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1

Toxicity evaluation of the process effluent streams of a petrochemical industry.  

PubMed

The physico-chemical characteristics and the acute toxicity of several wastewater streams, generated in the industrial production of synthetic rubber, were determined. The acute toxicity was evaluated in bioassays using different organisms: Danio rerio (fish), Lactuca sativa (lettuce) and Brachionus calyciflorus (rotifer). The removal of toxicity attained in the industrial wastewater treatment plant was also determined upstream and downstream of the activated sludge process. The results obtained indicate that the critical streams in terms of acute toxicity are the effluents from the liquid polymer unit and the spent caustic butadiene washing stage. The biological treatment was able to partially remove the toxicity of the industrial wastewater. However, a residual toxicity level persisted in the biotreated wastewater. The results obtained with Lactuca sativa showed a high degree of reproducibility, using root length or germination index as evaluation parameters. The effect of volatile pollutants on the toxicity results obtained with lettuce seeds was assessed, using ethanol as a model compound. Modifications on the assay procedure were proposed. A strong correlation between the toxic responses of Lactuca sativa and Danio rerio was observed for most industrial effluent streams. PMID:17396408

Reis, J L R; Dezotti, M; Sant'Anna, G L

2007-02-01

2

The Chemical and Petrochemical Industries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The manufacturing technology of the 1980s in the chemical and petrochemical industry is not likely to show any radical change. There will, however, be significant advances in some general areas. Part I of the paper is concerned with developments arising from exploitation of fundamental research in the molecular sciences and in biochemistry and microbiology. These are expected to lead, respectively,

C. A. J. Young

1973-01-01

3

31 CFR 538.210 - Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries. 538... Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries. ...United States persons relating to the petroleum or petrochemical industries in...

2012-07-01

4

31 CFR 538.210 - Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries. 538... Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries. ...United States persons relating to the petroleum or petrochemical industries in...

2011-07-01

5

31 CFR 538.210 - Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries. 538... Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries. ...United States persons relating to the petroleum or petrochemical industries in...

2010-07-01

6

31 CFR 538.210 - Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries. 538... Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries. ...United States persons relating to the petroleum or petrochemical industries in...

2014-07-01

7

31 CFR 538.210 - Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries. 538... Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries. ...United States persons relating to the petroleum or petrochemical industries in...

2013-07-01

8

Gas Separation Membrane Use in the Refinery and Petrochemical Industries  

E-print Network

Membranes have gained commercial acceptance as proven methods to recover valuable gases from waste gas streams. This paper explores ways in which gas separation membranes are used in the refinery and petrochemical industries to recover and purify...

Vari, J.

9

Cancer mortality and residence near petrochemical industries in Taiwan.  

PubMed

An ecologic study design was used to investigate the relationship between cancer risks and residence in communities adjacent to petrochemical industrial counties (PICs). Directly age-adjusted mortality rates for cancer during 1982-1991 among 16 counties characterized by a heavy concentration of petrochemical industries were compared to rates among 16 matched counties with similar concentration of nonpetrochemical manufacturing industries, urbanization level, and demographic characteristics. An excess rate for liver cancer among males was found in the so-called PICs. The correlation could not be explained by confounding variables such as urbanization, socioeconomic class, or employment in nonpetrochemical industries. No other increased cancer risks were found to be associated with residence near petrochemical industries. PMID:9055875

Yang, C Y; Chiu, H F; Chiu, J F; Kao, W Y; Tsai, S S; Lan, S J

1997-02-21

10

31 CFR 538.536 - Activities relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic of South Sudan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Activities relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic...538.536 Activities relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic...activities and transactions relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries...

2013-07-01

11

31 CFR 538.536 - Activities relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic of South Sudan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Activities relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic...538.536 Activities relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic...activities and transactions relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries...

2012-07-01

12

31 CFR 538.536 - Activities relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic of South Sudan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false Activities relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic...538.536 Activities relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic...activities and transactions relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries...

2014-07-01

13

A demonstration of biofiltration for VOC removal in petrochemical industries.  

PubMed

A biotrickling filter demo has been set up in a petrochemical factory in Sinopec Group for about 10 months with a maximum inlet gas flow rate of 3000 m3 h(-1). The purpose of this project is to assess the ability of the biotrickling filter to remove hardly biodegradable VOCs such as benzene, toluene and xylene which are recalcitrant and poorly water soluble and commonly found in petrochemical factories. Light-weight hollow ceramic balls (? 5-8 cm) were used as the packing media treated with large amounts of circulating water (2.4 m3 m(-2) h(-1)) added with bacterial species. The controlled empty bed retention time (EBRT) of 240 s is a key parameter for reaching a removal efficiency of 95% for benzene, toluene, xylene, and 90% for total hydrocarbons. The demo has been successfully adopted and practically applied in waste air treatments in many petrochemical industries for about two years. The net inlet concentrations of benzene, toluene and xylene were varied from 0.5 to 3 g m(-3). The biofiltration process is highly efficient for the removal of hydrophobic and recalcitrant VOCs with various concentrations from the petrochemical factories. The SEM analysis of the bacterial community in the BTF during VOC removal showed that Pseudomonas putida and Klebsiella sp. phylum were dominant and shutdown periods could play a role in forming the community structural differences and leading to the changes of removal efficiencies. PMID:24569855

Zhao, Lan; Huang, Shaobin; Wei, Zongmin

2014-05-01

14

Industrial Energy in Transition: A Petrochemical Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An industrial development involves the conversion of biomass, through fermentation, to useful chemical products and the gasification of municiple wastes to produce steam for electricity generation. These gases may also serve as chemical feedstocks. (Author/MA)

Wishart, Ronald S.

1978-01-01

15

Emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the liquid injection incineration of petrochemical industrial wastewater.  

PubMed

This study investigated the emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from stack flue gas and air pollution control device (APCD) effluent of the liquid injection incinerator (LII) disposing the petrochemical industrial wastewater, and PAH removal efficiencies of wet electrostatic precipitator (WESP) and wet scrubber (WSB). The PAH carcinogenic potency were investigated with the benzo(a)pyrene equivalent concentration (BaP(eq)). The remarkably high total-BaP(eq) concentration (220 microgNm(-3)) in the stack flue gas was much higher than those of several published emission sources, and indicated the possible influence on its surrounding environment. The total-PAH emission factors of the WESP, WSB and stack flue gas were 78.9, 95.7 and 30,900 microgL(-1) wastewater, respectively. The removal efficiencies of total-PAHs were 0.254, 0.309 and 0.563% for WESP, WSB and overall, respectively, suggesting that the use of both WESP and WSB shows insignificant PAH removal efficiencies, and 99.4% of total-PAHs was directly emitted to the ambient air through the stack flue gas. This finding suggested that the better incineration efficiencies, and APCD removal efficiencies for disposing the petrochemical industrial wastewater are necessary in future. PMID:17368715

Wang, Lin-Chi; Wang, I-Ching; Chang, Juu-En; Lai, Soon-Onn; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping

2007-09-01

16

Chemometric analysis of ecological toxicants in petrochemical and industrial environments.  

PubMed

The application of chemometrics in the assessment of toxicants, such as heavy metals (HMs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) potentially derived from petrochemical activities in the microenvironment, is vital in providing safeguards for human health of children and adults residing around petrochemical industrial regions. Several multivariate statistical methods are used in geosciences and environmental protection studies to classify, identify and group prevalent pollutants with regard to exhibited trends. Chemometrics can be applied for toxicant source identification, estimation of contaminants contributions to the toxicity of sites of interest, the assessment of the integral risk index of an area and provision of mitigating measures that limit or eliminate the contaminants identified. In this study, the principal component analysis (PCA) was used for dimensionality reduction of both organic and inorganic substances data in the environment, which are potentially hazardous. The high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs correlated positively with stronger impact on the model than the lower molecular weight (LMW) PAHs, the total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs), PAHs and BTEX correlate positively in the F1 vs F2 plot indicating similar source contributions of these pollutants in the environmental material. Cu, Cr, Cd, Fe, Zn and Pb all show positive correlation in the same space indicating similar source of contamination. Analytical processes involving environmental assessment data obtained in the Niger Delta area of Nigeria, confirmed the usefulness of chemometrics for comprehensive ecological evaluation. PMID:25048896

Olawoyin, Richard; Heidrich, Brenden; Oyewole, Samuel; Okareh, Oladapo T; McGlothlin, Charles W

2014-10-01

17

Treatment of industrial effluent water  

SciTech Connect

This article reports on a thematic exhibition on ''New Developments in Treatment of Natural and Effluent Water'' in the Sanitary-Technical Construction Section at the Exhibition of Achievements of the National Economy of the USSR. The exhibition acquainted visitors with the achievements of leading organizations in different branches of industry with respect to treatment of natural and industrial effluent water. The Kharkov ''Vodkanalproekt'' Institute and the Kharkov affiliate of the All-Union Scientific-Research Institute of Water and Geodesy has jointly developed a ''Polymer-25'' filter for removal of oil products from nonexplosive effluent water discharged by machine building plants. A Baku affiliate has developed a new ShFP-1 screw-type press filter for dewatering the sediments from water treatment plants as well as for sediments from chemical, food, and other types of plants. The State Institute for Applied Chemistry has designed a continuous process plant for treating effluent water and removing toxic organic waste by converting them into mineral salts with high efficiency.

Levitskii, Yu.N.

1982-09-01

18

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emission characteristics and control strategies for a petrochemical industrial area in middle Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated VOC emissions from the largest petrochemical industrial district in Taiwan and recommended some control measures to reduce VOC emissions. In addition to the petrochemical industry, the district encompasses a chemical and fiber industry, a plastics industry and a harbor, which together produce more than 95% of the VOC emissions in the area. The sequence of VOC emission

Chia-Hsien Yen; Jao-Jia Horng

2009-01-01

19

Emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from fluidized and fixed bed incinerators disposing petrochemical industrial biological sludge.  

PubMed

This study investigated the emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from two fluidized bed incinerators (FLBI_A and FLBI_B) and one fixed bed incinerator (FIBI) disposing biological sludge generated from the petrochemical industries in Taiwan. The results of 21 individual PAHs (including low (LM-PAHs), middle (MM-PAHs) and high molecular weight PAHs (HM-PAHs)) were reported. The LM-PAHs mainly dominated the total-PAHs in the stack flue gases, whereas the LM- and HM-PAHs dominated the total-PAHs in the bottom fly, fly ash and WSB effluent. Due to high carcinogenic potencies (=total-BaP(eq) concentrations) in the bottom ash (195 ng g(-1)) and WSB effluent (20,600 ng L(-1)) of the FIBI, cautious should be taken in treating them to avoid second contamination. Lower combustion efficiency and elevated fuel/feedstock (F/W) ratio for the FIBI led to the highest total emission factor of total-PAHs (38,400 microg kg(-1)). Lower total-PAH removal efficiencies of wet scrubber (WSB) (0.837-5.89%), cyclone (0.109-0.255%) and electrostatic precipitator (ESP) (0.032%) than those reported elsewhere resulted in high fraction in PAH contributions from the stack flue gases. Lower total-PAH emission factor was found for FLBI_A (2380 microg kg(-1) biological sludge) with higher combustion efficiency compared to those for FLBI_B (11,500 microg kg(-1)) and FIBI (38,400 microg kg(-1) biological sludge), implying that combustion efficiency plays a vital role in PAH emissions. PMID:19272707

Wang, Lin-Chi; Lin, Long-Full; Lai, Soon-Onn

2009-08-30

20

Advanced treatment of refractory organic pollutants in petrochemical industrial wastewater by bioactive enhanced ponds and wetland system.  

PubMed

A large-scale combined ponds-wetland system was applied for advanced treatment of refractory pollutants in petrochemical industrial wastewater. The system was designed to enhance bioactivity and biological diversity, which consisted of anaerobic ponds (APs), facultative ponds (FPs), aerobic pond and wetland. The refractory pollutants in the petrochemical wastewater to be treated were identified as alkanes, chloroalkanes, aromatic hydrocarbons, and olefins, which were significantly degraded and transformed along with the influent flowing through the enhanced bioactive ponds-wetland system. 8 years of recent operational data revealed that the average removal rate of stable chemical oxygen demand (COD) was 42.7 % and that influent COD varied from 92.3 to 195.6 mg/L. Final effluent COD could reach 65.8 mg/L (average). COD removal rates were high in the APs and FPs and accounted for 75 % of the total amount removed. This result indicated that the APs and FPs degraded refractory pollutants through the facilitation of bacteria growth. The changes in the community structures of major microbes were assessed by 16SrDNA-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. The same analysis was used to identify the main bacterial function for the removal of refractory pollutants in the APs and FPs. The APs and FPs displayed similar microbial diversities, and some of the identified bacteria degraded and removed refractory pollutants. The overall results proved the applicability, stability, and high efficiency of the ponds-wetland system with enhanced bioactivity in the advanced removal of refractory pollutants from petrochemical industrial wastewater. PMID:24578265

Liu, Shuo; Ma, Qiusha; Wang, Baozhen; Wang, Jifu; Zhang, Ying

2014-05-01

21

Perceived demands and musculoskeletal symptoms among employees of an Iranian petrochemical industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a part of a comprehensive ergonomics program, this study was conducted among employees of an Iranian petrochemical industry to determine the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms and to examine the relationship between perceived demands and reported symptoms. In this cross-sectional study, 928 randomly selected employees, corresponding to nearly 40% of all employees participated. Nordic Musculoskeletal Disorder Questionnaire and Job Content

Alireza Choobineh; Gholamreza Peyvandi Sani; Mohsen Sharif Rohani; Mohammad Gangi Pour; Masoud Neghab

2009-01-01

22

Stability of the electroactive response of ?-poly(vinylidene fluoride) for applications in the petrochemical industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stability of the electroactive response of poly(vinylidene fluoride), PVDF, in its ?-phase to degradation by chemicals commonly used in the petrochemical industry has been investigated. The polymer was submitted to the effect of different chemicals, benzene, ethanol, methanol, ethyl benzene, isooctane, naphthalene and toluene, for different periods of time. The variations in the amount of ? crystalline phase, dielectric

M. P. Silva; G. Botelho; J. G. Rocha; S. Lanceros-Mendez

2010-01-01

23

Viability of industrial integration within the Gulf Cooperation Council: the case of petrochemical industries  

SciTech Connect

The formation of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) in 1981 among six Arab Gulf countries - Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates - was an essential step toward the comprehensive economic development of the region. These countries, with their great though declining financial capability arising from oil as the main source of income, had already tried individually to diversify their economies in order to decrease their total reliance on crude oil income in the wake of the world oil glut. Their limited base of natural resources other than oil is a major constraint. Industrialization, and specifically, industrialization through oil-based industries, seems to be the most-viable approach they have toward their successful economic development. This study concentrates on the issues of regional economic and industrial development as the main factor for economic gain that may result from the GCC scheme. The experience of different integration schemes provides some beneficial lessons for the GCC. The GCC region has a comparative advantage in petrochemical industries, which suit the region's factor endowments, arising from the availability of cheap energy feedstock.

Al-Sabban, M.S.

1983-01-01

24

The effect of petrochemical effluent on the water quality of Ubeji Creek in Niger Delta of Nigeria.  

PubMed

Water samples containing petrochemical effluents were evaluated for elemental contaminants along a kilometer distance in Ubeji Creek, a tributary of the Ubeji River in the Niger Delta of Nigeria. Twenty water samples were collected from six sites at various times. The water samples were analyzed for several physico-chemical parameters. Results showed wide varieties in temperature, pH, BOD, COD, dissolved and suspended solids as well as conductivity. The entire environment starting from the end-of-pipe source point was coated with black oily residue. Water quality parameters were very poor. The absence of fish and other aquatic lives, the high levels of Zn (2.4), Cr (0.24), Fe (63.44), Hg (4.24), Mn (2.49), and Pb (0.76) level (microg/L) confirm the toxic nature of Ubeji Creek. At the lower reaches, the mixing of effluent with brackish waters was not enough to support aquatic life, partly because of diminishing oxygen and toxic shock. Nevertheless, the study provides evidence to suggest that the water in Ubeji Creek is toxic. It also provides graphic data to suggest point source where effluents could be held for treatment or neutralization before being discharged into the aquatic environment. PMID:19448963

Achudume, A C

2009-09-01

25

Overnight atmospheric transport and chemical processing of photochemically aged Houston urban and petrochemical industrial plume  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overnight atmospheric transport and chemical evolution of photochemically aged Houston urban and petrochemical industrial plume were investigated in July 2005. We report here on the 26 July episode in which the aged plume was tagged 1.5 h before sunset with a pair of free-floating controlled meteorological balloons, which guided quasi-Lagrangian aircraft sampling in the plume as it was advected 300

Rahul A. Zaveri; Paul B. Voss; Carl M. Berkowitz; Edward Fortner; Jun Zheng; Renyi Zhang; Ralph J. Valente; Roger L. Tanner; Daniel Holcomb; Thomas P. Hartley; Leslie Baran

2010-01-01

26

New petrochemical compositions for use in the coal industry  

SciTech Connect

Various aspects of the use of antifreezing agents in the coal industry are considered. It has been found that, unlike previously proposed compositions, these agents can be prepared based on the products of a single process, the vacuum distillation of fuel oil.

D.O. Safieva; E.V. Surov; O.G. Safiev [Institute for Fossil Fuels, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2008-12-15

27

[Evolution of technology and occupational exposures in petrochemical industry and in petroleum refining].  

PubMed

The industry of oil refining and petrochemical play an important role in terms of number of employees in the Italian production. Often the terms "petroleum refining" and "petrochemical" are used interchangeably to define processes that occur in complex plants, which grow outdoors on large surfaces and a visual impact is not irrelevant. In reality, the two areas involve potential exposure to different chemical agents, related to raw materials processed and the specific products. The petrochemical uses as raw materials, the oil fractions, obtained by distillation in the refinery, or natural gas; petrochemical products are, usually, single compounds with a specific degree of purity, used as basic raw materials for the entire industry of organic chemistry, from the production of plastics to pharmaceuticals. The oil refining, that is the topic of this paper, processes mainly oil to obtain mixtures of hydrocarbon compounds, the products of which are specified on the basis of aptitude for use. For example gasolines, are obtained by mixing of fractions of the first distillation, reforming products, antiknock. The paper illustrates, necessarily broadly due to the complexity of the productive sectors, the technological and organizational changes that have led to a significant reduction of occupational exposure to chemical agents, the results of environmental monitoring carried out in some refineries both during routine conditions that during scheduled maintenance activities with plant shutdown and a store of petroleum products. The chemical agents measured are typical for presence, physico-chemical properties and toxicological characteristics of the manufacturing processes of petroleum products like benzene, toluene, xylenes, ethyl benzene, n-hexane, Volatile Hydrocarbons belonging to gasoline, kerosene, diesel fuel. Data related to both personal sampling and fixed positions. PMID:24303703

Cottica, Danilo; Grignani, Elena

2013-01-01

28

Pulp and Paper Industry Effluent Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a literature review of wastes from pulp and paper industry, covering publications of 1976-77. This review focuses on: (1) receiving water, toxicity, and effluent characterization; (2) pulping liquor disposal and recovery; and (3) physicochemical and biological treatment. A list of 238 references is also presented. (HM)

Gove, George W.

1978-01-01

29

Ambient levels of volatile organic compounds in the vicinity of petrochemical industrial area of Yokohama, Japan  

PubMed Central

Urban ambient air concentrations of 39 aromatic (including benzene, toluene, and xylenes) and aliphatic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured in Yokohama city, Japan. Yokohama city was selected as a case study to assess the amount of VOC released from Industrial area to characterize the ambient air quality with respect to VOC as well as to know the impact of petrochemical storage facilities on local air quality. For this purpose, ambient air samples were collected (from June 2007 to November 2008) at six selected locations which are designated as industrial, residential, or commercial areas. To find out the diurnal variations of VOC, hourly nighttime sampling was carried out for three nights at one of the industrial locations (Shiohama). Samples were analyzed using gas chromatographic system (GC-FID). Results show strong variation between day and nighttime concentrations and among the seasons. Aliphatic fractions were most abundant, suggesting petrochemical storage facilities as the major source of atmospheric hydrocarbons. High concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, and xylene (BTEX) were observed at industrial locations. BTEX showed strong diurnal variation which is attributed to change in meteorology. During our campaign, low ambient VOC concentrations were observed at the residential site. PMID:20495606

Hanai, Yoshimichi; Masunaga, Shigeki

2009-01-01

30

Petrochemical industry standards activity aimed at improving the mechanical integrity of process piping  

SciTech Connect

This paper will cover numerous changes being made to existing standards and several new standards being created, all focusing on increasing mechanical integrity of petrochemical industry process piping. Those new standards include ones for (1) Risk-Based Inspection (2) Fitness for Service Analysis, (3) Positive Material Identification, and (4) In-service Inspection and Maintenance for Process Piping. A progress report is included for the Process Industry Practices (PIP) being created to consolidate individual company piping standards into one consistent industry set. And finally, recent initiatives toward standards cooperation/coordination between the American Petroleum Institute(API), American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), International Standards Organization (ISO) and National Board are highlighted.

Reynolds, J.T. [Shell Oil Products Co., Houston, TX (United States)

1996-07-01

31

Ammonia recovery from high strength agro industry effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to investigate ammonia recovery from high strength agro industry effluents involving significant amounts of ammonia, by applying magnesium ammonium phosphate (MAP) precipitation technology. Two types of industrial effluents have been tested in the study. The first plant was an opium alkaloid processing industry and the second one was a bakers yeast industry. High chemical

M. Altinbas; I. Ozturk; A. F. Aydin

2002-01-01

32

Employment and exposures in the petroleum refining and petrochemical industries and the risk of lung cancer  

SciTech Connect

This dissertation addresses the risk of lung cancer associated with occupational exposures in the petroleum refining and petrochemical industries. Earlier epidemiologic studies of this association did not adjust for cigarette smoking or have specific exposure classifications. The Texas EXposure Assessment System (TEXAS) was developed with data from a population-based, case-comparison study conducted in five southeast Texas counties between 1976 and 1980. An industry-wide, increased risk for lung cancer was associated with jobs having low-level hydrocarbon exposure that also include other occupational inhalation exposures. The prohibition of cigarette smoking for jobs with high-level hydrocarbon exposure might explain part of the increased risk for jobs with low-level hydrocarbon exposures. Asbestos exposure comprises a large part of the risk associated with jobs having other inhalation exposures besides hydrocarbons. Workers in petroleum refineries were not shown to have an increased, occupational risk for lung cancer. The study results demonstrate that the predominant risk for lung cancer is due to cigarette smoking. Cigarette smoking accounts for 86.5% of the incident lung cancer cases within the study area. Workers in the petroleum industry smoke significantly less than persons employed in other industries. Only 2.2% of the incident lung cancer cases may be attributed to petroleum industry jobs; lifestyle factors (e.g., nutrition) may be associated with the balance of the cases.

Aldrich, T.E.

1985-01-01

33

Industrial effluent quality, pollution monitoring and environmental management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Royal Commission Environmental Control Department (RC-ECD) at Yanbu industrial city in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has established\\u000a a well-defined monitoring program to control the pollution from industrial effluents. The quality of effluent from each facility\\u000a is monitored round the clock. Different strategic measures have been taken by the RC-ECD to implement the zero discharge policy\\u000a of RC. Industries are required

Maqbool Ahmad; Ahmad S. Bajahlan; Waleed S. Hammad

2008-01-01

34

The Effect of Social Trust on Citizens’ Health Risk Perception in the Context of a Petrochemical Industrial Complex  

PubMed Central

Perceived risk of environmental threats often translates into psychological stress with a wide range of effects on health and well-being. Petrochemical industrial complexes constitute one of the sites that can cause considerable pollution and health problems. The uncertainty around emissions results in a perception of risk for citizens residing in neighboring areas, which translates into anxiety and physiological stress. In this context, social trust is a key factor in managing the perceived risk. In the case of industrial risks, it is essential to distinguish between trust in the companies that make up the industry, and trust in public institutions. In the context of a petrochemical industrial complex located in the port of Castellón (Spain), this paper primarily discusses how trust—both in the companies located in the petrochemical complex and in the public institutions—affects citizens’ health risk perception. The research findings confirm that while the trust in companies negatively affects citizens’ health risk perception, trust in public institutions does not exert a direct and significant effect. Analysis also revealed that trust in public institutions and health risk perception are essentially linked indirectly (through trust in companies). PMID:23337129

López-Navarro, Miguel Ángel; Llorens-Monzonís, Jaume; Tortosa-Edo, Vicente

2013-01-01

35

State?of?the?Art Adsorption and Membrane Separation Processes for Hydrogen Production in the Chemical and Petrochemical Industries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review on the use of adsorption and membrane technologies in H2 production is directed toward the chemical and petrochemical industries. The growing requirements for H2 in chemical manufacturing, petroleum refining, and the newly emerging clean energy concepts will place greater demands on sourcing, production capacity and supplies of H2. Currently, about 41 MM tons\\/yr of H2 is produced worldwide,

James A. Ritter; Armin D. Ebner

2007-01-01

36

INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE: CHAPTER 5. BASIC PETROCHEMICALS INDUSTRY  

EPA Science Inventory

The catalog was developed to aid in defining the environmental impacts of U.S. industrial activity. Entries for each industry are in consistent format and form separate chapters of the catalog. The basic petroleum industry includes companies that treat hydrocarbon streams from th...

37

Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in petrochemical industries by measurement of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene.  

PubMed Central

Biological monitoring of exposure of workers to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in petrochemical industries was performed by the measurement of urinary excretion of 1-hydroxypyrene. In 121 of the 462 workers studied (both smokers and non-smokers) who had had no recent occupational exposure to PAHs a median 1-hydroxypyrene concentration of 0.21 micrograms/g creatinine was found. The upper limit of the 95% confidence interval in these workers of 0.99 micrograms/g creatinine was used as the upper normal value for industrial workers. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations were measured in workers involved in manufacture and maintenance operations in oil refineries (13 studies in eight different settings), in workers manufacturing or handling products containing PAHs in chemical plants (five studies in three settings) and laboratories (four studies), and in workers digging soil contaminated with PAHs (three studies). In most studies in oil refineries 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations were only marginally greater than the values measured in the 121 workers with no recent occupational exposure to PAHs. This was also the case in maintenance operations with higher potential exposure to PAHs, indicating that personal protection equipment was generally adequate to prevent excessive exposure. The studies in chemical plants also showed that exposure to PAHs is low. An exception was the workers engaged in the production of needle coke from ethylene cracker residue, where increased urinary 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations were measured. The excretion of 1-hydroxypyrene by the operators and maintenance workers of this plant was investigated in relation to potential methods of exposure to PAHs. Dermal and inhalatory exposure were both significant determinants of exposure to PAHs. PMID:8199667

Boogaard, P J; van Sittert, N J

1994-01-01

38

Ammonia recovery from high strength agro industry effluents.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to investigate ammonia recovery from high strength agro industry effluents involving significant amounts of ammonia, by applying magnesium ammonium phosphate (MAP) precipitation technology. Two types of industrial effluents have been tested in the study. The first plant was an opium alkaloid processing industry and the second one was a baker's yeast industry. High chemical oxygen demand (COD), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) and unacceptable dark brown color characterized effluents from both industries. Effluents from the biologically treated opium alkaloid and baker's yeast industries were both applied at the stoichiometric ratio (Mg:NH4:PO4 = 1:1:1) and above the stoichiometric ratio (Mg:NH4:PO4 = 1.1:1:1.1) to MAP precipitation. NH4 removals of 61-80% were achieved at the pH of 9.2 at the stoichiometric ratio, whereas 83% NH4 removal was obtained at the pH of 9.2 above the stoichiometric ratio. Experimental studies performed on both anaerobically and/or aerobically treated baker's yeast and opium alkaloid industry effluents have clearly indicated that MAP precipitation was an appropriate treatment option for NH4 removal or struvite recovery from high ammonia content agro industry effluents. Additional ammonia recovery studies were conducted on ozonated and Fenton's oxidation applied effluents and these have also indicated that the amounts of struvite and the quality of MAP precipitate was increased significantly. In this framework, MAP sludge recovered from combined biological and Fenton's oxidation treatment effluents were considered as a more valuable slow release fertilizer for agricultural use. PMID:12201102

Altinbas, M; Ozturk, I; Aydin, A F

2002-01-01

39

The feasibility of effluent trading in the energy industries  

SciTech Connect

In January 1996, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released a policy statement endorsing effluent trading in watersheds, hoping to spur additional interest in the subject. The policy describes five types of effluent trades - point source/point source, point source/nonpoint source, pretreatment, intraplant, and nonpoint source/nonpoint source. This report evaluates the feasibility of effluent trading for facilities in the oil and gas industry (exploration and production, refining, and distribution and marketing segments), electric power industry, and the coal industry (mines and preparation plants). Nonpoint source/nonpoint source trades are not considered since the energy industry facilities evaluated here are all point sources. EPA has administered emission trading programs in its air quality program for many years. Programs for offsets, bubbles, banking, and netting are supported by federal regulations, and the 1990 Clean Air Act (CAA) amendments provide a statutory basis for trading programs to control ozone and acid rain. Different programs have had varying degrees of success, but few have come close to meeting their expectations. Few trading programs have been established under the Clean Water Act (CWA). One intraplant trading program was established by EPA in its effluent limitation guidelines (ELGs) for the iron and steel industry. The other existing effluent trading programs were established by state or local governments and have had minimal success.

Veil, J.A.

1997-05-01

40

SOURCE ASSESSMENT: NITROGEN FERTILIZER INDUSTRY WATER EFFLUENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes a study of waterborne pollutants from the manufacture of nitrogen fertilizers. It includes an evaluation of the ammonia, ammonium nitrate, urea, and nitric acid manufacturing processes. Water effluents in a nitrogen fertilizer plant originate from a variety o...

41

Metabolic response of environmentally isolated microorganisms to industrial effluents: Use of a newly described cell culture assay  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An environmental application using a microtiter culture assay to measure the metabolic sensitivity of microorganisms to petrochemical effluents will be tested. The Biomedical Operations and Research Branch at NASA JSC has recently developed a rapid and nondestructive method to measure cell growth and metabolism. Using a colorimetric procedure the uniquely modified assay allows the metabolic kinetics of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells to be measured. Use of such an assay if adapted for the routine monitoring of waste products, process effluents, and environmentally hazardous substances may prove to be invaluable to the industrial community. The microtiter method as described will be tested using microorganisms isolated from the Galveston Bay aquatic habitat. The microbial isolates will be identified prior to testing using the automated systems available at JSC. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), cadmium, and lead will provide control toxic chemicals. The toxicity of industrial effluent from two industrial sites will be tested. An effort will be made to test the efficacy of this assay for measuring toxicity in a mixed culture community.

Ferebee, Robert N.

1992-01-01

42

CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN WHOLE EFFLUENT TOXICITY AND THE PRESENCE OF PRIORITY SUBSTANCES IN COMPLEX INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this study was to examine broad-scale correlation between presence of priority substances and whole effluent toxicity (WET) across a range of industry types. Using regression analysis, we examined how chemical-based inferred toxicity predicted measured WET of the e...

43

Selection of Bottom Liner for Land Disposal of Industrial Waste Containing Lead-Case Study: Tabriz Petrochemical Complex  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Industrial wastes generated at Tabriz Petrochemical Complex (TPC) were shown to contain significant concentration of lead. Environmentally sound landfilling of these waste streams was studied in terms of potential risk of associated groundwater contamination. The waste was to be disposed of in a landfill overlying an aquifer of fine sand texture and a water table depth of about 9 m. A modeling approach was employed for estimating the concentration of lead in groundwater downstream of the landfill site. The Industrial Waste Evaluation Model (IWEM) developed by US Environmental Protection Agency was used which estimates the receptor dose of lead, calculates the associated human health risk and recommends protective measures (i.e., liner type). Accordingly the appropriate liner being of composite type was selected as the required protective measure to minimize the transport of lead to the underlying aquifer which is a major source of drinking water for the downstream residential communities.

Soltani, Mohsen; Safari, Edwin; Baghvand, Akbar; Abduli, Mohammad Ali

44

Treatment of effluents from cardboard industry by coagulation–electroflotation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the present study is to optimize the treatment of the cardboard industry wastewater generated in the process of machine washing. This type of effluent is usually treated by traditional physicochemical processes such as coagulation\\/flocculation and sedimentation. These processes give a limited purifying efficiency, particularly for the COD reduction. In this work, the treatment by coagulation–electroflotation process was

L. Ben Mansour; I. Kesentini

2008-01-01

45

Electromagnetic acoustic transducers for wall thickness applications in the petrochemical industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) are now becoming widely used in the field, for example for boiler tube wall thickness surveys in Power Generation plant. In general EMATs work efficiently on steel components with a surface oxide layer, where the oxides can be residual mill scale from the steel manufacturing process due to in-service growth in boilers or chemical processing plant. Very often these oxides have rough surfaces and have to be removed prior to conventional ultrasonic inspection. This can be both time consuming and costly, in addition the removal of the protective oxide layer accelerates the future wall lose rate of the pipe or vessel. As well as the Power Generation application, EMATs can also be used for ultrasonic inspection of petrochemical tubulars without having to remove oxides giving the same associated benefits. This paper presents results obtained from laboratory trials of EMAT thickness monitoring of petrochemical plant pipe samples and real EMAT surveys carried out on-site on refinery plant. In parallel with the practical application of EMATs we are studying the underlying physics of operation with the aim of predicting the EMAT performance for steels with and without oxide layers.

Edwards, C.; Dixon, S.; Widdowson, A.; Palmer, S. B.

2000-05-01

46

INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT TREATMENT USING IONIZING RADIATION COMBINED TO TITANIUM DIOXIDE  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) with OH radicals are the most efficient to mineralize organic compounds, and there are various methods to generate OH radicals as the use of ozone, hydrogen peroxide and ultra-violet radiation and ionizing radiation. The irradiation of aqueous solutions with high-energy electrons results in the excitation and ionizing of the molecules and rapid (10{sup -14} - 10{sup -9} s) formation of reactive intermediates. These reactive species will react with organic compounds present in industrial effluent inducing their decomposition. Titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) catalyzed photoreaction is used to remove a wide range of pollutants in air and water media, combined to UV/VIS light, FeO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, but as far as known there is no report on the combination with ionizing radiation. In some recent studies, the removal of organic pollutants in industrial effluent, such as Benzene, Toluene, and Xylene from petroleum production using ionizing radiation was investigated. It has been ob served that none of the methods can be used individually in wastewater treatment applications with good economics and high degree of energy efficiency. In the present work, the efficiency of ionizing radiation in presence of TiO{sub 2} to treat industrial effluent was evaluated. The main aim to combine these technologies is to improve the efficiency for very hard effluents and to reduce the processing cost for future implementation to large-scale design.

Duarte, C.L.; Oikawa, H.; Mori, M.N.; Sampa, M.H.O.

2004-10-04

47

Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Petrochemical Industry - An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers  

SciTech Connect

Energy is the most important cost factor in the U.S petrochemical industry, defined in this guide as the chemical industry sectors producing large volume basic and intermediate organic chemicals as well as large volume plastics. The sector spent about $10 billion on fuels and electricity in 2004. Energy efficiency improvement is an important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There are a variety of opportunities available at individual plants in the U.S. petrochemical industry to reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner. This Energy Guide discusses energy efficiency practices and energy efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, facility, and organizational levels. A discussion of the trends, structure, and energy consumption characteristics of the petrochemical industry is provided along with a description of the major process technologies used within the industry. Next, a wide variety of energy efficiency measures are described. Many measure descriptions include expected savings in energy and energy-related costs, based on case study data from real-world applications in the petrochemical and related industries worldwide. Typical measure payback periods and references to further information in the technical literature are also provided, when available. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers in the U.S. petrochemical industry reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner while maintaining the quality of products manufactured. Further research on the economics of all measures--and on their applicability to different production practices--is needed to assess their cost effectiveness at individual plants.

Neelis, Maarten; Worrell, Ernst; Masanet, Eric

2008-09-01

48

Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Excluding dyes. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents exclusive of dyes. Topics include the recovery of lubricants, lye, sizing agents, polyvinyl alcohol, zinc, dirt, and heat from textile effluents. Air and water pollution control technology that is effective in treating textile effluents is discussed. Effluents from synthetic fiber manufacture and wool scouring processes are emphasized. Effluents that contain dyes are discusssed in a separate bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-01-01

49

Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Excluding dyes. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents exclusive of dyes. Topics include the recovery of lubricants, lye, sizing agents, polyvinyl alcohol, zinc, dirt, and heat from textile effluents. Air and water pollution control technology that is effective in treating textile effluents is discussed. Effluents from synthetic fiber manufacture and wool scouring processes are emphasized. Effluents that contain dyes are discusssed in a separate bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-01-01

50

Laboratory studies of electrochemical treatment of industrial azo dye effluent.  

PubMed

Removal of color and reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD) in an industrial azo dye effluent containing chiefly reactive dyes were investigated under single-pass conditions at a dimensionally stable anode (DSA) in a thin electrochemical flow reactor at different current densities, flow rates, and dilutions. With 50% diluted effluent, decolorization was achieved up to 85-99% at 10-40 mA/ cm2 at 5 mL/min flow rate and 50-88% at 30-40 mA/ cm2 at high (10-15 mL/min) flow rates. The COD reduction was maximum (81%) at 39.9 mA/cm2 or above when solution-electrode contact time (Ct) was as high as 21.7 s/cm2 and decreased as Ct declined at a given current density. Cyclic voltammetric studies suggesting an indirect oxidation of dye molecules over the anode surface were carried out at a glassy carbon electrode. The effect of pH on decolorization and COD reduction was determined. An electrochemical mechanism mediated by OCl- operating in the decolorization and COD reduction processes was suggested. The effluent was further treated with NaOCI. The oxidized products from the treated effluents were isolated and confirmed to be free from chlorine-substituted products by IR spectroscopy. From the apparent pseudo-first-order rate data, the second-order rate coefficients were evaluated to be 2.9 M(-1) s(-1) at 5 mL/ min, 76.2 M(-1) s(-1) at 10 mL/min, and 156.1 M(-1) s(-1) at 15 mL/ min for color removal, and 1.19 M(-1) s(-1) at 5 mL/min, 1.79 M(-1) s(-1) at 10 mL/min, and 3.57 M(-1) s(-1) at 15 mL/min for COD reduction. Field studies were also carried out with a pilot-scale cell at the source of effluent generation of different plants corresponding to the industry. Decolorization was achieved to about 94-99% with azo dye effluents at 0.7-1.0 L/min flow costing around Indian Rupees 0.02-0.04 per liter, and to about 54-75% in other related effluents at 0.3-1.0 L/min flow under single-pass conditions. PMID:15884385

Vaghela, Sanjay S; Jethva, Ashok D; Mehta, Bhavesh B; Dave, Sunil P; Adimurthy, Subbarayappa; Ramachandraiah, Gadde

2005-04-15

51

Dangerous and cancer-causing properties of products and chemicals in the oil refining and petrochemical industry: Part 5--Asbestos-caused cancers and exposure of workers in the oil refining industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the oil refining and petrochemical industries exposure to cancer-causing asbestos particles, especially during equipment repair and maintenance, is very high. Up to 90% of workers in the oil refining industry had direct and\\/or indirect contact with asbestos, and more than half of this contact occurred without the use of any kind of precaution, thus these workers are in high

Mehlman

1991-01-01

52

Biological anoxic treatment of O?-free VOC emissions from the petrochemical industry: a proof of concept study.  

