplemental Draft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Downeast LNG, Inc., Downeast Pipeline, LLC.; Notice of Availability of the Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Downeast LNG Project The staff of the... Impact Statement (EIS) for the Downeast LNG Project, proposed by Downeast LNG, Inc. and Downeast...

  15. 49 CFR 193.2623 - Inspecting LNG storage tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inspecting LNG storage tanks. 193.2623 Section 193.2623 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2623 Inspecting LNG storage tanks. Each...

  16. 49 CFR 193.2623 - Inspecting LNG storage tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Inspecting LNG storage tanks. 193.2623 Section 193.2623 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2623 Inspecting LNG storage tanks. Each...

  17. Research on energy efficiency design index for sea-going LNG carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yan; Yu, Yanyun; Guan, Guan

    2014-12-01

    This paper describes the characteristics of liquefied natural gas (LNG) carriers briefly. The LNG carrier includes power plant selection, vapor treatment, liquid cargo tank type, etc. Two parameters—fuel substitution rate and recovery of boil of gas (BOG) volume to energy efficiency design index (EEDI) formula are added, and EEDI formula of LNG carriers is established based on ship EEDI formula. Then, based on steam turbine propulsion device of LNG carriers, mathematical models of LNG carriers' reference line value are established in this paper. By verification, the EEDI formula of LNG carriers described in this paper can provide a reference for LNG carrier EEDI calculation and green shipbuilding.

  18. Eye development.

    PubMed

    Baker, Nicholas E; Li, Ke; Quiquand, Manon; Ruggiero, Robert; Wang, Lan-Hsin

    2014-06-15

    The eye has been one of the most intensively studied organs in Drosophila. The wealth of knowledge about its development, as well as the reagents that have been developed, and the fact that the eye is dispensable for survival, also make the eye suitable for genetic interaction studies and genetic screens. This article provides a brief overview of the methods developed to image and probe eye development at multiple developmental stages, including live imaging, immunostaining of fixed tissues, in situ hybridizations, and scanning electron microscopy and color photography of adult eyes. Also summarized are genetic approaches that can be performed in the eye, including mosaic analysis and conditional mutation, gene misexpression and knockdown, and forward genetic and modifier screens. PMID:24784530

  19. EYE DEVELOPMENT

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Nicholas E.; Li, Ke; Quiquand, Manon; Ruggiero, Robert; Wang, Lan-Hsin

    2014-01-01

    The eye has been one of the most intensively studied organs in Drosophila. The wealth of knowledge about its development, as well as the reagents that have been developed, and the fact that the eye is dispensable for survival, also make the eye suitable for genetic interaction studies and genetic screens. This chapter provides a brief overview of the methods developed to image and probe eye development at multiple developmental stages, including live imaging, immunostaining of fixed tissues, in situ hybridizations, and scanning electron microscopy and color photography of adult eyes. Also summarized are genetic approaches that can be performed in the eye, including mosaic analysis and conditional mutation, gene misexpression and knockdown, and forward genetic and modifier screens. PMID:24784530

  20. Eye Injuries at Home

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Eye Injuries Sections Preventing Eye Injuries Recognizing and Treating Eye ... Sports Eye Injuries by the Numbers — Infographic Eye Injuries at Home Reviewed by: Brenda Pagan-Duran MD ...

  1. Get accurate LNG densities with COSTALD

    SciTech Connect

    Hankinson, R.W.; Coker, T.A.; Thomson, G.H.

    1982-04-01

    A fine-tuned version of the COSTALD correlation predicts the densities for 40 LNG-type mixtures at an average absolute error of 0.078%. When tested against 285 points of low-temperature data collected by the US National Bureau of Standards, the average error was 0.199%, compared with a 0.227% error obtained with the NBS's McCarty-Klosek-McKinley technique. The COSTALD correlation relates the saturated molar volume of a liquid to a characteristic volume, the reduced temperature, and, a modified acentric factor for each stream component. The fine-tuning involved adding several interaction parameters dervied from binary density data.

  2. Submarine LNG tanker concept for the Arctic

    SciTech Connect

    Veliotis, P.T.; Reitz, S.

    1981-01-01

    If LNG tankers could travel underwater, they could transport natural gas from Arctic regions year-round. General Dynamics has designed just such a tanker - a 140,000-m/sup 3/ submarine with a methane-fired steam-propulsion system that uses recirculated exhaust gas injected with oxygen to sustain combustion. (Nuclear power would be cheaper but might not be practical if new regulations are imposed.) Developed from parametric variations in cargo capacity, hull material, and ballasting, the design identifies such ship characteristics as length, beam, depth, cargo-system arrangement, speed, and ship control. An economic analysis indicates the concept's competitiveness with both pipelines and icebreaking tankers.

  3. Particle- and Gaseous Emissions from an LNG Powered Ship.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Maria; Salo, Kent; Fridell, Erik

    2015-10-20

    Measurements of particle number and mass concentrations and number size distribution of particles from a ship running on liquefied natural gas (LNG) were made on-board a ship with dual-fuel engines installed. Today there is a large interest in LNG as a marine fuel, as a means to comply with sulfur and NOX regulations. Particles were studied in a wide size range together with measurements of other exhaust gases under different engine loads and different mixtures of LNG and marine gas oil. Results from these measurements show that emissions of particles, NOX, and CO2 are considerably lower for LNG compared to present marine fuel oils. Emitted particles were mainly of volatile character and mainly had diameters below 50 nm. Number size distribution for LNG showed a distinct peak at 9-10 nm and a part of a peak at diameter 6 nm and below. Emissions of total hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide are higher for LNG compared to present marine fuel oils, which points to the importance of considering the methane slip from combustion of LNG. PMID:26422536

  4. Dry Eye

    MedlinePlus

    ... surgery, called punctal cautery, is recommended to permanently close the drainage holes. The procedure helps keep the limited volume of tears on the eye for a longer period of time. In some patients with dry eye, supplements or dietary sources (such as tuna fish) of omega-3 fatty ...

  5. Eye Complications

    MedlinePlus

    ... the cornea, which focuses light while protecting the eye. After light passes through the cornea, it travels through a ... and have them progress faster. With cataracts, the eye's clear lens clouds, blocking light. To help deal with mild cataracts, you may ...

  6. A dispersion safety factor for LNG vapor clouds.

    PubMed

    Vílchez, Juan A; Villafañe, Diana; Casal, Joaquim

    2013-02-15

    The growing importance of liquefied natural gas (LNG) to global energy demand has increased interest in the possible hazards associated with its storage and transportation. Concerning the event of an LNG spill, a study was performed on the relationship between the distance at which the lower flammability limit (LFL) concentration occurs and that corresponding to the visible contour of LNG vapor clouds. A parameter called the dispersion safety factor (DSF) has been defined as the ratio between these two lengths, and two expressions are proposed to estimate it. During an emergency, the DSF can be a helpful parameter to indicate the danger of cloud ignition and flash fire. PMID:23305750

  7. Four band differential radiometer for monitoring LNG vapors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmonds, J. J.

    1981-06-01

    The development by JPL of a four band differential radiometer (FBDR) which is capable of providing a fast rate of response, accurate measurements of methane, ethane, and propane concentrations on the periphery of a dispersing LNG cloud. The FBDR is a small, low power, lightweight, portable instrument system that uses differential absorption of near infrared radiation by the LNG cloud as a technique for the determination of concentration of the three gases as the LNG cloud passes the instrument position. Instrument design and data analysis approaches are described. The data obtained from the FBDR prototype instrument system deployed in an instrument array during two 40 cubic meter spill tests are discussed.

  8. Four band differential radiometer for monitoring LNG vapors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmonds, J. J.

    1981-01-01

    The development by JPL of a four band differential radiometer (FBDR) which is capable of providing a fast rate of response, accurate measurements of methane, ethane, and propane concentrations on the periphery of a dispersing LNG cloud. The FBDR is a small, low power, lightweight, portable instrument system that uses differential absorption of near infrared radiation by the LNG cloud as a technique for the determination of concentration of the three gases as the LNG cloud passes the instrument position. Instrument design and data analysis approaches are described. The data obtained from the FBDR prototype instrument system deployed in an instrument array during two 40 cubic meter spill tests are discussed.

  9. Thermoelectric Power Conversion System Combined with LNG Vaporizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kambe, Mitsuru; Morita, Ryo; Omoto, Kazuyuki; Koji, Yasuhiro; Yoshida, Tatsuo; Noishiki, Koji

    A conceptual design of the thermoelectric power conversion system combined with open rack type LNG (liquefied natural gas) vaporizer to make use of cold heat of LNG is presented. The system performance analysis has been made based on the thermoelectric module performance data obtained at the cryogenic thermoelectric (CTE) test rig which could realize temperature and fluid dynamic condition of the open rack type LNG vaporizer. Conventional bismuth-telluride thermoelectric modules were tested, however, each module is encapsulated in the stainless steel container to achieve water proof. Electricity production cost evaluation of the system is also discussed.

  10. Topsides equipment, operating flexibility key floating LNG design

    SciTech Connect

    Yost, K.; Lopez, R.; Mok, J.

    1998-03-09

    Use of a large-scale floating liquefied natural gas (LNG) plant is an economical alternative to an onshore plant for producing from an offshore field. Mobil Technology Co., Dallas, has advanced a design for such a plant that is technically feasible, economical, safe, and reliable. Presented were descriptions of the general design basis, hull modeling and testing, topsides and storage layouts, and LNG offloading. But such a design also presents challenges for designing topsides equipment in an offshore environment and for including flexibility and safety. These are covered in this second article. Mobil`s floating LNG plant design calls for a square concrete barge with a moon-pool in the center. It is designed to produce 6 million tons/year of LNG with up to 55,000 b/d of condensate from 1 bcfd of raw feed gas.

  11. The Phoenix series large scale LNG pool fire experiments.

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, Richard B.; Jensen, Richard Pearson; Demosthenous, Byron; Luketa, Anay Josephine; Ricks, Allen Joseph; Hightower, Marion Michael; Blanchat, Thomas K.; Helmick, Paul H.; Tieszen, Sheldon Robert; Deola, Regina Anne; Mercier, Jeffrey Alan; Suo-Anttila, Jill Marie; Miller, Timothy J.

    2010-12-01

    The increasing demand for natural gas could increase the number and frequency of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) tanker deliveries to ports across the United States. Because of the increasing number of shipments and the number of possible new facilities, concerns about the potential safety of the public and property from an accidental, and even more importantly intentional spills, have increased. While improvements have been made over the past decade in assessing hazards from LNG spills, the existing experimental data is much smaller in size and scale than many postulated large accidental and intentional spills. Since the physics and hazards from a fire change with fire size, there are concerns about the adequacy of current hazard prediction techniques for large LNG spills and fires. To address these concerns, Congress funded the Department of Energy (DOE) in 2008 to conduct a series of laboratory and large-scale LNG pool fire experiments at Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) in Albuquerque, New Mexico. This report presents the test data and results of both sets of fire experiments. A series of five reduced-scale (gas burner) tests (yielding 27 sets of data) were conducted in 2007 and 2008 at Sandia's Thermal Test Complex (TTC) to assess flame height to fire diameter ratios as a function of nondimensional heat release rates for extrapolation to large-scale LNG fires. The large-scale LNG pool fire experiments were conducted in a 120 m diameter pond specially designed and constructed in Sandia's Area III large-scale test complex. Two fire tests of LNG spills of 21 and 81 m in diameter were conducted in 2009 to improve the understanding of flame height, smoke production, and burn rate and therefore the physics and hazards of large LNG spills and fires.

  12. Healthy Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Programs Training and Jobs Home > Healthy Eyes Healthy Vision Diabetes Diabetes Home How Much Do You Know? ... seeing your best. Read more. What are common vision problems? Some of the most common vision problems ...

  13. Eye Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... MD Mar. 01, 2015 Eye allergies, called allergic conjunctivitis , are a common condition that occurs when the ... with tearing and burning. Unlike bacterial or viral conjunctivitis, allergic conjunctivitis is not spread from person to ...

  14. Eye emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... and there is a good chance of recovery. Alkaline substances -- such as lime, lye, drain cleaners, and ... at high speed by machining, grinding, or hammering metal have the highest risk of injuring the eye. ...

  15. Eye Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Issues Conditions Abdominal ADHD Allergies & Asthma Autism Cancer Chest & Lungs Chronic Conditions Cleft & Craniofacial Developmental Disabilities Ear Nose & Throat Emotional Problems Eyes Fever From Insects or Animals Genitals and Urinary Tract Glands & Growth ...

  16. Black Eye

    MedlinePlus

    ... Aug 30, 2016 Toddlers Most at Risk of Chemical Burns to Eyes Aug 26, 2016 Firework Blinds Teenager, Severs Hand Jun 29, ... at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For ...

  17. The Asia Pacific LNG trade: Status and technology development

    SciTech Connect

    Hovdestad, W.R.

    1995-10-01

    The Asia Pacific Region is experiencing a period of sustained economic expansion. Economic growth has led to an increasing demand for energy that has spurred a rapid expansion of baseload liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities in this region. This is illustrated by the fact that seven of the ten baseload facilities in existence provide LNG for markets in the Asia Pacific region. With the three exceptions having been initially commissioned in 1972 and earlier, it is fair to observed that most advances in LNG technology have been developed and applied for this market. The paper presents the current status and identified future trends for the Asia Pacific LNG trade. Technology development in terms of application to onstream production, processing and transportation facilities, including LNG tankers, is presented. The potential of future advances to applied technology and operational practices to improve the cost-effectiveness of new and existing facilities is discussed. Current design data and methods as actually used are examined in terms of identifying where fundamental research and basic physical data are insufficient for optimization purposes. These findings are then summarized and presented in terms of the likely evolution of future and existing LNG projects in the Asia Pacific region.

  18. Aging and Your Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your Eyes Heath and Aging Aging and Your Eyes Steps to Protect Your Eyesight Common Eye Problems ... weight can also help protect your vision. Common Eye Problems The following common eye problems can be ...

  19. LNG pool fire spectral data and calculation of emissive power.

    PubMed

    Raj, Phani K

    2007-04-11

    Spectral description of thermal emission from fires provides a fundamental basis on which the fire thermal radiation hazard assessment models can be developed. Several field experiments were conducted during the 1970s and 1980s to measure the thermal radiation field surrounding LNG fires. Most of these tests involved the measurement of fire thermal radiation to objects outside the fire envelope using either narrow-angle or wide-angle radiometers. Extrapolating the wide-angle radiometer data without understanding the nature of fire emission is prone to errors. Spectral emissions from LNG fires have been recorded in four test series conducted with LNG fires on different substrates and of different diameters. These include the AGA test series of LNG fires on land of diameters 1.8 and 6m, 35 m diameter fire on an insulated concrete dike in the Montoir tests conducted by Gaz de France, a 1976 test with 13 m diameter and the 1980 tests with 10 m diameter LNG fire on water carried out at China Lake, CA. The spectral data from the Montoir test series have not been published in technical journals; only recently has some data from this series have become available. This paper presents the details of the LNG fire spectral data from, primarily, the China Lake test series, their analysis and results. Available data from other test series are also discussed. China Lake data indicate that the thermal radiation emission from 13 m diameter LNG fire is made up of band emissions of about 50% of energy by water vapor (band emission), about 25% by carbon dioxide and the remainder constituting the continuum emission by luminous soot. The emissions from the H2O and CO2 bands are completely absorbed by the intervening atmosphere in less than about 200 m from the fire, even in the relatively dry desert air. The effective soot radiation constitutes only about 23% during the burning period of methane and increases slightly when other higher hydrocarbon species (ethane, propane, etc.) are

  20. Eye tracker.

    PubMed

    Pruehsner, W; Enderle, J D

    1999-01-01

    A device that records saccadic eye movements, the Eye Tracker, is presented in this paper. The Eye Tracker utilizes infra-red technology mounted on fully adjustable goggles to follow eye movements targeted by either a goggles mounted HUD type display or a wall mounted light bank. Output from the goggles is remotely sent to a PC type computer, which leads to device portability. The goggles can also maintain output data in an internal memory for latter download. The user interface is Windows based with the output from the goggles represented as a trace map or plotted points. This output can also be saved or printed for future reference. The user interface can be used on any PC type computer. The device is designed with reference to standard ISO design methodology. Safety in design and final product usage has also been addressed with reference to standard ISO type procedures. Device accuracy is maintained by precise construction of the IR units in the goggles and tight control of cross talk between each IR device plus filtering of ambient light signals. Also, a reset feature is included to maintain equal baseline control. An automatic switching device is included in the goggles to allow the Eye Tracker to "warm up," assuring that equal IR power is delivered for each subject tested. The IR units in the goggles are also modular in case replacement is required. PMID:11143354

  1. LNG cascading damage study. Volume I, fracture testing report.

    SciTech Connect

    Petti, Jason P.; Kalan, Robert J.

    2011-12-01

    As part of the liquefied natural gas (LNG) Cascading Damage Study, a series of structural tests were conducted to investigate the thermal induced fracture of steel plate structures. The thermal stresses were achieved by applying liquid nitrogen (LN{sub 2}) onto sections of each steel plate. In addition to inducing large thermal stresses, the lowering of the steel temperature simultaneously reduced the fracture toughness. Liquid nitrogen was used as a surrogate for LNG due to safety concerns and since the temperature of LN{sub 2} is similar (-190 C) to LNG (-161 C). The use of LN{sub 2} ensured that the tests could achieve cryogenic temperatures in the range an actual vessel would encounter during a LNG spill. There were four phases to this test series. Phase I was the initial exploratory stage, which was used to develop the testing process. In the Phase II series of tests, larger plates were used and tested until fracture. The plate sizes ranged from 4 ft square pieces to 6 ft square sections with thicknesses from 1/4 inches to 3/4 inches. This phase investigated the cooling rates on larger plates and the effect of different notch geometries (stress concentrations used to initiate brittle fracture). Phase II was divided into two sections, Phase II-A and Phase II-B. Phase II-A used standard A36 steel, while Phase II-B used marine grade steels. In Phase III, the test structures were significantly larger, in the range of 12 ft by 12 ft by 3 ft high. These structures were designed with more complex geometries to include features similar to those on LNG vessels. The final test phase, Phase IV, investigated differences in the heat transfer (cooling rates) between LNG and LN{sub 2}. All of the tests conducted in this study are used in subsequent parts of the LNG Cascading Damage Study, specifically the computational analyses.

  2. 76 FR 81925 - Freeport LNG Development, L.P.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Freeport LNG Development, L.P.; Notice of Application Take notice that on December 9, 2011, Freeport LNG Development, L.P. (Freeport LNG), filed an application pursuant to Section 3..., Fulbright & Jaworski L.L.P., 666 Fifth Avenue, New York, New York 10103. Telephone (212) 318-3009, fax...

  3. 75 FR 74029 - Sabine Pass LNG, L.P.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Sabine Pass LNG, L.P.; Notice of Application November 22, 2010. Take notice that on November 12, 2010, Sabine Pass LNG, L.P. (Sabine Pass), 700 Milam Street, Suite 800, Houston... directed to Patricia Outtrim, Sabine Pass LNG, L.P., 700 Milam Street, Suite 800, Houston, Texas 77002,...

  4. 75 FR 53688 - Southern LNG Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Technical Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Southern LNG Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Technical Conference August 25, 2010..., Southern LNG Company, L.L.C. (Southern LNG) filed a tariff sheet to revise its tariff with respect to...

  5. 77 FR 788 - Southern LNG Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-06

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern LNG Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application Take notice that on December 15, 2011, Southern LNG Company, L.L.C. (SLNG), 569 Brookwood Village, Suite 501, Birmingham... should be directed to Glenn A. Sheffield, Director, Rates & Regulatory Affairs, Southern LNG Company,...

  6. 75 FR 2126 - Calais Pipeline Company, LLC; Calais LNG Project Company, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Calais Pipeline Company, LLC; Calais LNG Project Company, LLC; Notice of Application January 6, 2010. Take notice that on December 18, 2009, Calais LNG Project Company, LLC (Calais LNG) and Calais Pipeline Company, LLC (Calais Pipeline) 142 ] Main Street, P.O. Box 133, Calais,...

  7. 33 CFR 127.703 - Access to the marine transfer area for LNG.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... area for LNG. 127.703 Section 127.703 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Access to the marine transfer area for LNG. The operator shall ensure that— (a) Access to the marine transfer area for LNG from the shoreside and the waterside is limited to— (1) Personnel who work at...

  8. 33 CFR 127.703 - Access to the marine transfer area for LNG.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... area for LNG. 127.703 Section 127.703 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Access to the marine transfer area for LNG. The operator shall ensure that— (a) Access to the marine transfer area for LNG from the shoreside and the waterside is limited to— (1) Personnel who work at...

  9. 75 FR 54025 - Revision of LNG and LHG Waterfront Facility General Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-03

    ... final rule entitled ``Revision of LNG and LHG Waterfront Facility General Requirements'' (75 FR 29420... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 127 RIN 1625-AB13 Revision of LNG and LHG Waterfront Facility General... (WSA) requirements for liquefied natural gas (LNG) and liquefied hazardous gas (LHG) facilities....

  10. 33 CFR 127.105 - Layout and spacing of marine transfer area for LNG.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... spacing of marine transfer area for LNG. (a) LNG impounding spaces must be located so that the heat flux... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Layout and spacing of marine transfer area for LNG. 127.105 Section 127.105 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...

  11. 33 CFR 127.105 - Layout and spacing of marine transfer area for LNG.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... spacing of marine transfer area for LNG. (a) LNG impounding spaces must be located so that the heat flux... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Layout and spacing of marine transfer area for LNG. 127.105 Section 127.105 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...

  12. 33 CFR 127.105 - Layout and spacing of marine transfer area for LNG.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... spacing of marine transfer area for LNG. (a) LNG impounding spaces must be located so that the heat flux... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Layout and spacing of marine transfer area for LNG. 127.105 Section 127.105 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...

  13. Eye and orbit ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    Echography - eye orbit; Ultrasound - eye orbit; Ocular ultrasonography; Orbital ultrasonography ... ophthalmology department of a hospital or clinic. Your eye is numbed with medicine (anesthetic drops). The ultrasound ...

  14. 75 FR 20591 - AES Sparrows Point LNG, LLC and Mid-Atlantic Express, LLC; Notice of Final General Conformity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-20

    ... General Conformity Determination for Pennsylvania for the Proposed Sparrows Point LNG Terminal and... liquefied natural gas (LNG) import terminal and natural gas pipeline proposed by AES Sparrows Point LNG, LLC... quality impacts from the construction and operation of the following LNG terminal and natural gas...

  15. Overview study of LNG release prevention and control systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pelto, P.J.; Baker, E.G.; Holter, G.M.; Powers, T.B.

    1982-03-01

    The liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry employs a variety of release prevention and control techniques to reduce the likelihood and the consequences of accidental LNG releases. A study of the effectiveness of these release prevention and control systems is being performed. Reference descriptions for the basic types of LNG facilities were developed. Then an overview study was performed to identify areas that merit subsequent and more detailed analyses. The specific objectives were to characterize the LNG facilities of interest and their release prevention and control systems, identify possible weak links and research needs, and provide an analytical framework for subsequent detailed analyses. The LNG facilities analyzed include a reference export terminal, marine vessel, import terminal, peakshaving facility, truck tanker, and satellite facility. A reference description for these facilities, a preliminary hazards analysis (PHA), and a list of representative release scenarios are included. The reference facility descriptions outline basic process flows, plant layouts, and safety features. The PHA identifies the important release prevention operations. Representative release scenarios provide a format for discussing potential initiating events, effects of the release prevention and control systems, information needs, and potential design changes. These scenarios range from relatively frequent but low consequence releases to unlikely but large releases and are the principal basis for the next stage of analysis.

  16. Insulating polymer concrete for LNG impounding dikes. [Polymer concretes

    SciTech Connect

    Fontana, J.J.; Steinberg, M.

    1986-03-01

    An insulating polymer concrete (IPC) composite has been developed under contract to the Gas Research Institute for possible use as a dike insulation material at Liquid Natural Gas (LNG) storage facilities. In the advent of an LNG spill into the impounding dike area, the boiloff rate of the LNG can be substantially reduced if the surfaces of the dike are insulated. This increased safety at the LNG facility will tend to reduce the hazardous explosive mixture with atmospheric air in the surrounding region. The dike insulation material must have a low thermal conductivity and be unaffected by environmental conditions. The IPC composites developed consist of perlite or glass nodule aggregates bound together as a closed cell structure with a polyester resin. In addition to low thermal conductivity and porosity, these composites have correspondingly high strengths and, therefore, can carry transient loads of workmen and maintenance equipment. Prefabricated IPC panels have been installed experimentally and at least one utility is currently considering a complete installation at its LNG facility. 5 refs., 5 tabs.

  17. Floating LNG plant will stress reliability and safety

    SciTech Connect

    Kinney, C.D.; Schulz, H.R.; Spring, W.

    1997-07-01

    Mobil has developed a unique floating LNG plant design after extensive studies that set safety as the highest priority. The result is a production, storage and offloading platform designed to produce 6 million tons per year of LNG and up to 55,000 bpd of condensate from 1 Bcfd of feed gas. All production and off-loading equipment is supported by a square donut-shaped concrete hull, which is spread-moored. The hull contains storage tanks for 250,000 m{sup 3} of LNG, 6540,000 bbl of condensate and ballast water. Both LNG and condensate can be directly offloaded to shuttle tankers. Since the plant may be moved to produce from several different gas fields during its life, the plant and barge were designed to be generic. It can be used at any location in the Pacific Rim, with up to 15% CO{sub 2}, 100 ppm H{sub 2}S, 55 bbl/MMcf condensate and 650 ft water depth. It can be modified to handle other water depths, depending upon the environment. In addition, it is much more economical than an onshore grassroots LNG plant, with potential capital savings of 25% or more. The paper describes the machinery, meteorology and oceanography, and safety engineering.

  18. The theoretical analysis of the Fog removal in the LNG Ambient Vaporizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, T.; Lee, D.; Jeong, H.; Chung, H.

    2015-09-01

    The fog removal process is one of the important process in LNG Ambient Vaporizer. In this study we carried out theoretical study of the fog removal process in LNG Ambient Vaporizer. The LNG Ambient Vaporizer in Incheon area was used in our study. The fog temperature and the required energy produced from air fan to remove fog in LNG Ambient Vaporizer were calculated using average temperature of Incheon area in 2012 by Psychometruc Chart method. As a result we can be remove fog in LNG Ambient Vaporizer using Enthalpy[kW] energy in summer season and Enthalpy[kW] in winter season respectively.

  19. Dilating Eye Drops

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions Most Common Searches Adult Strabismus Amblyopia Cataract Conjunctivitis Corneal Abrasions Dilating Eye Drops Lazy eye (defined) ... Loading... Most Common Searches Adult Strabismus Amblyopia Cataract Conjunctivitis Corneal Abrasions Dilating Eye Drops Lazy eye (defined) ...

  20. Eye muscle repair - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lazy eye repair - discharge; Strabismus repair - discharge; Extraocular muscle surgery - discharge ... You or your child had eye muscle repair surgery to correct eye muscle ... term for crossed eyes is strabismus. Children most often ...

  1. Eye Movement Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... t work properly. There are many kinds of eye movement disorders. Two common ones are Strabismus - a disorder ... of the eyes, sometimes called "dancing eyes" Some eye movement disorders are present at birth. Others develop over ...

  2. Why Do Eyes Water?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Help White House Lunch Recipes Why Do Eyes Water? KidsHealth > For Kids > Why Do Eyes Water? Print ... out of your nose. continue Why Do Eyes Water? Eyes water for lots of different reasons besides ...

  3. Hawaii energy strategy project 2: Fossil energy review. Task 3 -- Greenfield options: Prospects for LNG use

    SciTech Connect

    Breazeale, K.; Fesharaki, F.; Fridley, D.; Pezeshki, S.; Wu, K.

    1993-12-01

    This paper begins with an overview of the Asia-Pacific LNG market, its major players, and the likely availability of LNG supplies in the region. The discussion then examines the possibilities for the economic supply of LNG to Hawaii, the potential Hawaiian market, and the viability of an LNG project on Oahu. This survey is far from a complete technical assessment or an actual engineering/feasibility study. The economics alone cannot justify LNG`s introduction. The debate may continue as to whether fuel diversification and environmental reasons can outweigh the higher costs. Several points are made. LNG is not a spot commodity. Switching to LNG in Hawaii would require a massive, long-term commitment and substantial investments. LNG supplies are growing very tight in the Asia-Pacific region. Some of the environmental benefits of LNG are not entirely relevant in Hawaii because Hawaii`s air quality is generally excellent. Any air quality benefits may be more than counterbalanced by the environmental hazards connected with large-scale coastal zone construction, and by the safety hazards of LNG carriers, pipelines, etc. Lastly, LNG is not suitable for all energy uses, and is likely to be entirely unsuitable for neighbor island energy needs.

  4. LNG SAFETY RESEARCH: FEM3A MODEL DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Jerry Havens; Iraj A. Salehi

    2005-02-21

    This quarterly report for DE-FG26-04NT42030 covers a period from October 1, 2004 to December 31, 2004. On December 9, 2004 a meeting was held in Morgantown to rescope the LNG safety modeling project such that the work would complement the DOE's efforts relative to the development of the intended LNG-Fluent model. It was noted and discussed at the December 9th meeting that the fundamental research being performed on surface to cloud heat transfer and low wind speed issues will be relevant to the development of the DOE LNG/Fluent Model. In general, it was decided that all research to be performed from December 9th through the remainder of the contract is to be focused on the development of the DOE LNG/Fluent model. In addition, all GTI activities for dissemination and transfer of FEM3A will cease and dissemination activities will focus on the new DOE LNG/Fluent model. The proposed new scope of work is presented in section 4 of this report. The work reported in the present document relates to the original scope of work which was in effect during the reporting period. The future work will be re-scoped to meet the requirements of the new scope of work. During the report period work was underway to address numerical problems present during simulation of low-wind-speed, stable, atmospheric conditions with FEM3A. Steps 1 and 2 in the plan outlined in the first Quarterly report are complete and steps 3 and 4 are in progress. During this quarter, the University of Arkansas has been investigating the effect upon numerical stability of the heat transfer model used to predict the surface-to-cloud heat transfer, which can be important for LNG vapor dispersion. Previously, no consideration has been given to ground cooling as a result of heat transfer to the colder gas cloud in FEM3A.

  5. Comparison of CNG and LNG technologies for transportation applications

    SciTech Connect

    Sinor, J.E. Consultants, Inc., Niwot, CO )

    1992-01-01

    This report provides a head-to-head comparison of compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied natural gas (LNG) supplied to heavy-duty vehicles. The comparison includes an assessment of the overall efficiency of the fuel delivery system, the cost of the fuel supply system, the efficiency of use in heavy-duty vehicles, and the environmental impact of each technology. The report concludes that there are applications in which CNG will have the advantage, and applications in which LNG will be preferred.

  6. Analysis of LNG peakshaving-facility release-prevention systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pelto, P.J.; Baker, E.G.; Powers, T.B.; Schreiber, A.M.; Hobbs, J.M.; Daling, P.M.

    1982-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide an analysis of release prevention systems for a reference LNG peakshaving facility. An overview assessment of the reference peakshaving facility, which preceeded this effort, identified 14 release scenarios which are typical of the potential hazards involved in the operation of LNG peakshaving facilities. These scenarios formed the basis for this more detailed study. Failure modes and effects analysis and fault tree analysis were used to estimate the expected frequency of each release scenario for the reference peakshaving facility. In addition, the effectiveness of release prevention, release detection, and release control systems were evaluated.

  7. Monitoring, safety systems for LNG and LPG operators

    SciTech Connect

    True, W.R.

    1998-11-16

    Operators in Korea and Australia have chosen monitoring and control systems in recent contracts for LNG and LPG storage. Korea Gas Corp. (Kogas) has hired Whessoe Varec, Calais, to provide monitoring systems for four LNG storage tanks being built at Kogas` Inchon terminal. For Elgas Ltd., Port Botany, Australia, Whessoe Varec has already shipped a safety valve-shutdown system to a new LPG cavern-storage facility under construction. The paper describes the systems, terminal monitoring, dynamic approach to tank management, and meeting the growing demand for LPG.

  8. 76 FR 53425 - Pivotal LNG, Inc.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Pivotal LNG, Inc.; Notice of Application Take notice that on August 8, 2011... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission) an application under section 7(c) of the Natural Gas...

  9. 49 CFR 193.2181 - Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Design Impoundment Design and Capacity § 193.2181... minimum volumetric liquid impoundment capacity of: (a) 110 percent of the LNG tank's maximum liquid... largest tank's maximum liquid capacity, whichever is greater, for the impoundment serving more than...

  10. 49 CFR 193.2181 - Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Design Impoundment Design and Capacity § 193.2181... minimum volumetric liquid impoundment capacity of: (a) 110 percent of the LNG tank's maximum liquid... largest tank's maximum liquid capacity, whichever is greater, for the impoundment serving more than...

