Sample records for petrochemical effluents industries

  1. 31 CFR 538.210 - Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries. 538... Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries. ...United States persons relating to the petroleum or petrochemical industries in...

  2. 31 CFR 538.210 - Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries. 538... Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries. ...United States persons relating to the petroleum or petrochemical industries in...

  3. 31 CFR 538.210 - Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries. 538... Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries. ...United States persons relating to the petroleum or petrochemical industries in...

  4. 31 CFR 538.210 - Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries. 538... Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries. ...United States persons relating to the petroleum or petrochemical industries in...

  5. Study of different pretreatments for reverse osmosis reclamation of a petrochemical secondary effluent.

    PubMed

    Benito-Alcázar, C; Vincent-Vela, M C; Gozálvez-Zafrilla, J M; Lora-García, J

    2010-06-15

    Conventionally treated petrochemical wastewaters contain substantial quantities of hazardous pollutants. In addition, wastewater reuse is being enhanced as a consequence of the shortage of fresh water. Advanced petrochemical wastewater treatment for water reuse will reduce hazardous pollutants discharges as well as water consumption. Reverse osmosis is a suitable technology to obtain pure water. This work studies the adequacy of different pretreatments applied to a petrochemical secondary effluent to produce a suitable feeding for reverse osmosis treatment. The permeate obtained can be used in the petrochemical industry for different processes. In this work, several experiments (granulated activated carbon filtration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration and granulated activated carbon filtration coupled with nanofiltration) were performed to improve the conventional pretreatment. Total organic carbon, chemical oxygen demand, turbidity and silt density index were used to evaluate water quality for reverse osmosis feeding. In granulated activated carbon filtration, all the measured parameters but silt density index indicated a good filtrate quality to feed reverse osmosis membranes. Although the ultrafiltration permeate obtained was suitable for reverse osmosis, nanofiltration and granulated activated carbon filtration coupled with NF provided a better effluent quality for reverse osmosis than the other pretreatments studied. PMID:20207074

  6. Characterizing the genotoxicity of hazardous industrial wastes and effluents using short-term bioassays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. S. Houk; D. M. DeMarini

    1989-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that short-term bioassays can reliably and expeditiously measure the genotoxic potential of hazardous industrial wastes and effluents. Petrochemical wastes have been studied in detail, especially discharges from chemical manufacturing plants and textile and dye effluents. However, there is little information on effluents from pesticide manufacturers. The most extensive evaluations have been conducted on effluents from pulp and

  7. Gas Separation Membrane Use in the Refinery and Petrochemical Industries 

    E-print Network

    Vari, J.

    1992-01-01

    Membranes have gained commercial acceptance as proven methods to recover valuable gases from waste gas streams. This paper explores ways in which gas separation membranes are used in the refinery and petrochemical industries to recover and purify...

  8. Regional Industry Workforce Development: The Gulf Coast Petrochemical Information Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgin, Johnette; Muha, Susan

    2008-01-01

    The Gulf Coast Petrochemical Information Network (GC-PIN) is a workforce development partnership among industry businesses and area institutions of higher education in the four-county Gulf Coast region. GC-PIN partners develop new industry-specific curricula, foster industry career awareness, and retrain existing employees in new technologies.

  9. Cancer mortality and residence near petrochemical industries in Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Chun-Yuh; Chiu, Hui-Fen; Chiu, Jeng-Fen [Kaohsiung Medical College (Taiwan, Province of China)] [and others

    1997-02-21

    An ecologic study design was used to investigate the relationship between cancer risks and residence in communities adjacent to petrochemical industrial counties (PICs). Directly age-adjusted mortality rates for cancer during 1982-1991 among 16 counties characterized by a heavy concentration of petrochemical industries were compared to rates among 16 matched counties with similar concentration of nonpetrochemical manufacturing industries, urbanization level, and demographic characteristics. An excess rate for liver cancer among males was found in the so-called PICs. The correlation could not be explained by confounding variables such as urbanization, socioeconomic class, or employment in nonpetrochemical industries. No other increased cancer risks were found to be associated with residence near petrochemical industries. 30 refs., 3 tabs.

  10. BIODIVERSITY OF CYANOBACTERIA IN INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Subramaniyan VIJAYAKUMAR; Nooruddin THAJUDDIN; Chokkaiya MANOHARAN

    Biodiversity of cyanobacteria in industrial effluents. In order to study the biodiversity of cyanobacteria in industrial effluents, four different effluents such as dye, paper mill, pharmaceutical and sugar were selected. The physicochemical characteristics of all the effluents studied were more or less similar. Totally 59 species of cyanobacteria distributed in four different effluents were recorded. Among the effluents, sugar mill

  11. Growth and heavy metals accumulation potential of microalgae grown in sewage wastewater and petrochemical effluents.

    PubMed

    Ajayan, K V; Selvaraju, M; Thirugnanamoorthy, K

    2011-08-15

    Microalgae exhibit a number of heavy metal uptake process by different metabolism. In this study, the ability of microalgae for removal of heavy metal from wastewater was studied. Growth and biochemical contents of microalgae were determined by spectrophotometer. Heavy metal analysis of wastewater effluents were performed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer before and after treatment at laboratory scale. The growth of Scenedesmus bijuga and Oscillatoria quadripunctulata in sewage wastewater was higher than those grown in synthetic medium. Whereas, the growth of S. bijuga and O. quadripunctulata in sterilized petrochemical effluents was slightly lower than that grown in the standard synthetic medium. The chlorophyll, carotenoid and protein content of S. bijuga and O. quadripunctulata grown in sterilized sewage wastewater were higher than those grown in the standard medium. Similarly S. bijuga and O. quadripunctulata grown in sterilized petrochemical effluents showed lower contents of pigments and protein than those grown in sewage and synthetic medium. Heavy metals copper, cobalt, lead and zinc were removed by 37-50, 20.3-33.3, 34.6-100 and 32.1-100%, respectively from sewage wastewater and petrochemical effluent using Ocillatoria culture. The metal absorption by S. bijuga were (Cu, Co, Pb, Zn) 60-50, 29.6-66, 15.4-25 and 42.9-50%, respectively from sewage and petrochemical effluents. Both species showed high level of heavy metal removal efficiency and metal sorption efficiency of both microalgae depended on the type of biosorbent, the physiological status of the cells, availability of heavy metal, concentration of heavy metal and chemical composition of wastewater. PMID:22545355

  12. 31 CFR 538.536 - Activities relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic of South Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... false Activities relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic...538.536 Activities relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic...activities and transactions relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries...

  13. 31 CFR 538.536 - Activities relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic of South Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... false Activities relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic...538.536 Activities relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic...activities and transactions relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries...

  14. 31 CFR 538.536 - Activities relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic of South Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... false Activities relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic...538.536 Activities relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic...activities and transactions relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries...

  15. Application of an anaerobic hybrid reactor for petrochemical effluent treatment.

    PubMed

    Jafarzadeh, Mohammad Taghi; Mehrdadi, Naser; Hashemian, Seyed Jamaladdin

    2012-01-01

    An anaerobic hybrid reactor (UASB/Filter) was used for petrochemical wastewater treatment in mesophilic conditions. The seeded flocculent sludge from a UASB plant treating dairy wastewater, acclimatized to the petrochemical wastes in a two-stage operation. After start up, under steady-state conditions, experiments were conducted at OLRs of between 0.5 and 24 kg TCOD m(-3) d(-1), hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 4-48 h and up-flow velocities 0.021-0.25 mh(-1). Removal efficiencies in the range of 42-86% were achieved at feed TCOD concentrations of 1,000-4,000 mg L(-1). The results of reactor performance at different operational conditions and its relations are presented and discussed in this paper. Then, the obtained data are used for determination of kinetic models. The results showed that a second-order model and a modified Stover-Kincannon model were the most appropriate models for this reactor. Finally, the biogas production data were used for the determination of biogas production kinetics. PMID:22643402

  16. Application of membrane separation processes in petrochemical industry: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maryam Takht Ravanchi; Tahereh Kaghazchi; Ali Kargari

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a general review on different membrane processes and membrane reactors was done. As the main aim of this paper is to review the application of membrane processes in petrochemical industry, processes such as olefin\\/paraffin separation, light solvent separation, solvent dewaxing, phenol and aromatic recovery, dehydrogenation, oxidative coupling of methane and steam reforming of methane were discussed in

  17. Reuse of waste catalysts from petrochemical industries for cement substitution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nan Su; Hung-Yuan Fang; Zong-Huei Chen; Fu-Shung Liu

    2000-01-01

    Zeolite catalysts have been widely used in oil refinery and petrochemical industries. Two types of waste catalysts, equilibrium catalyst (Ecat), and electrostatic precipitator catalyst (EPcat), can be obtained after fluid catalytic cracking. This study analyzes the properties of these waste catalysts and examines the feasibility of reusing them to substitute part of the cement required in mortar preparation. These waste

  18. Structural decomposition of CO 2 emissions from Taiwan's petrochemical industries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cheng F. Lee; Sue J. Lin

    2001-01-01

    This paper provides an alternative use of input–output structural decomposition analysis to identify the key factors that affected CO2 emission changes of Taiwan's petrochemical industries during 1984–1994. Changes in CO2 emission are decomposed into eight factors by integrating index decomposition analysis, input–output theory, and structure decomposition approach (SDA). The empirical results show the relative contribution of each factor on industrial

  19. [Treatment of petrochemical secondary effluent by ozone-biological aerated filter].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ming-Guo; Wu, Chang-Yong; Zhou, Yue-Xi; Gao, Zhen; Wang, Pei-Chao; Yang, Qi; Dong, De

    2014-02-01

    The advanced treatment of petrochemical secondary wastewater by ozone- aerated biological filter was carried out in this study. The effect of pH on ozonation and the removal of COD and UV254 by the ozone-aerated biological filter combined process were investigated. In addition, the variation of relative molecular mass distribution of organics and the characteristics of three-dimensional fluorescence spectra of the wastewater were also investigated. The results showed that the suitable operating conditions of the ozonation unit were: ozone dosage 10 mg x L(-1), contact time 4 min and slightly alkaline pH. Ozonation can transfer macromolecular organics into small molecular organics, resulting in a 15% increase in the percentage of the organics with small relative molecular mass (less than 1 000). The biodegradability of the petrochemical secondary effluent was significantly improved by ozonation, making it more suitable for the treatment by aerated biological filter. The removal efficiency of COD and UV254 were 40.8% and 45.8% when the hydraulic retention time was 3 hours and the gas to water ratio was 3:1 for BAF. The average COD of the petrochemical wastewater was 86.5 mg x L(-1) while the average COD of the effluent of the combined process was 49.4 mg x L(-1) when it was operated under optimal conditions. PMID:24812960

  20. Industrial Energy in Transition: A Petrochemical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wishart, Ronald S.

    1978-01-01

    An industrial development involves the conversion of biomass, through fermentation, to useful chemical products and the gasification of municiple wastes to produce steam for electricity generation. These gases may also serve as chemical feedstocks. (Author/MA)

  1. Pollution Indicators in Gaborone Industrial Effluent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Emongor; E. Nkegbe; B. Kealotswe; I. Koorapetse; S. Sankwasa; S. Keikanetswe

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine pollution indicators in and around Gaborone industrial effluent, generate relevant baseline information on industrial effluents; and determine the major sources of industrial pollution in Gaborone, Botswana. The results of the study showed that effluent quality discharged by the four different industry types in Gaborone, Botswana, differed significantly. Brewery, chemical, paints, food and

  2. Industrial effluent treatment: Theoretical and experimental analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Velmurugan; K. Srithar

    2011-01-01

    Industries like textile and tannery are facing effluent disposal as well as water scarcity problems. To solve these two problems, an attempt has been made to convert the industrial effluent into potable water by using solar desalination methods. Effluent from textile industry is taken for analysis. In this work, single basin type solar still with fin at basin, stepped solar

  3. Treatment of industrial effluent water

    SciTech Connect

    Levitskii, Yu.N.

    1982-09-01

    This article reports on a thematic exhibition on ''New Developments in Treatment of Natural and Effluent Water'' in the Sanitary-Technical Construction Section at the Exhibition of Achievements of the National Economy of the USSR. The exhibition acquainted visitors with the achievements of leading organizations in different branches of industry with respect to treatment of natural and industrial effluent water. The Kharkov ''Vodkanalproekt'' Institute and the Kharkov affiliate of the All-Union Scientific-Research Institute of Water and Geodesy has jointly developed a ''Polymer-25'' filter for removal of oil products from nonexplosive effluent water discharged by machine building plants. A Baku affiliate has developed a new ShFP-1 screw-type press filter for dewatering the sediments from water treatment plants as well as for sediments from chemical, food, and other types of plants. The State Institute for Applied Chemistry has designed a continuous process plant for treating effluent water and removing toxic organic waste by converting them into mineral salts with high efficiency.

  4. Emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the liquid injection incineration of petrochemical industrial wastewater.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin-Chi; Wang, I-Ching; Chang, Juu-En; Lai, Soon-Onn; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping

    2007-09-01

    This study investigated the emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from stack flue gas and air pollution control device (APCD) effluent of the liquid injection incinerator (LII) disposing the petrochemical industrial wastewater, and PAH removal efficiencies of wet electrostatic precipitator (WESP) and wet scrubber (WSB). The PAH carcinogenic potency were investigated with the benzo(a)pyrene equivalent concentration (BaP(eq)). The remarkably high total-BaP(eq) concentration (220 microgNm(-3)) in the stack flue gas was much higher than those of several published emission sources, and indicated the possible influence on its surrounding environment. The total-PAH emission factors of the WESP, WSB and stack flue gas were 78.9, 95.7 and 30,900 microgL(-1) wastewater, respectively. The removal efficiencies of total-PAHs were 0.254, 0.309 and 0.563% for WESP, WSB and overall, respectively, suggesting that the use of both WESP and WSB shows insignificant PAH removal efficiencies, and 99.4% of total-PAHs was directly emitted to the ambient air through the stack flue gas. This finding suggested that the better incineration efficiencies, and APCD removal efficiencies for disposing the petrochemical industrial wastewater are necessary in future. PMID:17368715

  5. Solid wastes in the petrochemical industry. Technical report EHE-72-14

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. G. Makela; J. F. Jr. Malina

    1972-01-01

    The conclusions presented in this section are based on extensive literature review and personal participation in a survey of solid waste management practices in the petrochemical industry conducted by the Texas Water Quality Board in 1970 to 1971. Quantitative data are not available. (1) Published information and data regarding solid waste production in the petrochemical industry is limited and somewhat

  6. Sulfide removal in wastewater from petrochemical industries by autotrophic denitrification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eleni Vaiopoulou; Paris Melidis; Alexander Aivasidis

    2005-01-01

    An alternative flowchart for the biological removal of hydrogen sulfide from oil-refining wastewater is presented; autotrophic denitrification in a multi-stage treatment plant was utilized. A pilot-scale plant was fed with a mixture of the following constituents: (a) original wastewater from an oil refining industry (b), the effluent of the existing nitrification-stage treatment plant and (c) sulfide in the form of

  7. Adjustable Speed Drives in the U.S. Petroleum Refining, Petrochemical, and Chemical Industries

    E-print Network

    Foley, D. J.; Chodorowski, A.

    This paper describes applications and incentives for the use of variable frequency drivers (VFD) in the petroleum refining, petrochemical, and chemical industries. VFDs are a particular type of adjustable speed driver (ASD) found prevalently...

  8. Economics of Energy Conservation in the Chemical and Petrochemical Industries

    E-print Network

    Nachod, J. E. Jr.

    that consumes more energy than any other in most chemical and petrochemical plants is distillation. In fact, it is estimated (4) that 25 to 40% of the energy consumed in the form of steam, cooling water, chilled water or refrigerated brine by the chemical... show the same or better rate of return. Usually the risk factor in energy savings projects is less than allocations for other uses. The categories of energy consumption on a chemical or petrochemical plant are defined. Distillation is often...

  9. Metal pollution of soils and vegetation in an area with petrochemical industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Nadal; M Schuhmacher; J. L Domingo

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), and vanadium (V) in soil and chard samples collected in various industrial sites of Tarragona County (Spain), an area with an important number of petrochemical industries. Samples were also collected in urban (Tarragona downtown) and presumably unpolluted

  10. The influence of different substrate pH values on the performance of a downflow anaerobic fixed bed reactor treating a petrochemical effluent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. H. Nel; T. J. Britz

    1986-01-01

    Summary Neutralizing requirements for the anaerobic treatment of an acidic petrochemical effluent in a downflow anaerobic fixed bed reactor were examined. Neutralization (pH 6.0 with NaOH) of the effluent prior to digestion resulted in a Na+ concentration of over 3 g\\/l which was detrimental. Decreasing the Na+ concentration and subsequent replacement of NaOH by a mixture of Ca(OH)2, NaOH and

  11. Pulp and Paper Industry Effluent Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gove, George W.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from pulp and paper industry, covering publications of 1976-77. This review focuses on: (1) receiving water, toxicity, and effluent characterization; (2) pulping liquor disposal and recovery; and (3) physicochemical and biological treatment. A list of 238 references is also presented. (HM)

  12. TREATMENT OF PETROLEUM REFINERY, PETROCHEMICAL AND COMBINED INDUSTRIAL-MUNICIPAL WASTEWATERS WITH ACTIVATED CARBON - LITERATURE REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    A review of the literature on activated carbon adsorption as a treatment concept for petroleum refinery, petrochemical plant, and combined industrial-municipal wastewaters is presented in this report. A total of 241 references are cited. These references cover the various aspects...

  13. A multiobjective optimization model for the waste management of the petrochemical industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abdulaziz S. Alidi

    1996-01-01

    A multiobjective optimization model based on the goal programming approach is proposed in this paper to assist in the proper management of hazardous waste generated by the petrochemical industry. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP), a decision-making approach, incorporating qualitative and quantitative aspects of a problem, is incorporated in the model to prioritize the conflicting goals usually encountered when addressing the

  14. Perceived demands and musculoskeletal symptoms among employees of an Iranian petrochemical industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alireza Choobineh; Gholamreza Peyvandi Sani; Mohsen Sharif Rohani; Mohammad Gangi Pour; Masoud Neghab

    2009-01-01

    As a part of a comprehensive ergonomics program, this study was conducted among employees of an Iranian petrochemical industry to determine the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms and to examine the relationship between perceived demands and reported symptoms. In this cross-sectional study, 928 randomly selected employees, corresponding to nearly 40% of all employees participated. Nordic Musculoskeletal Disorder Questionnaire and Job Content

  15. Effect of petrochemical industrial emissions of reactive alkenes and NOx on tropospheric ozone formation in Houston, Texas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. B. Ryerson; W. M. Angevine; C. A. Brock; R. W. Dissly; F. C. Fehsenfeld; G. J. Frost; P. D. Goldan; J. S. Holloway; G. Hübler; R. O. Jakoubek; W. C. Kuster; J. A. Neuman; D. K. Nicks; D. D. Parrish; J. M. Roberts; D. T. Sueper; E. L. Atlas; S. G. Donnelly; F. Flocke; A. Fried; W. T. Potter; S. Schauffler; V. Stroud; A. J. Weinheimer; B. P. Wert; C. Wiedinmyer; R. J. Alvarez; R. M. Banta; L. S. Darby; C. J. Senff

    2003-01-01

    Petrochemical industrial facilities can emit large amounts of highly reactive hydrocarbons and NOx to the atmosphere; in the summertime, such colocated emissions are shown to consistently result in rapid and efficient ozone (O3) formation downwind. Airborne measurements show initial hydrocarbon reactivity in petrochemical source plumes in the Houston, TX, metropolitan area is primarily due to routine emissions of the alkenes

  16. A survey of faults on induction motors in offshore oil industry, petrochemical industry, gas terminals, and oil refineries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olav Vaag Thorsen; Magnus Dalva

    1995-01-01

    This report presents a survey of the reliability of squirrel cage motors on board drilling, production, and other platforms offshore, together with cage motors in the petrochemical industry, gas terminals, and refineries onshore. Most of the activity in this connection is related to The North Sea that offers a tough environment for motors. The collected data have been treated statistically,

  17. Ammonia recovery from high strength agro industry effluents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Altinbas; I. Ozturk; A. F. Aydin

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate ammonia recovery from high strength agro industry effluents involving significant amounts of ammonia, by applying magnesium ammonium phosphate (MAP) precipitation technology. Two types of industrial effluents have been tested in the study. The first plant was an opium alkaloid processing industry and the second one was a bakers yeast industry. High chemical

  18. Overnight atmospheric transport and chemical processing of photochemically aged Houston urban and petrochemical industrial plume

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rahul A. Zaveri; Paul B. Voss; Carl M. Berkowitz; Edward Fortner; Jun Zheng; Renyi Zhang; Ralph J. Valente; Roger L. Tanner; Daniel Holcomb; Thomas P. Hartley; Leslie Baran

    2010-01-01

    Overnight atmospheric transport and chemical evolution of photochemically aged Houston urban and petrochemical industrial plume were investigated in July 2005. We report here on the 26 July episode in which the aged plume was tagged 1.5 h before sunset with a pair of free-floating controlled meteorological balloons, which guided quasi-Lagrangian aircraft sampling in the plume as it was advected 300

  19. Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in petrochemical industries by measurement of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P J Boogaard; N J van Sittert

    1994-01-01

    Biological monitoring of exposure of workers to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in petrochemical industries was performed by the measurement of urinary excretion of 1-hydroxypyrene. In 121 of the 462 workers studied (both smokers and non-smokers) who had had no recent occupational exposure to PAHs a median 1-hydroxypyrene concentration of 0.21 micrograms\\/g creatinine was found. The upper limit of the 95%

  20. Exchange rates and market power: evidence from the petrochemical industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel M. Bernhofen; Peng Xu

    2000-01-01

    This paper takes a microeconometric approach to the study of exchange rate pass-through in imperfectly competitive markets. We provide evidence for the hypothesis that incomplete exchange rate pass-through can be attributed to non-competitive conduct by foreign firms. A unique feature of our approach is the use of highly disaggregated industry data which is compatible with the behavioral assumptions of a

  1. Anaerobic digestion Of a Petrochemical Wastewater using the UASB process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P. Guyot; H. Macarie; A. Noyola

    1990-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of effluent from a petrochemical plant producing terephthalic acid has been tested using two Upflow Anaerobic\\u000a Sludge Blanket (USAB) reactors. The reactors were seeded with two different inocula: one from an anaerobic stabilization pond\\u000a receiving wasted sludge from the aerobic treatment plant of the petrochemical industry (reactor A); the other was an anaerobically\\u000a adapted activated sludge from a

  2. Annoyance and Worry in a Petrochemical Industrial Area—Prevalence, Time Trends and Risk Indicators

    PubMed Central

    Axelsson, Gösta; Stockfelt, Leo; Andersson, Eva; Gidlof-Gunnarsson, Anita; Sallsten, Gerd; Barregard, Lars

    2013-01-01

    In 1992, 1998, and 2006, questionnaires were sent to stratified samples of residents aged 18–75 years living near petrochemical industries (n = 600–800 people on each occasion) and in a control area (n = 200–1,000). The aims were to estimate the long-term prevalence and change over time of annoyance caused by industrial odour, industrial noise, and worries about possible health effects, and to identify risk indicators. In 2006, 20% were annoyed by industrial odour, 27% by industrial noise (1–4% in the control area), and 40–50% were worried about health effects or industrial accidents (10–20% in the control area). Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed significantly lower prevalence of odour annoyance in 1998 and 2006 than in 1992, while industrial noise annoyance increased significantly over time. The prevalence of worry remained constant. Risk of odour annoyance increased with female sex, worry of health effects, annoyance by motor vehicle exhausts and industrial noise. Industrial noise annoyance was associated with traffic noise annoyance and worry of health effects of traffic. Health-risk worry due to industrial air pollution was associated with female sex, having children, annoyance due to dust/soot in the air, and worry of traffic air pollution. PMID:23552810

  3. Petrochemical industry standards activity aimed at improving the mechanical integrity of process piping

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, J.T. [Shell Oil Products Co., Houston, TX (United States)

    1996-07-01

    This paper will cover numerous changes being made to existing standards and several new standards being created, all focusing on increasing mechanical integrity of petrochemical industry process piping. Those new standards include ones for (1) Risk-Based Inspection (2) Fitness for Service Analysis, (3) Positive Material Identification, and (4) In-service Inspection and Maintenance for Process Piping. A progress report is included for the Process Industry Practices (PIP) being created to consolidate individual company piping standards into one consistent industry set. And finally, recent initiatives toward standards cooperation/coordination between the American Petroleum Institute(API), American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), International Standards Organization (ISO) and National Board are highlighted.

  4. Novel technology for flame and gas detection in the petrochemical industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spector, Yechiel; Jacobson, Esther

    1999-01-01

    A reliable and high performance novel method of flame and gas optical spectral analysis was developed to meet the specific flame and gas detection of the petrochemical industry. Petrochemical industries, especially the offshore and unmanned areas in onshore refineries, pose a major safety hazard with respect to potential explosions and fire events. Unwanted fuel spills or fugitive flammable vapor clouds, migrating along congested pipe lines and hot production areas may cause upon ignition significant loss or damage. To help prevents events like the catastrophic fire that destroyed the offshore oil platform Piper Alpha in July 1988, a reliable and fast gas and flame detection system can be used to trigger effective risk management actions. The present paper describes a patented method of Triple Optical Spectral Analysis employed for the detection of various gases in the air according to their unique 'spectral finger print' absorption characteristics of radiation, as well as for analysis of emission and absorption radiation from combustion processes for flame detection purpose. The method has been applied in the development of unique gas and flame monitoring system designed for 'high risk - harsh/extreme weather conditions continuous operation'. These systems have been recently installed on several offshore platforms and oil rigs as well as on 'floating production Storage and Offloading' - FPSO vessels. The systems advantages and limitations as well as several installations and test data are presented. Various atmospheric conditions as well as false alarm stimulus are discussed.

  5. Industrial effluent quality, pollution monitoring and environmental management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maqbool Ahmad; Ahmad S. Bajahlan; Waleed S. Hammad

    2008-01-01

    Royal Commission Environmental Control Department (RC-ECD) at Yanbu industrial city in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has established\\u000a a well-defined monitoring program to control the pollution from industrial effluents. The quality of effluent from each facility\\u000a is monitored round the clock. Different strategic measures have been taken by the RC-ECD to implement the zero discharge policy\\u000a of RC. Industries are required

  6. Comparative temporal ecotoxicological study in a river basin influenced by petrochemical industries.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Vera Maria Ferrão; Migliavacca, Sayonara Bresolin; Horn, Rubem Cesar; Terra, Nara Regina

    2008-03-15

    An approach was developed to evaluate ecotoxicological effects in river basins impacted by anthropic industrial discharges. Genotoxicity was the first level of evaluation of the river water, but when cytotoxicity was associated with genotoxic effects, our research group added chronic assays allowing the assessment of the ontogenic cycle in environmental diagnosis. The genotoxicity of river water sampled during two periods was compared using the microscreen phage-induction and Salmonella/microsome assays. The study assessed the ability of these assays to diagnose environmental quality in an area where petrochemical impacts occur. The study was performed at six sampling sites using the Salmonella/microsome assay for 10 sampling periods and the microscreen phage-induction assay for 15 samplings. The percentage of mutagenic activity was higher at the sites sampled in front of the petrochemical complex in both periods, but there were more significant mutagenic responses in the first assessment. However, comparing the percentages of samples with mutagenic and cytotoxic activity observed during the two periods it becomes clear that there are more cytotoxic samples during the second period throughout the area studied. The genotoxic activity analyzed by the microscreen phage-induction assay was constant in the second period. Chronic toxicity studies with the microcrustacean Daphnia magna confirm the toxic effects observed. The mortality of individuals was higher at the site most influenced by the petrochemical complex, followed by the station located upstream from this area, while the formation of ephippial eggs was uniform at all stations. The rise in the toxic potential of the region detected by cytotoxic and chronic toxicity may interfere and probably impair the use of the Salmonella/microsome assay to determine the potential of the area, showing the importance of assay association to evaluate potentially contaminated areas. PMID:18083216

  7. EMPLOYMENT AND EXPOSURES IN THE PETROLEUM REFINING AND PETROCHEMICAL INDUSTRIES AND THE RISK OF LUNG CANCER (EPIDEMIOLOGY, ASSESSMENT)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    TIMOTHY EARL ALDRICH

    1985-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the risk of lung cancer associated with occupational exposures in the petroleum refining and petrochemical industries. Earlier epidemiologic studies of this association did not adjust for cigarette smoking or have specific exposure classifications. The Texas EXposure Assessment System (TEXAS) was developed with data from a population-based, case-comparison study conducted in five southeast Texas counties between 1976 and

  8. Employment and exposures in the petroleum refining and petrochemical industries and the risk of lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Aldrich, T.E.

    1985-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the risk of lung cancer associated with occupational exposures in the petroleum refining and petrochemical industries. Earlier epidemiologic studies of this association did not adjust for cigarette smoking or have specific exposure classifications. The Texas EXposure Assessment System (TEXAS) was developed with data from a population-based, case-comparison study conducted in five southeast Texas counties between 1976 and 1980. An industry-wide, increased risk for lung cancer was associated with jobs having low-level hydrocarbon exposure that also include other occupational inhalation exposures. The prohibition of cigarette smoking for jobs with high-level hydrocarbon exposure might explain part of the increased risk for jobs with low-level hydrocarbon exposures. Asbestos exposure comprises a large part of the risk associated with jobs having other inhalation exposures besides hydrocarbons. Workers in petroleum refineries were not shown to have an increased, occupational risk for lung cancer. The study results demonstrate that the predominant risk for lung cancer is due to cigarette smoking. Cigarette smoking accounts for 86.5% of the incident lung cancer cases within the study area. Workers in the petroleum industry smoke significantly less than persons employed in other industries. Only 2.2% of the incident lung cancer cases may be attributed to petroleum industry jobs; lifestyle factors (e.g., nutrition) may be associated with the balance of the cases.

  9. Assessment of soil organic contamination in a typical petrochemical industry park in China.

    PubMed

    Teng, Yong; Zhou, Qixing; Miao, Xinyu; Chen, Yuming

    2015-07-01

    The concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), n-alkanes (n-C8 through n-C40), and 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils were determined to assess the level of organic contamination in soils from the Da-gang Petrochemical Industry Park with several big state-run enterprises, a recent rapid flourishing park in China. The results showed that the concentration of TPH in soil was high, up to 20 ng/g-12.8478 %; in particular, the content in most sites ranged from 1 to 2 %. Thus, it is clear that soil environment in the Da-gang Petrochemical Industry Park has been seriously polluted by TPH according to the Nemerow pollution index method. Furthermore, the average concentration of ?(n-C>16 through n-C34) in 30 sampling sites was above the maximum limit set for F3 under all the conditions in the Canada-wide standards for petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC CWS) with 43.33-93.33 % soil samples exceeding F3 standards, and n-alkanes possessing higher concentrations were proved much abundant alkanes in this study. Besides, the predominance of even n-alkanes and lower carbon preference index (CPI) demonstrated that n-alkanes in surface soils were mainly caused by anthropogenic inputs, while the concentration of ?16-PAHs was in the range of 1652.5-8217.3 ng/g and the BaA/(BaA + Chr) and Flu/(Flu + Pyr) ratios indicated that pyrogenic PAHs may be the dominant PAHs in most soils with the contribution of petrogenic hydrocarbons in some sites. PMID:25697555

  10. The potential for effluent trading in the energy industries.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J. A.; Environmental Assessment

    1998-01-01

    In January 1996, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released a policy statement endorsing wastewater effluent trading in watersheds, hoping to promote additional interest in the subject. The policy describes five types of effluent trades: point source/point source, point source/nonpoint source, pretreatment, intraplant and nonpoint source/nonpoint source. This paper evaluates the feasibility of implementing these types of effluent trading for facilities in the oil and gas, electric power and coal industries. This paper finds that the potential for effluent trading in these industries is limited because trades would generally need to involve toxic pollutants, which can only be traded under a narrow range of circumstances. However, good potential exists for other types of water-related trades that do not directly involve effluents (e.g. wetlands mitigation banking and voluntary environmental projects). The potential for effluent trading in the energy industries and in other sectors would be enhanced if Congress amended the Clean Water Act (CWA) to formally authorize such trading.

  11. SOURCE ASSESSMENT: NITROGEN FERTILIZER INDUSTRY WATER EFFLUENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes a study of waterborne pollutants from the manufacture of nitrogen fertilizers. It includes an evaluation of the ammonia, ammonium nitrate, urea, and nitric acid manufacturing processes. Water effluents in a nitrogen fertilizer plant originate from a variety o...

  12. FTIR remote sensor measurements of air pollutants in the petrochemical industrial park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Rong T.; Chang, Shih-Yi; Chung, Y. W.; Tzou, H. C.; Tso, Tai-Ly

    1995-09-01

    As FT-IR remote sensing techniques become more accessible, there are increasing interests to apply this open-path measurement method to detect and measure airborne pollutants. Thus a research for VOCs emission pollutants in the petrochemical industry park is conducted. In this study, we focused on the identification of the gaseous pollutants as well as the location of the VOCs pollutants from different factories. Measurement is sampled at every half hour period to obtain the time series plots of observed gas concentration for the gaseous pollutants. Besides the inherent components in ambient air such as carbon monoxide, methane, and ozone, the results of the measurement indicate that the major pollutants detected in this industrial park include vinyl chloride, chloroform, hydrogen chloride, 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,3-butadiene, ethylene, propylene, n-hexane, acetic acid, methyl acetate and ammonia. Some of these toxic pollutants are carcinogens and also the chloride related compounds are potentially a threat to the depletion of ozone. All of these measurements indicate that the pattern of the pollutants for each location is significantly different from each other pattern. In addition, the concentrations and the presence of absence of pollutants were dramatically affected by wind directions. Under this case, suspicious polluting plants are successfully being identified by examining the pattern of compounds, pollutant's concentration time series, metrology, and manufacturing process.

  13. Quantification of Ethene Emissions from Petrochemical Industries in Houston, Texas: Large Disagreements with Emission Inventories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Gouw, J. A.; Warneke, C.; te Lintel Hekkert, S.; Holloway, J. S.; Parrish, D. D.; Peischl, J.; Ryerson, T. B.; Mellqvist, J.; Atlas, E. A.; Fried, A.

    2007-12-01

    Reactive alkenes from petrochemical industries are known to play an important role in the formation of ozone in Houston, Texas. In this work we developed a fast-response detector of ethene based on laser photo-acoustic spectroscopy (LPAS) and used it onboard the NOAA WP-3D aircraft to measure ethene in industrial plumes around Houston in the summer of 2006. The new LPAS instrument was evaluated by comparison with measurement results from the whole air sampler (WAS), and the two measurements were found to agree within the combined measurement uncertainties of +/- (200 pptv + 15%). Emission fluxes of ethene were estimated (1) by integrating the measured ethene concentration across the width of industrial plumes, (2) by multiplying the concentration with the orthogonal wind speed measured from the aircraft, and (3) by assuming that the emissions are homogeneously distributed across the height of the boundary layer as estimated using aircraft ascents and descents. The estimated ethene fluxes were compared with the results of simultaneous Solar Occultation Flux (SOF) measurements inside a mobile laboratory, and agreement within a factor of 2 was obtained. Previous work had indicated that current emission inventories underestimate reactive alkene emissions in Houston by 1-2 orders of magnitude. These findings were confirmed both by the LPAS measurements onboard the NOAA WP-3D and the SOF measurements. Finally, the measured mixing ratios of ethene were compared between the results from 2006 and an earlier mission in 2000. In contrast with CO and ethyne, which are predominantly from traffic, ethene and its photoproduct formaldehyde showed the largest decreases between 2000 and 2006, suggesting possible reductions of approximately 40% in the industrial emissions of ethene.

  14. The Effect of Social Trust on Citizens’ Health Risk Perception in the Context of a Petrochemical Industrial Complex

    PubMed Central

    López-Navarro, Miguel Ángel; Llorens-Monzonís, Jaume; Tortosa-Edo, Vicente

    2013-01-01

    Perceived risk of environmental threats often translates into psychological stress with a wide range of effects on health and well-being. Petrochemical industrial complexes constitute one of the sites that can cause considerable pollution and health problems. The uncertainty around emissions results in a perception of risk for citizens residing in neighboring areas, which translates into anxiety and physiological stress. In this context, social trust is a key factor in managing the perceived risk. In the case of industrial risks, it is essential to distinguish between trust in the companies that make up the industry, and trust in public institutions. In the context of a petrochemical industrial complex located in the port of Castellón (Spain), this paper primarily discusses how trust—both in the companies located in the petrochemical complex and in the public institutions—affects citizens’ health risk perception. The research findings confirm that while the trust in companies negatively affects citizens’ health risk perception, trust in public institutions does not exert a direct and significant effect. Analysis also revealed that trust in public institutions and health risk perception are essentially linked indirectly (through trust in companies). PMID:23337129

  15. Health Risk Assessment of Xylene through Microenvironment Monitoring Data: A Case Study of the PetroChemical Industries, Thailand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pensri Watchalayann; Nantika Soonthornchaikul

    In the absence of environmental health epidemiology, risk managers, policy makers and health-care authorities usually rely on estimates of human exposure level of proximity to hazardous waste site or regional ambient air quality data. Based on ambient concentrations without considering time-activity patterns, the estimation of personal exposure may be over- or underestimated. Twelve villages surrounding the petro-chemical industries located in

  16. Quality of effluents from Hattar Industrial Estate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Of 6634 registered industries in Pakistan, 1228 are considered to be highly polluting. The major industries include textile, pharmaceutical, chemicals (organic and inorganic), food industries, ceramics, steel, oil mills and leather tanning which spread all over four provinces, with the larger number located in Sindh and Punjab, with smaller number in North Western Frontier Province (NWFP) and Baluchistan. Hattar Industrial

  17. CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN WHOLE EFFLUENT TOXICITY AND THE PRESENCE OF PRIORITY SUBSTANCES IN COMPLEX INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this study was to examine broad-scale correlation between presence of priority substances and whole effluent toxicity (WET) across a range of industry types. Using regression analysis, we examined how chemical-based inferred toxicity predicted measured WET of the e...

  18. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene as biomarker of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in workers in petrochemical industries: baseline values and dermal uptake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. J. Boogaard; N. J. van Sittert

    1995-01-01

    The suitability of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene as a biomarker for the assessment of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in petrochemical industries was evaluated in 562 workers involved in various operations in petrochemical industries. The median 1-hydroxypyrene concentration in 121 of these workers (both smokers and non-smokers) who had had no recent occupational exposure to PAH was 0.11 ?mol\\/mol creatinine. The

  19. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE: CHAPTER 5. BASIC PETROCHEMICALS INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The catalog was developed to aid in defining the environmental impacts of U.S. industrial activity. Entries for each industry are in consistent format and form separate chapters of the catalog. The basic petroleum industry includes companies that treat hydrocarbon streams from th...

  20. Genotoxicity of sludges, wastewater and effluents from three different industries.

    PubMed

    Krishnamurthi, K; Saravana Devi, S; Hengstler, J G; Hermes, Matthias; Kumar, Koel; Dutta, Dipanwita; Muhil Vannan, S; Subin, T S; Yadav, R R; Chakrabarti, T

    2008-12-01

    Many surface waters in Europe, Asia and South America have been reported to be contaminated with genotoxic substances. Therefore, it is important to establish strategies for identification of the most critical sources. In this study, we used a battery of four genotoxicity assays namely chromosomal aberration, DNA strand break, DNA laddering and P53 accumulation tests in mononuclear blood cells. Before cleaning of wastewater high levels of genotoxic contamination could be observed. For instance, we observed an increase in chromosomal aberrations from 2.6 +/- 1.1 (aberrant cells in %; control), to 33.6 +/- 6.6 in a petrochemical plant, 29.4 +/- 3.3 in a petroleum refinery and 14.4 +/- 1.8 in a coke plant of steel industry. A good correlation between the four assays was found. The most sensitive and reproducible results were obtained with the chromosomal aberration assay. Interestingly, clear differences in the efficiency of wastewater cleaning in three different treatment plants were observed. The first and second treatment plants in petrochemical industry and coke plant of steel industry completely eliminated genotoxicity of the wastewater. However, the third plant in petroleum refinery could achieve a reduction in genotoxicity but significant genotoxic contaminations were still present. In conclusion, our battery of genotoxicity tests allows the identification of critical sources contributing to contamination of surface waters. PMID:19002669

  1. Quality of effluents from Hattar Industrial Estate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Sial; M. F. Chaudhary; S. T. Abbas; M. I. Latif; A. G. Khan

    2006-01-01

    Of 6634 registered industries in Pakistan, 1228 are considered to be highly polluting. The major industries include textile,\\u000a pharmaceutical, chemicals (organic and inorganic), food industries, ceramics, steel, oil mills and leather tanning which spread\\u000a all over four provinces, with the larger number located in Sindh and Punjab, with smaller number in North Western Frontier\\u000a Province (NWFP) and Baluchistan. Hattar Industrial

  2. Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in petrochemical industries by measurement of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene.

