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1

31 CFR 538.210 - Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries. 538... Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries. ...United States persons relating to the petroleum or petrochemical industries in...

2013-07-01

2

31 CFR 538.210 - Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries. 538... Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries. ...United States persons relating to the petroleum or petrochemical industries in...

2012-07-01

3

31 CFR 538.210 - Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries. 538... Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries. ...United States persons relating to the petroleum or petrochemical industries in...

2011-07-01

4

31 CFR 538.210 - Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries. 538... Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries. ...United States persons relating to the petroleum or petrochemical industries in...

2010-07-01

5

31 CFR 538.210 - Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries. 538... Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries. ...United States persons relating to the petroleum or petrochemical industries in...

2014-07-01

6

Identification and chemical characterization of specific organic constituents of petrochemical effluents.  

PubMed

Based on extensive GC/MS screening analyses, the molecular diversity of petrochemical effluents discharged to a river in North Rhine-Westphalia was characterised. Within a wide spectrum of organic wastewater constituents, specific compounds that might act as source indicators have been determined. This differentiation was based on (i) the individual molecular structures, (ii) the quantitative appearance of organic compounds in treated effluents and (iii) the information on their general occurrence in the technosphere and hydrosphere. Principally, site-specific indicators have been distinguished from candidates to act as general petrochemical indicators. Further on, monitoring the environmental behaviour of target organic contaminants in an aquatic system shortly after their release into the river allowed a first evaluation of the impact of the petrogenic emission in terms of the quantity and spatial distribution. The identification of petrogenic contaminants was not restricted to constituents of the effluents only, but comprised the compounds circulating in the wastewater systems within a petrochemical plant. A number of environmentally relevant and structurally specific substances that are normally eliminated by wastewater treatment facilities were identified. Insufficient wastewater treatment, careless waste handling or accidents at industrial complexes are potential sources for a single release of the pollutants. This study demonstrates the relevance of source specific organic indicators to be an important tool for comprehensive assessment of the potential impact of petrochemical activities to the contamination of an aquatic environment. PMID:19577787

Botalova, Oxana; Schwarzbauer, Jan; Frauenrath, Tom; Dsikowitzky, Larissa

2009-08-01

7

Regional Industry Workforce Development: The Gulf Coast Petrochemical Information Network  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Gulf Coast Petrochemical Information Network (GC-PIN) is a workforce development partnership among industry businesses and area institutions of higher education in the four-county Gulf Coast region. GC-PIN partners develop new industry-specific curricula, foster industry career awareness, and retrain existing employees in new technologies.

Hodgin, Johnette; Muha, Susan

2008-01-01

8

Organic Rankine Cycles for the Petro-Chemical Industry  

E-print Network

-plant demonstration in a process application. This paper will describe this program, the organic Rankine package, and the economics of its application in the petro-chemical process industry. Utilization of waste heat flows in the process industry has always been...

Rose, R. K.; Colosimo, D. D.

1979-01-01

9

31 CFR 538.536 - Activities relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic of South Sudan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false Activities relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic...538.536 Activities relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic...activities and transactions relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries...

2014-07-01

10

31 CFR 538.536 - Activities relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic of South Sudan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Activities relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic...538.536 Activities relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic...activities and transactions relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries...

2012-07-01

11

31 CFR 538.536 - Activities relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic of South Sudan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Activities relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic...538.536 Activities relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic...activities and transactions relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries...

2013-07-01

12

Utilization of Petrochemical Industry Waste Water for Agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field experiments were conducted to evaluate the impact of petrochemical industry waste water on certain physico-chemical properties of soil and on growth, yield and quality of corn (Zea mays L.) and mustard (Brassica juncea L. Czern and Coss). The pH of the waste water was near about neutral but it contained a higher amount of nitrogen, potassium, phosphate, sodium, chloride,

Ozair Aziz; Arif Inam; Samiullah

1999-01-01

13

Growth and heavy metals accumulation potential of microalgae grown in sewage wastewater and petrochemical effluents.  

PubMed

Microalgae exhibit a number of heavy metal uptake process by different metabolism. In this study, the ability of microalgae for removal of heavy metal from wastewater was studied. Growth and biochemical contents of microalgae were determined by spectrophotometer. Heavy metal analysis of wastewater effluents were performed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer before and after treatment at laboratory scale. The growth of Scenedesmus bijuga and Oscillatoria quadripunctulata in sewage wastewater was higher than those grown in synthetic medium. Whereas, the growth of S. bijuga and O. quadripunctulata in sterilized petrochemical effluents was slightly lower than that grown in the standard synthetic medium. The chlorophyll, carotenoid and protein content of S. bijuga and O. quadripunctulata grown in sterilized sewage wastewater were higher than those grown in the standard medium. Similarly S. bijuga and O. quadripunctulata grown in sterilized petrochemical effluents showed lower contents of pigments and protein than those grown in sewage and synthetic medium. Heavy metals copper, cobalt, lead and zinc were removed by 37-50, 20.3-33.3, 34.6-100 and 32.1-100%, respectively from sewage wastewater and petrochemical effluent using Ocillatoria culture. The metal absorption by S. bijuga were (Cu, Co, Pb, Zn) 60-50, 29.6-66, 15.4-25 and 42.9-50%, respectively from sewage and petrochemical effluents. Both species showed high level of heavy metal removal efficiency and metal sorption efficiency of both microalgae depended on the type of biosorbent, the physiological status of the cells, availability of heavy metal, concentration of heavy metal and chemical composition of wastewater. PMID:22545355

Ajayan, K V; Selvaraju, M; Thirugnanamoorthy, K

2011-08-15

14

A demonstration of biofiltration for VOC removal in petrochemical industries.  

PubMed

A biotrickling filter demo has been set up in a petrochemical factory in Sinopec Group for about 10 months with a maximum inlet gas flow rate of 3000 m3 h(-1). The purpose of this project is to assess the ability of the biotrickling filter to remove hardly biodegradable VOCs such as benzene, toluene and xylene which are recalcitrant and poorly water soluble and commonly found in petrochemical factories. Light-weight hollow ceramic balls (? 5-8 cm) were used as the packing media treated with large amounts of circulating water (2.4 m3 m(-2) h(-1)) added with bacterial species. The controlled empty bed retention time (EBRT) of 240 s is a key parameter for reaching a removal efficiency of 95% for benzene, toluene, xylene, and 90% for total hydrocarbons. The demo has been successfully adopted and practically applied in waste air treatments in many petrochemical industries for about two years. The net inlet concentrations of benzene, toluene and xylene were varied from 0.5 to 3 g m(-3). The biofiltration process is highly efficient for the removal of hydrophobic and recalcitrant VOCs with various concentrations from the petrochemical factories. The SEM analysis of the bacterial community in the BTF during VOC removal showed that Pseudomonas putida and Klebsiella sp. phylum were dominant and shutdown periods could play a role in forming the community structural differences and leading to the changes of removal efficiencies. PMID:24569855

Zhao, Lan; Huang, Shaobin; Wei, Zongmin

2014-05-01

15

Industrial Energy in Transition: A Petrochemical Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An industrial development involves the conversion of biomass, through fermentation, to useful chemical products and the gasification of municiple wastes to produce steam for electricity generation. These gases may also serve as chemical feedstocks. (Author/MA)

Wishart, Ronald S.

1978-01-01

16

Chemometric analysis of ecological toxicants in petrochemical and industrial environments.  

PubMed

The application of chemometrics in the assessment of toxicants, such as heavy metals (HMs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) potentially derived from petrochemical activities in the microenvironment, is vital in providing safeguards for human health of children and adults residing around petrochemical industrial regions. Several multivariate statistical methods are used in geosciences and environmental protection studies to classify, identify and group prevalent pollutants with regard to exhibited trends. Chemometrics can be applied for toxicant source identification, estimation of contaminants contributions to the toxicity of sites of interest, the assessment of the integral risk index of an area and provision of mitigating measures that limit or eliminate the contaminants identified. In this study, the principal component analysis (PCA) was used for dimensionality reduction of both organic and inorganic substances data in the environment, which are potentially hazardous. The high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs correlated positively with stronger impact on the model than the lower molecular weight (LMW) PAHs, the total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs), PAHs and BTEX correlate positively in the F1 vs F2 plot indicating similar source contributions of these pollutants in the environmental material. Cu, Cr, Cd, Fe, Zn and Pb all show positive correlation in the same space indicating similar source of contamination. Analytical processes involving environmental assessment data obtained in the Niger Delta area of Nigeria, confirmed the usefulness of chemometrics for comprehensive ecological evaluation. PMID:25048896

Olawoyin, Richard; Heidrich, Brenden; Oyewole, Samuel; Okareh, Oladapo T; McGlothlin, Charles W

2014-10-01

17

Automatic control in petroleum, petrochemical and desalination industries  

SciTech Connect

This is the second IFAC workshop on the subject of Automatic Control in Oil and Desalination Industries. Presentations and discussions underscored the priorities of oil and desalination industries in getting better overall quality, improved energy use, lower cost, and better safety and security. These factors will take on added importance to oil exporting nations that have been hit recently by large oil price declines, which are forcing them to improve the efficiency of their industries and rationalize all new capital expenditures. Papers presented at the workshop included reviews of theoretical developments in control and research in modelling, optimization, instrumentation and control. They included the latest developments in applications of control systems to petroleum, petrochemical and desalination industries such as refineries, multi-stage flash desalination, chemical reactors, and bioreactors. The papers covered the latest in the applications of adaptive control, robust control, decentralized control, bilinear control, measurement techniques, plant optimization and maintenance, and artificial intelligence. Several case studies on modernization of refineries and controls and its economics were included. Two panel discussions, on new projects at the Kuwait National Petroleum Company (KNPC) and needs for control systems were held. Participation in the workshop came from the oil industry and academic institutions.

Kotob, S.

1986-01-01

18

Long term effects of irrigation with petrochemical industry wastewater  

SciTech Connect

Split plot designed field trials were conducted during 1988-1995 to study the long term effects of petrochemical industry wastewater on six crops and agricultural soils. It was observed that wastewater irrigation resulted in increased seed yield of all the crops selected, viz. wheat, triticale, chickpea, lentil and pigeonpea, except summer moong which showed a decrease in seed yield. Soil receiving the wastewater showed no significant changes in pH, total organic carbon, electrical conductivity, cation exchange capacity, micro- and macro-nutrients and SAR. Thus, it may be concluded that treated refinery wastewater met the irrigational quality requirements as its physico-chemical characteristics were within the permissible limits. The same could be said for the accumulation of heavy metals in the soil as well as in the grains making the latter safe for human consumption. 28 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Aziz, O.; Inam, A.; Samiullah; Siddiqi, R.H. [Aligarh Muslim Univ. (India)

1996-11-01

19

Industrial effluent quality, pollution monitoring and environmental management.  

PubMed

Royal Commission Environmental Control Department (RC-ECD) at Yanbu industrial city in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has established a well-defined monitoring program to control the pollution from industrial effluents. The quality of effluent from each facility is monitored round the clock. Different strategic measures have been taken by the RC-ECD to implement the zero discharge policy of RC. Industries are required to pre-treat the effluent to conform pretreatment standards before discharging to central biological treatment plant. Industries are not allowed to discharge any treated or untreated effluent in open channels. After treatment, reclaimed water must have to comply with direct discharge standards before discharge to the sea. Data of industrial wastewater collected from five major industries and central industrial wastewater treatment plant (IWTP) is summarized in this report. During 5-year period, 3,705 samples were collected and analyzed for 43,436 parameters. There were 1,377 violations from pretreatment standards from all the industries. Overall violation percentage was 3.17%. Maximum violations were recorded from one of the petrochemical plants. The results show no significant pollution due to heavy metals. Almost all heavy metals were within RC pretreatment standards. High COD and TOC indicates that major pollution was due to hydrocarbons. Typical compounds identified by GC-MS were branched alkanes, branched alkenes, aliphatic ketones, substituted thiophenes, substituted phenols, aromatics and aromatic alcohols. Quality of treated water was also in compliance with RC direct discharge standards. In order to achieve the zero discharge goal, further studies and measures are in progress. PMID:18228156

Ahmad, Maqbool; Bajahlan, Ahmad S; Hammad, Waleed S

2008-12-01

20

Cyanobacterial Flora from Polluted Industrial Effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effluents originating from pesticides, agro-chemicals, textile dyes and dyestuffs industries are always associated with high\\u000a turbidity, colour, nutrient load, and heavy metals, toxic and persistent compounds. But even with such an anthropogenic nature,\\u000a these effluents contain dynamic cyanobacterial communities. Documentation of cyanobacterial cultures along the water channels\\u000a of effluents discharged by above mentioned industries along the west coast of India

Amit Parikh; Vishal Shah; Datta Madamwar

2006-01-01

21

Industry sector analysis, China: Petrochemical industry in east China. Export trade information  

SciTech Connect

The market survey covers the petrochemical equipment and technology market in East China. The analysis contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users; receptivity of Chinese consumers to U.S. products; the competitive situation, and market access (tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes, distribution channels). It also contains key contact information and information on upcoming trade events related to the industry.

Not Available

1993-01-01

22

Quality of effluents from Hattar Industrial Estate  

PubMed Central

Of 6634 registered industries in Pakistan, 1228 are considered to be highly polluting. The major industries include textile, pharmaceutical, chemicals (organic and inorganic), food industries, ceramics, steel, oil mills and leather tanning which spread all over four provinces, with the larger number located in Sindh and Punjab, with smaller number in North Western Frontier Province (NWFP) and Baluchistan. Hattar Industrial Estate extending over 700 acres located in Haripur district of NWFP is a new industrial estate, which has been developed with proper planning for management of industrial effluents. The major industries located in Hattar are ghee industry, chemical (sulfuric acid, synthetic fiber) industry, textile industry and pharmaceuticals industry. These industries, although developed with proper planning are discharging their effluents in the nearby natural drains and ultimately collected in a big drain near Wah. The farmers in the vicinity are using these effluents for growing vegetables and cereal crops due to shortage of water. In view of this discussion, there is a dire need to determine if these effluents are hazardous for soil and plant growth. So, effluents from different industries, sewage and normal tap water samples were collected and analysed for pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total soluble salts (TSS), biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen, cations and anions and heavy metals. The effluents of ghee and textile industries are highly alkaline. EC and TSS loads of ghee and textile industries are also above the National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS), Pakistan. All the effluents had residual sodium carbonates (RSCs), carbonates and bicarbonates in amounts that cannot be used for irrigation. Total toxic metals load in all the effluents is also above the limit i.e. 2.0 mg/L. Copper in effluents of textile and sewage, manganese in ghee industry effluents and iron contents in all the effluents were higher than NEQS. BOD and COD values of all the industries are also above the NEQS. On the whole, these effluents cannot be used for irrigation without proper treatment otherwise that may cause toxicity to soil, plants and animals as well add to the problems of salinity and sododicity. Similarly, these effluents cannot be used for fish farming. PMID:17111466

Sial, R.A.; Chaudhary, M.F.; Abbas, S.T.; Latif, M.I.; Khan, A.G.

2006-01-01

23

Genotoxicity of river water under the influence of petrochemical industrial complexes  

SciTech Connect

The toxic effects of industrial wastes discharged into natural waters should be intensively investigated since they may affect the survival, behavior or genetic composition of aquatic organisms, as well as the health of the population drinking this water. Most mutagenic, carcinogenic and mutagenic-carcinogenic substances can be detected by tests which evaluate alterations in DNA sequence in combination with at least one in vitro test. Among the methods used to determine the genotoxicity of a substance, the Ames test on bacteria and analysis of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) in lymphocytes are considered to be classic. The Ames test has been extensively used to determine the mutagenicity of environmental samples, among them river water and industrial effluents. SCE analysis has shown considerable potential for the detection of mutagens and carcinogens in human populations exposed to different genotoxic conditions, including polluted natural waters. The present report presents the results obtained using these two methods for the evaluation of the genotoxicity of water from the Cai River, in the area affected by the Petrochemical Complex of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. After treatment, the wastes of the complex are discharged into the Cai River, an important tributary of the Guaiba River, which provides the drinking water used by the approximately 1,200,000 inhabitants of Porto Alegre, capital city of the State of Rio Grande do Sul. 24 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Lemos, C.T.; Vargas, V.M.F. (Fundacao Estadual de Protecao Ambiental, Porto Alegre (Brazil)); Henriques, J.A.P.; Mattevi, M.S. (Federal Univ. of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil))

1994-06-01

24

Perceived demands and musculoskeletal symptoms among employees of an Iranian petrochemical industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a part of a comprehensive ergonomics program, this study was conducted among employees of an Iranian petrochemical industry to determine the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms and to examine the relationship between perceived demands and reported symptoms. In this cross-sectional study, 928 randomly selected employees, corresponding to nearly 40% of all employees participated. Nordic Musculoskeletal Disorder Questionnaire and Job Content

Alireza Choobineh; Gholamreza Peyvandi Sani; Mohsen Sharif Rohani; Mohammad Gangi Pour; Masoud Neghab

2009-01-01

25

Mutagenic activity of airborne particulate matter in a petrochemical industrial area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure to airborne particulate matter has adverse effects on human health and ecosystem. Mutagenic activity of airborne particulate organic matter extracts in three time periods from total suspended particles (TSP) and particles less than 10?m (PM10) was evaluated in an area under the influence of a petrochemical industry located in the town of Triunfo, Brazil. The extracts were investigated using

Mariana Vieira Coronas; Rubem Cesar Horn; Adriana Ducatti; Jocelita Vaz Rocha; Vera Maria Ferrão Vargas

2008-01-01

26

A survey of faults on induction motors in offshore oil industry, petrochemical industry, gas terminals, and oil refineries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents a survey of the reliability of squirrel cage motors on board drilling, production, and other platforms offshore, together with cage motors in the petrochemical industry, gas terminals, and refineries onshore. Most of the activity in this connection is related to The North Sea that offers a tough environment for motors. The collected data have been treated statistically,

Olav Vaag Thorsen; Magnus Dalva

1995-01-01

27

New petrochemical compositions for use in the coal industry  

SciTech Connect

Various aspects of the use of antifreezing agents in the coal industry are considered. It has been found that, unlike previously proposed compositions, these agents can be prepared based on the products of a single process, the vacuum distillation of fuel oil.

D.O. Safieva; E.V. Surov; O.G. Safiev [Institute for Fossil Fuels, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2008-12-15

28

[Evolution of technology and occupational exposures in petrochemical industry and in petroleum refining].  

PubMed

The industry of oil refining and petrochemical play an important role in terms of number of employees in the Italian production. Often the terms "petroleum refining" and "petrochemical" are used interchangeably to define processes that occur in complex plants, which grow outdoors on large surfaces and a visual impact is not irrelevant. In reality, the two areas involve potential exposure to different chemical agents, related to raw materials processed and the specific products. The petrochemical uses as raw materials, the oil fractions, obtained by distillation in the refinery, or natural gas; petrochemical products are, usually, single compounds with a specific degree of purity, used as basic raw materials for the entire industry of organic chemistry, from the production of plastics to pharmaceuticals. The oil refining, that is the topic of this paper, processes mainly oil to obtain mixtures of hydrocarbon compounds, the products of which are specified on the basis of aptitude for use. For example gasolines, are obtained by mixing of fractions of the first distillation, reforming products, antiknock. The paper illustrates, necessarily broadly due to the complexity of the productive sectors, the technological and organizational changes that have led to a significant reduction of occupational exposure to chemical agents, the results of environmental monitoring carried out in some refineries both during routine conditions that during scheduled maintenance activities with plant shutdown and a store of petroleum products. The chemical agents measured are typical for presence, physico-chemical properties and toxicological characteristics of the manufacturing processes of petroleum products like benzene, toluene, xylenes, ethyl benzene, n-hexane, Volatile Hydrocarbons belonging to gasoline, kerosene, diesel fuel. Data related to both personal sampling and fixed positions. PMID:24303703

Cottica, Danilo; Grignani, Elena

2013-01-01

29

Characteristics of Occupational Exposure to Benzene during Turnaround in the Petrochemical Industries  

PubMed Central

Objectives The level of benzene exposure in the petrochemical industry during regular operation has been well established, but not in turnaround (TA), where high exposure may occur. In this study, the characteristics of occupational exposure to benzene during TA in the petrochemical companies were investigated in order to determine the best management strategies and improve the working environment. This was accomplished by evaluating the exposure level for the workers working in environments where benzene was being produced or used as an ingredient during the unit process. Methods From 2003 to 2008, a total of 705 workers in three petrochemical companies in Korea were studied. Long- and short-term (< 1 hr) samples were taken during TAs. TA was classified into three stages: shut-down, maintenance and start-up. All works were classified into 12 occupation categories. Results The long-term geometric mean (GM) benzene exposure level was 0.025 (5.82) ppm (0.005-42.120 ppm) and the short-term exposure concentration during TA was 0.020 (17.42) ppm (0.005-61.855 ppm). The proportions of TA samples exceeding the time-weighted average, occupational exposure level (TWA-OEL in Korea, 1 ppm) and the short-term exposure limit (STEL-OEL, 5 ppm) were 4.1% (20 samples of 488) and 6.0% (13 samples of 217), respectively. The results for the benzene exposure levels and the rates of exceeding the OEL were both statistically significant (p < 0.05). Among the 12 job categories of petrochemical workers, mechanical engineers, plumbers, welders, fieldman and scaffolding workers exhibited long-term samples that exceeded the OEL of benzene, and the rate of exceeding the OEL was statistically significant for the first two occupations (p < 0.05). Conclusion These findings suggest that the periodic work environment must be assessed during non-routine works such as TA. PMID:22953163

Shin, Jung-Ah; Lee, Byung-Kyu; Kwon, Jiwoon; Lee, Naroo; Chung, Kwang-Jae; Lee, Jong-Han; Lee, In-Seop; Kang, Seong-Kyu; Jang, Jae-Kil

2010-01-01

30

Ambient levels of volatile organic compounds in the vicinity of petrochemical industrial area of Yokohama, Japan  

PubMed Central

Urban ambient air concentrations of 39 aromatic (including benzene, toluene, and xylenes) and aliphatic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured in Yokohama city, Japan. Yokohama city was selected as a case study to assess the amount of VOC released from Industrial area to characterize the ambient air quality with respect to VOC as well as to know the impact of petrochemical storage facilities on local air quality. For this purpose, ambient air samples were collected (from June 2007 to November 2008) at six selected locations which are designated as industrial, residential, or commercial areas. To find out the diurnal variations of VOC, hourly nighttime sampling was carried out for three nights at one of the industrial locations (Shiohama). Samples were analyzed using gas chromatographic system (GC-FID). Results show strong variation between day and nighttime concentrations and among the seasons. Aliphatic fractions were most abundant, suggesting petrochemical storage facilities as the major source of atmospheric hydrocarbons. High concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, and xylene (BTEX) were observed at industrial locations. BTEX showed strong diurnal variation which is attributed to change in meteorology. During our campaign, low ambient VOC concentrations were observed at the residential site. PMID:20495606

Hanai, Yoshimichi; Masunaga, Shigeki

2009-01-01

31

Hydrocarbon source signatures in Houston, Texas: Influence of the petrochemical industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations of C1-C10 hydrocarbon mixing ratios measured by in situ instrumentation at the La Porte super site during the TexAQS 2000 field experiment are reported. The La Porte data were compared to a roadway vehicle exhaust signature obtained from canister samples collected in the Houston Washburn tunnel during the same summer to better understand the impact of petrochemical emissions of hydrocarbons at the site. It is shown that the abundance of ethene, propene, 1-butene, C2-C4 alkanes, hexane, cyclohexane, methylcyclohexane, isopropylbenzene, and styrene at La Porte were systematically affected by petrochemical industry emissions. Coherent power law relationships between frequency distribution widths of hydrocarbon mixing ratios and their local lifetimes clearly identify two major source groups, roadway vehicle emissions and industrial emissions. Distributions of most aromatics and long chain alkanes were consistent with roadway vehicle emissions as the dominant source. Air mass reactivity was generally dominated by C1-C3 aldehydes. Propene and ethene sometimes dominated air mass reactivity with HO loss frequencies often greater than 10 s-1. Ozone mixing ratios near 200 ppbv were observed on two separate occasions, and these air masses appear to have been affected by industrial emissions of alkenes from the Houston Ship Channel. The La Porte data provide evidence of the importance of industrial emissions of ethene and propene on air mass reactivity and ozone formation in Houston.

