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Sample records for petrochemical effluents industries

  1. Toxic impact of effluents from petrochemical industry

    SciTech Connect

    Nikunen, E.

    1985-02-01

    The toxicity of effluents from a petrochemical industry center in southern Finland was tested by conducting bioassays on organisms from three different trophic levels. In fish tests, rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) were caged at the discharge site and simultaneously at a reference area. The only clear differences, among the measurements of 25 metabolic parameters, were observed in fish liver where activities of two detoxication enzymes were significantly increased in the exposed group. The water flea (Daphnia magna) was used both in acute (EC50) and long-term reproduction tests. No acute lethal toxicity was detected in any of the wastewater samples investigated. A combined effluent, however, caused a reduction in the reproduction rate with an EC50 of 3%. No mutagenic activity was observed with the Ames test (Salmonella typhimurium, strains TA 97, TA 98, and TA 100) in concentrated effluents, in sediment samples, or in liver samples from predator fish caught from the discharge site.

  2. The international petrochemical industry

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, K.

    1991-01-01

    The petrochemical industry occupies a crucial place in economic, strategic and political terms in the twentieth century. The author explains its growth and international distribution from the 1920s tot he present, relating the particular experience of petrochemicals to the processes that have shaped the long-term evolution of industry in general. The geographical coverage of this book extends from the regional to international scale, and its historical scope embraces one hundred years from the laboratory origins of polymer science and petrochemistry to the massive operations of modern industry. It represents the result of twenty years of research, and reflects the author's privileged access to company sources in both the U.S. and Europe.

  3. Utilization of short chain monocarboxylic acids in an effluent of petrochemical industry by Acinetobacter calcoaceticus

    SciTech Connect

    Du Preez, J.C.; Toerien, D.F.

    1985-02-01

    The aqueous effluent generated by the Fischer-Tropsch process, containing a total of 13 g/L C/sub 2/-C/sub 5/ monocarboxylic acids, was investigated as a potential substrate for the production of single-cell protein (SCP). A bacterial isolate, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, could utilize all the acids in the effluent simultaneously in chemostat cultures, and no residual acids were detected in the culture below a dilution rate of 0.78 h/sup -1/. The critical dilution rate was 1.04 h/sup -1/. The maintenance energy requirement of the cells growing on the monocarboxylic acid mixture was considerably lower than that of cells growing on acetate as the sole carbon source. Enrichment of the effluent with ethanol to increase the biomass concentration was successful and still allowed the simultaneous and efficient utilization of all the carbon sources, but resulted in a decrease of the critical dilution rate by ca. 20%.

  4. China`s petrochemical industry

    SciTech Connect

    Takeda, Makoto; Tamura, Kazuhisa

    1996-01-01

    It is clear from the trade press that American, European, and Japanese chemical companies are making major capital investment commitments in China. They are also developing strategies to participate in the country`s growth. Many people wonder how long the window of opportunity will remain open. Some questions one may ask include: What are the driving forces for such intense activity? What role is the Chinese government playing in implementing growth plans? What are the classes of chemical products receiving priority attention? To what degree is China integrating upstream into energy and basic feedstocks? What are the long-term implications for Asia and the rest of the world with respect to foreign trade? To answer these and other questions, Martech, Inc., a subsidiary of Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation, recently completed a comprehensive report on China`s petrochemical industry. This article is adapted from the executive summary of that report.

  5. Petrochemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, T.S.

    1996-11-01

    This paper provides a review of literature published in 1995 on the subject of wastewater related to the petrochemicals industry. Topics covered include: wastewater characterization; treatment technologies; and water reuse and pollution prevention. 19 refs.

  6. [Source identification of toxic wastewaters in a petrochemical industrial park].

    PubMed

    Yang, Qian; Yu, Yin; Zhou, Yue-Xi; Chen, Xue-Min; Fu, Xiao-Yong; Wang, Miao

    2014-12-01

    Petrochemical wastewaters have toxic impacts on the microorganisms in biotreatment processes, which are prone to cause deterioration of effluent quality of the wastewater treatment plants. In this study, the inhibition effects of activated sludge's oxygen consumption were tested to evaluate the toxicity of production wastewaters in a petrochemical industrial park. The evaluation covered the wastewaters from not only different production units in the park, but also different production nodes in each unit. No direct correlation was observed between the toxicity effects and the organic contents, suggesting that the toxic properties of the effluents could not be predicted by the organic contents. In view of the variation of activated sludge sensitivity among different tests, the toxicity data were standardized according to the concentration-effect relationships of the standard toxic substance 3, 5-dichlorophenol on each day, in order to improve the comparability among the toxicity data. Furthermore, the Quality Emission Load (QEL) of corresponding standard toxic substance was calculated by multiplying the corresponding 3, 5-dichlorophenol concentration and the wastewater flow quantity, to indicate the toxicity emission contribution of each wastewater to the wastewater treatment plant. According to the rank list of the toxicity contribution of wastewater from different units and nodes, the sources of toxic wastewater in the petrochemical industrial park were clearly identified. This study provides effective guidance for source control of wastewater toxicity in the large industrial park. PMID:25826928

  7. Identification and chemical characterization of specific organic constituents of petrochemical effluents.

    PubMed

    Botalova, Oxana; Schwarzbauer, Jan; Frauenrath, Tom; Dsikowitzky, Larissa

    2009-08-01

    Based on extensive GC/MS screening analyses, the molecular diversity of petrochemical effluents discharged to a river in North Rhine-Westphalia was characterised. Within a wide spectrum of organic wastewater constituents, specific compounds that might act as source indicators have been determined. This differentiation was based on (i) the individual molecular structures, (ii) the quantitative appearance of organic compounds in treated effluents and (iii) the information on their general occurrence in the technosphere and hydrosphere. Principally, site-specific indicators have been distinguished from candidates to act as general petrochemical indicators. Further on, monitoring the environmental behaviour of target organic contaminants in an aquatic system shortly after their release into the river allowed a first evaluation of the impact of the petrogenic emission in terms of the quantity and spatial distribution. The identification of petrogenic contaminants was not restricted to constituents of the effluents only, but comprised the compounds circulating in the wastewater systems within a petrochemical plant. A number of environmentally relevant and structurally specific substances that are normally eliminated by wastewater treatment facilities were identified. Insufficient wastewater treatment, careless waste handling or accidents at industrial complexes are potential sources for a single release of the pollutants. This study demonstrates the relevance of source specific organic indicators to be an important tool for comprehensive assessment of the potential impact of petrochemical activities to the contamination of an aquatic environment. PMID:19577787

  8. [Treatment of Petrochemical Treatment Plant Secondary Effluent by Fenton Oxidation].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Wu, Chang-yong; Zhou, Yue-xi; Zhang, Xue; Dong, Bo; Chen, Xue-min

    2015-07-01

    Fenton oxidation was applied to treat the petrochemical treatment plant secondary effluent by the continuous flow configuration. The effect of Fenton agent dosage on the COD and phosphorus removal and the variation of the dissolved organic matter characteristics during the treatment process were investigated. The results showed the average COD and PO(4)3- -P concentrations were 64.8 mg.L-1 and 0. 79 mg.L-1, respectively. When the dosage of H2O (30%), FeSO4.7H2O and PAM were 0. 4 mL.L-1, 0. 8 mg.L-1 and 0. 9 mg.L-1 and the residence time was 30 min, the average removal rate of COD and PO(4)3- -P were 24. 3% and 95. 5% respectively. The effluent COD was lower than 50 mg.L-1. The percentage of dissolved organic matters with molecular weight less than 1 x 10(3) was 80. 4% in the raw wastewater, however, the percentage increased to 95. 6% when treated by Fenton oxidation. Three-dimensional fluorescence analysis showed that the Fenton oxidation can effectively remove protein and phenols. GC-MS results showed that there were about 117 kinds of organic matters detected in the secondary effluent, while the number reduced to 27 after oxidation by Fenton. The organics containing unsaturated bond had a better removal than those of other types of organics. Fenton oxidation can be used in the advanced treatment of petrochemical secondary effluent. PMID:26489330

  9. Tantalum coatings for the petrochemical industry

    SciTech Connect

    Hays, C.; Watson, J.L. Sr.; Walker, J.P. Jr.

    1995-12-31

    Tantalum coatings have never been a cost attractive item for the petrochemical industry but corrosion-resistant tantalum coatings have been and continue to be a very cost effective solution for many complex metallurgical applications. There are certain environments where thermally-sprayed tantalum has little or no competition from all other corrosion-resistant-alloy-coatings (CRAC). This paper reviews tantalum technology in terms of the relevant petrochemical needs and priorities. Selected properties of both tantalum (Ta) and Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} are given along with a brief history of tantalum and Ta coatings. Some important discussion is also given about the very difficult development path that tantalum has been forced to overcome. This characterization study involves 2 different applicators and two competitive processes; i.e., plasma and high velocity oxygen flame (HVOF) spraying. Test coupons from this cooperative effort by Watson and Gartner are evaluated in terms of structure, properties and composition. Electron and optical metallography are both used with microhardness and associated methods of characterization for thermal spray coatings.

  10. Regional Industry Workforce Development: The Gulf Coast Petrochemical Information Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgin, Johnette; Muha, Susan

    2008-01-01

    The Gulf Coast Petrochemical Information Network (GC-PIN) is a workforce development partnership among industry businesses and area institutions of higher education in the four-county Gulf Coast region. GC-PIN partners develop new industry-specific curricula, foster industry career awareness, and retrain existing employees in new technologies.

  11. Growth and heavy metals accumulation potential of microalgae grown in sewage wastewater and petrochemical effluents.

    PubMed

    Ajayan, K V; Selvaraju, M; Thirugnanamoorthy, K

    2011-08-15

    Microalgae exhibit a number of heavy metal uptake process by different metabolism. In this study, the ability of microalgae for removal of heavy metal from wastewater was studied. Growth and biochemical contents of microalgae were determined by spectrophotometer. Heavy metal analysis of wastewater effluents were performed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer before and after treatment at laboratory scale. The growth of Scenedesmus bijuga and Oscillatoria quadripunctulata in sewage wastewater was higher than those grown in synthetic medium. Whereas, the growth of S. bijuga and O. quadripunctulata in sterilized petrochemical effluents was slightly lower than that grown in the standard synthetic medium. The chlorophyll, carotenoid and protein content of S. bijuga and O. quadripunctulata grown in sterilized sewage wastewater were higher than those grown in the standard medium. Similarly S. bijuga and O. quadripunctulata grown in sterilized petrochemical effluents showed lower contents of pigments and protein than those grown in sewage and synthetic medium. Heavy metals copper, cobalt, lead and zinc were removed by 37-50, 20.3-33.3, 34.6-100 and 32.1-100%, respectively from sewage wastewater and petrochemical effluent using Ocillatoria culture. The metal absorption by S. bijuga were (Cu, Co, Pb, Zn) 60-50, 29.6-66, 15.4-25 and 42.9-50%, respectively from sewage and petrochemical effluents. Both species showed high level of heavy metal removal efficiency and metal sorption efficiency of both microalgae depended on the type of biosorbent, the physiological status of the cells, availability of heavy metal, concentration of heavy metal and chemical composition of wastewater. PMID:22545355

  12. A demonstration of biofiltration for VOC removal in petrochemical industries.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lan; Huang, Shaobin; Wei, Zongmin

    2014-05-01

    A biotrickling filter demo has been set up in a petrochemical factory in Sinopec Group for about 10 months with a maximum inlet gas flow rate of 3000 m3 h(-1). The purpose of this project is to assess the ability of the biotrickling filter to remove hardly biodegradable VOCs such as benzene, toluene and xylene which are recalcitrant and poorly water soluble and commonly found in petrochemical factories. Light-weight hollow ceramic balls (Φ 5-8 cm) were used as the packing media treated with large amounts of circulating water (2.4 m3 m(-2) h(-1)) added with bacterial species. The controlled empty bed retention time (EBRT) of 240 s is a key parameter for reaching a removal efficiency of 95% for benzene, toluene, xylene, and 90% for total hydrocarbons. The demo has been successfully adopted and practically applied in waste air treatments in many petrochemical industries for about two years. The net inlet concentrations of benzene, toluene and xylene were varied from 0.5 to 3 g m(-3). The biofiltration process is highly efficient for the removal of hydrophobic and recalcitrant VOCs with various concentrations from the petrochemical factories. The SEM analysis of the bacterial community in the BTF during VOC removal showed that Pseudomonas putida and Klebsiella sp. phylum were dominant and shutdown periods could play a role in forming the community structural differences and leading to the changes of removal efficiencies. PMID:24569855

  13. Industrial Energy in Transition: A Petrochemical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wishart, Ronald S.

    1978-01-01

    An industrial development involves the conversion of biomass, through fermentation, to useful chemical products and the gasification of municiple wastes to produce steam for electricity generation. These gases may also serve as chemical feedstocks. (Author/MA)

  14. Treatment of petrochemical secondary effluent by an up-flow biological aerated filter (BAF).

    PubMed

    Fu, L Y; Wu, C Y; Zhou, Y X; Zuo, J E; Ding, Y

    2016-01-01

    In this study, petrochemical secondary effluent was treated by a 55 cm diameter pilot-scale biological aerated filter (BAF) with a media depth of 220 cm. Volcanic rock grains were filled as the BAF media. Median removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) was 29.35 and 57.98%, respectively. Moreover, the removal profile of the COD, NH3-N, total nitrogen and total organic carbon demonstrated that the filter height of 140 cm made up to 90% of the total removal efficiency of the final effluent. By gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, removal efficiencies of 2-chloromethyl-1,3-dioxolane, and benzonitrile, indene and naphthalene were obtained, ranging from 30.12 to 63.01%. The biomass and microbial activity of the microorganisms on the filter media were in general reduced with increasing filter height, which is consistent with the removal profile of the contaminants. The detected genera Defluviicoccus, Betaproteobacteria_unclassified and the Blastocatella constituted 1.86-6.75% of the identified gene, enhancing the COD and nitrogen removal in BAF for treating petrochemical secondary effluent. PMID:27120658

  15. Assessment of the petrochemical industry pollution on the Skikda bay, Algeria.

    PubMed

    Maachia, Leila; Boutefnouchet, Nafissa; Nafissa, Boutefnouchet; Bouzerna, Noureddine; Chettibi, Houria

    2005-12-01

    The Skikda bay is located in the northern part of Algeria. The area is in contact with a petrochemical industrial complex, which raw materials and final products contaminate the surrounding areas via atmospheric pollution as well as effluents, which are dumped into seawaters. To establish the effects of these pollutants and waste disposal on the vicinity of the bay, several samples were taken at different distances along the bay and the outfall pipes of the industrial complex. Subsequently, several chemical analyses were made to analyze the concentrations of hydrocarbons, CO[2], Ca(+2) and Mg(+2), chlorides and phosphates and the alkalinity present into the samples. Several concentrations of the above constituents are reported as a function of the different sites. PMID:16819102

  16. 31 CFR 538.210 - Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... petroleum and petrochemical industries. 538.210 Section 538.210 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... SUDANESE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 538.210 Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and... relating to the petroleum or petrochemical industries in Sudan, including, but not limited to,...

  17. 31 CFR 538.210 - Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... petroleum and petrochemical industries. 538.210 Section 538.210 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... SUDANESE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 538.210 Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and... relating to the petroleum or petrochemical industries in Sudan, including, but not limited to,...

  18. 31 CFR 538.210 - Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... petroleum and petrochemical industries. 538.210 Section 538.210 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... SUDANESE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 538.210 Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and... relating to the petroleum or petrochemical industries in Sudan, including, but not limited to,...

  19. 31 CFR 538.210 - Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... petroleum and petrochemical industries. 538.210 Section 538.210 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... SUDANESE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 538.210 Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and... relating to the petroleum or petrochemical industries in Sudan, including, but not limited to,...

  20. 31 CFR 538.210 - Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... petroleum and petrochemical industries. 538.210 Section 538.210 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... SUDANESE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 538.210 Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and... relating to the petroleum or petrochemical industries in Sudan, including, but not limited to,...

  1. Long term effects of irrigation with petrochemical industry wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Aziz, O.; Inam, A.; Samiullah; Siddiqi, R.H.

    1996-11-01

    Split plot designed field trials were conducted during 1988-1995 to study the long term effects of petrochemical industry wastewater on six crops and agricultural soils. It was observed that wastewater irrigation resulted in increased seed yield of all the crops selected, viz. wheat, triticale, chickpea, lentil and pigeonpea, except summer moong which showed a decrease in seed yield. Soil receiving the wastewater showed no significant changes in pH, total organic carbon, electrical conductivity, cation exchange capacity, micro- and macro-nutrients and SAR. Thus, it may be concluded that treated refinery wastewater met the irrigational quality requirements as its physico-chemical characteristics were within the permissible limits. The same could be said for the accumulation of heavy metals in the soil as well as in the grains making the latter safe for human consumption. 28 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. NPRA meeting checks the pulse of the petrochemical industry

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, D.; Young, I.; Wood, A.

    1992-04-08

    The Globalization of Petrochemicals was the rather hackneyed theme of last week`s National Petroleum Refiners Association (NPRA) international petrochemical conference in San Antonio. But though petrochemicals may be taking on a more global character, the mood of delegates from different parts of the world was sharply different. There was a perceptible feeling of confidence among US delegates, that the current beginnings of an uptick in the economy will bolster the petrochemical business. Producers report that volumes are up during the first quarter and inventories are tightening, providing the backdrop for price initiatives during the second quarter that might this time have a chance of sticking.

  3. Characterizing the genotoxicity of hazardous industrial wastes and effluents using short-term bioassays

    SciTech Connect

    Houk, V.S.; DeMarini, D.M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that short-term bioassays can reliably and expeditiously measure the genotoxic potential of hazardous industrial wastes and effluents. Petrochemical wastes have been studied in detail, especially discharges from chemical manufacturing plants and textile and dye effluents. However, there is little information on effluents from pesticide manufacturers. The most extensive evaluations have been conducted on effluents from pulp and paper mills. These studies have shown which pulping plants generate the most genotoxic effluents, which process wastes are most hazardous, have isolated and identified the compounds responsible for the genotoxic activity, have described the environmental fate of these compounds, have evaluated the types of genetic damage likely to occur upon exposure to the effluents, and have identified several treatment methods that effectively reduce the genotoxicity of the effluents. The coupling of bioassays for biological analysis with chemical evaluation provides the most powerful approach to assessing the overall health effects of complex industrial wastes and effluents.

  4. Cancer risk of petrochemical workers exposed to airborne PAHs in industrial Lanzhou City, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Zhao, Yuan; Liu, Xianying; Huang, Tao; Wang, Yanan; Gao, Hong; Ma, Jianmin

    2015-12-01

    This paper reports the connections between red blood cells abnormality risk of petrochemical workers and their exposure to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), as the biomarker of PAHs exposure, was adopted to assess the exposure risk of the petrochemical workers to PAHs in Xigu, the west suburb of Lanzhou where petrochemical industries are located. Fifty-three workers, sub-grouped to 36 petrochemical workers and 17 office workers, participated in this investigation. Logistic regression model and spearman correlation analysis were performed to estimate the associations between PAHs exposure levels and red blood cells abnormality risk of petrochemical workers. Strong associations between some red cell indices (MCH, MCHC, RDW) and 1-OHP concentration were found. Results also show that the red blood cells abnormality risk increased with increasing PAHs exposure level. Compared with office workers, risk level of red blood cells abnormality in petrochemical workers was higher by 41.7 % (OR, 1.417; 95 % CI: 0.368-5.456) than that in office workers. This result was verified by the tissue-to-human blood partition coefficient for pyrene and 1-OHP. The quantitative assessments of the potential health risk through inhalation exposure to PAHs were conducted using the Incremental Lifetime Cancer Risk (ILCR) model. It was found the ILCR from inhalation exposure to PAHs for the petrochemical workers ranged from 10(-5) to 10(-4) with 95 % probability, indicating that petrochemical plant workers were under a high potential cancer risk level. PMID:26282442

  5. Industry sector analysis, China: Petrochemical industry in east China. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The market survey covers the petrochemical equipment and technology market in East China. The analysis contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users; receptivity of Chinese consumers to U.S. products; the competitive situation, and market access (tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes, distribution channels). It also contains key contact information and information on upcoming trade events related to the industry.

  6. Emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from fluidized and fixed bed incinerators disposing petrochemical industrial biological sludge.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin-Chi; Lin, Long-Full; Lai, Soon-Onn

    2009-08-30

    This study investigated the emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from two fluidized bed incinerators (FLBI_A and FLBI_B) and one fixed bed incinerator (FIBI) disposing biological sludge generated from the petrochemical industries in Taiwan. The results of 21 individual PAHs (including low (LM-PAHs), middle (MM-PAHs) and high molecular weight PAHs (HM-PAHs)) were reported. The LM-PAHs mainly dominated the total-PAHs in the stack flue gases, whereas the LM- and HM-PAHs dominated the total-PAHs in the bottom fly, fly ash and WSB effluent. Due to high carcinogenic potencies (=total-BaP(eq) concentrations) in the bottom ash (195 ng g(-1)) and WSB effluent (20,600 ng L(-1)) of the FIBI, cautious should be taken in treating them to avoid second contamination. Lower combustion efficiency and elevated fuel/feedstock (F/W) ratio for the FIBI led to the highest total emission factor of total-PAHs (38,400 microg kg(-1)). Lower total-PAH removal efficiencies of wet scrubber (WSB) (0.837-5.89%), cyclone (0.109-0.255%) and electrostatic precipitator (ESP) (0.032%) than those reported elsewhere resulted in high fraction in PAH contributions from the stack flue gases. Lower total-PAH emission factor was found for FLBI_A (2380 microg kg(-1) biological sludge) with higher combustion efficiency compared to those for FLBI_B (11,500 microg kg(-1)) and FIBI (38,400 microg kg(-1) biological sludge), implying that combustion efficiency plays a vital role in PAH emissions. PMID:19272707

  7. Quality of effluents from Hattar Industrial Estate.

    PubMed

    Sial, R A; Chaudhary, M F; Abbas, S T; Latif, M I; Khan, A G

    2006-12-01

    Of 6634 registered industries in Pakistan, 1228 are considered to be highly polluting. The major industries include textile, pharmaceutical, chemicals (organic and inorganic), food industries, ceramics, steel, oil mills and leather tanning which spread all over four provinces, with the larger number located in Sindh and Punjab, with smaller number in North Western Frontier Province (NWFP) and Baluchistan. Hattar Industrial Estate extending over 700 acres located in Haripur district of NWFP is a new industrial estate, which has been developed with proper planning for management of industrial effluents. The major industries located in Hattar are ghee industry, chemical (sulfuric acid, synthetic fiber) industry, textile industry and pharmaceuticals industry. These industries, although developed with proper planning are discharging their effluents in the nearby natural drains and ultimately collected in a big drain near Wah. The farmers in the vicinity are using these effluents for growing vegetables and cereal crops due to shortage of water. In view of this discussion, there is a dire need to determine if these effluents are hazardous for soil and plant growth. So, effluents from different industries, sewage and normal tap water samples were collected and analysed for pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total soluble salts (TSS), biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen, cations and anions and heavy metals. The effluents of ghee and textile industries are highly alkaline. EC and TSS loads of ghee and textile industries are also above the National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS), Pakistan. All the effluents had residual sodium carbonates (RSCs), carbonates and bicarbonates in amounts that cannot be used for irrigation. Total toxic metals load in all the effluents is also above the limit i.e. 2.0 mg/L. Copper in effluents of textile and sewage, manganese in ghee industry effluents and iron contents in all the effluents were

  8. Quality of effluents from Hattar Industrial Estate

    PubMed Central

    Sial, R.A.; Chaudhary, M.F.; Abbas, S.T.; Latif, M.I.; Khan, A.G.

    2006-01-01

    Of 6634 registered industries in Pakistan, 1228 are considered to be highly polluting. The major industries include textile, pharmaceutical, chemicals (organic and inorganic), food industries, ceramics, steel, oil mills and leather tanning which spread all over four provinces, with the larger number located in Sindh and Punjab, with smaller number in North Western Frontier Province (NWFP) and Baluchistan. Hattar Industrial Estate extending over 700 acres located in Haripur district of NWFP is a new industrial estate, which has been developed with proper planning for management of industrial effluents. The major industries located in Hattar are ghee industry, chemical (sulfuric acid, synthetic fiber) industry, textile industry and pharmaceuticals industry. These industries, although developed with proper planning are discharging their effluents in the nearby natural drains and ultimately collected in a big drain near Wah. The farmers in the vicinity are using these effluents for growing vegetables and cereal crops due to shortage of water. In view of this discussion, there is a dire need to determine if these effluents are hazardous for soil and plant growth. So, effluents from different industries, sewage and normal tap water samples were collected and analysed for pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total soluble salts (TSS), biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen, cations and anions and heavy metals. The effluents of ghee and textile industries are highly alkaline. EC and TSS loads of ghee and textile industries are also above the National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS), Pakistan. All the effluents had residual sodium carbonates (RSCs), carbonates and bicarbonates in amounts that cannot be used for irrigation. Total toxic metals load in all the effluents is also above the limit i.e. 2.0 mg/L. Copper in effluents of textile and sewage, manganese in ghee industry effluents and iron contents in all the effluents were

  9. 31 CFR 538.536 - Activities relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic of South Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Activities relating to the petroleum... Policy § 538.536 Activities relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic of... and transactions relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic of South...

  10. 31 CFR 538.536 - Activities relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic of South Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Activities relating to the petroleum... Policy § 538.536 Activities relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic of... and transactions relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic of South...

  11. 31 CFR 538.536 - Activities relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic of South Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Activities relating to the petroleum... Policy § 538.536 Activities relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic of... and transactions relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic of South...

  12. Advanced treatment of refractory organic pollutants in petrochemical industrial wastewater by bioactive enhanced ponds and wetland system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuo; Ma, Qiusha; Wang, Baozhen; Wang, Jifu; Zhang, Ying

    2014-05-01

    A large-scale combined ponds-wetland system was applied for advanced treatment of refractory pollutants in petrochemical industrial wastewater. The system was designed to enhance bioactivity and biological diversity, which consisted of anaerobic ponds (APs), facultative ponds (FPs), aerobic pond and wetland. The refractory pollutants in the petrochemical wastewater to be treated were identified as alkanes, chloroalkanes, aromatic hydrocarbons, and olefins, which were significantly degraded and transformed along with the influent flowing through the enhanced bioactive ponds-wetland system. 8 years of recent operational data revealed that the average removal rate of stable chemical oxygen demand (COD) was 42.7 % and that influent COD varied from 92.3 to 195.6 mg/L. Final effluent COD could reach 65.8 mg/L (average). COD removal rates were high in the APs and FPs and accounted for 75 % of the total amount removed. This result indicated that the APs and FPs degraded refractory pollutants through the facilitation of bacteria growth. The changes in the community structures of major microbes were assessed by 16SrDNA-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. The same analysis was used to identify the main bacterial function for the removal of refractory pollutants in the APs and FPs. The APs and FPs displayed similar microbial diversities, and some of the identified bacteria degraded and removed refractory pollutants. The overall results proved the applicability, stability, and high efficiency of the ponds-wetland system with enhanced bioactivity in the advanced removal of refractory pollutants from petrochemical industrial wastewater. PMID:24578265

  13. Biomass alcohols as potential petroleum alternatives in the fuel and petrochemical industries: A generalized network model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farina, R. F.

    A generalized network model called PETNET is developed to address this problem. The focus of the analysis presented is the role of biomass alcohols as potential alternatives to fossil hydrocarbons as raw materials in the petrochemical and oil industries. Illustrative scenarios for biomass-based alcohol replacements are investigated with PETNET by solving for alternative assumptions of price, capacity, resource availability and process technology.

  14. Trends in high performance compressors for petrochemical and natural gas industry in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yuanyang; Li, Liansheng

    2015-08-01

    Compressors are the key equipment in the petrochemical and natural gas industry system. The performance and reliability of them are very important for the process system. The application status of petrochemical & natural gas compressors in China is presented in this paper. The present status of design and operating technologies of compressors in China are mentioned in this paper. The turbo, reciprocating and twin screw compressors are discussed. The market demands for different structure compressors in process gas industries are analysed. This paper also introduces the research and developments for high performance compressors in China. The recent research results on efficiency improvement methods, stability improvement, online monitor and fault diagnosis will also be presented in details.

  15. New petrochemical compositions for use in the coal industry

    SciTech Connect

    D.O. Safieva; E.V. Surov; O.G. Safiev

    2008-12-15

    Various aspects of the use of antifreezing agents in the coal industry are considered. It has been found that, unlike previously proposed compositions, these agents can be prepared based on the products of a single process, the vacuum distillation of fuel oil.

  16. Effect of petrochemical industrial emissions of reactive alkenes and NOx on tropospheric ozone formation in Houston, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryerson, T. B.; Trainer, M.; Angevine, W. M.; Brock, C. A.; Dissly, R. W.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.; Frost, G. J.; Goldan, P. D.; Holloway, J. S.; Hübler, G.; Jakoubek, R. O.; Kuster, W. C.; Neuman, J. A.; Nicks, D. K.; Parrish, D. D.; Roberts, J. M.; Sueper, D. T.; Atlas, E. L.; Donnelly, S. G.; Flocke, F.; Fried, A.; Potter, W. T.; Schauffler, S.; Stroud, V.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Wert, B. P.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Alvarez, R. J.; Banta, R. M.; Darby, L. S.; Senff, C. J.

    2003-04-01

    Petrochemical industrial facilities can emit large amounts of highly reactive hydrocarbons and NOx to the atmosphere; in the summertime, such colocated emissions are shown to consistently result in rapid and efficient ozone (O3) formation downwind. Airborne measurements show initial hydrocarbon reactivity in petrochemical source plumes in the Houston, TX, metropolitan area is primarily due to routine emissions of the alkenes propene and ethene. Reported emissions of these highly reactive compounds are substantially lower than emissions inferred from measurements in the plumes from these sources. Net O3 formation rates and yields per NOx molecule oxidized in these petrochemical industrial source plumes are substantially higher than rates and yields observed in urban or rural power plant plumes. These observations suggest that reductions in reactive alkene emissions from petrochemical industrial sources are required to effectively address the most extreme O3 exceedences in the Houston metropolitan area.

  17. [Evolution of technology and occupational exposures in petrochemical industry and in petroleum refining].

    PubMed

    Cottica, Danilo; Grignani, Elena

    2013-01-01

    The industry of oil refining and petrochemical play an important role in terms of number of employees in the Italian production. Often the terms "petroleum refining" and "petrochemical" are used interchangeably to define processes that occur in complex plants, which grow outdoors on large surfaces and a visual impact is not irrelevant. In reality, the two areas involve potential exposure to different chemical agents, related to raw materials processed and the specific products. The petrochemical uses as raw materials, the oil fractions, obtained by distillation in the refinery, or natural gas; petrochemical products are, usually, single compounds with a specific degree of purity, used as basic raw materials for the entire industry of organic chemistry, from the production of plastics to pharmaceuticals. The oil refining, that is the topic of this paper, processes mainly oil to obtain mixtures of hydrocarbon compounds, the products of which are specified on the basis of aptitude for use. For example gasolines, are obtained by mixing of fractions of the first distillation, reforming products, antiknock. The paper illustrates, necessarily broadly due to the complexity of the productive sectors, the technological and organizational changes that have led to a significant reduction of occupational exposure to chemical agents, the results of environmental monitoring carried out in some refineries both during routine conditions that during scheduled maintenance activities with plant shutdown and a store of petroleum products. The chemical agents measured are typical for presence, physico-chemical properties and toxicological characteristics of the manufacturing processes of petroleum products like benzene, toluene, xylenes, ethyl benzene, n-hexane, Volatile Hydrocarbons belonging to gasoline, kerosene, diesel fuel. Data related to both personal sampling and fixed positions. PMID:24303703

  18. Pulp and Paper Industry Effluent Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gove, George W.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from pulp and paper industry, covering publications of 1976-77. This review focuses on: (1) receiving water, toxicity, and effluent characterization; (2) pulping liquor disposal and recovery; and (3) physicochemical and biological treatment. A list of 238 references is also presented. (HM)

  19. Ambient levels of volatile organic compounds in the vicinity of petrochemical industrial area of Yokohama, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Hanai, Yoshimichi; Masunaga, Shigeki

    2009-01-01

    Urban ambient air concentrations of 39 aromatic (including benzene, toluene, and xylenes) and aliphatic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured in Yokohama city, Japan. Yokohama city was selected as a case study to assess the amount of VOC released from Industrial area to characterize the ambient air quality with respect to VOC as well as to know the impact of petrochemical storage facilities on local air quality. For this purpose, ambient air samples were collected (from June 2007 to November 2008) at six selected locations which are designated as industrial, residential, or commercial areas. To find out the diurnal variations of VOC, hourly nighttime sampling was carried out for three nights at one of the industrial locations (Shiohama). Samples were analyzed using gas chromatographic system (GC-FID). Results show strong variation between day and nighttime concentrations and among the seasons. Aliphatic fractions were most abundant, suggesting petrochemical storage facilities as the major source of atmospheric hydrocarbons. High concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, and xylene (BTEX) were observed at industrial locations. BTEX showed strong diurnal variation which is attributed to change in meteorology. During our campaign, low ambient VOC concentrations were observed at the residential site. PMID:20495606

  20. A comparison of new and existing light sources for the petrochemical industry

    SciTech Connect

    Borton, J.A.; Daley, K.A.