    PubMed Central

    Boogaard, P J; van Sittert, N J

    1994-01-01

    Biological monitoring of exposure of workers to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in petrochemical industries was performed by the measurement of urinary excretion of 1-hydroxypyrene. In 121 of the 462 workers studied (both smokers and non-smokers) who had had no recent occupational exposure to PAHs a median 1-hydroxypyrene concentration of 0.21 micrograms/g creatinine was found. The upper limit of the 95% confidence interval in these workers of 0.99 micrograms/g creatinine was used as the upper normal value for industrial workers. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations were measured in workers involved in manufacture and maintenance operations in oil refineries (13 studies in eight different settings), in workers manufacturing or handling products containing PAHs in chemical plants (five studies in three settings) and laboratories (four studies), and in workers digging soil contaminated with PAHs (three studies). In most studies in oil refineries 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations were only marginally greater than the values measured in the 121 workers with no recent occupational exposure to PAHs. This was also the case in maintenance operations with higher potential exposure to PAHs, indicating that personal protection equipment was generally adequate to prevent excessive exposure. The studies in chemical plants also showed that exposure to PAHs is low. An exception was the workers engaged in the production of needle coke from ethylene cracker residue, where increased urinary 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations were measured. The excretion of 1-hydroxypyrene by the operators and maintenance workers of this plant was investigated in relation to potential methods of exposure to PAHs. Dermal and inhalatory exposure were both significant determinants of exposure to PAHs. PMID:8199667

  3. THE GENOTOXICITY OF INDUSTRIAL WASTES AND EFFLUENTS: A REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    A review of the literature published on the genotoxicity of industrial wastes and effluents using short-term genetic bioassays is presented in this document. he importance of this task arises from the ubiquity of genotoxic compounds in the environment and the need to identify the...

  4. Treatment of effluents from cardboard industry by coagulation–electroflotation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Ben Mansour; I. Kesentini

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to optimize the treatment of the cardboard industry wastewater generated in the process of machine washing. This type of effluent is usually treated by traditional physicochemical processes such as coagulation\\/flocculation and sedimentation. These processes give a limited purifying efficiency, particularly for the COD reduction. In this work, the treatment by coagulation–electroflotation process was

  5. INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT TREATMENT USING IONIZING RADIATION COMBINED TO TITANIUM DIOXIDE

    SciTech Connect

    Duarte, C.L.; Oikawa, H.; Mori, M.N.; Sampa, M.H.O.

    2004-10-04

    The Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) with OH radicals are the most efficient to mineralize organic compounds, and there are various methods to generate OH radicals as the use of ozone, hydrogen peroxide and ultra-violet radiation and ionizing radiation. The irradiation of aqueous solutions with high-energy electrons results in the excitation and ionizing of the molecules and rapid (10{sup -14} - 10{sup -9} s) formation of reactive intermediates. These reactive species will react with organic compounds present in industrial effluent inducing their decomposition. Titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) catalyzed photoreaction is used to remove a wide range of pollutants in air and water media, combined to UV/VIS light, FeO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, but as far as known there is no report on the combination with ionizing radiation. In some recent studies, the removal of organic pollutants in industrial effluent, such as Benzene, Toluene, and Xylene from petroleum production using ionizing radiation was investigated. It has been ob served that none of the methods can be used individually in wastewater treatment applications with good economics and high degree of energy efficiency. In the present work, the efficiency of ionizing radiation in presence of TiO{sub 2} to treat industrial effluent was evaluated. The main aim to combine these technologies is to improve the efficiency for very hard effluents and to reduce the processing cost for future implementation to large-scale design.

  6. Mutagenic activity of airborne particulate matter in a petrochemical industrial area.

    PubMed

    Coronas, Mariana Vieira; Horn, Rubem Cesar; Ducatti, Adriana; Rocha, Jocelita Vaz; Vargas, Vera Maria Ferrão

    2008-02-29

    Exposure to airborne particulate matter has adverse effects on human health and ecosystem. Mutagenic activity of airborne particulate organic matter extracts in three time periods from total suspended particles (TSP) and particles less than 10 microm (PM10) was evaluated in an area under the influence of a petrochemical industry located in the town of Triunfo, Brazil. The extracts were investigated using the Salmonella/microsome assay, with the microsuspension method. The extracts were obtained by sonication extracted using dichloromethane (DCM) solvent. The fractions were tested for mutagenicity with the Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 (with and without metabolic activation), TA98NR and TA98/1,8DNP(6); or YG1021 and YG1024. A positive frameshift mutagenic response was observed for the environmental samples during the different periods. The responses according to percentage of extractable organic matter (EOM%), EOM/m(3), revertants/microg (rev/microg) and revertants/m(3) (rev/m(3)) were lower for TSP than for PM10 extracts. The highest rev/m(3) values were observed in PM10 extract samples collected in winter, July 2005, in the presence (13.79 rev/m(3)) or absence (6.87 rev/m(3)) of S9 fraction. Similarly in the first (1995) or second period (2000) the highest values for TSP were observed in winter, but with lower activity (3.00 and 0.89 rev/m(3) respectively). The responses observed for the nitrosensitive strains suggest the contribution of nitro, amino and/or hydroxylamino derivatives of PAHs to the total mutagenicity of matter extracted from airborne particles. The Salmonella/microsome assay was a sensitive method to define areas contaminated by genotoxic compounds, even in samples with TSP or PM10 values that are acceptable according to legal environmental quality standards, favoring environmental control measures with an effective response seen in the population's improved quality of life. PMID:18201924

  7. Exploitation results of seven RO plants for recovery and reuse of treated effluents in textile industries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rita S. Dhodapkar; Girish R. Pophali; Tapas Nandy; Sukumar Devotta

    2007-01-01

    The paper comprises a case study on the implementation of the advance treatment process (ATP) in seven small-scale textile industries. The ATPs installed and commissioned are in compliance with the Statutory Board directions for recovery and reuse of treated effluent leading to zero effluent discharge. The textile effluents are treated in effluent treatment plants comprising a physicochemical option followed by

  8. 40 CFR 419.33 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PETROLEUM REFINING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Petrochemical Subcategory § 419.33 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

  9. 40 CFR 419.33 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PETROLEUM REFINING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Petrochemical Subcategory § 419.33 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

  10. 40 CFR 419.32 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PETROLEUM REFINING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Petrochemical Subcategory § 419.32 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

  11. 40 CFR 419.34 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PETROLEUM REFINING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Petrochemical Subcategory § 419.34 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

  12. 40 CFR 419.34 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PETROLEUM REFINING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Petrochemical Subcategory § 419.34 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

  13. 40 CFR 419.32 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PETROLEUM REFINING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Petrochemical Subcategory § 419.32 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

  14. 40 CFR 419.32 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PETROLEUM REFINING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Petrochemical Subcategory § 419.32 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

  15. 40 CFR 419.32 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PETROLEUM REFINING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Petrochemical Subcategory § 419.32 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

  16. 40 CFR 419.33 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PETROLEUM REFINING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Petrochemical Subcategory § 419.33 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

  17. 40 CFR 419.33 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PETROLEUM REFINING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Petrochemical Subcategory § 419.33 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

  18. 40 CFR 419.34 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PETROLEUM REFINING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Petrochemical Subcategory § 419.34 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

  19. Safety leadership and safety performance in petrochemical industries: The mediating role of safety climate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tsung-Chih Wu; Shu-Hsuan Chang; Chi-Min Shu; Chien-Tsun Chen; Chien-Peng Wang

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the relationship among three latent variables: safety leadership, safety climate, and safety performance. Employees from 23 plants in seven departments of a petrochemical company in central Taiwan completed a questionnaire survey. From this, a sample of 521 responses was randomly selected. Structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis using the AMOS 5.0 was employed to test the hypothesized model

  20. Prevention of water pollution by waste waters of the petrochemical industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. I. Gyunter; I. F. Shatalaev

    1987-01-01

    The authors examine the problems of reception of waste waters of petrochemistry for biological treatment, improvement and introduction of new methods of toxicological control permitting active intervention, and management of the process of arrival of waste waters for biological treatment. In the investigations, they used activated sludge of the first stage of biological treatment of waste waters of a petrochemical

  1. [The mortality from malignant neoplasms in the population of a large industrial city with petroleum-refining and petrochemical enterprises].

    PubMed

    Sharafutdinova, N Kh

    1997-01-01

    Air pollution with toxic chemical near oil-processing and petrochemical enterprises is significantly higher than in administrative district of the city. The studies proved that level and share of mortality with malignancies of trachea, bronchi and lungs is higher in industrial district, than that in the administrative one. The standardized parameters of mortality among females were increased in the industrial district, especially in 70s and 80s, i.e. in 10-20 years after launching the plants. The industrial district was characterized by higher mortality at young age. The mortality with the studied cancers at age of 20-29 and 30-39 prevailed in the industrial district. PMID:9377058

  2. Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Excluding dyes. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents exclusive of dyes. Topics include the recovery of lubricants, lye, sizing agents, polyvinyl alcohol, zinc, dirt, and heat from textile effluents. Air and water pollution control technology that is effective in treating textile effluents is discussed. Effluents from synthetic fiber manufacture and wool scouring processes are emphasized. Effluents that contain dyes are discusssed in a separate bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  3. Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Excluding dyes. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents exclusive of dyes. Topics include the recovery of lubricants, lye, sizing agents, polyvinyl alcohol, zinc, dirt, and heat from textile effluents. Air and water pollution control technology that is effective in treating textile effluents is discussed. Effluents from synthetic fiber manufacture and wool scouring processes are emphasized. Effluents that contain dyes are discusssed in a separate bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  4. Developing Measures for Assessing the Causality of Safety Culture in a Petrochemical Industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tsung-Chih Wu; Chia-Hung Lin; Sen-Yu Shiau

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses safety culture in the petrochemical sector and the causes and consequences of safety culture. A sample\\u000a of 520 responses selected by simple random sampling completed questionnaires for this survey, the return rate was 86.75%.\\u000a The research instrument comprises four sections: basic information, the safety leadership scale (SLS), the safety climate\\u000a scale (SCS), and the safety performance scale

  5. Biodegradation of slop oil from a petrochemical industry and bioreclamation of slop oil contaminated soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Dave; C. Ramakrishna; B. D. Bhatt; J. D. Desai

    1994-01-01

    Slop oil, i.e. waste oil from a petrochemical complex, contains at least 240 hydrocarbon components, of which 54% are from C5 to C11 and the rest from C12 to C23. Of 22 isolated bacterial cultures that were able to degrade slop oil, seven could each degrade about 40% of the slop oil, and a mixture of all seven could degrade

  6. Impact of industrial effluents on the biochemical composition of fresh water fish Labeo rohita.

    PubMed

    Muley, D V; Karanjkar, D M; Maske, S V

    2007-04-01

    In acute toxicity (96 hr) experiment the fingerlings of freshwater fish Labeo rohita was exposed to tannery, electroplating and textile mill effluents. The LC0 and LC50 concentrations were 15% and 20% for tannery effluents, 3% and 6% for electroplating effluents and 18% and 22% for textile mill effluents respectively. It was found that, electroplating effluent was more toxic than tannery and textile mill wastes. After acute toxicity experiments for different industrial effluents, various tissues viz. gill, liver, muscle and kidney were obtained separately from control, LC0 and LC50 groups. These tissues were used for biochemical estimations. The glycogen content in all the tissues decreased considerably upon acute toxicity of three industrial effluents except muscle in LC50 group of tannery effluent and kidney in LC50 group of textile mill effluent, when compared to control group. The total protein content decreased in all tissues in three effluents except gills in LC50 group of tannery effluent, kidney in LC50 group of electroplating effluent and kidney in LC0 group of textile mill effluent. In general total lipid content decreased in all tissues after acute exposure when compared to control group. The results obtained in the present study showed that, the industrial effluents from tannery, electroplating and textile mills caused marked depletion in biochemical composition in various tissues of the fish Labeo rohita after acute exposure. PMID:17915759

  7. Characterizing ozone pollution in a petrochemical industrial area in Beijing, China: a case study using a chemical reaction model.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Lv, Zhaofeng; Cheng, Shuiyuan; Wang, Lili; Ji, Dongsheng; Zhou, Ying; Han, Lihui; Wang, Litao

    2015-06-01

    This study selected a petrochemical industrial complex in Beijing, China, to understand the characteristics of surface ozone (O3) in this industrial area through the on-site measurement campaign during the July-August of 2010 and 2011, and to reveal the response of local O3 to its precursors' emissions through the NCAR-Master Mechanism model (NCAR-MM) simulation. Measurement results showed that the O3 concentration in this industrial area was significantly higher, with the mean daily average of 124.6 ?g/m(3) and mean daily maximum of 236.8 ?g/m(3), which are, respectively, 90.9 and 50.6 % higher than those in Beijing urban area. Moreover, the diurnal O3 peak generally started up early in 11:00-12:00 and usually remained for 5-6 h, greatly different with the normal diurnal pattern of urban O3. Then, we used NCAR-MM to simulate the average diurnal variation of photochemical O3 in sunny days of August 2010 in both industrial and urban areas. A good agreement in O3 diurnal variation pattern and in O3 relative level was obtained for both areas. For example of O3 daily maximum, the calculated value in the industrial area was about 51 % higher than in the urban area, while measured value in the industrial area was approximately 60 % higher than in the urban area. Finally, the sensitivity analysis of photochemical O3 to its precursors was conducted based on a set of VOCs/NOx emissions cases. Simulation results implied that in the industrial area, the response of O3 to VOCs was negative and to NOx was positive under the current conditions, with the sensitivity coefficients of -0.16~-0.43 and +0.04~+0.06, respectively. By contrast, the urban area was within the VOCs-limitation regime, where ozone enhancement in response to increasing VOCs emissions and to decreasing NOx emission. So, we think that the VOCs emissions control for this petrochemical industrial complex will increase the potential risk of local ozone pollution aggravation, but will be helpful to inhibit the ozone formation in Beijing urban area through reducing the VOCs transport from the industrial area to the urban area. PMID:26013656

  8. Electromagnetic acoustic transducers for wall thickness applications in the petrochemical industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, C.; Dixon, S.; Widdowson, A.; Palmer, S. B.

    2000-05-01

    Electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) are now becoming widely used in the field, for example for boiler tube wall thickness surveys in Power Generation plant. In general EMATs work efficiently on steel components with a surface oxide layer, where the oxides can be residual mill scale from the steel manufacturing process due to in-service growth in boilers or chemical processing plant. Very often these oxides have rough surfaces and have to be removed prior to conventional ultrasonic inspection. This can be both time consuming and costly, in addition the removal of the protective oxide layer accelerates the future wall lose rate of the pipe or vessel. As well as the Power Generation application, EMATs can also be used for ultrasonic inspection of petrochemical tubulars without having to remove oxides giving the same associated benefits. This paper presents results obtained from laboratory trials of EMAT thickness monitoring of petrochemical plant pipe samples and real EMAT surveys carried out on-site on refinery plant. In parallel with the practical application of EMATs we are studying the underlying physics of operation with the aim of predicting the EMAT performance for steels with and without oxide layers.

  9. Use of TIE techniques to characterize industrial effluents in the Pearl River Delta region.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yi-Xiang; Ying, Guang-Guo; Zhang, Li-Juan; Zhao, Jian-Liang; Su, Hao-Chang; Yang, Bin; Liu, Shan

    2012-02-01

    We investigated the acute toxicity of various industrial effluents in the Pearl River Delta region using lux bacteria, duckweed, green algae, crustaceans and zebrafish. The potential toxicants in the industrial effluents were identified and evaluated by lux bacteria bioassay and chemical analysis. The results show that green algae (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata) and crustacean (Ceriodaphnia dubia) were more sensitive to the effluents from electronic and electroplate factories than other test species, while lux bacteria were more sensitive to all the other effluents. The toxicities of effluents from electronic and electroplate factories to the six test organisms were significantly higher than those of the other industrial effluents, and mainly caused by metals. Noticeably, organic pollutants were the main contributing factor to the toxicity of effluents from textile and dyeing plants, pulp and paper mills, fine chemical factories and municipal wastewater treatment plants. PMID:22019309

  10. Emerging organic contaminants in leachates from industrial waste landfills and industrial effluent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karsten Levsen

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports the main results obtained within the European Commission (EC)-funded project PERICLES. The main objective was the development and the evaluation of a protocol for an integrated ecotoxicological\\/chemical assessment of industrial liquid effluents, using ecotoxicological assays and analytical methods. Biotest results have been compared with chemical analysis.

  11. An enzymatic method for removal of phenol from industrial effluent.

    PubMed

    Singh, Naresh; Singh, Jai

    2002-05-01

    Phenols in an aqueous solution were removed after treatment with peroxidase in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. Phenols occur in wastewater of a number of industries, such as high temperature coal conversion, petroleum refining, resin and plastic, wood and dye industries, etc. It can be toxic when present at elevated levels and is known to be carcinogeneous. Thus, removal of such compound from these industrial effluents is of great importance. An enzymatic method for removal of phenols from industrial wastewater, using turnip peroxidase, has been developed. Phenol-containing industrial wastewater was treated with immobilized turnip peroxidase in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. In the reaction, a number of phenols are oxidized to form the corresponding free radicals in the presence of hydrogen peroxide as an oxidant. Free radicals polymerize to form substances that are less soluble in water than the original substances. The precipitates were removed by conventional methods and residual phenol was estimated. The present report describes the immobilization of turnip peroxidase on silica via covalent coupling, and its utility in phenol removal. A comparative study was also carried out with other immobilization techniques, viz., calcium alginate entrapment, polyacrylamide gel entrapment, etc. Peroxidase, covalently bound to silica, showed 95% removal of phenol, whereas naphthol was removed up to 99%. PMID:12071643

  12. Chemical and Physical Properties of Chihuahuan Desert Soils Irrigated with Industrial Effluent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Babcock; Manoj K. Shukla; Geno A. Picchioni; John G. Mexal; David Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Land application of secondary industrial effluent to Chihuahuan Desert upland near Las Cruces, New Mexico, was designed to meet the water demand of creosote and mesquite shrubs. The major objective of this study was to assess changes in chemical and physical properties of desert soils after 4 years (2002–2005) of irrigation with secondary industrial effluent. Soil texture and bulk density

  13. Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Excluding dyes. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents exclusive of dyes. Topics include the recovery of lubricants, lye, sizing agents, polyvinyl alcohol, zinc, dirt, and heat from textile effluents. Air and water pollution control technology that is effective in treating textile effluents is discussed. Effluents from synthetic fiber manufacture and wool scouring processes are emphasized. Effluents that contain dyes are discusssed in a separate bibliography.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  14. Bioaugmentation and Biovalourization of Agro-Food and Beverage Industry Effluents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alok K. Pandey; Brijesh K. Mishra; Anju Arora; Surender Singh; Lata; Ramesh C. Ray

    \\u000a Food and beverage industry effluents form a major chunk of agro-industrial wastes throughout the world. Food industry effluents\\u000a mainly come from starchy foods, olive oil mill, palm oil mill, sugar refining and fermentation industries. It is imperative\\u000a to review the present status of food processing waste utilization for their safe disposal. Microbes are well-suited natural\\u000a agents for recycling of organic

  15. Treatment of effluents from cardboard industry by coagulation-electroflotation.

    PubMed

    Mansour, L Ben; Kesentini, I

    2008-05-30

    The objective of the present study is to optimize the treatment of the cardboard industry wastewater generated in the process of machine washing. This type of effluent is usually treated by traditional physicochemical processes such as coagulation/flocculation and sedimentation. These processes give a limited purifying efficiency, particularly for the COD reduction. In this work, the treatment by coagulation-electroflotation process was adopted. In batch mode treatment, current density, pH and coagulant concentration are the operating parameters to optimize. The methodology of experimental research, with an orthogonal central composite plan was adopted. Good agreement between theoretical analysis and experimental results was obtained. Continuous mode was also studied in order to optimize the residence time. A physicochemical characterization including COD, BOD and suspended solids charge was done before and after the treatment in order to improve the efficiency of this process. PMID:18029093

  16. Toxicity assessment of dye containing industrial effluents by acute toxicity test using Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Verma, Yogendra

    2011-02-01

    Toxicity of dye containing effluent of tannery, textile, dyes and pulp-paper industries was evaluated in an acute toxicity test using Daphnia magna. The 48-hour EC(50) values were 4.33% and 19.5% for tannery effluents (Tn1 and Tn2). Textile effluents (Tx1-Tx7) had 48-hour EC(50) values; >100%, >100%, 62.9%, 63.0%, 40.3%, >100% and >100%, respectively. Dye industries (D1-D7) had 48-hour EC(50) values; 14.1%, 15.5%, 24.5%, 29.7%, 23.2%, >100% and >100%, respectively. Similarly pulp-paper effluents (P1-P5) showed acute toxicity as 100%, 77.87%, 46.44%, 69.55% and 82.84%, respectively. These results showed linear relationship with high degree of confidence (r(2) ? 0.84-0.99) between immobility and test concentrations. Toxicity classification criteria showed that out of five effluents from pulp-paper mill, four were minor acutely toxic having 48-hour EC(50) value in between >46%-100%. Out of seven textile effluents, four were not acutely toxic (48-hour EC(50) value >100%) and three were minor acutely toxic (48-hour EC( 50) value in the range of 40.3%-63.0%). Similarly, out of seven dye industrial effluents, two were not acutely toxic and five minor acutely toxic. One of the two tanneries was moderately acutely toxic and another one was minor acutely toxic. Classification based on toxic unit revealed that four out of five pulp-paper effluent, three out of seven textile effluents, five out of seven dye effluents and both the tannery effluents were toxic. Overall, 66.67% effluents were found toxic and 33.33% as non-toxic. In general, tannery and dyes effluents showed more toxicity than textile and paper mill effluents. PMID:20823054

  17. Safety Culture Assessment in Petrochemical Industry: A Comparative Study of Two Algerian Plants

    PubMed Central

    Boughaba, Assia; Hassane, Chabane; Roukia, Ouddai

    2014-01-01

    Background To elucidate the relationship between safety culture maturity and safety performance of a particular company. Methods To identify the factors that contribute to a safety culture, a survey questionnaire was created based mainly on the studies of Fernández-Muñiz et al. The survey was randomly distributed to 1000 employees of two oil companies and realized a rate of valid answer of 51%. Minitab 16 software was used and diverse tests, including the descriptive statistical analysis, factor analysis, reliability analysis, mean analysis, and correlation, were used for the analysis of data. Ten factors were extracted using the analysis of factor to represent safety culture and safety performance. Results The results of this study showed that the managers' commitment, training, incentives, communication, and employee involvement are the priority domains on which it is necessary to stress the effort of improvement, where they had all the descriptive average values lower than 3.0 at the level of Company B. Furthermore, the results also showed that the safety culture influences the safety performance of the company. Therefore, Company A with a good safety culture (the descriptive average values more than 4.0), is more successful than Company B in terms of accident rates. Conclusion The comparison between the two petrochemical plants of the group Sonatrach confirms these results in which Company A, the managers of which are English and Norwegian, distinguishes itself by the maturity of their safety culture has significantly higher evaluations than the company B, who is constituted of Algerian staff, in terms of safety management practices and safety performance. PMID:25180135

  18. Development of sustainable waste management toward zero landfill waste for the petrochemical industry in Thailand using a comprehensive 3R methodology: A case study.

    PubMed

    Usapein, Parnuwat; Chavalparit, Orathai

    2014-05-13

    Sustainable waste management was introduced more than ten years ago, but it has not yet been applied to the Thai petrochemical industry. Therefore, under the philosophy of sustainable waste management, this research aims to apply the reduce, reuse, and recycle (3R) concept at the petrochemical factory level to achieve a more sustainable industrial solid waste management system. Three olefin plants in Thailand were surveyed for the case study. The sources and types of waste and existing waste management options were identified. The results indicate that there are four sources of waste generation: (1) production, (2) maintenance, (3) waste treatment, and (4) waste packaging, which correspond to 45.18%, 36.71%, 9.73%, and 8.37% of the waste generated, respectively. From the survey, 59 different types of industrial wastes were generated from the different factory activities. The proposed 3R options could reduce the amount of landfill waste to 79.01% of the amount produced during the survey period; this reduction would occur over a period of 2 years and would result in reduced disposal costs and reduced consumption of natural resources. This study could be used as an example of an improved waste management system in the petrochemical industry. PMID:24824168

  19. Does living near a constellation of petrochemical, steel, and other industries impair health?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. S. Bhopal; S. Moffatt; T. Pless-Mulloli; P. R. Phillimore; C. Foy; C. E. Dunn; J. A. Tate

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate concern that local industrial air pollution in Teesside, England, was causing poor health, several areas there were compared with parts of the City of Sunderland. METHODS: Populations in similar social and economic circumstances but varying in their proximity to major industries were compared. Study populations lived in 27 housing estates in Teesside and Sunderland, north east England,

  20. Fouling of reverse osmosis and nanofiltration membranes by dairy industry effluents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Turan; A. Ates; B. Inanc

    Fouling experiments of nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) are reported for treatment of the effluent of chemical-biological treatment plant and the original effluent of dairy industry respectively. In the experiments, a thin film composite type of spiral wound was used and fitted with flowmeters and pressure sensors. The feed water was stored into a feed tank and passed a

  1. The decolourisation of a chemical industry effluent by white rot fungi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. S Knapp; P. S Newby

    1999-01-01

    A wide range of strains of white rot fungi have been shown to be effective in the decolourisation of a chemical industry effluent containing a diazo-linked chromophore. The five most effective strains were selected for further study, all could give ca. 70–80% decolourisation. Of these the best were strains of Coriolus versicolor. All five strains could decolourise the effluent at

  2. Conventional, microwave, and ultrasound sequential extractions for the fractionation of metals in sediments within the Petrochemical Industry, Serbia.

    PubMed

    Reli?, Dubravka; Dor?evi?, Dragana; Sakan, Sanja; An?elkovi?, Ivan; Panteli?, Ana; Stankovi?, Ratomir; Popovi?, Aleksandar

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, the main objective was fractionation of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Ca, Fe, and K in certificate material and sediment samples gathered from and around the Petrochemical Industry using the conventional, microwave and ultrasonic sequential extraction. Microwave oven and ultrasound bath were used as an energy source for achieving faster extraction. Additional heating and boiling of samples were avoided by using lower power and shorter time for microwave and ultrasound extraction. Precision and accuracy of procedure were evaluated by using certificate material (BCR701). Acceptable accuracy of metals (87.0-111.3 %) was achieved for all three-step sequential of conventional extraction protocol. An accuracy of the fourth step has been verified with two certificate materials: BCR143R and 146R. The range of total extracted metal concentrations from sediments was similar for all three extraction techniques. A significant high percentage of Cd, Cu, and Zn were obtained after extraction of the exchangeable and acid soluble sediment fraction. Principal component analysis of values obtained after determination of risk assessment code using conventional and ultrasound sequential extraction show similarity of these values. Accuracy, recovery, and risk assessment code values imply that ultrasound sequential extraction is a more suitable, accelerated sequential extraction procedure (30 min per extraction step) than microwave extraction in applied conditions. PMID:23420522

  3. Adjustable Speed Drives in the U.S. Petroleum Refining, Petrochemical, and Chemical Industries 

    E-print Network

    Foley, D. J.; Chodorowski, A.

    1993-01-01

    in these industries. Installations work best where both an energy efficiency improvement and a process control function can be accomplished with the same installation. Although these applications are quite familiar to mechanical and electrical engineers...

  4. CHARACTERIZING THE GENOTOXICITY OF HAZARDOUS INDUSTRIAL WASTES AND EFFLUENTS USING SHORT-TERM BIOASSAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter demonstrates that short-term bioassays can reliably and expeditiously measure the genotoxic potential of hazardous industrial wastes and effluents. etrochemical wastes have been studied in detail, especially discharges from chemical manufacturing plants and textile a...

  5. ASSESSMENT OF TECHNOLOGY FOR CONTROL OF TOXIC EFFLUENTS FROM THE ELECTRIC UTILITY INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report assesses the applicability of control technologies for reducing priority pollutants in effluents from the steam-electric power generating industry. It surveys control technologies, identifying those that have demonstrated some control effectiveness for priority polluta...

  6. Failure identification and analysis for high-voltage induction motors in the petrochemical industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olav Vaag Thorsen; Magnus Dalva

    1999-01-01

    This paper gives a synopsis of condition monitoring methods, both as a diagnostic tool and as a technique for failure identification in high-voltage induction motors in industry. New operating experience data for 483 motor units consisting of 6135 unit years are registered and processed statistically to ascertain the connection between motor data, protection and condition monitoring methods, maintenance philosophy and

  7. Technical Training in the MNCs in Malaysia: A Case Study Analysis of the Petrochemical Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooi, Lai Wan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to gain insight into some of the types of training and development practices that are carried out in the chemical industry for technical workers. A salient focus of the study is to make a comparative analysis of four MNCs, which were selected based on equity ownership, to ascertain whether T&D practices are…

  8. Effect of soda ash industry effluent on protein content of two green seaweeds.

    PubMed

    Jadeja, R N; Tewari, A

    2008-03-01

    The aim of the present study is to check the effect of soda ash industry effluent on the protein content of the seaweed Ulva faciata and Chaetomorpha antennina. Study shows that the effluent has positive effect on the protein content of the alga and thus these species can be used to reduce the effect of soda ash industry pollution because the rise of up to 35% of protein level is found in these species of alga due to uptake of polluted water. Thus, these seaweeds can be cultivated on a large scale in the effluent affected region and thus clean the environment while getting the proteinous food as by product. PMID:17662523

  9. [Evaluation of treatment technology of odor pollution source in petrochemical industry].

    PubMed

    Mu, Gui-Qin; Sui, Li-Hua; Guo, Ya-Feng; Ma, Chuan-Jun; Yang, Wen-Yu; Gao, Yang

    2013-12-01

    Using an environmental technology assessment system, we put forward the evaluation index system for treatment technology of the typical odor pollution sources in the petroleum refining process, which has been applied in the assessment of the industrial technology. And then the best available techniques are selected for emissions of gas refinery sewage treatment plant, headspace gas of acidic water jars, headspace gas of cold coke jugs/intermediate oil tank/dirty oil tank, exhaust of oxidative sweetening, and vapors of loading and unloading oil. PMID:24640922

  10. Healthy environment--indoor air quality of Brazilian elementary schools nearby petrochemical industry.

    PubMed

    Godoi, Ricardo H M; Godoi, Ana F L; Gonçalves Junior, Sérgio J; Paralovo, Sarah L; Borillo, Guilherme C; Gonçalves Gregório Barbosa, Cybelli; Arantes, Manoela G; Charello, Renata C; Rosário Filho, Nelson A; Grassi, Marco T; Yamamoto, Carlos I; Potgieter-Vermaak, Sanja; Rotondo, Giuliana G; De Wael, Karolien; van Grieken, Rene

    2013-10-01

    The mitigation of pollution released to the environment originating from the industrial sector has been the aim of all policy-makers and its importance is evident if the adverse health effects on the world population are considered. Although this concern is controversial, petroleum refinery has been linked to some adverse health effects for people living nearby. Apart from home, school is the most important indoor environment for children and there is increasing concern about the school environment and its impact on health, also in developing countries where the prevalence of pollution is higher. As most of the children spend more than 40% of their time in schools, it is critical to evaluate the pollution level in such environment. In the metropolitan region of Curitiba, South Brazil, five schools nearby industries and highways with high density traffic, were selected to characterize the aerosol and gaseous compounds indoor and outdoor of the classrooms, during 2009-2011. Size segregated aerosol samples were collected for analyses of bulk and single particle elemental profiles. They were analyzed by electron probe X-ray micro-analysis (EPXMA), and by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF), to investigate the elemental composition of individual particles and bulk samples. The concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX); NO2; SO2; acetic acid; and formic acid were assessed indoor and outdoor using passive diffusion tubes. BTEX were analyzed by GC-MS and other collected gasses by ion chromatography. Individual exposition of BTEX was assessed by personal passive diffusion tubes. Results are interpreted separately and as a whole with the specific aim of identifying compounds that could affect the health of the scholars. In view of the chemical composition and size distribution of the aerosol particles, local deposition efficiencies in the children's respiratory systems were calculated, revealing the deposition of particles at extrathoracic, tracheobronchial and pulmonary levels. PMID:23838057

  11. Acute toxicity assessment of textile dyes and textile and dye industrial effluents using Daphnia magna bioassay.

    PubMed

    Verma, Y

    2008-08-01

    Aquatic toxicity of textile dyes and textile and dye industrial effluents were evaluated in an acute toxicity study using Daphnia magna as an aquatic experimental animal model. The 48-h EC(50) value for the azo dyes, Remazol Parrot Green was 55.32 mg/L and for Remazol Golden Yellow was 46.84 mg/L. Whereas 48-h EC(50) values for three dye industrial effluents (D1, D2, and D3) were 14.12%, 15.52%, and 29.69%, respectively. Similarly, EC(50) value for three textile mill effluents (T1, T2, and T3) were >100%, 62.97%, and 63.04%, respectively. These results also showed linear relationship with high degree of confidence (r(2)A =A >0.84 to >0.99) between immobility and test concentrations. The ratio of 24 to 48-h EC(50) remains to be in between 1.1 and 1.2. The general criteria of toxicity classification showed that both dyes were minor acutely toxic having 48-h EC(50) in between 10 and 100 mg/L. Of the six textile and dye industrial effluents tested, one was not acutely toxic (48-h EC(50)A >A 100%) and five were minor acutely toxic (48-h EC(50)A >A 14.12-29.69%). The toxicity classification of effluent based on toxic unit (TU) showed that of the six effluents tested five were found toxic (TU = >1) and one was non-toxic (TU = <1). Thus, dye effluents showed highest toxicity and textile effluents lowest toxicity. The study also suggested that the assay with D.A magna was an excellent method for evaluation of aquatic toxicity of dyes and dyes containing industrial effluents. PMID:19028775

  12. Behavioral analysis of sources of occupational stress and responses of middle-level managers in the Gulf Coast petrochemical industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1982-01-01

    A behavioral assessment interview procedure was used to identify sources of occupational stress, responses and effectiveness of these responses to stress. Seventy-three middle-level managers in three petrochemical companies in the Texas gulf area were interviewed. Six categories of stress were used to categorize the sources of stress obtained during the interview. The frequencies in sources of stress reported by managers

  13. Levels of metals, PCBs, PCNs and PAHs in soils of a highly industrialized chemical\\/petrochemical area: Temporal trend

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martí Nadal; Marta Schuhmacher; José L. Domingo

    2007-01-01

    In 2005, the concentrations of various metals and organic pollutants were analyzed in soils collected in different areas of Tarragona (Catalonia, Spain), where an important chemical\\/petrochemical complex is located. The levels of seven elements (As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Mn, Pb and V), as well as those of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined

  14. Application of membrane and ozonation technologies to remove color from agro-industry effluents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Koyuncu; M. F. Sevimli; I. Ozturk; A. F. Aydin

    The results of membrane and ozonation experiments carried out on various agro-industry effluents including fermentation (baker's yeast), corrugated board, opium alkaloid and textile dying industries are presented. The experiments were performed using lab-scale membrane and ozonation reactors. Color removals were in the range of 80 to 99% for the membrane treatment studies. Ozonation experiments have shown that color removals in

  15. Assessment of the impact of petroleum and petrochemical industries to the surrounding areas in Malaysia using mosses as bioindicator supported by multivariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Mohd Zahari Bin; Saat, Ahmad Bin; Hamzah, Zaini Bin

    2012-06-01

    Biomonitoring of multi-element atmospheric deposition using terrestrial moss is a well-established technique in Europe. Although the technique is widely known, there were very limited records of using this technique to study atmospheric air pollution in Malaysia. In this present study, the deposition of 11 trace metals surrounding the main petroleum refinery plant in Kerteh Terengganu (eastern part of peninsular Malaysia) has been evaluated using two local moss species, namely Hypnum plumaeforme and Taxithelium instratum as bioindicators. The study was also done by means of observing whether these metals are attributed to work related to oil exploration in this area. The moss samples have been collected at 30 sampling stations in the vicinity of the petrochemical industrial area covering up to 15 km to the south, north, and west in radius. The contents of heavy metal in moss samples were analyzed by energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence technique. Distribution of heavy metal content in all mosses is portrayed using Surfer software. Areas of the highest level of contaminations are highlighted. The results obtained using the principal components analysis revealed that the elements can be grouped into three different components that indirectly reflected three different sources namely anthropogenic factor, vegetation factor, and natural sources (soil dust or substrate) factor. Heavy metals deposited mostly in the distance after 9 km onward to the western part (the average direction of wind blow). V, Cr, Cu, and Hg are believed to have originated from local petrochemical-based industries operated around petroleum industrial area. PMID:21822578

  16. Identification of estrogenic activity change in sewage, industrial and livestock effluents by gamma-irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Byeong-Yong; Kang, Sung-Wook; Yoo, Jisu; Kim, Woong-Ki; Bae, Paek-Hyun; Jung, Jinho

    2012-11-01

    In this study, reduction of estrogenic activity in three different types of effluents from sewage, industrial and livestock wastewater treatment plants by gamma-irradiation was investigated using the yeast two-hybrid assay. After gamma-ray treatment at a dose of 10 kGy, estrogenic activities of sewage, industrial and livestock effluents decreased from 4.4 to 3.0, 1.5 to 1.0 and 16 to 9.9 ng-EEQ L-1, respectively. The substantial reduction of estrogenic activity in livestock effluent was attributable to the degradation of 17?-estradiol (E2), estrone (E1) and 17?-ethynylestradiol (EE2). Although bisphenol A (BPA) was found at the highest concentration in all effluents, its contribution to the estrogenic activity was not significant due to its low relative estrogenic potency. Meanwhile, the calculated estrogenic activity based on concentrations of E2, E1, EE2 and BPA in the effluents significantly differed from the measured ones. Overestimation may have resulted by dissolved organic matters in effluents inhibiting the estrogenic activity of E2, E1, EE2 and BPA, whereas underestimation was likely due to estrogenic by-products generated by gamma-irradiation.

  17. Dyeing industry effluent system as lipid production medium of Neochloris sp. for biodiesel feedstock preparation.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishnan, Vidyadharani; Ramamurthy, Dhandapani

    2014-01-01

    Microalgae lipid feedstock preparation cost was an important factor in increasing biodiesel fuel hikes. This study was conducted with the concept of implementing an effluent wastewater as lipid production medium for microalgae cultivation. In our study textile dyeing industry effluent was taken as a lipid production medium for Neochloris sp. cultivation. The changes in physicochemical analysis of effluent before and after Neochloris sp. treatment were recorded using standard procedures and AAS analysis. There was especially a reduction in heavy metal like lead (Pb) concentration from 0.002 ppm to 0.001 ppm after Neochloris sp. treatment. Neochloris sp. cultivated in Bold Basal Medium (BBM) (specific algal medium) produced 41.93% total lipid and 36.69% lipid was produced in effluent based cultivation. Surprisingly Neochloris sp. cultivated in effluent was found with enhanced neutral lipid content, and it was confirmed by Nile red fluorescence assay. Further the particular enrichment in oleic acid content of the cells was confirmed with thin layer chromatography (TLC) with oleic acid pure (98%) control. The overall results suggested that textile dyeing industry effluent could serve as the best lipid productive medium for Neochloris sp. biodiesel feedstock preparation. This study was found to have a significant impact on reducing the biodiesel feedstock preparation cost with simultaneous lipid induction by heavy metal stress to microalgae. PMID:25247176

  18. Increased Risk of Preterm Delivery in Areas with Cancer Mortality Problems from Petrochemical Complexes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chun-Yuh Yang; Hui-Fen Chiu; Shang-Shyue Tsai; Chih-Ching Chang; Hung-Yi Chuang

    2002-01-01

    The petrochemical and petroleum industries are the main sources of industrial air pollution in Taiwan. Data in this study concern outdoor air pollution and the health of individuals living in communities in close proximity to petrochemical industrial complexes. The prevalence of delivery of preterm birth infants was significantly higher in mothers living near petrochemical industrial complexes than in control mothers

  19. Algae in the assessment of industrial effluents: case study in Southern Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Sen Sarkar, Neera; Bandyopadhyaya, Tuli; Datta, Shilpa; Das, Swapna

    2013-01-01

    This article is an assessment of the diversity of scum and bloom algae encountered in different industrial effluents of Southern Bengal, India, analyzing their habitat and correlating the habitat ecology of each study site. The study was conducted during the period May 2009 to August 2010. The study sites include effluent release areas of the dairy industry, a distillery unit, the leather industry, and an herbal medicine unit. Habitat were analyzed for pH, dissolved oxygen, biological oxygen demand, salinity, alkalinity, and phosphate and nitrate levels. Correlation coefficients were calculated for habitat parameters and algae encountered, showing a significant positive correlation between the richness of dominant and subdominant species with biochemical oxygen demand and salinity and a significant negative correlation with alkalinity, phosphates, and the nitrate-to-phosphate ratio. The richness of dominant and subdominant species in the effluent discharge areas show average values of 9 and 5 in the distillery unit, 8 and 5 in the dairy industry, 7 and 8 in the leather industry, and 5 and 9 in the herbal medicine unit, respectively, with a few (ranging between 3 and 7) co-occurring species in each case. The algal groups encountered were cyanobacteria, euglenophytes, chlorophytes, and bacillariophytes, showing Palmer's Algal Pollution Index of 15 in the dairy industry, 20 in the distillery unit, 28 in the leather industry, and 8 in the herbal medicine unit. PMID:24099424

  20. Genotoxic effects of two industrial effluents and ethyl methane sulfonate in Clarias lazera

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. G. C. Odeigah; A. O. Osanyipeju

    1995-01-01

    The genotoxic effects of industrial effluents from a brewery and a textile mill and of ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) were investigated by the micronucleus test in Clarias lazera, a tropical freshwater fish. Fish obtained from a local market were kept in laboratory aquaria for 3 wk and then exposed to different concentrations (0.5 to 8 mg\\/litre) of EMS or brewery

  1. Microbial fuel cell constructed with a micro-organism isolated from sugar industry effluent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Prasad; T. K. Sivaram; Sheela Berchmans; V. Yegnaraman

    2006-01-01

    Investigations are carried out with Clostridium sp. which is isolated from sugar industry effluents, as a biocatalyst for current generation in a microbial fuel cell. Two different configurations of the cell are evaluated. In both cells, the anode compartment consists of suspended cells of Clostridium sp. in a nutrient broth in a phosphate buffer. In the first configuration, the cathode

  2. TREATABILITY EVALUATION OF MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER AND ANAEROBICALLY-TREATED INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT IN A ROTATING BIOLOGICAL CONTACTOR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Torkian; O. Yazdani; K. Alinejad

    Performance of a rotating biological contactor (RBC) in treating municipal wastewater from primary sedimentation basin and anaerobically treated industrial effluent from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor was investigated. The 280-L six-stage RBC pilot was operated at different organic loading rates and biodisc speeds. The overall removal efficiencies of soluble BOD decreased with increasing organic loading rates. Disk rotational

  3. Industrial effluents as a source of mercury contamination in terrestrial riparian vertebrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, G.V.N.