PubMed

An innovative biofiltration technology based on anoxic biodegradation was proposed in this work for the treatment of inert VOC-laden emissions from the petrochemical industry. Anoxic biofiltration does not require conventional O2 supply to mineralize VOCs, which increases process safety and allows for the reuse of the residual gas for inertization purposes in plant. The potential of this technology was evaluated in a biotrickling filter using toluene as a model VOC at loads of 3, 5, 12 and 34 g m(-3)h(-1) (corresponding to empty bed residence times of 16, 8, 4 and 1.3 min) with a maximum elimination capacity of ?3 g m(-3)h(-1). However, significant differences in the nature and number of metabolites accumulated at each toluene load tested were observed, o- and p-cresol being detected only at 34 g m(-3)h(-1), while benzyl alcohol, benzaldehyde and phenol were detected at lower loads. A complete toluene removal was maintained after increasing the inlet toluene concentration from 0.5 to 1 g m(-3) (which entailed a loading rate increase from 3 to 6 g m(-3)h(-1)), indicating that the system was limited by mass transfer rather than by biological activity. A high bacterial diversity was observed, the predominant phyla being Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria. PMID:23811365

Muñoz, Raúl; Souza, Theo S O; Glittmann, Lina; Pérez, Rebeca; Quijano, Guillermo

2013-09-15

53

Entomological study of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in Asalouyeh, the heartland of an Iranian petrochemical industry  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the fauna and seasonal activity of different species of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in Asalouyeh, the heartland of an Iranian petrochemical industry, Southern Iran, as a oil rich district. Sand flies are the vectors of at least three different kinds of disease, the most important of which is leishmaniasis, and it is a major public health problem in Iran with increased annual occurrence of clinical episodes. Methods A total of 3?497 sand flies of rural regions were collected by sticky traps fixed, and cleared in puris medium and identified morphologically, twice a month from April to March 2008. Results Predominant species included four of genus Phlebotomus (Phlebotomus alexandri Sinton, 1928, Phlebotomus papatasi Scopoli, 1910, Phlebotomus bergeroti Parrot and Phlebotomus sergenti Parrot) and one of genus Sergentomyia (Sergentomyia tiberiadis Alder, Theodor & Lourie, 1930). The most prevalent species was Phlebotomus papatasi, presented 56.4% of the identified flies. The others were Phlebotomus sergenti (22.5%), Phlebotomus alexandri (4.5%), Phlebotomus bergeroti (12%) and Sergentomyia tiberiadis (5%) as well. The percentage of females (68%) was more than that of males (32%). The abundance of sand flies represented two peaks of activity; one in early May and the other one in the first half of September in the region. Conclusion Phlebotomus papatasi is the probable vector of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in the region. Further molecular studies are needed to determine the definite vector of the region. PMID:25183089

Alipour, Hamzeh; Darabi, Hossien; Dabbaghmanesh, Tahere; Bonyani, Mehdi

2014-01-01

54

Fundamental studies of hydrogen attack in carbon-0.5molybdenum steel and weldments applied in petroelum and petrochemical industries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High temperature hydrogen attack (HTHA) is a form of surface decarburization, internal decarburization, and/or intergranular cracking in steels exposed to high temperature (>400°F) and high hydrogen pressure. Hydrogen attack is an irreversible process which can cause permanent damage resulting in degradation of mechanical properties and failures such as leakage, bursting, fire, and/or explosion. The continuous progression of hydrogen attack in C-0.5Mo steel and weldments below the C-0.5Mo Nelson Curve has caused a significant concern for the integrity and serviceability of C-0.5Mo steel utilized for pressure vessels and piping in the petroleum refinery and petrochemical industries. A state-of-the-art literature review was implemented to provide a comprehensive overview of the published research efforts on hydrogen attack studies. The evolution of "Nelson Curves" for carbon steel, C-0.5Mo, and Cr-Mo steels was historically reviewed in regard to design applications and limitations. Testing techniques for hydrogen attack assessment were summarized under the categories of hydrogen exposure testing, mechanical evaluation, and dilatometric swelling testing. In accord with the demands of these industries, fundamental studies of hydrogen attack in C-0.5Mo steel and weldments were accomplished in terms of quantitative methodologies for hydrogen damage evaluation; hydrogen damage assessment of service exposed weldments and autoclave exposed materials; effects of carbon and alloying elements, heat treatments, hot and cold working, welding processes and postweld heat treatment (PWHT) on hydrogen attack susceptibility; development of continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagrams for C-0.5Mo base metals and the coarse grained heat-affected zone (CGHAZ); carbide evaluation for the C-0.5Mo steel after service exposure and heat treatment; methane evolution by the reaction of hydrogen and carbides; hydrogen diffusion and methane pressure through the wall thickness of one-sided hydrogen exposure assembly; hydrogen attack mechanism and hydrogen attack limit modeling.

Liu, Peng

55

Technical Training in the MNCs in Malaysia: A Case Study Analysis of the Petrochemical Industry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The aim of this paper is to gain insight into some of the types of training and development practices that are carried out in the chemical industry for technical workers. A salient focus of the study is to make a comparative analysis of four MNCs, which were selected based on equity ownership, to ascertain whether T&D practices are…

Hooi, Lai Wan

2010-01-01

56

Does living near a constellation of petrochemical, steel, and other industries impair health?  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To investigate concern that local industrial air pollution in Teesside, England, was causing poor health, several areas there were compared with parts of the City of Sunderland. METHODS: Populations in similar social and economic circumstances but varying in their proximity to major industries were compared. Study populations lived in 27 housing estates in Teesside and Sunderland, north east England, with some data from subsets of estates. The estates were aggregated into zones (designated as A, B, and C in Teesside where A is closest to and C furthest from industry, and S in Sunderland). Zone S provided a reference area. The hypothesis was that a health gradient both within Teesside (A > B > C) and between Teesside and Sunderland (ABC > S) would indicate a possible health effect of local industrial air pollution. Data presented were: mortality (1981-91) from 27 housing estates; population self completion questionnaire survey data (1993, 9115 subjects) from 15 housing estates; and general practitioner (GP) consultation data (1989-94) from 2201 subjects in 12 Teesside estates. RESULTS: The populations in the four zones were comparable for indicators including smoking habits, residential histories, and unemployment. All cause and cause specific mortalities were high compared with England and Wales. Mortality in all Teesside zones (ABC) combined was mostly higher than in zone S. In people aged 0-64, lung cancer and respiratory disease showed gradients with highest mortality in areas closest to industry (A > B > C and ABC > S). The association was clearest for lung cancer in women (0-64 years old, trend across zones ABC, p = 0.07, directly standardised rate ratio relative to zone S was 169 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 116-122)). There were no important, consistent gradients in the hypothesised direction between zones in consultation rates in general practice, and self reported respiratory and nonrespiratory health including asthma. CONCLUSIONS: There was no clear evidence that living close to industry was associated with morbidity, including asthma, or for most measures of mortality. For lung cancer in women the gradients indicated a health effect of local industrial air pollution. In the age group 0-64 observed gradients in lung cancer in men and mortality from respiratory disease in men and women were consistent with the study hypothesis, although not significant. The reasons for the different patterns at different ages, and between men and women, remain a puzzle.   PMID:9924442

Bhopal, R. S.; Moffatt, S.; Pless-Mulloli, T.; Phillimore, P. R.; Foy, C.; Dunn, C. E.; Tate, J. A.

1998-01-01

57

Adjustable Speed Drives in the U.S. Petroleum Refining, Petrochemical, and Chemical Industries  

E-print Network

) opportunity exists. Other driving forces include reduced maintenance and better reliability. The main factors hindering the use of VFD's include equipment cost, complexity (black box syndrome), reliability and ancillary equipment requirements. Overall VFD... means such as shutting down fan motors or running two speed motors at the lower speed. VFD equipment suppliers will point out many cooling tower applications; however, a process industry cooling tower manufacturer indicated instead that out of 100...

Foley, D. J.; Chodorowski, A.

58

[Evaluation of treatment technology of odor pollution source in petrochemical industry].  

PubMed

Using an environmental technology assessment system, we put forward the evaluation index system for treatment technology of the typical odor pollution sources in the petroleum refining process, which has been applied in the assessment of the industrial technology. And then the best available techniques are selected for emissions of gas refinery sewage treatment plant, headspace gas of acidic water jars, headspace gas of cold coke jugs/intermediate oil tank/dirty oil tank, exhaust of oxidative sweetening, and vapors of loading and unloading oil. PMID:24640922

Mu, Gui-Qin; Sui, Li-Hua; Guo, Ya-Feng; Ma, Chuan-Jun; Yang, Wen-Yu; Gao, Yang

2013-12-01

59

Effect of gaseous cement industry effluents on four species of Amlie Talec a, b  

E-print Network

of gaseous cement industry effluents on four species of microalgae Amélie Talec a, b , Myrvline Philistin a the possibility to grow microalgae with CO2 from gaseous effluent of cement industry. Four microalgal species the composition of a typical Cement Flue Gas (CFG). In a second stage, the culture submitted to the CFG received

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

60

Healthy environment--indoor air quality of Brazilian elementary schools nearby petrochemical industry.  

PubMed

The mitigation of pollution released to the environment originating from the industrial sector has been the aim of all policy-makers and its importance is evident if the adverse health effects on the world population are considered. Although this concern is controversial, petroleum refinery has been linked to some adverse health effects for people living nearby. Apart from home, school is the most important indoor environment for children and there is increasing concern about the school environment and its impact on health, also in developing countries where the prevalence of pollution is higher. As most of the children spend more than 40% of their time in schools, it is critical to evaluate the pollution level in such environment. In the metropolitan region of Curitiba, South Brazil, five schools nearby industries and highways with high density traffic, were selected to characterize the aerosol and gaseous compounds indoor and outdoor of the classrooms, during 2009-2011. Size segregated aerosol samples were collected for analyses of bulk and single particle elemental profiles. They were analyzed by electron probe X-ray micro-analysis (EPXMA), and by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF), to investigate the elemental composition of individual particles and bulk samples. The concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX); NO2; SO2; acetic acid; and formic acid were assessed indoor and outdoor using passive diffusion tubes. BTEX were analyzed by GC-MS and other collected gasses by ion chromatography. Individual exposition of BTEX was assessed by personal passive diffusion tubes. Results are interpreted separately and as a whole with the specific aim of identifying compounds that could affect the health of the scholars. In view of the chemical composition and size distribution of the aerosol particles, local deposition efficiencies in the children's respiratory systems were calculated, revealing the deposition of particles at extrathoracic, tracheobronchial and pulmonary levels. PMID:23838057

Godoi, Ricardo H M; Godoi, Ana F L; Gonçalves Junior, Sérgio J; Paralovo, Sarah L; Borillo, Guilherme C; Gonçalves Gregório Barbosa, Cybelli; Arantes, Manoela G; Charello, Renata C; Rosário Filho, Nelson A; Grassi, Marco T; Yamamoto, Carlos I; Potgieter-Vermaak, Sanja; Rotondo, Giuliana G; De Wael, Karolien; van Grieken, Rene

2013-10-01

61

Anaerobic treatment of effluents from an industrial polymers synthesis plant  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility of the anaerobic treatment of an industrial polymer synthesis plant effluent was evaluated. The composition of the wastewater includes acrylates, styrene, detergents, a minor amount of silicates and a significant amount of ferric chloride. The average chemical oxygen demand (COD) corresponding is about 2,000 mg/l. The anaerobic biodegradability of the effluent is shown and the toxicity effect on the populations of anaerobic bacteria is evaluated. The results of the anaerobic biodegradation assays show that 62% of the wastewater compounds, measured as COD, could be consumed. An upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor was used in the evaluation, it has a diameter-height ratio of 1:7, and 4-liter volume. The inoculum was obtained from a UASB pilot plant that treats brewery wastewaters. At the beginning of the operation, the biomass showed an anaerobic activity of 0.58 gCOD/(gVSS {times} d), it decreased only 2.5% in the subsequent 4 months. After 35 days of continuous operation, the reactor was operated at different steady states for 140 days. The COD was maintained at 2,200 mg/l in the feed. The results were: organic loading rate (OLR): 4.3 kg COD/(m{sup 3} {times} d), hydraulic retention time: 12 h, superficial velocity: 1 m/h, average biogas productivity: 290 L CH{sub 4}/kg COD fed, biogas composition: 70--75% methane and a COD removal percentage > 75%.

Araya, P.; Aroca, G.; Chamy, R. [Univ. Catolica de Valparaiso (Chile). School of Biochemical Engineering] [Univ. Catolica de Valparaiso (Chile). School of Biochemical Engineering

1999-06-01

62

Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Excluding dyes. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents exclusive of dyes. Topics include the recovery of lubricants, lye, sizing agents, polyvinyl alcohol, zinc, dirt, and heat from textile effluents. Air and water pollution control technology that is effective in treating textile effluents is discussed. Effluents from synthetic fiber manufacture and wool scouring processes are emphasized. Effluents that contain dyes are discusssed in a separate bibliography.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1996-09-01

63

Bioaugmentation and Biovalourization of Agro-Food and Beverage Industry Effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Food and beverage industry effluents form a major chunk of agro-industrial wastes throughout the world. Food industry effluents\\u000a mainly come from starchy foods, olive oil mill, palm oil mill, sugar refining and fermentation industries. It is imperative\\u000a to review the present status of food processing waste utilization for their safe disposal. Microbes are well-suited natural\\u000a agents for recycling of organic

Alok K. Pandey; Brijesh K. Mishra; Anju Arora; Surender Singh; Lata; Ramesh C. Ray

64

Treatment of effluents from cardboard industry by coagulation-electroflotation.  

PubMed

The objective of the present study is to optimize the treatment of the cardboard industry wastewater generated in the process of machine washing. This type of effluent is usually treated by traditional physicochemical processes such as coagulation/flocculation and sedimentation. These processes give a limited purifying efficiency, particularly for the COD reduction. In this work, the treatment by coagulation-electroflotation process was adopted. In batch mode treatment, current density, pH and coagulant concentration are the operating parameters to optimize. The methodology of experimental research, with an orthogonal central composite plan was adopted. Good agreement between theoretical analysis and experimental results was obtained. Continuous mode was also studied in order to optimize the residence time. A physicochemical characterization including COD, BOD and suspended solids charge was done before and after the treatment in order to improve the efficiency of this process. PMID:18029093

Mansour, L Ben; Kesentini, I

2008-05-30

65

Assessment of the impact of petroleum and petrochemical industries to the surrounding areas in Malaysia using mosses as bioindicator supported by multivariate analysis.  

PubMed

Biomonitoring of multi-element atmospheric deposition using terrestrial moss is a well-established technique in Europe. Although the technique is widely known, there were very limited records of using this technique to study atmospheric air pollution in Malaysia. In this present study, the deposition of 11 trace metals surrounding the main petroleum refinery plant in Kerteh Terengganu (eastern part of peninsular Malaysia) has been evaluated using two local moss species, namely Hypnum plumaeforme and Taxithelium instratum as bioindicators. The study was also done by means of observing whether these metals are attributed to work related to oil exploration in this area. The moss samples have been collected at 30 sampling stations in the vicinity of the petrochemical industrial area covering up to 15 km to the south, north, and west in radius. The contents of heavy metal in moss samples were analyzed by energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence technique. Distribution of heavy metal content in all mosses is portrayed using Surfer software. Areas of the highest level of contaminations are highlighted. The results obtained using the principal components analysis revealed that the elements can be grouped into three different components that indirectly reflected three different sources namely anthropogenic factor, vegetation factor, and natural sources (soil dust or substrate) factor. Heavy metals deposited mostly in the distance after 9 km onward to the western part (the average direction of wind blow). V, Cr, Cu, and Hg are believed to have originated from local petrochemical-based industries operated around petroleum industrial area. PMID:21822578

Abdullah, Mohd Zahari Bin; Saat, Ahmad Bin; Hamzah, Zaini Bin

2012-06-01

66

Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Dyes. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents containing dyes. The citations explore bacteria that absorb dyes, neutralization of dye effluents, decolorization by ozonization or ultraviolet radiation, flocculation treatment, and dye absorption methods and materials. Membrane treatment, electrolysis, and ultrafiltration methods of removing dyes from wastewater are considered, as well as reuse of dye-containing effluents. Textile effluents that do not contain dyes are discussed in another bibliography.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1995-09-01

67

Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Dyes. (Latest citations from World Textile Abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents containing dyes. The citations explore bacteria that absorb dyes, neutralization of dye effluents, color removal by ozonization and by treatment with manganese solid waste, flocculation treatment, and dye absorption methods and materials. Membrane treatment, electrolysis, and ultrafiltration methods of removing dyes from wastewater are considered, as well as reuse of dye-containing effluents. Textile effluents that do not contain dyes are discussed in another bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 244 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1992-06-01

68

Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Dyes. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents containing dyes. The citations explore bacteria that absorb dyes, neutralization of dye effluents, decolorization by ozonization or ultraviolet radiation, flocculation treatment, and dye absorption methods and materials. Membrane treatment, electrolysis, and ultrafiltration methods of removing dyes from wastewater are considered, as well as reuse of dye-containing effluents. Textile effluents that do not contain dyes are discussed in another bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-06-01

69

TOXICITY CHARACTERIZATION OF AN INDUSTRIAL AND A MUNICIPAL EFFLUENT DISCHARGING TO THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) methods have proven very useful in characterizing, identifying and confirming toxicants in environmental samples. his report describes the characterization of toxicants present in two effluents, industrial and municipal, discharged into th...

70

Effect of soda ash industry effluent on protein content of two green seaweeds.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study is to check the effect of soda ash industry effluent on the protein content of the seaweed Ulva faciata and Chaetomorpha antennina. Study shows that the effluent has positive effect on the protein content of the alga and thus these species can be used to reduce the effect of soda ash industry pollution because the rise of up to 35% of protein level is found in these species of alga due to uptake of polluted water. Thus, these seaweeds can be cultivated on a large scale in the effluent affected region and thus clean the environment while getting the proteinous food as by product. PMID:17662523

Jadeja, R N; Tewari, A

2008-03-01

71

[Variation characteristics and removal rate of fluorescence organic matter in the petrochemical wastewater treatment process].  

PubMed

Petrochemical wastewater is of huge quantity released during the production and complicated contaminants of petrochemical wastewater will have immense negative impact on ecology environment. Three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix fluorescence(3D-EEM) was used to investigate the characteristic fluorescence of influent and effluent from each processing unit of Hydrolysis-acidification +A/O+ Contact-oxidation Process in a typical petrochemical wastewater treatment plant . The results showed that there were 4 fluorescence peaks named Peak A, Peak B, Peak D, Peak E in the spectrum chart of influent, they are around lambda(ex/lambda(em) = 220/300, 225/340, 270/300, 275/340 nm, the primary source of fluorescence organic matter(FOM) is industrial wastewater. The fluorescence intensity of each fluorescence peak was decreased, while location was unchanged in the effluent of Hydrolysis-acidification. Peak C appeared from the effluent of anaerobic tank at lambda(ex)/lambda(em) = 250/425 nm, then the fluorescence intensity of Peak C was enhanced in the effluent of aerobic tank. Peak A disappeared from the effluent of secondary sedimentation tank. The spectrum chart of the wastewater had no obvious variation after secondary sedimentation tank. The removal rate of FOM was expressed with the degradation percentage of the fluorescence intensity, the total FOM was reduced by 92.0% after processing, and the removal rate of the FOM fluoresce around Peak A, Peak B, Peak D, Peak E were 100.0%, 91.2%, 80.3%, 92.0% respectively. A volatile I(Peak B)/I(Peak E) value of influent but a relatively stable value of effluent demonstrated that the wastewater treatment plant operated steadily and the process has higher capacity in resistance to shock loading. PMID:25208396

Zhou, Jing-Ling; Xi, Hong-Bo; Zhou, Yue-Xi; Xu, Ji-Xian; Song, Guang-Qing

2014-03-01

72

Assessment of Tannery Industrial Effluents from Kano Metropolis, Kano State, Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim and objective of the study was to determined pollutant levels in tannery industrial effluent from kano metropolis, Nigeria. Effluents from five tannery industries were characterized and the major sources of industrial pollution determined. Levels of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Co, Mn, Fe, Pb and Cr) were determined using Atomic absorption Spectrophotomeric method, while pH, Eh, DO, TDS, Temperature, sulphate, nitrate and phosphate were also determined using standard procedure. The results of the study showed that effluent quality discharged between tanneries differed significantly. Effluent chromium concentrations varied between 1.02`0.13 to 1.56`0.06 mg LG1, which are above WHO and FEPA limit of 1.0 mg LG1. Hafawa Enterprise Tannery, Unique Leather Finishing had significantly high lead concentrations, while Great Northern Tannery could be a potential source of Iron contamination in this area. Mean levels of Zn for Tannorth Tannery Limited were above maximum permissible limits set by FEPA and WHO. Mean levels of sulphate, nitrate and dissolved Oxygen were also above maximum permissible limits for the entire tanneries studied. Mean values of pH total dissolved solid, phosphate, temperature, Cu, Co, Mn and Redox potential generally were below maximum and minimum permissible limits for effluent discharged into rivers. The monthly variations in the entire tannery fell within the range set up by FEPA and WHO for the discharged of tannery effluent into river. The study serves to generate relevant baseline information for Kano industrial estate.

Akan, J. C.; Moses, E. A.; Ogugbuaja, V. O.; Abah, J.

73

Correlating Biochemical and Chemical Oxygen Demand of Effluents - A Case Study of Selected Industries in Kumasi, Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study aims at establishing an empirical correla tion between biochemical oxygen demand (BOD 5) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) of effluents from selected industries in the Kumasi Metropolis to facilitate speed y effluent quality assessment or optimal process control. Hour ly effluent samples were collected for an 8-h perio d three times per week for analysis of the principal

F. K. Attiogbe; Mary Glover-Amengor; K. T. Nyadziehe

74

IDENTIFICATION OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT DISCHARGES  

EPA Science Inventory

Samples of 63 effluent and 22 intake waters were collected from a wide range of chemical manufacturers in areas across the United States. The samples were analyzed for organic compounds in an effort to identify previously unknown and potentially hazardous organic pollutants. Each...

75

Integrated process for the removal of emulsified oils from effluents in the steel industry  

SciTech Connect

Emulsified oils contained in aqueous effluents from cold-rolling mills of the steel industry can be effectively removed via an integrated process consisting of a coagulation/flocculation stage followed by ultrafiltration of the resulting aqueous phase. The effects of CaCl{sub 2}, NaOH, and lime on the stability of different industrial effluents were studied in the coagulation experiments. The flocculants tested were inorganic prehydrolyzed aluminum salts and quaternary polyamines. Ultrafiltration of the aqueous phase from the coagulation/flocculation stage was carried out in a stirred cell using Amicon PM30 and XM300 organic membranes. Permeate fluxes were measured for industrial effluents to which the indicated coagulants and flocculants had been added. Oil concentrations in the permeate were 75% lower than the limits established by all European Union countries. Complete regeneration of the membrane was accomplished with an aqueous solution of a commercial detergent.

Benito, J.M.; Rios, G.; Gutierrez, B.; Pazos, C.; Coca, J.

1999-11-01

76

Dyeing Industry Effluent System as Lipid Production Medium of Neochloris sp. for Biodiesel Feedstock Preparation  

PubMed Central

Microalgae lipid feedstock preparation cost was an important factor in increasing biodiesel fuel hikes. This study was conducted with the concept of implementing an effluent wastewater as lipid production medium for microalgae cultivation. In our study textile dyeing industry effluent was taken as a lipid production medium for Neochloris sp. cultivation. The changes in physicochemical analysis of effluent before and after Neochloris sp. treatment were recorded using standard procedures and AAS analysis. There was especially a reduction in heavy metal like lead (Pb) concentration from 0.002?ppm to 0.001?ppm after Neochloris sp. treatment. Neochloris sp. cultivated in Bold Basal Medium (BBM) (specific algal medium) produced 41.93% total lipid and 36.69% lipid was produced in effluent based cultivation. Surprisingly Neochloris sp. cultivated in effluent was found with enhanced neutral lipid content, and it was confirmed by Nile red fluorescence assay. Further the particular enrichment in oleic acid content of the cells was confirmed with thin layer chromatography (TLC) with oleic acid pure (98%) control. The overall results suggested that textile dyeing industry effluent could serve as the best lipid productive medium for Neochloris sp. biodiesel feedstock preparation. This study was found to have a significant impact on reducing the biodiesel feedstock preparation cost with simultaneous lipid induction by heavy metal stress to microalgae. PMID:25247176

Ramamurthy, Dhandapani

2014-01-01

77

Use of plant genotoxicity bioassay for the evaluation of efficiency of algal biofilters in bioremediation of toxic industrial effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

The toxicity and efficacy of an algal-based bioremediation technology were assessed through bioassays for ecological risk of contaminated industrial effluents. The algal bioremoval of heavy metals was evaluated using an in vitro approach. Phytogenotoxicity tests were conducted with Allium cepa and Vicia faba plants to evaluate the genotoxicity of the industrial effluents before and after treatment with different kinds of

Hala M. Abdel Migid; Yehia A. Azab; Waeel M. Ibrahim

2007-01-01

78

Quantitative estimation of trace chemicals in industrial effluents with the Sticklet transform method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Application of a novel transform operator, the Sticklet transform, to the quantitative estimation of trace chemicals in industrial effluent plumes is reported. The sticklet transform si a superset of the well-known derivative operator and the Haar wavelet, and is characterized by independently adjustable lobe width and separation. Computer simulations demonstrate that we can make accurate and robust concentration estimates of multiple chemical species in industrial effluent plumes in the presence of strong clutter background, interferent chemicals and random noise. In this paper we address the application of the sticklet transform in estimating chemical concentrations in the effluent plumes in the presence of atmospheric transmission effects. We show that this transform retains the ability to yield accurate estimates using on-plume / off-plume measurements that represenst atmospheric differentials up to 10% of the full atmospheric attenuation.

Mehta, Naresh C.; Scharlemann, Ernst T.; Stevens, Charles G.

2001-08-01

79

Quantitative Estimation of Trace Chemicals in Industrial Effluents with the Sticklet Transform Method  

SciTech Connect

Application of a novel transform operator, the Sticklet transform, to the quantitative estimation of trace chemicals in industrial effluent plumes is reported. The sticklet transform is a superset of the well-known derivative operator and the Haar wavelet, and is characterized by independently adjustable lobe width and separation. Computer simulations demonstrate that they can make accurate and robust concentration estimates of multiple chemical species in industrial effluent plumes in the presence of strong clutter background, interferent chemicals and random noise. In this paper they address the application of the sticklet transform in estimating chemical concentrations in effluent plumes in the presence of atmospheric transmission effects. They show that this transform retains the ability to yield accurate estimates using on-plume/off-plume measurements that represent atmospheric differentials up to 10% of the full atmospheric attenuation.

Mehta, N C; Scharlemann, E T; Stevens, C G

2001-04-02

80

A Petrochemical Primer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Informs the reader of the pervasiveness of petrochemicals in everyday life. Discusses the petroleum-to-petrochemical transformation at the refinery and issues related to how petroleum products will be utilized for fuel or nonfuel needs such as lubricants, computers, and medicine in the future. (MDH)

Martin, Amy

1991-01-01

81

Biomass in a petrochemical world.  

PubMed

The world's increasingly voracious appetite for fossil fuels is driven by fast-growing populations and ever-rising aspirations for the lifestyles and standard of living exemplified in the developed world. Forecasts for higher electricity consumption, more comfortable living environments (via heating or cooling) and greater demand for transport fuels are well known. Similar growth in demand is projected for petrochemical-based products in the form of man-made fibres for clothing, ubiquitous plastic artefacts, cosmetics, etc. All drawing upon the same finite oil, gas and coal feedstocks. Biomass can, in principle, substitute for all of these feedstocks. Although ultimately finite, biomass resources can be expanded and renewed if this is a societal priority. This paper examines the projected growth of an energy-intensive international petrochemicals industry, considers its demand for both utilities and feedstocks, and considers the extent to which biomass can substitute for fossil fuels. The scope of this study includes biomass component extraction, direct chemical conversion, thermochemical conversion and biochemical conversion. Noting that the petrochemicals industry consumes around 10 per cent of the world's fossil fuels as feedstocks and almost as much again in utilities, various strategies for addressing future demand are considered. The need for long-term infrastructure and logistics planning is highlighted. PMID:24427511

Roddy, Dermot J

2013-02-01

82

Biomass in a petrochemical world  

PubMed Central

The world's increasingly voracious appetite for fossil fuels is driven by fast-growing populations and ever-rising aspirations for the lifestyles and standard of living exemplified in the developed world. Forecasts for higher electricity consumption, more comfortable living environments (via heating or cooling) and greater demand for transport fuels are well known. Similar growth in demand is projected for petrochemical-based products in the form of man-made fibres for clothing, ubiquitous plastic artefacts, cosmetics, etc. All drawing upon the same finite oil, gas and coal feedstocks. Biomass can, in principle, substitute for all of these feedstocks. Although ultimately finite, biomass resources can be expanded and renewed if this is a societal priority. This paper examines the projected growth of an energy-intensive international petrochemicals industry, considers its demand for both utilities and feedstocks, and considers the extent to which biomass can substitute for fossil fuels. The scope of this study includes biomass component extraction, direct chemical conversion, thermochemical conversion and biochemical conversion. Noting that the petrochemicals industry consumes around 10 per cent of the world's fossil fuels as feedstocks and almost as much again in utilities, various strategies for addressing future demand are considered. The need for long-term infrastructure and logistics planning is highlighted. PMID:24427511

Roddy, Dermot J.

2013-01-01

83

Microbial fuel cell constructed with a micro-organism isolated from sugar industry effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations are carried out with Clostridium sp. which is isolated from sugar industry effluents, as a biocatalyst for current generation in a microbial fuel cell. Two different configurations of the cell are evaluated. In both cells, the anode compartment consists of suspended cells of Clostridium sp. in a nutrient broth in a phosphate buffer. In the first configuration, the cathode

D. Prasad; T. K. Sivaram; Sheela Berchmans; V. Yegnaraman

2006-01-01

84

Performance evaluation of low cost adsorbents in reduction of COD in sugar industrial effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies on reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD) in effluent from sugar industry have been carried out by employing different absorbents optimizing various parameters, such as initial concentration of adsorbate, pH, adsorbent dosage and contact time. Experimental studies were carried out in batches using metakaolin, tamarind nut carbon and dates nut carbon as adsorbents by keeping initial adsorbent dosage at

Anand. K. Parande; A. Sivashanmugam; H. Beulah; N. Palaniswamy

2009-01-01

85

Solar energy integration in the treatment of industrial effluent by coagulation—electroflotation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents the results of the solar energy integration in cardboard industry wastewater treatment generated in the process of machine washing. The treatment process used was coagulation—electroflotation. The effluent COD reduction rate was selected as the follow up parameter. A system of solar collector was also dimensioned in order to supply the insoluble electrodes of the electroflotation unit. In

I. Ksentini; M. L. Aouadi; H. Ben Bacha; L. Ben Mansour

2010-01-01

86

A capillary membrane bioreactor using immobilized polyphenol oxidase for the removal of phenols from industrial effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

A capillary membrane bioreactor has been developed and tested for the removal of phenolic compounds from synthetic and industrial effluents. Polyphenol oxidase was immobilized on single capillary membranes in a small-scale bioreactor using two morphologically different polymeric membranes. One has a novel structure with no external supporting skin layer. This membrane allows greater flux and was shown to facilitate high

W Edwards; R Bownes; W. D Leukes; E. P Jacobs; R Sanderson; P. D Rose; S. G Burton

1999-01-01

87

SURVEY ANALYSIS OF PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS IN INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENTS BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY  

EPA Science Inventory

Analyzing industrial effluents for phenolic compounds involves a number of problems both in the separation of these compounds from the aqueous medium and in the chromatography of the extracted compounds. Use of continuous liquid-liquid extractor improved the recovery of phenolic ...

88

On-line flow injection monitoring of ammonia in industrial liquid effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

A flow-injection method was applied to on-line analysis for ammonia in industrial liquid effluents. The method utilised the diffusion of gaseous ammonia from an alkaline sample stream, through a microporous membrane, into a bromothymol blue indicator stream, with the resulting colour change measured photometrically using a red LED. Following initial development work, the method was adapted to an automated, portable

Kevin N. Andrew; Paul J. Worsfold; Michael Comber

1995-01-01

89

Use of recycling through medium size granular filters to treat small food processing industry effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently there are no suitable wastewater treatment systems for effluents from small food processing industries (dairy, cheese, wine production). Such raw sewages are characterized by high organic matter concentrations (about 10 g COD L-1) and relatively low daily volumes (about 2 m3). An adaptation of attached-growth cultures on fine media processes, known to be easy and inexpensive to use, could

C. Ménoret; C. Boutin; A. Liénard; F. Brissaud

90

Cement kiln dust and coal filters treatment of textile industrial effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effluent discharge from textile industries to neighbouring water bodies and wastewater treatment systems is currently causing significant health concerns to environmental regulatory agencies. This study records lab scale experiments to test efficiency of cement kiln dust (CKD) and CKD+Coal filters in removing a colour, turbidity, and organic substances (BOD and COD) and heavy metals from textile wastewater. The results showed

Esawy Kasem Mahmoued

2010-01-01

91

Study of Biological Aerated Filters for the Treatment of Effluents from the Citrus Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary objective of this research study was to test the applicability and optimize the design parameters of a system of biological aerated filters in order to obtain an optimal effluent from the citrus industry, which would allow its drainage into the municipal sewer system. Expanded clay was used as a support material. After experimenting with both countercurrent and cocurrent

FRANCISCO OSORIO; JUAN C. TORRES; ERNESTO HONTORIA

2006-01-01

92

Effect of soda ash industry effluent on agarophytes, alginophytes and carrageenophyte of west coast of India.  

PubMed

This paper presents the results of a study on the impact of the effluent released by the soda ash industry on important red and brown macro algal species Gelidiella acerosa, Gracilaria corticata, Soleria robusta, Sargassum tenerrimum, Padina tetrastromatica in the tidal zone around Veraval, on the west coast of India, in the lowest low water tide of December 2003. The study examined the effect of effluent discharge on availability of biomass and percentage of phyco-colloids extraction such as agar, alginic acid and carrageen of these commercial seaweeds. PMID:18583039

Jadeja, R N; Tewari, A

2009-02-15

93

Toxicity assessment of effluent from flash light manufacturing industry by bioassay tests in Trigonella foenumgracum.  

PubMed

A rapid bioassay test was conducted to study heavy metal accumulation and biochemical changes in Trigonella foenumgracum (methi) irrigated with 25, 50, 75 and 100% of effluent from flash light manufacturing industry at 60 days after sowing. Total metal concentration in effluent samples was: Cr = 0.12 < Cd = 0.18 < Pb = 0.24 < Cu = 2.68 mg l(-1) whereas, metals were not detected in control. An increase in photosynthetic pigments of exposed plant was noticed up to 50% concentrations of the effluent followed by a decrease at higher concentration as compared to their respective control.An enhanced lipid peroxidation in the treated plants was observed, which was evident by increased level of antioxidants: proline, cysteine, malondialdehyde and ascorbic acid content. The treated plants accumulated metals in the following order: Cu > Pb > Cr > Cd in the roots and shoots. PMID:25522513

Kumari, Narendra; Kumar, Sanjeev; Bauddh, Kuldeep; Dwivedi, Neetu; Singh, D P; Barman, S C

2014-11-01

94

Cleanup of industrial effluents containing heavy metals: a new opportunity of valorising the biomass produced by brewing industry.  

PubMed

Heavy metal pollution is a matter of concern in industrialised countries. Contrary to organic pollutants, heavy metals are not metabolically degraded. This fact has two main consequences: its bioremediation requires another strategy and heavy metals can be indefinitely recycled. Yeast cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are produced at high amounts as a by-product of brewing industry constituting a cheap raw material. In the present work, the possibility of valorising this type of biomass in the bioremediation of real industrial effluents containing heavy metals is reviewed. Given the auto-aggregation capacity (flocculation) of brewing yeast cells, a fast and off-cost yeast separation is achieved after the treatment of metal-laden effluent, which reduces the costs associated with the process. This is a critical issue when we are looking for an effective, eco-friendly, and low-cost technology. The possibility of the bioremediation of industrial effluents linked with the selective recovery of metals, in a strategy of simultaneous minimisation of environmental hazard of industrial wastes with financial benefits from reselling or recycling the metals, is discussed. PMID:23824444

Soares, Eduardo V; Soares, Helena M V M

2013-08-01

95

Effects of industrial effluents, heavy metals, and organic solvents on mallard embryo development  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mallard eggs were externally exposed at 3 and 8 days of incubation to 7 different industrial effluents and to 7 different heavy metal, organic solvent, and petroleum solutions to screen for potential embryo-toxic effects. This route of exposure was chosen in order to simulate the transfer of pollutant from the plumage of aquatic birds to their eggs. Five of the effluents including mineral pigment, scouring effluent, sludge, and tannery effluent resulted in small but significant reductions in embryonic growth. Treatment with methyl mercury chloride solution of 50 ppm (Hg) impaired embryonic growth but much higher concentrations were required to affect survival and cause teratogenic effects. Oil used to suppress road dust was the most toxic of the pollutants tested and only 0.5 microliter/egg caused 60% mortality by 18 days of development. These findings, in combination with other studies suggest that petroleum pollutants, or effluents in combination with petroleum, may pose a hazard to birds' eggs when exposure is by this route.

Hoffman, D.J.; Eastin, W.C., Jr.