    1995-12-31

    This paper will compare current light sources with new research available for the Petrochemical Industry in the 1990`s. High lumen output, by today`s standards, is not necessarily the correct criterion for selection of light sources in process and work areas. This paper will demonstrate how the human eye reacts to various light sources both photopically (day vision) and scotopically (night vision). This comparison of light sources with the new research may change the thinking of users and designers in their selection of light sources.

  1. Petrochemical industry standards activity aimed at improving the mechanical integrity of process piping

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, J.T.

    1996-07-01

    This paper will cover numerous changes being made to existing standards and several new standards being created, all focusing on increasing mechanical integrity of petrochemical industry process piping. Those new standards include ones for (1) Risk-Based Inspection (2) Fitness for Service Analysis, (3) Positive Material Identification, and (4) In-service Inspection and Maintenance for Process Piping. A progress report is included for the Process Industry Practices (PIP) being created to consolidate individual company piping standards into one consistent industry set. And finally, recent initiatives toward standards cooperation/coordination between the American Petroleum Institute(API), American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), International Standards Organization (ISO) and National Board are highlighted.

  2. Annoyance and Worry in a Petrochemical Industrial Area—Prevalence, Time Trends and Risk Indicators

    PubMed Central

    Axelsson, Gösta; Stockfelt, Leo; Andersson, Eva; Gidlof-Gunnarsson, Anita; Sallsten, Gerd; Barregard, Lars

    2013-01-01

    In 1992, 1998, and 2006, questionnaires were sent to stratified samples of residents aged 18–75 years living near petrochemical industries (n = 600–800 people on each occasion) and in a control area (n = 200–1,000). The aims were to estimate the long-term prevalence and change over time of annoyance caused by industrial odour, industrial noise, and worries about possible health effects, and to identify risk indicators. In 2006, 20% were annoyed by industrial odour, 27% by industrial noise (1–4% in the control area), and 40–50% were worried about health effects or industrial accidents (10–20% in the control area). Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed significantly lower prevalence of odour annoyance in 1998 and 2006 than in 1992, while industrial noise annoyance increased significantly over time. The prevalence of worry remained constant. Risk of odour annoyance increased with female sex, worry of health effects, annoyance by motor vehicle exhausts and industrial noise. Industrial noise annoyance was associated with traffic noise annoyance and worry of health effects of traffic. Health-risk worry due to industrial air pollution was associated with female sex, having children, annoyance due to dust/soot in the air, and worry of traffic air pollution. PMID:23552810

  3. Toxicity reduction in industrial effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Lankford, P.W.; Eckenfelder, W.W.

    1990-01-01

    The toxicity of manufacturing wastewaters to fish and other aquatic organisms is now being used by state and federal regulators to monitor and restrict industrial wastewater discharges. As a result, there is a great need for guidance on the subject of aquatic toxicity reduction in the field of industrial water pollution control. This book is a comprehensive reference source on the testing protocols, comparative data, and treatment techniques for effective toxicity reduction. Included in this book are detailed chapters covering various methods for toxicity reduction, such as the removal of metals, aerobic biological treatment, stripping of volatile organics, and management of sludges from toxic wastewater treatment. The book features: a complete overview of the subject, including background material for newcomers to the field; a basic summary and comparison of alternate treatment procedures; the latest methods for the identification of toxic components that readers can use for testing in their own laboratories; a description of applicable technologies for toxicity reduction; actual data from the use of processes that allow readers to compare technologies; solids management requirements including handling and disposal; useful economic comparisons of technologies; and illustrative case studies that demonstrate the application of the latest toxicity reduction technology and data to specific situations. Eleven chapters are processed separately in the appropriate data bases.

  4. Novel technology for flame and gas detection in the petrochemical industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spector, Yechiel; Jacobson, Esther

    1999-01-01

    A reliable and high performance novel method of flame and gas optical spectral analysis was developed to meet the specific flame and gas detection of the petrochemical industry. Petrochemical industries, especially the offshore and unmanned areas in onshore refineries, pose a major safety hazard with respect to potential explosions and fire events. Unwanted fuel spills or fugitive flammable vapor clouds, migrating along congested pipe lines and hot production areas may cause upon ignition significant loss or damage. To help prevents events like the catastrophic fire that destroyed the offshore oil platform Piper Alpha in July 1988, a reliable and fast gas and flame detection system can be used to trigger effective risk management actions. The present paper describes a patented method of Triple Optical Spectral Analysis employed for the detection of various gases in the air according to their unique 'spectral finger print' absorption characteristics of radiation, as well as for analysis of emission and absorption radiation from combustion processes for flame detection purpose. The method has been applied in the development of unique gas and flame monitoring system designed for 'high risk - harsh/extreme weather conditions continuous operation'. These systems have been recently installed on several offshore platforms and oil rigs as well as on 'floating production Storage and Offloading' - FPSO vessels. The systems advantages and limitations as well as several installations and test data are presented. Various atmospheric conditions as well as false alarm stimulus are discussed.

  5. Waste processing and pollution in the chemical and petrochemical industries. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and equipment used for pollution control in the chemical and petrochemical industries. Topics include emissions investigations, recycling and materials recovery studies, and standards for specific industries. Sources, site hazard evaluations, and the toxicity of specific chemicals are also discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  6. Waste processing and pollution in the chemical and petrochemical industries. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and equipment used for pollution control in the chemical and petrochemical industries. Topics include emissions investigations, recycling and materials recovery studies, and standards for specific industries. Sources, site hazard evaluations, and the toxicity of specific chemicals are also discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  7. Radioactivity in the industrial effluent disposed soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthilkumar, R. D.; Narayanaswamy, R.; Meenashisundaram, V.

    2012-04-01

    Studies on radiation and radioactivity distribution in the soils of effluent disposed from the sugar industry in India have been conducted. The external gamma dose rates in air and natural radionuclides activities in the soils were measured using an Environmental Radiation Dosimeter and a Gamma-ray Spectrometer respectively. The soil samples were also subject to various physico-chemical analyses. This study revealed some remarkable results that are discussed in the article.

  8. Worldwide petrochemical directory, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This directory gives the information on the worldwide petrochemical industry in existence. It makes available the names, addresses, phone and telex numbers of most of the world's companies which are involved in the petrochemical industry. The directory provides the names of over 14,000 key personnel at over 2,000 plant sizes in the United States, Canada, Europe, Latin America, Asia-Pacific, Africa and the Middle East. A company index is provided for easy reference. It details current petrochemical plants' feedstocks, products and capacities. The newly updated petrochemical plant construction survey is also provided.

  9. Employment and exposures in the petroleum refining and petrochemical industries and the risk of lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Aldrich, T.E.

    1985-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the risk of lung cancer associated with occupational exposures in the petroleum refining and petrochemical industries. Earlier epidemiologic studies of this association did not adjust for cigarette smoking or have specific exposure classifications. The Texas EXposure Assessment System (TEXAS) was developed with data from a population-based, case-comparison study conducted in five southeast Texas counties between 1976 and 1980. An industry-wide, increased risk for lung cancer was associated with jobs having low-level hydrocarbon exposure that also include other occupational inhalation exposures. The prohibition of cigarette smoking for jobs with high-level hydrocarbon exposure might explain part of the increased risk for jobs with low-level hydrocarbon exposures. Asbestos exposure comprises a large part of the risk associated with jobs having other inhalation exposures besides hydrocarbons. Workers in petroleum refineries were not shown to have an increased, occupational risk for lung cancer. The study results demonstrate that the predominant risk for lung cancer is due to cigarette smoking. Cigarette smoking accounts for 86.5% of the incident lung cancer cases within the study area. Workers in the petroleum industry smoke significantly less than persons employed in other industries. Only 2.2% of the incident lung cancer cases may be attributed to petroleum industry jobs; lifestyle factors (e.g., nutrition) may be associated with the balance of the cases.

  10. Urinary cytology in workmen engaged in the petrochemical industry with reference to non-industrial risk factors.

    PubMed

    Adolphs, H D; Hildenbrand, G; Schwabe, H W; Vahlensieck, E W

    1985-01-01

    Urine cytology was evaluated in 8,406 male workers of 8 petrochemical factories in western and northern Germany during the routine medical check-up performed by the department of industrial medicine of the respective factory. All relevant data referring to possible private and occupational risk factors were registered and evaluated. Four percent (n = 358) of the 8,406 workers examined exhibited Pap 3/4 cytology. Urological examination did not reveal any bladder tumor in those workers with either a single Pap 4 or a repeated Pap 3 finding on cytology. Our study showed that deterioration of cell differentiation correlated significantly with age and cigarette smoking. Furthermore, a risk group (males above 40 years of age exposed to occupational chemicals, smokers, and coffee drinkers) differed from a non-risk group. Age and cigarette smoking seemed to be the determinant factors. No correlation could be adduced between any kind of industrial exposure and urine cytology. PMID:4012936

  11. The Effect of Social Trust on Citizens’ Health Risk Perception in the Context of a Petrochemical Industrial Complex

    PubMed Central

    López-Navarro, Miguel Ángel; Llorens-Monzonís, Jaume; Tortosa-Edo, Vicente

    2013-01-01

    Perceived risk of environmental threats often translates into psychological stress with a wide range of effects on health and well-being. Petrochemical industrial complexes constitute one of the sites that can cause considerable pollution and health problems. The uncertainty around emissions results in a perception of risk for citizens residing in neighboring areas, which translates into anxiety and physiological stress. In this context, social trust is a key factor in managing the perceived risk. In the case of industrial risks, it is essential to distinguish between trust in the companies that make up the industry, and trust in public institutions. In the context of a petrochemical industrial complex located in the port of Castellón (Spain), this paper primarily discusses how trust—both in the companies located in the petrochemical complex and in the public institutions—affects citizens’ health risk perception. The research findings confirm that while the trust in companies negatively affects citizens’ health risk perception, trust in public institutions does not exert a direct and significant effect. Analysis also revealed that trust in public institutions and health risk perception are essentially linked indirectly (through trust in companies). PMID:23337129

  12. The effect of social trust on citizens’ health risk perception in the context of a petrochemical industrial complex.

    PubMed

    López-Navarro, Miguel Angel; Llorens-Monzonís, Jaume; Tortosa-Edo, Vicente

    2013-01-01

    Perceived risk of environmental threats often translates into psychological stress with a wide range of effects on health and well-being. Petrochemical industrial complexes constitute one of the sites that can cause considerable pollution and health problems. The uncertainty around emissions results in a perception of risk for citizens residing in neighboring areas, which translates into anxiety and physiological stress. In this context, social trust is a key factor in managing the perceived risk. In the case of industrial risks, it is essential to distinguish between trust in the companies that make up the industry, and trust in public institutions. In the context of a petrochemical industrial complex located in the port of Castellón (Spain), this paper primarily discusses how trust - both in the companies located in the petrochemical complex and in the public institutions - affects citizens' health risk perception. The research findings confirm that while the trust in companies negatively affects citizens' health risk perception, trust in public institutions does not exert a direct and significant effect. Analysis also revealed that trust in public institutions and health risk perception are essentially linked indirectly (through trust in companies). PMID:23337129

  13. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE: CHAPTER 5. BASIC PETROCHEMICALS INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The catalog was developed to aid in defining the environmental impacts of U.S. industrial activity. Entries for each industry are in consistent format and form separate chapters of the catalog. The basic petroleum industry includes companies that treat hydrocarbon streams from th...

  14. Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in petrochemical industries by measurement of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene.

    PubMed Central

    Boogaard, P J; van Sittert, N J

    1994-01-01

    Biological monitoring of exposure of workers to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in petrochemical industries was performed by the measurement of urinary excretion of 1-hydroxypyrene. In 121 of the 462 workers studied (both smokers and non-smokers) who had had no recent occupational exposure to PAHs a median 1-hydroxypyrene concentration of 0.21 micrograms/g creatinine was found. The upper limit of the 95% confidence interval in these workers of 0.99 micrograms/g creatinine was used as the upper normal value for industrial workers. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations were measured in workers involved in manufacture and maintenance operations in oil refineries (13 studies in eight different settings), in workers manufacturing or handling products containing PAHs in chemical plants (five studies in three settings) and laboratories (four studies), and in workers digging soil contaminated with PAHs (three studies). In most studies in oil refineries 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations were only marginally greater than the values measured in the 121 workers with no recent occupational exposure to PAHs. This was also the case in maintenance operations with higher potential exposure to PAHs, indicating that personal protection equipment was generally adequate to prevent excessive exposure. The studies in chemical plants also showed that exposure to PAHs is low. An exception was the workers engaged in the production of needle coke from ethylene cracker residue, where increased urinary 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations were measured. The excretion of 1-hydroxypyrene by the operators and maintenance workers of this plant was investigated in relation to potential methods of exposure to PAHs. Dermal and inhalatory exposure were both significant determinants of exposure to PAHs. PMID:8199667

  15. Barry Commoner Assails Petrochemicals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Discusses Commoner's ideas on the social value of the petrochemical industry and his suggestions for curtailment or elimination of its productive operation to produce a higher environmental quality for mankind at a relatively low loss in social benefit. (CC)

  16. PAH characteristics and genotoxicity in the ambient air of a petrochemical industry complex

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, Jiun-Horng; Peng, Being-Hwa; Lee, Ding-Zang; Lee, Ching-Chang

    1995-05-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) samples, at four sampling sites, in the ambient air of petrochemical plants were collected by several PS-1 samplers from October 1993 to July 1994 in a petrochemical complex area located in southern Taiwan. In addition, the genotoxicity of the PAH samples were investigated by the Ames Salmonella/microsomal assay system. The winter/summer ratios of total-PAH composition were 0.60, 1.39, 2.97, and 1.28 for sites A, B, C, and D, respectively. This result implied that wind direction is the most significant parameter affecting the total-PAH composition in these four sampling sites. Sampling sites B, C, and D were located on the downwind side of the petrochemical plant and gave higher total-PAH composition than those of sampling site A. Particle phase PAHs had higher mutagenicity than those in the gas phase.

  17. Non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) and their contribution to ozone formation potential in a petrochemical industrialized city, Northwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Chenhui; Mao, Xiaoxuan; Huang, Tao; Liang, Xiaoxue; Wang, Yanan; Shen, Yanjie; Jiang, Wanyanhan; Wang, Huiqin; Bai, Zhilin; Ma, Minquan; Yu, Zhousuo; Ma, Jianmin; Gao, Hong

    2016-03-01

    Hourly air concentrations of fifty-three non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) were measured at downtown and suburb of Lanzhou, a petrochemical industrialized city, Northwest China in 2013. The measured data were used to investigate the seasonal characteristics of NMHCs air pollution and their contributions to the ozone formation in Lanzhou. Annually averaged NMHCs concentration was 38.29 ppbv in downtown Lanzhou. Among 53 NMHCs, alkanes, alkenes, and aromatics accounted for 57%, 23% and 20% of the total NMHCs air concentration, respectively. The atmospheric levels of toluene and propane with mean values of 4.62 and 4.56 ppbv were higher than other NMHCs, respectively. The ambient levels of NMHCs in downtown Lanzhou were compared with measured NMHCs data collected at a suburban site of Lanzhou, located near a large-scale petrochemical industry. Results show that the levels of alkanes, alkenes, and aromatics in downtown Lanzhou were lower by factors of 3-11 than that in west suburb of the city. O3-isopleth plots show that ozone was formed in VOCs control area in downtown Lanzhou and NOx control area at the west suburban site during the summertime. Propylene-equivalent (Prop-Equiv) concentration and the maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) in downtown Lanzhou indicate that cis-2-butene, propylene, and m/p-xylene were the first three compounds contributing to ozone formation potentials whereas in the petrochemical industrialized west suburb, ethane, propene, and trans-2-Butene played more important role in the summertime ozone formation. Principal component analysis (PCA) and multiple linear regression (MLR) were further applied to identify the dominant emission sources and examine their fractions in total NMHCs. Results suggest that vehicle emission, solvent usage, and industrial activities were major sources of NMHCs in the city, accounting for 58.34%, 22.19%, and 19.47% of the total monitored NMHCs in downtown Lanzhou, respectively. In the west suburb of the city

  18. 1988 worldwide petrochemical directory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This directory makes available the names, addresses, phone and telex numbers of most of the world's companies which are involved in the petrochemical industry. The directory provides the names of over 14,000 key personnel at over 2,000 plant sites in the United States, Canada, Europe, Latin America, Asia-Pacific, Africa and the Middle East. A company index is provided for easy reference. The Oil and Gas Journal's Worldwide Petrochemical Survey appears in its entirety in this volume.

  19. Wastewater reuse in a cascade based system of a petrochemical industry for the replacement of losses in cooling towers.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Everton; Rodrigues, Marco Antônio Siqueira; Aquim, Patrice Monteiro de

    2016-10-01

    This article discusses the mapping of opportunities for the water reuse in a cascade based system in a petrochemical industry in southern Brazil. This industrial sector has a large demand for water for its operation. In the studied industry, for example, approximately 24 million cubic meters of water were collected directly from the source in 2014. The objective of this study was to evaluate the implementation of the reuse of water in cascade in a petrochemical industry, focusing on the reuse of aqueous streams to replenish losses in the cooling towers. This is an industrial scale case study with real data collected during the years 2014 and 2015. Water reuse was performed using heuristic approach based on the exploitation of knowledge acquired during the search process. The methodology of work consisted of the construction of a process map identifying the stages of production and water consumption, as well as the characterization of the aqueous streams involved in the process. For the application of the industrial water reuse as cooling water, mass balances were carried out considering the maximum concentration levels of turbidity, pH, conductivity, alkalinity, calcium hardness, chlorides, sulfates, silica, chemical oxygen demand and suspended solids as parameters turbidity, pH, conductivity, alkalinity, calcium hardness, chlorides, sulfates, silica, chemical oxygen demand and suspended solids as parameters. The adopted guideline was the fulfillment of the water quality criteria for each application in the industrial process. The study showed the feasibility for the reuse of internal streams as makeup water in cooling towers, and the implementation of the reuse presented in this paper totaled savings of 385,440 m(3)/year of water, which means a sufficient volume to supply 6350 inhabitants for a period of one year, considering the average water consumption per capita in Brazil; in addition to 201,480 m(3)/year of wastewater that would no longer be generated. PMID

  20. The feasibility of effluent trading in the energy industries

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.A.

    1997-05-01

    In January 1996, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released a policy statement endorsing effluent trading in watersheds, hoping to spur additional interest in the subject. The policy describes five types of effluent trades - point source/point source, point source/nonpoint source, pretreatment, intraplant, and nonpoint source/nonpoint source. This report evaluates the feasibility of effluent trading for facilities in the oil and gas industry (exploration and production, refining, and distribution and marketing segments), electric power industry, and the coal industry (mines and preparation plants). Nonpoint source/nonpoint source trades are not considered since the energy industry facilities evaluated here are all point sources. EPA has administered emission trading programs in its air quality program for many years. Programs for offsets, bubbles, banking, and netting are supported by federal regulations, and the 1990 Clean Air Act (CAA) amendments provide a statutory basis for trading programs to control ozone and acid rain. Different programs have had varying degrees of success, but few have come close to meeting their expectations. Few trading programs have been established under the Clean Water Act (CWA). One intraplant trading program was established by EPA in its effluent limitation guidelines (ELGs) for the iron and steel industry. The other existing effluent trading programs were established by state or local governments and have had minimal success.

  1. [Detoxification of textile industry effluents by photocatalytic treatment].

    PubMed

    Gebrati, L; Idrissi, L Loukili; Mountassir, Y; Nejmeddine, A

    2010-05-01

    In Morocco the textile industry, representing 31% of all Moroccan industries, is accompanied by high water consumption and important wastewater discharges rejected without any treatment. The focus of this study was to characterize the effluent from the textile industry, to test separately the effect of UV light and TiO2 catalyst and to determine the optimum conditions (pH, concentration and reaction time) in photocatalytic treatment to reduce chemical oxygen demand (COD) and colour. The biodegradability of the effluent was also studied using a toxicity test before and after treatment. After 90 min of reaction time at pH 4 and with 1.5 g F' of TiO2 catalyst, the photocatalytic treatment reached a global removal rate of 53% for COD and 89% for discoloration of the effluent. The relation BOD5/COD increased from around 0 to 0.3. The effluent became accessible to a biological treatment. The toxicity was studied by the Daphnia magna test over 24 hours. The results have shown the important toxicity of these effluents, which are rich in organic matter and other chemical compounds. After treatment by photocatalytic oxidation, the CI50 24 increased from 3.8% to 22.8%. This reduction of toxicity is related to the reduction of COD (53%) and colour (89%). Photocatalytic treatment has been shown to have an environmental benefit and, in combination with a secondary biological treatment, can be important for a significant reduction in the pollution of textile effluents. PMID:20540424

  2. Electromagnetic acoustic transducers for wall thickness applications in the petrochemical industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, C.; Dixon, S.; Widdowson, A.; Palmer, S. B.

    2000-05-01

    Electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) are now becoming widely used in the field, for example for boiler tube wall thickness surveys in Power Generation plant. In general EMATs work efficiently on steel components with a surface oxide layer, where the oxides can be residual mill scale from the steel manufacturing process due to in-service growth in boilers or chemical processing plant. Very often these oxides have rough surfaces and have to be removed prior to conventional ultrasonic inspection. This can be both time consuming and costly, in addition the removal of the protective oxide layer accelerates the future wall lose rate of the pipe or vessel. As well as the Power Generation application, EMATs can also be used for ultrasonic inspection of petrochemical tubulars without having to remove oxides giving the same associated benefits. This paper presents results obtained from laboratory trials of EMAT thickness monitoring of petrochemical plant pipe samples and real EMAT surveys carried out on-site on refinery plant. In parallel with the practical application of EMATs we are studying the underlying physics of operation with the aim of predicting the EMAT performance for steels with and without oxide layers.

  3. CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN WHOLE EFFLUENT TOXICITY AND THE PRESENCE OF PRIORITY SUBSTANCES IN COMPLEX INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this study was to examine broad-scale correlation between presence of priority substances and whole effluent toxicity (WET) across a range of industry types. Using regression analysis, we examined how chemical-based inferred toxicity predicted measured WET of the e...

  4. Metabolic response of environmentally isolated microorganisms to industrial effluents: Use of a newly described cell culture assay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferebee, Robert N.

    1992-01-01

    An environmental application using a microtiter culture assay to measure the metabolic sensitivity of microorganisms to petrochemical effluents will be tested. The Biomedical Operations and Research Branch at NASA JSC has recently developed a rapid and nondestructive method to measure cell growth and metabolism. Using a colorimetric procedure the uniquely modified assay allows the metabolic kinetics of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells to be measured. Use of such an assay if adapted for the routine monitoring of waste products, process effluents, and environmentally hazardous substances may prove to be invaluable to the industrial community. The microtiter method as described will be tested using microorganisms isolated from the Galveston Bay aquatic habitat. The microbial isolates will be identified prior to testing using the automated systems available at JSC. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), cadmium, and lead will provide control toxic chemicals. The toxicity of industrial effluent from two industrial sites will be tested. An effort will be made to test the efficacy of this assay for measuring toxicity in a mixed culture community.

  5. Characterizing ozone pollution in a petrochemical industrial area in Beijing, China: a case study using a chemical reaction model.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Lv, Zhaofeng; Cheng, Shuiyuan; Wang, Lili; Ji, Dongsheng; Zhou, Ying; Han, Lihui; Wang, Litao

    2015-06-01

    This study selected a petrochemical industrial complex in Beijing, China, to understand the characteristics of surface ozone (O3) in this industrial area through the on-site measurement campaign during the July-August of 2010 and 2011, and to reveal the response of local O3 to its precursors' emissions through the NCAR-Master Mechanism model (NCAR-MM) simulation. Measurement results showed that the O3 concentration in this industrial area was significantly higher, with the mean daily average of 124.6 μg/m(3) and mean daily maximum of 236.8 μg/m(3), which are, respectively, 90.9 and 50.6 % higher than those in Beijing urban area. Moreover, the diurnal O3 peak generally started up early in 11:00-12:00 and usually remained for 5-6 h, greatly different with the normal diurnal pattern of urban O3. Then, we used NCAR-MM to simulate the average diurnal variation of photochemical O3 in sunny days of August 2010 in both industrial and urban areas. A good agreement in O3 diurnal variation pattern and in O3 relative level was obtained for both areas. For example of O3 daily maximum, the calculated value in the industrial area was about 51 % higher than in the urban area, while measured value in the industrial area was approximately 60 % higher than in the urban area. Finally, the sensitivity analysis of photochemical O3 to its precursors was conducted based on a set of VOCs/NOx emissions cases. Simulation results implied that in the industrial area, the response of O3 to VOCs was negative and to NOx was positive under the current conditions, with the sensitivity coefficients of -0.16~-0.43 and +0.04~+0.06, respectively. By contrast, the urban area was within the VOCs-limitation regime, where ozone enhancement in response to increasing VOCs emissions and to decreasing NOx emission. So, we think that the VOCs emissions control for this petrochemical industrial complex will increase the potential risk of local ozone pollution aggravation, but will be helpful to inhibit the

  6. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Petrochemical Industry - An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect

    Neelis, Maarten; Worrell, Ernst; Masanet, Eric

    2008-09-01

    Energy is the most important cost factor in the U.S petrochemical industry, defined in this guide as the chemical industry sectors producing large volume basic and intermediate organic chemicals as well as large volume plastics. The sector spent about $10 billion on fuels and electricity in 2004. Energy efficiency improvement is an important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There are a variety of opportunities available at individual plants in the U.S. petrochemical industry to reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner. This Energy Guide discusses energy efficiency practices and energy efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, facility, and organizational levels. A discussion of the trends, structure, and energy consumption characteristics of the petrochemical industry is provided along with a description of the major process technologies used within the industry. Next, a wide variety of energy efficiency measures are described. Many measure descriptions include expected savings in energy and energy-related costs, based on case study data from real-world applications in the petrochemical and related industries worldwide. Typical measure payback periods and references to further information in the technical literature are also provided, when available. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers in the U.S. petrochemical industry reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner while maintaining the quality of products manufactured. Further research on the economics of all measures--and on their applicability to different production practices--is needed to assess their cost effectiveness at individual plants.

  7. Determination of Phenols and Trimethylamine in Industrial Effluents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levaggi, D. A.; Feldstein, M.

    1971-01-01

    For regulatory purposes to control certain odorous compounds the analysis of phenols and trimethylamines in industrial effluents is necessary. The Bay Area Air Pollution Control District laboratory has been determining these gases by gas chromatographic techniques. The procedures for sample collection, preparation for analysis and determination are described in detail. Typical data from various sources showing the effect of proposed regulations is shown. Extensive sampling and usage of these procedures has shown them to be accurate, reliable and suitable to all types of source effluents.

  8. INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT TREATMENT USING IONIZING RADIATION COMBINED TO TITANIUM DIOXIDE

    SciTech Connect

    Duarte, C.L.; Oikawa, H.; Mori, M.N.; Sampa, M.H.O.

    2004-10-04

    The Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) with OH radicals are the most efficient to mineralize organic compounds, and there are various methods to generate OH radicals as the use of ozone, hydrogen peroxide and ultra-violet radiation and ionizing radiation. The irradiation of aqueous solutions with high-energy electrons results in the excitation and ionizing of the molecules and rapid (10{sup -14} - 10{sup -9} s) formation of reactive intermediates. These reactive species will react with organic compounds present in industrial effluent inducing their decomposition. Titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) catalyzed photoreaction is used to remove a wide range of pollutants in air and water media, combined to UV/VIS light, FeO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, but as far as known there is no report on the combination with ionizing radiation. In some recent studies, the removal of organic pollutants in industrial effluent, such as Benzene, Toluene, and Xylene from petroleum production using ionizing radiation was investigated. It has been ob served that none of the methods can be used individually in wastewater treatment applications with good economics and high degree of energy efficiency. In the present work, the efficiency of ionizing radiation in presence of TiO{sub 2} to treat industrial effluent was evaluated. The main aim to combine these technologies is to improve the efficiency for very hard effluents and to reduce the processing cost for future implementation to large-scale design.

  9. Biological treatments of textile industrial effluents in Lagos metropolis, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ugoji, E O; Aboaba, O O

    2004-10-01

    The assessment of the effluents from two textile industries in Ilupeju in Lagos metropolis, Nigeria showed that they were high in conductivity, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total dissolved solids (TDS) and contained traces of heavy metals like Ca, Zn but high concentrations of Cr and Pb. These wastewaters are normally discharged into neighbouring water bodies. Five bacterial groups, namely Micrococcus sp., Enterobacter sp., Alcaligens sp., Bacillus sp. and Acinetobacter sp. were isolated from these effluents. They were used individually for biotreatment and found to be able to utilize the components of the wastewaters for growth, Bacillus sp. and Acinetobacter sp. being the most efficient utilizers as they were able to reduce BOD to zero. The total viable count (TVC) increased significantly depicting growth of the bacterial population. The pH was regulated from 3.4-6.80 for NSF effluent and 12.2-10.29 for STI effluent. The work emphasises the level of industrial pollution in our environment as wastes are indiscrimately dumped into surrounding water bodies in urban areas, the textile industry being a case study. The treatment of any form of waste before disposal into the environment is important and ensures safety of the populace. PMID:15907081

  10. Mutagenicity evaluation of industrial sludge from common effluent treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Mathur, Nupur; Bhatnagar, Pradeep; Mohan, Krishna; Bakre, Prakash; Nagar, Pankaj; Bijarnia, Mahendra

    2007-04-01

    Sludge from common effluent treatment plant (CETP) receiving effluents from textile industries at Mandia Road, Pali, was analyzed to assess the level of mutagenicity. Mutagenicity assay using Salmonella typhimurium tester strains TA 98 and TA 100 gave positive results, thus suggesting presence of genotoxic contaminants in the samples investigated. Further, mutagenic activity of chemical sludge was found to be lesser than that of biological sludge. This result is very surprising and unexpected as it is indicating that some mutagenic compounds are either being formed or certain promutagenic compounds are being converted into stable mutagenic metabolites during the biological treatment of the wastewater effluents. There have been no previous reports giving similar or contrary results. Most of the previous studies have reported effects of single combined sludge. PMID:17182078

  11. The birth and growth of the Grozny petroleum refining and petrochemical industry

    SciTech Connect

    Dorogochinskii, A.Z.

    1994-07-01

    The first oil gushers were struck in Grozny in 1893, the year that marks the start of rapid development of the Grozny petroleum refining industry. This report describes the operation and growth of the refining industry.