    1983-01-01

    Eight species of piscivorous and insectivorous birds and one species of bat collected along Virginia's North Fork of the Holston River contained elevated mercury residues. The ubiquitous occurrence of mercury in riparian insectivores implicates aquatic insects as a vehicle for spreading mercury contamination from one ecosystem to another and expands the ecological ramifications of mercury-contaminated industrial effluents.

  4. Solar energy integration in the treatment of industrial effluent by coagulation—electroflotation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Ksentini; M. L. Aouadi; H. Ben Bacha; L. Ben Mansour

    2010-01-01

    This work presents the results of the solar energy integration in cardboard industry wastewater treatment generated in the process of machine washing. The treatment process used was coagulation—electroflotation. The effluent COD reduction rate was selected as the follow up parameter. A system of solar collector was also dimensioned in order to supply the insoluble electrodes of the electroflotation unit. In

  5. A multivariate biological and chemical characterization of industrial effluents connected to municipal sewage treatment plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Andren; E. Gravenfors; Z. Kukulska; B. Eklund; Maria Tarkpea

    1998-01-01

    Effluents from middle-sized industries, connected to municipal treatment plants in two cities in Sweden were sampled daily during 1 week and were characterized chemically and biologically. The results were evaluated mainly with multivariate statistics to find relations between chemistry and toxicity. The principal component analysis (PCA) overview of the chemical variables displayed three main clusters: nitrogen fractions, metals, and organic

  6. The Determination of Formaldehyde and Related Compounds in Water and Industrial Effluents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Badar K. Afghan; Achut V. Kulkarni; Ricky Leung; James F. Ryan

    1974-01-01

    This report describes the automation of colorimetric and fluorometric methods for the determination of low levels of formaldehyde and related compounds in drinking water, natural water and industrial effluents. The colorimetric method utilizes chromotropic acid and the fluorometric method is based on the reaction of formaldehyde with 2, 4 - pentanedione and ammonia to form a fluorescent product. The fluorometric

  7. SURVEY ANALYSIS OF PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS IN INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENTS BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Analyzing industrial effluents for phenolic compounds involves a number of problems both in the separation of these compounds from the aqueous medium and in the chromatography of the extracted compounds. Use of continuous liquid-liquid extractor improved the recovery of phenolic ...

  8. On-Line Microbial Whole Effluent Toxicity Monitoring for Industrial Wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Mathews, S; Hoppes, W; Mascetti, M; Campbell, C G

    2002-09-17

    In this study a respirometer is tested for its ability to act as an early upset warning device and whole effluent toxicity monitor for industrial discharge. Industrial discharge water quality is commonly evaluated by comparing measured chemical concentrations to target values or regulatory limits established by governmental agencies. Unless the regulatory values are based upon empirical data, the actual effect of the discharge on aquatic systems is unknown. At the same time assessing the environmental toxicology of wastewater discharges is complicated by synergistic relationships among chemical constituents producing greater total toxicity. For example, metals may be more toxic in waters with low total hardness or more soluble at lower pH. An alternative approach that we are investigating is whole effluent toxicity testing. This study investigates the measurement of whole effluent toxicity through an on-line respirometer that measures toxicity to microorganisms comprising activated sludge. In this approach the oxygen uptake rate is monitored and used as an indicator of microbial activity or health. This study investigates the use of an online whole effluent toxicity testing system to provide early upset warning and the consistency of measured response to low pH. Repeated exposure of the microorganisms to low pH results in reduced sensitivity of the microbial population. We investigate whether this reduction in sensitivity results from physiological acclimation or changes in species composition. We identify promising applications, where, with proper calibration, respirometry based toxicity monitoring appear to be well suited for relative comparisons of whole effluent toxicity.

  9. Treatment of industrial effluents in constructed wetlands: challenges, operational strategies and overall performance.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shubiao; Wallace, Scott; Brix, Hans; Kuschk, Peter; Kirui, Wesley Kipkemoi; Masi, Fabio; Dong, Renjie

    2015-06-01

    The application of constructed wetlands (CWs) has significantly expanded to treatment of various industrial effluents, but knowledge in this field is still insufficiently summarized. This review is accordingly necessary to better understand this state-of-the-art technology for further design development and new ideas. Full-scale cases of CWs for treating various industrial effluents are summarized, and challenges including high organic loading, salinity, extreme pH, and low biodegradability and color are evaluated. Even horizontal flow CWs are widely used because of their passive operation, tolerance to high organic loading, and decolorization capacity, free water surface flow CWs are effective for treating oil field/refinery and milking parlor/cheese making wastewater for settlement of total suspended solids, oil, and grease. Proper pretreatment, inflow dilutions through re-circulated effluent, pH adjustment, plant selection and intensifications in the wetland bed, such as aeration and bioaugmentation, are recommended according to the specific characteristics of industrial effluents. PMID:25792030

  10. Genotoxic effects of two industrial effluents and ethyl methane sulfonate in Clarias lazera.

    PubMed

    Odeigah, P G; Osanyinpeju, A O; Osanyipeju, A O

    1995-06-01

    The genotoxic effects of industrial effluents from a brewery and a textile mill and of ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) were investigated by the micronucleus test in Clarias lazera, a tropical freshwater fish. Fish obtained from a local market were kept in laboratory aquaria for 3 wk and then exposed to different concentrations (0.5 to 8 mg/litre) of EMS or brewery or textile-mill effluent (10-60%, v/v) for 14 days. The frequency of micronucleated erythrocytes was determined from blood smears and the results were analysed by linear regression and variance analysis. Exposure to EMS or effluent resulted in statistically significant increases in micronucleus frequency and there was a positive dose-response effect over the entire dose range. The textile-mill effluent dose-response curve was significantly higher than that of the brewery effluent. The suitability of the micronucleus test in fish for the screening of aquatic genotoxicants is highlighted and the importance of intensified monitoring of the aquatic environment is emphasized. PMID:7797177

  11. Effects of industrial effluents, heavy metals, and organic solvents on mallard embryo development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, D.J.; Eastin, W.C., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Mallard eggs were externally exposed at 3 and 8 days of incubation to 7 different industrial effluents and to 7 different heavy metal, organic solvent, and petroleum solutions to screen for potential embryo-toxic effects. This route of exposure was chosen in order to simulate the transfer of pollutant from the plumage of aquatic birds to their eggs. Five of the effluents including mineral pigment, scouring effluent, sludge, and tannery effluent resulted in small but significant reductions in embryonic growth. Treatment with methyl mercury chloride solution of 50 ppm (Hg) impaired embryonic growth but much higher concentrations were required to affect survival and cause teratogenic effects. Oil used to suppress road dust was the most toxic of the pollutants tested and only 0.5 microliter/egg caused 60% mortality by 18 days of development. These findings, in combination with other studies suggest that petroleum pollutants, or effluents in combination with petroleum, may pose a hazard to birds' eggs when exposure is by this route.

  12. Efficiency of industrial minerals on the removal of mercury species from liquid effluents.

    PubMed

    Melamed, Ricardo; da Luz, Adão Benvindo

    2006-09-01

    Increasing attention has been given, by the industrial sector, to the removal of heavy metals from liquid effluents to satisfy environmental regulations. For this purpose, the most common methods utilized include: chemical precipitation, cementation, ion exchange, adsorption and solvent extraction. All these methods have limitations such as slow kinetics, low adsorption capacity and they are usually very expensive. Thus, new technologies for heavy metal removal are of great interest. This study consisted on a screening of industrial minerals to check their efficiencies to remove mercury from liquid effluents. The methodology employed a batch adsorption technique. The tested minerals included: atapulgites, zeolites, magnetites, kaolin, vermiculite and bentonite. Results show relatively high efficiencies of magnetite and zeolite on mercury removal. These minerals were capable to remove mercury species from effluents with concentrations reaching 1,000 ppm, corresponding to a sorption capacity of 10,000 mg Hg/kg. The sorption maximum was not reached in these tests. In addition, it became evident the importance of mercury speciation at the solid:liquid interface, with relevant consequences on the application of this technology to effluent treatment. PMID:16274731

  13. Acute and early life stage toxicity of industrial effluent on Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes).

    PubMed

    Zha, Jinmiao; Wang, Zijian

    2006-03-15

    To develop the whole effluent toxicity testing methods (WET), embryo larval stage toxicity test using Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) was conducted to evaluate an effluent from a banknote printing plant (BPP). The method is based on acute toxicity using endpoint of 96-h larval morality and on chronic toxicity using endpoints such as the time to hatch, hatching success, deformity, growth rate, swim-up failure, accumulative mortality and sexual ratio. In test for 96-h larval mortality, LC50 (the concentration was lethal to 50% of newly hatching medaka larvae) was 72.9%. In chronic toxicity test, newly fertilized embryos (<5-h old) were exposed to 1%, 6.25%, 12.5%, 25%, 50% effluent concentrations and to 200 mug/l BPA in a 24-h static renewal system at 25+/-1 degrees C until 15 day post-hatch. The results showed that all chronic endpoints were significantly different from the control at 50% dilution (p < 0.01). Embryos began to show lesions on 4th day at higher concentrations (12.5%, 25%, 50% BPP effluent concentrations). Treatment group of 25% dilution showed delayed time to hatch. A reduction in body weight was observed at 25% dilutions for males and females, respectively. Deformities were observed in newly hatched larvae at 25% and 50% BPP effluent concentrations. At 25% dilution, sex ratio of larvae was alternated and there was feminization phenomenon. We conclude that embryo larval stage test using medaka is feasible to evaluate both acute and chronic toxicities and potential endocrine disrupting activity of industrial effluents. PMID:15972230

  14. How best to promote industrial pollution prevention through the effluent guidelines process. Recommendations of the industrial pollution prevention project (IP3) focus group

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    The Industrial Pollution Prevention Project (IP3) Focus Group was requested by EPA to provide specific recommendations on how best to promote industrial pollution prevention through the effluent guidelines process. In response to that request, the Group makes the following recommendations to EPA: To promote more industrial pollution prevention, the effluent guidelines process must (1) be more flexible, (2) address all media, and (3) impart a pollution prevention mindset to everyone throughout the effluent guidelines process. To accomplish this, EPA should adopt a specific new approach to the development and achievement of Best Available Technology (BAT) limits.

  15. Removal of Heavy Metals from Industrial Effluents by the Submerged Aquatic Plant Myriophyllum spicatum L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Els Lesage; Charity Mundia; Diederik P. L. Rousseau; Annelies Moortel; Gijs Du Laing; Filip M. G. Tack; Niels Pauw; Marc G. Verloo

    The potential use of Myriophyllum spicatum L. for the removal of Co, Ni, Cu and Zn from industrial effluents was studied. The removal kinetics, tolerance and accumulation\\u000a capacity of the submerged aquatic plant were assessed. Removal of Cu and Zn was similar and occurred rapidly with time whereas\\u000a removal of Co and Ni was slower. Plant growth was not adversely

  16. Decolorization of textile dye by Candida albicans isolated from industrial effluents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vivian Vitor; Carlos Renato Corso

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to observe microbial decolorization and biodegradation of the Direct Violet 51 azo dye by\\u000a Candida albicans isolated from industrial effluents and study the metabolites formed after degradation. C. albicans was used in the removal of the dye in order to further biosorption and biodegradation at different pH values in aqueous solutions.\\u000a A comparative

  17. Treatment of industrial wastewater effluents using hydrodynamic cavitation and the advanced Fenton process.

    PubMed

    Chakinala, Anand G; Gogate, Parag R; Burgess, Arthur E; Bremner, David H

    2008-01-01

    For the first time, hydrodynamic cavitation induced by a liquid whistle reactor (LWR) has been used in conjunction with the advanced Fenton process (AFP) for the treatment of real industrial wastewater. Semi-batch experiments in the LWR were designed to investigate the performance of the process for two different industrial wastewater samples. The effect of various operating parameters such as pressure, H2O2 concentration and the initial concentration of industrial wastewater samples on the extent of mineralization as measured by total organic carbon (TOC) content have been studied with the aim of maximizing the extent of degradation. It has been observed that higher pressures, sequential addition of hydrogen peroxide at higher loadings and lower concentration of the effluent are more favourable for a rapid TOC mineralization. In general, the novel combination of hydrodynamic cavitation with AFP results in about 60-80% removal of TOC under optimized conditions depending on the type of industrial effluent samples. The combination described herein is most useful for treatment of bio-refractory materials where the diminution in toxicity can be achieved up to a certain level and then conventional biological oxidation can be employed for final treatment. The present work is the first to report the use of a hydrodynamic cavitation technique for real industrial wastewater treatment. PMID:17368951

  18. Use of recycling through medium size granular filters to treat small food processing industry effluents.

    PubMed

    Ménoret, C; Boutin, C; Liénard, A; Brissaud, F

    2002-01-01

    Currently there are no suitable wastewater treatment systems for effluents from small food processing industries (dairy, cheese, wine production). Such raw sewages are characterized by high organic matter concentrations (about 10 g COD L-1) and relatively low daily volumes (about 2 m3). An adaptation of attached-growth cultures on fine media processes, known to be easy and inexpensive to use, could fit both the technical and economical context of those industries. Coarser filter particle size distributions than those normally used allow a better aeration and reduce clogging risk. The transit time of the effluent through the porous filter materials is shortened and requires recycling to increase the contact time between the biomass and the substrate. A pilot plant was built to compare the efficiency of two kinds of filter materials, gravel (2-5 mm) and pozzolana (3-7 mm). Two measurement campaigns were undertaken on a full-scale unit dealing with cheese dairy effluents. Both pilot-scale and full-scale plants show high COD removal rates (> 95%). Pilot-scale experiments show that accumulation of organic matter leads to the clogging of the recycling filter. To prevent early clogging, a better definition of feeding cycles is needed. PMID:12201106

  19. An ecotoxicological approach to assessing the impact of tanning industry effluent on river health.

    PubMed

    Mwinyihija, Mwinyikione; Meharg, Andy; Dawson, Julian; Strachan, Norval J C; Killham, Ken

    2006-04-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the sediment health and water quality of the River Sagana, Kenya, as impacted by the local tanning industry. Chemical analysis identified the main chemical pollutants (pentachlorophenols and chromium) while a bioassay addressed pollutant bioavailability. The bioassay, exploiting the luminescence response of a lux marked bacterial biosensor, was coupled to a dehydrogenase and Dapnia magna test to determine toxicity effects on sediments. Results highlighted the toxicity of the tannery effluent to the sediments at the point of discharge (64% of control bioluminescence) with gradual improvement downstream. There was a significant increase in dehydrogenase downstream, with the enzyme activity attaining a peak at 600 m, also indicating a gradual reduction of toxicity. Biological oxygen demand (19.56 mg L(-1)) dissolved oxygen (3.97 mg L(-1)) and high lethal dose value (85%) of D. magna also confirmed an initial stress at the point of discharge and recovery downstream. Optical density of surface water demonstrated an increase in suspended particulates and colour after the discharge point, eventually decreasing beyond 400 m. In conclusion, the study highlighted the importance of understanding the biogeochemistry of river systems impacted by industries discharging effluent into them and the invaluable role of a biosensor-based ecotoxicological approach to address effluent hazards, particularly in relation to river sediments. PMID:16392017

  20. Petroleum industry effluents and other oxygen-demanding wastes in Niger Delta, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Osuji, Leo C; Uwakwe, Augustine A

    2006-07-01

    In this article, we review the fundamental phenomenon of oxygenation within the overriding context of petroleum-industry effluents and the other oxygen demanding wastes in Niger Delta, Nigeria. Drill cuttings, drilling mud (fluids used to stimulate the production processes), and accidental discharges of crude petroleum constitute serious land and water pollution in the oil-bearing province. Effluents from other industrial establishments such as distilleries, pulp and paper mills, fertilizer plants, and breweries, as well as thermal effluents, plant nutrients (such as nitrates and phosphates), and eroded sediments have also contributed to the pollution of their surrounding environment. Since these wastes are oxygen-demanding in nature, their impact on the recipient environment can be reversed by the direct application of simple chemistry. The wastes can be reduced, particularly in natural bodies of water, by direct oxidation-reduction processes or simple chemical combinations, acid-base reactions, and solubility equilibria; these are pH- and temperature-dependent. A shift in pH and alkalinity affects the solubility equilibria of Na+, Cl-, SO(2-), NO3(-), HCO3(-), and PO4(3-), and other ions and compounds. PMID:17193303

  1. Assessment of ecological risks linked to the discharge of saline industrial effluent into a river.

    PubMed

    Perrodin, Yves; Volatier, Laurence; Bazin, Christine; Boisson, Jean-Claude

    2013-03-01

    Discharges of saline effluents into rivers can lead to risks for local aquatic ecosystems. A specific ecological risk assessment methodology has been developed to propose a management tool to organisations responsible for managing rivers and industrial companies producing saline effluents. This methodology involves the detailed description of the spatiotemporal system concerned, the choice of ecological targets to be preserved, and the performance of bioassays adapted to each of the compartments of the river. Following development, it was applied to an industrial effluent in eastern France. For the scenario studied, results obtained suggest a high risk for the organisms of the water column and a low risk for the organisms of the periphyton. This difference can be explained by the structure of the latter which integrate extracellular polymers secreted by the organisms of the biofilm, forming a gel with a porous structure that acts as a barrier to diffusion. The methodology formulated permitted identifying the critical points of the spatiotemporal system studied and then using them as the basis for making well-grounded proposals for management. Lastly, proposals to improve the methodology itself are made, especially concerning the integration of the sediment compartment in the version formulated initially. PMID:22684878

  2. Biomass in a petrochemical world.

    PubMed

    Roddy, Dermot J

    2013-02-01

    The world's increasingly voracious appetite for fossil fuels is driven by fast-growing populations and ever-rising aspirations for the lifestyles and standard of living exemplified in the developed world. Forecasts for higher electricity consumption, more comfortable living environments (via heating or cooling) and greater demand for transport fuels are well known. Similar growth in demand is projected for petrochemical-based products in the form of man-made fibres for clothing, ubiquitous plastic artefacts, cosmetics, etc. All drawing upon the same finite oil, gas and coal feedstocks. Biomass can, in principle, substitute for all of these feedstocks. Although ultimately finite, biomass resources can be expanded and renewed if this is a societal priority. This paper examines the projected growth of an energy-intensive international petrochemicals industry, considers its demand for both utilities and feedstocks, and considers the extent to which biomass can substitute for fossil fuels. The scope of this study includes biomass component extraction, direct chemical conversion, thermochemical conversion and biochemical conversion. Noting that the petrochemicals industry consumes around 10 per cent of the world's fossil fuels as feedstocks and almost as much again in utilities, various strategies for addressing future demand are considered. The need for long-term infrastructure and logistics planning is highlighted. PMID:24427511

  3. Biomass in a petrochemical world

    PubMed Central

    Roddy, Dermot J.

    2013-01-01

    The world's increasingly voracious appetite for fossil fuels is driven by fast-growing populations and ever-rising aspirations for the lifestyles and standard of living exemplified in the developed world. Forecasts for higher electricity consumption, more comfortable living environments (via heating or cooling) and greater demand for transport fuels are well known. Similar growth in demand is projected for petrochemical-based products in the form of man-made fibres for clothing, ubiquitous plastic artefacts, cosmetics, etc. All drawing upon the same finite oil, gas and coal feedstocks. Biomass can, in principle, substitute for all of these feedstocks. Although ultimately finite, biomass resources can be expanded and renewed if this is a societal priority. This paper examines the projected growth of an energy-intensive international petrochemicals industry, considers its demand for both utilities and feedstocks, and considers the extent to which biomass can substitute for fossil fuels. The scope of this study includes biomass component extraction, direct chemical conversion, thermochemical conversion and biochemical conversion. Noting that the petrochemicals industry consumes around 10 per cent of the world's fossil fuels as feedstocks and almost as much again in utilities, various strategies for addressing future demand are considered. The need for long-term infrastructure and logistics planning is highlighted. PMID:24427511

  4. A Petrochemical Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Amy

    1991-01-01

    Informs the reader of the pervasiveness of petrochemicals in everyday life. Discusses the petroleum-to-petrochemical transformation at the refinery and issues related to how petroleum products will be utilized for fuel or nonfuel needs such as lubricants, computers, and medicine in the future. (MDH)

  5. Trends in the incidence of cryptorchidism and hypospadias of registry-based data in Korea: a comparison between industrialized areas of petrochemical estates and a non-industrialized area

    PubMed Central

    Chul Kim, Sae; Kyoung Kwon, Su; Pyo Hong, Yeon

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to represent the recent trends in the nationwide incidence of cryptorchidism and hypospadias in Korea, and to determine whether there is evidence of spatial heterogeneity in the incidence. The incidence was calculated as the number of newly diagnosed patients (males) during the first 4 years after a live birth in a population, nationally and regionally (a non-industrialized area (Chuncheon) and petrochemical estates (Yeocheon and Ulsan)), between 2000 and 2005. The data (numerator) for new patients were acquired from the National Health Insurance Review Agency, and the data (denominator) for the resident registration population were from the National Statistical Office. Between 2000 and 2005, the national incidence of cryptorchidism and hypospadias had an increased tendency from 5.01 to 17.43 per 10 000 persons and from 1.40 to 3.28 per 10 000 persons, respectively. The incidence of cryptorchidism was significantly higher in Yeocheon (throughout the study period) and in Ulsan (2001, 2002, 2004 and 2005) than the national incidence, whereas the incidence in Chuncheon was significantly lower in 2001 and 2002. It was difficult to compare the rates of hypospadias yearly and regionally because of the small number of cases. In conclusion, the incidence of cryptorchidism has recently increased in Korea. The petrochemical estates, Yeocheon and Ulsan, had a significantly higher incidence of cyptorchidism than the national incidence, which suggests that further study is needed to obtain a more precise estimation of the trends in the incidence of the anomalies and to confirm the association between petrochemicals and the anomalies. PMID:20729869

  6. Trends in the incidence of cryptorchidism and hypospadias of registry-based data in Korea: a comparison between industrialized areas of petrochemical estates and a non-industrialized area.

    PubMed

    Chul Kim, Sae; Kyoung Kwon, Su; Pyo Hong, Yeon

    2011-09-01

    This study aimed to represent the recent trends in the nationwide incidence of cryptorchidism and hypospadias in Korea, and to determine whether there is evidence of spatial heterogeneity in the incidence. The incidence was calculated as the number of newly diagnosed patients (males) during the first 4 years after a live birth in a population, nationally and regionally (a non-industrialized area (Chuncheon) and petrochemical estates (Yeocheon and Ulsan)), between 2000 and 2005. The data (numerator) for new patients were acquired from the National Health Insurance Review Agency, and the data (denominator) for the resident registration population were from the National Statistical Office. Between 2000 and 2005, the national incidence of cryptorchidism and hypospadias had an increased tendency from 5.01 to 17.43 per 10 000 persons and from 1.40 to 3.28 per 10 000 persons, respectively. The incidence of cryptorchidism was significantly higher in Yeocheon (throughout the study period) and in Ulsan (2001, 2002, 2004 and 2005) than the national incidence, whereas the incidence in Chuncheon was significantly lower in 2001 and 2002. It was difficult to compare the rates of hypospadias yearly and regionally because of the small number of cases. In conclusion, the incidence of cryptorchidism has recently increased in Korea. The petrochemical estates, Yeocheon and Ulsan, had a significantly higher incidence of cyptorchidism than the national incidence, which suggests that further study is needed to obtain a more precise estimation of the trends in the incidence of the anomalies and to confirm the association between petrochemicals and the anomalies. PMID:20729869

  7. Impact of marble industry effluents on water and sediment quality of Barandu River in Buner District, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Mulk, Shahi; Azizullah, Azizullah; Korai, Abdul Latif; Khattak, Muhammad Nasir Khan

    2015-02-01

    Industries play an important role in improving the living standard but at the same time cause several environmental problems. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the impact of industries on the quality of environment. In the present study, the impact of marble industry effluents on water and sediment quality of Barandu River in Buner District, Pakistan was evaluated. Water and sediment samples were collected at three different sampling sites (upstream, industrial, and downstream sites) from Barandu River and their physicochemical properties were inter-compared. In addition, different marble stones and mix water (wastewater) from marble industry were analyzed. The measured physicochemical parameters of river water including pH, electrical conductivity (EC), alkalinity, total hardness, Ca and Mg hardness, total dissolved solid (TDS), total suspended solids (TSS), sulfates (SO4 (2-)), sodium (Na(+)), potassium (K(+)), nitrites (NO2 (-)), nitrate (NO3 (-)), chloride (Cl(-)), calcium (Ca(2+)), and magnesium (Mg(2+)) were found to be significantly altered by effluent discharges of marble industries. Similarly, heavy metal concentrations in both water and sediments of the river were significantly increased by marble industry wastewater. It is concluded that large quantities of different pollutants are added to Barandu River due to direct disposal of marble industry effluents which degrades its quality. Therefore, it is recommended that direct disposal of marble industry wastewater should be banned and all effluents must be properly treated before discharging in the river water. PMID:25616784

  8. Advanced oxidation processes for treatment of effluents from a detergent industry.

    PubMed

    Martins, Rui C; Silva, Adrián M T; Castro-Silva, Sérgio; Garção-Nunes, Paulo; Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa M

    2011-07-01

    Ozonation, catalytic ozonation, Fenton's and heterogeneous Fenton-like processes were investigated as possible pretreatments of a low biodegradable and highly toxic wastewater produced by a detergent industry. The presence of a Mn-Ce-O catalyst in ozonation enhances the biodegradability and improves the degradation at low pH values. However, a high content of carbonyl compounds adsorbed on the recovered solid indicates some limitations for real-scale application. A commercial Fe2O3-MnOx catalyst shows higher activity as well as higher stability concerning carbon adsorption, but the leaching of metals is larger than for Mn-Ce-O. Regarding the heterogeneous Fenton-like route with an Fe-Ce-O catalyst, even though a high activity and stability are attained, the intermediates are less biodegradable than the original compounds, indicating that the resulting effluent cannot be conducted to an activated sludge post-treatment. The highest enhancement of effluent biodegradability is obtained with the classic homogeneous Fenton's process, with the BOD5/COD ratio increasing from 0.32 to 0.80. This process was scaled up and the treated effluent is now safely directed to a municipal wastewater treatment plant. PMID:21882556

  9. Economic analysis of final effluent limitations guidelines and standards for the pharmaceutical manufacturing industry

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    This economic analysis (EA) examines compliance costs and economic impacts resulting from the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) Final Effluent Limitations Guidelines and Standards for the Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Industry Point Source Category. It also investigates the costs and impacts associated with an air rule requiring Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) to control air emissions, both separately and together with the Final Pharmaceutical Industry Effluent Guidelines. The EA estimates the economic effects of compliance with both final rules in terms of total aggregate annualized costs of compliance, facility closures, impacts on firms (likelihood of bankruptcy and effects on profit margins), and impacts on new sources. The EA also investigates secondary impacts on employment and communities, foreign trade, specific demographic groups, and environmental justice. This report includes a Final Regulatory Flexibility Analysis (FRFA) detailing the impacts on small businesses within the pharmaceutical industry to meet the requirements of the Regulatory Flexibility Act (RFA), as amended by the Small Business Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Act (SBREFA). Finally, the EA presents a cost-benefit analysis to meet the requirements of Executive Order 12866 and the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act.

  10. Treatment of industrial effluents using electron beam accelerator and adsorption with activated carbon: a comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira Sampa, Maria Helena; Rela, Paulo Roberto; Casas, Alexandre Las; Mori, Manoel Nunes; Duarte, Celina Lopes

    2004-09-01

    This paper presents preliminary results of a study that compares the use of electron beam processing and activated carbon adsorption to clean up a standardized organic aqueous solution and a real industrial effluent. The electron beam treatment was performed in a batch system using the IPEN's Electron Beam Accelerators from Radiation Dynamics Inc., Dynamitron 37.5 kW. The granular activated carbon removal treatment was performed using charcoal made from wood "pinus". If the adequate irradiation dose is delivered to the organic pollutant, it is possible to conclude for the studied compounds that the Electron Beam Process is similar to the activated carbon process in organic removal efficiency.

  11. Modelling activated sludge treatment of petroleum and petrochemical wastes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alison Julia Baker

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this study was to establish the general framework of a comprehensive dynamic mechanistic mathematical model for predicting the behaviour of an activated sludge plant treating petroleum\\/petrochemical industrial wastewaters. Specifically, the aim was to develop two activated sludge mechanistic models which predicted the behaviour of systems treating: (1) petroleum refinery wastewater, and (2) petrochemical refinery wastewater. The wastewater

  12. Petrochemicals in nontechnical language

    SciTech Connect

    Burdick, D.L.; Leffler, W.L.

    1990-01-01

    This book reviews the basics of organic chemistry. The authors lead readers through the basic petrochemical processes and product properties to the downstream derivatives such as plastics and fibers and their end uses. Latest processing techniques are discussed.

  13. Effect of marble industry effluent on seed germination, post germinative growth and productivity of Zea mays L.

    PubMed

    Akbar, Fazal; Hadi, Fazal; Ullah, Zakir; Zia, Muhammad Amir

    2007-11-15

    A green house study was conducted at the University of Malakand, NWFP, Pakistan to evaluate the effect of marble industry effluent on soil pH, germination, post germinative growth and productivity of maize. The experiment was conducted in triplicate form for each treatment and tape water was used as control (T0). Effluents were diluted with tap water at concentration of 20% (T1), 40% (T2), 60% (T3), 80% (T4) and also used 100% (T5) concentration in 4 kg soil pot(-1) and plants were grown for 90 days. Results showed that there was a linear increase in pH of soil with increase in effluent concentration while germination, root length and stem girth was enhanced and found maximum at 40% concentration of effluent applied. The shoot length and root dry biomass was depressed as compared to control. It is concluded from the present study that marble industry effluent can be used as a fertilizer in low concentration especially for highly acidic soil but there is still need to carry out series of greenhouse and field trials to ascertain the fertilizer potentials of this effluent for maize crop. PMID:19090297

  14. Effect of soda ash industry effluent on bioaccumulation of metals by seaweeds of coastal region of Gujarat, India.

    PubMed

    Jadeja, R N; Tewari, A

    2007-08-17

    The bioaccumulation ability of five species of seaweeds to 15 metals was studied in the seawater polluted by the effluent of soda ash industry. The bioaccumulation of Al, Mn and Fe in these seaweeds increased continuously as distance increased from outfall. However, Padina tetrastromatica showed reverse trend. Quite a number of metals like Au, Co, Hg, Ni, Pb, Pt and Sn were not recorded from any species of seaweeds from all sampling stations. Cr was recorded in Gracillaria acerosa from control site only. Accumulation of Cu in Gracilaria corticata was maximum near effluent discharge point and least at control, whereas its accumulation in P. tetrastromatica was more at station with lower pollution (station-3) than higher polluted station (station-2). Seaweeds had different pattern of bioaccumulation to Cu and Ag under the influence of the effluent. The bioaccumulation of Cd in quite a number of species was in non-detectable range, however in case of red seaweed it was more under polluted condition and non-detectable in control. The biosequestering capacity of different seaweed to different metals and their suitability for bioremediation under the influence of effluent is discussed. Bioconcentration factor for different seaweed species from different distances from outfall has been computed and discussed. The undiluted soda ash industry effluent is characterized by very high pH, density, settleable solids, total dissolved solids, ammonia and nitrate. The specific gravity, density, total suspended solids and total dissolved solids decreased continuously from undiluted effluent to seawater affected up to 1 km. PMID:17258393

  15. COPPER REMOVAL FROM AN EFFLUENT GENERATED BY A PLASTICS CHROMIUM?PLATING INDUSTRY USING A ROTATING CYLINDER ELECTRODE (RCE) REACTOR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. F. Rivera; I. González; J. L. Nava

    2008-01-01

    This work shows the application of a rotating cylinder electrode (RCE) in the removal of Cu(II) content from an effluent generated by a plastics chromium?plating industry, on the laboratory scale; in particular, it deals with rinse water from the electrolytic copper process. This process was designed to convert cupric ions in solution to metal powder. The generation of metal powders

  16. Adsorption–desorption studies of indigocarmine from industrial effluents by using deoiled mustard and its comparison with charcoal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vinod K. Gupta; Rajeev Jain; S. Malathi; Arunima Nayak

    2010-01-01

    Deoiled mustard obtained from local oil mills has been used as an inexpensive and effective adsorbent for the removal of indigocarmine dye from industrial effluents. The influence of various factors on the adsorption capacity has been studied by batch experiments. The adsorption studies validate both Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms. Thermodynamic parameters such as ?G°, ?H°, and ?S° for the

  17. Evaluation of aquatic toxicities of chromium and chromium-containing effluents in reference to chromium electroplating industries.

    PubMed

    Baral, A; Engelken, R; Stephens, W; Farris, J; Hannigan, R

    2006-05-01

    This study evaluated aquatic toxicities of chromium and chromium-containing laboratory samples representative of effluents from chromium electroplating industries, and compared the aquatic environmental risks of hexavalent and trivalent chromium electroplating operations. Trivalent chromium electroplating has emerged as an acceptable alternative to hazardous hexavalent chromium electroplating. This process substitution has reduced the human health impact in the workplace and minimized the production of hazardous sludge regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The thrust behind this research was to investigate whether trivalent chromium electroplating operations have lower adverse impacts on standardized toxicity test organisms. Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas were used to investigate toxicities of trivalent chromium (Cr (III)), hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI)), and industrial effluents. In agreement with previous studies, Cr (III) was found to be less toxic than Cr (VI). Despite having several organic and inorganic constituents in the effluents obtained from trivalent chromium plating baths, they exhibited less adverse effects to C. dubia than effluents obtained from hexavalent chromium electroplating baths. Thus, transition from hexavalent to trivalent chromium electroplating processes may be justified. However, because of the presence of organic constituents such as formate, oxalate, and triethylene glycol in effluents, trivalent chromium electroplating operations may face additional regulatory requirements for removal of total organic carbon. PMID:16418891

  18. Wastewater Treatment Costs and Outlays in Organic Petrochemicals: Standards Versus Taxes With Methodology Suggestions for Marginal Cost Pricing and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Russell G.; Singleton, F. D., Jr.

    1986-04-01

    With the methodology recommended by Baumol and Oates, comparable estimates of wastewater treatment costs and industry outlays are developed for effluent standard and effluent tax instruments for pollution abatement in five hypothetical organic petrochemicals (olefins) plants. The computational method uses a nonlinear simulation model for wastewater treatment to estimate the system state inputs for linear programming cost estimation, following a practice developed in a National Science Foundation (Research Applied to National Needs) study at the University of Houston and used to estimate Houston Ship Channel pollution abatement costs for the National Commission on Water Quality. Focusing on best practical and best available technology standards, with effluent taxes adjusted to give nearly equal pollution discharges, shows that average daily treatment costs (and the confidence intervals for treatment cost) would always be less for the effluent tax than for the effluent standard approach. However, industry's total outlay for these treatment costs, plus effluent taxes, would always be greater for the effluent tax approach than the total treatment costs would be for the effluent standard approach. Thus the practical necessity of showing smaller outlays as a prerequisite for a policy change toward efficiency dictates the need to link the economics at the microlevel with that at the macrolevel. Aggregation of the plants into a programming modeling basis for individual sectors and for the economy would provide a sound basis for effective policy reform, because the opportunity costs of the salient regulatory policies would be captured. Then, the government's policymakers would have the informational insights necessary to legislate more efficient environmental policies in light of the wealth distribution effects.

  19. A modular success story the Saudi petrochemical project

    SciTech Connect

    Kirven, J.B.; Swenson, C.R.

    1986-01-01

    The Saudi Petrochemical Company is referred to within this paper as ''Sadaf''. Sadaf is the phonetic spelling of the Arabic word for seashell and is a joint venture of Saudi Basic Industries Corporation (SABIC) and Pecten Arabian Ltd., an affiliate of Shell Oil Comapny, U.S.A. SABIC is a joint stock corporation responsible for the development of basic industries in the Kingdom in the petrochemicals, metals and fertilizers field.

  20. Long-term evaluation of lethal and sublethal toxicity of industrial effluents using Daphnia magna and Moina macrocopa.

    PubMed

    Yi, Xianliang; Kang, Sung-Wook; Jung, Jinho

    2010-06-15

    Acute toxicity and feeding rate inhibition of effluent from a wastewater treatment plant and its adjacent stream water on Daphnia magna and Moina macrocopa were comparatively studied. The acute toxicity of the final effluent (FE) fluctuated greatly over the sampling period from January to August 2009. Toxicity identification results of the FE in July 2009 showed that Cu originating from the Fenton's reagent was likely a key toxicant. In addition, the feeding rate of both species was still inhibited by the FEs in which acute toxicity was not observed. These findings indicate that the feeding response would be a useful tool for monitoring sublethal effects of industrial effluents. For the acute toxicity test, M. macrocopa was more sensitive than D. magna, but the opposite result was true in the case of the feeding rate inhibition. These suggest that different species have different sensitivities to toxic chemicals and to the test methods. PMID:20211525

  1. Reduction in the estrogenic activity of a treated sewage effluent discharge to an English river as a result of a decrease in the concentration of industrially derived surfactants.