Jobson, B. T.; Berkowitz, C. M.; Kuster, W. C.; Goldan, P. D.; Williams, E. J.; Fesenfeld, F. C.; Apel, E. C.; Karl, T.; Lonneman, W. A.; Riemer, D.

2004-12-01

32

Wastewater effluent characteristics from Moroccan textile industry.  

PubMed

The objectives of this work were to carry out a complete characterization of textile wastewater, resulting from a textile unit located in the Marrakesh region. A physico-chemical characterization has been performed, focused on organic and toxicological aspects. The cladoceran Daphnia magna was used as the sensor organism and lethal concentration as a criterion to measure the toxicity of textile wastewater. The physico-chemical and toxicological status of a local textile effluent showed considerable values limitation, when compared to the European Union standard limit and Moroccan guide level and other studies. In view of those characteristics, the wastewater effluent from the textile industry should be considered to be treated before discharge to the environment. PMID:23787319

Mountassir, Y; Benyaich, A; Rezrazi, M; Berçot, P; Gebrati, L

2013-01-01

33

Annoyance and worry in a petrochemical industrial area--prevalence, time trends and risk indicators.  

PubMed

In 1992, 1998, and 2006, questionnaires were sent to stratified samples of residents aged 18-75 years living near petrochemical industries (n = 600-800 people on each occasion) and in a control area (n = 200-1,000). The aims were to estimate the long-term prevalence and change over time of annoyance caused by industrial odour, industrial noise, and worries about possible health effects, and to identify risk indicators. In 2006, 20% were annoyed by industrial odour, 27% by industrial noise (1-4% in the control area), and 40-50% were worried about health effects or industrial accidents (10-20% in the control area). Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed significantly lower prevalence of odour annoyance in 1998 and 2006 than in 1992, while industrial noise annoyance increased significantly over time. The prevalence of worry remained constant. Risk of odour annoyance increased with female sex, worry of health effects, annoyance by motor vehicle exhausts and industrial noise. Industrial noise annoyance was associated with traffic noise annoyance and worry of health effects of traffic. Health-risk worry due to industrial air pollution was associated with female sex, having children, annoyance due to dust/soot in the air, and worry of traffic air pollution. PMID:23552810

Axelsson, Gösta; Stockfelt, Leo; Andersson, Eva; Gidlof-Gunnarsson, Anita; Sallsten, Gerd; Barregard, Lars

2013-04-01

34

Petrochemical industry standards activity aimed at improving the mechanical integrity of process piping  

SciTech Connect

This paper will cover numerous changes being made to existing standards and several new standards being created, all focusing on increasing mechanical integrity of petrochemical industry process piping. Those new standards include ones for (1) Risk-Based Inspection (2) Fitness for Service Analysis, (3) Positive Material Identification, and (4) In-service Inspection and Maintenance for Process Piping. A progress report is included for the Process Industry Practices (PIP) being created to consolidate individual company piping standards into one consistent industry set. And finally, recent initiatives toward standards cooperation/coordination between the American Petroleum Institute(API), American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), International Standards Organization (ISO) and National Board are highlighted.

Reynolds, J.T. [Shell Oil Products Co., Houston, TX (United States)

1996-07-01

35

Effect of Exposure to a Mixture of Organic Solvents on Hearing Thresholds in Petrochemical Industry Workers  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Hearing loss is one of the most common occupational diseases. In most workplaces, workers are exposed to noise and solvents simultaneously, so the potential risk of hearing loss due to solvents may be attributed to noise. In this study we aimed to assess the effect of exposure to mixed aromatic solvents on hearing in the absence of exposure to hazardous noise. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 99 workers from the petrochemical industry with exposure to a mixture of organic solvents whose noise exposure was lower than 85 dBA were compared with 100 un-exposed controls. After measuring sound pressure level and mean concentration of each solvent in the workplace, pure-tone-audiometry was performed and the two groups were compared in terms of high-frequency and low-frequency hearing loss. T-tests and Chi-square tests were used to compare the two groups. Results: The mean hearing threshold at all frequencies among petrochemical workers was normal (below 25 dB). We did not observe any significant association between solvent exposure and high-frequency or low-frequency hearing loss. Conclusion: This study showed that temporary exposure (less than 4 years) to a mixture of organic solvents, without exposure to noise, does not affect workers’ hearing threshold in audiometry tests. PMID:25320701

Loukzadeh, Ziba; Shojaoddiny-Ardekani, Ahmad; Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Yazdi, Zohreh; Mollasadeghi, Abolfazl

2014-01-01

36

Employment and exposures in the petroleum refining and petrochemical industries and the risk of lung cancer  

SciTech Connect

This dissertation addresses the risk of lung cancer associated with occupational exposures in the petroleum refining and petrochemical industries. Earlier epidemiologic studies of this association did not adjust for cigarette smoking or have specific exposure classifications. The Texas EXposure Assessment System (TEXAS) was developed with data from a population-based, case-comparison study conducted in five southeast Texas counties between 1976 and 1980. An industry-wide, increased risk for lung cancer was associated with jobs having low-level hydrocarbon exposure that also include other occupational inhalation exposures. The prohibition of cigarette smoking for jobs with high-level hydrocarbon exposure might explain part of the increased risk for jobs with low-level hydrocarbon exposures. Asbestos exposure comprises a large part of the risk associated with jobs having other inhalation exposures besides hydrocarbons. Workers in petroleum refineries were not shown to have an increased, occupational risk for lung cancer. The study results demonstrate that the predominant risk for lung cancer is due to cigarette smoking. Cigarette smoking accounts for 86.5% of the incident lung cancer cases within the study area. Workers in the petroleum industry smoke significantly less than persons employed in other industries. Only 2.2% of the incident lung cancer cases may be attributed to petroleum industry jobs; lifestyle factors (e.g., nutrition) may be associated with the balance of the cases.

Aldrich, T.E.

1985-01-01

37

Correspondence between whole effluent toxicity and the presence of priority substances in complex industrial effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine broad-scale correlation between presence of priority substances and whole effluent toxicity (WET) across a range of industry types. Using regression analysis, the authors examined how chemical-based inferred toxicity predicted measured WET of the effluents. Whole effluent toxicity was determined using a suite of acute and chronic bioassays; chemical-based toxicity was inferred from

H. C. Sarakinos; N. Bermingham; P. A. White; J. B. Rasmussen

2000-01-01

38

Effects of carbon taxes on different industries by fuzzy goal programming: A case study of the petrochemical-related industries, Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Implementation of a carbon tax is one of the major ways to mitigate CO2 emission. However, blanket taxes applied to all industries in a country might not always be fair or successful in CO2 reduction. This study aims to evaluate the effects of carbon taxes on different industries, and meanwhile to find an optimal carbon tax scenario for Taiwan's petrochemical

Cheng F. Lee; Sue J. Lin; Charles Lewis; Yih F. Chang

2007-01-01

39

The Effect of Social Trust on Citizens’ Health Risk Perception in the Context of a Petrochemical Industrial Complex  

PubMed Central

Perceived risk of environmental threats often translates into psychological stress with a wide range of effects on health and well-being. Petrochemical industrial complexes constitute one of the sites that can cause considerable pollution and health problems. The uncertainty around emissions results in a perception of risk for citizens residing in neighboring areas, which translates into anxiety and physiological stress. In this context, social trust is a key factor in managing the perceived risk. In the case of industrial risks, it is essential to distinguish between trust in the companies that make up the industry, and trust in public institutions. In the context of a petrochemical industrial complex located in the port of Castellón (Spain), this paper primarily discusses how trust—both in the companies located in the petrochemical complex and in the public institutions—affects citizens’ health risk perception. The research findings confirm that while the trust in companies negatively affects citizens’ health risk perception, trust in public institutions does not exert a direct and significant effect. Analysis also revealed that trust in public institutions and health risk perception are essentially linked indirectly (through trust in companies). PMID:23337129

López-Navarro, Miguel Ángel; Llorens-Monzonís, Jaume; Tortosa-Edo, Vicente

2013-01-01

40

State?of?the?Art Adsorption and Membrane Separation Processes for Hydrogen Production in the Chemical and Petrochemical Industries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review on the use of adsorption and membrane technologies in H2 production is directed toward the chemical and petrochemical industries. The growing requirements for H2 in chemical manufacturing, petroleum refining, and the newly emerging clean energy concepts will place greater demands on sourcing, production capacity and supplies of H2. Currently, about 41 MM tons\\/yr of H2 is produced worldwide,

James A. Ritter; Armin D. Ebner

2007-01-01

41

Pyrolytic product characteristics of biosludge from the wastewater treatment plant of a petrochemical industry.  

PubMed

Biosludge was produced from the wastewater treatment plant of a petrochemical industry. The element compositions of pyrolytic residues, CO, CO(2), NOx, SOx, total hydrocarbons and detailed volatile organic compounds of pyrolytic gas, and C, H, N, S content and compositions in biofuel were determined in this study. Generally, 75-80% water content in sludge cakes and about 65-70% weight of water vapor and volatile compounds were volatilized during the drying process. Propene, propane, 1-butene, n-butane, isobutene, toluene and benzene were the major volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of the pyrolytic gas, and the concentrations for most of the top 20 VOC species were greater than 5 ppm. C(5)-C(9) compounds contributed 60% by weight of biofuel; 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone was the highest species, accounting for 28-53% of biofuel at various pyrolytic temperatures. Based on the dried residues, there was 8.5-13% weight in pyrolytic residues, 62-82% weight in liquid products (water and crude oil) and 5.8-30% weight in the gas phase after pyrolytic processing at 500-800 degrees C. Finally, 1.5-2.5 wt% liquid fuel was produced after the distillation process. The pyrolytic residues could be reused, the pyrolytic liquid product could be used as a fuel after distillation, and the pyrolytic gas could be recycled in the pyrolytic process to achieve non-toxic discharge and reduce the cost of sludge disposal. PMID:19570608

Lin, Kuo-Hsiung; Hsu, Hui-Tsung; Ko, Ya-Wen; Shieh, Zhu-Xin; Chiang, Hung-Lung

2009-11-15

42

Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in petrochemical industries by measurement of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene.  

PubMed Central

Biological monitoring of exposure of workers to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in petrochemical industries was performed by the measurement of urinary excretion of 1-hydroxypyrene. In 121 of the 462 workers studied (both smokers and non-smokers) who had had no recent occupational exposure to PAHs a median 1-hydroxypyrene concentration of 0.21 micrograms/g creatinine was found. The upper limit of the 95% confidence interval in these workers of 0.99 micrograms/g creatinine was used as the upper normal value for industrial workers. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations were measured in workers involved in manufacture and maintenance operations in oil refineries (13 studies in eight different settings), in workers manufacturing or handling products containing PAHs in chemical plants (five studies in three settings) and laboratories (four studies), and in workers digging soil contaminated with PAHs (three studies). In most studies in oil refineries 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations were only marginally greater than the values measured in the 121 workers with no recent occupational exposure to PAHs. This was also the case in maintenance operations with higher potential exposure to PAHs, indicating that personal protection equipment was generally adequate to prevent excessive exposure. The studies in chemical plants also showed that exposure to PAHs is low. An exception was the workers engaged in the production of needle coke from ethylene cracker residue, where increased urinary 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations were measured. The excretion of 1-hydroxypyrene by the operators and maintenance workers of this plant was investigated in relation to potential methods of exposure to PAHs. Dermal and inhalatory exposure were both significant determinants of exposure to PAHs. PMID:8199667

Boogaard, P J; van Sittert, N J

1994-01-01

43

The feasibility of effluent trading in the energy industries  

SciTech Connect

In January 1996, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released a policy statement endorsing effluent trading in watersheds, hoping to spur additional interest in the subject. The policy describes five types of effluent trades - point source/point source, point source/nonpoint source, pretreatment, intraplant, and nonpoint source/nonpoint source. This report evaluates the feasibility of effluent trading for facilities in the oil and gas industry (exploration and production, refining, and distribution and marketing segments), electric power industry, and the coal industry (mines and preparation plants). Nonpoint source/nonpoint source trades are not considered since the energy industry facilities evaluated here are all point sources. EPA has administered emission trading programs in its air quality program for many years. Programs for offsets, bubbles, banking, and netting are supported by federal regulations, and the 1990 Clean Air Act (CAA) amendments provide a statutory basis for trading programs to control ozone and acid rain. Different programs have had varying degrees of success, but few have come close to meeting their expectations. Few trading programs have been established under the Clean Water Act (CWA). One intraplant trading program was established by EPA in its effluent limitation guidelines (ELGs) for the iron and steel industry. The other existing effluent trading programs were established by state or local governments and have had minimal success.

Veil, J.A.

1997-05-01

44

[Detoxification of textile industry effluents by photocatalytic treatment].  

PubMed

In Morocco the textile industry, representing 31% of all Moroccan industries, is accompanied by high water consumption and important wastewater discharges rejected without any treatment. The focus of this study was to characterize the effluent from the textile industry, to test separately the effect of UV light and TiO2 catalyst and to determine the optimum conditions (pH, concentration and reaction time) in photocatalytic treatment to reduce chemical oxygen demand (COD) and colour. The biodegradability of the effluent was also studied using a toxicity test before and after treatment. After 90 min of reaction time at pH 4 and with 1.5 g F' of TiO2 catalyst, the photocatalytic treatment reached a global removal rate of 53% for COD and 89% for discoloration of the effluent. The relation BOD5/COD increased from around 0 to 0.3. The effluent became accessible to a biological treatment. The toxicity was studied by the Daphnia magna test over 24 hours. The results have shown the important toxicity of these effluents, which are rich in organic matter and other chemical compounds. After treatment by photocatalytic oxidation, the CI50 24 increased from 3.8% to 22.8%. This reduction of toxicity is related to the reduction of COD (53%) and colour (89%). Photocatalytic treatment has been shown to have an environmental benefit and, in combination with a secondary biological treatment, can be important for a significant reduction in the pollution of textile effluents. PMID:20540424

Gebrati, L; Idrissi, L Loukili; Mountassir, Y; Nejmeddine, A

2010-05-01

45

SOURCE ASSESSMENT: NITROGEN FERTILIZER INDUSTRY WATER EFFLUENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes a study of waterborne pollutants from the manufacture of nitrogen fertilizers. It includes an evaluation of the ammonia, ammonium nitrate, urea, and nitric acid manufacturing processes. Water effluents in a nitrogen fertilizer plant originate from a variety o...

46

Genotoxicity of sludges, wastewater and effluents from three different industries.  

PubMed

Many surface waters in Europe, Asia and South America have been reported to be contaminated with genotoxic substances. Therefore, it is important to establish strategies for identification of the most critical sources. In this study, we used a battery of four genotoxicity assays namely chromosomal aberration, DNA strand break, DNA laddering and P53 accumulation tests in mononuclear blood cells. Before cleaning of wastewater high levels of genotoxic contamination could be observed. For instance, we observed an increase in chromosomal aberrations from 2.6 +/- 1.1 (aberrant cells in %; control), to 33.6 +/- 6.6 in a petrochemical plant, 29.4 +/- 3.3 in a petroleum refinery and 14.4 +/- 1.8 in a coke plant of steel industry. A good correlation between the four assays was found. The most sensitive and reproducible results were obtained with the chromosomal aberration assay. Interestingly, clear differences in the efficiency of wastewater cleaning in three different treatment plants were observed. The first and second treatment plants in petrochemical industry and coke plant of steel industry completely eliminated genotoxicity of the wastewater. However, the third plant in petroleum refinery could achieve a reduction in genotoxicity but significant genotoxic contaminations were still present. In conclusion, our battery of genotoxicity tests allows the identification of critical sources contributing to contamination of surface waters. PMID:19002669

Krishnamurthi, K; Saravana Devi, S; Hengstler, J G; Hermes, Matthias; Kumar, Koel; Dutta, Dipanwita; Muhil Vannan, S; Subin, T S; Yadav, R R; Chakrabarti, T

2008-12-01

47

CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN WHOLE EFFLUENT TOXICITY AND THE PRESENCE OF PRIORITY SUBSTANCES IN COMPLEX INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this study was to examine broad-scale correlation between presence of priority substances and whole effluent toxicity (WET) across a range of industry types. Using regression analysis, we examined how chemical-based inferred toxicity predicted measured WET of the e...

48

Metabolic response of environmentally isolated microorganisms to industrial effluents: Use of a newly described cell culture assay  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An environmental application using a microtiter culture assay to measure the metabolic sensitivity of microorganisms to petrochemical effluents will be tested. The Biomedical Operations and Research Branch at NASA JSC has recently developed a rapid and nondestructive method to measure cell growth and metabolism. Using a colorimetric procedure the uniquely modified assay allows the metabolic kinetics of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells to be measured. Use of such an assay if adapted for the routine monitoring of waste products, process effluents, and environmentally hazardous substances may prove to be invaluable to the industrial community. The microtiter method as described will be tested using microorganisms isolated from the Galveston Bay aquatic habitat. The microbial isolates will be identified prior to testing using the automated systems available at JSC. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), cadmium, and lead will provide control toxic chemicals. The toxicity of industrial effluent from two industrial sites will be tested. An effort will be made to test the efficacy of this assay for measuring toxicity in a mixed culture community.

Ferebee, Robert N.

1992-01-01

49

THE GENOTOXICITY OF INDUSTRIAL WASTES AND EFFLUENTS: A REVIEW  

EPA Science Inventory

A review of the literature published on the genotoxicity of industrial wastes and effluents using short-term genetic bioassays is presented in this document. he importance of this task arises from the ubiquity of genotoxic compounds in the environment and the need to identify the...

50

Impacts of industrial effluents on plant growth and soil properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bangladesh Thai Aluminum (BTA) Ltd. produces anodized aluminum sections and profiles. During oxidation of discharged aluminum profile a large amount of chemicals are used, which have subsequently as wastes to the surrounding environment. The agriculture in the area is ultimately has being affected and contaminated with these industrial effluents. Against this background, a pot experiment was conducted with rice and

M. O. Islam; H. R. Khan; M. S. Akhtar; Y. Oki; T. Adachi

51

Determination of Phenols and Trimethylamine in Industrial Effluents  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For regulatory purposes to control certain odorous compounds the analysis of phenols and trimethylamines in industrial effluents is necessary. The Bay Area Air Pollution Control District laboratory has been determining these gases by gas chromatographic techniques. The procedures for sample collection, preparation for analysis and determination are described in detail. Typical data from various sources showing the effect of proposed regulations is shown. Extensive sampling and usage of these procedures has shown them to be accurate, reliable and suitable to all types of source effluents.

Levaggi, D. A.; Feldstein, M.

1971-01-01

52

INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT TREATMENT USING IONIZING RADIATION COMBINED TO TITANIUM DIOXIDE  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) with OH radicals are the most efficient to mineralize organic compounds, and there are various methods to generate OH radicals as the use of ozone, hydrogen peroxide and ultra-violet radiation and ionizing radiation. The irradiation of aqueous solutions with high-energy electrons results in the excitation and ionizing of the molecules and rapid (10{sup -14} - 10{sup -9} s) formation of reactive intermediates. These reactive species will react with organic compounds present in industrial effluent inducing their decomposition. Titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) catalyzed photoreaction is used to remove a wide range of pollutants in air and water media, combined to UV/VIS light, FeO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, but as far as known there is no report on the combination with ionizing radiation. In some recent studies, the removal of organic pollutants in industrial effluent, such as Benzene, Toluene, and Xylene from petroleum production using ionizing radiation was investigated. It has been ob served that none of the methods can be used individually in wastewater treatment applications with good economics and high degree of energy efficiency. In the present work, the efficiency of ionizing radiation in presence of TiO{sub 2} to treat industrial effluent was evaluated. The main aim to combine these technologies is to improve the efficiency for very hard effluents and to reduce the processing cost for future implementation to large-scale design.

Duarte, C.L.; Oikawa, H.; Mori, M.N.; Sampa, M.H.O.

2004-10-04

53

Biodegradation of slop oil from a petrochemical industry and bioreclamation of slop oil contaminated soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Slop oil, i.e. waste oil from a petrochemical complex, contains at least 240 hydrocarbon components, of which 54% are from C5 to C11 and the rest from C12 to C23. Of 22 isolated bacterial cultures that were able to degrade slop oil, seven could each degrade about 40% of the slop oil, and a mixture of all seven could degrade

H. Dave; C. Ramakrishna; B. D. Bhatt; J. D. Desai

1994-01-01

54

Genotoxicity of industrial wastes and effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

In excess of several million pounds of genotoxic and\\/or carcinogenic industrial wastes are released into the U.S. environment each year. Chemical characterization of these waste materials can rarely provide an adequate assessment of their genotoxicity and potential hazard. Bioassays do not require prior information about chemical composition and can effectively assess the genotoxicity of complex waste materials. The most commonly

Larry D Claxton; Virginia S Houk; Thomas J Hughes

1998-01-01

55

Degradation of malathion by microorganisms isolated from industrial effluents  

SciTech Connect

Malathion, S-(1,2-dicarbethoxyethyl)-o,o-dimethyl dithiophosphate, is a widely used insecticide of the organophosphorous group of pesticides that is degraded in soil, in aquatic systems, in terrestrial plants and animals. Despite the studies on the fate of malathion in soil and salt-marsh environments, little information is available about the degradation of this chemical by microorganisms present in industrial effluents. Further, the microorganisms isolated so far have not been found to degrade high concentrations of malathion. Therefore, in the present study attempts were made to isolate microorganism capable of readily degrading high concentrations of malathion from industrial effluents using an enrichment technique. Attempts were also made to isolate and identify the major metabolites of malathion formed during biodegradation of the pesticide.

Singh, A.K.; Seth, P.K. (Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, Lucknow (India))

1989-07-01

56

Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Petrochemical Industry - An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers  

SciTech Connect

Energy is the most important cost factor in the U.S petrochemical industry, defined in this guide as the chemical industry sectors producing large volume basic and intermediate organic chemicals as well as large volume plastics. The sector spent about $10 billion on fuels and electricity in 2004. Energy efficiency improvement is an important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There are a variety of opportunities available at individual plants in the U.S. petrochemical industry to reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner. This Energy Guide discusses energy efficiency practices and energy efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, facility, and organizational levels. A discussion of the trends, structure, and energy consumption characteristics of the petrochemical industry is provided along with a description of the major process technologies used within the industry. Next, a wide variety of energy efficiency measures are described. Many measure descriptions include expected savings in energy and energy-related costs, based on case study data from real-world applications in the petrochemical and related industries worldwide. Typical measure payback periods and references to further information in the technical literature are also provided, when available. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers in the U.S. petrochemical industry reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner while maintaining the quality of products manufactured. Further research on the economics of all measures--and on their applicability to different production practices--is needed to assess their cost effectiveness at individual plants.