  12. Safety Culture Assessment in Petrochemical Industry: A Comparative Study of Two Algerian Plants

    PubMed Central

    Boughaba, Assia; Hassane, Chabane; Roukia, Ouddai

    2014-01-01

    Background To elucidate the relationship between safety culture maturity and safety performance of a particular company. Methods To identify the factors that contribute to a safety culture, a survey questionnaire was created based mainly on the studies of Fernández-Muñiz et al. The survey was randomly distributed to 1000 employees of two oil companies and realized a rate of valid answer of 51%. Minitab 16 software was used and diverse tests, including the descriptive statistical analysis, factor analysis, reliability analysis, mean analysis, and correlation, were used for the analysis of data. Ten factors were extracted using the analysis of factor to represent safety culture and safety performance. Results The results of this study showed that the managers' commitment, training, incentives, communication, and employee involvement are the priority domains on which it is necessary to stress the effort of improvement, where they had all the descriptive average values lower than 3.0 at the level of Company B. Furthermore, the results also showed that the safety culture influences the safety performance of the company. Therefore, Company A with a good safety culture (the descriptive average values more than 4.0), is more successful than Company B in terms of accident rates. Conclusion The comparison between the two petrochemical plants of the group Sonatrach confirms these results in which Company A, the managers of which are English and Norwegian, distinguishes itself by the maturity of their safety culture has significantly higher evaluations than the company B, who is constituted of Algerian staff, in terms of safety management practices and safety performance. PMID:25180135

  13. Laboratory studies of electrochemical treatment of industrial azo dye effluent.

    PubMed

    Vaghela, Sanjay S; Jethva, Ashok D; Mehta, Bhavesh B; Dave, Sunil P; Adimurthy, Subbarayappa; Ramachandraiah, Gadde

    2005-04-15

    Removal of color and reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD) in an industrial azo dye effluent containing chiefly reactive dyes were investigated under single-pass conditions at a dimensionally stable anode (DSA) in a thin electrochemical flow reactor at different current densities, flow rates, and dilutions. With 50% diluted effluent, decolorization was achieved up to 85-99% at 10-40 mA/ cm2 at 5 mL/min flow rate and 50-88% at 30-40 mA/ cm2 at high (10-15 mL/min) flow rates. The COD reduction was maximum (81%) at 39.9 mA/cm2 or above when solution-electrode contact time (Ct) was as high as 21.7 s/cm2 and decreased as Ct declined at a given current density. Cyclic voltammetric studies suggesting an indirect oxidation of dye molecules over the anode surface were carried out at a glassy carbon electrode. The effect of pH on decolorization and COD reduction was determined. An electrochemical mechanism mediated by OCl- operating in the decolorization and COD reduction processes was suggested. The effluent was further treated with NaOCI. The oxidized products from the treated effluents were isolated and confirmed to be free from chlorine-substituted products by IR spectroscopy. From the apparent pseudo-first-order rate data, the second-order rate coefficients were evaluated to be 2.9 M(-1) s(-1) at 5 mL/ min, 76.2 M(-1) s(-1) at 10 mL/min, and 156.1 M(-1) s(-1) at 15 mL/ min for color removal, and 1.19 M(-1) s(-1) at 5 mL/min, 1.79 M(-1) s(-1) at 10 mL/min, and 3.57 M(-1) s(-1) at 15 mL/min for COD reduction. Field studies were also carried out with a pilot-scale cell at the source of effluent generation of different plants corresponding to the industry. Decolorization was achieved to about 94-99% with azo dye effluents at 0.7-1.0 L/min flow costing around Indian Rupees 0.02-0.04 per liter, and to about 54-75% in other related effluents at 0.3-1.0 L/min flow under single-pass conditions. PMID:15884385

  14. Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Excluding dyes. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents exclusive of dyes. Topics include the recovery of lubricants, lye, sizing agents, polyvinyl alcohol, zinc, dirt, and heat from textile effluents. Air and water pollution control technology that is effective in treating textile effluents is discussed. Effluents from synthetic fiber manufacture and wool scouring processes are emphasized. Effluents that contain dyes are discusssed in a separate bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  15. Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Excluding dyes. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents exclusive of dyes. Topics include the recovery of lubricants, lye, sizing agents, polyvinyl alcohol, zinc, dirt, and heat from textile effluents. Air and water pollution control technology that is effective in treating textile effluents is discussed. Effluents from synthetic fiber manufacture and wool scouring processes are emphasized. Effluents that contain dyes are discusssed in a separate bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  16. Development of sustainable waste management toward zero landfill waste for the petrochemical industry in Thailand using a comprehensive 3R methodology: A case study.

    PubMed

    Usapein, Parnuwat; Chavalparit, Orathai

    2014-05-13

    Sustainable waste management was introduced more than ten years ago, but it has not yet been applied to the Thai petrochemical industry. Therefore, under the philosophy of sustainable waste management, this research aims to apply the reduce, reuse, and recycle (3R) concept at the petrochemical factory level to achieve a more sustainable industrial solid waste management system. Three olefin plants in Thailand were surveyed for the case study. The sources and types of waste and existing waste management options were identified. The results indicate that there are four sources of waste generation: (1) production, (2) maintenance, (3) waste treatment, and (4) waste packaging, which correspond to 45.18%, 36.71%, 9.73%, and 8.37% of the waste generated, respectively. From the survey, 59 different types of industrial wastes were generated from the different factory activities. The proposed 3R options could reduce the amount of landfill waste to 79.01% of the amount produced during the survey period; this reduction would occur over a period of 2 years and would result in reduced disposal costs and reduced consumption of natural resources. This study could be used as an example of an improved waste management system in the petrochemical industry. PMID:24824168

  17. The effect of paper industry effluent on growth, pigments, carbohydrates and proteins of rice seedlings.

    PubMed

    Misra, R N; Behera, P K

    1991-01-01

    The effect of paper industry effluent on the growth and content of certain macromolecules of seedlings of rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Kesari-82K) has been examined. The effects were investigated in relation to both concentration of effluent and time of exposure to the effluent. Percentage of germination, water imbibing capacity, growth, pigment, carbohydrate and protein content showed a decreasing trend with increase in effluent concentration and time. Protein content was the most sensitive macromolecule affected by effluent. Measurement of protein and protein enzymes might therefore provide a useful criterion for the evaluation of the phytotoxicity of effluent released from the pulp and paper industries. PMID:15092110

  18. Impact of industrial waste effluents on river Damodar adjacent to Durgapur industrial complex, West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, U S; Gupta, S

    2013-03-01

    The present study deals with the characterization of industrial effluents released from various industries and distribution of heavy metals in effluent discharge channel and its impact on the river Damodar. The effluent of tamlanala, a natural storm water channel, is extensively used for irrigation for growing vegetables in and around the study area. The heavy metals in water of the study area are in the order of Fe > Mn > Pb > Cd and sediments follow similar trends too. The enrichment of heavy metals in the sediments are in the order of Cd (39.904) > Pb (33.156) > Mn (0.164) > Fe (0.013). The geoaccumulation index values reveal effluent channel is subjected to moderate to high pollution with respect to Cd (4.733) and Pb (4.466). The analyzed data for enrichment factors and the pollution load index (1.305) show that effluent channels have suffered from significant heavy metal contamination following industrialization and urbanization. Compared to baseline values, the surface sediment layers show high enrichment across the channel and at its discharge point. The factor analysis reveals three factors-industrial sources, surface runoff inputs, and background lithogenic factors which clarify the observed variance of the environmental variables. Metal pollution assessment of sediments suggests that pollution from the heavy metals observed is high in the tamlanala which in turn affects the downstream of the river system. PMID:22623168

  19. Technical Training in the MNCs in Malaysia: A Case Study Analysis of the Petrochemical Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooi, Lai Wan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to gain insight into some of the types of training and development practices that are carried out in the chemical industry for technical workers. A salient focus of the study is to make a comparative analysis of four MNCs, which were selected based on equity ownership, to ascertain whether T&D practices are…

  20. Fundamental studies of hydrogen attack in carbon-0.5molybdenum steel and weldments applied in petroelum and petrochemical industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Peng

    High temperature hydrogen attack (HTHA) is a form of surface decarburization, internal decarburization, and/or intergranular cracking in steels exposed to high temperature (>400°F) and high hydrogen pressure. Hydrogen attack is an irreversible process which can cause permanent damage resulting in degradation of mechanical properties and failures such as leakage, bursting, fire, and/or explosion. The continuous progression of hydrogen attack in C-0.5Mo steel and weldments below the C-0.5Mo Nelson Curve has caused a significant concern for the integrity and serviceability of C-0.5Mo steel utilized for pressure vessels and piping in the petroleum refinery and petrochemical industries. A state-of-the-art literature review was implemented to provide a comprehensive overview of the published research efforts on hydrogen attack studies. The evolution of "Nelson Curves" for carbon steel, C-0.5Mo, and Cr-Mo steels was historically reviewed in regard to design applications and limitations. Testing techniques for hydrogen attack assessment were summarized under the categories of hydrogen exposure testing, mechanical evaluation, and dilatometric swelling testing. In accord with the demands of these industries, fundamental studies of hydrogen attack in C-0.5Mo steel and weldments were accomplished in terms of quantitative methodologies for hydrogen damage evaluation; hydrogen damage assessment of service exposed weldments and autoclave exposed materials; effects of carbon and alloying elements, heat treatments, hot and cold working, welding processes and postweld heat treatment (PWHT) on hydrogen attack susceptibility; development of continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagrams for C-0.5Mo base metals and the coarse grained heat-affected zone (CGHAZ); carbide evaluation for the C-0.5Mo steel after service exposure and heat treatment; methane evolution by the reaction of hydrogen and carbides; hydrogen diffusion and methane pressure through the wall thickness of one

  1. 40 CFR 419.30 - Applicability; description of the petrochemical subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... topping, cracking, and petrochemical operations whether or not the facility includes any process in addition to topping, cracking, and petrochemical operations. The provisions of this subpart shall not be... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PETROLEUM REFINING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY...

  2. New industrial heat pump applications to a petrochemical plant, Phase IIA: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the energy conservation potential of a heat pump in an industrial site. The proper placement of the heat pump was based on the principles of Pinch Technology. Chevron`s refinery at Port Arthur, Texas, was selected as the industrial site for this study. Two energy conservation options were identified for this site with a combined total savings of $570,000 per year. This represents over 10% reduction in current thermal energy consumption of the process units, which were part of this study. The details of each option are described. The first option was a passive heat integration scheme. The second option involves a semi-open cycle mechanical vapor recompression heat pump that compresses the steam generated from the reactor exhaust streams of the cyclohexane unit to provide part of the reboiling duty of the benzene column.

  3. Carbon Dioxide Separation Technology: R&D Needs for the Chemical and Petrochemical Industries

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2007-11-01

    This report, the second in a series, is designed to summarize and present recommendations for improved CO2 separation technology for industrial processes. This report provides an overview of 1) the principal CO2 producing processes, 2) the current commercial separation technologies and 3) emerging adsorption and membrane technologies for CO2 separation, and makes recommendations for future research.

  4. Efficacy and reliability of upgraded industrial treatment plant at Porto Marghera, near Venice, Italy, in removing nutrients and dangerous micropollutants from petrochemical wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Verlicchi, Paola; Cattaneo, Serena; Marciano, Ferdinando; Masotti, Luigi; Vecchiato, Giuseppe; Zaffaroni, Carlo

    2011-08-01

    Chemical and petrochemical wastewaters contain a host of contaminants that require different treatment strategies. Regulation of macropollutants and micropollutants in the final discharge from industrial wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) have become increasingly stringent in recent decades, requiring many WWTPs to be upgraded. This article presents an analysis of a WWTP treating petrochemicals in Porto Marghera, Italy, that recently was upgraded following legislative changes. Because of strict legal limits for macropollutants and micropollutants and a lack of space necessary for a full-scale WWTP overhaul, the existing activated sludge tank was converted into a membrane biological reactor. The paper presents experimental data collected during a five-month investigation showing the removal rates achieved by the upgraded plant for macropollutants (particularly nitrogen compounds) and micropollutants (heavy metals and organic and inorganic toxic compounds). PMID:21905411

  5. [Evaluation of treatment technology of odor pollution source in petrochemical industry].

    PubMed

    Mu, Gui-Qin; Sui, Li-Hua; Guo, Ya-Feng; Ma, Chuan-Jun; Yang, Wen-Yu; Gao, Yang

    2013-12-01

    Using an environmental technology assessment system, we put forward the evaluation index system for treatment technology of the typical odor pollution sources in the petroleum refining process, which has been applied in the assessment of the industrial technology. And then the best available techniques are selected for emissions of gas refinery sewage treatment plant, headspace gas of acidic water jars, headspace gas of cold coke jugs/intermediate oil tank/dirty oil tank, exhaust of oxidative sweetening, and vapors of loading and unloading oil. PMID:24640922

  6. [Oxidation behavior and kinetics of representative VOCs emitted from petrochemical industry over CuCeOx composite oxides].

    PubMed

    Chen, Chang-Wei; Yu, Yan-Ke; Chen, Jin-Sheng; He, Chi

    2013-12-01

    CuCeOx composite catalysts were synthesized via coprecipitation (COP-CuCeO,) and incipient impregnation (IMP-CuCeOx) methods, respectively. The physicochemical properties of the samples were characterized by XRD, low-temperature N2 sorption, H2-TPR and O2-TPD. The influences of reactant composition and concentration, reaction space velocity, O2 content, H2O concentration, and catalyst type on the oxidation behaviors of benzene, toluene, and n-hexane emitted from petrochemical industry were systematically investigated. In addition, the related kinetic parameters were model fitted. Compared with IMP-CuCeOx, COP-CuCeOx had well-dispersed active phase, better low-temperature reducibility, and more active surface oxygen species. The increase of reactant concentration was unfavorable for toluene oxidation, while the opposite phenomenon could be observed in n-hexane oxidation. The inlet concentration of benzene was irrelevant to its conversion under high oxidation rate. The introduction of benzene obviously inhibited the oxidation of toluene and n-hexane, while the presence of toluene had a positive effect on beuzene conversion. The presence of n-hexane could promote the oxidation of toluene, while toluene had a negative influence on e-hexane oxidation. Both low space velocity and high oxygen concentration were beneficial for the oxidation process, and the variation of oxygen content had negligible effect on n-hexane and henzene oxidation. The presence of H2O noticeably inhibited the oxidation of toluene, while significantly accelerated the oxidation procedure of henzene and n-hexane. COP-CuCeOx had superior catalytic performance for toluene and benzene oxidation, while IMP-CuCeOx showed higher n-hexane oxidation activity under dry condition. The oxidation behaviors under different conditions could be well fitted and predicted by the pseudo first-order kinetic model. PMID:24640915

  7. Textile industrial effluent induces mutagenicity and oxidative DNA damage and exploits oxidative stress biomarkers in rats.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Muhammad Furqan; Ashraf, Muhammad; Anjum, Aftab Ahmad; Javeed, Aqeel; Sharif, Ali; Saleem, Ammara; Akhtar, Bushra

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to complex mixtures like textile effluent poses risks to animal and human health such as mutations, genotoxicity and oxidative damage. Aim of the present study was to quantify metals in industrial effluent and to determine its mutagenic, genotoxic and cytotoxic potential and effects on oxidative stress biomarkers in effluent exposed rats. Metal analysis revealed presence of high amounts of zinc, copper, chromium, iron, arsenic and mercury in industrial effluent. Ames test with/without enzyme activation and MTT assay showed strong association of industrial effluent with mutagenicity and cytotoxicity respectively. In-vitro comet assay revealed evidence of high oxidative DNA damage. When Wistar rats were exposed to industrial effluent in different dilutions for 60 days, then activities of total superoxide dismutase and catalase and hydrogen peroxide concentration were found to be significantly lower in kidney, liver and blood/plasma of effluent exposed rats than control. Vitamin C in a dose of 50 mg/kg/day significantly reduced oxidative effects of effluent in rats. On the basis of this study it is concluded that industrial effluent may cause mutagenicity, in-vitro oxidative stress-related DNA damage and cytotoxicity and may be associated with oxidative stress in rats. Vitamin C may have ameliorating effect when exposed to effluent. PMID:26710178

  8. Anaerobic treatment of effluents from an industrial polymers synthesis plant

    SciTech Connect

    Araya, P.; Aroca, G.; Chamy, R.

    1999-06-01

    The feasibility of the anaerobic treatment of an industrial polymer synthesis plant effluent was evaluated. The composition of the wastewater includes acrylates, styrene, detergents, a minor amount of silicates and a significant amount of ferric chloride. The average chemical oxygen demand (COD) corresponding is about 2,000 mg/l. The anaerobic biodegradability of the effluent is shown and the toxicity effect on the populations of anaerobic bacteria is evaluated. The results of the anaerobic biodegradation assays show that 62% of the wastewater compounds, measured as COD, could be consumed. An upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor was used in the evaluation, it has a diameter-height ratio of 1:7, and 4-liter volume. The inoculum was obtained from a UASB pilot plant that treats brewery wastewaters. At the beginning of the operation, the biomass showed an anaerobic activity of 0.58 gCOD/(gVSS {times} d), it decreased only 2.5% in the subsequent 4 months. After 35 days of continuous operation, the reactor was operated at different steady states for 140 days. The COD was maintained at 2,200 mg/l in the feed. The results were: organic loading rate (OLR): 4.3 kg COD/(m{sup 3} {times} d), hydraulic retention time: 12 h, superficial velocity: 1 m/h, average biogas productivity: 290 L CH{sub 4}/kg COD fed, biogas composition: 70--75% methane and a COD removal percentage > 75%.

  9. Efficacy of Allium cepa test system for screening cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of industrial effluents originated from different industrial activities.

    PubMed

    Pathiratne, Asoka; Hemachandra, Chamini K; De Silva, Nimal

    2015-12-01

    Efficacy of Allium cepa test system for screening cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of treated effluents originated from four types of industrial activities (two textile industries, three rubber based industries, two common treatment plants of industrial zones, and two water treatment plants) was assessed. Physico-chemical parameters including the heavy metal/metalloid levels of the effluents varied depending on the industry profile, but most of the measured parameters in the effluents were within the specified tolerance limits of Sri Lankan environmental regulations for discharge of industrial effluents into inland surface waters. In the A. cepa test system, the undiluted effluents induced statistically significant root growth retardation, mitosis depression, and chromosomal aberrations in root meristematic cells in most cases in comparison to the dilution water and upstream water signifying effluent induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. Ethyl methane sulphonate (a mutagen, positive control) and all the effluents under 1:8 dilution significantly induced total chromosomal aberrations in root meristematic cells in comparison to the dilution water and upstream water indicating inadequacy of expected 1:8 dilutions in the receiving waters for curtailing genotoxic impacts. The results support the use of a practically feasible A. cepa test system for rapid screening of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of diverse industrial effluents discharging into inland surface waters. PMID:26547320

  10. Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Excluding dyes. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents exclusive of dyes. Topics include the recovery of lubricants, lye, sizing agents, polyvinyl alcohol, zinc, dirt, and heat from textile effluents. Air and water pollution control technology that is effective in treating textile effluents is discussed. Effluents from synthetic fiber manufacture and wool scouring processes are emphasized. Effluents that contain dyes are discusssed in a separate bibliography.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  11. Assessment of the impact of petroleum and petrochemical industries to the surrounding areas in Malaysia using mosses as bioindicator supported by multivariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Mohd Zahari Bin; Saat, Ahmad Bin; Hamzah, Zaini Bin

    2012-06-01

    Biomonitoring of multi-element atmospheric deposition using terrestrial moss is a well-established technique in Europe. Although the technique is widely known, there were very limited records of using this technique to study atmospheric air pollution in Malaysia. In this present study, the deposition of 11 trace metals surrounding the main petroleum refinery plant in Kerteh Terengganu (eastern part of peninsular Malaysia) has been evaluated using two local moss species, namely Hypnum plumaeforme and Taxithelium instratum as bioindicators. The study was also done by means of observing whether these metals are attributed to work related to oil exploration in this area. The moss samples have been collected at 30 sampling stations in the vicinity of the petrochemical industrial area covering up to 15 km to the south, north, and west in radius. The contents of heavy metal in moss samples were analyzed by energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence technique. Distribution of heavy metal content in all mosses is portrayed using Surfer software. Areas of the highest level of contaminations are highlighted. The results obtained using the principal components analysis revealed that the elements can be grouped into three different components that indirectly reflected three different sources namely anthropogenic factor, vegetation factor, and natural sources (soil dust or substrate) factor. Heavy metals deposited mostly in the distance after 9 km onward to the western part (the average direction of wind blow). V, Cr, Cu, and Hg are believed to have originated from local petrochemical-based industries operated around petroleum industrial area. PMID:21822578

  12. Removal of heavy metals from tannery effluents of Ambur industrial area, Tamilnadu by Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis.

    PubMed

    Balaji, S; Kalaivani, T; Rajasekaran, C; Shalini, M; Vinodhini, S; Priyadharshini, S Sunitha; Vidya, A G

    2015-06-01

    The present study was carried out with the tannery effluent contaminated with heavy metals collected from Ambur industrial area to determine the phycoremediation potential of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis. Two different concentrations (50 and 100 %) of heavy metals containing tannery effluent treated with A. platensis were analysed for growth, absorption spectra, biochemical properties and antioxidant enzyme activity levels. The effluent treatments revealed dose-dependent decrease in the levels of A. platensis growth (65.37 % for 50 % effluent and 49.32 % for 100 % effluent), chlorophyll content (97.43 % for 50 % effluent and 71.05 % for 100 % effluent) and total protein content (82.63 % for 50 % effluent and 62.10 % for 100 % effluent) that leads to the reduction of total solids, total dissolved solids and total suspended solids. A. platensis with lower effluent concentration was effective than at higher concentration. Treatment with the effluent also resulted in increased activity levels of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (14.58 units/g fresh weight for 50 % and 24.57 units/g fresh weight for 100 %) and catalase (0.963 units/g fresh weight for 50 % and 1.263 units/g fresh weight for 100 %). Furthermore, heavy metal content was determined using atomic absorption spectrometry. These results indicated that A. platensis has the ability to combat heavy metal stress by the induction of antioxidant enzymes demonstrating its potential usefulness in phycoremediation of tannery effluent. PMID:25944749

  13. 1991 worldwide petrochemical directory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This book is a source of information on the petrochemical industry in existence. The new edition lists more than 1500 companies providing you with a brief company description, their address, phone, fax and telex numbers, as well as more than 10,000 names of key personnel and their titles. Where available, products and capacities are listed as are proposed projects. Information is included for more than 2000 plant sites in the United States, Canada, Europe, Latin America, Asia-Pacific, Africa and the Middle East.

  14. Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Dyes. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents containing dyes. The citations explore bacteria that absorb dyes, neutralization of dye effluents, decolorization by ozonization or ultraviolet radiation, flocculation treatment, and dye absorption methods and materials. Membrane treatment, electrolysis, and ultrafiltration methods of removing dyes from wastewater are considered, as well as reuse of dye-containing effluents. Textile effluents that do not contain dyes are discussed in another bibliography.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  15. Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Dyes. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents containing dyes. The citations explore bacteria that absorb dyes, neutralization of dye effluents, decolorization by ozonization or ultraviolet radiation, flocculation treatment, and dye absorption methods and materials. Membrane treatment, electrolysis, and ultrafiltration methods of removing dyes from wastewater are considered, as well as reuse of dye-containing effluents. Textile effluents that do not contain dyes are discussed in another bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  16. Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Dyes. (Latest citations from World Textile Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents containing dyes. The citations explore bacteria that absorb dyes, neutralization of dye effluents, color removal by ozonization and by treatment with manganese solid waste, flocculation treatment, and dye absorption methods and materials. Membrane treatment, electrolysis, and ultrafiltration methods of removing dyes from wastewater are considered, as well as reuse of dye-containing effluents. Textile effluents that do not contain dyes are discussed in another bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 244 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  17. 1986 Worldwide Petrochemical Directory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    The 1986 Worldwide Petrochemical Directory contains names, addresses, phone and telex numbers of the companies in the worldwide petrochemical community. Listed are more than 14,000 key operating personnel at nearly 2,000 plant sites in the United States, Canada, Latin America, Europe, Africa, Asia-Pacific and the Middle East. Among the surveys included in this directory is the Worldwide Petrochemical Survey. This survey details petrochemical plant feedstocks, product and capacities.

  18. CHARACTERIZING THE GENOTOXICITY OF HAZARDOUS INDUSTRIAL WASTES AND EFFLUENTS USING SHORT-TERM BIOASSAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter demonstrates that short-term bioassays can reliably and expeditiously measure the genotoxic potential of hazardous industrial wastes and effluents. etrochemical wastes have been studied in detail, especially discharges from chemical manufacturing plants and textile a...

  19. ASSESSMENT OF TECHNOLOGY FOR CONTROL OF TOXIC EFFLUENTS FROM THE ELECTRIC UTILITY INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report assesses the applicability of control technologies for reducing priority pollutants in effluents from the steam-electric power generating industry. It surveys control technologies, identifying those that have demonstrated some control effectiveness for priority polluta...

  20. Impact of dyeing industry effluent on germination and growth of pea (Pisum sativum).

    PubMed

    Malaviya, Piyush; Hali, Rajesh; Sharma, Neeru

    2012-11-01

    Dye industry effluent was analyzed for physico-chemical characteristics and its impact on germination and growth behaviour of Pea (Pisum sativum). The 100% effluent showed high pH (10.3) and TDS (1088 mg l(-1)). The germination parameters included percent germination, delay index, speed of germination, peak value and germination period while growth parameters comprised of root and shoot length, root and shootweight, root-shoot ratio and number of stipules. The study showed the maximum values of positive germination parameters viz. speed of germination (7.85), peak value (3.28), germination index (123.87) and all growth parameters at 20% effluent concentration while the values of negative germination parameters viz. delay index (-0.14) and percent inhibition (-8.34) were found to be minimum at 20% effluent concentration. The study demonstrated that at lower concentrations the dyeing industry effluent caused a positive impact on germination and growth of Pisum sativum. PMID:23741804

  1. Growth and mineral accumulation in Eucalyptus camaldulensis seedlings irrigated with mixed industrial effluents.

    PubMed

    Bhati, M; Singh, G

    2003-07-01

    Effects of mixed industrial effluents on growth, dry matter accumulation and mineral nutrient in Eucalyptus camaldulensis seedlings were studied. The objective was to evaluate the adaptability of E. camaldulensis to effluent, tolerance to excess/deficiency of mineral elements and ultimately to determine suitable combinations of industrial/municipal effluent for their use in biomass production in dry areas. Different irrigation treatments were: T(1): good water; T(2): municipal effluent; T(3): textile effluent; T(4): steel effluent; T(5): textile effluent+municipal effluent in 1:1 ratio; T(6): steel effluent+municipal effluent in 1:2 ratio; T(7): steel+textile+municipal effluent in 1:2:2 ratio; and T(8): steel+textile effluent in 1:2 ratio. High concentrations of metal ions and low concentrations of Ca, Mg, K, Na, N and P in soil and seedlings of T(4) resulted in mortality of the seedlings within a few days. Addition of the textile/municipal effluent increased the survival time of the seedlings for two to three months in T(6), T(7) and T(8) treatments. Among the remaining treatments, the seedlings of T(2) attained 131 cm height, 1.97 cm collar diameter, 19 total branches and produced 158 g seedling(-1) of dry biomass at the age of 10 months. The seedling of T(3) produced the least growth and biomass. Growth equivalent to that of the seedlings of T(1) treatment was achieved when municipal effluent was mixed with textile effluent (T(5)). There was a decrease in soil pH, EC, SOC, NH(4)-N, NO(3)-N, PO(4)-P and basic cations and increase in the concentration of Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn with T(4) treatment. The reverse trend was observed in T(3) where a high concentration of Na might have reduced Mg and micronutrient concentration in seedlings potentially affecting root and leaf growth. Mixing of effluents may be useful in tree irrigation to increase biomass productivity, which is evidenced by improved growth in T(5) and survival in T(6), T(7) and T(8) treatments. Further

  2. Removal of heavy metal from industrial effluents using Baker's yeast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferdous, Anika; Maisha, Nuzhat; Sultana, Nayer; Ahmed, Shoeb

    2016-07-01

    Bioremediation of wastewater containing heavy metals is one of the major challenges in environmental biotechnology. Heavy metals are not degraded and as a result they remain in the ecosystem, and pose serious health hazards as it comes in contact with human due to anthropogenic activities. Biological treatment with various microorganisms has been practiced widely in recent past, however, accessing and maintaining the microorganisms have always been a challenge. Microorganisms like Baker's yeast can be very promising biosorbents as they offer high surface to volume ratio, large availability, rapid kinetics of adsorption and desorption and low cost. The main aim of this study is to evaluate the applicability of the biosorption process using baker's yeast. Here we present an experimental investigation of biosorption of Chromium (Cr) from water using commercial Baker's Yeast. It was envisaged that yeast, dead or alive, would adsorb heavy metals, however, operating parameters could play vital roles in determining the removal efficiency. Parameters, such as incubation time, pH, amount of biosorbent and heavy metal concentration were varied to investigate the impacts of those parameters on removal efficiency. Rate of removal was found to be inversely proportional to the initial Cr (+6) concentrations but the removal rate per unit biomass was a weakly dependent on initial Cr(+6) concentrations. Biosorption process was found to be more efficient at lower pH and it exhibited lower removal with the increase in solution pH. The optimum incubation time was found to be between 6-8 hours and optimum pH for the metal ion solution was 2. The effluents produced in leather industries are the major source of chromium pollution in Bangladesh and this study has presented a very cost effective yet efficient heavy metal removal approach that can be adopted for such kind of wastewater.

  3. Bioremediation of a Complex Industrial Effluent by Biosorbents Derived from Freshwater Macroalgae

    PubMed Central

    Kidgell, Joel T.; de Nys, Rocky; Hu, Yi; Paul, Nicholas A.; Roberts, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Biosorption with macroalgae is a promising technology for the bioremediation of industrial effluents. However, the vast majority of research has been conducted on simple mock effluents with little data available on the performance of biosorbents in complex effluents. Here we evaluate the efficacy of dried biomass, biochar, and Fe-treated biomass and biochar to remediate 21 elements from a real-world industrial effluent from a coal-fired power station. The biosorbents were produced from the freshwater macroalga Oedogonium sp. (Chlorophyta) that is native to the industrial site from which the effluent was sourced, and which has been intensively cultivated to provide a feed stock for biosorbents. The effect of pH and exposure time on sorption was also assessed. These biosorbents showed specificity for different suites of elements, primarily differentiated by ionic charge. Overall, biochar and Fe-biochar were more successful biosorbents than their biomass counterparts. Fe-biochar adsorbed metalloids (As, Mo, and Se) at rates independent of effluent pH, while untreated biochar removed metals (Al, Cd, Ni and Zn) at rates dependent on pH. This study demonstrates that the biomass of Oedogonium is an effective substrate for the production of biosorbents to remediate both metals and metalloids from a complex industrial effluent. PMID:24919058

  4. Decreased fish diversity found near marble industry effluents in River Barandu, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Mulk, Shahi; Korai, Abdul Latif; Azizullah, Azizullah; Khattak, Muhammad Nasir Khan

    2016-01-01

    In a recently published study we observed that effluents from marble industry affected physicochemical characteristics of River Barandu in District Buner, Pakistan. These changes in water quality due to marble effluents may affect fish community. The present study was therefore conducted to evaluate the impacts of marble industry effluents on fish communities in River Barandu using abundance, richness, diversity and evenness of fish species as end point criteria. The fish samples were collected by local fishermen on monthly basis from three selected sites (upstream, effluents/industrial, and downstream sites). During the study period, a total of 18 fish species were found belonging to 4 orders, 5 families and 11 genera. The Cyprinidae was observed to be the dominant family at all the three selected sites. Lower abundance and species diversity was observed at the industrial (22%) and downstream sites (33%) as compared to the upstream site (45%). Effluents of marble industry were associated with lower abundance of species in River Barandu. It is recommended that industries should be shifted away from the vicinity of river and their effluents must be treated before discharging to prevent further loss of fish abundance and diversity in the River. PMID:26497021

  5. Bioremoval of heavy metals from industrial effluent by fixed-bed column of red macroalgae.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Wael M; Mutawie, Hawazin H

    2013-02-01

    Three different species of nonliving red algal biomass Laurancia obtusa, Geldiella acerosa and Hypnea sp. were used to build three types of fixed-bed column for the removal of toxic heavy metal ions such as Cu(2+), Zn(2+), Mn(2+) and Ni(2+) from industrial effluent. In general, the highest efficiency of metal ion bioremoval was recorded for algal column of L. obtusa followed by G. acerosa and the lowest one was recorded for Hypnea sp., with mean removal values of 94%, 85% and 71%, respectively. The obtained results showed that biological treatments of industrial effluents with these algal columns, using standard algal biotest, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, were capable of reducing effluent toxicities from 75% to 15%, respectively. Red algal column may be considered as an inexpensive and efficient alternative treatment for conventional removal technology, for sequestering heavy metal ions from industrial effluents. PMID:22661401

  6. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene as biomarker of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in workers in petrochemical industries: baseline values and dermal uptake.