    PubMed

    Sheahan, David A; Brighty, Geoff C; Daniel, Mic; Jobling, Susan; Harries, Jule E; Hurst, Mark R; Kennedy, Joe; Kirby, Sonia J; Morris, Steven; Routledge, Edwin J; Sumpter, John P; Waldock, Michael J

    2002-03-01

    As a result of the introduction of tighter discharge limits and effluent treatment processes at source, the concentration of alkylphenol ethoxylates and nonylphenol present in the final effluent discharge from a sewage treatment works that treats trade effluent from the textiles industry was reduced. The estrogenic effects of the final effluent discharge to the Aire River were compared over a four-year period during which various treatment measures were introduced. Male rainbow trout exposed to the effluent on four occasions in consecutive years (1994-1997) showed a reduction in the level of induced vitellogenesis between 1994 and 1997. A marked decrease in gonadosomatic index (GSI) and increase in heptaosomatic index (HSI) was measured in fish exposed to the effluent in 1994. In successive years, these differences diminished, and in the case of the GSI no measurable difference was observed between fish exposed to the final effluent or those in the control group in 1997. However, an increase in HSI was still measurable in 1997 in fish exposed to the final effluent and at sites farther downstream. The reduction in the effects of the effluent paralleled the reduction in the concentration of nonylphenol as well as its mono- and diethoxylates, which have been demonstrated to produce estrogenic effects in trout exposed to these compounds in the laboratory. This study demonstrates that the setting of more restricted discharge limits for known estrogenic chemicals of industrial origin can lead to significant reductions in the estrogenic activity of the watercourses into which the effluents are discharged. PMID:11878464

  2. Biosorptive Removal of Ni(Ii) from Wastewater and Industrial Effluent

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Piyush Kant; Choubey, Shweta; Verma, Yashu; Pandey, Madhurima; Kalyan Kamal, S. S.; Chandrashekhar, K.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to investigate the removal of Ni(II) by the fresh biomass (FBM) and chemically treated leached biomass (LBM) of Calotropis procera. The scope of the work included screening of the biosorbents for their metal uptake potential, batch equilibrium, column mode removal studies and kinetic studies at varying pH (2–6), contact time, biosorbent dosages (1–25 g/L) and initial metal ion concentration (5–500 mg/L). The development of batch kinetic model and determination of order, desorption studies, column studies were investigated. It was observed that pH had marked effect on the Ni(II) uptake. Langmuir and Freundlich models were used to correlate equilibrium data on sorption of Ni(II) metallic ion by using both FBM and LBM at 28°C and pH 3 and different coefficients were calculated. It was found that both biomasses were statistically significant fit for Freundlich model. The biomass was successfully used for removal nickel from synthetic and industrial effluents and the technique appears industrially applicable and viable. PMID:18180544

  3. Recycling of aluminum and caustic soda solution from waste effluents generated during the cleaning of the extruder matrixes of the aluminum industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pieter Tansens; Alberto T. Rodal; Carina M. M. Machado; Helena M. V. M. Soares

    2011-01-01

    Anodising industries use a concentrated caustic soda solution to remove aluminum from extruder matrixes. This procedure produces very alkaline effluents containing high amounts of aluminum. The work reported here was focussed on recycling aluminum, as aluminum hydroxide, from these effluents and regenerating an alkaline sodium hydroxide solution. Briefly, the method comprises a dilution step (necessary for reducing the viscosity of

  4. Analysis of inlet and outlet industrial wastewater effluents by means of benchtop total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Marguí, E; Tapias, J C; Casas, A; Hidalgo, M; Queralt, I

    2010-06-01

    The monitoring of heavy metals in industrial waste water effluents is an important activity in many laboratories. Of special interest is the screening of elemental composition of inlet effluents and quantitative analysis of outlet effluents to study the efficiency of chemical treatment process to eliminate metals and to comply with current established concentration limits, respectively. In this sense, fast analytical methodologies which entail simple sample preparation are desired. In the present work, the possibilities and drawbacks of a benchtop total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (TXRF) for the rapid and simple determination of some inorganic impurities (As, Ba, Cd, Cu, Cr, Sn, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn) in inlet and outlet industrial waste water effluents from metallurgical and tanning leather factories have been tested. An evaluation of different simple sample treatments is presented and it is followed by a discussion of spectral and chemical matrix effects when dealing with this type of samples. Analytical figures of merit such as accuracy, precision and limits of detection have also been carefully studied. Finally, the data obtained by direct TXRF analysis has been compared to that obtained by ICP-OES/ICP-MS after a microwave digestion. PMID:20471056

  5. Assessment of heavy metals in the industrial effluents, tube-wells and municipal supplied water of Dehradun, India.

    PubMed

    Kulshrestha, Shail; Awasthi, Alok; Dabral, S K

    2013-07-01

    The bio-geochemical cycles of metals involve the lands, rivers, oceans and the atmosphere. Although a large number of metals are introduced to the water bodies during their mining and extraction processes and geochemical weathering of rocks, but the role of domestic and industrial wastes is predominant and of much concern. Increased industrial activities has increased the incidence of percolation of toxic metal ions to the soil and water bodies and presently their presence in ecosystem, have reached to an alarming level that environmentalists are finding it difficult to enforce control measures. Human activities and large number of small and big industrial units are increasingly discharging deleterious metals present in the effluents and wastes, to the environment and aquatic systems and have contaminated heavily even the ground water. The toxic metals have a great tendency of bioaccumulation through which they enter the food chain system and ultimately affect adversely the life on this planet Earth in various ways. Further, due to contamination of irrigation system by the harmful Chemicals and toxic metals, the farm products, vegetables, fruits, potable water and even milk is not spared. This paper describes the assessment of the heavy metal concentration in various industrial effluents of the surrounding area. Various physico-chemical characteristics of the effluents collected from various sites are also reported. To assess the status of ground water quality, water samples from four tube wells of different localities of the area and four drinking water samples supplied by Municipal Distribution System were also analyzed. PMID:25509947

  6. A Bacillus sphaericus Based Biosensor for Monitoring Nickel Ions in Industrial Effluents and Foods

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Neelam

    2006-01-01

    A microbial-based biosensor has been developed based on enzyme inhibition bioassay for monitoring the presence of Ni(II) in real-time samples. The sensing element is immobilized Bacillus sphaericus MTCC 5100 yielding urease enzyme. The transducer is an NH 4 + ion selective electrode in conjunction with a potentiometer. Heavy metals are potentially toxic to human beings. Nickel is associated with causing adverse health effects such as dermatitis and vertigo, in humans. Toxicity is manifested by affecting T-cell system and suppressing the activity of natural killer cells. Nickel finds applications in electroplating, coinage, electrodes, jewellery, alloys. The foods rich in Ni(II) are nuts, beans, oats, and wheat. The range of Ni(II) detection by the developed biosensor is 0.03–0.68 nM (0.002–0.04 ppb) with a response time of 1.5 minutes. For application, the Ni(II) effluent was procured from an electroplating industrial unit and was found to have a concentration of 100.0 ppm Ni(II). In foods, wheat flour sample was acid digested and Ni(II) was specifically complexed in the presence of other cations, and had an Ni(II) concentration of 0.044 ppm. The developed system has a reliability of 91.5% and 90.6%, respectively, for the samples and could possibly replace the existing conventional techniques of analysis. PMID:17671626

  7. Continuous metal removal from solution and industrial effluents using Spirogyra biomass-packed column reactor.

    PubMed

    Singh, Alpana; Kumar, Dhananjay; Gaur, J P

    2012-03-01

    The granules of Spirogyra neglecta biomass, diameter 0.2-0.5mm, were successfully prepared by boiling it in urea-formaldehyde mixture. Metal sorption performance of the column packed with Spirogyra granules was assessed under variable operating conditions, such as, different influent metal concentrations, bed heights and flow rates. These conditions greatly influenced the breakthrough time and volume, saturation time and volume, and the ability of the column to attain saturation after reaching the breakthrough. The experimental breakthrough curves obtained under varying experimental conditions were modeled using Bohart-Adams, Wolborska, Thomas, Yoon-Nelson and modified dose-response models. The first two models were valid only in representing the initial part of the breakthrough curves; however, the other three models were good in representing the entire breakthrough curve. The granule-packed column could be successfully used up to 6 and 9 cycles of sorption and desorption for the removal of Cu(II) and Pb(II), respectively. The column could efficiently remove different metals from real industrial effluents, and hence the test biomass (Spirogyra granules) is a good candidate for commercial application. PMID:22169159

  8. Efficient solid-phase extraction procedures for trace enrichment of priority phenols from industrial effluents with high total organic carbon content

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S??lvia Lacorte; Daniel Fraisse; Damià Barceló

    1999-01-01

    Polymeric solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges and Speedisks were used to extract 17 phenols from HPLC-grade water, tap water, river water and industrial effluents. With SPE cartridges, recoveries between 60 and 120% were obtained for waters with a total organic carbon (TOC) content below 20 mg C\\/l. However, when extracting industrial effluent waters with higher TOC values (75 mg C\\/l), only

  9. Toxicity evaluation of reactive dyestuffs, auxiliaries and selected effluents in textile finishing industry to luminescent bacteria Vibrio fischeri.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunxia; Yediler, Ayfer; Lienert, Doris; Wang, Zijian; Kettrup, Antonius

    2002-01-01

    The toxicity of 17 selected process effluents, 11 reactive dyestuffs and 8 auxiliaries from a textile dyeing and finishing mill in Ayazaga, Istanbul, Turkey was evaluated by bioluminescence test using bacteria Vibrio fischeri in LUMIStox 300. The EC20 and EC50 for auxiliaries, the EC20 for dyestuffs were determined. For selected process effluents GL-values, the dilution level at which a wastewater sample causes less than 20% inhibition, were examined. Our results demonstrate that the toxicity assessment with luminescent bacteria is effective and of practical use for chemicals applied in textile finishing industry with the limitation of the deep dark-colored dye bath samples and for the related effluents. Inhibition effects of numerous dyestuffs as well as auxiliaries to luminescent bacteria differed considerably with a range 5-600 mg l(-1) for EC20 and 9-6930 mg l(-1) for EC50, respectively. Among 17 effluents, I sample exhibited high toxicity (GL = 100), 7 showed moderate toxicity (GL = 12-32), and 9 had a GL-value <10 indicating a low or no toxicity. PMID:11827294

  10. 31 CFR 561.330 - Petrochemical products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Petrochemical products. 561.330 Section 561.330...REGULATIONS General Definitions § 561.330 Petrochemical products. The term petrochemical products includes any aromatic,...

  11. 31 CFR 561.330 - Petrochemical products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Petrochemical products. 561.330 Section 561.330...REGULATIONS General Definitions § 561.330 Petrochemical products. The term petrochemical products includes any aromatic,...

  12. Can refiners successfully extend revenue streams through petrochemicals?

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, R.G. [ed.

    1997-04-01

    The petrochemical industry is actually an outgrowth of the need for new types of materials throughout the world. A recent estimate places the requirements for infra-structure investment (public works, housing, power, etc.) in developing Asia for the period 1995-2004 at $1.4 trillion. New petrochemical derived materials for construction will be required in record numbers to meet this need. For example, the use of fiber reinforced plastics will have a substantial potential in construction. Other chemically resistant materials have wide applications in humid, corrosive environments and could therefore find markets worldwide. Other sectors such as telecommunications, power plants and transportation are also areas of potential commercial applications for petrochemical derived materials. For refinery-based petrochemicals such as ethylene, the world`s largest volume organic chemical, and for aromatics and propylene, the building blocks for so many modern materials, these circumstances present challenges, risks, but perhaps most of all opportunity.

  13. Evaluation of Changes in Effluent Quality from Industrial Complexes on the Korean Nationwide Scale Using a Self-Organizing Map

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Mi-Jung; Kim, Jun-Su; Park, Young-Seuk

    2012-01-01

    One of the major issues related to the environment in the 21st century is sustainable development. The innovative economic growth policy has supported relatively successful economic development, but poor environmental conservation efforts, have consequently resulted in serious water quality pollution issues. Hence, assessments of water quality and health are fundamental processes towards conserving and restoring aquatic ecosystems. In this study, we characterized spatial and temporal changes in water quality (specifically physico-chemical variables plus priority and non-priority pollutants) of discharges from industrial complexes on a national scale in Korea. The data were provided by the Water Quality Monitoring Program operated by the Ministry of Environment, Korea and were measured from 1989 to 2008 on a monthly basis at 61 effluent monitoring sites located at industrial complexes. Analysis of monthly and annual changes in water quality, using the seasonal Mann-Kendall test, indicated an improvement in water quality, which was inferred from a continuous increase in dissolved oxygen and decrease in other water quality factors. A Self-Organizing Map, which is an unsupervised artificial neural network, also indicated an improvement of effluent water quality, by showing spatial and temporal differences in the effluent water quality as well as in the occurrence of priority pollutants. Finally, our results suggested that continued long-term monitoring is necessary to establish plans and policies for wastewater management and health assessment. PMID:22690190

  14. Biogas production from water hyacinth and channel grass used for phytoremediation of industrial effluents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V Singhal; J. P. N Rai

    2003-01-01

    The paper reports on the biogas production from water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and channel grass (Vallisneria spiralis) employed separately for phytoremediation of lignin and metal-rich pulp and paper mill and highly acidic distillery effluents. These plants eventually grow well in diluted effluent up to 40% (i.e., 2.5-times dilution with deionized water) and often take up metals and toxic materials from

  15. Evaluation of opportunities for effluent trading in the steam-electric, petroleum-refining, and coal mining industries

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, M.J.

    1983-10-01

    This study examined the opportunities for energy industries (steam-electric, petroleum refining, and coal mining) to use various effluent trading options. The study was based on an examination of the options applicable to these industries and on an extensive inventory of energy facilities with water-quality-based conditions in their discharge permits. The results obtained tend to overstate any opportunities available. The most viable candidates for interplant trading are petroleum refineries with water-quality-based limits on BOD. Point/nonpoint source trading involving coal mines (or possibly other energy facilities) might be profitable at some future time if permit limits that require TDS removal are imposed on facilities in the arid west. No attractive opportunities for intraplant training are available. Other conclusions are as follows: There appear to be no widespread opportunities available for effluent trading involving multiple energy facilities. Localized opportunities may exist in Louisiana and Texas, where there are small groups of petroleum refineries with water-quality-based permit limits. For interplant trading to be feasible the participation of nonenergy facilities will be necessary. However, opportunities for trading with nonenergy facilities appear to be limited. Seasonal or variable permits appear to be a more attractive and more easily implementable means for cost-effective pollution control for energy industries than does effluent trading, since each facility can use such an approach independently of the presence of any other compatible trading partners. The viability of interplant trading is dependent on a concentration of compatible dischargers, with at least some having water-quality-based permit limits on the same, appropiate pollutants. The lack of such concentrations limits the utility of the concept for energy industries. 21 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  16. The application of advanced oxidation technologies to the treatment of effluents from the pulp and paper industry: a review.

    PubMed

    Hermosilla, Daphne; Merayo, Noemí; Gascó, Antonio; Blanco, Ángeles

    2015-01-01

    The paper industry is adopting zero liquid effluent technologies to reduce freshwater use and meet environmental regulations, which implies closure of water circuits and the progressive accumulation of pollutants that must be removed before water reuse and final wastewater discharge. The traditional water treatment technologies that are used in paper mills (such as dissolved air flotation or biological treatment) are not able to remove recalcitrant contaminants. Therefore, advanced water treatment technologies, such as advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), are being included in industrial wastewater treatment chains aiming to either improve water biodegradability or its final quality. A comprehensive review of the current state of the art regarding the use of AOPs for the treatment of the organic load of effluents from the paper industry is herein addressed considering mature and emerging treatments for a sustainable water use in this sector. Wastewater composition, which is highly dependent on the raw materials being used in the mills, the selected AOP itself, and its combination with other technologies, will determine the viability of the treatment. In general, all AOPs have been reported to achieve good organic removal efficiencies (COD removal >40%, and about an extra 20% if AOPs are combined with biological stages). Particularly, ozonation has been the most extensively reported and successfully implemented AOP at an industrial scale for effluent treatment or reuse within pulp and paper mills, although Fenton processes (photo-Fenton particularly) have actually addressed better oxidative results (COD removal???65-75%) at a lab scale, but still need further development at a large scale. PMID:25185495

  17. Decolorization of salt-alkaline effluent with industrial reactive dyes by laccase-producing Basidiomycetes strains.

    PubMed

    Moreira-Neto, S L; Mussatto, S I; Machado, K M G; Milagres, A M F

    2013-04-01

    The discharge of highly coloured synthetic dye effluents into rivers and lakes is harmful to the water bodies, and therefore, intensive researches have been focussed on the decolorization of wastewater by biological, physical or chemical treatments. In the present study, 12 basidiomycetes strains from the genus Pleurotus, Trametes, Lentinus, Peniophora, Pycnoporus, Rigidoporus, Hygrocybe and Psilocybe were evaluated for decolorization of the reactive dyes Cibacron Brilliant Blue H-GR and Cibacron Red FN-2BL, both in solid and liquid media. Among the evaluated fungi, seven showed great ability to decolorize the synthetic textile effluent, both in vivo (74-77%) or in vitro (60-74%), and laccase was the main ligninolytic enzyme involved on dyes decolorization. Pleurotus ostreatus, Trametes villosa and Peniophora cinerea reduced near to 60% of the effluent colour after only 1 h of treatment. The decolorization results were still improved by establishing the nitrogen source and amount to be used during the fungal strains cultivation in synthetic medium previous their action on the textile effluent, with yeast extract being a better nitrogen source than ammonium tartarate. These results contribute for the development of an effective microbiological process for decolorization of dye effluents with reduced time of treatment. PMID:23350659

  18. Application of chemical, biological and membrane separation processes in textile industry with recourse to zero effluent discharge--a case study.

    PubMed

    Nandy, T; Dhodapkar, R S; Pophali, G R; Kaul, S N; Devotta, S

    2005-09-01

    Environmental concerns associated with textile processing had placed the textile sector in a Southern State of India under serious threat of survival. The textile industries were closed under the orders of the Statutory Board for reason of inadequate compliance to environmental discharge norms of the State for the protection of the drinking water source of the State capital. In compliance with the direction of the Board for zero effluent discharge, advanced treatment process have been implemented for recovery of boiler feed quality water with recourse to effluent recycling/reuse. The paper describes to a case study on the adequacy assessment of the full scale effluent treatment plant comprising chemical, biological and filtration processes in a small scale textile industry. In addition, implementation of measures for discernable improvement in the performance of the existing units through effective operation & maintenance, and application of membrane separation processes leading to zero effluent discharge is also highlighted. PMID:16196413

  19. Removal and recovery of lead (Pb(2+)) from industrial effluent using indigenous and tailor-made Aureobasidium sp. RBSS-303.

    PubMed

    Aftab, Kiran; Akhtar, Kalsoom; Anjum, Fozia

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the removal and recovery of Pb-II from industrial wastewater using a locally isolated strain of Aureobasidium sp. RBSS-303. The initial Pb(2+) concentration of 600 mg/L resulted in maximum uptake capacity (Qmax 235.1 ± 0.3 mg/g). The biosorbent revival was attained by contacting with HCl (0.01 M), with 75.3% recovery of Pb(2+). The Freundlich isotherm best explains the Pb(2+) sorption performances. Maximum adsorption distribution coefficient of 1,309.6 mg metal/mL was observed at initial Pb(2+) concentration value of 100 mg/L. Evaluation of nine kinetic models showed the removal rate of Pb(2+) was reliant on diffusion control pseudo-second-order and saturation-mixed-order kinetic models with a high correlation coefficient value (R = 0.99). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis showed the major contribution of -NH2 and -CN ligands of Aureobasidium sp. RBSS-303 in the sorption phenomenon of Pb(2+). The biosorption assays carried out with effluent of the paint industry showed 76.8% efficiency for Pb(2+) removal by the candidate biosorbent, regardless of the complex composition of the industrial effluent. PMID:25607681

  20. The impact of three industrial effluents on submerged aquatic plants in the River Nile, Egypt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. M. Ali; M. E. Soltan

    1996-01-01

    The submerged vegetation growing in the drainage channels taking effluent from three factories (two processing sugar cane plus one producing chipboard or paper pulp; and one large fertilizer plant) into the River Nile in Upper Egypt, and in the river itself upstream and downstream of the discharge points, was studied during 1994. The main pollutants from the sugar cane factory

  1. Enhanced removal of arsenic from a highly laden industrial effluent using a combined coprecipitation/nano-adsorption process.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yingnan; Hua, Ming; Wu, Bian; Ma, Hongrui; Pan, Bingcai; Zhang, Quanxing

    2014-05-01

    Effective arsenic removal from highly laden industrial wastewater is an important but challenging task. Here, a combined coprecipitation/nano-adsorption process, with ferric chloride and calcium chloride as coprecipitation agents and polymer-based nanocomposite as selective adsorbent, has been validated for arsenic removal from tungsten-smelting wastewater. On the basis of operating optimization, a binary FeCl3 (520 mg/L)-CaCl2 (300 mg/L) coprecipitation agent could remove more than 93% arsenic from the wastewater. The resulting precipitate has proved environmental safety based on leaching toxicity test. Fixed-bed column packed with zirconium or ferric-oxide-loaded nanocomposite was employed for further elimination of arsenic in coprecipitated effluent, resulting in a significant decrease of arsenic (from 0.96 to less than 0.5 mg/L). The working capacity of zirconium-loaded nanocomposite was 220 bed volumes per run, much higher than that of ferric-loaded nanocomposite (40 bed volumes per run). The exhausted zirconium-loaded nanocomposite could be efficiently in situ regenerated with a binary NaOH-NaCl solution for reuse without any significant capacity loss. The results validated the combinational coprecipitation/nano-adsorption process to be a potential alternative for effective arsenic removal from highly laden industrial effluent. PMID:24504774

  2. Comparing the presence, potency, and potential hazard of genotoxins extracted from a broad range of industrial effluents.

    PubMed

    White, P A; Rasmussen, J B; Blaise, C

    1996-01-01

    We examined the genotoxicity of dichloromethane extracts from 50 final effluent samples collected from 42 industries, including pulp and paper, chemical manufacturing, metal refining, metal surface treatment, and municipal waste water treatment. Effluents were initially fractionated into dissolved substances, and substances adsorbed to suspended particulate matter. Acid/base partitioning was used to further fractionate aqueous extracts. Genotoxicity of extracts was found to be related to sample type, industry type, metabolic activation status, and extract fluorescence (380 nm excitation, 430 nm emission). S9 metabolic activation reduced genotoxic potency in over 90% of the extracts examined. Expression of potency values per equivalent unit of original sample revealed that effluent particulate matter is, on average, almost four orders of magnitude more potent than aqueous filtrates. Suspended particulate matter from organic and inorganic chemical production, petroleum and metal refining, and from metal surface treatment facilities, provided extracts that were significantly more genotoxic than those from sewage treatment and pulp and paper facilities. Aqueous filtrates from inorganic and organic chemical production, metal refining, and surface treatment facilities were significantly more genotoxic than those emitted by aluminum and petroleum refineries. Overall, the results suggest that pulp and paper mills emit mostly soluble genotoxins, while petroleum and aluminum refineries emit predominantly particle-associated genotoxins. Although some extracts elicited a strong SOS response, the potency of the extractable residues was low when compared to highly potent pure substances such as benzo(alpha) pyrene. On average, a mg of dichloromethane-extractable residue has an SOS genotoxicity equivalent to 0.1-1.0 microg of benzo(alpha) pyrene. Predicted Ames mutagenic potency values corresponded reasonably well with industrial waste mutagenic potency values corresponded reasonably well with industrial waste mutagenic potency values published by other researchers. Genotoxic loading values were calculated to quantify the total daily genotoxic emission and potential hazard of each industry. Highest loadings were from sewage treatment, pulp and paper, and metal refining facilities. Highest loading values were the SOS genotoxic equivalent of over 30 kg of benzo(alpha)pyrene per day. The ultimate hazard of genotoxic emissions is not known. Actual hazard assessment is complicated by a poor understanding of the postemission behavior of genotoxins. Exposure of downstream biota is likely substantial. PMID:8603665

  3. Purification of effluent waters from industrial enterprises using a biosorption technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolaeva, L. A.; Nedzvetskaya, R. Ya.

    2012-03-01

    A technology for purifying effluent waters that uses carbonate sludge from thermal power stations as sorbent is considered. Initial experimental data are presented, as well as their approximation and correlation analysis. A model is used for mathematically describing the biosorption process, which is constructed on the assumption that diffusion is the main process that goes in the course of sorbing pollutants by sludge and biologically oxidizing them by active sludge.

  4. Physicochemical characteristics of paper industry effluents--a case study of South India Paper Mill (SIPM).

    PubMed

    Devi, Ningombam Linthoingambi; Yadav, Ishwar Chandra; Shihua, Q I; Singh, Surendra; Belagali, S L

    2011-06-01

    Pulp and paper mills generate varieties of pollutants depending upon type of the pulping process being used. This paper presents the characteristics of wastewater from South India Paper Mill, Karnataka, India which is using recycled waste paper as a raw material. The raw wastewater consists of 80-90 mg L(?-?1) suspended solid and 1,010-1,015 mg L(?-?1) dissolved solid. However, pH varied from 5.5-6.8. The biochemical oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand ranged from 200-210 and 1,120-1,160 mg L(?-?1), respectively. Aerobic treatment of raw effluent attribute to significant reduction in suspended solid (range between 25 to 30 mg L(?-?1)) and total dissolved solid (range between 360 to 390 mg L(?-?1)). However, pH, temperature, and electrical conductivity were found superior after treatment. Copper, cadmium, iron, lead, nickel, and zinc were found in less quantity in raw effluent and were almost completely removed after treatment. The dendrogram of the effluent quality parameters clearly indicate that South India Paper Mill does not meet Minimal National Standard set by central Pollution Control Board to discharge in agricultural field. PMID:20661771

  5. Respiratory and Irritant Health Effects of a Population Living in a Petrochemical-Polluted Area in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chun-Yuh Yang; Jung-Der Wang; Chang-Chuan Chan; Pao-Chung Chen; Jing-Shiang Huang; Ming-Fen Cheng

    1997-01-01

    Reported herewith are the results from an ongoing study of outdoor air pollution and the health of persons living in the communities in close proximity to petrochemical industrial complexes. To determine if there is an excess of adverse health outcomes in the population exposed to petrochemical industrial emissions, a health survey was undertaken in 1996 in this area and in

  6. Treatment of a petrochemical wastewater in sequencing batch reactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. H. Hsu

    1986-01-01

    The response of sequencing batch reactors (SBR's) in an industrial application was investigated. Four bench-scale SBR's and a bench-scale conventional activated sludge unit were operated with wastewater from a petrochemical complex. In terms of the degradation of BOD material and nitrification, the performance of the SBR's was comparable or slightly superior to that of the conventional activated sludge unit. However,

  7. Production of bioethanol from effluents of the dairy industry by Kluyveromyces marxianus.

    PubMed

    Zoppellari, Francesca; Bardi, Laura

    2013-09-25

    Whey and scotta are effluents coming from cheese and ricotta processing respectively. Whey contains minerals, lipids, lactose and proteins; scotta contains mainly lactose. Whey can be reused in several ways, such as protein extraction or animal feeding, while nowadays scotta is just considered as a waste; moreover, due to very high volumes of whey produced in the world, it poses serious environmental and disposal problems. Alternative destinations of these effluents, such as biotechnological transformations, can be a way to reach both goals of improving the added value of the agroindustrial processes and reducing their environmental impact. In this work we investigated the way to produce bioethanol from lactose of whey and scotta and to optimize the fermentation yields. Kluyveromyces marxianus var. marxianus was chosen as lactose-fermenting yeast. Batch, aerobic and anaerobic, fermentations and semicontinuous fermentations in dispersed phase and in packed bed reactor were carried out of row whey, scotta and mix 1:1 whey:scotta at a laboratory scale. Different temperatures (28-40°C) were also tested to check whether the thermotolerance of the chosen yeast could be useful to improve the ethanol yield. The best performances were reached at low temperatures (28°C); high temperatures are also compatible with good ethanol yields in whey fermentations, but not in scotta fermentations. Semicontinuous fermentations in dispersed phase gave the best fermentation performances, particularly with scotta. Then both effluents can be considered suitable for ethanol production. The good yields obtained from scotta allow us to transform this waste in a source. PMID:23201075

  8. Simultaneous determination of the textile dyes in industrial effluents by first-order derivative spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Vitor C; Vargas, Alexandro M M; Garcia, Juliana C; Lenzi, Ervim; Oliveira, Cláudio C; Nozaki, Jorge

    2009-04-01

    A first-order derivative spectrophotometric method for the simultaneous determination of three textile dyes, Procion Yellow HE4R, Procion Red HE7B and Remazol Black 5 (RB5), has been developed. The effects of pH, heating and ionic strength of the solution on the absorption spectra of the dyes were investigated. The wavelengths selected for the measures of the derivative signals of HE4R (395 nm), HE7B (604 nm) and RB5 (659 nm) presented these coefficients of linear correlation: 0.9978, 0.9992 and 0.9999, and these detection limits: 0.180, 0.317 and 0.0233 mg L(-1), respectively. The reliability and reproducibility of the method were tested and showed recovery values of 95.7 to 109%. The proposed method was applied for the determination of dyes in binary and ternary mixtures of textile effluents and showed an estimate of the loss of dyes for the effluents between 6.67 and 28.9%. PMID:19359787

  9. Recovery of zinc sulphate from industrial effluents by liquid–liquid extraction using D2EHPA (di-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Dayrell Pereira; Sônia Denise Ferreira Rocha; Marcelo Borges Mansur

    2007-01-01

    The liquid–liquid extraction of zinc using D2EHPA as extractant has been investigated in this paper in order to recover zinc sulphate from an industrial effluent produced by Votorantim Co. (Brazil) which contains several metallic species such as cadmium, cobalt, iron, lead, calcium, magnesium, manganese and nickel. The study was carried out in two main steps: (1) extraction and stripping laboratory

  10. Water conservation through implementation of ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis system with recourse to recycling of effluent in textile industry–A case study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tapas Nandy; Pravin Manekar; Rita Dhodapkar; Girish Pophali; Sukumar Devotta

    2007-01-01

    In compliance with the protection of the drinking water source in one of the state capital of India, a cluster of small scale textile industries implemented membrane processes based on treatability studies for recovery of boiler feed water quality with recourse to effluent recycling\\/reuse. The paper addresses to a case study in one of the textile units on upgradation of

  11. Assessment of wastewater management, treatment technology, and associated costs for abatement of PCBS concentrations in industrial effluents. Task II. Final report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Contos; R. L. Durfree; E. E. Hackman; K. Price

    1976-01-01

    This document presents the findings of a study of available wastewater management and treatment technology for the purpose of determining toxic pollutant effluents concentrations and daily load achievable in three industrial categories: polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) manufacturing; capacitor manufacturing; and transformer manufacturing. All plants in the above categories have PCB discharges to either waterways or sewage treatment plants, under normal operating

  12. Membrane processes for water reuse from the effluent of industrial park wastewater treatment plant: a study on flux and fouling of membrane

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lain-Chuen Juang; Dyi-Hwa Tseng; He-Yin Lin

    2007-01-01

    Both the relationship between the flux and the fouling mechanism of ultrafiltration (UF) membrane and the effects of pretreatment before reverse osmosis (RO) process on the treatment of the effluent of industrial park wastewater treatment plant (IPWTP) were investigated to examine the application of membrane processes on the water reuse treatment. For the former, the flux data was first fitted

  13. Petrochemicals for the nonchemical person

    SciTech Connect

    Burdick, D.L.; Leffler, W.L.

    1983-01-01

    Petrochemicals for the Nontechnical Person is the second book in a series designed to inform the curious novice or frustrated veteran of what petrochemicals are and how they're made. Contents include: The complete course in organic chemistry; Benzene, toluene, and the xylenes; Cyclohexane; Olefin plants; The C/sub 4/ hydrocarbon family; Cumene and phenol; Ethylbenzene and styrene; Ethylene dichloride and vinyl chloride; Ethylene oxide and ethylene glycol; Propylene oxide and propylene glycol; Methanol and synthesis gas; The other alcohols; Acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, and methyl isobutyl ketone; The acids; Acrylonitriles and the acrylates; Maleic anhydride; The nature of polymers; Thermoplastics; Resins and fibers; Index.

  14. Simultaneously bio treatment of textiles and food industries effluent at difference ratios with the aid of e-beam radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakar, Khomsaton Abu; Selambakkannu, Sarala; Ting, Teo Ming; Shariff, Jamaliah

    2012-09-01

    The combination of irradiation and biological technique was used to study COD, BOD5 and colour removal of textiles effluent in the presence of food industry wastewater at two different ratios. Two biological treatment system, the first consisting a mix of unirradiated textile and food industry wastewater and the second a mix of irradiated textile wastewater and food industry wastewater were operated in parallel. The experiment was conducted by batch. For the first batch the ratio was use for textile wastewater and food industry wastewater in biological treatment was 1:1. Meanwhile, for the second batch the ratio used for textile wastewater and food industry wastewater in biological treatment was 1:2. The results obtained for the first and second batch varies from each other. After irradiation, COD reduce in textile wastewater for the both batches are roughly 29% - 33% from the unirradiated wastewater. But after undergoing the biological treatment the percentage of COD reduction for first batch and second batch was 62.1% and 80.7% respectively. After irradiation the BOD5 of textile wastewater reduced by 22.2% for the first batch and 55.1% for the second batch. But after biological treatment, the BOD5 value for the first batch was same as its initial, 36mg/l and 40.4mg/l for the second batch. Colour had decreased from 899.5 ADMI to 379.3 ADMI after irradiation and decrease to 109.3 after undergoes biological treatment for the first batch. Meantime for the batch two, colour had decreased from 1000.44 ADMI to 363.40 ADMI after irradiation and dropped to 79.20 ADMI after biological treatment. The experiment show that 1:2 ratio show better reduction on COD, BOD5 and colour, compared to the ratio of 1:1.

  15. Understanding the petrochemical cycle: Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Sedriks, W. (SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States))

    1994-04-01

    The manager of a petrochemical enterprise, to survive the competitive 1990s, must have a good understanding of the industry's cyclicality, and a good grasp of coping alternatives. To select the best strategies and tactics calls for a familiarity with such concepts as the hockey-stick profile for profitability and the experience curve for cost reductions at both ends of the supply curve. The manager must carefully weigh advantages of build-and-scrap policies and differentiation vs. diversification and recognize the pitfalls associated with the prisoner's dilemma. With these elements well understood, the manager is in an improved position to cope with the industry's boom-and-bust characteristics. The paper discusses practicalities, the prisoner's dilemma in game theory, individual company actions, leveraging cyclicability, differentiation and diversification/integration, improvement of competitiveness, and structure as part of the problem.

  16. Treatment and reuse of industrial effluents: case study of a thermal power plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mousa S. Mohsen

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the potential of industrial wastewater reuse in Jordan's Al Hussein thermal power station. A comprehensive review of the processes involved, industrial waste generation and water requirements was carried out, and areas of potential improvment were identified. They include a water treatment system, blow-down system, flue gas desulfurization and finding alternative process water sources such

  17. BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT, EFFLUENT REUSE, AND SLUDGE HANDLING FOR THE SIDE LEATHER TANNING INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    An evaluation of the treatability of unsegregated, unequalized, and unneutralized wastewaters from a side-leather tanning industry utilizing the hair pulping process by primary and secondary biological and gravity separation in clarifier-thickeners, whereas the secondary treatmen...

  18. Application of industrial hygiene techniques for work-place exposure assessment protocols related to petro-chemical exploration and production field activities

    SciTech Connect

    Koehn, J. [CIH, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Standard industrial hygiene techniques for recognition, evaluation, and control can be directly applied to development of technical protocols for workplace exposure assessment activities for a variety of field site locations. Categories of occupational hazards include chemical and physical agents. Examples of these types of hazards directly related to oil and gas exploration and production workplaces include hydrocarbons, benzene, oil mist, hydrogen sulfide, Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM), asbestos-containing materials, and noise. Specific components of well process chemicals include potential hazardous chemical substances such as methanol, acrolein, chlorine dioxide, and hydrochloric acid. Other types of exposure hazards may result from non-routine conduct of sandblasting and painting operations.

  19. Isolation and characterization of a Cr(VI) reducing Bacillus firmus strain from industrial effluents.

    PubMed

    Sau, Gopi Ballav; Chatterjee, Swagata; Sinha, Sangram; Mukherjee, Samir Kumar

    2008-01-01

    A chromium resistant bacterial strain KUCr1 exhibiting potential Cr(VI) reducing ability under in vitro aerobic condition is reported. The bacterial strain showed varied degree of resistance to different heavy metals. The MIC of chromium to this strain was found to be 950 mM under aerobic culture condition in complex medium. The factors affecting Cr(VI) reduction by this strain under culture condition were evaluated. Maximal Cr(VI) reduction was observed at the pH 8 to 10 and at a temperature of 35 degrees C. Higher concentration of Cr(VI) slowed down the reduction, eventually all the metal could be reduced with longer incubation time. Different toxic metals showed differential effect on reduction. Cadmium and zinc were found to inhibit reduction. Cr(VI) reduction and bioremediation were found to be related to the growth supportive condition in terms of carbon, phosphorous and nitrogen supply in wastewater fed with tannery effluent indicating cell mass dependency of Cr(VI) reduction. Through biochemical characterization and 16S rDNA sequence analysis, the strain KUCr1, as the name given to it, was identified as a strain of Bacillus firmus. PMID:19275047

  20. Biochemical responses of the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis to petrochemical environmental contamination along the North-western coast of Portugal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Inês Lima; Susana M. Moreira; Jaime Rendón-Von Osten; Amadeu M. V. M. Soares; Lúcia Guilhermino

    2007-01-01

    Following the development of urban and industrial centres petrochemical products have become a widespread class of contaminants. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of petrochemical contamination in wild populations of mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) along the NW Atlantic coast of Portugal by applying antioxidant and energetic metabolism parameters as biomarkers. For that, mussels were collected at five

  1. Estimating effluent COD

    SciTech Connect

    Eckenfelder, W.W.; Landine, R.

    1995-06-01

    In many parts of the world, chemical oxygen demand (COD) is a primary effluent parameter. Unlike BOD, which considers only biodegradable organics, COD also includes non-degradable organics and non-degradable biological oxidation by-products, generally referred to as soluble microbial products (SMP). The SMP can vary from 2% to 10% of the influent degradable COD. If the technology is limited to biological treatment only, the degradable COD will be removed. Further reductions in COD will require physical chemical treatments such as activated carbon. Effluent COD values for several industrial wastewaters are presented. Effluent characteristics from the anaerobic treatment of industrial wastewaters are also discussed.

  2. ECONOMIC IMPACT ANALYSIS OF EFFLUENT STANDARDS AND LIMITATIONS FOR THE METAL FINISHING INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency issued e-fluent guidelines and limitations for the Metal Finishing Industry in June 1983. This report estimates the economic impact of pollution control costs in terms of price changes, effects profitability, potential plant closures, unem...

  3. POLISHING INDUSTRIAL WASTE STREAM EFFLUENTS USING FLY ASH - NATURAL CLAY SORBENT COMBINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A laboratory evaluation of the use of acidic and basic fly ashes, bentonite, bauxite, illite, kaolinite, zeolite, vermiculite, and activated alumina is presented for polishing a 3.8 x 10 to the 6th power liters per day waste stream from the feldspar mining and processing industry...

  4. Dangerous and cancer-causing properties of products and chemicals in the oil refining and petrochemical industry: Part I. Carcinogenicity of motor fuels: gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Mehlman, M.A. (UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Environmental and Community Medicine, Piscataway (United States))

    1991-09-01

    Studies in humans and animals have shown that gasoline contains a number of cancer-causing and toxic chemicals such as 1,3-butadiene, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, isoparaffins, methyltert-butylether, and others. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in its Monograph Supplement 7 (1987) concludes that in the absence of adequate data on humans, it is biologically plausible and prudent to regard agents for which there is sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals as if they present a carcinogenic risk to humans.' Epidemiological studies in humans provide important evidence of potential increased risk of leukemia, lymphatic tissue cancers, cancers of the brain, liver, and other organs and tissues. Recently (July, 1990) the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygiene (ACGIH) recommended that the TLV-TWA for benzene be reduced from 1 ppm to 0.1 ppm (ACGIH, 1990). The Collegium Ramazzini and others have also recommended that the exposure level for 1,3-Butadiene be reduced from 1,000 ppm to below 0.2 ppm. This recommendation is based on the findings that were presented at the Symposium on Toxicology, Carcinogenesis, and Human Health Aspects of 1,3-Butadiene (Environ. Health Perspec., 1990). Thus, studies on health effects resulting from very low levels of benzene, 1,3-butadiene, and other cancer-causing chemicals--components of gasoline--necessitate that all avoidable exposure to gasoline or gasoline vapors be avoided.

  5. Advanced oxidation processes for treatment of effluents from a detergent industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rui C. Martins; Adrián M. T. Silva

    2011-01-01

    Ozonation, catalytic ozonation, Fenton’s and heterogeneous Fenton?like processes were investigated as possible pretreatments of a low biodegradable and highly toxic wastewater produced by a detergent industry. The presence of a Mn–Ce–O catalyst in ozonation enhances the biodegradability and improves the degradation at low pH values. However, a high content of carbonyl compounds adsorbed on the recovered solid indicates some limitations

  6. Assessing toxicity of copper, cadmium and chromium levels relevant to discharge limits of industrial effluents into inland surface waters using common onion, Allium cepa bioassay.

    PubMed

    Hemachandra, Chamini K; Pathiratne, Asoka

    2015-02-01

    Toxicity of copper, cadmium and chromium relevant to established tolerance limits for the discharge of industrial effluents into inland surface waters was evaluated by Allium cepa bioassay. The roots of A. cepa bulbs exposed to Cu(2+) (3 mg L(-1)) individually or in mixtures with Cd(2+) (0.1 mg L(-1)) or/and Cr(6+) (0.1 mg L(-1)) exhibited the highest growth inhibition, mitotic index depression and nuclear abnormalities. Root tip cells exposed to Cr(6+) or Cd(2+) alone or in mixture displayed significant chromosomal aberrations in comparison to the controls. EC50s for root growth inhibition followed the order Cu(2+) < Cd(2+) < Cr(6+) indicating greater toxicity of copper. The results show that the industrial effluent discharge regulatory limits for these metals need to be reviewed considering potential cyto-genotoxicity to biological systems. PMID:25201323

  7. Spectrophotometric determination of Blue Procion HEGN in effluents of textile industry exploiting the dye aggregation effect and flow injection analysis.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Vitor C; Costa, Willian F; Nozaki, Jorge; Oliveira, Cláudio C

    2006-03-01

    A new spectrophotometric method involving flow injection analysis and textile dye aggregation effect is proposed. The method is based on the aggregation effect of Blue Procion HEGN at pH 3, which relocates its maximum absorption wavelength from 620 to 776 nm, avoiding the interference of other blue textile dyes. For this task, a simple and robust flow injection system was designed, which became a very stable analytical method. When the system was applied to Blue Procion determination in effluent of textile industry, precise results were observed (RSD < 2% within 1.0 and 5.0 mg l(-1) HEGN). The analytical frequency was 80 measurements per hour; the analytical curve was linear from 1.0 to 5.0 mg l(-1) HEGN; the detection limit considering three times the standard deviation of the blank solution (n = 10) was estimated as 0.03 mg l(-1) HEGN; and recoveries between 95% and 105% were found. The system consumes 20 mg of sodium citrate and 125 microl of the sample per determination. No baseline drift was observed during extended (5 h) operation periods. PMID:16733320

  8. Isolation and characterization of phenol utilizing bacteria from industrial effluent-contaminated soil and kinetic evaluation of their biodegradation potential.