  11. 49 CFR 193.2181 - Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Design Impoundment Design and Capacity § 193.2181... minimum volumetric liquid impoundment capacity of: (a) 110 percent of the LNG tank's maximum liquid... largest tank's maximum liquid capacity, whichever is greater, for the impoundment serving more than...

  12. Fire performance of LNG carriers insulated with polystyrene foam.

    PubMed

    Havens, Jerry; Venart, James

    2008-10-30

    Analysis of the response of a liquid-full Moss Sphere LNG tank insulated with polystyrene foam to an engulfing LNG fire indicates that current regulatory requirements for pressure relief capacity sufficient to prevent tank rupture are inadequate. The inadequacy of the current requirements stems primarily from two factors. Firstly, the area of the Moss Sphere protruding above what would be the nominal deck on a conventional carrier, which is protected only by a steel weather cover from exposure to heat from a tank-engulfing fire, is being underestimated. Secondly, aluminum foil-covered polystyrene foam insulation applied to the exterior of the LNG tank is protected above the deck only by the steel weather cover under which the insulation could begin to melt in as little as 1-3 min, and could completely liquefy in as few as 10 min. U.S. and International Regulations require that the insulations on the above-deck portion of tanks have approved fire proofing and stability under fire exposure. Polystyrene foam, as currently installed on LNG carriers, does not appear to meet these criteria. As a result of these findings, but giving no consideration to the significant potential for further damage if the polystyrene should burn, the boil-off rate is predicted to be an order-of-magnitude higher than provided for by current PRV sizing requirements. PMID:18372107

  13. Field experiments on high expansion (HEX) foam application for controlling LNG pool fire.

    PubMed

    Suardin, Jaffee A; Wang, Yanjun; Willson, Mike; Mannan, M Sam

    2009-06-15

    Previous research suggests that high expansion foam with an expansion ratio of 500 to 1 is one of the best options for controlling liquefied natural gas (LNG) pool fire on land. However, its effectiveness heavily depends on the foam application rate, foam generator location, and the design of LNG spill containment dike. Examination of these factors is necessary to achieve the maximum benefit for applying HEX on LNG pool fires. While theoretical study of the effects of foam on LNG fires is important, the complicated phenomena involved in LNG pool fire and foam application increase the need for LNG field experimentation. Therefore, five LNG experiments were conducted at Texas A&M University's Brayton Fire Training Field. ANGUS FIRE provided Expandol solution to form 500 to 1 high expansion foam (HEX) and its latest LNG Turbex Fixed High Expansion Foam Generators. In this paper, data collected during five experiments are presented and analyzed. The effectiveness of high expansion foam for controlling LNG pool fires with various application rates at two different types of containment pits is discussed. LNG fire behaviors and the effects of dike wall height are also presented and discussed. PMID:19056175

  14. Analysis of LNG import terminal release prevention systems

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, E G

    1982-04-01

    The release prevention systems of liquefied natural gas (LNG) import terminal were analyzed. A series of potential release scenarios were analyzed to determine the frequency of the release events, the probability these releases are not stopped or isolated by emergency shutdown systems, the estimated release quantities, and the critical components of the system. The two plant areas identified as being most significant with respect to safety are the unloading system and the storage system. Rupture of the main transfer line and gross failure of the storage tanks are the two release scenarios of primary safety interest. Reducing the rate of failure by improved design, better maintenance and testing, or adding redundancy of the critical system components for these plant areas and release scenarios will result in improved safety. Several design alternatives which have the potential to significantly reduce the probability of a large release of LNG occurring at an import terminal are identified. These design alternatives would reduce the probability of a large release of LNG by reducing the expected number of failures which could cause a release or by reducing the magnitude of releases that do occur. All of these alternatives are technically feasible and have been used or considered for use in at least one LNG facility. A more rigorous analysis of the absolute risk of LNG import terminal operation is necessary before the benefits of these design alternatives can be determined. In addition, an economic evaluation of these alternatives must be made so the costs and benefits can be compared. It is concludd that for remotely located facilities many of these alternatives are probably not justified; however, for facilities located in highly populated areas, these alternatives deserve serious consideration.

  15. Investigation of propulsion system for large LNG ships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, R. P.; Nik, Wan Mohd Norsani Wan

    2012-09-01

    Requirements to move away from coal for power generation has made LNG as the most sought after fuel source, raising steep demands on its supply and production. Added to this scenario is the gradual depletion of the offshore oil and gas fields which is pushing future explorations and production activities far away into the hostile environment of deep sea. Production of gas in such environment has great technical and commercial impacts on gas business. For instance, laying gas pipes from deep sea to distant receiving terminals will be technically and economically challenging. Alternative to laying gas pipes will require installing re-liquefaction unit on board FPSOs to convert gas into liquid for transportation by sea. But, then because of increased distance between gas source and receiving terminals the current medium size LNG ships will no longer remain economical to operate. Recognizing this business scenario shipowners are making huge investments in the acquisition of large LNG ships. As power need of large LNG ships is very different from the current small ones, a variety of propulsion derivatives such as UST, DFDE, 2-Stroke DRL and Combined cycle GT have been proposed by leading engine manufacturers. Since, propulsion system constitutes major element of the ship's capital and life cycle cost, which of these options is most suited for large LNG ships is currently a major concern of the shipping industry and must be thoroughly assessed. In this paper the authors investigate relative merits of these propulsion options against the benchmark performance criteria of BOG disposal, fuel consumption, gas emissions, plant availability and overall life cycle cost.

  16. Diabetes eye exams

    MedlinePlus

    ... catch problems early if you get regular eye exams. ... diabetes checks your eyes, you need an eye exam every 1 to 2 years by an eye ... problems with your vision. Many can do screening exams for damage from diabetes. Once you have eye ...

  17. Qualitative Risk Assessment for an LNG Refueling Station and Review of Relevant Safety Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Siu, N.; Herring, J.S.; Cadwallader, L.; Reece, W.; Byers, J.

    1998-02-01

    This report is a qualitative assessment of the public and worker risk involved with the operation of a liquefied natural gas (LNG) vehicle refueling facility. This study includes facility maintenance and operations, tank truck deliveries, and end-use vehicle fueling; it does not treat the risks of LNG vehicles on roadways. Accident initiating events are identified by using a Master Logic Diagram, a Failure Modes and Effects Analysis, and historical operating experiences. The event trees were drawn to depict possible sequences of mitigating events following the initiating events. The phenomenology of LNG and other vehicle fuels is discussed to characterize the hazard posed by LNG usage. Based on the risk modeling and analysis, recommendations are given to improve the safety of LNG refueling stations in the areas of procedures and training, station design, and the dissemination of ``best practice`` information throughout the LNG community.

  18. Insulating LNG (liquified natural gas) storage tank containment dikes with a lightweight polymer concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Fontana, J.J.

    1987-08-01

    The natural gas industry has always been concerned ith accidental spills of liquified natural gas (LNG) from storage tanks into surrounding containment dikes. The LNG that is leaked to the dike area boils off and the vapors mix with the atmosphere forming a hazardous explsoive mixture within the dike walls. These hazardous mixtures can travel long distances into industrial or residential areas surroungind LNG storage facilities. Studies by the natural gas industry indicate that the hazards associated with accidental spills of LNG from storage tanks can be makedly reduced by insulating the diked areas surrounding these tanks. In this manner, the heat transfer from the dike surface to the LNG is reduced. The insulating composite is used to construct a thermal barrier between the walls and floor of the dike an the spilled LNG. The thermal conductivity, porosity, and compression strength of a concrete, polymer composite insulating material is discussed. 6 refs., 8 figs., 5 tbs.

  19. Interim qualitative risk assessment for an LNG refueling station and review of relevant safety issues

    SciTech Connect

    Siu, N.; Herring, S.; Cadwallader, L.; Reece, W.; Byers, J.

    1997-07-01

    This report is a qualitative assessment of the public and worker risk involved with the operation of a liquefied natural (LNG) vehicle refueling facility. This study includes facility maintenance and operations, tanker truck delivers and end-use vehicle fueling; it does not treat the risks of LNG vehicles on roadways. Accident initiating events are identified by using a Master Logic Diagram, a Failure Modes and Effects analysis and historical operating experiences. The event trees were drawn to depict possible sequences of mitigating events following the initiating events. The phenomenology of LNG and other vehicle fuels is discussed to characterize the hazard posed by LNG usage. Based on the risk modeling and analysis, recommendations are given to improve the safety of LNG refueling stations in the areas of procedures and training, station design, and the dissemination of best practice information throughout the LNG community.

  20. Development of a simple 5-15 litre per hour LNG refueling system

    SciTech Connect

    Corless, A.J.; Sarangi, S.; Hall, J.L.; Barclay, J.A.

    1994-12-31

    A variable capacity, small-scale liquefied natural gas (LNG) refueling system has been designed, built, and tested at the Cryofuel Systems` Laboratory, University of Victoria, Canada. The system, designed to continuously liquefy between 5 and 15 litres of NG, utilizes liquid nitrogen (LN{sub 2}) as its cold source and contains most of the components found in a typical commercial refueling system; i.e. purification system, liquefier, LNG storage, automatic control and monitoring system. This paper describes the design of the system as well as the results of a set of LNG production trials. The performance of the system exceeded expected LNG production rates, but at levels of efficiency somewhat less than predicted. Cryofuel Systems expects to use this system to implement an LNG vehicle demonstration program and to gain experience in the integration of LNG refueling systems which exploit advanced liquefaction technology such as magnetic refrigeration.

  1. Eye muscle repair - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000111.htm Eye muscle repair - discharge To use the sharing features on ... enable JavaScript. You or your child had eye muscle repair surgery to correct eye muscle problems that ...

  2. Eye muscle repair - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100062.htm Eye muscle repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... the eyeball to the eye socket. The external muscles of the eye are found behind the conjunctiva. ...

  3. Dilating Eye Drops

    MedlinePlus

    ... Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Dilating Eye Drops En Español Read in Chinese What are dilating eye drops? Dilating eye drops contain medication to enlarge ( ...

  4. Fluorescent eye test (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The fluorescent eye test is useful in determining if there is a scratch or other problem with the surface ... has thoroughly covered the eye a cobalt blue light is then directed on the eye. The light ...

  5. Flare system for safe disposal of LNG from a disabled tanker

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-12-01

    The feasibility of a flare system for the rapid and safe incineration of the cargo of a disabled LNG tanker is evaluated. The project developed design parameters and proof-of-principle investigations of a system for off-loading and flaring LNG from a disabled LNG tanker. The system described offers enough promise to warrant additional investigation, if cargo burning is desired as a way of reducing other possible hazards.

  6. Eyeing Ganymede

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Jupiter casts a baleful eye toward the moon Ganymede in this enhanced-contrast image from NASA's Cassini spacecraft.

    Jupiter's 'eye', the Great Red Spot, was captured just before disappearing around the eastern edge of the planet. The furrowed eyebrow above and to the left of the spot is a turbulent wake region caused by westward flow that has been deflected to the north and around the Red Spot. The smallest features visible are about 240 kilometers (150 miles) across.

    Within the band south of the Red Spot are a trio of white ovals, high pressure counterclockwise-rotating regions that are dynamically similar to the Red Spot. The dark filamentary features interspersed between white ovals are probably cyclonic circulations and, unlike the ovals, are rotating clockwise.

    Jupiter's equatorial zone stretching across the planet north of the Spot appears bright white, with gigantic plume clouds spreading out from the equator both to the northeast and to the southeast in a chevron pattern. This zone looks distinctly different than it did during the Voyager flyby 21 years ago. Then, its color was predominantly brown and the only white plumes conspicuous against the darker material beneath them were oriented southwest-to-northeast.

    Ganymede is Jupiter's largest moon, about 50 percent larger than our own Moon and larger than the planet Mercury. The visible details in this image are different geological terrains. Dark areas tend to be older and heavily cratered; brighter areas are younger and less cratered. Cassini images of Ganymede and Jupiter's other large moons taken near closest approach on Dec. 30 will have resolutions about four times better than that seen here.

    This image is a color composite of ones taken with different filters by Cassini's narrow-angle camera on Nov. 18, 2000, processed to enhance contrast. Cassini is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of

  7. LNG (liquefied natural gas) in the Asia-Pacific region: Twenty years of trade and outlook for the future

    SciTech Connect

    Kiani, B.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: the current status of LNG trade in the Asia-Pacific region; present structure and projected demand in the Asia-Pacific region; prospective and tentative projects; and LNG contracts: stability versus flexibility.

  8. Kalimantan field development hikes gas supply for LNG export

    SciTech Connect

    Suharmoko, G.R. )

    1991-10-14

    This paper reports on the development of Tambora and Tunu gas fields in Kalimantan that have increased available gas supply for the export of liquefied natural gas (LNG) from Indonesia. The demand for LNG is increasing in the energy thirsty Far East market. And Indonesia, the world's largest exporter, is keeping pace by expanding the Bontang liquefaction plant in East Kalimantan. A fifth train, with a capacity of around 2.5 million tons/year, began operating in January 1990. Start-up of a sixth train, of identical capacity, is planned for January 1994. The Bontang plant is operated by PT Badak on behalf of Pertamina, the Indonesian state oil and gas mining company. The feed to the fifth train comes primarily from the first-phase development of Total Indonesie's two gas fields, Tambora and Tunu. The sixth train will be fed by a second-phase development of the Tunu field.

  9. US North Slope gas and Asian LNG markets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Attanasi, E.D.

    1994-01-01

    Prospects for export of liquified natural gas (LNG) from Alaska's North Slope are assessed. Projected market conditions to 2010 show that new LNG capacity beyond announced expansions will be needed to meet regional demand and that supplies will probably come from outside the region. The estimated delivered costs of likely suppliers show that Alaska North Slope gas will not be competitive. The alternative North Slope gas development strategies of transport and sale to the lower 48 states and use on the North Slope for either enhanced oil recovery or conversion to liquids are examined. The alternative options require delaying development until US gas prices increase, exhaustion of certain North Slope oil fields, or advances occur in gas to liquid fuels conversion technology. ?? 1995.

  10. CFD Modeling of LNG Spill: Humidity Effect on Vapor Dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannissi, S. G.; Venetsanos, A. G.; Markatos, N.

    2015-09-01

    The risks entailed by an accidental spill of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) should be indentified and evaluated, in order to design measures for prevention and mitigation in LNG terminals. For this purpose, simulations are considered a useful tool to study LNG spills and to understand the mechanisms that influence the vapor dispersion. In the present study, the ADREA-HF CFD code is employed to simulate the TEEX1 experiment. The experiment was carried out at the Brayton Fire Training Field, which is affiliated with the Texas A&M University system and involves LNG release and dispersion over water surface in open- obstructed environment. In the simulation the source was modeled as a two-phase jet enabling the prediction of both the vapor dispersion and the liquid pool spreading. The conservation equations for the mixture are solved along with the mass fraction for natural gas. Due to the low prevailing temperatures during the spill ambient humidity condenses and this might affect the vapor dispersion. This effect was examined in this work by solving an additional conservation equation for the water mass fraction. Two different models were tested: the hydrodynamic equilibrium model which assumes kinetic equilibrium between the phases and the non hydrodynamic equilibrium model, in order to assess the effect of slip velocity on the prediction. The slip velocity is defined as the difference between the liquid phase and the vapor phase and is calculated using the algebraic slip model. Constant droplet diameter of three different sizes and a lognormal distribution of the droplet diameter were applied and the results are discussed and compared with the measurements.

  11. Analysis of temperature and pressure changes in liquefied natural gas (LNG) cryogenic tanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Q.-S.; Wegrzyn, J.; Prasad, V.

    2004-10-01

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is being developed as a transportation fuel for heavy vehicles such as trucks and transit buses, to lessen the dependency on oil and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The LNG stations are properly designed to prevent the venting of natural gas (NG) from LNG tanks, which can cause evaporative greenhouse gas emissions and result in fluctuations of fuel flow and changes of fuel composition. Boil-off is caused by the heat added into the LNG fuel during the storage and fueling. Heat can leak into the LNG fuel through the shell of tank during the storage and through hoses and dispensers during the fueling. Gas from tanks onboard vehicles, when returned to LNG tanks, can add additional heat into the LNG fuel. A thermodynamic and heat transfer model has been developed to analyze different mechanisms of heat leak into the LNG fuel. The evolving of properties and compositions of LNG fuel inside LNG tanks is simulated. The effect of a number of buses fueled each day on the possible total fuel loss rate has been analyzed. It is found that by increasing the number of buses, fueled each day, the total fuel loss rate can be reduced significantly. It is proposed that an electric generator be used to consume the boil-off gas or a liquefier be used to re-liquefy the boil-off gas to reduce the tank pressure and eliminate fuel losses. These approaches can prevent boil-off of natural gas emissions, and reduce the costs of LNG as transportation fuel.

  12. Coupling dynamic blow down and pool evaporation model for LNG.

    PubMed

    Woodward, John L

    2007-02-20

    Treating the dynamic effects of accidental discharges of liquefied natural gas (LNG) is important for realistic predictions of pool radius. Two phenomena have important influence on pool spread dynamics, time-varying discharge (blow down) and pool ignition. Time-varying discharge occurs because a punctured LNG tanker or storage tank drains with a decreasing liquid head and decreasing head-space pressure. Pool ignition increases the evaporation rate of a pool and consequently decreases the ultimate pool area. This paper describes an approach to treat these phenomena in a dynamic pool evaporation model. The pool evaporation model developed here has two separate regimes. Early in the spill, momentum forces dominate and the pool spreads independently of pool evaporation rate and the corresponding heat transfer rate. After the average pool depth drops below a minimum value, momentum forces are largely dissipated and the thin edges of the pool completely evaporate, so pool area is established by the heat transfer rate. The maximum extent of a burning pool is predicted to be significantly less than that of an unignited pool because the duration of the first regime is reduced by higher heat transfer rates. The maximum extent of an LNG pool is predicted to be larger upon accounting for blow down compared with using a constant average discharge rate. However, the maximum pool extent occurs only momentarily before retreating. PMID:17184912

  13. Design advanced for large-scale, economic, floating LNG plant

    SciTech Connect

    Naklie, M.M.

    1997-06-30

    A floating LNG plant design has been developed which is technically feasible, economical, safe, and reliable. This technology will allow monetization of small marginal fields and improve the economics of large fields. Mobil`s world-scale plant design has a capacity of 6 million tons/year of LNG and up to 55,000 b/d condensate produced from 1 bcfd of feed gas. The plant would be located on a large, secure, concrete barge with a central moonpool. LNG storage is provided for 250,000 cu m and condensate storage for 650,000 bbl. And both products are off-loaded from the barge. Model tests have verified the stability of the barge structure: barge motions are low enough to permit the plant to continue operation in a 100-year storm in the Pacific Rim. Moreover, the barge is spread-moored, eliminating the need for a turret and swivel. Because the design is generic, the plant can process a wide variety of feed gases and operate in different environments, should the plant be relocated. This capability potentially gives the plant investment a much longer project life because its use is not limited to the life of only one producing area.

  14. Eye muscle repair - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the eyeball to the eye socket. The external muscles of the eye are found behind the conjunctiva. ... The extraocular muscles of the eye (external to the eyeball) control the positioning of the eyes. They coordinate of the eye ...

  15. Eating for Your Eyes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stastny, Sherri Nordstrom; Garden-Robinson, Julie

    2011-01-01

    An educational program targeting older adults was developed to increase knowledge regarding nutrition and eye health. With age, the chance for eye disease increases, so prevention is critical. The Eating for Your Eyes program has promoted behavior changes regarding eye health among the participants. This program is easily replicated and use is…

  16. LNG as a fuel for railroads: Assessment of technology status and economics. Topical report, June-September 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Pera, C.J.; Moyer, C.B.

    1993-01-06

    The objective of the research was to investigate the feasibility of liquefied natural gas (LNG) as a fuel for railroads. The investigation included assessment of the status of relevant technologies (i.e., LNG-fueled locomotive engines, tender cars, refueling equipment), a review of current demonstration projects, and an analytical evaluation of LNG railroad economics.

  17. 78 FR 42587 - Deepwater Port License: Amendment of the Neptune LNG LLC Deepwater Port License and Temporary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-16

    ... Maritime Administration Deepwater Port License: Amendment of the Neptune LNG LLC Deepwater Port License and Temporary Suspension of Operations at the Neptune LNG Deepwater Port AGENCY: Maritime Administration... Administration (MarAd) provides public notice of its decision to approve the request of Neptune LNG LLC...

  18. 33 CFR 165.1709 - Security Zones: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. (a... navigable waters within a 1000-yard radius of the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) tankers during their inbound... Natural Gas tankers while they are moored at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, 60°40′43″ N and 151°24′10″ W....

  19. 33 CFR 165.1709 - Security Zones: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. (a... navigable waters within a 1000-yard radius of the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) tankers during their inbound... Natural Gas tankers while they are moored at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, 60°40′43″ N and 151°24′10″ W....

  20. 40 CFR Table W - 5 of Subpart W-Default Methane Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage W Table W Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Natural Gas Systems Definitions. Pt. 98, Subpt. W, Table W-5 Table W-5 of Subpart W—Default Methane Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage LNG storage Emission factor...

  1. 33 CFR 165.1709 - Security Zones: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. (a... navigable waters within a 1000-yard radius of the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) tankers during their inbound... Natural Gas tankers while they are moored at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, 60°40′43″ N and 151°24′10″ W....

  2. 33 CFR 165.1709 - Security Zones: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. (a... navigable waters within a 1000-yard radius of the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) tankers during their inbound... Natural Gas tankers while they are moored at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, 60°40′43″ N and 151°24′10″ W....

  3. 33 CFR 165.1709 - Security Zones: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. (a... navigable waters within a 1000-yard radius of the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) tankers during their inbound... Natural Gas tankers while they are moored at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, 60°40′43″ N and 151°24′10″ W....

  4. 75 FR 11169 - AES Sparrows Point LNG, LLC; Mid-Atlantic Express, LLC; Notice of Availability of the Revised...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... Sparrows Point LNG Terminal and Pipeline Project March 1, 2010. The staff of the Federal Energy Regulatory... operation of a liquefied natural gas (LNG) import terminal and natural gas pipeline proposed by AES Sparrows... LNG terminal and natural gas pipeline facilities: A ship unloading facility, with two berths,...

  5. 75 FR 353 - AES Sparrows Point LNG, LLC and Mid-Atlantic Express, LLC; Notice of Availability of the Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ... Terminal and Pipeline Project December 29, 2009. The staff of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission... natural gas (LNG) import terminal and natural gas pipeline proposed by AES Sparrows Point LNG, LLC and Mid... operation of the following LNG terminal and natural gas pipeline facilities: A ship unloading facility,...

  6. 75 FR 29420 - Revision of LNG and LHG Waterfront Facility General Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-26

    ... proposed rulemaking entitled ``Revision of LNG and LHG Waterfront Facility General Requirements'' (74 FR... easily be obtained from the facility-design specifications'' (60 FR ] 39788). Every LOI provided by an... Regulatory Commission FR Federal Register LHG Liquefied hazardous gas LNG Liquefied natural gas LOI Letter...

  7. 77 FR 10732 - Cameron LNG, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Domestically Produced...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ...The Office of Fossil Energy (FE) of the Department of Energy (DOE) gives notice of receipt of an application (Application), filed on December 21, 2011, by Cameron LNG, LLC (Cameron), requesting long-term, multi-contract authorization to export up to 12 million metric tons per annum (mtpa) of domestically produced liquefied natural gas (LNG) (equivalent to approximately 620 billion cubic feet......

  8. 77 FR 66830 - LNG Development Company, LLC and Oregon Pipeline Company; Northwest Pipeline GP; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission LNG Development Company, LLC and Oregon Pipeline Company; Northwest Pipeline GP; Notice of Extension of Comment Period for the Oregon LNG Export and Washington Expansion Projects This notice announces the extension of the public scoping process and comment period for the Oregon...

  9. 76 FR 40723 - Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP; Notice of Technical Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP; Notice of Technical Conference On May 27, 2011, pursuant to section 4 of the Natural Gas Act (NGA), Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP (Cove Point) filed...

  10. LNG Vehicle High-Pressure Fuel System and ''Cold Energy'' Utilization

    SciTech Connect

    powers,Charles A.; Derbidge, T. Craig

    2001-03-27

    A high-pressure fuel system for LNG vehicles with direct-injection natural gas engines has been developed and demonstrated on a heavy-duty truck. A new concept for utilizing the ''cold energy'' associated with LNG vehicles to generate mechanical power to drive auxiliary equipment (such as high-pressure fuel pumps) has also been developed and demonstrated in the laboratory. The high-pressure LNG fuel system development included the design and testing of a new type of cryogenic pump utilizes multiple chambers and other features to condense moderate quantities of sucked vapor and discharge supercritical LNG at 3,000 to 4,000 psi. The pump was demonstrated on a Class 8 truck with a Westport high-pressure direct-injection Cummins ISX engine. A concept that utilizes LNG's ''cold energy'' to drive a high-pressure fuel pump without engine attachments or power consumption was developed. Ethylene is boiled and superheated by the engine coolant, and it is cooled and condensed by rejecting h eat to the LNG. Power is extracted in a full-admission blowdown process, and part of this power is applied to pump the ethylene liquid to the boiler pressure. Tests demonstrated a net power output of 1.1. hp at 1.9 Lbm/min of LNG flow, which is adequate to isentropically pump the LNG to approximately 3,400 psi..

  11. The potential for LNG as a railroad fuel in the U.S.

    SciTech Connect

    Fritz, S.G.

    2000-01-01

    Freight railroad operations in the US represent a substantial opportunity for liquefied natural gas (LNG) to displace diesel fuel. With the promise of achieving an overwhelming economic advantage over diesel fuel, this paper presents some discussion to the question, ``Why is the application of LNG for railroad use in the US moving so slowly?'' A brief overview of the freight railroad operations in the US is given, along with a summary of several railroad LNG demonstration projects. US Environmental Protection Agency and California Air Resources Board exhaust emission regulations may cause the railroad industry to move from small-scale LNG demonstration projects to using LNG as a primary freight railroad transportation fuel in selected regions or route-specific applications.

  12. LNG SAFETY RESEARCH: FEM3A MODEL DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Jerry Havens; Iraj A. Salehi

    2005-05-10

    The objective of this report is to develop the FEM3A model for application to general scenarios involving dispersion problems with obstacles and terrain features of realistic complexity, and for very low wind speed, stable weather conditions as required for LNG vapor dispersion application specified in 49 CFR 193. The dispersion model DEGADIS specified in 49 CFR 193 is limited to application for dispersion over smooth, level terrain free of obstacles (such as buildings, tanks, or dikes). There is a need for a dispersion model that allows consideration of the effects of terrain features and obstacles on the dispersion of LNG vapor clouds. Project milestones are: (1) Simulation of Low-Wind-Speed Stable Atmospheric Milestones Conditions; (2) Verification for Dispersion over Rough Surfaces, With And Without Obstacles; and (3) Adapting the FEM3A Model for General Application. Results for this quarter are work continues to underway to address numerical problems during simulation of low-wind-speed, stable, atmospheric conditions with FEM3A. Steps 1 and 2 in the plan outlined in the first Quarterly report are complete and steps 3 and 4 are in progress. During this quarter, we have been investigating the effect upon numerical stability of the heat transfer model used to predict the surface-to-cloud heat transfer, which can be important for LNG vapor dispersion. Previously, no consideration has been given to ground cooling as a result of heat transfer to the colder gas cloud in FEM3A. The present effort is directed to describing the ground surface temperature decrease as a function of time.

  13. Lasik eye surgery - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000525.htm Lasik eye surgery - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Lasik eye surgery permanently changes the shape of the cornea ( ...

  14. Diabetic Eye Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... too high. Over time, this can damage your eyes. The most common problem is diabetic retinopathy. It ... light-sensitive tissue at the back of your eye. You need a healthy retina to see clearly. ...

  15. Fluorescein eye stain

    MedlinePlus

    Abnormal results may point to: Abnormal tear production (dry eye) Blocked tear duct Corneal abrasion (a scratch on ... foreign object in ) Infection Injury or trauma Severe dry eye associated with arthritis (keratoconjunctivitis sicca)

  16. Eye Injuries at Work

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bureau of Labor Statistics, more than 20,000 workplace eye injuries happen each year. Injuries on the job often ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) reports that workplace eye injuries cost an estimated $300 million a year in ...

  17. Eye Injuries (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... eye nausea or vomiting after an eye injury Think Prevention! Kids who play sports should wear protective goggles or unbreakable glasses as needed. Keep chemicals and other potentially dangerous objects out of the reach of children. Reviewed by: ...

  18. Diabetic Eye Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... this can damage your eyes. The most common problem is diabetic retinopathy. It is a leading cause ... surgery, with follow-up care. Two other eye problems can happen to people with diabetes. A cataract ...

  19. Eye muscle repair

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your child's eyes should look normal a few weeks after the surgery. ... Surgical Approach to the Rectus Muscles. In: Tasman W, Jaeger EA, ... Hug D, Plummer LS, Stass-Isern M. Disorders of eye movement and ...

  20. Anatomy of the Eye

    MedlinePlus

    ... Examinations, Adults Patient Eye Examinations, Children Refractive Errors Scientists in the Laboratory Visual Acuity Testing Anatomy of the Eye × Warning message Automatic fallback to the cURL connection method kicked in to handle the request. Result code ...

  1. Patient Eye Examinations - Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Examinations, Adults Patient Eye Examinations, Children Refractive Errors Scientists in the Laboratory Visual Acuity Testing Patient Eye Examinations, Adults × Warning message Automatic fallback to the cURL connection method kicked in to handle the request. Result code ...

  2. Eye muscle repair

    MedlinePlus

    ... and physical exam before the procedure Orthoptic measurements (eye movement measurements) Always tell your child's doctor or nurse: ... D, Plummer LS, Stass-Isern M. Disorders of eye movement and alignment. In: Kliegman RM, Behrman RE, Jenson ...

  3. Eye Injuries (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... and comfortable as possible until help arrives. continue Chemical Exposure Many chemicals, even those found around the house, can damage an eye. If your child gets a chemical in the eye and you know what it ...

  4. Diabetes - eye care

    MedlinePlus

    ... dilated eye exam. This is called digital retinal photography. Your eye doctor may ask you to come ... doctor if: You cannot see well in dim light. You have blind spots. You have double vision ( ...

  5. Diabetes and eye disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... the eye that can lead to blindness Macular edema: blurry vision due to fluid leaking into the ... in your retina (neovascularization) or you develop macular edema, treatment is usually needed. Eye surgery is the ...

  6. Eye and orbit ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    ... the eye (vitreous hemorrhage) Cancer of the retina ( retinoblastoma ), under the retina, or in other parts of ... Cataract removal Melanoma of the eye Retinal detachment Retinoblastoma Ultrasound Update Date 2/23/2015 Updated by: ...

  7. Down Syndrome: Eye Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... life expectancy. Do children with Down syndrome have eye problems? Individuals with Down syndrome are at increased ... When should children with Down syndrome receive an eye exam? The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that ...

  8. Toxoplasmosis (and the Eye)

    MedlinePlus

    ... of known infected babies. What happens to the eyes of babies born with congenital toxoplasmosis? The infection ... to further reduce the inflammation. Updated 03/2015 Eye Terms & Conditions Most Common Searches Adult Strabismus Amblyopia ...

  9. Sports and Your Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision ... More Information Optical Illusions Printables Sports and Your Eyes Gear up! If you play sports, you know ...

  10. Diabetes eye exams

    MedlinePlus

    ... are near. Sunlight can damage your eye. Wear dark glasses or shade your eyes until the effects ... to the principles of the Health on the Net Foundation (www.hon.ch). The information provided herein ...

  11. Anatomy of the Eye

    MedlinePlus

    ... it becomes red or pink. This is called conjunctivitis or “pinkeye”. Lacrimal Gland: The lacrimal gland produces tears that ... Conditions Most Common Searches Adult Strabismus Amblyopia Cataract Conjunctivitis Corneal Abrasions Dilating Eye Drops Lazy eye (defined) ...

  12. Eye - foreign object in

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002084.htm Eye - foreign object in To use the sharing features on this ... Blinking The eye will often flush out small objects, like eyelashes and sand, through blinking and tearing. ...

  13. LNG projects make progress in Oman and Yemen

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-24

    Two LNG projects in the Middle East, one in Oman and the other in Yemen, are due on stream at the turn of the century--each the largest single project ever put together in its country. Officials described their projects at a yearend 1996 conference in Paris by Institut Francais du Petrole and Petrostrategies. The Oman project develops gas reserves, does gas processing, and transports the gas 360 km to a liquefaction plant to be built on the coast. The Yemen project involves a liquefaction plant and an export terminal.