    PubMed

    Boogaard, P J; van Sittert, N J

    1995-02-24

    The suitability of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene as a biomarker for the assessment of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in petrochemical industries was evaluated in 562 workers involved in various operations in petrochemical industries. The median 1-hydroxypyrene concentration in 121 of these workers (both smokers and non-smokers) who had had no recent occupational exposure to PAH was 0.11 mumol/mol creatinine. The upper limit of the 95% confidence interval was 0.51 mumol/mol creatinine. During activities with a low potential exposure to PAH, such as loading bitumen and the handling of clarified slurry oils and furfural extracts, 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations were only marginally increased compared with the values measured in the 121 workers with no recent occupational exposure to PAH. Despite the substantially higher potential exposure to PAH during clean-out operations of various oil refinery installations, the concentrations of 1-hydroxypyrene in the workers involved were in the same range. This suggests that personal protection equipment was generally adequate to prevent excessive exposure. However, in workers digging PAH-contaminated soil and workers engaged in the production of needle coke from ethylene cracker residue, significantly increased urinary 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations were measured. A major decrease in urinary 1-hydroxypyrene following the application of dermal protective equipment in the ground workers suggested that skin absorption plays a major role in occupational exposure to PAH. The excretion of 1-hydroxypyrene by the workers of the needle coke plant was investigated in relation to potential determinants of exposure to PAH. It was indeed found that not only inhalatory but also dermal exposure was a significant determinant of occupational exposure to PAH. PMID:7716500

  7. Electrocoagulation for the treatment of textile industry effluent--a review.

    PubMed

    Khandegar, V; Saroha, Anil K

    2013-10-15

    Various techniques such as physical, chemical, biological, advanced oxidation and electrochemical are used for the treatment of industrial effluent. The commonly used conventional biological treatment processes are time consuming, need large operational area and are not effective for effluent containing toxic elements. Advanced oxidation techniques result in high treatment cost and are generally used to obtain high purity grade water. The chemical coagulation technique is slow and generates large amount of sludge. Electrocoagulation has recently attracted attention as a potential technique for treating industrial effluent due to its versatility and environmental compatibility. This technique uses direct current source between metal electrodes immersed in the effluent, which causes the dissolution of electrode plates into the effluent. The metal ions, at an appropriate pH, can form wide range of coagulated species and metal hydroxides that destabilize and aggregate particles or precipitate and adsorb the dissolved contaminants. Therefore, the objective of the present manuscript is to review the potential of electrocoagulation for the treatment of industrial effluents, mainly removal of dyes from textile effluent. PMID:23892280

  8. Pathogens Assessment in Reclaimed Effluent Used for Industrial Crops Irrigation

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sa’ed, R.

    2007-01-01

    Reuse of treated effluent is a highly valued water source in Palestine, however with limited success due to public health concerns. This paper assesses the potential pathogens in raw, treated and reclaimed wastewater at Albireh urban wastewater treatment facility, and provides scientific knowledge to update the Palestinian reuse guidelines. Laboratory analyses of collected samples over a period of 4 months have indicated that the raw wastewater from Albireh city contained high numbers of fecal coliforms and worm eggs while 31% of the samples were Salmonella positive. Treated effluent suitable for restricted irrigation demonstrated that the plant was efficient in removing indicator bacteria, where fecal coliforms and fecal streptococci removal averaged 99.64% and 93.44%, respectively. Although not disinfected, treated effluent was free of Salmonella and parasites, hence safe for restricted agricultural purposes. All samples of the reclaimed effluent and three samples of irrigated grass were devoid of microbial pathogens indicating a safe use in unrestricted agricultural utilization. Adequate operation of wastewater treatment facilities, scientific updating of reuse guidelines and launching public awareness campaigns are core factors for successful and sustainable large-scale wastewater reuse schemes in Palestine. PMID:17431318

  9. IDENTIFICATION OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT DISCHARGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Samples of 63 effluent and 22 intake waters were collected from a wide range of chemical manufacturers in areas across the United States. The samples were analyzed for organic compounds in an effort to identify previously unknown and potentially hazardous organic pollutants. Each...

  10. China petrochemical expansion progressing

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-05

    This paper reports on China's petrochemical expansion surge which is picking up speed. A worldscale petrochemical complex is emerging at Shanghai with an eye to expanding China's petrochemical exports, possibly through joint ventures with foreign companies, China Features reported. In other action, Beijing and Henan province have approved plans for a $1.2 billion chemical fibers complex at the proposed Luoyang refinery, China Daily reported.

  11. Mortality experience of a young petrochemical industry cohort. 1979-1992 follow-up study of US-based employees.

    PubMed

    Huebner, W W; Schnatter, A R; Nicolich, M J; Jorgensen, G

    1997-10-01

    This retrospective study examines the mortality patterns of a relatively young cohort of 81,746 former and current petrochemical company employees. Standardized mortality ratios (SMR) for 1979 through 1992 are generally from about unity to well below unity for major causes and numerous specific causes of death studied by gender/race/job subgroups. Findings of note include a SMR (based on incidence rates) of 1.94 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04 to 3.33) for mesothelioma, and a SMR of 1.81 (95% CI, 0.90 to 3.24) for chronic lymphocytic leukemia, both among males hired before 1960. All male semiskilled operatives have a 1.6-fold increase (95% CI, 1.07 to 2.29) in motor vehicle accident deaths, with declining rates since the mid-1980s. The overall SMR for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is at unity (69 deaths), with excesses in technician and office worker subgroups. Four decedents with lymphoma (code 202.8 in 9th revision ICD) had AIDS as a secondary cause of death, suggesting the need to examine secondary causes when studying lymphopoietic conditions. This routine surveillance activity provides leads regarding the presence or absence of excess mortality risk. PMID:9343762

  12. Hazard zoning around electric substations of petrochemical industries by stimulation of extremely low-frequency magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Monireh; Monazzam, Mohammad Reza; Farhang Matin, Laleh; Khosroabadi, Hossein

    2015-05-01

    Electromagnetic fields in recent years have been discussed as one of the occupational hazards at workplaces. Hence, control and assessment of these physical factors is very important to protect and promote the health of employees. The present study was conducted to determine hazard zones based on assessment of extremely low-frequency magnetic fields at electric substations of a petrochemical complex in southern Iran, using the single-axis HI-3604 device. In measurement of electromagnetic fields by the single-axis HI-3604 device, the sensor screen should be oriented in a way to be perpendicular to the field lines. Therefore, in places where power lines are located in different directions, it is required to keep the device towards three axes of x, y, and z. For further precision, the measurements should be repeated along each of the three axes. In this research, magnetic field was measured, for the first time, in three axes of x, y, and z whose resultant value was considered as the value of magnetic field. Measurements were done based on IEEE std 644-1994. Further, the spatial changes of the magnetic field surrounding electric substations were stimulated using MATLAB software. The obtained results indicated that the maximum magnetic flux density was 49.90 μT recorded from boiler substation, while the minimum magnetic flux density of 0.02 μT was measured at the control room of the complex. As the stimulation results suggest, the spaces around incoming panels, transformers, and cables were recognized as hazardous zones of indoor electric substations. Considering the health effects of chronic exposure to magnetic fields, it would be possible to minimize exposure to these contaminants at workplaces by identification of risky zones and observation of protective considerations. PMID:25877640

  13. Integrated process for the removal of emulsified oils from effluents in the steel industry

    SciTech Connect

    Benito, J.M.; Rios, G.; Gutierrez, B.; Pazos, C.; Coca, J.

    1999-11-01

    Emulsified oils contained in aqueous effluents from cold-rolling mills of the steel industry can be effectively removed via an integrated process consisting of a coagulation/flocculation stage followed by ultrafiltration of the resulting aqueous phase. The effects of CaCl{sub 2}, NaOH, and lime on the stability of different industrial effluents were studied in the coagulation experiments. The flocculants tested were inorganic prehydrolyzed aluminum salts and quaternary polyamines. Ultrafiltration of the aqueous phase from the coagulation/flocculation stage was carried out in a stirred cell using Amicon PM30 and XM300 organic membranes. Permeate fluxes were measured for industrial effluents to which the indicated coagulants and flocculants had been added. Oil concentrations in the permeate were 75% lower than the limits established by all European Union countries. Complete regeneration of the membrane was accomplished with an aqueous solution of a commercial detergent.

  14. Source fingerprint monitoring of air pollutants from petrochemical industry and the determination of their annual emission flux using open path Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Yih-Shiaw Huang; Shih-Yi Chang; Tai-Ly Tso

    1996-12-31

    Toxic air pollutants were investigated in several petrochemical industrial park in Taiwan using a movable open-path Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results show the qualitative and quantitative analysis of emission gases from plants, and also provide the emission rates of various compounds. More than twenty compounds under usual operation were found from these industrial park. The concentration variation with time could be correlated exactly with the distances from the emission source along the wind direction. This means that by changing the measuring points the source of emission could be unambiguously identified. The point, area and line source (PAL) plume dispersion model has been applied to estimate the emission rate of either a point or an area source. The local atmospheric stability was determined by releasing an SF{sub 6} tracer. The origin of errors came mainly from the uncertainty of the source configuration and the variation of the meteorological condition. Through continuous measurement using a portable open-path Fourier transform infrared (POP-FTIR) spectrometer, the maximum value of the emission rate and the annual amount of emission could be derived. The emission rate of the measured toxic gases was derived by the model technique, and the results show that the emission amount is on the order of ten to hundred tons per year.

  15. A Petrochemical Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Amy

    1991-01-01

    Informs the reader of the pervasiveness of petrochemicals in everyday life. Discusses the petroleum-to-petrochemical transformation at the refinery and issues related to how petroleum products will be utilized for fuel or nonfuel needs such as lubricants, computers, and medicine in the future. (MDH)

  16. The feasibility of effluent trading in the oil and gas industry

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.A.

    1997-09-01

    In January 1996, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released a policy statement endorsing wastewater effluent trading in watersheds, hoping to promote additional interest in the subject. The policy describes five types of effluent trades - point source/point source, point source/nonpoint source, pretreatment, intraplant, and nonpoint source/nonpoint source. This paper evaluates the feasibility of effluent trading for facilities in the oil and gas industry. The evaluation leads to the conclusion that potential for effluent trading is very low in the exploration and production and distribution and marketing sectors; trading potential is moderate for the refining sector except for intraplant trades, for which the potential is high. Good potential also exists for other types of water-related trades that do not directly involve effluents (e.g., wetlands mitigation banking). The potential for effluent trading in the energy industries and in other sectors would be enhanced if Congress amended the Clean Water Act (CWA) to formally authorize such trading.

  17. Identification of estrogenic activity change in sewage, industrial and livestock effluents by gamma-irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Byeong-Yong; Kang, Sung-Wook; Yoo, Jisu; Kim, Woong-Ki; Bae, Paek-Hyun; Jung, Jinho

    2012-11-01

    In this study, reduction of estrogenic activity in three different types of effluents from sewage, industrial and livestock wastewater treatment plants by gamma-irradiation was investigated using the yeast two-hybrid assay. After gamma-ray treatment at a dose of 10 kGy, estrogenic activities of sewage, industrial and livestock effluents decreased from 4.4 to 3.0, 1.5 to 1.0 and 16 to 9.9 ng-EEQ L-1, respectively. The substantial reduction of estrogenic activity in livestock effluent was attributable to the degradation of 17β-estradiol (E2), estrone (E1) and 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2). Although bisphenol A (BPA) was found at the highest concentration in all effluents, its contribution to the estrogenic activity was not significant due to its low relative estrogenic potency. Meanwhile, the calculated estrogenic activity based on concentrations of E2, E1, EE2 and BPA in the effluents significantly differed from the measured ones. Overestimation may have resulted by dissolved organic matters in effluents inhibiting the estrogenic activity of E2, E1, EE2 and BPA, whereas underestimation was likely due to estrogenic by-products generated by gamma-irradiation.

  18. Incorporation of effluent trading in the city of Millville, NJ industrial pretreatment program

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, S.T.; Dimino, M.A.; Tarasevich, A.

    1998-07-01

    The City of Millville, NJ recently updated its sewer use ordinance to incorporate technically defensible effluent limitations for industrial users of their POTW. These limitations were designed to protect the POTW from the potential inhibitory effects of pollutants in the waste stream, to protect the quality of the biosolids generated at the POTW, and to protect the quality of effluent discharged by the POTW. Along with these technically defensible limits, the City also developed a pollutant trading program which allows industries to set up agreements, under the City's supervision, which affect the allocation of pollutant loadings.

  19. Biomass in a petrochemical world.

    PubMed

    Roddy, Dermot J

    2013-02-01

    The world's increasingly voracious appetite for fossil fuels is driven by fast-growing populations and ever-rising aspirations for the lifestyles and standard of living exemplified in the developed world. Forecasts for higher electricity consumption, more comfortable living environments (via heating or cooling) and greater demand for transport fuels are well known. Similar growth in demand is projected for petrochemical-based products in the form of man-made fibres for clothing, ubiquitous plastic artefacts, cosmetics, etc. All drawing upon the same finite oil, gas and coal feedstocks. Biomass can, in principle, substitute for all of these feedstocks. Although ultimately finite, biomass resources can be expanded and renewed if this is a societal priority. This paper examines the projected growth of an energy-intensive international petrochemicals industry, considers its demand for both utilities and feedstocks, and considers the extent to which biomass can substitute for fossil fuels. The scope of this study includes biomass component extraction, direct chemical conversion, thermochemical conversion and biochemical conversion. Noting that the petrochemicals industry consumes around 10 per cent of the world's fossil fuels as feedstocks and almost as much again in utilities, various strategies for addressing future demand are considered. The need for long-term infrastructure and logistics planning is highlighted. PMID:24427511

  20. Biomass in a petrochemical world

    PubMed Central

    Roddy, Dermot J.

    2013-01-01

    The world's increasingly voracious appetite for fossil fuels is driven by fast-growing populations and ever-rising aspirations for the lifestyles and standard of living exemplified in the developed world. Forecasts for higher electricity consumption, more comfortable living environments (via heating or cooling) and greater demand for transport fuels are well known. Similar growth in demand is projected for petrochemical-based products in the form of man-made fibres for clothing, ubiquitous plastic artefacts, cosmetics, etc. All drawing upon the same finite oil, gas and coal feedstocks. Biomass can, in principle, substitute for all of these feedstocks. Although ultimately finite, biomass resources can be expanded and renewed if this is a societal priority. This paper examines the projected growth of an energy-intensive international petrochemicals industry, considers its demand for both utilities and feedstocks, and considers the extent to which biomass can substitute for fossil fuels. The scope of this study includes biomass component extraction, direct chemical conversion, thermochemical conversion and biochemical conversion. Noting that the petrochemicals industry consumes around 10 per cent of the world's fossil fuels as feedstocks and almost as much again in utilities, various strategies for addressing future demand are considered. The need for long-term infrastructure and logistics planning is highlighted. PMID:24427511

  1. Quantitative Estimation of Trace Chemicals in Industrial Effluents with the Sticklet Transform Method

    SciTech Connect

    Mehta, N C; Scharlemann, E T; Stevens, C G

    2001-04-02

    Application of a novel transform operator, the Sticklet transform, to the quantitative estimation of trace chemicals in industrial effluent plumes is reported. The sticklet transform is a superset of the well-known derivative operator and the Haar wavelet, and is characterized by independently adjustable lobe width and separation. Computer simulations demonstrate that they can make accurate and robust concentration estimates of multiple chemical species in industrial effluent plumes in the presence of strong clutter background, interferent chemicals and random noise. In this paper they address the application of the sticklet transform in estimating chemical concentrations in effluent plumes in the presence of atmospheric transmission effects. They show that this transform retains the ability to yield accurate estimates using on-plume/off-plume measurements that represent atmospheric differentials up to 10% of the full atmospheric attenuation.

  2. Phase partitioning of trace metals in a contaminated estuary influenced by industrial effluent discharge.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenhao; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2016-07-01

    Severe trace metal pollution due to industrial effluents releases was found in Jiulong River Estuary, Southern China. In this study, water samples were collected during effluent release events to study the dynamic changes of environmental conditions and metal partitioning among dissolved, particulate and colloidal phases controlled by estuarine mixing. Intermittent effluent discharges during low tide caused decreasing pH and dissolved oxygen, and induced numerous suspended particulate materials and dissolved organic carbon to the estuary. Different behaviors of Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr and Pb in the dissolved fraction against the conservative index salinity indicated different sources, e.g., dissolved Ni from the intermittent effluent. Although total metal concentrations increased markedly following effluent discharges, Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb were predominated by the particulate fraction. Enhanced adsorption onto particulates in the mixing process resulted in elevated partitioning coefficient (Kd) values for Cu and Zn, and the particle concentration effect was not obvious under such anthropogenic impacts. Colloidal proportion of these metals (especially Cu and Zn) showed positive correlations with dissolved or colloidal organic carbon, suggesting the metal-organic complexation. However, the calculated colloidal partitioning coefficients were relatively constant, indicating the excess binding capacity. Overall, the intermittent effluent discharge altered the particulate/dissolved and colloidal/soluble phase partitioning process and may further influence the bioavailability and potential toxicity to aquatic organisms. PMID:27061473

  3. Industrial effluents as a source of mercury contamination in terrestrial riparian vertebrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, G.V.N.

    1983-01-01

    Eight species of piscivorous and insectivorous birds and one species of bat collected along Virginia's North Fork of the Holston River contained elevated mercury residues. The ubiquitous occurrence of mercury in riparian insectivores implicates aquatic insects as a vehicle for spreading mercury contamination from one ecosystem to another and expands the ecological ramifications of mercury-contaminated industrial effluents.

  4. Development of biological oxygen demand biosensor for monitoring the fermentation industry effluent.

    PubMed

    Verma, Neelam; Singh, Ashish Kumar

    2013-01-01

    A biosensor was developed for the determination of BOD value of fermentation industry effluent. The developed biosensor was fabricated by immobilizing the microbial consortium on cellulose acetate (CA) membrane in close proximity to a DO probe electrode. The microbial consortium was harvested from the fermentation industry effluent. The BOD biosensor was calibrated by using a solution containing the equivalent amount of glucose/glutamic acid (GGA) as a standard sample solution. The response time was optimized by immobilizing different concentrations of cell biomass on CA membrane. Once the response time was optimized, it was used for determination of BOD of fermentation industry effluent. For analysis of fermentation industry effluent, the response time was observed 7 minutes with detection limit 1 mg/L. Good linear range with GGA standard solution was observed, R (2) 0.99 with relative standard deviation (RSD) <%. The observed BOD value by biosensor showed a good comparison with the conventional method for the determination of BOD. PMID:25969770

  5. Development of Biological Oxygen Demand Biosensor for Monitoring the Fermentation Industry Effluent

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Neelam; Singh, Ashish Kumar

    2013-01-01

    A biosensor was developed for the determination of BOD value of fermentation industry effluent. The developed biosensor was fabricated by immobilizing the microbial consortium on cellulose acetate (CA) membrane in close proximity to a DO probe electrode. The microbial consortium was harvested from the fermentation industry effluent. The BOD biosensor was calibrated by using a solution containing the equivalent amount of glucose/glutamic acid (GGA) as a standard sample solution. The response time was optimized by immobilizing different concentrations of cell biomass on CA membrane. Once the response time was optimized, it was used for determination of BOD of fermentation industry effluent. For analysis of fermentation industry effluent, the response time was observed 7 minutes with detection limit 1 mg/L. Good linear range with GGA standard solution was observed, R2 0.99 with relative standard deviation (RSD) <%. The observed BOD value by biosensor showed a good comparison with the conventional method for the determination of BOD. PMID:25969770

  6. 1985 Worldwide Petrochemical Directory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    This directory lists names, addresses, phone numbers, and telex listings. The directory includes more than 14,000 key operating personnel at over 1,900 plant locations in the United States, Canada, Latin America, Europe, Africa, Asia-Pacific and the Middle East. Featured is a special survey prepared with the help of the Oil and Gas Journal that details the petrochemical plant feedstocks, product and capacities. This Worldwide-Petrochemical Survey appears only in its entirety in directory. Also included is an updated petrochemical plant construction survey.

  7. Utilization of artificial recharged effluent as makeup water for industrial cooling system: corrosion and scaling.

    PubMed

    Wei, Liangliang; Qin, Kena; Zhao, Qingliang; Noguera, Daniel R; Xin, Ming; Liu, Chengcai; Keene, Natalie; Wang, Kun; Cui, Fuyi

    2016-01-01

    The secondary effluent from wastewater treatment plants was reused for industrial cooling water after pre-treatment with a laboratory-scale soil aquifer treatment (SAT) system. Up to a 95.3% removal efficiency for suspended solids (SS), 51.4% for chemical oxygen demand (COD), 32.1% for Cl(-) and 30.0% SO4(2-) were observed for the recharged secondary effluent after the SAT operation, which is essential for controlling scaling and corrosion during the cooling process. As compared to the secondary effluent, the reuse of the 1.5 m depth SAT effluent decreased the corrosion by 75.0%, in addition to a 55.1% decline of the scales/biofouling formation (with a compacted structure). The experimental results can satisfy the Chinese criterion of Design Criterion of the Industrial Circulating Cooling Water Treatment (GB 50050-95), and was more efficient than tertiary effluent which coagulated with ferric chloride. In addition, chemical structure of the scales/biofouling obtained from the cooling system was analyzed. PMID:27191579

  8. Application of toxicity identification evaluation procedure to toxic industrial effluent in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Ra, Jin-Sung; Jeong, Tae-Yong; Lee, Sun-Hong; Kim, Sang Don

    2016-01-01

    Toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) was applied to the effluent from a pharmaceutical industrial complex, following the US EPA TIE guidelines. The whole effluent toxicity (WET) test found toxicity greater than 16toxic units (TU) in the effluent. Dissolved non-polar organic compounds were identified as the major contributor to the observed toxicity in the TIE manipulations in phases I and II. Among the 48 organic compounds identified, three compounds (i.e., acetophenone, benzoimide, and benzothiazole) were related to the pharmaceutical production procedure; however, no contribution to toxicity was predicted in the compounds. The results of the ECOSAR model, which predicts toxicity, indicated that the alkane compounds caused significant toxicity in the effluent. The toxicity test and heavy metal analysis, which used IC and ICP/MS, identified that particulate and heavy metals, such as Cu and Zn, contributed to the remaining toxicity, except dissolved organics. The results showed the applicability of the TIE method for predicting regional effluents produced by the industrial pharmaceutical complex in this study. Although the location was assumed to be affected by discharge of pharmaceutical related compounds in the river, no correlations were observed in the study. Based on the results, advanced treatment processes, such as activated carbon adsorption, are recommended for the wastewater treatment process in this location. PMID:25997865

  9. Economic impact analysis of proposed effluent standards and limitations for the coil coating industry. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-11-01

    The report provides an identification and analysis of the economic impacts which are likely to result from the promulgation of EPA's effluent regulations on the Coil Coating Industry. The primary economic impact variables assessed in the study include the costs of the proposed regulations and potential for these regulations to cause plant closures, price changes, unemployment, changes in industry profitability, structure and competition, shifts in the balance of foreign trade, new source impacts, and impacts on small businesses.

  10. Application of membrane and ozonation technologies to remove color from agro-industry effluents.

    PubMed

    Koyuncu, I; Sevimli, M F; Ozturk, I; Aydin, A F

    2001-01-01

    The results of membrane and ozonation experiments carried out on various agro-industry effluents including fermentation (baker's yeast), corrugated board, opium alkaloid and textile dying industries are presented. The experiments were performed using lab-scale membrane and ozonation reactors. Color removals were in the range of 80 to 99% for the membrane treatment studies. Ozonation experiments have shown that color removals in the range of 83 to 98% are possible for the investigated wastewaters. Final color levels were lower than 100 Pt-Co unit, which is quite acceptable aesthetically. The relative unit treatment costs of ozonation were about two times higher than membrane systems especially for very strong colored effluents including fermentation and opium alkaloid industries. The study has demonstrated that both membrane and ozonation technologies are viable options for color removal. PMID:11443967

  11. Use of ozone and/or UV in the treatment of effluents from board paper industry.

    PubMed

    Amat, A M; Arques, A; Miranda, M A; López, F

    2005-08-01

    The aim of this work has been to study the viability of ozone and/or UV in the treatment of cardboard industry effluents. Several model compounds have been chosen for the experiments: guaicol, eugenol, glucose, acetate and butyrate. Significant differences in the ozonisation rates are observed between phenolic products coming from lignin (eugenol and guaiacol) and aliphatic compounds. Reactions fit in all cases a pseudo-first order kinetics and are influenced by the pH of the solution. Real effluents have also been tested, and the COD decrease has been found to depend on the fatty acids/phenols ratio. Finally, respirometric studies have shown an increase in the BODst in effluents subjected to a mild oxidation, while under stronger conditions a BODst decrease is observed. PMID:15993159

  12. Toxicity assessment of effluent from flash light manufacturing industry by bioassay tests in Trigonella foenumgracum.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Narendra; Kumar, Sanjeev; Bauddh, Kuldeep; Dwivedi, Neetu; Singh, D P; Barman, S C

    2014-11-01

    A rapid bioassay test was conducted to study heavy metal accumulation and biochemical changes in Trigonella foenumgracum (methi) irrigated with 25, 50, 75 and 100% of effluent from flash light manufacturing industry at 60 days after sowing. Total metal concentration in effluent samples was: Cr = 0.12 < Cd = 0.18 < Pb = 0.24 < Cu = 2.68 mg l(-1) whereas, metals were not detected in control. An increase in photosynthetic pigments of exposed plant was noticed up to 50% concentrations of the effluent followed by a decrease at higher concentration as compared to their respective control.An enhanced lipid peroxidation in the treated plants was observed, which was evident by increased level of antioxidants: proline, cysteine, malondialdehyde and ascorbic acid content. The treated plants accumulated metals in the following order: Cu > Pb > Cr > Cd in the roots and shoots. PMID:25522513

  13. Cleanup of industrial effluents containing heavy metals: a new opportunity of valorising the biomass produced by brewing industry.

    PubMed

    Soares, Eduardo V; Soares, Helena M V M

    2013-08-01

    Heavy metal pollution is a matter of concern in industrialised countries. Contrary to organic pollutants, heavy metals are not metabolically degraded. This fact has two main consequences: its bioremediation requires another strategy and heavy metals can be indefinitely recycled. Yeast cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are produced at high amounts as a by-product of brewing industry constituting a cheap raw material. In the present work, the possibility of valorising this type of biomass in the bioremediation of real industrial effluents containing heavy metals is reviewed. Given the auto-aggregation capacity (flocculation) of brewing yeast cells, a fast and off-cost yeast separation is achieved after the treatment of metal-laden effluent, which reduces the costs associated with the process. This is a critical issue when we are looking for an effective, eco-friendly, and low-cost technology. The possibility of the bioremediation of industrial effluents linked with the selective recovery of metals, in a strategy of simultaneous minimisation of environmental hazard of industrial wastes with financial benefits from reselling or recycling the metals, is discussed. PMID:23824444

  14. A comparative study on toxicity identification of industrial effluents using Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Yi, Xianliang; Kim, Eunhee; Jo, Hun-Je; Han, Taejun; Jung, Jinho

    2011-09-01

    In this study, acute toxicity monitoring and toxicity identification evaluation procedures were applied to identify causative toxicants in industrial effluents. Effluents from a metal plating factory and a rubber products factory were acutely toxic toward Daphnia magna and the toxicity varied over different sampling events (2.9-5.9 and 1.7-7.6 TU, respectively). For the rubber products effluent, it was confirmed that zinc (5.65-13.18 mg L(-1)) was found to be a major cause of toxicity, which is likely originated from zinc 2-mercaptobenzothiazole and zinc diethyldithiocarbamate used as vulcanization accelerators. For the metal plating effluent, it appeared that the presence of high concentrations of Cl(-) and SO(4)(2-) (8,539-11,400 and 3,588-4,850 mg L(-1), respectively) caused the observed toxicity. These toxicants likely originated from sodium bisulfate (NaHSO(3)) and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) used as reducing and oxidizing agents. Though copper was found to be present in levels much higher than the EC(50) (50% effective concentration) value, this was not attributable to the toxicity of metal plating effluent likely due to complexation with dissolved organic matter. PMID:21761172

  15. Effects of industrial effluents, heavy metals, and organic solvents on mallard embryo development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, D.J.; Eastin, W.C., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Mallard eggs were externally exposed at 3 and 8 days of incubation to 7 different industrial effluents and to 7 different heavy metal, organic solvent, and petroleum solutions to screen for potential embryo-toxic effects. This route of exposure was chosen in order to simulate the transfer of pollutant from the plumage of aquatic birds to their eggs. Five of the effluents including mineral pigment, scouring effluent, sludge, and tannery effluent resulted in small but significant reductions in embryonic growth. Treatment with methyl mercury chloride solution of 50 ppm (Hg) impaired embryonic growth but much higher concentrations were required to affect survival and cause teratogenic effects. Oil used to suppress road dust was the most toxic of the pollutants tested and only 0.5 microliter/egg caused 60% mortality by 18 days of development. These findings, in combination with other studies suggest that petroleum pollutants, or effluents in combination with petroleum, may pose a hazard to birds' eggs when exposure is by this route.

  16. Application of electron beam irradiation combined to conventional treatment to treat industrial effluents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, C. L.; Sampa, M. H. O.; Rela, P. R.; Oikawa, H.; Cherbakian, E. H.; Sena, H. C.; Abe, H.; Sciani, V.

    2000-03-01

    A preliminary study to combine electron beam irradiation process with biological treatment was carried out. Experiments were conducted using samples from a governmental wastewater treatment plant (WTP) that receives about 20% of industrial wastewater, with the objective of destroying the refractory organic pollutants and to obtain a better performance of this plant. Samples from five different steps of WTP were collected and irradiated in the electron beam accelerator in a batch system with 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 kGy doses. The main results showed a removal of 99% of all organic compound analysed in the industrial receiver unit (IRU) effluent and in the coarse bar screen (CBS) effluent with a 20 kGy dose, and for the medium bar screen (MBS) and primary sedimentation (PS) effluent a 10 kGy dose was sufficient. In the case of final effluent (FE), a dose of 5 kGy removed the remaining organic compounds and dyes present after biological treatment.

  17. Thai petrochemical boom on track

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-16

    This paper reports that Thailand continues to mark progress on the ambitious expansion of its petrochemical industry. Among recent developments: The outlook for Thailand's troubled worldscale aromatics project has improved with a major cut in its estimated cost. In addition, the project apparently has drawn the interest of other companies seeking a possible equity stake. Amoco Chemical Co., which lost a tender to build a worldscale purified terephathalic acid (PTA) complex in Thailand to Taiwan's Tuntex Co., is reviving its bid with a proposal similar to its earlier one. Amoco contends there will be enough demand to warrant a second PTA plant in Thailand. Tuntex is negotiating with several business groups to take part in its $333 million, 350,000 ton/year PTA project in Thailand. Tuntex is soliciting interest from a number of Thai companies, including Bangkok Bank and the Saha Union industrial conglomerate to acquire portions of the 51% interest in the project earmarked for Thai shareholders. The firm also is negotiating with a number of Japanese companies with whom it has long trade ties, including Mitsui and Co. and Marubeni Corp. to acquire part of the 49% foreign shareholding in the project. Thai Olefins Co. (TOC) marked further progress with feedstock contracts and financing arrangements for its proposed $720 million olefins plant, part of Thailand's second worldscale petrochemical complex (NPC II). Indian industrial giant Birla proposed a $20 million ethylene glycol (EG) project in Thailand.