    PubMed

    Pal Basak, Sreela; Sarkar, Priyabrata; Pal, Priyabrata

    2014-01-01

    Microbial degradation of phenol by pure bacterial species is a well-known approach towards alleviation of environmental pollution. In this study, five phenol-degrading bacterial species designated as CUPS-1 to CUPS-5 were isolated from the oil-effluent dumped sites of Haldia Industrial area of West Bengal, India. Detailed morphological, biochemical and molecular characterization identified CUPS-3 as a novel strain- Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (GU358076), while the others could be identified as Pseudomonas (CUPS-2, 5), Delftia (CUPS-1) and Micrococcus (CUPS-4) genera, respectively. Although all of these strains utilized phenol as their sole carbon source supporting growth, three among them, CUPS-2, CUPS-3 and CUPS-5 proved potential phenol degraders and hence used for further biodegradation studies. Degradation experiments were carried out for several initial phenol concentrations of 500 mg/L, 750 mg/L, 1000 mg/L, 1250 mg/L and 1500 mg/L. The novel strain, CUPS-3 could completely degrade 500 mg/L phenol within 48 h, with 0.0937/h substrate degradation rate and 16.34 mg/L/h substrate consumption rate. The strains degraded phenol via meta-cleavage pathway. Prediction of kinetic parameters of the biodegradation was accomplished Haldane model using the experimental data of degradation rate and phenol concentration as function of time. PMID:24117085

  9. Applying whole-water samples directly to fish cell cultures in order to evaluate the toxicity of industrial effluent.

    PubMed

    Dayeh, Vivian R; Schirmer, Kristin; Bols, Niels C

    2002-09-01

    Methodology was developed for presenting to fish cells in culture whole-water samples without extraction and used to evaluate the toxicity to a rainbow trout gill cell line, RTgill-W1, of more than 30 whole-water samples collected from a paper mill over approximately a year of operation. Presentation to cells was achieved by adding to water samples the amounts of salts, galactose and sodium pyruvate, as solids, that were necessary to give concentrations and osmolality of the basal growth medium, Leibovitz's L-15. Cell viability was measured with three fluorescent indicator dyes: alamar Blue for metabolism, 5-carboxyfluorescein diacetate acetoxymethyl ester (CFDA-AM) for membrane function, and neutral red for lysosomal activity. Eighteen samples were tested with the Daphnia lethality bioassay and 11 of these were toxic. None of these were judged cytotoxic to RTgill-W1. Sixteen samples were tested with the rainbow trout lethality bioassay and only one was toxic. This sample was also the only sample that was cytotoxic to RTgill-W1. Therefore, these methods for presenting water samples and measuring their cytotoxicity to RTgill-W1 are a promising substitute for toxicity tests of industrial effluent with rainbow trout but not with Daphnia. PMID:12369520

  10. Copper removal from an effluent generated by a plastics chromium-plating industry using a rotating cylinder electrode (RCE) reactor.

    PubMed

    Rivera, F F; González, I; Nava, J L

    2008-08-01

    This work shows the application of a rotating cylinder electrode (RCE) in the removal of Cu(II) content from an effluent generated by a plastics chromium-plating industry, on the laboratory scale; in particular, it deals with rinse water from the electrolytic copper process. This process was designed to convert cupric ions in solution to metal powder. The generation of metal powders in the RCE was achieved at Reynolds numbers between 52925 and 83183 and limiting current densities (J(L)) in the range of 17 to 25 mA cm(-2). The removal of Cu(II) (initially 922 ppm) reached 43 ppm in 10 minutes of electrolysis for Re = 83183 and J = 25 mA cm(-2), with a space-time yield of 88 mg Cu(II) L(-1) min(-1), 95% current efficiency, and energy consumption of 5.3 KWh m(-3). The electrochemical treatment applied to waste rinse water at the RCE allows this treated water to be recycled back to the same rinsing process, avoiding additional consumption and discharge of this liquid. PMID:18724636

  11. Genetic characterization, nickel tolerance, biosorption, kinetics, and uptake mechanism of a bacterium isolated from electroplating industrial effluent.

    PubMed

    Nagarajan, N; Gunasekaran, P; Rajendran, P

    2015-04-01

    Electroplating industries in Madurai city produce approximately 49,000 L of wastewater and 1200 L of sludge every day revealing 687-5569 ppm of nickel (Ni) with other contaminants. Seventeen Ni-tolerant bacterial strains were isolated from nutrient-enriched effluents. Among them one hyper Ni accumulating strain was scored and identified as Bacillus cereus VP17 on the basis of morphology, biochemical tests, 16S rDNA gene sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis. Equilibrium data of Ni(II) ions using the bacterium as sorbent at isothermal conditions (37 °C) and pH 6 were best adjusted by Langmuir (R(2) = 0.6268) and Freundlich models (R(2) = 0.9505). Experimental validation reveals Ni sorption takes place on a heterogeneous surface of the biosorbent, and predicted metal sorption capacity is 434 ppm. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model fitted the biosorption kinetic data better than the pseudo-first-order kinetic model (R(2) = 0.9963 and 0.3625). Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies of the bacterial strain with and without Ni(II) ion reveals the biosorption mechanism. The results conclude possibilities of using B. cereus VP17 for Ni bioremediation. PMID:25768053

  12. Decolorization of an industrial effluent by free and immobilized cells of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia AAP56 . Implementation of efficient down flow column reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Said Galai; Ferid Limam; M. Nejib Marzouki

    2010-01-01

    A bacterial strain AAP56, isolated from a polluted soil (from Kelibia city) and identified as Stentrophomonas maltophilia, was particularly interesting for its ability to decolorize recalcitrant dyes of an industrial effluent: SITEX Black. The\\u000a final percentage decolorization 60% was shown by bacterial culture after incubation in LB medium at 30°C under shaking conditions.\\u000a The decolorization was closely correlated with the

  13. Impact of pharmaceutical industry treated effluents on the water quality of river Uppanar, South east coast of India: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damodhar, Usha; Vikram Reddy, M.

    2013-06-01

    The water quality of a river that received pharmaceutical industrial effluents is evaluated through the analysis of two indices to describe the level of pollution of the river, in this paper. The indices have been computed from December 2009 to June 2011 at four sampling stations—outlet, outfall, upstream, and downstream in the Uppanar River located at Cuddalore (South east coast of India). The results were compared with the guidelines of Bureau of Indian standards for drinking water specifications (BIS 10500).The study also identifies the pollutants of pharmaceutical industrial effluents before and after treatment that affects the river water quality. Data on spatial and temporal changes in dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, pH, temperature, color, electrical conductance, total dissolved solids, total suspended solids, calcium, magnesium, hardness, sodium, and chloride were collected. The water quality indices used, Bascarón (1979) adapted Water Quality Index (WQIBA) and the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment-Water Quality Index 1.0 (CCME WQI), which is a well-accepted and universally applicable computer model for evaluating the water quality index. Both the indices presented similar trends, and were considered adequate for evaluating the impacts of industrial effluent on the river water bodies.

  14. Potential for bioremediation of agro-industrial effluents with high loads of pesticides by selected fungi.

    PubMed

    Karas, Panagiotis A; Perruchon, Chiara; Exarhou, Katerina; Ehaliotis, Constantinos; Karpouzas, Dimitrios G

    2011-02-01

    Wastewaters from the fruit packaging industry contain a high pesticide load and require treatment before their environmental discharge. We provide first evidence for the potential bioremediation of these wastewaters. Three white rot fungi (WRF) (Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Trametes versicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus) and an Aspergillus niger strain were tested in straw extract medium (StEM) and soil extract medium (SEM) for degrading the pesticides thiabendazole (TBZ), imazalil (IMZ), thiophanate methyl (TM), ortho-phenylphenol (OPP), diphenylamine (DPA) and chlorpyrifos (CHL). Peroxidase (LiP, MnP) and laccase (Lac) activity was also determined to investigate their involvement in pesticide degradation. T. versicolor and P. ostreatus were the most efficient degraders and degraded all pesticides (10 mg l?¹) except TBZ, with maximum efficiency in StEM. The phenolic pesticides OPP and DPA were rapidly degraded by these two fungi with a concurrent increase in MnP and Lac activity. In contrast, these enzymes were not associated with the degradation of CHL, IMZ and TM implying the involvement of other enzymes. T. versicolor degraded spillage-level pesticide concentrations (50 mg l?¹) either fully (DPA, OPP) or partially (TBZ, IMZ). The fungus was also able to rapidly degrade a mixture of TM/DPA (50 mg l?¹), whereas it failed to degrade IMZ and TBZ when supplied in a mixture with OPP. Overall, T. versicolor and P. ostreatus showed great potential for the bioremediation of wastewaters from the fruit packaging industry. However, degradation of TBZ should be also achieved before further scaling up. PMID:20635121

  15. Ammonia-containing industrial effluents, lethal to rainbow trout, induce vacuolisation and Neutral Red uptake in the rainbow trout gill cell line, RTgill-W1.

    PubMed

    Dayeh, Vivian R; Schirmer, Kristin; Bols, Niels C

    2009-02-01

    Nine samples of whole effluent from the operation of an industrial plant over the course of one year, were tested on rainbow trout for lethality and on the rainbow trout gill cell line, RTgill-W1, for metabolic activity, plasma membrane integrity, and lysosomal activity, as measured by using the alamar Blue (AB), 5-carboxyfluorescein diacetate acetoxymethyl (CFDA-AM), and neutral red (NR) assays, respectively. None of the nine samples caused a loss of plasma membrane integrity, and only two caused a transitory decline in metabolism. Three samples caused massive vacuolisation in RTgill-W1 cells, which was accompanied by increased uptake of NR, and only these three samples were lethal to the rainbow trout. The addition of ammonia to RTgill-W1 cultures also induced vacuolisation and NR uptake, with little change in plasma membrane integrity or metabolism. Subsequently, the effluent source was identified as a nitrogen product producer, and variable levels of ammonia were found in the nine samples. Three of the four samples with the highest non-ionised ammonia levels were those which were toxic to rainbow trout and which caused vacuoles in RTgill-W1 cells. The close correlation between rainbow trout-killing and RTgill-W1 vacuolisation by the effluents, suggests that vacuolisation of RTgill-W1 cells could be used to indicate effluents which would be toxic to rainbow trout as a result of their ammonia content. PMID:19292578

  16. The impact of an industrial effluent on the water quality, submersed macrophytes and benthic macroinvertebrates in a dammed river of Central Spain.

    PubMed

    Gonzalo, Cristina; Camargo, Julio A

    2013-10-01

    This research was conducted in the middle Duratón River (Central Spain), in the vicinity of Burgomillodo Reservoir. An industrial effluent enters the river 300 m downstream from the dam. Fluoride and turbidity levels significantly increased downstream from the effluent, these levels being to some extent affected by differential water releases from the dam. The community of submersed macrophytes exhibited slighter responses and, accordingly, lower discriminatory power than the community of benthic macroinvertebrates, this indicating that metrics and indices based on macroinvertebrates may be more suitable for the biological monitoring of water pollution and habitat degradation in dammed rivers receiving industrial effluents. However, in relation to fluoride bioaccumulation at the organism level, macrophytes (Fontinalis antipyretica and Potamogeton pectinatus) were as suitable bioindicators of fluoride pollution as macroinvertebrates (Ancylus fluviatilis and Pacifastacus leniusculus). Fluoride bioaccumulation in both hard and soft tissues of these aquatic organisms could be used as suitable bioindicator of fluoride pollution (even lower than 1 mg F(-)L(-1)) in freshwater ecosystems. Echinogammarus calvus exhibited a great sensitivity to the toxicity of fluoride ions, with a 96 h LC?? of 7.5 mg F(-)L(-1) and an estimated safe concentration of 0.56 mg F(-)L(-1). The great capacity of E. calvus to take up and retain fluoride during exposures to fluoride ions would be a major cause of its great sensitivity to fluoride toxicity. It is concluded that the observed fluoride pollution might be partly responsible for the absence of this native amphipod downstream from the industrial effluent. PMID:23830885

  17. FISH COUGH RESPONSE - A METHOD FOR EVALUATING QUALITY OF TREATED COMPLEX EFFLUENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) showed increases in cough frequency commensurate with effluent concentration when exposed for 24 h to different industrial and municipal effluents. Effluents known to be toxic caused steadily increasing cough rates in the fish as effluent co...

  18. Phytoaccumulation of heavy metals in natural plants thriving on wastewater effluent at hattar industrial estate, pakistan.

    PubMed

    Irshad, Muhammad; Ahmad, Sajjad; Pervez, Arshid; Inoue, Mitsuhiro

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research was to compare the potential of native plants for the phytoaccumulation of heavy metals (HM). Thirteen predominant plant species (including trees, bushes and grasses) namely Ricinus communis, Ipomoea carnea, Cannabis sativa, Parthenium hysterophorus, Acacia nilotica, Dalbergia sissoo, Acacia modesta, Solanum nigrum, Xanthium stromarium, Chenopodium album, Cynodon dactylon, Eleusine indica, and Dactyloctenium aegyptium were collected from the wastewater originated from Hattar industrial estate of Pakistan, Plants shoots and roots were analyzed for heavy metals / metalloid: Pb, Cr, Cd, Zn, Fe, Ni, and As. Among plant species, the accumulation potential for HM varied depending on the type of element. Regardless of the plant species, HM concentrations varied in the order of Fe > Zn > Cr > Pb > Ni > Cd > As. Tree species of R. communis, A. nilotica, A. modesta, and D. sissoo exhibited an enhanced concentrations of metals. Accumulation pattern of Fe, Pb, Cd, and As in plants could be related to the HM composition of soil and wastewater. Most of the species exhibited higher HM composition in the root as compared to shoot. The species that found with greater ability to absorb HM in the root, got higher HM concentrations in its shoot. Shoot tissue concentrations of HM were attained by the species as D. sissoo > A. modesta > A. nilotica > R. communis > I. carnea > C. album > E. indica > P. hysterophorus > S. nigrum > C. sativa > D. aegyptium > X. strumarium > C. dactylon. Based on results, tree plants were noticed as higher accumulators of HM in polluted soils. PMID:25254600

  19. Bioremediation and Detoxification of Synthetic Wastewater Containing Triarylmethane Dyes by Aeromonas hydrophila Isolated from Industrial Effluent

    PubMed Central

    Ogugbue, Chimezie Jason; Sawidis, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Economical and bio-friendly approaches are needed to remediate dye-contaminated wastewater from various industries. In this study, a novel bacterial strain capable of decolorizing triarylmethane dyes was isolated from a textile wastewater treatment plant in Greece. The bacterial isolate was identified as Aeromonas hydrophila and was shown to decolorize three triarylmethane dyes tested within 24?h with color removal in the range of 72% to 96%. Decolorization efficiency of the bacterium was a function of operational parameters (aeration, dye concentration, temperature, and pH) and the optimal operational conditions obtained for decolorization of the dyes were: pH 7-8, 35°C and culture agitation. Effective color removal within 24?h was obtained at a maximum dye concentration of 50?mg/L. Dye decolorization was monitored using a scanning UV/visible spectrophotometer which indicated that decolorization was due to the degradation of dyes into non-colored intermediates. Phytotoxicity studies carried out using Triticum aestivum, Hordeum vulgare, and Lens esculenta revealed the triarylmethane dyes exerted toxic effects on plant growth parameters monitored. However, significant reduction in toxicity was obtained with the decolorized dye metabolites thus, indicating the detoxification of the dyes following degradation by Aeromonas hydrophila. PMID:21808740

  20. [Enhanced bio-contact oxidation method to treat petrochemical wastewater by tourmaline].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Kan; Ma, Fang; Sun, Tie-Heng; Feng, Zhi-Yun

    2009-06-15

    Aiming at the complexity and poor biochemical degradability of petrochemical wastewater, the effect of tourmaline on bio-contact oxidation method was investigated. The influent and effluent of petrochemical wastewater were analyzed by GC-MS, and the carrier was observed in reactor by scanning electron microscope (SEM). As the loading rates of influent were COD 0.64-0.72 kg/(m3 x d) and NH4(+) -N 0.058-0.072 kg/(m3 x d), the start up of pilot system supported tourmaline were improved, and the removal rate of COD and NH4(+) -N of effluent was increased 8.7% and 6.4%, respectively. Organic pollutants of 100 kinds were detected in influent, mainly including aromatic hydrocarbon, acids, lipids, phenols, alcohols, and alkanes compounds. The removal efficiency of organic pollutant of reactor 1 with tourmaline was higher than reactor 2 without tourmaline. The number of organic pollutant in effluent from reactor 1 and 2 were 14 and 28, respectively. Zoogloea can be observed on carrier supported tourmaline, and the biomass of bacteria was predominant. The efficiency of bio-contact oxidation method on petrochemical wastewater treatment can be enhanced by tourmaline. PMID:19662849

  1. Biosorption of heavy metals by Bacillus thuringiensis strain OSM29 originating from industrial effluent contaminated north Indian soil

    PubMed Central

    Oves, Mohammad; Khan, Mohammad Saghir; Zaidi, Almas

    2012-01-01

    The study was navigated to examine the metal biosorbing ability of bacterial strain OSM29 recovered from rhizosphere of cauliflower grown in soil irrigated consistently with industrial effluents. The metal tolerant bacterial strain OSM29 was identified as Bacillus thuringiensis following 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. In the presence of the varying concentrations (25–150 mgl?1) of heavy metals, such as cadmium, chromium, copper, lead and nickel, the B. thuringiensis strain OSM29 showed an obvious metal removing potential. The effect of certain physico-chemical factors such as pH, initial metal concentration, and contact time on biosorption was also assessed. The optimum pH for nickel and chromium removal was 7, while for cadmium, copper and lead, it was 6. The optimal contact time was 30 min. for each metal at 32 ± 2 °C by strain OSM29. The biosorption capacity of the strain OSM29 for the metallic ions was highest for Ni (94%) which was followed by Cu (91.8%), while the lowest sorption by bacterial biomass was recorded for Cd (87%) at 25 mgl?1 initial metal ion concentration. The regression coefficients obtained for heavy metals from the Freundlich and Langmuir models were significant. The surface chemical functional groups of B. thuringiensis biomass identified by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) were amino, carboxyl, hydroxyl, and carbonyl groups, which may be involved in the biosorption of heavy metals. The biosorption ability of B. thuringiensis OSM29 varied with metals and was pH and metal concentration dependent. The biosorption of each metal was fairly rapid which could be an advantage for large scale treatment of contaminated sites. PMID:24115905

  2. Accumulation of Metals in Soils, Groundwater and Edible Parts of Crops Grown Under Long-Term Irrigation with Sewage Mixed Industrial Effluents.

    PubMed

    Yadav, R K; Minhas, P S; Lal, Khajanchi; Chaturvedi, R K; Yadav, Gajender; Verma, T P

    2015-08-01

    Farmers in developing countries irrigate crops using raw urban and industrial effluents with consequent risks from metal contamination. Therefore, soils, crops and groundwater from an effluent irrigation use site were assessed for Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb. Total and available contents of metals in soil followed the order Pb > Ni > Cr > Cd. Crops accumulated more Pb, followed by Cd, Ni and Cr. Pb exceeded the permissible limit with wastewater irrigation only, but Cd exceeded the limit even with combined irrigations of wastewater and groundwater. Among crops, sugar beet assimilated highest Cd (3.14 ?g g(-1)) and Pb (6.42 ?g g(-1)) concentrations. Legumes accumulated more metals than cereals. Long-term use of wastewater and its conjunctive use with groundwater led to toxic accumulations of Cd, Pb, Ni and Cr. Cd with higher availability and mobility indices and lower toxicity limit, posed the maximum risk of food-chain contamination. PMID:25894348

  3. Association of petrochemical exposure with spontaneous abortion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. Xu; S. I. Cho; M. Sammel; L. You; S. Cui; Y. Huang; G. Ma; C. Padungtod; L. Pothier; T. Niu; D. Christiani; T. Smith; L. Ryan; L. Wang

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the association between petrochemical exposure and spontaneous abortion, a retrospective epidemiological study in a large petrochemical complex in Beijing, China was conducted. METHODS: Plant employment records identified 3105 women who were married, were 20-44 years of age, and had never smoked. Of those, 3070 women (98.8%) reported at least one pregnancy. From this group, 2853 (93%) of

  4. Ceramic membrane treatment of petrochemical wastewater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard J. Lahiere; Kenneth P. Goodboy

    1993-01-01

    Ceramic alumina microfiltration membranes were evaluated for treatment of 3 aqueous streams containing heavy metals, oils, and solids at petrochemical manufacturing facilities. To the best of the author's knowledge, this is the first reported use of ceramic alumina membranes for process water and wastewater treatment in a US petrochemical plant. In a pilot test at a vinyl chloride monomer (VCM)

  5. Developing and Integrating Sustainable Chemical Processes into Existing Petro-Chemical Plant Complexes

    E-print Network

    Pike, Ralph W.

    a biomass based chemical industry in the chemical production complex in the Gulf Coast Region and the LowerDeveloping and Integrating Sustainable Chemical Processes into Existing Petro-Chemical Plant an integration of these aspects by world organizations, countries and industries. #12;Corporate Sustainability

  6. Dual application of duckweed and azolla plants for wastewater treatment and renewable fuels and petrochemicals production

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Shortages in fresh water supplies today affects more than 1 billion people worldwide. Phytoremediation strategies, based on the abilities of aquatic plants to recycle nutrients offer an attractive solution for the bioremediation of water pollution and represents one of the most globally researched issues. The subsequent application of the biomass from the remediation for the production of fuels and petrochemicals offers an ecologically friendly and cost-effective solution for water pollution problems and production of value-added products. Results In this paper, the feasibility of the dual application of duckweed and azolla aquatic plants for wastewater treatment and production of renewable fuels and petrochemicals is explored. The differences in absorption rates of the key wastewater nutrients, ammonium and phosphorus by these aquatic macrophytes were used as the basis for optimization of the composition of wastewater effluents. Analysis of pyrolysis products showed that azolla and algae produce a similar range of bio-oils that contain a large spectrum of petrochemicals including straight-chain C10-C21 alkanes, which can be directly used as diesel fuel supplement, or a glycerin-free component of biodiesel. Pyrolysis of duckweed produces a different range of bio-oil components that can potentially be used for the production of “green” gasoline and diesel fuel using existing techniques, such as catalytic hydrodeoxygenation. Conclusions Differences in absorption rates of the key wastewater nutrients, ammonium and phosphorus by different aquatic macrophytes can be used for optimization of composition of wastewater effluents. The generated data suggest that the composition of the petrochemicals can be modified in a targeted fashion, not only by using different species, but also by changing the source plants’ metabolic profile, by exposing them to different abiotic or biotic stresses. This study presents an attractive, ecologically friendly and cost-effective solution for efficient bio-filtration of swine wastewater and petrochemicals production from generated biomass. PMID:24576349

  7. Development of a simultaneous partial nitrification, anaerobic ammonia oxidation and denitrification (SNAD) bench scale process for removal of ammonia from effluent of a fertilizer industry.

    PubMed

    Keluskar, Radhika; Nerurkar, Anuradha; Desai, Anjana

    2013-02-01

    A simultaneous partial nitrification, anammox and denitrification (SNAD) process was developed for the treatment of ammonia laden effluent of a fertilizer industry. Autotrophic aerobic and anaerobic ammonia oxidizing biomass was enriched and their ammonia removal ability was confirmed in synthetic effluent system. Seed consortium developed from these was applied in the treatment of effluent in an oxygen limited bench scale SNAD type (1L) reactor run at ambient temperature (?30°C). Around 98.9% ammonia removal was achieved with ammonia loading rate 0.35kgNH(4)(+)-N/m(3)day in the presence of 46.6mg/L COD at 2.31days hydraulic retention time. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the biomass from upper and lower zone of the reactor revealed presence of autotrophic ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB), Planctomycetes and denitrifiers as the dominant bacteria carrying out anoxic oxidation of ammonia in the reactor. Physiological and molecular studies strongly indicate presence of anammox bacteria in the anoxic zone of the SNAD reactor. PMID:23313684

  8. Assessing the application of advanced oxidation processes, and their combination with biological treatment, to effluents from pulp and paper industry.

    PubMed

    Merayo, Noemí; Hermosilla, Daphne; Blanco, Laura; Cortijo, Luis; Blanco, Angeles

    2013-11-15

    The closure of water circuits within pulp and paper mills has resulted in a higher contamination load of the final mill effluent, which must consequently be further treated in many cases to meet the standards imposed by the legislation in force. Different treatment strategies based on advanced oxidation processes (ozonation and TiO2-photocatalysis), and their combination with biological treatment (MBR), are herein assessed for effluents of a recycled paper mill and a kraft pulp mill. Ozone treatment achieved the highest efficiency of all. The consumption of 2.4 g O3 L(-1) resulted in about a 60% COD reduction treating the effluent from the kraft pulp mill at an initial pH=7; although it only reached about a 35% COD removal for the effluent of the recycled paper mill. Otherwise, photocatalysis achieved about a 20-30% reduction of the COD for both type of effluents. In addition, the effluent from the recycled paper mill showed a higher biodegradability, so combinations of these AOPs with biological treatment were tested. As a result, photocatalysis did not report any significant COD reduction improvement whether being performed as pre- or post-treatment of the biological process; whereas the use of ozonation as post-biological treatment enhanced COD removal a further 10%, summing up a total 90% reduction of the COD for the combined treatment, as well as it also supposed an increase of the presence of volatile fatty acids, which might ultimately enable the resultant wastewater to be recirculated back to further biological treatment. PMID:24076569

  9. Biological alternatives to chemical identification for the ecotoxicological assessment of industrial effluents: The RTG-2 in vitro cytotoxicity test

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Castano; Milagros Vega; Teresa Blazquez; Jose V. Tarazona

    1994-01-01

    Ecotoxicology is concerned with the effects of chemicals on biological systems. Identifying components of complex aqueous effluents poses special problems, and can be useless if there is a lack of information on the biological effects of the identified chemicals. Toxicity-based (bioassay-directed) sample fractionation can be very useful, but the small amount of fractioned material is a constraint that can be

  10. Potential of biosorbent developed from fruit peel of Trewia nudiflora for removal of hexavalent chromium from synthetic and industrial effluent: Analyzing phytotoxicity in germinating Vigna seeds.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Priyankari; Banerjee, Priya; Mallick, Kwonit; Ghosh, Sourja; Majumdar, Swachchha; Mukhopadhyay, Aniruddha; Bandyopadhyay, Sibdas

    2013-01-01

    Chromium (VI) removal efficiency of a biosorbent prepared from fruit peel of Trewia nudiflora plant was studied. The effect of pH, sorbent dose, initial metal concentration and temperature was studied with synthetic Cr?? solution in batch mode. About 278 mg/g of Cr?? sorption was obtained at 293 K at an optimum pH of 2.0 and biosorbent dose of 0.75 g/L. Equilibrium sorption data with varying initial concentration of Cr?? (22-248 mg/L) at three different temperatures (293-313 K) were analyzed by various isotherms. Biosorption kinetics and thermodynamics were described using standard model equations. Encouraging results were obtained by the application of the biosorptive treatment for removal of Cr?? from wastewater collected from common effluent treatment plant of tannery industry. In addition, C??r desorption behavior was studied on different systems. Biosorbent was characterized by FESEM, FT-IR and XRD, etc. Effect of the biosorptive treatement with respect to the phytotoxicity of Cr?? was analyzed by studying the seed germination behavior and enzyme activity of a pulse seed (Vigna radiata L.). Different concentrations of Cr?? solution in both synthetic medium, as well as, in tannery effluent was employed and the results were compared with that of biosorbent treated medium. The study showed that due to efficient removal of Cr?? from aqueous phase, considerable enhancement of seed germination, as well as, increase in root length was obtained for the biosorbent treated solutions which were close to that of the control values. Significant decrease (P < 0.01) in POD activity was observed in seeds irrigated with biosorbent treated wastewater compared to untreated wastewater. The study showed that the novel biosorbent prepared might be utilized for abatement of heavy metal toxicity, i.e., Cr?? from industrial effluent. PMID:23445414

  11. Ultratrace Determination of Cr(VI) and Pb(II) by Microsample Injection System Flame Atomic Spectroscopy in Drinking Water and Treated and Untreated Industrial Effluents

    PubMed Central

    Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Elci, Latif; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Khan, Muhammad Irfan; Naseer, Hafiz Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    Simple and robust analytical procedures were developed for hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) and lead (Pb(II)) by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) using microsample injection system coupled with flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (MIS-FAAS). For the current study, ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC), carbon tetrachloride, and ethanol were used as chelating agent, extraction solvent, and disperser solvent, respectively. The effective variables of developed method have been optimized and studied in detail. The limit of detection of Cr(VI) and Pb(II) were 0.037 and 0.054?µg/L, respectively. The enrichment factors in both cases were 400 with 40?mL of initial volumes. The relative standard deviations (RSDs, n = 6) were <4%. The applicability and the accuracy of DLLME were estimated by the analysis of Cr(VI) and Pb(II) in industrial effluent wastewater by standard addition method (recoveries >96%). The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of Cr(VI) and Pb(II) at ultratrace levels in natural drinking water and industrial effluents wastewater of Denizli. Moreover, the proposed method was compared with the literature reported method. PMID:24163779

  12. Dissipation, metabolism and sorption of pesticides used in fruit-packaging plants: Towards an optimized depuration of their pesticide-contaminated agro-industrial effluents.

    PubMed

    Karas, Panagiotis; Metsoviti, Aria; Zisis, Vasileios; Ehaliotis, Constantinos; Omirou, Michalis; Papadopoulou, Evangelia S; Menkissoglou-Spiroudi, Urania; Manta, Stella; Komiotis, Dimitri; Karpouzas, Dimitrios G

    2015-10-15

    Wastewaters from the fruit-packaging industry constitute a serious point source contamination with pesticides. In the absence of effective depuration methods, they are discharged in municipal wastewater treatment plants or spread to land. Modified biobeds could be an applicable solution for their treatment. We studied the dissipation of thiabendazole (TBZ), imazalil (IMZ), ortho-phenylphenol (OPP), diphenylamine (DPA) and ethoxyquin (EQ), used by the fruit-packaging industry, in anaerobically digested sewage sludge, liquid aerobic sewage sludge and in various organic substrates (biobeds packing materials) composed of soil, straw and spend mushroom substrate (SMS) in various volumetric ratios. Pesticide sorption was also determined. TBZ and IMZ showed higher persistence especially in the anaerobically digested sewage sludge (DT50=32.3-257.6d), in contrast to OPP and DPA which were rapidly dissipated especially in liquid aerobic sewage sludge (DT50=1.3-9.3d). EQ was rapidly oxidized mainly to quinone imine (QI) which did not persist and dimethyl ethoxyquinoline (EQNL, minor metabolite) which persisted for longer. Sterilization of liquid aerobic sewage sludge inhibited pesticide decay verifying the microbial nature of pesticide dissipation. Organic substrates rich in SMS showed the highest dissipation capacity with TBZ and IMZ DT50s of ca. 28d compared to DT50s of >50d in the other substrates. TBZ and IMZ showed the highest sorption affinity, whereas OPP and DPA were weakly sorbed. Our findings suggest that current disposal practices could not guarantee an efficient depuration of effluents from the fruit-packaging industry, whereas SMS-rich biobed organic substrates show efficient depuration of effluents from the fruit-packaging industry via accelerated dissipation even of recalcitrant fungicides. PMID:26042894

  13. Excess cancer mortality among children and adolescents in residential districts polluted by petrochemical manufacturing plants in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bi Jen Pan; Yu Jue Hong; Gwo Chin Chang; Ming Tsan Wang; Frigyes F. Cinkotai; Ying Chin Ko

    1994-01-01

    We have collected data on the cancer deaths of children and adolescents 0–19 yr old living in a residential area near 3 large petroleum and petrochemical complexes in and near Kaohsiung city (petrochemical industrial districts, PIDs) in the period of 1971–1990 and compared these with the cancer deaths of children and adolescents 0–19 yr old among the entire population of

  14. 40 CFR 419.30 - Applicability; description of the petrochemical subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the petrochemical subcategory. 419.30 Section...REFINING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Petrochemical Subcategory § 419.30 Applicability; description of the petrochemical subcategory. The...

  15. 40 CFR 419.30 - Applicability; description of the petrochemical subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the petrochemical subcategory. 419.30 Section...REFINING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Petrochemical Subcategory § 419.30 Applicability; description of the petrochemical subcategory. The...

  16. 40 CFR 419.30 - Applicability; description of the petrochemical subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the petrochemical subcategory. 419.30 Section...REFINING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Petrochemical Subcategory § 419.30 Applicability; description of the petrochemical subcategory. The...

  17. 40 CFR 419.30 - Applicability; description of the petrochemical subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the petrochemical subcategory. 419.30 Section...REFINING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Petrochemical Subcategory § 419.30 Applicability; description of the petrochemical subcategory. The...

  18. LANDFILLS EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS GUIDELINES DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Resource Purpose: This resource served as the main information source for national characteristics of landfills for the landfills effluent guidelines. The database was developed based on responses to the "1994 Waste Treatment Industry Questionnaire: Phase II Landfills" and...

  19. Integration of Biomass processes in an existing Petrochemical ComplexPetrochemical Complex

    E-print Network

    Pike, Ralph W.

    Integration of Biomass processes in an existing Petrochemical ComplexPetrochemical Complex Debalina · Biomass conversion processes · Integration in existing plant complex l i· Conclusions #12;Sustainability;Overview · Biomass based processes integrated into a chemical production complex. Utili b di id f i th l

  20. Fate of thiabendazole through the treatment of a simulated agro-food industrial effluent by combined MBR/Fenton processes at ?g/L scale.

    PubMed

    Sánchez Peréz, J A; Carra, I; Sirtori, C; Agüera, A; Esteban, B

    2014-03-15

    This study has been carried out to assess the performance of a combined system consisting of a membrane bioreactor (MBR) followed by an advanced oxidation process (Fenton/Photo-Fenton) for removing the fungicide thiabendazole (TBZ) in a simulated agro-food industrial wastewater. Previous studies have shown the presence of TBZ in the effluent of an agro-food industry treated by activated sludge in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR), thus reinforcing the need for alternative treatments for removal. In this study, a simulated agro-food industry effluent was enriched with 100 ?g L(-1) TBZ and treated by combined MBR/Fenton and MBR/solar photo-Fenton systems. Samples were directly injected into a highly sensitive liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole-linear ion trap-mass spectrometer (LC-QqLiT-MS/MS) analytical system to monitor the degradation of TBZ even at low concentration levels (ng L(-1)). Results showed that the biological treatment applied was not effective in TBZ degradation, which remained almost unaltered; although most dissolved organic matter was biodegraded effectively. Fenton and solar photo-Fenton, were assayed as tertiary treatments. The experiments were run without any pH adjustment by using an iron dosage strategy in the presence of excess hydrogen peroxide. Both treatments resulted in a total degradation of TBZ, obtaining more than 99% removal in both cases. To assure the total elimination of contaminants in the treated waters, transformation products (TPs) of TBZ generated during Fenton degradation experiments were identified and monitored by liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS/MS). Up to four TPs could be identified. Two of them corresponded to mono-hydroxylated derivatives, typically generated under hydroxyl radicals driven processes. The other two corresponded with the hydrolysis of the TBZ molecule to yield benzoimidazole and thiazole-4-carboxamidine. All of them were also degraded during the treatment. PMID:24388831

  1. Theory of inventive problem solving (TRIZ) applied in supply chain management of petrochemical projects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reza Movarrei; Sara Rezaee Vessal

    2007-01-01

    An innovative Supply Chain Management system is a vital core competency for competitiveness of any company in today's dynamic markets. Such an SCM system has to integrate ongoing innovations into its processes and welcome future ones. This paper studies issues relate to documentation and classifications of innovations and generally have an experimental origin. First, SCM Innovations applied by Petrochemical Industries

  2. Cancer incidence and mortality among temporary maintenance workers in a refinery/petrochemical complex in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Dong-Hee; Chung, Eun-Kyo; Jang, Jae-Kil; Lee, Hye-Eun; Ryu, Hyang-Woo; Yoo, Kye-Mook; Kim, Eun-A; Kim, Kyoo-Sang

    2014-01-01

    Background: Petrochemical plant maintenance workers are exposed to various carcinogens such as benzene and metal fumes. In Korea, maintenance operations in petrochemical plants are typically performed by temporary employees hired as contract workers. Objectives: The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate cancer risk in temporary maintenance workers in a refinery/petrochemical complex in Korea. Methods: Subjects consisted of 14 698 male workers registered in a regional petrochemical plant maintenance workers union during 2002–2007. Cancer mortality and incidence were identified by linking with the nationwide death and cancer registries during 2002–2007 and 2002–2005, respectively. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) and standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated for each cancer. Results: Increased SMR 3.61 (six cases, 95% CI: 1.32–7.87) and SIR 3.18 (five cases, 95% CI: 1.03–7.42) were observed in oral and pharyngeal cancers. Conclusion: Our findings may suggest a potential association between oral and pharyngeal cancers and temporary maintenance jobs in the petrochemical industry. Future studies should include a longer follow-up period and a quantitative exposure assessment. PMID:24999849

  3. The impact of petrochemical industrialisation on life expectancy and per capita income in Taiwan: an 11-year longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Petrochemical industries have been identified as important sources of emissions of chemical substances, and adverse health outcomes have been reported for residents who live nearby. The purpose of the current study was to examine the adverse effects of petrochemical industrialization in Taiwan on the life expectancy and personal income of people living in nearby communities. Methods This study compared life expectancies and personal income between one industrial county (Yunlin County) and one reference county (Yilan County), which had no significant industrial activity that might emit pollutants, in Taiwan through analysis of 11 year long and publicly available data. Data from before and after the petrochemical company in the industrial county started (year 1999) operating were compared. Results Residents of the industrialized county had lesser increases in life expectancy over time than did residents of a similar but less-industrialized county, with difference means ranging from 0.89 years (p?industrialization. There were no significant differences in individual income between the two counties. Conclusions Countries, including Taiwan and the U.S., embracing petrochemical industries now face the challenge of environmental injustice. Our findings suggested that life expectancy lengthening was slowed and income growth was stalled for residents living in the industrial communities. PMID:24621018

  4. Enhanced biodegradation of petrochemical wastewater using ozonation and BAC advanced treatment system.

    PubMed

    Lin, C K; Tsai, T Y; Liu, J C; Chen, M C

    2001-03-01

    The characteristics of degradation/conversion of bio-refractory and the growth of a biofilm are investigated in laboratory-scale pre-ozonation and lifted moving-bed biological activated carbon (BAC) advanced treatment processes treating phenol, benzoic acid, aminobenzoic acid and petrochemical industry wastewater which contains acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS). The optimal reaction time and ozone dosage of pre-ozonation for bio-refractory conversion were determined to be 30 min and 100-200 mg O3/hr, respectively. After pre-ozonation of 30 min treatment, BOD5/COD ratio of influent and effluent increased apparently from 20 to 35%, approximately. However, the change of pH in pre-ozonation was inconspicuous. The optimal flow rate of influent and air were controlled at 1.6 l/h and 120-150 nl/min in lifted moving-bed BAC advanced treatment reactor. A COD removal efficiency of 85-95% and 70-90% may be maintained by using an organic loading of 3.2-6.3 kg COD/m3 day and 0.6-1.6 kg-COD/m3 day with an HRT of 6.0 h as secondary and advanced treatment system, respectively. The time required for the BAC bed is be regenerated by a thermal regeneration is prolonged 4-5 times more than that of GAC system. It can be estimated that the enhanced COD removal capability of the biofilm was not only due to the increase in the COD removal capability of acclimated bacteria, but also due to species succession of bacteria in bio-film ecosystem. PMID:11228967

  5. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act industrial site environmental restoration site characterization plan. Area 6 Steam Cleaning Effluent Ponds

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    This plan presents the strategy for the characterization of the Area 6 South and North Steam Cleaning Effluent Ponds (SCEPs) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) to be conducted for the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), Environmental Restoration Division (ERD). The purposes of the planned activities are to: obtain sufficient, sample analytical data from which further assessment, remediation, and/or closure strategies may be developed for the site; obtain sufficient, sample analytical data for management of investigation-derived waste (IDW). The scope of the characterization may include excavation, drilling, and sampling of soil in and around both ponds; sampling of the excavated material; in situ sampling of the soil at the bottom and on the sides of the excavations as well as within subsurface borings; and conducting sample analysis for both characterization and waste management purposes. Contaminants of concern include RCRA-regulated VOCs and metals.

  6. "Matrix/Modular" - An Approach to Analyzing Cogeneration Opportunities in Industry 

    E-print Network

    Canty, W. R.

    1979-01-01

    The petrochemical industry has long recognized that electrical and mechanical energy can be generated as a by-product of its process steam requirements. Years ago, some petrochemical plants generated all of their own electrical power. However, over...