  14. Comparison of hypothetical LNG and fuel oil fires on water.

    PubMed

    Lehr, William; Simecek-Beatty, Debra

    2004-02-27

    Large spills of refined petroleum products have been an occasional occurrence over the past few decades. This has not been true for large spills of liquefied natural gas (LNG). This paper compares the likely similarities and differences between accidental releases from a ship of sizable quantities of these different hydrocarbon fuels, their subsequent spreading, and possible pool-fire behavior. Quantitative estimates are made of the spread rate and maximum slick size, burn rate, and duration; effective thermal radiation; and subsequent soot generation. PMID:15036638

  15. Cryogenic flexible pipes for offshore LNG-LPG production

    SciTech Connect

    Dumay, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    Available in long, flexible pieces (up to several miles), the high-performance Coflexip pipe comprises four basic layers: (1) an interlocked, spiraled-steel carcass to resist crushing and prevent deformation, (2) an inner thermoplastic sheath to render the line internally leakproof, (3) two cross-laid steel-wire armors to oppose the stresses induced by internal pressure, and (4) an external thermoplastic sheath to ensure water-tightness and resist corrosion. Coflexip pipe is particularly suitable for transporting cryogenic liquids such as LNG from, for example, an offshore liquefaction plant.

  16. Chrysler to race hybrid electric-LNG car

    SciTech Connect

    1994-03-07

    Chrysler Corp. hopes to race a hybrid electric-liquefied natural gas car in the Le Mans in 1995. Preparing for a racing program will speed technological advances that could take years under a regular development program. The car converts LNG to electricity with a two-turbine alternator that powers an electric traction motor. Power not used immediately is placed in reserve in an ultra-high-speed carbon-fiber flywheel, which also captures kinetic energy at braking. Even with the accelerated race program, Chrysler says it will likely be the next century before hybrid technology will make it into production cars.

  17. Thermodynamic and heat transfer analysis of LNG energy recovery for power production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, A.; Casarosa, C.

    2014-11-01

    An important option to transport the gas is to convert it into liquid natural gas (LNG) and convey it using insulated LNG tankers. At receiving terminals, the LNG is offloaded into storage tanks and then pumped at the required pressure and vaporized for final transmission to the pipeline. The LNG production process consumes a considerable amount of energy, while the cold availability, as also known as cold energy, has been stored in LNG. At a receiving terminal, LNG needs to be evaporated into gas at environmental temperature before fed into the gas distribution system. Seawater is commonly used for the regasification process of the LNG. In the present paper, after a general analysis of the perspectives of the various thermodynamic schemes proposed for power production from the regasification, a detailed analysis of enhanced direct expansion system is carried out in order to identify the upper level of the energy that can be recovered. The analysis outlines that power production typical of optimized ORC plant configurations (120 kJ/kg) can be obtained with direct expansion solutions.

  18. The effects of refueling system operating pressure on LNG and CNG economics

    SciTech Connect

    Corless, A.J.; Barclay, J.A.

    1996-12-31

    Natural gas (NG) liquefaction and compression are energy intensive processes which make up a significant portion of the overall delivered price of liquefied NG (LNG) and compressed NG (CNG). Increases in system efficiency and/or process changes which reduce the required amount of work will improve the overall economics of NG as a vehicle fuel. This paper describes a method of reducing the delivered cost of LNG by liquefying the gas above ambient pressures. Higher pressure LNG is desirable because OEM NG engine manufacturers would like NG delivered to the engine intake manifold at elevated pressures to avoid compromising engine performance. Producing LNG at higher pressures reduces the amount of work required for liquefaction but it is only practical when the LNG is liquefied on-site. Using a thermo-economic approach, it is shown that NG fuel costs can be reduced by as much as 10% when producing LNG at higher pressures. A reduction in the delivered cost is also demonstrated for CNG produced on-site from high pressure LNG.

  19. White paper: Preliminary assessment of LNG vehicle technology, economics, and safety issues, revision 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powars, Charles; Lucher, Dan; Moyer, Carl; Browning, Lou

    1992-01-01

    The objective of the study is to evaluate the potential of liquified natural gas (LNG) as a vehicle fuel, to determine market inches, and to identify needed technology improvements. The white paper is being issued when the work is approximately 30 percent complete to preview the study direction, draw preliminary conclusions, and make initial recommendations. Interim findings relative to LNG vehicle technology, economics, and safety are presented. It is important to decide if heavier hydrocarbons should be allowed in LNG vehicle fuel. Development of suitable refueling couplings and vehicle fuel supply pressure systems are recommended. Initial economics analyses considered transit buses and pickup and delivery trucks fueled via onsite liquefiers and imported LNG. Net user costs were more than (but in some cases close to) those for diesel fuel and gasoline. Lowering the cost of small-scale liquefiers would significantly improve the economics of LNG vehicles. New emissions regulations may introduce considerations beyond simple cost comparisons. LNG vehicle safety and available accident data are reviewed. Consistent codes for LNG vehicles and refueling facilities are needed.

  20. Get Your Eyes Tested

    MedlinePlus

    ... over age 40 Have a family history of glaucoma Have diabetes People with diabetes may need eye exams more ... or if you have a family member with diabetes or an eye disease. Eye diseases like glaucoma can lead to vision loss and blindness if ...

  1. Dwarf Eye Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Johns Hopkins researchers at the Wilmer Eye Institute have discovered what appears to be the first human gene mutation that causes extreme farsightedness. The researchers report that nanophthalmos, Greek for "dwarf eye," is a rare, potentially blinding disorder caused by an alteration in a gene called MFRP that helps control eye growth and…

  2. Enabling a viable technique for the optimization of LNG carrier cargo operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alaba, Onakoya Rasheed; Nwaoha, T. C.; Okwu, M. O.

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we optimize the loading and discharging operations of the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) carrier. First, we identify the required precautions for LNG carrier cargo operations. Next, we prioritize these precautions using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and experts' judgments, in order to optimize the operational loading and discharging exercises of the LNG carrier, prevent system failure and human error, and reduce the risk of marine accidents. Thus, the objective of our study is to increase the level of safety during cargo operations.

  3. Vapor burn analysis for the Coyote series LNG spill experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Rodean, H.C.; Hogan, W.J.; Urtiew, P.A.; Goldwire, H.C. Jr.; McRae, T.G.; Morgan, D.L. Jr.

    1984-04-01

    A major purpose of the Coyote series of field experiments at China Lake, California, in 1981 was to study the burning of vapor clouds from spills of liquefied natural gas (LNG) on water. Extensive arrays of instrumentation were deployed to obtain micrometeorological, gas concentration, and fire-related data. The instrumentation included in situ sensors of various types, high-speed motion picture cameras, and infrared (IR) imagers. Five of the total of ten Coyote spill experiments investigated vapor burns. The first vapor-burn experiment, Coyote 2, was done with a small spill of LNG to assess instrument capability and survivability in vapor cloud fires. The emphasis in this report is on the other four vapor-burn experiments: Coyotes 3, 5, 6, and 7. The data are analyzed to determine fire spread, flame propagation, and heat flux - quantities that are related to the determination of the damage zone for vapor burns. The results of the analyses are given here. 20 references, 57 figures, 7 tables.

  4. Cost estimate for a proposed GDF Suez LNG testing program

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchat, Thomas K.; Brady, Patrick Dennis; Jernigan, Dann A.; Luketa, Anay Josephine; Nissen, Mark R.; Lopez, Carlos; Vermillion, Nancy; Hightower, Marion Michael

    2014-02-01

    At the request of GDF Suez, a Rough Order of Magnitude (ROM) cost estimate was prepared for the design, construction, testing, and data analysis for an experimental series of large-scale (Liquefied Natural Gas) LNG spills on land and water that would result in the largest pool fires and vapor dispersion events ever conducted. Due to the expected cost of this large, multi-year program, the authors utilized Sandia's structured cost estimating methodology. This methodology insures that the efforts identified can be performed for the cost proposed at a plus or minus 30 percent confidence. The scale of the LNG spill, fire, and vapor dispersion tests proposed by GDF could produce hazard distances and testing safety issues that need to be fully explored. Based on our evaluations, Sandia can utilize much of our existing fire testing infrastructure for the large fire tests and some small dispersion tests (with some modifications) in Albuquerque, but we propose to develop a new dispersion testing site at our remote test area in Nevada because of the large hazard distances. While this might impact some testing logistics, the safety aspects warrant this approach. In addition, we have included a proposal to study cryogenic liquid spills on water and subsequent vaporization in the presence of waves. Sandia is working with DOE on applications that provide infrastructure pertinent to wave production. We present an approach to conduct repeatable wave/spill interaction testing that could utilize such infrastructure.

  5. Steady-state and dynamic simulation study on boil-off gas minimization and recovery strategies at LNG exporting terminals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurle, Yogesh

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is becoming one of the prominent clean energy sources with its abundance, high calorific value, low emission, and price. Vapors generated from LNG due to heat leak are called boil-off gas (BOG). As world-wide LNG productions are increasing fast, BOG generation and handling problems are becoming more critical. Also, due to stringent environmental regulations, flaring of BOG is not a viable option. In this study, typical Propane-and-Mixed-Refrigerant (C3-MR) process, storage facilities, and loading facilities are modeled and simulated to study BOG generation at LNG exporting terminals, including LNG processing, storage, and berth loading areas. Factors causing BOG are presented, and quantities of BOG generated due to each factor at each location are calculated under different LNG temperatures. Various strategies to minimize, recover, and reuse BOG are also studied for their feasibility and energy requirements. Rate of BOG generation during LNG loading---Jetty BOG (JBOG)---changes significantly with loading time. In this study, LNG vessel loading is simulated using dynamic process simulation software to obtain JBOG generation profile and to study JBOG recovery strategies. Also, fuel requirements for LNG plant to run steam-turbine driven compressors and gas-turbine driven compressors are calculated. Handling of JBOG generated from multiple loadings is also considered. The study would help proper handling of BOG problems in terms of minimizing flaring at LNG exporting terminals, and thus reducing waste, saving energy, and protecting surrounding environments.

  6. Numerical investigation of supercritical LNG convective heat transfer in a horizontal serpentine tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Chang-Liang; Ren, Jing-Jie; Dong, Wen-Ping; Bi, Ming-Shu

    2016-09-01

    The submerged combustion vaporizer (SCV) is indispensable general equipment for liquefied natural gas (LNG) receiving terminals. In this paper, numerical simulation was conducted to get insight into the flow and heat transfer characteristics of supercritical LNG on the tube-side of SCV. The SST model with enhanced wall treatment method was utilized to handle the coupled wall-to-LNG heat transfer. The thermal-physical properties of LNG under supercritical pressure were used for this study. After the validation of model and method, the effects of mass flux, outer wall temperature and inlet pressure on the heat transfer behaviors were discussed in detail. Then the non-uniformity heat transfer mechanism of supercritical LNG and effect of natural convection due to buoyancy change in the tube was discussed based on the numerical results. Moreover, different flow and heat transfer characteristics inside the bend tube sections were also analyzed. The obtained numerical results showed that the local surface heat transfer coefficient attained its peak value when the bulk LNG temperature approached the so-called pseudo-critical temperature. Higher mass flux could eliminate the heat transfer deteriorations due to the increase of turbulent diffusion. An increase of outer wall temperature had a significant influence on diminishing heat transfer ability of LNG. The maximum surface heat transfer coefficient strongly depended on inlet pressure. Bend tube sections could enhance the heat transfer due to secondary flow phenomenon. Furthermore, based on the current simulation results, a new dimensionless, semi-theoretical empirical correlation was developed for supercritical LNG convective heat transfer in a horizontal serpentine tube. The paper provided the mechanism of heat transfer for the design of high-efficiency SCV.

  7. Prevention of Eye Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Pashby, Tom

    1981-01-01

    In Canada 30,000 people are registered as blind; in one third of these, blindness might have been avoided. Prevention is the key to reducing the number of eye injuries and blind eyes. The role of the family physician in early identification of treatable conditions and in the education of patients is discussed, but responsibility for prevention belongs to all physicians. The success of prevention is seen in the great reduction in eye injuries in industry and sports since eye protectors have been commonly used. However, many dangers to the eyes are either not recognized or are not taken seriously enough. This paper discusses some of the common causes of serious eye injuries in the home, in sports and in industry. Imagesp464-aFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:21289691

  8. Thermodynamic Processes Involving Liquefied Natural Gas at the LNG Receiving Terminals / Procesy termodynamiczne z wykorzystaniem skroplonego gazu ziemnego w terminalach odbiorczych LNG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Łaciak, Mariusz

    2013-06-01

    The increase in demand for natural gas in the world, cause that the production of liquefied natural gas (LNG) and in consequences its regasification becoming more common process related to its transportation. Liquefied gas is transported in the tanks at a temperature of about 111K at atmospheric pressure. The process required to convert LNG from a liquid to a gas phase for further pipeline transport, allows the use of exergy of LNG to various applications, including for electricity generation. Exergy analysis is a well known technique for analyzing irreversible losses in a separate process. It allows to specify the distribution, the source and size of the irreversible losses in energy systems, and thus provide guidelines for energy efficiency. Because both the LNG regasification and liquefaction of natural gas are energy intensive, exergy analysis process is essential for designing highly efficient cryogenic installations. Wzrost zapotrzebowania na gaz ziemny na świecie powoduje, że produkcja skroplonego gazu ziemnego (LNG), a w konsekwencji jego regazyfikacja, staje się coraz bardziej powszechnym procesem związanym z jego transportem. Skroplony gaz transportowany jest w zbiornikach w temperaturze około 111K pod ciśnieniem atmosferycznym. Przebieg procesu regazyfikacji niezbędny do zamiany LNG z fazy ciekłej w gazową dla dalszego transportu w sieci, umożliwia wykorzystanie egzergii LNG do różnych zastosowań, między innymi do produkcji energii elektrycznej. Analiza egzergii jest znaną techniką analizowania nieodwracalnych strat w wydzielonym procesie. Pozwala na określenie dystrybucji, źródła i wielkości nieodwracalnych strat w systemach energetycznych, a więc ustalić wytyczne dotyczące efektywnego zużycia energii. Ponieważ zarówno regazyfikacja LNG jak i skraplanie gazu ziemnego są energochłonne, proces analizy egzergii jest niezbędny do projektowania wysoce wydajnych instalacji kriogenicznych.

  9. Videos from the National Eye Institute: Eye Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Vision Videos from the National Eye Institute: Eye Diseases Past ... the early detection of eye disease. Share these videos with friends, family and colleagues. www.nei.nih. ...

  10. Photorefraction of the Eye

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colicchia, Giuseppe; Wiesner, Hartmut; Zollman, Dean

    2015-01-01

    Photorefraction is a method to easily estimate the refractive state of the eye. The principle of photorefraction involves projecting light into the eye during flash photography and then examining the paths of light that emerge from the pupil after scattering on the back portion of the interior of the eyeball (fundus). We will explain the optical…

  11. Eye tissues study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuchin, Valery V.; Bashkatov, Alexey N.; Maksimova, Irina L.; Sinichkin, Yurii P.; Simonenko, Georgy V.; Genina, Elina A.; Lakodina, Nina A.

    2001-08-01

    Theoretical and in vitro and in vivo experimental study of spectral and polarization characteristics of the human and rabbit eye tissues are presented. The possibility of control of optical properties of eye cornea, lens and sclera is discussed and realized experimentally for glucose solution as the refractive index matching factor.

  12. Preventing Eye Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eye Injuries Reviewed by: Brenda Pagan-Duran MD Mar. 01, 2016 Protecting your eyes from injury is one of the most basic things you can do to keep your vision healthy throughout your life. You may be somewhat aware of the possible ...

  13. Lasik eye surgery - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100206.htm Lasik eye surgery - series To use the sharing features ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Laser Eye Surgery A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by ...

  14. Diabetes and eye disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... the back of the inner eye. It changes light and images that enter the eye into nerve signals, which are sent to the brain. Diabetic retinopathy is a main cause of decreased vision or blindness in Americans 20 to 74 years old. People with type 1 or type 2 ...

  15. Fluorescein eye stain

    MedlinePlus

    ... eye. The health care provider then shines a blue light at your eye. Any problems on the surface of the cornea will be stained by the dye and appear green under the blue light. The provider can determine the location and ...

  16. Understanding pink eye

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pink eye (PE) is a physiological tuber disorder that can result in serious processing complications and storage losses. The earliest external symptoms consist of an ephemeral pinkish discoloration around tuber eyes, predominately at the bud end of the tuber. These pinkish areas can then develop into...

  17. An Eye for Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostwald, Thomas

    1995-01-01

    Presents a hands-on activity as an excellent starting point for investigations related to the eye. Involves making a simple model of the vertebrate eye to illustrate the formation of an upside-down image on the retina by the lens. Links to investigations in numerous science disciplines including astronomy, genetics, biology, earth science, and…

  18. Smoking and Eye Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eye Health Apr. 14, 2014 Avoiding smoking and second hand smoke — or quitting if you are a smoker — are ... influence your eyes’ health. And tobacco smoke, including second-hand smoke, is an irritant that worsens dry eye , a ...

  19. Optimization and testing of the Beck Engineering free-piston cryogenic pump for LNG systems on heavy vehicles. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, Douglas S.

    2003-01-10

    Task 7 was completed by reaching Milestone 7: Test free piston cryogenic pump (FPCP) in Integrated LNG System. Task 4: Alternative Pump Design was also completed. The type of performance of the prototype LNG system is consistent with requirements of fuel systems for heavy vehicles; however, the maximum flow capacity of the prototype LNG system is significantly less than the total flow requirement. The flow capacity of the prototype LNG system is determined by a cavitation limit for the FPCP.

  20. Eye burning - itching and discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... allergies or hay fever Infections, bacterial or viral ( conjunctivitis or pink eye) Chemical irritants (such as chlorine ... to help with allergies. Pink eye or viral conjunctivitis causes a red or bloodshot eye and excessive ...

  1. 40 CFR Table W - 5 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Methane Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Methane Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage W Table W Protection of Environment... Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Definitions. Pt. 98, Subpt. W, Table W-5 Table W-5 of Subpart W of Part 98—Default Methane Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage LNG storage Emission factor...

  2. 40 CFR Table W - 5 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Methane Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Methane Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage W Table W Protection of Environment... Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Definitions. Pt. 98, Subpt. W, Table W-5 Table W-5 of Subpart W of Part 98—Default Methane Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage LNG storage Emission factor...

  3. Process simulation for a new conceptual design of LNG terminal coupling NGL recovery and LNG re-gasification for maximum energy savings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muqeet, Mohammed A.

    With the high demands of shale gas and promising development of LNG terminals, a lot of research has focused towards the process development for effective recovery of C2+ hydrocarbons (NGL). Shale gas requires a large amount of cold energy to cool down and recover the NGL; and the LNG re-gasification process requires a lot of heat energy to evaporate for NGL recovery. Thus, coupling the shale gas NGL recovery process and LNG re-gasification process, for utilizing the cold energy from LNG re-gasification process to assist NGL recovery from shale gas has significant economic benefits on both energy saving and high value product recovery. Wang et al. developed new conceptual design of such coupled process in 2013 and later Wang and Xu developed an optimal design considering uncertainties in 2014. This work deals with process simulation of both these designs and the feasibility of the process is verified. A steady state model is developed based on the plant design proposed by Wang et al. using Aspen plusRTM and then a dynamic model of the process is developed using Aspen dynamicsRTM. An effective control strategy is developed and the flexibility of the dynamic model is examined by giving disturbances in the shale gas feed. A comparison is made between the two proposed design and the prospects of the design for real plant scenario is discussed.

  4. 77 FR 48145 - Cameron Interstate Pipeline, LLC, Cameron LNG, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-13

    ... Project in the first quarter of 2015 and complete construction during the second quarter of 2016. The... for commissioning of the initial liquefaction train at the LNG terminal in the fourth quarter of 2016... quarter of 2016. Operations would commence after the commissioning of the first LNG liquefaction...

  5. Natural gas and CO2 price variation: impact on the relative cost-efficiency of LNG and pipelines

    PubMed Central

    Ulvestad, Marte; Overland, Indra

    2012-01-01

    This article develops a formal model for comparing the cost structure of the two main transport options for natural gas: liquefied natural gas (LNG) and pipelines. In particular, it evaluates how variations in the prices of natural gas and greenhouse gas emissions affect the relative cost-efficiency of these two options. Natural gas is often promoted as the most environmentally friendly of all fossil fuels, and LNG as a modern and efficient way of transporting it. Some research has been carried out into the local environmental impact of LNG facilities, but almost none into aspects related to climate change. This paper concludes that at current price levels for natural gas and CO2 emissions the distance from field to consumer and the volume of natural gas transported are the main determinants of transport costs. The pricing of natural gas and greenhouse emissions influence the relative cost-efficiency of LNG and pipeline transport, but only to a limited degree at current price levels. Because more energy is required for the LNG process (especially for fuelling the liquefaction process) than for pipelines at distances below 9100 km, LNG is more exposed to variability in the price of natural gas and greenhouse gas emissions up to this distance. If the prices of natural gas and/or greenhouse gas emission rise dramatically in the future, this will affect the choice between pipelines and LNG. Such a price increase will be favourable for pipelines relative to LNG. PMID:24683269

  6. 78 FR 75339 - Barca LNG LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas Produced...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ... LNG LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas Produced From Domestic Natural Gas Resources to Non-Free Trade Agreement Countries for a 25-Year Period AGENCY: Office of...) of natural gas, or 1.6 Bcf per day (Bcf/d). Barca seeks authorization to export the LNG for a...

  7. 75 FR 61475 - Cameron LNG, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Cameron LNG, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Cameron LNG Export Project and Request for Comments on Environmental Issues September... important environmental issues. By this notice, the Commission requests public comments on the scope of...

  8. 77 FR 58118 - Freeport LNG Development, L.P., FLNG Liquefaction, LLC, FLNG Liquefaction 2, LLC, FLNG...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-19

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Freeport LNG Development, L.P., FLNG Liquefaction, LLC, FLNG Liquefaction 2, LLC, FLNG Liquefaction 3, LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on August 31, 2012, Freeport LNG Development, L.P., FLNG Liquefaction, LLC, FLNG Liquefaction 2, LLC, and FLNG Liquefaction 3,...

  9. 77 FR 65546 - Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC; Sabine Pass LNG, L.P.; Notice of Petition To Amend Authorizations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC; Sabine Pass LNG, L.P.; Notice of Petition To... Pass Liquefaction, LLC and Sabine Pass LNG, L.P. (collectively, Sabine Pass), 700 Milam Street, Suite... authorizations granted on April 16, 2012 in Docket No. CP11-72-000 (Liquefaction Project) in order to...

  10. 78 FR 66909 - Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC; Sabine Pass LNG, L.P.; Notice of Application to Amend...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC; Sabine Pass LNG, L.P.; Notice of Application... Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC and Sabine Pass LNG, L.P. (collectively, Sabine Pass), 700 Milam Street... authorizations granted on April 16, 2012 in Docket No. CP11-72-000 (Liquefaction Project), as amended in...

  11. 76 FR 9573 - Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC and Sabine Pass LNG, L.P.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-18

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC and Sabine Pass LNG, L.P.; Notice of Application Take notice that on January 31, 2011, Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC and Sabine Pass LNG, L.P... the Commission's Regulations, to site, construct, and operate liquefaction and export...

  12. [Treatment of eye allergies].

    PubMed

    Kari, Osmo; Saari, K Matti

    2012-01-01

    Seasonal atopic conjunctivitis is treated with antihistamines, cromoglycate and short courses of corticosteroids, in severe cases with subcutaneous or sublingual immunotherapy. Chronic conjunctivitis requires year-round treatment with mast cell stabilizers, antihistamines or topical corticosteroids. Long-term treatment of atopic blepharoconjunctivitis consists of tacrolimus or pimecrolimus cream. For atopic keratoconjunctivitis corticosteroid and, if necessary, cyclosporine eye drops are needed. First-line therapy of vernal conjunctivitis involves mast cell stabilizers and, if necessary, corticosteroid eye drops. Treatment of non-allergic eosinophilic conjunctivitis involves mast cell stabilizers, corticosteroid and, if necessary, cyclosporine eye drops. PMID:22428383

  13. Eye-Safe Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byer, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    Laser infrared radar (lidar) undergoing development harmless to human eyes, consists almost entirely of solid-state components, and offers high range resolution. Operates at wavelength of about 2 micrometers. If radiation from such device strikes eye, almost completely absorbed by cornea without causing damage, even if aimed directly at eye. Continuous-wave light from laser oscillator amplified and modulated for transmission from telescope. Small portion of output of oscillator fed to single-mode fiber coupler, where mixed with return pulses. Intended for remote Doppler measurements of winds and differential-absorption measurements of concentrations of gases in atmosphere.

  14. Seismic analysis of a LNG storage tank isolated by a multiple friction pendulum system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ruifu; Weng, Dagen; Ren, Xiaosong

    2011-06-01

    The seismic response of an isolated vertical, cylindrical, extra-large liquefied natural gas (LNG) tank by a multiple friction pendulum system (MFPS) is analyzed. Most of the extra-large LNG tanks have a fundamental frequency which involves a range of resonance of most earthquake ground motions. It is an effective way to decrease the response of an isolation system used for extra-large LNG storage tanks under a strong earthquake. However, it is difficult to implement in practice with common isolation bearings due to issues such as low temperature, soft site and other severe environment factors. The extra-large LNG tank isolated by a MFPS is presented in this study to address these problems. A MFPS is appropriate for large displacements induced by earthquakes with long predominant periods. A simplified finite element model by Malhotra and Dunkerley is used to determine the usefulness of the isolation system. Data reported and statistically sorted include pile shear, wave height, impulsive acceleration, convective acceleration and outer tank acceleration. The results show that the isolation system has excellent adaptability for different liquid levels and is very effective in controlling the seismic response of extra-large LNG tanks.

  15. [The preparation, characterization and ultraviolet photodegradation of LNG-HP-beta-CD].

    PubMed

    Wang, Da-wei; Liu, Qi; Liu, Ming; Liu, Xiao-hui

    2011-03-01

    The characteristics of levonorgestrel (LNG), low solubility and the quick degradation under ultraviolet, limited its study and application in rodent contraception. The inclusion complex of hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HP-beta-CD) with LNG was investigated in present study. The inclusion complex was prepared by solution method and characterized by ultraviolet absorption spectrum and infrared spectrum spectra. And the stability was evaluated by being exposed to ultraviolet. The authors' results showed that the accurate and simple method of quantitative determination for LNG was established by ultraviolet spectrum, the molar ratio of the complex was 1:1 calculated from the phase solubility diagram, the stability constant was 187.3 L x mol(-1) at 25 degrees C, and the formation of the inclusion complex was validated by UV-Vis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Moreover, the degradation rate of the inclusion complex was less than 5%, which was slower than the LNG monomer. The present study indicated that HP-beta-CD could be formed inclusion complexes with LNG and the solubility, and stability were obviously enhanced. PMID:21595245

  16. Results of the evaluation and preliminary validation of a primary LNG mass flow standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Beek, Mijndert; Lucas, Peter; Kerkhof, Oswin; Mirzaei, Maria; Blom, Gerard

    2014-10-01

    LNG custody transfer measurements at large terminals have been based on ship tank level gauging for more than 50 years. Flow meter application has mainly been limited to process control in spite of the promise of simplified operations, potentially smaller uncertainties and better control over the measurements for buyers. The reason for this has been the lack of LNG flow calibration standards as well as written standards. In the framework of the EMRP1 ‘Metrology for LNG’ project, Van Swinden Laboratory (VSL) has developed a primary LNG mass flow standard. This standard is so far the only one in the world except for a liquid nitrogen flow standard at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The VSL standard is based on weighing and holds a Calibration and Measurement Capability (CMC) of 0.12% to 0.15%. This paper discusses the measurement principle, results of the uncertainty validation with LNG and the differences between water and LNG calibration results of four Coriolis mass flow meters. Most of the calibrated meters do not comply with their respective accuracy claims. Recommendations for further improvement of the measurement uncertainty will also be discussed.

  17. Autologous serum eye drops for dry eye

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Qing; Angelina, Adla; Zambrano, Andrea; Marrone, Michael; Stark, Walter J; Heflin, Thomas; Tang, Li; Akpek, Esen K

    2014-01-01

    Background Theoretically, autologous serum eye drops (AS) have a potential advantage over traditional therapies based on the assumption that AS serve not only as a lacrimal substitute to provide lubrication, but also contain other biochemical components mimicking natural tears more closely. The application of AS in dry eye treatment has gained popularity as a second-line therapy in the treatment of dry eye. Published studies on the subject indicate that autologous serum could be an effective treatment for dry eye. Objectives To evaluate the efficacy and safety of AS compared to artificial tears for treating dry eye. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 3), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLD MEDLINE, (January 1950 to April 2013), EMBASE (January 1980 to April 2013), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to April 2013), the meta Register of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We also searched the Science Citation Index Expanded database (September 2013) and reference lists of included studies. We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 15 April 2013. Selection criteria We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in which AS was compared to artificial tears in the treatment of dry eye in adults. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently screened all titles and abstracts and assessed full-text articles of potentially eligible trials. Two review authors extracted data and assessed the methodological quality and characteristics of the included trials.We contacted investigators for missing data

  18. Diabetic Eye Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Education Program Diabetic Eye Disease Education Program Glaucoma Education Program Low Vision Education Program Spanish-language ... FAQ Watch out for your vision! Glossary Resources Glaucoma Glaucoma Home How Much Do You Know? What ...

  19. Dry eye syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... of dry eyes include: Dry environment or workplace (wind, air conditioning) Sun exposure Smoking or second-hand ... NOT smoke and avoid second-hand smoke, direct wind, and air conditioning. Use a humidifier, especially in ...

  20. Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Choosing Safe Toys this Holiday Dec 02, 2015 Digital Glasses For Lazy Eye Nov 19, 2015 Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About ...

  1. Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Choosing Safe Toys this Holiday Dec 02, 2015 Digital Glasses For Lazy Eye Nov 19, 2015 Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About ...

  2. Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Choosing Safe Toys this Holiday Dec 02, 2015 Digital Glasses For Lazy Eye Nov 19, 2015 Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About ...

  3. What Is Dry Eye?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Academy Publications EyeNet Ophthalmology Information for: International Ophthalmologists Media Medical Students Patients and Public Technicians and Nurses ...

  4. Down Syndrome: Eye Problems

    MedlinePlus

    American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus Home About AAPOS Patient Info Resources Allied Health News & Events Meetings J AAPOS American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus Eye Terms ...

  5. Fungal Eye Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Zoonotic Infectious Disease Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch Fungal Eye Infections Recommend on ... Zoonotic Infectious Disease Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch File Formats Help: How do ...

  6. Dry eye syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... particles that have gotten in. A healthy tear film on the eye is necessary for good vision. ... exam Diagnostic staining of the cornea and tear film Measurement of tear film break-up time (TBUT) ...

  7. Using Eye Makeup

    MedlinePlus

    ... in a moving vehicle. Do not separate your mascara-clumped lashes with sharp items. If you tend ... all eye makeup at night before sleeping, especially mascara that can stick to the lashes. Brush a ...

  8. Anatomy of the Eye

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Anatomy of the Eye En Español Read in Chinese External (Extraocular) Anatomy Extraocular Muscles: There are six muscles that are ...

  9. Melanoma of the eye

    MedlinePlus

    ... modified July 9, 2015. www.cancer.gov/types/eye/hp/intraocular-melanoma-treatment-pdq . Accessed October 7, 2015. Read ... by: Yi-Bin Chen, MD, Leukemia/Bone Marrow Transplant Program, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA. Also reviewed ...

  10. Eye Injuries in Sports

    MedlinePlus

    ... these injuries can be prevented. Overall, basketball and baseball cause the most eye injuries, followed by water ... involve body contact. Some high-risk sports are baseball, basketball, hockey, football, lacrosse, tennis and other racquet ...

  11. [Straight in the eyes].