  18. Investigating the differences between receptor and dispersion modeling for concentration prediction and health risk assessment of volatile organic compounds from petrochemical industrial complexes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Hsiang; Chen, Zheng-Bin; Yuan, Chung-Shin; Hung, Chung-Hsuang; Ning, Shu-Kuang

    2016-01-15

    Receptor and dispersion models both provide important information to help understand the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and develop effective management strategies. In this study, differences between the predicted concentrations of two models and the associated impacts on the estimated health risks due to different theories behind two models were investigated. Two petrochemical industrial complexes in Kaohsiung city of southern Taiwan were selected as the sites for this comparison. Although the study compares the approaches by applying the methods to this specific area, the results are expected to be adopted for other areas or industries. Ninety-nine VOC concentrations at eight monitoring sites were analyzed, with the effects of diurnal temperature and seasonal humidity variations being considered. The Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) receptor model was used for source apportionment, while the Industrial Source Complex (ISC) dispersion model was used to predict the VOC concentrations at receptor sites. In the results of receptor modeling, 54% ± 11% and 49% ± 20% of the monitored concentrations were contributed by process emissions in two complexes, whereas the numbers increased to 78% ± 41% and 64% ± 44% in the results of dispersion modeling. Significant differences were observed between two model predictions (p < 0.05). The receptor model was more reproducible given the smaller variances of its results. The effect of seasonal humidity variation on two model predictions was not negligible. Similar findings were observed given that the cancer and non-cancer risks estimated by the receptor model were lower but more reproducible. The adverse health risks estimated by the dispersion model exceeded and were 75.3%-132.4% of the values estimated by using the monitored data, whereas the percentages were lowered to the range from 27.4% to 53.8% when the prediction was performed by using the receptor model. As the results of different models could be

  19. Application of lipase from Burkholderia cepacia in the degradation of agro-industrial effluent.

    PubMed

    Mello Bueno, Pabline Rafaella; de Oliveira, Tatianne Ferreira; Castiglioni, Gabriel Luis; Soares Júnior, Manoel Soares; Ulhoa, Cirano Jose

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the physical and chemical characteristics of Amano PS commercial lipase - Burkholderia cepacia and lipase produced by Burkholderia cepacia strain ATCC 25416, in addition to studying the hydrolysis of agro-industrial effluent collected in a fried potato industry. The optimum temperature for increasing lipase activity was 37 °C. The temperature increase caused a decrease in thermostability of lipase, and the commercial lipase was less stable, with values of 10.5, 4.6 and 4.9%, respectively, lower than those obtained by lipase from strain ATCC 25416, at temperatures of 40, 50 and 60 °C. The enzymatic activity was higher in alkaline conditions, achieving better results at pH 8.0. The pH was the variable that most influenced the hydrolysis of triacylglycerides of the agro-industrial effluent, followed by enzyme concentration, and volume of gum arabic used in the reaction medium. Thus, it can be observed that the enzymatic hydrolytic process of the studied effluent presents a premising contribution to reduction of environmental impacts of potato chip processing industries. PMID:25860696

  20. Removal of chromium from electroplating industry effluents by ion exchange resins.

    PubMed

    Cavaco, Sofia A; Fernandes, Sandra; Quina, Margarida M; Ferreira, Licínio M

    2007-06-18

    Effluent discharged from the chromium electroplating industry contains a large number of metals, including chromium, copper, nickel, zinc, manganese and lead. The ion exchange process is an alternative technique for application in the treatment of industrial wastewater containing heavy metals and indeed it has proven to be very promising in the removal and recovery of valuable species. The main objective of the present work is to evaluate the performance of commercial ion exchange resins for removing chromium trivalent from industrial effluents, and for this purpose two resins were tested: a chelating exchange resin (Diaion CR11) and a weak cationic resin (Amberlite IRC86). In order to evaluate the sorption capacity of the resins some equilibrium experiments were carried out, being the temperature and pH the main variables considered. The chromium solutions employed in the experiments were synthetic solutions and industrial effluents. In addition, a transient test was also performed as an attempt to understand the kinetic behaviour of the process. PMID:17336455

  1. Respirometric biomonitor for the control of industrial effluent toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Campanella, L.; Favero, G.; Mastrofini, D.; Tomassetti, M.

    1995-12-31

    A yeast cell biosystem has been recently developed for the total toxicity testing of a sample that may contain a number of different polluting species. The method uses an amperometric gas diffusion oxygen sensor as indicating electrode and is based on the perturbation of the respiratory activity of the immobilized yeast saccharomyces cerevisiae; glucose acts as substrate. Several toxic substances were tested: metal ions (Cd{sup 2+}, Cr{sup 3+}, Pb{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Hg{sup 2+}), phenol and cationic, anionic or nonionic surfactants. Some results of a monitoring program of an industrial wastewater are also reported and discussed.

  2. Effluent treatment in the paint and coating industry. (Latest citations from World Surface Coatings abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the analysis and treatment of effluents from the coating industry. Filters used for solvent adsorption and recovery, activated carbon adsorption of paint fumes, hydrogen peroxide treatment of wastes, effluent heat recovery, and biological treatments are discussed. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  3. How best to promote industrial pollution prevention through the effluent guidelines process. Recommendations of the industrial pollution prevention project (IP3) focus group

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    The Industrial Pollution Prevention Project (IP3) Focus Group was requested by EPA to provide specific recommendations on how best to promote industrial pollution prevention through the effluent guidelines process. In response to that request, the Group makes the following recommendations to EPA: To promote more industrial pollution prevention, the effluent guidelines process must (1) be more flexible, (2) address all media, and (3) impart a pollution prevention mindset to everyone throughout the effluent guidelines process. To accomplish this, EPA should adopt a specific new approach to the development and achievement of Best Available Technology (BAT) limits.

  4. Dangerous and cancer-causing properties of products and chemicals in the oil refining and petrochemical industry: Part V--Asbestos-caused cancers and exposure of workers in the oil refining industry.

    PubMed

    Mehlman, M A

    1991-01-01

    In the oil refining and petrochemical industries exposure to cancer-causing asbestos particles, especially during equipment repair and maintenance, is very high. Up to 90% of workers in the oil refining industry had direct and/or indirect contact with asbestos, and more than half of this contact occurred without the use of any kind of precaution, thus these workers are in high risk of developing lung cancer and mesothelioma, both fatal diseases. The hazards include: inadequate health and safety training for both company personnel and workers, failure to inform about the dangers and diseases (cancers) resulting from exposure to asbestos; excessive use of large numbers of untrained and uninformed contract workers; lack of use of protective equipment; and archaeological approaches and responses to repairing asbestos breaks and replacement of asbestos in oil refining facilities. For a better understanding of practices and policies in the oil refining industry, refer to Rachel Scott's Muscle and Blood, in particular the chapter "Oil" (E.P. Dutton, New York, 1974), as well as to an editorial which appeared in the Oil and Gas Journal, April, 1968. PMID:1853354

  5. Estimating genetic potential of biofuel forest hardwoods to withstand metal toxicity in industrial effluent under dry tropical conditions.

    PubMed

    Manzoor, S A; Mirza, S N; Zubair, M; Nouman, W; Hussain, S B; Mehmood, S; Irshad, A; Sarwar, N; Ammar, A; Iqbal, M F; Asim, A; Chattha, M U; Chattha, M B; Zafar, A; Abid, R

    2015-01-01

    Biofuel tree species are recognized as a promising alternative source of fuel to conventional forms. Additionally, these tree species are also effective in accumulating toxic heavy metals present in some industrial effluents. In developing countries such as Pakistan, the use of biofuel tree species is gaining popularity not only for harvesting economical and environmentally friendly biofuel, but also to sequester poisonous heavy metals from industrial wastewater. This study was aimed at evaluating the genetic potential of two biofuel species, namely, Jatropha curcas and Pongamia pinnata, to grow when irrigated with industrial effluent from the Pak-Arab Fertilizer Factory Multan, Southern Punjab, Pakistan. The growth performances of one-year-old seedlings of both species were compared in soil with adverse physiochemical properties. It was found that J. curcas was better able to withstand the toxicity of the heavy metals present in the fertilizer factory effluent. J. curcas showed maximum gain in height, diameter, and biomass production in soil irrigated with 75% concentrated industrial effluent. In contrast, P. pinnata showed a significant reduction in growth in soil irrigated with more than 50% concentrated industrial effluent, indicating that this species is less tolerant to higher toxicity levels of industrial effluent. This study identifies J. curcas as a promising biofuel tree species that can be grown using industrial wastewater. PMID:26345887

  6. USE OF TOXICITY IDENTIFICATION EVALUATION METHODS TO CHARACTERIZE IDENTIFY, AND CONFIRM HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM TOXICITY IN AN INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) was conducted on effluent from a major industrial discharger. Initial monitoring showed slight chronic toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia; later sample showed substantial toxicity to C. dubia. Chemical analysis detected hexavalent chromium ...

  7. Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Excluding dyes. July 1983-September 1989 (Citations from World Textile Abstracts). Report for July 1983-September 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents. Effluents that contain dyes are discussed in a separate bibliography. Recovery of lubricants, lye, sizing agents, polyvinyl alcohol, zinc, dirt, and heat from textile effluents are discussed. Air and water pollution control technology that is effective in treating textile effluents is discussed. Effluents from synthetic fiber manufacture and wool scouring processes are emphasized. (This updated bibliography contains 322 citations, 22 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  8. A modular success story the Saudi petrochemical project

    SciTech Connect

    Kirven, J.B.; Swenson, C.R.

    1986-01-01

    The Saudi Petrochemical Company is referred to within this paper as ''Sadaf''. Sadaf is the phonetic spelling of the Arabic word for seashell and is a joint venture of Saudi Basic Industries Corporation (SABIC) and Pecten Arabian Ltd., an affiliate of Shell Oil Comapny, U.S.A. SABIC is a joint stock corporation responsible for the development of basic industries in the Kingdom in the petrochemicals, metals and fertilizers field.

  9. Petroleum industry effluents and other oxygen-demanding wastes in Niger Delta, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Osuji, Leo C; Uwakwe, Augustine A

    2006-07-01

    In this article, we review the fundamental phenomenon of oxygenation within the overriding context of petroleum-industry effluents and the other oxygen demanding wastes in Niger Delta, Nigeria. Drill cuttings, drilling mud (fluids used to stimulate the production processes), and accidental discharges of crude petroleum constitute serious land and water pollution in the oil-bearing province. Effluents from other industrial establishments such as distilleries, pulp and paper mills, fertilizer plants, and breweries, as well as thermal effluents, plant nutrients (such as nitrates and phosphates), and eroded sediments have also contributed to the pollution of their surrounding environment. Since these wastes are oxygen-demanding in nature, their impact on the recipient environment can be reversed by the direct application of simple chemistry. The wastes can be reduced, particularly in natural bodies of water, by direct oxidation-reduction processes or simple chemical combinations, acid-base reactions, and solubility equilibria; these are pH- and temperature-dependent. A shift in pH and alkalinity affects the solubility equilibria of Na+, Cl-, SO(2-), NO3(-), HCO3(-), and PO4(3-), and other ions and compounds. PMID:17193303

  10. Use of recycling through medium size granular filters to treat small food processing industry effluents.

    PubMed

    Ménoret, C; Boutin, C; Liénard, A; Brissaud, F

    2002-01-01

    Currently there are no suitable wastewater treatment systems for effluents from small food processing industries (dairy, cheese, wine production). Such raw sewages are characterized by high organic matter concentrations (about 10 g COD L-1) and relatively low daily volumes (about 2 m3). An adaptation of attached-growth cultures on fine media processes, known to be easy and inexpensive to use, could fit both the technical and economical context of those industries. Coarser filter particle size distributions than those normally used allow a better aeration and reduce clogging risk. The transit time of the effluent through the porous filter materials is shortened and requires recycling to increase the contact time between the biomass and the substrate. A pilot plant was built to compare the efficiency of two kinds of filter materials, gravel (2-5 mm) and pozzolana (3-7 mm). Two measurement campaigns were undertaken on a full-scale unit dealing with cheese dairy effluents. Both pilot-scale and full-scale plants show high COD removal rates (> 95%). Pilot-scale experiments show that accumulation of organic matter leads to the clogging of the recycling filter. To prevent early clogging, a better definition of feeding cycles is needed. PMID:12201106

  11. Assessment of ecological risks linked to the discharge of saline industrial effluent into a river.

    PubMed

    Perrodin, Yves; Volatier, Laurence; Bazin, Christine; Boisson, Jean-Claude

    2013-03-01

    Discharges of saline effluents into rivers can lead to risks for local aquatic ecosystems. A specific ecological risk assessment methodology has been developed to propose a management tool to organisations responsible for managing rivers and industrial companies producing saline effluents. This methodology involves the detailed description of the spatiotemporal system concerned, the choice of ecological targets to be preserved, and the performance of bioassays adapted to each of the compartments of the river. Following development, it was applied to an industrial effluent in eastern France. For the scenario studied, results obtained suggest a high risk for the organisms of the water column and a low risk for the organisms of the periphyton. This difference can be explained by the structure of the latter which integrate extracellular polymers secreted by the organisms of the biofilm, forming a gel with a porous structure that acts as a barrier to diffusion. The methodology formulated permitted identifying the critical points of the spatiotemporal system studied and then using them as the basis for making well-grounded proposals for management. Lastly, proposals to improve the methodology itself are made, especially concerning the integration of the sediment compartment in the version formulated initially. PMID:22684878

  12. Study of biological aerated filters for the treatment of effluents from the citrus industry.

    PubMed

    Osorio, Francisco; Torres, Juan C; Hontoria, Ernesto

    2006-01-01

    The primary objective of this research study was to test the applicability and optimize the design parameters of a system of biological aerated filters in order to obtain an optimal effluent from the citrus industry, which would allow its drainage into the municipal sewer system. Expanded clay was used as a support material. After experimenting with both countercurrent and cocurrent flows as well different aeration levels, it was found that cocurrent flow was more efficient. Backwashing was carried out on a daily basis. The results of our study showed that for an aeration of 10.47 Nm3/h/m2, the volumetric load should be less than 20 Kg. COD/m3/d in order to obtain an effluent with a maximum concentration of 600 mgCOD/L, and the hydraulic load should be less than 0.36 m/h. PMID:17114100

  13. Removal of coloured compounds from textile industry effluents by UV/H2O2 advanced oxidation and toxicity evaluation.

    PubMed

    Nagel-Hassemer, Maria Eliza; Carvalho-Pinto, Catia Regina S; Matias, William Gerson; Lapolli, Flávio Rubens

    2011-12-01

    This study has investigated the reduction in coloured substances and toxic compounds present in textile industry effluent by the use of an advanced oxidation process using hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as oxidant, activated by ultraviolet radiation. The investigation was carried out on industrial effluents, both raw and after biological treatment, using different concentrations of H2O2 in a photochemical reactor equipped with a 250 W high-pressure mercury vapour lamp. The results showed that after 60 minutes of ultraviolet irradiation a H2O2 concentration of 500 mg L(-1) was able to remove approximately 73% of the coloured compounds present in raw effluent and 96% of those present in biologically treated effluent. Additionally, post-treatment toxicity tests performed using the microcrustacean Daphnia magna showed a significant effective reduction in the acute toxicity of the raw effluent. In tests carried out with treatment at a concentration of 750 and 1000 mg L(-1) H2O2, analysis of the frequency ofmicronuclei in erythrocytes of Tilapia cf rendalli exposed to treated effluent samples confirmed that there were no mutagenic effects on the fish. Together, these results indicate that the oxidation process offers a good alternative for the removal of colour and toxicity from textile industry effluent. PMID:22439575

  14. How will Southeast Asian petrochemicals impact the HPI?

    SciTech Connect

    Rothman, S.N.

    1997-05-01

    Development of East Asia`s petrochemical industry has been phenomenal, with major complexes built in numerous locations. The Southeast Asian countries of particular interest are members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN): Singapore, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines, Brunei and Vietnam. As new capacity is built in this region, these large operating facilities will affect supply and demand for key petrochemical products--ethylene and polyolefins. What are the potential regional effects from this new capacity? Traditional net export countries will have to re-evaluate their future marketing strategies to remain competitive in Southeast Asia and other trading areas. As East Asia`s petrochemical industry comes of age, competition will undoubtedly increase. However, this growing region offers opportunities to widen manufacturing basis. The paper discusses basic chemical demands and the outlook for the Asian petrochemical industry.

  15. Adverse pregnancy outcome in a petrochemical polluted area in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lin, M C; Yu, H S; Tsai, S S; Cheng, B H; Hsu, T Y; Wu, T N; Yang, C Y

    2001-08-24

    The petrochemical industry is the main source of industrial air pollution in Taiwan. Reported here are the results from an ongoing study of outdoor air pollution and the health of individuals living in a community in close proximity to petrochemical industrial complexes. The prevalences of term low birth weight (LBW) in the petrochemical municipality and control municipality were 3.22%, and 1.84%, respectively. After controlling for several possible confounders (including maternal age, season, marital status, maternal education, and infant sex), the adjusted odds ratio was 1.767 (1.002-3.116) for term LBW in the petrochemical municipality. Data provide further support for the hypothesis that air pollution can affect the outcome of pregnancy. PMID:11549116

  16. Impact of marble industry effluents on water and sediment quality of Barandu River in Buner District, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Mulk, Shahi; Azizullah, Azizullah; Korai, Abdul Latif; Khattak, Muhammad Nasir Khan

    2015-02-01

    Industries play an important role in improving the living standard but at the same time cause several environmental problems. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the impact of industries on the quality of environment. In the present study, the impact of marble industry effluents on water and sediment quality of Barandu River in Buner District, Pakistan was evaluated. Water and sediment samples were collected at three different sampling sites (upstream, industrial, and downstream sites) from Barandu River and their physicochemical properties were inter-compared. In addition, different marble stones and mix water (wastewater) from marble industry were analyzed. The measured physicochemical parameters of river water including pH, electrical conductivity (EC), alkalinity, total hardness, Ca and Mg hardness, total dissolved solid (TDS), total suspended solids (TSS), sulfates (SO4 (2-)), sodium (Na(+)), potassium (K(+)), nitrites (NO2 (-)), nitrate (NO3 (-)), chloride (Cl(-)), calcium (Ca(2+)), and magnesium (Mg(2+)) were found to be significantly altered by effluent discharges of marble industries. Similarly, heavy metal concentrations in both water and sediments of the river were significantly increased by marble industry wastewater. It is concluded that large quantities of different pollutants are added to Barandu River due to direct disposal of marble industry effluents which degrades its quality. Therefore, it is recommended that direct disposal of marble industry wastewater should be banned and all effluents must be properly treated before discharging in the river water. PMID:25616784

  17. Economic analysis of final effluent limitations guidelines and standards for the pharmaceutical manufacturing industry

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    This economic analysis (EA) examines compliance costs and economic impacts resulting from the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) Final Effluent Limitations Guidelines and Standards for the Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Industry Point Source Category. It also investigates the costs and impacts associated with an air rule requiring Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) to control air emissions, both separately and together with the Final Pharmaceutical Industry Effluent Guidelines. The EA estimates the economic effects of compliance with both final rules in terms of total aggregate annualized costs of compliance, facility closures, impacts on firms (likelihood of bankruptcy and effects on profit margins), and impacts on new sources. The EA also investigates secondary impacts on employment and communities, foreign trade, specific demographic groups, and environmental justice. This report includes a Final Regulatory Flexibility Analysis (FRFA) detailing the impacts on small businesses within the pharmaceutical industry to meet the requirements of the Regulatory Flexibility Act (RFA), as amended by the Small Business Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Act (SBREFA). Finally, the EA presents a cost-benefit analysis to meet the requirements of Executive Order 12866 and the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act.

  18. Effect of leather industry effluents on soil microbial and protease activity.

    PubMed

    Pradeep, M Reddi; Narasimha, G

    2012-01-01

    Release of leather industry effluents into the agricultural fields causes indicative changes in nutrient cycling and organic matter processing. In the present study, leather industry effluent discharged soil (test) and undischarged soil(control) were collected from the surrounding areas of industry. The physico-chemical, biological properties and soil protease activity were examined. The study reflected the average mean value of pH, electrical conductivity and water holding capacity of the test soil was found to be 7.94, 0.89 microMhos cm(-1) and 0.51 ml g(-1), respectively. In chemical parameters, organic matter, total nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium has the mean of 6.73%, 0.23 g kg(-1), 4.28 mg g(-1) and 28 microg g(-1), respectively. In all the respects, the test soil showed higher values than the control. The soil protease enzyme activity was determined by using substrate casein and the activity was found to be higher (180 microg TE g(-1) 24 hr(-1)) in test soil than the control soil (63 microg TE g(-1) 24 hr(-1)). PMID:23033641

  19. Nutrient loadings to streams of the continental United States from municipal and industrial effluent?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maupin, Molly A.; Ivahnenko, Tamara

    2011-01-01

    Data from the United States Environmental Protection Agency Permit Compliance System national database were used to calculate annual total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) loads to surface waters from municipal and industrial facilities in six major regions of the United States for 1992, 1997, and 2002. Concentration and effluent flow data were examined for approximately 118,250 facilities in 45 states and the District of Columbia. Inconsistent and incomplete discharge locations, effluent flows, and effluent nutrient concentrations limited the use of these data for calculating nutrient loads. More concentrations were reported for major facilities, those discharging more than 1 million gallons per day, than for minor facilities, and more concentrations were reported for TP than for TN. Analytical methods to check and improve the quality of the Permit Compliance System data were used. Annual loads were calculated using "typical pollutant concentrations" to supplement missing concentrations based on the type and size of facilities. Annual nutrient loads for over 26,600 facilities were calculated for at least one of the three years. Sewage systems represented 74% of all TN loads and 58% of all TP loads. This work represents an initial set of data to develop a comprehensive and consistent national database of point-source nutrient loads. These loads can be used to inform a wide range of water-quality management, watershed modeling, and research efforts at multiple scales.

  20. Nutrient Loadings to Streams of the Continental United States from Municipal and Industrial Effluent1

    PubMed Central

    Maupin, Molly A; Ivahnenko, Tamara

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Data from the United States Environmental Protection Agency Permit Compliance System national database were used to calculate annual total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) loads to surface waters from municipal and industrial facilities in six major regions of the United States for 1992, 1997, and 2002. Concentration and effluent flow data were examined for approximately 118,250 facilities in 45 states and the District of Columbia. Inconsistent and incomplete discharge locations, effluent flows, and effluent nutrient concentrations limited the use of these data for calculating nutrient loads. More concentrations were reported for major facilities, those discharging more than 1 million gallons per day, than for minor facilities, and more concentrations were reported for TP than for TN. Analytical methods to check and improve the quality of the Permit Compliance System data were used. Annual loads were calculated using “typical pollutant concentrations” to supplement missing concentrations based on the type and size of facilities. Annual nutrient loads for over 26,600 facilities were calculated for at least one of the three years. Sewage systems represented 74% of all TN loads and 58% of all TP loads. This work represents an initial set of data to develop a comprehensive and consistent national database of point-source nutrient loads. These loads can be used to inform a wide range of water-quality management, watershed modeling, and research efforts at multiple scales. PMID:22457577

  1. Evaluation of chelating ion-exchange resins for separating Cr(III) from industrial effluents.

    PubMed

    Cavaco, Sofia A; Fernandes, Sandra; Augusto, Cátia M; Quina, Margarida J; Gando-Ferreira, Licínio M

    2009-09-30

    In this study two chelating resins containing iminodiacetic acid groups (Amberlite IRC 748 and Diaion CR 11) and a chelating resin based on sulfonic and diphosphonic acid groups (Diphonix) were investigated in order to separate Cr(III) from industrial effluents produced in hard and decorative electroplating. Samples of two industrial plants were characterized during a period of about one year and a half in terms of the metals content (Cr, Cu, Na, Ca, Fe and Ni), Total Suspended Solids (TSS), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and pH. Some of the physical properties of the resins, namely the moisture content, apparent density, intraparticle porosity and the particle size distribution were also evaluated. To quantify the sorption capacity of the resins, batch experiments were performed using synthetic solutions of Cr(III), as well as solutions of Fe in the case of Diphonix. The Langmuir and Langmuir-Freundlich isotherms enabled a good description of the ion-exchange equilibrium data, and the maximum sorption capacity determined for Amberlite and Diaion was 3.6 mequiv./g(dry resin). For Diphonix that parameter was 3.4 mequiv./g(dry resin). The Diphonix resin exhibits a high selectivity for transition metals (Fe, Ni) over the chromium trivalent. Therefore, it was screened as the most suitable for selectively removing those metal impurities from chromium electroplating effluents. For this resin, the sorption capacity is strongly dependent on the initial pH of the solution. Though, high regeneration efficiencies of Diphonix for stripping Cr(III) were found by using a mixture of NaOH/H(2)O(2). The mathematical model tested for describing the dynamics of the process allowed a good fitting to the experimental data and enabled the estimation of effective pore diffusivity of Cr(III). The saturations of Diphonix with industrial effluents demonstrated that the breakthrough capacity of the resin is affected by the presence of other species in solution

  2. a Study for Remote Detection of Industrial Effluents' Effect on Rice Using Thermal Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehnavi, S.; Abkar, A. A.; Maghsoudi, Y.; Dehnavi, E.

    2015-12-01

    Rice is one of the most important nutritious grains all over the world, so that only in some parts of Asia more than 300 million acres allocated for cultivating this product. Therefore, qualitative and quantitative management of this product is of great importance in commercial, political and financial viewpoints. Rice plant is very influenced by physical and chemical characteristics of irrigation water, due to its specific kind of planting method. Hence, chemically-polluted waters which received by plant can change in live plants and their products. Thus, a very high degree of treatment will be required if the effluent discharges to rice plants. Current waters receive a variety of land-based water pollutants ranging from industrial wastes to excess sediments. One of the most hazardous wastes are chemicals that are toxic. Some factories discharge their effluents directly into a water body. So, what would happen for rice plant or its product if this polluted water flow to paddies? Is there any remotely-based method to study for this effect? Are surface temperature distributions (thermal images) useful in this context? The first goal in this research is thus to investigate the effect of a simulated textile factory's effluent sample on the rice product. The second goal is to investigate whether the polluted plant can be identified by means of thermal remote sensing or not. The results of this laboratory research have proven that the presence of industrial wastewater cause a decrease in plant's product and its f-cover value, also some changes in radiant temperature.

  3. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in municipal and industrial effluents.

    PubMed

    Sappington, Emily N; Balasubramani, Aparna; Rifai, Hanadi S

    2015-08-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were quantified in 45 effluent samples in the Houston Ship Channel (HSC) system in Texas. Total PCDD/F concentrations ranged from 0.16 to 13.23 pg L(-1) in the dissolved phase and from 0.79 to 682.27 pg L(-1) in the suspended phase. Generally, industrial facilities contained more PCDD/F contamination than municipal wastewater treatment plants or refuse facilities. World Health Organization Toxic Equivalents (WHO-TEQs) ranged from 0.007 to 0.279 pg L(-1) in the dissolved phase and 0.021-1.851 pg L(-1) in the suspended phase. The major TEQ contributor was 2,3,7,8-TCDD and overall, TEQs were greatest in industrial effluents. A correlation between high solids and high PCDD/F concentrations was observed and based on the results obtained in this study, the abundance of suspended solids may have largely contributed to high PCDD/F contamination in the suspended phase. Homolog profiles revealed that PCDD/F contamination increased with increasing chlorination and the highest concentrations were primarily from the octa-chlorinated congeners (OCDD/F) in both the dissolved and suspended phase. PMID:25935498

  4. Two fold modified chitosan for enhanced adsorption of hexavalent chromium from simulated wastewater and industrial effluents.

    PubMed

    Kahu, S S; Shekhawat, A; Saravanan, D; Jugade, R M

    2016-08-01

    Ionic solid (Ethylhexadecyldimethylammoniumbromide) impregnated phosphated chitosan (ISPC) was synthesized and applied for enhanced adsorption of hexavalent chromium from industrial effluent. The compound obtained was extensively characterized using instrumental techniques like FT-IR, TGA-DTA, XRD, SEM, BET and EDX. ISPC showed high adsorption capacity of 266.67mg/g in accordance with Langmuir isotherm model at pH 3.0 due to the presence of multiple sites which contribute for ion pair and electrostatic interactions with Cr(VI) species. The sorption kinetics and thermodynamic studies revealed that adsorption of Cr(VI) followed pseudo-second-order kinetics with exothermic and spontaneous behaviour. Applicability of ISPC for higher sample volumes was discerned through column studies. The real chrome plating industry effluent was effectively treated with total chromium recovery of 94%. The used ISPC was regenerated simply by dilute ammonium hydroxide treatment and tested for ten adsorption-desorption cycles with marginal decrease in adsorption efficiency. PMID:27112874

  5. Confectionery industry: a case study on treatability-based effluent characterization and treatment system performance.

    PubMed

    Ozgun, H; Karagul, N; Dereli, R K; Ersahin, M E; Coskuner, T; Ciftci, D I; Ozturk, I; Altinbas, M

    2012-01-01

    Source-based wastewater characterization and stream segregation provide effective management of industrial wastewaters. The characterization of wastewater sources from a confectionery factory was presented and performance of the wastewater treatment plant was evaluated in this study. All of the wastewater sources in the factory, except the vacuum water line, can be characterized by high concentrations of soluble pollutants and low pH. High organic content of the wastewater generated from the confectionery industry promoted the application of anaerobic technology as a pre-treatment before the conventional aerobic treatment. The average chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and biogas production for expanded granular sludge bed reactor were 88% and 1,730 Nm(3)/day, respectively. The effluent from the investigated facility can be used for irrigation provided that conductivity values are within acceptable limits. PMID:22678195

  6. Supporting data for identification of biosurfactant-producing bacteria isolated from agro-food industrial effluent.

    PubMed

    Fulazzaky, Mohamad Ali; Abdullah, Shakila; Salim, Mohd Razman

    2016-06-01

    The goal of this study was to identify the biosurfactant-producing bacteria isolated from agro-food industrial effluet. The identification of the potential bacterial strain using a polymerase chain reaction of the 16S rRNA gene analysis was closely related to Serratia marcescens with its recorded strain of SA30 "Fundamentals of mass transfer and kinetics for biosorption of oil and grease from agro-food industrial effluent by Serratia marcescens SA30" (Fulazzaky et al., 2015) [1]; however, many biochemical tests have not been published yet. The biochemical tests of biosurfactant production, haemolytic assay and cell surface hydrophobicity were performed to investigate the beneficial strain of biosurfactant-producing bacteria. Here we do share data collected from the biochemical tests to get a better understanding of the use of Serratia marcescens SA30 to degrade oil, which contributes the technical features of strengthening the biological treatment of oil-contaminated wastewater in tropical environments. PMID:27077083

  7. Ecotoxicological assessment of industrial effluent using duckweed (Lemna minor L.) as a test organism.

    PubMed

    Radić, Sandra; Stipanicev, Drazenka; Cvjetko, Petra; Mikelić, Ivanka Lovrencić; Rajcić, Marija Marijanović; Sirac, Sinisa; Pevalek-Kozlina, Branka; Pavlica, Mirjana

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed at assessing the toxic effects of industrial effluents using duckweed (Lemna minor L.) plants as a test system. Growth inhibition test according to standardized protocol (ISO 20079) was performed. The suitability of the Comet assay (indicates DNA damage) and certain parameters such as peroxidase activity and lipid peroxidation level, as biomarkers for environmental monitoring was evaluated. The water samples were collected monthly over a 3-month period from the stream near the industrial estate of Savski Marof, Croatia. All samples caused inhibition of growth rates based on frond number and biomass as well as decrease of chlorophylls content. In contrast, peroxidase activity, malondialdehyde content and tail extent moment (measure of DNA strand breaks) markedly increased. Obtained data demonstrate the relevance of duckweed as sensitive indicators of water quality as well as the significance of selected biological parameters in the reliable assessment of phyto- and genotoxic potential of complex wastewaters. PMID:19757030

  8. Effect of gaseous cement industry effluents on four species of microalgae.

    PubMed

    Talec, Amélie; Philistin, Myrvline; Ferey, Frédérique; Walenta, Günther; Irisson, Jean-Olivier; Bernard, Olivier; Sciandra, Antoine

    2013-09-01

    Experiments were performed at lab scale in order to test the possibility to grow microalgae with CO2 from gaseous effluent of cement industry. Four microalgal species (Dunaliella tertiolecta, Chlorella vulgaris, Thalassiosira weissflogii, and Isochrysis galbana), representing four different phyla were grown with CO2 enriched air or with a mixture of gasses mimicking the composition of a typical cement flue gas (CFG). In a second stage, the culture submitted to the CFG received an increasing concentration of dust characteristic of cement industry. Results show that growth for the four species is not affected by the CFG. Dust added at realistic concentrations do not have any impact on growth. For dust concentrations in two ranges of magnitude higher, microalgae growth was inhibited. PMID:23811523

  9. Evaluation of the phytotoxicity of polycontaminated industrial effluents using the lettuce plant (Lactuca sativa) as a bioindicator.