Neelis, Maarten; Worrell, Ernst; Masanet, Eric

2008-09-01

57

Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Excluding dyes. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents exclusive of dyes. Topics include the recovery of lubricants, lye, sizing agents, polyvinyl alcohol, zinc, dirt, and heat from textile effluents. Air and water pollution control technology that is effective in treating textile effluents is discussed. Effluents from synthetic fiber manufacture and wool scouring processes are emphasized. Effluents that contain dyes are discusssed in a separate bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-01-01

58

Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Excluding dyes. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents exclusive of dyes. Topics include the recovery of lubricants, lye, sizing agents, polyvinyl alcohol, zinc, dirt, and heat from textile effluents. Air and water pollution control technology that is effective in treating textile effluents is discussed. Effluents from synthetic fiber manufacture and wool scouring processes are emphasized. Effluents that contain dyes are discusssed in a separate bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-01-01

59

Impact of industrial effluents on the biochemical composition of fresh water fish Labeo rohita.  

PubMed

In acute toxicity (96 hr) experiment the fingerlings of freshwater fish Labeo rohita was exposed to tannery, electroplating and textile mill effluents. The LC0 and LC50 concentrations were 15% and 20% for tannery effluents, 3% and 6% for electroplating effluents and 18% and 22% for textile mill effluents respectively. It was found that, electroplating effluent was more toxic than tannery and textile mill wastes. After acute toxicity experiments for different industrial effluents, various tissues viz. gill, liver, muscle and kidney were obtained separately from control, LC0 and LC50 groups. These tissues were used for biochemical estimations. The glycogen content in all the tissues decreased considerably upon acute toxicity of three industrial effluents except muscle in LC50 group of tannery effluent and kidney in LC50 group of textile mill effluent, when compared to control group. The total protein content decreased in all tissues in three effluents except gills in LC50 group of tannery effluent, kidney in LC50 group of electroplating effluent and kidney in LC0 group of textile mill effluent. In general total lipid content decreased in all tissues after acute exposure when compared to control group. The results obtained in the present study showed that, the industrial effluents from tannery, electroplating and textile mills caused marked depletion in biochemical composition in various tissues of the fish Labeo rohita after acute exposure. PMID:17915759

Muley, D V; Karanjkar, D M; Maske, S V

2007-04-01

60

Safety Culture Assessment in Petrochemical Industry: A Comparative Study of Two Algerian Plants  

PubMed Central

Background To elucidate the relationship between safety culture maturity and safety performance of a particular company. Methods To identify the factors that contribute to a safety culture, a survey questionnaire was created based mainly on the studies of Fernández-Muñiz et al. The survey was randomly distributed to 1000 employees of two oil companies and realized a rate of valid answer of 51%. Minitab 16 software was used and diverse tests, including the descriptive statistical analysis, factor analysis, reliability analysis, mean analysis, and correlation, were used for the analysis of data. Ten factors were extracted using the analysis of factor to represent safety culture and safety performance. Results The results of this study showed that the managers' commitment, training, incentives, communication, and employee involvement are the priority domains on which it is necessary to stress the effort of improvement, where they had all the descriptive average values lower than 3.0 at the level of Company B. Furthermore, the results also showed that the safety culture influences the safety performance of the company. Therefore, Company A with a good safety culture (the descriptive average values more than 4.0), is more successful than Company B in terms of accident rates. Conclusion The comparison between the two petrochemical plants of the group Sonatrach confirms these results in which Company A, the managers of which are English and Norwegian, distinguishes itself by the maturity of their safety culture has significantly higher evaluations than the company B, who is constituted of Algerian staff, in terms of safety management practices and safety performance. PMID:25180135

Boughaba, Assia; Hassane, Chabane; Roukia, Ouddai

2014-01-01

61

Advanced Oxidation of Biologically Pretreated Baker's Yeast Industry Effluents for High Recalcitrant COD and Color Removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of chemical oxidation by applying ozonation, ozonation with hydrogen peroxide and Fenton's processes for decolorization and residual COD removal of biologically pretreated baker's yeast industry (BYI) effluents. Baker's yeast industry effluents characterizing with high COD, TKN, dark color, and non-biodegradable organic pollutants. The batch tests were performed to determine the

Mahmut Altinbas; Ali Fuat Aydin; Mehmet Faik Sevimli; Izzet Ozturk

2003-01-01

62

Treatment of wastewater effluent from an industrial park for agricultural irrigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment of wastewater effluent from an industrial park for possible agricultural irrigation was investigated. The treatment method consisted of chemical coagulation, Fenton oxidation and ion exchange. The effectiveness of the combined physical and chemical methods in treating the industrial wastewater effluent was evaluated in terms of the water quality requirements for agricultural irrigation. Experimental tests were conducted to examine the

S. H. Lin; H. Y. Chan; H. G. Leu

2000-01-01

63

Does living near a constellation of petrochemical, steel, and other industries impair health?  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To investigate concern that local industrial air pollution in Teesside, England, was causing poor health, several areas there were compared with parts of the City of Sunderland. METHODS: Populations in similar social and economic circumstances but varying in their proximity to major industries were compared. Study populations lived in 27 housing estates in Teesside and Sunderland, north east England,

R. S. Bhopal; S. Moffatt; T. Pless-Mulloli; P. R. Phillimore; C. Foy; C. E. Dunn; J. A. Tate

1998-01-01

64

Anaerobic treatment of effluents from an industrial polymers synthesis plant  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility of the anaerobic treatment of an industrial polymer synthesis plant effluent was evaluated. The composition of the wastewater includes acrylates, styrene, detergents, a minor amount of silicates and a significant amount of ferric chloride. The average chemical oxygen demand (COD) corresponding is about 2,000 mg/l. The anaerobic biodegradability of the effluent is shown and the toxicity effect on the populations of anaerobic bacteria is evaluated. The results of the anaerobic biodegradation assays show that 62% of the wastewater compounds, measured as COD, could be consumed. An upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor was used in the evaluation, it has a diameter-height ratio of 1:7, and 4-liter volume. The inoculum was obtained from a UASB pilot plant that treats brewery wastewaters. At the beginning of the operation, the biomass showed an anaerobic activity of 0.58 gCOD/(gVSS {times} d), it decreased only 2.5% in the subsequent 4 months. After 35 days of continuous operation, the reactor was operated at different steady states for 140 days. The COD was maintained at 2,200 mg/l in the feed. The results were: organic loading rate (OLR): 4.3 kg COD/(m{sup 3} {times} d), hydraulic retention time: 12 h, superficial velocity: 1 m/h, average biogas productivity: 290 L CH{sub 4}/kg COD fed, biogas composition: 70--75% methane and a COD removal percentage > 75%.

Araya, P.; Aroca, G.; Chamy, R. [Univ. Catolica de Valparaiso (Chile). School of Biochemical Engineering] [Univ. Catolica de Valparaiso (Chile). School of Biochemical Engineering

1999-06-01

65

Biological anoxic treatment of O?-free VOC emissions from the petrochemical industry: a proof of concept study.  

PubMed

An innovative biofiltration technology based on anoxic biodegradation was proposed in this work for the treatment of inert VOC-laden emissions from the petrochemical industry. Anoxic biofiltration does not require conventional O2 supply to mineralize VOCs, which increases process safety and allows for the reuse of the residual gas for inertization purposes in plant. The potential of this technology was evaluated in a biotrickling filter using toluene as a model VOC at loads of 3, 5, 12 and 34 g m(-3)h(-1) (corresponding to empty bed residence times of 16, 8, 4 and 1.3 min) with a maximum elimination capacity of ?3 g m(-3)h(-1). However, significant differences in the nature and number of metabolites accumulated at each toluene load tested were observed, o- and p-cresol being detected only at 34 g m(-3)h(-1), while benzyl alcohol, benzaldehyde and phenol were detected at lower loads. A complete toluene removal was maintained after increasing the inlet toluene concentration from 0.5 to 1 g m(-3) (which entailed a loading rate increase from 3 to 6 g m(-3)h(-1)), indicating that the system was limited by mass transfer rather than by biological activity. A high bacterial diversity was observed, the predominant phyla being Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria. PMID:23811365

Muñoz, Raúl; Souza, Theo S O; Glittmann, Lina; Pérez, Rebeca; Quijano, Guillermo

2013-09-15

66

Bioaugmentation and Biovalourization of Agro-Food and Beverage Industry Effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Food and beverage industry effluents form a major chunk of agro-industrial wastes throughout the world. Food industry effluents\\u000a mainly come from starchy foods, olive oil mill, palm oil mill, sugar refining and fermentation industries. It is imperative\\u000a to review the present status of food processing waste utilization for their safe disposal. Microbes are well-suited natural\\u000a agents for recycling of organic

Alok K. Pandey; Brijesh K. Mishra; Anju Arora; Surender Singh; Lata; Ramesh C. Ray

67

Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Excluding dyes. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents exclusive of dyes. Topics include the recovery of lubricants, lye, sizing agents, polyvinyl alcohol, zinc, dirt, and heat from textile effluents. Air and water pollution control technology that is effective in treating textile effluents is discussed. Effluents from synthetic fiber manufacture and wool scouring processes are emphasized. Effluents that contain dyes are discusssed in a separate bibliography.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1996-09-01

68

[The workplace injury trends in the petrochemical industry: from data analysis to risk management].  

PubMed

The most recent INAIL data show that, in 2009-2011, the accident frequency rate and the severity rate of workplace injuries in the chemical industry are lower than for the total non-agricultural workforce. The chemical industry, primarily because of the complex and hazardous work processes, requires an appropriate system for assessing and monitoring specific risks.The implementation of Responsible Care, a risk management system specific for the chemical industry, in 1984, has represented a historical step in the process of critical awareness of risk management by the chemical companies. Responsible Care is a risk management system specifically designed on the risk profiles of this type of enterprise, which integrates safety, health and environment. A risk management system, suitable for the needs of a chemical company, should extend its coverage area, beyond the responsible management of products throughout the entire production cycle, to the issues of corporate responsibility. PMID:24303713

Campo, Giuseppe; Martini, Benedetta

2013-01-01

69

Technical Training in the MNCs in Malaysia: A Case Study Analysis of the Petrochemical Industry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The aim of this paper is to gain insight into some of the types of training and development practices that are carried out in the chemical industry for technical workers. A salient focus of the study is to make a comparative analysis of four MNCs, which were selected based on equity ownership, to ascertain whether T&D practices are…

Hooi, Lai Wan

2010-01-01

70

Does living near a constellation of petrochemical, steel, and other industries impair health?  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To investigate concern that local industrial air pollution in Teesside, England, was causing poor health, several areas there were compared with parts of the City of Sunderland. METHODS: Populations in similar social and economic circumstances but varying in their proximity to major industries were compared. Study populations lived in 27 housing estates in Teesside and Sunderland, north east England, with some data from subsets of estates. The estates were aggregated into zones (designated as A, B, and C in Teesside where A is closest to and C furthest from industry, and S in Sunderland). Zone S provided a reference area. The hypothesis was that a health gradient both within Teesside (A > B > C) and between Teesside and Sunderland (ABC > S) would indicate a possible health effect of local industrial air pollution. Data presented were: mortality (1981-91) from 27 housing estates; population self completion questionnaire survey data (1993, 9115 subjects) from 15 housing estates; and general practitioner (GP) consultation data (1989-94) from 2201 subjects in 12 Teesside estates. RESULTS: The populations in the four zones were comparable for indicators including smoking habits, residential histories, and unemployment. All cause and cause specific mortalities were high compared with England and Wales. Mortality in all Teesside zones (ABC) combined was mostly higher than in zone S. In people aged 0-64, lung cancer and respiratory disease showed gradients with highest mortality in areas closest to industry (A > B > C and ABC > S). The association was clearest for lung cancer in women (0-64 years old, trend across zones ABC, p = 0.07, directly standardised rate ratio relative to zone S was 169 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 116-122)). There were no important, consistent gradients in the hypothesised direction between zones in consultation rates in general practice, and self reported respiratory and nonrespiratory health including asthma. CONCLUSIONS: There was no clear evidence that living close to industry was associated with morbidity, including asthma, or for most measures of mortality. For lung cancer in women the gradients indicated a health effect of local industrial air pollution. In the age group 0-64 observed gradients in lung cancer in men and mortality from respiratory disease in men and women were consistent with the study hypothesis, although not significant. The reasons for the different patterns at different ages, and between men and women, remain a puzzle.   PMID:9924442

Bhopal, R. S.; Moffatt, S.; Pless-Mulloli, T.; Phillimore, P. R.; Foy, C.; Dunn, C. E.; Tate, J. A.

1998-01-01

71

[Evaluation of treatment technology of odor pollution source in petrochemical industry].  

PubMed

Using an environmental technology assessment system, we put forward the evaluation index system for treatment technology of the typical odor pollution sources in the petroleum refining process, which has been applied in the assessment of the industrial technology. And then the best available techniques are selected for emissions of gas refinery sewage treatment plant, headspace gas of acidic water jars, headspace gas of cold coke jugs/intermediate oil tank/dirty oil tank, exhaust of oxidative sweetening, and vapors of loading and unloading oil. PMID:24640922

Mu, Gui-Qin; Sui, Li-Hua; Guo, Ya-Feng; Ma, Chuan-Jun; Yang, Wen-Yu; Gao, Yang

2013-12-01

72

Healthy environment--indoor air quality of Brazilian elementary schools nearby petrochemical industry.  

PubMed

The mitigation of pollution released to the environment originating from the industrial sector has been the aim of all policy-makers and its importance is evident if the adverse health effects on the world population are considered. Although this concern is controversial, petroleum refinery has been linked to some adverse health effects for people living nearby. Apart from home, school is the most important indoor environment for children and there is increasing concern about the school environment and its impact on health, also in developing countries where the prevalence of pollution is higher. As most of the children spend more than 40% of their time in schools, it is critical to evaluate the pollution level in such environment. In the metropolitan region of Curitiba, South Brazil, five schools nearby industries and highways with high density traffic, were selected to characterize the aerosol and gaseous compounds indoor and outdoor of the classrooms, during 2009-2011. Size segregated aerosol samples were collected for analyses of bulk and single particle elemental profiles. They were analyzed by electron probe X-ray micro-analysis (EPXMA), and by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF), to investigate the elemental composition of individual particles and bulk samples. The concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX); NO2; SO2; acetic acid; and formic acid were assessed indoor and outdoor using passive diffusion tubes. BTEX were analyzed by GC-MS and other collected gasses by ion chromatography. Individual exposition of BTEX was assessed by personal passive diffusion tubes. Results are interpreted separately and as a whole with the specific aim of identifying compounds that could affect the health of the scholars. In view of the chemical composition and size distribution of the aerosol particles, local deposition efficiencies in the children's respiratory systems were calculated, revealing the deposition of particles at extrathoracic, tracheobronchial and pulmonary levels. PMID:23838057

Godoi, Ricardo H M; Godoi, Ana F L; Gonçalves Junior, Sérgio J; Paralovo, Sarah L; Borillo, Guilherme C; Gonçalves Gregório Barbosa, Cybelli; Arantes, Manoela G; Charello, Renata C; Rosário Filho, Nelson A; Grassi, Marco T; Yamamoto, Carlos I; Potgieter-Vermaak, Sanja; Rotondo, Giuliana G; De Wael, Karolien; van Grieken, Rene

2013-10-01

73

Petrochemical industry guidelines for controlled repair welding of chrome-moly components  

SciTech Connect

The development of controlled deposition repair welding procedures for 2{1/4}Cr-1Mo and 1{1/4}Cr-{1/2}Mo steels without postweld heat treatment has been made possible as the result of two joint industry programs at EWI/TWI and other research work. In the United States, Section RD (Repair Methods) of the 1995 edition of the National Board Inspection Code (NBIC) rules has given guidance on some areas where such repair techniques might be permitted and equally some specific items on which such repairs must clearly not be attempted. The Cr-Mo heat-resisting steels are not tolerant materials in the context of welding without subsequent thermal treatment. Therefore, repairs to existing Cr-Mo pressure vessels, heat exchangers, and piping can be made only after detailed consideration of all relevant factors including, but not limited to: Material composition and product form; age and thermal history of the component to be repaired; metallurgical condition of the plant item at operating temperature and normal ambient temperature; estimated stresses acting on the component, including residual stress; evaluation of the environment in which the repaired plant will operate after repair.

Hammond, J.; Dennis, R.A.

1996-06-01

74

Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Dyes. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents containing dyes. The citations explore bacteria that absorb dyes, neutralization of dye effluents, decolorization by ozonization or ultraviolet radiation, flocculation treatment, and dye absorption methods and materials. Membrane treatment, electrolysis, and ultrafiltration methods of removing dyes from wastewater are considered, as well as reuse of dye-containing effluents. Textile effluents that do not contain dyes are discussed in another bibliography.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1995-09-01

75

Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Dyes. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents containing dyes. The citations explore bacteria that absorb dyes, neutralization of dye effluents, decolorization by ozonization or ultraviolet radiation, flocculation treatment, and dye absorption methods and materials. Membrane treatment, electrolysis, and ultrafiltration methods of removing dyes from wastewater are considered, as well as reuse of dye-containing effluents. Textile effluents that do not contain dyes are discussed in another bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-06-01

76

Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Dyes. (Latest citations from World Textile Abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents containing dyes. The citations explore bacteria that absorb dyes, neutralization of dye effluents, color removal by ozonization and by treatment with manganese solid waste, flocculation treatment, and dye absorption methods and materials. Membrane treatment, electrolysis, and ultrafiltration methods of removing dyes from wastewater are considered, as well as reuse of dye-containing effluents. Textile effluents that do not contain dyes are discussed in another bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 244 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1992-06-01

77

ASSESSMENT OF TECHNOLOGY FOR CONTROL OF TOXIC EFFLUENTS FROM THE ELECTRIC UTILITY INDUSTRY  

EPA Science Inventory

The report assesses the applicability of control technologies for reducing priority pollutants in effluents from the steam-electric power generating industry. It surveys control technologies, identifying those that have demonstrated some control effectiveness for priority polluta...

78

CHARACTERIZING THE GENOTOXICITY OF HAZARDOUS INDUSTRIAL WASTES AND EFFLUENTS USING SHORT-TERM BIOASSAYS  

EPA Science Inventory

This chapter demonstrates that short-term bioassays can reliably and expeditiously measure the genotoxic potential of hazardous industrial wastes and effluents. etrochemical wastes have been studied in detail, especially discharges from chemical manufacturing plants and textile a...

79

Petro-safe `95: 6. Annual environmental, safety and health conference and exhibition for the oil, gas and petrochemical industries. Book 1  

SciTech Connect

This conference was held January 31--February 2, 1995 in Houston Texas. The purpose of the conference was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on process safety issues in the petrochemical industry. Topics of discussion include the following: environmental issues; process safety management and risk management; waste and remediation issues; train, health and safety issues; business risk management; and emergency response and spill control. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

NONE

1995-12-31

80

Bioremediation of a Complex Industrial Effluent by Biosorbents Derived from Freshwater Macroalgae  

PubMed Central

Biosorption with macroalgae is a promising technology for the bioremediation of industrial effluents. However, the vast majority of research has been conducted on simple mock effluents with little data available on the performance of biosorbents in complex effluents. Here we evaluate the efficacy of dried biomass, biochar, and Fe-treated biomass and biochar to remediate 21 elements from a real-world industrial effluent from a coal-fired power station. The biosorbents were produced from the freshwater macroalga Oedogonium sp. (Chlorophyta) that is native to the industrial site from which the effluent was sourced, and which has been intensively cultivated to provide a feed stock for biosorbents. The effect of pH and exposure time on sorption was also assessed. These biosorbents showed specificity for different suites of elements, primarily differentiated by ionic charge. Overall, biochar and Fe-biochar were more successful biosorbents than their biomass counterparts. Fe-biochar adsorbed metalloids (As, Mo, and Se) at rates independent of effluent pH, while untreated biochar removed metals (Al, Cd, Ni and Zn) at rates dependent on pH. This study demonstrates that the biomass of Oedogonium is an effective substrate for the production of biosorbents to remediate both metals and metalloids from a complex industrial effluent. PMID:24919058

Kidgell, Joel T.; de Nys, Rocky; Hu, Yi; Paul, Nicholas A.; Roberts, David A.

2014-01-01

81

Electrocoagulation for the treatment of textile industry effluent--a review.  

PubMed

Various techniques such as physical, chemical, biological, advanced oxidation and electrochemical are used for the treatment of industrial effluent. The commonly used conventional biological treatment processes are time consuming, need large operational area and are not effective for effluent containing toxic elements. Advanced oxidation techniques result in high treatment cost and are generally used to obtain high purity grade water. The chemical coagulation technique is slow and generates large amount of sludge. Electrocoagulation has recently attracted attention as a potential technique for treating industrial effluent due to its versatility and environmental compatibility. This technique uses direct current source between metal electrodes immersed in the effluent, which causes the dissolution of electrode plates into the effluent. The metal ions, at an appropriate pH, can form wide range of coagulated species and metal hydroxides that destabilize and aggregate particles or precipitate and adsorb the dissolved contaminants. Therefore, the objective of the present manuscript is to review the potential of electrocoagulation for the treatment of industrial effluents, mainly removal of dyes from textile effluent. PMID:23892280

Khandegar, V; Saroha, Anil K

2013-10-15

82

Pathogens Assessment in Reclaimed Effluent Used for Industrial Crops Irrigation  

PubMed Central

Reuse of treated effluent is a highly valued water source in Palestine, however with limited success due to public health concerns. This paper assesses the potential pathogens in raw, treated and reclaimed wastewater at Albireh urban wastewater treatment facility, and provides scientific knowledge to update the Palestinian reuse guidelines. Laboratory analyses of collected samples over a period of 4 months have indicated that the raw wastewater from Albireh city contained high numbers of fecal coliforms and worm eggs while 31% of the samples were Salmonella positive. Treated effluent suitable for restricted irrigation demonstrated that the plant was efficient in removing indicator bacteria, where fecal coliforms and fecal streptococci removal averaged 99.64% and 93.44%, respectively. Although not disinfected, treated effluent was free of Salmonella and parasites, hence safe for restricted agricultural purposes. All samples of the reclaimed effluent and three samples of irrigated grass were devoid of microbial pathogens indicating a safe use in unrestricted agricultural utilization. Adequate operation of wastewater treatment facilities, scientific updating of reuse guidelines and launching public awareness campaigns are core factors for successful and sustainable large-scale wastewater reuse schemes in Palestine. PMID:17431318

Al-Sa’ed, R.

2007-01-01

83

IDENTIFICATION OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT DISCHARGES  

EPA Science Inventory

Samples of 63 effluent and 22 intake waters were collected from a wide range of chemical manufacturers in areas across the United States. The samples were analyzed for organic compounds in an effort to identify previously unknown and potentially hazardous organic pollutants. Each...

84

Integrated process for the removal of emulsified oils from effluents in the steel industry  

SciTech Connect

Emulsified oils contained in aqueous effluents from cold-rolling mills of the steel industry can be effectively removed via an integrated process consisting of a coagulation/flocculation stage followed by ultrafiltration of the resulting aqueous phase. The effects of CaCl{sub 2}, NaOH, and lime on the stability of different industrial effluents were studied in the coagulation experiments. The flocculants tested were inorganic prehydrolyzed aluminum salts and quaternary polyamines. Ultrafiltration of the aqueous phase from the coagulation/flocculation stage was carried out in a stirred cell using Amicon PM30 and XM300 organic membranes. Permeate fluxes were measured for industrial effluents to which the indicated coagulants and flocculants had been added. Oil concentrations in the permeate were 75% lower than the limits established by all European Union countries. Complete regeneration of the membrane was accomplished with an aqueous solution of a commercial detergent.