  7. Lymphohematopoietic Cancer Mortality and Morbidity of Workers in a Refinery/Petrochemical Complex in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Woo; Yoon, Yong-Hoon; Shin, Kyung-Seok; Yoo, Seung-Won

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this retrospective cohort study was to investigate the relationship between exposure of Korean workers to petrochemicals in the refinery/petrochemical industry and lymphohematopoietic cancers. Methods The cohort consisted of 8,866 male workers who had worked from the 1960s to 2007 at one refinery and six petrochemical companies located in a refinery/petrochemical complex in Korea that produce benzene or use benzene as a raw material. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) and standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated for 1992-2007 and 1997-2005 based on the death rate and cancer incidence rate of the Korean male population according to job title (production, maintenance, laboratory, and office workers). Results The overall mortality and most cause-specific mortalities were lower among these workers than those of the general Korean population. Increased SMRs were observed for leukemia (4/1.45; SMR 2.77, 95% CI: 0.75-7.09) and lymphohematopoietic cancers (5/2.51; SMR 2, 95% CI: 0.65-4.66) in production workers, and increased SIRs were also observed in leukemia (3/1.34; SIR 2.24, 95% CI: 0.46-6.54) and lymphohematopoietic cancers (5/3.39; SIR 1.47, 95% CI: 0.48-3.44) in production workers, but the results were not statistically significant. Conclusion The results showed a potential relationship between leukemia and lymphohematopoietic cancers and exposure to benzene in refinery/petrochemical complex workers. This study yielded limited results due to a short observational period; therefore, a follow-up study must be performed to elucidate the relationship between petrochemical exposure and cancer rates. PMID:22953184

  8. Treatment of hazardous petrochemical and petroleum wastes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Burton; K. Ravishankar

    1989-01-01

    This book is a comparison of twenty-eight emerging technologies for the treatment of petrochemical wastes. It covers the full range of thermal, physical, chemical, and biological methods, providing information about processes, vendors, applications, state of development, and known or anticipated problems with each The most significant aspect of the book, however, is the detailed cost analysis and comparison. Each technology

  9. Sorption of Co, Cu, Ni and Zn from industrial effluents by the submerged aquatic macrophyte Myriophyllum spicatum L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Lesage; C. Mundia; D. P. L. Rousseau; A. M. K. Van de Moortel; G. Du Laing; E. Meers; F. M. G. Tack; N. De Pauw; M. G. Verloo

    2007-01-01

    The submerged aquatic plant Myriophyllum spicatum L. (Eurasian water milfoil) has been suggested as an efficient plant species for the treatment of metal-contaminated industrial wastewater. The process of metal removal by plants involves a combination of rapid sorption on the surface and slow accumulation and translocation in the biomass. This study focussed on the sorption\\/desorption characteristics of the surface of

  10. Quality Characterization and Magnitude of Pollution Implication in Textile Mills Effluents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Nergis; M. Sharif; N. A. Akhtar; A. Hussain

    2009-01-01

    Effluents from textile industries contain different types of dyes, which because of high molecular weight and complex chemical structures, show low level of biodegradability. Hence, direct deposition of these effluents into sewage networks, produce disturbances in treatment processes and exert pollution load on water bodies. Effluents from nine major textile industries in Karachi industrial areas (Sindh Industrial Trading Estate, Korangi

  11. Potato peels as solid waste for the removal of heavy metal copper(II) from waste water\\/industrial effluent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tehseen Aman; Asrar Ahmad Kazi; Muhammad Usman Sabri; Qudsia Bano

    2008-01-01

    A new sorbent potato peels, which are normally discarded as solid waste for removing toxic metal ion Cu(II) from water\\/industrial waste water have been studied. Potato peels charcoal (PPC) was investigated as an adsorbent of Cu(II) from aqueous solutions. Kinetic and isotherm studies were carried out by studying the effects of various parameters such as temperature, pH and solid liquid

  12. Survey of hazardous organic compounds in the groundwater, air and wastewater effluents near the Tehran automobile industry.

    PubMed

    Kargar, Mahdi; Nadafi, Kazem; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Nasseri, Simin; Mesdaghinia, Alireza; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Alimohammadi, Mahmood; Nazmara, Shahrokh; Rastkari, Noushin

    2013-02-01

    Potential of wastewater treatment in car industry and groundwater contamination by volatile organic compounds include perchloroethylene (PCE), trichloroethylene (TCE) and dichloromethane (DCM) near car industry was conducted in this study. Samples were collected in September through December 2011 from automobile industry. Head-space Gas chromatography with FID detector is used for analysis. Mean PCE levels in groundwater ranged from 0 to 63.56 ?g L(-1) with maximum level of 89.1 ?g L(-1). Mean TCE from 0 to 76.63 ?g L(-1) with maximum level of 112 ?g L(-1). Due to the data obtained from pre treatment of car staining site and conventional wastewater treatment in car factory, the most of TCE, PCE and DCM removed by pre aeration. Therefor this materials entry from liquid phase to air phase and by precipitation leak out to the groundwater. As a consequence these pollutants have a many negative health effect on the workers by air and groundwater. PMID:23160750

  13. Polydimethylsiloxane composites containing 1,2-naphtoquinone 4-sulphonate as unique dispositive for estimation of casein in effluents from dairy industries.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Ortuño, M; Argente-García, A; Moliner-Martínez, Y; Molins-Legua, C; Campíns-Falcó, P

    2015-05-11

    A unique dispositive to determine casein which is the most abundant protein in dairy sewages has been proposed. In this sensing technology, the derivatization reagent 1,2-naphtoquininone 4-sulphonate (NQS) is embedded into a polydimethylsiloxane-tetraethylortosilicate-SiO2 nanoparticles composite (PDMS-TEOS-SiO2NPs). When the composite is immersed into the samples, casein is extracted from the solution and derivatized inside the PDMS matrix after 10min at 100°C. The sensing support changes its color from yellow to orange depending on the casein concentration. Quantitative analysis can be carried out by measuring the absorbance with a reflection probe or by image-processing tool (GIMP). This sensor provides good sensitivity and precision (RSD% <12%). The method validation has been done by applying the biocinchoninic acid method (BCA). Moreover, semiquatitative analysis of casein can be performed by visual observation. Taking into account the advantages of small size, rapidity, simplicity, good stability and high compatibility in aqueous solution, this sensor is expected to have potential practical applications for in-situ determination of casein. Finally the method has been applied to analyze effluents from dairy industries. PMID:25911427

  14. Physico-chemical study for zinc removal and recovery onto native/chemically modified Aspergillus flavus NA9 from industrial effluent.

    PubMed

    Aftab, Kiran; Akhtar, Kalsoom; Jabbar, Abdul; Bukhari, Iftikhar H; Noreen, Razia

    2013-09-01

    Zinc biosorption characteristic of locally isolated Aspergillus flavus NA9 were examined as a function of pH, temperature, pulp density, contact time and initial metal ion concentration. The maximum zinc uptake was found to be 287.8 ± 11.1 mg g(-1) with initial metal concentration 600 mg L(-1) at initial pH 5.0 and temperature 30 °C. The equilibrium data gave good fits to Freundlich and Florry models with correlation coefficient value of 0.98. The contribution of the functional groups and lipids to zinc biosorption as identified by chemical pretreatment was in the order: carboxylic acids > hydroxyl > amines > lipids. The mechanism of biosorption was also studied using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). The biosorbent was regenerated using 0.01 M HCl with 83.3% elution efficiency and was reused for five sorption-desorption cycles with 23.5% loss in biosorption capacity. The order of co-cations showing increased inhibitions of zinc uptake by A. flavus NA9 was Pb > Cu > Mn > Ni. The biosorption assays conducted with actual paint industry effluents revealed efficiency of 88.7% for Zn (II) removal by candidate biomass. PMID:23764574

  15. Liquid chromatography-negative ion atmospheric pressure photoionization tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of brominated flame retardants in environmental water and industrial effluents.

    PubMed

    Bacaloni, Alessandro; Callipo, Luciano; Corradini, Eleonora; Giansanti, Piero; Gubbiotti, Riccardo; Samperi, Roberto; Laganà, Aldo

    2009-09-01

    We describe the development of a liquid chromatography with negative-ion atmospheric pressure photoionization tandem mass spectrometric (LC/NI-APPI/MS/MS) method for the simultaneous determination of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBP-A) and five polybrominated diphenyl ethers (BDE-47, BDE-99, BDE-100, BDE-153 and BDE-154) in water. A mobile phase methanol/acetone/water was used, where acetone acts also as dopant. NI-APPI produced precursor ions corresponding to [M-H](-) for TBBP-A, [M-Br+O](-), and [M-2Br+O](-) for the BDE congeners studied. Each compound was quantified operating in multiple reaction monitoring mode. Linearity was observed in the range 0.025-10 ng injected for all compounds. Coefficients of determination R(2) ranged from 0.9934 to 0.9982. BDEs were poorly retained by solid-phase extraction (SPE) from river water and sewage treatment plant effluent, thus liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) by n-hexane should be used for these samples. The recoveries of TBBP-A and PBDEs from tap water (SPE), river water and industrial wastewater (LLE) were in the range of 81-88%, 78-92%, and 43-99%, respectively, with relative standard deviations below 17%. The limits of detection, based on signal-to-noise ratio of 3, ranged from 0.004 to 0.1 ng injected, and method quantification limits were 0.2-3.3 ng L(-1) but BDE47 (20.3 ng L(-1)). Only TBBP-A was found in a treated industrial sewage at 4 ng L(-1), while BDE-99 and BDE-100 were detected on suspended solids. PMID:19656519

  16. Electrochemical oxidation of bio-refractory dye in a simulated textile industry effluent using DSA electrodes in a filter-press type FM01-LC reactor.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Francisca A; Mateo, María N; Aceves, Juan M; Rivero, Eligio P; González, Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    This work presents a study on degradation of indigo carmine dye in a filter-press type FM01-LC reactor using Sb2O5-doped Ti/IrO2-SnO2 dimensionally stable anode (DSA) electrodes. Micro- and macroelectrolysis studies were carried out using solutions of 0.8 mM indigo carmine in 0.05 M NaCl, which resemble blue denim laundry industrial wastewater. Microelectrolysis results show the behaviour of DSA electrodes in comparison with the behaviour of boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes. In general, dye degradation reactions are carried out indirectly through active chlorine generated on DSA, whereas in the case of BDD electrodes more oxidizing species are formed, mainly OH radicals, on the electrode surface. The well-characterized geometry, flow pattern and mass transport of the FM01-LC reactor used in macroelectrolysis experiments allowed the evaluation of the effect of hydrodynamic conditions on the chlorine-mediated degradation rate. Four values of Reynolds number (Re) (93, 371, 464 and 557) at four current densities (50, 100, 150 and 200 A/m2) were tested. The results show that the degradation rate is independent of Re at low current density (50 A/m2) but becomes dependent on the Re at high current density (200 A/m2). This behaviour shows the central role of mass transport and the reactor parameters and design. The low energy consumption (2.02 and 9.04 kWh/m3 for complete discolouration and chemical oxygen demand elimination at 50 A/m2, respectively) and the low cost of DSA electrodes compared to BDD make DSA electrodes promising for practical application in treating industrial textile effluents. In the present study, chlorinated organic compounds were not detected. PMID:23837306

  17. Distribution of heavy metals in agricultural soils near a petrochemical complex in Guangzhou, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Junhui Li; Ying Lu; Wei Yin; Haihua Gan; Chao Zhang; Xianglian Deng; Jin Lian

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate influence of an industrialized environment on the accumulation of heavy metals in\\u000a agricultural soils. Seventy soil samples collected from surface layers (0–20 cm) and horizons of five selected pedons in the\\u000a vicinity area of petrochemical complex in Guangzhou, China were analyzed for Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd, Hg and As concentrations, the\\u000a horizontal

  18. Enhanced biodegradation of petrochemical wastewater using ozonation and bac advanced treatment system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chi-Kang Lin; Tsung-Yueh Tsai; Jiunn-Ching Liu; Mei-Chih Chen

    2001-01-01

    The characteristics of degradation\\/conversion of bio-refractory and the growth of a biofilm are investigated in laboratory-scale pre-ozonation and lifted moving-bed biological activated carbon (BAC) advanced treatment processes treating phenol, benzoic acid, aminobenzoic acid and petrochemical industry wastewater which contains acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS). The optimal reaction time and ozone dosage of pre-ozonation for bio-refractory conversion were determined to be 30min

  19. Toxicity Identification Evaluation (Phase I) of water and sediment samples from a tropical reservoir contaminated with industrial and domestic effluents.

    PubMed

    Matos, Mariana de F; Botta, Clarice Maria Rispoli; Fonseca, Ana Lúcia

    2014-11-01

    The Funil Reservoir (Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil) is an environment degraded by constant discharge of nutrients and pollution coming from the most industrialized region of the country. As a consequence of eutrophication, there are continuous cyanobacteria blooms, which cause acute and chronic toxicity to zooplankton. In this context, Phase I of Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) was performed on Daphnia similis using water and interstitial water from the reservoir, with the aim of identifying classes of compounds responsible for toxicity. The results indicated that water toxicity was due to cyanobacteria resulting from blooms in the reservoir and surfactants. Metals, especially copper, contributed to sediment toxicity. This research is the first attempt to describe the nature of toxicity in this reservoir using this method. PMID:25103213

  20. Potato peels as solid waste for the removal of heavy metal copper(II) from waste water/industrial effluent.

    PubMed

    Aman, Tehseen; Kazi, Asrar Ahmad; Sabri, Muhammad Usman; Bano, Qudsia

    2008-05-01

    A new sorbent potato peels, which are normally discarded as solid waste for removing toxic metal ion Cu(II) from water/industrial waste water have been studied. Potato peels charcoal (PPC) was investigated as an adsorbent of Cu(II) from aqueous solutions. Kinetic and isotherm studies were carried out by studying the effects of various parameters such as temperature, pH and solid liquid ratios. The optimum pH value for Cu(II) adsorption onto potato peels charcoal (PPC) was found to be 6.0. The thermodynamic parameters such as standard Gibb's free energy (Delta G degrees ), standard enthalpy (Delta H degrees ) and standard entropy (DeltaS degrees ) were evaluated by applying the Van't Hoff equation. The thermodynamics of Cu(II) adsorption onto PPC indicates its spontaneous and exothermic nature. The equilibrium data at different temperatures were analyzed by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. PMID:18215510

  1. VOC removal and deodorization of effluent gases from an industrial plant by photo-oxidation, chemical oxidation, and ozonization.

    PubMed

    Domeño, Celia; Rodríguez-Lafuente, Angel; Martos, J M; Bilbao, Rafael; Nerín, Cristina

    2010-04-01

    The efficiency of photo-oxidation, chemical oxidation by sodium hypochlorite, and ozonization for the industrial-scale removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and odors from gaseous emissions was studied by applying these treatments (in an experimental system) to substances passing through an emission stack of a factory producing maize derivatives. Absorption and ozonization were the most efficient treatment, removing 75% and 98% of VOCs, respectively, while photo-oxidation only removed about 59%. The emitted chemical compounds and odors were identified and quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (in full-scan mode). In addition to presenting the results, their implications for selecting optimal processes for treating volatile emissions are discussed. PMID:20192167

  2. Metal distribution in road dust samples collected in an urban area close to a petrochemical plant at Gela, Sicily

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emanuela Manno; Daniela Varrica; Gaetano Dongarrà

    2006-01-01

    Eight samples of road dust were collected from three different localities (industrial, urban, peripheral) of the town of Gela (Italy) to characterize their chemical composition and to assess (a) the influence of the petrochemical plant and the urban traffic on the trace element content in different grain-size fractions of street dust and (b) the solid-phase speciation of the analysed metal

  3. Pulp and paper mill effluents: Toxicity to humans. (Latest citations from the Paper and Board, Printing, and Packaging Industries Research Associations database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the hazards of toxic pulping and papermaking effluents to plant workers and the populace surrounding the plant. Biomonitoring studies, bioassay performance and reliability, cost factors of reducing toxicity, and effects of reducing toxicity on biological treatment of wastes are discussed. Evaluation of toxicity and mutagenicity of effluents within the plants compared with those discharged to the outside environment is included. Toxicity of pulping effluents to fish and water vegetation is covered in another bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 131 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  4. 78 FR 7442 - Accreditation and Approval of Chemical and Petrochemical Inspections, LP, as a Commercial Gauger...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ...Accreditation and Approval of Chemical and Petrochemical Inspections, LP, as a Commercial...accreditation and approval of Chemical and Petrochemical Inspections, LP, as a commercial...CBP regulations, that Chemical and Petrochemical Inspections, LP, has been...

  5. Cleaner production and methodological proposal of eco-efficiency measurement in a Mexican petrochemical complex.

    PubMed

    Morales, M A; Herrero, V M; Martínez, S A; Rodríguez, M G; Valdivieso, E; Garcia, G; de los Angeles Elías, Maria

    2006-01-01

    Abstract In the frame of the Petróleos Mexicanos Institutional Program for Sustainable Development, processes were evaluated in the manufacture operation of the petrochemical industry, with the purpose of reducing their ecological fingerprint. Thirteen cleaner production opportunities were registered in six process plants: ethylene oxide and glycols, acetaldehyde, ethylene, high density polyethylene, polypropylene switch and acrylonitrile, and 45 recommendations in the waste water treatment plant. Morelos is the second most important petrochemical complex in the Mexican and Latin American petrochemical industry. A tool was developed to obtain eco-efficiency indicators in operation processes, and as a result, potential savings were obtained based on best performance, as well as the integrated distribution of Sankey diagrams. Likewise, a mechanism of calculation to obtain economic savings based on the reduction of residues during the whole productive process is proposed. These improvement opportunities and recommendations will result in economic and environmental benefits minimising the use of water, efficient use of energy, raw materials and reducing residues from source, generating less environmental impacts during the process. PMID:16862769

  6. ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF VARIOUS FUNGAL STRAINS FROM TEXTILE EFFLUENT FOR THEIR USE IN BIOREMEDIATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RANI FARYAL; ABDUL HAMEED

    Bioremediation is an inexpensive mean to remove hazardous metal ions from the contaminated effluent. Effluent from the local textile industry was characterized for the incidence of fungal strains and its physiochemical properties were investigated. Sampling was done spanning a distance of five km from the effluent's discharge point. Effluent was analyzed and highest colony forming units per mL were found

  7. Environmental control technology survey of selected US strip mining sites. Volume 4. Evaluation of effluent guidelines for the coal mining industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Henning; R. W. Vocke

    1981-01-01

    An evaluation is made of the effectiveness of the federal Office of Surface mining coal mine wastewater effluent limitations as they relate to the Surface Mining control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (P.L. 95-87). The act was formulated to protect society and the environment from the adverse effects of surface coal mining operations; it also requires that an adequate coal

  8. TOTAL RECYCLE SYSTEMS FOR PETROCHEMICAL WASTE BRINES CONTAINING REFRACTORY CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Petrochemical wastewaters containing relatively high concentrations of salt and refractory organics were selected to study their feasibility for total recycle. A combination of reverse osmosis and electrodialysis was operated as a hybrid system using the pretreated wastes to prod...

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF TREATMENT AND CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR REFRACTORY PETROCHEMICAL WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This summary document presents the results of research and development work pertaining to the treatment of biorefractory organic pollutants emanating from petrochemical processing plants. Specifically, it covers application of the unit operations of (1) carbon adsorption, (2) ste...

  10. Organic Rankine Cycles for the Petro-Chemical Industry 

    E-print Network

    Rose, R. K.; Colosimo, D. D.

    1979-01-01

    considered to the limits of economic feasibility. However, both economic and technical feasibility limit the use of waste heat flows with conventional approaches in the 250 F to 350 F range. A packaged organic Rankine power cycle can technically...

  11. Observations from Energy Audits in the Petrochemical Industry

    E-print Network

    Govindan, T. S.

    1979-01-01

    , use, or reject significant quantities of energy. The approach taken for these studies and several examples of specific energy savings items will be reviewed. The importance of an optimum steam system for overall energy efficiency will be discussed...

  12. Organic Rankine Cycles for the Petro-Chemical Industry

    E-print Network

    Rose, R. K.; Colosimo, D. D.

    1979-01-01

    of these fluids due to their flammability, toxicity, availability and/or cost, MTI selected a Binary Rankine cycle based upon the use of steam and a fluorocarbon refrigerant. In addition to overcoming potential market resistance, the Binary Rankine cycle offered... a number of advantages to MIl and the government. When MTI made a commitment to develop Rankine bottoming cycles in 1974, it was not clear what shape or form the market would ultimately take. The Binary Rankine cycle satisfied an identified market...

  13. Observations from Energy Audits in the Petrochemical Industry 

    E-print Network

    Govindan, T. S.

    1979-01-01

    . The economical use of topping turbines in the steam system versus other mechanical energy options, savings possible from combustion versus other mechanical energy options, savings possible from combustion excess air control in boilers and fired heaters...

  14. Overview of the application of anaerobic treatment to chemical and petrochemical wastewaters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Macarie

    2000-01-01

    During the last 20 years, as a result of its low cost, anaerobic digestion has turned into a popular wastewater treatment technology. Today, with at least 1330 reactors constructed in the world, it is considered to have reached technological maturity. Until recently however, it was used quite exclusively for the treatment of food industry effluents. It is only during the

  15. An energy efficient evaporation process for treating bleach plant effluents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Gidner; Å. Jernqvist; G. Aly

    1996-01-01

    Simulation results of an energy efficient evaporation process are reported for the treatment of bleach effluents in the pulp and paper industry. Due to the low concentration of the effluent stream, the evaporation process must have a high degree of energy efficiency in order to compete with other treatment alternatives, such as ultrafiltration, adsorption, ion exchange and biological treatment.For a

  16. Decolorization of phenolic effluents by soluble and immobilized phenol oxidases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan Davis; Richard G. Burns

    1990-01-01

    Colour removal from phenplic industrial effluents by phenol oxidase enzymes and white-rot fungi was compared. Soluble laccase and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) removed colour from pulp mill (E), cotton mill hydroxide (OH) and cotton mill sulphide (S) effluents, but rapid and irreversible enzyme inactivation took place. Entrapment of laccase in alginate beads improved decolorization by factors of 3.5 (OH) and 2

  17. iWitness pollution map: crowdsourcing petrochemical accident research.

    PubMed

    Bera, Risha; Hrybyk, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Community members living near any one of Louisiana's 160 chemical plants or refineries have always said that accidents occurring in these petrochemical facilities significantly impact their health and safety. This article reviews the iWitness Pollution Map tool and Rapid Response Team (RRT) approach led by the Louisiana Bucket Brigade, an environmental nonprofit group, and their effectiveness in documenting these health and safety impacts during petrochemical accidents. Analysis of a January 2013 RRT deployment in Chalmette, LA, showed increased documentation of current petrochemical accidents and suggested increased preparedness to report future accidents. The RRT model encourages government response and enforcement agencies to integrate with organized community groups to fully document the impacts during ongoing accidents, lead a more timely response to the accident, and prevent future accidents from occurring. PMID:24135064

  18. Determination of boiling point of petrochemicals by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and multivariate regression analysis of structural activity relationship.

    PubMed

    Fakayode, Sayo O; Mitchell, Breanna S; Pollard, David A

    2014-08-01

    Accurate understanding of analyte boiling points (BP) is of critical importance in gas chromatographic (GC) separation and crude oil refinery operation in petrochemical industries. This study reported the first combined use of GC separation and partial-least-square (PLS1) multivariate regression analysis of petrochemical structural activity relationship (SAR) for accurate BP determination of two commercially available (D3710 and MA VHP) calibration gas mix samples. The results of the BP determination using PLS1 multivariate regression were further compared with the results of traditional simulated distillation method of BP determination. The developed PLS1 regression was able to correctly predict analytes BP in D3710 and MA VHP calibration gas mix samples, with a root-mean-square-%-relative-error (RMS%RE) of 6.4%, and 10.8% respectively. In contrast, the overall RMS%RE of 32.9% and 40.4%, respectively obtained for BP determination in D3710 and MA VHP using a traditional simulated distillation method were approximately four times larger than the corresponding RMS%RE of BP prediction using MRA, demonstrating the better predictive ability of MRA. The reported method is rapid, robust, and promising, and can be potentially used routinely for fast analysis, pattern recognition, and analyte BP determination in petrochemical industries. PMID:24881546

  19. Study on the Toxicity and Organic Load of Coated White Board Effluents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    He Yixin; Zhao Yu; Lei Xiaochun; Xue Guoxin; Tang Yanjun; Jin Hang

    2011-01-01

    With the rapid development of secondary fiber industry, more and more attention to the pollution discharge from its effluents and sludge were caused. The toxicity studies on coated white board effluents of secondary fiber were carried out by using optimized photo bacteria method. The results showed that the value of EC50 for acute toxicity in coated white board effluents, which

  20. Synergize fuel and petrochemical processing plans with catalytic reforming

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Depending on the market, refiner`s plans to produce clean fuels and higher value petrochemicals will weigh heavily on the catalytic reformer`s flexibility. It seems that as soon as a timely article related to catalytic reforming operations is published, a new {open_quotes}boutique{close_quotes} gasoline fuel specification is slapped on to existing fuel standards, affecting reformer operations and processing objectives. Just as importantly, the petrochemical market (such as aromatics) that refiners are targeting, can be very fickle. That`s why process engineers have endeavored to maintain an awareness of the flexibility that technology suppliers are building into modern catalytic reformers.

  1. Reuse of waste water for industrial cooling systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Rebhun; G. Engel

    1988-01-01

    Reuse of municipal effluent for cooling systems in a large refinery and petrochemical complex is described. Quality criteria for the cooling water were related to scale formers, corrosion, and biogrowth. After tertiary lime treatment using sludge blanket precipitator-clarifier was applied, phosphate removal, high reductions in alkalinity, calcium, COD, and suspended solids were obtained. A stripping tower reduced ammonia concentrations by

  2. The influence of industrial effluents on intertidal benthic communities in Panweol, Kyeonggi Bay (Yellow Sea) on the west coast of Korea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    In-Young Ahn; Young-Chul Kang; Jin-Woo Choi

    1995-01-01

    Impacts of industrial wastes on benthic infaunal communities were assessed for an intertidal mudflat near Panweol on the west coast of Korea. Species number and density have decreased sharply compared with values available for these communities before this area was heavily industrialized. At a site near the outfall of a sewage treatment plant almost all pre-existing macrobenthic infauna have disappeared,

  3. Petrochemical wastewater treatment by means of clean electrochemical technologies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Dimoglo; H. Y. Akbulut; F. Cihan; M. Karpuzcu

    2004-01-01

    The removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), turbidity, phenol, hydrocarbon and grease from petrochemical wastewater (PCWW) was experimentally done by using electroflotation (EF) and electrocoagulation (EC). In the EF unit, a graphite anode and a stainless steel mesh as cathode were used. In the EC unit, iron and aluminium were used simultaneously as materials for two blocks of alternating electrodes.

  4. Female Lung Cancer and Petrochemical Air Pollution in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chun-Yuh Yang; Ming-Fen Cheng; Jeng-Fen Chiu; Shang-Shyue Tsai

    1999-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between petrochemical air pollution and female lung cancer, we conducted a matched case-control study among women who had died in Taiwan from 1990 through 1994. Data about all eligible female lung cancer deaths were obtained from the Bureau of Vital Statistics of the Taiwan Provincial Department of Health. The control group included women who died from

  5. Demographic Factors and their Relation to Fatigue and Mental Disorders in 12-Hour Petrochemical Shift Workers

    PubMed Central

    Bazazan, Ahmad; Rasoulzadeh, Yahya; Dianat, Iman; Safaiyan, Abdolrasoul; Mombeini, Zohreh; Shiravand, Ehsan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Shift workers may be exposed to fatigue and mental disorders due to various work-related risk factors. This study evaluated the impact of demographic characteristics on fatigue and mental disorders among 12-hour shift workers in petrochemical industries. Methods: This study was conducted among 290 shift workers of Pardis Petrochemical Company in Iran. Data were collected using a general questionnaire for the demographic characteristic as well as multidimensional fatigue inventory (MFI-20) and general health questionnaire (GHQ-28). Results: Married workers were less likely to suffer from reduced activity levels (P< 0.027), depression (P< 0.032) and mental disorders (P< 0.040). Social dysfunction score (P< 0.029) and mental disorders (P< 0.048) decreased with shift work experience. Shift workers with non-academic education less likely to suffer from reduced activity levels (P< 0.000) and mental fatigue (P< 0.028). Conclusion: Despite the significant difference between the variables, this study showed a weak effect of individual and occupational demographic characteristics on fatigue and mental disorders. PMID:25648196

  6. The U.S. Chemical Industry, the Raw Materials It Uses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1972

    1972-01-01

    The raw materials used by the industry are considered in this section of the annual chemical industry report, including data covering: natural gas, lead, mercury, phosphate rock, potash, salt, petroleum products including petrochemical feedstocks. (PR)

  7. Biomonitoring of genotoxicity using micronuclei assay in native population of Astyanax jacuhiensis (Characiformes: Characidae) at sites under petrochemical influence.

    PubMed

    de Lemos, Clarice Torres; Iranço, Fábio de Almeida; de Oliveira, Nânci Cristina D'Avila; de Souza, Getúlio Dornelles; Fachel, Jandyra Maria Guimarães

    2008-11-15

    Bom Jardim brook is a small stream that flows through an area under the influence of a Petrochemical Complex, demanding control over its quality, so a genotoxic evaluation was performed. This study was conducted in situ, based on previous analysis on the same subject. These were performed both in vitro, with Salmonella typhimurium and human lymphocytes, and in vivo, using bioassays with fish exposed to water from the study area. The purpose of this research was to assess the quality of the aquatic environment and possible effects from petrochemical pollution to surrounding native populations. Micronuclei (MNE) and nuclear abnormalities (NA) frequencies in peripheral blood of Astyanax jacuhiensis, a native fish species collected from the study area, were used as biomarkers. Study period was from summer/99 to spring/2001, using samples obtained seasonally at two ponds upstream from the industrial area (BJN and BJPa) and two sites in Bom Jardim brook (BJ002 and BJ000), which are subject to Complex influence. MNE and NA frequencies found in individuals from BJ002 and BJ000 were similar, showing positive genotoxic responses related to control sites BJN and BJPa. No differential sensitivity could be verified for micronuclei induction between genders of A. jacuhiensis in the studied population. This study showed that sites subject to petrochemical influence were under higher genotoxic impact. Biomarkers adequacy to the case and the sensitivity of A. jacuhiensis for water monitoring could be also inferred. PMID:18715629

  8. Effluent Monitoring 4-1 4. Effluent Monitoring

    E-print Network

    Pennycook, Steve

    is a major activity on the ORR. Effluent monitoring is the collection and analysis of samples or measurementsEffluent Monitoring 4-1 4. Effluent Monitoring S. M. Adams, S. Baloga, D. C. Bonner, D. S. Cicerone, J. G. Smith, G. R. Southworth, A. J. Stewart, and L. F. Wicker Abstract Effluent monitoring

  9. Effluent Monitoring 4-1 4. Effluent Monitoring

    E-print Network

    Pennycook, Steve

    is a major activity on the ORR. Effluent monitoring is the collection and analysis of samples or measurementsEffluent Monitoring 4-1 4. Effluent Monitoring S. M. Adams, S. Baloga, D. C. Bonner, M. L. Coffey. Smith, G. R. Southworth, M. M. Stevens, A. J. Stewart, and L. F. Wicker Abstract Effluent monitoring

  10. Radio Frequency & Microwave Energy for the Petro Chemical Industry 

    E-print Network

    Raburn, R.

    1999-01-01

    Electro-Magnetic Energy has finally made its way into the Petro-Chemical market twenty-five years after market acceptance in the Food Processing Industry. Major factors influencing this change are tighter environmental regulations, price competition...

  11. Effects of oil sands effluent on cattail and clover: photosynthesis and the level of stress proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. U Crowe; B Han; A. R Kermode; L. I Bendell-Young; A. L Plant

    2001-01-01

    The oil sands industry located in northeastern Alberta, Canada, generates large volumes of effluent characterized by a high level of dissolved ions and naphthenic acids. The dikes used to store the effluent seep, creating wetlands which are subsequently invaded by obligate wetland flora such as cattail (Typha latifolia L.). The appearance of these wetlands prompted the oil sands industry to

  12. GEOTHERMAL EFFLUENT SAMPLING WORKSHOP

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report outlines the major recommendations resulting from a workshop to identify gaps in existing geothermal effluent sampling methodologies, define needed research to fill those gaps, and recommend strategies to lead to a standardized sampling methodology....

  13. Advanced Petrochemical Process Heating with the Pyrocore Burner

    E-print Network

    Krill, W. V.; Minden, A. C.; Donaldson, L. W. Jr.

    and its hot incandescent surface. This surface transfera most of the burner's heat input directly to the opposing heat sink by thermal radiation. The Pyrocore burner, a ceramic fiber burner, is a subtype of infrared burner. As shown con ceptually...ADVANCED PETROCHEMICAL PROCESS HEATING WITH THE PYROCORE BURNER WAYNE V. KRILL ANDREW C. MINDEN LESLIE W. DONALDSON, JR. Vice President Project Engineer Manager, Process Systems Research Alzeta Corporation Alzeta Corporation Gas Research...

  14. Petrochemical feedstock by thermal cracking of plastic waste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    András Angyal; Norbert Miskolczi; László Bartha

    2007-01-01

    The thermal cracking is one of the possible ways to obtain petrochemical feedstock from polymer wastes. The properties of the cracking products depend mainly on the type of the raw material. In this study the degradation of different mixtures of polymer wastes (polypropylene and polystyrene) were investigated in a horizontal tube reactor. Temperature of 510–520°C and residence time of 15–30min

  15. Carbohydrate-mediated purification of petrochemicals.

    PubMed

    Holcroft, James M; Hartlieb, Karel J; Moghadam, Peyman Z; Bell, Jon G; Barin, Gokhan; Ferris, Daniel P; Bloch, Eric D; Algaradah, Mohammed M; Nassar, Majed S; Botros, Youssry Y; Thomas, K Mark; Long, Jeffrey R; Snurr, Randall Q; Stoddart, J Fraser

    2015-05-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are known to facilitate energy-efficient separations of important industrial chemical feedstocks. Here, we report how a class of green MOFs-namely CD-MOFs-exhibits high shape selectivity toward aromatic hydrocarbons. CD-MOFs, which consist of an extended porous network of ?-cyclodextrins (?-CDs) and alkali metal cations, can separate a wide range of benzenoid compounds as a result of their relative orientation and packing within the transverse channels formed from linking (?-CD)6 body-centered cuboids in three dimensions. Adsorption isotherms and liquid-phase chromatographic measurements indicate a retention order of ortho- > meta- > para-xylene. The persistence of this regioselectivity is also observed during the liquid-phase chromatography of the ethyltoluene and cymene regioisomers. In addition, molecular shape-sorting within CD-MOFs facilitates the separation of the industrially relevant BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene isomers) mixture. The high resolution and large separation factors exhibited by CD-MOFs for benzene and these alkylaromatics provide an efficient, reliable, and green alternative to current isolation protocols. Furthermore, the isolation of the regioisomers of (i) ethyltoluene and (ii) cymene, together with the purification of (iii) cumene from its major impurities (benzene, n-propylbenzene, and diisopropylbenzene) highlight the specificity of the shape selectivity exhibited by CD-MOFs. Grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations and single component static vapor adsorption isotherms and kinetics reveal the origin of the shape selectivity and provide insight into the capability of CD-MOFs to serve as versatile separation platforms derived from renewable sources. PMID:25806952

  16. Metal bioaccumulation in the Mediterranean barbel (Barbus meridionalis) in a Mediterranean river receiving effluents from urban and industrial wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Maceda-Veiga, Alberto; Monroy, Mario; de Sostoa, Adolfo

    2012-02-01

    Although sewage treatment plants (STPs) play a crucial role in maintaining the water quality and flow of Mediterranean rivers, particularly during drought periods, few studies have addressed their impact on aquatic fauna. Here we analyzed the role of STPs as a source of metals in the Ripoll River, a heavily urbanized and industrialized watercourse with a long history of anthropogenic disturbance. For this purpose, we measured iron, mercury, cadmium, zinc, lead, nickel and copper accumulation in the liver and muscle of the Mediterranean barbel, Barbus meridionalis and also the concentrations of these metals in the river water. Industrial and urban sewage treatment plants are source of metals in Ripoll River but the former mainly increases Zn and Ni values. Significant differences in metal bioaccumulation between reference and polluted sites were detected. Nevertheless, there was only a significant positive relationship between bioaccumulation of Cu and Hg, and their concentration in water. In addition, the lead concentration in fish was not clearly associated with the presence of STPs. On the basis of morphometric parameters, the hepato-somatic index was the only one denoting significant differences between polluted and references sites. Given that fish are key elements in food webs, recreational fishing is practice in this area and that river water is used for agricultural purposes, we recommend long-term studies to analyze the impact of metal pollution in this river. PMID:21993348

  17. The use of lidar as optical remote sensors in the assessment of air quality near oil refineries and petrochemical sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffens, Juliana; Landulfo, Eduardo; Guardani, Roberto; Oller do Nascimento, Cláudio A.; Moreira, Andréia

    2008-10-01

    Petrochemical and oil refining facilities play an increasingly important role in the industrial context. The corresponding need for monitoring emissions from these facilities as well as in their neighborhood has raised in importance, leading to the present tendency of creating real time data acquisition and analysis systems. The use of LIDAR-based techniques, both for air quality and emissions monitoring purposes is currently being developed for the area of Cubatao, Sao Paulo, one of the largest petrochemical and industrial sites in Brazil. In a partnership with the University of SÃ#o Paulo (USP) the Brazilian oil company PETROBRAS has implemented an Environmental Research Center - CEPEMA - located in the industrial site, in which the development of fieldwork will be carried out. The current joint R&D project focuses on the development of a real time acquisition system, together with automated multicomponent chemical analysis. Additionally, fugitive emissions from oil processing and storage sites will be measured, together with the main greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4), and aerosols. Our first effort is to assess the potential chemical species coming out of an oil refinery site and to verify which LIDAR technique, DIAL, Raman, fluorescence would be most efficient in detecting and quantifying the specific atmospheric emissions.

  18. [Effects of dissolved oxygen in the oxic parts of A/O reactor on degradation of organic pollutants and analysis of microbial community for treating petrochemical wastewater].

    PubMed

    Ding, Peng-Yuan; Chu, Li-Bing; Zhang, Nan; Wang, Xing; Wang, Jian-Long

    2015-02-01

    Effects of dissolved oxygen (DO) on the biodegradation of organic pollutants were investigated using A/O reactors for the treatment of actual petrochemical wastewater. Two A/O reactors, DO were controlled at 2-3 mg x L(-1) in the oxic parts of reactor A and 5-6 mg x L(-1) of reactor B, were operated in parallel for comparison. The nearly a half of year operation results showed that the effluent COD in reactor A (72.5 ± 14.8 mg x L(-1)) was slightly higher than that in reactor B (68.7 ± 14.6 mg x L(-1)) at a HRT of 20 h. The average COD removal efficiencies were 67.0% and 68.8%, respectively. The effluent ammonium concentration was maintained at 0.8 mg x L(-1) and approximately 95% of ammonium removal was achieved. The effluent BOD, concentration was lower than 5 mg x L(-1). This indicated that the organic pollutants could be degraded thoroughly by the A/O processes, which were affected slightly by DO. Results of 454 pyrosequencing analysis of the sludge in oxic parts showed that at the phylum levels, sequences belonged to Proteobacteria, Planctomycetes and Bacteroidetes were abundant with 58.7% and 59.2%, 14.7% and 12.7%, 10.8% and 12.4% of total bacterial sequences in reactor A and B, respectively. Ammonium oxidation bacteria Nitrosomonas, nitrite oxidizing bacteria Nitrospira and obligate aerobic bacteria were highly enriched in reactor B with high DO levels, while the anaerobic denitrifiers Azospira and Acidovora were highly enriched in reactor A with low DO levels. The identified bacteria belonged to genera Novosphingobium, Comamonas, Sphingobium and Altererythrobacter were reported to degrade PAHs, chloronitrobenzene, pesticides and petroleum, which contributed to the degradation of petrochemical wastewater. PMID:26031089

  19. Health planning for remote petrochemical field operations

    SciTech Connect

    Krieger, G.R.; Balge, M.Z.

    1995-12-31

    Occupational/Public Health Services are becoming increasingly required in projects that involve the extended presence of expatriates in remote underdeveloped areas of the world. These ``expats`` are defined as individuals living and working in the environment who are not indigenous to the area. Under this definition, workers who are resistant to a ``local`` strain of malaria and then relocate to another geographic within the same country can also be considered as ``biologic expatriates`` since their resistance profile for certain tropical diseases is not reflective of their new environment. Unlike a major infrastructure project in the industrialized world, project planners in remote areas of the developing world should be expected to make significant long term medical and environmental commitments. US companies have extensive experience in the business of large-scale development projects, e.g. oil and gas pipelines and well field development; however, these projects represent major long-term in-country commitments with potentially large labor forces and substantial and sustained impacts on local health and safety resources. The initial structuring of health and safety programs will, therefore, have long-term ramifications on the project both during construction and ``routine`` operations since the multi-national companies are increasingly expected to develop and maintain self-sustaining health, safety and environmental programs.