1981-01-01

96

Effluent treatment in the paint and coating industry. (Latest citations from World Surface Coatings abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the analysis and treatment of effluents from the coating industry. Filters used for solvent adsorption and recovery, activated carbon adsorption of paint fumes, hydrogen peroxide treatment of wastes, effluent heat recovery, and biological treatments are discussed. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1996-02-01

97

Removal of chromium from electroplating industry effluents by ion exchange resins.  

PubMed

Effluent discharged from the chromium electroplating industry contains a large number of metals, including chromium, copper, nickel, zinc, manganese and lead. The ion exchange process is an alternative technique for application in the treatment of industrial wastewater containing heavy metals and indeed it has proven to be very promising in the removal and recovery of valuable species. The main objective of the present work is to evaluate the performance of commercial ion exchange resins for removing chromium trivalent from industrial effluents, and for this purpose two resins were tested: a chelating exchange resin (Diaion CR11) and a weak cationic resin (Amberlite IRC86). In order to evaluate the sorption capacity of the resins some equilibrium experiments were carried out, being the temperature and pH the main variables considered. The chromium solutions employed in the experiments were synthetic solutions and industrial effluents. In addition, a transient test was also performed as an attempt to understand the kinetic behaviour of the process. PMID:17336455

Cavaco, Sofia A; Fernandes, Sandra; Quina, Margarida M; Ferreira, Licínio M

2007-06-18

98

Acute and early life stage toxicity of industrial effluent on Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes).  

PubMed

To develop the whole effluent toxicity testing methods (WET), embryo larval stage toxicity test using Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) was conducted to evaluate an effluent from a banknote printing plant (BPP). The method is based on acute toxicity using endpoint of 96-h larval morality and on chronic toxicity using endpoints such as the time to hatch, hatching success, deformity, growth rate, swim-up failure, accumulative mortality and sexual ratio. In test for 96-h larval mortality, LC50 (the concentration was lethal to 50% of newly hatching medaka larvae) was 72.9%. In chronic toxicity test, newly fertilized embryos (<5-h old) were exposed to 1%, 6.25%, 12.5%, 25%, 50% effluent concentrations and to 200 mug/l BPA in a 24-h static renewal system at 25+/-1 degrees C until 15 day post-hatch. The results showed that all chronic endpoints were significantly different from the control at 50% dilution (p < 0.01). Embryos began to show lesions on 4th day at higher concentrations (12.5%, 25%, 50% BPP effluent concentrations). Treatment group of 25% dilution showed delayed time to hatch. A reduction in body weight was observed at 25% dilutions for males and females, respectively. Deformities were observed in newly hatched larvae at 25% and 50% BPP effluent concentrations. At 25% dilution, sex ratio of larvae was alternated and there was feminization phenomenon. We conclude that embryo larval stage test using medaka is feasible to evaluate both acute and chronic toxicities and potential endocrine disrupting activity of industrial effluents. PMID:15972230

Zha, Jinmiao; Wang, Zijian

2006-03-15

99

Tracing Organic Footprints from Industrial Effluent Discharge in Recalcitrant Riverine Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excitation–emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy, combined with parallel factor analysis and measurements of UV absorption\\u000a and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations, was used to trace the footprints of industrial effluents discharged into\\u000a the lower Kishon River (Israel). The lower Kishon River typifies streams that are affected by seawater tidal intrusion and\\u000a represents an extreme case of severe long-term pollution caused mainly

Mikhail Borisover; Yael Laor; Ibrahim Saadi; Marcos Lado; Nadezhda Bukhanovsky

100

USE OF TOXICITY IDENTIFICATION EVALUATION METHODS TO CHARACTERIZE IDENTIFY, AND CONFIRM HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM TOXICITY IN AN INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT  

EPA Science Inventory

A toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) was conducted on effluent from a major industrial discharger. Initial monitoring showed slight chronic toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia; later sample showed substantial toxicity to C. dubia. Chemical analysis detected hexavalent chromium ...

101

Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Excluding dyes. July 1983-September 1989 (Citations from World Textile Abstracts). Report for July 1983-September 1989  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents. Effluents that contain dyes are discussed in a separate bibliography. Recovery of lubricants, lye, sizing agents, polyvinyl alcohol, zinc, dirt, and heat from textile effluents are discussed. Air and water pollution control technology that is effective in treating textile effluents is discussed. Effluents from synthetic fiber manufacture and wool scouring processes are emphasized. (This updated bibliography contains 322 citations, 22 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

Not Available

1989-12-01

102

Selective biosorption and recovery of Ruthenium from industrial effluents with Rhodopseudomonas palustris strains.  

PubMed

This study demonstrated for the first time the possibility to remove and partially recover the Ruthenium contained in industrial effluents by using purple non sulfur bacteria (PNSB) as microbial biosorbents. Up to date, the biosorption was only claimed as possible tool for the removal of the platinum-group metals (PGM) but the biosorption of Ru was never experimentally investigated. The PNSBs tested have adsorbed around 40 mg g (dry biomass)(-1) of the Ru contained in the real industrial effluents. At the end of the bioremoval experiments, the amount of Ru recovered from the biomass ranged from 42 % to 72 % of that adsorbed by PNSB, depending by the characteristics of the Ru effluent used. In any case, the use of microbial sorbents such as PNSB for the biosorption and recovery of Ru can be considered a way to reduce both the costs and the impact on the environment of the mining activities needed to obtain the increasing amounts of this rare and precious metal requested by the industrial activities related to its use. PMID:22552900

Colica, Giovanni; Caparrotta, Stefania; De Philippis, Roberto

2012-07-01

103

Use of plant genotoxicity bioassay for the evaluation of efficiency of algal biofilters in bioremediation of toxic industrial effluent.  

PubMed

The toxicity and efficacy of an algal-based bioremediation technology were assessed through bioassays for ecological risk of contaminated industrial effluents. The algal bioremoval of heavy metals was evaluated using an in vitro approach. Phytogenotoxicity tests were conducted with Allium cepa and Vicia faba plants to evaluate the genotoxicity of the industrial effluents before and after treatment with different kinds of algal biofilters (BF). Root cells were exposed for 24 h to different dilutions of both raw and treated effluent of a chemical fertilizer factory. Three cytogenetic endpoints were used to assess the mutagenic potencies of the industrial effluent: mitotic inhibition, mitotic chromosome aberrations, and nuclear irregularities in interphase cells. Before algal treatment, the industrial effluent caused strong genotoxic effects represented by severe inhibition in mitotic activity of meristematic cells and high frequency of both chromosome and nucleus abnormalities. After algal treatment, the cytotoxic effects of 30% and 60% concentrations of the treated effluent were comparable to those of 5% and 10% concentrations before treatment, respectively, and the frequency of both chromosome and nuclear abnormalities declined by approximately 50%. Statistical analysis of the data indicates a significant reduction in genotoxicity associated with a remarkable reduction in heavy metal concentrations after bioremediation by algal BF. The Allium and Vicia genotoxicity approach was effective in monitoring bioremediated effluent for toxicity. PMID:16376989

Abdel Migid, Hala M; Azab, Yehia A; Ibrahim, Waeel M

2007-01-01

104

Impact of marble industry effluents on water and sediment quality of Barandu River in Buner District, Pakistan.  

PubMed

Industries play an important role in improving the living standard but at the same time cause several environmental problems. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the impact of industries on the quality of environment. In the present study, the impact of marble industry effluents on water and sediment quality of Barandu River in Buner District, Pakistan was evaluated. Water and sediment samples were collected at three different sampling sites (upstream, industrial, and downstream sites) from Barandu River and their physicochemical properties were inter-compared. In addition, different marble stones and mix water (wastewater) from marble industry were analyzed. The measured physicochemical parameters of river water including pH, electrical conductivity (EC), alkalinity, total hardness, Ca and Mg hardness, total dissolved solid (TDS), total suspended solids (TSS), sulfates (SO4 (2-)), sodium (Na(+)), potassium (K(+)), nitrites (NO2 (-)), nitrate (NO3 (-)), chloride (Cl(-)), calcium (Ca(2+)), and magnesium (Mg(2+)) were found to be significantly altered by effluent discharges of marble industries. Similarly, heavy metal concentrations in both water and sediments of the river were significantly increased by marble industry wastewater. It is concluded that large quantities of different pollutants are added to Barandu River due to direct disposal of marble industry effluents which degrades its quality. Therefore, it is recommended that direct disposal of marble industry wastewater should be banned and all effluents must be properly treated before discharging in the river water. PMID:25616784

Mulk, Shahi; Azizullah, Azizullah; Korai, Abdul Latif; Khattak, Muhammad Nasir Khan

2015-02-01

105

Use of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) and Tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) in toxicity tests on different industrial effluents in Taiwan.  

PubMed

In Taiwan, aquatic toxicity tests for industrial effluents are not required for discharge permits. However, relying on traditional chemical and physical characteristics of an effluent to monitor and regulate such discharges to manage water quality of a receiving water is insufficient. In this study, we used two fish species, Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) and tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus), and three toxic endpoints, including acute and subacute toxicity, to determine toxicity of seven different types of industrial effluents. Prior to the study, two reference toxicants were tested on two fish species. The LC50s of CdCl2 for tilapia and medaka juveniles were 29.6 +/- 15.3 mg/L and 2.2 +/- 1.2 mg/L, respectively. The sensitivity of medaka embryo mortality and hatching inhibition to CdCl2 were about the same, with the LC50 and EC50 of 0.3 +/- 0.1 mg/L and 0.1 +/- 0.1 mg/L, respectively. The LC50s for tilapia and medaka juveniles to sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) were 19.7 +/- 10.6 mg/L and 12.5 +/- 5.9 mg/L. The medaka embryo was less sensitive to SDS than to CdCl2. The embryo's LC50 for SDS was 5.8 +/- 2.8 mg/L and the hatching inhibition EC50 was 1.3 +/- 1.1 mg/L. Results of toxicity tests on different effluents showed that the electroplating effluent was the most toxic, followed by acrylonitrile manufacturing and pulp/paper mill discharges. The LC50s of the electroplating effluent to different assays were in the range of several percents of the whole effluent. The pulp/paper effluent was toxic only to the medaka embryo. The rest of the industrial effluents tested showed either moderate or no toxicity to the animals. PMID:11443367

Chen, C M; Yu, S C; Liu, M C

2001-04-01

106

Effect of leather industry effluents on soil microbial and protease activity.  

PubMed

Release of leather industry effluents into the agricultural fields causes indicative changes in nutrient cycling and organic matter processing. In the present study, leather industry effluent discharged soil (test) and undischarged soil(control) were collected from the surrounding areas of industry. The physico-chemical, biological properties and soil protease activity were examined. The study reflected the average mean value of pH, electrical conductivity and water holding capacity of the test soil was found to be 7.94, 0.89 microMhos cm(-1) and 0.51 ml g(-1), respectively. In chemical parameters, organic matter, total nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium has the mean of 6.73%, 0.23 g kg(-1), 4.28 mg g(-1) and 28 microg g(-1), respectively. In all the respects, the test soil showed higher values than the control. The soil protease enzyme activity was determined by using substrate casein and the activity was found to be higher (180 microg TE g(-1) 24 hr(-1)) in test soil than the control soil (63 microg TE g(-1) 24 hr(-1)). PMID:23033641

Pradeep, M Reddi; Narasimha, G

2012-01-01

107

Nutrient loadings to streams of the continental United States from municipal and industrial effluent?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Data from the United States Environmental Protection Agency Permit Compliance System national database were used to calculate annual total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) loads to surface waters from municipal and industrial facilities in six major regions of the United States for 1992, 1997, and 2002. Concentration and effluent flow data were examined for approximately 118,250 facilities in 45 states and the District of Columbia. Inconsistent and incomplete discharge locations, effluent flows, and effluent nutrient concentrations limited the use of these data for calculating nutrient loads. More concentrations were reported for major facilities, those discharging more than 1 million gallons per day, than for minor facilities, and more concentrations were reported for TP than for TN. Analytical methods to check and improve the quality of the Permit Compliance System data were used. Annual loads were calculated using "typical pollutant concentrations" to supplement missing concentrations based on the type and size of facilities. Annual nutrient loads for over 26,600 facilities were calculated for at least one of the three years. Sewage systems represented 74% of all TN loads and 58% of all TP loads. This work represents an initial set of data to develop a comprehensive and consistent national database of point-source nutrient loads. These loads can be used to inform a wide range of water-quality management, watershed modeling, and research efforts at multiple scales.

Maupin, Molly A.; Ivahnenko, Tamara

2011-01-01

108

Electrolytic recovery of dilute copper from a mixed industrial effluent of high strength COD.  

PubMed

In this study, the electrochemical treatment has been investigated in the real acidic effluent of copper-phthalocyanine dye manufacturing plant. Galvanostatic batch electrolyses have been carried out in an undivided cell using stainless steel as cathode, dimensionally stable anode (DSA) and graphite as anodes at different current densities and temperatures. The influence of these variables on current efficiency, cell voltage, energy consumption and deposit quality was reported. Under optimized conditions, the maximum copper recovery of 98% and COD removal efficiency of 87.3% with the energy consumption of about 11.23 kWh/kg of Cu and 6.08 kWh/kg of COD, respectively at 30 degrees C were achieved in the acidic raw effluent using 2D parallel-plate cathode. While in 3D stainless steel turning cathode reactor, 99.5% of copper can efficiently be recovered from dilute solution with an acceptable current efficiency of about 56.8% with minimum energy consumption of 2.37 kWh/kg of Cu. The experimental results suggested that the efficiency of copper removal is hindered by the presence of organic species in the mixed industrial effluent. PMID:20434836

Chellammal, S; Raghu, S; Kalaiselvi, P; Subramanian, G

2010-08-15

109

Treatment of nickel containing industrial effluents with a hybrid process comprising of polymer complexation–ultrafiltration–electrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process was studied at the laboratory level and on a pre-industrial pilot for pollutant removal from industrial waste waters containing nickel cations. Five successive steps are involved: (1) complexation of the metal by means of polymeric ligands; (2) ultrafiltration of the complex, which produced a purified effluent and a concentrated metal complex solution; (3) decomplexation by acidification; (4) ultrafiltration

P. Baticle; C. Kiefer; N. Lakhchaf; O. Leclerc; M. Persin; J. Sarrazin

2000-01-01

110

Evaluation of chelating ion-exchange resins for separating Cr(III) from industrial effluents.  

PubMed

In this study two chelating resins containing iminodiacetic acid groups (Amberlite IRC 748 and Diaion CR 11) and a chelating resin based on sulfonic and diphosphonic acid groups (Diphonix) were investigated in order to separate Cr(III) from industrial effluents produced in hard and decorative electroplating. Samples of two industrial plants were characterized during a period of about one year and a half in terms of the metals content (Cr, Cu, Na, Ca, Fe and Ni), Total Suspended Solids (TSS), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and pH. Some of the physical properties of the resins, namely the moisture content, apparent density, intraparticle porosity and the particle size distribution were also evaluated. To quantify the sorption capacity of the resins, batch experiments were performed using synthetic solutions of Cr(III), as well as solutions of Fe in the case of Diphonix. The Langmuir and Langmuir-Freundlich isotherms enabled a good description of the ion-exchange equilibrium data, and the maximum sorption capacity determined for Amberlite and Diaion was 3.6 mequiv./g(dry resin). For Diphonix that parameter was 3.4 mequiv./g(dry resin). The Diphonix resin exhibits a high selectivity for transition metals (Fe, Ni) over the chromium trivalent. Therefore, it was screened as the most suitable for selectively removing those metal impurities from chromium electroplating effluents. For this resin, the sorption capacity is strongly dependent on the initial pH of the solution. Though, high regeneration efficiencies of Diphonix for stripping Cr(III) were found by using a mixture of NaOH/H(2)O(2). The mathematical model tested for describing the dynamics of the process allowed a good fitting to the experimental data and enabled the estimation of effective pore diffusivity of Cr(III). The saturations of Diphonix with industrial effluents demonstrated that the breakthrough capacity of the resin is affected by the presence of other species in solution, such as Fe and Ni. Nevertheless, these effluents may be treated with this resin, being possible to separate Cr(III) from other transition metallic ions in solution. PMID:19406569

Cavaco, Sofia A; Fernandes, Sandra; Augusto, Cátia M; Quina, Margarida J; Gando-Ferreira, Licínio M

2009-09-30

111

A multivariate biological and chemical characterization of industrial effluents connected to municipal sewage treatment plants  

SciTech Connect

Effluents from middle-sized industries, connected to municipal treatment plants in two cities in Sweden were sampled daily during 1 week and were characterized chemically and biologically. The results were evaluated mainly with multivariate statistics to find relations between chemistry and toxicity. The principal component analysis (PCA) overview of the chemical variables displayed three main clusters: nitrogen fractions, metals, and organic parameters. An overview of the biological responses showed that inhibition of nitrification was not correlated to the other biological tests. Bivariate statistics found significant correlations existing between different endpoints of Microtox. In the partial least squares in latent structures (PLS) models created for the biological toxicity tests (Microtox, inhibition of nitrification, and algal growth test with Selenastrum capricornutum), two significant groups causing toxicity were detected, namely inorganic metals and organic pollutants detected by adsorbable organic halogens, chemical oxygen demand, and total organic carbon. When characterizing these industrial effluents, the chemical determinations and the various biological toxicity tests complement each other and none can be excluded.

Andren, C.; Gravenfors, E.; Kukulska, Z. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Inst. of Applied Environmental Research; Eklund, B.; Tarkpea, M. [Stockholm Univ., Nykoeping (Sweden). Inst. of Applied Environmental Research

1998-02-01

112

[AF + BAF for treating effluent in the sewage plant of the resin and chemical industry park].  

PubMed

The anaerobic filter (AF) and biological aerated filter (BAF) were employed to treat the effluent in a sewage plant of the resin and chemical industry park. The ceramsite was used in BAF. In this study, the influent COD was 200-300 mg x L(-1) and the pilot model scale was 2-4 L x d(-1). According to the results, the AF-BAF treatment had a good effect on organic wastewater. When the AF HRT was 24 h and BAF was 12 h, the removal of COD reached 73.4%, and that of NH4(+)-N reached 93.8%. From gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and three-dimensional fluorescence analysis, it was found that small organic molecules and microbial metabolites could be removed effectively. However, there was no obviously effect on the removal of saturated alkane and nitrogenous heterocyclic compounds. From the denature gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) spectra analysis, it was shown that there were more kinds of microorganism in the sludge of the AF than in the up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB), which indicates that the AF-BAF system is more effective on treating effluent in a sewage plant of the resin and chemical industry park. PMID:25158498

Tu, Yong; Liu, Wei-Jing; Zhang, Yao-Hui; Xu, Jun; Tang, Min; Chen, Yong; Bai, Yong-Gang

2014-06-01

113

Evaluation of the phytotoxicity of polycontaminated industrial effluents using the lettuce plant (Lactuca sativa) as a bioindicator.  

PubMed

Industrial wastewater containing heavy metals is generally decontaminated by physicochemical treatment consisting in insolublizing the contaminants and separating the two phases, water and sludge, by a physical process (filtration, settling or flotation). However, chemical precipitation does not usually remove the whole pollution load and the effluent discharged into the environment can be toxic even if it comes up to regulatory standards. To assess the impact of industrial effluent from 4 different surface treatment companies, we performed standardized bioassays using seeds of the lettuce Lactuca sativa. We measured the rate of germination, and the length and mass of the lettuce plantlet. The results were used to compare the overall toxicity of the different effluents: effluents containing copper and nickel had a much higher impact than those containing zinc or aluminum. In addition, germination tests conducted using synthetic solutions confirmed that mixtures of metals have higher toxicity than the sum of their separate constituents. These biological tests are cheap, easy to implement, reproducible and highlight the effects caused by effluent treated with the methods commonly applied in industry today. They could be routinely used to check the impact of industrial discharges, even when they meet regulatory requirements for the individual metals. PMID:21835466

Charles, Jérémie; Sancey, Bertrand; Morin-Crini, Nadia; Badot, Pierre-Marie; Degiorgi, François; Trunfio, Giuseppe; Crini, Grégorio

2011-10-01

114

Effect of gaseous cement industry effluents on four species of microalgae.  

PubMed

Experiments were performed at lab scale in order to test the possibility to grow microalgae with CO2 from gaseous effluent of cement industry. Four microalgal species (Dunaliella tertiolecta, Chlorella vulgaris, Thalassiosira weissflogii, and Isochrysis galbana), representing four different phyla were grown with CO2 enriched air or with a mixture of gasses mimicking the composition of a typical cement flue gas (CFG). In a second stage, the culture submitted to the CFG received an increasing concentration of dust characteristic of cement industry. Results show that growth for the four species is not affected by the CFG. Dust added at realistic concentrations do not have any impact on growth. For dust concentrations in two ranges of magnitude higher, microalgae growth was inhibited. PMID:23811523

Talec, Amélie; Philistin, Myrvline; Ferey, Frédérique; Walenta, Günther; Irisson, Jean-Olivier; Bernard, Olivier; Sciandra, Antoine

2013-09-01

115

Analytic prognostic for petrochemical pipelines  

E-print Network

Pipelines tubes are part of vital mechanical systems largely used in petrochemical industries. They serve to transport natural gases or liquids. They are cylindrical tubes and are submitted to the risks of corrosion due to high PH concentrations of the transported liquids in addition to fatigue cracks due to the alternation of pressure-depression of gas along the time, initiating therefore in the tubes body micro-cracks that can propagate abruptly to lead to failure. The development of the prognostic process for such systems increases largely their performance and their availability, as well decreases the global cost of their missions. Therefore, this paper deals with a new prognostic approach to improve the performance of these pipelines. Only the first mode of crack, that is, the opening mode, is considered.

Jaoude, Abdo Abou; El-Tawil, Khaled; Noura, Hassan; Ouladsine, Mustapha

2012-01-01

116

Analytic prognostic for petrochemical pipelines  

E-print Network

Pipelines tubes are part of vital mechanical systems largely used in petrochemical industries. They serve to transport natural gases or liquids. They are cylindrical tubes and are submitted to the risks of corrosion due to high PH concentrations of the transported liquids in addition to fatigue cracks due to the alternation of pressure-depression of gas along the time, initiating therefore in the tubes body micro-cracks that can propagate abruptly to lead to failure. The development of the prognostic process for such systems increases largely their performance and their availability, as well decreases the global cost of their missions. Therefore, this paper deals with a new prognostic approach to improve the performance of these pipelines. Only the first mode of crack, that is, the opening mode, is considered.

Abdo Abou Jaoude; Seifedine Kadry; Khaled El-Tawil; Hassan Noura; Mustapha Ouladsine

2012-12-25

117

Effect of soda ash industry effluent on bioaccumulation of metals by seaweeds of coastal region of Gujarat, India.  

PubMed

The bioaccumulation ability of five species of seaweeds to 15 metals was studied in the seawater polluted by the effluent of soda ash industry. The bioaccumulation of Al, Mn and Fe in these seaweeds increased continuously as distance increased from outfall. However, Padina tetrastromatica showed reverse trend. Quite a number of metals like Au, Co, Hg, Ni, Pb, Pt and Sn were not recorded from any species of seaweeds from all sampling stations. Cr was recorded in Gracillaria acerosa from control site only. Accumulation of Cu in Gracilaria corticata was maximum near effluent discharge point and least at control, whereas its accumulation in P. tetrastromatica was more at station with lower pollution (station-3) than higher polluted station (station-2). Seaweeds had different pattern of bioaccumulation to Cu and Ag under the influence of the effluent. The bioaccumulation of Cd in quite a number of species was in non-detectable range, however in case of red seaweed it was more under polluted condition and non-detectable in control. The biosequestering capacity of different seaweed to different metals and their suitability for bioremediation under the influence of effluent is discussed. Bioconcentration factor for different seaweed species from different distances from outfall has been computed and discussed. The undiluted soda ash industry effluent is characterized by very high pH, density, settleable solids, total dissolved solids, ammonia and nitrate. The specific gravity, density, total suspended solids and total dissolved solids decreased continuously from undiluted effluent to seawater affected up to 1 km. PMID:17258393

Jadeja, R N; Tewari, A

2007-08-17

118

88. ARAIII. "Petrochem" heater is hoisted over south exterior wall ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

88. ARA-III. "Petro-chem" heater is hoisted over south exterior wall of heater pit in GCRE reactor building (ARA-608). Printing on heater says, "Petro-chem iso-flow furnace; American industrial fabrications, inc." Camera facing north. January 7, 1959. Ineel photo no. 529-124. Photographer: Ken Mansfield. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

119

Zero Discharge Performance of an Industrial Pilot-Scale Plant Treating Palm Oil Mill Effluent  

PubMed Central

Palm oil is one of the most important agroindustries in Malaysia. Huge quantities of palm oil mill effluent (POME) pose a great threat to aqueous environment due to its very high COD. To make full use of discharged wastes, the integrated “zero discharge” pilot-scale industrial plant comprising “pretreatment-anaerobic and aerobic process-membrane separation” was continuously operated for 1 year. After pretreatment in the oil separator tank, 55.6% of waste oil in raw POME could be recovered and sold and anaerobically digested through 2 AnaEG reactors followed by a dissolved air flotation (DAF); average COD reduced to about 3587?mg/L, and biogas production was 27.65 times POME injection which was used to generate electricity. The aerobic effluent was settled for 3?h or/and treated in MBR which could remove BOD3 (30°C) to less than 20?mg/L as required by Department of Environment of Malaysia. After filtration by UF and RO membrane, all organic compounds and most of the salts were removed; RO permeate could be reused as the boiler feed water. RO concentrate combined with anaerobic surplus sludge could be used as biofertilizer.

Mahmood, Qaisar; Qiu, Jiang-Ping; Li, Yin-Sheng; Chang, Yoon-Seong; Chi, Li-Na; Li, Xu-Dong

2015-01-01

120

Zero discharge performance of an industrial pilot-scale plant treating palm oil mill effluent.  

PubMed

Palm oil is one of the most important agroindustries in Malaysia. Huge quantities of palm oil mill effluent (POME) pose a great threat to aqueous environment due to its very high COD. To make full use of discharged wastes, the integrated "zero discharge" pilot-scale industrial plant comprising "pretreatment-anaerobic and aerobic process-membrane separation" was continuously operated for 1 year. After pretreatment in the oil separator tank, 55.6% of waste oil in raw POME could be recovered and sold and anaerobically digested through 2 AnaEG reactors followed by a dissolved air flotation (DAF); average COD reduced to about 3587?mg/L, and biogas production was 27.65 times POME injection which was used to generate electricity. The aerobic effluent was settled for 3?h or/and treated in MBR which could remove BOD3 (30°C) to less than 20?mg/L as required by Department of Environment of Malaysia. After filtration by UF and RO membrane, all organic compounds and most of the salts were removed; RO permeate could be reused as the boiler feed water. RO concentrate combined with anaerobic surplus sludge could be used as biofertilizer. PMID:25685798

Wang, Jin; Mahmood, Qaisar; Qiu, Jiang-Ping; Li, Yin-Sheng; Chang, Yoon-Seong; Chi, Li-Na; Li, Xu-Dong

2015-01-01

121

Glyphosate degradation by immobilized bacteria: field studies with industrial wastewater effluent.  

PubMed Central

Immobilized bacteria have been shown in the laboratory to effectively remove glyphosate from wastewater effluent discharged from an activated sludge treatment system. Bacterial consortia in lab columns maintained a 99% glyphosate-degrading activity (GDA) at a hydraulic residence time of less than 20 min. In this study, a pilot plant (capacity, 45 liters/min) was used for a field demonstration. Initially, activated sludge was enriched for microbes with GDA during a 3-week biocarrier activation period. Wastewater effluent was then spiked with glyphosate and NH4Cl and recycled through the pilot plant column during start-up. Microbes with GDA were enhanced by maintaining the pH at less than 8 and adding yeast extract (less than 10 mg/liter). Once the consortia were stabilized, the column capacity for glyphosate removal was determined in a 60-day continuous-flow study. Waste containing 50 mg of glyphosate per liter was pumped at increasing flow rates until a steady state was reached. A microbial GDA of greater than 90% was achieved at a 10-min hydraulic residence time (144 hydraulic turnovers per day). Additional studies showed that microbes with GDA were recoverable within (i) 5 days of an acid shock and (ii) 3 days after a 21-day dormancy (low-flow, low-maintenance) mode. These results suggest that full-scale use of immobilized bacteria can be a cost-effective and dependable technique for the biotreatment of industrial wastewater. PMID:1599241

Hallas, L E; Adams, W J; Heitkamp, M A

1992-01-01

122

Effluent treatment in the textile industry: excluding dyes. January 1983-January 1989 (Citations from World Textile Abstracts). Report for January 1983-January 1989  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile-industry effluents. Effluents that contain dyes are discussed in a separate bibliography. Recovery of lubricants, lye, sizing agents, polyvinyl alcohol, zinc, dirt, and heat from textile effluents are discussed. Air and water pollution control technology that is effective in treating textile effluents is discussed. Effluents from synthetic-fiber manufacture and wool-scouring processes are emphasized. (This updated bibliography contains 300 citations, 84 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

Not Available

1989-02-01

123

Application of Trapa bipinosa for the treatment of pulp and paper industry effluent.  

PubMed

The ability of aquatic plants to absorb, translocate and concentrate metals has led to the development of various plant-based treatment systems. The potential to accumulate metals like iron, nickel, manganese and copper by Trapa bipinosa was assessed by subjecting them to different effluent concentrations of pulp and paper industry under laboratory conditions. Trapa showed the ability to accumulate substantial amounts of the metals during a short span of one week. When the plants were grown in different concentrations they caused significant reduction in various parameters like dissolved oxygen, biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total alkalinity total hardness, chloride and sulphate. While there was an increase in biomass, no visible phytotoxic symptoms were shown by treated plants. PMID:20136044

Kousar, Hina; Puttaiah, E T

2009-09-01

124

Biosequestration, transformation, and volatilization of mercury by Lysinibacillus fusiformis isolated from industrial effluent.  

PubMed

In the present study, an efficient mercury-tolerant bacterial strain (RS-5) was isolated from heavy-metalcontaminated industrial effluent. Under shake flask conditions, 97% of the supplemented mercuric chloride was sequestered by the biomass of RS-5 grown in a tryptone soy broth. The sequestered mercuric ions were transformed inside the bacterial cells, as an XRD analysis of the biomass confirmed the formation of mercurous chloride, which is only feasible following the reaction of the elemental mercury and the residual mercuric chloride present within the cells. Besides the sequestration and intracellular transformation, a significant fraction of the mercury (63%) was also volatilized. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of RS-5 revealed its phylogenetic relationship with the family Bacillaceae, and a 98% homology with Lysinibacillus fusiformis, a Gram-positive bacterium with swollen sporangia. This is the first observation of the sequestration and volatilization of mercuric ions by Lysinibacillus sp. PMID:22561864

Gupta, Saurabh; Goyal, Richa; Nirwan, Jashan; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh; Tejoprakash, Nagaraja

2012-05-01

125

Genotoxicity evaluation of effluents from textile industries of the region Fez-Boulmane, Morocco: A case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to investigate the biological hazard of effluents from textile industries of Fez-Boulmane region in Morocco, mutagenicity and phytotoxicity tests were performed on different biological systems. Moreover, the efficiency of a Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) system, working by activated sludge on a laboratory scale, was estimated by comparing the ecotoxicity results observed before and after wastewater treatment. Evaluation of

Lucia Giorgetti; Hakima Talouizte; Mohammed Merzouki; Leonardo Caltavuturo; Chiara Geri; Stefania Frassinetti

2011-01-01

126

Adsorption–desorption studies of indigocarmine from industrial effluents by using deoiled mustard and its comparison with charcoal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deoiled mustard obtained from local oil mills has been used as an inexpensive and effective adsorbent for the removal of indigocarmine dye from industrial effluents. The influence of various factors on the adsorption capacity has been studied by batch experiments. The adsorption studies validate both Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms. Thermodynamic parameters such as ?G°, ?H°, and ?S° for the

Vinod K. Gupta; Rajeev Jain; S. Malathi; Arunima Nayak

2010-01-01

127

Pulping effluents: Biological treatment. (Latest citations from the Paper and Board, Printing, and Packaging Industries Research Associations database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning effluent and wastewater biological treatment and disposal in the pulping industry. Effluent toxicity; treatment plant management, treatment systems, and equipment design; combined mechanical and biological treatment processes; biological degradation treatment in chemical pulp mills; and the handling and disposal of solid wastes are among the topics discussed. Also examined are performance evaluations of biological treatment processes in domestic and foreign plants in full scale operation and pilot programs. (Contains a minimum of 157 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1992-12-01

128

Pulping effluents: Biological treatment. (Latest citations from the Paper and Board, Printing, and Packaging Industries Research Associations database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning effluent and wastewater biological treatment and disposal in the pulping industry. Effluent toxicity; treatment plant management, treatment systems, and equipment design; combined mechanical and biological treatment processes; biological degradation treatment in chemical pulp mills; and the handling and disposal of solid wastes are among the topics discussed. Also examined are performance evaluations of biological treatment processes in domestic and foreign plants in full scale operation and pilot programs. (Contains a minimum of 168 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-12-01

129

Pulping effluents: Biological treatment. (Latest citations from the Paper and Board, Printing, and Packaging Industries Research Associations database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning effluent and wastewater biological treatment and disposal in the pulping industry. Effluent toxicity; treatment plant management, treatment systems, and equipment design; combined mechanical and biological treatment processes; biological degradation treatment in chemical pulp mills; and the handling and disposal of solid wastes are among the topics discussed. Also examined are performance evaluations of biological treatment processes in domestic and foreign plants in full scale operation and pilot programs. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1996-03-01

130

Whole acute toxicity removal from industrial and domestic effluents treated by electron beam radiation: emphasis on anionic surfactants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electron beam radiation has been applied to improve real industrial and domestic effluents received by Suzano wastewater treatment plant. Radiation efficacy has been evaluated as toxicity reduction, using two biological assays. Three sites were sampled and submitted for toxicity assays, anionic surfactant determination and electron beam irradiation. This paper shows the reduction of acute toxicity for both test-organisms, the marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri and the crustacean Daphnia similis. The raw toxic effluents exibitted from 0.6 ppm up to 11.67 ppm for anionic surfactant before being treated by the electron beam. Radiation processing resulted in reduction of the acute toxicity as well as surfactant removal. The final biological effluent was in general less toxic than other sites but the presence of anionic surfactants was evidenced.

Moraes, M. C. F.; Romanelli, M. F.; Sena, H. C.; Pasqualini da Silva, G.; Sampa, M. H. O.; Borrely, S. I.

2004-09-01

131

[3-D fluorescence properties of petrochemical wastewater].  

PubMed

Petrochemical wastewater is one of major types of industrial wastewater in China. It is of huge quantity and causes serious pollution. Wastewater contains lots of fluorescence matters. Its fluorescence spectrum could exhibit organic components and unique for each sample like fingerprint. Thus it is referred to as fluorescence fingerprint of water quality, in brief aqueous fingerprint. This paper presented that there were almost 10 peaks in the aqueous fingerprint of petrochemical wastewater from a large-scale petrochemical plant, including the peak at the excitation/emission wavelengths (lambda(ex)/lambda(em)) of around 230/340 nm. That peak exists in the fluorescence spectra of various petroleum materials. The aqueous fingerprint was divided into 3 zones according to the relationship of fluorescence intensity of peaks: the linear relation between the peaks from different zones was not significant while that between the peaks from same zone was significant with coefficients of above 0.85. The zone around lambda(ex)/lambda(em) = 230/305 nm might relate to benzene compounds and the zone around lambda(ex)/lambda(em) = 220-320/230-440 nm (excluding the zone around lambda(ex)/lambda(em) = 230/305 nm) showed close relation with the raw materials (petroleum materials). The intensity of each peak had a fixed range. That range and relationships between peaks could be the evidences for diagnosing if the performance of the production processes is proper. PMID:22097844

Wu, Jing; Cao, Zhi-Ping; Xie, Chao-Bo; Sun, Ya-Nan; Dai, Chun-Yan; Xiang, Xi

2011-09-01

132

Continuous metal removal from solution and industrial effluents using Spirogyra biomass-packed column reactor.  

PubMed

The granules of Spirogyra neglecta biomass, diameter 0.2-0.5mm, were successfully prepared by boiling it in urea-formaldehyde mixture. Metal sorption performance of the column packed with Spirogyra granules was assessed under variable operating conditions, such as, different influent metal concentrations, bed heights and flow rates. These conditions greatly influenced the breakthrough time and volume, saturation time and volume, and the ability of the column to attain saturation after reaching the breakthrough. The experimental breakthrough curves obtained under varying experimental conditions were modeled using Bohart-Adams, Wolborska, Thomas, Yoon-Nelson and modified dose-response models. The first two models were valid only in representing the initial part of the breakthrough curves; however, the other three models were good in representing the entire breakthrough curve. The granule-packed column could be successfully used up to 6 and 9 cycles of sorption and desorption for the removal of Cu(II) and Pb(II), respectively. The column could efficiently remove different metals from real industrial effluents, and hence the test biomass (Spirogyra granules) is a good candidate for commercial application. PMID:22169159

Singh, Alpana; Kumar, Dhananjay; Gaur, J P

2012-03-01

133

In situ acute/chronic toxicological monitoring of industrial effluents for the NPDES biomonitoring program using fish and amphibian embryo-larval stages as test organisms. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Clean Water Act has necessitated further requirements and revisions in the industrial permit program maintained under the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES). It is now evident that in many cases the identification and control of toxic substances cannot be accomplished solely on the basis of an effluent guideline approach, emphasizing the need for reliable and economical procedures with which to quantify directly the net toxicity of complex effluents and estimate acute and chronic effects on aquatic biota. Therefore, the major objective of this investigation was to develop and evaluate fish and amphibian embryo-larval test procedures for the toxicogical characterization of municipal and industrial effluents.

Birge, W.J.; Black, J.A.

1981-09-01

134

Phytotoxicities of Selected Chemicals and Industrial Effluents to Nitellopsis obtuse Cells, Assessed by Using a Rapid Electrophysiological Charophyte Test.  