    PubMed

    Charles, Jérémie; Sancey, Bertrand; Morin-Crini, Nadia; Badot, Pierre-Marie; Degiorgi, François; Trunfio, Giuseppe; Crini, Grégorio

    2011-10-01

    Industrial wastewater containing heavy metals is generally decontaminated by physicochemical treatment consisting in insolublizing the contaminants and separating the two phases, water and sludge, by a physical process (filtration, settling or flotation). However, chemical precipitation does not usually remove the whole pollution load and the effluent discharged into the environment can be toxic even if it comes up to regulatory standards. To assess the impact of industrial effluent from 4 different surface treatment companies, we performed standardized bioassays using seeds of the lettuce Lactuca sativa. We measured the rate of germination, and the length and mass of the lettuce plantlet. The results were used to compare the overall toxicity of the different effluents: effluents containing copper and nickel had a much higher impact than those containing zinc or aluminum. In addition, germination tests conducted using synthetic solutions confirmed that mixtures of metals have higher toxicity than the sum of their separate constituents. These biological tests are cheap, easy to implement, reproducible and highlight the effects caused by effluent treated with the methods commonly applied in industry today. They could be routinely used to check the impact of industrial discharges, even when they meet regulatory requirements for the individual metals. PMID:21835466

  10. Effect of marble industry effluent on seed germination, post germinative growth and productivity of Zea mays L.

    PubMed

    Akbar, Fazal; Hadi, Fazal; Ullah, Zakir; Zia, Muhammad Amir

    2007-11-15

    A green house study was conducted at the University of Malakand, NWFP, Pakistan to evaluate the effect of marble industry effluent on soil pH, germination, post germinative growth and productivity of maize. The experiment was conducted in triplicate form for each treatment and tape water was used as control (T0). Effluents were diluted with tap water at concentration of 20% (T1), 40% (T2), 60% (T3), 80% (T4) and also used 100% (T5) concentration in 4 kg soil pot(-1) and plants were grown for 90 days. Results showed that there was a linear increase in pH of soil with increase in effluent concentration while germination, root length and stem girth was enhanced and found maximum at 40% concentration of effluent applied. The shoot length and root dry biomass was depressed as compared to control. It is concluded from the present study that marble industry effluent can be used as a fertilizer in low concentration especially for highly acidic soil but there is still need to carry out series of greenhouse and field trials to ascertain the fertilizer potentials of this effluent for maize crop. PMID:19090297

  11. Low effluent processing in the pulp and paper industry: Electrodialysis for continuous selective chloride removal

    SciTech Connect

    Pfromm, P.H.

    1997-12-01

    Pollution prevention is currently a major focus of the United States pulp and paper industry. Significant process changes are inevitable to implement low effluent processing. The kraft pulping process is prevalent for the production of wood pulp. About 50 million tons of wood pulp are produced annually in the United States alone using the kraft process. Water consumption is currently roughly between 30 and 200 m{sup 3} of water per ton of air dry bleached kraft pulp. In-process recycling of water is now being implemented by many mills to reduce the use of increasingly scarce water resources and to reduce the need for waste-water treatment. Mass balance considerations and industrial experience show that nonprocess elements, which are detrimental to the kraft process, such as chloride and potassium, will quickly build up once water use is significantly reduced. High concentrations of chloride and potassium can cause corrosion and lead to more frequent mill shutdowns due to fouling of heat exchanger surfaces in the kraft recovery furnace. Electrodialysis will monovalent selective anion and cation exchange membranes was explored here to selectively remove chlorine as sodium and potassium chloride from a feed stream with very high ionic strength. Experiments with model solutions and extended tests with the actual pulp mill materials were performed. Very good selectivities and current efficiencies were observed for chloride over sulfate. The outstanding performance of the process with actual mill materials containing organic and inorganic contamination shows great promise for rapid transfer to the pilot scale. This work is an example of the usefulness of membrane separations as a kidney in low effluent industrial processing.

  12. Identification of a new N-nitrosodimethylamine precursor in sewage containing industrial effluents.

    PubMed

    Kosaka, Koji; Asami, Mari; Ohkubo, Keiko; Iwamoto, Takuji; Tanaka, Yasuo; Koshino, Hiroyuki; Echigo, Shinya; Akiba, Michihiro

    2014-10-01

    N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), a potential human carcinogen, is known to be a disinfection byproduct of chloramination and ozonation. NDMA is formed during ozonation at water purification plants in the Yodo River basin, a major drinking water source in western Japan. An NDMA precursor, 1,1,5,5-tetramethylcarbohydrazide (TMCH) was identified in sewage containing industrial effluents via ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry, as well as nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The mean of the NDMA molar formation yield of TMCH upon ozonation in four water matrices was 140%. TMCH removal was low during biological treatment processes at a sewage treatment plant. The mean TMCH contribution to total NDMA precursors upon ozonation of the primary, secondary, and final effluents of the sewage treatment plant in January and February of 2014 was 43-72%, 51-72%, and 42-60%, respectively, while the contributions of 4,4'-hexamethylenebis(1,1-dimethylsemicarbazide) and 1,1,1',1'-tetramethyl-4,4'-(methylene-di-p-phenylene)disemicarbazide, two other known NDMA precursors, were limited to 0.6% and 6.9%, respectively. Thus, TMCH was identified as the primary precursor yielding NDMA upon ozonation in the Yodo River basin. PMID:25184404

  13. Temporal and spatial changes of microbial community in an industrial effluent receiving area in Hangzhou Bay.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Chen, Lujun; Sun, Renhua; Dai, Tianjiao; Tian, Jinping; Zheng, Wei; Wen, Donghui

    2016-06-01

    Anthropogenic activities usually contaminate water environments, and have led to the eutrophication of many estuaries and shifts in microbial communities. In this study, the temporal and spatial changes of the microbial community in an industrial effluent receiving area in Hangzhou Bay were investigated by 454 pyrosequencing. The bacterial community showed higher richness and biodiversity than the archaeal community in all sediments. Proteobacteria dominated in the bacterial communities of all the samples; Marine_Group_I and Methanomicrobia were the two dominant archaeal classes in the effluent receiving area. PCoA and AMOVA revealed strong seasonal but minor spatial changes in both bacterial and archaeal communities in the sediments. The seasonal changes of the bacterial community were less significant than those of the archaeal community, which mainly consisted of fluctuations in abundance of a large proportion of longstanding species rather than the appearance and disappearance of major archaeal species. Temperature was found to positively correlate with the dominant bacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and negatively correlate with the dominant archaea, Marine_Group_I; and might be the primary driving force for the seasonal variation of the microbial community. PMID:27266302

  14. Zero Discharge Performance of an Industrial Pilot-Scale Plant Treating Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, Qaisar; Qiu, Jiang-Ping; Li, Yin-Sheng; Chang, Yoon-Seong; Chi, Li-Na; Li, Xu-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Palm oil is one of the most important agroindustries in Malaysia. Huge quantities of palm oil mill effluent (POME) pose a great threat to aqueous environment due to its very high COD. To make full use of discharged wastes, the integrated “zero discharge” pilot-scale industrial plant comprising “pretreatment-anaerobic and aerobic process-membrane separation” was continuously operated for 1 year. After pretreatment in the oil separator tank, 55.6% of waste oil in raw POME could be recovered and sold and anaerobically digested through 2 AnaEG reactors followed by a dissolved air flotation (DAF); average COD reduced to about 3587 mg/L, and biogas production was 27.65 times POME injection which was used to generate electricity. The aerobic effluent was settled for 3 h or/and treated in MBR which could remove BOD3 (30°C) to less than 20 mg/L as required by Department of Environment of Malaysia. After filtration by UF and RO membrane, all organic compounds and most of the salts were removed; RO permeate could be reused as the boiler feed water. RO concentrate combined with anaerobic surplus sludge could be used as biofertilizer. PMID:25685798

  15. Zero discharge performance of an industrial pilot-scale plant treating palm oil mill effluent.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin; Mahmood, Qaisar; Qiu, Jiang-Ping; Li, Yin-Sheng; Chang, Yoon-Seong; Chi, Li-Na; Li, Xu-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Palm oil is one of the most important agroindustries in Malaysia. Huge quantities of palm oil mill effluent (POME) pose a great threat to aqueous environment due to its very high COD. To make full use of discharged wastes, the integrated "zero discharge" pilot-scale industrial plant comprising "pretreatment-anaerobic and aerobic process-membrane separation" was continuously operated for 1 year. After pretreatment in the oil separator tank, 55.6% of waste oil in raw POME could be recovered and sold and anaerobically digested through 2 AnaEG reactors followed by a dissolved air flotation (DAF); average COD reduced to about 3587 mg/L, and biogas production was 27.65 times POME injection which was used to generate electricity. The aerobic effluent was settled for 3 h or/and treated in MBR which could remove BOD3 (30°C) to less than 20 mg/L as required by Department of Environment of Malaysia. After filtration by UF and RO membrane, all organic compounds and most of the salts were removed; RO permeate could be reused as the boiler feed water. RO concentrate combined with anaerobic surplus sludge could be used as biofertilizer. PMID:25685798

  16. Glyphosate degradation by immobilized bacteria: field studies with industrial wastewater effluent.

    PubMed Central

    Hallas, L E; Adams, W J; Heitkamp, M A

    1992-01-01

    Immobilized bacteria have been shown in the laboratory to effectively remove glyphosate from wastewater effluent discharged from an activated sludge treatment system. Bacterial consortia in lab columns maintained a 99% glyphosate-degrading activity (GDA) at a hydraulic residence time of less than 20 min. In this study, a pilot plant (capacity, 45 liters/min) was used for a field demonstration. Initially, activated sludge was enriched for microbes with GDA during a 3-week biocarrier activation period. Wastewater effluent was then spiked with glyphosate and NH4Cl and recycled through the pilot plant column during start-up. Microbes with GDA were enhanced by maintaining the pH at less than 8 and adding yeast extract (less than 10 mg/liter). Once the consortia were stabilized, the column capacity for glyphosate removal was determined in a 60-day continuous-flow study. Waste containing 50 mg of glyphosate per liter was pumped at increasing flow rates until a steady state was reached. A microbial GDA of greater than 90% was achieved at a 10-min hydraulic residence time (144 hydraulic turnovers per day). Additional studies showed that microbes with GDA were recoverable within (i) 5 days of an acid shock and (ii) 3 days after a 21-day dormancy (low-flow, low-maintenance) mode. These results suggest that full-scale use of immobilized bacteria can be a cost-effective and dependable technique for the biotreatment of industrial wastewater. PMID:1599241

  17. Remotion of organic compounds of actual industrial effluents by electron beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampa, M. H. O.; Duarte, C. L.; Rela, P. R.; Somessari, E. S. R.; Silveira, C. G.; Azevedo, A. L.

    1998-06-01

    Organic compounds has been a great problem of environmental pollution, the traditional methods are not effecient on removing these compounds and most of them are deposited to ambient and stay there for long time causing problems to the environment. Ionizing radiation has been used with success to destroy organic molecules. Actual industrial effluents were irradiated using IPEN's electron beam wastewater pilot plant to study organic compounds degradation. The samples were irradiated with and without air mixture by different doses. Irradiation treatment efficiency was evaluated by the Cromatography Gas Analyses of the samples before and after irradiation. The studied organic compounds were: phenol, chloroform, tetrachloroethylene (PCE), carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethylene (TCE), 1,1-dichloroethane, dichloromethane, benzene, toluene and xilene. A degradation superior to 80% was achieved for the majority of the compounds with air addition and 2kGy delivered dose condition. For the samples that were irradiated without air addition the degradation was higher.

  18. Elimination of As, Hg and Zn from synthetic solutions and industrial effluents using modified bark

    SciTech Connect

    Gaballah, I.; Kilbertus, G.

    1995-08-01

    Elimination of arsenic, mercury and zinc from synthetic solutions containing H{sub 3}AsO{sub 4}, HgCl{sub 2} and ZnCl{sub 2} using modified barks was investigated. The pH range was varied from 1 to 10. The initial concentrations of individual element were 10, 100 and 1,000 ppm. More than 99% of mercury and 65% of zinc cations were removed by the modified bark. In this case, the modified bark reacts as a cation exchanger leading to the release of two protons for every Hg{sup II} or Zn{sup II} fixed by this material. About 30% of arsenic was eliminated from the solution. This low efficiency could be attributed to the presence of arsenic as anion. Decontamination of a treated industrial effluent containing 4 ppm of ion metals was performed on a pilot scale by the modified bark. More than 70% of these ion metals were eliminated.

  19. Economic impact analysis of effluent limitations and standards for plastics molding and forming industry. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-12-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency issued effluent limitations and standards in December, 1984, for the Plastics Molding and Forming Industry. The report estimates the economic impacts associated with pollution control costs. Plant-specific treatment costs for 20 percent of the impacted plants are compared to estimated pre-tax plant income to assess the impact of treatment costs on plant liquidity. Then a closure analysis is performed, comparing the current salvage value of the plant's assets with the present value of the plant's cash flow plus the terminal value of its assets. The results are extrapolated to the 558 plants which, as direct dischargers, would be impacted. The results of this plant-level analysis are used to assess the indirect impacts of the regulation, e.g., price changes, unemployment and shifts, in the balance of foreign trade.

  20. Dye removal from textile industrial effluents by adsorption on exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets: kinetic and equilibrium studies.

    PubMed

    Carvallho, Marilda N; da Silva, Karolyne S; Sales, Deivson C S; Freire, Eleonora M P L; Sobrinho, Maurício A M; Ghislandi, Marcos G

    2016-01-01

    The concept of physical adsorption was applied for the removal of direct and reactive blue textile dyes from industrial effluents. Commercial graphite nanoplatelets were used as substrate, and the quality of the material was characterized by atomic force and transmission electron microscopies. Dye/graphite nanoplatelets water solutions were prepared varying their pH and initial dye concentration. Exceptionally high values (beyond 100 mg/L) for adsorptive capacity of graphite nanoplatelets could be achieved without complicated chemical modifications, and equilibrium and kinetic experiments were performed. Our findings were compared with the state of the art, and compared with theoretical models. Agreement between them was satisfactory, and allowed us to propose novel considerations describing the interactions of the dyes and the graphene planar structure. The work highlights the important role of these interactions, which can govern the mobility of the dye molecules and the amount of layers that can be stacked on the graphite nanoplatelets surface. PMID:27148721

  1. Removal of chromium from tannery industry effluents with (activated carbon and fly ash) adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Rao, S; Lade, H S; Kadam, T A; Ramana, T V; Krishnamacharyulu, S K G; Deshmukh, S; Gyananath, G

    2007-10-01

    Adsorption is a strong choice for removal operations as it is very simple to recover a high quality product from waste sludge. The efficiency of adsorbents like fly ash and activated carbon are tested based on their performance to remove chrome at various pH values, bed heights, and concentration of adsorbents. The removal efficiency was also tested for wastewater characteristics in a pilot plant in addition to the use of adsorbents. The concentration of chromium was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer (Perkin Elmer). The results depicted that the efficiency of removal increased with increasing pH and bed height and decreased with increasing concentration. The removal efficiency with fly ash as an adsorbent was comparatively better than activatedcarbon. Thus, adsorbents can be used for chromium removal from tannery industry effluent. PMID:18476371

  2. Effluent treatment in the textile industry: excluding dyes. January 1983-January 1989 (Citations from World Textile Abstracts). Report for January 1983-January 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-02-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile-industry effluents. Effluents that contain dyes are discussed in a separate bibliography. Recovery of lubricants, lye, sizing agents, polyvinyl alcohol, zinc, dirt, and heat from textile effluents are discussed. Air and water pollution control technology that is effective in treating textile effluents is discussed. Effluents from synthetic-fiber manufacture and wool-scouring processes are emphasized. (This updated bibliography contains 300 citations, 84 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  3. Evaluation of aquatic toxicities of chromium and chromium-containing effluents in reference to chromium electroplating industries.

    PubMed

    Baral, A; Engelken, R; Stephens, W; Farris, J; Hannigan, R

    2006-05-01

    This study evaluated aquatic toxicities of chromium and chromium-containing laboratory samples representative of effluents from chromium electroplating industries, and compared the aquatic environmental risks of hexavalent and trivalent chromium electroplating operations. Trivalent chromium electroplating has emerged as an acceptable alternative to hazardous hexavalent chromium electroplating. This process substitution has reduced the human health impact in the workplace and minimized the production of hazardous sludge regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The thrust behind this research was to investigate whether trivalent chromium electroplating operations have lower adverse impacts on standardized toxicity test organisms. Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas were used to investigate toxicities of trivalent chromium (Cr (III)), hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI)), and industrial effluents. In agreement with previous studies, Cr (III) was found to be less toxic than Cr (VI). Despite having several organic and inorganic constituents in the effluents obtained from trivalent chromium plating baths, they exhibited less adverse effects to C. dubia than effluents obtained from hexavalent chromium electroplating baths. Thus, transition from hexavalent to trivalent chromium electroplating processes may be justified. However, because of the presence of organic constituents such as formate, oxalate, and triethylene glycol in effluents, trivalent chromium electroplating operations may face additional regulatory requirements for removal of total organic carbon. PMID:16418891

  4. Pulping effluents: Biological treatment. (Latest citations from the Paper and Board, Printing, and Packaging Industries Research Associations database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning effluent and wastewater biological treatment and disposal in the pulping industry. Effluent toxicity; treatment plant management, treatment systems, and equipment design; combined mechanical and biological treatment processes; biological degradation treatment in chemical pulp mills; and the handling and disposal of solid wastes are among the topics discussed. Also examined are performance evaluations of biological treatment processes in domestic and foreign plants in full scale operation and pilot programs. (Contains a minimum of 168 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  5. Sequential in situ hydrotalcite precipitation and biological denitrification for the treatment of high-nitrate industrial effluent.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ka Yu; Kaksonen, Anna H; Douglas, Grant B

    2014-11-01

    A sequential process using hydrotalcite precipitation and biological denitrification was evaluated for the treatment of a magnesium nitrate (Mg(NO3)2)-rich effluent (17,000mgNO3(-)-N/L, 13,100mgMg/L) generated from an industrial nickel-mining process. The hydrotalcite precipitation removed 41% of the nitrate (7000mgNO3(-)-N/L) as an interlayer anion with an approximate formula of Mg5Al2(OH)14(NO3)2·6H2O. The resultant solute chemistry was a Na-NO3-Cl type with low trace element concentrations. The partially treated effluent was continuously fed (hydraulic retention time of 24h) into a biological fluidised bed reactor (FBR) with sodium acetate as a carbon source for 33days (1:1 v/v dilution). The FBR enabled >70% nitrate removal and a maximal NOx (nitrate+nitrite) removal rate of 97mg NOx-N/Lh under alkaline conditions (pH 9.3). Overall, this sequential process reduced the nitrate concentration of the industrial effluent by >90% and thus represents an efficient method to treat Mg(NO3)2-rich effluents on an industrial scale. PMID:25280045

  6. Transcriptional response of stress-regulated genes to industrial effluent exposure in the cockle Cerastoderma glaucum.

    PubMed

    Karray, Sahar; Tastard, Emmanuelle; Moreau, Brigitte; Delahaut, Laurence; Geffard, Alain; Guillon, Emmanuel; Denis, Françoise; Hamza-Chaffai, Amel; Chénais, Benoît; Marchand, Justine

    2015-11-01

    This study assessed the responses of molecular biomarkers and heavy metal levels in Cerastoderma glaucum exposed for 1 week to two industrial effluents (1%) discharged into the Tunisian coastal area, F1 and F2, produced by different units of production of a phosphate treatment plant. A significant uptake of metals (Cd, Cu, Zn, and Ni) was observed in exposed cockles compared to controls, with an uptake higher for F1 than for F2. A decrease in LT50 (stress on stress test) was also observed after an exposure to the effluent F1. Treatments resulted in different patterns of messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of the different genes tested in this report. Gene transcription monitoring performed on seven genes potentially involved in the tolerance to metal exposure showed that for both exposures, mechanisms are rapidly and synchronically settled down to prevent damage to cellular components, by (1) handling and exporting out metal ions through the up-regulation of ATP-binding cassette xenobiotic transporter (ABCB1) and metallothionein (MT), (2) increasing the mRNA expression of antioxidant enzymes (catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutases, CuZnSOD and MnSOD), (3) protecting and/or repairing proteins through the expression of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) mRNAs, and (4) increasing ATP production (through the up-regulation of cytochrome c oxidase 1 (CO1)) to provide energy for cells to tolerate stress exposure. The tools developed may be useful both for future control strategies and for the use of the cockle C. glaucum as a sentinel species. PMID:25613800

  7. Supporting data for identification of biosurfactant-producing bacteria isolated from agro-food industrial effluent

    PubMed Central

    Fulazzaky, Mohamad Ali; Abdullah, Shakila; Salim, Mohd Razman

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to identify the biosurfactant-producing bacteria isolated from agro-food industrial effluet. The identification of the potential bacterial strain using a polymerase chain reaction of the 16S rRNA gene analysis was closely related to Serratia marcescens with its recorded strain of SA30 “Fundamentals of mass transfer and kinetics for biosorption of oil and grease from agro-food industrial effluent by Serratia marcescens SA30” (Fulazzaky et al., 2015) [1]; however, many biochemical tests have not been published yet. The biochemical tests of biosurfactant production, haemolytic assay and cell surface hydrophobicity were performed to investigate the beneficial strain of biosurfactant-producing bacteria. Here we do share data collected from the biochemical tests to get a better understanding of the use of Serratia marcescens SA30 to degrade oil, which contributes the technical features of strengthening the biological treatment of oil-contaminated wastewater in tropical environments. PMID:27077083

  8. CRIER, a relative analysis tool for preliminary screening of complex industrial waste and effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, P.D.; Brucher, S.; Melanson, P.

    1994-12-31

    CRIER (Chemrisk, a Relative Index for Evaluating Risk), a Windows{trademark}-based program for the preliminary screening of potential risk to aquatic ecosystems, has been developed at the Center of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology (CECE) in Concordia. This tool, originally designed for environmental management government bodies, was designed to screen chemical compounds found in industrial aqueous effluents, for their potential to cause harm to some selected target species such as the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). This revised model will be applicable in both regulatory and industrial managements as an expert system that provides an assessment based on the most up-to-date toxicological information regarding each compound. Some major characteristics include the consideration of partitioning, plume effect, bioavailability and bioconcentration capacity in producing an evaluation of potential for harm to freshwater species. When parameters are empirically unavailable from the diverse databases, QSARs are used to produce theoretical preliminary estimates of the missing values. one aspect of the model allows consideration of the combined toxicity of organic congeners. Case studies are used in demonstrating the capacities of this model.

  9. Bioprospection and selection of bacteria isolated from environments contaminated with petrochemical residues for application in bioremediation.

    PubMed

    Cerqueira, Vanessa S; Hollenbach, Emanuel B; Maboni, Franciele; Camargo, Flávio A O; Peralba, Maria do Carmo R; Bento, Fátima M

    2012-03-01

    The use of microorganisms with hydrocarbon degrading capability and biosurfactant producers have emerged as an alternative for sustainable treatment of environmental passives. In this study 45 bacteria were isolated from samples contaminated with petrochemical residues, from which 21 were obtained from Landfarming soil contaminated with oily sludge, 11 were obtained from petrochemical industry effluents and 13 were originated directly from oily sludge. The metabolization capability of different carbon sources, growth capacity and tolerance, biosurfactant production and enzymes detection were determined. A preliminary selection carried out through the analysis of capability for degrading hydrocarbons showed that 22% of the isolates were able to degrade all carbon sources employed. On the other hand, in 36% of the isolates, the degradation of the oily sludge started within 18-48 h. Those isolates were considered as the most efficient ones. Twenty isolates, identified based on partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, were pre-selected. These isolates showed ability for growing in a medium containing 1% of oily sludge as the sole carbon source, tolerance in a medium containing up to 30% of oily sludge, ability for biosurfactant production, and expression of enzymes involved in degradation of aliphatic and aromatic compounds. Five bacteria, identified as Stenotrophomonas acidaminiphila BB5, Bacillus megaterium BB6, Bacillus cibi, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Bacillus cereus BS20 were shown to be promising for use as inoculum in bioremediation processes (bioaugmentation) of areas contaminated with petrochemical residues since they can use oily sludge as the sole carbon source and produce biosurfactants. PMID:22805841

  10. Whole acute toxicity removal from industrial and domestic effluents treated by electron beam radiation: emphasis on anionic surfactants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moraes, M. C. F.; Romanelli, M. F.; Sena, H. C.; Pasqualini da Silva, G.; Sampa, M. H. O.; Borrely, S. I.

    2004-09-01

    Electron beam radiation has been applied to improve real industrial and domestic effluents received by Suzano wastewater treatment plant. Radiation efficacy has been evaluated as toxicity reduction, using two biological assays. Three sites were sampled and submitted for toxicity assays, anionic surfactant determination and electron beam irradiation. This paper shows the reduction of acute toxicity for both test-organisms, the marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri and the crustacean Daphnia similis. The raw toxic effluents exibitted from 0.6 ppm up to 11.67 ppm for anionic surfactant before being treated by the electron beam. Radiation processing resulted in reduction of the acute toxicity as well as surfactant removal. The final biological effluent was in general less toxic than other sites but the presence of anionic surfactants was evidenced.

  11. Toxicity effects of nickel electroplating effluents treated by photoelectrooxidation in the industries of the Sinos River Basin.

    PubMed

    Benvenuti, T; Rodrigues, Mas; Arenzon, A; Bernardes, A M; Zoppas-Ferreira, J

    2015-05-01

    The Sinos river Basin is an industrial region with many tanneries and electroplating plants in southern Brazil. The wastewater generated by electroplating contains high loads of salts and metals that have to be treated before discharge. After conventional treatment, this study applied an advanced oxidative process to degrade organic additives in the electroplating bright nickel baths effluent. Synthetic rinsing water was submitted to physical-chemical coagulation for nickel removal. The sample was submitted to ecotoxicity tests, and the effluent was treated by photoelectrooxidation (PEO). The effects of current density and treatment time were evaluated. The concentration of total organic carbon (TOC) was 38% lower. The toxicity tests of the effluent treated using PEO revealed that the organic additives were partially degraded and the concentration that is toxic for test organisms was reduced. PMID:26270209

  12. Usefulness of sediment toxicity tests with estuarine plants and animals to indicate municipal and industrial effluent impact

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, M.A.; Weber, D.E.

    1994-12-31

    The environmental impact of municipal and industrial effluents has been predicted from results from single species toxicity tests. The goal of these tests is to ensure that water quality criteria and the designated use of the waterbody is not impacted. Recently, the focus of some effluent toxicity evaluation has centered on determining the effluent impact on the sediment in the receiving water. This study evaluated the toxicities of several sediment samples collected above and below six outfalls to the Pensacola Bay system. Toxicities were determined using three macrophytic plants and four animal species. The sediments, with few exceptions, exhibited a low level of toxicity. The mysid shrimp was more sensitive than Ampelisca, Leptocheirus and the sheepshead minnow. The sensitivities of the plants, Echinochloa crusgalli, Scirpus robustus and Sesbania macrocarpa, were comparable to those of the animal species. The toxicity of time sediment, when compared to that of the effluent, determined using standard single species of plants and animals was less. Overall, the sediment toxicity tests were useful in providing insight on the impact of effluents. However, the application and usefulness of this assessment tool is highly dependent upon a variety of factors, including the geomorphological characteristics of the receiving waters.

  13. Chromium in tannery industry effluent and its effect on plant metabolism and growth.

    PubMed

    Nath, Kamlesh; Saini, Sonia; Sharma, Yogesh Kumar

    2005-04-01

    Different dilution levels of tannery treated effluent and their corresponding concentration of chromium (Cr6+) were studied in a petridish culture experiment on seed germination and seedling growth in radish (Raphanus sativus L). The different concentrations of Cr6+ (2, 5 and 10 ppm) and treated tannery effluent (10, 25 and 50%) showed reduction in seedling growth and related enzymatic activities with increase in concentration of Cr6+ in treatments and effluent both. The low concentration of chromium (2 ppm) and effluent dilution (10%) showed significant growth reduction separately. At this concentration of chromium and effluent dilution chlorophyll content, amylase, catalase and protein contents remained unchanged while with increase in Cr6+ concentration (>2ppm) and effluent dilution (> 10%) in treatments showed growth inhibitory effects. PMID:16161973

  14. Reduction in the estrogenic activity of a treated sewage effluent discharge to an English river as a result of a decrease in the concentration of industrially derived surfactants.

    PubMed

    Sheahan, David A; Brighty, Geoff C; Daniel, Mic; Jobling, Susan; Harries, Jule E; Hurst, Mark R; Kennedy, Joe; Kirby, Sonia J; Morris, Steven; Routledge, Edwin J; Sumpter, John P; Waldock, Michael J

    2002-03-01

    As a result of the introduction of tighter discharge limits and effluent treatment processes at source, the concentration of alkylphenol ethoxylates and nonylphenol present in the final effluent discharge from a sewage treatment works that treats trade effluent from the textiles industry was reduced. The estrogenic effects of the final effluent discharge to the Aire River were compared over a four-year period during which various treatment measures were introduced. Male rainbow trout exposed to the effluent on four occasions in consecutive years (1994-1997) showed a reduction in the level of induced vitellogenesis between 1994 and 1997. A marked decrease in gonadosomatic index (GSI) and increase in heptaosomatic index (HSI) was measured in fish exposed to the effluent in 1994. In successive years, these differences diminished, and in the case of the GSI no measurable difference was observed between fish exposed to the final effluent or those in the control group in 1997. However, an increase in HSI was still measurable in 1997 in fish exposed to the final effluent and at sites farther downstream. The reduction in the effects of the effluent paralleled the reduction in the concentration of nonylphenol as well as its mono- and diethoxylates, which have been demonstrated to produce estrogenic effects in trout exposed to these compounds in the laboratory. This study demonstrates that the setting of more restricted discharge limits for known estrogenic chemicals of industrial origin can lead to significant reductions in the estrogenic activity of the watercourses into which the effluents are discharged. PMID:11878464

  15. Assessment of heavy metals in the industrial effluents, tube-wells and municipal supplied water of Dehradun, India.

    PubMed

    Kulshrestha, Shail; Awasthi, Alok; Dabral, S K

    2013-07-01

    The bio-geochemical cycles of metals involve the lands, rivers, oceans and the atmosphere. Although a large number of metals are introduced to the water bodies during their mining and extraction processes and geochemical weathering of rocks, but the role of domestic and industrial wastes is predominant and of much concern. Increased industrial activities has increased the incidence of percolation of toxic metal ions to the soil and water bodies and presently their presence in ecosystem, have reached to an alarming level that environmentalists are finding it difficult to enforce control measures. Human activities and large number of small and big industrial units are increasingly discharging deleterious metals present in the effluents and wastes, to the environment and aquatic systems and have contaminated heavily even the ground water. The toxic metals have a great tendency of bioaccumulation through which they enter the food chain system and ultimately affect adversely the life on this planet Earth in various ways. Further, due to contamination of irrigation system by the harmful Chemicals and toxic metals, the farm products, vegetables, fruits, potable water and even milk is not spared. This paper describes the assessment of the heavy metal concentration in various industrial effluents of the surrounding area. Various physico-chemical characteristics of the effluents collected from various sites are also reported. To assess the status of ground water quality, water samples from four tube wells of different localities of the area and four drinking water samples supplied by Municipal Distribution System were also analyzed. PMID:25509947

  16. Nanocelluloses and their phosphorylated derivatives for selective adsorption of Ag(+), Cu(2+) and Fe(3+) from industrial effluents.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng; Borrell, Pere Ferrer; Božič, Mojca; Kokol, Vanja; Oksman, Kristiina; Mathew, Aji P

    2015-08-30

    The potential of nanoscaled cellulose and enzymatically phosphorylated derivatives as bio-adsorbents to remove metal ions (Ag(+), Cu(2+) and Fe(3+)) from model water and industrial effluents is demonstrated. Introduction of phosphate groups onto nanocelluloses significantly improved the metal sorption velocity and sorption capacity. The removal efficiency was considered to be driven by the high surface area of these nanomaterials as well as the nature and density of functional groups on the nanocellulose surface. Generally, in the solutions containing only single types of metal ions, the metal ion selectivity was in the order Ag(+)>Cu(2+)>Fe(3+), while in the case of mixtures of ions, the order changed to Ag(+)>Fe(3+)>Cu(2+), irrespective of the surface functionality of the nanocellulose. In the case of industrial effluent from the mirror making industry, 99% removal of Cu(2+) and Fe(3+) by phosphorylated nanocellulose was observed. The study showed that phosphorylated nanocelluloses are highly efficient biomaterials for scavenging multiple metal ions, simultaneously, from industrial effluents. PMID:25867590

  17. [Advanced Treatment of Effluent from Industrial Park Wastewater Treatment Plant by Ferrous Ion Activated Sodium Persulfate].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Song-mei; Zhou, Zhen; Gu, Ling-yun; Jiang, Hai-tao; Ren, Jia-min; Wang, Luo-chun

    2016-01-15

    Fe(II) activated sodium persulfate (PS) technology was used for advanced treatment of effluent from industrial park wastewater treatment plant. Separate and combined effects of PS/COD, Fe(II)/PS and pH on COD and TOC removal were analyzed by the response surface methodology. Variations of organic substances before and after Fe(II)-PS oxidation were characterized by UV-Vis spectrometry, gel chromatography and three-dimensional fluorescence. PS/COD and Fe(II)/PS had significant effect on COD removal, while all the three factors had significant effect on TOC removal. The combined effect of PS/COD and pH had significant effect on COD removal. COD and TOC removal efficiencies reached 50.7% and 60.6% under optimized conditions of PS/COD 3.47, Fe(II)/PS 3.32 and pH 6.5. Fe(II)-PS oxidation converted macromolecular organic substances to small ones, and reduced contents of protein-, humic- and fulvic-like substances. PMID:27078964

  18. Palm oil mill effluent treatment and utilization to ensure the sustainability of palm oil industries.

    PubMed

    Hasanudin, U; Sugiharto, R; Haryanto, A; Setiadi, T; Fujie, K

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the current condition of palm oil mill effluent (POME) treatment and utilization and to propose alternative scenarios to improve the sustainability of palm oil industries. The research was conducted through field survey at some palm oil mills in Indonesia, in which different waste management systems were used. Laboratory experiment was also carried out using a 5 m(3) pilot-scale wet anaerobic digester. Currently, POME is treated through anaerobic digestion without or with methane capture followed by utilization of treated POME as liquid fertilizer or further treatment (aerobic process) to fulfill the wastewater quality standard. A methane capturing system was estimated to successfully produce renewable energy of about 25.4-40.7 kWh/ton of fresh fruit bunches (FFBs) and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by about 109.41-175.35 kgCO2e/tonFFB (CO2e: carbon dioxide equivalent). Utilization of treated POME as liquid fertilizer increased FFB production by about 13%. A palm oil mill with 45 ton FFB/hour capacity has potential to generate about 0.95-1.52 MW of electricity. Coupling the POME-based biogas digester and anaerobic co-composting of empty fruit bunches (EFBs) is capable of adding another 0.93 MW. The utilization of POME and EFB not only increases the added value of POME and EFB by producing renewable energy, compost, and liquid fertilizer, but also lowers environmental burden. PMID:26398023

  19. Toxicity Identification and Evaluation for the Effluent from Wastewater Treatment Plant in Industrial Complex using D.magna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Keum, H.; Chun Sang, H.