Benito, J.M.; Rios, G.; Gutierrez, B.; Pazos, C.; Coca, J.

1999-11-01

85

Dyeing Industry Effluent System as Lipid Production Medium of Neochloris sp. for Biodiesel Feedstock Preparation  

PubMed Central

Microalgae lipid feedstock preparation cost was an important factor in increasing biodiesel fuel hikes. This study was conducted with the concept of implementing an effluent wastewater as lipid production medium for microalgae cultivation. In our study textile dyeing industry effluent was taken as a lipid production medium for Neochloris sp. cultivation. The changes in physicochemical analysis of effluent before and after Neochloris sp. treatment were recorded using standard procedures and AAS analysis. There was especially a reduction in heavy metal like lead (Pb) concentration from 0.002?ppm to 0.001?ppm after Neochloris sp. treatment. Neochloris sp. cultivated in Bold Basal Medium (BBM) (specific algal medium) produced 41.93% total lipid and 36.69% lipid was produced in effluent based cultivation. Surprisingly Neochloris sp. cultivated in effluent was found with enhanced neutral lipid content, and it was confirmed by Nile red fluorescence assay. Further the particular enrichment in oleic acid content of the cells was confirmed with thin layer chromatography (TLC) with oleic acid pure (98%) control. The overall results suggested that textile dyeing industry effluent could serve as the best lipid productive medium for Neochloris sp. biodiesel feedstock preparation. This study was found to have a significant impact on reducing the biodiesel feedstock preparation cost with simultaneous lipid induction by heavy metal stress to microalgae. PMID:25247176

Ramamurthy, Dhandapani

2014-01-01

86

A correlation for the mass transfer coefficients during the biodegradation of phenolic effluents in a packed bed reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biological methods of treatment in continuous reactors using immobilized microorganisms have gained wide recognition due to their high degradation efficiency and their usage at high dilution rates. The present study in a cocurrent upflow packed bed reactor involves the treatment of phenolic effluents obtained from petrochemical, leather and polymer industries, using a microorganism Pseudomonas pictorum (NCIM 2077) immobilized on

T. Murugesan; R. Y. Sheeja

2005-01-01

87

Industrial effluents as a source of mercury contamination in terrestrial riparian vertebrates  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Eight species of piscivorous and insectivorous birds and one species of bat collected along Virginia's North Fork of the Holston River contained elevated mercury residues. The ubiquitous occurrence of mercury in riparian insectivores implicates aquatic insects as a vehicle for spreading mercury contamination from one ecosystem to another and expands the ecological ramifications of mercury-contaminated industrial effluents.

Powell, G.V.N.

1983-01-01

88

SURVEY ANALYSIS OF PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS IN INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENTS BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY  

EPA Science Inventory

Analyzing industrial effluents for phenolic compounds involves a number of problems both in the separation of these compounds from the aqueous medium and in the chromatography of the extracted compounds. Use of continuous liquid-liquid extractor improved the recovery of phenolic ...

89

Chromium-tolerant bacteria isolated from industrial effluents and their use in detoxication of hexavalent chromium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three bacterial strains were isolated from effluents of leather (CMBL Cr13, CMBL Cr14) and steel (CMBL Cr15) industries for\\u000a their possible use in chromium(VI) detoxication of industrial waste. CMBL Cr13 was found to tolerate chromium(VI) up to a\\u000a concentration of 45 g\\/L in the medium, while CMBL Cr14 and CMBL Cr15 could tolerate up to 40 g\\/L. These bacteria were

A. R. Shakoori; S. Tahseen; R. U. Haq

1999-01-01

90

Biosorbents for hexavalent chromium elimination from industrial and municipal effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of hexavalent chromium in wastewater is a potential hazard to aquatic animals and humans. There are various mechanisms proposed, kinetic models used and adsorption isotherms employed for the efficient removal of hexavalent chromium from industrial and municipal wastewaters using biosorbents. Biosorption of heavy metals is a most promising technology involved in the removal of toxic metals from industrial

Bidyut Saha; Chris Orvig

2010-01-01

91

Cleanup of industrial effluents containing heavy metals: a new opportunity of valorising the biomass produced by brewing industry.  

PubMed

Heavy metal pollution is a matter of concern in industrialised countries. Contrary to organic pollutants, heavy metals are not metabolically degraded. This fact has two main consequences: its bioremediation requires another strategy and heavy metals can be indefinitely recycled. Yeast cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are produced at high amounts as a by-product of brewing industry constituting a cheap raw material. In the present work, the possibility of valorising this type of biomass in the bioremediation of real industrial effluents containing heavy metals is reviewed. Given the auto-aggregation capacity (flocculation) of brewing yeast cells, a fast and off-cost yeast separation is achieved after the treatment of metal-laden effluent, which reduces the costs associated with the process. This is a critical issue when we are looking for an effective, eco-friendly, and low-cost technology. The possibility of the bioremediation of industrial effluents linked with the selective recovery of metals, in a strategy of simultaneous minimisation of environmental hazard of industrial wastes with financial benefits from reselling or recycling the metals, is discussed. PMID:23824444

Soares, Eduardo V; Soares, Helena M V M

2013-08-01

92

Effects of industrial effluents, heavy metals, and organic solvents on mallard embryo development  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mallard eggs were externally exposed at 3 and 8 days of incubation to 7 different industrial effluents and to 7 different heavy metal, organic solvent, and petroleum solutions to screen for potential embryo-toxic effects. This route of exposure was chosen in order to simulate the transfer of pollutant from the plumage of aquatic birds to their eggs. Five of the effluents including mineral pigment, scouring effluent, sludge, and tannery effluent resulted in small but significant reductions in embryonic growth. Treatment with methyl mercury chloride solution of 50 ppm (Hg) impaired embryonic growth but much higher concentrations were required to affect survival and cause teratogenic effects. Oil used to suppress road dust was the most toxic of the pollutants tested and only 0.5 microliter/egg caused 60% mortality by 18 days of development. These findings, in combination with other studies suggest that petroleum pollutants, or effluents in combination with petroleum, may pose a hazard to birds' eggs when exposure is by this route.

Hoffman, D.J.; Eastin, W.C., Jr.

1981-01-01

93

Hazard zoning around electric substations of petrochemical industries by stimulation of extremely low-frequency magnetic fields.  

PubMed

Electromagnetic fields in recent years have been discussed as one of the occupational hazards at workplaces. Hence, control and assessment of these physical factors is very important to protect and promote the health of employees. The present study was conducted to determine hazard zones based on assessment of extremely low-frequency magnetic fields at electric substations of a petrochemical complex in southern Iran, using the single-axis HI-3604 device. In measurement of electromagnetic fields by the single-axis HI-3604 device, the sensor screen should be oriented in a way to be perpendicular to the field lines. Therefore, in places where power lines are located in different directions, it is required to keep the device towards three axes of x, y, and z. For further precision, the measurements should be repeated along each of the three axes. In this research, magnetic field was measured, for the first time, in three axes of x, y, and z whose resultant value was considered as the value of magnetic field. Measurements were done based on IEEE std 644-1994. Further, the spatial changes of the magnetic field surrounding electric substations were stimulated using MATLAB software. The obtained results indicated that the maximum magnetic flux density was 49.90 ?T recorded from boiler substation, while the minimum magnetic flux density of 0.02 ?T was measured at the control room of the complex. As the stimulation results suggest, the spaces around incoming panels, transformers, and cables were recognized as hazardous zones of indoor electric substations. Considering the health effects of chronic exposure to magnetic fields, it would be possible to minimize exposure to these contaminants at workplaces by identification of risky zones and observation of protective considerations. PMID:25877640

Hosseini, Monireh; Monazzam, Mohammad Reza; Farhang Matin, Laleh; Khosroabadi, Hossein

2015-05-01

94

Effluent treatment in the paint and coating industry. (Latest citations from World Surface Coatings abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the analysis and treatment of effluents from the coating industry. Filters used for solvent adsorption and recovery, activated carbon adsorption of paint fumes, hydrogen peroxide treatment of wastes, effluent heat recovery, and biological treatments are discussed. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1996-02-01

95

Application of lipase from Burkholderia cepacia in the degradation of agro-industrial effluent.  

PubMed

This study aimed to analyze the physical and chemical characteristics of Amano PS commercial lipase - Burkholderia cepacia and lipase produced by Burkholderia cepacia strain ATCC 25416, in addition to studying the hydrolysis of agro-industrial effluent collected in a fried potato industry. The optimum temperature for increasing lipase activity was 37 °C. The temperature increase caused a decrease in thermostability of lipase, and the commercial lipase was less stable, with values of 10.5, 4.6 and 4.9%, respectively, lower than those obtained by lipase from strain ATCC 25416, at temperatures of 40, 50 and 60 °C. The enzymatic activity was higher in alkaline conditions, achieving better results at pH 8.0. The pH was the variable that most influenced the hydrolysis of triacylglycerides of the agro-industrial effluent, followed by enzyme concentration, and volume of gum arabic used in the reaction medium. Thus, it can be observed that the enzymatic hydrolytic process of the studied effluent presents a premising contribution to reduction of environmental impacts of potato chip processing industries. PMID:25860696

Mello Bueno, Pabline Rafaella; de Oliveira, Tatianne Ferreira; Castiglioni, Gabriel Luis; Soares Júnior, Manoel Soares; Ulhoa, Cirano Jose

2015-01-01

96

Removal of chromium from electroplating industry effluents by ion exchange resins.  

PubMed

Effluent discharged from the chromium electroplating industry contains a large number of metals, including chromium, copper, nickel, zinc, manganese and lead. The ion exchange process is an alternative technique for application in the treatment of industrial wastewater containing heavy metals and indeed it has proven to be very promising in the removal and recovery of valuable species. The main objective of the present work is to evaluate the performance of commercial ion exchange resins for removing chromium trivalent from industrial effluents, and for this purpose two resins were tested: a chelating exchange resin (Diaion CR11) and a weak cationic resin (Amberlite IRC86). In order to evaluate the sorption capacity of the resins some equilibrium experiments were carried out, being the temperature and pH the main variables considered. The chromium solutions employed in the experiments were synthetic solutions and industrial effluents. In addition, a transient test was also performed as an attempt to understand the kinetic behaviour of the process. PMID:17336455

Cavaco, Sofia A; Fernandes, Sandra; Quina, Margarida M; Ferreira, Licínio M

2007-06-18

97

A Petrochemical Primer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Informs the reader of the pervasiveness of petrochemicals in everyday life. Discusses the petroleum-to-petrochemical transformation at the refinery and issues related to how petroleum products will be utilized for fuel or nonfuel needs such as lubricants, computers, and medicine in the future. (MDH)

Martin, Amy

1991-01-01

98

Remediation of acidic industrial effluents by sulphate reducing bioreactors.  

PubMed

This research work was designed to examine the feasibility of sulphate reducing bioreactors with organic substrates, containing manures, and other cellulosic wastes for remediation of acidic industrial wastewater on bench scale. The pH of the wastewater increased from 5.5. to 7.18, alkalinity from 0 to 2566 mg/L as CaCO3, acidity removal was from 357 to 210 mg/L as CaCO3, sulphate removal was 92.7%, lead removal was 97.3%, zinc- 99.8%, copper-97.5%, cobalt-99.4%, manganese-98.9%, nickel- 98.3% and iron 99.5%, were observed in this study after the maximum retention of 106 days. This paper describes bioremediation as a state-of-art for the treatment of wastewater from the industries. PMID:24749196

Sheoran, V; Chaudhary, R; Tholia, N K

2012-07-01

99

Economic impact analysis of effluent guidelines and standards for the pulp, paper, and paperboard industry  

SciTech Connect

The document analyzes the economic impact which could result from the application of effluent standards and limitations issued under Sections 3-1, 304, 306 and 307 of the Clean Water Act to the pulp, paper, and paperboard industry. It supplements the technical study (EPA Development Document) supporting the issuance of these regulations. The document is a contractor's study prepared for the Office of Water Regulations and Standards by Meta Systems, Inc.

Not Available

1982-10-01

100

Removal of Heavy Metals from Industrial Effluents by the Submerged Aquatic Plant Myriophyllum spicatum L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential use of Myriophyllum spicatum L. for the removal of Co, Ni, Cu and Zn from industrial effluents was studied. The removal kinetics, tolerance and accumulation\\u000a capacity of the submerged aquatic plant were assessed. Removal of Cu and Zn was similar and occurred rapidly with time whereas\\u000a removal of Co and Ni was slower. Plant growth was not adversely

Els Lesage; Charity Mundia; Diederik P. L. Rousseau; Annelies Moortel; Gijs Du Laing; Filip M. G. Tack; Niels Pauw; Marc G. Verloo

101

In Situ Investigation of Trace Metal Availability in Industrial Effluents Using Transplanted Aquatic Mosses  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Three species of aquatic mosses, Rhynchostegium riparioides, Fontinalis antipyretica, and Cinclidotus danubicus, were collected from the same reference location and exposed in five industrial effluents. The purpose was to test their suitability\\u000a for assessing trace metal contamination under adverse and contrasted environmental conditions. Two distinct experiments of\\u000a 16 and 11 days were conducted. In spite of short residence times

J. Mersch; M. Reichard

1998-01-01

102

USE OF TOXICITY IDENTIFICATION EVALUATION METHODS TO CHARACTERIZE IDENTIFY, AND CONFIRM HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM TOXICITY IN AN INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT  

EPA Science Inventory

A toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) was conducted on effluent from a major industrial discharger. Initial monitoring showed slight chronic toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia; later sample showed substantial toxicity to C. dubia. Chemical analysis detected hexavalent chromium ...

103

Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Excluding dyes. July 1983-September 1989 (Citations from World Textile Abstracts). Report for July 1983-September 1989  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents. Effluents that contain dyes are discussed in a separate bibliography. Recovery of lubricants, lye, sizing agents, polyvinyl alcohol, zinc, dirt, and heat from textile effluents are discussed. Air and water pollution control technology that is effective in treating textile effluents is discussed. Effluents from synthetic fiber manufacture and wool scouring processes are emphasized. (This updated bibliography contains 322 citations, 22 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

Not Available

1989-12-01

104

In Situ Investigation of Trace Metal Availability in Industrial Effluents Using Transplanted Aquatic Mosses  

PubMed

Three species of aquatic mosses, Rhynchostegium riparioides, Fontinalis antipyretica, and Cinclidotus danubicus, were collected from the same reference location and exposed in five industrial effluents. The purpose was to test their suitability for assessing trace metal contamination under adverse and contrasted environmental conditions. Two distinct experiments of 16 and 11 days were conducted. In spite of short residence times in the effluents, the bryophytes were considerably affected at several sites, showing a light green to yellowish color, brown-edged leaves, and even dead strands. Cinclidotus danubicus was the most resistant whereas Fontinalis antipyretica was the most sensitive species. The observed physiological damage had no obvious incidence on the accumulation capacity of the mosses. The biomonitors provided time-integrated patterns of trace metal bioavailability (copper, chromium, nickel, lead, and zinc) in the effluents with a clear discrimination between poorly, moderately, and heavily polluted sites. Compared to water analyses, these more reliable indications could be obtained with a considerably reduced sampling design. When substantial accumulation occurred in mosses, the highest concentrations were systematically found in Rhynchostegium riparioides and the lowest in Cinclidotus danubicus. As only quantitative, not qualitative, differences were observed, all investigated moss species can be recommended for the assessment of trace metals in effluents at their discharge into the natural environment. PMID:9543502

Mersch; Reichard

1998-05-01

105

Modified amylopectin based flocculant for the treatment of synthetic effluent and industrial wastewaters.  

PubMed

Herein, we report the application of an efficient polymeric flocculant based on amylopectin grafted with poly (acrylic acid) (g-AP) for the treatment of synthetic effluent as well as various industrial wastewaters. The flocculation characteristics of g-AP have been explored in different pH conditions using silica suspension by measurement of residual turbidity as well as floc size. Results suggest that in acidic pH, patching mechanism is predominating while at neutral and alkaline pH, bridging is the main mechanism. In addition, aggregation of particles and particle collision models confirm that bridging mechanism is the key mechanism at alkaline condition. Further, g-AP demonstrates excellent potential as flocculant for the treatment of paper effluent, textile wastewater and shows better flocculation performance than that of commercially available flocculant. Besides, the pilot scale study of mine processwater suggests excellent efficacy of g-AP as flocculant. PMID:25159884

Sarkar, Amit Kumar; Ghorai, Soumitra; Patra, Abhay Shankar; Mishra, Brijesh K; Mandre, N R; Pal, Sagar

2015-01-01

106

Petrochemicals in nontechnical language  

SciTech Connect

This book reviews the basics of organic chemistry. The authors lead readers through the basic petrochemical processes and product properties to the downstream derivatives such as plastics and fibers and their end uses. Latest processing techniques are discussed.

Burdick, D.L.; Leffler, W.L.

1990-01-01

107

Impact of marble industry effluents on water and sediment quality of Barandu River in Buner District, Pakistan.  

PubMed

Industries play an important role in improving the living standard but at the same time cause several environmental problems. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the impact of industries on the quality of environment. In the present study, the impact of marble industry effluents on water and sediment quality of Barandu River in Buner District, Pakistan was evaluated. Water and sediment samples were collected at three different sampling sites (upstream, industrial, and downstream sites) from Barandu River and their physicochemical properties were inter-compared. In addition, different marble stones and mix water (wastewater) from marble industry were analyzed. The measured physicochemical parameters of river water including pH, electrical conductivity (EC), alkalinity, total hardness, Ca and Mg hardness, total dissolved solid (TDS), total suspended solids (TSS), sulfates (SO4 (2-)), sodium (Na(+)), potassium (K(+)), nitrites (NO2 (-)), nitrate (NO3 (-)), chloride (Cl(-)), calcium (Ca(2+)), and magnesium (Mg(2+)) were found to be significantly altered by effluent discharges of marble industries. Similarly, heavy metal concentrations in both water and sediments of the river were significantly increased by marble industry wastewater. It is concluded that large quantities of different pollutants are added to Barandu River due to direct disposal of marble industry effluents which degrades its quality. Therefore, it is recommended that direct disposal of marble industry wastewater should be banned and all effluents must be properly treated before discharging in the river water. PMID:25616784

Mulk, Shahi; Azizullah, Azizullah; Korai, Abdul Latif; Khattak, Muhammad Nasir Khan

2015-02-01

108

Economic analysis of final effluent limitations guidelines and standards for the pharmaceutical manufacturing industry  

SciTech Connect

This economic analysis (EA) examines compliance costs and economic impacts resulting from the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) Final Effluent Limitations Guidelines and Standards for the Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Industry Point Source Category. It also investigates the costs and impacts associated with an air rule requiring Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) to control air emissions, both separately and together with the Final Pharmaceutical Industry Effluent Guidelines. The EA estimates the economic effects of compliance with both final rules in terms of total aggregate annualized costs of compliance, facility closures, impacts on firms (likelihood of bankruptcy and effects on profit margins), and impacts on new sources. The EA also investigates secondary impacts on employment and communities, foreign trade, specific demographic groups, and environmental justice. This report includes a Final Regulatory Flexibility Analysis (FRFA) detailing the impacts on small businesses within the pharmaceutical industry to meet the requirements of the Regulatory Flexibility Act (RFA), as amended by the Small Business Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Act (SBREFA). Finally, the EA presents a cost-benefit analysis to meet the requirements of Executive Order 12866 and the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act.

NONE

1998-07-01

109

Nutrient Loadings to Streams of the Continental United States from Municipal and Industrial Effluent1  

PubMed Central

Abstract Data from the United States Environmental Protection Agency Permit Compliance System national database were used to calculate annual total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) loads to surface waters from municipal and industrial facilities in six major regions of the United States for 1992, 1997, and 2002. Concentration and effluent flow data were examined for approximately 118,250 facilities in 45 states and the District of Columbia. Inconsistent and incomplete discharge locations, effluent flows, and effluent nutrient concentrations limited the use of these data for calculating nutrient loads. More concentrations were reported for major facilities, those discharging more than 1 million gallons per day, than for minor facilities, and more concentrations were reported for TP than for TN. Analytical methods to check and improve the quality of the Permit Compliance System data were used. Annual loads were calculated using “typical pollutant concentrations” to supplement missing concentrations based on the type and size of facilities. Annual nutrient loads for over 26,600 facilities were calculated for at least one of the three years. Sewage systems represented 74% of all TN loads and 58% of all TP loads. This work represents an initial set of data to develop a comprehensive and consistent national database of point-source nutrient loads. These loads can be used to inform a wide range of water-quality management, watershed modeling, and research efforts at multiple scales. PMID:22457577

Maupin, Molly A; Ivahnenko, Tamara

2011-01-01

110

Nutrient loadings to streams of the continental United States from municipal and industrial effluent?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Data from the United States Environmental Protection Agency Permit Compliance System national database were used to calculate annual total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) loads to surface waters from municipal and industrial facilities in six major regions of the United States for 1992, 1997, and 2002. Concentration and effluent flow data were examined for approximately 118,250 facilities in 45 states and the District of Columbia. Inconsistent and incomplete discharge locations, effluent flows, and effluent nutrient concentrations limited the use of these data for calculating nutrient loads. More concentrations were reported for major facilities, those discharging more than 1 million gallons per day, than for minor facilities, and more concentrations were reported for TP than for TN. Analytical methods to check and improve the quality of the Permit Compliance System data were used. Annual loads were calculated using "typical pollutant concentrations" to supplement missing concentrations based on the type and size of facilities. Annual nutrient loads for over 26,600 facilities were calculated for at least one of the three years. Sewage systems represented 74% of all TN loads and 58% of all TP loads. This work represents an initial set of data to develop a comprehensive and consistent national database of point-source nutrient loads. These loads can be used to inform a wide range of water-quality management, watershed modeling, and research efforts at multiple scales.

Maupin, Molly A.; Ivahnenko, Tamara

2011-01-01

111

Treatment of nickel containing industrial effluents with a hybrid process comprising of polymer complexation–ultrafiltration–electrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process was studied at the laboratory level and on a pre-industrial pilot for pollutant removal from industrial waste waters containing nickel cations. Five successive steps are involved: (1) complexation of the metal by means of polymeric ligands; (2) ultrafiltration of the complex, which produced a purified effluent and a concentrated metal complex solution; (3) decomplexation by acidification; (4) ultrafiltration

P. Baticle; C. Kiefer; N. Lakhchaf; O. Leclerc; M. Persin; J. Sarrazin

2000-01-01

112

Water pollution by industrial effluents in India: Discharge scenarios and case for participatory ecosystem specific local regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Around the world as countries are struggling to arrive at an effective regulatory regime to control the discharge of industrial effluents into their ecosystems, Indian economy holds a double edged sword of economic growth and ecosystem collapse. This situation if mishandled can cause irreparable ecological harm in the long term well masked by short term economic prosperity. Considering that Industries

T. Rajaram; Ashutosh Das

2008-01-01

113

Assessment of hormonal activities and genotoxicity of industrial effluents using in vitro bioassays combined with chemical analysis.  