PubMed

The acute phytotoxicities of seven heavy metals (Cd2+, Cu2+, Hg2+, Ni2+, Zn2+, Cr6+ and Co2+), three phenolic compounds (phenol, 3,5-dichlorophenol and pentachlorophenol) and nine industrial effluents were appraised by using a rapid electrophysiological test with cells of the charophyte, Nitellopsis obtusa. The EC50 values (concentrations causing a 50% decrease in resting potential) obtained for reference chemicals were compared with those of five microbiotests (Polytox®, Microtox®, Selenastrum capricornutum growth inhibition, Daphnia magna immobilisation and Rotoxkit F™) taken from the scientific literature. The 45-minute charophyte test, the freshwater Algaltoxkit F™, Daphtoxkit F™ and Rotoxkit F™ were conducted simultaneously to assess the toxicities of effluents. The Toxkit microbiotests were typically two orders of magnitude more sensitive than the electrophysiological charophyte test to pure chemicals. The electrophysiological charophyte test was generally more sensitive than the Toxkit microbiotests to complex effluents. The rapid electrophysiological test, employing the 45-minute membrane depolarisation of N. obtusa cells as an endpoint, demonstrated similar sensitivity to heavy metals and phenolic compounds as the 20-minute bacterial Polytox® test, but less sensitivity than the 15-minute Microtox® test. Therefore, this rapid macroalgal test appears to be valuable as a sublethal toxicity screening tool for effluents. PMID:25470676

Manusadzianas, L; Vitkus, R; Pörtner, R; Märkl, H

1999-01-01

135

Physico-chemical characteristics of paper industry effluents--a case study.  

PubMed

This paper presents the characteristics of wastewater from a small paper mill which is using wastepaper as a raw material. After analysis it was found that the raw wastewater consisted of 202-294 mg/l and 2010-3200 mg/l of suspended and dissolved solids respectively while pH varied from 6.7-7.3. The BOD and COD values ranged from 210-310, 1680-2340 mg/l respectively. Due to the treatment of raw effluent, the SS and TDS of treated effluent were significantly decreased and the values ranged in between 118 mg L(-1) to 154 mg L(-1) and 645 mg L(-1) to 925 mg L(-1), respectively. The pH values of the treated effluent were higher than the raw effluent. The nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium content of treated effluent were found to be higher after the treatment of paper mill raw effluent. The low amount of nutrient content may be because of the use of chemicals in process section which do not contain such elements. The sodium, calcium and magnesium were found higher in treated effluent, which may be due to addition of chemicals during the pulping and production section. PMID:16649620

Suriyanarayanan, S; Jayakumar, D; Balasubramanian, S

2005-04-01

136

Assessment of the effluent quality from a gold mining industry in Ghana.  

PubMed

The physical and chemical qualities of the process effluent and the tailings dam wastewater of AngloGold-Ashanti Limited, a gold mining company in Ghana, were studied from June to September, 2010. The process effluent from the gold extraction plant contains high amounts of suspended solids and is therefore highly turbid. Arsenic, copper and cyanide were identified as the major pollutants in the process effluent with average concentrations of 10.0, 3.1 and 21.6 mg?L(-1), respectively. Arsenic, copper, iron and free cyanide (CN(-)) concentrations in the process effluent exceeded the Ghana EPA discharge limits; therefore, it is necessary to treat the process effluent before it can be discharged into the environment. Principal component analysis of the data indicated that the process effluent characteristics were influenced by the gold extraction process as well as the nature of the gold-bearing ore processed. No significant correlation was observed between the wastewater characteristics themselves, except for the dissolved oxygen and the biochemical oxygen demand. The process effluent is fed to the Sansu tailings dam, which removes 99.9 % of the total suspended solids and 99.7 % of the turbidity; but copper, arsenic and cyanide concentrations were still high. The effluent produced can be classified as inorganic with a high load of non-biodegradable compounds. It was noted that, though the Sansu tailings dam stores the polluted effluent from the gold extraction plant, there will still be serious environmental problems in the event of failure of the dam. PMID:23179219

Acheampong, Mike A; Paksirajan, Kannan; Lens, Piet N L

2013-06-01

137

Characterization of new biosurfactant produced by Trichosporon montevideense CLOA 72 isolated from dairy industry effluents.  

PubMed

The yeast strain CLOA 72 isolated from the effluent of a dairy industry in Brazil and identified as Trichosporon montevideense, was able to grow and produce a glycolipid biosurfactant when cultured on a mineral medium (MM) with sunflower oil as the carbon source. Biosurfactant production was partially growth-associated and maximal emulsification activity was observed at 144 h of cultivation (78.92%). The biosurfactant purified by precipitation with ethanol showed 78.66% emulsifying activity when used in concentrations above 4.5 mg/ml and was able to reduce the surface tension of water to values below 44.9 mN/m. The critical micellar concentration (CMC) was found to be 2.2 mg/ml. The highest emulsifying activity (E(24)) has been observed with vegetable oils, toluene, kerosene, isooctane, cyclohexane, hexane, diesel oil and hexadecane as compared to mineral oil and oleic acid. The biosurfactant also showed good stability during exposure to 100 degrees C for different periods of time (10 to 60 min), to high salinity (30% of NaCl, KCl and NaHCO(3)), and to a wide range of pH values (1-10). The biosurfactant purified by gel filtration chromatography is a glycolipid, with lipid portion containing 16.03% (9Z)-octadec-9-enoic acid, 14.92% hexadecanoic acid, and 9.63% (E) octadec-9-enoic acid and the carbohydrate portion containing mannose (35.29%), xylose (41.99%), arabinose (17.47%), and glucose (5.25%). PMID:19810042

Monteiro, Andrea S; Coutinho, Joana O P A; Júnior, Ary C; Rosa, Carlos A; Siqueira, Ezequias P; Santos, Vera L

2009-12-01

138

The application of advanced oxidation technologies to the treatment of effluents from the pulp and paper industry: a review.  

PubMed

The paper industry is adopting zero liquid effluent technologies to reduce freshwater use and meet environmental regulations, which implies closure of water circuits and the progressive accumulation of pollutants that must be removed before water reuse and final wastewater discharge. The traditional water treatment technologies that are used in paper mills (such as dissolved air flotation or biological treatment) are not able to remove recalcitrant contaminants. Therefore, advanced water treatment technologies, such as advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), are being included in industrial wastewater treatment chains aiming to either improve water biodegradability or its final quality. A comprehensive review of the current state of the art regarding the use of AOPs for the treatment of the organic load of effluents from the paper industry is herein addressed considering mature and emerging treatments for a sustainable water use in this sector. Wastewater composition, which is highly dependent on the raw materials being used in the mills, the selected AOP itself, and its combination with other technologies, will determine the viability of the treatment. In general, all AOPs have been reported to achieve good organic removal efficiencies (COD removal >40 %, and about an extra 20 % if AOPs are combined with biological stages). Particularly, ozonation has been the most extensively reported and successfully implemented AOP at an industrial scale for effluent treatment or reuse within pulp and paper mills, although Fenton processes (photo-Fenton particularly) have actually addressed better oxidative results (COD removal???65-75 %) at a lab scale, but still need further development at a large scale. PMID:25185495

Hermosilla, Daphne; Merayo, Noemí; Gascó, Antonio; Blanco, Ángeles

2015-01-01

139

Biotreatment of an effluent from a wood laminate industry using Lentinula edodes UEC 2019.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to evaluate the performance of the fungus Lentinula edodes UEC 2019 in the treatment of an effluent derived from a wood laminate manufacturing process. The factorial design methodology was employed to verify the influence of the source of nitrogen, co-substratum and treatment time variables on the color and total phenols reduction. Assays were conducted in Erlenmeyer flasks and bench bioreactor and the obtained results showed that the best conditions for the effluent remediation were observed when using the effluent itself as the nitrogen source (1g/L) and glucose (79 g/L) as co-substratum (glucose) during a treatment period of 30 days. It was possible the remove 92% phenol, 97% color and reduce the COD in the bioreactor by 99% while controlling the temperature, pH and feeding. These results demonstrate that the fungus was able to use the effluent components as substrate and that it has potential for use in wood lamination effluent remediation. PMID:18814967

Barreto-Rodrigues, Marcio; Aguiar, Caroline M; da Cunha, Mário A A

2009-05-30

140

Decolorization of salt-alkaline effluent with industrial reactive dyes by laccase-producing Basidiomycetes strains.  

PubMed

The discharge of highly coloured synthetic dye effluents into rivers and lakes is harmful to the water bodies, and therefore, intensive researches have been focussed on the decolorization of wastewater by biological, physical or chemical treatments. In the present study, 12 basidiomycetes strains from the genus Pleurotus, Trametes, Lentinus, Peniophora, Pycnoporus, Rigidoporus, Hygrocybe and Psilocybe were evaluated for decolorization of the reactive dyes Cibacron Brilliant Blue H-GR and Cibacron Red FN-2BL, both in solid and liquid media. Among the evaluated fungi, seven showed great ability to decolorize the synthetic textile effluent, both in vivo (74-77%) or in vitro (60-74%), and laccase was the main ligninolytic enzyme involved on dyes decolorization. Pleurotus ostreatus, Trametes villosa and Peniophora cinerea reduced near to 60% of the effluent colour after only 1 h of treatment. The decolorization results were still improved by establishing the nitrogen source and amount to be used during the fungal strains cultivation in synthetic medium previous their action on the textile effluent, with yeast extract being a better nitrogen source than ammonium tartarate. These results contribute for the development of an effective microbiological process for decolorization of dye effluents with reduced time of treatment. PMID:23350659

Moreira-Neto, S L; Mussatto, S I; Machado, K M G; Milagres, A M F

2013-04-01

141

Removal and recovery of lead (Pb(2+)) from industrial effluent using indigenous and tailor-made Aureobasidium sp. RBSS-303.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to assess the removal and recovery of Pb-II from industrial wastewater using a locally isolated strain of Aureobasidium sp. RBSS-303. The initial Pb(2+) concentration of 600 mg/L resulted in maximum uptake capacity (Qmax 235.1 ± 0.3 mg/g). The biosorbent revival was attained by contacting with HCl (0.01 M), with 75.3% recovery of Pb(2+). The Freundlich isotherm best explains the Pb(2+) sorption performances. Maximum adsorption distribution coefficient of 1,309.6 mg metal/mL was observed at initial Pb(2+) concentration value of 100 mg/L. Evaluation of nine kinetic models showed the removal rate of Pb(2+) was reliant on diffusion control pseudo-second-order and saturation-mixed-order kinetic models with a high correlation coefficient value (R = 0.99). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis showed the major contribution of -NH2 and -CN ligands of Aureobasidium sp. RBSS-303 in the sorption phenomenon of Pb(2+). The biosorption assays carried out with effluent of the paint industry showed 76.8% efficiency for Pb(2+) removal by the candidate biosorbent, regardless of the complex composition of the industrial effluent. PMID:25607681

Aftab, Kiran; Akhtar, Kalsoom; Anjum, Fozia

2015-01-01

142

Extracellular synthesis and characterization of nickel oxide nanoparticles from Microbacterium sp. MRS-1 towards bioremediation of nickel electroplating industrial effluent.  

PubMed

In the present study, a nickel resistant bacterium MRS-1 was isolated from nickel electroplating industrial effluent, capable of converting soluble NiSO4 into insoluble NiO nanoparticles and identified as Microbacterium sp. The formation of NiO nanoparticles in the form of pale green powder was observed on the bottom of the flask upon prolonged incubation of liquid nutrient medium containing high concentration of 2000ppm NiSO4. The properties of the produced NiO nanoparticles were characterized. NiO nanoparticles exhibited a maximum absorbance at 400nm. The NiO nanoparticles were 100-500nm in size with unique flower like structure. The elemental composition of the NiO nanoparticles was 44:39. The cells of MRS-1 were utilized for the treatment of nickel electroplating industrial effluent and showed nickel removal efficiency of 95%. Application of Microbacterium sp. MRS-1 would be a potential bacterium for bioremediation of nickel electroplating industrial waste water and simultaneous synthesis of NiO nanoparticles. PMID:24685513

Sathyavathi, S; Manjula, A; Rajendhran, J; Gunasekaran, P

2014-08-01

143

Generate clean fuels from downstream petrochemical operations  

SciTech Connect

Selective catalytic hydrogenations have become important tools in optimizing the overall economics of a steamcracker. A variety of processes and catalysts have been developed to a high standard. In the future, steamcracker downstream processing will become even more versatile. For example, isomerization can be used to adapt utilization of the C{sub 4} and C{sub 5} streams to the ever-changing demands of the market. An example of this trend is the skeletal isomerization of n-butenes to isobutylene, which is increasingly practiced in western countries. As the worldwide petrochemical industry evolved since the 1950s, the steamcracker became the predominant source for the major raw materials upon which the industry depends today. Currently, prices for steamcracker products are at profitable levels. Selective hydrogeneration processes for steam cracker applications can generate valuable transportation fuel components and intermediates.

Polanek, P; Artrip, D.; Mueller, H.J.; Kons, G. [BASF Aktiengesellschaft, Ludwigshafen (Germany)

1996-05-01

144

UNC Nuclear Industries reactor and fuels production facilities 1985 effluent release report  

SciTech Connect

Analyses of routine samples from radioactive liquid and airborne streams were performed using UNC's Radioanalytical Laboratory and the analytical services of US Testing Company. All significant effluent discharges from UNC facilities to the environment during CY 1985 are reported in this document.

Rokkan, D.J.

1986-04-03

145

Evaluation of ELISA kits followed by liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry for the determination of organic pollutants in industrial effluents  

SciTech Connect

Contaminated industrial effluents often contain a variety of organic pollutants which are difficult to analyze by standard GC-MS methods since they often miss the more polar or nonvolatile of these organic compounds. The identification of highly polar analytes by chemical or rapid biological techniques is needed for characterization of the effluents. The present work evaluates the use of enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) kits for determining pentachlorophenol, carcinogenic PAHs and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and o-, m-, and p-xylene) among the organic analytes present in various industrial effluents from Europe. The analytical protocol applied for the evaluation of the kits was based on the use of ELISA followed by solid-phase extraction (SPE) for the preconcentration of a variety of organic pollutants such as pentachlorophenol, phthalates, and nonylphenol and final determination with LC-MS characterization using an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) interface in the positive and negative ionization modes. The developed protocol permitted the unequivocal identification of target analytes such as pentachlorophenol, nonylphenol, dibutylphthalate, dimethylphthalate, bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate 2-methylbenzenesulfonamide, and 2,2-dimethylbenzene-sulfonamide present in industrial effluents. The advantages and limitations of the three RaPID-magnetic particle-based ELISA kits applied to the characterization of industrial effluents are also reported.

Castillo, M.; Oubina, A.; Barcelo, D. [CID-CSIC, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry] [CID-CSIC, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry

1998-07-15

146

Ecological effects of contaminated sediments following a decade of no industrial effluents emissions: the Sediment Quality Triad approach.  

PubMed

Sediments contaminated by industrial effluents a decade after the emissions were stopped were statistically compared to sediments from reference channels, using the Sediment Quality Triad approach. The metals and metalloid concentrations, mainly Hg and As, increased towards the upper part of a contaminated channel, where the industrial discharge was located. A bioaccumulation assay with Scrobicularia plana showed the highest bioaccumulation and mortality in the most contaminated sediments and bioaccumulation strongly correlated with the sediments metals and metalloid concentrations. The resident macroinvertebrate community also showed significant differences between the contaminated and reference channels, in the upper areas, where the community was most affected. All three elements of the quality triad rejected the null hypothesis and indicated that despite the emissions ceasing in 2004, sediments remain contaminated by high levels of metals and metalloid, leading to bioaccumulation and with severe community level consequences. PMID:25152187

Lopes, Marta Lobão; Rodrigues, Ana Maria; Quintino, Victor

2014-10-15

147

Impact of biodegradation on the potential bioaccumulation and toxicity of refinery effluents.  

PubMed

Whole effluent assessments (WEA) are being investigated as potential tools for controlling aqueous industrial discharges and minimizing environmental impact. The present study investigated how toxicity and the presence of potentially bioaccumulative substances altered when refinery effluents were subjected to biodegradation tests. Three petrochemical effluents were assessed, two freshwater and one saline, and subjected to two different types of biodegradation tests, resembling either a ready style (dissolved organic carbon (DOC)-die away) or an inherent style (Zahn-Wellens) test and the toxicity and potential to bioaccumulate parameters were re-analysed during and after biodegradation. A high proportion of the potentially bioaccumulative substances (PBS) in these effluents was easily biodegradable. Biodegradation not only lowered the PBS concentration but also toxicity. Appropriate controls are required however, as some increases in toxicity were observed after 4 h. In the present study, six other petrochemical effluents were also assessed for their PBS content and toxicity to increase the understanding of the relationship between PBS and toxicity. The results showed that the PBS concentrations in these samples were lower than the estimated benchmarks of acute toxicity for algae, fish and crustacean, although two samples were above the critical PBS values for chronic narcotic toxicity for Daphnia magna, which support the assumption that narcotic effects are mainly responsible for the observed toxicity in refinery effluents. It can be concluded that for facilities processing petroleum products that the measurement of PBS is a suitable surrogate for toxicity tests at the screening stage. Finally, the combination of persistency, bioaccumulation, and toxicity tests was shown to have additional value compared to an approach using only toxicity tests. PMID:21796668

Leonards, Pim E G; Postma, Jaap F; Comber, Mike; Whale, Graham; Stalter, George

2011-10-01

148

Novel physico-biological treatment for the remediation of textile dyes-containing industrial effluents.  

PubMed

In this work, a novel remediation strategy consisting of a sequential biological and physical process is proposed to remove dyes from a textile polluted effluent. The decolorization ability of Anoxybacillus flavithermus in an aqueous effluent containing two representative textile finishing dyes (Reactive Black 5 and Acid Black 48, as di-azo and antraquinone class, respectively) was proved. The decolorization efficiency for a mixture of both dyes reached almost 60% in less than 12h, which points out the suitability of the selected microorganism. In a sequential stage, an aqueous biphasic system consisting of non-ionic surfactants and a potassium-based organic salt, acting as the salting out agent, was investigated. The phase segregation potential of the selected salts was evaluated in the light of different thermodynamic models, and remediation levels higher than 99% were reached. PMID:23985354

Álvarez, M S; Moscoso, F; Rodríguez, A; Sanromán, M A; Deive, F J

2013-10-01

149

Genotoxic evaluation of an industrial effluent from an oil refinery using plant and animal bioassays  

PubMed Central

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are genotoxic chemicals commonly found in effluents from oil refineries. Bioassays using plants and cells cultures can be employed for assessing environmental safety and potential genotoxicity. In this study, the genotoxic potential of an oil refinery effluent was analyzed by means of micronucleus (MN) testing of Alium cepa, which revealed no effect after 24 h of treatment. On the other hand, primary lesions in the DNA of rat (Rattus norvegicus) hepatoma cells (HTC) were observed through comet assaying after only 2 h of exposure. On considering the capacity to detect DNA damage of a different nature and of these cells to metabolize xenobiotics, we suggest the association of the two bioassays with these cell types, plant (Allium cepa) and mammal (HTC) cells, for more accurately assessing genotoxicity in environmental samples. PMID:21637622

2010-01-01

150

Physicochemical characteristics of paper industry effluents--a case study of South India Paper Mill (SIPM).  

PubMed

Pulp and paper mills generate varieties of pollutants depending upon type of the pulping process being used. This paper presents the characteristics of wastewater from South India Paper Mill, Karnataka, India which is using recycled waste paper as a raw material. The raw wastewater consists of 80-90 mg L(?-?1) suspended solid and 1,010-1,015 mg L(?-?1) dissolved solid. However, pH varied from 5.5-6.8. The biochemical oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand ranged from 200-210 and 1,120-1,160 mg L(?-?1), respectively. Aerobic treatment of raw effluent attribute to significant reduction in suspended solid (range between 25 to 30 mg L(?-?1)) and total dissolved solid (range between 360 to 390 mg L(?-?1)). However, pH, temperature, and electrical conductivity were found superior after treatment. Copper, cadmium, iron, lead, nickel, and zinc were found in less quantity in raw effluent and were almost completely removed after treatment. The dendrogram of the effluent quality parameters clearly indicate that South India Paper Mill does not meet Minimal National Standard set by central Pollution Control Board to discharge in agricultural field. PMID:20661771

Devi, Ningombam Linthoingambi; Yadav, Ishwar Chandra; Shihua, Q I; Singh, Surendra; Belagali, S L

2011-06-01

151

What are future petrochemical feedstocks?  

SciTech Connect

Continuing growth in olefins and aromatics demand will require investment in production facilities worldwide. Feedstock selection for these new plants must take into account changing co-product demand patterns and production technology. Feedstock availability and logistics will be the most important considerations. Competition with fuel demand will encourage petrochemical producers to increase feedstock integration, to expand feedstock flexibility and to seek new feedstock sources. The paper discusses the following feedstocks: ethane, propane, butane, naphtha, gas oil, and condensate.

Manning, T.J. [Purvin and Gertz, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

1997-05-01

152

Phytoremediation efficiency of Portulaca tuberosa rox and Portulaca oleracea L. naturally growing in an industrial effluent irrigated area in Vadodra, Gujrat, India.  

PubMed

Phytoremediation is a novel, solar-driven and cost-effective technology for the remediation of heavy metal contaminated environments through exploitation of plants ability to accumulate heavy metals in their harvestable shoot parts. In the present investigation, we collected plants of two species of Portulaca i.e. P. tuberosa and P. oleracea from field sites in Vadodra, Gujrat, India. At one site, field was being irrigated with industrial effluent while at other with tube well water. Analysis of heavy metals was performed in industrial effluent, tube well water, soils irrigated with them, and in different parts viz., roots, stem, leaves and flowers of the plant samples. Industrial effluent and soil irrigated with it had very high level of heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Cd, Cr and As) as compared to the tube well water and soil irrigated with that. Plants of both the species growing in effluent irrigated soils showed high accumulation of metals in all plant parts with the maximum being in roots and the least in flowers. Interestingly, both species of Portulaca hyperaccumulated more than one heavy metal viz., Cd, Cr and As. The total shoot concentrations (microg g(-1) dw) of Cd, Cr and As in P. tuberosa were 1,571, 7,957 and 3,118, respectively while in P. oleracea, these were 1,128, 7,552 and 2,476, respectively. Portulaca plants have good biomass and high regeneration potential; hence appear to be suitable for the remediation of effluent (metal) contaminated areas. PMID:18193484

Tiwari, K K; Dwivedi, S; Mishra, S; Srivastava, S; Tripathi, R D; Singh, N K; Chakraborty, S

2008-12-01

153

Identification of toxicity variations in a stream affected by industrial effluents using Daphnia magna and Ulva pertusa.  

PubMed

A comprehensive toxicity monitoring study from August to October 2011 using Daphnia magna and Ulva pertusa was conducted to identify the cause of toxicity in a stream receiving industrial effluents (IEs) from a textile and leather products manufacturing complex. Acute toxicity toward both species was observed consistently in IE, which influenced toxicity of downstream (DS) water. A toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) confirmed that both Cu and Zn were key toxicants in the IE, and that the calculated toxicity based on Cu and Zn concentrations well simulated the variation in the observed toxicity (r(2)=0.9216 and 0.7256 for D. magna and U. pertusa, respectively). In particular, U. pertusa was sensitive enough to detect acute toxicity in DS and was useful to identify Zn as a key toxicant. Activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase, and malondialdehyde were induced significantly in D. magna, although acute toxicity was not observed. In addition, higher levels of antioxidant enzymes were expressed in DS than upstream waters, likely due to the Cu and Zn from IE. Overall, TIE procedures with a battery of bioassays were effective for identifying the cause of lethal and sub-lethal toxicity in effluent and stream water. PMID:23892313

Yoo, Jisu; Ahn, Byeongyong; Oh, Jeong-Ju; Han, Taejun; Kim, Woo-Keun; Kim, Sanghoon; Jung, Jinho

2013-09-15

154

Fully automated measuring equipment for aqueous boron and its application to online monitoring of industrial process effluents  

SciTech Connect

Fully automated measuring equipment for aqueous boron (referred to as the online boron monitor) was developed on the basis of a rapid potentiometric determination method using a commercial BF{sub 4}{sup -} ion-selective electrode (ISE). The equipment can measure boron compounds with concentration ranging from a few to several hundred mg/L, and the measurement is completed in less than 20 min without any pretreatment of the sample. In the monitor, a series of operations for the measurement, i.e., sampling and dispensing of the sample, addition of the chemicals, acquisition and processing of potentiometric data, rinsing of the measurement cell, and calibration of the BF{sub 4}{sup -} ISE, is automated. To demonstrate the performance, we installed the monitor in full-scale coal-fired power plants and measured the effluent from a flue gas desulfurization unit. The boron concentration in the wastewater varied significantly depending on the type of coal and the load of power generation. An excellent correlation (R{sup 2} = 0.987) was obtained in the measurements between the online boron monitor and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry, which proved that the developed monitor can serve as a useful tool for managing boron emission in industrial process effluent. 22 refs., 6 figs.

Seiichi Ohyama; Keiko Abe; Hitoshi Ohsumi; Hirokazu Kobayashi; Naotsugu Miyazaki; Koji Miyadera; Kin-ichi Akasaka [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Chiba (Japan)

2009-06-15

155

Production of bioethanol from effluents of the dairy industry by Kluyveromyces marxianus.  

PubMed

Whey and scotta are effluents coming from cheese and ricotta processing respectively. Whey contains minerals, lipids, lactose and proteins; scotta contains mainly lactose. Whey can be reused in several ways, such as protein extraction or animal feeding, while nowadays scotta is just considered as a waste; moreover, due to very high volumes of whey produced in the world, it poses serious environmental and disposal problems. Alternative destinations of these effluents, such as biotechnological transformations, can be a way to reach both goals of improving the added value of the agroindustrial processes and reducing their environmental impact. In this work we investigated the way to produce bioethanol from lactose of whey and scotta and to optimize the fermentation yields. Kluyveromyces marxianus var. marxianus was chosen as lactose-fermenting yeast. Batch, aerobic and anaerobic, fermentations and semicontinuous fermentations in dispersed phase and in packed bed reactor were carried out of row whey, scotta and mix 1:1 whey:scotta at a laboratory scale. Different temperatures (28-40°C) were also tested to check whether the thermotolerance of the chosen yeast could be useful to improve the ethanol yield. The best performances were reached at low temperatures (28°C); high temperatures are also compatible with good ethanol yields in whey fermentations, but not in scotta fermentations. Semicontinuous fermentations in dispersed phase gave the best fermentation performances, particularly with scotta. Then both effluents can be considered suitable for ethanol production. The good yields obtained from scotta allow us to transform this waste in a source. PMID:23201075

Zoppellari, Francesca; Bardi, Laura

2013-09-25

156

Genotoxicity evaluation of effluents from textile industries of the region Fez-Boulmane, Morocco: a case study.  

PubMed

In order to investigate the biological hazard of effluents from textile industries of Fez-Boulmane region in Morocco, mutagenicity and phytotoxicity tests were performed on different biological systems. Moreover, the efficiency of a Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) system, working by activated sludge on a laboratory scale, was estimated by comparing the ecotoxicity results observed before and after wastewater treatment. Evaluation of the genotoxic potential was investigated by means of classic mutagenicity tests on D7 strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and by phytotoxicity tests on Allium sativum L., Vicia faba L. and Lactuca sativa L., estimating micronuclei presence, mitotic index and cytogenetic anomalies. The results obtained by testing untreated wastewater demonstrated major genotoxicity effects in S. cerevisiae and various levels of phytotoxicity in the three plant systems, while after SBR treatment no more ecotoxicological consequences were observed. These data confirm the effectiveness of the SBR system in removing toxic substances from textile wastewaters in Fez-Boulmane region. PMID:21840051

Giorgetti, Lucia; Talouizte, Hakima; Merzouki, Mohammed; Caltavuturo, Leonardo; Geri, Chiara; Frassinetti, Stefania

2011-11-01

157

Measurement of sucrose and ethanol concentrations in process streams and effluents of sugarcane bioethanol industry by optical fiber sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The measurement of process streams and effluents from sugar-ethanol industry by using optical fiber sensor based on Fresnel reflection principle is reported. Firstly, binary sucrose-water and ethanol-water solutions were measured in order to determine the calibration curves. Secondly, the co-products from various processing stages were analyzed in order to identify the sucrose or ethanol concentration. The absolute error was calculated by comparison between the nominal concentration values obtained by plant laboratory analysis and the sensor response, yielding errors <= 5 wt% and <= 5 vol% for sucrose and ethanol content, respectively. The fiber sensor provided reliable results even for samples with more complex compositions than pure sucrose or ethanol solutions, with perspectives of application on the several stages of the plant facility.

Fujiwara, Eric; Ono, Eduardo; Manfrim, Tarcio P.; Santos, Juliana S.; Suzuki, Carlos K.

2011-05-01

158

Silica removal in industrial effluents with high silica content and low hardness.  

PubMed

High silica content of de-inked paper mill effluents is limiting their regeneration and reuse after membrane treatments such as reverse osmosis (RO). Silica removal during softening processes is a common treatment; however, the effluent from the paper mill studied has a low hardness content, which makes the addition of magnesium compounds necessary to increase silica removal. Two soluble magnesium compounds (MgCl??6H?O and MgSO??7H?O) were tested at five dosages (250-1,500 mg/L) and different initial pH values. High removal rates (80-90%) were obtained with both products at the highest pH tested (11.5). With these removal efficiencies, it is possible to work at high RO recoveries (75-85%) without silica scaling. Although pH regulation significantly increased the conductivity of the waters (at pH 11.5 from 2.1 to 3.7-4.0 mS/cm), this could be partially solved by using Ca(OH)? instead of NaOH as pH regulator (final conductivity around 3.0 mS/cm). Maximum chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal obtained with caustic soda was lower than with lime (15 vs. 30%). Additionally, the combined use of a polyaluminum coagulant during the softening process was studied; the coagulant, however, did not significantly improve silica removal, obtaining a maximum increase of only 10%. PMID:24777323

Latour, Isabel; Miranda, Ruben; Blanco, Angeles

2014-08-01

159

Results of a "Whole Effluent Assessment" study from different industrial sectors in Germany according to OSPAR's WEA strategy.  

PubMed

The results of a Whole Effluent Assessment (WEA) of 8 wastewater samples from different industrial sectors as the German contribution to the OSPAR-WEA expert group are presented. The testing strategy followed the WEA principles described in the OSPAR WEA-Guidance document considering persistency (P), potentially bio-accumulative substances (B) and toxicity (T). All wastewater samples have been tested before and after a biodegradation test. The Zahn-Wellens test has been applied with wastewater indirectly discharged to a municipal treatment plant, the DOC Die away assay for wastewater directly discharged to surface water. The DIN standardized bioassays referred to in the German wastewater ordinance which partly are related to screening versions of the respective OECD guidelines have been applied. The potentially bio-accumulative substances (PBS) were determined by solid phase microextraction (SPME) and referred to the reference compound 2,3-dimethylnaphthalene. Generally low to moderate ecotoxic effects of wastewater samples have been determined with maximum values of LID(A)=8 in the algae test, LID(L)=24 in the luminescent bacteria test and LID(Egg)=6 in the fish egg test. Low levels of PBS were determined in the effluents after biological treatment. The Zahn-Wellens test proved to be a suitable screening tool for the biological treatment of wastewater samples. The mutagenicity of one wastewater sample from the chemical industry was investigated by additional chemical analysis and backtracking. A nitro-aromatic compound (2-methoxy-4-nitroaniline) used for batchwise azo dye synthesis and its transformation products are the probable cause for the mutagenic effects analysed. PMID:19212594

Gartiser, Stefan; Hafner, Christoph; Oeking, Sven; Paschke, Albrecht

2009-02-01

160

Effects of an industrial effluent on plant colonization and on the germination and post-germinative growth of seeds of terrestrial and aquatic plant species.  

PubMed

Major oil sands industrial companies are located in the Athabasca Oil Sands Deposit in northeastern Alberta, Canada. During the process used to extract light crude oil (via hot water digestion and flotation), gypsum is usually added to produce consolidated tails (CT) and CT release water. The vast volumes of process-treated waters (effluent) are held within large dyked tailings ponds. Toward testing viable options for reclamation, various hummock-wetlands systems have been constructed; in addition, natural wetlands (inhabited by obligate wetland plant species) have become established as a result of seeping of the effluents held within the large dyked ponds. Vegetation surveys conducted on and around the industrial site revealed that the constructed wetlands associated with the dyke drainage (effluent treated with phosphorous) and consolidated tails (CT; effluent treated with gypsum) had low biodiversity and were not invaded by many aquatic plants. Although the natural wetland was also not invaded by many aquatic species, it was found to be as diverse as the reference wetlands (i.e. off-site wetlands not exposed to the effluents). Exposure to oil sands effluents had an inhibitory effect on the germination (percent and/or rate) of several plant species (tomato, clover, wheat, rye, pea, reed canary grass, loblolly pine); clover and tomato seed germination were most affected. Two treatments in particular (effluents from the natural on-site wetland and the CT constructed wetland), delayed germination, and also led to reduced fresh weight of seedlings of tomato, wheat, clover and loblolly pine. The osmolarities of the effluents associated with the natural on-site wetland and CT constructed wetland were 712 and 728 mOs/kg, respectively; substituting these effluents with solutions of polyethylene glycol of the same osmotic potentials had a greater inhibitory effect on germination rate. The negative effects of the effluents on seed germination may account for the paucity of aquatic species that invaded the oil sands impacted wetlands. This factor will also be critical in determining the long-term feasibility of hummock-wetland systems. PMID:11843534

Crowe, A U; Plant, A L; Kermode, A R

2002-01-01

161

Simultaneously bio treatment of textiles and food industries effluent at difference ratios with the aid of e-beam radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The combination of irradiation and biological technique was used to study COD, BOD5 and colour removal of textiles effluent in the presence of food industry wastewater at two different ratios. Two biological treatment system, the first consisting a mix of unirradiated textile and food industry wastewater and the second a mix of irradiated textile wastewater and food industry wastewater were operated in parallel. The experiment was conducted by batch. For the first batch the ratio was use for textile wastewater and food industry wastewater in biological treatment was 1:1. Meanwhile, for the second batch the ratio used for textile wastewater and food industry wastewater in biological treatment was 1:2. The results obtained for the first and second batch varies from each other. After irradiation, COD reduce in textile wastewater for the both batches are roughly 29% - 33% from the unirradiated wastewater. But after undergoing the biological treatment the percentage of COD reduction for first batch and second batch was 62.1% and 80.7% respectively. After irradiation the BOD5 of textile wastewater reduced by 22.2% for the first batch and 55.1% for the second batch. But after biological treatment, the BOD5 value for the first batch was same as its initial, 36mg/l and 40.4mg/l for the second batch. Colour had decreased from 899.5 ADMI to 379.3 ADMI after irradiation and decrease to 109.3 after undergoes biological treatment for the first batch. Meantime for the batch two, colour had decreased from 1000.44 ADMI to 363.40 ADMI after irradiation and dropped to 79.20 ADMI after biological treatment. The experiment show that 1:2 ratio show better reduction on COD, BOD5 and colour, compared to the ratio of 1:1.

Bakar, Khomsaton Abu; Selambakkannu, Sarala; Ting, Teo Ming; Shariff, Jamaliah

2012-09-01

162

Utilization of petrochemical wastewater for the production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) by Haloarcula sp. IRU1.  

PubMed

Wastewater of petrochemical industries contains high amounts of emulsified aliphatic or aromatic hydrocarbons that lead to the contamination of almost all environmental resources. The ability of Haloarcula sp. IRU1 isolated from Urmia lake, Iran for utilization of petrochemical wastewater and production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) from it was evaluated and optimized by Taguchi experimental method. The optimium conditions for the maximum production of PHB were petrochemical wastewater 2% (as carbon source), tryptone 0.8% (as nitrogen source), KH(2)PO(4) 0.001% (as phosphorus source) and temperature 47°C. In conclusion, Haloarcula sp. IRU1 can degrade petrochemical wastewater and produce PHB from it in different conditions. PMID:21316852

Taran, Mojtaba

2011-04-15

163

Cost effectiveness analysis of proposed effluent limitations guidelines for the pulp, paper, and paperboard industry  

SciTech Connect

The cost-effectiveness (CE) analysis presents an evaluation of the technical efficiency of pollutant control options for the proposed effluent limitations guidelines. The proposed BAT and PSES apply to six subcategories: Dissolving Kraft; Dissolving Sulfite; Bleached Papergrade Kraft; Papergrade Sulfite; Unbleached Kraft; and Semichemical. The document compares the total annualized cost incurred for each of the regulatory options within each subcategory to the corresponding effectiveness of that option in reducing the discharge of pollutants. Section Two discusses the cost-effectiveness methodology and identifies the pollutants included in the analysis and their toxic weighting factors. Section Three describes the options evaluated for each subcategory. Section Four presents the results of the CE analysis. Section Five presents a separate analysis of AOX (adsorbable organic halides).

Not Available

1993-11-01

164

Treatment and reuse of industrial effluents: case study of a thermal power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a study of the potential of industrial wastewater reuse in Jordan's Al Hussein thermal power station. A comprehensive review of the processes involved, industrial waste generation and water requirements was carried out, and areas of potential improvment were identified. They include a water treatment system, blow-down system, flue gas desulfurization and finding alternative process water sources such

Mousa S. Mohsen

2004-01-01

165

BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT, EFFLUENT REUSE, AND SLUDGE HANDLING FOR THE SIDE LEATHER TANNING INDUSTRY  

EPA Science Inventory

An evaluation of the treatability of unsegregated, unequalized, and unneutralized wastewaters from a side-leather tanning industry utilizing the hair pulping process by primary and secondary biological and gravity separation in clarifier-thickeners, whereas the secondary treatmen...

166

Evaluation of haloalkaliphilic sulfur-oxidizing microorganisms with potential application in the effluent treatment of the petroleum industry.  

PubMed

Haloalkaliphilic sulfur-oxidizing mixed cultures for the treatment of alkaline-saline effluents containing sulfide were characterized and evaluated. The mixed cultures (IMP-PB, IMP-XO and IMP-TL) were obtained from Mexican alkaline soils collected in Puebla (PB), Xochimilco (XO) and Tlahuac (TL), respectively. The Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis (RISA) revealed bacteria related to Thioalkalibacterium and Thioalkalivibrio in IMP-XO and IMP-PB mixed cultures. Halomonas strains were detected in IMP-XO and IMP-TL. In addition, an uncultured Bacteroides bacterium was present in IMP-TL. Mixed cultures were evaluated at different pH and NaCl concentrations at 30°C. IMP-PB and IMP-TL expressed thiosulfate-oxidizing activity in the 7.5-10.5 pH range, whereas IMP-XO presented its maximal activity with 19.0 mg O? g (protein)?¹ min?¹, at pH 10.6; it was not affected by NaCl concentrations up to 1.7 M. In continuous culture, IMP-XO showed a growth rate of 15 day?¹, productivity of 433.4 mg(protein) l?¹ day?¹ and haloalkaliphilic sulfur-oxidizing activity was also detected up to 170 mM by means of N-methyl-diethanolamine (MDEA). Saline-alkaline soil samples are potential sources of haloalkaliphilic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria and the mixed cultures could be applied in the treatment of inorganic sulfur compounds in petroleum industry effluents under alkaline-saline conditions. PMID:20582453

Olguín-Lora, P; Le Borgne, S; Castorena-Cortés, G; Roldán-Carrillo, T; Zapata-Peñasco, I; Reyes-Avila, J; Alcántara-Pérez, S

2011-02-01

167

Performance assessment and hydrodynamic analysis of a submerged membrane bioreactor for treating dairy industrial effluent.  