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, the interests on the impacts of industrial wastewater on aquatic ecosystem have increased with concern about ecosystem protection and human health. Whole effluent toxicity tests are used to monitor toxicity by unknown toxic chemicals as well as conventional pollutants from industrial effluent discharges. This study describes the application of TIE (toxicity identification evaluation) procedures to an acutely toxic effluent from a wastewater treatment plant in industrial complex which was toxic to Daphnia magna. In TIE phase I (characterization step), the toxic effects by heavy metals, organic compounds, oxidants, volatile organic compounds, suspended solids and ammonia were screened and revealed that the source of toxicity is far from these toxicants group. Chemical analysis (TIE phase II) on TDS showed that the concentration of chloride ion (6,900 mg/L) was substantially higher than that predicted from EC50 for D. magna. In confirmation step (TIE phase III), chloride ion was demonstrated to be main toxicant in this effluent by the spiking approach, species sensitivity approach and deletion approach. Calcium, potassium, magnesium, sodium, fluorine, sulfate ion concentration (450, 100, 80, 5,300, 0.66, 2,200mg/L) was not shown toxicity from D. magna. Finally, we concluded that chloride was the most contributing toxicant in the waste water treatment plant. Further research activities are needed for technical support of toxicity identification and evaluation on the various types of wastewater treatment plant discharge in Korea. Keywords : TIE, D. magna, Industrial waste water Acknowledgement This research was supported by a grant (15IFIP-B089908-02) from Plant Research Program funded by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport of Korean government

  20. Removal of Cd(II) ions from aqueous solution and industrial effluent using reverse osmosis and nanofiltration membranes.

    PubMed

    Kheriji, Jamel; Tabassi, Dorra; Hamrouni, Béchir

    2015-01-01

    Industrial effluents loaded with cadmium have contributed to the pollution of the environment and health troubles for humans. Therefore, these effluents need treatment to reduce cadmium concentration before releasing them to public sewage. The purpose of the research is to study the major role of reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) processes, which can contribute to the removal of cadmium ions from model water and wastewater from the battery industry. For this reason, two RO and two nanofiltration membranes have been used. The effects of feed pressure, concentration, ionic strength, nature of anion associated with cadmium and pH on the retention of Cd(II) were studied with model solutions. Thereafter, NF and RO membranes were used to reduce cadmium ions and total salinity of battery industry effluent. Among these membranes, there are only three which eliminate more than 95% of cadmium. This was found to depend on operating conditions. It is worth noting that the Spiegler-Kedem model was applied to fit the experimental results. PMID:26398037

  1. Assessment of the effluent quality from a gold mining industry in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Acheampong, Mike A; Paksirajan, Kannan; Lens, Piet N L

    2013-06-01

    The physical and chemical qualities of the process effluent and the tailings dam wastewater of AngloGold-Ashanti Limited, a gold mining company in Ghana, were studied from June to September, 2010. The process effluent from the gold extraction plant contains high amounts of suspended solids and is therefore highly turbid. Arsenic, copper and cyanide were identified as the major pollutants in the process effluent with average concentrations of 10.0, 3.1 and 21.6 mg L(-1), respectively. Arsenic, copper, iron and free cyanide (CN(-)) concentrations in the process effluent exceeded the Ghana EPA discharge limits; therefore, it is necessary to treat the process effluent before it can be discharged into the environment. Principal component analysis of the data indicated that the process effluent characteristics were influenced by the gold extraction process as well as the nature of the gold-bearing ore processed. No significant correlation was observed between the wastewater characteristics themselves, except for the dissolved oxygen and the biochemical oxygen demand. The process effluent is fed to the Sansu tailings dam, which removes 99.9 % of the total suspended solids and 99.7 % of the turbidity; but copper, arsenic and cyanide concentrations were still high. The effluent produced can be classified as inorganic with a high load of non-biodegradable compounds. It was noted that, though the Sansu tailings dam stores the polluted effluent from the gold extraction plant, there will still be serious environmental problems in the event of failure of the dam. PMID:23179219

  2. Studies on application of teak leaf powders for the removal of color from synthetic and industrial effluents.

    PubMed

    Ponnusami, V; Srivastava, S N

    2009-09-30

    Batch studies were conducted to investigate the potential of untreated teak leaf powder (TLP) to remove color from synthetic and industrial effluents. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were used to analyze the equilibrium data. Langmuir isotherm was found to be the best-fitting isotherm. The monolayer adsorption capacity was found to be 99.1, 145.2, 188.7 and 207.9 mg methyleneblue/gTLP at 293, 303, 313 and 323 K, respectively. It was also found from the thermodynamic analysis that the adsorption of methylene blue onto TLP was spontaneous, chemisorption and exothermic in nature. The color of the effluent was quantified in terms of the area under absorbance spectrum. Percentage color, COD and total dissolved solids (TDS) removed from a diluted effluent (10% effluent by vol.) were found to be 57.41, 45.95 and 49.46, respectively. The monolayer capacity was calculated in terms of TDS and was found to be 219 mg/g. PMID:19411138

  3. Remote identification and quantification of industrial smokestack effluents via imaging Fourier-transform spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Gross, Kevin C; Bradley, Kenneth C; Perram, Glen P

    2010-12-15

    Industrial smokestack plume emissions were remotely measured with a midwave infrared (1800-3000 cm(-1)) imaging Fourier-transform spectrometer operating at moderate spatial (128 × 64 with 19.4 × 19.4 cm(2) per pixel) and high spectral (0.25 cm(-1)) resolution over a 20 min period. Strong emissions from CO(2), H(2)O, SO(2), NO, HCl, and CO were observed. A single-layer plume radiative transfer model was used to estimate temperature T and effluent column densities q(i) for each pixel's spectrum immediately above the smokestack exit. Across the stack, temperature was uniform with T = 396.3 ± 1.3 K (mean ± stdev), and each q(i) varied in accordance with the plume path length defined by its cylindrical geometry. Estimated CO(2) and SO(2) volume fractions of 8.6 ± 0.4% and 380 ± 23 ppm(v), respectively, compared favorably with in situ measurements of 9.40 ± 0.03% and 383 ± 2 ppm(v). Total in situ NO(x) concentration (NO + NO(2)) was reported at 120 ± 1 ppm(v). While NO(2) was not spectrally detected, NO was remotely observed with a concentration of 104 ± 7 ppm(v). Concentration estimates for the unmonitored species CO, HCl, and H(2)O were 14.4 ± 0.3 ppm(v), 88 ± 1 ppm(v), and 4.7 ± 0.1%, respectively. PMID:21069951

  4. Regulatory impact assessment of proposed effluent guidelines and NESHAP for the pulp, paper, and paperboard industry. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The report has been prepared to comply with Executive Order 12866, which requires that federal agencies assess costs and benefits of each significant rule they propose or promulgate. The pulp and paper industry is the eighth largest manufacturing industry in the U.S. in terms of the value of goods shipped and third among the nondurables sector in sales. The products of this industry are used every day and involve many aspects of our lives. Approximately 200 companies are engaged in the manufacture of pulp, paper, and paperboard in the United States. These companies own and operate 565 facilities in 42 states. The pulp, paper, and paperboard industry is one of the largest users of water in the U.S.; because large quantities of water are used in making pulp and paper products, these mills recycle, treat and discharge large quantities of effluent water. The main categories of aquatic pollutants found in pulp and paper mill effluent are conventional pollutants, such as biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), and toxic pollutants such as chlorinated compounds. Conventional pollution abatement in the U.S. paper industry has focused on reducing solids and BOD.

  5. Petrochemicals for the nonchemical person

    SciTech Connect

    Burdick, D.L.; Leffler, W.L.

    1983-01-01

    Petrochemicals for the Nontechnical Person is the second book in a series designed to inform the curious novice or frustrated veteran of what petrochemicals are and how they're made. Contents include: The complete course in organic chemistry; Benzene, toluene, and the xylenes; Cyclohexane; Olefin plants; The C/sub 4/ hydrocarbon family; Cumene and phenol; Ethylbenzene and styrene; Ethylene dichloride and vinyl chloride; Ethylene oxide and ethylene glycol; Propylene oxide and propylene glycol; Methanol and synthesis gas; The other alcohols; Acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, and methyl isobutyl ketone; The acids; Acrylonitriles and the acrylates; Maleic anhydride; The nature of polymers; Thermoplastics; Resins and fibers; Index.

  6. Application of a continuously stirred tank bioreactor (CSTR) for bioremediation of hydrocarbon-rich industrial wastewater effluents.

    PubMed

    Gargouri, Boutheina; Karray, Fatma; Mhiri, Najla; Aloui, Fathi; Sayadi, Sami

    2011-05-15

    A continuously stirred tank bioreactor (CSTR) was used to optimize feasible and reliable bioprocess system in order to treat hydrocarbon-rich industrial wastewaters. A successful bioremediation was developed by an efficient acclimatized microbial consortium. After an experimental period of 225 days, the process was shown to be highly efficient in decontaminating the wastewater. The performance of the bioaugmented reactor was demonstrated by the reduction of COD rates up to 95%. The residual total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) decreased from 320 mg TPH l(-1) to 8 mg TPH l(-1). Analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) identified 26 hydrocarbons. The use of the mixed cultures demonstrated high degradation performance for hydrocarbons range n-alkanes (C10-C35). Six microbial isolates from the CSTR were characterized and species identification was confirmed by sequencing the 16S rRNA genes. The partial 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrated that 5 strains were closely related to Aeromonas punctata (Aeromonas caviae), Bacillus cereus, Ochrobactrum intermedium, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Rhodococcus sp. The 6th isolate was affiliated to genera Achromobacter. Besides, the treated wastewater could be considered as non toxic according to the phytotoxicity test since the germination index of Lepidium sativum ranged between 57 and 95%. The treatment provided satisfactory results and presents a feasible technology for the treatment of hydrocarbon-rich wastewater from petrochemical industries and petroleum refineries. PMID:21419572

  7. Increased risk of preterm delivery in areas with cancer mortality problems from petrochemical complexes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chun-Yuh; Chiu, Hui-Fen; Tsai, Shang-Shyue; Chang, Chih-Ching; Chuang, Hung-Yi

    2002-07-01

    The petrochemical and petroleum industries are the main sources of industrial air pollution in Taiwan. Data in this study concern outdoor air pollution and the health of individuals living in communities in close proximity to petrochemical industrial complexes. The prevalence of delivery of preterm birth infants was significantly higher in mothers living near petrochemical industrial complexes than in control mothers living elsewhere in Taiwan. After controlling for several possible confounders (including maternal age, season, marital status, maternal education, and infant sex), the adjusted odds ratio was 1.18 (95% CI=1.04-1.34) for delivery of preterm infants in the petrochemically polluted region. The data provide further support for the hypothesis that air pollution can affect the outcome of pregnancy. PMID:12176003

  8. The Level/Preventive Approach to Solving Technical and Economic Tasks as One of Directions in Development of the Enterprises of Oil Refining and Petrochemical Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damineva, R.; Daminev, R.; Karimov, O.

    2016-06-01

    In this work, as a tool of strategy generation in development of industrial enterprise, a methodological approach is considered, that allows the choosing the best path of development among many solutions of technical and economic tasks, taking into account both the interests of enterprises and of society as a whole.

  9. Assessment of microbial quality of fish processing industrial effluent in bar-mouth at Bhidia landing site, Veraval, Gujarat, India.

    PubMed

    Sivaraman, G K; Visnuvinayagam, S; Jha, Ashish Kumar; Renuka, V; Remya, S; Vanik, Deesha

    2016-07-01

    The present study was carried out to assess the microbial quality of fish processing industries effluent at Bhidia bar-mouth, Veraval, Gujarat during April, 2012 to March 2013. The total viable bacterial count (TVBC), total Enterobacteriaceae count, E. coli count (EC), Staphylococcus aureus and Fecal Streptococcal count in effluent ranged from 3.0 x 10(-1) to 6.8 x 10(6), 9.0 x 10(1) to 2.9 x 10(4), 0 to 0. 5 x 10(4), 0 to 0. 4 x 102 and 0.3 x 10(1) to 0. 1 x 10(4) cfu.(-1)respectively. Significantly higher load of TEC, E. coli, S.aureus, Fecal Streptococci, Total coliforms and Fecal coliforms were higher during summer whereas, TVBC was higher in the month of Sept.-Oct. Furthermore, the total coliform and fecal coliform counts were found to be higher with 1400+ /100 ml MPN value throughout the year of the study, except in the month of August. Overall occurrence of pathogenic strains of E. coli, S. aureus and Fecal streptococci were 41.67%, 25.00% and 66.67% respectively during this period. The antibiogram of the isolated E. coli isolates show that almost 50% were resistant to Cefazidime/Clavulanic acid (CAC), Amoxyclav (AMC), Ciprofloxacin (CIF) and Ampicillin (AMP). The present study indicated that the effluent of fish processing industry was heavily contaminated with E. coli, S. aureus and Fecal Streptococci which confirmed improper treatment of fish processing effluent. Moreover, the precedence of antibiotic resistant E. coli may pose threat to public health safety. PMID:27498498

  10. The application of advanced oxidation technologies to the treatment of effluents from the pulp and paper industry: a review.

    PubMed

    Hermosilla, Daphne; Merayo, Noemí; Gascó, Antonio; Blanco, Ángeles

    2015-01-01

    The paper industry is adopting zero liquid effluent technologies to reduce freshwater use and meet environmental regulations, which implies closure of water circuits and the progressive accumulation of pollutants that must be removed before water reuse and final wastewater discharge. The traditional water treatment technologies that are used in paper mills (such as dissolved air flotation or biological treatment) are not able to remove recalcitrant contaminants. Therefore, advanced water treatment technologies, such as advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), are being included in industrial wastewater treatment chains aiming to either improve water biodegradability or its final quality. A comprehensive review of the current state of the art regarding the use of AOPs for the treatment of the organic load of effluents from the paper industry is herein addressed considering mature and emerging treatments for a sustainable water use in this sector. Wastewater composition, which is highly dependent on the raw materials being used in the mills, the selected AOP itself, and its combination with other technologies, will determine the viability of the treatment. In general, all AOPs have been reported to achieve good organic removal efficiencies (COD removal >40%, and about an extra 20% if AOPs are combined with biological stages). Particularly, ozonation has been the most extensively reported and successfully implemented AOP at an industrial scale for effluent treatment or reuse within pulp and paper mills, although Fenton processes (photo-Fenton particularly) have actually addressed better oxidative results (COD removal ≈ 65-75%) at a lab scale, but still need further development at a large scale. PMID:25185495

  11. Decolorization of salt-alkaline effluent with industrial reactive dyes by laccase-producing Basidiomycetes strains.

    PubMed

    Moreira-Neto, S L; Mussatto, S I; Machado, K M G; Milagres, A M F

    2013-04-01

    The discharge of highly coloured synthetic dye effluents into rivers and lakes is harmful to the water bodies, and therefore, intensive researches have been focussed on the decolorization of wastewater by biological, physical or chemical treatments. In the present study, 12 basidiomycetes strains from the genus Pleurotus, Trametes, Lentinus, Peniophora, Pycnoporus, Rigidoporus, Hygrocybe and Psilocybe were evaluated for decolorization of the reactive dyes Cibacron Brilliant Blue H-GR and Cibacron Red FN-2BL, both in solid and liquid media. Among the evaluated fungi, seven showed great ability to decolorize the synthetic textile effluent, both in vivo (74-77%) or in vitro (60-74%), and laccase was the main ligninolytic enzyme involved on dyes decolorization. Pleurotus ostreatus, Trametes villosa and Peniophora cinerea reduced near to 60% of the effluent colour after only 1 h of treatment. The decolorization results were still improved by establishing the nitrogen source and amount to be used during the fungal strains cultivation in synthetic medium previous their action on the textile effluent, with yeast extract being a better nitrogen source than ammonium tartarate. These results contribute for the development of an effective microbiological process for decolorization of dye effluents with reduced time of treatment. PMID:23350659

  12. The Sequential Application of Macroalgal Biosorbents for the Bioremediation of a Complex Industrial Effluent

    PubMed Central

    Kidgell, Joel T.; de Nys, Rocky; Paul, Nicholas A.; Roberts, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Fe-treated biochar and raw biochar produced from macroalgae are effective biosorbents of metalloids and metals, respectively. However, the treatment of complex effluents that contain both metalloid and metal contaminants presents a challenging scenario. We test a multiple-biosorbent approach to bioremediation using Fe-biochar and biochar to remediate both metalloids and metals from the effluent from a coal-fired power station. First, a model was derived from published data for this effluent to predict the biosorption of 21 elements by Fe-biochar and biochar. The modelled outputs were then used to design biosorption experiments using Fe-biochar and biochar, both simultaneously and in sequence, to treat effluent containing multiple contaminants in excess of water quality criteria. The waste water was produced during ash disposal at an Australian coal-fired power station. The application of Fe-biochar and biochar, either simultaneously or sequentially, resulted in a more comprehensive remediation of metalloids and metals compared to either biosorbent used individually. The most effective treatment was the sequential use of Fe-biochar to remove metalloids from the waste water, followed by biochar to remove metals. Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn were reduced to the lowest concentration following the sequential application of the two biosorbents, and their final concentrations were predicted by the model. Overall, 17 of the 21 elements measured were remediated to, or below, the concentrations that were predicted by the model. Both metalloids and metals can be remediated from complex effluent using biosorbents with different characteristics but derived from a single feedstock. Furthermore, the extent of remediation can be predicted for similar effluents using additive models. PMID:25061756

  13. The sequential application of macroalgal biosorbents for the bioremediation of a complex industrial effluent.

    PubMed

    Kidgell, Joel T; de Nys, Rocky; Paul, Nicholas A; Roberts, David A

    2014-01-01

    Fe-treated biochar and raw biochar produced from macroalgae are effective biosorbents of metalloids and metals, respectively. However, the treatment of complex effluents that contain both metalloid and metal contaminants presents a challenging scenario. We test a multiple-biosorbent approach to bioremediation using Fe-biochar and biochar to remediate both metalloids and metals from the effluent from a coal-fired power station. First, a model was derived from published data for this effluent to predict the biosorption of 21 elements by Fe-biochar and biochar. The modelled outputs were then used to design biosorption experiments using Fe-biochar and biochar, both simultaneously and in sequence, to treat effluent containing multiple contaminants in excess of water quality criteria. The waste water was produced during ash disposal at an Australian coal-fired power station. The application of Fe-biochar and biochar, either simultaneously or sequentially, resulted in a more comprehensive remediation of metalloids and metals compared to either biosorbent used individually. The most effective treatment was the sequential use of Fe-biochar to remove metalloids from the waste water, followed by biochar to remove metals. Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn were reduced to the lowest concentration following the sequential application of the two biosorbents, and their final concentrations were predicted by the model. Overall, 17 of the 21 elements measured were remediated to, or below, the concentrations that were predicted by the model. Both metalloids and metals can be remediated from complex effluent using biosorbents with different characteristics but derived from a single feedstock. Furthermore, the extent of remediation can be predicted for similar effluents using additive models. PMID:25061756

  14. Advanced treatment of effluents from an industrial park wastewater treatment plant by ferrous ion activated persulfate oxidation process.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Songmei; Zhou, Zhen; Jiang, Haitao; Ye, Jianfeng; Ren, Jiamin; Gu, Lingyun; Wang, Luochun

    2016-01-01

    The advanced oxidation technology, ferrous ion (Fe(II)) activated persulfate (PS) producing sulfate radicals, was used for the advanced treatment of effluent from an integrated wastewater treatment plant in a papermaking industrial park. Separate and interactive effects of PS dosage, Fe(II)/PS ratio and initial pH on chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal were analyzed by the response surface methodology (RSM). The results showed that Fe(II)-PS system was effective in COD removal from the secondary effluent. PS dosage was the most dominant factor with positive influence on COD removal, followed by initial pH value. The optimum conditions with COD removal of 54.4% were obtained at PS/COD of 2.2, initial pH of 6.47 and Fe(II)/PS of 1.89. UV-visible spectrum analysis showed that after RSM optimization, Fe(II)-PS system effectively degraded large organic molecules into small ones, and decreased humification degree of the effluent. Three-dimensional fluorescence analysis demonstrated that aromatic protein and fulvic substances were fully decomposed by the Fe(II)-PS treatment. PMID:27438260

  15. Application of chemical, biological and membrane separation processes in textile industry with recourse to zero effluent discharge--a case study.

    PubMed

    Nandy, T; Dhodapkar, R S; Pophali, G R; Kaul, S N; Devotta, S

    2005-09-01

    Environmental concerns associated with textile processing had placed the textile sector in a Southern State of India under serious threat of survival. The textile industries were closed under the orders of the Statutory Board for reason of inadequate compliance to environmental discharge norms of the State for the protection of the drinking water source of the State capital. In compliance with the direction of the Board for zero effluent discharge, advanced treatment process have been implemented for recovery of boiler feed quality water with recourse to effluent recycling/reuse. The paper describes to a case study on the adequacy assessment of the full scale effluent treatment plant comprising chemical, biological and filtration processes in a small scale textile industry. In addition, implementation of measures for discernable improvement in the performance of the existing units through effective operation & maintenance, and application of membrane separation processes leading to zero effluent discharge is also highlighted. PMID:16196413

  16. Application of novel consortium TSR for treatment of industrial dye manufacturing effluent with concurrent removal of ADMI, COD, heavy metals and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Patel, Tallika L; Patel, Bhargav C; Kadam, Avinash A; Tipre, Devayani R; Dave, Shailesh R

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed towards the effective bio-treatment of actual industrial effluent containing as high as 42,000 mg/L COD (chemical oxygen demand), >28,000 ADMI (American Dye Manufacturers Institute) color value and four heavy metals using indigenous developed bacterial consortium TSR. Mineral salt medium supplemented with as low as 0.02% (w/v) yeast extract and glucose was found to remove 70% ADMI, 69% COD and >99% sorption of heavy metals in 24 h from the effluent by consortium TSR. The biodegradation of effluent was monitored by UV-vis light, HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography), HPTLC (high performance thin layer chromotography) and FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) and showed significant differences in spectra of untreated and treated effluent, confirming degradation of the effluent. Induction of intracellular azoreductase (107%) and NADH-DCIP reductase (128%) in addition to extracellular laccase (489%) indicates the vital role of the consortium TSR in the degradation process. Toxicity study of the effluent using Allium cepa by single cell gel electrophoresis showed detoxification of the effluent. Ninety per cent germination of plant seeds, Triticum aestivum and Phaseolus mungo, was achieved after treatment by consortium TSR in contrast to only 20% and 30% germination of the respective plants in case of untreated effluent. PMID:25945844

  17. Dangerous and cancer-causing properties of products and chemicals in the oil refining and petrochemical industry: Part I. Carcinogenicity of motor fuels: gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Mehlman, M.A. )

    1991-09-01

    Studies in humans and animals have shown that gasoline contains a number of cancer-causing and toxic chemicals such as 1,3-butadiene, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, isoparaffins, methyltert-butylether, and others. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in its Monograph Supplement 7 (1987) concludes that in the absence of adequate data on humans, it is biologically plausible and prudent to regard agents for which there is sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals as if they present a carcinogenic risk to humans.' Epidemiological studies in humans provide important evidence of potential increased risk of leukemia, lymphatic tissue cancers, cancers of the brain, liver, and other organs and tissues. Recently (July, 1990) the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygiene (ACGIH) recommended that the TLV-TWA for benzene be reduced from 1 ppm to 0.1 ppm (ACGIH, 1990). The Collegium Ramazzini and others have also recommended that the exposure level for 1,3-Butadiene be reduced from 1,000 ppm to below 0.2 ppm. This recommendation is based on the findings that were presented at the Symposium on Toxicology, Carcinogenesis, and Human Health Aspects of 1,3-Butadiene (Environ. Health Perspec., 1990). Thus, studies on health effects resulting from very low levels of benzene, 1,3-butadiene, and other cancer-causing chemicals--components of gasoline--necessitate that all avoidable exposure to gasoline or gasoline vapors be avoided.

  18. Technical potential of microalgal bacterial floc raceway ponds treating food-industry effluents while producing microalgal bacterial biomass: An outdoor pilot-scale study.

    PubMed

    Van Den Hende, Sofie; Beelen, Veerle; Julien, Lucie; Lefoulon, Alexandra; Vanhoucke, Thomas; Coolsaet, Carlos; Sonnenholzner, Stanislaus; Vervaeren, Han; Rousseau, Diederik P L

    2016-10-01

    To replace costly mechanical aeration by photosynthetical aeration, upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) effluent of food-industry was treated in an outdoor MaB-floc raceway pond. Photosynthetic aeration was sufficient for nitrification, but the raceway effluent quality was below current discharge limits, despite the high hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 35days. Hereafter, conventional activated sludge (CAS) effluent of food-industry was treated in this pond to recover phosphorus. The two-day HRT results in a more realistic pond area, but the phosphorus removal efficiency was low (20%). High biomass productivities were obtained, i.e. 31.3 and 24.9ton total suspended solids hapond(-1)year(-1) for UASB and CAS effluent, respectively. Bioflocculation enabled successful harvesting of CAS effluent-fed MaB-flocs by settling and filtering at 150-250μm to 22.7% total solids. To conclude, MaB-floc raceway ponds cannot be recommended as the sole treatment for these food-industry effluents, but huge potential lies in added-value biomass production. PMID:27450127

  19. Biological alternatives to chemical identification for the ecotoxicological assessment of industrial effluents: The RTG-2 in vitro cytotoxicity test

    SciTech Connect

    Castano, A. . Centro de Sanidad Ambiental); Vega, M.; Blazquez, T.; Tarazona, J.V. )

    1994-10-01

    Ecotoxicology is concerned with the effects of chemicals on biological systems. Identifying components of complex aqueous effluents poses special problems, and can be useless if there is a lack of information on the biological effects of the identified chemicals. Toxicity-based (bioassay-directed) sample fractionation can be very useful, but the small amount of fractioned material is a constraint that can be solved by using in vitro tests. The RTG-2 in vitro cytotoxicity test has been used to assess (a) the efficacy of a treatment plant in the aeronautics industry and (b) the exposure of fish and molluscs cultured in Esteiro Bay to the effluent of a fish-processing factory. Ecotoxicological assessments could be done without identifying the responsible chemicals. The RTG-2 test was used in combination with concentration/fractionation procedures. It proved that the toxicity of the liquid wastes from the aeronautics industry was eliminated by the treatment, and that molluscs and fish reared in Esteiro Bay had accumulated toxic chemicals dumped by the fish-processing factory. A combination of the RTG-2 cytotoxicity test and HPLC proved to give useful information even for chemicals not identified by GC-MS.

  20. Effect of long-term industrial waste effluent pollution on soil enzyme activities and bacterial community composition.

    PubMed

    Subrahmanyam, Gangavarapu; Shen, Ju-Pei; Liu, Yu-Rong; Archana, Gattupalli; Zhang, Li-Mei

    2016-02-01

    Although numerous studies have addressed the influence of exogenous pollutants on microorganisms, the effect of long-term industrial waste effluent (IWE) pollution on the activity and diversity of soil bacteria was still unclear. Three soil samples characterized as uncontaminated (R1), moderately contaminated (R2), and highly contaminated (R3) receiving mixed organic and heavy metal pollutants for more than 20 years through IWE were collected along the Mahi River basin, Gujarat, western India. Basal soil respiration and in situ enzyme activities indicated an apparent deleterious effect of IWE on microbial activity and soil function. Community composition profiling of soil bacteria using 16S rRNA gene amplification and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) method indicated an apparent bacterial community shift in the IWE-affected soils. Cloning and sequencing of DGGE bands revealed that the dominated bacterial phyla in polluted soil were affiliated with Firmicutes, Acidobacteria, and Actinobacteria, indicating that these bacterial phyla may have a high tolerance to pollutants. We suggested that specific bacterial phyla along with soil enzyme activities could be used as relevant biological indicators for long-term pollution assessment on soil quality. Graphical Abstract Bacterial community profiling and soil enzyme activities in long-term industrial waste effluent polluted soils. PMID:26803661

  1. Ecological effects of contaminated sediments following a decade of no industrial effluents emissions: the Sediment Quality Triad approach.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Marta Lobão; Rodrigues, Ana Maria; Quintino, Victor

    2014-10-15

    Sediments contaminated by industrial effluents a decade after the emissions were stopped were statistically compared to sediments from reference channels, using the Sediment Quality Triad approach. The metals and metalloid concentrations, mainly Hg and As, increased towards the upper part of a contaminated channel, where the industrial discharge was located. A bioaccumulation assay with Scrobicularia plana showed the highest bioaccumulation and mortality in the most contaminated sediments and bioaccumulation strongly correlated with the sediments metals and metalloid concentrations. The resident macroinvertebrate community also showed significant differences between the contaminated and reference channels, in the upper areas, where the community was most affected. All three elements of the quality triad rejected the null hypothesis and indicated that despite the emissions ceasing in 2004, sediments remain contaminated by high levels of metals and metalloid, leading to bioaccumulation and with severe community level consequences. PMID:25152187

  2. Purification of effluent waters from industrial enterprises using a biosorption technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolaeva, L. A.; Nedzvetskaya, R. Ya.

    2012-03-01

    A technology for purifying effluent waters that uses carbonate sludge from thermal power stations as sorbent is considered. Initial experimental data are presented, as well as their approximation and correlation analysis. A model is used for mathematically describing the biosorption process, which is constructed on the assumption that diffusion is the main process that goes in the course of sorbing pollutants by sludge and biologically oxidizing them by active sludge.

  3. Biogas production from water hyacinth and channel grass used for phytoremediation of industrial effluents.

    PubMed

    Singhal, V; Rai, J P N

    2003-02-01

    The paper reports on the biogas production from water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and channel grass (Vallisneria spiralis) employed separately for phytoremediation of lignin and metal-rich pulp and paper mill and highly acidic distillery effluents. These plants eventually grow well in diluted effluent up to 40% (i.e., 2.5-times dilution with deionized water) and often take up metals and toxic materials from wastewater for their metabolic use. Slurry of the two plants used for phytoremediation produced significantly more biogas than that produced by the plants grown in deionized water; the effect being more marked with plants used for phytoremediation of 20% pulp and paper mill effluent. Biogas production from channel grass was relatively greater and quicker (maximum in 6-9 days) than that from water hyacinth (in 9-12 days). Such variation in biogas production by the two macrophytes has been correlated with the changes in C, N and C/N ratio of their slurry brought by phytoremediation. PMID:12688463

  4. Evaluation of ELISA kits followed by liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry for the determination of organic pollutants in industrial effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Castillo, M.; Oubina, A.; Barcelo, D.