  20. Cost Effective Treatment of Textile Mill Effluents by Water Reuse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Ero?lu; ?. öztürk; ?. Toroz; N. Kor

    \\u000a The treatment results of a full scale plant treating the effluents from an integrated woolen textile industry have been presented.\\u000a Effluents from the wool finishing process were recirculated after chemical treatment followed by rapid sand filtration. This\\u000a practice provides a reduction of about one million US Dollars per year in the treatment cost, which corresponds to a pay back\\u000a period

  1. EVALUATION OF SITE-SPECIFIC CRITERIA FOR COPPER AND ZINC: AN INTEGRATION OF METAL ADDITION TOXICITY, EFFLUENT AND RECEIVING WATER TOXICITY, AND ECOLOGICAL SURVEY DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Comparative laboratory toxicity tests using daphnids Ceriodaphnia dubia and fathead minnows Pimephales promelas were conducted to establish and evaluate relationships between the toxicity of domestic and industrial effluents containing copper and zinc, toxicity of the effluents i...

  2. Considerations for Planning a Monitoring Campaign at Petrochemical Complexes: Lessons Learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuclis, A.

    2010-12-01

    An air quality monitoring campaign was developed for the late spring of 2009 near Houston area petrochemical facilities. The focus of the field campaign was to measure free radicals that contribute to the formation of ozone, however refinery and chemical plants monitored are also emitters of many different volatile organic compounds (vocs) and hazardous air pollutants (haps). The Houston area is home to the largest aggregation of petrochemical facilities in the U.S. Three specific geographical areas with industrial facilities were considered: Mont Belvieu, the Houston Ship Channel and the Texas City Industrial Complex. Previous experiences with field campaigns in the area led to the presumption that there would be little if any access inside the facilities. Considerations for which areas to focus on included: how close could the facility be approached, what were the directions of the prevailing winds, what kind of barriers to measurement existed (e.g. trees, buildings, highways, privately owned land, etc.), and what were the possible chemical interferences from other sources near the measurement sites? Close communications with the plant security, the local police, the Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI), Homeland Security, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), and the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) were required. Substantial delays can occur due to local concerns regarding homeland security and plant safety. Also, a system of communications is essential to coordinate the participating scientists operating stationary analyzers with the scientists who have analyzers mounted in ground vehicles and in aircraft. The researchers were provided with information regarding plant operations, types of equipment and potential pollutants. A wide variety of stationery and mobile ambient air monitoring techniques were used to measure formaldehyde and other volatile organic compounds. In order to identify likely formaldehyde sources the self-reported submissions to the EPA in the Toxic Release Inventory and emissions reports to the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality were reviewed. Other considerations were the locations of boilers, furnaces and flares, since formaldehyde is a product of combustion. In addition, a review was made to identify any sources of formaldehyde stored, consumed or produced in the petrochemical processes. The Texas City complex was chosen for the focus on formaldehyde study due to the very heavy concentration (fence-line to fence-line) of several refineries, chemical plants and storage facilities. Also there were sites upwind and downwind of the complex that were available for installing critical stationary analyzers for the study. Formaldehyde was identified in several locations, including from flares and smokestacks on ships. Also, benzene was measured less than a mile away from a plume emanating from a 200 foot flare. The solar occultation flux method was used to identify voc emissions that were 5-10 times higher than expected based on the emissions reported to the state environmental agency by the facilities. This paper will describe how the site selection and preparation enhanced the data that was retrieved, and how preparations might be adjusted to improve future air quality studies at petrochemical sites.

  3. Petrochemical types of kimberlites and their diamond-bearing capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostrovitsky, Sergey

    2010-05-01

    Kimberlite rocks of Yakutian province (belong to 1 group of kimberlites after Smith, 1983) are characterized by wide variations of rock-forming oxides [Ilupin et al., 1986; Milashev, 1965; Kharkiv et al., 1991]. A number of factors could be discussed to explain the variety of chemical compositions of rocks. The first factor, explaining the regional differences in the kimberlite composition with primarily different composition of source kimberlite melt-fluid, is conventionally called «primary». All other factors are connected with the secondary redistribution of chemical components of kimberlites. Irrespective of intensity of secondary factors, the primary composition of kimberlites varies broadly, which is noticeable in kimberlites of some provinces, kimberlites fields, pipe clusters and individual pipes. The petrochemical types are classified based on the contents of such oxides as FeO, TiO2 and K2O, being relatively inert in the secondary processes. In the Yakutian Province we have distinguished 5 petrochemical types of kimberlites (Kostrovitsky et al, 2007); with principal ones - high-Mg, magnesium-ferruginous (Mg-Fe) and ferruginous-titaniferous, their composition: < 6; 6-9; 8-15 % FeOtotal and < 1; 1-2.5; 1.5-5.0 % TiO2). Some petrochemical and mineralogical criteria of diamond-bearing capacity of kimberlites were identified some time before. The essence of petrochemical criterion consists of the inverse correlation dependence between the contents FeOtotal, TiO2 in kimberlite rocks and their diamond-bearing capacity (Milashev, 1965; Krivonos, 1998). The mineralogical criteria of diamond-bearing capacity infer presence of direct dependence of the rate of capacity on the content in kimberlites of low-Ca, high-Cr garnet and chrome spinellids with Cr2O3 > 62% and TiO2 < 0.5%, of dunite-harzburgite paragenesis (Sobolev, 1974; Meyer, 1968). The acquired results are applied to evaluate «efficiency» of criteria of diamond-bearing capacity exemplified by the deposits of Yakutian Province. The high-Mg kimberlites of the Njurba, Botuoba, International and Aikhal pipes are known as mostly diamondiferous. Kimberlites of these fields are marked by absence or minor abundance of minerals of low-Cr megacryst association - picroilmenite and orange-red garnet, and on the other hand, increased content of chrome spinellids and garnets, referred to as dunite-harzburgite paragenesis. Whereas most of the other deposits of Yakutia (pipes Mir, Udachnaya-Vostochnaya, Udachnaya-Zapadnaya, Yubileinaya, Komsomolskaya, Zarnitsa and Sytykan) are referred to the Mg-Fe petrochemical type distinguished by fairly raised content of TiO2 and FeOtotal and high content of minerals of low-Cr megacryst association. The minerals of dunite-harzburgite paragenesis in kimberlites of Mg-Fe type occur as varying amounts, but in general they are less numerous than in high-Mg type of kimberlites. The enumerated deposits have different rates of diamond-bearing capacity, but none of them reaches the rate of capacity common for the Mg-type deposits. The kimberlites with higher content of TiO2 and FeOtotal, referred to the Fe-Ti petrochemical type, do not produce commercial diamond fields within the Yakutian Province. The kimberlites of this type practically do not contain garnet and spinellids of dunite-harzburgite paragenesis. Therefore, comparison of kimberlite deposits of different petrochemical types points out that the petrochemical criterion of diamond capacity is as if «workable». But on the other hand, there are pipes composed of kimberlites of high-Mg and Mg-Fe petrochemical types with a poor capacity or devoid diamonds, which essentially conceal supposed dependence of parameter of diamond-bearing capacity on the chemical composition of rocks. Thus, the negative correlation between the contents FeOtotal, TiO2 in kimberlite rocks and their diamond capacity manifests itself as a tendency in general for kimberlite rocks. Different petrochemical types of kimberlites, varying in the rate of diamond capacity, are indistinguishable in the conte

  4. Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of industrial mitigation for sustainable development is discussed in Section 7.7. Section 7.8 discusses the sector's vulnerability to climate change and options for adaptation. A number of policies have been designed either to encourage voluntary GHG emission reductions from the industrial sector or to mandate such reductions. Section 7.9 describes these policies and the experience gained to date. Co-benefits of reducing GHG emissions from the industrial sector are discussed in Section 7.10. Development of new technology is key to the cost-effective control of industrial GHG emissions. Section 7.11 discusses research, development, deployment and diffusion in the industrial sector and Section 7.12, the long-term (post-2030) technologies for GHG emissions reduction from the industrial sector. Section 7.13 summarizes gaps in knowledge.

  5. Anaerobic biodegradation of methyl tert-butyl ether and tert-butyl alcohol in petrochemical wastewater.

    PubMed

    Ghasemian, Mohammad; Amin, Mohammad Mehdi; Morgenroth, Eberhard; Jaafarzadeh, Neemat

    2012-09-01

    A laboratory-scale anaerobic sequencing batch reactor was used to evaluate treatment of a synthetic substrate mixture representing petrochemical wastewater containing methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), ethanol and acetic acid. Influent MTBE concentrations were 5, 10 and 50 mg/l (corresponding to MTBE loading rates of 0.2, 0.4 and 2 mg/l.d) with overall organic loading rates (OLRs) of 1.51, 3.23 and 3.25 g COD/1.d, respectively. These OLRs resulted in removal efficiencies for MTBE of 78%, 98% and 88%. Removal efficiencies for chemical oxygen demand were 85% and 90% with influent MTBE concentrations of 5 and 10mg/l, but were significantly reduced to 72% with influent MTBE concentrations of 50mg/l. During all reactor runs, effluent concentrations oftert-butyl alcohol (TBA) were below the detection limit. Batch degradation of the organic substrate mixture demonstrated initial inhibitory effects when exposed to MTBE concentrations of 50 mg/l and complete inhibition with MTBE concentrations above 2000 mg/l. It is interesting to note that in batch tests using MTBE as the sole organic substrate (initial MTBE concentrations of 50, 100 and 200 mg/l), the specific methanogenic activity decreased to below detection within the first 96 hours, but following a 72-hour lag phase the methane production increased again. Based on low volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration, disappearance of TBA peaks and no findings of any other intermediate via gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, while the MTBE concentration is still high, it can be suggested that during the batch tests the breakdown of gas production and the following lag phase were the direct effect of higher MTBE concentrations (more than 50 mg/l) and not because of the TBA or VFA accumulations. PMID:23240186

  6. Identification and chemical characterization of specific organic indicators in the effluents from chemical production sites.

    PubMed

    Botalova, Oxana; Schwarzbauer, Jan; al Sandouk, Nadia

    2011-06-01

    The structural diversity of the wastewater composition was described by the use of detailed non-target screening analyses of industrial effluents from chemical production sites. Determination of the indicative organic compounds acting as potential molecular indicators for industrial emissions from chemical production industries has been possible due to (i) detailed characterisation of industrial contaminants and identification of compounds with high source specificity, (ii) quantitative determination of the organic constituents in the industrial effluents and (iii) the review of their industrial applications. The determination of potential site-specific markers and industrial molecular indicators corresponding to certain production processes (production of starting materials for manufacturing paper and printing inks, powder coatings as well as epichlorohydrin production) was performed in this work. The results of this study allowed significant contributions to the chemical characterisation of industrial contaminants and isolation of indicators that can act as representatives of industrial effluents in the aquatic environment. PMID:21565380

  7. Gene expression of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) exposed to two types of treated municipal wastewater effluents.

    PubMed

    Vidal-Dorsch, Doris E; Colli-Dula, R Cristina; Bay, Steven M; Greenstein, Darrin J; Wiborg, Lan; Petschauer, Dawn; Denslow, Nancy D

    2013-10-01

    Contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) in treated municipal effluents have the potential to adversely impact exposed organisms prompting elevated public concern. Using transcriptomic tools, we investigated changes in gene expression and cellular pathways in the liver of male fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) exposed to 5% concentrations of full secondary-treated (HTP) or advanced primary-treated (PL) municipal wastewater effluents containing CECs. Gene expression changes were associated with apical end points (plasma vitellogenin and changes in secondary sexual characteristics). Of 32 effluent CECs analyzed, 28 were detected including pharmaceuticals, personal care products, hormones, and industrial compounds. Exposure to both effluents produced significantly higher levels of plasma VTG and changes in secondary sexual characteristics (e.g., ovipositor development). Transcript patterns differed between effluents, with <10% agreement in the detected response (e.g., altered production of transcripts involved in xenobiotic detoxification, oxidative stress, and apoptosis were observed following exposure to both effluents). Exposure to PL effluent caused changes in transcription of genes involved in metabolic pathways (e.g., lipid transport and steroid metabolism). Exposure to HTP effluent affected transcripts involved in signaling pathways (e.g., focal adhesion assembly and extracellular matrix). The results suggest a potential association between some transcriptomic changes and physiological responses following effluent exposure. This study identified responses in pathways not previously implicated in exposure to complex chemical mixtures containing CECs, which are consistent with effluent exposure (e.g., oxidative stress) in addition to other pathway responses specific to the effluent type. PMID:23919544

  8. Technology transfer through a network of standard methods and recommended practices - The case of petrochemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batzias, Dimitris F.; Karvounis, Sotirios

    2012-12-01

    Technology transfer may take place in parallel with cooperative action between companies participating in the same organizational scheme or using one another as subcontractor (outsourcing). In this case, cooperation should be realized by means of Standard Methods and Recommended Practices (SRPs) to achieve (i) quality of intermediate/final products according to specifications and (ii) industrial process control as required to guarantee such quality with minimum deviation (corresponding to maximum reliability) from preset mean values of representative quality parameters. This work deals with the design of the network of SRPs needed in each case for successful cooperation, implying also the corresponding technology transfer, effectuated through a methodological framework developed in the form of an algorithmic procedure with 20 activity stages and 8 decision nodes. The functionality of this methodology is proved by presenting the path leading from (and relating) a standard test method for toluene, as petrochemical feedstock in the toluene diisocyanate production, to the (6 generations distance upstream) performance evaluation of industrial process control systems (ie., from ASTM D5606 to BS EN 61003-1:2004 in the SRPs network).

  9. Volatile organic monitor for industrial effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Laguna, G.R.; Peter, F.J.; Stuart, A.D.; Loyola, V.M.

    1993-07-01

    1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act have created the need for instruments capable of monitoring volatile organic compounds (VOCS) in public air space in an unattended and low cost manner. The purpose of the study was to develop and demonstrate the capability to do long term automatic and unattended ambient air monitoring using an inexpensive portable analytic system at a commercial manufacturing plant site. A gas chromatograph system personal computer hardware, meteorology tower & instruments, and custom designed hardware and software were developed. Comparison with an EPA approved method was performed. The system was sited at an aircraft engines manufacturing site and operated in a completely unattended mode for 60 days. Two VOCs were monitored every 30 minutes during the 24hr day. Large variation in the concentration from 800ppb to the limits of detection of about 10ppb were observed. Work to increase the capabilities of the system is ongoing.

  10. Assessing vanadium and arsenic exposure of people living near a petrochemical complex with two-stage dispersion models.

    PubMed

    Chio, Chia-Pin; Yuan, Tzu-Hsuen; Shie, Ruei-Hao; Chan, Chang-Chuan

    2014-04-30

    The goal of this study is to demonstrate that it is possible to construct a two-stage dispersion model empirically for the purpose of estimating air pollution levels in the vicinity of petrochemical plants. We studied oil refineries and coal-fired power plants in the No. 6 Naphtha Cracking Complex, an area of 2,603-ha situated on the central west coast of Taiwan. The pollutants targeted were vanadium (V) from oil refineries and arsenic (As) from coal-fired power plants. We applied a backward fitting method to determine emission rates of V and As, with 192 PM10 filters originally collected between 2009 and 2012. Our first-stage model estimated emission rates of V and As (median and 95% confidence intervals at 0.0202 (0.0040-0.1063) and 0.1368 (0.0398-0.4782) g/s, respectively. In our second stage model, the predicted zone-average concentrations showed a strong correlation with V, but a poor correlation with As. Our findings show that two-stage dispersion models are relatively precise for estimating V levels at residents' addresses near the petrochemical complex, but they did not work as well for As levels. In conclusion, our model-based approach can be widely used for modeling exposure to air pollution from industrial areas in countries with limited resources. PMID:24607528

  11. Impact of sugar factory effluent on the growth and biochemical characteristics of terrestrial and aquatic plants.

    PubMed

    Ayyasamy, P M; Yasodha, R; Rajakumar, S; Lakshmanaperumalsamy, P; Rahman, P K S M; Lee, Sanghoon

    2008-11-01

    The physico-chemical characteristics of sugar industry effluent were measured and some were found to be above those limits permissible in the Indian irrigation water standard. A pot study was initially conducted to study the effects of different concentrations (20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100%) of sugar factory effluent on seed germination, seedling growth and biochemical characteristics of green gram and maize. A similar study was also carried out using the aquatic plants, water hyacinth and water lettuce. The higher effluent concentrations (above 60%) were found to affect plant growth, but diluted effluent (up to 60%) favored seedling growth. PMID:18784897

  12. Characterization of effluent from an inland, low-salinity shrimp farm: what contribution could this water make if used for irrigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dennis McIntosh; Kevin Fitzsimmons

    2003-01-01

    Coastal aquaculture can contribute to eutrophication of receiving waters. New technologies and improved management practices allow the aquaculture industry to be more sustainable and economically viable. Current practices, however, do not provide an additional use for effluent water. Nitrogen, phosphorus and other effluent compounds could be valuable plant nutrients. Inflow and effluent water from an inland, low-salinity shrimp farm, were

  13. DETERMINATION OF TRACE METALS IN EFFLUENTS BY DIFFERENTIAL PULSE ANODIC STRIPPING VOLTAMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Differential pulse anodic stripping voltametry (DPASV) was evaluated to determine its applicability to industrial and domestic effluents. The results show that trace amounts of zinc, cadmium, lead, bismuth, copper, thallium, indium, antimony, tin and nickel can be determined indi...

  14. Complete physico-chemical treatment for coke plant effluents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. K Ghose

    2002-01-01

    Naturally found coal is converted to coke which is suitable for metallurgical industries. Large quantities of liquid effluents produced contain a large amount of suspended solids, high COD, BOD, phenols, ammonia and other toxic substances which are causing serious pollution problem in the receiving water to which they are discharged. There are a large number of coke plants in the

  15. Study on feed pretreatment for membrane filtration of secondary effluent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. L Kim; J Paul Chen; Y. P Ting

    2002-01-01

    In this study, membrane filtration was used to treat a secondary effluent emanating from a sewage treatment works that treats a combined industrial and municipal wastewater. Three feed pretreatments for a spiral wound reverse osmosis (RO) membrane filtration were evaluated, including: (i) membrane ultrafiltration (System I); (ii) dual media filtration and granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption (System II); (iii) dual

  16. Genotoxicity assessment of a pharmaceutical effluent using four bioassays

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Pharmaceutical industries are among the major contributors to industrial waste. Their effluents when wrongly handled and disposed of endanger both human and environmental health. In this study, we investigated the potential genotoxicity of a pharmaceutical effluent, by using the Allium cepa, mouse- sperm morphology, bone marrow chromosome aberration (CA) and micronucleus (MN) assays. Some of the physico-chemical properties of the effluent were also determined. The A. cepa and the animal assays were respectively carried out at concentrations of 0.5, 1, 2.5, 5 and 10%; and 1, 5, 10, 25 and 50% of the effluent. There was a statistically different (p < 0.05), concentration-dependent inhibition of onion root growth and mitotic index, and induction of chromosomal aberrations in the onion and mouse CA test. Assessment of sperm shape showed that the fraction of the sperm that was abnormal in shape was significantly (p < 0.05) greater than the negative control value. MN analysis showed a dose-dependent induction of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes across the treatment groups. These observations were provoked by the toxic and genotoxic constituents present in test samples. The tested pharmaceutical effluent is a potentially genotoxic agent and germ cell mutagen, and may induce adverse health effects in exposed individuals. PMID:21637694

  17. Coal and Co-generation at a Petro-Chemical Complex

    E-print Network

    Turek, P.; Gibson, G. L.

    1979-01-01

    COAL AND CO-GENERATION AT A PETRO-CHEMICAL COMPLEX Phil A. Turek Celanese Chemical Company, Inc. Dallas, Texas and Gary L. Gibson Southwestern Public Service Company Amarillo, Texas ABSTRACT project at the Celanese Pampa, Texas, petro...

  18. Coal and Co-generation at a Petro-Chemical Complex 

    E-print Network

    Turek, P.; Gibson, G. L.

    1979-01-01

    Celanese Chemical Company, Inc. is converting from natural gas to coal as boiler fuel at its petrochemical plant in the Texas Panhandle. Coincident with that fuel conversion is a project in conjunction with Southwestern Public Service Company. High...

  19. Investigation of fugitive emissions from petrochemical transport barges using optical remote sensing

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent airborne remote sensing survey data acquired with passive gas imaging equipment (PGIE), in this case infrared cameras, have shown potentially significant fugitive volatile organic carbon (VOC) emissions from petrochemical transport barges. The experiment found remote sens...

  20. Industry and Education: A Winning Combination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, John H.; Williams-Foster, Cathy

    1997-01-01

    Describes how the petrochemical employers of Texas City, Texas developed a fully accredited two-year associate degree program at the local community college tailored to train process operators for entry into the refining and chemical industry. Discusses planning; scholarship funds; vendor and community support; student population; outcomes of the…

  1. Industry. Pollution prevention: The Chevron story

    SciTech Connect

    Karras, G. (Citizens for a Better Environment, San Francisco, CA (USA))

    1989-10-01

    This article outlines the efforts of Chevron to control pollution in the San Francisco Bay area. The company worked on reducing the numbers and types of pollutants used in the petrochemical industry. By changing the raw materials used in production as well as altering the finished products, the Chevron refinery was able to significantly reduce the toxic metals in the Bay area.

  2. Anaerobic/aerobic treatment of a petrochemical wastewater from two aromatic transformation processes by fluidized bed reactors.

    PubMed

    Estrada-Arriaga, Edson B; Ramirez-Camperos, Esperanza; Moeller-Chavez, Gabriela E; García-Sanchez, Liliana

    2012-01-01

    An integrated fluidized bed reactor (FBR) has been employed as the treatment for petrochemical industry wastewaters with high organic matter and aromatic compounds, under anaerobic and aerobic conditions. The system was operated at hydraulic residence time (HRT) of 2.7 and 2.2 h in the anaerobic and aerobic reactor, respectively. The degree of fluidization in the beds was 30%. This system showed a high performance on the removal of organic matter and aromatic compounds. At different organic loading rates (OLR), the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal in the anaerobic reactor was close to 85% and removals of the COD up to 94% were obtained in the aerobic reactor. High removals of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, styrene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene and naphthalene were achieved in this study. PMID:23109595

  3. Filtration device for active effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Guerin, M.; Meunier, G. [Commissariat a l`Energie Atomique, Centre d`Etudes de Valduc (France)

    1994-12-31

    Among the various techniques relating to solid/liquid separations, filtration is currently utilized for treating radioactive effluents. After testing different equipments on various simulated effluents, the Valduc Center has decided to substitute a monoplate filter for a rotative diatomite precoated filter.

  4. Characterization of Industrial Emission Sources and Photochemistry in Houston, Texas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Washenfelder; E. L. Atlas; J. Degouw; F. M. Flocke; A. Fried; G. J. Frost; J. Holloway; D. Richter; T. B. Ryerson; S. Schauffler; J. Walega; C. Warneke; P. Weibring; W. Zheng

    2009-01-01

    The Houston-Galveston urban area contains a number of large industrial petrochemical emission sources that produce volatile organic compounds and nitrogen oxides. These co-located emissions result in rapid and efficient ozone production downwind. Unlike a single large power plant, the industrial complexes consist of numerous sources that can be difficult to quantify in emission inventories. During September - October 2006, the

  5. ACTIVATED CARBON TREATMENT OF INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATERS: SELECTED TECHNICAL PAPERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because of the tremendous interest in the organic constituent removal by activated carbon, the two industrial categories displaying the most interest are the petroleum refining and petrochemical industries. EPA's Office of Research and Development has co-sponsored two technical s...

  6. Industrial water conservation, recycle and reuse: A literature survey

    SciTech Connect

    Breske, T.C. [E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Co., Inc., Wilmington, DE (United States)

    1997-09-01

    The results of a literature survey on industrial water conservation, recycle and reuse, sponsored by NACE T-7N (Minimization of Aqueous Discharges) are presented. A majority of the references cited are from the chemical and petrochemical industries. Categorization and definition of terms used in water conservation are given. 120 refs.

  7. Where is the industry headed?

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The past year has been busy for NPRA and the refining industry at large: introduction of reformulated gasoline (RFG), promulgation of refinery MACT, rebounding gasoline and petrochemical margins, and a renewed interest by Congress in developing flexible regulations. NPRA President Urvan Sternfels and Technical Director Terrence Higgins discussed with Fuel Reformulation the changes that have taken place since the last editorial meeting with Sternfels where they are headed.

  8. Facility effluent monitoring plan for WESF

    SciTech Connect

    SIMMONS, F.M.

    1999-09-01

    The FEMP for the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) provides sufficient information on the WESF effluent characteristics and the effluent monitoring systems so that a compliance assessment against applicable requirements may be performed. Radioactive and hazardous material source terms are related to specific effluent streams that are in turn, related to discharge points and, finally are compared to the effluent monitoring system capability.

  9. Evaluation of dairy effluent management options using multiple criteria analysis.

    PubMed

    Hajkowicz, Stefan A; Wheeler, Sarah A

    2008-04-01

    This article describes how options for managing dairy effluent on the Lower Murray River in South Australia were evaluated using multiple criteria analysis (MCA). Multiple criteria analysis is a framework for combining multiple environmental, social, and economic objectives in policy decisions. At the time of the study, dairy irrigation in the region was based on flood irrigation which involved returning effluent to the river. The returned water contained nutrients, salts, and microbial contaminants leading to environmental, human health, and tourism impacts. In this study MCA was used to evaluate 11 options against 6 criteria for managing dairy effluent problems. Of the 11 options, the MCA model selected partial rehabilitation of dairy paddocks with the conversion of remaining land to other agriculture. Soon after, the South Australian Government adopted this course of action and is now providing incentives for dairy farmers in the region to upgrade irrigation infrastructure and/or enter alternative industries. PMID:18193318

  10. Bioplastic production using wood mill effluents as feedstock.

    PubMed

    Ben, M; Mato, T; Lopez, A; Vila, M; Kennes, C; Veiga, M C

    2011-01-01

    Fibreboard production is one of the most important industrial activities in Galicia (Spain). Great amounts of wastewater are generated, with properties depending on the type of wood, treatment process, final product and water reusing, among others. These effluents are characterized by a high chemical oxygen demand, low pH and nutrients limitation. Although anaerobic digestion is one of the most suitable processes for the treatment, lately bioplastics production (mainly polyhydroxyalkanoates) from wastewaters with mixed cultures is being evaluated. Substrate requirements for these processes consist of high organic matter content and low nutrient concentration. Therefore, wood mill effluents could be a suitable feedstock. In this work, the possibility of producing bioplastics from to wood mill effluents is evaluated. First, wood mill effluent was converted to volatile fatty acids in an acidogenic reactor operated at two different hydraulic retention times of 1 and 1.5 d. The acidification percentage obtained was 37% and 42%, respectively. Then, aerobic batch assays were performed using fermented wood mill effluents obtained at different hydraulic retention times. Assays were developed using different cultures as inoculums. The maximum storage yield of 0.57 Cmmol/Cmmol was obtained when when the culture was enriched on a synthetic media. PMID:21436556

  11. Role of livestock effluent suspended particulate in sealing effluent ponds.

    PubMed

    Bennett, J McL; Warren, B R

    2015-05-01

    Intensive livestock feed-lots have become more prevalent in recent years to help in meeting the predicted food production targets based on expected population growth. Effluent from these is stored in ponds, representing a potential concern for seepage and contamination of groundwater. Whilst previous literature suggests that effluent particulate can limit seepage adequately in combination with a clay liner, this research addresses potential concerns for sealing of ponds with low concentration fine and then evaluates this against proposed filter-cake based methodologies to describe and predict hydraulic reduction. Short soil cores were compacted to 98% of the maximum dry density and subject to ponded head percolation with unfiltered-sediment-reduced effluent, effluent filtered to <3 ?m, and chemically synthesized effluent. Reduction in hydraulic conductivity was observed to be primarily due to the colloidal fraction of the effluent, with larger particulate fractions providing minimal further reduction. Pond sealing was shown to follow mathematical models of filter-cake formation, but without the formation of a physical seal on top of the soil surface. Management considerations based on the results are presented. PMID:25721977

  12. Radiation treatment of municipal effluent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawai, Teruko; Sekiguchi, Masayuki; Shimokawa, Toshinari; Sawai, Takeshi

    1993-10-01

    The recycling of municipal wastewater is an effective means of coping with the water shortage in Tokyo. After irradiation, the refractory organic substances in wastewater were decomposed. COD, light brown color, offensive odor and foaminess in the effluents were reduced with increasing dose. Inactivation efficiencies (D 10) of six microorganisms added to the secondary effluents and return sludge supernatant by irradiation were investigated. The survival curves of total bacteria, total coliforms and enterococci in the secondary effluents were compared. The number of total coliforms exponentially decreased with increasing dose and fell to undetectable levels at 0.5 kGy. The elimination of suspended solids in the secondary effluents is effective in diminishing the dose required to disinfect and prevent bacteria regrowth.

  13. Comparative study of different nanofiltration and reverse osmosis membranes for dairy effluent treatment by dead-end filtration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Balannec; M. Vourch; M. Rabiller-Baudry; B. Chaufer

    2005-01-01

    The process waters of dairy industry issued from the starting, the equilibrating, the interrupting and the rinsing steps of the different plant units contribute, besides the cleaning in place, to the effluent production. Their treatment by membrane aimed to concentrate waste organic matter and to use permeate as disposable water for reuse, lowering both the load and volume effluent and

  14. Substance abuse in the refining industry

    SciTech Connect

    Little, A. Jr. (Sun Refining and Marketing Co., Philadelphia, PA (US)); Ross, J.K. (Ashalnd Petroleum Co., Ashland, KY (US)); Lavorerio, R. (Chevron U.S.A. Inc., Richmond, CA (US)); Richards, T.A. (Total Petroleum, Inc., Denver, CO (US))

    1989-01-01

    In order to provide some background for the NPRA Annual Meeting Management Session panel discussion on Substance Abuse in the Refining and Petrochemical Industries, NPRA distributed a questionnaire to member companies requesting information regarding the status of their individual substance abuse policies. The questionnaire was designed to identify general trends in the industry. The aggregate responses to the survey are summarized in this paper, as background for the Substance Abuse panel discussions.

  15. Risk assessment study of fire following an earthquake: a case study of petrochemical enterprises in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Wang, Y.; Chen, H.; Lin, L.

    2014-04-01

    After an earthquake, the fire risk of petrochemical enterprises is higher than that of other enterprises as it involves production processes with inflammable and explosive characteristics. Using Chinese petrochemical enterprises as the research object, this paper uses a literature review and case summaries to study, amongst others, the classification of petrochemical enterprises, the proportion of daily fires, and fire loss ratio. This paper builds a fire following an earthquake risk assessment model of petrochemical enterprises based on a previous earthquake fire hazard model, and the earthquake loss prediction assessment method, calculates the expected loss of the fire following an earthquake in various counties and draws a risk map. Moreover, this research identifies high-risk areas, concentrating on the Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan region, and Shandong, Jiangsu, and Zhejiang provinces. Differences in enterprise type produce different levels and distribution of petrochemical enterprise earthquake fire risk. Furthermore, areas at high risk of post-earthquake fires and with low levels of seismic fortification require extra attention to ensure appropriate mechanisms are in place.

  16. Statistical Evaluation of Effluent Monitoring Data for the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, Charissa J.; Johnson, Vernon G.

    2000-03-08

    This report updates the original effluent variability study for the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) and provides supporting justification for modifying the effluent monitoring portion of the discharge permit. Four years of monitoring data were evaluated and used to statistically justify changes in permit effluent monitoring conditions. As a result, the TEDF effluent composition and variability of the effluent waste stream are now well defined.

  17. Effects of oil sands effluent on cattail and clover: photosynthesis and the level of stress proteins.

    PubMed

    Crowe, A U; Han, B; Kermode, A R; Bendell-Young, L I; Plant, A L

    2001-01-01

    The oil sands industry located in northeastern Alberta, Canada, generates large volumes of effluent characterized by a high level of dissolved ions and naphthenic acids. The dikes used to store the effluent seep, creating wetlands which are subsequently invaded by obligate wetland flora such as cattail (Typha latifolia L.). The appearance of these wetlands prompted the oil sands industry to consider wetlands as part of their reclamation strategy. However, to ensure long-term viability of such wetlands, the response of the flora to the industrial effluent needed to be determined. To this end, apparent photosynthesis (APS), the level of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBisCo) large subunit, dehydrin-related polypeptides, and protein disulphide isomerase (PDI) were evaluated in cattail and alsike clover plants (Trifolium hybridum L.) exposed to the oil sands effluent. APS measured in plants impacted by oil sands effluent was significantly higher than that of plants in the non-impacted off-site location. Among the on-site locations, plants growing in the natural wetlands site had higher APS compared to all other sites. The level of RuBisCo was not increased in cattail or clover growing in effluent-contaminated sites indicating that enhanced photosynthesis was not due to greater levels of this enzyme. Dehydrin-related polypeptides were detected only in the roots of cattail and were absent in clover. The polypeptide profile was altered in cattail exposed to oil sands effluent indicating that they were responding to an osmotic stress. The level of PDI was unaffected in the leaves of cattail regardless of the nature of the effluent to which they were exposed. Overall, the data indicate that cattail and clover are adapted to the oil sands effluent, although further studies are needed to assess their long-term ability to survive in the presence of this anthropogenic stress. PMID:11428139

  18. Waste Treatment Plant Liquid Effluent Treatability Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    LUECK, K.J.

    2001-06-07

    Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI) provided a forecast of the radioactive, dangerous liquid effluents expected to be generated by the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). The forecast represents the liquid effluents generated from the processing of 25 distinct batches of tank waste through the WTP. The WTP liquid effluents will be stored, treated, and disposed of in the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) and the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Fluor Hanford, Inc. (FH) evaluated the treatability of the WTP liquid effluents in the LERFIETF. The evaluation was conducted by comparing the forecast to the LERFIETF treatability envelope, which provides information on the items that determine if a liquid effluent is acceptable for receipt and treatment at the LERFIETF. The WTP liquid effluent forecast is outside the current LERFlETF treatability envelope. There are several concerns that must be addressed before the WTP liquid effluents can be accepted at the LERFIETF.

  19. 40 CFR 415.227 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Dioxide Production Subcategory § 415.227 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  20. 40 CFR 415.227 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Dioxide Production Subcategory § 415.227 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  1. 40 CFR 415.227 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Dioxide Production Subcategory § 415.227 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  2. 40 CFR 415.227 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Dioxide Production Subcategory § 415.227 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  3. 40 CFR 415.667 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Chlorate Production Subcategory § 415.667 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  4. 40 CFR 415.43 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.43 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  5. 40 CFR 415.657 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cobalt Salts Production Subcategory § 415.657 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  6. 40 CFR 426.67 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Tempering Subcategory § 426.67 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  7. 40 CFR 426.62 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Tempering Subcategory § 426.62 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  8. 40 CFR 426.77 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Laminating Subcategory § 426.77 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  9. 40 CFR 426.72 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Laminating Subcategory § 426.72 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  10. 40 CFR 426.62 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Tempering Subcategory § 426.62 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  11. 40 CFR 426.77 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Laminating Subcategory § 426.77 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  12. 40 CFR 426.77 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Laminating Subcategory § 426.77 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  13. 40 CFR 426.77 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Laminating Subcategory § 426.77 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  14. 40 CFR 426.73 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Laminating Subcategory § 426.73 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  15. 40 CFR 426.67 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Tempering Subcategory § 426.67 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  16. 40 CFR 426.77 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Laminating Subcategory § 426.77 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  17. 40 CFR 426.73 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Laminating Subcategory § 426.73 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  18. 40 CFR 426.62 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Tempering Subcategory § 426.62 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  19. 40 CFR 426.62 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Tempering Subcategory § 426.62 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  20. 40 CFR 426.73 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Laminating Subcategory § 426.73 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  1. 40 CFR 426.62 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Tempering Subcategory § 426.62 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  2. 40 CFR 426.67 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Tempering Subcategory § 426.67 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  3. 40 CFR 426.72 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Laminating Subcategory § 426.72 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  4. 40 CFR 415.142 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory § 415.142 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  5. 40 CFR 415.142 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory § 415.142 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  6. 40 CFR 415.143 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory § 415.143 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  7. 40 CFR 415.142 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory § 415.142 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  8. 40 CFR 415.142 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory § 415.142 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  9. 40 CFR 415.143 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory § 415.143 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  10. 40 CFR 415.143 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory § 415.143 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  11. 40 CFR 415.143 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory § 415.143 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  12. 40 CFR 415.142 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory § 415.142 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  13. 40 CFR 415.143 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory § 415.143 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  14. 40 CFR 406.67 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Parboiled Rice Processing Subcategory § 406.67 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  15. 40 CFR 415.432 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Iodine Production Subcategory § 415.432 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  16. 40 CFR 415.432 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Iodine Production Subcategory § 415.432 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  17. 40 CFR 415.432 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Iodine Production Subcategory § 415.432 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  18. 40 CFR 415.432 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Iodine Production Subcategory § 415.432 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  19. 40 CFR 415.432 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Iodine Production Subcategory § 415.432 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  20. 40 CFR 424.37 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Slag Processing Subcategory § 424.37 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  1. 40 CFR 424.33 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Slag Processing Subcategory § 424.33 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  2. 40 CFR 424.32 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Slag Processing Subcategory § 424.32 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  3. 40 CFR 424.32 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Slag Processing Subcategory § 424.32 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  4. 40 CFR 424.37 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Slag Processing Subcategory § 424.37 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  5. 40 CFR 424.33 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Slag Processing Subcategory § 424.33 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  6. 40 CFR 415.343 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chrome Pigments Production Subcategory § 415.343 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  7. 40 CFR 415.343 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chrome Pigments Production Subcategory § 415.343 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  8. 40 CFR 415.343 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chrome Pigments Production Subcategory § 415.343 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  9. 40 CFR 415.343 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chrome Pigments Production Subcategory § 415.343 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  10. 40 CFR 415.347 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chrome Pigments Production Subcategory § 415.347 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  11. 40 CFR 415.347 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chrome Pigments Production Subcategory § 415.347 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  12. 40 CFR 415.347 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chrome Pigments Production Subcategory § 415.347 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  13. 40 CFR 415.347 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chrome Pigments Production Subcategory § 415.347 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  14. 40 CFR 415.347 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chrome Pigments Production Subcategory § 415.347 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  15. 40 CFR 415.343 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chrome Pigments Production Subcategory § 415.343 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  16. 40 CFR 415.412 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hydrogen Production Subcategory § 415.412 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  17. 40 CFR 415.427 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hydrogen Cyanide Production Subcategory § 415.427 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  18. 40 CFR 415.272 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Borax Production Subcategory § 415.272 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  19. 40 CFR 415.272 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Borax Production Subcategory § 415.272 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  20. 40 CFR 415.272 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Borax Production Subcategory § 415.272 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  1. 40 CFR 415.272 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Borax Production Subcategory § 415.272 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  2. 40 CFR 415.272 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Borax Production Subcategory § 415.272 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  3. 40 CFR 415.552 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Fluoride Production Subcategory § 415.552 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  4. 40 CFR 415.237 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Fluoride Production Subcategory § 415.237 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  5. 40 CFR 415.552 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Fluoride Production Subcategory § 415.552 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  6. 40 CFR 415.552 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Fluoride Production Subcategory § 415.552 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  7. 40 CFR 415.237 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Fluoride Production Subcategory § 415.237 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  8. 40 CFR 415.237 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Fluoride Production Subcategory § 415.237 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  9. 40 CFR 415.237 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Fluoride Production Subcategory § 415.237 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  10. 40 CFR 415.552 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Fluoride Production Subcategory § 415.552 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  11. 40 CFR 415.552 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Fluoride Production Subcategory § 415.552 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  12. 40 CFR 415.237 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Fluoride Production Subcategory § 415.237 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  13. Characteristics of treated effluents and their potential applications for producing concrete.

    PubMed

    Noruzman, Ainul Haezah; Muhammad, Bala; Ismail, Mohammad; Abdul-Majid, Zaiton

    2012-11-15

    Conservation and preservation of freshwater is increasingly becoming important as the global population grows. Presently, enormous volumes of freshwater are used to mix concrete. This paper reports experimental findings regarding the feasibility of using treated effluents as alternatives to freshwater in mixing concrete. Samples were obtained from three effluent sources: heavy industry, a palm-oil mill and domestic sewage. The effluents were discharge into public drain without danger to human health and natural environment. Chemical compositions and physical properties of the treated effluents were investigated. Fifteen compositional properties of each effluent were correlated with the requirements set out by the relevant standards. Concrete mixes were prepared using the effluents and freshwater to establish a base for control performance. The concrete samples were evaluated with regard to setting time, workability, compressive strength and permeability. The results show that except for some slight excesses in total solids and pH, the properties of the effluents satisfy the recommended disposal requirements. Two concrete samples performed well for all of the properties investigated. In fact, one sample was comparatively better in compressive strength than the normal concrete; a 9.4% increase was observed at the end of the curing period. Indeed, in addition to environmental conservation, the use of treated effluents as alternatives to freshwater for mixing concrete could save a large amount of freshwater, especially in arid zones. PMID:22705857

  14. Ecotoxicological Risks Associated with Land Treatment of Petrochemical Wastes. I. Residual Soil Contamination and Bioaccumulation by Cotton Rats (Sigmodon Hispidus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jackie Schroder; Nicholas Basta; Mark Payton; James Wilson; Ruth Carlson; David Janz; Robert Lochmiller

    2003-01-01

    Petrochemical waste contains both organic and inorganic contaminants that can pollute soil and may pose significant ecological risks to wildlife. Petrochemical waste typically is disposed of in land treatment units, which are widespread throughout Oklahoma and the United States. Few studies have been conducted evaluating possible toxicity risks to terrestrial organisms residing on these units. In this study, the extent

  15. Effects of ammonium effluents on planktonic primary production and decomposition in a coastal brackish water environment I. Nutrient balance of the water body and effluent tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamminen, T.