PubMed

Submerged membrane bioreactor (SMBR) is a relatively advanced technology for waste water treatment that involves integrated aerobic and anaerobic biological processes with membrane filtration. In the present investigation, hydrophobic polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and hydrophilic polyacrylonitrile (PAN) hollow fiber (HF) membranes were tested in an indigenously fabricated SMBR for dairy effluent treatment under aerobic conditions using mixed microbial consortia. Effect of operating parameters such as suction pressure, degree of aeration and trans-membrane pressure (TMP) on membrane performance in terms of flux, rejection of turbidity, BOD and COD besides fouling characteristics was investigated. The observed optimum permeabilities of PVDF and PAN HF membranes were approximately 108 and 115 LMH bar(-1) with high extent of impurity removal. The rejection of COD was found to be 93% for PVDF and 91% for PAN HF membranes whereas corresponding rejection of BOD was observed to be 92% and 86%. A two-dimensional comprehensive model was developed to predict the hydrodynamic profile inside the module. Regression analysis revealed that the simulation results agreed well with experimental data. PMID:24793299

K, Praneeth; Moulik, Siddhartha; Vadthya, Pavani; Bhargava, Suresh K; Tardio, James; S, Sridhar

2014-06-15

168

Treatment of pulp and paper industry bleaching effluent by electrocoagulant process.  

PubMed

The experiments were carried out in an electrocoagulation reactor with aluminum as sacrificial electrodes. The influence of electrolysis time, current density, pH, NaCl concentration, rotational speed of the stirrer and electrode distance on reduction of color, COD and BOD were studied in detail. From the experimental results, 15 mA/cm(2) current density, pH of 7, 1 g/l NaCl, 100 rpm, 28°C temperature and 3 cm electrode distance were found to be optimum for maximum reduction of color, COD and BOD. The reduction of color, COD and BOD under the optimum condition were found to be 94%, 90% and 87% respectively. The electrode energy consumption was calculated and found to be varied from 10.1 to 12.9 kWh/m(3) depending on the operating conditions. Under optimal operating condition such as 15 mA/cm(2) current density, pH of 7, 1 g/l NaCl, 100 rpm, 28°C temperature and 3 cm electrode distance, the operating cost was found to be 1.56 US $/m(3). The experimental results proved that the electrocoagulation is a suitable method for treating bleaching plant effluents for reuse. PMID:21227578

Sridhar, R; Sivakumar, V; Prince Immanuel, V; Prakash Maran, J

2011-02-28

169

Long-term study of an estuarine mudflat subjected to petro-chemical discharges  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Kinneil intertidal area, situated in the middle reaches of the Forth estuary, eastern Scotland, has been subject to the effects of industrial discharges, principally from petro-chemical industries (oil refinery and chemical works) since the 1920s.The intertidal fauna has been studied annually since 1976 using consistent methodology (90 stations, each with two samples of 5 × 5 × 5 cm,

Donald S. McLusky; Thias Martins

1998-01-01

170

ECONOMIC IMPACT ANALYSIS OF EFFLUENT STANDARDS AND LIMITATIONS FOR THE METAL FINISHING INDUSTRY  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency issued e-fluent guidelines and limitations for the Metal Finishing Industry in June 1983. This report estimates the economic impact of pollution control costs in terms of price changes, effects profitability, potential plant closures, unem...

171

Impact assessment of industrial effluent of arid soils by using satellite imageries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visual interpretation ofIRS-LISS-II (1:50,000 Scale) FCC, band 2, 3 and 4 was carried out for the Industrial effluence assessment\\u000a on soils (21900 ha) along the Bandi river course in Pali district of arid Rajasthan. Very severe (4378 ha), severe (3427 ha),\\u000a moderate (5856 ha) and slight (1388 ha) categories of anthropogenic salt affected soils with the varied image characteristics\\u000a in

B K Sharma; P C Bohra

2000-01-01

172

Assessing Toxicity of Copper, Cadmium and Chromium Levels Relevant to Discharge Limits of Industrial Effluents into Inland Surface Waters Using Common Onion, Allium cepa Bioassay.  

PubMed

Toxicity of copper, cadmium and chromium relevant to established tolerance limits for the discharge of industrial effluents into inland surface waters was evaluated by Allium cepa bioassay. The roots of A. cepa bulbs exposed to Cu(2+) (3 mg L(-1)) individually or in mixtures with Cd(2+) (0.1 mg L(-1)) or/and Cr(6+) (0.1 mg L(-1)) exhibited the highest growth inhibition, mitotic index depression and nuclear abnormalities. Root tip cells exposed to Cr(6+) or Cd(2+) alone or in mixture displayed significant chromosomal aberrations in comparison to the controls. EC50s for root growth inhibition followed the order Cu(2+) < Cd(2+) < Cr(6+) indicating greater toxicity of copper. The results show that the industrial effluent discharge regulatory limits for these metals need to be reviewed considering potential cyto-genotoxicity to biological systems. PMID:25201323

Hemachandra, Chamini K; Pathiratne, Asoka

2015-02-01

173

Adsorptive removal of heavy metal ions from industrial effluents using activated carbon derived from waste coconut buttons.  

PubMed

Activated carbon (AC) derived from waste coconut buttons (CB) was investigated as a suitable adsorbent for the removal of heavy metal ions such as Pb(II), Hg(II) and Cu(II) from industrial effluents through batch adsorption process. The AC was characterized by elemental analysis, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, thermal gravimetric and differential thermal analysis, surface area analyzer and potentiometric titrations. The effects of initial metal concentration, contact time, pH and adsorbent dose on the adsorption of metal ions were studied. The adsorbent revealed a good adsorption potential for Pb(II) and Cu(II) at pH 6.0 and for Hg(II) at pH 7.0. The experimental kinetic data were a better fit with pseudo second-order equation rather than pseudo first-order equation. The Freundlich isotherm model was found to be more suitable to represent the experimental equilibrium isotherm results for the three metals than the Langmuir model. The adsorption capacities of the AC decreased in the order: Pb(II) > Hg(II) > Cu(II). PMID:22432329

Anirudhan, T S; Sreekumari, S S

2011-01-01

174

Response of ammonia-oxidizing archaea and bacteria to long-term industrial effluent-polluted soils, Gujarat, Western India.  

PubMed

Soil nitrifiers have been showing an important role in assessing environmental pollution as sensitive biomarkers. In this study, the abundance and diversity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) were investigated in long-term industrial waste effluent (IWE) polluted soils. Three different IWE polluted soils characterized as uncontaminated (R1), moderately contaminated (R2), and highly contaminated (R3) were collected in triplicate along Mahi River basin, Gujarat, Western India. Quantitative numbers of ammonia monooxygenase ?-subunit (amoA) genes as well as 16S rRNA genes indicated apparent deleterious effect of IWE on abundance of soil AOA, AOB, bacteria, and archaeal populations. Relatively, AOB was more abundant than AOA in the highly contaminated soil R3, while predominance of AOA was noticed in uncontaminated (R1) and moderately contaminated (R2) soils. Soil potential nitrification rate (PNR) significantly (P?

Subrahmanyam, Gangavarapu; Shen, Ju-Pei; Liu, Yu-Rong; Archana, Gattupalli; He, Ji-Zheng

2014-07-01

175

Estimating effluent COD  

SciTech Connect

In many parts of the world, chemical oxygen demand (COD) is a primary effluent parameter. Unlike BOD, which considers only biodegradable organics, COD also includes non-degradable organics and non-degradable biological oxidation by-products, generally referred to as soluble microbial products (SMP). The SMP can vary from 2% to 10% of the influent degradable COD. If the technology is limited to biological treatment only, the degradable COD will be removed. Further reductions in COD will require physical chemical treatments such as activated carbon. Effluent COD values for several industrial wastewaters are presented. Effluent characteristics from the anaerobic treatment of industrial wastewaters are also discussed.

Eckenfelder, W.W.; Landine, R.

1995-06-01

176

Hydrocarbon Processing`s petrochemical processes `97  

SciTech Connect

The paper compiles information on numerous petrochemical processes, describing the application, the process, yields, economics, commercial plants, references, and licensor. Petrochemicals which are synthesized include: alkylbenzene, methylamines, ammonia, benzene, bisphenol-A, BTX aromatics, butadiene, butanediol, butyraldehyde, caprolactam, cumene, dimethyl terephthalate, ethanolamines, ethylbenzene, ethylene, ethylene glycols, ethylene oxide, formaldehyde, maleic anhydride, methanol, olefins, paraxylene, phenol, phthalic anhydride, polycaproamide, polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate, polypropylene, PVC, styrene, terephthalic acid, urea, vinyl chloride, and xylene isomers.

NONE

1997-03-01

177

Bacterial bioluminescence response to long-term exposure to reverse osmosis treated effluents from dye industries.  

PubMed

The bacterial bioluminescence assay is one of the novel means for toxicity detection. The bioluminescence response of 2 marine bioluminescent bacteria was tested upon their long-term exposure to 9 different reverse osmosis (RO) rejects with varying chemical composition sampled from various dye industries. Bioluminescent bacteria were cultured in the RO reject samples, at different concentrations, and their growth rate and luminescence was measured for 24 h. The RO reject samples caused sublethal effects upon exposure and retarded the growth of bacteria, confirming their toxic nature. Further, continuation of the exposure showed that the initial luminescence, though reduced, recovered and increased beyond the control cultures irrespective of cell density, and finally decreased once again. The present study emphasizes the need of evolving a long-term exposure assay and shows that the method followed in this study is suitable to evaluate the toxicants that exert delayed toxicity, using lower concentrations of toxicants as well as coloured samples. PMID:25302530

Ravindran, J; Manikandan, B; Shirodkar, P V; Francis, K X; Mani Murali, R; Vethamony, P

2014-10-01

178

Ammonia-containing industrial effluents, lethal to rainbow trout, induce vacuolisation and Neutral Red uptake in the rainbow trout gill cell line, RTgill-W1.  

PubMed

Nine samples of whole effluent from the operation of an industrial plant over the course of one year, were tested on rainbow trout for lethality and on the rainbow trout gill cell line, RTgill-W1, for metabolic activity, plasma membrane integrity, and lysosomal activity, as measured by using the alamar Blue (AB), 5-carboxyfluorescein diacetate acetoxymethyl (CFDA-AM), and neutral red (NR) assays, respectively. None of the nine samples caused a loss of plasma membrane integrity, and only two caused a transitory decline in metabolism. Three samples caused massive vacuolisation in RTgill-W1 cells, which was accompanied by increased uptake of NR, and only these three samples were lethal to the rainbow trout. The addition of ammonia to RTgill-W1 cultures also induced vacuolisation and NR uptake, with little change in plasma membrane integrity or metabolism. Subsequently, the effluent source was identified as a nitrogen product producer, and variable levels of ammonia were found in the nine samples. Three of the four samples with the highest non-ionised ammonia levels were those which were toxic to rainbow trout and which caused vacuoles in RTgill-W1 cells. The close correlation between rainbow trout-killing and RTgill-W1 vacuolisation by the effluents, suggests that vacuolisation of RTgill-W1 cells could be used to indicate effluents which would be toxic to rainbow trout as a result of their ammonia content. PMID:19292578

Dayeh, Vivian R; Schirmer, Kristin; Bols, Niels C

2009-02-01

179

Bioremediation and Detoxification of Synthetic Wastewater Containing Triarylmethane Dyes by Aeromonas hydrophila Isolated from Industrial Effluent  

PubMed Central

Economical and bio-friendly approaches are needed to remediate dye-contaminated wastewater from various industries. In this study, a novel bacterial strain capable of decolorizing triarylmethane dyes was isolated from a textile wastewater treatment plant in Greece. The bacterial isolate was identified as Aeromonas hydrophila and was shown to decolorize three triarylmethane dyes tested within 24?h with color removal in the range of 72% to 96%. Decolorization efficiency of the bacterium was a function of operational parameters (aeration, dye concentration, temperature, and pH) and the optimal operational conditions obtained for decolorization of the dyes were: pH 7-8, 35°C and culture agitation. Effective color removal within 24?h was obtained at a maximum dye concentration of 50?mg/L. Dye decolorization was monitored using a scanning UV/visible spectrophotometer which indicated that decolorization was due to the degradation of dyes into non-colored intermediates. Phytotoxicity studies carried out using Triticum aestivum, Hordeum vulgare, and Lens esculenta revealed the triarylmethane dyes exerted toxic effects on plant growth parameters monitored. However, significant reduction in toxicity was obtained with the decolorized dye metabolites thus, indicating the detoxification of the dyes following degradation by Aeromonas hydrophila. PMID:21808740

Ogugbue, Chimezie Jason; Sawidis, Thomas

2011-01-01

180

Phytoaccumulation of heavy metals in natural plants thriving on wastewater effluent at hattar industrial estate, pakistan.  

PubMed

The objective of this research was to compare the potential of native plants for the phytoaccumulation of heavy metals (HM). Thirteen predominant plant species (including trees, bushes and grasses) namely Ricinus communis, Ipomoea carnea, Cannabis sativa, Parthenium hysterophorus, Acacia nilotica, Dalbergia sissoo, Acacia modesta, Solanum nigrum, Xanthium stromarium, Chenopodium album, Cynodon dactylon, Eleusine indica, and Dactyloctenium aegyptium were collected from the wastewater originated from Hattar industrial estate of Pakistan, Plants shoots and roots were analyzed for heavy metals / metalloid: Pb, Cr, Cd, Zn, Fe, Ni, and As. Among plant species, the accumulation potential for HM varied depending on the type of element. Regardless of the plant species, HM concentrations varied in the order of Fe > Zn > Cr > Pb > Ni > Cd > As. Tree species of R. communis, A. nilotica, A. modesta, and D. sissoo exhibited an enhanced concentrations of metals. Accumulation pattern of Fe, Pb, Cd, and As in plants could be related to the HM composition of soil and wastewater. Most of the species exhibited higher HM composition in the root as compared to shoot. The species that found with greater ability to absorb HM in the root, got higher HM concentrations in its shoot. Shoot tissue concentrations of HM were attained by the species as D. sissoo > A. modesta > A. nilotica > R. communis > I. carnea > C. album > E. indica > P. hysterophorus > S. nigrum > C. sativa > D. aegyptium > X. strumarium > C. dactylon. Based on results, tree plants were noticed as higher accumulators of HM in polluted soils. PMID:25254600

Irshad, Muhammad; Ahmad, Sajjad; Pervez, Arshid; Inoue, Mitsuhiro

2015-01-01

181

Surface Alteration of Activated Carbon for Detoxification of Copper (ii) from Industrial Effluents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The low-cost modified activated carbons were prepared from Thar and Lakhra (Pakistan) coals by activation with sulfuric acid and further modified with citric, tartaric and acetic acids for the selective adsorption of Cu(II) from aqueous solution. The original carbon obtained from activated Thar and Lakhra coals at pH 3.0 displayed significant adsorption capacity for lead and insignificant capacity values (0.880 and 0.830 mg?g-1) for copper. However, after modification with citric, tartaric and acetic acid the copper adsorption capacities enhanced in the range of 5.56-21.85 and 6.05-44.61 times, respectively. The Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin adsorption isotherms were used to elucidate the observed sorption phenomena. The isotherm equilibrium data was well fitted by the Langmuir and sufficiently fitted to the Freundlich models. The calculated thermodynamic parameters such as change in Gibbs free energy (?G°), enthalpy (?H°) and entropy (?S°) inferred that the investigated adsorption was spontaneous and endothermic in nature. Based on the results, it was concluded that the surface alteration with citric and tartaric acid, Thar and Lakhra activated carbons had significant potential for selective removal of copper(II) from industrial wastewater.

Bhutto, Sadaf; Khan, M. Nasiruddin

2013-04-01

182

Recycling of aluminum and caustic soda solution from waste effluents generated during the cleaning of the extruder matrixes of the aluminum industry.  

PubMed

Anodising industries use a concentrated caustic soda solution to remove aluminum from extruder matrixes. This procedure produces very alkaline effluents containing high amounts of aluminum. The work reported here was focussed on recycling aluminum, as aluminum hydroxide, from these effluents and regenerating an alkaline sodium hydroxide solution. Briefly, the method comprises a dilution step (necessary for reducing the viscosity of the effluent and allowing the subsequent filtration) followed by a filtration to eliminate a substantial amount of the insoluble iron. Then, sulphuric acid was added to neutralize the waste solution down to pH 12 and induce aluminum precipitation. The purity of the aluminum salt was improved after washing the precipitate with deionised water. The characterization of the solid recovered, performed by thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, indicated characteristics typical of bayerite. The proposal method allowed recovering 82% of the aluminum present in the wastewater with high purity (99.5%). Additionally, a sufficiently concentrated caustic soda solution was also recovered, which can be reused in the anodising industries. This procedure can be easily implemented and ensures economy by recycling reagents (concentrated caustic soda solution) and by recovering commercial by-products (aluminum hydroxide), while avoiding environmental pollution. PMID:21300435

Tansens, Pieter; Rodal, Alberto T; Machado, Carina M M; Soares, Helena M V M

2011-03-15

183

Biosorption of heavy metals by Bacillus thuringiensis strain OSM29 originating from industrial effluent contaminated north Indian soil  

PubMed Central

The study was navigated to examine the metal biosorbing ability of bacterial strain OSM29 recovered from rhizosphere of cauliflower grown in soil irrigated consistently with industrial effluents. The metal tolerant bacterial strain OSM29 was identified as Bacillus thuringiensis following 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. In the presence of the varying concentrations (25–150 mgl?1) of heavy metals, such as cadmium, chromium, copper, lead and nickel, the B. thuringiensis strain OSM29 showed an obvious metal removing potential. The effect of certain physico-chemical factors such as pH, initial metal concentration, and contact time on biosorption was also assessed. The optimum pH for nickel and chromium removal was 7, while for cadmium, copper and lead, it was 6. The optimal contact time was 30 min. for each metal at 32 ± 2 °C by strain OSM29. The biosorption capacity of the strain OSM29 for the metallic ions was highest for Ni (94%) which was followed by Cu (91.8%), while the lowest sorption by bacterial biomass was recorded for Cd (87%) at 25 mgl?1 initial metal ion concentration. The regression coefficients obtained for heavy metals from the Freundlich and Langmuir models were significant. The surface chemical functional groups of B. thuringiensis biomass identified by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) were amino, carboxyl, hydroxyl, and carbonyl groups, which may be involved in the biosorption of heavy metals. The biosorption ability of B. thuringiensis OSM29 varied with metals and was pH and metal concentration dependent. The biosorption of each metal was fairly rapid which could be an advantage for large scale treatment of contaminated sites. PMID:24115905

Oves, Mohammad; Khan, Mohammad Saghir; Zaidi, Almas

2012-01-01

184

Freshwater microcosms-based assessment of eco-toxicological effects of a chemical effluent from the Pilcam industry in Cameroon.  

PubMed

We studied the acute toxicity of a raw effluent from a battery manufacturing plant (Pilcam) in Douala, Cameroon, to a freshwater fish (Oreochromis niloticus), and subsequently evaluated its sub-acute effects on water quality and the biota in freshwater microscosms. The acute toxicity test was based on 96 hrs static renewal bioassays that resulted in 96-h LC50 and LC90 values of 16 and 20.7% (v/v), respectively. The sub-acute experiments were conducted by exposing several species of aquatic organisms (plankton, macroinvertebrates and mollusks) to lower effluent concentrations [1.6%, 8.0%, 16% (v/v)] for six weeks, and monitoring their survival rates, as well as the physical and chemical characteristics of water. These concentrations were based on 10%, 50%, and 100% of the 96 h - median lethal concentrations (LC50) of the effluent to the freshwater fish, Oreochromis niloticus. Significant effects on functional parameters, such as, chlorophyll-a and total protein could not be demonstrated. However, the activity of alkaline phosphatase was significantly inhibited at all concentrations tested. Phytoplankton, zooplankton, macro-invertebrate communities and snails were negatively affected by the effluent application at concentrations ? 8% (v/v), with chlorophyta, ciliates, ostracoda, annelida, planaria and snails being the most sensitive groups. The snails were eliminated after 24 h exposure from microcosms treated with effluent at concentration ? 8% (v/v). Effluent exposure also caused significant effects on water quality parameters (DO, pH, hardness, conductivity, color, turbidity, ammonia) in general at concentrations ? 8% (v/v). Temperature and alkalinity were not significantly affected. Overall, data from this research indicate that a dilution of the Pilcam effluent down to 1.6% does not provide protection against chronic toxicity to aquatic organisms. Further studies are needed to determine the no observable adverse effect level (NOAEL), as well as a chronic reference concentration for this effluent. PMID:16696186

Monkiedje, A; Njinel, T; Meyabeme Elono, A L; Zebaze, S H; Kemka, N; Tchounwou, P B; Djomo, J E

2004-09-01

185

The impact of petrochemical industrialisation on life expectancy and per capita income in Taiwan: an 11-year longitudinal study  

PubMed Central

Background Petrochemical industries have been identified as important sources of emissions of chemical substances, and adverse health outcomes have been reported for residents who live nearby. The purpose of the current study was to examine the adverse effects of petrochemical industrialization in Taiwan on the life expectancy and personal income of people living in nearby communities. Methods This study compared life expectancies and personal income between one industrial county (Yunlin County) and one reference county (Yilan County), which had no significant industrial activity that might emit pollutants, in Taiwan through analysis of 11 year long and publicly available data. Data from before and after the petrochemical company in the industrial county started (year 1999) operating were compared. Results Residents of the industrialized county had lesser increases in life expectancy over time than did residents of a similar but less-industrialized county, with difference means ranging from 0.89 years (p?industrialization. There were no significant differences in individual income between the two counties. Conclusions Countries, including Taiwan and the U.S., embracing petrochemical industries now face the challenge of environmental injustice. Our findings suggested that life expectancy lengthening was slowed and income growth was stalled for residents living in the industrial communities. PMID:24621018

2014-01-01

186

Dispersion and co-combustion studies for disposal of agro-industrial effluents in bubbling fluidized bed  

SciTech Connect

The present work was developed in the frame of a collaboration between CNR/Istituto Ricerche Combustione, University of Parma and ENEA. It was aimed at exploiting and recovering the thermal energy from liquid effluents and solid wastes derived from typical Italian manufacturing of agro-industrial companies. This paper focuses on an organic sludge that is obtained as a residue during steam concentration of waste water from alcohol production in distilleries. This sludge has a very low calorific value and cannot be directly used in a combustion process. The first objective was to turn the sludge into a coal/waste/water mixture, easy to prepare and to burn on site in a bubbling fluidized combustor. To do so, some preliminary runs were carried out on a significant experimental scale by employing the 2100 kW{sub t} FBC-370 pre-pilot facility and by feeding underbed a South African coal/dry residue/water mixture with a maximum particle size of 1 mm. Very satisfactory values of co-combustion efficiency (i.e., larger than 98%), were attained as a function of the dispersing air velocity. It was proven that the mechanism of combustion passes through the formation of carbon-sand aggregates and tiny carbon deposits on bed sand particles. Another outcome was that pumping the mixture directly into the bed without any atomization is feasible and favorable from the point of view of co-combustion efficiency. Therefore, a second objective was to investigate aggregate formation as a result of mixture injection into the hot bed. This has been pursued through a review of the fundamental aspects underlying the behavior of a liquid issuing from an orifice. Two simple approaches, one based on Scheele and Meister`s (1968) results and the other one based on a balance of force moments, were followed. These two approaches provided two different equations to predict the diameter of a drop that detaches from the injection nozzle. Furthermore, aggregate formation was investigated through the set-up of batch experiments with mixtures injection into the FBR-40 bench-scale bubbling-bed facility. The characteristic size of the aggregates formed follows a similar trend as the predicted drop diameter, i.e., it increases with the nozzle size at a constant injection velocity and decreases with injection velocity for a constant orifice diameter.

Miccio, F. [CNR/Ist. di Ricerche sulla Combustione, Napoli (Italy); Miccio, M. [Univ. di Parma (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Industriale

1997-12-31

187

Assessing the application of advanced oxidation processes, and their combination with biological treatment, to effluents from pulp and paper industry.  

PubMed

The closure of water circuits within pulp and paper mills has resulted in a higher contamination load of the final mill effluent, which must consequently be further treated in many cases to meet the standards imposed by the legislation in force. Different treatment strategies based on advanced oxidation processes (ozonation and TiO2-photocatalysis), and their combination with biological treatment (MBR), are herein assessed for effluents of a recycled paper mill and a kraft pulp mill. Ozone treatment achieved the highest efficiency of all. The consumption of 2.4 g O3 L(-1) resulted in about a 60% COD reduction treating the effluent from the kraft pulp mill at an initial pH=7; although it only reached about a 35% COD removal for the effluent of the recycled paper mill. Otherwise, photocatalysis achieved about a 20-30% reduction of the COD for both type of effluents. In addition, the effluent from the recycled paper mill showed a higher biodegradability, so combinations of these AOPs with biological treatment were tested. As a result, photocatalysis did not report any significant COD reduction improvement whether being performed as pre- or post-treatment of the biological process; whereas the use of ozonation as post-biological treatment enhanced COD removal a further 10%, summing up a total 90% reduction of the COD for the combined treatment, as well as it also supposed an increase of the presence of volatile fatty acids, which might ultimately enable the resultant wastewater to be recirculated back to further biological treatment. PMID:24076569

Merayo, Noemí; Hermosilla, Daphne; Blanco, Laura; Cortijo, Luis; Blanco, Angeles

2013-11-15

188

"Matrix/Modular" - An Approach to Analyzing Cogeneration Opportunities in Industry  

E-print Network

The petrochemical industry has long recognized that electrical and mechanical energy can be generated as a by-product of its process steam requirements. Years ago, some petrochemical plants generated all of their own electrical power. However, over...

Canty, W. R.

1979-01-01

189

Ultratrace Determination of Cr(VI) and Pb(II) by Microsample Injection System Flame Atomic Spectroscopy in Drinking Water and Treated and Untreated Industrial Effluents  

PubMed Central

Simple and robust analytical procedures were developed for hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) and lead (Pb(II)) by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) using microsample injection system coupled with flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (MIS-FAAS). For the current study, ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC), carbon tetrachloride, and ethanol were used as chelating agent, extraction solvent, and disperser solvent, respectively. The effective variables of developed method have been optimized and studied in detail. The limit of detection of Cr(VI) and Pb(II) were 0.037 and 0.054?µg/L, respectively. The enrichment factors in both cases were 400 with 40?mL of initial volumes. The relative standard deviations (RSDs, n = 6) were <4%. The applicability and the accuracy of DLLME were estimated by the analysis of Cr(VI) and Pb(II) in industrial effluent wastewater by standard addition method (recoveries >96%). The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of Cr(VI) and Pb(II) at ultratrace levels in natural drinking water and industrial effluents wastewater of Denizli. Moreover, the proposed method was compared with the literature reported method. PMID:24163779

Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Elci, Latif; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Khan, Muhammad Irfan; Naseer, Hafiz Muhammad

2013-01-01

190

INEEL Liquid Effluent Inventory  

SciTech Connect

The INEEL contractors and their associated facilities are required to identify all liquid effluent discharges that may impact the environment at the INEEL. This liquid effluent information is then placed in the Liquid Effluent Inventory (LEI) database, which is maintained by the INEEL prime contractor. The purpose of the LEI is to identify and maintain a current listing of all liquid effluent discharge points and to identify which discharges are subject to federal, state, or local permitting or reporting requirements and DOE order requirements. Initial characterization, which represents most of the INEEL liquid effluents, has been performed, and additional characterization may be required in the future to meet regulations. LEI information is made available to persons responsible for or concerned with INEEL compliance with liquid effluent permitting or reporting requirements, such as the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System, Wastewater Land Application, Storm Water Pollution Prevention, Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasures, and Industrial Wastewater Pretreatment. The State of Idaho Environmental Oversight and Monitoring Program also needs the information for tracking liquid effluent discharges at the INEEL. The information provides a baseline from which future liquid discharges can be identified, characterized, and regulated, if appropriate. The review covered new and removed buildings/structures, buildings/structures which most likely had new, relocated, or removed LEI discharge points, and at least 10% of the remaining discharge points.

Major, C.A.

1997-06-01

191

Determination of pesticide residues and related compounds in water and industrial effluent by solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Pollution of drinking water supplies from industrial waste is a result of several industrial processes and disposal practices, and the establishment of analytical methods for monitoring organic compounds related to environmental and health problems is very important. In this work, a method using solid-phase extraction (SPE) and gas chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (GC-QqQ-MS/MS) was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of pesticide residues and related compounds in drinking and surface water as well as in industrial effluent. Optimization of the method was achieved by using a central composite design approach on parameters such as the sample pH and SPE eluent composition. A single SPE consisting of the loading on a polymeric sorbent of 100 mL of sample adjusted to pH 3 and elution with methanol/methylene chloride (10:90, v/v) permitted the obtaining of acceptable recoveries in most cases. The concentration factor associated with sensitivity of the chromatographic analysis permitted the achievement of the method limit of detection values between 0.01 and 0.25 ?g L(-1). Recovery assays presented mean recoveries between 70 and 120% for most of the compounds with very good precision, despite the different chemical nature of the compounds analyzed. The selectivity of the method, evaluated through the relative intensity of quantification and qualification ions obtained by GC-QqQ-MS/MS, was considered adequate. The developed method was finally applied to the determination of target analytes in real samples. River water and treated industrial effluent samples presented residues of some compounds, but no detectable residues were found in the drinking water samples evaluated. PMID:23995504

Martins, Manoel L; Donato, Filipe F; Prestes, Osmar D; Adaime, Martha B; Zanella, Renato

2013-09-01

192

LANDFILLS EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS GUIDELINES DATABASE  

EPA Science Inventory

Resource Purpose: This resource served as the main information source for national characteristics of landfills for the landfills effluent guidelines. The database was developed based on responses to the "1994 Waste Treatment Industry Questionnaire: Phase II Landfills" and...

193

Mercury removal from liquid effluents of the chlor-alkali industry by using the biomass Sargassum sp  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, the used biomass, for removing the mercuric species from the liquid effluents of the chlor-alkali plants was the macro-algae Sargassum sp. According to the results obtained, until this moment in time, it was possible to remove more than 99% of the ionic mercury with the advantage of not releasing me aqueous phase, that returns to the operation of brine production, the electrolyte of the electrolytic cells. In addition, it was verified that the biomass, once loaded with Mercury, can be reused in the biosorption step, after suffering an elution process.

Sobral, L. G. S.; de Barros Lima, R.; Leite, S. G. F.; Fernandes, A. L. V.

2003-05-01

194

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act industrial site environmental restoration site characterization report - area 6 steam cleaning effluent ponds  

SciTech Connect

The Area 6 North and South Steam Cleaning Effluent Ponds (SCEPs) are historic disposal units located at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nye County, Nevada. The NTS is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) which has been required by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) to characterize the site under the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B Permit for the NTS and Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations, Part 265.

NONE

1996-09-01

195

Exploiting the efficacy of Lysinibacillus sp. RGS for decolorization and detoxification of industrial dyes, textile effluent and bioreactor studies.  

PubMed

Complete decolorization and detoxification of Reactive Orange 4 within 5 h (pH 6.6, at 30°C) by isolated Lysinibacillus sp. RGS was observed. Significant reduction in TOC (93%) and COD (90%) was indicative of conversion of complex dye into simple products, which were identified as naphthalene moieties by various analytical techniques (HPLC, FTIR, and GC-MS). Supplementation of agricultural waste extract considered as better option to make the process cost effective. Oxido-reductive enzymes were found to be involved in the degradation mechanism. Finally Loofa immobilized Lysinibacillus sp. cells in a fixed-bed bioreactor showed significant decolorization with reduction in TOC (51 and 64%) and COD (54 and 66%) for synthetic and textile effluent at 30 and 35 mL h(-1) feeding rate, respectively. The degraded metabolites showed non-toxic nature revealed by phytotoxicity and photosynthetic pigments content study for Sorghum vulgare and Phaseolus mungo. In addition nitrogen fixing and phosphate solubilizing microbes were less affected in treated wastewater and thus the treated effluent can be used for the irrigation purpose. This work could be useful for the development of efficient and ecofriendly technologies to reduce dye content in the wastewater to permissible levels at affordable cost. PMID:25560264

Saratale, Rijuta G; Saratale, Ganesh D; Govindwar, Sanjay P; Kim, Dong S

2015-01-28

196

Draft Genome Sequence of Textile Azo Dye-Decolorizing and -Degrading Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strain PFK10, Isolated from the Common Effluent Treatment Plant of the Ankleshwar Industrial Area of Gujarat, India.  

PubMed

Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PFK10, isolated from the common effluent treatment plant (CETP) of the Ankleshwar industrial area of Gujarat, India. The 6.04-Mb draft genome sequence of strain PFK10 provides information about the genes encoding enzymes that enable the strain to decolorize and degrade textile azo dye. PMID:24503984

Faldu, P R; Kothari, V V; Kothari, C R; Rawal, C M; Domadia, K K; Patel, P A; Bhimani, H D; Raval, V H; Parmar, N R; Nathani, N M; Koringa, P G; Joshi, C G; Kothari, R K

2014-01-01

197

Distribution of heavy metals in agricultural soils near a petrochemical complex in Guangzhou, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to investigate influence of an industrialized environment on the accumulation of heavy metals in\\u000a agricultural soils. Seventy soil samples collected from surface layers (0–20 cm) and horizons of five selected pedons in the\\u000a vicinity area of petrochemical complex in Guangzhou, China were analyzed for Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd, Hg and As concentrations, the\\u000a horizontal

Junhui Li; Ying Lu; Wei Yin; Haihua Gan; Chao Zhang; Xianglian Deng; Jin Lian

2009-01-01

198

Hazardous effects of effluent from the chrome plating industry: 70 kDa heat shock protein expression as a marker of cellular damage in transgenic Drosophila melanogaster (hsp70-lacZ).  

PubMed Central

Hazardous effects of an effluent from the chrome plating industry were examined by exposing transgenic Drosophila melanogaster (hsp70-lacZ) to various concentrations (0.05, 0.1, 1.0, 10.0, and 100.0 micro L/mL) of the effluent through diet. The emergence pattern of adult flies was affected, along with impaired reproductive performance at the higher dietary concentrations of the effluent. Interestingly, the effect of the effluent was more pronounced in male than in female flies. The effect of the effluent on development of adult flies was concurrent with the expression pattern of the heat shock protein 70 gene (hsp70), both in larval tissues and in the reproductive organs of adult flies. We observed a dose- and time-dependent expression of hsp70 in third instar larvae exposed for different time intervals. Absence of hsp70 expression in larvae exposed to 0.1 micro L/mL of the effluent indicated that this is the highest nontoxic concentration for Drosophila. The stress gene assay in the reproductive organs of adult flies revealed hsp70 expression in the testis of male flies only. However, trypan blue dye exclusion tests in these tissues indicate tissue damage in the male accessory gland of adult flies, which was further confirmed by ultrastructural observations. In the present study we demonstrate the utility of transgenic Drosophila as an alternative animal model for evaluating hazardous effects of the effluent from the chrome plating industry and further reveal the cytoprotective role of hsp70 and its expression as an early marker in environmental risk assessment. PMID:14644668

Mukhopadhyay, Indranil; Saxena, Daya Krishna; Chowdhuri, Debapratim Kar

2003-01-01

199

Concern About Petrochemical Health Risk Before and After a Refinery Explosion  

PubMed Central

On March 23, 2005, a large explosion at an oil refinery in Texas City, Texas caused 15 deaths and approximately 170 injuries. Little is known about how such an industrial accident influences concern about environmental health risks. We used measures of environmental health concern about nearby petrochemical production with a sample of Texas City residents to understand patterns of concern and change in concern after an industrial accident, as well as individual and contextual factors associated with those patterns. Survey interviews with residents of Texas City, Texas (N =315) both pre- and postexplosion using a brief Concern About Petrochemical Health Risk Scale (CAPHRS) and other questions were used to collect pertinent predictor information. CAPHRS baseline, postexplosion, and change scores were compared and modeled using ordinary least squares (OLS) regression and a mixed model. Higher preexplosion CAPHRS scores were predicted by younger adults, foreign-born Hispanics, non-Hispanic blacks, lower- and middle-income groups, and those who live with someone who has worked at the petrochemical plants. Higher CAPHRS change scores are predicted by the same variables (except income), as well as proximity to, or perception of, the explosion, and reports of neighborhood damage. Findings suggest these groups’ concern scores could indicate a greater vulnerability to psychological and physical harm generated by concern and stress arising from local petrochemical activities. A clearer understanding of concern about actual environmental health risks in exposed populations may enhance the evolving theory of stress and coping and eventually enable public health professionals to develop appropriate mitigation strategies. PMID:18643817

Cutchin, Malcolm P.; Martin, Kathryn Remmes; Owen, Steven V.; Goodwin, James S.

2014-01-01

200

Concern about petrochemical health risk before and after a refinery explosion.  