    PubMed

    Diop, E; Beylot, V; Berta, C; Dugardin, C; Aigle, L

    2015-01-01

    This case report about a young French soldier hit in the eye by a spitting cobra in the Central African Republic prompts us to review the potential toxicity of this venom to the eyes and the management of this injury. The initial phase is simple to implement, but is often performed badly or not at all because unknown. It is a condition, however, for optimal recovery of the cornea. PMID:26067984

  12. A NOVEL PROCESS TO USE SALT CAVERNS TO RECEIVE SHIP BORNE LNG

    SciTech Connect

    Michael M. McCall; William M. Bishop; Marcus Krekel; James F. Davis; D. Braxton Scherz

    2005-05-31

    This cooperative research project validates use of man made salt caverns to receive and store the cargoes of LNG ships in lieu of large liquid LNG tanks. Salt caverns will not tolerate direct injection of LNG because it is a cryogenic liquid, too cold for contact with salt. This research confirmed the technical processes and the economic benefits of pressuring the LNG up to dense phase, warming it to salt compatible temperatures and then directly injecting the dense phase gas into salt caverns for storage. The use of salt caverns to store natural gas sourced from LNG imports, particularly when located offshore, provides a highly secure, large scale and lower cost import facility as an alternative to tank based LNG import terminals. This design can unload a ship in the same time as unloading at a tank based terminal. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve uses man made salt caverns to securely store large quantities of crude oil. Similarly, this project describes a novel application of salt cavern gas storage technologies used for the first time in conjunction with LNG receiving. The energy industry uses man made salt caverns to store an array of gases and liquids but has never used man made salt caverns directly in the importation of LNG. This project has adapted and expanded the field of salt cavern storage technology and combined it with novel equipment and processes to accommodate LNG importation. The salt cavern based LNG receiving terminal described in the project can be located onshore or offshore, but the focus of the design and cost estimates has been on an offshore location, away from congested channels and ports. The salt cavern based terminal can provide large volumes of gas storage, high deliverability from storage, and is simplified in operation compared to tank based LNG terminals. Phase I of this project included mathematical modeling that proved a salt cavern based receiving terminal could be built at lower capital cost, and would have significantly higher

  13. Freeze desalination of seawater using LNG cold energy.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jian; Zuo, Jian; Lu, Kang-Jia; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2016-10-01

    With the aid of cold energy from regasification of liquefied natural gas (LNG), freeze desalination (FD) is an emerging technology for seawater desalination because of its low energy characteristics and insensitivities to fouling problems. This work aims to investigate the major operating parameters of FD such as coolant temperature, freezing duration, supercooling, seeding, agitation, crystallizer material and subsequent washing procedure on ice production and water quality. It was found that the optimal freezing duration per batch was 1 h for an iron crystallizer and 1.5 h for a glass crystallizer. The optimal coolant temperature should be around -8 °C. The optimal amount of washing water to clean the raw ice was about 50 wt% of the raw ice. Over 50 wt% of the feed could be recovered as raw ice within 1 h, which means an overall ice recovery rate of higher than 25% (of the original seawater), considering the consumption of washing water. Both artificial and real seawater were tested under the optimized conditions. The total dissolved solid in the product ice was around 300 ppm, which met the World Health Organization (WHO) potable water salinity standard of 500 ppm. Therefore, the process parameters optimized in this study can be directly used for the freeze desalination of seawater. PMID:27371931

  14. Applications of human factors engineering to LNG release prevention and control

    SciTech Connect

    Shikiar, R.; Rankin, W.L.; Rideout, T.B.

    1982-06-01

    The results of an investigation of human factors engineering and human reliability applications to LNG release prevention and control are reported. The report includes a discussion of possible human error contributions to previous LNG accidents and incidents, and a discussion of generic HF considerations for peakshaving plants. More specific recommendations for improving HF practices at peakshaving plants are offered based on visits to six facilities. The HF aspects of the recently promulgated DOT regulations are reviewed, and recommendations are made concerning how these regulations can be implemented utilizing standard HF practices. Finally, the integration of HF considerations into overall system safety is illustrated by a presentation of human error probabilities applicable to LNG operations and by an expanded fault tree analysis which explicitly recognizes man-machine interfaces.

  15. Eye Protection in Educational Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Jersey State Dept. of Education, Trenton. Div. of Vocational Education.

    Intended to help reduce the number of school eye injuries in New Jersey, this document begins with a brief review of existing legislation regarding eye protection in educational institutions and a list of elements essential in an eye safety program. Second, eye protection equipment is examined in terms of: the advantages of safety spectacles over…

  16. Eye Safety. Mississippi Industrial Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    This manual is designed to help industrial arts teachers eliminate student eye injuries within industrial arts programs. Presented first is Mississippi eye safety law. Following a discussion of eye protection equipment, illustrations of eye protection devices are provided. Guidelines are set forth for selecting shade numbers for welding filters.…

  17. Investigation of low-cost LNG vehicle fuel tank concepts. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    O`Brien, J.E.; Siahpush, A.

    1998-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate development of a low-cost liquid natural gas (LNG) vehicle fuel storage tank with low fuel boil-off, low tank pressure, and high safety margin. One of the largest contributors to the cost of converting a vehicle to LNG is the cost of the LNG fuel tank. To minimize heat leak from the surroundings into the low-temperature fuel, these tanks are designed as cryogenic dewars with double walls separated by an evacuated insulation space containing multi-layer insulation. The cost of these fuel tanks is driven by this double-walled construction, both in terms of materials and labor. The primary focus of the analysis was to try to devise a fuel tank concept that would allow for the elimination of the double-wall requirement. Results of this study have validated the benefit of vacuum/MLI insulation for LNG fuel tanks and the difficulty in identifying viable alternatives. The thickness of a non-vacuum insulation layer would have to be unreasonably large to achieve an acceptable non-venting hold time. Reasonable hold times could be achieved by using an auxiliary tank to accept boil-off vapor from a non-vacuum insulated primary tank, if the vapor in the auxiliary tank can be stored at high pressure. The primary focus of the analysis was to try to devise a fuel tank concept that allowed for the elimination of the double-wall requirement. Thermodynamic relations were developed for analyzing the fuel tank transient response to heat transfer, venting of vapor, and out-flow of either vapor or liquid. One of the major costs associated with conversion of a vehicle to LNG fuel is the cost of the LNG fuel tank. The cost of these tanks is driven by the cryogenic nature of the fuel and by the fundamental design requirements of long non-venting hold times and low storage pressure.

  18. FEM3A simulations of selected LNG vapor barrier verification field tests

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, S.T.

    1990-10-01

    In order to evaluate and eventually predict the possible mitigating effects of vapor fences on the dispersion of the vapor cloud resulting from an accidental liquefied natural gas (LNG) spill in storage areas, a research program was initiated to evaluate methods for predicting LNG dispersion distances for realistic facility configurations. As part of the program, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) conducted a series of large-scale field experiments called the LNG Vapor Barrier Verification Field Trials (also referred to as the Falcon Series) at the Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Spill Test Facility (LGFSTF), Nevada. Objectives were (1) to provide a data base on LNG vapor dispersion from spill involving complex field obstacles to assist in validation of wind tunnel and mathematical models, and (2) to assess the effectiveness of vapor fences for mitigating LNG vapor dispersion hazards in the events of an accidental spill. Five spill experiments were conducted on water in order to generate vapor at rates equivalent to the liquid spill rates. In this study, the FEM3A model was applied to simulate four of the Falcon experiments. The objectives of this study were, through numerical modeling and a detailed model-data comparison: (1) to improve our understanding of LNG vapor dispersion involving vapor barriers, (2) to assess FEM3A in modeling such complex vapor dispersion scenarios, and (3) to complement the results of field and wind tunnel tests, such as providing plausible explanations for unexpected results and filling in data gaps due to instrument failure or limited array size. Toward these goals, the relevant field measurements were analyzed and several series of 2-D and 3-D simulations were carried out. 11 refs., 93 figs., 11 tabs.

  19. Simulation of a Novel Single-column Cryogenic Air Separation Process Using LNG Cold Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jieyu, Zheng; Yanzhong, Li; Guangpeng, Li; Biao, Si

    In this paper, a novel single-column air separation process is proposed with the implementation of heat pump technique and introduction of LNG coldenergy. The proposed process is verifiedand optimized through simulation on the Aspen Hysys® platform. Simulation results reveal that thepower consumption per unit mass of liquid productis around 0.218 kWh/kg, and the total exergy efficiency of the systemis 0.575. According to the latest literatures, an energy saving of 39.1% is achieved compared with those using conventional double-column air separation units.The introduction of LNG cold energy is an effective way to increase the system efficiency.

  20. Comparison of CNG and LNG technologies for transportation applications. Final subcontract report, June 1991--December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Sinor, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    This report provides a head-to-head comparison of compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied natural gas (LNG) supplied to heavy-duty vehicles. The comparison includes an assessment of the overall efficiency of the fuel delivery system, the cost of the fuel supply system, the efficiency of use in heavy-duty vehicles, and the environmental impact of each technology. The report concludes that there are applications in which CNG will have the advantage, and applications in which LNG will be preferred.

  1. Design and Development of the Simulation System for Marine LNG Fuel Reliquefaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Boyang; Zhang, Yunqiu; Liu, Yunxin; Li, Diyang

    This paper introduced the background of LNG powered ship reliquefaction plant and its working principle, established the calculation model of simulation system, taking the VLCC ship LNG powered ship as the mother ship, provided the thermodynamic calculation flow chart, developed the software for the operation simulation system and the developed the assessment system and the equipment management system. This software can simulate the operation process and carry out the numerical calculation. It is good for the purpose of training students and has great reference value for research.

  2. The injured eye

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Eye injuries come at a high cost to society and are avoidable. Ocular blast injuries can be primary, from the blast wave itself; secondary, from fragments carried by the blast wind; tertiary; due to structural collapse or being thrown against a fixed object; or quaternary, from burns and indirect injuries. Ballistic eye protection significantly reduces the incidence of eye injuries and should be encouraged from an early stage in Military training. Management of an injured eye requires meticulous history taking, evaluation of vision that measures the acuity and if there is a relative pupillary defect as well as careful inspection of the eyes, under anaesthetic if necessary. A lateral canthotomy with cantholysis should be performed immediately if there is a sight-threatening retrobulbar haemorrhage. Systemic antibiotics should be prescribed if there is a suspected penetrating or perforating injury. A ruptured globe should be protected by an eye shield. Primary repair of ruptured globes should be performed in a timely fashion. Secondary procedures will often be required at a later date to achieve sight preservation. A poor initial visual acuity is not a guarantee of a poor final result. The final result can be predicted after approximately 3–4 weeks. Future research in eye injuries attempts to reduce scarring and neuronal damage as well as to promote photoreceptor rescue, using post-transcriptional inhibition of cell death pathways and vaccination to promote neural recovery. Where the sight has been lost sensory substitution of a picture from a spectacle mounted video camera to the touch receptors of the tongue can be used to achieve appreciation of the outside world. PMID:21149360

  3. COMPU-EYE: a high resolution computational compound eye.

    PubMed

    Lee, Woong-Bi; Jang, Hwanchol; Park, Sangjun; Song, Young Min; Lee, Heung-No

    2016-02-01

    In nature, the compound eyes of arthropods have evolved towards a wide field of view (FOV), infinite depth of field and fast motion detection. However, compound eyes have inferior resolution when compared with the camera-type eyes of vertebrates, owing to inherent structural constraints such as the optical performance and the number of ommatidia. For resolution improvements, in this paper, we propose COMPUtational compound EYE (COMPU-EYE), a new design that increases acceptance angles and uses a modern digital signal processing (DSP) technique. We demonstrate that the proposed COMPU-EYE provides at least a four-fold improvement in resolution. PMID:26906778

  4. Artificial neural superposition eye.

    PubMed

    Brückner, Andreas; Duparré, Jacques; Dannberg, Peter; Bräuer, Andreas; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2007-09-17

    We propose an ultra-thin imaging system which is based on the neural superposition compound eye of insects. Multiple light sensitive pixels in the footprint of each lenslet of this multi-channel configuration enable the parallel imaging of the individual object points. Together with the digital superposition of related signals this multiple sampling enables advanced functionalities for artificial compound eyes. Using this technique, color imaging and a circumvention for the trade-off between resolution and sensitivity of ultra-compact camera devices have been demonstrated in this article. The optical design and layout of such a system is discussed in detail. Experimental results are shown which indicate the attractiveness of microoptical artificial compound eyes for applications in the field of machine vision, surveillance or automotive imaging. PMID:19547555

  5. LNG Safety Research: FEM3A Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    2006-09-30

    The initial scope of work for this project included: 1) Improving the FEM3A advanced turbulence closure module, 2) Adaptation of FEM3A for more general applications, and 3) Verification of dispersion over rough surfaces, with and without obstacle using the advanced turbulence closure module. These work elements were to be performed by Chemical Hazards Research Center (CHRC), Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Arkansas as a subcontractor to Gas Technology Institute (GTI). The tasks for GTI included establishment of the scientific support base for standardization of the FEM3A model, project management, technology transfer, and project administration. Later in the course of the project, the scope of work was modified by the National Energy Technology Laboratories (NETL) to remove the emphasis on FEM3A model and instead, develop data in support of NETL’s FLUENT modeling. With this change, GTI was also instructed to cease activities relative to FEM3A model. GTI’s technical activities through this project included the initial verification of FEM3A model, provision of technical inputs to CHRC researchers regarding the structure of the final product, and participation in technical discussion sessions with CHRC and NETL technical staff. GTI also began the development of a Windows-based front end for the model but the work was stopped due to the change in scope of work. In the meantime, GTI organized a workshop on LNG safety in Houston, Texas. The workshop was very successful and 75 people from various industries participated. All technical objectives were met satisfactorily by Dr. Jerry Havens and Dr. Tom Spicer of CHRC and results are presented in a stand-alone report included as Appendix A to this report.

  6. LNG Safety Research: FEM3A Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    Iraj A. Salehi; Jerry Havens; Tom Spicer

    2006-09-30

    The initial scope of work for this project included: (1) Improving the FEM3A advanced turbulence closure module, (2) Adaptation of FEM3A for more general applications, and (3) Verification of dispersion over rough surfaces, with and without obstacle using the advanced turbulence closure module. These work elements were to be performed by Chemical Hazards Research Center (CHRC), Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Arkansas as a subcontractor to Gas Technology Institute (GTI). The tasks for GTI included establishment of the scientific support base for standardization of the FEM3A model, project management, technology transfer, and project administration. Later in the course of the project, the scope of work was modified by the National Energy Technology Laboratories (NETL) to remove the emphasis on FEM3A model and instead, develop data in support of NETL's FLUENT modeling. With this change, GTI was also instructed to cease activities relative to FEM3A model. GTI's technical activities through this project included the initial verification of FEM3A model, provision of technical inputs to CHRC researchers regarding the structure of the final product, and participation in technical discussion sessions with CHRC and NETL technical staff. GTI also began the development of a Windows-based front end for the model but the work was stopped due to the change in scope of work. In the meantime, GTI organized a workshop on LNG safety in Houston, Texas. The workshop was very successful and 75 people from various industries participated. All technical objectives were met satisfactorily by Dr. Jerry Havens and Dr. Tom Spicer of CHRC and results are presented in a stand-alone report included as Appendix A to this report.

  7. Photorefraction of the Eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colicchia, Giuseppe; Wiesner, Hartmut; Zollman, Dean

    2015-02-01

    Photorefraction is a method to easily estimate the refractive state of the eye. The principle of photorefraction involves projecting light into the eye during flash photography and then examining the paths of light that emerge from the pupil after scattering on the back portion of the interior of the eyeball (fundus). We will explain the optical principles underlying the method for eccentric photorefraction and describe how students can perform it using current digital cameras. Our purpose is not to diagnose refractive errors reliably, but to use devices popular among young people that, in combination with an important ophthalmic context, may be successful in improving students' interest for learning optical concepts.

  8. Glaucoma: Eye-to-Eye with Dr. Rachel Bishop

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Glaucoma Eye-to-Eye with Dr. Rachel Bishop Past ... nerves are pale and cupped—signs of advanced glaucoma. Yet the patient wasn't aware of any ...

  9. Eye evolution: two eyes can be better than one.

    PubMed

    Foster, Kenneth W

    2009-03-10

    The development of our eyes is owed in part to ancestral structures which functioned in phototaxis. With the origin of bilateral annelid larva, two eyes co-evolved with neurons to improve phototaxis performance. PMID:19278637

  10. Selection of an acid-gas removal process for an LNG plant

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, J.B.; Jones, G.N.; Denton, R.D.

    1996-12-31

    Acid gas contaminants, such as, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S and mercaptans, must be removed to a very low level from a feed natural gas before it is liquefied. CO{sub 2} is typically removed to a level of about 100 ppm to prevent freezing during LNG processing. Sulfur compounds are removed to levels required by the eventual consumer of the gas. Acid-gas removal processes can be broadly classified as: solvent-based, adsorption, cryogenic or physical separation. The advantages and disadvantages of these processes will be discussed along with design and operating considerations. This paper will also discuss the important considerations affecting the choice of the best acid-gas removal process for LNG plants. Some of these considerations are: the remoteness of the LNG plant from the resource; the cost of the feed gas and the economics of minimizing capital expenditures; the ultimate disposition of the acid gas; potential for energy integration; and the composition, including LPG and conditions of the feed gas. The example of the selection of the acid-gas removal process for an LNG plant.

  11. 78 FR 35263 - Freeport LNG Development, L.P.; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Previously...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ... Liquefied Natural Gas on a Short-Term Basis AGENCY: Office of Fossil Energy, DOE. ACTION: Notice of... of 24 billion cubic feet (Bcf) of natural gas on a short-term or spot market basis for a two-year... Relating to Regulation of Imported Natural Gas, 49 FR 6684 (Feb. 22, 1984). Freeport LNG states that...

  12. 49 CFR 191.22 - National Registry of Pipeline and LNG operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false National Registry of Pipeline and LNG operators. 191.22 Section 191.22 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED)...

  13. 49 CFR 195.64 - National Registry of Pipeline and LNG Operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false National Registry of Pipeline and LNG Operators. 195.64 Section 195.64 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED)...

  14. 49 CFR 195.64 - National Registry of Pipeline and LNG Operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false National Registry of Pipeline and LNG Operators. 195.64 Section 195.64 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED)...

  15. 49 CFR 191.22 - National Registry of Pipeline and LNG operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false National Registry of Pipeline and LNG operators. 191.22 Section 191.22 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED)...

  16. 49 CFR 195.64 - National Registry of Pipeline and LNG Operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false National Registry of Pipeline and LNG Operators. 195.64 Section 195.64 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED)...

  17. 49 CFR 191.22 - National Registry of Pipeline and LNG operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false National Registry of Pipeline and LNG operators. 191.22 Section 191.22 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED)...

  18. Fundamental Study on Sulfur Attack and Coking of LNG Rocket Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higashino, Kazuyuki; Sugioka, Masatoshi; Kobayashi, Takao; Sakai, Masahiro; Minato, Ryojiro; Sasayama, Yousuke; Otsuka, Masaya; Okita, Koichi; Aoki, Kenji; Kawashima, Hideto; Azuma, Nobuyuki

    Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) is one of the most promising propellant for near future space transportation rocket engine because of its low cost and fewer handling concerns. However, for LNG propellant, erosion of engine material by sulfur (sulfur attack) and coking by LNG pyrolysis are significant problems in a regenerative cooling passage. In this study, the effects of sulfur attack and coking are experimentally evaluated for material candidates such as Inconel600, SUS316, Hastelloy-X, and some copper alloys. In the sulfur attack tests, EPMA and Raman analysis indicate that metallic sulfide can be observed only on the surface and XRD analysis indicates that sulfur attack are hardly recognized for all of material in the test conditions. In coking tests, it is clear that coking of methane with 5% propane can proceed more than those of pure methane. The thermal decomposition temperature is significantly decreased by catalytic effects of Ni in engine material. The results of coking tests will be included in the design criteria of combustion chamber, nozzle of the LNG rocket engines.

  19. 75 FR 60095 - Sempra LNG Marketing, LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-29

    ... LNG supplies. \\1\\ 15 U.S.C. 717b. \\2\\ See 49 FR 6684, February 22, 1984. Sempra states that in DOE/FE... Supply, Office of Fossil Energy, Forrestal Building, Room 3E-042, 1000 Independence Avenue, SW... Building, Room 3E-042, 1000 Independence Avenue, SW., Washington, DC 20585, (202) 586-9478; (202)...

  20. 77 FR 76013 - Sempra LNG Marketing, LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Previously Imported...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ... referenced 49 FR 6684, February 22, 1984. Sempra LNG Marketing states that in its existing authorization to... and Gas Global Security and Supply, Office of Fossil Energy, Forrestal Building, Room 3E-042, 1000... Energy, Forrestal Building, Room 3E-042, 1000 Independence Avenue SW, Washington, DC 20585, (202)...

  1. Blanketing effect of expansion foam on liquefied natural gas (LNG) spillage pool.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin; Liu, Yi; Olewski, Tomasz; Vechot, Luc; Mannan, M Sam

    2014-09-15

    With increasing consumption of natural gas, the safety of liquefied natural gas (LNG) utilization has become an issue that requires a comprehensive study on the risk of LNG spillage in facilities with mitigation measures. The immediate hazard associated with an LNG spill is the vapor hazard, i.e., a flammable vapor cloud at the ground level, due to rapid vaporization and dense gas behavior. It was believed that high expansion foam mitigated LNG vapor hazard through warming effect (raising vapor buoyancy), but the boil-off effect increased vaporization rate due to the heat from water drainage of foam. This work reveals the existence of blocking effect (blocking convection and radiation to the pool) to reduce vaporization rate. The blanketing effect on source term (vaporization rate) is a combination of boil-off and blocking effect, which was quantitatively studied through seven tests conducted in a wind tunnel with liquid nitrogen. Since the blocking effect reduces more heat to the pool than the boil-off effect adds, the blanketing effect contributes to the net reduction of heat convection and radiation to the pool by 70%. Water drainage rate of high expansion foam is essential to determine the effectiveness of blanketing effect, since water provides the boil-off effect. PMID:25194555

  2. 49 CFR 191.22 - National Registry of Pipeline and LNG operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false National Registry of Pipeline and LNG operators. 191.22 Section 191.22 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED)...

  3. 49 CFR 195.64 - National Registry of Pipeline and LNG Operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false National Registry of Pipeline and LNG Operators. 195.64 Section 195.64 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED)...

  4. 76 FR 58488 - Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP; Application for Blanket Authorization to Export Previously Imported...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ... Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP; Application for Blanket Authorization to Export Previously Imported Liquefied Natural Gas AGENCY: Office of Fossil Energy, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: The Office of Fossil Energy (FE) of the Department of Energy (DOE) gives notice of receipt of an...

  5. 76 FR 4417 - Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ... Maritime Administration Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License... Deepwater Port License Application. The application describes an offshore natural gas deepwater port... appeared in the Federal Register on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477), see PRIVACY ACT. You may view...

  6. 75 FR 70350 - Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... Maritime Administration Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License.... Coast Guard received an application from Liberty Natural Gas LLC for all Federal authorizations required... the transportation, storage, and further handling of oil or natural gas for transportation to...

  7. 76 FR 78188 - Reconsideration of Letters of Recommendation for Waterfront Facilities Handling LNG and LHG

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    ..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). D. Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public... the Port DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register LHG Liquefied hazardous gas LNG... changed that process in a rule updating the letter of intent and LOR regulations (75 FR 29420, Revision...

  8. 77 FR 70886 - Reconsideration of Letters of Recommendation for Waterfront Facilities Handling LNG and LHG

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-28

    ... information about the safety and security of the waterway (76 FR 78190). In our NPRM we provided notice and... Commission FR Federal Register LHG Liquefied hazardous gas LNG Liquefied natural gas LOI Letter of Intent LOR... the Federal Register (76 FR ] 78188). We received two letters commenting on the proposed rule....

  9. 33 CFR 127.105 - Layout and spacing of marine transfer area for LNG.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Layout and spacing of marine transfer area for LNG. 127.105 Section 127.105 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas § 127.105 Layout...

  10. 33 CFR 127.105 - Layout and spacing of marine transfer area for LNG.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Layout and spacing of marine transfer area for LNG. 127.105 Section 127.105 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas § 127.105 Layout...

  11. LIQUID NATURAL GAS (LNG): AN ALTERNATIVE FUEL FROM LANDFILL GAS (LFG) AND WASTEWATER DIGESTER GAS

    SciTech Connect

    VANDOR,D.

    1999-03-01

    This Research and Development Subcontract sought to find economic, technical and policy links between methane recovery at landfill and wastewater treatment sites in New York and Maryland, and ways to use that methane as an alternative fuel--compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquid natural gas (LNG) -- in centrally fueled Alternative Fueled Vehicles (AFVs).

  12. 78 FR 933 - Cameron LNG, LLC; Cameron Interstate Pipeline, LLC; Notice of Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-07

    ..., California 92101, filed in Docket No. CP13-25-000 an application, pursuant to section 3 of the Natural Gas... 1.7 billion cubic feet per day (Bcfd) of domestic natural gas. Cameron Interstate requests... Bcfd of domestic natural gas supply to Cameron LNG's liquefaction facilities. Cameron...

  13. In-situ strain monitoring in liquid containers of LNG transporting carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Min-Cheol; Seo, Jun-Kyu; Kim, Kyung-Jo; Lee, Sang-Min; Kim, Myung-Hyun

    2008-08-01

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) transport carriers are exposed to a risk by the repeated bump in the LNG container during the vessel traveling over the wave in ocean. The liquid inside the container, especially when it was not fully contained, make a strong bump onto the insulation panel of the tank wall. The insulation panel consists of several layers of thick polyurethane foam (PUF) to maintain the LNG below the cryogenic temperature, -162°C. Due to the repeated shock on the PUF, a crack could be developed on the tank wall causing a tremendous disaster for LNG carriers. To prevent the accidental crack on the tank, a continuous monitoring of the strain imposed on the PUF is recommended. In this work, a fiber-optic Bragg grating was imbedded inside the PUF for monitoring the strain parallel to the impact direction. The optical fiber sensor with a small diameter of 125 μm was suitable to be inserted in the PUF through a small hole drilled after the PUF was cured. In-situ monitoring of the strain producing the change of Bragg reflection wavelength, a high speed wavelength interrogation method was employed by using an arrayed waveguide grating. By dropping a heavy mass on the PUF, we measured the strain imposed on the insulation panel.

  14. Structural health monitoring for insulation panels of LNG carriers using fiber optic sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Myung Hyun; Son, Young Joo; Kang, Sung Won; Lee, Jae Myung; Na, Sung Soo

    2006-03-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate dynamic failure initiation and failure modes of insulation panels of LNG carriers. Insulation panels of LNG cargo tanks may include mechanical failures such as cracks as well as delaminations within the layers due to impact sloshing loads and fatigue loadings, and these failures cause a significant decrease of structural integrity. In this study, a structural health monitoring system, employing fiber optic sensors is developed for monitoring various failures that can occur in LNG insulation panels. Fiber optic sensors have the advantage of being embedded inside of insulation panels. The signal of embedded fiber optic sensors is used to calculate the strain of insulation panels and is processed by digital filtering to identify damage initiations. It has been observed that the presence of defects and delaminations produce noticeable changes in the strain measurement in a predictable manner. In addition, fiber optic sensors are used to measure static and dynamic strain variations of insulation panels with and without damage. It is expected that this study will be used as a fundamental study for the safety assessment of the LNG insulation panels.

  15. Pursuit Eye Movements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krauzlis, Rich; Stone, Leland; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    When viewing objects, primates use a combination of saccadic and pursuit eye movements to stabilize the retinal image of the object of regard within the high-acuity region near the fovea. Although these movements involve widespread regions of the nervous system, they mix seamlessly in normal behavior. Saccades are discrete movements that quickly direct the eyes toward a visual target, thereby translating the image of the target from an eccentric retinal location to the fovea. In contrast, pursuit is a continuous movement that slowly rotates the eyes to compensate for the motion of the visual target, minimizing the blur that can compromise visual acuity. While other mammalian species can generate smooth optokinetic eye movements - which track the motion of the entire visual surround - only primates can smoothly pursue a single small element within a complex visual scene, regardless of the motion elsewhere on the retina. This ability likely reflects the greater ability of primates to segment the visual scene, to identify individual visual objects, and to select a target of interest.

  16. Through Our Eyes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narva, Sara

    2009-01-01

    Through Our Eyes was a multimedia performance created in collaboration with the author's five modern dance students. Through video, sound, and dance, the piece shows some ways race has affected their lives. The author did not set out at the beginning of the semester to make this project in her dance class. It was born out of a hard conversation,…

  17. The Eyes Have It.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Janet

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the health hazards of working with the visual display systems of computers, in particular the eye problems associated with long-term use of video display terminals. Excerpts from and ordering information for the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health report on such hazards are included. (JJD)

  18. The Eyes Have It

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    NASA'S Ames Research Center contracted with SRI international to contract a device that would be able to anticipate, track, and monitor involuntary ocular movement horizontally, vertically, and with respect to depth-of-field. This development helped research institutions to understand the eye. The Eyetracker, manufactured and distributed by Forward Optical Technologies, Inc. is now used in the clinical/medical field.

  19. Through Students' Eyes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean-Donaldson, Karen B.

    1994-01-01

    Identifies how students perceive racism and its effects on student learning and whether antiracist/multicultural arts (ARMA) curricula can empower students to address racism in schools. Results show racism, through students' eyes, damages learning, attitudes, and behavior. ARMA positively effected students' ability to confront racism within their…

  20. Administering Eye Medications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Sara; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on administering eye medications is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. A brief discussion follows of…

  1. Red or uncomfortable eye.

    PubMed Central

    Davey, C.; Hurwitz, B.

    1992-01-01

    1. A red, uncomfortable eye may be accompanied by other symptoms such as blurred, decreased, or double vision, haloes, photophobia, pain or discharge. 2. A careful history and brief systematic examination will sort out most problems. 3. Examine eyelids, the conjunctivae and corneas. Checking visual acuity is often important. 4. The most common underlying causes can usually be managed within general practice, though a few patients will require urgent eye assessment, or routine referral to ophthalmic outpatients. 5. The following are typical eye problems which require urgent referral: History of pain as opposed to discomfort, Trauma including foreign bodies, chemicals and suspected penetrating injury, Unexplained drop in visual acuity of two lines or more in a painful eye. Specific conditions: preseptal cellulitis, herpes simplex ulcer, scleritis, orbital cellulitis, herpes zoster, bacterial corneal ulcer, dacryocystitis. 6. The following are typical problems which may require routine referral: Persistence of the problem not relieved by simple measures, Recurrent disorders of uncertain diagnosis, Eyelid swelling such as chalazion, cysts, basal cell carcinoma, Gradual loss of vision, for example cataract, macular degeneration. PMID:1345157

  2. Diabetes - eye care

    MedlinePlus

    ... blurred vision is caused by having too much sugar and water in the lens of the eye, which is in front of the retina. Control your blood pressure . Blood pressure less than 130/80 is a ... sugar - self-care Diabetes - preventing heart attack and stroke ...

  3. Eye of the Beholder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Art, like beauty, as the adage goes, is in the eye of the beholder. Art also is a living, breathing thing that evolves over time, so what is considered "art" is ever changing--how many of the great artists whose works today sell for fortunes were failures during their lifetime? The 20th century unknowingly gave birth to new variations of art that…

  4. Eyes for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orfield, Antonia

    2008-01-01

    Vision is the dominant sense, and the eyes are connected with almost every other part of the brain. If the vision system is poorly developed, children trying to learn suffer. Without good up close vision, students are handicapped even if no one knows or suspects it--they may not even know it themselves. Students do not know that the way they see…

  5. Common eye emergencies.

    PubMed

    Gelston, Christopher D

    2013-10-15

    Ocular emergencies such as retinal detachments, mechanical globe injuries, and chemical injuries can cause permanent vision loss if they are not recognized and treated promptly. Family physicians should be familiar with the signs and symptoms associated with each condition, and be able to perform a basic eye examination to assess the situation. The assessment includes measurement of visual acuity, pupillary examination, visual field testing, slit lamp or penlight examination of the anterior segment of the eye, and direct funduscopic examination. Patients with symptomatic floaters and flashing lights require a dilated fundoscopic examination and prompt referral to an ophthalmologist for evaluation of a retinal tear or detachment. A globe laceration or rupture should be suspected in patients with a recent history of trauma from a blunt or penetrating object. Prophylactic oral antibiotics can be administered after a globe injury to prevent endophthalmitis, and the eye should be covered with a metal shield until evaluation by an ophthalmologist. Chemical injuries require immediate irrigation of the eye to neutralize the pH of the ocular surface. PMID:24364572

  6. Feasibility of methods and systems for reducng LNG tanker fire hazards

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    In this program concepts for reducing fire hazards that may result from LNG tanker collisions are identified and their technical feasibility evaluated. Concepts considered include modifications to the shipborne LNG containers so that in the event of a container rupture less of the contents would spill and/or the contents would spill at a reduced rate. Changes in the cargo itself, including making the LNG into a gel, solidifying it, converting it to methanol, and adding flame suppressants are also evaluated. The relative effectiveness and the costs of implementing these methods in terms of increased cost of gas at the receiving terminal, are explained. The vulnerability of an LNG tanker and its crew to the thermal effects of a large pool fire caused by a collision spill is estimated and methods of protecting the crew are considered. It is shown that the protection of ship and crew so that further deterioration of a damaged ship might be ameliorated, would require the design and installation of extraordinary insulation systems and life support assistance for the crew. Methods of salvaging or disposing of cargo from a damaged and disabled ship are evaluated, and it is concluded that if the cargo cannot be transferred to another (empty) LNG tanker because of lack of availability, then the burning of the cargo at a location somewhat distant from the disabled tanker appears to be a promising approach. Finally, the likelihood of the vapors from a spill being ignited due to the frictional impact of the colliding ships was examined. It is found that the heating of metal sufficient to ignite flammable vapors would occur during a collision, but it is questionable whether flammable vapor and air will, in fact, come in contact with the hot metal surfaces.