PubMed

Wastewaters from various industries are a main source of the contaminants in aquatic environments. The authors evaluated the hormonal activities (estrogenic/anti-estrogenic activities, androgenic/anti-androgenic activities) and genotoxicity of various effluents from textile and dyeing plants, electronic and electroplate factories, pulp and paper mills, fine chemical factories, and municipal wastewater treatment plants in the Pearl River Delta region by using in vitro bioassays (yeast estrogen screen [YES]; yeast androgen screen [YAS]; and genotoxicity assay [umu/SOS]) combined with chemical analysis. The results demonstrated the presence of estrogenic, anti-estrogenic, and anti-androgenic activity in most industrial effluents, whereas no androgenic activities were detected in all of the effluents. The measured estrogenic activities expressed as estradiol equivalent concentrations (EEQs) ranged from below detection (3 of 26 samples) to 40.7 ng/L, with a mean of 7.33 ng/L in all effluents. A good linear relationship was found between the EEQs measured by YES bioassay and the EEQs calculated from chemical concentrations. These detected estrogenic compounds, such as 4-nonylphenol and estrone, were responsible for the estrogenic activities in the effluents. The genotoxic effects expressed as benzo[a]pyrene equivalent concentrations (BaP EQs) varied between below detection and 88.2 µg/L, with a mean of 8.76 µg/L in all effluents. The target polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were minor contributors to the genotoxicity in the effluents, and some nontarget compounds in the effluents were responsible for the measured genotoxicity. In terms of estrogenic activities and genotoxicity, discharge of these effluents could pose high risks to aquatic organisms in the receiving environments. PMID:22513893

Fang, Yi-Xiang; Ying, Guang-Guo; Zhao, Jian-Liang; Chen, Feng; Liu, Shan; Zhang, Li-Juan; Yang, Bin

2012-06-01

114

Effect of Industrial Effluents of Zob-Ahan on Soil, Water and Vegetable Plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monitoring harmful chemicals especially heavy metals in industrial effluent for prevention and degradation of natural resources are required. The Effluent Water (EW) of Zob-Ahan (steel industrial complex), were seasonally collected, three times during 48 h period. The soils, well-water and vegetable plant samples were collected in land irrigated with EW and soil in adjacent virgin lands. The EW EC, TDS, BOD, COD, sulfate, chloride, bicarbonate and N-NO3 and of Cd, Co and Cr were above permissible limit, wells-water for in the down side of evaporation ponds EC, TDS, N-NO3, sulfate, chloride, bicarbonate and concentration of Cu, Co, Fe and Cr were above permissible limit and the soils treated with EW Zn, Mn and Cd concentration were in critical range. Soils irrigated with EW had higher OC content and available concentration of Cd, Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn and Pb compared to control sample (adjacent virgin land). In vegetable plants, all measured heavy metals concentration (except Cu content in Taree Irani that was in critical rang) was in normal range. The heavy metals concentration in unwashed plant samples were higher than washed ones. The results showed that Zob-Ahan EW has limitation for application as irrigation water, discharge into surface and subsurface water. Therefore, the EW, should properly be treated before discharging into environment. The heavy metals in soil and well-water affected by EW and irrigated plants with EW should regularly and closely be monitored.

Rahmani, Hamid Reza; Rezaei, Mosleheddin

115

Effect of gaseous cement industry effluents on four species of microalgae.  

PubMed

Experiments were performed at lab scale in order to test the possibility to grow microalgae with CO2 from gaseous effluent of cement industry. Four microalgal species (Dunaliella tertiolecta, Chlorella vulgaris, Thalassiosira weissflogii, and Isochrysis galbana), representing four different phyla were grown with CO2 enriched air or with a mixture of gasses mimicking the composition of a typical cement flue gas (CFG). In a second stage, the culture submitted to the CFG received an increasing concentration of dust characteristic of cement industry. Results show that growth for the four species is not affected by the CFG. Dust added at realistic concentrations do not have any impact on growth. For dust concentrations in two ranges of magnitude higher, microalgae growth was inhibited. PMID:23811523

Talec, Amélie; Philistin, Myrvline; Ferey, Frédérique; Walenta, Günther; Irisson, Jean-Olivier; Bernard, Olivier; Sciandra, Antoine

2013-09-01

116

How will Southeast Asian petrochemicals impact the HPI?  

SciTech Connect

Development of East Asia`s petrochemical industry has been phenomenal, with major complexes built in numerous locations. The Southeast Asian countries of particular interest are members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN): Singapore, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines, Brunei and Vietnam. As new capacity is built in this region, these large operating facilities will affect supply and demand for key petrochemical products--ethylene and polyolefins. What are the potential regional effects from this new capacity? Traditional net export countries will have to re-evaluate their future marketing strategies to remain competitive in Southeast Asia and other trading areas. As East Asia`s petrochemical industry comes of age, competition will undoubtedly increase. However, this growing region offers opportunities to widen manufacturing basis. The paper discusses basic chemical demands and the outlook for the Asian petrochemical industry.

Rothman, S.N. [Chem Systems, Tarrytown, NY (United States)

1997-05-01

117

Advanced oxidation treatment of physico-chemically pre-treated olive mill industry effluent.  

PubMed

In this study, the applicability of physico-chemical methods was investigated for the pre-treatment of the olive mill effluents prior to the discharge into the common sewerage ending with a municipal wastewater treatment plant. The samples were taken from an olive oil industry operated as three-phase process located in Turkey. Various pre-treatment methods including acid craking, polyelectrolyte and lime additions were applied. Advanced oxidation study using Fenton's process was also investigated following pre-treatment by acid cracking and cationic polyelectrolyte. Acid cracking alone gave satisfactory treatment efficiencies and polyelectrolite additions to the acid-cracked samples enhanced treatment efficiency. Since a complete treatment plant is available at the end of the sewer system, results indicated that the effluents of the investigated industry could be discharged into the municipal sewerage in the case of total chemical oxygen demand (COD(tot)), suspended solid (SS) and volatile suspended solid (VSS) concentrations according to the Turkish Water Pollution Control Regulation after pre-treatment with 5 ppm anionic polyelectrolyte following acid cracking. The minimum COD(tot), SS and VSS removals were observed when raw wastewater was pre-treated with lime and the discharge standards to the municipal sewer system could not be met. Advanced oxidation with Fenton's process was applied after acid cracking and cationic polyelectrolyte treatment in order to investigate further reduction in chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration for minimizing the influence of this industrial discharge on the existing municipal wastewater treatment plant. Results indicated that COD(tot) removal increased up to 89% from 74% after Fenton's oxidation for the acid cracked samples in which cationic polyelectrolite (10 ppm) was added. PMID:17701710

Gomec, Cigdem Y; Erdim, Esra; Turan, Ilknur; Aydin, Ali F; Ozturk, Izzet

2007-08-01

118

Zero Discharge Performance of an Industrial Pilot-Scale Plant Treating Palm Oil Mill Effluent  

PubMed Central

Palm oil is one of the most important agroindustries in Malaysia. Huge quantities of palm oil mill effluent (POME) pose a great threat to aqueous environment due to its very high COD. To make full use of discharged wastes, the integrated “zero discharge” pilot-scale industrial plant comprising “pretreatment-anaerobic and aerobic process-membrane separation” was continuously operated for 1 year. After pretreatment in the oil separator tank, 55.6% of waste oil in raw POME could be recovered and sold and anaerobically digested through 2 AnaEG reactors followed by a dissolved air flotation (DAF); average COD reduced to about 3587?mg/L, and biogas production was 27.65 times POME injection which was used to generate electricity. The aerobic effluent was settled for 3?h or/and treated in MBR which could remove BOD3 (30°C) to less than 20?mg/L as required by Department of Environment of Malaysia. After filtration by UF and RO membrane, all organic compounds and most of the salts were removed; RO permeate could be reused as the boiler feed water. RO concentrate combined with anaerobic surplus sludge could be used as biofertilizer. PMID:25685798

Mahmood, Qaisar; Qiu, Jiang-Ping; Li, Yin-Sheng; Chang, Yoon-Seong; Chi, Li-Na; Li, Xu-Dong

2015-01-01

119

Continuous and sequencing membrane bioreactors applied to food industry effluent treatment.  

PubMed

This work focuses on the performances of two immersed membrane bioreactors used for the treatment of easily biodegradable organic matter present in food industry effluents, for the purpose of water reuse. Two reactor functioning modes (continuous and sequencing) were compared in terms of organic carbon removal and of membrane permeability. For each working mode, pollutant removal was very high, treated water quality presented a low COD concentration (< 125 mg x L(-1)), no solids in suspension and low turbidity (< 0.5 NTU). The quality of the treated water (including germ removal) enabled its reuse on site. Moreover, by developing high biomass concentrations in the reactor, excess sludge production remained very low (< 0.1 gVSS x gCOD(-1)). The performances appeared slightly better for the continuous system (lower COD concentration in the effluent, < 50 mg x L(-1), and lower sludge production). In terms of filtration, a distinct difference was observed between continuous and sequencing systems; transmembrane pressure showed a small and constant evolution rate in continuous membrane bioreactor (CMBR) although it appeared more difficult to control in sequencing membrane bioreactor (SMBR) probably due to punctually higher permeate flow rate and modified suspension properties. The rapid evolution of membrane permeability observed in SMBR was such that more frequent chemical cleaning of the membrane system was required. PMID:17849980

Lobos, J; Wisniewski, C; Heran, M; Grasmick, A

2007-01-01

120

Effluent treatment in the textile industry: excluding dyes. January 1983-January 1989 (Citations from World Textile Abstracts). Report for January 1983-January 1989  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile-industry effluents. Effluents that contain dyes are discussed in a separate bibliography. Recovery of lubricants, lye, sizing agents, polyvinyl alcohol, zinc, dirt, and heat from textile effluents are discussed. Air and water pollution control technology that is effective in treating textile effluents is discussed. Effluents from synthetic-fiber manufacture and wool-scouring processes are emphasized. (This updated bibliography contains 300 citations, 84 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

Not Available

1989-02-01

121

Adsorption–desorption studies of indigocarmine from industrial effluents by using deoiled mustard and its comparison with charcoal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deoiled mustard obtained from local oil mills has been used as an inexpensive and effective adsorbent for the removal of indigocarmine dye from industrial effluents. The influence of various factors on the adsorption capacity has been studied by batch experiments. The adsorption studies validate both Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms. Thermodynamic parameters such as ?G°, ?H°, and ?S° for the

Vinod K. Gupta; Rajeev Jain; S. Malathi; Arunima Nayak

2010-01-01

122

TREATMENT OF DRAINAGE WATER WITH INDUSTRIAL BY-PRODUCTS TO PREVENT PHOSPHORUS LOSS FORM TILE-DRAINED LAND RECEIVING EFFLUENT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Phosphorus (P) is central to the deterioration of surface water quality via eutrophication. Tile drained land that receives effluent from the dairy shed is prone to P loss especially if the site has been used for a long time. This study looked at industrial by-products from the steel and energy indu...

123

Comparisons of grey and neural network prediction of industrial park wastewater effluent using influent quality and online monitoring parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, Grey model (GM) and artificial neural network (ANN) were employed to predict suspended solids (SSeff) and chemical oxygen demand (CODeff) in the effluent from a wastewater treatment plant in industrial park of Taiwan. When constructing model or predicting, the\\u000a influent quality or online monitoring parameters were adopted as the input variables. ANN was also adopted for comparison.

T. Y. Pai; S. H. Chuang; T. J. Wan; H. M. Lo; Y. P. Tsai; H. C. Su; L. F. Yu; H. C. Hu; P. J. Sung

2008-01-01

124

88. ARAIII. "Petrochem" heater is hoisted over south exterior wall ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

88. ARA-III. "Petro-chem" heater is hoisted over south exterior wall of heater pit in GCRE reactor building (ARA-608). Printing on heater says, "Petro-chem iso-flow furnace; American industrial fabrications, inc." Camera facing north. January 7, 1959. Ineel photo no. 529-124. Photographer: Ken Mansfield. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

125

Analytic prognostic for petrochemical pipelines  

E-print Network

Pipelines tubes are part of vital mechanical systems largely used in petrochemical industries. They serve to transport natural gases or liquids. They are cylindrical tubes and are submitted to the risks of corrosion due to high PH concentrations of the transported liquids in addition to fatigue cracks due to the alternation of pressure-depression of gas along the time, initiating therefore in the tubes body micro-cracks that can propagate abruptly to lead to failure. The development of the prognostic process for such systems increases largely their performance and their availability, as well decreases the global cost of their missions. Therefore, this paper deals with a new prognostic approach to improve the performance of these pipelines. Only the first mode of crack, that is, the opening mode, is considered.

Jaoude, Abdo Abou; El-Tawil, Khaled; Noura, Hassan; Ouladsine, Mustapha

2012-01-01

126

Analytic prognostic for petrochemical pipelines  

E-print Network

Pipelines tubes are part of vital mechanical systems largely used in petrochemical industries. They serve to transport natural gases or liquids. They are cylindrical tubes and are submitted to the risks of corrosion due to high PH concentrations of the transported liquids in addition to fatigue cracks due to the alternation of pressure-depression of gas along the time, initiating therefore in the tubes body micro-cracks that can propagate abruptly to lead to failure. The development of the prognostic process for such systems increases largely their performance and their availability, as well decreases the global cost of their missions. Therefore, this paper deals with a new prognostic approach to improve the performance of these pipelines. Only the first mode of crack, that is, the opening mode, is considered.

Abdo Abou Jaoude; Seifedine Kadry; Khaled El-Tawil; Hassan Noura; Mustapha Ouladsine

2012-12-25

127

Whole acute toxicity removal from industrial and domestic effluents treated by electron beam radiation: emphasis on anionic surfactants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electron beam radiation has been applied to improve real industrial and domestic effluents received by Suzano wastewater treatment plant. Radiation efficacy has been evaluated as toxicity reduction, using two biological assays. Three sites were sampled and submitted for toxicity assays, anionic surfactant determination and electron beam irradiation. This paper shows the reduction of acute toxicity for both test-organisms, the marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri and the crustacean Daphnia similis. The raw toxic effluents exibitted from 0.6 ppm up to 11.67 ppm for anionic surfactant before being treated by the electron beam. Radiation processing resulted in reduction of the acute toxicity as well as surfactant removal. The final biological effluent was in general less toxic than other sites but the presence of anionic surfactants was evidenced.

Moraes, M. C. F.; Romanelli, M. F.; Sena, H. C.; Pasqualini da Silva, G.; Sampa, M. H. O.; Borrely, S. I.

2004-09-01

128

Biodegradation of phenanthrene using adapted microbial consortium isolated from petrochemical contaminated environment.  

PubMed

In developing countries like India, there are many industrial areas discharging effluent containing large amount of polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) which causes hazardous effect on the soil-water environment. The objective of this study was to isolate and characterize high-efficiency PAH-degrading microbial consortium from 3 decade old petrochemical refinery field located in Nagpur, Maharashtra with history of PAH disposal. Based on biochemical tests and 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis the consortium was identified as Sphingobacterium sp., Bacillus cereus and a novel bacterium Achromobacter insolitus MHF ENV IV with effective phenanthrene-degrading ability. The biodegradation data of phenanthrene indicates about 100%, 56.9% and 25.8% degradation at the concentration of 100mg/l, 250 mg/l and 500 mg/l respectively within 14 days. The consortium and its monoculture isolates also utilized variety of other hydrocarbons for growth. To best of our knowledge this is the first time that Achromobacter insolitus has been reported to mineralize phenanthrene effectively. GC-MS analysis of phenanthrene degradation confirmed biodegradation by detection of intermediates like salicylaldehyde, salicylic acid and catechol. All the results indicated that the microbial consortium have a promising application in bioremediation of petrochemical contaminated environments and could be potentially useful for the study of PAH degradation and for bioremediation purposes. PMID:21281999

Janbandhu, Anjali; Fulekar, M H

2011-03-15

129

Continuous metal removal from solution and industrial effluents using Spirogyra biomass-packed column reactor.  

PubMed

The granules of Spirogyra neglecta biomass, diameter 0.2-0.5mm, were successfully prepared by boiling it in urea-formaldehyde mixture. Metal sorption performance of the column packed with Spirogyra granules was assessed under variable operating conditions, such as, different influent metal concentrations, bed heights and flow rates. These conditions greatly influenced the breakthrough time and volume, saturation time and volume, and the ability of the column to attain saturation after reaching the breakthrough. The experimental breakthrough curves obtained under varying experimental conditions were modeled using Bohart-Adams, Wolborska, Thomas, Yoon-Nelson and modified dose-response models. The first two models were valid only in representing the initial part of the breakthrough curves; however, the other three models were good in representing the entire breakthrough curve. The granule-packed column could be successfully used up to 6 and 9 cycles of sorption and desorption for the removal of Cu(II) and Pb(II), respectively. The column could efficiently remove different metals from real industrial effluents, and hence the test biomass (Spirogyra granules) is a good candidate for commercial application. PMID:22169159

Singh, Alpana; Kumar, Dhananjay; Gaur, J P

2012-03-01

130

Improving neural network prediction of effluent from biological wastewater treatment plant of industrial park using fuzzy learning approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three types of adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) in which the online monitoring parameters served as the\\u000a input variable were employed to predict suspended solids (SSeff), chemical oxygen demand (CODeff), and pHeff in the effluent from a biological wastewater treatment plant in industrial park. Artificial neural network (ANN) was also\\u000a used for comparison. The results indicated that ANFIS statistically

Tzu-Yi Pai; S. C. Wang; C. F. Chiang; H. C. Su; L. F. Yu; P. J. Sung; C. Y. Lin; H. C. Hu

2009-01-01

131

Assessment of the effluent quality from a gold mining industry in Ghana.  

PubMed

The physical and chemical qualities of the process effluent and the tailings dam wastewater of AngloGold-Ashanti Limited, a gold mining company in Ghana, were studied from June to September, 2010. The process effluent from the gold extraction plant contains high amounts of suspended solids and is therefore highly turbid. Arsenic, copper and cyanide were identified as the major pollutants in the process effluent with average concentrations of 10.0, 3.1 and 21.6 mg?L(-1), respectively. Arsenic, copper, iron and free cyanide (CN(-)) concentrations in the process effluent exceeded the Ghana EPA discharge limits; therefore, it is necessary to treat the process effluent before it can be discharged into the environment. Principal component analysis of the data indicated that the process effluent characteristics were influenced by the gold extraction process as well as the nature of the gold-bearing ore processed. No significant correlation was observed between the wastewater characteristics themselves, except for the dissolved oxygen and the biochemical oxygen demand. The process effluent is fed to the Sansu tailings dam, which removes 99.9 % of the total suspended solids and 99.7 % of the turbidity; but copper, arsenic and cyanide concentrations were still high. The effluent produced can be classified as inorganic with a high load of non-biodegradable compounds. It was noted that, though the Sansu tailings dam stores the polluted effluent from the gold extraction plant, there will still be serious environmental problems in the event of failure of the dam. PMID:23179219

Acheampong, Mike A; Paksirajan, Kannan; Lens, Piet N L

2013-06-01

132

Regulatory impact assessment of proposed effluent guidelines and NESHAP for the pulp, paper, and paperboard industry. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The report has been prepared to comply with Executive Order 12866, which requires that federal agencies assess costs and benefits of each significant rule they propose or promulgate. The pulp and paper industry is the eighth largest manufacturing industry in the U.S. in terms of the value of goods shipped and third among the nondurables sector in sales. The products of this industry are used every day and involve many aspects of our lives. Approximately 200 companies are engaged in the manufacture of pulp, paper, and paperboard in the United States. These companies own and operate 565 facilities in 42 states. The pulp, paper, and paperboard industry is one of the largest users of water in the U.S.; because large quantities of water are used in making pulp and paper products, these mills recycle, treat and discharge large quantities of effluent water. The main categories of aquatic pollutants found in pulp and paper mill effluent are conventional pollutants, such as biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), and toxic pollutants such as chlorinated compounds. Conventional pollution abatement in the U.S. paper industry has focused on reducing solids and BOD.

Not Available

1993-11-01

133

Potential of ultrafiltration for organic matter removal in the polymer industry effluent based on particle size distribution analysis.  

PubMed

The purpose of the study was the experimental evaluation of ultrafiltration as a potential innovative technology for the removal of organic matter of around 15,000 mg chemical oxygen demand (COD) per liter in the polymer industry wastewater. Particle size distribution (PSD) analysis served as the major experimental instrument along with conventional chemical settling. Biodegradation characteristics of the remaining COD after ultrafiltration were determined by model interpretation of the corresponding oxygen uptake rate (OUR) profile. The study first involved a detailed characterization of the polymer wastewater including PSD analysis of the COD content. Chemical treatability was investigated using lime alone and with ferric chloride as coagulants followed with a PSD assessment of the chemically settled effluent. Modeling of the OUR profile generated by the ultrafiltration effluent defined related biodegradation kinetics and provided information on the overall COD removal potential. PSD analysis indicated that more than 70 % of the total COD accumulated in the 220- to 450-nm size range. It indicated that ultrafiltration was potentially capable of removing more than 90 % of the COD with an effluent lower than 1,500 mg COD/L. Chemical settling with 750 mg/L of FeCl(3) dosing at a pH of 7.0 provided a similar performance. The ultrafiltration effluent included mainly hydrolysable COD and proved to be biodegradable, with the process kinetics compatible with domestic sewage. PSD evaluation proved to be a valuable scientific instrument for underlining the merit of ultrafiltration as the appropriate innovative technology for polymer wastewater, removing the major portion of the COD in a way that is suitable for recovery and reuse and producing a totally biodegradable effluent. PMID:22585390

Do?ruel, Serdar; Çokgör, Emine Ubay; Ince, Orhan; Sözen, Seval; Orhon, Derin

2013-01-01

134

Biogas production from water hyacinth and channel grass used for phytoremediation of industrial effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reports on the biogas production from water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and channel grass (Vallisneria spiralis) employed separately for phytoremediation of lignin and metal-rich pulp and paper mill and highly acidic distillery effluents. These plants eventually grow well in diluted effluent up to 40% (i.e., 2.5-times dilution with deionized water) and often take up metals and toxic materials from

V Singhal; J. P. N Rai

2003-01-01

135

The application of advanced oxidation technologies to the treatment of effluents from the pulp and paper industry: a review.  

PubMed

The paper industry is adopting zero liquid effluent technologies to reduce freshwater use and meet environmental regulations, which implies closure of water circuits and the progressive accumulation of pollutants that must be removed before water reuse and final wastewater discharge. The traditional water treatment technologies that are used in paper mills (such as dissolved air flotation or biological treatment) are not able to remove recalcitrant contaminants. Therefore, advanced water treatment technologies, such as advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), are being included in industrial wastewater treatment chains aiming to either improve water biodegradability or its final quality. A comprehensive review of the current state of the art regarding the use of AOPs for the treatment of the organic load of effluents from the paper industry is herein addressed considering mature and emerging treatments for a sustainable water use in this sector. Wastewater composition, which is highly dependent on the raw materials being used in the mills, the selected AOP itself, and its combination with other technologies, will determine the viability of the treatment. In general, all AOPs have been reported to achieve good organic removal efficiencies (COD removal >40%, and about an extra 20% if AOPs are combined with biological stages). Particularly, ozonation has been the most extensively reported and successfully implemented AOP at an industrial scale for effluent treatment or reuse within pulp and paper mills, although Fenton processes (photo-Fenton particularly) have actually addressed better oxidative results (COD removal???65-75%) at a lab scale, but still need further development at a large scale. PMID:25185495

Hermosilla, Daphne; Merayo, Noemí; Gascó, Antonio; Blanco, Ángeles

2015-01-01

136

Decolorization of salt-alkaline effluent with industrial reactive dyes by laccase-producing Basidiomycetes strains.  