PubMed

On March 23, 2005, a large explosion at an oil refinery in Texas City, Texas caused 15 deaths and approximately 170 injuries. Little is known about how such an industrial accident influences concern about environmental health risks. We used measures of environmental health concern about nearby petrochemical production with a sample of Texas City residents to understand patterns of concern and change in concern after an industrial accident, as well as individual and contextual factors associated with those patterns. Survey interviews with residents of Texas City, Texas (N= 315) both pre- and postexplosion using a brief Concern About Petrochemical Health Risk Scale (CAPHRS) and other questions were used to collect pertinent predictor information. CAPHRS baseline, postexplosion, and change scores were compared and modeled using ordinary least squares (OLS) regression and a mixed model. Higher preexplosion CAPHRS scores were predicted by younger adults, foreign-born Hispanics, non-Hispanic blacks, lower- and middle-income groups, and those who live with someone who has worked at the petrochemical plants. Higher CAPHRS change scores are predicted by the same variables (except income), as well as proximity to, or perception of, the explosion, and reports of neighborhood damage. Findings suggest these groups' concern scores could indicate a greater vulnerability to psychological and physical harm generated by concern and stress arising from local petrochemical activities. A clearer understanding of concern about actual environmental health risks in exposed populations may enhance the evolving theory of stress and coping and eventually enable public health professionals to develop appropriate mitigation strategies. PMID:18643817

Cutchin, Malcolm P; Martin, Kathryn Remmes; Owen, Steven V; Goodwin, James S

2008-06-01

201

The membrane application on the wastewater reclamation and reuse from the effluent of industrial WWTP in northern Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the first full scope study of wastewater reclamation and reuse on public WWTP in Taiwan. A 50 m3\\/day pilot plant with membrane and biological systems of wastewater reclamation has been deployed and operated in the WWTP of Hsinchu Industrial Park, northern Taiwan. The reclaimed water has been transported to five factories and been used as the fresh water

H. H. Chen; H. H. Yeh; S. Shiau

2005-01-01

202

Recovery of aconitic acid from simulated aqueous effluents of the sugar-cane industry through liquid-liquid extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recovery of carboxylic acids from the by-products of sugar-cane treatments by the technique of solvent extraction has been studied, in order to reduce environmental pollution and in view of the possible uses of aconitic acid in the food-processing and chemical industries. The liquid-liquid extraction process can be considered as an alternative to the classical precipitation method for the separation

H. Hanine; T. Conte; J. Mourgues

1995-01-01

203

Physico-chemical study for zinc removal and recovery onto native/chemically modified Aspergillus flavus NA9 from industrial effluent.  

PubMed

Zinc biosorption characteristic of locally isolated Aspergillus flavus NA9 were examined as a function of pH, temperature, pulp density, contact time and initial metal ion concentration. The maximum zinc uptake was found to be 287.8 ± 11.1 mg g(-1) with initial metal concentration 600 mg L(-1) at initial pH 5.0 and temperature 30 °C. The equilibrium data gave good fits to Freundlich and Florry models with correlation coefficient value of 0.98. The contribution of the functional groups and lipids to zinc biosorption as identified by chemical pretreatment was in the order: carboxylic acids > hydroxyl > amines > lipids. The mechanism of biosorption was also studied using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). The biosorbent was regenerated using 0.01 M HCl with 83.3% elution efficiency and was reused for five sorption-desorption cycles with 23.5% loss in biosorption capacity. The order of co-cations showing increased inhibitions of zinc uptake by A. flavus NA9 was Pb > Cu > Mn > Ni. The biosorption assays conducted with actual paint industry effluents revealed efficiency of 88.7% for Zn (II) removal by candidate biomass. PMID:23764574

Aftab, Kiran; Akhtar, Kalsoom; Jabbar, Abdul; Bukhari, Iftikhar H; Noreen, Razia

2013-09-01

204

Impact on surface ozone by fugitive emissons of ethylene and propylene from a petrochemical plant cluster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ethylene and propylene are two most produced organic compounds in the world which are mainly produced from the cracking process in the oil refinery industry. In a large petrochemical plant cluster a large variety of petrochemical products are derived from these two compounds used as starting reagents. Fugitive emissions of these two compounds from storage tanks and pipelines are often inevitable, which could pose a great burden on the formation of surface ozone and thus deteriorate air quality if leakage is significant. In this study, a photochemical assessment monitoring station (PAMS) was deployed 7 kilometers south of a large petrochemical plant cluster. Concentration spikes of ethylene and propylene were frequently observed by the on-line gas chromatographic system whenever northerly prevailed. The impact of ethylene and propylene’s leakage on ozone formation was simulated by an air quality model (i.e., PAMS-AQM), of which emission inventory of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) were speciated and calibrated by the PAMS measurements. Contribution to ozone formation by these two compounds in the downwind areas was able to be assessed by turning off the emissions of ethylene and propylene from this plant cluster while maintaining those of other precursors in the model. Scenarios of precursor (NMHC and NOx) reduction or increase were also simulated from the perspectives of ozone control strategies.

Hsieh, H.; Chang, J.; Chen, S.; Wang, J.

2010-12-01

205

Cogeneration Design Considerations for a Major Petrochemical Facility  

E-print Network

The step increase in energy cost brought about in 1973 has permanently changed the way in which petrochemical production facilities are designed, operated, and maintained. Highly visible energy conservation programs consisting of steam trap repair...

Good, R. L.

206

Evaluation of the genotoxicity of waters impacted by domestic and industrial effluents of a highly industrialized region of São Paulo State, Brazil, by the comet assay in HTC cells.  

PubMed

The problems that most affect the quality of the waters of rivers and lakes are associated with the discharges performed in these environments, mainly industrial and domestic effluents inappropriately treated or untreated. The comet assay is a sensitive tool and is recommended for studies of environmental biomonitoring, which aim to determine the genotoxicity potential of water pollutants. This study aimed to assess the genotoxic potential of the Ribeirão Tatu waters, region of Limeira, São Paulo (SP), by the comet assay with mammalian cells (hepatoma tissue culture (HTC)). Water samples were collected along the Ribeirão Tatu at three distinct periods: November 2008, February 2009 and August 2009, and five collection sites were established: P1, source of the stream; P2, site located downstream the urban perimeter of the municipality of Cordeirópolis and after receiving the pollution load of this city; P3, collection site located upstream the urban perimeter of the city of Limeira; P4, urban area of Limeira; and P5, rural area of Limeira, downstream the discharges of the city sewage. The results showed that for the November 2008 collection, there was no water sample-induced genotoxicity; for the February 2009 collection, the sites P1 and P2 were statistically significant in relation to the negative control (NC), and for the August 2009 collection, the site P5 was statistically significant. These results could be explained by the content of different metals during the different seasons that are under the influence of domestic, industrial and agricultural effluents and also due to the seasonality, since the water samples collected in the period of heavy rain (February 2009) presented a higher genotoxicity possibly due to the entrainment of contaminants into the bed of the stream promoted by the outflow of rainwaters. The comet assay showed to be a useful and sensitive tool in the evaluation of hydric resources impacted by pollutants of diverse origins, and a constant monitoring should be done in order to verify the influence of different factors (season, amount of contaminants) in the water quality. PMID:25146123

Manzano, Bárbara Cassu; Roberto, Matheus Mantuanelli; Hoshina, Márcia Miyuki; Menegário, Amauri Antônio; Marin-Morales, Maria Aparecida

2015-01-01

207

Observations from Energy Audits in the Petrochemical Industry  

E-print Network

. The economical use of topping turbines in the steam system versus other mechanical energy options, savings possible from combustion versus other mechanical energy options, savings possible from combustion excess air control in boilers and fired heaters...

Govindan, T. S.

1979-01-01

208

Applying energy-efficient motors in the petrochemical industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several US and Canadian utilities have implemented demand side management (DSM) programs for retrofitting energy efficient (EE) motors. This article examines some of the practical problems associated with this. When determining the energy savings achievable by retrofitting standard efficient (SE) motors with EE motors, the nominal efficiency difference between the SE and EE motors is often used. However, EE motors

P. Pillay

1997-01-01

209

On-line filtration system for determining total chromium and chromium in the soluble fraction of industrial effluents by flow injection flame atomic absorption spectrometry.  

PubMed

Two manifolds were assessed for the purpose of determining both the total chromium content and that present as a soluble form in industrial effluents by flow injection flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FI-FAAS). To determine the chromium content in the soluble fraction the samples were used without additional treatment, a 0.45 microm filter being included in the FI system. To determine the total chromium content, the samples were acidified with nitric acid 20% (v/v) and heated for 30 s in a microwave oven (temperatures of about 70 degrees C were reached). The problem posed by the very different concentration range in which total and soluble chromium are present was overcome by using programmed flow rate methodology and by only partially emptying the sample loop. A personal computer controlled both the rotation speed of a peristaltic pump and the volume of sample injected into the system, thus obtaining the dispersion degree required. Using the manifold proposed, the chromium content in the soluble fraction can be determined in the 0.5-20 microg mL(-1) range using a 10 microg mL(-1) single standard for calibration. To determine the total chromium content, a calibration line in the 20-200 microg mL(-1) range was obtained using a single 50 microg mL(-1) chromium standard solution. The reliability of the semi-automatic devices was verified by comparing the results obtained with those found by treating the samples and using both FAAS in a conventional way and a spectrophotometric method using diphenylcarbazide at the 95% confidence level (ANOVA test). The proposed procedures showed a RSD lower than +/-3%. PMID:12012179

López-García, I; Merino Meroño, B; Campillo, N; Hernández-Córdoba, M

2002-05-01

210

TEXTILE TECHNOLOGY Cotton Textile Processing: Waste Generation and Effluent Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review discusses cotton textile process- ing and methods of treating effluent in the textile industry. Several countries, including India, have introduced strict ecological standards for textile industries. With more stringent controls expected in the future, it is essential that control measures be implemented to minimize effluent problems. Industrial textile processing comprises pretreat- ment, dyeing, printing, and finishing operations. These

B. Ramesh Babu; A. K. Parande; S. Raghu; T. Prem; Kumar B. R. Babu; T. P. Kumar

2007-01-01

211

Induction of chromosome aberrations in the Allium cepa test system caused by the exposure of seeds to industrial effluents contaminated with azo dyes.  

PubMed

Numerous potentially mutagenic chemicals have been studied mainly because they can cause damaging and inheritable changes in the genetic material. Several tests are commonly used for biomonitoring pollution levels and to evaluate the effects of toxic and mutagenic agents present in the natural environment. This study aimed at assessing the potential of a textile effluent contaminated with azo dyes to induce chromosomal and nuclear aberrations in Allium cepa test systems. A continuous exposure of seeds in samples of the textile effluent in different concentrations was carried out (0.3%, 3%, 10%, and 100%). Cells in interphase and undergoing division were examined to assess the presence of chromosome aberrations, nuclear changes, and micronuclei. Our results revealed a mutagenic effect of the effluent at concentrations of 10% and 100%. At lower concentrations, the effluent (3% and 0.3%) did not induce mutagenic alterations in the test organism A. cepa. These findings are of concern, since cell damage may be transmitted to subsequent generations, possibly affecting the organism as a whole, as well as the local biota exposed to the effluent discharge. If the damage results in cell death, the development of the organism may be affected, which could also lead to its death. PMID:18495201

Caritá, R; Marin-Morales, M A

2008-06-01

212

[Main results of scientific researches in oil industry].  

PubMed

Clinical and hygienic research was carried out in major oil extracting, oil processing and petrochemical enterpirses. Complex of industrial hazards results in occupational diseases of mild and medium severity, in increase of occupationally mediated diseases. The article covers sanitary and epidemiologic evaluation of oil processing and petrochemical products, technical documentation certificates for these products are obtained. PMID:20099388

Bakirov, A B; Gimranova, G G

2009-01-01

213

Induction of chromosome aberrations in the Allium cepa test system caused by the exposure of seeds to industrial effluents contaminated with azo dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous potentially mutagenic chemicals have been studied mainly because they can cause damaging and inheritable changes in the genetic material. Several tests are commonly used for biomonitoring pollution levels and to evaluate the effects of toxic and mutagenic agents present in the natural environment. This study aimed at assessing the potential of a textile effluent contaminated with azo dyes to

R. Caritá; M. A. Marin-Morales

2008-01-01

214

Effect of aging on the seismic performance of petrochemical facilities  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the effects of aging of petrochemical facilities with regard to the impact on seismic performance. Examples of typical construction and serious concerns are presented. Requirements in evaluation and retrofits are discussed. A comparison is made with the current state-of-practice in offshore platforms and nuclear power plants.

Johnson, G.S. (EQE International, San Francisco, CA (United States))

1993-05-01

215

Petrochemical wastewater treatment by means of clean electrochemical technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), turbidity, phenol, hydrocarbon and grease from petrochemical wastewater (PCWW) was experimentally done by using electroflotation (EF) and electrocoagulation (EC). In the EF unit, a graphite anode and a stainless steel mesh as cathode were used. In the EC unit, iron and aluminium were used simultaneously as materials for two blocks of alternating electrodes.

A. Dimoglo; H. Y. Akbulut; F. Cihan; M. Karpuzcu

2004-01-01

216

Demographic Factors and their Relation to Fatigue and Mental Disorders in 12-Hour Petrochemical Shift Workers  

PubMed Central

Background: Shift workers may be exposed to fatigue and mental disorders due to various work-related risk factors. This study evaluated the impact of demographic characteristics on fatigue and mental disorders among 12-hour shift workers in petrochemical industries. Methods: This study was conducted among 290 shift workers of Pardis Petrochemical Company in Iran. Data were collected using a general questionnaire for the demographic characteristic as well as multidimensional fatigue inventory (MFI-20) and general health questionnaire (GHQ-28). Results: Married workers were less likely to suffer from reduced activity levels (P< 0.027), depression (P< 0.032) and mental disorders (P< 0.040). Social dysfunction score (P< 0.029) and mental disorders (P< 0.048) decreased with shift work experience. Shift workers with non-academic education less likely to suffer from reduced activity levels (P< 0.000) and mental fatigue (P< 0.028). Conclusion: Despite the significant difference between the variables, this study showed a weak effect of individual and occupational demographic characteristics on fatigue and mental disorders. PMID:25648196

Bazazan, Ahmad; Rasoulzadeh, Yahya; Dianat, Iman; Safaiyan, Abdolrasoul; Mombeini, Zohreh; Shiravand, Ehsan

2014-01-01

217

Waste monitoring system for effluents  

SciTech Connect

The waste monitoring system in use at Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Plutonium Facility, TA-55, is a computer-based system that proves real-time information on industrial effluents. Remote computers monitor discharge events and data moves from one system to another via a local area network. This report describes the history, system design, summary, instrumentation list, displays, trending screens, and layout of the waste monitoring system.

Macdonald, J.M.; Gomez, B.; Trujillo, L.; Malcom, J.E.; Nekimken, H.; Pope, N.; Bibeau, R.

1995-07-01

218

Cancer incidence in a population living near a petrochemical facility and oil refinery.  

PubMed

There is growing concern that pollution from petrochemical and oil refinery installations in Pancevo (Serbia) has increased the incidence of various diseases including cancer. The aim of our study was to investigate cancer incidence in Pancevo and to compare it with the region of central Serbia. Cancer incidence data were obtained from the corresponding Serbian Cancer Registries. Systematic local monitoring of benzene, toluene and methyl mercaptane in the atmosphere within Pancevo's industrial area indicated that the average monthly and yearly concentrations often exceeded permitted levels proposed by EU standards (5 microgm(-3)). Cancer incidence was lower in Pancevo than in central Serbia (the standardised incidence for all types of cancers in Pancevo was 218.3 and in central Serbia it was 241.7 per 100,000 inhabitants). The available data do not allow us to correlate air pollution in Pancevo with increased cancer incidence. PMID:21755706

Bulat, Petar; Ivi?, Milka L Avramov; Jovanovi?, Mi?a B; Petrovi?, Slobodan D; Miljus, Dragan; Todorovi?, Tanja; Miladinov-Mikov, Marica M; Bogdanovi?, Milka

2011-06-01

219

Arc flash hazard reduction: Learnings from the IEEE Petroleum and Chemical Industry Committee  

Microsoft Academic Search

Managing the risks of fire and explosion in highly hazardous processes is inherent to manufacturing operations in the petrochemical industry. As early as the 1960s, some petrochemical companies had begun applying knowledge of managing the risk of personnel exposure to hydrocarbon fires and explosions to the electrical arc flash hazard. These practices evolved and formed the basis of arc flash

H. Landis Floyd II

2007-01-01

220

Particle Growth in Urban and Industrial Plumes in the Houston Metropolitan Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the Texas 2000 Air Quality Study, airborne measurements of particle size distributions were made in the vicinity of Houston, Texas in the plumes from power plants, petrochemical facilities, and the Houston urban center. Particle size distributions from 0.004-8.5 mum diameter were measured with 1 s time resolution. In all plumes from power plant and petrochemical industry sources, substantial enhancements

C. A. Brock; T. B. Ryerson; J. A. Neuman; D. D. Parrish; J. S. Holloway; J. C. Wilson; J. M. Reeves; E. L. Atlas; V. F. Stroud

2002-01-01

221

The use of lidar as optical remote sensors in the assessment of air quality near oil refineries and petrochemical sites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Petrochemical and oil refining facilities play an increasingly important role in the industrial context. The corresponding need for monitoring emissions from these facilities as well as in their neighborhood has raised in importance, leading to the present tendency of creating real time data acquisition and analysis systems. The use of LIDAR-based techniques, both for air quality and emissions monitoring purposes is currently being developed for the area of Cubatao, Sao Paulo, one of the largest petrochemical and industrial sites in Brazil. In a partnership with the University of SÃ#o Paulo (USP) the Brazilian oil company PETROBRAS has implemented an Environmental Research Center - CEPEMA - located in the industrial site, in which the development of fieldwork will be carried out. The current joint R&D project focuses on the development of a real time acquisition system, together with automated multicomponent chemical analysis. Additionally, fugitive emissions from oil processing and storage sites will be measured, together with the main greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4), and aerosols. Our first effort is to assess the potential chemical species coming out of an oil refinery site and to verify which LIDAR technique, DIAL, Raman, fluorescence would be most efficient in detecting and quantifying the specific atmospheric emissions.

Steffens, Juliana; Landulfo, Eduardo; Guardani, Roberto; Oller do Nascimento, Cláudio A.; Moreira, Andréia

2008-10-01

222

The influence of industrial effluents on intertidal benthic communities in Panweol, Kyeonggi Bay (Yellow Sea) on the west coast of Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impacts of industrial wastes on benthic infaunal communities were assessed for an intertidal mudflat near Panweol on the west coast of Korea. Species number and density have decreased sharply compared with values available for these communities before this area was heavily industrialized. At a site near the outfall of a sewage treatment plant almost all pre-existing macrobenthic infauna have disappeared,

In-Young Ahn; Young-Chul Kang; Jin-Woo Choi

1995-01-01

223

Health planning for remote petrochemical field operations  

SciTech Connect

Occupational/Public Health Services are becoming increasingly required in projects that involve the extended presence of expatriates in remote underdeveloped areas of the world. These ``expats`` are defined as individuals living and working in the environment who are not indigenous to the area. Under this definition, workers who are resistant to a ``local`` strain of malaria and then relocate to another geographic within the same country can also be considered as ``biologic expatriates`` since their resistance profile for certain tropical diseases is not reflective of their new environment. Unlike a major infrastructure project in the industrialized world, project planners in remote areas of the developing world should be expected to make significant long term medical and environmental commitments. US companies have extensive experience in the business of large-scale development projects, e.g. oil and gas pipelines and well field development; however, these projects represent major long-term in-country commitments with potentially large labor forces and substantial and sustained impacts on local health and safety resources. The initial structuring of health and safety programs will, therefore, have long-term ramifications on the project both during construction and ``routine`` operations since the multi-national companies are increasingly expected to develop and maintain self-sustaining health, safety and environmental programs.

Krieger, G.R.; Balge, M.Z.

1995-12-31

224

Nitrogen removal in a submerged filter with no effluent recirculation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of a partly aerated submerged filter in treating high nitrogenous wastewaters such as industrial effluents after anaerobic treatment was investigated in this study. The filter was operated without effluent recycling and its response to various test conditions of aeration rates, hydraulic loads, COD\\/N ratios and hydraulic retention times was evaluated. Results indicated that for an influent concentration of

P. C. Chui; Y. Terashima; J. H. Tay; H. Ozaki; S. Jeyaseelan

225

Mortality and morbidity study of petrochemical employees in a polluted site  

PubMed Central

Background The area of Gela was included among the 57 Italian polluted sites of national interest for environmental remediation because of its widespread contamination from a petrochemical complex. The present study investigates mortality and morbidity of the cohort of Gela petrochemical workers with the aim of disentangling occupational from residential risk. Methods Mortality was assessed for 5,627 men hired from 1960, year of the plant start-up, to 1993; it was followed up for vital status in the period 1960–2002. Morbidity was analysed for 5,431 workers neither dead nor lost to follow-up from 1960 to 2001 and was based on Hospital Discharge Records in the period 2001–2006. The work experience was classified in terms of job categories such as blue collars, white collars, and both – workers who shifted from blue to white collar (95%) or vice versa. An ad hoc mobility model was applied to define qualitative categories of residence in Gela, as residents and commuters. Standardized Mortality Ratios (SMRs) and Mortality Rate Ratios (MRRs) were computed, the latter by using a Poisson regression model. Morbidity was analyzed in terms of Hospital Discharge Odds Ratios (HDORs) through a logistic regression model. While performing the internal comparisons, white collars was the reference category for the job analysis, and commuters was the reference category for the residential analysis. Results In the light of epidemiological evidence about health risk from petrochemical industries in both occupational and environmental settings, and/or on the basis of information about occupational and residential contamination and health risk in the area of Gela, noteworthy results are shown for lung cancer [MRR: 2.11 (CI 90%; 0.96-4.63) in blue collars; 1.71 (1.09-2.69) in residents], respiratory diseases [HDOR: 2.0 (1.0-3.0) in blue collars; 1.4 (0.96-2.06) in residents] and genitourinary diseases [HDOR: 1.34 (1.06-1.68) in blue collars; 1.23 (1.04-1.45) in residents]. Conclusions The results support a role of the exposures in the occupational and residential settings, the latter due to the local ascertained contamination, in affecting the workers’ health. These results underline the urgent need of water, soil, air and food-chain monitoring programs, to discover active sources of exposure and consequently define public health interventions. PMID:22607492

2012-01-01

226

Effects-directed analysis of organic toxicants in wastewater effluent from Zagreb, Croatia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The organic toxicants present in the effluent of the main sewer of the city of Zagreb, Croatia were isolated and identified through the use of effects-directed characterisation techniques. At the time of investigation, the wastewater effluent received no treatment and was comprised of a mixture of effluent from domestic and industrial sources. The organic load of the wastewater was isolated

Merete Grung; Rainer Lichtenthaler; Marijan Ahel; Knut-Erik Tollefsen; Katherine Langford; Kevin V. Thomas

2007-01-01

227

Kinetic Modeling of Dye Effluent Biodegradation by Pseudomonas  

E-print Network

Abstract—Dye industry waste water is difficult to treat because of the presence of dyes with complex aromatic structure. In this research study, the biodegradation studies of dye effluent were performed utilizing Pseudomonas stutzeri in a controlled laboratory environment under anoxic conditions. The effects of operational parameters like initial pH of the effluent and initial Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) of the effluent on percentage COD removal were studied. A biokinetic model is established giving the dependence of percentage COD removal on biomass concentration and initial COD of the effluent. The biokinetics of the COD removal was found to be first order with respect to both the microbial concentration and initial COD of the effluent. The optimal pH for better bacterial degradation was found to be 8.The specific degradation rate was found to be 0.1417 l/g Dry Cell Mass (DCM) h, at 320 C. Keywords- Dye effluent degradation; biokinetics; anaerobic. I.

Natarajan Rajamohan; Manivasagan Rajasimman

228

Photocatalytic treatment of an industrial effluent using artificial and solar UV radiation: an operational cost study on a pilot plant scale.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to study the operation costs of treating a real effluent from an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power station located in Spain. The study compares different homogeneous photocatalytic processes on a pilot plant scale using different types of radiation (artificial UV or solar UV with a compound parabolic collector). The efficiency of the processes was evaluated by an analysis of the total organic carbon (TOC) removed. The following processes were considered in the study: (i) a photo-Fenton process at an artificial UV pilot plant (with the initial addition of H(2)O(2)), (ii) a modified photo-Fenton process with continuous addition of H(2)O(2) and O(2) to the system and (iii) a ferrioxalate-assisted solar photo-Fenton process at a compound parabolic collector (CPC) pilot plant. The efficiency of these processes in degrading pollutants has been studied previously, and the results obtained in each of those studies have been published elsewhere. The operational costs due to the consumption of electrical energy, reagents and catalysts were calculated from the optimal conditions of each process. The results showed that the solar photo-Fenton system was economically feasible, being able to achieve up to 75% mineralization with a total cost of 6 €/m(3), which can be reduced to 3.6 €/m(3) by subtracting the electrical costs because the IGCC plant is self-sufficient in terms of energy. PMID:22325636

Durán, A; Monteagudo, J M; San Martín, I

2012-05-15

229

CHEMICAL INTERACTIONS AMONG CHLOROHYDROCARBON MIXTURES FOUND IN WASTEWATER EFFLUENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Various chlorohydrocarbons found in industrial waste effluents, including chloroform (CHC13) and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), can eventually contaminate public drinking water supplies. The present study was designed to evaluate the interaction between orally administered CHCl3 an...

230

Industry  

SciTech Connect

This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of industrial mitigation for sustainable development is discussed in Section 7.7. Section 7.8 discusses the sector's vulnerability to climate change and options for adaptation. A number of policies have been designed either to encourage voluntary GHG emission reductions from the industrial sector or to mandate such reductions. Section 7.9 describes these policies and the experience gained to date. Co-benefits of reducing GHG emissions from the industrial sector are discussed in Section 7.10. Development of new technology is key to the cost-effective control of industrial GHG emissions. Section 7.11 discusses research, development, deployment and diffusion in the industrial sector and Section 7.12, the long-term (post-2030) technologies for GHG emissions reduction from the industrial sector. Section 7.13 summarizes gaps in knowledge.

Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

2007-12-01

231

Trinidad and Tobago -- A location for gas based petrochemical manufacture  

SciTech Connect

Trinidad and Tobago has a long history in the production of gas based petrochemicals. Methanol production started in 1984. At this time Trinidad has two methanol plants in operation and a third is under construction. The third methanol plant in Trinidad and Tobago is expected to be mechanically complete this month with commercial production expected to commence in February 1996. While it is true that many of the desirable production and logistic factors may be available in one location or the other, it is the total Trinidad package of competitive advantages and the facilitative role of the State, that add up synergistically, to confer an enduring and unique advantage to this location for gas based petrochemical manufacture. The author reviews the development of the Trinidad Methanol III project and in the process points out some of the critical factors that have contributed to its rapid implementation. The paper discusses the gas supply, political and economic climate, project development and execution environment, natural gas pricing, supportive infrastructure and available plant construction services, plant operation and maintenance, proximity and access to markets, and tax and fiscal incentives.

Baisden, C. [National Gas Co. of Trinidad and Tobago Ltd. (Trinidad and Tobago)

1995-12-31

232

Assessment of the Mutagenicity of Some Pharmaceutical Effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem statement: The pharmaceutical industry is a major contributor to industrial wastes globally. Effluents from this industry are usually discharged into the environment and when not properly handled and disposed, they affect both hum an health and the environment. Approach: This study evaluated the mutagenic potentials of effluen ts from six pharmaceutical companies in the Lagos province of Nigeria using

A. Akintonwa; O. Awodele; A. T. Olofinnade; C. Anyakora; G. O. Afolayan; H. A. B. Coker

2009-01-01

233

EXCHANGES BETWEEN RESEARCH ORGANISATIONS IN THE FIELD OF INDUSTRIAL RISK  

E-print Network

involved in other fields such as chemistry, oil, metallurgy, agro and food industries where the effects of catastrophic events. Therefore, it was possible to decrease the number of accidents and the extent of effects for insurance companies and industrial firms. They are related mainly to petrochemical industries and refineries

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

234

Assessing vanadium and arsenic exposure of people living near a petrochemical complex with two-stage dispersion models.  

PubMed

The goal of this study is to demonstrate that it is possible to construct a two-stage dispersion model empirically for the purpose of estimating air pollution levels in the vicinity of petrochemical plants. We studied oil refineries and coal-fired power plants in the No. 6 Naphtha Cracking Complex, an area of 2,603-ha situated on the central west coast of Taiwan. The pollutants targeted were vanadium (V) from oil refineries and arsenic (As) from coal-fired power plants. We applied a backward fitting method to determine emission rates of V and As, with 192 PM10 filters originally collected between 2009 and 2012. Our first-stage model estimated emission rates of V and As (median and 95% confidence intervals at 0.0202 (0.0040-0.1063) and 0.1368 (0.0398-0.4782) g/s, respectively. In our second stage model, the predicted zone-average concentrations showed a strong correlation with V, but a poor correlation with As. Our findings show that two-stage dispersion models are relatively precise for estimating V levels at residents' addresses near the petrochemical complex, but they did not work as well for As levels. In conclusion, our model-based approach can be widely used for modeling exposure to air pollution from industrial areas in countries with limited resources. PMID:24607528

Chio, Chia-Pin; Yuan, Tzu-Hsuen; Shie, Ruei-Hao; Chan, Chang-Chuan

2014-04-30

235

Treatment of rayon waste effluent for the removal of Zn and Ca using Indion BSR resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc is an important non-ferrous metal which finds application in different industries viz. electroplating, metal finishing, textile, galvanising etc. These industries generate effluents containing zinc during processing. The discharge of these effluents not only pollutes the environment but also affects health. In the present studies, an ion exchange process has been used to remove zinc and calcium from the synthetic

M. K. Jha; R. R. Upadhyay; Jae-chun Lee; Vinay Kumar

2008-01-01

236

Agent orange herbicides, organophosphate and triazinic pesticides analysis in olive oil and industrial oil mill waste effluents using new organic phase immunosensors.  

PubMed

New immunosensors working in organic solvent mixtures (OPIEs) for the analysis of traces of different pesticides (triazinic, organophosphates and chlorurates) present in hydrophobic matrices such as olive oil were developed and tested. A Clark electrode was used as transducer and peroxidase enzyme as marker. The competitive process took place in a chloroform-hexane 50% (V/V) mixture, while the subsequent enzymatic final measurement was performed in decane and using tert-butylhydroperoxide as substrate of the enzymatic reaction. A linear response of between about 10nM and 5.0?M was usually obtained in the presence of olive oil. Recovery tests were carried out in commercial or artisanal extra virgin olive oil. Traces of pesticides were also checked in the oily matrix, in pomace and mill wastewaters from an industrial oil mill. Immunosensors show good selectivity and satisfactory precision and recovery tests performed in olive oil gave excellent results. PMID:25236238

Martini, Elisabetta; Merola, Giovanni; Tomassetti, Mauro; Campanella, Luigi

2015-02-15

237

NATIONAL WWTP EFFLUENT STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

Reports of potential wildlife risk from exposure to environmental estrogens emphasize the need to better understand both estrogenic presence and persistence in treated wastewater effluents. In addition to wildlife exposure, human exposure should also be examined, especially in si...

238

GEOTHERMAL EFFLUENT SAMPLING WORKSHOP  

EPA Science Inventory

This report outlines the major recommendations resulting from a workshop to identify gaps in existing geothermal effluent sampling methodologies, define needed research to fill those gaps, and recommend strategies to lead to a standardized sampling methodology....

239

Investigation of fugitive emissions from petrochemical transport barges using optical remote sensing  

EPA Science Inventory

Recent airborne remote sensing survey data acquired with passive gas imaging equipment (PGIE), in this case infrared cameras, have shown potentially significant fugitive volatile organic carbon (VOC) emissions from petrochemical transport barges. The experiment found remote sens...

240

Abnormal Situation Management in petrochemical plants: can a Pilot's Associate crack crude?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abnormal Situations comprise a range of process disruptions in which petrochemical plant personnel must intervene to correct problems with which the control systems can not cope. Preventable losses from abnormal situations cost the U.S. economy at least $20B annually. The Abnormal Situation Management (ASM) Joint Research and Development Consortium (Honeywell, the seven largest U.S. petrochemical companies, and two software companies)

E. L. Cochran; C. Miller; P. Bullemer

1996-01-01

241

Lanthanum and lanthanides in atmospheric fine particles and their apportionment to refinery and petrochemical operations in Houston, TX  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study was conducted in Houston, TX focusing on rare earth elements (REEs) in atmospheric fine particles and their sources. PM 2.5 samples were collected from an ambient air quality monitoring site (HRM3) located in the proximity of a large number of oil refineries and petrochemical industries to estimate the potential contributions of emissions from fluidized-bed catalytic cracking operations to ambient fine particulate matter. The elemental composition of ambient PM 2.5, several commercially available zeolite catalysts, and local soil was measured after microwave assisted acid digestion using inductively coupled plasma—mass spectrometry. Source identification and apportionment was performed by principal component factor analysis (PCFA) in combination with multiple linear regression. REE relative abundance sequence, ratios of La to light REEs (Ce, Pr, Nd, and Sm), and enrichment factor analysis indicated that refining and petrochemical cat cracking operations were predominantly responsible for REE enrichment in ambient fine particles. PCFA yielded five physically meaningful PM 2.5 sources: cat cracking operations, a source predominantly comprised of crustal material, industrial high temperature operations, oil combustion, and sea spray. These five sources accounted for 82% of the total mass of atmospheric fine particles (less carbon and sulfate). Factor analysis confirmed that emissions from cat cracking operations primarily contributed to REE enrichment in PM 2.5 even though they comprised only 2.0% of the apportioned mass. Results from this study demonstrate the need to characterize catalysts employed in the vicinity of the sampling stations to accurately determine local sources of atmospheric REEs.

Kulkarni, Pranav; Chellam, Shankararaman; Fraser, Matthew P.

242

Industrial water conservation, recycle and reuse: A literature survey  

SciTech Connect

The results of a literature survey on industrial water conservation, recycle and reuse, sponsored by NACE T-7N (Minimization of Aqueous Discharges) are presented. A majority of the references cited are from the chemical and petrochemical industries. Categorization and definition of terms used in water conservation are given. 120 refs.

Breske, T.C. [E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Co., Inc., Wilmington, DE (United States)

1997-09-01

243

Environmental assessment for effluent reduction, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to eliminate industrial effluent from 27 outfalls at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The Proposed Action includes both simple and extensive plumbing modifications, which would result in the elimination of industrial effluent being released to the environment through 27 outfalls. The industrial effluent currently going to about half of the 27 outfalls under consideration would be rerouted to LANL`s sanitary sewer system. Industrial effluent from other outfalls would be eliminated by replacing once-through cooling water systems with recirculation systems, or, in a few instances, operational changes would result in no generation of industrial effluent. After the industrial effluents have been discontinued, the affected outfalls would be removed from the NPDES Permit. The pipes from the source building or structure to the discharge point for the outfalls may be plugged, or excavated and removed. Other outfalls would remain intact and would continue to discharge stormwater. The No Action alternative, which would maintain the status quo for LANL`s outfalls, was also analyzed. An alternative in which industrial effluent would be treated at the source facilities was considered but dismissed from further analysis because it would not reasonably meet the DOE`s purpose for action, and its potential environmental effects were bounded by the analysis of the Proposed Action and the No Action alternatives.

NONE

1996-09-11

244

Volatile organic monitor for industrial effluents  

SciTech Connect

1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act have created the need for instruments capable of monitoring volatile organic compounds (VOCS) in public air space in an unattended and low cost manner. The purpose of the study was to develop and demonstrate the capability to do long term automatic and unattended ambient air monitoring using an inexpensive portable analytic system at a commercial manufacturing plant site. A gas chromatograph system personal computer hardware, meteorology tower & instruments, and custom designed hardware and software were developed. Comparison with an EPA approved method was performed. The system was sited at an aircraft engines manufacturing site and operated in a completely unattended mode for 60 days. Two VOCs were monitored every 30 minutes during the 24hr day. Large variation in the concentration from 800ppb to the limits of detection of about 10ppb were observed. Work to increase the capabilities of the system is ongoing.

Laguna, G.R.; Peter, F.J.; Stuart, A.D.; Loyola, V.M.

1993-07-01

245

Risk assessment study of fire following an earthquake: a case study of petrochemical enterprises in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After an earthquake, the fire risk of petrochemical enterprises is higher than that of other enterprises as it involves production processes with inflammable and explosive characteristics. Using Chinese petrochemical enterprises as the research object, this paper uses a literature review and case summaries to study, amongst others, the classification of petrochemical enterprises, the proportion of daily fires, and fire loss ratio. This paper builds a fire following an earthquake risk assessment model of petrochemical enterprises based on a previous earthquake fire hazard model, and the earthquake loss prediction assessment method, calculates the expected loss of the fire following an earthquake in various counties and draws a risk map. Moreover, this research identifies high-risk areas, concentrating on the Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan region, and Shandong, Jiangsu, and Zhejiang provinces. Differences in enterprise type produce different levels and distribution of petrochemical enterprise earthquake fire risk. Furthermore, areas at high risk of post-earthquake fires and with low levels of seismic fortification require extra attention to ensure appropriate mechanisms are in place.

Li, J.; Wang, Y.; Chen, H.; Lin, L.

2014-04-01

246

Experimental research on vibration reduction of high-rise petrochemical equipment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The wind-induced vibration of high-rise petrochemical equipment would do great harm to equipment operation and cause fatigue damage easily. Thus it is necessary to install some control device to reduce the vibration actively. Existing reinforcement methods include enlarging structural section, welding wind girder, adding braced frame system, fixing taut cable, etc. But each has some shortcomings. Therefore, the tuned mass damper (TMD), rarely used in high-rise petrochemical equipment, is studied by experiment to minimize wind-induced vibration, ensure safety operation and prolong service life. In the experiment, high-rise petrochemical equipment is properly simplified in order to verify the feasibility of the TMD. Parameters of the TMD are mainly researched, which include mass ratio and damping ratio. During the process, different mass ratios and damping ratios have been taken into account to understand the characteristics of the TMD under different conditions. By experiment, the changing tendencies of the natural frequency, damping ratio and top maximum displacement have been given after the simulator is implemented with the TMD. Experimental results show that the TMD is feasible for the wind-induced vibration control of high-rise petrochemical equipment, and that top maximum displacement of the simulator reduces by about 45% in the experimental condition. The experimental research has provided valuable preferences for practical application of the TMD in petrochemical field.

Hao, W.; He, L. D.; Chang, J.; Han, W. F.; Wang, L. X.

2012-05-01

247

Modeling of Flow and Water Quality Processes with Finite Volume Method due to Spreading and Dispersion of Petrochemical Pollution in the Hydro-Environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Having two water frontiers, namely (everlasting) Persian Gulf and Oman Sea in the south and Caspian Sea in the north, intense dependence on extracting and exporting oil, especially via marine fleets and ever-increasing development of petrochemical industry, Iran is exposed to severe environmental damages caused by oil and petrochemical industries. This essay investigates how oil spill is diffused and its environmental pollution is spread. The movement of oil spill, and its diffusion in water and its effects on water and the environment has been simulated by developing a Depth-Averaged numerical model and using the Finite Volume method. The existing models are not efficient enough to fulfill current modeling needs. The developed model uses the parameters useful in the advection and diffusion of oil pollutions in a model appropriate for predicting the transport of oil spill. Since the Navier-Stokes Equations play an important role in the advection and diffusion of oil pollutions, it is highly important to choose an appropriate numerical method in the advection and diffusion section. In this essay, choosing the methods used in the advection and diffusion have been emphasized and highly-accurate algorithms has been used in the advection terms. These algorithms are not present in similar models. The resulting equations have been solved using the ADI method. This method solves the unknown parameters with solving a Penta-Diagonal matrix in each time step. It does so without sacrificing the desired precision.