    1998-07-15

    Contaminated industrial effluents often contain a variety of organic pollutants which are difficult to analyze by standard GC-MS methods since they often miss the more polar or nonvolatile of these organic compounds. The identification of highly polar analytes by chemical or rapid biological techniques is needed for characterization of the effluents. The present work evaluates the use of enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) kits for determining pentachlorophenol, carcinogenic PAHs and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and o-, m-, and p-xylene) among the organic analytes present in various industrial effluents from Europe. The analytical protocol applied for the evaluation of the kits was based on the use of ELISA followed by solid-phase extraction (SPE) for the preconcentration of a variety of organic pollutants such as pentachlorophenol, phthalates, and nonylphenol and final determination with LC-MS characterization using an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) interface in the positive and negative ionization modes. The developed protocol permitted the unequivocal identification of target analytes such as pentachlorophenol, nonylphenol, dibutylphthalate, dimethylphthalate, bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate 2-methylbenzenesulfonamide, and 2,2-dimethylbenzene-sulfonamide present in industrial effluents. The advantages and limitations of the three RaPID-magnetic particle-based ELISA kits applied to the characterization of industrial effluents are also reported.

  5. Effective decolorization and adsorption of contaminant from industrial dye effluents using spherical surfaced magnetic (Fe3O4) nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suriyaprabha, R.; Khan, Samreen Heena; Pathak, Bhawana; Fulekar, M. H.

    2016-04-01

    Treatment of highly concentrated Industrial dye stuff effluents released in the environment is the major issue faced in the era of waste management as well as in water pollution. Though there is availability of conventional techniques in large numbers, there is a need of efficient and effective advance technologies. In account of that, Nanotechnology plays a prominent role to treat the heavy metals, organic and inorganic contaminants using smart materials in nano regime (1 -100 nm). Among these nanomaterials like Iron Oxide (Fe3O4, magnetic nanoparticle) is one of the most promising candidates to remove the heavy metals from the industrial effluent. Fe3O4 is the widely used smart material with magnetic property having high surface area; high surface to volume ratio provides more surface for the chemical reaction for the surface adsorption. Fe3O4 nanoparticles have been synthesized using sonochemical method using ultra frequency in aqueous solution under optimized conditions. The as-synthesized nanoparticle was analyzed using different characterization tool. The Transmission Electron microscope (TEM) images revealed 10-12 nm spherical shape nanoparticles; crystal phase and surface morphology was confirmed by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), respectively. The functional group were identified by Fourier Transform-Infra Red Spectroscopy (FT-IR), revealed the bending and stretching vibrations associated with Iron Oxide nanoparticle. In present study, for the efficient removal of contaminants, different concentration (10-50 ppm) of dye stuff effluent has been prepared and subjected to adsorption and decolourization at definite time intervals with Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The concentration of Iron oxide and the time (45 mins) was kept fixed for the reaction whereas the concentration of dye stuff effluent was kept varying. It was found that the spherical shaped Fe3O4 proved to be the potential material for the adsorption of corresponding

  6. A highly efficient polyampholyte hydrogel sorbent based fixed-bed process for heavy metal removal in actual industrial effluent.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guiyin; Luo, Jinming; Liu, Chengbin; Chu, Lin; Ma, Jianhong; Tang, Yanhong; Zeng, Zebing; Luo, Shenglian

    2016-02-01

    High sorption capacity, high sorption rate, and fast separation and regeneration for qualified sorbents used in removing heavy metals from wastewater are urgently needed. In this study, a polyampholyte hydrogel was well designed and prepared via a simple radical polymerization procedure. Due to the remarkable mechanical strength, the three-dimensional polyampholyte hydrogel could be fast separated, easily regenerated and highly reused. The sorption capacities were as high as 216.1 mg/g for Pb(II) and 153.8 mg/g for Cd(II) owing to the existence of the large number of active groups. The adsorption could be conducted in a wide pH range of 3-6 and the equilibrium fast reached in 30 min due to its excellent water penetration for highly accessible to metal ions. The fixed-bed column sorption results indicated that the polyampholyte hydrogel was particularly effective in removing Pb(II) and Cd(II) from actual industrial effluent to meet the regulatory requirements. The treatment volumes of actual smelting effluent using one fixed bed column were as high as 684 bed volumes (BV) (7736 mL) for Pb(II) and 200 BV (2262 mL) for Cd(II). Furthermore, the treatment volumes of actual smelting effluent using tandem three columns reached 924 BV (31,351 mL) for Pb(II) and 250 BV (8483 mL) for Cd(II), producing only 4 BV (136 mL) eluent. Compared with the traditional high density slurry (HDS) process with large amount of sludge, the proposed process would be expected to produce only a small amount of sludge. When the treatment volume was controlled below 209.3 BV (7103 mL), all metal ions in the actual industrial effluent could be effectively removed (<0.01 mg/L). This wok develops a highly practical process based on polyampholyte hydrogel sorbents for the removal of heavy metal ions from practical wastewater. PMID:26650450

  7. Assessing acute toxicity of effluent from a textile industry and nearby river waters using sulfur-oxidizing bacteria in continuous mode.

    PubMed

    Gurung, Anup; Hassan, Sedky H A; Oh, Sang-Eun

    2011-10-01

    Bioassays are becoming an important tool for assessing the toxicity of complex mixtures of substances in aquatic environments in which Daphnia magna is routinely used as a test organism. Bioassays outweigh physicochemical analyses and are valuable in the decision-making process pertaining to the final discharge of effluents from wastewater treatment plants as they measure the total effect of the discharge which is ecologically relevant. In this study, the aquatic toxicity of a textile plant effluent and river water downstream from the plant were evaluated with sulfur-oxidizing bacterial biosensors in continuous mode. Collected samples were analysed for different physicochemical parameters and 1,4-dioxane was detected in the effluent. The effluent contained a relatively high chemical oxygen demand of 60 mg L(-1), which exceeded the limit set by the Korean government for industrial effluent discharges. Results showed that both the effluent and river waters were toxic to sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. These results show the importance of incorporating bioassays to detect toxicity in wastewater effluents for the sustainable management of water resources. PMID:22329151

  8. Impact of biodegradation on the potential bioaccumulation and toxicity of refinery effluents.

    PubMed

    Leonards, Pim E G; Postma, Jaap F; Comber, Mike; Whale, Graham; Stalter, George

    2011-10-01

    Whole effluent assessments (WEA) are being investigated as potential tools for controlling aqueous industrial discharges and minimizing environmental impact. The present study investigated how toxicity and the presence of potentially bioaccumulative substances altered when refinery effluents were subjected to biodegradation tests. Three petrochemical effluents were assessed, two freshwater and one saline, and subjected to two different types of biodegradation tests, resembling either a ready style (dissolved organic carbon (DOC)-die away) or an inherent style (Zahn-Wellens) test and the toxicity and potential to bioaccumulate parameters were re-analysed during and after biodegradation. A high proportion of the potentially bioaccumulative substances (PBS) in these effluents was easily biodegradable. Biodegradation not only lowered the PBS concentration but also toxicity. Appropriate controls are required however, as some increases in toxicity were observed after 4 h. In the present study, six other petrochemical effluents were also assessed for their PBS content and toxicity to increase the understanding of the relationship between PBS and toxicity. The results showed that the PBS concentrations in these samples were lower than the estimated benchmarks of acute toxicity for algae, fish and crustacean, although two samples were above the critical PBS values for chronic narcotic toxicity for Daphnia magna, which support the assumption that narcotic effects are mainly responsible for the observed toxicity in refinery effluents. It can be concluded that for facilities processing petroleum products that the measurement of PBS is a suitable surrogate for toxicity tests at the screening stage. Finally, the combination of persistency, bioaccumulation, and toxicity tests was shown to have additional value compared to an approach using only toxicity tests. PMID:21796668

  9. Identification of toxicity variations in a stream affected by industrial effluents using Daphnia magna and Ulva pertusa.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jisu; Ahn, Byeongyong; Oh, Jeong-Ju; Han, Taejun; Kim, Woo-Keun; Kim, Sanghoon; Jung, Jinho

    2013-09-15

    A comprehensive toxicity monitoring study from August to October 2011 using Daphnia magna and Ulva pertusa was conducted to identify the cause of toxicity in a stream receiving industrial effluents (IEs) from a textile and leather products manufacturing complex. Acute toxicity toward both species was observed consistently in IE, which influenced toxicity of downstream (DS) water. A toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) confirmed that both Cu and Zn were key toxicants in the IE, and that the calculated toxicity based on Cu and Zn concentrations well simulated the variation in the observed toxicity (r(2)=0.9216 and 0.7256 for D. magna and U. pertusa, respectively). In particular, U. pertusa was sensitive enough to detect acute toxicity in DS and was useful to identify Zn as a key toxicant. Activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase, and malondialdehyde were induced significantly in D. magna, although acute toxicity was not observed. In addition, higher levels of antioxidant enzymes were expressed in DS than upstream waters, likely due to the Cu and Zn from IE. Overall, TIE procedures with a battery of bioassays were effective for identifying the cause of lethal and sub-lethal toxicity in effluent and stream water. PMID:23892313

  10. Measurement of sucrose and ethanol concentrations in process streams and effluents of sugarcane bioethanol industry by optical fiber sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, Eric; Ono, Eduardo; Manfrim, Tarcio P.; Santos, Juliana S.; Suzuki, Carlos K.

    2011-05-01

    The measurement of process streams and effluents from sugar-ethanol industry by using optical fiber sensor based on Fresnel reflection principle is reported. Firstly, binary sucrose-water and ethanol-water solutions were measured in order to determine the calibration curves. Secondly, the co-products from various processing stages were analyzed in order to identify the sucrose or ethanol concentration. The absolute error was calculated by comparison between the nominal concentration values obtained by plant laboratory analysis and the sensor response, yielding errors <= 5 wt% and <= 5 vol% for sucrose and ethanol content, respectively. The fiber sensor provided reliable results even for samples with more complex compositions than pure sucrose or ethanol solutions, with perspectives of application on the several stages of the plant facility.

  11. Genotoxicity evaluation of effluents from textile industries of the region Fez-Boulmane, Morocco: a case study.

    PubMed

    Giorgetti, Lucia; Talouizte, Hakima; Merzouki, Mohammed; Caltavuturo, Leonardo; Geri, Chiara; Frassinetti, Stefania

    2011-11-01

    In order to investigate the biological hazard of effluents from textile industries of Fez-Boulmane region in Morocco, mutagenicity and phytotoxicity tests were performed on different biological systems. Moreover, the efficiency of a Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) system, working by activated sludge on a laboratory scale, was estimated by comparing the ecotoxicity results observed before and after wastewater treatment. Evaluation of the genotoxic potential was investigated by means of classic mutagenicity tests on D7 strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and by phytotoxicity tests on Allium sativum L., Vicia faba L. and Lactuca sativa L., estimating micronuclei presence, mitotic index and cytogenetic anomalies. The results obtained by testing untreated wastewater demonstrated major genotoxicity effects in S. cerevisiae and various levels of phytotoxicity in the three plant systems, while after SBR treatment no more ecotoxicological consequences were observed. These data confirm the effectiveness of the SBR system in removing toxic substances from textile wastewaters in Fez-Boulmane region. PMID:21840051

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of Paracoccus sp. MKU1, a New Bacterial Strain Isolated from an Industrial Effluent with Potential for Bioremediation

    PubMed Central

    Nisha, Kamaldeen Nasrin; Sridhar, Jayavel; Varalakshmi, Perumal; Ashokkumar, Balasubramaniem

    2016-01-01

    Paracoccus sp. MKU1, a novel dimethylformamide degrading bacterial strain was originally isolated from an industrial effluent, Tirupur region, Tamil Nadu, India. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Paracoccus sp. MKU1, which could provide the genetic insights on its evolution and application of this versatile bacterium for effective degradation of xenobiotics and thus in bioremediation. PMID:27326263

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of Paracoccus sp. MKU1, a New Bacterial Strain Isolated from an Industrial Effluent with Potential for Bioremediation.

    PubMed

    Nisha, Kamaldeen Nasrin; Sridhar, Jayavel; Varalakshmi, Perumal; Ashokkumar, Balasubramaniem

    2016-01-01

    Paracoccus sp. MKU1, a novel dimethylformamide degrading bacterial strain was originally isolated from an industrial effluent, Tirupur region, Tamil Nadu, India. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Paracoccus sp. MKU1, which could provide the genetic insights on its evolution and application of this versatile bacterium for effective degradation of xenobiotics and thus in bioremediation. PMID:27326263

  14. Simultaneously bio treatment of textiles and food industries effluent at difference ratios with the aid of e-beam radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakar, Khomsaton Abu; Selambakkannu, Sarala; Ting, Teo Ming; Shariff, Jamaliah

    2012-09-01

    The combination of irradiation and biological technique was used to study COD, BOD5 and colour removal of textiles effluent in the presence of food industry wastewater at two different ratios. Two biological treatment system, the first consisting a mix of unirradiated textile and food industry wastewater and the second a mix of irradiated textile wastewater and food industry wastewater were operated in parallel. The experiment was conducted by batch. For the first batch the ratio was use for textile wastewater and food industry wastewater in biological treatment was 1:1. Meanwhile, for the second batch the ratio used for textile wastewater and food industry wastewater in biological treatment was 1:2. The results obtained for the first and second batch varies from each other. After irradiation, COD reduce in textile wastewater for the both batches are roughly 29% - 33% from the unirradiated wastewater. But after undergoing the biological treatment the percentage of COD reduction for first batch and second batch was 62.1% and 80.7% respectively. After irradiation the BOD5 of textile wastewater reduced by 22.2% for the first batch and 55.1% for the second batch. But after biological treatment, the BOD5 value for the first batch was same as its initial, 36mg/l and 40.4mg/l for the second batch. Colour had decreased from 899.5 ADMI to 379.3 ADMI after irradiation and decrease to 109.3 after undergoes biological treatment for the first batch. Meantime for the batch two, colour had decreased from 1000.44 ADMI to 363.40 ADMI after irradiation and dropped to 79.20 ADMI after biological treatment. The experiment show that 1:2 ratio show better reduction on COD, BOD5 and colour, compared to the ratio of 1:1.

  15. Combination of physico-chemical analysis, Allium cepa test system and Oreochromis niloticus erythrocyte based comet assay/nuclear abnormalities tests for cyto-genotoxicity assessments of treated effluents discharged from textile industries.

    PubMed

    Hemachandra, Chamini K; Pathiratne, Asoka

    2016-09-01

    Bioassays for cyto-genotoxicity assessments are generally not required in current textile industry effluent discharge management regulations. The present study applied in vivo plant and fish based toxicity tests viz. Allium cepa test system and Oreochromis niloticus erythrocyte based comet assay and nuclear abnormalities tests in combination with physico-chemical analysis for assessing potential cytotoxic/genotoxic impacts of treated textile industry effluents reaching a major river (Kelani River) in Sri Lanka. Of the treated effluents tested from two textile industries, color in the Textile industry 1 effluents occasionally and color, biochemical oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand in the Textile industry 2 effluents frequently exceeded the specified Sri Lankan tolerance limits for discharge of industrial effluents into inland surface waters. Exposure of A. cepa bulbs to 100% and 12.5% treated effluents from both industries resulted in statistically significant root growth retardation, mito-depression, and induction of chromosomal abnormalities in root meristematic cells in comparison to the dilution water in all cases demonstrating cyto-genotoxicity associated with the treated effluents. Exposure of O. niloticus to the 100% and 12.5% effluents, resulted in erythrocytic genetic damage as shown by elevated total comet scores and induction of nuclear abnormalities confirming the genotoxicity of the treated effluents even with 1:8 dilution. The results provide strong scientific evidence for the crucial necessity of incorporating cyto-genotoxicity impact assessment tools in textile industry effluent management regulations considering human health and ecological health of the receiving water course under chronic exposure. PMID:27209118

  16. Phthalates and alkylphenols in industrial and domestic effluents: case of Paris conurbation (France).

    PubMed

    Bergé, A; Gasperi, J; Rocher, V; Gras, L; Coursimault, A; Moilleron, R

    2014-08-01

    Phthalates and alkylphenols are toxics classified as endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs). They are of particular concern due to their ubiquity and generally higher levels found in the environment comparatively to other EDCs. Industrial and domestic discharges might affect the quality of receiving waters by discharging organic matter and contaminants through treated waters and combined sewer overflows. Historically, industrial discharges are often considered as the principal vector of pollution in urban areas. If this observation was true in the past for some contaminants, no current data are today available to compare the quality of industrial and domestic discharges as regards EDCs. In this context, a total of 45 domestic samples as well as 101 industrial samples were collected from different sites, including 14 residential and 33 industrial facilities. This study focuses more specifically on 4 phthalates and 2 alkylphenols, among the most commonly studied congeners. A particular attention was also given to routine wastewater quality parameters. For most substances, wastewaters from the different sites were heavily contaminated; they display concentrations up to 1200 μg/l for di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and between 10 and 100 μg/l for diethyl phthalate and nonylphenol. Overall, for the majority of compounds, the industrial contribution to the flux of contaminant reaching the wastewater treatment plants ranges between 1 and 3%. The data generated during this work constitutes one of the first studies conducted in Europe on industrial fluxes for a variety of sectors of activity. The study of the wastewater contribution was used to better predict the industrial and domestic contributions at the scale of a huge conurbation heavily urbanized but with a weak industrial cover, illustrated by Paris. Our results indicate that specific investigations on domestic discharges are necessary in order to reduce the release of phthalates and alkylphenols in the sewer systems

  17. Petrochemicals from coal-derived syngas

    SciTech Connect

    Sardesai, A.; Lee, S.

    1996-12-31

    The development of the Liquid Phase Dimethyl Ether (LPDME) process has established a means to effectively convert CO-rich syngas to dimethyl ether (DME) in a mechanically agitated slurry reactor. By operating in a dual catalyst mode, in-situ produced methanol may be converted to DME, thereby alleviating the chemical equilibrium limitation imposed on the methanol synthesis reaction. As a result, higher syngas conversions and methyl productivities are seen over methanol synthesis alone. This effective route to DME production over methanol has led to the development of conversion technologies based on a DME feedstock. Oxygenates, in particular, ethers and their precursors, are very important as potential clean fuel additives and have been postulated through vinylation/hydrogenation and oxidative coupling reactions. Specialty chemicals such as methyl acetate and acetic acid have widescale industrial importance in the conversion to ethanol from a non-agricultural feedstock. Vapor phase oxidative dimerization of DME over tin based catalysts produced precursors of ethylene glycol. Finally, DME has been extensively used as a feedstock for hydrocarbon synthesis including olefins, paraffins and gasoline range hydrocarbons, over zeolite based catalysts with a 46% increase in product selectivity over methanol. The efficient production of DME in the liquid phase has given it widescale industrial significance as a potential replacement for methanol and as a keystone for more important petrochemicals.

  18. BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT, EFFLUENT REUSE, AND SLUDGE HANDLING FOR THE SIDE LEATHER TANNING INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    An evaluation of the treatability of unsegregated, unequalized, and unneutralized wastewaters from a side-leather tanning industry utilizing the hair pulping process by primary and secondary biological and gravity separation in clarifier-thickeners, whereas the secondary treatmen...

  19. [Enhanced bio-contact oxidation method to treat petrochemical wastewater by tourmaline].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Kan; Ma, Fang; Sun, Tie-Heng; Feng, Zhi-Yun

    2009-06-15

    Aiming at the complexity and poor biochemical degradability of petrochemical wastewater, the effect of tourmaline on bio-contact oxidation method was investigated. The influent and effluent of petrochemical wastewater were analyzed by GC-MS, and the carrier was observed in reactor by scanning electron microscope (SEM). As the loading rates of influent were COD 0.64-0.72 kg/(m3 x d) and NH4(+) -N 0.058-0.072 kg/(m3 x d), the start up of pilot system supported tourmaline were improved, and the removal rate of COD and NH4(+) -N of effluent was increased 8.7% and 6.4%, respectively. Organic pollutants of 100 kinds were detected in influent, mainly including aromatic hydrocarbon, acids, lipids, phenols, alcohols, and alkanes compounds. The removal efficiency of organic pollutant of reactor 1 with tourmaline was higher than reactor 2 without tourmaline. The number of organic pollutant in effluent from reactor 1 and 2 were 14 and 28, respectively. Zoogloea can be observed on carrier supported tourmaline, and the biomass of bacteria was predominant. The efficiency of bio-contact oxidation method on petrochemical wastewater treatment can be enhanced by tourmaline. PMID:19662849

  20. Treatment of pulp and paper industry bleaching effluent by electrocoagulant process.

    PubMed

    Sridhar, R; Sivakumar, V; Prince Immanuel, V; Prakash Maran, J

    2011-02-28

    The experiments were carried out in an electrocoagulation reactor with aluminum as sacrificial electrodes. The influence of electrolysis time, current density, pH, NaCl concentration, rotational speed of the stirrer and electrode distance on reduction of color, COD and BOD were studied in detail. From the experimental results, 15 mA/cm(2) current density, pH of 7, 1 g/l NaCl, 100 rpm, 28°C temperature and 3 cm electrode distance were found to be optimum for maximum reduction of color, COD and BOD. The reduction of color, COD and BOD under the optimum condition were found to be 94%, 90% and 87% respectively. The electrode energy consumption was calculated and found to be varied from 10.1 to 12.9 kWh/m(3) depending on the operating conditions. Under optimal operating condition such as 15 mA/cm(2) current density, pH of 7, 1 g/l NaCl, 100 rpm, 28°C temperature and 3 cm electrode distance, the operating cost was found to be 1.56 US $/m(3). The experimental results proved that the electrocoagulation is a suitable method for treating bleaching plant effluents for reuse. PMID:21227578

  1. Evaluation of haloalkaliphilic sulfur-oxidizing microorganisms with potential application in the effluent treatment of the petroleum industry.

    PubMed

    Olguín-Lora, P; Le Borgne, S; Castorena-Cortés, G; Roldán-Carrillo, T; Zapata-Peñasco, I; Reyes-Avila, J; Alcántara-Pérez, S

    2011-02-01

    Haloalkaliphilic sulfur-oxidizing mixed cultures for the treatment of alkaline-saline effluents containing sulfide were characterized and evaluated. The mixed cultures (IMP-PB, IMP-XO and IMP-TL) were obtained from Mexican alkaline soils collected in Puebla (PB), Xochimilco (XO) and Tlahuac (TL), respectively. The Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis (RISA) revealed bacteria related to Thioalkalibacterium and Thioalkalivibrio in IMP-XO and IMP-PB mixed cultures. Halomonas strains were detected in IMP-XO and IMP-TL. In addition, an uncultured Bacteroides bacterium was present in IMP-TL. Mixed cultures were evaluated at different pH and NaCl concentrations at 30°C. IMP-PB and IMP-TL expressed thiosulfate-oxidizing activity in the 7.5-10.5 pH range, whereas IMP-XO presented its maximal activity with 19.0 mg O₂ g (protein)⁻¹ min⁻¹, at pH 10.6; it was not affected by NaCl concentrations up to 1.7 M. In continuous culture, IMP-XO showed a growth rate of 15 day⁻¹, productivity of 433.4 mg(protein) l⁻¹ day⁻¹ and haloalkaliphilic sulfur-oxidizing activity was also detected up to 170 mM by means of N-methyl-diethanolamine (MDEA). Saline-alkaline soil samples are potential sources of haloalkaliphilic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria and the mixed cultures could be applied in the treatment of inorganic sulfur compounds in petroleum industry effluents under alkaline-saline conditions. PMID:20582453

  2. Efficient decolorization and detoxification of textile industry effluent by Salvinia molesta in lagoon treatment.

    PubMed

    Chandanshive, Vishal V; Rane, Niraj R; Gholave, Avinash R; Patil, Swapnil M; Jeon, Byong-Hun; Govindwar, Sanjay P

    2016-10-01

    Salvinia molesta, an aquatic fern was observed to have a potential of degrading azo dye Rubine GFL up to 97% at a concentration of 100mg/L within 72h using 60±2g of root biomass. Both root as well as stem tissues showed induction in activities of the enzymes such as lignin peroxidase, veratryl alcohol oxidase, laccase, tyrosinase, catalase, DCIP reductase and superoxide dismutase during decolorization of Rubine GFL. FTIR, GC-MS, HPLC and UV-visible spectrophotometric analysis confirmed phytotransformation of the model dye into smaller molecules. Analysis of metabolites revealed breakdown of an azo bond of Rubine GFL by the action of lignin peroxidase and laccase and formation of 2-methyl-4-nitroaniline and N-methylbenzene-1, 4-diamine. Anatomical tracing of dye in the stem of S. molesta confirmed the presence of dye in tissues and subsequent removal after 48h of treatment. The concentration of chlorophyll pigments like chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoid was observed during the treatment. Toxicity analysis on seeds of Triticum aestivum and Phaseolus mungo revealed the decreased toxicity of dye metabolites. In situ treatment of a real textile effluent was further monitored in a constructed lagoon of the dimensions of 7m×5m×2m (total surface area 35m(2)) using S. molesta for 192h. This large scale treatment was found to significantly reduce the values of COD, BOD5 and ADMI by 76%, 82% and 81% considering initial values 1185, 1440mg/L and 950 units, respectively. PMID:27268973

  3. POLISHING INDUSTRIAL WASTE STREAM EFFLUENTS USING FLY ASH - NATURAL CLAY SORBENT COMBINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A laboratory evaluation of the use of acidic and basic fly ashes, bentonite, bauxite, illite, kaolinite, zeolite, vermiculite, and activated alumina is presented for polishing a 3.8 x 10 to the 6th power liters per day waste stream from the feldspar mining and processing industry...

  4. ECONOMIC IMPACT ANALYSIS OF EFFLUENT STANDARDS AND LIMITATIONS FOR THE METAL FINISHING INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency issued e-fluent guidelines and limitations for the Metal Finishing Industry in June 1983. This report estimates the economic impact of pollution control costs in terms of price changes, effects profitability, potential plant closures, unem...

  5. Dual application of duckweed and azolla plants for wastewater treatment and renewable fuels and petrochemicals production

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Shortages in fresh water supplies today affects more than 1 billion people worldwide. Phytoremediation strategies, based on the abilities of aquatic plants to recycle nutrients offer an attractive solution for the bioremediation of water pollution and represents one of the most globally researched issues. The subsequent application of the biomass from the remediation for the production of fuels and petrochemicals offers an ecologically friendly and cost-effective solution for water pollution problems and production of value-added products. Results In this paper, the feasibility of the dual application of duckweed and azolla aquatic plants for wastewater treatment and production of renewable fuels and petrochemicals is explored. The differences in absorption rates of the key wastewater nutrients, ammonium and phosphorus by these aquatic macrophytes were used as the basis for optimization of the composition of wastewater effluents. Analysis of pyrolysis products showed that azolla and algae produce a similar range of bio-oils that contain a large spectrum of petrochemicals including straight-chain C10-C21 alkanes, which can be directly used as diesel fuel supplement, or a glycerin-free component of biodiesel. Pyrolysis of duckweed produces a different range of bio-oil components that can potentially be used for the production of “green” gasoline and diesel fuel using existing techniques, such as catalytic hydrodeoxygenation. Conclusions Differences in absorption rates of the key wastewater nutrients, ammonium and phosphorus by different aquatic macrophytes can be used for optimization of composition of wastewater effluents. The generated data suggest that the composition of the petrochemicals can be modified in a targeted fashion, not only by using different species, but also by changing the source plants’ metabolic profile, by exposing them to different abiotic or biotic stresses. This study presents an attractive, ecologically friendly and cost

  6. Characterization of sorption sites and differential stress response of microalgae isolates against tannery effluents from ranipet industrial area-An application towards phycoremediation.

    PubMed

    Balaji, S; Kalaivani, T; Sushma, B; Pillai, C Varneetha; Shalini, M; Rajasekaran, C

    2016-08-01

    Phycoremediation ability of microalgae namely Oscillatoria acuminate and Phormidium irrigum were validated against the heavy metals from tannery effluent of Ranipet industrial area. The microalgae species were cultured in media containing tannery effluent in two different volumes and the parameters like specific growth rate, protein content and antioxidant enzyme activities were estimated. FTIR spectroscopy was carried out to know the sorption sites interaction. The antioxidant enzymes namely superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione (GSH) contents were increased in microalgae species indicating the free radical scavenging mechanism under heavy metal stress. SOD activity was 0.502 and 0.378 units/gram fresh weight, CAT activity was 1.36 and 0.256 units/gram fresh weight, GSH activity was 1.286 and 1.232 units/gram fresh weight respectively in the effluent treated microalgae species. Bio sorption efficiency for Oscillatoria acuminate and Phormidium irrigum was 90% and 80% respectively. FTIR analysis revealed the interaction of microalgae species with chemical groups present in the tannery effluent. From the results, the microalgae Oscillatoria acuminate possess high antioxidant activity and bio sorption efficiency when compared to Phormidium irrigum and hence considered useful in treating heavy metals contaminated effluents. PMID:26587690

  7. Morphological, Physiological and Biochemical Impact of Ink Industry Effluent on Germination of Maize (Zea mays), Barley (Hordeum vulgare) and Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor).

    PubMed

    Zayneb, Chaâbene; Lamia, Khanous; Olfa, Ellouze; Naïma, Jebahi; Grubb, C Douglas; Bassem, Khemakhem; Hafedh, Mejdoub; Amine, Elleuch

    2015-11-01

    The present study focuses on effects of untreated and treated ink industry wastewater on germination of maize, barley and sorghum. Wastewater had a high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and metal content compared to treated effluent. Germination decreased with increasing COD concentration. Speed of germination also followed the same trend, except for maize seeds exposed to untreated effluent (E), which germinated slightly faster than controls. These alterations of seedling development were mirrored by changes in soluble protein content. E exerted a positive effect on soluble protein content and maximum levels occurred after 10 days with treated effluent using coagulation/flocculation (TEc/f) process and treated effluent using combined process (coagulation/flocculation/biosorption) (TEc/f/b). Likewise, activity of α-amylase was influenced by effluent composition. Its expression depended on the species, exposure time and applied treatment. Nevertheless, current results indicated TEc/f/b had no observable toxic effects on germination and could be a beneficial alternative resource to irrigation water. PMID:26341252

  8. Treatment of industrial effluents by a continuous system: electrocoagulation--activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Moisés, Tejocote-Pérez; Patricia, Balderas-Hernández; Barrera-Díaz, C E; Gabriela, Roa-Morales; Natividad-Rangel, Reyna

    2010-10-01

    A continuous system electrocoagulation--active sludge was designed and built for the treatment of industrial wastewater. The system included an electrochemical reactor with aluminum electrodes, a clarifier and a biological reactor. The electrochemical reactor was tested under different flowrates (50, 100 and 200 mL/min). In the biological reactor, the performance of different cultures of active sludge was assessed: coliform bacterial, ciliate and flagellate protozoa and aquatic fungus. Overall treatment efficiencies of color, turbidity and COD removal were 94%, 92% and 80%, respectively, under optimal conditions of 50 mL/min flowrate and using ciliate and flagellate protozoa. It was concluded that the system was efficient for the treatment of industrial wastewater. PMID:20570506

  9. Effluent management for a metal finishing industry aiming zero discharge conditions.

    PubMed

    Babuna, Fatos Germirli; Kabdasli, Isik; Sözen, Seval; Orhon, Derin

    2006-01-01

    Technical applicability of zero discharge conditions is evaluated for the specific case of a large metal finishing industry located within the protection zone of a surface water body designated as a potential source for domestic water supply. Within the context of a sound water management strategy, a detailed process profile of the plant is established with relevant balance between water demand and wastewater generation. Quality restrictions for various water uses are identified. Wastewater flows are segregated depending on significant quality parameters. A comprehensive treatment scheme is defined for optimum wastewater recycle and reuse. Source allocation is made for the reuse of different streams of recycled wastewater. The study indicates that wastewater reuse can only be implemented with an efficiency of around 85-90% for the selected industry. PMID:16849126

  10. BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF HIGH STRENGTH PETROCHEMICAL WASTEWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The biological treatment of a complex petrochemical wastewater containing high concentrations of organic chlorides, nitrates, and amines was initially studied using a sequence of anaerobic methanogenesis and oxygen activated sludge. Bench-scale and pilot-plant treatability studie...