  7. Development of an FBG-based low temperature measurement system for cargo containment of LNG tankers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, D. G.; Yoo, W.; Swinehart, P.; Jiang, B.; Haber, T.; Mendez, A.

    2007-09-01

    Given the growing demand for oil and natural gas to meet the world's energy needs, there is nowadays renewed interest in the use of liquefied natural gas (LNG) systems. For LNG to remain in its liquid phase, the gas has to be kept at cryogenic temperatures (< 160°C). And, as part of the LNG supply process, it becomes necessary to transport it using massive carrier tankers with cargo hulls operating at low temperatures and using special insulating double-wall construction. The safe and reliable storage and transportation of LNG products calls for low temperature monitoring of said containers to detect the onset of any potential leaks and possible thermal insulation degradation. Because of the hazardous nature of this cargo, only intrinsically-safe, explosion proof devices can be used. Optical fiber sensors-- such as fiber Bragg gratings-- are ideal for this application given their dielectric nature and multi-point sensing telemetry capability. In this paper, we describe the development of an on-line, multi-point FBG-based low temperature monitoring system based on a network of specially packaged FBG temperature and strain sensors mounted at critical locations within the inner hull, cofferdam and secondary barriers of a LNG carrier tanker. Given the stringent cryogenic operating temperature conditions, pertinent FBG designs, coatings and packaging approaches were formulated along with adequate installation techniques and integration of the interrogating FBG electronics into the tanker's overall SCADA monitoring system. FBG temperature sensors were demonstrated to be stable and sensitive over the 80-480K range. Stability is +/- 0.25K or better with repeated calibrations, and long term stability at 480K is ~0.2mK/hour.

  8. Simple Solutions for Dry Eye

    MedlinePlus

    ... are more concentrated in the tear film of dry eye patients. In hot weather, sleep with the windows shut and keep cool with air conditioning. • Dry eye patients often develop or aggravate allergies. An ...

  9. Infographic on the Aging Eye

    MedlinePlus

    ... retina. Dry eye Low vision Damage to the optic nerve. Eyes do not make enough tears. Difficulty ... retina that can be seen through undilated pupil. OPTIC NERVE RAY OF LIGHT PUPIL RETINA Portion of ...

  10. Recognizing and Treating Eye Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... and seek medical attention. In case of a chemical burn to the eye: Immediately flush the eye ... Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For ...

  11. Medicare Benefits and Your Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eye Health Report Reports and External Resources The Cost of Vision Problems The Future of Vision Vision Problems in the U.S. Healthy Eyes Education Series Online Training and Certification Patient Education Materials ...

  12. Experiments on a Model Eye

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arell, Antti; Kolari, Samuli

    1978-01-01

    Explains a laboratory experiment dealing with the optical features of the human eye. Shows how to measure the magnification of the retina and the refractive anomaly of the eye could be used to measure the refractive power of the observer's eye. (GA)

  13. How the Human Eye Focuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koretz, Jane F.; Handelman, George H.

    1988-01-01

    Describes the decline in people's ability to focus their eyes as their age increases. Discusses probable causes of this effect including changes in the eye's geometry and biochemistry. Diagrammatically illustrates age related changes in the lens of the human eye. (CW)

  14. Eye Protection in Kansas Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, Kenneth M.; And Others

    A law passed by a state legislature requires that students in industrial arts shops and science laboratories must wear eye protective devices. Explanatory material presents the text of the bill and guidelines for implementation, including--(1) types of eye hazards, (2) types of protective devices, (3) administrating eye safety equipment, (4)…

  15. Reconstructing the eyes of Urbilateria.

    PubMed Central

    Arendt, D; Wittbrodt, J

    2001-01-01

    The shared roles of Pax6 and Six homologues in the eye development of various bilaterians suggest that Urbilateria, the common ancestors of all Bilateria, already possessed some simple form of eyes. Here, we re-address the homology of bilaterian cerebral eyes at the level of eye anatomy, of eye-constituting cell types and of phototransductory molecules. The most widespread eye type found in Bilateria are the larval pigment-cup eyes located to the left and right of the apical organ in primary, ciliary larvae of Protostomia and Deuterostomia. They can be as simple as comprising a single pigment cell and a single photoreceptor cell in inverse orientation. Another more elaborate type of cerebral pigment-cup eyes with an everse arrangement of photoreceptor cells is found in adult Protostomia. Both inverse larval and everse adult eyes employ rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells and thus differ from the chordate cerebral eyes with ciliary photoreceptors. This is highly significant because on the molecular level we find that for phototransduction rhabdomeric versus ciliary photoreceptor cells employ divergent rhodopsins and non-orthologous G-proteins, rhodopsin kinases and arrestins. Our comparison supports homology of cerebral eyes in Protostomia; it challenges, however, homology of chordate and non-chordate cerebral eyes that employ photoreceptor cells with non-orthologous phototransductory cascades. PMID:11604122

  16. LIMNOLOGICAL OPTOMETRY: EXAMINING EARTH'S EYE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In Thoreau's Walden, a lake is described as the landscape's most expressive feature and the earth's eye. Collectively, scientists are charged by society to assess, monitor, and remedy maladies of earth's eye in the same way optometrists maintain the health of the human eye. This ...

  17. Guidance on risk analysis and safety implications of a large liquefied natural gas (LNG) spill over water.

    SciTech Connect

    Wellman, Gerald William; Melof, Brian Matthew; Luketa-Hanlin, Anay Josephine; Hightower, Marion Michael; Covan, John Morgan; Gritzo, Louis Alan; Irwin, Michael James; Kaneshige, Michael Jiro; Morrow, Charles W.

    2004-12-01

    While recognized standards exist for the systematic safety analysis of potential spills or releases from LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) storage terminals and facilities on land, no equivalent set of standards or guidance exists for the evaluation of the safety or consequences from LNG spills over water. Heightened security awareness and energy surety issues have increased industry's and the public's attention to these activities. The report reviews several existing studies of LNG spills with respect to their assumptions, inputs, models, and experimental data. Based on this review and further analysis, the report provides guidance on the appropriateness of models, assumptions, and risk management to address public safety and property relative to a potential LNG spill over water.

  18. 75 FR 57766 - Notice of Petition To Amend Authorizations Under Section 3 of the Natural Gas Act; Cameron LNG, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-22

    ... (Cameron), 101 Ash Street, San Diego, California 92101, filed a petition to amend the authorizations issued... Cameron's proposal in this petition to William D. Rapp, Counsel for Cameron LNG, LLC, 101 Ash Street,...

  19. What Happens After Treatment for Eye Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... having eye cancer What happens after treatment for eye cancer? For many people with eye cancer, treatment ... manage them. Follow-up after treatment of uveal (eye) melanoma Your doctor will most likely want to ...

  20. What Is a Comprehensive Dilated Eye Exam?

    MedlinePlus

    ... su oculista What is a comprehensive dilated eye exam? You may think your eyes are healthy, but ... eye care professional for a comprehensive dilated eye exam is the only way to really be sure. ...

  1. [Conservative treatment of dry eye].

    PubMed

    Hefner, J; Reinshagen, H

    2014-11-01

    The use of topic anti-inflammatory drugs has become very important in the treatment of dry eye disease. Besides the basic therapy including tear replacement, use of serum eye drops and mucolytic eye drops, the topical application of corticosteroids and cyclosporin A is more commonly used in moderate to severe forms of dry eye disease. The consistent treatment of Meibomian gland dysfunction as a frequent reason for evaporative dry eye is also of particular importance. Understanding the chronicity of the disease and long-term compliance are the essential for successful therapy of this widespread disease. PMID:25275793

  2. Eye movement abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Moncayo, Jorge; Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2012-01-01

    Generation and control of eye movements requires the participation of the cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum and brainstem. The signals of this complex neural network finally converge on the ocular motoneurons of the brainstem. Infarct or hemorrhage at any level of the oculomotor system (though more frequent in the brain-stem) may give rise to a broad spectrum of eye movement abnormalities (EMAs). Consequently, neurologists and particularly stroke neurologists are routinely confronted with EMAs, some of which may be overlooked in the acute stroke setting and others that, when recognized, may have a high localizing value. The most complex EMAs are due to midbrain stroke. Horizontal gaze disorders, some of them manifesting unusual patterns, may occur in pontine stroke. Distinct varieties of nystagmus occur in cerebellar and medullary stroke. This review summarizes the most representative EMAs from the supratentorial level to the brainstem. PMID:22377853

  3. Nutrition and the eye.

    PubMed

    Congdon, N G; West, K P

    1999-12-01

    The topic "nutrition and the eye" cannot adequately be covered in a single review article; indeed, dozens of books and hundreds of articles have been written on the subject. This review concentrates on three areas in which specific nutrients are known or theorized to have a major impact on vision and the visual system: vitamin A deficiency; antioxidants and their proposed role in the prevention of age-related cataract and macular degeneration; and nutritional optic neuropathies, including those of the recent Cuban epidemic. In addition, this article touches on nutritional treatments that have been suggested for several less common eye diseases and, finally, considers several less prevalent conditions in which deficiency of or excess exposure to a particular nutrient has been associated with ocular pathology. PMID:10662253

  4. [The eye and cancer].

    PubMed

    Schalenbourg, Ann; Mantel, Irmela

    2015-12-16

    Cancer involves so rarely the eye that it may be recognized late. The most frequent primary intra-ocular tumours are retinoblastoma in small children and uveal melanoma in adults. Vision loss in systemic cancer has a varied differential diagnosis. Uveal metastases are most often associated with breast cancer, but can herald lung carcinoma. Masquerade syndrome looks like inflammation but represents the ocular involvement of primary CNS non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Systemic cancer drugs, as well as radiotherapy, can cause ocular toxicity, mostly at the retina. In the rare paraneoplastic syndromes, patient's cancer antibodies cross-react with retinal antigens, leading to severe vision loss. When cancer involves the eye, a fast referral into specialized care can significantly improve visual and vital prognosis. PMID:26852556

  5. Evaluation of sloshing resistance performance for LNG carrier insulation system based on fluid-structure interaction analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chi-Seung; Cho, Jin-Rae; Kim, Wha-Soo; Noh, Byeong-Jae; Kim, Myung-Hyun; Lee, Jae-Myung

    2013-03-01

    In the present paper, the sloshing resistance performance of a huge-size LNG carrier's insulation system is evaluated by the fluid-structure interaction (FSI) analysis. To do this, the global-local analysis which is based on the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) method is adopted to accurately calculate the structural behavior induced by internal LNG sloshing of a KC-1 type LNG carrier insulation system. During the global analysis, the sloshing flow and hydrodynamic pressure of internal LNG are analyzed by postulating the flexible insulation system as a rigid body. In addition, during the local analysis, the local hydroelastic response of the LNG carrier insulation system is computed by solving the local hydroelastic model where the entire and flexible insulation system is adopted and the numerical analysis results of the global analysis such as initial and boundary conditions are implemented into the local finite element model. The proposed novel analysis techniques can potentially be used to evaluate the structural integrity of LNG carrier insulation systems.

  6. A structural and stochastic optimal model for projections of LNG imports and exports in Asia-Pacific.

    PubMed

    Kompas, Tom; Che, Tuong Nhu

    2016-06-01

    The Asia-Pacific region, the largest and fastest growing liquefied natural gas (LNG) market in the world, has been undergoing radical changes over the past few years. These changes include considerable additional supplies from North America and Australia, and a recent LNG price slump resulting from an oil-linked pricing mechanism and demand uncertainties. This paper develops an Asia-Pacific Gas Model (APGM), based on a structural, stochastic and optimising framework, providing a valuable tool for the projection of LNG trade in the Asia-Pacific region. With existing social-economic conditions, the model projects that Asia-Pacific LNG imports are expected to increase by 49.1 percent in 2020 and 95.7 percent in 2030, compared to 2013. Total LNG trade value is estimated to increase to US$127.2 billion in 2020 and US$199.0 billion in 2030. Future LNG trade expansion is mainly driven by emerging and large importers (i.e., China and India), and serviced, most importantly, by new supplies from Australia and the USA. The model's projected results are sensitive to changes in expected oil prices, pricing mechanisms, economic growth and energy policies, as well as unexpected geopolitical-economic events. PMID:27441290

  7. Pioneers of eye movement research

    PubMed Central

    Wade, Nicholas J

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in the technology affording eye movement recordings carry the risk of neglecting past achievements. Without the assistance of this modern armoury, great strides were made in describing the ways the eyes move. For Aristotle the fundamental features of eye movements were binocular, and he described the combined functions of the eyes. This was later given support using simple procedures like placing a finger over the eyelid of the closed eye and culminated in Hering's law of equal innervation. However, the overriding concern in the 19th century was with eye position rather than eye movements. Appreciating discontinuities of eye movements arose from studies of vertigo. The characteristics of nystagmus were recorded before those of saccades and fixations. Eye movements during reading were described by Hering and by Lamare in 1879; both used similar techniques of listening to sounds made during contractions of the extraocular muscles. Photographic records of eye movements during reading were made by Dodge early in the 20th century, and this stimulated research using a wider array of patterns. In the mid-20th century attention shifted to the stability of the eyes during fixation, with the emphasis on involuntary movements. The contributions of pioneers from Aristotle to Yarbus are outlined. PMID:23396982

  8. Eye preferences in captive chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Braccini, Stephanie N; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steven J; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2012-09-01

    Over the last century, the issue of brain lateralization in primates has been extensively investigated and debated, yet no previous study has reported eye preference in great apes. This study examined eye preference in 45 captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in response to various stimuli. Eye preference was assessed when animals looked through a hole that only accommodated one eye at an empty box, a mirror, a picture of a dog, a rubber snake, food biscuits, bananas, a rubber duck, and a video camera. Main effects of stimulus type were found for direction of eye preference, number of looks, and looking duration, but not for strength of eye preference. A left-eye bias was found for viewing the rubber snake and a right-eye bias was found for viewing the bananas, supporting theories that emotional valence may affect lateralized behaviors. In addition, a significant shift in eye preference took place from the initial look to subsequent looks when viewing the snake. These results are not consistent with previous reports of human eye preference and may reflect lateralization differences for emotional processing. No relationship between eye preference and previously recorded hand preference was found. PMID:22733385

  9. Michelangelo's eye disease.

    PubMed

    Gallenga, P E; Neri, Giampiero; D'Anastasio, Ruggero; Pettorrossi, Vito Enrico; Alfieri, Emilio; Capasso, Luigi

    2012-06-01

    Charged by the Pope Julius II for painting the Cappella Sistina in Rome (between 1508 and 1512), Michelangelo worked in an elevated scaffolding, in an anomalous position with dyes (including poisoning lead salts) and solvents (such as toxic turpentine) dripping on his face and continuously inhaling, in a dim environment illuminated only with oil lamps and candles, as he described himself and sketched in a sonet addressed to Giovanni da Pistoia. In 1510 he began suffering from eye disease: the main symptom was the necessity to elevate the document he was reading up to the level of his eyes. This defect disappeared few months after he finished painting his masterpiece. We hypothesize that the Michelangelo's eyes disease was a form of acquired and transitory nystagmus induced by the many hours he spent in up gaze, with a skew deviation, a form of ocular tilt reaction resulting from the impairment of spatial sensitivity (inversion illusion) due to the persistence of the artist's head in a horizontal position, looking upward. PMID:22425178

  10. Schizophrenia and the eye

    PubMed Central

    Silverstein, Steven M.; Rosen, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Although visual processing impairments are common in schizophrenia, it is not clear to what extent these originate in the eye vs. the brain. This review highlights potential contributions, from the retina and other structures of the eye, tovisual processing impairments in schizophrenia and high-risk states. A second goal is to evaluate the status of retinal abnormalities as biomarkers for schizophrenia. The review was motivated by known retinal changes in other disorders (e.g., Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis), and their relationships to perceptual and cognitive impairments, and disease progression therein. The evidence reviewed suggests two major conclusions. One is that there are multiple structural and functional disturbances of the eye in schizophrenia, all of which could be factors in the visual disturbances of patients. These include retinal venule widening, retinal nerve fiber layer thinning, dopaminergic abnormalities, abnormal ouput of retinal cells as measured by electroretinography (ERG), maculopathies and retinopathies, cataracts, poor acuity, and strabismus. Some of these are likely to be illness-related, whereas others may be due to medication or comorbid conditions. The second conclusion is that certain retinal findings can serve as biomarkers of neural pathology, and disease progression, in schizophrenia. The strongest evidence for this to date involves findings of widened retinal venules, thinning of the retinal nerve fiber layer, and abnormal ERG amplitudes. These data suggest that a greater understanding of the contribution of retinal and other ocular pathology to the visual and cognitive disturbances of schizophrenia is warranted, and that retinal changes have untapped clinical utility. PMID:26345525

  11. Christoph Scheiner's eye studies.

    PubMed

    Daxecker, F

    1992-01-01

    Christoph Scheiner was born in 1573 or 1575. In 1595 he entered into the Order of the Jesuits; he died in 1650. In 1619 his book Oculus, dealing with the optics of the eye, appeared in Innsbruck. The invention of the telescope was of utmost importance for progress in astronomical and physical research. Scheiner himself built telescopes and discovered the sunspots. As a result, an unpleasant priority dispute with Galilei ensued. From 1624 onwards, Scheiner was in Rome, where his main work Rosa Ursina was published in 1630. A part of this book deals with the physiological optics of the eye as well. Some of his discoveries and experiments are taken from these two books: determination of the radius of curvature of the cornea, discovery of the nasal exit of the optic nerve, increase in the radius of curvature of the lens in case of accommodation, Scheiner's procedure (double images with ametropia), refractive indices of various parts of the eye, Scheiner's experiment. Without any doubt, Christoph Scheiner belongs to the foremost scientists of the first half of the 17th century. PMID:1473465

  12. LNGFIRE: A thermal radiation model for LNG fires. Topical report, June 29, 1990. Documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Atallah, S.; Shah, J.N.

    1990-06-29

    The Federal Code Model for predicting exclusion distances from LNG fires (49 CFR 193.2057) was critically evaluated. The results of LNG fire tests carried out to date were reviewed and an improved model for predicting exclusion distances was developed and verified. This model assumes that the flame takes the shape of a cylinder or a parallellepiped, depending on whether the fuel impoundment area is circular or rectangular in shape. It allows for flame drag and tilt in the presence of wind. Based on experimental data, the maximum surface emissive power and the flame attenuation coefficient were estimated at 190 kw/sq m (60,267 Btu/hr sq ft) and 0.3/m (0.09/ft), respectively.

  13. Survey of fire-protection systems at LNG facilities. Topical report, July-November 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Atallah, S.; Borows, K.A.

    1991-04-05

    The objectives of the study were to collect and analyze data relating to the types, costs, and operational problems of gas leak and fire detection devices and of fire prevention and suppression systems used at LNG facilities operating in the United States. Data from 39 LNG facilities, which accounted for 45% of the total U.S. storage capacity, were collected. The report provides information relating to equipment manufacturers, site applications, operational problems, initial installation costs, annual operational costs, and equipment lifetime. Equipment of interest included fixed gas leak, fire and cryogenic detection systems, water deluge and barrier systems, thermal radiation walls and protective coatings, and fixed high expansion foam, dry chemical, carbon dioxide and halon fire suppression systems. In addition, internal fire fighting capabilities were reviewed.

  14. Second Stage Intercooling Using LNG for Turbocharged Heavy Duty Road Vehicles Phase I Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    1999-09-21

    It is well documented in engine performance literature that reduced engine inlet air temperature increases power output and reduces NO, emissions for both diesel and spark ignited (SI) engines. In addition, reduced inlet temperature increases the knock resistance of SI engines. In that most HD natural gas engines are SI derivatives of diesel engines it is appropriate to evaluate the benefits of reduced engine air temperature through LNG fuel. This project investigated the ''real world'' possibilities of a patented process for utilizing the ''cold'' in LNG to chill engine inlet air. The results support the conclusion that doing so is a practical means to increase engine power and reduce engine-out NO{sub x}.

  15. Thermodynamic analysis of liquefied natural gas (LNG) production cycle in APCI process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nezhad, Shahrooz Abbasi; Shabani, Bezhan; Soleimani, Majid

    2012-12-01

    The appropriate production of liquefied natural gas (LNG) with least consuming energy and maximum efficiency is quite important. In this paper, LNG production cycle by means of APCI Process has been studied. Energy equilibrium equations and exergy equilibrium equations of each equipment in the APCI cycle were established. The equipments are described using rigorous thermodynamics and no significant simplification is assumed. Taken some operating parameters as key parameters, influences of these parameters on coefficient of performance (COP) and exergy efficiency of the cascading cycle were analyzed. The results indicate that COP and exergy efficiency will be improved with the increasing of the inlet pressure of MR (mixed refrigerant) compressors, the decreasing of the NG and MR after precooling process, outlet pressure of turbine, inlet temperature of MR compressor and NG temperature after cooling in main cryogenic heat exchanger (MCHE). The COP and exergy efficiency of the APCI cycle will be above 2% and 40%, respectively, after optimizing the key parameters.

  16. How to administer eye drops and eye ointment.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Mary

    2016-05-25

    Rationale and key points Eye drops and eye ointment are the mainstay of treatment of ocular conditions. Failure to prioritise administration of these medicines can prolong the condition and may present a risk to the patient's vision. ▶ Eye drops and eye ointments are used to treat acute and chronic conditions of the eye and surrounding structures. Eye drops must be instilled before applying eye ointment, since the ointment will affect the absorption of the eye drop. ▶ Nurses require knowledge of the technique, side effects and potential interactions associated with systemically or topically applied medicines to the eye to ensure patient safety and optimum outcomes. Reflective activity Clinical skills articles can help update your practice and ensure it remains evidence based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. How this article will change your practice. 2. How you intend to develop your knowledge and skills regarding treatment of ocular conditions. Subscribers can update their reflective accounts at rcni.com/portfolio. PMID:27224628

  17. [Eye and the environment].

    PubMed

    Voide, Nathalie; Kaeser, Pierre-François; Behar-Cohen, Francine

    2015-12-16

    The eyes are exposed to multiple environmental factors, which affect visual development, comfort, and visual health. While overexposure to sunlight can cause ocular surface and retinal pathologies, insufficient exposure to daylight could significantly contribute to myopia progression. New artificial lights, namely LED, have a higher risk of retinal phototoxicity, and could alter ocular circadian rhythm. The significant increase of prevalence of ocular allergies could be caused by the proliferation of environmental polluting substances, like tobacco smoke, fuel combustion by-products, or phtalates, which are found in many types of plastics. Finally, some dietary supplements could play a protective role in certain types of ocular pathologies, namely retinal pathologies. PMID:26852551

  18. Lens of Eye Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Mallett, Michael Wesley

    2015-03-23

    An analysis of LANL occupational dose measurements was made with respect to lens of eye dose (LOE), in particular, for plutonium workers. Table 1 shows the reported LOE as a ratio of the “deep” (photon only) and “deep+neutron” dose for routine monitored workers at LANL for the past ten years. The data compares the mean and range of these values for plutonium workers* and non-routine plutonium workers. All doses were reported based on measurements with the LANL Model 8823 TLD.

  19. Pathology of a lepromatous eye.

    PubMed

    Ebenezer, G J; Daniel, E

    2000-03-01

    Histopathological examination of an enucleated eye from a lepromatous leprosy patient showed the cornea, ciliary body, and part of the choroid to be infiltrated by macrophages filled with Mycobacterium leprae. The walls of blood vessels in the sclera, ciliary body and the anterior choroid demonstrated the presence of M. leprae, giving credence to the blood-borne entry of M. leprae into the eye. Unlike the eyes of experimental animals infected with M. leprae, histopathological study of this eye from a lepromatous leprosy patient demonstrated that M. leprae, although demonstrable in the anterior choroid, could not be found in the posterior parts of the eye, substantiating the claim that leprosy does not affect the posterior parts of the eye directly. PMID:10834066

  20. Process study and exergy analysis of a novel air separation process cooled by LNG cold energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wendong; Duan, Jiao; Mao, Wenjun

    2014-02-01

    In order to resolve the problems of the current air separation process such as the complex process, cumbersome operation and high operating costs, a novel air separation process cooled by LNG cold energy is proposed in this paper, which is based on high-efficiency heat exchanger network and chemical packing separation technology. The operating temperature range of LNG cold energy is widened from 133K-203K to 113K-283K by high-efficiency heat exchanger network and air separation pressure is declined from 0.5MPa to about 0.35MPa due to packing separation technology, thereby greatly improve the energy efficiency. Both the traditional and novel air separation processes are simulated with air handling capacity of 20t·h-1. Comparing with the traditional process, the LNG consumption is reduced by 44.2%, power consumption decrease is 211.5 kWh per hour, which means the annual benefit will be up to 1.218 million CNY. And the exergy efficiency is also improved by 42.5%.

  1. Hydrodynamic optimization of twin-skeg LNG ships by CFD and model testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Keunjae; Tillig, Fabian; Bathfield, Nicolas; Liljenberg, Hans

    2014-06-01

    SSPA experiences a growing interest in twin skeg ships as one attractive green ship solution. The twin skeg concept is well proven with obvious advantages for the design of ships with full hull forms, restricted draft or highly loaded propellers. SSPA has conducted extensive hull optimizations studies of LNG ships of different size based on an extensive hull data base with over 7,000 models tested, including over 400 twin skeg hull forms. Main hull dimensions and different hull concepts such as twin skeg and single screw were of main interest in the studies. In the present paper, one twin skeg and one single screw 170 K LNG ship were designed for optimally selected main dimension parameters. The twin skeg hull was further optimized and evaluated using SHIPFLOW FRIENDSHIP design package by performing parameter variation in order to modify the shape and positions of the skegs. The finally optimized models were then built and tested in order to confirm the lower power demand of twin skeg designed compaed with the signle screw design. This paper is a full description of one of the design developments of a LNG twin skeg hull, from early dimensional parameter study, through design optimization phase towards the confirmation by model tests.

  2. Aging and dry eye disease

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Juan; Sullivan, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Dry eye disease is a prevalent eye disorder that in particular affects the elderly population. One of the major causes of dry eye, meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD), shows increased prevalence with aging. MGD is caused by hyperkeratinization of the ductal epithelium of meibomian gland and reduced quantity and/or quality of meibum, the holocrine product that stabilizes and prevents the evaporation of the tear film. Of note, retinoids which are used in current anti-aging cosmetics may promote the development of MGD and dry eye disease. In this review, we will discuss the possible mechanisms of age-related MGD. PMID:22569356

  3. Eye Surgery Light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    During eye surgery, the surgeon uses an illuminating instrument called an opthalmoscope for close examination of the retina or the interior of the eye. Ordinarily, electric power for the head-mounted light is supplied through a cord from an overhead swivel arm or a floor pedestal. Within limits of cord length and swivel arm movement, the surgeon has considerable freedom of motion. But when more than one opthalmoscope is involved, tangling and interference of the power cords becomes a problem. St. Luke's Hospital, Cleveland, Ohio asked Lewis Research Center for assistance in finding a solution. Lewis responded with a battery-powered system that totally frees the surgeon of attached cords and swivels. Borrowing from space technology, Lewis used small, lightweight nickel-cadmium batteries that can deliver high intensity light for an hour and can be recharged overnight. The Opthalmoscope Powerpack consists of eight batteries in three containers affixed to a webbed belt, and a novel on-off switch equipped with a springloaded plexiglass "flapper." The belt pack is worn underneath the surgical gown and the flapper permits the doctor to activate the switch by elbow pressure. Lewis built five units and they have been in service at St. Luke's Hospital for a year. Used for routine examinations as well as for surgery, they have demonstrated excellent reliability.

  4. Eye Surgery Light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    During eye surgery, the surgeon uses an illuminating instrument called an opthalmoscope for close examination of the retina or the interior of the eye. Ordinarily, electric power for the head-mounted light is supplied through a cord from an overhead swivel arm or a floor pedestal. Within limits of cord length and swivel arm movement, the surgeon has considerable freedom of motion. But when more than one opthalmoscope is involved, tangling and interference of the power cords becomes a problem. St. Luke's Hospital, Cleveland, Ohio asked Lewis Research Center for assistance in finding a solution. Lewis responded with a battery-powered system that totally frees the surgeon of attached cords and swivels. Borrowing from space technology, Lewis used small, lightweight nickel-cadmium batteries that can deliver high intensity light for an hour and can be recharged overnight. The Opthalmoscope Powerpack consists of eight batteries in three containers affixed to a webbed belt, and a novel on-off switch equipped with a spring-loaded plexiglass 'flapper.' The belt pack is worn underneath the surgical gown and the flapper permits the doctor to activate the switch by elbow pressure. Lewis built five units and they have been in service at St. Luke's Hospital for a year. Used for routine examinations as well as for surgery, they have demonstrated excellent reliability.

  5. Double Eye Brow: A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kar, Sudipta; Ghosh, Chiranjit; Bazmi, Badruddin Ahamed; Sarkar, Subrata

    2013-01-01

    Eye brows are essential for esthetic and functional purposes. Various kinds of eye brows are found in human species. Protective function is one of the important functions of eye brows. Double eye brow is a very rare condition found in human. This case report describes one of the rare cases of double eye brow. PMID:24574697

  6. Wavefront Derived Refraction and Full Eye Biometry in Pseudophakic Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Xinjie; Banta, James T.; Ke, Bilian; Jiang, Hong; He, Jichang; Liu, Che; Wang, Jianhua

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To assess wavefront derived refraction and full eye biometry including ciliary muscle dimension and full eye axial geometry in pseudophakic eyes using spectral domain OCT equipped with a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. Methods Twenty-eight adult subjects (32 pseudophakic eyes) having recently undergone cataract surgery were enrolled in this study. A custom system combining two optical coherence tomography systems with a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor was constructed to image and monitor changes in whole eye biometry, the ciliary muscle and ocular aberration in the pseudophakic eye. A Badal optical channel and a visual target aligning with the wavefront sensor were incorporated into the system for measuring the wavefront-derived refraction. The imaging acquisition was performed twice. The coefficients of repeatability (CoR) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were calculated. Results Images were acquired and processed successfully in all patients. No significant difference was detected between repeated measurements of ciliary muscle dimension, full-eye biometry or defocus aberration. The CoR of full-eye biometry ranged from 0.36% to 3.04% and the ICC ranged from 0.981 to 0.999. The CoR for ciliary muscle dimensions ranged from 12.2% to 41.6% and the ICC ranged from 0.767 to 0.919. The defocus aberrations of the two measurements were 0.443 ± 0.534 D and 0.447 ± 0.586 D and the ICC was 0.951. Conclusions The combined system is capable of measuring full eye biometry and refraction with good repeatability. The system is suitable for future investigation of pseudoaccommodation in the pseudophakic eye. PMID:27010674

  7. Self-inflicted eye injuries.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, R; al-Bachari, M A; Kambhampati, K K

    1991-01-01

    Five cases of self-inflicted eye injury are described and discussed. A review of the literature shows that several psychiatric diagnoses have been assigned to people who damage their eyes. A variety of mechanisms to explain this phenomenon are described. PMID:1873272

  8. Miniature curved artificial compound eyes

    PubMed Central

    Floreano, Dario; Pericet-Camara, Ramon; Viollet, Stéphane; Ruffier, Franck; Brückner, Andreas; Leitel, Robert; Buss, Wolfgang; Menouni, Mohsine; Expert, Fabien; Juston, Raphaël; Dobrzynski, Michal Karol; L’Eplattenier, Geraud; Recktenwald, Fabian; Mallot, Hanspeter A.; Franceschini, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    In most animal species, vision is mediated by compound eyes, which offer lower resolution than vertebrate single-lens eyes, but significantly larger fields of view with negligible distortion and spherical aberration, as well as high temporal resolution in a tiny package. Compound eyes are ideally suited for fast panoramic motion perception. Engineering a miniature artificial compound eye is challenging because it requires accurate alignment of photoreceptive and optical components on a curved surface. Here, we describe a unique design method for biomimetic compound eyes featuring a panoramic, undistorted field of view in a very thin package. The design consists of three planar layers of separately produced arrays, namely, a microlens array, a neuromorphic photodetector array, and a flexible printed circuit board that are stacked, cut, and curved to produce a mechanically flexible imager. Following this method, we have prototyped and characterized an artificial compound eye bearing a hemispherical field of view with embedded and programmable low-power signal processing, high temporal resolution, and local adaptation to illumination. The prototyped artificial compound eye possesses several characteristics similar to the eye of the fruit fly Drosophila and other arthropod species. This design method opens up additional vistas for a broad range of applications in which wide field motion detection is at a premium, such as collision-free navigation of terrestrial and aerospace vehicles, and for the experimental testing of insect vision theories. PMID:23690574

  9. Miniature curved artificial compound eyes.

    PubMed

    Floreano, Dario; Pericet-Camara, Ramon; Viollet, Stéphane; Ruffier, Franck; Brückner, Andreas; Leitel, Robert; Buss, Wolfgang; Menouni, Mohsine; Expert, Fabien; Juston, Raphaël; Dobrzynski, Michal Karol; L'Eplattenier, Geraud; Recktenwald, Fabian; Mallot, Hanspeter A; Franceschini, Nicolas

    2013-06-01

    In most animal species, vision is mediated by compound eyes, which offer lower resolution than vertebrate single-lens eyes, but significantly larger fields of view with negligible distortion and spherical aberration, as well as high temporal resolution in a tiny package. Compound eyes are ideally suited for fast panoramic motion perception. Engineering a miniature artificial compound eye is challenging because it requires accurate alignment of photoreceptive and optical components on a curved surface. Here, we describe a unique design method for biomimetic compound eyes featuring a panoramic, undistorted field of view in a very thin package. The design consists of three planar layers of separately produced arrays, namely, a microlens array, a neuromorphic photodetector array, and a flexible printed circuit board that are stacked, cut, and curved to produce a mechanically flexible imager. Following this method, we have prototyped and characterized an artificial compound eye bearing a hemispherical field of view with embedded and programmable low-power signal processing, high temporal resolution, and local adaptation to illumination. The prototyped artificial compound eye possesses several characteristics similar to the eye of the fruit fly Drosophila and other arthropod species. This design method opens up additional vistas for a broad range of applications in which wide field motion detection is at a premium, such as collision-free navigation of terrestrial and aerospace vehicles, and for the experimental testing of insect vision theories. PMID:23690574

  10. Photographic Screening for Eye Defects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, J.

    1985-01-01

    Images of retinas examined for characteristic patterns. Color photographs of retinas taken. Proper alinement of eye obtained by asking subject to gaze at light-emitting diode. "Red-eye" patterns in resulting color photographs examined by trained observers for signs of ocular defects. System used to check power of contact lenses and eyeglasses by taking photographs with these items in place.