    Effects of ammonium discharge on the regulation of photosynthetic production was studied from June to October 1979 in the Archipelago Sea, near the entrance of the Gulf of Finland. Sampled were the inner archipelago loaded with ammonium-rich industry effluents and some stations towards the open sea. Acute effects of effluent on natural algal and bacterial communities were tested by measurements of primary productivity and heterotrophic activity. Effluent tests were also conducted with a test alga ( Chorella sp.). Nutrient ratios and AGP tests indicated that nitrogen was the principal limiting nutrient for algal growth even in the ammonium-loaded regions. Therefore, the discharge causes a considerable eutrophication in the area. Effluent concentrations from 0.01 to 1% stimulated primary productivity of natural algal communities up to 230% of the control, whereas 10% concentrations were toxic. Test algae tolerated also 10% of effluent in some cases, and showed stimulations up to 960% of the control. No stimulation of heterotrophic activity was usually detected in effluent tests, and the threshold of toxicity was considerably lower than with algae. The effect of effluents on heterotrophic bacteria of the water body is therefore likely to be mediated through autotrophic production.

  16. Assessment of the levels of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene and air polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in PM2.5 for adult exposure to the petrochemical complex emissions.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Tzu-Hsuen; Shie, Ruei-Hao; Chin, Yu-Yen; Chan, Chang-Chuan

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between external exposure and internal doses of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has not been established for people living in industrial areas. This study was carried out to estimate the relationship between particle-phase PAH exposure and urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) levels among the adults living near a large petrochemical complex in Mailiao, Taiwan. We measured urinary 1-OHP in 781 residents above 35 years old and PM2.5 PAHs within a 20-km radius downwind from the petrochemical complex. Urinary 1-OHP was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography, while 16 ambient particle-phase PAHs were measured by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. External exposures to individual PAHs at each study subject's address were estimated by kriging interpolation from air sampling results and regressed against the subjects' urinary 1-OHP levels, adjusting for confounding factors. The study population's urinary 1-OHP levels ranged from 0.001 to 3.005 ?mol/mol-creatinine with significantly higher levels for females, grilled food consumers, and residents living close to roads. All 16 particle-phase PAHs were present in the study area with total PAH concentrations ranging from 0.111 to 1.982 ng/m(3). The spatial distribution of 4- and 5-ring PAHs identified high-concentration hotspots close to the complex in Mailiao. The multiple regression models showed that the adults' urinary 1-OHP levels were significantly correlated with 5 out of the 16 PAHs, including benzo[a]anthracene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, fluoranthene, pyrene, and dibenzo[a,h]anthracene; a 0.01 ng/m(3) increase in the concentration of these 5 PAHs at the study subjects' addresses was associated with a 20% elevation in urinary 1-OHP levels (?g/g-creatinine). Emissions from a petrochemical complex can elevate particle-phase PAH concentrations in surrounding areas and increase the urinary 1-OHP levels of adults living nearby. PMID:25460640

  17. Water Quality of Effluent-dominated Ecosystems: Ecotoxicological, Hydrological, and Management Considerations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bryan W. Brooks; Timothy M. Riley; Ritchie D. Taylor

    2006-01-01

    In arid and semi-arid regions of the southwestern United States and other parts of the world, flows of historically ephemeral\\u000a streams are now perennially dominated by municipal and\\/or industrial effluent discharges, particularly in urbanized watersheds.\\u000a Because effluent-dominated and dependent water bodies have previously received limited scientific study, we reviewed select\\u000a contemporary topics associated with water quality of ephemeral streams receiving

  18. Major ion toxicity in effluents: A review with permitting recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Goodfellow, W.L.; Ausley, L.W.; Burton, D.T.; Denton, D.L.; Dorn, P.B.; Grothe, D.R.; Heber, M.A.; Norberg-King, T.J.; Rodgers, J.H. Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Effluent toxicity testing methods have been well defined, but for the most part, these methods do not attempt to segregate the effects of active ionic concentrations and ion imbalances upon test and species performances. The role of various total dissolved solids in effluents on regulatory compliance has emerged during the last few years and has caused confusion in technical assessment and in permitting and compliance issues. This paper assesses the issue of ionic strength and ion imbalance, provides a brief summary of applicable data, presents several case studies demonstrating successful tools to address toxicity resulting from salinity and ion imbalance, and provides recommendations for regulatory and compliance options to manage discharges with salinity/ion imbalance issues. Effluent toxicity resulting from inorganic ion imbalance and the ion concentration of the effluent is pervasive in permitted discharge from many industrial process and municipal discharges where process streams are concentrated, adjusted, or modified. This paper discusses procedures that use weight-of-evidence approaches to identify ion imbalance toxicity, including direct measurement, predictive toxicity models for freshwater, exchange resins, mock effluents, and ion imbalance toxicity with tolerant/susceptible test species. Cost-effective waste treatment control options for a facility whose effluent is toxic because of total dissolved solids (TDS) or because of specific ion(s) are scarce at best. Depending on the discharge situation, TDS toxicity may not be viewed with the same level of concern as other, more traditional, toxicants. These discharge situations often do not require the conservative safety factors required by other toxicants. Selection of the alternative regulatory solutions discussed in this paper may be beneficial, especially because they do not require potentially expensive or high-energy-using treatment options that may be ineffective control options. The information presented is intended to provide a better understanding of the role of ion imbalance in aquatic toxicity testing and to provide various recommendations that should be considered in addressing these issues.

  19. Benefits and costs of pulp and paper effluent controls under the Clean Water Act

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralph A. Luken; F. Reed Johnson; Virginia Kibler

    1992-01-01

    This study quantifies local improvements in environmental quality from controlling effluents in the pulp and paper industry. Although it is confined to a single industry, this study is the first effort to assess the actual net benefits of the Clean Water Act pollution control program. An assessment of water quality benefits requires linking regulatory policy, technical effects, and behavioral responses.

  20. Industrial water treatment chemicals and processes. Developments since 1978

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Collie

    1983-01-01

    The more than 250 processes on which this book is based relate to various aspects of industrial water treatment. The tightening of standards in recent years for industrial effluents and, subsequently, water quality makes these processes particularly attractive. Waters treated range from boiler water to cooling towers to process effluents and wastewaters; and the chemical agents used and methods of

  1. Protection of equipment from corrosion. [USSR petroluem refinery and petrochemical plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. N. Umutbaev; V. K. Efimova; V. V. Fryazinov; E. A. Sapozhnikova; V. G. Savkova

    2009-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the equipment corrosion in process units in petroleum refineries and petrochemical plants which is one of the main obstacles to extension of the operating runs between maintenance shutdowns and reductions in the volume and cost of maintenance operations. Of the modern process units in refineries, the most susceptibile to severe corrosion are the primary crude

  2. The Comparison of MBBR and ASP for Treatment on Petrochemical Wastewater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C.-Y. Cao; Y.-H. Zhao

    2012-01-01

    In order to study the character of a Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor (MBBR) in treating petrochemical wastewater, the authors offer the comparison experiment between MBBR and activated sludge process (ASP) regarding such factors as hydraulic retention time (HRT), organic loading rate, and air flow rate. The optimal condition of MBBR is that air flow rate be equal to 1.25 L\\/min

  3. [The effect of atmospheric pollution in petroleum refining, petrochemical and chemical regions on population mortality].

    PubMed

    Sabirova, Z F

    1999-01-01

    The composition of ambient air pollution in the towns having petrochemical and other chemical enterprises in 1979-1996 was studied. Hydrocarbons were prevalent in the air of these towns. Air pollution causes a greater neoplasm mortality among males and a higher incidence of respiratory and digestive diseases. PMID:10560181

  4. Characterization of a Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon–Degrading Microbial Consortium from a Petrochemical Sludge Landfarming Site

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rodrigo J. S. Jacques; Benedict C. Okeke; Fatima M. Bento; Maria C. R. Peralba; Flávio A. O. Camargo

    2007-01-01

    Anthracene, phenanthrene, and pyrene are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) that display both mutagenic and carcinogenic properties. They are recalcitrant to microbial degradation in soil and water due to their complex molecular structure and low solubility in water. This study presents the characterization of an efficient PAH (anthracene, phenanthrene, and pyrene)-degrading microbial consortium, isolated from a petrochemical sludge landfarming site. Soil

  5. Ambient volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations around a petrochemical complex and a petroleum refinery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eylem Cetin; Mustafa Odabasi; Remzi Seyfioglu

    2003-01-01

    Air samples were collected between September 2000 and September 2001 in Izmir, Turkey at three sampling sites located around a petrochemical complex and an oil refinery to measure ambient volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations. VOC concentrations were 4–20-fold higher than those measured at a suburban site in Izmir, Turkey. Ethylene dichloride, a leaded gasoline additive used in petroleum refining and

  6. Fluidised bed pyrolysis of low density polyethylene to produce petrochemical feedstock

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul T Williams; Elizabeth A Williams

    1999-01-01

    Pyrolysis of plastic waste has been proposed as a tertiary or feedstock recycling route where the plastic waste materials are processed back to produce basic petrochemicals that can be used as feedstock to make virgin plastic or refined fuels. The detailed analysis of the derived products from the pyrolysis of plastics provides data on the suitability of the process and

  7. Ecological interface design for petrochemical applications: supporting operator adaptation, continuous learning, and distributed, collaborative work

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Greg A. Jamieson; Kim J. Vicente

    2001-01-01

    Future support systems for operators of petrochemical refineries will have to support operator adaptation to unanticipated events, foster continuous learning, and facilitate distributed, collaborative work. This paper describes Ecological Interface Design, a candidate framework for human–computer interface design that has the potential to fulfill these diverse demands. Support for adaptation and continuous learning is demonstrated though the design of a

  8. A contribution to the surface analysis and characterisation of HVOF coatings for petrochemical application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Scrivani; S Ianelli; A Rossi; R Groppetti; F Casadei; G Rizzi

    2001-01-01

    The appropriate selection of bulk materials and coatings of valve components is an important factor for the economic success of oil and gas production activities in the petrochemical field. Materials and coatings are important because particle erosion and surface wear are associated to corrosion by hydrogen sulphide during oil and gas flow. The wear of high pressure valves of gas

  9. Rhamnolipid production by indigenous Pseudomonas aeruginosa J4 originating from petrochemical wastewater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu-Hong Wei; Chien-Liang Chou; Jo-Shu Chang

    2005-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa J4, isolated from wastewater of a petrochemical factory located in southern Taiwan, was used to produce rhamnolipid from a variety of carbon substrates, including hydrophilic substrates, vegetable oils, and mineral oils. The P. aeruginosa J4 strain was able to assimilate the seven carbon substrates examined (namely, glucose, glycerol, olive oil, sunflower oil, grape seed oil, diesel, and kerosene),

  10. Research on the Optimization Strategy of Maintenance Spare Parts Inventory Management for Petrochemical Vehicle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huang Jianfeng; Zhao Jingying; Wu Xiaodong

    2011-01-01

    Inventory control of spare parts is essential to many organizations, since excess inventory leads to high holding costs and stock outs can have a great impact on operations performance. The paper analyses and summarizes a series problems exiting in the department of petrochemical locomotive maintenance, and presents an optimization strategy for its spare parts inventory management. Firstly, it builds an

  11. An evaluation of the whole effluent toxicity test method

    SciTech Connect

    Osteen, D.V.

    1999-12-17

    Whole effluent toxicity (WET) testing has become increasingly more important to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the States in the permitting of wastewater discharges from industry and municipalities. The primary purpose of the WET test is to protect aquatic life by predicting the effect of an effluent on the receiving stream. However, there are both scientific and regulatory concerns that using WET tests to regulate industrial effluents may result in either false positives and/or false negatives. In order to realistically predict the effect of an effluent on the receiving stream, the test should be as representative as possible of the conditions in the receiving stream. Studies (Rand and Petrocelli 1985) suggested several criteria for an ideal aquatic toxicity test organism, one of which is that the organism be indigenous to, or representative of, the ecosystem receiving the effluent. The other component needed in the development of a predictive test is the use of the receiving stream water or similar synthetic water as the control and dilution water in the test method. Use of an indigenous species and receiving water in the test should help reduce the variability in the method and allow the test to predict the effect of the effluent on the receiving stream. The experience with toxicity testing at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has yielded inconclusive data because of the inconsistency and unreliability of the results. The SRS contention is that the WET method in its present form does not adequately mimic actual biological/chemical conditions of the receiving streams and is neither reasonable nor accurate. This paper discusses the rationale for such a position by SRS on toxicity testing in terms of historical permitting requirements, outfall effluent test results, standard test method evaluation, scientific review of alternate test species, and concerns over the test method expressed by other organizations. This paper presents the Savannah River Site position that the EPA test is neither reasonable nor accurate and thus cannot adequately establish the impact of NPDES outfall discharges on receiving streams.

  12. NMR shielding and a thermodynamic study of the effect of environmental exposure to petrochemical solvent on DPPC, an important component of lung surfactant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monajjemi, M.; Afsharnezhad, S.; Jaafari, M. R.; Abdolahi, T.; Nikosade, A.; Monajemi, H.

    2007-12-01

    The chemical and petrochemical industries are the major air polluters. Millions of workers are exposed to toxic chemicals on the job, and it is becoming more toxic, causing much damage to respiratory system, today. One of the main components of lung alveoli is a surfactant. DPPC (Dipalmitolphosphatidylcholine) is the predominant lipid component in the lung surfactant, which is responsible for lowering surface tension in alveoli. In this article, we used an approximate model and ab initio computations to describe interactions between DPPC and some chemical solvents, such as benzene, toluene, heptane, acetone, chloroform, ether, and ethanol, which cause lung injuries and lead to respiratory distress such as ARDS. The effect of these solvents on the conformation and disordering of the DPPC head group was investigated by calculations at the Hatree-Fock level using the 6-31G basis set with the Onsager continuum solvation, GAIO, and frequency models. The simulation model was confirmed by accurate NMR measurements as concerns conformational energy. Water can be the most suitable solvent for DPPC. Furthermore, this study shows that ethanol has the most destructive effect on the conformation and lipid disorder of the DPPC head group of the lung surfactant in our model. Our finding will be useful for detecting the dysfunction of DPPC in the lung surfactant caused by acute or chronic exposures to air toxics from petrochemical organic solvent emission source and chronic alcohol consumption, which may lead to ARDS.

  13. Biological treatment of chemically flocculated agro-industrial waste from the wool scouring industry by an aerobic process without sludge recycle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew J Poole; Ralf Cord-Ruwisch; F. William Jones

    1999-01-01

    A new agro-industrial effluent known as Sirolan CF effluent is the aqueous phase remaining after the chemical flocculation of wool scouring effluent by the Sirolan CF process. This effluent has been characterized, and shown to be effectively treated by biological degradation. It has a high concentration of organic material (5750mg\\/L COD), with a low BOD5\\/COD ratio (0.29). Aerobic biological treatment

  14. Carbon dioxide sequestration in petrochemical industries with the aim of reduction in greenhouse gas emissions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maryam Takht Ravanchi; Saeed Sahebdelfar; Farnaz Tahriri Zangeneh

    2011-01-01

    The mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions to acceptable levels is arguably the greatest environmental challenge these days.\\u000a Vast utilization of fossil fuels and forest destruction are main causes of CO2 increase in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide sequestration that consists of separation, transportation and utilization or storage\\u000a of CO2, is one way for reduction of its emission, in which the most

  15. Principles of biotechnological treatment of industrial wastes.

    PubMed

    Roig, M G; Martín Rodriguez, M J; Cachaza, J M; Mendoza Sánchez, L; Kennedy, J F

    1993-01-01

    This review includes current information on biodegradation processes of pollutants, digestor biocenosis and bioadditives, sludge production, measurement of pollution, and advances regarding biotechnological treatment of a series of specific industrial effluents. PMID:8364976

  16. Removing textile mill effluent recalcitrant COD and toxicity using the H2O2/UV system.

    PubMed

    Mounteer, A H; Leite, T A; Lopes, A C; Medeiros, R C

    2009-01-01

    The potential of the H2O2/UV process for improving quality of an industrial textile effluent before biological treatment was evaluated in the laboratory using a multivariate experimental design to determine the effects of pH, H2O2 dose and reaction time on colour, COD and toxicity removal efficiencies. Increasing reaction time (from 10 to 120 min) and H2O2 dose (from 0 to 5 mmol L(-1)) significantly improved removal efficiencies, while increasing pH (from 4 to 10) had a negative effect on colour and toxicity removals. Laboratory H2O2/UV treatment of the mill effluent under optimum conditions (pH 7, 5 mmol L(-1) H2O2, 120 min) resulted in decreases in colour (70%), COD (21%) and toxicity (67%), without lowering BOD. H2O2 was consumed within the first 30-60 min, while the effluent average oxidation state stabilized after 60 min. Decreasing reaction time to 60 min resulted in similar colour (63%) and COD (20%) removals but lower toxicity removal (44%). Spectrophotometric monitoring of the optimized reaction indicated partial destruction of residual aromatic azo dyes. H2O2 and residual peroxide and average oxidation state of the effluent Effluent biodegradability (BOD/COD) increased by 28% after the H2O2/UV treatment. Improvements observed in effluent quality are expected to enhance combined AOP-biological treatment efficiency of the mill effluent. PMID:19809153

  17. Pulp and paper mill effluent treatments have differential endocrine-disrupting effects on rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Orrego, Rodrigo; Guchardi, John; Hernandez, Victor; Krause, Rachelle; Roti, Lucia; Armour, Jeffrey; Ganeshakumar, Mathumai; Holdway, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    Endocrine disruption (ED) effects due to pulp and paper mill effluents extracts involving different industrial procedures and effluent treatments (nontreated, primary, and secondary treated) were evaluated using immature triploid rainbow trout in a pulse-exposure toxicity experiment. The protocol involved the use of intraperitoneal injection of mill extracts (solid-phase extraction [SPE]) corrected for individual fish weight and included several laboratory standards (steroidal hormones and phytosterols). Biological endpoints at two different levels of biological organization were analyzed (molecular and individual organism). Results indicated that nonsignificant changes were observed in the individual physiological indices represented by condition factor, liver somatic index, and gonad somatic index during the experiment. Significant induction of liver ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity was observed between different effluent treatments and experimental controls. Significant endocrine-disrupting effects at the reproductive level were observed in all effluent treatments involving significant increments in plasma vitellogenin (VTG) levels. Fish exposed to untreated effluent extracts had significantly higher VTG levels compared to fish exposed to primary and secondary treatment effluent extracts, indicating a decrease of the estrogenic effect due to the effluent treatment. The present study has shown that for the Chilean pulp and paper mill SPE extracts evaluated, an endocrine disruption effect was induced in immature triploid rainbow, reaffirming the significant estrogenic effects demonstrated previously in laboratory and field experiments. PMID:18717619

  18. Measurement of fugitive volatile organic compound emissions from a petrochemical tank farm using open-path Fourier transform infrared spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chang-Fu; Wu, Tzong-gang; Hashmonay, Ram A.; Chang, Shih-Ying; Wu, Yu-Syuan; Chao, Chun-Ping; Hsu, Cheng-Ping; Chase, Michael J.; Kagann, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    Fugitive emission of air pollutants is conventionally estimated based on standard emission factors. The Vertical Radial Plume Mapping (VRPM) technique, as described in the US EPA OTM-10, is designed to measure emission flux by directly monitoring the concentration of the plume crossing a vertical plane downwind of the site of interest. This paper describes the evaluation results of implementing VRPM in a complex industrial setting (a petrochemical tank farm). The vertical plane was constructed from five retroreflectors and an open-path Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The VRPM configuration was approximately 189.2 m in width × 30.7 m in height. In the accompanying tracer gas experiment, the bias of the VRPM estimate was less than 2% and its 95% confidence interval contained the true release rate. Emission estimates of the target VOCs (benzene, m-xylene, o-xylene, p-xylene, and toluene) ranged from 0.86 to 2.18 g s-1 during the 14-day field campaign, while estimates based on the standard emission factors were one order of magnitude lower, possibly leading to an underestimation of the impact of these fugitive emissions on air quality and human health. It was also demonstrated that a simplified 3-beam geometry (i.e., without one dimensional scanning lines) resulted in higher uncertainties in the emission estimates.

  19. Strategies for chromium bioremediation of tannery effluent.

    PubMed

    Garg, Satyendra Kumar; Tripathi, Manikant; Srinath, Thiruneelakantan

    2012-01-01

    Bioremediation offers the possibility of using living organisms (bacteria, fungi, algae,or plants), but primarily microorganisms, to degrade or remove environmental contaminants, and transform them into nontoxic or less-toxic forms. The major advantages of bioremediation over conventional physicochemical and biological treatment methods include low cost, good efficiency, minimization of chemicals, reduced quantity of secondary sludge, regeneration of cell biomass, and the possibility of recover-ing pollutant metals. Leather industries, which extensively employ chromium compounds in the tanning process, discharge spent-chromium-laden effluent into nearby water bodies. Worldwide, chromium is known to be one of the most common inorganic contaminants of groundwater at pollutant hazardous sites. Hexavalent chromium poses a health risk to all forms of life. Bioremediation of chromium extant in tannery waste involves different strategies that include biosorption, bioaccumulation,bioreduction, and immobilization of biomaterial(s). Biosorption is a nondirected physiochemical interaction that occurs between metal species and the cellular components of biological species. It is metabolism-dependent when living biomass is employed, and metabolism-independent in dead cell biomass. Dead cell biomass is much more effective than living cell biomass at biosorping heavy metals, including chromium. Bioaccumulation is a metabolically active process in living organisms that works through adsorption, intracellular accumulation, and bioprecipitation mechanisms. In bioreduction processes, microorganisms alter the oxidation/reduction state of toxic metals through direct or indirect biological and chemical process(es).Bioreduction of Cr6+ to Cr3+ not only decreases the chromium toxicity to living organisms, but also helps precipitate chromium at a neutral pH for further physical removal,thus offering promise as a bioremediation strategy. However, biosorption, bioaccumulation, and bioreduction methods that rely on free cells for bioremediation suffer from Cr6 toxicity, and cell damage. Therefore, immobilization of microbial cell biomass enhances bioremediation and renders industrial bioremediation processes more economically viable from reduced free-cells toxicity, easier separation of biosorbents from the tannery effluent, ability to achieve multiple biosorption cycles, and desorption (elution) of metal(s) from matrices for reuse. Thus, microbial bioremediation can be a cost competitive strategy and beneficial bioresource for removing many hazardous contaminants from tannery and other industrial wastes. PMID:22350558

  20. Histopathological and histochemical changes in the oocytes of the air-breathing fish Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch) exposed to textile-mill effluent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. G. Murugesan; M. A. Haniffa

    1992-01-01

    effluents discharged into the River Tambaraparani (Tamil Nadu, India) are of great interest to all concerned with water quality in these waters primarily because of high potential input of suspended solids (Sprague and McLeese 1968) and oxygen consuming materials (Johnson 1977). Hence, in our previous investigations we have studied the effects of industrial effluents on histopathology (Haniffa and Sundaravadhanam 1984),

  1. Metal accumulation potential of wild plants in tannery effluent contaminated soil of Kasur, Pakistan: Field trials for toxic metal cleanup using Suaeda fruticosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Firdaus-e Bareen; Syeda Anjum Tahira

    2011-01-01

    The tannery effluent contaminated lands, adjacent to Depalpur Road, Kasur, Pakistan, have been rendered infertile due to long term effluent logging from the leather industry. The area has been colonized by twelve plant species among which Suaeda fruticosa, Salvadora oleoides and Calatropis procera have been found to be the most common and high biomass producing plants. S. fruticosa was subjected

  2. Evaluation of site-specific criteria for copper and zinc: an integration of metal addition toxicity, effluent and receiving water toxicity, and ecological survey data

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, A.R.; Nelson, H.; Hammermeister, D.E.

    1986-04-01

    Comparative laboratory toxicity tests using daphnids Ceriodaphnia dubia and fathead minnows Pimephales promelas were conducted to establish and evaluate relationships between the toxicity of domestic and industrial effluents containing copper and zinc, toxicity of the effluents in Naugatuck River, Connecticut receiving water, toxicity of each metal added to the receiving water and a reference water, and receiving water ecological survey data.

  3. Laboratory testing protocol for the impact of dispersed petrochemicals on seagrass.

    PubMed

    Wilson, K G; Ralph, P J

    2012-11-01

    To improve the effectiveness of oil spill mitigation, we developed a rapid, logistically simple protocol to detect petrochemical stress on seagrass. Sections of leaf blades from Zostera muelleri subsp. capricorni were exposed to the water accommodated fraction (WAF) of non-dispersed and dispersed Tapis crude oil and fuel oil (IFO-380) for 5h. Photosynthetic health was monitored by assessing changes in effective quantum yield of photosystem II (?F/F(m)(')) and chlorophyll a pigment concentrations. Loss of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) was measured using an oil-in-water fluorometer, whilst GC-MS analyses quantified the hydrocarbon components within each treatment. Few significant differences were detected in the chlorophyll a pigment analyses; however, ?F/F(m)(') appeared sensitive to petrochemical exposure. Dispersing both types of oil resulted in a substantial increase in the TPH of the WAF and was generally correlated with a greater physiological impact to the seagrass health, compared with the oil alone. PMID:22959173

  4. Physicochemical and thermal characteristics of the sludge produced after thermochemical treatment of petrochemical wastewater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shilpi Verma; Basheshwar Prasad; I. M. Mishra

    2012-01-01

    The present work describes the physicochemical and thermal characteristics of the sludge generated after thermochemical treatment of wastewater from a petrochemical plant manufacturing purified terephthalic acid (PTA). Although FeCl3 was found to be more effective than CuSO4 in removing COD from wastewater, the settling and filtration characteristics of FeCl3 sludge were poorer. Addition of cationic polyacrylamide (CPAA; 0.050 kg\\/m) to the

  5. Cancer incidence and mortality near the Baglan Bay petrochemical works, South Wales

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Sans; P Elliott; I Kleinschmidt; G Shaddick; S Pattenden; P Walls; C Grundy; H Dolk

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To study incidence and mortality of leukaemias, cancer of the larynx, and other cancers near the petrochemical plant at Baglan Bay, in response to local concerns of an alleged cluster of cancers in the vicinity. METHODS--This is a small area study of cancer incidence, 1974-84 and of mortality, 1981-91 based on the national postcoded data held by the Small Area

  6. Mutagenicity of the environments in the vicinity of an oil refinery and a petrochemical complex

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William R. Lower; V. Kay Drobney; Betty J. Aholt; Raymond Politte

    1983-01-01

    The mutagenicity of the vicinity of an oil-refining complex and a petrochemical complex was examined using the germinal revertant frequency of Zea mays waxy-C W22 and the somatic stamen hair system of Tradescantia. A 3-year study was conducted at Wood River, Illinois, in 1978, 1979, and 1980, and a 1-year study in 1979 at Beaumont, Texas. The studies conducted in

  7. Ambient volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations around a petrochemical complex and a petroleum refinery.

    PubMed

    Cetin, Eylem; Odabasi, Mustafa; Seyfioglu, Remzi

    2003-08-01

    Air samples were collected between September 2000 and September 2001 in Izmir, Turkey at three sampling sites located around a petrochemical complex and an oil refinery to measure ambient volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations. VOC concentrations were 4-20-fold higher than those measured at a suburban site in Izmir, Turkey. Ethylene dichloride, a leaded gasoline additive used in petroleum refining and an intermediate product of the vinyl chloride process in the petrochemical complex, was the most abundant volatile organic compound, followed by ethyl alcohol and acetone. Evaluations based on wind direction clearly indicated that ambient VOC concentrations measured were affected by the refinery and petrochemical complex emissions. VOC concentrations showed seasonal variations at all sampling sites. Concentrations were highest in summer, followed by autumn, probably due to increased evaporation of VOCs from fugitive sources as a result of higher temperatures. VOC concentrations generally increased with temperature and wind speed. Temperature and wind speed together explained 1-60% of the variability in VOC concentrations. The variability in ambient VOC concentrations that could not be explained by temperature and wind speed can be attributed to the effect of other factors (i.e. wind direction, other VOC sources). PMID:12873403

  8. Microbe removal in secondary effluent by filtration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Franca Zanetti; Giovanna De Luca; Rossella Sacchetti

    2006-01-01

    A study was carried out to assess the efficiency of filtration in reducing microbial contamination in municipal secondary\\u000a effluent. After primary and secondary treatments, the wastewater underwent filtration through sand\\/hydroanthracite filters.\\u000a A total of 20 samplings were made, each consisting of two instant samples (secondary effluent and filtered effluent). Each\\u000a of the 40 samples was tested for: total and faecal

  9. Single cell protein from pineapple cannery effluent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. N. Nigam

    1998-01-01

    Candida utilis was grown on pineapple cannery effluent as the sole carbon and energy source. These effluents are rich in microbially utilizable nutrients. The principal sugars in the effluent were glucose, fructose and sucrose, and when supplemented with diammonium hydrogen phosphate to prevent nitrogen limitation they supported good growth. The maximum specific growth rate (µm=0.46h–1) and cell yield coefficient (Yc\\/s=0.30)

  10. Micropollutants produced by disinfection of wastewater effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Jolley, R.L.; Cumming, R.B.; Lee, N.E.; Thompson, J.E.; Lewis, L.R.

    1981-01-01

    Recent research conducted with the objective of determining some of the chemical mutagenic characteristics of nonvolatile micropollutants in treated wastewater effluents is summarized. The effluents from nine wastewater plants were examined relative to the chemical effects of the disinfectants chlorine, ozone, and uv light on nonvolatile organic constituents and the formation of mutagenic constituents during disinfection. Results indicate that disinfection by chlorine or ozone can lead to an increase in the number of mutagenic materials in the effluents. (JGB)

  11. High Speed/ Low Effluent Process for Ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    M. Clark Dale

    2006-10-30

    n this project, BPI demonstrated a new ethanol fermentation technology, termed the High Speed/ Low Effluent (HS/LE) process on both lab and large pilot scale as it would apply to wet mill and/or dry mill corn ethanol production. The HS/LE process allows very rapid fermentations, with 18 to 22% sugar syrups converted to 9 to 11% ethanol ‘beers’ in 6 to 12 hours using either a ‘consecutive batch’ or ‘continuous cascade’ implementation. This represents a 5 to 8X increase in fermentation speeds over conventional 72 hour batch fermentations which are the norm in the fuel ethanol industry today. The ‘consecutive batch’ technology was demonstrated on a large pilot scale (4,800 L) in a dry mill corn ethanol plant near Cedar Rapids, IA (Xethanol Biofuels). The pilot demonstrated that 12 hour fermentations can be accomplished on an industrial scale in a non-sterile industrial environment. Other objectives met in this project included development of a Low Energy (LE) Distillation process which reduces the energy requirements for distillation from about 14,000 BTU/gal steam ($0.126/gal with natural gas @ $9.00 MCF) to as low as 0.40 KW/gal electrical requirements ($0.022/gal with electricity @ $0.055/KWH). BPI also worked on the development of processes that would allow application of the HS/LE fermentation process to dry mill ethanol plants. A High-Value Corn ethanol plant concept was developed to produce 1) corn germ/oil, 2) corn bran, 3) ethanol, 4) zein protein, and 5) nutritional protein, giving multiple higher value products from the incoming corn stream.

  12. Treatment of colored effluents with lignin-degrading enzymes: an emerging role of marine-derived fungi.

    PubMed

    Raghukumar, Chandralata; D'Souza-Ticlo, Donna; Verma, Ashutosh Kumar

    2008-01-01

    Some of the industries that discharge highly colored effluents are paper and pulp mills, textiles and dye-making industries, alcohol distilleries, and leather industries. Terrestrial white-rot basidiomycetous fungi and their lignin-degrading enzymes laccase, manganese-peroxidase and lignin peroxidases are useful in the treatment of colored industrial effluents and other xenobiotics. Free mycelia, mycelial pellets, immobilized fungi or their lignin-degrading enzymes from terrestrial fungi have been reported in treatment of several effluents. Marine obligate or facultative (marine-derived) fungi may have unique properties but have not been explored sufficiently for this purpose. This article presents a critical review of bioremediation potential of such fungi and their lignin-degrading enzymes in comparison with the state-of-the-art in terrestrial white-rot fungi. PMID:19003603

  13. Impact of paper mill effluent on growth and development of certain agricultural crops.

    PubMed

    Medhi, U J; Talukdar, A K; Deka, S

    2011-03-01

    The physico-chemical characteristics of paper mill industry effluent were measured and some were found to be above the permissible limits prescribed by Indian irrigation water standard. A study was conducted in pots to investigate the effects of different concentrations (10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80 and 100%) of paper mill effluent on growth and production of rice, mustard and peafor three years. The study reveals that the paper mill effluent has deleterious effect on the growth of crop at higher concentrations. However, at lower concentration (viz. 10 to 40% in rice, 10 to 50% in mustard and 10 to 60% in pea) of effluent, beneficial impact on general welfare of the crops was noticed. Growth and development was increased with increasing the concentration of the effluent up to 30% in rice, 40% in mustard and 50% in pea. Investigation showed that the growth and production of rice, mustard and pea was found maximum at a concentration of 30, 40 and 50% effluent respectively. PMID:21882653

  14. Treatment of effluents from petroleum production by electron beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, Celina Lopes; Geraldo, Lucia Limoeiro; Junior, Oswaldo de Aquino P.; Borrely, Sueli Ivone; Sato, Ivone Mulako; Sampa, Maria Helena de Oliveira

    2004-09-01

    During the offshore oil production large volumes of aqueous waste with high salinity are produced. The produced water originates mainly from the oil-bearing formation but may also include seawater, which has been injected to maintain reservoir pressure. This water is normally separated from oil on the platform generating aqueous effluent with metals, sulfite, ammonium and organic compounds. The conventional treatment used includes filtration, flotation, ionic change and adsorption in activated charcoal, but the high salinity of this water decreases the treatment efficiency. The high efficiency of electron beam irradiation on removing organic compound in industrial effluent has been shown, and the primary aim of this study is to evaluate the efficiency of this new technology to treat the oil water production. Experiments were conducted using samples from two platforms processed in the radiation dynamics electron beam accelerator with 1.5 MeV energy and 37 kW power. The results showed that the electron beam technology has high efficiency in destroying organic compounds even in the presence of high salinity and complex effluent.

  15. Potential use of thermophilic dark fermentation effluents in photofermentative hydrogen production by Rhodobacter capsulatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ebru Özgür; Nilüfer Afsar; Truus de Vrije; Meral Yücel; Ufuk Gündüz; Pieternel A. M. Claassen; Inci Eroglu

    2010-01-01

    Biological hydrogen production by a sequential operation of dark and photofermentation is a promising route to produce hydrogen. The possibility of using renewable resources, like biomass and agro-industrial wastes, provides a dual effect of sustainability in biohydrogen production and simultaneous waste removal. In this study, photofermentative hydrogen production on effluents of thermophilic dark fermentations on glucose, potato steam peels (PSP)

  16. Remediation of Kraft E1 and black liquor effluents by biological and chemical processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. G. Moraes; N. Durán; R. S. Freire

    2006-01-01

    We sutdied the application of the bacteria Azotobacter vinellandi on the treatment of effluents from pulp and paper industry. Two types of treatment employing this microorganism were studied: biological treatment isolated and combined with stages of pre- or post-treatment using ozonation or photocatalysis processes. In the biological treatment, the siderophores production by A. vinellandi had a major effect on the

  17. Process for treating effluent from a supercritical water oxidation reactor

    DOEpatents

    Barnes, C.M.; Shapiro, C.

    1997-11-25

    A method for treating a gaseous effluent from a supercritical water oxidation reactor containing entrained solids is provided comprising the steps of expanding the gas/solids effluent from a first to a second lower pressure at a temperature at which no liquid condenses; separating the solids from the gas effluent; neutralizing the effluent to remove any acid gases; condensing the effluent; and retaining the purified effluent to the supercritical water oxidation reactor. 6 figs.

  18. Process for treating effluent from a supercritical water oxidation reactor

    DOEpatents

    Barnes, Charles M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Shapiro, Carolyn (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1997-01-01

    A method for treating a gaseous effluent from a supercritical water oxidation reactor containing entrained solids is provided comprising the steps of expanding the gas/solids effluent from a first to a second lower pressure at a temperature at which no liquid condenses; separating the solids from the gas effluent; neutralizing the effluent to remove any acid gases; condensing the effluent; and retaining the purified effluent to the supercritical water oxidation reactor.

  19. 40 CFR 440.55 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Ore Subcategory § 440.55 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  20. 40 CFR 471.66 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Forming Subcategory § 471.66 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  1. 40 CFR 471.66 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Forming Subcategory § 471.66 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  2. 40 CFR 440.55 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Ore Subcategory § 440.55 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  3. 40 CFR 471.66 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Forming Subcategory § 471.66 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  4. 40 CFR 440.55 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Ore Subcategory § 440.55 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  5. 40 CFR 471.66 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Forming Subcategory § 471.66 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  6. 40 CFR 440.55 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Ore Subcategory § 440.55 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  7. 40 CFR 471.56 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Refractory Metals Forming Subcategory § 471.56 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

  8. 40 CFR 471.56 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Refractory Metals Forming Subcategory § 471.56 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

  9. 40 CFR 471.56 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Refractory Metals Forming Subcategory § 471.56 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

  10. 40 CFR 471.56 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Refractory Metals Forming Subcategory § 471.56 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

  11. 40 CFR 471.56 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Refractory Metals Forming Subcategory § 471.56 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

  12. 40 CFR 409.87 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Puerto Rican Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.87 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  13. 40 CFR 409.62 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.62 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  14. 40 CFR 409.57 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Florida and Texas Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.57 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  15. 40 CFR 417.102 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Air-SO3 Sulfation and Sulfonation Subcategory § 417.102 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  16. 40 CFR 417.103 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Air-SO3 Sulfation and Sulfonation Subcategory § 417.103 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  17. 40 CFR 417.102 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Air-SO3 Sulfation and Sulfonation Subcategory § 417.102 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  18. 40 CFR 417.102 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Air-SO3 Sulfation and Sulfonation Subcategory § 417.102 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  19. 40 CFR 417.103 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Air-SO3 Sulfation and Sulfonation Subcategory § 417.103 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  20. 40 CFR 417.102 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Air-SO3 Sulfation and Sulfonation Subcategory § 417.102 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  1. 40 CFR 417.103 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Air-SO3 Sulfation and Sulfonation Subcategory § 417.103 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  2. 40 CFR 417.103 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Air-SO3 Sulfation and Sulfonation Subcategory § 417.103 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  3. 40 CFR 417.103 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Air-SO3 Sulfation and Sulfonation Subcategory § 417.103 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  4. 40 CFR 417.102 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Air-SO3 Sulfation and Sulfonation Subcategory § 417.102 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  5. 40 CFR 405.117 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS DAIRY PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Condensed Whey Subcategory § 405.117 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

  6. 40 CFR 405.127 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS DAIRY PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Dry Whey Subcategory § 405.127 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

  7. 40 CFR 406.47 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Bulgur Wheat Flour Milling Subcategory § 406.47 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  8. 40 CFR 406.37 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Normal Wheat Flour Milling Subcategory § 406.37 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  9. 40 CFR 406.32 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Normal Wheat Flour Milling Subcategory § 406.32 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  10. 40 CFR 406.33 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Normal Wheat Flour Milling Subcategory § 406.33 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  11. 40 CFR 417.42 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Glycerine Concentration Subcategory § 417.42 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

  12. 40 CFR 471.26 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Magnesium Forming Subcategory § 471.26 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  13. 40 CFR 436.242 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) MINERAL MINING AND PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Diatomite Subcategory § 436.242 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

  14. 40 CFR 436.242 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) MINERAL MINING AND PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Diatomite Subcategory § 436.242 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

  15. 40 CFR 436.242 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) MINERAL MINING AND PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Diatomite Subcategory § 436.242 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

  16. 40 CFR 427.42 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper (Elastomeric Binder) Subcategory § 427.42 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

  17. 40 CFR 427.43 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper (Elastomeric Binder) Subcategory § 427.43 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

  18. 40 CFR 406.52 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Normal Rice Milling Subcategory § 406.52 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  19. 40 CFR 406.52 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Normal Rice Milling Subcategory § 406.52 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  20. 40 CFR 406.53 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Normal Rice Milling Subcategory § 406.53 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...