PubMed

The discharge of highly coloured synthetic dye effluents into rivers and lakes is harmful to the water bodies, and therefore, intensive researches have been focussed on the decolorization of wastewater by biological, physical or chemical treatments. In the present study, 12 basidiomycetes strains from the genus Pleurotus, Trametes, Lentinus, Peniophora, Pycnoporus, Rigidoporus, Hygrocybe and Psilocybe were evaluated for decolorization of the reactive dyes Cibacron Brilliant Blue H-GR and Cibacron Red FN-2BL, both in solid and liquid media. Among the evaluated fungi, seven showed great ability to decolorize the synthetic textile effluent, both in vivo (74-77%) or in vitro (60-74%), and laccase was the main ligninolytic enzyme involved on dyes decolorization. Pleurotus ostreatus, Trametes villosa and Peniophora cinerea reduced near to 60% of the effluent colour after only 1 h of treatment. The decolorization results were still improved by establishing the nitrogen source and amount to be used during the fungal strains cultivation in synthetic medium previous their action on the textile effluent, with yeast extract being a better nitrogen source than ammonium tartarate. These results contribute for the development of an effective microbiological process for decolorization of dye effluents with reduced time of treatment. PMID:23350659

Moreira-Neto, S L; Mussatto, S I; Machado, K M G; Milagres, A M F

2013-04-01

137

Extracellular synthesis and characterization of nickel oxide nanoparticles from Microbacterium sp. MRS-1 towards bioremediation of nickel electroplating industrial effluent.  

PubMed

In the present study, a nickel resistant bacterium MRS-1 was isolated from nickel electroplating industrial effluent, capable of converting soluble NiSO4 into insoluble NiO nanoparticles and identified as Microbacterium sp. The formation of NiO nanoparticles in the form of pale green powder was observed on the bottom of the flask upon prolonged incubation of liquid nutrient medium containing high concentration of 2000ppm NiSO4. The properties of the produced NiO nanoparticles were characterized. NiO nanoparticles exhibited a maximum absorbance at 400nm. The NiO nanoparticles were 100-500nm in size with unique flower like structure. The elemental composition of the NiO nanoparticles was 44:39. The cells of MRS-1 were utilized for the treatment of nickel electroplating industrial effluent and showed nickel removal efficiency of 95%. Application of Microbacterium sp. MRS-1 would be a potential bacterium for bioremediation of nickel electroplating industrial waste water and simultaneous synthesis of NiO nanoparticles. PMID:24685513

Sathyavathi, S; Manjula, A; Rajendhran, J; Gunasekaran, P

2014-08-01

138

Removal and recovery of lead (Pb(2+)) from industrial effluent using indigenous and tailor-made Aureobasidium sp. RBSS-303.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to assess the removal and recovery of Pb-II from industrial wastewater using a locally isolated strain of Aureobasidium sp. RBSS-303. The initial Pb(2+) concentration of 600 mg/L resulted in maximum uptake capacity (Qmax 235.1 ± 0.3 mg/g). The biosorbent revival was attained by contacting with HCl (0.01 M), with 75.3% recovery of Pb(2+). The Freundlich isotherm best explains the Pb(2+) sorption performances. Maximum adsorption distribution coefficient of 1,309.6 mg metal/mL was observed at initial Pb(2+) concentration value of 100 mg/L. Evaluation of nine kinetic models showed the removal rate of Pb(2+) was reliant on diffusion control pseudo-second-order and saturation-mixed-order kinetic models with a high correlation coefficient value (R = 0.99). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis showed the major contribution of -NH2 and -CN ligands of Aureobasidium sp. RBSS-303 in the sorption phenomenon of Pb(2+). The biosorption assays carried out with effluent of the paint industry showed 76.8% efficiency for Pb(2+) removal by the candidate biosorbent, regardless of the complex composition of the industrial effluent. PMID:25607681

Aftab, Kiran; Akhtar, Kalsoom; Anjum, Fozia

2015-01-01

139

Treatment of a petrochemical wastewater in sequencing batch reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The response of sequencing batch reactors (SBR's) in an industrial application was investigated. Four bench-scale SBR's and a bench-scale conventional activated sludge unit were operated with wastewater from a petrochemical complex. In terms of the degradation of BOD material and nitrification, the performance of the SBR's was comparable or slightly superior to that of the conventional activated sludge unit. However,

E. H. Hsu

1986-01-01

140

The Sequential Application of Macroalgal Biosorbents for the Bioremediation of a Complex Industrial Effluent  

PubMed Central

Fe-treated biochar and raw biochar produced from macroalgae are effective biosorbents of metalloids and metals, respectively. However, the treatment of complex effluents that contain both metalloid and metal contaminants presents a challenging scenario. We test a multiple-biosorbent approach to bioremediation using Fe-biochar and biochar to remediate both metalloids and metals from the effluent from a coal-fired power station. First, a model was derived from published data for this effluent to predict the biosorption of 21 elements by Fe-biochar and biochar. The modelled outputs were then used to design biosorption experiments using Fe-biochar and biochar, both simultaneously and in sequence, to treat effluent containing multiple contaminants in excess of water quality criteria. The waste water was produced during ash disposal at an Australian coal-fired power station. The application of Fe-biochar and biochar, either simultaneously or sequentially, resulted in a more comprehensive remediation of metalloids and metals compared to either biosorbent used individually. The most effective treatment was the sequential use of Fe-biochar to remove metalloids from the waste water, followed by biochar to remove metals. Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn were reduced to the lowest concentration following the sequential application of the two biosorbents, and their final concentrations were predicted by the model. Overall, 17 of the 21 elements measured were remediated to, or below, the concentrations that were predicted by the model. Both metalloids and metals can be remediated from complex effluent using biosorbents with different characteristics but derived from a single feedstock. Furthermore, the extent of remediation can be predicted for similar effluents using additive models. PMID:25061756

Kidgell, Joel T.; de Nys, Rocky; Paul, Nicholas A.; Roberts, David A.

2014-01-01

141

Critical flux in NF of high molar mass polysaccharides and effluents from the paper industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

High molar mass polysaccharides (locust bean gum and karaya gum) and effluents from a mechanical pulp mill and a paper mill were nanofiltered with commercially available nanofiltration (NF) membranes. The effect of the filtration conditions on the flux (critical flux), retention, and the fouling of the membranes was studied. The experiments were conducted by increasing and decreasing the pressure and

M Mänttäri; M Nyström

2000-01-01

142

Whole effluent assessment of industrial wastewater for determination of BAT compliance. Part 2: metal surface treatment industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim and scope  Toxicity testing has become a suitable tool for wastewater evaluation included in several reference documents on best available\\u000a techniques of the Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) Directive. The IPPC Directive requires that for direct\\u000a dischargers as well as for indirect dischargers, the same best available techniques should be applied. Within the study, the\\u000a whole effluent assessment

Stefan Gartiser; Christoph Hafner; Christoph Hercher; Kerstin Kronenberger-Schäfer; Albrecht Paschke

2010-01-01

143

Biological alternatives to chemical identification for the ecotoxicological assessment of industrial effluents: The RTG-2 in vitro cytotoxicity test  

SciTech Connect

Ecotoxicology is concerned with the effects of chemicals on biological systems. Identifying components of complex aqueous effluents poses special problems, and can be useless if there is a lack of information on the biological effects of the identified chemicals. Toxicity-based (bioassay-directed) sample fractionation can be very useful, but the small amount of fractioned material is a constraint that can be solved by using in vitro tests. The RTG-2 in vitro cytotoxicity test has been used to assess (a) the efficacy of a treatment plant in the aeronautics industry and (b) the exposure of fish and molluscs cultured in Esteiro Bay to the effluent of a fish-processing factory. Ecotoxicological assessments could be done without identifying the responsible chemicals. The RTG-2 test was used in combination with concentration/fractionation procedures. It proved that the toxicity of the liquid wastes from the aeronautics industry was eliminated by the treatment, and that molluscs and fish reared in Esteiro Bay had accumulated toxic chemicals dumped by the fish-processing factory. A combination of the RTG-2 cytotoxicity test and HPLC proved to give useful information even for chemicals not identified by GC-MS.

Castano, A. (Inst. Carlos III, Madrid (Spain). Centro de Sanidad Ambiental); Vega, M.; Blazquez, T.; Tarazona, J.V. (CISA-INIA, Madrid (Spain))

1994-10-01

144

Ecological effects of contaminated sediments following a decade of no industrial effluents emissions: the Sediment Quality Triad approach.  

PubMed

Sediments contaminated by industrial effluents a decade after the emissions were stopped were statistically compared to sediments from reference channels, using the Sediment Quality Triad approach. The metals and metalloid concentrations, mainly Hg and As, increased towards the upper part of a contaminated channel, where the industrial discharge was located. A bioaccumulation assay with Scrobicularia plana showed the highest bioaccumulation and mortality in the most contaminated sediments and bioaccumulation strongly correlated with the sediments metals and metalloid concentrations. The resident macroinvertebrate community also showed significant differences between the contaminated and reference channels, in the upper areas, where the community was most affected. All three elements of the quality triad rejected the null hypothesis and indicated that despite the emissions ceasing in 2004, sediments remain contaminated by high levels of metals and metalloid, leading to bioaccumulation and with severe community level consequences. PMID:25152187

Lopes, Marta Lobão; Rodrigues, Ana Maria; Quintino, Victor

2014-10-15

145

Genotoxic evaluation of an industrial effluent from an oil refinery using plant and animal bioassays  

PubMed Central

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are genotoxic chemicals commonly found in effluents from oil refineries. Bioassays using plants and cells cultures can be employed for assessing environmental safety and potential genotoxicity. In this study, the genotoxic potential of an oil refinery effluent was analyzed by means of micronucleus (MN) testing of Alium cepa, which revealed no effect after 24 h of treatment. On the other hand, primary lesions in the DNA of rat (Rattus norvegicus) hepatoma cells (HTC) were observed through comet assaying after only 2 h of exposure. On considering the capacity to detect DNA damage of a different nature and of these cells to metabolize xenobiotics, we suggest the association of the two bioassays with these cell types, plant (Allium cepa) and mammal (HTC) cells, for more accurately assessing genotoxicity in environmental samples. PMID:21637622

2010-01-01

146

Novel physico-biological treatment for the remediation of textile dyes-containing industrial effluents.  

PubMed

In this work, a novel remediation strategy consisting of a sequential biological and physical process is proposed to remove dyes from a textile polluted effluent. The decolorization ability of Anoxybacillus flavithermus in an aqueous effluent containing two representative textile finishing dyes (Reactive Black 5 and Acid Black 48, as di-azo and antraquinone class, respectively) was proved. The decolorization efficiency for a mixture of both dyes reached almost 60% in less than 12h, which points out the suitability of the selected microorganism. In a sequential stage, an aqueous biphasic system consisting of non-ionic surfactants and a potassium-based organic salt, acting as the salting out agent, was investigated. The phase segregation potential of the selected salts was evaluated in the light of different thermodynamic models, and remediation levels higher than 99% were reached. PMID:23985354

Álvarez, M S; Moscoso, F; Rodríguez, A; Sanromán, M A; Deive, F J

2013-10-01

147

Generate clean fuels from downstream petrochemical operations  

SciTech Connect

Selective catalytic hydrogenations have become important tools in optimizing the overall economics of a steamcracker. A variety of processes and catalysts have been developed to a high standard. In the future, steamcracker downstream processing will become even more versatile. For example, isomerization can be used to adapt utilization of the C{sub 4} and C{sub 5} streams to the ever-changing demands of the market. An example of this trend is the skeletal isomerization of n-butenes to isobutylene, which is increasingly practiced in western countries. As the worldwide petrochemical industry evolved since the 1950s, the steamcracker became the predominant source for the major raw materials upon which the industry depends today. Currently, prices for steamcracker products are at profitable levels. Selective hydrogeneration processes for steam cracker applications can generate valuable transportation fuel components and intermediates.

Polanek, P; Artrip, D.; Mueller, H.J.; Kons, G. [BASF Aktiengesellschaft, Ludwigshafen (Germany)

1996-05-01

148

Phytoremediation efficiency of Portulaca tuberosa rox and Portulaca oleracea L. naturally growing in an industrial effluent irrigated area in Vadodra, Gujrat, India.  

PubMed

Phytoremediation is a novel, solar-driven and cost-effective technology for the remediation of heavy metal contaminated environments through exploitation of plants ability to accumulate heavy metals in their harvestable shoot parts. In the present investigation, we collected plants of two species of Portulaca i.e. P. tuberosa and P. oleracea from field sites in Vadodra, Gujrat, India. At one site, field was being irrigated with industrial effluent while at other with tube well water. Analysis of heavy metals was performed in industrial effluent, tube well water, soils irrigated with them, and in different parts viz., roots, stem, leaves and flowers of the plant samples. Industrial effluent and soil irrigated with it had very high level of heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Cd, Cr and As) as compared to the tube well water and soil irrigated with that. Plants of both the species growing in effluent irrigated soils showed high accumulation of metals in all plant parts with the maximum being in roots and the least in flowers. Interestingly, both species of Portulaca hyperaccumulated more than one heavy metal viz., Cd, Cr and As. The total shoot concentrations (microg g(-1) dw) of Cd, Cr and As in P. tuberosa were 1,571, 7,957 and 3,118, respectively while in P. oleracea, these were 1,128, 7,552 and 2,476, respectively. Portulaca plants have good biomass and high regeneration potential; hence appear to be suitable for the remediation of effluent (metal) contaminated areas. PMID:18193484

Tiwari, K K; Dwivedi, S; Mishra, S; Srivastava, S; Tripathi, R D; Singh, N K; Chakraborty, S

2008-12-01

149

Whole effluent assessment of industrial wastewater for determination of bat compliance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim and scope  The applicability of the Whole Effluent Assessment concept for the proof of compliance with the “best available techniques”\\u000a has been analysed with paper mill wastewater from Germany by considering its persistency (P), potentially bio-accumulative\\u000a substances (B) and toxicity (T).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  Twenty wastewater samples from 13 paper mills using different types of cellulose fibres as raw materials

Stefan Gartiser; Christoph Hafner; Christoph Hercher; Kerstin Kronenberger-Schäfer; Albrecht Paschke

2010-01-01

150

Measurement of sucrose and ethanol concentrations in process streams and effluents of sugarcane bioethanol industry by optical fiber sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The measurement of process streams and effluents from sugar-ethanol industry by using optical fiber sensor based on Fresnel reflection principle is reported. Firstly, binary sucrose-water and ethanol-water solutions were measured in order to determine the calibration curves. Secondly, the co-products from various processing stages were analyzed in order to identify the sucrose or ethanol concentration. The absolute error was calculated by comparison between the nominal concentration values obtained by plant laboratory analysis and the sensor response, yielding errors <= 5 wt% and <= 5 vol% for sucrose and ethanol content, respectively. The fiber sensor provided reliable results even for samples with more complex compositions than pure sucrose or ethanol solutions, with perspectives of application on the several stages of the plant facility.

Fujiwara, Eric; Ono, Eduardo; Manfrim, Tarcio P.; Santos, Juliana S.; Suzuki, Carlos K.

2011-05-01

151

Silica removal in industrial effluents with high silica content and low hardness.  

PubMed

High silica content of de-inked paper mill effluents is limiting their regeneration and reuse after membrane treatments such as reverse osmosis (RO). Silica removal during softening processes is a common treatment; however, the effluent from the paper mill studied has a low hardness content, which makes the addition of magnesium compounds necessary to increase silica removal. Two soluble magnesium compounds (MgCl??6H?O and MgSO??7H?O) were tested at five dosages (250-1,500 mg/L) and different initial pH values. High removal rates (80-90%) were obtained with both products at the highest pH tested (11.5). With these removal efficiencies, it is possible to work at high RO recoveries (75-85%) without silica scaling. Although pH regulation significantly increased the conductivity of the waters (at pH 11.5 from 2.1 to 3.7-4.0 mS/cm), this could be partially solved by using Ca(OH)? instead of NaOH as pH regulator (final conductivity around 3.0 mS/cm). Maximum chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal obtained with caustic soda was lower than with lime (15 vs. 30%). Additionally, the combined use of a polyaluminum coagulant during the softening process was studied; the coagulant, however, did not significantly improve silica removal, obtaining a maximum increase of only 10%. PMID:24777323

Latour, Isabel; Miranda, Ruben; Blanco, Angeles

2014-08-01

152

Treatment of colored and real industrial effluents through electrocoagulation using solar energy.  

PubMed

This study was undertaken to investigate the removal of Acid Orange 2 (sodium 4-[(2E)-2-(2-oxonaphthalen-1-ylidene) hydrazinyl] benzenesulfonate) and Reactive Blue 19 (2-Anthracenesulfonicacid,1-amino-9,10-dihydro-9,10-dioxo-4-[[3-[[2-(sulfooxy) ethyl] sulfonyl] phenyl] amino]-,sodium salt (1:2)) from synthesized and real effluents through electrocoagulation using solar cells for the purpose of improving economic efficiency of the process. The impact of a number of key operating parameters was explored including current density, anode type, temperature, pH, and electrolyte concentration. The current density of 45 Am(-2) proved to be the optimum level for both dyes. The same optimum alternatives were found for the other parameters in both cases: iron anode, a temperature level of 25°C, a pH of 7, and an electrolyte concentration of 15 mg L(-1). Both effluent samples were subjected to COD (chemical oxygen demand) and TOC (total organic carbon) tests. Cost analysis was performed for the treatment process. PMID:23647115

Pirkarami, Azam; Olya, Mohammad Ebrahim; Tabibian, Sahar

2013-01-01

153

New Mexico Water Resources Research Institute, New Mexico State University http://wrri.nmsu.edu Land application of industrial effluent on a Chihuahuan Desert  

E-print Network

treatment systems is to allow the physical, chemical and biological properties of the soil-plant system, 2001). Little data are available on the use of native terrestrial ecosystems for waste- water treatment descriptors: industrial effluent, soil physics, Chihuahuan Desert Problem and research objectives Biological

Johnson, Eric E.

154

Membrane processes for water reuse from the effluent of industrial park wastewater treatment plant: a study on flux and fouling of membrane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both the relationship between the flux and the fouling mechanism of ultrafiltration (UF) membrane and the effects of pretreatment before reverse osmosis (RO) process on the treatment of the effluent of industrial park wastewater treatment plant (IPWTP) were investigated to examine the application of membrane processes on the water reuse treatment. For the former, the flux data was first fitted

Lain-Chuen Juang; Dyi-Hwa Tseng; He-Yin Lin

2007-01-01

155

Effects of an industrial effluent on plant colonization and on the germination and post-germinative growth of seeds of terrestrial and aquatic plant species.  

PubMed

Major oil sands industrial companies are located in the Athabasca Oil Sands Deposit in northeastern Alberta, Canada. During the process used to extract light crude oil (via hot water digestion and flotation), gypsum is usually added to produce consolidated tails (CT) and CT release water. The vast volumes of process-treated waters (effluent) are held within large dyked tailings ponds. Toward testing viable options for reclamation, various hummock-wetlands systems have been constructed; in addition, natural wetlands (inhabited by obligate wetland plant species) have become established as a result of seeping of the effluents held within the large dyked ponds. Vegetation surveys conducted on and around the industrial site revealed that the constructed wetlands associated with the dyke drainage (effluent treated with phosphorous) and consolidated tails (CT; effluent treated with gypsum) had low biodiversity and were not invaded by many aquatic plants. Although the natural wetland was also not invaded by many aquatic species, it was found to be as diverse as the reference wetlands (i.e. off-site wetlands not exposed to the effluents). Exposure to oil sands effluents had an inhibitory effect on the germination (percent and/or rate) of several plant species (tomato, clover, wheat, rye, pea, reed canary grass, loblolly pine); clover and tomato seed germination were most affected. Two treatments in particular (effluents from the natural on-site wetland and the CT constructed wetland), delayed germination, and also led to reduced fresh weight of seedlings of tomato, wheat, clover and loblolly pine. The osmolarities of the effluents associated with the natural on-site wetland and CT constructed wetland were 712 and 728 mOs/kg, respectively; substituting these effluents with solutions of polyethylene glycol of the same osmotic potentials had a greater inhibitory effect on germination rate. The negative effects of the effluents on seed germination may account for the paucity of aquatic species that invaded the oil sands impacted wetlands. This factor will also be critical in determining the long-term feasibility of hummock-wetland systems. PMID:11843534

Crowe, A U; Plant, A L; Kermode, A R

2002-01-01

156

Simultaneously bio treatment of textiles and food industries effluent at difference ratios with the aid of e-beam radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The combination of irradiation and biological technique was used to study COD, BOD5 and colour removal of textiles effluent in the presence of food industry wastewater at two different ratios. Two biological treatment system, the first consisting a mix of unirradiated textile and food industry wastewater and the second a mix of irradiated textile wastewater and food industry wastewater were operated in parallel. The experiment was conducted by batch. For the first batch the ratio was use for textile wastewater and food industry wastewater in biological treatment was 1:1. Meanwhile, for the second batch the ratio used for textile wastewater and food industry wastewater in biological treatment was 1:2. The results obtained for the first and second batch varies from each other. After irradiation, COD reduce in textile wastewater for the both batches are roughly 29% - 33% from the unirradiated wastewater. But after undergoing the biological treatment the percentage of COD reduction for first batch and second batch was 62.1% and 80.7% respectively. After irradiation the BOD5 of textile wastewater reduced by 22.2% for the first batch and 55.1% for the second batch. But after biological treatment, the BOD5 value for the first batch was same as its initial, 36mg/l and 40.4mg/l for the second batch. Colour had decreased from 899.5 ADMI to 379.3 ADMI after irradiation and decrease to 109.3 after undergoes biological treatment for the first batch. Meantime for the batch two, colour had decreased from 1000.44 ADMI to 363.40 ADMI after irradiation and dropped to 79.20 ADMI after biological treatment. The experiment show that 1:2 ratio show better reduction on COD, BOD5 and colour, compared to the ratio of 1:1.

Bakar, Khomsaton Abu; Selambakkannu, Sarala; Ting, Teo Ming; Shariff, Jamaliah

2012-09-01

157

Phthalates and alkylphenols in industrial and domestic effluents: case of Paris conurbation (France).  

PubMed

Phthalates and alkylphenols are toxics classified as endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs). They are of particular concern due to their ubiquity and generally higher levels found in the environment comparatively to other EDCs. Industrial and domestic discharges might affect the quality of receiving waters by discharging organic matter and contaminants through treated waters and combined sewer overflows. Historically, industrial discharges are often considered as the principal vector of pollution in urban areas. If this observation was true in the past for some contaminants, no current data are today available to compare the quality of industrial and domestic discharges as regards EDCs. In this context, a total of 45 domestic samples as well as 101 industrial samples were collected from different sites, including 14 residential and 33 industrial facilities. This study focuses more specifically on 4 phthalates and 2 alkylphenols, among the most commonly studied congeners. A particular attention was also given to routine wastewater quality parameters. For most substances, wastewaters from the different sites were heavily contaminated; they display concentrations up to 1200 ?g/l for di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and between 10 and 100 ?g/l for diethyl phthalate and nonylphenol. Overall, for the majority of compounds, the industrial contribution to the flux of contaminant reaching the wastewater treatment plants ranges between 1 and 3%. The data generated during this work constitutes one of the first studies conducted in Europe on industrial fluxes for a variety of sectors of activity. The study of the wastewater contribution was used to better predict the industrial and domestic contributions at the scale of a huge conurbation heavily urbanized but with a weak industrial cover, illustrated by Paris. Our results indicate that specific investigations on domestic discharges are necessary in order to reduce the release of phthalates and alkylphenols in the sewer systems for such conurbations. PMID:24815554

Bergé, A; Gasperi, J; Rocher, V; Gras, L; Coursimault, A; Moilleron, R

2014-08-01

158

A comprehensive environmental assessment of petrochemical solvent production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim, and scope  Organic solvents are used in large quantities in the chemical, metal and electronics industries as well as in many consumer\\u000a products, such as coatings or paints, and are therefore among the most important chemicals. The petrochemical production of\\u000a organic solvents is a relevant environmental issue because fossil resources are needed (crude oil and natural gas), synthesis\\u000a processes

Christian Capello; Gregor Wernet; Jürgen Sutter; Stefanie Hellweg; Konrad Hungerbühler

2009-01-01

159

BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT, EFFLUENT REUSE, AND SLUDGE HANDLING FOR THE SIDE LEATHER TANNING INDUSTRY  

EPA Science Inventory

An evaluation of the treatability of unsegregated, unequalized, and unneutralized wastewaters from a side-leather tanning industry utilizing the hair pulping process by primary and secondary biological and gravity separation in clarifier-thickeners, whereas the secondary treatmen...