  11. Occupational eye injuries in Finland.

    PubMed

    Saari, K M; Parvi, V

    1984-01-01

    In Finland 11.9% of all industrial accidents in 1973 were eye injuries including superficial eye injuries (79.2%), ultraviolet burns of the cornea (3.9%), eye burns (3.6%), blunt ocular trauma (2,5%), wounds (2.4%), and post-traumatic infections (5.8%). Eye injuries constituted 34.3% of all industrial accidents which needed only ambulatory treatment and 17.5% of all industrial accidents causing an absence for 1-2 days. In 1981 2.1% of all compensated industrial accidents (incapacity for work 3 days or more) were eye injuries. Most compensated eye injuries occurred in manufacturing and in construction work (80.4%) and 8.5% occurred in agriculture. The annual incidence rates of compensated accidents to the eyes (accidents X 1 000/number of employees) were highest in several branches of metal industry (4.96-6.88), excavating and foundation work (6.88), and in logging (5.64). Compensated eye injuries were caused by machines (32.8%), hand tools (25.6%), other equipment and constructions (4.8%), work environment (23.6%), chemical substances (10.8%), and other accidents (2.3%). PMID:6328849

  12. Eye Injuries Can Be Prevented.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PTA Today, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Eleven thousand eye injuries are suffered annually by 5- to-14-year-old youngsters during sports and recreational activities. Baseball-related accidents result in more eye injuries to youth than any other sport. Protective face gear is discussed and recommended. (MT)

  13. Dry eye disease after LASIK

    PubMed Central

    Ţuru, L; Alexandrescu, C; Stana, D; Tudosescu, R

    2012-01-01

    LASIK is a surgical tehnique for the correction of refractive errors (myopia, hyperopia, astygmatism). It results in a reshape of the cornea with ocular surface and especially tear film disease. It is a cause for a iatrogenic dry eye syndrome. Neurogenic and inflamatory theory explain this disease. The main therapy of dry eye is the replacement with artificial tears. PMID:22574092

  14. Penetrating eye injury in war.

    PubMed

    Biehl, J W; Valdez, J; Hemady, R K; Steidl, S M; Bourke, D L

    1999-11-01

    The percentage of penetrating eye injuries in war has increased significantly in this century compared with the total number of combat injuries. With the increasing use of fragmentation weapons and possibly laser weapons on the battle-field in the future, the rate of eye injuries may exceed the 13% of the total military injuries found in Operations Desert Storm/Shield. During the Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988), eye injuries revealed that retained foreign bodies and posterior segment injuries have an improved prognosis in future military ophthalmic surgery as a result of modern diagnostic and treatment modalities. Compared with the increasing penetrating eye injuries on the battlefield, advances in ophthalmic surgery are insignificant. Eye armor, such as visors that flip up and down and protect the eyes from laser injury, needs to be developed. Similar eye protection is being developed in civilian sportswear. Penetrating eye injury in the civilian sector is becoming much closer to the military model and is now comparable for several reasons. PMID:10578588

  15. Microoptical telescope compound eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duparré, Jacques W.; Schreiber, Peter; Matthes, André; Pshenay–Severin, Ekaterina; Bräuer, Andreas; Tünnermann, Andreas; Völkel, Reinhard; Eisner, Martin; Scharf, Toralf

    2005-02-01

    A new optical concept for compact digital image acquisition devices with large field of view is developed and proofed experimentally. Archetypes for the imaging system are compound eyes of small insects and the Gabor Superlens. A paraxial 3x3 matrix formalism is used to describe the telescope arrangement of three microlens arrays with different pitch to find first order parameters of the imaging system. A 2mm thin imaging system with 21x3 channels, 70ºx10º field of view and 4.5mm x 0.5mm image size is optimized and analyzed using sequential and non sequential raytracing and fabricated by microoptics technology. Anamorphic lenses, where the parameters are a function of the considered optical channel, are used to achieve a homogeneous optical performance over the whole field of view. Captured images are presented and compared to simulation results.

  16. Microoptical telescope compound eye.

    PubMed

    Duparré, Jacques; Schreiber, Peter; Matthes, André; Pshenay-Severin, Ekaterina; Bräuer, Andreas; Tünnermann, Andreas; Völkel, Reinhard; Eisner, Martin; Scharf, Toralf

    2005-02-01

    A new optical concept for compact digital image acquisition devices with large field of view is developed and proofed experimentally. Archetypes for the imaging system are compound eyes of small insects and the Gabor-Superlens. A paraxial 3x3 matrix formalism is used to describe the telescope arrangement of three microlens arrays with different pitch to find first order parameters of the imaging system. A 2mm thin imaging system with 21x3 channels, 70 masculinex10 masculine field of view and 4.5mm x 0.5mm image size is optimized and analyzed using sequential and non-sequential raytracing and fabricated by microoptics technology. Anamorphic lenses, where the parameters are a function of the considered optical channel, are used to achieve a homogeneous optical performance over the whole field of view. Captured images are presented and compared to simulation results. PMID:19494951

  17. [Diabetic eye disease].

    PubMed

    Henriques, José; Vaz-Pereira, Sara; Nascimento, João; Rosa, Paulo Caldeira

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disease characterized by sustained hyperglycemia leading to macro and microvascular complications. The eye is one of the main organs affected by this disease, being diabetic retinopathy the most well-known microvascular complication and the leading cause of blindness in the working age population. However, diabetic ocular disease is not only characterized by diabetic retinopathy. Other important ocular manifestations of diabetes mellitus include cataract, glaucoma, ischemic optic neuropathy, cranial nerve palsies and recurrent corneal erosion syndrome. Here, we emphasize diabetic retinopathy as the most important and characteristic complication of diabetes mellitus, but also review less well-known complications with the aim to alert and sensitize non-ophthalmologist clinicians that treat diabetic individuals, in order to promote an early diagnosis and treatment of the sight-threatening complications of diabetes. PMID:25817504

  18. Eyes of Ganges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    21 December 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows eroded, light-toned layered rock outcrops on the side of a large mound in Ganges Chasma, part of the vast Valles Marineris trough system. Perhaps a testament to the inherent human (and primate) ability to pick out faces where partially hidden from view (even when a face is not really there) -- near the top of this picture are two features, each a product of erosion, resembling a pair of human eyes. This picture was acquired in late November 2005.

    Location near: 7.1oS, 49.4oW Image width: width: 0.55 km (0.3 mi) Illumination from: left/lower left Season: Southern Summer

  19. Evaluation of the Painful Eye.

    PubMed

    Pflipsen, Matthew; Massaquoi, Mariama; Wolf, Suzanne

    2016-06-15

    Eye problems constitute 2% to 3% of all primary care and emergency department visits. Common eye conditions that can cause eye pain are conjunctivitis, corneal abrasion, and hordeolum, and some of the most serious eye conditions include acute angle-closure glaucoma, orbital cellulitis, and herpetic keratitis. The history should focus on vision changes, foreign body sensation, photophobia, and associated symptoms, such as headache. The physical examination includes an assessment of visual acuity and systematic evaluation of the conjunctiva, eyelids, sclera, cornea, pupil, anterior chamber, and anterior uvea. Further examination with fluorescein staining and tonometry is often necessary. Because eye pain can be the first sign of an ophthalmologic emergency, the physician should determine if referral is warranted. Specific conditions that require ophthalmology consultation include acute angle-closure glaucoma, optic neuritis, orbital cellulitis, scleritis, anterior uveitis, and infectious keratitis. PMID:27304768

  20. Genetics Home Reference: fish-eye disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions fish-eye disease fish-eye disease Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Fish-eye disease , also called partial LCAT deficiency, is ...

  1. Arousal facilitates involuntary eye movements.

    PubMed

    DiGirolamo, Gregory J; Patel, Neha; Blaukopf, Clare L

    2016-07-01

    Attention plays a critical role in action selection. However, the role of attention in eye movements is complicated as these movements can be either voluntary or involuntary, with, in some circumstances (antisaccades), these two actions competing with each other for execution. But attending to the location of an impending eye movement is only one facet of attention that may play a role in eye movement selection. In two experiments, we investigated the effect of arousal on voluntary eye movements (antisaccades) and involuntary eye movements (prosaccadic errors) in an antisaccade task. Arousal, as caused by brief loud sounds and indexed by changes in pupil diameter, had a facilitation effect on involuntary eye movements. Involuntary eye movements were both significantly more likely to be executed and significantly faster under arousal conditions (Experiments 1 and 2), and the influence of arousal had a specific time course (Experiment 2). Arousal, one form of attention, can produce significant costs for human movement selection as potent but unplanned actions are benefited more than planned ones. PMID:26928432

  2. LNGFIRE: A thermal-radiation model for LNG fires. Topical report, October 25, 1988-June 29, 1990. documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Atallah, S.; Shah, J.N.

    1990-06-29

    The Federal Code Model for predicting exclusion distances from Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) fires (49 CFR 193.2057) was critically evaluated. The results of LNG fire tests carried out to date were reviewed, and an improved model for predicting exclusion distances was developed and verified. The model assumes that the flame takes the shape of a cylinder or a parallellepiped, depending on whether the fuel impoundment area is circular or rectangular in shape. It allows for flame drag and tilt in the presence of wind.

  3. Designing Optimal LNG Station Network for U.S. Heavy-Duty Freight Trucks using Temporally and Spatially Explicit Supply Chain Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Allen

    The recent natural gas boom has opened much discussion about the potential of natural gas and specifically Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) in the United States transportation sector. The switch from diesel to natural gas vehicles would reduce foreign dependence on oil, spur domestic economic growth, and potentially reduce greenhouse gas emissions. LNG provides the most potential for the medium to heavy-duty vehicle market partially due to unstable oil prices and stagnant natural gas prices. As long as the abundance of unconventional gas in the United States remains cheap, fuel switching to natural gas could provide significant cost savings for long haul freight industry. Amid a growing LNG station network and ever increasing demand for freight movement, LNG heavy-duty truck sales are less than anticipated and the industry as a whole is less economic than expected. In spite of much existing and mature natural gas infrastructure, the supply chain for LNG is different and requires explicit and careful planning. This thesis proposes research to explore the claim that the largest obstacle to widespread LNG market penetration is sub-optimal infrastructure planning. No other study we are aware of has explicitly explored the LNG transportation fuel supply chain for heavy-duty freight trucks. This thesis presents a novel methodology that links a network infrastructure optimization model (represents supply side) with a vehicle stock and economic payback model (represents demand side). The model characterizes both a temporal and spatial optimization model of future LNG transportation fuel supply chains in the United States. The principal research goal is to assess the economic feasibility of the current LNG transportation fuel industry and to determine an optimal pathway to achieve ubiquitous commercialization of LNG vehicles in the heavy-duty transport sector. The results indicate that LNG is not economic as a heavy-duty truck fuel until 2030 under current market conditions

  4. [Eye Myiasis - a Case Report].

    PubMed

    Kopecký, A; Němčanský, J; Doležil, Z; Mašková, R; Mašek, P

    2015-09-01

    The authors describe a case of 47 years old patient who came to the department of ophthalmology with eye discomfort, ear bleeding and itching of both legs. The diagnosis of ophthalmomyiasis was made after an eye examination. Manual extraction of maggots from upper and lower fornix of the left eye was performed and symptomatic therapy was given. The patient was sent to otolaryngology and dermatology departments and MRI. The maggots were also found in both external auditory meatus and between the toes. MRI excluded affection of the deeper structures of the head. Improvement of the local condition was observed since the first follow-up visit. PMID:26782730

  5. Eyes in the Sky

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    These shape-shifting galaxies have taken on the form of a giant mask. The icy blue eyes are actually the cores of two merging galaxies, called NGC 2207 and IC 2163, and the mask is their spiral arms. The false-colored image consists of infrared data from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope (red) and visible data from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (blue/green).

    NGC 2207 and IC 2163 met and began a sort of gravitational tango about 40 million years ago. The two galaxies are tugging at each other, stimulating new stars to form. Eventually, this cosmic ball will come to an end, when the galaxies meld into one. The dancing duo is located 140 million light-years away in the Canis Major constellation.

    The infrared data from Spitzer highlight the galaxies' dusty regions, while the visible data from Hubble indicates starlight. In the Hubble-only image (not pictured here), the dusty regions appear as dark lanes.

    The Hubble data correspond to light with wavelengths of .44 and .55 microns (blue and green, respectively). The Spitzer data represent light of 8 microns.

  6. The eyes of LITENING

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moser, Eric K.

    2016-05-01

    LITENING is an airborne system-of-systems providing long-range imaging, targeting, situational awareness, target tracking, weapon guidance, and damage assessment, incorporating a laser designator and laser range finders, as well as non-thermal and thermal imaging systems, with multi-sensor boresight. Robust operation is at a premium, and subsystems are partitioned to modular, swappable line-replaceable-units (LRUs) and shop-replaceable-units (SRUs). This presentation will explore design concepts for sensing, data storage, and presentation of imagery associated with the LITENING targeting pod. The "eyes" of LITENING are the electro-optic sensors. Since the initial LITENING II introduction to the US market in the late 90s, as the program has evolved and matured, a series of spiral functional improvements and sensor upgrades have been incorporated. These include laser-illuminated imaging, and more recently, color sensing. While aircraft displays are outside of the LITENING system, updates to the available viewing modules have also driven change, and resulted in increasingly effective ways of utilizing the targeting system. One of the latest LITENING spiral upgrades adds a new capability to display and capture visible-band color imagery, using new sensors. This is an augmentation to the system's existing capabilities, which operate over a growing set of visible and invisible colors, infrared bands, and laser line wavelengths. A COTS visible-band camera solution using a CMOS sensor has been adapted to meet the particular needs associated with the airborne targeting use case.

  7. Rapid response calculation of LNG cargo containment system under sloshing load using wavelet transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yooil

    2013-06-01

    Reliable strength assessment of the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) cargo containment system under the sloshing impact load is very difficult task due to the complexity of the physics involved in, both in terms of the hydrodynamics and structural mechanics. Out of all those complexities, the proper selection of the design sloshing load which is applied to the structural model of the LNG cargo containment system, is one of the most challenging one due to its inherent randomness as well as the statistical analysis which is tightly linked to the design sloshing load selection. In this study, the response based strength assessment procedure of LNG cargo containment system has been developed and proposed as an alternative design methodology. Sloshing pressure time history, measured from the model test, is decomposed into wavelet basis function targeting the minimization of the number of the basis function together with the maximization of the numerical efficiency. Then the response of the structure is obtained using the finite element method under each wavelet basis function of different scale. Finally, the response of the structure under entire sloshing impact time history is rapidly calculated by synthesizing the structural response under wavelet basis function. Through this analysis, more realistic response of the system under sloshing impact pressure can be obtained without missing the details of pressure time history such as rising pattern, oscillation due to air entrapment and decay pattern and so on. The strength assessment of the cargo containment system is then performed based on the statistical analysis of the stress peaks selected out of the obtained stress time history.

  8. CFD Investigation of Pollutant Emission in Can-Type Combustor Firing Natural Gas, LNG and Syngas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasini, H.; Fadhil, SSA; Mat Zian, N.; Om, NI

    2016-03-01

    CFD investigation of flow, combustion process and pollutant emission using natural gas, liquefied natural gas and syngas of different composition is carried out. The combustor is a can-type combustor commonly used in thermal power plant gas turbine. The investigation emphasis on the comparison of pollutant emission such in particular CO2, and NOx between different fuels. The numerical calculation for basic flow and combustion process is done using the framework of ANSYS Fluent with appropriate model assumptions. Prediction of pollutant species concentration at combustor exit shows significant reduction of CO2 and NOx for syngas combustion compared to conventional natural gas and LNG combustion.

  9. An LNG release, transport, and fate model system for marine spills.

    PubMed

    Spaulding, Malcolm L; Swanson, J Craig; Jayko, Kathy; Whittier, Nicole

    2007-02-20

    LNGMAP, a fully integrated, geographic information based modular system, has been developed to predict the fate and transport of marine spills of LNG. The model is organized as a discrete set of linked algorithms that represent the processes (time dependent release rate, spreading, transport on the water surface, evaporation from the water surface, transport and dispersion in the atmosphere, and, if ignited, burning and associated radiated heat fields) affecting LNG once it is released into the environment. A particle-based approach is employed in which discrete masses of LNG released from the source are modeled as individual masses of LNG or spillets. The model is designed to predict the gas mass balance as a function of time and to display the spatial and temporal evolution of the gas (and radiated energy field). LNGMAP has been validated by comparisons to predictions of models developed by ABS Consulting and Sandia for time dependent point releases from a draining tank, with and without burning. Simulations were in excellent agreement with those performed by ABS Consulting and consistent with Sandia's steady state results. To illustrate the model predictive capability for realistic emergency scenarios, simulations were performed for a tanker entering Block Island Sound. Three hypothetical cases were studied: the first assumes the vessel continues on course after the spill starts, the second that the vessel stops as soon as practical after the release begins (3 min), and the third that the vessel grounds at the closest site practical. The model shows that the areas of the surface pool and the incident thermal radiation field (with burning) are minimized and dispersed vapor cloud area (without burning) maximized if the vessel continues on course. For this case the surface pool area, with burning, is substantially smaller than for the without burning case because of the higher mass loss rate from the surface pool due to burning. Since the vessel speed substantially

  10. Nutrition and the Aging Eye

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Vision Nutrition and the Aging Eye Past Issues / Winter ... related macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause of vision loss for people over 60. But new research ...

  11. Childhood Eye Diseases and Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Conditions Nov. 01, 2013 The importance of vision screening There are many eye conditions and diseases ... child’s vision. Focus and alignment disorders that affect vision If any of the following conditions is suspected, ...

  12. Portable eye-safe ceilometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kryuchkov, A. V.; Grishin, A. I.; Gricuta, A. N.

    2014-11-01

    Developed and tested a simplified version of the definition of the cloud base height of the backscatter signal obtained in the laser meter height of the cloud base with eye-safe level of radiation intensity.

  13. Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye) in Newborns

    MedlinePlus

    ... Antibiotics Work Adenovirus Non-Polio Enterovirus Parent Portal Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye) in Newborns Language: English Español (Spanish) ... can be very serious. Symptoms and Causes of Conjunctivitis in Newborns Newborns with conjunctivitis develop drainage from ...

  14. Eye movements when viewing advertisements

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Emily; Leinenger, Mallorie; Rayner, Keith

    2013-01-01

    In this selective review, we examine key findings on eye movements when viewing advertisements. We begin with a brief, general introduction to the properties and neural underpinnings of saccadic eye movements. Next, we provide an overview of eye movement behavior during reading, scene perception, and visual search, since each of these activities is, at various times, involved in viewing ads. We then review the literature on eye movements when viewing print ads and warning labels (of the kind that appear on alcohol and tobacco ads), before turning to a consideration of advertisements in dynamic media (television and the Internet). Finally, we propose topics and methodological approaches that may prove to be useful in future research. PMID:24672500

  15. Genetic Testing and Eye Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... a History of Eye Disease, Do You Need Genetic Testing? Mar. 23, 2012 Thanks to news coverage, ... of breast or ovarian cancer. Physicians now use genetic tests to decide on treatment for some types ...

  16. Applications of lobster eye optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudec, R.; Pina, L.; Inneman, A.; Tichy, V.

    2015-05-01

    Applications of wide field Lobster Eye X ray telescopes are presented and discussed. The wide field X ray optics was originally proposed for use in X-ray astronomy, but there are numerous other application areas as well.

  17. Desperate for Shut-Eye?

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Desperate for Shut-Eye? Physicians' group recommends cognitive behavioral therapy before drugs for insomnia To use the sharing ... recommends. Specifically, people with chronic insomnia should try cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), the experts said. This treatment combines talk ...

  18. Eye movements when viewing advertisements.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Emily; Leinenger, Mallorie; Rayner, Keith

    2014-01-01

    In this selective review, we examine key findings on eye movements when viewing advertisements. We begin with a brief, general introduction to the properties and neural underpinnings of saccadic eye movements. Next, we provide an overview of eye movement behavior during reading, scene perception, and visual search, since each of these activities is, at various times, involved in viewing ads. We then review the literature on eye movements when viewing print ads and warning labels (of the kind that appear on alcohol and tobacco ads), before turning to a consideration of advertisements in dynamic media (television and the Internet). Finally, we propose topics and methodological approaches that may prove to be useful in future research. PMID:24672500

  19. Electroporation of Embryonic Chick Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Luz-Madrigal, Agustín; Grajales-Esquivel, Erika; Del Rio-Tsonis, Katia

    2016-01-01

    The chick embryo has prevailed as one of the major models to study developmental biology, cell biology and regeneration. From all the anatomical features of the chick embryo, the eye is one of the most studied. In the chick embryo, the eye develops between 26 and 33 h after incubation (Stages 8–9, Hamburger and Hamilton, 1951). It originates from the posterior region of the forebrain, called the diencephalon. However, the vertebrate eye includes tissues from different origins including surface ectoderm (lens and cornea), anterior neural plate (retina, iris, ciliary body and retinal pigmented epithelium) and neural crest/head mesoderm (stroma of the iris and of the ciliary body as well as choroid, sclera and part of the cornea). After gastrulation, a single eye field originates from the anterior neural plate and is characterized by the expression of eye field transcriptional factors (EFTFs) that orchestrate the program for eye development. Later in development, the eye field separates in two and the optic vesicles form. After several inductive interactions with the lens placode, the optic cup forms. At Stages 14–15, the outer layer of the optic cup becomes the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) while the inner layer forms the neuroepithelium that eventually differentiates into the retina. One main advantage of the chick embryo, is the possibility to perform experiments to over-express or to down-regulate gene expression in a place and time specific manner to explore gene function and regulation. The aim of this protocol is to describe the electroporation techniques at Stages 8–12 (anterior neural fold and optic vesicle stages) and Stages 19–26 (eye cup, RPE and neuroepithelium). We provide a full description of the equipment, materials and electrode set up as well as a detailed description of the highly reproducible protocol including some representative results. This protocol has been adapted from our previous publications Luz-Madrigal et al. (2014) and Zhu

  20. Eye-voice-controlled interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glenn, Floyd A., III; Iavecchia, Helene P.; Ross, Lorna V.; Stokes, James M.; Weiland, William J.

    1986-01-01

    The Ocular Attention-Sensing Interface System (OASIS) is an innovative human-computer interface which utilizes eye movement and voice commands to communicate messages between the operator and the system. This report initially describes some technical issues relevant to the development of such an interface. The results of preliminary experiments which evaluate alternative eye processing algorithms and feedback techniques are presented. Candidate interface applications are also discussed.

  1. The Cat's Eye Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This NASA Hubble Space Telescope image shows one of the most complex planetary nebulae ever seen, NGC 6543, nicknamed the 'Cat's Eye Nebula.' Hubble reveals surprisingly intricate structures including concentric gas shells, jets of high-speed gas and unusual shock-induced knots of gas. Estimated to be 1,000 years old, the nebula is a visual 'fossil record' of the dynamics and late evolution of a dying star. A preliminary interpretation suggests that the star might be a double-star system. The suspected companion star also might be responsible for a pair of high-speed jets of gas that lie at right angles to this equatorial ring. If the companion were pulling in material from a neighboring star, jets escaping along the companion's rotation axis could be produced. These jets would explain several puzzling features along the periphery of the gas lobes. Like a stream of water hitting a sand pile, the jets compress gas ahead of them, creating the 'curlicue' features and bright arcs near the outer edge of the lobes. The twin jets are now pointing in different directions than these features. This suggests the jets are wobbling, or precessing, and turning on and off episodically. This color picture, taken with the Wide Field Planetary Camera-2, is a composite of three images taken at different wavelengths. (red, hydrogen-alpha; blue, neutral oxygen, 6300 angstroms; green, ionized nitrogen, 6584 angstroms). The image was taken on September 18, 1994. NGC 6543 is 3,000 light- years away in the northern constellation Draco. The term planetary nebula is a misnomer; dying stars create these cocoons when they lose outer layers of gas. The process has nothing to do with planet formation, which is predicted to happen early in a star's life.

  2. Eye Movements in Risky Choice

    PubMed Central

    Hermens, Frouke; Matthews, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We asked participants to make simple risky choices while we recorded their eye movements. We built a complete statistical model of the eye movements and found very little systematic variation in eye movements over the time course of a choice or across the different choices. The only exceptions were finding more (of the same) eye movements when choice options were similar, and an emerging gaze bias in which people looked more at the gamble they ultimately chose. These findings are inconsistent with prospect theory, the priority heuristic, or decision field theory. However, the eye movements made during a choice have a large relationship with the final choice, and this is mostly independent from the contribution of the actual attribute values in the choice options. That is, eye movements tell us not just about the processing of attribute values but also are independently associated with choice. The pattern is simple—people choose the gamble they look at more often, independently of the actual numbers they see—and this pattern is simpler than predicted by decision field theory, decision by sampling, and the parallel constraint satisfaction model. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:27522985

  3. Simulation of Ametropic Human Eyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Bo; Chen, Ying-Ling; Lewis, James W. L.

    2004-11-01

    The computational simulation of the performance of human eyes is complex because the optical parameters of the eye depend on many factors, including age, gender, race, refractive status (accommodation and near- or far-sightedness). This task is made more difficult by the inadequacy of the population statistical characteristics of these parameters. Previously we simulated ametropic (near- or far-sighted) eyes using three independent variables: the axial length of the eye, the corneal surface curvature, and the intraocular refractive index gradient. The prescription for the correction of an ametropic eye is determined by its second-order coefficients of the wavefront aberrations. These corrections are typically achieved using contact lens, spectacle lens, or laser surgery (LASIK). However, the higher order aberrations, which are not corrected and are likely complicated or enhanced by the lower-order correction, could be important for visual performance in a darkened environment. In this paper, we investigate the higher order wavefront aberrations of synthetic ametropic eyes and compare results with measured data published in the past decade. The behavior of three types of ametropes is discussed.

  4. Eye casualty services in London

    PubMed Central

    Smith, H B; Daniel, C S; Verma, S

    2013-01-01

    The combined pressures of the European Working Time Directive, 4 h waiting time target, and growing rates of unplanned hospital attendances have forced a major consolidation of eye casualty departments across the country, with the remaining units seeing a rapid increase in demand. We examine the effect of these changes on the provision of emergency eye care in Central London, and see what wider lessons can be learned. We surveyed the managers responsible for each of London's 8 out-of-hours eye casualty services, analysed data on attendance numbers, and conducted detailed interviews with lead clinicians. At London's two largest units, Moorfields Eye Hospital and the Western Eye Hospital, annual attendance numbers have been rising at 7.9% per year (to 76 034 patients in 2010/11) and 9.6% per year (to 31 128 patients in 2010/11), respectively. Using Moorfields as a case study, we discuss methods to increase capacity and efficiency in response to this demand, and also examine some of the unintended consequences of service consolidation including patients travelling long distances to geographically inappropriate units, and confusion over responsibility for out-of-hours inpatient cover. We describe a novel ‘referral pathway' developed to minimise unnecessary travelling and delay for patients, and propose a forum for the strategic planning of London's eye casualty services in the future. PMID:23370420

  5. 14 CFR 67.303 - Eye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Eye. 67.303 Section 67.303 Aeronautics and... AND CERTIFICATION Third-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.303 Eye. Eye standards for a third-class airman medical certificate are: (a) Distant visual acuity of 20/40 or better in each eye separately,...

  6. 21 CFR 878.4440 - Eye pad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Eye pad. 878.4440 Section 878.4440 Food and Drugs... GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4440 Eye pad. (a) Identification. An eye pad is... use as a bandage over the eye for protection or absorption of secretions. (b) Classification. Class...

  7. 21 CFR 886.3200 - Artificial eye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Artificial eye. 886.3200 Section 886.3200 Food and... OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3200 Artificial eye. (a) Identification. An artificial eye is a device resembling the anterior portion of the eye, usually made of glass or plastic, intended to...

  8. 21 CFR 886.3200 - Artificial eye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Artificial eye. 886.3200 Section 886.3200 Food and... OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3200 Artificial eye. (a) Identification. An artificial eye is a device resembling the anterior portion of the eye, usually made of glass or plastic, intended to...

  9. 21 CFR 878.4440 - Eye pad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Eye pad. 878.4440 Section 878.4440 Food and Drugs... GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4440 Eye pad. (a) Identification. An eye pad is... use as a bandage over the eye for protection or absorption of secretions. (b) Classification. Class...

  10. Eye Movement Disorders in Dyslexia. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Festinger, Leon; And Others

    Eye movements of 18 male and seven female dyslexic children and 10 normal children were evaluated to determine if eye movement disorders may be the cause of some of the symptoms associated with dyslexia. Data on eye movements were collected while Ss moved their eyes from one fixation point to another in a nonreading situation. Errors in vertical…

  11. Eye Movements, Perceptual Span, and Reading Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayner, Keith

    1983-01-01

    Research is reviewed on eye movements during reading, on the perceptual span and control of eye movements during normal reading, and on the nature of eye movements in dyslexia. Rather than the cause of dyslexia, eye movements are said to reflect underlying cognitive or neurological problems. (CL)

  12. Contact Lens-Related Eye Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Contact Lens-Related Eye Infections Sections Contact Lens-Related ... About Contact Lenses Proper Care of Contact Lenses Contact Lens-Related Eye Infections Written by: Kierstan Boyd ...

  13. A New Method to Assess Eye Dominance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valle-Inclan, Fernando; Blanco, Manuel J.; Soto, David; Leiros, Luz

    2008-01-01

    People usually show a stable preference for one of their eyes when monocular viewing is required ("sighting dominance") or under dichoptic stimulation conditions ("sensory eye-dominance"). Current procedures to assess this "eye dominance" are prone to error. Here we present a new method that provides a continuous measure of eye dominance and…

  14. Eye mechanics and their implications for eye movement control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koene, Ansgar Roald

    2002-11-01

    The topic of this thesis is the investigation of the mechanical properties of the oculomotor system and the implications of these properties for eye movement control. The investigation was conducted by means of computer models and simulations. This allowed us to combine data from anatomy, physiology and psychophysics with basic principles of physics (mechanics) and mathematics (geometry). In chapter 2 we investigate the degree to which mechanical and neural non-linearities contribute to the kinematic differences between centrifugal and centripetal saccades. On the basis of the velocity profiles of centrifugal and centripetal saccades we calculate the forces and muscle innervations during these eye movements. This was done using an inverted model of the eye plant. Our results indicate that the non-linear force-velocity relationship (i.e. muscle viscosity) of the muscles is probably the cause of the kinematic differences between centrifugal and centripetal saccades. In chapter 3 we calculate the adjustment of the saccadic command that is necessary to compensate for the eye plant non-linearities. These calculations show that the agonist and antagonist muscles require different net saccade signal gain changes. In order to better understand how this gain change is accomplished we use the inverted model of the eye plant (chapter 2) to calculate the muscle innervation profiles of saccades with different starting orientations. Based on these calculations we conclude that the saccade signal gain changes are accomplished primarily by changes in the magnitude of the saccade signal. In chapter 4 we examine the requirements that the oculomotor system must meet for the eye to be able to make desired gaze changes and fixate at various eye orientations. We first determine how the axes of action (i.e. unit moment vectors) of the muscles are related to eye orientation and the location of the effective muscle origin (i.e. the muscle pulleys). Next we show how this relation constrains

  15. 78 FR 62344 - Sabine Pass Liquefaction Expansion, LLC, Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC, and Sabine Pass LNG, L.P...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-18

    ... Sabine Pass LNG, L.P., Cheniere Creole Trail Pipeline, L.P.; Notice of Application Take notice that on... Commission an application under section 3(a) of the Natural Gas Act (NGA) for authorization to site...) filed, in the same application, a request under section 7(c) of the NGA, for authorization to...