Sarhadi Zadeh, Ehsan; Hejazi, Kourosh

2009-11-01

248

Ex-situ bioremediation of shrimp culture effluent using constructed microbial mats  

Microsoft Academic Search

In coastal countries, marine shrimp industry poses a problem with respect to the waste effluent disposal into the ocean as well as the nearby area. Constructed microbial mats offer an interesting alternative for shrimp culture effluents. The treatment concept relies on the immobilization of natural marine microbial consortium on glass wool to mitigate the levels of dissolved nitrogen from a

J. Paniagua-Michel; O. Garcia

2003-01-01

249

A novel hybrid technology for remediation of molasses-based raw effluents.  

PubMed

A novel three-step technology for treatment of four molasses-based raw industrial effluents, varying in their COD, color and turbidity is reported here. Sequential steps involved in this treatment are; (1) sonication of the effluents, (2) whole-fungal treatment of these by a ligninolytic marine fungus and (3) biosorption of the residual color with heat-inactivated biomass of the same fungus. Sonication reduced the foul odor and turbidity of the effluents. It increased biodegradability of the effluents in the second stage of treatment. Laccase production in the presence of all the four effluents was directly correlated with their decolorization. After the third step, a reduction of 60-80% in color, 50-70% in COD and 60-70% in total phenolics were achieved. Comparative mass and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra indicated increasing degradation of the effluent components after each stage. Toxicity (LC(50) values) against Artemia larvae was reduced by two to five folds. PMID:21111609

Verma, Ashutosh Kumar; Raghukumar, Chandralata; Naik, Chandrakant Govind

2011-02-01

250

EVALUATION OF A SHORT-TERM CHRONIC EFFLUENT TOXICITY TEST USING SHEEPSHEAD MINNOW (CYPRINODON VARIEGATUS) LARVAE  

EPA Science Inventory

In response to recent changes in National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit regulations, rapid (7-day) static renewal toxicity tests have been developed to detect chronic (sublethal and lethal) effect concentrations of municipal and industrial effluents on fre...

251

DETERMINATION OF TRACE METALS IN EFFLUENTS BY DIFFERENTIAL PULSE ANODIC STRIPPING VOLTAMETRY  

EPA Science Inventory

Differential pulse anodic stripping voltametry (DPASV) was evaluated to determine its applicability to industrial and domestic effluents. The results show that trace amounts of zinc, cadmium, lead, bismuth, copper, thallium, indium, antimony, tin and nickel can be determined indi...

252

Public health assessment for Mattiace Petrochemical Company, Glenwood Landing, Nassau County, New York, Region 2. CERCLIS No. NYD000512459. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Mattiace Petrochemical Site, which is on the National Priorities List, is on the north shore of Nassau County, near Hempstead Harbor, in the City of Glen Cove. On-site soils and groundwater are contaminated with volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds. Metals are elevated in groundwater. The site is next to several one-story, industrial-commercial buildings. Glen Cove Creek, a tributary to the Hempstead Harbor portion of Long Island Sound, is about 500 feet from the site. The contaminated soil and shallow groundwater may result in contamination of the vapor-phase of soil (soil gas) and may affect indoor-air quality in the industrial-commercial buildings. Runoff from the site may have contaminated the driveway and storm drains. Employees of adjacent businesses may be exposed to contaminated soils from the site.

Not Available

1993-05-28

253

Evaporation behaviour of different organic effluents from open surfaces.  

PubMed

Production of large quantities of effluents from different industrial units and the problems of their disposal necessitated this evaporation study. The evaporation of water, sewage water, oil refinery effluent, papermill effluent and liquor distillery effluent was observed in glass beakers when placed (i) in an oven at 60 degrees C and (ii) in screen house for 30 days, by periodically weighing of the beakers. In other experiments, the effect of increasing the frequency of stirring on increasing the evaporation efficiency of the liquor distillery effluent (ELD) was examined in detail. All of the organic effluents except ELD had similar evaporation behaviours as water, but formation of a self-forming film caused the evaporation of ELD to be considerably lower. Resistance to evaporation caused by this film was found to be a decreasing function of the frequency of stirring. This study has a bearing on improving the efficiency of evaporation lagoons, and three stirrings in a day with a manually drawn stirrer in a full-scale lagoon are proposed as a practical and economically viable technique to save 44% of lagoon land in arid and semi-arid regions of the world. PMID:15091872

Jhorar, B S; Malik, R S

1993-01-01

254

Complete physico-chemical treatment for coke plant effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Naturally found coal is converted to coke which is suitable for metallurgical industries. Large quantities of liquid effluents produced contain a large amount of suspended solids, high COD, BOD, phenols, ammonia and other toxic substances which are causing serious pollution problem in the receiving water to which they are discharged. There are a large number of coke plants in the

M. K Ghose

2002-01-01

255

Risk assessment study of fire following earthquake: a case study of petrochemical enterprises in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After an earthquake, the fire risk of petrochemistry enterprises is higher than that of other enterprises as it involves production processes with inflammable and explosive characteristics. Using Chinese petrochemical enterprises as the research object, this paper uses a literature review and case summaries to study, amongst others, the classification of petrochemical enterprises, the proportion of daily fires, and fire loss ratio. This paper builds a fire following earthquake risk assessment model of petrochemical enterprises based on a previous earthquake fire hazard model, and the earthquake loss prediction assessment method, calculates the expected loss of the fire following earthquake in various counties and draws a risk map. Moreover, this research identifies high-risk areas, concentrating on the Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan region, and Shandong, Jiangsu, and Zhejiang provinces. Differences in enterprise type produce different levels and distribution of petrochemical enterprises earthquake fire risk. Furthermore, areas at high risk of post-earthquake fires and with low levels of seismic fortification require extra attention to ensure appropriate mechanisms are in place.

Li, J.; Wang, Y.; Chen, H.; Lin, L.

2013-04-01

256

Characterization of a Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon–Degrading Microbial Consortium from a Petrochemical Sludge Landfarming Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthracene, phenanthrene, and pyrene are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) that display both mutagenic and carcinogenic properties. They are recalcitrant to microbial degradation in soil and water due to their complex molecular structure and low solubility in water. This study presents the characterization of an efficient PAH (anthracene, phenanthrene, and pyrene)-degrading microbial consortium, isolated from a petrochemical sludge landfarming site. Soil

Rodrigo J. S. Jacques; Benedict C. Okeke; Fatima M. Bento; Maria C. R. Peralba; Flávio A. O. Camargo

2007-01-01

257

Incorporation of air-cooled condensers in refineries and petrochemical plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

By and large, the construction of oil-processing and petrochemical plants and individual production units is being carried out in accordance with obsolete general plans and drafts, not allowing for any radical reduction in the intervals between fitting and apparatus, and without the new effective plant, waste-heat boilers for the spent heat, the huge centrifugal, rotary and opposed compressors or cylindrical

Ya. G. Sorking; S. Yu. Barit; V. M. Shmerkovich

1966-01-01

258

Criticality evaluation of petrochemical equipment based on fuzzy comprehensive evaluation and a BP neural network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Equipment criticality evaluation is an important base for maintenance decision-making to prevent accidents and to optimize maintenance management in Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM), particularly in a new petrochemical plant. In this study, a new model using fuzzy comprehensive evaluation is developed. To do so, this study focuses on the description of fuzzy comprehensive evaluation. In the evaluation, the following are

Lijie Guo; Jinji Gao; Jianfeng Yang; Jianxin Kang

2009-01-01

259

A contribution to the surface analysis and characterisation of HVOF coatings for petrochemical application  

Microsoft Academic Search

The appropriate selection of bulk materials and coatings of valve components is an important factor for the economic success of oil and gas production activities in the petrochemical field. Materials and coatings are important because particle erosion and surface wear are associated to corrosion by hydrogen sulphide during oil and gas flow. The wear of high pressure valves of gas

A Scrivani; S Ianelli; A Rossi; R Groppetti; F Casadei; G Rizzi

2001-01-01

260

Use of Geochemical Forensics to Determine Release Eras of Petrochemicals to Groundwater, Whitehorse, Yukon  

Microsoft Academic Search

At sites where petrochemical releases have occurred comparatively recently (i.e., over the last 20 years), explicit age-dating is a viable approach. However, differentiating among multiparty contamination at sites with several decades of history may mandate a different allocation strategy, especially when there is an uncoordinated body of environmental data. At a location where a refinery operated for 11 months during

Andy Davis; B. Howe; A. Nicholson; S. McCaffery; K. A. Hoenke

2005-01-01

261

Genotoxicity assessment of a pharmaceutical effluent using four bioassays  

PubMed Central

Pharmaceutical industries are among the major contributors to industrial waste. Their effluents when wrongly handled and disposed of endanger both human and environmental health. In this study, we investigated the potential genotoxicity of a pharmaceutical effluent, by using the Allium cepa, mouse- sperm morphology, bone marrow chromosome aberration (CA) and micronucleus (MN) assays. Some of the physico-chemical properties of the effluent were also determined. The A. cepa and the animal assays were respectively carried out at concentrations of 0.5, 1, 2.5, 5 and 10%; and 1, 5, 10, 25 and 50% of the effluent. There was a statistically different (p < 0.05), concentration-dependent inhibition of onion root growth and mitotic index, and induction of chromosomal aberrations in the onion and mouse CA test. Assessment of sperm shape showed that the fraction of the sperm that was abnormal in shape was significantly (p < 0.05) greater than the negative control value. MN analysis showed a dose-dependent induction of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes across the treatment groups. These observations were provoked by the toxic and genotoxic constituents present in test samples. The tested pharmaceutical effluent is a potentially genotoxic agent and germ cell mutagen, and may induce adverse health effects in exposed individuals. PMID:21637694

2009-01-01

262

Genotoxicity assessment of a pharmaceutical effluent using four bioassays.  

PubMed

Pharmaceutical industries are among the major contributors to industrial waste. Their effluents when wrongly handled and disposed of endanger both human and environmental health. In this study, we investigated the potential genotoxicity of a pharmaceutical effluent, by using the Allium cepa, mouse- sperm morphology, bone marrow chromosome aberration (CA) and micronucleus (MN) assays. Some of the physico-chemical properties of the effluent were also determined. The A. cepa and the animal assays were respectively carried out at concentrations of 0.5, 1, 2.5, 5 and 10%; and 1, 5, 10, 25 and 50% of the effluent. There was a statistically different (p < 0.05), concentration-dependent inhibition of onion root growth and mitotic index, and induction of chromosomal aberrations in the onion and mouse CA test. Assessment of sperm shape showed that the fraction of the sperm that was abnormal in shape was significantly (p < 0.05) greater than the negative control value. MN analysis showed a dose-dependent induction of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes across the treatment groups. These observations were provoked by the toxic and genotoxic constituents present in test samples. The tested pharmaceutical effluent is a potentially genotoxic agent and germ cell mutagen, and may induce adverse health effects in exposed individuals. PMID:21637694

Bakare, Adekunle A; Okunola, Alabi A; Adetunji, Olusanmi A; Jenmi, Hafeez B

2009-04-01

263

NMR shielding and a thermodynamic study of the effect of environmental exposure to petrochemical solvent on DPPC, an important component of lung surfactant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemical and petrochemical industries are the major air polluters. Millions of workers are exposed to toxic chemicals on the job, and it is becoming more toxic, causing much damage to respiratory system, today. One of the main components of lung alveoli is a surfactant. DPPC (Dipalmitolphosphatidylcholine) is the predominant lipid component in the lung surfactant, which is responsible for lowering surface tension in alveoli. In this article, we used an approximate model and ab initio computations to describe interactions between DPPC and some chemical solvents, such as benzene, toluene, heptane, acetone, chloroform, ether, and ethanol, which cause lung injuries and lead to respiratory distress such as ARDS. The effect of these solvents on the conformation and disordering of the DPPC head group was investigated by calculations at the Hatree-Fock level using the 6-31G basis set with the Onsager continuum solvation, GAIO, and frequency models. The simulation model was confirmed by accurate NMR measurements as concerns conformational energy. Water can be the most suitable solvent for DPPC. Furthermore, this study shows that ethanol has the most destructive effect on the conformation and lipid disorder of the DPPC head group of the lung surfactant in our model. Our finding will be useful for detecting the dysfunction of DPPC in the lung surfactant caused by acute or chronic exposures to air toxics from petrochemical organic solvent emission source and chronic alcohol consumption, which may lead to ARDS.

Monajjemi, M.; Afsharnezhad, S.; Jaafari, M. R.; Abdolahi, T.; Nikosade, A.; Monajemi, H.

2007-12-01

264

Advances in industrial substation design using three winding power transformers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial substations for petro-chemical facilities must be reliable, easy to operate and easy to maintain, as well as have enough spare electrical capacity and spare space to handle all anticipated future growth needs. In many cases three winding power transformers offer an attractive alternative to the traditional two winding transformers without sacrificing reliability, operability, maintainability or future growth capability.

D. Brooks; D. Morency; P. Tang

2008-01-01

265

Seasonal Source-Receptor Relationships in a Petrochemical Industrial District over Northern Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the relationships between meteorological data, pollution sources, and receptors over northern Taiwan. During the intensive sampling period in summer 1992, the weather was controlled predominantly by a Pacific subtropical high and by Typhoon Mark. During the other intensive sampling period in winter 1993, while a cold frontal system approached Taiwan, the northeasterly winds prevailed most of the

Pen-Chi Chiang; E. E. Chang; Tzu-Chi Chang; Hung-Lung Chiang

2005-01-01

266

Seasonal source-receptor relationships in a petrochemical industrial district over northern Taiwan.  

PubMed

This study investigated the relationships between meteorological data, pollution sources, and receptors over northern Taiwan. During the intensive sampling period in summer 1992, the weather was controlled predominantly by a Pacific subtropical high and by Typhoon Mark. During the other intensive sampling period in winter 1993, while a cold frontal system approached Taiwan, the northeasterly winds prevailed most of the time. The local circulation such as land-sea breeze only developed under weak synoptic environment. Particle concentrations and element composition in winter were higher than in summer. This can be attributed to the high convection of air mass, which leads to the vertical dispersion of pollutants in summer. In addition to the subtropical high pressure, typhoons are frequently accompanied with high-wind speeds and unstable weather conditions that also dilute and eliminate the pollutants. In winter, the prevailing northeasterlies might carry pollutants from Midland China. Furthermore, the anticyclone system develops a stagnant condition that easily leads to pollutant accumulation. In this case, the wind direction affected the source contribution of the receptor and the PM10 displays a higher correlation with coarse and fine particulate than meteorological parameters in summer. In addition, the mixing height shows a high correlation with PM10 in winter. PMID:15828675

Chiang, Pen-Chi; Chang, E E; Chang, Tzu-Chi; Chiang, Hung-Lung

2005-03-01

267

Lymphohaematopoietic malignancy around all industrial complexes that include major oil refineries in Great Britain  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To examine the incidence of lymphohaematopoietic malignancy around industrial complexes that include major oil refineries in Great Britain after recent public and scientific concern of possible carcinogenic hazards of emissions from the petrochemical industry. METHODS: Small area study of the incidence of lymphohaematopoietic malignancies, 1974-91, within 7.5 km of all 11 oil refineries (grouped into seven sites) in Great

P. Wilkinson; B. Thakrar; P. Walls; M. Landon; S. Falconer; C. Grundy; P. Elliott

1999-01-01

268

Bioremediation of metal-rich effluents: could the invasive bivalve work as a biofilter?  

PubMed

Industrial effluents are important sources of contamination of water and sediments, frequently causing serious damage at different levels of biological organization. Management and treatment of harmful industrial wastes is thus a major concern. Metal-bearing effluents, such as acid mine drainage (AMD), are particularly problematic because metals can easily bioaccumulate in organisms and biomagnify across the trophic chain. Several solutions have been proposed to treat AMD, including active methods involving the addition of neutralizing agents and passive techniques that use natural energy sources for remediation. However, increasing environmental and economic requirements lead the constant search for more sustainable solutions. The present study explores the possibility of using , an invasive freshwater bivalve, as a bioremediation tool using AMD as a model, metal-bearing effluent. The study compares untreated and biotreated effluents at two dilution levels (4 and 10% v/v) following two distinct approaches: (i) chemical characterization of the metal concentrations in water complemented by determination of the accumulation in the clams' soft tissues and shells; and (ii) ecotoxicity assessment using standard organisms (the bacterium , the microalgae , and the cladoceran ). Significant removal of metals from water was recorded for both effluent dilutions, with higher purification levels found for the 4% effluent. The environmental toxicity of the effluents generally decreased after the treatment with the clams. Thus, this study provides evidence for the suitability of as a bioremediator for metal-bearing effluents, especially if the treatment can be materialized in a multistage configuration system. PMID:25603239

Rosa, Inês Correia; Costa, Raquel; Gonçalves, Fernando; Pereira, Joana Luísa

2014-09-01

269

Reproductive Disruption in Wild Longear Sunfish (Lepomis megalotis) Exposed to Kraft Mill Effluent  

PubMed Central

Worldwide, wild fish living in rivers receiving municipal and industrial discharges may experience endocrine disruption as a result of exposure to anthropogenic pollutants. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hormonal status of wild fish in a U.S. river receiving unbleached kraft and recycled pulp mill effluent (Pearl River at Bogalusa, LA). We evaluated two alternative hypotheses: the effluent contained constituents that suppressed male and female reproduction, or it contained an androgenic substance that masculinized females. To evaluate the likelihood of fish exposure to effluent, we marked 697 longear sunfish (Lepomis megalotis) over a 2-year period; 83% of recaptured fish were found at the site of initial capture, and only one fish migrated from an effluent-receiving site to a reference site. We can reasonably assume that fish captured from an effluent-receiving site are residents, not transitory migrants. To diagnose endocrine disruption, we measured sex steroid hormone [17?-estradiol (E2), testosterone (T), and 11-ketotestosterone (11KT)] and vitellogenin (VTG) concentrations in male and female longear sunfish captured at two sites upstream and two sites downstream of the effluent outfall. Kraft pulp mill effluent did not affect male reproductive physiology but did suppress female T and VTG levels when effluent constituted ? 1% of river flow. Masculinization was not observed. Longear sunfish in the Pearl River experience moderate reproductive suppression in response to unbleached kraft and recycled pulp mill effluent. PMID:16393656

Fentress, Jennifer A.; Steele, Stacy L.; Bart, Henry L.; Cheek, Ann Oliver

2006-01-01

270

Evaluation of dairy effluent management options using multiple criteria analysis.  

PubMed

This article describes how options for managing dairy effluent on the Lower Murray River in South Australia were evaluated using multiple criteria analysis (MCA). Multiple criteria analysis is a framework for combining multiple environmental, social, and economic objectives in policy decisions. At the time of the study, dairy irrigation in the region was based on flood irrigation which involved returning effluent to the river. The returned water contained nutrients, salts, and microbial contaminants leading to environmental, human health, and tourism impacts. In this study MCA was used to evaluate 11 options against 6 criteria for managing dairy effluent problems. Of the 11 options, the MCA model selected partial rehabilitation of dairy paddocks with the conversion of remaining land to other agriculture. Soon after, the South Australian Government adopted this course of action and is now providing incentives for dairy farmers in the region to upgrade irrigation infrastructure and/or enter alternative industries. PMID:18193318

Hajkowicz, Stefan A; Wheeler, Sarah A

2008-04-01

271

Facility effluent monitoring plan for WESF  

SciTech Connect

The FEMP for the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) provides sufficient information on the WESF effluent characteristics and the effluent monitoring systems so that a compliance assessment against applicable requirements may be performed. Radioactive and hazardous material source terms are related to specific effluent streams that are in turn, related to discharge points and, finally are compared to the effluent monitoring system capability.

SIMMONS, F.M.

1999-09-01

272

Bioplastic production using wood mill effluents as feedstock.  

PubMed

Fibreboard production is one of the most important industrial activities in Galicia (Spain). Great amounts of wastewater are generated, with properties depending on the type of wood, treatment process, final product and water reusing, among others. These effluents are characterized by a high chemical oxygen demand, low pH and nutrients limitation. Although anaerobic digestion is one of the most suitable processes for the treatment, lately bioplastics production (mainly polyhydroxyalkanoates) from wastewaters with mixed cultures is being evaluated. Substrate requirements for these processes consist of high organic matter content and low nutrient concentration. Therefore, wood mill effluents could be a suitable feedstock. In this work, the possibility of producing bioplastics from to wood mill effluents is evaluated. First, wood mill effluent was converted to volatile fatty acids in an acidogenic reactor operated at two different hydraulic retention times of 1 and 1.5 d. The acidification percentage obtained was 37% and 42%, respectively. Then, aerobic batch assays were performed using fermented wood mill effluents obtained at different hydraulic retention times. Assays were developed using different cultures as inoculums. The maximum storage yield of 0.57 Cmmol/Cmmol was obtained when when the culture was enriched on a synthetic media. PMID:21436556

Ben, M; Mato, T; Lopez, A; Vila, M; Kennes, C; Veiga, M C

2011-01-01

273

Mutagenicity of the environments in the vicinity of an oil refinery and a petrochemical complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mutagenicity of the vicinity of an oil-refining complex and a petrochemical complex was examined using the germinal revertant frequency of Zea mays waxy-C W22 and the somatic stamen hair system of Tradescantia. A 3-year study was conducted at Wood River, Illinois, in 1978, 1979, and 1980, and a 1-year study in 1979 at Beaumont, Texas. The studies conducted in

William R. Lower; V. Kay Drobney; Betty J. Aholt; Raymond Politte

1983-01-01

274

Statistical Evaluation of Effluent Monitoring Data for the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility  

SciTech Connect

This report updates the original effluent variability study for the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) and provides supporting justification for modifying the effluent monitoring portion of the discharge permit. Four years of monitoring data were evaluated and used to statistically justify changes in permit effluent monitoring conditions. As a result, the TEDF effluent composition and variability of the effluent waste stream are now well defined.

Chou, Charissa J.; Johnson, Vernon G.

2000-03-08

275

Anaerobic treatment of pulp and paper mill effluents--status quo and new developments.  

PubMed

Since the early 1980s, anaerobic treatment of industrial effluents has found widespread application in the pulp and paper industry. Over 200 installations are treating a large variety of different pulp and paper mill effluents. Amongst various anaerobic systems the UASB and IC are the most applied anaerobic reactor systems. Anaerobic treatment is well feasible for effluents originated from recycle paper mills, mechanical pulping (peroxide bleached), semi-chemical pulping and sulphite and kraft evaporator condensates. The advantages of anaerobic pre-treatment are (1) net production of renewable energy (biogas), (2) minimized bio-solids production, (3) minimal footprint and (4) reduced emission of greenhouse gases. Via in-line application of anaerobic treatment in closed circuits (paper kidney technology) further savings on cost of fresh water intake and effluent discharge levies are generated. PMID:17486855

Habets, Leo; Driessen, Willie

2007-01-01

276

Characteristics of treated effluents and their potential applications for producing concrete.  

PubMed

Conservation and preservation of freshwater is increasingly becoming important as the global population grows. Presently, enormous volumes of freshwater are used to mix concrete. This paper reports experimental findings regarding the feasibility of using treated effluents as alternatives to freshwater in mixing concrete. Samples were obtained from three effluent sources: heavy industry, a palm-oil mill and domestic sewage. The effluents were discharge into public drain without danger to human health and natural environment. Chemical compositions and physical properties of the treated effluents were investigated. Fifteen compositional properties of each effluent were correlated with the requirements set out by the relevant standards. Concrete mixes were prepared using the effluents and freshwater to establish a base for control performance. The concrete samples were evaluated with regard to setting time, workability, compressive strength and permeability. The results show that except for some slight excesses in total solids and pH, the properties of the effluents satisfy the recommended disposal requirements. Two concrete samples performed well for all of the properties investigated. In fact, one sample was comparatively better in compressive strength than the normal concrete; a 9.4% increase was observed at the end of the curing period. Indeed, in addition to environmental conservation, the use of treated effluents as alternatives to freshwater for mixing concrete could save a large amount of freshwater, especially in arid zones. PMID:22705857

Noruzman, Ainul Haezah; Muhammad, Bala; Ismail, Mohammad; Abdul-Majid, Zaiton

2012-11-15

277

Treatment of effluents from uranium oxide production.  

PubMed

The nuclear fuel cycle comprises a series of industrial processes which involve the production of electricity from uranium in nuclear power reactors. In Brazil the conversion of uranium hexafluoride (UF6) into uranium dioxide (UO2) takes place in Resende (RJ) at the Nuclear Fuel Factory (FCN). The process generates liquid effluents with significant concentrations of uranium, which might be treated before being discharged into the environment. This study investigates the recovery of uranium from three distinct liquid effluents: one with a high carbonate content and the other with an elevated fluoride concentration. This paper also presents a study on carbonate removal from an effluent that consists of a water-methanol solution generated during the filtration of the yellow cake (ammonium uranyl tricarbonate). The results showed that: (1) the uranium from the carbonated solution can be recovered through the ion exchange technique using the strong base anionic resin IRA 910-U, as the carbonate has been removed as CO2 after heating; (2) the most suitable technique to recover uranium from the fluoride solution is its precipitation as (NH4)2UO4F2 (ammonium fluorouranate peroxide), (3) the solution free of carbonate can be added to the fluoride solution and the uranium from the final solution can be recovered by precipitation as ammonium fluorouranate peroxide as well; (4) the carbonate from the water-methanol solution can be recovered as calcium carbonate through the addition of calcium chloride, or it can be recovered as ammonium sulphate through the addition of sulphuric acid. The ammonium sulphate product can be used as a fertilizer. PMID:21473275

Ladeira, A C Q; Gonçalves, J S; Morais, C A

2011-01-01

278

COMPETITIVE INTELLIGENCE COMPARISON BASED ON THE TYPES OF INDUSTRY. CASE STUDY: LISTED COMPANIES IN TEHRAN STOCK EXCHANGE (TSE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to compare competitive intelligence based on the types of industry. In order to do this, the listed companies in Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE) during a five year period (2004-2008) have been selected. These companies’ products are grouped into five industrial categories; that are, food & drink, tile & ceramic, petrochemical, automobile & parts manufacturing,

Mortazavi Mahdy; Javadi Pour Far Mahnoosh

2011-01-01

279

40 CFR 415.412 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hydrogen Production Subcategory § 415.412 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2013-07-01

280

40 CFR 415.412 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hydrogen Production Subcategory § 415.412 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2014-07-01

281

40 CFR 415.412 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hydrogen Production Subcategory § 415.412 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2012-07-01

282

40 CFR 415.427 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hydrogen Cyanide Production Subcategory § 415.427 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2014-07-01

283

40 CFR 415.412 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hydrogen Production Subcategory § 415.412 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2011-07-01

284

40 CFR 415.427 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hydrogen Cyanide Production Subcategory § 415.427 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2013-07-01

285

40 CFR 415.343 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chrome Pigments Production Subcategory § 415.343 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2014-07-01

286

40 CFR 415.347 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chrome Pigments Production Subcategory § 415.347 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2013-07-01

287

40 CFR 415.347 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chrome Pigments Production Subcategory § 415.347 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2010-07-01

288

40 CFR 415.343 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chrome Pigments Production Subcategory § 415.343 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2013-07-01

289

40 CFR 415.343 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chrome Pigments Production Subcategory § 415.343 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2010-07-01

290

40 CFR 415.347 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chrome Pigments Production Subcategory § 415.347 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2014-07-01

291

40 CFR 415.347 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chrome Pigments Production Subcategory § 415.347 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2011-07-01

292

40 CFR 415.343 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chrome Pigments Production Subcategory § 415.343 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2012-07-01

293

40 CFR 415.347 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chrome Pigments Production Subcategory § 415.347 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2012-07-01

294

40 CFR 418.67 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ammonium Sulfate Production Subcategory § 418.67 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2010-07-01

295

40 CFR 418.63 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ammonium Sulfate Production Subcategory § 418.63 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2010-07-01

296

40 CFR 415.143 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory § 415.143 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2010-07-01

297

40 CFR 415.142 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory § 415.142 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2010-07-01

298

40 CFR 415.227 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Dioxide Production Subcategory § 415.227 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2013-07-01

299

40 CFR 415.227 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Dioxide Production Subcategory § 415.227 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2010-07-01

300

40 CFR 415.227 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Dioxide Production Subcategory § 415.227 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2012-07-01

301

40 CFR 415.227 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Dioxide Production Subcategory § 415.227 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2014-07-01

302

40 CFR 415.227 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Dioxide Production Subcategory § 415.227 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2011-07-01

303

40 CFR 415.352 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chromic Acid Production Subcategory § 415.352 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2010-07-01

304

40 CFR 415.53 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Oxide Production Subcategory § 415.53 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2010-07-01

305

40 CFR 428.83 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wet Digestion Reclaimed Rubber Subcategory § 428.83 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2014-07-01

306

40 CFR 428.82 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wet Digestion Reclaimed Rubber Subcategory § 428.82 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2013-07-01

307

40 CFR 428.83 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wet Digestion Reclaimed Rubber Subcategory § 428.83 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2013-07-01

308

40 CFR 428.82 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wet Digestion Reclaimed Rubber Subcategory § 428.82 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2014-07-01

309

40 CFR 428.83 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wet Digestion Reclaimed Rubber Subcategory § 428.83 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2012-07-01

310

40 CFR 428.82 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wet Digestion Reclaimed Rubber Subcategory § 428.82 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2012-07-01

311

40 CFR 415.142 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory § 415.142 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2012-07-01

312

40 CFR 415.143 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory § 415.143 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2014-07-01

313

40 CFR 415.142 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory § 415.142 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2011-07-01

314

40 CFR 415.143 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory § 415.143 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2011-07-01

315

40 CFR 415.143 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory § 415.143 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2013-07-01

316

40 CFR 415.142 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory § 415.142 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2014-07-01

317

40 CFR 415.143 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory § 415.143 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2012-07-01

318

40 CFR 415.142 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory § 415.142 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2013-07-01

319

40 CFR 415.632 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Zinc Sulfate Production Subcategory § 415.632 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2014-07-01

320

40 CFR 415.292 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Bromine Production Subcategory § 415.292 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2011-07-01

321

40 CFR 415.292 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Bromine Production Subcategory § 415.292 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2012-07-01

322

40 CFR 415.292 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Bromine Production Subcategory § 415.292 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2014-07-01

323

40 CFR 415.292 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Bromine Production Subcategory § 415.292 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2013-07-01

324

40 CFR 415.292 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Bromine Production Subcategory § 415.292 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2010-07-01

325

40 CFR 424.67 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Electrolytic Manganese Products Subcategory § 424.67 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2010-07-01

326

40 CFR 415.657 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cobalt Salts Production Subcategory § 415.657 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2010-07-01

327

40 CFR 415.657 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cobalt Salts Production Subcategory § 415.657 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2011-07-01

328

Genotoxic and Mutagenic Potential of Agricultural Soil Irrigated with Tannery Effluents at Jajmau (Kanpur), India  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is a common practice in India to irrigate agricultural fields with wastewater originating from industries and domestic\\u000a sources. At Jajmau (Kanpur), India, tannery effluent is used for irrigation purposes. This practice has been polluting the\\u000a soil directly and groundwater and food crops indirectly. This study is aimed at evaluating the mutagenic impact of soil irrigated\\u000a with tannery effluent. Soil

Mohammad Zubair Alam; Shamim Ahmad; Abdul Malik

2009-01-01

329

Production of rhizobia biofertilizers using baker's yeast effluent and their application to Leucaena leucocephala  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial baker's yeast effluent (BYE) was experimented on as a culture medium for growth and biomass production of six fast-growing rhizobia strains. Diluting the effluent with distilled water was necessary to maximize bacterial biomass production. The addition of phosphate buffer, ammonium chloride or trace-elements did not improve the final biomass yield of tested micro-organisms. Rhizobial growth and biomass on the

Sayeda M. Ali; Gamil Amin; Mohammed Fayez; Mahmoud El-Tahan; Mohammed Monib; Nabil A. Hegazi

2005-01-01

330

Microbial ecology and performance of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in biological processes treating petrochemical wastewater with high strength of ammonia: effect of Na(2)CO(3) addition.  

PubMed

This study evaluated nitrification performance and microbial ecology of AOB in a full-scale biological process, powder activated carbon treatment (PACT), and a pilot-scale biological process, moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR), treating wastewater collected from a petrochemical industry park. The petrochemical influent wastewater characteristics showed a relative low carbon to nitrogen ratio around 1 with average COD and ammonia concentrations of 310 mg/L and 325 mg-N/L, respectively. The average nitrification efficiency of the full-scale PACT process was around 11% during this study. For the pilot-scale MBBR, the average nitrification efficiency was 24% during the Run I operation mode, which provided a slightly better performance in nitrification than that of the PACT process. During the Run II operation, the pH control mode was switched from addition of NaOH to Na(2)CO(3), leading to a significant improvement in nitrification efficiency of 51%. In addition to a dramatic change in nitrification performance, the microbial ecology of AOB, monitored with the terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) molecular methodology, was found to be different between Runs I and II. The amoA-based TRFLP results indicated that Nitrosomonas europaea lineage was the dominant AOB population during Run I operation, while Nitrosospira-like AOB was dominant during Run II operation. To confirm the effects of Na(2)CO(3) addition on the nitrification performance and AOB microbial ecology observed in the MBBR process, batch experiments were conducted. The results suggest that addition of Na(2)CO(3) as a pH control strategy can improve nitrification performance and also influence AOB microbial ecology as well. Although the exact mechanisms are not clear at this time, the results showing the effects of adding different buffering chemicals such as NaOH or Na(2)CO(3) on AOB populations have never been demonstrated until this study. PMID:19182331

Whang, L M; Yang, K H; Yang, Y F; Han, Y L; Chen, Y J; Cheng, S S

2009-01-01

331

Sleep quality and general health status of employees exposed to extremely low frequency magnetic fields in a petrochemical complex  

PubMed Central

Background Advances in science and technology of electrical equipment, despite increasing human welfare in everyday life, have increased the number of people exposed to Electro-Magnetic Fields (EMFs). Because of possible adverse effects on the health of exposed individuals, the EMFs have being the center of attention. This study was performed to determine possible correlation between Extremely Low Frequency Electro-Magnetic Fields (ELF EMFs) and sleep quality and public health of those working in substation units of a petrochemical complex in southern Iran. Materials and method To begin with, magnetic flux density was measured at different parts of a Control Building and two substations in accordance with IEEE std 644–1994. Subsequently, the questionnaires “Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index” (PSQI) and “General Health Quality (GHQ)” were used to investigate relationship between ELF exposure level and sleep quality and public health, respectively. Both questionnaires were placed at disposal of a total number of 40 workers at the complex. The filled out questionnaires were analyzed by T-test, Duncan and the Chi-square tests. Results The obtained results revealed that 28% of those in case group suffered from poor health status and 61% were diagnosed with a sleep disorder. However, all members in control group were in good health condition and only 4.5% of them had undesirable sleep quality. Conclusion In spite of a significant difference between the case and control groups in terms of sleep quality and general health, no significant relationship was found between the exposure level and sleep quality and general health. It is worth noting that the measured EMF values were lower than the standard limits recommended by American Conference of Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). However, given the uncertainties about the pathogenic effects caused by exposure to ELF EMFs, further epidemiological studies and periodic testing of personnel working in high voltage substations are of utmost importance. PMID:24904752

2014-01-01

332

Fermentative Succinate Production: An Emerging Technology to Replace the Traditional Petrochemical Processes  

PubMed Central

Succinate is a valuable platform chemical for multiple applications. Confronted with the exhaustion of fossil energy resources, fermentative succinate production from renewable biomass to replace the traditional petrochemical process is receiving an increasing amount of attention. During the past few years, the succinate-producing process using microbial fermentation has been made commercially available by the joint efforts of researchers in different fields. In this review, recent attempts and experiences devoted to reduce the production cost of biobased succinate are summarized, including strain improvement, fermentation engineering, and downstream processing. The key limitations and challenges faced in current microbial production systems are also proposed. PMID:24396827

Cao, Yujin; Zhang, Rubing; Sun, Chao; Cheng, Tao; Liu, Yuhua; Xian, Mo

2013-01-01

333

Land application of poultry lagoon effluent  

E-print Network

This research studied the effects of three poultry lagoon effluent application rates on two Sol 'I types and two vegetation systems. The purpose of this research was to determine the environmental impacts from the land application of effluent from...

Aldrich, Lance John

1996-01-01

334

From a fossil-fuel to a biobased economy: the politics of industrial biotechnology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial biotechnology involves the replacement of petrochemical processes and inputs with more energy-efficient and renewable biological ones. It is already being used in the production of biofuels and bioplastics and has been touted as a means by which modern economies can be shifted toward a more competitive, low-carbon growth model. This paper does two things. First, it outlines the policy

Ben Richardson

2012-01-01

335

Malondialdehyde–Deoxyguanosine Adducts among Workers of a Thai Industrial Estate and Nearby Residents  

PubMed Central

Background Humans living near industrial point emissions can experience high levels of exposures to air pollutants. Map Ta Phut Industrial Estate in Thailand is the location of the largest steel, oil refinery, and petrochemical factory complexes in Southeast Asia. Air pollution is an important source of oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species, which interact with DNA and lipids, leading to oxidative damage and lipid peroxidation, respectively. Objective We measured the levels of malondialdehyde–deoxyguanosine (dG) adducts, a biomarker of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation, in petrochemical workers, nearby residents, and subjects living in a control district without proximity to industrial sources. Design We conducted a cross-sectional study to compare the prevalence of malondialdehyde-dG adducts in groups of subjects experiencing various degrees of air pollution. Results The multivariate regression analysis shows that the adduct levels were associated with occupational and environmental exposures to air pollution. The highest adduct level was observed in the steel factory workers. In addition, the formation of DNA damage tended to be associated with tobacco smoking, but without reaching statistical significance. A nonsignificant increase in DNA adducts was observed after 4–6 years of employment among the petrochemical complexes. Conclusions Air pollution emitted from the Map Ta Phut Industrial Estate complexes was associated with increased adduct levels in petrochemical workers and nearby residents. Considering the mutagenic potential of DNA lesions in the carcinogenic process, we recommend measures aimed at reducing the levels of air pollution. PMID:20056580

Peluso, Marco; Srivatanakul, Petcharin; Munnia, Armelle; Jedpiyawongse, Adisorn; Ceppi, Marcello; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Piro, Sara; Boffetta, Paolo

2010-01-01

336

REVERSE OSMOSIS RENOVATION OF SECONDARY EFFLUENT  

EPA Science Inventory

A demonstration of the performance and economics of reverse osmosis treatment of municipal secondary effluent on a sufficient scale to project large plant costs was attempted. The desalted effluent was blended with additional secondary effluent and used for irrigation through an ...