160

Evaluation of haloalkaliphilic sulfur-oxidizing microorganisms with potential application in the effluent treatment of the petroleum industry.  

PubMed

Haloalkaliphilic sulfur-oxidizing mixed cultures for the treatment of alkaline-saline effluents containing sulfide were characterized and evaluated. The mixed cultures (IMP-PB, IMP-XO and IMP-TL) were obtained from Mexican alkaline soils collected in Puebla (PB), Xochimilco (XO) and Tlahuac (TL), respectively. The Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis (RISA) revealed bacteria related to Thioalkalibacterium and Thioalkalivibrio in IMP-XO and IMP-PB mixed cultures. Halomonas strains were detected in IMP-XO and IMP-TL. In addition, an uncultured Bacteroides bacterium was present in IMP-TL. Mixed cultures were evaluated at different pH and NaCl concentrations at 30°C. IMP-PB and IMP-TL expressed thiosulfate-oxidizing activity in the 7.5-10.5 pH range, whereas IMP-XO presented its maximal activity with 19.0 mg O? g (protein)?¹ min?¹, at pH 10.6; it was not affected by NaCl concentrations up to 1.7 M. In continuous culture, IMP-XO showed a growth rate of 15 day?¹, productivity of 433.4 mg(protein) l?¹ day?¹ and haloalkaliphilic sulfur-oxidizing activity was also detected up to 170 mM by means of N-methyl-diethanolamine (MDEA). Saline-alkaline soil samples are potential sources of haloalkaliphilic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria and the mixed cultures could be applied in the treatment of inorganic sulfur compounds in petroleum industry effluents under alkaline-saline conditions. PMID:20582453

Olguín-Lora, P; Le Borgne, S; Castorena-Cortés, G; Roldán-Carrillo, T; Zapata-Peñasco, I; Reyes-Avila, J; Alcántara-Pérez, S

2011-02-01

161

Performance assessment and hydrodynamic analysis of a submerged membrane bioreactor for treating dairy industrial effluent.  

PubMed

Submerged membrane bioreactor (SMBR) is a relatively advanced technology for waste water treatment that involves integrated aerobic and anaerobic biological processes with membrane filtration. In the present investigation, hydrophobic polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and hydrophilic polyacrylonitrile (PAN) hollow fiber (HF) membranes were tested in an indigenously fabricated SMBR for dairy effluent treatment under aerobic conditions using mixed microbial consortia. Effect of operating parameters such as suction pressure, degree of aeration and trans-membrane pressure (TMP) on membrane performance in terms of flux, rejection of turbidity, BOD and COD besides fouling characteristics was investigated. The observed optimum permeabilities of PVDF and PAN HF membranes were approximately 108 and 115 LMH bar(-1) with high extent of impurity removal. The rejection of COD was found to be 93% for PVDF and 91% for PAN HF membranes whereas corresponding rejection of BOD was observed to be 92% and 86%. A two-dimensional comprehensive model was developed to predict the hydrodynamic profile inside the module. Regression analysis revealed that the simulation results agreed well with experimental data. PMID:24793299

K, Praneeth; Moulik, Siddhartha; Vadthya, Pavani; Bhargava, Suresh K; Tardio, James; S, Sridhar

2014-06-15

162

Zero Liquid Discharge approach in plating industry: treatment of degreasing effluents by electrocoagulation and anodic oxidation.  

PubMed

Degreasing waste effluents issued from a surface treatment plant were treated by electrochemical techniques in an attempt to reduce COD so that clean water can be returned to the rinse bath. Electrocoagulation, both with iron and aluminium anodes, and anodic oxidation with boron doped diamond (BDD) anodes were tested. In the electrocoagulation tests, the nature of the anodes did not impact significantly the reduction of COD. Electrocoagulation showed good COD removal rates, superior to 80%, but it was not able to reduce COD down to low levels. Anodic oxidation was able to reduce COD down to discharge limits; the oxidation efficiency was superior to 50%. Economical calculations show that anodic oxidation is best used as a polishing step after electrocoagulation. The bulk of the COD would be reduced by electrocoagulation and, then, anodic oxidation would reduce COD below discharge limits. The maximum treatable flow is somewhat hindered by the small sizes of current BDD installation but it would reach 600 m(3)/year if anodic oxidation is coupled with electrocoagulation, the operational cost being 2.90 Euros /m(3). PMID:18725717

Hermon, S; Grange, D; Pellet, Y; Lloret, G; Oyonarte, S; Bosch, F; Coste, M

2008-01-01

163

Utilization of petrochemical wastewater for the production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) by Haloarcula sp. IRU1.  

PubMed

Wastewater of petrochemical industries contains high amounts of emulsified aliphatic or aromatic hydrocarbons that lead to the contamination of almost all environmental resources. The ability of Haloarcula sp. IRU1 isolated from Urmia lake, Iran for utilization of petrochemical wastewater and production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) from it was evaluated and optimized by Taguchi experimental method. The optimium conditions for the maximum production of PHB were petrochemical wastewater 2% (as carbon source), tryptone 0.8% (as nitrogen source), KH(2)PO(4) 0.001% (as phosphorus source) and temperature 47°C. In conclusion, Haloarcula sp. IRU1 can degrade petrochemical wastewater and produce PHB from it in different conditions. PMID:21316852

Taran, Mojtaba

2011-04-15

164

Rapid analysis of effluents generated by the dairy industry for fat determination by preconcentration in nylon membranes and attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy measurement.  

PubMed

This paper describes a new approach for the determination of fat in the effluents generated by the dairy industry which is based on the retention of fat in nylon membranes and measurement of the absorbances on the membrane surface by ATR-IR spectroscopy. Different options have been evaluated for retaining fat in the membranes using milk samples of different origin and fat content. Based on the results obtained, a method is proposed for the determination of fat in effluents which involves the filtration of 1 mL of the samples through 0.45 µm nylon membranes of 13 mm diameter. The fat content is then determined by measuring the absorbance of band at 1745 cm(-1). The proposed method can be used for the direct estimation of fat at concentrations in the 2-12 mg/L interval with adequate reproducibility. The intraday precision, expressed as coefficients of variation CVs, were ? 11%, whereas the interday CVs were ? 20%. The method shows a good tolerance towards conditions typically found in the effluents generated by the dairy industry. The most relevant features of the proposed method are simplicity and speed as the samples can be characterized in a few minutes. Sample preparation does not involve either additional instrumentation (such as pumps or vacuum equipment) or organic solvents or other chemicals. Therefore, the proposed method can be considered a rapid, simple and cost-effective alternative to gravimetric methods for controlling fat content in these effluents during production or cleaning processes. PMID:24401379

Moliner Martínez, Y; Muñoz-Ortuño, M; Herráez-Hernández, R; Campíns-Falcó, P

2014-02-01

165

Treatment of aqueous effluents of the leather industry by membrane processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general overview on the potentiality of membrane processes in the treatment of aqueous solutions coming from the leather industry is reported. The wet operations of the leather cycle which can be combined with or modified by membrane processes, such as microfiltration, ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis, have been described on the basis of consolidated applications and experimental

A Cassano; R Molinari; M Romano; E Drioli

2001-01-01

166

POLISHING INDUSTRIAL WASTE STREAM EFFLUENTS USING FLY ASH - NATURAL CLAY SORBENT COMBINATION  

EPA Science Inventory

A laboratory evaluation of the use of acidic and basic fly ashes, bentonite, bauxite, illite, kaolinite, zeolite, vermiculite, and activated alumina is presented for polishing a 3.8 x 10 to the 6th power liters per day waste stream from the feldspar mining and processing industry...

167

ECONOMIC IMPACT ANALYSIS OF EFFLUENT STANDARDS AND LIMITATIONS FOR THE METAL FINISHING INDUSTRY  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency issued e-fluent guidelines and limitations for the Metal Finishing Industry in June 1983. This report estimates the economic impact of pollution control costs in terms of price changes, effects profitability, potential plant closures, unem...

168

Distribution of petroleum hydrocarbon in sediment from coastal area receiving industrial effluents in Kuwait  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sediment samples from the coastal area facing Shuaiba industrial area (15×1.5km2) were examined for contamination with petroleum hydrocarbons. Aliphatic hydrocarbons in sediment extracts were characterized largely by unresolved complex mixture from nC22–nC33. The sediment samples from the upstream area facing Mina Al-Ahmadi refinery to Shuaiba Harbor were heavily polluted with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) possibly due to the higher depth

M. U Beg; T Saeed; S Al-Muzaini; K. R Beg; M Al-Bahloul

2003-01-01

169

Pollution control in pulp and paper industrial effluents using integrated chemical–biological treatment sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of the present study was to improve the quality of pulp and paper industrial wastewater of two local mills\\u000a RAKTA and El-Ahlia, Alexandria, Egypt, and to bring their pollutant contents to safe discharge levels. Quality improvement\\u000a was carried out using integrated chemical and biological treatment approaches after their optimization. Chemical treatment\\u000a (alum, lime, and ferric chloride) was

Ebtesam El-Bestawy; Ibrahim El-Sokkary; Hany Hussein; Alaa Farouk Abu Keela

2008-01-01

170

[Enhanced bio-contact oxidation method to treat petrochemical wastewater by tourmaline].  

PubMed

Aiming at the complexity and poor biochemical degradability of petrochemical wastewater, the effect of tourmaline on bio-contact oxidation method was investigated. The influent and effluent of petrochemical wastewater were analyzed by GC-MS, and the carrier was observed in reactor by scanning electron microscope (SEM). As the loading rates of influent were COD 0.64-0.72 kg/(m3 x d) and NH4(+) -N 0.058-0.072 kg/(m3 x d), the start up of pilot system supported tourmaline were improved, and the removal rate of COD and NH4(+) -N of effluent was increased 8.7% and 6.4%, respectively. Organic pollutants of 100 kinds were detected in influent, mainly including aromatic hydrocarbon, acids, lipids, phenols, alcohols, and alkanes compounds. The removal efficiency of organic pollutant of reactor 1 with tourmaline was higher than reactor 2 without tourmaline. The number of organic pollutant in effluent from reactor 1 and 2 were 14 and 28, respectively. Zoogloea can be observed on carrier supported tourmaline, and the biomass of bacteria was predominant. The efficiency of bio-contact oxidation method on petrochemical wastewater treatment can be enhanced by tourmaline. PMID:19662849

Jiang, Kan; Ma, Fang; Sun, Tie-Heng; Feng, Zhi-Yun

2009-06-15

171

Assessing toxicity of copper, cadmium and chromium levels relevant to discharge limits of industrial effluents into inland surface waters using common onion, Allium cepa bioassay.  

PubMed

Toxicity of copper, cadmium and chromium relevant to established tolerance limits for the discharge of industrial effluents into inland surface waters was evaluated by Allium cepa bioassay. The roots of A. cepa bulbs exposed to Cu(2+) (3 mg L(-1)) individually or in mixtures with Cd(2+) (0.1 mg L(-1)) or/and Cr(6+) (0.1 mg L(-1)) exhibited the highest growth inhibition, mitotic index depression and nuclear abnormalities. Root tip cells exposed to Cr(6+) or Cd(2+) alone or in mixture displayed significant chromosomal aberrations in comparison to the controls. EC50s for root growth inhibition followed the order Cu(2+) < Cd(2+) < Cr(6+) indicating greater toxicity of copper. The results show that the industrial effluent discharge regulatory limits for these metals need to be reviewed considering potential cyto-genotoxicity to biological systems. PMID:25201323

Hemachandra, Chamini K; Pathiratne, Asoka

2015-02-01

172

Genetic characterization, nickel tolerance, biosorption, kinetics, and uptake mechanism of a bacterium isolated from electroplating industrial effluent.  

PubMed

Electroplating industries in Madurai city produce approximately 49?000 L of wastewater and 1200 L of sludge every day revealing 687-5569 ppm of nickel (Ni) with other contaminants. Seventeen Ni-tolerant bacterial strains were isolated from nutrient-enriched effluents. Among them one hyper Ni accumulating strain was scored and identified as Bacillus cereus VP17 on the basis of morphology, biochemical tests, 16S rDNA gene sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis. Equilibrium data of Ni(II) ions using the bacterium as sorbent at isothermal conditions (37 °C) and pH 6 were best adjusted by Langmuir (R(2) = 0.6268) and Freundlich models (R(2) = 0.9505). Experimental validation reveals Ni sorption takes place on a heterogeneous surface of the biosorbent, and predicted metal sorption capacity is 434 ppm. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model fitted the biosorption kinetic data better than the pseudo-first-order kinetic model (R(2) = 0.9963 and 0.3625). Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies of the bacterial strain with and without Ni(II) ion reveals the biosorption mechanism. The results conclude possibilities of using B. cereus VP17 for Ni bioremediation. PMID:25768053

Nagarajan, N; Gunasekaran, P; Rajendran, P

2015-04-01

173

Response of ammonia-oxidizing archaea and bacteria to long-term industrial effluent-polluted soils, Gujarat, Western India.  

PubMed

Soil nitrifiers have been showing an important role in assessing environmental pollution as sensitive biomarkers. In this study, the abundance and diversity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) were investigated in long-term industrial waste effluent (IWE) polluted soils. Three different IWE polluted soils characterized as uncontaminated (R1), moderately contaminated (R2), and highly contaminated (R3) were collected in triplicate along Mahi River basin, Gujarat, Western India. Quantitative numbers of ammonia monooxygenase ?-subunit (amoA) genes as well as 16S rRNA genes indicated apparent deleterious effect of IWE on abundance of soil AOA, AOB, bacteria, and archaeal populations. Relatively, AOB was more abundant than AOA in the highly contaminated soil R3, while predominance of AOA was noticed in uncontaminated (R1) and moderately contaminated (R2) soils. Soil potential nitrification rate (PNR) significantly (P?

Subrahmanyam, Gangavarapu; Shen, Ju-Pei; Liu, Yu-Rong; Archana, Gattupalli; He, Ji-Zheng

2014-07-01

174

Production of bioethanol by direct bioconversion of oil-palm industrial effluent in a stirred-tank bioreactor.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of producing bioethanol from palm-oil mill effluent generated by the oil-palm industries through direct bioconversion process. The bioethanol production was carried out through the treatment of compatible mixed cultures such as Thrichoderma harzianum, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Mucor hiemalis, and yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Simultaneous inoculation of T. harzianum and S. cerevisiae was found to be the mixed culture that yielded the highest ethanol production (4% v/v or 31.6 g/l). Statistical optimization was carried out to determine the operating conditions of the stirred-tank bioreactor for maximum bioethanol production by a two-level fractional factorial design with a single central point. The factors involved were oxygen saturation level (pO(2)%), temperature, and pH. A polynomial regression model was developed using the experimental data including the linear, quadratic, and interaction effects. Statistical analysis showed that the maximum ethanol production of 4.6% (v/v) or 36.3 g/l was achieved at a temperature of 32 degrees C, pH of 6, and pO(2) of 30%. The results of the model validation test under the developed optimum process conditions indicated that the maximum production was increased from 4.6% (v/v) to 6.5% (v/v) or 51.3 g/l with 89.1% chemical-oxygen-demand removal. PMID:19294441

Alam, Md Zahangir; Kabbashi, Nassereldeen A; Hussin, S Nahdatul I S

2009-06-01

175

Impact of pharmaceutical industry treated effluents on the water quality of river Uppanar, South east coast of India: A case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The water quality of a river that received pharmaceutical industrial effluents is evaluated through the analysis of two indices to describe the level of pollution of the river, in this paper. The indices have been computed from December 2009 to June 2011 at four sampling stations—outlet, outfall, upstream, and downstream in the Uppanar River located at Cuddalore (South east coast of India). The results were compared with the guidelines of Bureau of Indian standards for drinking water specifications (BIS 10500).The study also identifies the pollutants of pharmaceutical industrial effluents before and after treatment that affects the river water quality. Data on spatial and temporal changes in dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, pH, temperature, color, electrical conductance, total dissolved solids, total suspended solids, calcium, magnesium, hardness, sodium, and chloride were collected. The water quality indices used, Bascarón (1979) adapted Water Quality Index (WQIBA) and the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment-Water Quality Index 1.0 (CCME WQI), which is a well-accepted and universally applicable computer model for evaluating the water quality index. Both the indices presented similar trends, and were considered adequate for evaluating the impacts of industrial effluent on the river water bodies.

Damodhar, Usha; Vikram Reddy, M.

2013-06-01

176

Aerobic treatability of waste effluent from the leather finishing industry. Master's thesis  

SciTech Connect

The Seton Company supplies finished leather products exclusively for the automotive industry. In the process of finishing leather, two types of wastewaters are generated. The majority of the wastewater is composed of water-based paint residuals while the remainder is composed of solvent-based coating residuals. Aerobic treatability studies were conducted using water-based and solvent-based waste recirculatory waters from the Seton Company's Saxton, Pennsylvania processing plant. The specific objective was to determine the potential for using aerobic biological processes to biodegrade the industry's wastes and determine the potential for joint treatment at the local publicly owned treatment works (POTW). This study was accomplished in two phases. Phase I was conducted during the Spring Semester 1993 and consisted of aerobic respirometer tests of the raw wastes and mass balance analysis. The results of Phase I were published in a report to the Seton Company as Environmental Resources Research Institute project number 92C.II40R-1. Phase II was conducted during the Summer Semester 1993 and consisted of bench-scale reactor tests and additional aerobic respirometer tests. The aerobic respirometer batch tests and bench-scale reactor tests were used to assess the treatability of solvent-based and water-based wastewaters and determine the degree of biodegradability of the wastewaters. Mass balance calculations were made using measured characteristics.

Vinger, J.A.

1993-12-01

177

Estimating effluent COD  

SciTech Connect

In many parts of the world, chemical oxygen demand (COD) is a primary effluent parameter. Unlike BOD, which considers only biodegradable organics, COD also includes non-degradable organics and non-degradable biological oxidation by-products, generally referred to as soluble microbial products (SMP). The SMP can vary from 2% to 10% of the influent degradable COD. If the technology is limited to biological treatment only, the degradable COD will be removed. Further reductions in COD will require physical chemical treatments such as activated carbon. Effluent COD values for several industrial wastewaters are presented. Effluent characteristics from the anaerobic treatment of industrial wastewaters are also discussed.

Eckenfelder, W.W.; Landine, R.

1995-06-01

178

Petrochemicals from coal-derived syngas  

SciTech Connect

The development of the Liquid Phase Dimethyl Ether (LPDME) process has established a means to effectively convert CO-rich syngas to dimethyl ether (DME) in a mechanically agitated slurry reactor. By operating in a dual catalyst mode, in-situ produced methanol may be converted to DME, thereby alleviating the chemical equilibrium limitation imposed on the methanol synthesis reaction. As a result, higher syngas conversions and methyl productivities are seen over methanol synthesis alone. This effective route to DME production over methanol has led to the development of conversion technologies based on a DME feedstock. Oxygenates, in particular, ethers and their precursors, are very important as potential clean fuel additives and have been postulated through vinylation/hydrogenation and oxidative coupling reactions. Specialty chemicals such as methyl acetate and acetic acid have widescale industrial importance in the conversion to ethanol from a non-agricultural feedstock. Vapor phase oxidative dimerization of DME over tin based catalysts produced precursors of ethylene glycol. Finally, DME has been extensively used as a feedstock for hydrocarbon synthesis including olefins, paraffins and gasoline range hydrocarbons, over zeolite based catalysts with a 46% increase in product selectivity over methanol. The efficient production of DME in the liquid phase has given it widescale industrial significance as a potential replacement for methanol and as a keystone for more important petrochemicals.

Sardesai, A.; Lee, S. [Univ. of Akron, OH (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1996-12-31

179

Dual application of duckweed and azolla plants for wastewater treatment and renewable fuels and petrochemicals production  

PubMed Central

Background Shortages in fresh water supplies today affects more than 1 billion people worldwide. Phytoremediation strategies, based on the abilities of aquatic plants to recycle nutrients offer an attractive solution for the bioremediation of water pollution and represents one of the most globally researched issues. The subsequent application of the biomass from the remediation for the production of fuels and petrochemicals offers an ecologically friendly and cost-effective solution for water pollution problems and production of value-added products. Results In this paper, the feasibility of the dual application of duckweed and azolla aquatic plants for wastewater treatment and production of renewable fuels and petrochemicals is explored. The differences in absorption rates of the key wastewater nutrients, ammonium and phosphorus by these aquatic macrophytes were used as the basis for optimization of the composition of wastewater effluents. Analysis of pyrolysis products showed that azolla and algae produce a similar range of bio-oils that contain a large spectrum of petrochemicals including straight-chain C10-C21 alkanes, which can be directly used as diesel fuel supplement, or a glycerin-free component of biodiesel. Pyrolysis of duckweed produces a different range of bio-oil components that can potentially be used for the production of “green” gasoline and diesel fuel using existing techniques, such as catalytic hydrodeoxygenation. Conclusions Differences in absorption rates of the key wastewater nutrients, ammonium and phosphorus by different aquatic macrophytes can be used for optimization of composition of wastewater effluents. The generated data suggest that the composition of the petrochemicals can be modified in a targeted fashion, not only by using different species, but also by changing the source plants’ metabolic profile, by exposing them to different abiotic or biotic stresses. This study presents an attractive, ecologically friendly and cost-effective solution for efficient bio-filtration of swine wastewater and petrochemicals production from generated biomass. PMID:24576349

2014-01-01

180

The impact of an industrial effluent on the water quality, submersed macrophytes and benthic macroinvertebrates in a dammed river of Central Spain.  

PubMed

This research was conducted in the middle Duratón River (Central Spain), in the vicinity of Burgomillodo Reservoir. An industrial effluent enters the river 300 m downstream from the dam. Fluoride and turbidity levels significantly increased downstream from the effluent, these levels being to some extent affected by differential water releases from the dam. The community of submersed macrophytes exhibited slighter responses and, accordingly, lower discriminatory power than the community of benthic macroinvertebrates, this indicating that metrics and indices based on macroinvertebrates may be more suitable for the biological monitoring of water pollution and habitat degradation in dammed rivers receiving industrial effluents. However, in relation to fluoride bioaccumulation at the organism level, macrophytes (Fontinalis antipyretica and Potamogeton pectinatus) were as suitable bioindicators of fluoride pollution as macroinvertebrates (Ancylus fluviatilis and Pacifastacus leniusculus). Fluoride bioaccumulation in both hard and soft tissues of these aquatic organisms could be used as suitable bioindicator of fluoride pollution (even lower than 1 mg F(-)L(-1)) in freshwater ecosystems. Echinogammarus calvus exhibited a great sensitivity to the toxicity of fluoride ions, with a 96 h LC?? of 7.5 mg F(-)L(-1) and an estimated safe concentration of 0.56 mg F(-)L(-1). The great capacity of E. calvus to take up and retain fluoride during exposures to fluoride ions would be a major cause of its great sensitivity to fluoride toxicity. It is concluded that the observed fluoride pollution might be partly responsible for the absence of this native amphipod downstream from the industrial effluent. PMID:23830885

Gonzalo, Cristina; Camargo, Julio A

2013-10-01

181

Phytoremediation of Hg and Cd from industrial effluents using an aquatic free floating macrophyte Azolla pinnata.  