  16. 78 FR 75337 - Eos LNG LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas Produced...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ... LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas Produced From Domestic Natural Gas Resources to Non-Free Trade Agreement Countries for a 25-Year Period AGENCY: Office of Fossil... natural gas, or 1.6 Bcf per day (Bcf/d). Eos seeks authorization to export the LNG for a 25-year term...

  17. 78 FR 47691 - UGI, Inc.; Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Temple LNG...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-06

    ... Proposed Temple LNG Liquefaction Upgrade and Request for Comments on Environmental Issues The staff of the... EA on the important environmental issues. By this notice, the Commission requests public comments on... jurisdiction by law and/or special expertise with respect to the environmental issues of this project...

  18. 77 FR 277 - Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC and Sabine Pass LNG, L.P; Notice of Availability of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC and Sabine Pass LNG, L.P; Notice of Availability of the Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Sabine Pass Liquefaction Project The staff of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission...

  19. 75 FR 13755 - Freeport LNG Development, L.P.; Application To Amend Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-23

    ... directive.'' \\7\\ See 49 FR 6684, February 22, 1984. Freeport LNG states that in DOE/FE Order No. 2644, which... Fossil Energy, Forrestal Building, Room 3E-042, 1000 Independence Avenue, SW., Washington, DC 20585. FOR... Oil and Gas Global Security and Supply, Office of Fossil Energy, Forrestal Building, Room 3E-042,...

  20. 78 FR 1851 - Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC and Sabine Pass LNG, L.P.; Notice of Intent To Prepare an...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ... facility; condensate storage, metering and send-out facilities; four gas pipeline meter stations... HRU, condensate storage, and metering facilities would be located within the existing Sabine Pass LNG... wetlands; Cultural resources; Vegetation and wildlife; Air quality and noise; Endangered and...

  1. 40 CFR Table W - 6 of Subpart W-Default Methane Emission Factors for LNG Import and Export Equipment

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Definitions. Pt. 98, Subpt. W, Table W-6 Table W-6 of Subpart W—Default Methane... Connector 0.34 Other 1 1.77 Population Emission Factors—LNG Terminals Compressor, Gas Service Vapor...

  2. 78 FR 25432 - Sabine Pass LNG, L.P., Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC; Notice of Availability of the Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Sabine Pass LNG, L.P., Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC; Notice of Availability of the Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Sabine Pass Liquefaction Project Modification The... assessment (EA) for the Sabine Pass Liquefaction Project Modification (Modification Project), proposed...

  3. 18 CFR 157.21 - Pre-filing procedures and review process for LNG terminal facilities and other natural gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and review process for LNG terminal facilities and other natural gas facilities prior to filing of... COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT APPLICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES OF PUBLIC CONVENIENCE AND NECESSITY AND FOR ORDERS PERMITTING AND APPROVING ABANDONMENT UNDER SECTION 7 OF THE...

  4. 18 CFR 157.21 - Pre-filing procedures and review process for LNG terminal facilities and other natural gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 33 CFR 127.007, and a Preliminary Waterway Suitability Assessment (WSA) with the U.S. Coast Guard... and review process for LNG terminal facilities and other natural gas facilities prior to filing of... COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT APPLICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES OF...

  5. 18 CFR 157.21 - Pre-filing procedures and review process for LNG terminal facilities and other natural gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 33 CFR 127.007, and a Preliminary Waterway Suitability Assessment (WSA) with the U.S. Coast Guard... and review process for LNG terminal facilities and other natural gas facilities prior to filing of... COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT APPLICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES OF...

  6. 18 CFR 157.21 - Pre-filing procedures and review process for LNG terminal facilities and other natural gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and review process for LNG terminal facilities and other natural gas facilities prior to filing of... COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT APPLICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES OF PUBLIC CONVENIENCE AND NECESSITY AND FOR ORDERS PERMITTING AND APPROVING ABANDONMENT UNDER SECTION 7 OF THE...

  7. 18 CFR 157.21 - Pre-filing procedures and review process for LNG terminal facilities and other natural gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 33 CFR 127.007, and a Preliminary Waterway Suitability Assessment (WSA) with the U.S. Coast Guard... and review process for LNG terminal facilities and other natural gas facilities prior to filing of... COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT APPLICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES OF...

  8. 78 FR 38024 - Magnolia LNG, LLC; Liquefied Natural Gas Limited; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Magnolia LNG, LLC; Liquefied Natural Gas Limited; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Planned Magnolia Liquefied Natural Gas Project, Request for Comments on Environmental Issues,...

  9. Optimized simulation of vortex jet mill in waste rubber grinding technology by LNG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yuemei

    2015-07-01

    Frozen rubber powder has excellent qualities and application value, and it can be achieved from waste rubber after being crushed at low temperature used liquefied natural gas (LNG) as cryogen. Vortex jet mill was the key equipment to further crush the rubber particles which the pressure-air was jet into in the basic LNG technological process. After confirming the structure and size of the jet nozzle, the Height (H) between the nozzle and the bottom of the mill, the incident angle α and the initial size of the rubber particles were changed then the continuous phase and the track of single particle were optimized in order to gain more excellent crushing effect. The results showed: the jetting gas were spiral rising in the mill and the speed of it was reduced, so the particle was graded by the gas. The impact and collision could reduce the particle diameter and crush them but the result was influenced by the initial size of the particle. The size of the original rubber particles must not be more than 110μm. The simulation was helpful and leading for the experiment.

  10. Leak response gelling of liquefied natural gas (LNG). Final report Jan-Oct 81

    SciTech Connect

    Tarpley, W.B. Jr; Twesme, E.N.; Zatko, J.R.

    1981-03-01

    Techniques for thixotropic gelling of liquefied natural gas (LNG) in response to leak or rupture in an LNG container were examined, and the hazard-reducing potential of the technique was demonstrated by limiting mobility and reducing evaporation and burning rate. Of 30 candidate gelants for liquefied methane evaluated, gels of highest yield stress and lowest evaporation rate were obtained with carbon blacks and pyrogenic silica, and means were investigated for reducing the volume requirements of these low bulk-density materials; these included the addition of a surfactant, gelant concentration in a liquid carrier at least partially soluble in methane, and pelletization. All of these techniques showed promise, and pelletization of the low-density gelants reduced required gelant volume to 11 percent of the undensified volume. High-shear mixing of the densified gelants as well as of high-density gelants such as bentonite clay into a methane homolog at room temperature improved the speed of gelation. Other dispersion techniques were investigated. It is recommended that future research optimize gelling and dispersion techniques for industry use and develop hardware designs for long-term gelant storage and rapid introduction in the event of spillage.

  11. Calibration of an eye oximeter with a dynamic eye phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabili, A.; Bardakci, D.; Helling, K.; Matyas, C.; Muro, S.; Ramella-Roman, J. C.

    2008-02-01

    Measurements of oxygen saturation and flow in the retina can yield information about the eye health and the onset of eye pathologies such as Diabetic Retinopathy. Recently we have realized an instrument capable of measuring oxygenation in the retina using six different wavelengths and capable of measuring blood flow using speckle-based techniques. The calibration of such instrument is particularly difficult due to the layered structure of the eye and the lack of alternative measurement techniques. For this purpose we have realized an in vitro model of the human eye. The artificial eye is composed of four layers: the retina vessels, the choroids, the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE), and the sclera. The retina vessels are modeled with 150 μm tube connected to a micro-pump delivering 34 μl/min. The micro-tube, the pump, and a blood reservoir were connected in a closed circulatory system; blood oxygenation in the vessel could be modified using an external oxygen reservoir. The optical properties of all other layers were mimicked using titanium dioxide as a scatterer and ink as an absorber. The absorption coefficient μa and the scattering coefficient µs of these layers were independently measured using an integrating sphere. Absorption and scattering coefficient of all layers were modified before experimental measurements and a Monte Carlo program was finally used to model the experimental results.

  12. The perception of heading during eye movements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Royden, Constance S.; Banks, Martin S.; Crowell, James A.

    1992-01-01

    Warren and Hannon (1988, 1990), while studying the perception of heading during eye movements, concluded that people do not require extraretinal information to judge heading with eye/head movements present. Here, heading judgments are examined at higher, more typical eye movement velocities than the extremely slow tracking eye movements used by Warren and Hannon. It is found that people require extraretinal information about eye position to perceive heading accurately under many viewing conditions.

  13. Drugs affecting the eye.

    PubMed

    Taylor, F

    1985-08-01

    This discussion reviews drugs that affect the eye, including antihyperglycemic agents; corticosteroids; antirheumatic drugs (quinolines, indomethacin, and allopurinol); psychiatric drugs (phenothiazine, thioridazine, and chlorpromazine); drugs used in cardiology (practolol, amiodarone, and digitalis gylcosides); drugs implicated in optic neuritis and atrophy, drugs with an anticholinergic action; oral contraceptives (OCs); and topical drugs and systemic effects. Refractive changes, either myopic or hypermetropic, can occur as a result of hyperglycemia, and variation in vision is sometimes a presenting symptom in diabetes mellitus. If it causes a change in the refraction, treatment of hyperglycemia almost always produces a temporary hypermetropia. A return to the original refractive state often takes weeks, sometimes months. There is some evidence that patients adequately treated with insulin improve more rapidly than those taking oral medication. Such patients always should be referred for opthalmological evaluation as other factors might be responsible, but it might not be possible to order the appropriate spectacle correction for some time. The most important ocular side effect of the systemic adiministration of corticosteroids is the formation of a posterior subcapsular cataract. Glaucoma also can result from corticosteroids, most often when they are applied topically. Corticosteroids have been implicated in the production of benign intracranial hypertension, which is paradoxical because they also are used in its treatment. The most important side effect of drugs such as chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine is an almost always irreversible maculopathy with resultant loss of central vision. Corneal and retinal changes similar to those caused by the quinolines have been reported with indomethacin, but there is some question about a cause and effect relationship. The National Registry of Drug Induced Ocular Side Effects in the US published 30 case histories of

  14. Eye movements reset visual perception

    PubMed Central

    Paradiso, Michael A.; Meshi, Dar; Pisarcik, Jordan; Levine, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Human vision uses saccadic eye movements to rapidly shift the sensitive foveal portion of our retina to objects of interest. For vision to function properly amidst these ballistic eye movements, a mechanism is needed to extract discrete percepts on each fixation from the continuous stream of neural activity that spans fixations. The speed of visual parsing is crucial because human behaviors ranging from reading to driving to sports rely on rapid visual analysis. We find that a brain signal associated with moving the eyes appears to play a role in resetting visual analysis on each fixation, a process that may aid in parsing the neural signal. We quantified the degree to which the perception of tilt is influenced by the tilt of a stimulus on a preceding fixation. Two key conditions were compared, one in which a saccade moved the eyes from one stimulus to the next and a second simulated saccade condition in which the stimuli moved in the same manner but the subjects did not move their eyes. We find that there is a brief period of time at the start of each fixation during which the tilt of the previous stimulus influences perception (in a direction opposite to the tilt aftereffect)—perception is not instantaneously reset when a fixation starts. Importantly, the results show that this perceptual bias is much greater, with nearly identical visual input, when saccades are simulated. This finding suggests that, in real-saccade conditions, some signal related to the eye movement may be involved in the reset phenomenon. While proprioceptive information from the extraocular muscles is conceivably a factor, the fast speed of the effect we observe suggests that a more likely mechanism is a corollary discharge signal associated with eye movement. PMID:23241264

  15. Eye movements reset visual perception.

    PubMed

    Paradiso, Michael A; Meshi, Dar; Pisarcik, Jordan; Levine, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Human vision uses saccadic eye movements to rapidly shift the sensitive foveal portion of our retina to objects of interest. For vision to function properly amidst these ballistic eye movements, a mechanism is needed to extract discrete percepts on each fixation from the continuous stream of neural activity that spans fixations. The speed of visual parsing is crucial because human behaviors ranging from reading to driving to sports rely on rapid visual analysis. We find that a brain signal associated with moving the eyes appears to play a role in resetting visual analysis on each fixation, a process that may aid in parsing the neural signal. We quantified the degree to which the perception of tilt is influenced by the tilt of a stimulus on a preceding fixation. Two key conditions were compared, one in which a saccade moved the eyes from one stimulus to the next and a second simulated saccade condition in which the stimuli moved in the same manner but the subjects did not move their eyes. We find that there is a brief period of time at the start of each fixation during which the tilt of the previous stimulus influences perception (in a direction opposite to the tilt aftereffect)--perception is not instantaneously reset when a fixation starts. Importantly, the results show that this perceptual bias is much greater, with nearly identical visual input, when saccades are simulated. This finding suggests that, in real-saccade conditions, some signal related to the eye movement may be involved in the reset phenomenon. While proprioceptive information from the extraocular muscles is conceivably a factor, the fast speed of the effect we observe suggests that a more likely mechanism is a corollary discharge signal associated with eye movement. PMID:23241264

  16. Human eye anisoplanatism: eye as a lamellar structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubinin, Alexander; Cherezova, Tatyana; Belyakov, Alexey; Kudryashov, Alexis

    2006-02-01

    In this paper we consider anisoplanatism effect as a fundamental limitation on the size of high resolution area (isoplanatic patch) of retinal images obtained using fundus cameras equipped with adaptive optics. Isoplanatic patch size was estimated using experimental results for on-axis and off-axis eye aberrations measured by Shack-Hartmann technique. Isoplanatic patch size varied among examined subjects in the range from 1.5 ° to 2.5 ° which is in good agreement with results obtained using ray-tracing technique1. We estimated isoplanatic patch size for Gullstrand eye model and found it to be close to the values obtained from experimental results for subjects with good vision. We also discuss the possibilities of Gullstrand eye model modifications for modeling anisoplanatism effect for each particular subject. We also estimated the efficiency of multibeacon correction method and found out that this method allows us to almost twice increase the area with high resolution.

  17. Dorsal eye selector pannier (pnr) suppresses the eye fate to define dorsal margin of the Drosophila eye

    PubMed Central

    Oros, Sarah M.; Tare, Meghana; Kango-Singh, Madhuri; Singh, Amit

    2010-01-01

    Axial patterning is crucial for organogenesis. During Drosophila eye development, dorso-ventral (DV) axis determination is the first lineage restriction event. The eye primordium begins with a default ventral fate, on which the dorsal eye fate is established by expression of the GATA-1 transcription factor pannier (pnr). Earlier, it was suggested that loss of pnr function induces enlargement in the dorsal eye due to ectopic equator formation. Interestingly, we found that in addition to regulating DV patterning, pnr suppresses the eye fate by downregulating the core retinal determination genes eyes absent (eya), sine oculis (so) and dacshund (dac) to define the dorsal eye margin. We found that pnr acts downstream of Ey and affect the retinal determination pathway by suppressing eya. Further analysis of the “eye suppression” function of pnr revealed that this function is likely mediated through suppression of the homeotic gene teashirt (tsh) and is independent of homothorax (hth), a negative regulator of eye. Pnr expression is restricted to the peripodial membrane on the dorsal eye margin, which gives rise to head structures around the eye, and pnr is not expressed in the eye disc proper that forms the retina. Thus, pnr has dual function, during early developmental stages pnr is involved in axial patterning whereas later it promotes the head specific fate. These studies will help in understanding the developmental regulation of boundary formation of the eye field on the dorsal eye margin. PMID:20691679

  18. Infrared eye: an operational prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevrette, Paul C.; Fortin, Jean; St-Germain, Daniel; Delisle, Jean

    1998-09-01

    A new concept of surveillance system called Wide Area Coverage Infrared Surveillance System (WACISS), based on the human vision, was developed and a first laboratory prototype was demonstrated recently. A second prototype, more operational, is named the Infrared Eye is being built and will be tested in cooperation with the NRCC Flight Research Laboratory. The Infrared Eye will use the new pixel-less quantum well infrared photodetector sensors, coupled to light emitting diodes (QWIP/LED), currently being developed at NRCC Institute for Microstructural Science under DREV sponsorship. The multiple advantages of the pixel-less QWIP/LED over conventional sensors will considerably simplify the design of the system. As the WACISS, the IR Eye will integrate two cameras: the first, with a wide field-of- view, will be used for detection while the second camera, with a narrower field with higher resolution for identification, will be mobile within the WFOV and slaved to the operator's line-of-sight by means of an eye-tracking system. The images from both cameras will be fused and shown simultaneously on a standard high resolution CRT display unit, interfaced with the eye-tracking unit. The basic concepts pertaining to the project and the design constraints of this second prototype are presented.

  19. Best practice eye care models

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Babar M; Mansur, Rabiu; Al-Rajhi, Abdulaziz; Lansingh, Van; Eckert, Kristen; Hassan, Kunle; Ravilla, Thulasiraj; Muhit, Mohammad; Khanna, Rohit C; Ismat, Chaudhry

    2012-01-01

    Since the launching of Global Initiative, VISION 2020 “the Right to Sight” many innovative, practical and unique comprehensive eye care services provision models have evolved targeting the underserved populations in different parts of the World. At places the rapid assessment of the burden of eye diseases in confined areas or utilizing the key informants for identification of eye diseases in the communities are promoted for better planning and evidence based advocacy for getting / allocation of resources for eye care. Similarly for detection and management of diabetes related blindness, retinopathy of prematurity and avoidable blindness at primary level, the major obstacles are confronted in reaching to them in a cost effective manner and then management of the identified patients accordingly. In this regard, the concept of tele-ophthalmology model sounds to be the best solution. Whereas other models on comprehensive eye care services provision have been emphasizing on surgical output through innovative scales of economy that generate income for the program and ensure its sustainability, while guaranteeing treatment of the poorest of the poor. PMID:22944741

  20. How flies clean their eyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amador, Guillermo; Durand, Fabien; Mao, Wenbin; Alexeev, Alexander; Hu, David

    2013-11-01

    Flying insects face a barrage of foreign particles such as dust and pollen, which threaten to coat the insect's eyes and antennae, limiting their sensing abilities. In this study, we elucidate novel aerodynamic and elastic mechanisms by which insects keep these organs clean. The compound eye of many species of insects is covered by an array of short bristles, or setae, evenly spaced between each photoreceptor unit. Among these insect species, setae length is triple their spacing. We conduct numerical simulations and wind tunnel experiments using an insect eye mimic to show this critical setae length reduces shear rate at the eye surface by 80%. Thus, the setae create a stagnant zone in front of the eye, which diverts airflow to reduce deposition of particles. Setae can also act as springboards to catapult accumulated particles. In high speed videography of insects using their legs to clean themselves, we observe deflected setae hurling micron scale particles at accelerations over 100 times earth's gravity. The dual abilities of setae to divert airflow and catapult particles may motivate bio-inspired designs for dust-controlling lenses, sensors, and solar panels.

  1. Indications for eye removal surgeries

    PubMed Central

    Koylu, Mehmet T.; Gokce, Gokcen; Uysal, Yusuf; Ceylan, Osman M.; Akıncıoglu, Dorukcan; Gunal, Armagan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To analyze the indications and types of eye removals at a military tertiary care hospital in Turkey. Methods: The medical records (age, gender, affected eye, type of surgical procedure, indications of surgery) of 123 patients who underwent evisceration and enucleation in the course of a 15-year period (January 2000 to December 2014) at Gulhane Military Medical Academy, Ankara, Turkey were reviewed retrospectively. Results: The mean age was 35.61±18.52 (range 3-80 years). The number of male in the patient group was 92 (74.8%) and female was 31 (25.2%). Patients who underwent evisceration were 95 (77.2%), whereas 28 (22.8%) of them underwent enucleation. The mean age of the eviscerated patients was 30.63±13.08, whereas the mean age of the enucleated patients was 52.50±23.92 (p<0.001). The leading indications for eye amputations were trauma (n=62, 50.4%), malignancy (n=20, 16.3%), painful blind eye and absolute glaucoma (n=20, 16.3%), endophthalmitis (n=12, 9.7%), and phthisis bulbi, and cosmetic reasons (n=9, 7.3%). Conclusion: Trauma was the most common etiology for evisceration, and malignancy was the most common etiology for enucleation. Using protective eyewear and early detection of intraocular malignancy and glaucoma through routine ophthalmic examinations are essential for providing non-invasive treatment modalities instead of eye removal. PMID:26446332

  2. Eye-Eye with Dr. Rachel Bishop | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Glaucoma Eye-to-Eye with Dr. Rachel Bishop Past Issues / Spring 2015 ... new patient comes in because they scratched their eye while working in the yard, or they think ...

  3. Videos from the National Eye Institute: Eye Diseases | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Vision Videos from the National Eye Institute: Eye Diseases Past ... the early detection of eye disease. Share these videos with friends, family and colleagues. www.nei.nih. ...

  4. Landfill Gas Conversion to LNG and LCO{sub 2}. Phase II Final Report for January 25, 1999 - April 30, 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, W. R.; Cook, W. J.; Siwajek, L. A.

    2000-10-20

    This report summarizes work on the development of a process to produce LNG (liquefied methane) for heavy vehicle use from landfill gas (LFG) using Acrion's CO{sub 2} wash process for contaminant removal and CO{sub 2} recovery.

  5. Tracking with the mind's eye

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krauzlis, R. J.; Stone, L. S.

    1999-01-01

    The two components of voluntary tracking eye-movements in primates, pursuit and saccades, are generally viewed as relatively independent oculomotor subsystems that move the eyes in different ways using independent visual information. Although saccades have long been known to be guided by visual processes related to perception and cognition, only recently have psychophysical and physiological studies provided compelling evidence that pursuit is also guided by such higher-order visual processes, rather than by the raw retinal stimulus. Pursuit and saccades also do not appear to be entirely independent anatomical systems, but involve overlapping neural mechanisms that might be important for coordinating these two types of eye movement during the tracking of a selected visual object. Given that the recovery of objects from real-world images is inherently ambiguous, guiding both pursuit and saccades with perception could represent an explicit strategy for ensuring that these two motor actions are driven by a single visual interpretation.

  6. Yarbus, eye movements, and vision

    PubMed Central

    Tatler, Benjamin W; Wade, Nicholas J; Kwan, Hoi; Findlay, John M; Velichkovsky, Boris M

    2010-01-01

    The impact of Yarbus's research on eye movements was enormous following the translation of his book Eye Movements and Vision into English in 1967. In stark contrast, the published material in English concerning his life is scant. We provide a brief biography of Yarbus and assess his impact on contemporary approaches to research on eye movements. While early interest in his work focused on his study of stabilised retinal images, more recently this has been replaced with interest in his work on the cognitive influences on scanning patterns. We extended his experiment on the effect of instructions on viewing a picture using a portrait of Yarbus rather than a painting. The results obtained broadly supported those found by Yarbus. PMID:23396904

  7. Making eye contact without awareness.

    PubMed

    Rothkirch, Marcus; Madipakkam, Apoorva Rajiv; Rehn, Erik; Sterzer, Philipp

    2015-10-01

    Direct gaze is a potent non-verbal signal that establishes a communicative connection between two individuals, setting the course for further interactions. Although consciously perceived faces with direct gaze have been shown to capture attention, it is unknown whether an attentional preference for these socially meaningful stimuli exists even in the absence of awareness. In two experiments, we recorded participants' eye movements while they were exposed to faces with direct and averted gaze rendered invisible by interocular suppression. Participants' inability to correctly guess the occurrence of the faces in a manual forced-choice task demonstrated complete unawareness of the faces. However, eye movements were preferentially directed towards faces with direct compared to averted gaze, indicating a specific sensitivity to others' gaze directions even without awareness. This oculomotor preference suggests that a rapid and automatic establishment of mutual eye contact constitutes a biological advantage, which could be mediated by fast subcortical pathways in the human brain. PMID:26133642

  8. Aspectual coercion in eye movements.

    PubMed

    Townsend, David J

    2013-06-01

    Comprehension includes interpreting sentences in terms of aspectual categories such as processes (Harry climbed) and culminations (Harry reached the top). Adding a verbal modifier such as for many years to a culmination coerces its interpretation from one to many culminations. Previous studies have found that coercion increases lexical decision and meaning judgment time, but not eye fixation time. This study recorded eye movements as participants read sentences in which a coercive adverb increased the interpretation of multiple events. Adverbs appeared at the end of a clause and line; the post-adverb region appeared at the beginning of the next line; follow-up questions occasionally asked about aspectual meaning; and clause type varied systematically. Coercive adverbs increased eye fixation time in the post-adverb region and in the adverb and post-adverb regions combined. Factors that influence the appearance of aspectual coercion may include world knowledge, follow-up questions, and the location and ambiguity of adverbs. PMID:22492206

  9. Moving Ahead With Eye Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory's collaborated with LC Technologies, Inc., to improve LCT's Eyegaze Communication System, an eye tracker that enables people with severe cerebral palsy, muscular dystrophy, multiple sclerosis, strokes, brain injuries, spinal cord injuries, and ALS (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) to communicate and control their environment using their eye movements. To operate the system, the user sits in front of the computer monitor while the camera focuses on one eye. By looking at control keys on the monitor for a fraction of a second, the user can 'talk' with speech synthesis, type, operate a telephone, access the Internet and e-mail, and run computer software. Nothing is attached to the user's head or body, and the improved size and portability allow the system to be mounted on a wheelchair. LCT and JPL are working on several other areas of improvement that have commercial add-on potential.

  10. Saccadic eye movement during spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uri, John J.; Linder, Barry J.; Moore, Thomas P.; Pool, Sam L.; Thornton, William E.

    1989-01-01

    Saccadic eye movements were studied in six subjects during two Space Shuttle missions. Reaction time, peak velocity and accuracy of horizontal, visually-guided saccades were examined preflight, inflight and postflight. Conventional electro-oculography was used to record eye position, with the subjects responding to pseudo-randomly illuminated targets at 0 deg and + or - 10 deg and 20 deg visual angles. In all subjects, preflight measurements were within normal limits. Reaction time was significantly increased inflight, while peak velocity was significantly decreased. A tendency toward a greater proportion of hypometric saccades inflight was also noted. Possible explanations for these changes and possible correlations with space motion sickness are discussed.

  11. Distinct Biochemical Activities of Eyes absent During Drosophila Eye Development

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Meng; Mardon, Graeme

    2016-01-01

    Eyes absent (Eya) is a highly conserved transcriptional coactivator and protein phosphatase that plays vital roles in multiple developmental processes from Drosophila to humans. Eya proteins contain a PST (Proline-Serine-Threonine)-rich transactivation domain, a threonine phosphatase motif (TPM), and a tyrosine protein phosphatase domain. Using a genomic rescue system, we find that the PST domain is essential for Eya activity and Dac expression, and the TPM is required for full Eya function. We also find that the threonine phosphatase activity plays only a minor role during Drosophila eye development and the primary function of the PST and TPM domains is transactivation that can be largely substituted by the heterologous activation domain VP16. Along with our previous results that the tyrosine phosphatase activity of Eya is dispensable for normal Eya function in eye formation, we demonstrate that a primary function of Eya during Drosophila eye development is as a transcriptional coactivator. Moreover, the PST/TPM and the threonine phosphatase activity are not required for in vitro interaction between retinal determination factors. Finally, this work is the first report of an Eya-Ey physical interaction. These findings are particularly important because they highlight the need for an in vivo approach that accurately dissects protein function. PMID:26980695

  12. Distinct Biochemical Activities of Eyes absent During Drosophila Eye Development.

    PubMed

    Jin, Meng; Mardon, Graeme

    2016-01-01

    Eyes absent (Eya) is a highly conserved transcriptional coactivator and protein phosphatase that plays vital roles in multiple developmental processes from Drosophila to humans. Eya proteins contain a PST (Proline-Serine-Threonine)-rich transactivation domain, a threonine phosphatase motif (TPM), and a tyrosine protein phosphatase domain. Using a genomic rescue system, we find that the PST domain is essential for Eya activity and Dac expression, and the TPM is required for full Eya function. We also find that the threonine phosphatase activity plays only a minor role during Drosophila eye development and the primary function of the PST and TPM domains is transactivation that can be largely substituted by the heterologous activation domain VP16. Along with our previous results that the tyrosine phosphatase activity of Eya is dispensable for normal Eya function in eye formation, we demonstrate that a primary function of Eya during Drosophila eye development is as a transcriptional coactivator. Moreover, the PST/TPM and the threonine phosphatase activity are not required for in vitro interaction between retinal determination factors. Finally, this work is the first report of an Eya-Ey physical interaction. These findings are particularly important because they highlight the need for an in vivo approach that accurately dissects protein function. PMID:26980695

  13. Eye-movements and ongoing task processing.

    PubMed

    Burke, David T; Meleger, Alec; Schneider, Jeffrey C; Snyder, Jim; Dorvlo, Atsu S S; Al-Adawi, Samir

    2003-06-01

    This study tests the relation between eye-movements and thought processing. Subjects were given specific modality tasks (visual, gustatory, kinesthetic) and assessed on whether they responded with distinct eye-movements. Some subjects' eye-movements reflected ongoing thought processing. Instead of a universal pattern, as suggested by the neurolinguistic programming hypothesis, this study yielded subject-specific idiosyncratic eye-movements across all modalities. Included is a discussion of the neurolinguistic programming hypothesis regarding eye-movements and its implications for the eye-movement desensitization and reprocessing theory. PMID:12929791

  14. The use of long acting subcutaneous levonorgestrel (LNG) gel depot as an effective contraceptive option for cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus).

    PubMed

    Wheaton, C J; Savage, A; Shukla, A; Neiffer, D; Qu, W; Sun, Y; Lasley, B L

    2011-01-01

    Cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) are a critically endangered species that have been bred successfully in captivity for many years. For two decades, the Cotton-top Tamarin SSP(©) has been challenged with a high rate of reproduction combined with a history of contraceptive failures and nonrecommended births using the current Depo Provera(®) (medroxyprogesterone acetate) injection followed by MGA (melengestrol acetate) implant contraception combination. To address these issues we have developed and tested the use of levonorgestrel (LNG) as an effective contraception option for cotton-top tamarins. LNG was delivered in an injectable, gel matrix consisting of polylactic-co-glycolic acid, triethyl citrate and N-methylpyrrolidone. This gel matrix forms a biodegradable depot at the subcutaneous injection site providing slow release of the active ingredient. Gel matrix composition and LNG concentration were adjusted in four gel formulations to maximize the duration of contraceptive efficacy while minimizing immediate post-injection increases in fecal LNG concentration. LNG treatment (68.44 ± 8.61 mg/kg) successfully eliminated ovarian cycles (fecal pregnanediol-3-glucuronide (PdG) and estrone conjugates (E(1) C)) for 198.8 ± 70.3 days (formulation four; range 19-50 weeks). It was demonstrated that subcutaneous LNG depot injection was an effective, reversible contraceptive option for the management of cotton-top tamarins in captivity. PMID:20938969

  15. Bologna with Student Eyes, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikkola, Anne, Ed.; Carapinha, Bruno, Ed.; Tuck, Colin, Ed.; MacSithigh, Daithi, Ed.; Aberg, Nina Gustaffson, Ed.; Brus, Sanja, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "Bologna with Student Eyes" is a survey published by the National Unions of Students in Europe, based on questionnaires sent to national unions across the continent. The survey gives a broad overview of student union perspectives as to national implementations of Bologna Process Action Lines in the period 2005-2007. It addresses the topics of:…

  16. Eye Bank Association of America

    MedlinePlus

    ... donation decision with family & friends via text, email, Facebook, or Twitter! Apple® and Donate Life America have ... DonateLife #GiftofSight ... See More See Less View on Facebook · Share Eye Bank Association of America 2 weeks ...

  17. Nutrients for the aging eye

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The incidence of age-related eye diseases is expected to rise with the aging of the population. Oxidation and inflammation are implicated in the etiology of these diseases. There is evidence that dietary antioxidants and anti-inflammatories may provide benefit in decreasing the risk of age-related e...