337

Assessment of whole effluent toxicity on aquatic snails: bioaccumulation of Cr, Zn, and Fe, and individual effects in bioassays.  

PubMed

We used a freshwater gastropod, Lymnaea palustris, in chronic bioassays to assess the toxicity of an industrial effluent containing high levels of metals, particularly Cr, Zn, and Fe. Adult snails were exposed for four weeks to different concentrations of effluent sampled at three successive treatment steps (crude effluent, effluent after physicochemical treatment, and after biological treatment). Dose-dependent responses reflecting exposure (metal bioaccumulation) and effects on survival, fecundity, and malondialdehyde production (a proxy for oxidative stress) were investigated. We found that Cr and Zn were accumulated in snail tissues, whereas Fe was regulated. Body concentrations of Cr and Zn decreased along the effluent-treatment gradient, particularly after the physicochemical treatment. For controls versus treatments, no effect on malondialdehyde production was detected. Significant effects were noted for fecundity. The number of eggs per individual decreased for snails exposed to 20, 30, and 40% concentrations of physicochemically treated effluent and for snails exposed to an 80% concentration of the biologically treated effluent. A hormetic effect on the number of eggs per individual was observed for snails exposed to 10 and 20% concentrations of the effluent that had been biologically treated. Deleterious effects of the effluent on L. palustris fecundity were not correlated with high internal concentrations of metals in the snails, suggesting that toxicity resulted from other factors. PMID:15683184

Coeurdassier, Michaël; de Vaufleury, Annette; Crini, Nadia; Scheifler, Renaud; Badot, Pierre-Marie

2005-01-01

338

Assessment of the Effects of Processes of Change on Resistance Skills against Substance Abuse Among petrochemical Workers in Assaluyeh Plant in Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This research has studied the effect of Processes of Change on resistance skills against substance abuse among petrochemical workers in Assaluyeh Plant in Iran. Methods: This research is an experimental study (Randomized Intervention Trial) that has enrolled 181 workers of Petrochemical Company in Assaluyeh in two groups: 90 participants in intervention group and 91 participants in control group. Data

Mafi Ali Reza

2009-01-01

339

Remediation of phenol, lignin and paper effluents by advanced oxidative processes.  

PubMed

The tremendous environmental impact of pulping and bleaching effluents and the relatively low efficiency of the current biological remediation processes represent one of the most important problems of the paper industry. In this work the efficiency of heterogeneous and homogeneous advanced oxidative processes was evaluated toward the degradation of model substrates (phenol and lignin) and the remediation of paper effluents. Best results were found by application of the UV-H2O2 system, with almost total discoloration of both pulping and bleaching effluents and typical COD removal higher than 60%, at reaction times of 120 min. In view of the reported results, and mainly on account of the simplicity of the UV-H2O2 system, shows good potential for the advanced process to remediation of recalcitrant effluents like those studied in this present work. PMID:15691193

Peralta-Zamora, P; Wypych, F; Carneiro, L M; Vaz, S R

2004-12-01

340

Bioremediation of industrial waste by using bat guano.  

PubMed

The present investigation is an attempt to study the effect of bat guano with its rich microbial flora on bioremediation of industrial waste effluents. The results revealed that within a period of 15 days, there was a remarkable reduction in the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) values up to 50%-70%, thus stabilizing the industrial effluents. In addition to this,values of various physico-chemical parameters were notably found to reduce suggesting that industrial effluents can be effectively treated by bat guano. PMID:18476410

Gadhikar, Y A; Zade, V S; Khadse, T

2007-04-01

341

Parasite frequency and liver anomalies in three-spined stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus (L.), after long-term exposure to pulp mill effluents in marine mesocosms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Model ecosystems, simulating a Baltic Sea littoral habitat, were used for evaluating the effects of different effluents from kraft pulp mill industries on fish. Populations of newly hatched three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) were continuously exposed to four different types of pulp mill effluents in a flowthrough sea water system. After 51\\/2 months of exposure, the sticklebacks were collected for a

Bengt Axelsson; Leif Norrgren

1991-01-01

342

Strategies for chromium bioremediation of tannery effluent.  

PubMed

Bioremediation offers the possibility of using living organisms (bacteria, fungi, algae,or plants), but primarily microorganisms, to degrade or remove environmental contaminants, and transform them into nontoxic or less-toxic forms. The major advantages of bioremediation over conventional physicochemical and biological treatment methods include low cost, good efficiency, minimization of chemicals, reduced quantity of secondary sludge, regeneration of cell biomass, and the possibility of recover-ing pollutant metals. Leather industries, which extensively employ chromium compounds in the tanning process, discharge spent-chromium-laden effluent into nearby water bodies. Worldwide, chromium is known to be one of the most common inorganic contaminants of groundwater at pollutant hazardous sites. Hexavalent chromium poses a health risk to all forms of life. Bioremediation of chromium extant in tannery waste involves different strategies that include biosorption, bioaccumulation,bioreduction, and immobilization of biomaterial(s). Biosorption is a nondirected physiochemical interaction that occurs between metal species and the cellular components of biological species. It is metabolism-dependent when living biomass is employed, and metabolism-independent in dead cell biomass. Dead cell biomass is much more effective than living cell biomass at biosorping heavy metals, including chromium. Bioaccumulation is a metabolically active process in living organisms that works through adsorption, intracellular accumulation, and bioprecipitation mechanisms. In bioreduction processes, microorganisms alter the oxidation/reduction state of toxic metals through direct or indirect biological and chemical process(es).Bioreduction of Cr6+ to Cr3+ not only decreases the chromium toxicity to living organisms, but also helps precipitate chromium at a neutral pH for further physical removal,thus offering promise as a bioremediation strategy. However, biosorption, bioaccumulation, and bioreduction methods that rely on free cells for bioremediation suffer from Cr6 toxicity, and cell damage. Therefore, immobilization of microbial cell biomass enhances bioremediation and renders industrial bioremediation processes more economically viable from reduced free-cells toxicity, easier separation of biosorbents from the tannery effluent, ability to achieve multiple biosorption cycles, and desorption (elution) of metal(s) from matrices for reuse. Thus, microbial bioremediation can be a cost competitive strategy and beneficial bioresource for removing many hazardous contaminants from tannery and other industrial wastes. PMID:22350558

Garg, Satyendra Kumar; Tripathi, Manikant; Srinath, Thiruneelakantan

2012-01-01

343

Survey of perfluorinated alkyl acids in Finnish effluents, storm water, landfill leachate and sludge.  

PubMed

The objective of the Control of Hazardous Substances in the Baltic Sea (COHIBA) project is to support the implementation of the HELCOM Baltic Sea Action Plan regarding hazardous substances by developing joint actions to achieve the goal of "a Baltic Sea with life undisturbed by hazardous substances". One aim in the project was to identify the most important sources of 11 hazardous substances of special concern in the Baltic Sea. Among them are perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). In this study, four perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs) were studied: PFOA, PFOS, perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA). The occurrence of PFAAs in municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plant effluents (MWWTP1-3, IWWTP1), target industry effluent, storm water, landfill leachate and sludge was studied. Effluents were analysed six times and storm water, leachate and sludge were analysed twice, once in the warm season and once in the cold, during a 1-year sampling campaign. PFOS prevailed in two municipal effluents (MWWTP1 and 3) and industrial effluent (IWWTP1; 7.8-14, 8.0-640 and 320-1,300 ng/l, respectively). However, in one municipal effluent (MWWTP2) PFOA was, in a majority of sampling occasions, the predominant PFAA (9-15 ng/l) followed by PFOS (3.8-20 ng/l). The highest PFAA loads of the municipal effluents were found in the MWWTP3 receiving the biggest portion of industrial wastewater. In storm water the highest concentration was found for PFHxA (17 ng/l). The highest concentration of PFOS and PFOA were 9.9 and 5.1 ng/l, respectively. PFOS, PFOA and PFHxA were detected in every effluent, storm water and landfill leachate sample, whereas PFDA was detected in most of the samples (77%). In the target industry, PFOS concentrations varied between 1,400 and 18,000 ?g/l. In addition, on one sampling occasion PFOA and PFHxA were found (0.027 and 0.009 ?g/l, respectively). For effluents, PFAA mass flows into the Baltic Sea were calculated. For municipal wastewater treatment plants average mass flows per day varied for PFOS between 1,073 and 38,880 mg/day, for PFOA 960 and 2,700 mg/day, for PFHxA 408 and 1,269 mg/day and for PFDA 84 and 270 mg/day. In IWWTP mass flows for PFOS, PFOA, PFHxA and PFDA were 495 mg/d, 28 mg/d, 23 mg/d and 0.6 mg/g, respectively. PMID:23512237

Perkola, Noora; Sainio, Pirjo

2013-11-01

344

Chromosomal aberrations in native small mammals ( Peromyscus leucopus and Sigmodon hispidus ) at a petrochemical waste disposal site: I. Standard karyology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examination of standard metaphase chromosome preparations was employed to evaluate the use of resident small mammals as indicators of environmental mutagenesis. Small mammals of two species, (Peromyscus leucopus andSigmodon hispidus) were trapped over a two-year period at a locality polluted with a complex mixture of petrochemical waste products, heavy metals, and PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls), and from two uncontaminated localities. Significant

Karen McBee; John W. Bickham; K. W. Brown; K. C. Donnelly

1987-01-01

345

Coupling of solar-assisted advanced oxidative and biological treatment for degradation of agro-residue-based soda bleaching effluent.  

PubMed

This study evaluates the effect of integrated solar-assisted advanced oxidation process (AOP) and biological treatment on the extent of degradation of effluents from chlorination (C) and first alkaline extraction (E(1)) stages of soda pulp bleaching in agro-residue-based pulp and paper mill. Biodegradation of the effluents was attempted in suspended mode using activated sludge from the functional pulp and paper industry effluent treatment plant acclimatized to effluents in question. The photocatalytic treatment was employed using zinc oxide (ZnO) in slurry mode for decontamination of effluents in a batch manner and the degradation was evaluated in terms of reduction in chemical oxygen demand. The biological treatment (24 h) of C and E(1) effluent resulted in 30 and 57 % of degradation, respectively. Solar-induced AOP of C and E(1) effluents resulted in 53 and 43 % degradation under optimized conditions (2.5 g L(-1) ZnO at pH 8.0) after 6 h of exposure. For C effluent, a short duration of solar/ZnO (1 h) prior to biological treatment reduced the time required at biological step from 24 to 12 h for almost same extent (92 %) of degradation. However, sequential biological treatment (24 h) followed by solar/ZnO (2 h) resulted in 85.5 % degradation. In contrast, in the case of E(1) effluent, sequential biological (24 h)-solar/ZnO (2 h) system effectively degrades effluent to 95.4 % as compared to 84.8 % degradation achieved in solar/ZnO (2 h)-biological treatment (24 h) system. In the present study, the sequencing of photocatalysis with the biological treatment is observably efficient and technically viable process for the complete mineralization of the effluents. PMID:22645007

Dhir, Amit; Prakash, Nagaraja Tejo; Sud, Dhiraj

2012-11-01

346

Opportunities for the chemical industry in space, part 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The chemical/petrochemical industry devotes a large percentage of its gross income to research and development, with much of its R and D of a long-term nature. As the chemical industry is examined as a candidate for space investigations, it is readily apparent that research and development in the space environment may lead to attractive commercial opportunities. The advantages of low gravity manufacturing, with a particular emphasis on chemical catalysts, are presented herein specifically for the chemical industry. Research from the Skylab program and Apollo Soyuz test project is reviewed, including acoustic levitation, crystal growth, and container less melts. Space processing of composite materials, alloys, and coatings is also discussed.

1984-01-01

347

Feasibility study on the utilization of rubber latex effluent for producing bacterial biopolymers.  

PubMed

Rubber latex effluent is a polluting source that has a high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). It is estimated that about 100 million liters of effluent are discharged daily from rubber processing factories. Utilization of this effluent such as the use of a coupled system not only can reduce the cost of treatment but also yield a fermentation feedstock for the production of bioplastic. This study initially was carried out to increase the production of organic acids by anaerobic treatment of rubber latex effluent. It was found that through anaerobic treatment the concentration of organic acids did not increase. Consequently, separation of organic acids from rubber latex effluent by anion exchange resin was examined as a preliminary study of recovering acetic and propionic acids. However, the suspended solids (SS) content in the raw effluent was rather high which partially blocked the ion-exchange columns. Lime was used to remove the SS in the rubber latex effluent. After the lime precipitation process, organic acids were found to adsorb strongly onto the anion exchange resin. Less adsorption of organic acids onto the resin was observed before the lime precipitation. This was probably due to more sites being occupied by colloidal particles on the resin thus inhibiting the adsorption of organic acids. The initial concentration of organic acids in the raw effluent was 3.9 g/L. After ion exchange, the concentration of the organic acids increased to 27 g/L, which could be utilized for production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA). For PHA accumulation stage, concentrated rubber latex effluent obtained from ion exchange resins and synthetic acetic acid were used as the carbon source. Quantitative analyses from fed batch culture via HPLC showed that the accumulation of PHA in Alcaligenes eutrophus was maximum with a concentration of 1.182 g/L when cultivated on synthetic acetic acid, corresponding to a yield of 87% based on its cell dry weight. The dry cell weight increased from 0.71 to 1.67 g/L. On the other hand, using concentrated rubber latex effluent containing acetic and propionic acids resulted in reduced PHA content by dry weight (14%) but the dry cell weight increased from 0.49 to 1.30 g/L. The results clearly indicated that the cells grow well in rubber latex effluent but no PHA was accumulated. This could be due to the high concentration of propionic acid in culture broth or other factors such as heavy metals. Thus further work is required before rubber latex effluent can be utilized as a substrate for PHA production industrially. PMID:10595441

Tang, S N; Fakhru'l-Razi, A; Hassan, M A; Karim, M I

1999-01-01

348

Ecotoxicological and human health risk in a petrochemical district of southern Italy.  

PubMed

An ecotoxicological investigation has been carried in the petrochemical district of Priolo (Sicily, Italy), one of the largest in Europe. Results indicated a severe mercury contamination in sediments sampled near a chloro-alkali plant. A clear bioavailability of this element was demonstrated in mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis (both native and translocated) and the benthic fish Mullus barbatus, which also exhibited marked genotoxic damages. The elevated mercury concentrations in marine organisms are a serious concern for human health; according to the national average fish consumption, the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) of Hg would be easily exceeded by at least 4 to 12 fold. Such toxicological risk is of particular importance for pregnant women, being possibly involved in the elevated frequency of neonatal malformations. PMID:18378299

Ausili, Antonella; Gabellini, Massimo; Cammarata, Giuliano; Fattorini, Daniele; Benedetti, Maura; Pisanelli, Barbara; Gorbi, Stefania; Regoli, Francesco

2008-07-01

349

Bioremediation of Pharmaceuticals, Pesticides, and Petrochemicals with Gomeya/Cow Dung  

PubMed Central

Use and misuse of pharmaceuticals, pesticides, and petrochemicals by man is causing havoc with nature, as they persist as such or as their toxic metabolites. These pollutants bioaccumulate in environment, and they ultimately reach man through various means. They are hazardous because of potential toxicity, mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and genotoxicity. To rejuvenate nature, remediation methods currently available are usually expensive and might convert one toxic pollutant to another. Bioremediation methods use naturally occurring microorganisms to detoxify man-made pollutants so that they change pollutants to innocuous products that make soil fertile in the process. Taking cue from Ayurveda, Gomeya/cow dung is used as an excellent bioremediation method. Thus, utilizing freely available cow dung as slurry or after composting in rural areas, is a cheap and effective measure to bioremediate the harmful pollutants. Yet, more research in this direction is warranted to bioremediate nonbiodegradable, potentially toxic pollutants. PMID:22084712

Randhawa, Gurpreet Kaur; Kullar, Jagdev Singh

2011-01-01

350

Effluent treatment for nuclear thermal propulsion ground testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objectives are to define treatment functions, review concept options, discuss PIPET effluent treatment system (ETS), and outline future activities. The topics covered include the following: reactor exhaust; effluent treatment functions; effluent treatment categories; effluent treatment options; concept evaluation; PIPETS ETS envelope; PIPET effluent treatment concept; and future activities.

Shipers, Larry R.

1993-01-01

351

Liquid Effluents Program mission analysis  

SciTech Connect

Systems engineering is being used to identify work to cleanup the Hanford Site. The systems engineering process transforms an identified mission need into a set of performance parameters and a preferred system configuration. Mission analysis is the first step in the process. Mission analysis supports early decision-making by clearly defining the program objectives, and evaluating the feasibility and risks associated with achieving those objectives. The results of the mission analysis provide a consistent basis for subsequent systems engineering work. A mission analysis was performed earlier for the overall Hanford Site. This work was continued by a ``capstone`` team which developed a top-level functional analysis. Continuing in a top-down manner, systems engineering is now being applied at the program and project levels. A mission analysis was conducted for the Liquid Effluents Program. The results are described herein. This report identifies the initial conditions and acceptable final conditions, defines the programmatic and physical interfaces and sources of constraints, estimates the resources to carry out the mission, and establishes measures of success. The mission analysis reflects current program planning for the Liquid Effluents Program as described in Liquid Effluents FY 1995 Multi-Year Program Plan.

Lowe, S.S.

1994-09-27

352

Excitation-emission matrices applied to the study of urban effluent discharges in the Chubut River (Patagonia, Argentina).  

PubMed

Natural and contaminated waters of the final reaches of the Chubut River (Patagonia, Argentina) were studied to obtain information about river organic matter and effects of domestic and industrial discharges (fishery effluents and sewages). Fluorescence Excitation-Emission Matrices (EEMs) were obtained from samples only filtered (0.45 ?m) and diluted, if necessary, to avoid the inner filter effect. In addition, physicochemical parameters were measured to know the quality of the water and the effluents. Results show that EEMs allow a rapid and simple control of the effluents from fisheries and domestic sewage in Chubut River estuary, necessary to take management decisions. PMID:23325315

Chiarandini Fiore, Jessica Paola; Scapini, María del Carmen; Olivieri, Alejandro César

2013-08-01

353

High Speed/ Low Effluent Process for Ethanol  

SciTech Connect

n this project, BPI demonstrated a new ethanol fermentation technology, termed the High Speed/ Low Effluent (HS/LE) process on both lab and large pilot scale as it would apply to wet mill and/or dry mill corn ethanol production. The HS/LE process allows very rapid fermentations, with 18 to 22% sugar syrups converted to 9 to 11% ethanol ‘beers’ in 6 to 12 hours using either a ‘consecutive batch’ or ‘continuous cascade’ implementation. This represents a 5 to 8X increase in fermentation speeds over conventional 72 hour batch fermentations which are the norm in the fuel ethanol industry today. The ‘consecutive batch’ technology was demonstrated on a large pilot scale (4,800 L) in a dry mill corn ethanol plant near Cedar Rapids, IA (Xethanol Biofuels). The pilot demonstrated that 12 hour fermentations can be accomplished on an industrial scale in a non-sterile industrial environment. Other objectives met in this project included development of a Low Energy (LE) Distillation process which reduces the energy requirements for distillation from about 14,000 BTU/gal steam ($0.126/gal with natural gas @ $9.00 MCF) to as low as 0.40 KW/gal electrical requirements ($0.022/gal with electricity @ $0.055/KWH). BPI also worked on the development of processes that would allow application of the HS/LE fermentation process to dry mill ethanol plants. A High-Value Corn ethanol plant concept was developed to produce 1) corn germ/oil, 2) corn bran, 3) ethanol, 4) zein protein, and 5) nutritional protein, giving multiple higher value products from the incoming corn stream.

M. Clark Dale

2006-10-30

354

EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF THE INCIDENCE OF CANCER AS RELATED TO INDUSTRIAL EMISSIONS IN CONTRA COSTA COUNTY, CALIFORNIA  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of lung cancer incidence in Contra Costa County to ambient levels of air pollution. It was suspected that the presence of heavy industry in the county, mainly petrochemical plants and oil refineries, could be a contributin...

355

Research in Industrial Combustion Systems - Current and Future R&D  

E-print Network

combustion systems have been identified. These include improved techniques of heat transfer to the load, improved sensors, plasmas to process materials and flash or pneumatic reactors for the metals, non-metals and petrochemical industries..., there is still a tremendous scope for applying existing and improved technology to the efficient management of the large amounts of fuel used. Most industrial processes are highly inefficient with process efficiencies ranging from 10-20' at process...

Rebello, W. J.; Keller, J. G.

356

REDUCTION OF TOXICITY TO AQUATIC ORGANISMS BY INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The specific goal of this research was to conduct 24-hour static acute bioassays with 'untreated' influent and 'treated' effluent using fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and water flea (Daphnia magna) to biologically evaluate the effectiveness of industrial wastewater facilit...

357

Micropollutants produced by disinfection of wastewater effluents  

SciTech Connect

Recent research conducted with the objective of determining some of the chemical mutagenic characteristics of nonvolatile micropollutants in treated wastewater effluents is summarized. The effluents from nine wastewater plants were examined relative to the chemical effects of the disinfectants chlorine, ozone, and uv light on nonvolatile organic constituents and the formation of mutagenic constituents during disinfection. Results indicate that disinfection by chlorine or ozone can lead to an increase in the number of mutagenic materials in the effluents. (JGB)

Jolley, R.L.; Cumming, R.B.; Lee, N.E.; Thompson, J.E.; Lewis, L.R.

1981-01-01

358

Genotoxicity and mutagenicity of water samples from the Monjolinho River (Brazil) after receiving untreated effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and mutagenicity assays, using the Allium cepa test-system, were carried out in order to evaluate the effects of domestic and industrial effluents in the Monjolinho River in different seasons of the year. In the summer and intermediate seasons, chromosome aberration, micronuclei, cell death and inhibition of the mitotic index were observed in water samples collected at different sites.

Jaqueline Bianchi; Evaldo Luiz Gaeta Espindola; Maria Aparecida Marin-Morales

2011-01-01

359

Comparison of complex effluent treatability in different bench scale microbial electrolysis cells  

E-print Network

Comparison of complex effluent treatability in different bench scale microbial electrolysis cells 2014 Accepted 5 August 2014 Available online 13 August 2014 Keywords: Microbial electrolysis cells Industrial wastewater Treatability Mini microbial electrolysis cells Wastewater screening a b s t r a c

360

Adsorption of yellow lanasol 4g reactive dye in a simulated textile effluent on gallinaceous feathers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adsorption is one of the most efficient physicochemical processes known to remove colour in textile industry effluents. Activated charcoal is conventionally the most used mate- rial for this purpose and although its efficiency is very high also is its price. The aim of this study was to know the variables that influence the adsorption process of wool reactive dye Yellow

L. M. A. Moura; E. P. R. Gonçalves; M. T. Amorim; L. A. Teles de Vasconcelos; C. G. González Beça

361

EFFLUENT AND AMBIENT TOXICITY TESTING IN THE GOETA AELV AND VISKAN RIVERS, SWEDEN  

EPA Science Inventory

A joint United States-Sweden effluent field study on the Gota Alv River was conducted on site in Sweden in the fall of 1985. The Gota Alv River has a mean flow of 575 cu m/s and is the largest river in Sweden. There are many industrial dischargers along the river and Sweden has b...

362

Evaluation of stormwater BMPs for implementing industrial stormwater permitting strategy.  

PubMed

This study assesses the performance of stormwater best management practices (BMPs) in industrial sectors and their effluent quality to facilitate the development of technology-based numerical effluent criteria. Generally, retention ponds outperform other BMP types for reducing total suspended solids, and media filter and wetland basins outperform other BMPs for metal removal. Detention basins were not effective in reducing stormwater pollution although they can retain the stormwater before entering surface waters. However, many BMPs show high variability of influent and effluent concentrations and no significant difference between them, which makes it difficult to determine the effectiveness of the BMP. In some cases, low influent concentrations govern the distribution of effluent concentrations and effluent concentrations are often greater than inflow concentrations. The analysis results can be used to assist in the developing a watershed based multisector industrial stormwater general permit to ensure compliance with total maximum daily loads. The results also suggest the need for additional monitoring data. PMID:21099042

Park, M-H; Ridgeway, I K; Swamikannu, X; Stenstrom, M K

2010-01-01

363

Treatment of textile dye plant effluent by nanofiltration membrane  

SciTech Connect

The study was concerned primarily with characterization of the NF45 membrane. Its pure water permeability, the mass transfer coefficient of NaCl, and the mean radius of the membrane pores were determined. Experiments run with five pure dye solutions and an industrial dye pulp solution confirmed the potential of nanofiltration membrane separation for the treatment of textile dye plant effluent. The effects of such significant parameters as initial solution concentration, transmembrane pressure, and type of dye on two fundamental characteristics of nanofiltration (flux and separation factor) were studied.

Xu, Y.; Lebrun, R.E. [Univ. du Quebec, Trois-Rivieres, Quebec (Canada). Dept. du Genie Chimique] [Univ. du Quebec, Trois-Rivieres, Quebec (Canada). Dept. du Genie Chimique; Gallo, P.J.; Blond, P. [I.C.P.I. Lyon (France)] [I.C.P.I. Lyon (France)

1999-09-01

364

40 CFR 406.27 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Corn Dry Milling Subcategory § 406.27 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2013-07-01

365

40 CFR 406.27 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Corn Dry Milling Subcategory § 406.27 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2011-07-01

366

40 CFR 406.27 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Corn Dry Milling Subcategory § 406.27 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2010-07-01

367

40 CFR 406.27 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Corn Dry Milling Subcategory § 406.27 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2014-07-01

368

40 CFR 406.27 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Corn Dry Milling Subcategory § 406.27 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2012-07-01

369

40 CFR 415.332 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Carbon Monoxide and By-Product Hydrogen Production Subcategory § 415.332 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2010-07-01

370

40 CFR 415.332 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Carbon Monoxide and By-Product Hydrogen Production Subcategory § 415.332 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2011-07-01

371

40 CFR 415.332 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Carbon Monoxide and By-Product Hydrogen Production Subcategory § 415.332 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2012-07-01

372

40 CFR 415.332 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Carbon Monoxide and By-Product Hydrogen Production Subcategory § 415.332 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2014-07-01

373

40 CFR 415.332 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Carbon Monoxide and By-Product Hydrogen Production Subcategory § 415.332 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2013-07-01

374

40 CFR 427.13 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos-Cement Pipe Subcategory § 427.13 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

2012-07-01

375

40 CFR 427.13 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos-Cement Pipe Subcategory § 427.13 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

2014-07-01

376

40 CFR 427.22 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos-Cement Sheet Subcategory § 427.22 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

2012-07-01

377

40 CFR 427.23 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos-Cement Sheet Subcategory § 427.23 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

2013-07-01

378

40 CFR 427.13 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos-Cement Pipe Subcategory § 427.13 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

2013-07-01

379

40 CFR 427.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos-Cement Pipe Subcategory § 427.12 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

2013-07-01

380

40 CFR 427.23 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos-Cement Sheet Subcategory § 427.23 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

2011-07-01

381

40 CFR 427.13 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos-Cement Pipe Subcategory § 427.13 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

2010-07-01

382

40 CFR 427.22 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos-Cement Sheet Subcategory § 427.22 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

2013-07-01

383

40 CFR 427.23 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos-Cement Sheet Subcategory § 427.23 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

2014-07-01

384

40 CFR 427.22 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos-Cement Sheet Subcategory § 427.22 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

2010-07-01

385

40 CFR 427.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos-Cement Pipe Subcategory § 427.12 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

2012-07-01

386

40 CFR 427.13 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos-Cement Pipe Subcategory § 427.13 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

2011-07-01

387

40 CFR 427.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos-Cement Pipe Subcategory § 427.12 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

2014-07-01

388

40 CFR 427.22 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos-Cement Sheet Subcategory § 427.22 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

2011-07-01

389

40 CFR 427.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos-Cement Pipe Subcategory § 427.12 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

2011-07-01

390

40 CFR 427.22 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos-Cement Sheet Subcategory § 427.22 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

2014-07-01

391

40 CFR 427.23 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos-Cement Sheet Subcategory § 427.23 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

2012-07-01

392

40 CFR 427.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos-Cement Pipe Subcategory § 427.12 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

2010-07-01

393

40 CFR 427.23 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos-Cement Sheet Subcategory § 427.23 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

2010-07-01

394

40 CFR 440.92 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Antimony Ore Subcategory § 440.92 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2012-07-01

395

40 CFR 440.93 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Antimony Ore Subcategory § 440.93 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2014-07-01

396

40 CFR 440.93 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Antimony Ore Subcategory § 440.93 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2011-07-01

397

40 CFR 440.92 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Antimony Ore Subcategory § 440.92 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2010-07-01

398

40 CFR 440.95 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Antimony Ore Subcategory § 440.95 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2010-07-01

399

40 CFR 440.95 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Antimony Ore Subcategory § 440.95 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2014-07-01

400

40 CFR 440.93 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Antimony Ore Subcategory § 440.93 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2010-07-01

401

40 CFR 440.92 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Antimony Ore Subcategory § 440.92 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2011-07-01

402

40 CFR 440.92 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Antimony Ore Subcategory § 440.92 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2014-07-01

403

40 CFR 440.95 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Antimony Ore Subcategory § 440.95 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2012-07-01

404

40 CFR 440.93 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Antimony Ore Subcategory § 440.93 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2012-07-01

405

40 CFR 440.95 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Antimony Ore Subcategory § 440.95 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2013-07-01

406

40 CFR 440.95 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Antimony Ore Subcategory § 440.95 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2011-07-01

407

40 CFR 440.92 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Antimony Ore Subcategory § 440.92 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2013-07-01

408

40 CFR 440.93 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Antimony Ore Subcategory § 440.93 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2013-07-01

409

40 CFR 422.42 - Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHOSPHATE MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Defluorinated Phosphate Rock Subcategory § 422.42 Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2013-07-01

410

40 CFR 422.43 - Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHOSPHATE MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Defluorinated Phosphate Rock Subcategory § 422.43 Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2012-07-01

411

40 CFR 422.43 - Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHOSPHATE MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Defluorinated Phosphate Rock Subcategory § 422.43 Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2014-07-01

412

40 CFR 422.42 - Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHOSPHATE MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Defluorinated Phosphate Rock Subcategory § 422.42 Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2014-07-01

413

40 CFR 422.43 - Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHOSPHATE MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Defluorinated Phosphate Rock Subcategory § 422.43 Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2010-07-01

414

40 CFR 422.47 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHOSPHATE MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Defluorinated Phosphate Rock Subcategory § 422.47 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2014-07-01

415

40 CFR 422.43 - Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHOSPHATE MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Defluorinated Phosphate Rock Subcategory § 422.43 Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2011-07-01

416

40 CFR 422.47 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHOSPHATE MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Defluorinated Phosphate Rock Subcategory § 422.47 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2013-07-01

417

40 CFR 422.43 - Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHOSPHATE MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Defluorinated Phosphate Rock Subcategory § 422.43 Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2013-07-01

418

40 CFR 422.47 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHOSPHATE MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Defluorinated Phosphate Rock Subcategory § 422.47 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2012-07-01

419

40 CFR 422.42 - Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHOSPHATE MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Defluorinated Phosphate Rock Subcategory § 422.42 Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2012-07-01

420

40 CFR 418.27 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ammonia Subcategory § 418.27 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2014-07-01

421

40 CFR 418.27 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ammonia Subcategory § 418.27 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2013-07-01

422

40 CFR 418.27 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ammonia Subcategory § 418.27 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2010-07-01

423

40 CFR 418.27 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ammonia Subcategory § 418.27 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2011-07-01

424

40 CFR 418.27 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ammonia Subcategory § 418.27 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2012-07-01

425

40 CFR 440.35 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Uranium, Radium and Vanadium Ores Subcategory § 440.35 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2010-07-01

426

40 CFR 440.35 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Uranium, Radium and Vanadium Ores Subcategory § 440.35 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2012-07-01

427

40 CFR 440.35 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Uranium, Radium and Vanadium Ores Subcategory § 440.35 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2011-07-01

428

40 CFR 440.35 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Uranium, Radium and Vanadium Ores Subcategory § 440.35 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2013-07-01

429

40 CFR 440.35 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Uranium, Radium and Vanadium Ores Subcategory § 440.35 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2014-07-01

430

40 CFR 440.55 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Ore Subcategory § 440.55 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2010-07-01

431

40 CFR 471.66 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Forming Subcategory § 471.66 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2012-07-01

432

40 CFR 440.55 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Ore Subcategory § 440.55 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2013-07-01

433

40 CFR 471.66 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Forming Subcategory § 471.66 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2013-07-01

434

40 CFR 440.55 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Ore Subcategory § 440.55 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2014-07-01

435

40 CFR 471.66 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Forming Subcategory § 471.66 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2010-07-01

436

40 CFR 440.55 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Ore Subcategory § 440.55 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2012-07-01

437

40 CFR 440.55 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Ore Subcategory § 440.55 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2011-07-01

438

40 CFR 471.66 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Forming Subcategory § 471.66 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2014-07-01

439

40 CFR 471.66 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Forming Subcategory § 471.66 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2011-07-01

440

40 CFR 440.115 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Platinum Ores Subcategory § 440.115 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2010-07-01

441

40 CFR 440.112 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Platinum Ores Subcategory § 440.112 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2010-07-01

442

40 CFR 440.45 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Mercury Ore Subcategory § 440.45 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2011-07-01

443

40 CFR 440.45 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Mercury Ore Subcategory § 440.45 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2010-07-01

444

40 CFR 440.45 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Mercury Ore Subcategory § 440.45 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2013-07-01

445

40 CFR 440.45 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Mercury Ore Subcategory § 440.45 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2012-07-01

446

40 CFR 440.45 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Mercury Ore Subcategory § 440.45 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2014-07-01

447

40 CFR 440.65 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Tungsten Ore Subcategory § 440.65 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2013-07-01

448

40 CFR 440.65 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Tungsten Ore Subcategory § 440.65 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2010-07-01

449

40 CFR 440.65 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Tungsten Ore Subcategory § 440.65 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2014-07-01

450

40 CFR 440.65 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Tungsten Ore Subcategory § 440.65 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2012-07-01

451

40 CFR 440.65 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Tungsten Ore Subcategory § 440.65 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2011-07-01

452

40 CFR 461.11 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...property Maximum for any 1 day Maximum for monthly...

2014-07-01

453

40 CFR 421.113 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...property Maximum for any 1 day Maximum for monthly...

2010-07-01

454

40 CFR 420.83 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations Maximum for any 1 day Average of daily values...

2012-07-01

455

40 CFR 464.13 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...not be subject to the maximum day and maximum for monthly...

2014-07-01

456

40 CFR 430.22 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...dischargers Maximum for any 1 day Average of daily values...

2011-07-01

457

40 CFR 430.12 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...not be subject to the maximum day and average of 30...

2010-07-01

458

40 CFR 421.23 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...property Maximum for any 1 day Maximum for monthly...

2014-07-01

459

40 CFR 421.132 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...property Maximum for any 1 day Maximum for monthly...

2014-07-01

460

40 CFR 461.71 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...property Maximum for any 1 day Maximum for monthly...

2013-07-01

461

40 CFR 421.73 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...property Maximum for any 1 day Maximum for monthly...

2014-07-01

462

40 CFR 464.43 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...not be subject to the maximum day and maximum for monthly...

2012-07-01

463

40 CFR 464.33 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...not be subject to the maximum day and maximum for monthly...

2011-07-01

464

40 CFR 464.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...not be subject to the maximum day and maximum for monthly...

2011-07-01

465

40 CFR 420.72 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations Maximum for any 1 day Average of daily values...

2011-07-01

466

40 CFR 421.23 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...property Maximum for any 1 day Maximum for monthly...

2011-07-01

467

40 CFR 430.52 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...dischargers Maximum for any 1 day Average of daily values...

2010-07-01

468

40 CFR 420.107 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations Maximum for any 1 day Average of daily values...

2010-07-01

469

40 CFR 430.52 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...dischargers Maximum for any 1 day Average of daily values...

2011-07-01

470

40 CFR 461.31 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...property Maximum for any 1 day Maximum for monthly...

2011-07-01

471

40 CFR 421.72 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...property Maximum for any 1 day Maximum for monthly...

2010-07-01

472

40 CFR 419.43 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations Maximum for any 1 day Average of daily values...

2014-07-01

473

40 CFR 421.73 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...property Maximum for any 1 day Maximum for monthly...

2012-07-01

474

40 CFR 471.41 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...operations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...property Maximum for any 1 day Maximum for monthly...

2013-07-01

475

40 CFR 420.97 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations Maximum for any 1 day Average of daily values...

2012-07-01

476

40 CFR 420.102 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations Maximum for any 1 day Average of daily values...

2010-07-01

477

40 CFR 430.52 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...dischargers Maximum for any 1 day Average of daily values...

2014-07-01

478

40 CFR 421.72 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...property Maximum for any 1 day Maximum for monthly...

2013-07-01

479

40 CFR 464.13 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...not be subject to the maximum day and maximum for monthly...

2010-07-01

480

40 CFR 464.43 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...not be subject to the maximum day and maximum for monthly...

2014-07-01

481

40 CFR 471.42 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...property Maximum for any 1 day Maximum for monthly...

2014-07-01

482

40 CFR 430.12 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...not be subject to the maximum day and average of 30...

2014-07-01

483

40 CFR 420.82 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations Maximum for any 1 day Average of daily values...

2010-07-01

484

40 CFR 430.72 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...not be subject to the maximum day and average of 30...

2010-07-01

485

40 CFR 471.41 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...operations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...property Maximum for any 1 day Maximum for monthly...

2014-07-01

486

40 CFR 421.113 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...property Maximum for any 1 day Maximum for monthly...

2012-07-01

487

40 CFR 420.102 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations Maximum for any 1 day Average of daily values...

2012-07-01

488

40 CFR 430.42 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...not be subject to the maximum day and average of 30...

2014-07-01

489

40 CFR 461.72 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...property Maximum for any 1 day Maximum for monthly...

2013-07-01

490

40 CFR 420.87 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations Maximum for any 1 day Average of daily values...

2011-07-01

491

40 CFR 461.72 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...property Maximum for any 1 day Maximum for monthly...

2014-07-01

492

40 CFR 421.113 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...property Maximum for any 1 day Maximum for monthly...

2013-07-01