  18. Eye Movements during Chinese Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liversedge, Simon P; Hyona, Jukka; Rayner, Keith

    2013-01-01

    respects, and for this reason, interest in the nature of the cognitive processes underlying Chinese reading has flourished over recent years. A number of researchers have used eye movement methodology as a measure of on-line processing to understand more about…

  19. Visual Acuity and the Eye.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beynon, J.

    1985-01-01

    Shows that visual acuity is a function of the structure of the eye and that its limit is set by the structure of the retina, emphasizing the role of lens aberrations and difraction on image quality. Also compares human vision with that of other vertebrates and insects. (JN)

  20. Soccer-Related Eye Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orlando, Richard G.

    1988-01-01

    A review of medical charts of 13 youths (age 8-15) with soccer-related eye injuries identified as causes: a head butt, kicks, the ball. Risks can be lessened by use of polycarbonate eyeguards, properly inflated balls, adequate conditioning and practice before scrimmages, a moderate and balanced practice/playing schedule and good sportsmanship.…

  1. Arthropods affecting the human eye.

    PubMed

    Panadero-Fontán, Rosario; Otranto, Domenico

    2015-02-28

    Ocular infestations by arthropods consist in the parasitization of the human eye, either directly (e.g., some insect larvae causing ophthalmomyiasis) or via arthropods feeding on lachrymal/conjunctival secretions (e.g., some eye-seeking insects, which also act as vectors of eye pathogens). In addition, demodicosis and phthiriasis may also cause eye discomfort in humans. Ophthalmomyiasis by larvae of the families Oestridae, Calliphoridae and Sarcophagidae, are frequent causative agents of human ocular infestations. Over the last decades, the extensive use of macrocyclic lactones in cattle has reduced the frequency of infestations by Hypoderma bovis and Hypoderma lineatum (family Oestridae), and consequently, human infestations by these species. A prompt diagnosis of ocular myiasis (e.g., by serological tests) is pivotal for positive prognoses, particularly when the larvae are not detectable during the ophthalmologic examination. Molecular diagnoses may also assist physicians and parasitologists in achieving time-efficient diagnoses of infestations by Oestridae causing myiasis. Finally, due to widespread international travel to exotic destinations, cases of myiasis are increasing in non-endemic areas, therefore requiring physicians to acquire a profound knowledge of the clinical symptoms linked to these infestations to prevent costly, inappropriate treatments or severe complications. PMID:25620292

  2. Improving eye care in Rwanda

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Kirstin; Rosewall, Thomas; Mackenzie, Graeme; Rehnborg, Gweneth; Hannema, Sjoerd; Presente, Max; Noe, Piet; Mathenge, Wanjiku; Nkurikiye, John; Habiyaremye, Francois; Dushime, Theophile

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Problem Visual impairment affects nearly 285 million people worldwide. Although there has been much progress in combating the burden of visual impairment through initiatives such as VISION 2020, barriers to progress, especially in African countries, remain high. Approach The Rwandan Ministry of Health has formed partnerships with several nongovernmental organizations and has worked to integrate their efforts to prevent and treat visual impairment, including presbyopia. Local setting Rwanda, an eastern African country of approximately 11 million people. Relevant changes The Rwandan Ministry of Health developed a single national plan that allows key partners in vision care to coordinate more effectively in measuring eye disease, developing eye care infrastructure, building capacity, controlling disease, and delivering and evaluating services. Lessons learnt Collaboration between stakeholders under a single national plan has ensured that resources and efforts are complementary, optimizing the ability to provide eye care. Improved access to primary eye care and insurance coverage has increased demand for services at secondary and tertiary levels. A comprehensive strategy that includes prevention as well as a supply chain for glasses and lenses is needed. PMID:26240465

  3. Experimental study on flow boiling heat transfer of LNG in a vertical smooth tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dongsheng; Shi, Yumei

    2013-10-01

    An experimental apparatus is set up in this work to study the upward flow boiling heat transfer characteristics of LNG (liquefied natural gas) in vertical smooth tubes with inner diameters of 8 mm and 14 mm. The experiments were performed at various inlet pressures from 0.3 to 0.7 MPa. The results were obtained over the mass flux range from 16 to 200 kg m-2 s-1 and heat fluxes ranging from 8.0 to 32 kW m-2. The influences of quality, heat flux and mass flux, tube diameter on the heat transfer characteristic are examined and discussed. The comparisons of the experimental heat transfer coefficients with the predicted values from the existing correlations are analyzed. The correlation by Zou et al. [16] shows the best accuracy with the RMS deviation of 31.7% in comparison with the experimental data.

  4. LNG combined cycle power plant for stable power supply for Kiheung semiconductor plant

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Choong Koo; Park, Hyo Jeong; Kim, In Chool

    1995-12-31

    Reserve margins of Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO) was 12% in 1993, however it was reduced to less than 3% in the summer of 1994 due to increase of electric power consumption caused by life style change based on economic growth. Therefore stable supply of electric power to industrial plant was threatened during last summer`s peak. The process of semiconductor manufacturing is very precious and full processing time reaches several months. Furthermore interruption of power supply to the process causes abortion of every product in the process. Therefore, power failure of less than one (1) second, may result in enormous loss of capital. In order to protect disaster caused by power shortage during summer peaks. Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd (SEC) planned to construct LNG combined cycle power plant for the Klheung semiconductor plant which is the world`s leading maker of dynamic random access memory (DRAM) chips.

  5. Development of LM10-MIRA LOX/LNG expander cycle demonstrator engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudnykh, Mikhail; Carapellese, Stefano; Liuzzi, Daniele; Arione, Luigi; Caggiano, Giuseppe; Bellomi, Paolo; D'Aversa, Emanuela; Pellegrini, Rocco; Lobov, S. D.; Gurtovoy, A. A.; Rachuk, V. S.

    2016-09-01

    This article contains results of joint works by Konstruktorskoe Buro Khimavtomatiki (KBKhA, Russia) and AVIO Company (Italy) on creation of the LM10-MIRA liquid-propellant rocket demonstrator engine for the third stage of the upgraded "Vega" launcher.Scientific and research activities conducted by KBKhA and AVIO in 2007-2014 in the frame of the LYRA Program, funded by the Italian Space Agency, with ELV as Prime contractor, and under dedicated ASI-Roscosmos inter-agencies agreement, were aimed at development and testing of a 7.5 t thrust expander cycle demonstrator engine propelled by oxygen and liquid natural gas (further referred to as LNG).

  6. Feasibility study on Thailand LNG project. Final report. Volume 2. Appendix. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This study, conducted by Bechtel, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The report specifically addresses an LNG terminal and associated gas pipeline, the crude oil pipeline component of the Southern Seaboard project, in addition to a power plant which uses a portion of the gas. Volume II contains the Appendix and is divided into the following sections: (1.0) PTT Data; (2.0) Design Criteria; (3.0) Khao Bo Ya Soils Data; (4.0) Khao Bo Ya Oceanographic Data; (5.0) Thailand Seismic Data; (6.0) Risk Assessment; (7.0) Equipment Lists; (8.0) Equipment Data Sheets; (9.0) Drawings; (10.0) Cost Data; (11.0) Calculations; (12.0) Terms of Reference.

  7. Pressure Build-Up in LNG and LH2 Vehicular Cryogenic Storage Tanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barclay, J. A.; Rowe, A. M.; Barclay, M. A.

    2004-06-01

    The use of LNG and LH2 as fuels in heavy duty vehicles is increasing steadily because cryogenic liquids provides superior volumetric and gravimetric energy densities compared to other means of on-board storage. Although several sizes and types of tanks exist, a typical vehicular storage tank has a volume of ˜400 liters (˜100 gallons). The pressure in the ullage space of a tank freshly filled is usually ˜0.25 MPa but may vary during use from ˜0.25 MPa (˜20 psig) to ˜0.92 MPa (˜120 psig). Cryogenic vehicular tanks are typically dual-walled, stainless steel vessels with vacuum and superinsulation isolation between the inner and outer vessel walls. The heat leaks into such tanks are measured as a percentage boil-off per day. For a storage tank of vehicular size range, the boil-off may be ˜ 1 % day, depending upon the cryogen and the quality of the tank. The corresponding heat leak into the cryogenic liquid vaporizes a certain amount of liquid that in turn increases the pressure in the tank which in turn significantly influences the properties of the cryogens. We have used a novel approach to calculate the increase in pressure of LNG and LH2 in a closed cryogenic vessel with a fixed heat leak as a function of time using real equations of state for the properties of the cryogens. The method and results for the time it takes for a freshly filled tank to increase in pressure from the filling pressure of ˜0.25 MPa to a venting pressure of ˜1.73 MPa are presented.

  8. Scope of the Eye Injury Problem

    MedlinePlus

    ... that Prevent Blindness America (PBA) must address. An estimated 2.4 million eye injuries occur in the ... 3 According to 2002 statistics, there were an estimated 262,000 product- related eye injuries treated in ...

  9. FDA Approves Eye Implant for Aging Boomers

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_159648.html FDA Approves Eye Implant for Aging Boomers Tiny lens reshapes cornea to ... 2016 THURSDAY, June 30, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- An implant that helps the aging eye focus on small ...

  10. Anesthesia for Children Having Eye Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eye Terms Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Anesthesia for Children Having Eye Surgery En Español Read in Chinese What kinds of anesthesia are available for children ...

  11. FDA Approves Eye Implant for Aging Boomers

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_159648.html FDA Approves Eye Implant for Aging Boomers Tiny lens reshapes cornea to improve focus ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- An implant that helps the aging eye focus on small print and nearby objects ...

  12. MedlinePlus: Laser Eye Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Start Here Basics of LASIK Eye Surgery (Federal Trade Commission) Also in Spanish Is LASIK for Me? ... American Optometric Association) Find a Refractive (Eye) Surgeon (International Society of Refractive Surgery of the American Academy ...

  13. The Trajectories of Saccadic Eye Movements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahill, A. Terry; Stark, Lawrence

    1979-01-01

    Investigates the trajectories of saccadic eye movements, the control signals of the eye, and nature of the mechanisms that generate them, using the techniques of bioengineering in collecting the data. (GA)

  14. Oculometer for remote tracking of eye movement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, K. A.; Merchant, J.

    1969-01-01

    Prototype oculometer which tracks lateral eye position and measures the direction of the eyes optical axis, pupil size, and blink occurrence performs measurements on the subject on a real-time basis from a remote location.

  15. Anesthesia for Children Having Eye Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Condiciones Chinese Conditions Anesthesia for Children Having Eye Surgery En Español Read in Chinese What kinds of anesthesia are available for children having eye surgery? There are two main types of anesthesia: local ...

  16. Anesthesia for Adults Having Eye Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Condiciones Chinese Conditions Anesthesia for Adults Having Eye Surgery En Español What kinds of anesthesia are available for adults having eye surgery? A “general”, “local”, or “topical” anesthesia is necessary ...

  17. Sun, UV Radiation and Your Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Protect their eyes with hats and sunglasses. UV Light: Good in Moderation for a Good Night's Sleep ... accumulated during the day. Some research suggests that light-sensitive cells in the eye are important to ...

  18. Eye injuries associated with war games.

    PubMed

    Easterbrook, M; Pashby, T J

    1985-09-01

    War games, an outdoor activity combining recreation, military maneuvers and fantasy, are becoming a popular recreational sport. Increasing numbers of players are suffering eye injuries. In the last year 26 cases of serious eye injuries were reported to Canadian ophthalmologists; in 15 eyes vision was reduced to 6/24 or less. Although eyeguards are provided, all the injuries had occurred when the participants were not wearing them. Methods of preventing eye injuries in war games are discussed. PMID:4027807

  19. Eye/Brain/Task Testbed And Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janiszewski, Thomas; Mainland, Nora; Roden, Joseph C.; Rothenheber, Edward H.; Ryan, Arthur M.; Stokes, James M.

    1994-01-01

    Eye/brain/task (EBT) testbed records electroencephalograms, movements of eyes, and structures of tasks to provide comprehensive data on neurophysiological experiments. Intended to serve continuing effort to develop means for interactions between human brain waves and computers. Software library associated with testbed provides capabilities to recall collected data, to process data on movements of eyes, to correlate eye-movement data with electroencephalographic data, and to present data graphically. Cognitive processes investigated in ways not previously possible.

  20. 30 CFR 56.15004 - Eye protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Eye protection. 56.15004 Section 56.15004....15004 Eye protection. All persons shall wear safety glasses, goggles, or face shields or other suitable... injury to unprotected eyes....

  1. 30 CFR 56.15004 - Eye protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Eye protection. 56.15004 Section 56.15004....15004 Eye protection. All persons shall wear safety glasses, goggles, or face shields or other suitable... injury to unprotected eyes....

  2. 30 CFR 57.15004 - Eye protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Eye protection. 57.15004 Section 57.15004... Surface and Underground § 57.15004 Eye protection. All persons shall wear safety glasses, goggles, or face... exists which could cause injury to unprotected eyes....

  3. 30 CFR 57.15004 - Eye protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Eye protection. 57.15004 Section 57.15004... Surface and Underground § 57.15004 Eye protection. All persons shall wear safety glasses, goggles, or face... exists which could cause injury to unprotected eyes....

  4. 30 CFR 56.15004 - Eye protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Eye protection. 56.15004 Section 56.15004....15004 Eye protection. All persons shall wear safety glasses, goggles, or face shields or other suitable... injury to unprotected eyes....

  5. 30 CFR 57.15004 - Eye protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Eye protection. 57.15004 Section 57.15004... Surface and Underground § 57.15004 Eye protection. All persons shall wear safety glasses, goggles, or face... exists which could cause injury to unprotected eyes....

  6. A Model of the Human Eye

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colicchia, G.; Wiesner, H.; Waltner, C.; Zollman, D.

    2008-01-01

    We describe a model of the human eye that incorporates a variable converging lens. The model can be easily constructed by students with low-cost materials. It shows in a comprehensible way the functionality of the eye's optical system. Images of near and far objects can be focused. Also, the defects of near and farsighted eyes can be demonstrated.

  7. 30 CFR 56.15004 - Eye protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Eye protection. 56.15004 Section 56.15004....15004 Eye protection. All persons shall wear safety glasses, goggles, or face shields or other suitable... injury to unprotected eyes....

  8. Advances in Eye Tracking in Infancy Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakes, Lisa M.

    2012-01-01

    In 2004, McMurray and Aslin edited for "Infancy" a special section on eye tracking. The articles in that special issue revealed the enormous promise of automatic eye tracking with young infants and demonstrated that eye-tracking procedures can provide significant insight into the emergence of cognitive, social, and emotional processing in infancy.…

  9. Infant Eyes: A Window on Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslin, Richard N.

    2012-01-01

    Eye-trackers suitable for use with infants are now marketed by several commercial vendors. As eye-trackers become more prevalent in infancy research, there is the potential for users to be unaware of dangers lurking "under the hood" if they assume the eye-tracker introduces no errors in measuring infants' gaze. Moreover, the influx of voluminous…

  10. 30 CFR 56.15004 - Eye protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eye protection. 56.15004 Section 56.15004....15004 Eye protection. All persons shall wear safety glasses, goggles, or face shields or other suitable... injury to unprotected eyes....

  11. 30 CFR 57.15004 - Eye protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Eye protection. 57.15004 Section 57.15004... Surface and Underground § 57.15004 Eye protection. All persons shall wear safety glasses, goggles, or face... exists which could cause injury to unprotected eyes....

  12. 30 CFR 57.15004 - Eye protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eye protection. 57.15004 Section 57.15004... Surface and Underground § 57.15004 Eye protection. All persons shall wear safety glasses, goggles, or face... exists which could cause injury to unprotected eyes....

  13. Eye Gaze in Creative Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaneko, Michiko; Mesch, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the role of eye gaze in creative sign language. Because eye gaze conveys various types of linguistic and poetic information, it is an intrinsic part of sign language linguistics in general and of creative signing in particular. We discuss various functions of eye gaze in poetic signing and propose a classification of gaze…

  14. Experiencing Light's Properties within Your Own Eye

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mauser, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Seeing the reflection, refraction, dispersion, absorption, polarization, and scattering or diffraction of light within your own eye makes these properties of light truly personal. There are practical aspects of these within the eye phenomena, such as eye tracking for computer interfaces. They also offer some intriguing diversions, for example,…

  15. Cytological examination of pink eye afflicted tubers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pink eye is a tuber disorder of undetermined cause that can result in serious processing complications and storage losses throughout North America. Pink eye symptoms progress from ephemeral light pink colorations around bud-end eyes to water-soaked or dried and cracked “corky-patch” periderm. Late s...

  16. Functional Analysis and Treatment of Eye Poking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Craig H.; Souza, Geri

    1995-01-01

    Four studies analyzed eye poking behavior of a youth with profound disabilities. Results demonstrated substantive reductions in the frequency of eye poking when goggles were worn and when a video game was provided as a competing source of visual stimulation and as a reinforcer. Music was less effective in reducing eye poking. (Author/DB)

  17. Clinical light damage to the eye

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains four sections: The Nature of Light and of Light Damage to Biological Tissues; Light Damage to the Eye; Protecting the Eye from Light Damage; and Overview of Light Damage to the Eye. Some of the paper titles are: Ultraviolet-Absorbing Intraocular Lens Implants; Phototoxic Changes in the Retina; Light Damage to the Lens; and Radiation, Light, and Sight.

  18. Eye Examination Findings Among Children. United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health Services and Mental Health Administration (DHEW), Bethesda, MD.

    Reported were extensive statistical data on the prevalence of abnormal eye conditions found on examination, heterophoria test results, and history of eye problems as well as extent of interrelationship of the eye examination and vision test findings among children aged 6 to 11 years in the United States, based on findings from the Health…

  19. 21 CFR 878.4440 - Eye pad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Eye pad. 878.4440 Section 878.4440 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4440 Eye pad. (a) Identification. An eye pad...

  20. 21 CFR 878.4440 - Eye pad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Eye pad. 878.4440 Section 878.4440 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4440 Eye pad. (a) Identification. An eye pad...

  1. 21 CFR 878.4440 - Eye pad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Eye pad. 878.4440 Section 878.4440 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4440 Eye pad. (a) Identification. An eye pad...

  2. The history of the artificial eye.

    PubMed

    Martin, O; Clodius, L

    1979-08-01

    The history of the artificial eye, from antiquity to the present, is described. Around the beginning of the nineteenth century, glass eyes replaced the earlier metal ones--not always well tolerated. In 1835, cryolite glass was used instead of lead glass; to this day it remains the lightest and most desirable substance for making artificial eyes. PMID:396850

  3. There is more to eye contact than meets the eye.

    PubMed

    Myllyneva, Aki; Hietanen, Jari K

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have shown enhanced brain and autonomic responses to seeing a face with a direct gaze. Interestingly, greater responses to eye contact vs. averted gaze have been observed when showing "live" faces as stimuli but not when showing pictures of faces on a computer screen. In this study, we provide unequivocal evidence that the differential responses observed in the "live" condition are dependent on the observer's mental attributions. Results from two experiments showed that eye contact resulted in greater autonomic and brain responses compared to averted gaze if a participant believed that the stimulus person sitting on the other side of an electronic shutter was able to see him or her through the shutter. Gaze direction had no effects if participants believed that the transparency from their side was blocked. The results suggest that mental attributions exert a powerful modulation on the processing of socially relevant sensory information. PMID:25460383

  4. Eyes open versus eyes closed - Effect on human rotational responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wall, Conrad, III; Furman, Joseph M. R.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of eyelid closure on the response to rotational vestibular stimulation was assessed by evaluating 16 normal human subjects with both earth vertical axis (EVA) and earth horizontal axis (EHA) yaw rotations with either eyes closed (EC) or eyes open in the dark (EOD). Results indicated that for EVA rotation, the subjects' responses were of larger magnitude and less variable with EOD than with EC. However, for EHA rotation, responses were of larger magnitude and equally variable with EC as compared to EOD. Data also indicated that the quality of the EHA response with EC was altered because eyelid closure influenced the amount of periodic gaze. It is concluded that eyelid closure has an effect upon both canalocular and otolithocular reflexes and it is suggested that both EVA and EHA rotational testing be performed with EOD rather than with EC.

  5. Cost-benefit analysis of alternative LNG vapor-mitigation measures. Topical report, September 14, 1987-January 15, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Atallah, S.

    1992-06-25

    A generalized methodology is presented for comparing the costs and safety benefits of alternative hazard mitigation measures for a large LNG vapor release. The procedure involves the quantification of the risk to the public before and after the application of LNG vapor mitigation measures. In the study, risk was defined as the product of the annual accident frequency, estimated from a fault tree analysis, and the severity of the accident. Severity was measured in terms of the number of people who may be exposed to 2.5% or higher concentration. The ratios of the annual costs of the various mitigation measures to their safety benefits (as determined by the differences between the risk before and after mitigation measure implementation), were then used to identify the most cost-effective approaches to vapor cloud mitigation.

  6. Impact of dry eye on work productivity

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Masakazu; Mizuno, Yoshinobu; Shigeyasu, Chika

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of dry eye on work productivity of office workers, especially in terms of presenteeism. Methods A total of 396 individuals aged ≥20 years (258 men and 138 women, mean age 43.4 ± 13.0 years) were recruited through an online survey. Data from 355 responders who did not have missing values were included in the analysis. They were classified into the following four groups according to the diagnostic status and subjective symptoms of dry eye: a definite dry eye group; a marginal dry eye group; a self-reported dry eye group; and a control group. The impact of dry eye on work productivity was evaluated using the Japanese version of the Work Limitations Questionnaire. The cost of work productivity loss associated with dry eye and the economic benefits of providing treatment for dry eye were also assessed. Results The degree of work performance loss was 5.65% in the definite dry eye group, 4.37% in the marginal dry eye group, 6.06% in the self-reported dry eye group, and 4.27% in the control group. Productivity in the self-reported dry eye group was significantly lower than that in the control group (P < 0.05). The annual cost of work productivity loss associated with dry eye was estimated to be USD 741 per person. Conclusion Dry eye impairs work performance among office workers, which may lead to a substantial loss to industry. Management of symptoms of dry eye by providing treatment may contribute to improvement in work productivity. PMID:23091391

  7. GeoEye(TradeMark) Corporate Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives a corporate overview of GeoEye, the world's largest commercial remote sensing company. The contents include: 1) About GeoEye; 2) GeoEye Mission; 3) The Company; 4) Com,pany Summary; 5) U.S. Government Commitment; 6) GeoEye Constellation; 7) Other Imaging Resources; 8) OrbView-3 & OrbView-2; 9) OrbView-3 System Architecture; 10) OrbView-3; 11) OrbView-2; 12) IKONOS; 13) Largest Image Archive in the World; 14) GeoEye-1; 15) Best-In-Class Development Team; 16) Highest Performance Available in the Commercial Market; and 17) Key Themes

  8. OrbitView: Eye movement visualization software

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Simon; Optican, Lance M.; FitzGibbon, Edmond J.; Zee, David S.; Shaikh, Aasef G.

    2011-01-01

    Measurement of eye movements often helps to diagnose ocular motor disorders in the clinic, and is also used as a research tool in ocular motor, vision and vestibular research. Eye movements, however, are usually recorded without simultaneous video recordings, making offline interpretation difficult. We developed a tool that converts the measured eye movement data into a three-dimensional (3D) movie of eye movements. Having useful functions such as slow-play, pause and exaggeration of the movements, this new software provides a research and teaching tool to aid interpretation of the recorded eye movements. PMID:21689683

  9. Management of a blind painful eye.

    PubMed

    Merbs, Shannath L

    2006-06-01

    Debilitating ocular pain poses a significant challenge to the ophthalmologist. When the pain is intractable and the eye has very poor vision and is disfigured, surgical removal of the eye has traditionally been the definitive treatment of choice. Because many people are uncomfortable psychologically with removal of their eye, however painful, and other patients are not good surgical candidates, an alternative to enucleation is sometimes warranted, and injection of a neurolytic substance can often induce long-lasting anesthesia for a blind painful eye. This article reviews a range of options for management of blind painful eye from anesthesia to enucleation. PMID:16701166

  10. Hydrofluoric acid burns of the eye.

    PubMed

    McCulley, J P; Whiting, D W; Petitt, M G; Lauber, S E

    1983-06-01

    A case of hydrofluoric acid (HF) burns of the eye is reported and a review is presented of our investigation into the mechanism of HF toxicity in ocular tissues. A number of therapeutic procedures that have been successful in the treatment of HF skin burns were studied in the rabbit for use in the eye. Immediate single irrigation with water, normal saline or isotonic magnesium chloride solution is the most effective therapy for ocular HF burns. Extrapolation of other skin burn treatments to use in the eye is unacceptable due to the toxicity of these agents in normal eyes and the additive damage caused in burned eyes. PMID:6886845

  11. Dry Eye and Designer Ophthalmics

    PubMed Central

    Laurie, Gordon W.; Olsakovsky, Leslie A.; Conway, Brian P.; McKown, Robert L.; Kitagawa, Kazuko; Nichols, Jason J.

    2009-01-01

    EST, proteomic, and antibody capture assays are revealing a level of tear film protein complexity far greater than previously appreciated. A systems biology approach will be needed to fully appreciate function as tear protein doses fluctuate in time through different conditions. Although consensus is growing on what fully constitutes the human tear proteome, questions remain about the source and significance of the ∼256 tear proteins designated as ‘intracellular’. Many of these may derive from normal cellular turnover and could therefore be informative. A further >183 are designated as ‘extracellular’. Surprisingly, only 4 – 5% of these appear to be dysregulated in the three forms of dry eye preliminarily examined to date. Some differ and a couple overlap, suggesting that disease-specific signatures could be identified. Future dry eye treatment might include recombinant tear protein rescue as a personalized ophthalmic approach to ocular surface disease. PMID:18677231

  12. Eye surgery in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Raczyńska, Dorota; Glasner, Leopold; Serkies-Minuth, Ewelina; Wujtewicz, Magdalena A; Mitrosz, Kamila

    2016-01-01

    Extending life expectancy is a human achievement. It does however entail problems. Ophthalmic treatments are widely recognized as having a low risk of general complications. A classic example is cataract surgery, considered to be one of the safest and most frequently performed surgical procedures in the world. However, advanced age brings with it risks that should be considered before surgery. Eye operations, as with procedures on other organs, are largely dependent on the quality of surgical tissues. Therefore, the elderly are at increased risk of complications. Improved general health and postoperative follow-up with the use of noninvasive technologies such as optical coherence tomography translate into lower intraoperative risk and better postoperative prognosis. In this review, we discuss the impact of general health on operational prognosis, therapeutic problems, and technical difficulties which a surgeon and anesthesiologist may encounter in the process. We also consider new technology and strategies specifically aimed at treating eye conditions in the elderly. PMID:27103794

  13. The management of dry eye.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    Dry eye disease (also called keratoconjunctivitis sicca) is a common condition, with a prevalence ranging from 8-34%, depending on the criteria used.(1) It becomes more common with increasing age and affects more women than men. Artificial tears and ocular lubricants are considered the mainstay of treatment and there is a very wide range of these products available. In England in 2014, over 6.4 million prescription items for artificial tears, ocular lubricants and astringents were dispensed in the community at a cost to the NHS of over £27 million.(2) In this article we review the management of dry eye disease, focusing on artificial tears and ocular lubricants. PMID:26763598

  14. Paraneoplastic disorders of eye movements

    PubMed Central

    Wray, Shirley H.; Dalmau, Josep; Chen, Athena; King, Susan; Leigh, R. John

    2011-01-01

    Paraneoplastic syndromes affecting the brainstem and cerebellum are reported to cause a variety of abnormalities of eye movements. Recent studies have begun to account for the mechanisms underlying several syndromes, characterized by opsoclonus, slow, or dysmetric saccades, as well as downbeat nystagmus. We provide evidence that upbeat nystagmus in a patient with pancreatic cancer reflected a cerebellar-induced imbalance of otolithic pathways: she showed marked retropulsion, and her nystagmus was dependent on head position, being absent when supine, and suppressed with convergence. In addition to anti-Hu antibodies, we demonstrated antibodies to a novel neuronal cell surface antigen. Taken with other recent studies, our findings suggest that paraneoplastic syndromes arise due to antibodies against surface neuronal antigens, including receptors and channels. Abnormal eye movements in paraneoplastic syndromes offer insights into the pathogenesis of these disorders and the opportunity to test potential therapies, such as new drugs with effects on neuronal channels. PMID:21951005

  15. Thin compound-eye camera.

    PubMed

    Duparré, Jacques; Dannberg, Peter; Schreiber, Peter; Bräuer, Andreas; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2005-05-20

    An artificial compound-eye objective fabricated by micro-optics technology is adapted and attached to a CMOS sensor array. The novel optical sensor system with an optics thickness of only 0.2 mm is examined with respect to resolution and sensitivity. An optical resolution of 60 x 60 pixels is determined from captured images. The scaling behavior of artificial compound-eye imaging systems is analyzed. Cross talk between channels fabricated by different technologies is evaluated, and the influence on an extension of the field of view by addition of a (Fresnel) diverging lens is discussed. The lithographic generation of opaque walls between channels for optical isolation is experimentally demonstrated. PMID:15929282

  16. Eye surgery in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Raczyńska, Dorota; Glasner, Leopold; Serkies-Minuth, Ewelina; Wujtewicz, Magdalena A; Mitrosz, Kamila

    2016-01-01

    Extending life expectancy is a human achievement. It does however entail problems. Ophthalmic treatments are widely recognized as having a low risk of general complications. A classic example is cataract surgery, considered to be one of the safest and most frequently performed surgical procedures in the world. However, advanced age brings with it risks that should be considered before surgery. Eye operations, as with procedures on other organs, are largely dependent on the quality of surgical tissues. Therefore, the elderly are at increased risk of complications. Improved general health and postoperative follow-up with the use of noninvasive technologies such as optical coherence tomography translate into lower intraoperative risk and better postoperative prognosis. In this review, we discuss the impact of general health on operational prognosis, therapeutic problems, and technical difficulties which a surgeon and anesthesiologist may encounter in the process. We also consider new technology and strategies specifically aimed at treating eye conditions in the elderly. PMID:27103794

  17. Adapting British gas LNG facilities to varying gas compositions: The SELEXOL {reg_sign} process and cryogenic separation

    SciTech Connect

    Dewing, R.A.; Waring, S.; Burns, D.

    1996-12-31

    The original design of the UK National Transmission System (NTS) included five peak shave LNG storage sites strategically located around the country. They now form part of the Storage business that offers gas services to gas transportation companies-these include non British Gas companies as well as other parts of British Gas itself. At these sites, natural gas can be taken from the NTS at the request of the gas transportation companies, treated to cryogenic specifications, and liquefied for storage. LNG can then be re-vaporized and re-injected into the NTS or local mains as required. In this way the whole NTS does not have to be sized for peak rates and increases in demand can be met very quickly. Each peak-shave site was originally designed to handle natural gas with CO{sub 2} levels of up to 1 mol% and with ethane and higher hydrocarbon (C{sub 2}+) levels that needed only limited reduction. However, as different natural gas reservoirs came on stream in the early 1990`s the level of CO{sub 2} and C{sub 2}+ in the NTS network began to rise, and significant modifications were required at four of the five LNG sites. 3 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Service experience with 125,000-m/sup 3/ LNG vessels of spherical-tank design

    SciTech Connect

    Cuneo, J.J.; Gilmore, G.A.; Tornay, E.G.

    1980-01-01

    Serving the Indonesia-Japan LNG project - the largest now in operation - are eight spherical-tank-design vessels (seven dedicated) with capacities of 125,000 m/sup 3/ carrying over 8 million tons of LNG annually. Details are presented on the project's development and start-up, the vessels' construction and design, the preparations involved in placing the ships in service (including extensive crew training and proper outfitting), the gas-trials procedures used, the voyage characteristics, and the improvements made to the vessels based on their service experience (including the relocation of the discharge-line check valves, extension of the tank fill lines, modification of the pump motor insulations, and several other changes made to the cargo and ballast system components, the main reduction-gear lube-oil spray system, and the boilers' internal components). The cargo control-system design and the reliability of the electronic control systems have proved to be the most critical factors affecting the LNG tankers' performance.

  19. An eye model for uncalibrated eye gaze estimation under variable head pose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hnatow, Justin; Savakis, Andreas

    2007-04-01

    Gaze estimation is an important component of computer vision systems that monitor human activity for surveillance, human-computer interaction, and various other applications including iris recognition. Gaze estimation methods are particularly valuable when they are non-intrusive, do not require calibration, and generalize well across users. This paper presents a novel eye model that is employed for efficiently performing uncalibrated eye gaze estimation. The proposed eye model was constructed from a geometric simplification of the eye and anthropometric data about eye feature sizes in order to circumvent the requirement of calibration procedures for each individual user. The positions of the two eye corners and the midpupil, the distance between the two eye corners, and the radius of the eye sphere are required for gaze angle calculation. The locations of the eye corners and midpupil are estimated via processing following eye detection, and the remaining parameters are obtained from anthropometric data. This eye model is easily extended to estimating eye gaze under variable head pose. The eye model was tested on still images of subjects at frontal pose (0 °) and side pose (34 °). An upper bound of the model's performance was obtained by manually selecting the eye feature locations. The resulting average absolute error was 2.98 ° for frontal pose and 2.87 ° for side pose. The error was consistent across subjects, which indicates that good generalization was obtained. This level of performance compares well with other gaze estimation systems that utilize a calibration procedure to measure eye features.

  20. Ol' Blue Eyes, in Focus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Scholarly books with "identity" and "culture" in the title have loomed large on academic publishing lists for several years. Scholarly books with "Sinatra" in the title are a more recent phenomenon. Despite his six-decade career as the Voice (the 1940s), the Chairman of the Board (the 50s and 60s), and Ol' Blue Eyes (the 70s through his death, in…