PubMed

The level of heavy metal pollution in Singrauli, an industrial region in India, was assessed and the phytoremediation capacity of a small water fern, Azolla pinnata R.BR (Azollaceae), was observed to purify waters polluted by two heavy metals, i.e., mercury (Hg) and cadmium (Cd) under a microcosm condition. Azolla pinnata is endemic to India and is an abundant and easy-growing free-floating water fern usually found in the rice fields, polluted ponds, and reservoirs of India. The fern was grown in 24 40-L aquariums containing Hg2+ and Cd2+ ions each in concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, and 3.0 mgL(-1) during the course of this study. The study revealed an inhibition of Azolla pinnata growth by 27.0-33.9% with the highest in the presence of Hg (II) ions at 0.5 mgL(-1) in comparison to the control After 13 days of the experiment, metal contents in the solution were decreased up to 70-94%. In the tissues of Azolla pinnata, the concentration of selected heavy metals during investigation was recorded between 310 and 740 mgKg(-1) dry mass, with the highest levelfoundfor Cd (II) treatment at 3.0 mgL(-1) containing a metal solution. PMID:19260224

Rai, Prabhat Kumar

2008-01-01

182

Phytoaccumulation of heavy metals in natural plants thriving on wastewater effluent at hattar industrial estate, pakistan.  

PubMed

The objective of this research was to compare the potential of native plants for the phytoaccumulation of heavy metals (HM). Thirteen predominant plant species (including trees, bushes and grasses) namely Ricinus communis, Ipomoea carnea, Cannabis sativa, Parthenium hysterophorus, Acacia nilotica, Dalbergia sissoo, Acacia modesta, Solanum nigrum, Xanthium stromarium, Chenopodium album, Cynodon dactylon, Eleusine indica, and Dactyloctenium aegyptium were collected from the wastewater originated from Hattar industrial estate of Pakistan, Plants shoots and roots were analyzed for heavy metals / metalloid: Pb, Cr, Cd, Zn, Fe, Ni, and As. Among plant species, the accumulation potential for HM varied depending on the type of element. Regardless of the plant species, HM concentrations varied in the order of Fe > Zn > Cr > Pb > Ni > Cd > As. Tree species of R. communis, A. nilotica, A. modesta, and D. sissoo exhibited an enhanced concentrations of metals. Accumulation pattern of Fe, Pb, Cd, and As in plants could be related to the HM composition of soil and wastewater. Most of the species exhibited higher HM composition in the root as compared to shoot. The species that found with greater ability to absorb HM in the root, got higher HM concentrations in its shoot. Shoot tissue concentrations of HM were attained by the species as D. sissoo > A. modesta > A. nilotica > R. communis > I. carnea > C. album > E. indica > P. hysterophorus > S. nigrum > C. sativa > D. aegyptium > X. strumarium > C. dactylon. Based on results, tree plants were noticed as higher accumulators of HM in polluted soils. PMID:25254600

Irshad, Muhammad; Ahmad, Sajjad; Pervez, Arshid; Inoue, Mitsuhiro

2015-01-01

183

Biosorption of heavy metals by Bacillus thuringiensis strain OSM29 originating from industrial effluent contaminated north Indian soil  

PubMed Central

The study was navigated to examine the metal biosorbing ability of bacterial strain OSM29 recovered from rhizosphere of cauliflower grown in soil irrigated consistently with industrial effluents. The metal tolerant bacterial strain OSM29 was identified as Bacillus thuringiensis following 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. In the presence of the varying concentrations (25–150 mgl?1) of heavy metals, such as cadmium, chromium, copper, lead and nickel, the B. thuringiensis strain OSM29 showed an obvious metal removing potential. The effect of certain physico-chemical factors such as pH, initial metal concentration, and contact time on biosorption was also assessed. The optimum pH for nickel and chromium removal was 7, while for cadmium, copper and lead, it was 6. The optimal contact time was 30 min. for each metal at 32 ± 2 °C by strain OSM29. The biosorption capacity of the strain OSM29 for the metallic ions was highest for Ni (94%) which was followed by Cu (91.8%), while the lowest sorption by bacterial biomass was recorded for Cd (87%) at 25 mgl?1 initial metal ion concentration. The regression coefficients obtained for heavy metals from the Freundlich and Langmuir models were significant. The surface chemical functional groups of B. thuringiensis biomass identified by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) were amino, carboxyl, hydroxyl, and carbonyl groups, which may be involved in the biosorption of heavy metals. The biosorption ability of B. thuringiensis OSM29 varied with metals and was pH and metal concentration dependent. The biosorption of each metal was fairly rapid which could be an advantage for large scale treatment of contaminated sites. PMID:24115905

Oves, Mohammad; Khan, Mohammad Saghir; Zaidi, Almas

2012-01-01

184

Freshwater microcosms-based assessment of eco-toxicological effects of a chemical effluent from the Pilcam industry in Cameroon.  

PubMed

We studied the acute toxicity of a raw effluent from a battery manufacturing plant (Pilcam) in Douala, Cameroon, to a freshwater fish (Oreochromis niloticus), and subsequently evaluated its sub-acute effects on water quality and the biota in freshwater microscosms. The acute toxicity test was based on 96 hrs static renewal bioassays that resulted in 96-h LC50 and LC90 values of 16 and 20.7% (v/v), respectively. The sub-acute experiments were conducted by exposing several species of aquatic organisms (plankton, macroinvertebrates and mollusks) to lower effluent concentrations [1.6%, 8.0%, 16% (v/v)] for six weeks, and monitoring their survival rates, as well as the physical and chemical characteristics of water. These concentrations were based on 10%, 50%, and 100% of the 96 h - median lethal concentrations (LC50) of the effluent to the freshwater fish, Oreochromis niloticus. Significant effects on functional parameters, such as, chlorophyll-a and total protein could not be demonstrated. However, the activity of alkaline phosphatase was significantly inhibited at all concentrations tested. Phytoplankton, zooplankton, macro-invertebrate communities and snails were negatively affected by the effluent application at concentrations ? 8% (v/v), with chlorophyta, ciliates, ostracoda, annelida, planaria and snails being the most sensitive groups. The snails were eliminated after 24 h exposure from microcosms treated with effluent at concentration ? 8% (v/v). Effluent exposure also caused significant effects on water quality parameters (DO, pH, hardness, conductivity, color, turbidity, ammonia) in general at concentrations ? 8% (v/v). Temperature and alkalinity were not significantly affected. Overall, data from this research indicate that a dilution of the Pilcam effluent down to 1.6% does not provide protection against chronic toxicity to aquatic organisms. Further studies are needed to determine the no observable adverse effect level (NOAEL), as well as a chronic reference concentration for this effluent. PMID:16696186

Monkiedje, A; Njinel, T; Meyabeme Elono, A L; Zebaze, S H; Kemka, N; Tchounwou, P B; Djomo, J E

2004-09-01

185

Oral exposure to industrial effluent with exceptionally high levels of drugs does not indicate acute toxic effects in rats.  

PubMed

The Patancheru area near Hyderabad in India is recognized as a key link in the global supply chain for many bulk drugs. A central treatment plant receives wastewater from approximately 90 different manufacturers, and the resulting complex effluent has contaminated surface, ground, and drinking water in the region. Ecotoxicological testing of the effluent has shown adverse effects for several organisms, including aquatic vertebrates, at high dilutions. In addition, a recent study of microbial communities in river sediment indicated that the contamination of antibiotic substances might contribute to the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance genes. In an attempt to start investigating how exposure to effluent-contaminated water may directly affect humans and other terrestrial vertebrates, rats were tube-fed effluent. Several pharmaceuticals present in the effluent could be detected in rat blood serum at low concentrations. However, results from exploratory microarray and quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays indicated no marked effects on hepatic gene transcription after 5 d of exposure. Clinical analysis of blood serum constituents, used as biomarkers for human disease did not reveal any significant changes, nor was there an effect on weight gain. The authors could not find evidence for any acute toxicity in the rat; however, the authors cannot rule out that [corrected] higher doses of effluent or a longer exposure time may still be associated with risks for terrestrial vertebrates. PMID:23258772

Rutgersson, Carolin; Gunnarsson, Lina; Fick, Jerker; Kristiansson, Erik; Larsson, D G Joakim

2013-03-01

186

FISH COUGH RESPONSE - A METHOD FOR EVALUATING QUALITY OF TREATED COMPLEX EFFLUENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) showed increases in cough frequency commensurate with effluent concentration when exposed for 24 h to different industrial and municipal effluents. Effluents known to be toxic caused steadily increasing cough rates in the fish as effluent co...

187

BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF HIGH STRENGTH PETROCHEMICAL WASTEWATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The biological treatment of a complex petrochemical wastewater containing high concentrations of organic chlorides, nitrates, and amines was initially studied using a sequence of anaerobic methanogenesis and oxygen activated sludge. Bench-scale and pilot-plant treatability studie...

188

Hydrocarbon Processing`s petrochemical processes `97  

SciTech Connect

The paper compiles information on numerous petrochemical processes, describing the application, the process, yields, economics, commercial plants, references, and licensor. Petrochemicals which are synthesized include: alkylbenzene, methylamines, ammonia, benzene, bisphenol-A, BTX aromatics, butadiene, butanediol, butyraldehyde, caprolactam, cumene, dimethyl terephthalate, ethanolamines, ethylbenzene, ethylene, ethylene glycols, ethylene oxide, formaldehyde, maleic anhydride, methanol, olefins, paraxylene, phenol, phthalic anhydride, polycaproamide, polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate, polypropylene, PVC, styrene, terephthalic acid, urea, vinyl chloride, and xylene isomers.

NONE

1997-03-01

189

Dispersion and co-combustion studies for disposal of agro-industrial effluents in bubbling fluidized bed  

SciTech Connect

The present work was developed in the frame of a collaboration between CNR/Istituto Ricerche Combustione, University of Parma and ENEA. It was aimed at exploiting and recovering the thermal energy from liquid effluents and solid wastes derived from typical Italian manufacturing of agro-industrial companies. This paper focuses on an organic sludge that is obtained as a residue during steam concentration of waste water from alcohol production in distilleries. This sludge has a very low calorific value and cannot be directly used in a combustion process. The first objective was to turn the sludge into a coal/waste/water mixture, easy to prepare and to burn on site in a bubbling fluidized combustor. To do so, some preliminary runs were carried out on a significant experimental scale by employing the 2100 kW{sub t} FBC-370 pre-pilot facility and by feeding underbed a South African coal/dry residue/water mixture with a maximum particle size of 1 mm. Very satisfactory values of co-combustion efficiency (i.e., larger than 98%), were attained as a function of the dispersing air velocity. It was proven that the mechanism of combustion passes through the formation of carbon-sand aggregates and tiny carbon deposits on bed sand particles. Another outcome was that pumping the mixture directly into the bed without any atomization is feasible and favorable from the point of view of co-combustion efficiency. Therefore, a second objective was to investigate aggregate formation as a result of mixture injection into the hot bed. This has been pursued through a review of the fundamental aspects underlying the behavior of a liquid issuing from an orifice. Two simple approaches, one based on Scheele and Meister`s (1968) results and the other one based on a balance of force moments, were followed. These two approaches provided two different equations to predict the diameter of a drop that detaches from the injection nozzle. Furthermore, aggregate formation was investigated through the set-up of batch experiments with mixtures injection into the FBR-40 bench-scale bubbling-bed facility. The characteristic size of the aggregates formed follows a similar trend as the predicted drop diameter, i.e., it increases with the nozzle size at a constant injection velocity and decreases with injection velocity for a constant orifice diameter.

Miccio, F. [CNR/Ist. di Ricerche sulla Combustione, Napoli (Italy); Miccio, M. [Univ. di Parma (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Industriale

1997-12-31

190

Assessing the application of advanced oxidation processes, and their combination with biological treatment, to effluents from pulp and paper industry.  

PubMed

The closure of water circuits within pulp and paper mills has resulted in a higher contamination load of the final mill effluent, which must consequently be further treated in many cases to meet the standards imposed by the legislation in force. Different treatment strategies based on advanced oxidation processes (ozonation and TiO2-photocatalysis), and their combination with biological treatment (MBR), are herein assessed for effluents of a recycled paper mill and a kraft pulp mill. Ozone treatment achieved the highest efficiency of all. The consumption of 2.4 g O3 L(-1) resulted in about a 60% COD reduction treating the effluent from the kraft pulp mill at an initial pH=7; although it only reached about a 35% COD removal for the effluent of the recycled paper mill. Otherwise, photocatalysis achieved about a 20-30% reduction of the COD for both type of effluents. In addition, the effluent from the recycled paper mill showed a higher biodegradability, so combinations of these AOPs with biological treatment were tested. As a result, photocatalysis did not report any significant COD reduction improvement whether being performed as pre- or post-treatment of the biological process; whereas the use of ozonation as post-biological treatment enhanced COD removal a further 10%, summing up a total 90% reduction of the COD for the combined treatment, as well as it also supposed an increase of the presence of volatile fatty acids, which might ultimately enable the resultant wastewater to be recirculated back to further biological treatment. PMID:24076569

Merayo, Noemí; Hermosilla, Daphne; Blanco, Laura; Cortijo, Luis; Blanco, Angeles

2013-11-15

191

Effects of sewage and industrial effluent on the concentration of Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd in water and sediments along Waterfalls stream and lower Mukuvisi River in Harare, Zimbabwe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The disposal of sewage and industrial effluent is a problem confronting municipalities in most developing countries. A study was conducted to determine the effects of the disposal of sewage and industrial effluent into Mukuvisi River and Waterfalls stream, a tributary of Mukuvisi River in Harare, Zimbabwe. Water and sediment samples were collected over two seasons (October 2003 to November 2004). Sampling sites were located before and after Firle Sewage Treatment Works (FSTW) along Mukuvisi River and before and after Prospect Industrial Area (PIA) along the Waterfalls stream. The water and sediment samples were analysed for pH, and total Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd. The FSTW had no effect on water and sediment pH in Mukuvisi River, which ranged 6.8-7.0 and 5.0-5.6, respectively. The heavy metal concentration upstream of the sewage processing plant was higher than down stream implying that the effluent disposed into the river had lower metal concentrations compared to the river water. Metal concentrations in water and sediment samples along the Waterfalls stream showed an increase just after the PIA, and were more significant in sediment samples. It was concluded that the metal pollution of the two streams was due to industrial pollution rather than sewage effluent disposal. Accumulation of heavy metals in streams is better monitored using sediments where they accumulate rather than water. Continued dumping of industrial effluent into Mukuvisi River and its tributaries will cause further damage to the ecosystem and the food chain.

Nyamangara, J.; Bangira, C.; Taruvinga, T.; Masona, C.; Nyemba, A.; Ndlovu, D.

192

The impact of petrochemical industrialisation on life expectancy and per capita income in Taiwan: an 11-year longitudinal study  

PubMed Central

Background Petrochemical industries have been identified as important sources of emissions of chemical substances, and adverse health outcomes have been reported for residents who live nearby. The purpose of the current study was to examine the adverse effects of petrochemical industrialization in Taiwan on the life expectancy and personal income of people living in nearby communities. Methods This study compared life expectancies and personal income between one industrial county (Yunlin County) and one reference county (Yilan County), which had no significant industrial activity that might emit pollutants, in Taiwan through analysis of 11 year long and publicly available data. Data from before and after the petrochemical company in the industrial county started (year 1999) operating were compared. Results Residents of the industrialized county had lesser increases in life expectancy over time than did residents of a similar but less-industrialized county, with difference means ranging from 0.89 years (p?industrialization. There were no significant differences in individual income between the two counties. Conclusions Countries, including Taiwan and the U.S., embracing petrochemical industries now face the challenge of environmental injustice. Our findings suggested that life expectancy lengthening was slowed and income growth was stalled for residents living in the industrial communities. PMID:24621018

2014-01-01

193

Algae Removal by Electrocoagulation Process, Application for Treatment of the Effluent from an Industrial Wastewater Treatment Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Although stabilization ponds and lagoons are suitable treatment processes due to simplicity of operation and low per capital costs, the effluents of these systems have too high of a total suspended solids concentration to be discharged into receiving waters. This problem is mainly caused by algae. In this study, an electro-coagulation reactor was examined to remove algae from the

GH Azarian; AR Mesdaghinia; F Vaezi; R Nabizadeh; D Nematollahi

194

Respiratory and irritant health effects of a population living in a petrochemical-polluted area in Taiwan.  

PubMed

Reported herewith are the results from an ongoing study of outdoor air pollution and the health of persons living in the communities in close proximity to petrochemical industrial complexes. To determine if there is an excess of adverse health outcomes in the population exposed to petrochemical industrial emissions, a health survey was undertaken in 1996 in this area and in one reference area which has no local industrial emissions. The subjects were 436 adults (30-64 years of age) living in the Sanwei area (exposed area) and 488 in Taicei (reference area). For several indicators of respiratory health, including cough, wheezing, and chronic bronchitis, the prevalence rates were not significantly different between the study and the control populations. Acute irritative symptoms (eye irritation, nausea, throat irritation, and chemical odor perception) were significantly more common in the exposed area, particularly perception of chemical odors (84.6% vs 2.1%). It is concluded that exposure to petrochemical air emissions may be associated with increased rates of acute irritative symptoms. Future studies are needed to identify the potential role of petrochemical industrial emissions (particularly volatile organic compounds) in the genesis of acute irritative symptoms in a nearby petrochemical industrial area. PMID:9339227

Yang, C Y; Wang, J D; Chan, C C; Chen, P C; Huang, J S; Cheng, M F

1997-01-01

195

Valve movement response of the mussel mytilus galloprovincialis to metals (Cu, Hg, Cd and Zn) and phosphate industry effluents from Moroccan Atlantic coast.  

PubMed

Valve activity was measured in the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis in response to sublethal concentrations of four metals (Hg, Cu, Zn and Cd) and two phosphate industry effluents from the Atlantic coast of Morocco. Valve movements were monitored using a proximity inductive sensor which could display all activity figures from full closure to wide opening of the shell valves. In a 1 h exposure experiments, all metals induced a decrease in the time of normal opening and the appearance of sequences of stress behaviour, including enhanced valve adductions and complete closure at high concentrations. Mercury (tested from 5 to 75 microg Hg l(-1)) was the most toxic to the valve activity, with a threshold effective concentration at 10 microg Hg l(-1) and full valve closure occurring at 50 microg Hg l(-1). Copper (15-150 microg Cu l(-1)) showed a toxic effect starting at threshold concentration of 20 microg Cu l(-1) and induced full valve closure at 150 microg Cu l(-1). Zinc (100-500 microg Zn l(-1)) was effective in reducing the time of normal opening (threshold concentration at 100 microg Zn I(-1)) but no complete closure was recorded in any of the tested concentrations. For cadmium (1000-5000 microg Cd l(-1)), the valve activity was insensitive for exposures under 2000 microg Cd l(-1). Results for the testing of several samplings of the phosphate industry effluents (Safi and Jorf Lasfar) showed that their toxicity varied over the time. The effluent of the Jorf Lasfar plant (2-9.4%) was, however, more toxic than that of Safi (1-25%). In the light of these results, the sensitivity of the valve activity of Mytilus galloprovincialis to pollutants and its usefulness for in situ monitoring of coastal pollution in Morocco are discussed. PMID:16708280

Fdil, Mohamed Ait; Mouabad, Abdelfattah; Outzourhit, Abdelkader; Benhra, Ali; Maarouf, Abdelmalek; Pihan, Jean Claude

2006-07-01

196

INEEL Liquid Effluent Inventory  

SciTech Connect

The INEEL contractors and their associated facilities are required to identify all liquid effluent discharges that may impact the environment at the INEEL. This liquid effluent information is then placed in the Liquid Effluent Inventory (LEI) database, which is maintained by the INEEL prime contractor. The purpose of the LEI is to identify and maintain a current listing of all liquid effluent discharge points and to identify which discharges are subject to federal, state, or local permitting or reporting requirements and DOE order requirements. Initial characterization, which represents most of the INEEL liquid effluents, has been performed, and additional characterization may be required in the future to meet regulations. LEI information is made available to persons responsible for or concerned with INEEL compliance with liquid effluent permitting or reporting requirements, such as the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System, Wastewater Land Application, Storm Water Pollution Prevention, Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasures, and Industrial Wastewater Pretreatment. The State of Idaho Environmental Oversight and Monitoring Program also needs the information for tracking liquid effluent discharges at the INEEL. The information provides a baseline from which future liquid discharges can be identified, characterized, and regulated, if appropriate. The review covered new and removed buildings/structures, buildings/structures which most likely had new, relocated, or removed LEI discharge points, and at least 10% of the remaining discharge points.

Major, C.A.

1997-06-01

197

Ultratrace Determination of Cr(VI) and Pb(II) by Microsample Injection System Flame Atomic Spectroscopy in Drinking Water and Treated and Untreated Industrial Effluents  

PubMed Central

Simple and robust analytical procedures were developed for hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) and lead (Pb(II)) by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) using microsample injection system coupled with flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (MIS-FAAS). For the current study, ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC), carbon tetrachloride, and ethanol were used as chelating agent, extraction solvent, and disperser solvent, respectively. The effective variables of developed method have been optimized and studied in detail. The limit of detection of Cr(VI) and Pb(II) were 0.037 and 0.054?µg/L, respectively. The enrichment factors in both cases were 400 with 40?mL of initial volumes. The relative standard deviations (RSDs, n = 6) were <4%. The applicability and the accuracy of DLLME were estimated by the analysis of Cr(VI) and Pb(II) in industrial effluent wastewater by standard addition method (recoveries >96%). The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of Cr(VI) and Pb(II) at ultratrace levels in natural drinking water and industrial effluents wastewater of Denizli. Moreover, the proposed method was compared with the literature reported method. PMID:24163779

Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Elci, Latif; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Khan, Muhammad Irfan; Naseer, Hafiz Muhammad

2013-01-01

198

Bioremediation of industrial effluents containing heavy metals using brewing cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a green technology: a review.  

PubMed

The release of heavy metals into the environment, mainly as a consequence of anthropogenic activities, constitutes a worldwide environmental pollution problem. Unlike organic pollutants, heavy metals are not degraded and remain indefinitely in the ecosystem, which poses a different kind of challenge for remediation. It seems that the "best treatment technologies" available may not be completely effective for metal removal or can be expensive; therefore, new methodologies have been proposed for the detoxification of metal-bearing wastewaters. The present work reviews and discusses the advantages of using brewing yeast cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the detoxification of effluents containing heavy metals. The current knowledge of the mechanisms of metal removal by yeast biomass is presented. The use of live or dead biomass and the influence of biomass inactivation on the metal accumulation characteristics are outlined. The role of chemical speciation for predicting and optimising the efficiency of metal removal is highlighted. The problem of biomass separation, after treatment of the effluents, and the use of flocculent characteristics, as an alternative process of cell-liquid separation, are also discussed. The use of yeast cells in the treatment of real effluents to bridge the gap between fundamental and applied studies is presented and updated. The convenient management of the contaminated biomass and the advantages of the selective recovery of heavy metals in the development of a closed cycle without residues (green technology) are critically reviewed. PMID:22139299

Soares, Eduardo V; Soares, Helena M V M

2012-05-01

199

Energy Philosophy in Prospective Petrochemical Projects  

E-print Network

these feedstocks in terms of their equivalent fuel value. Examining the design of petrochemical plants from an energy-efficiency viewpoint is vital in achieving an economic design. As. ethylene plants are the principal source of primary petrochemicals... are these to be supplied from? In the case of grassroots plants in remote locations we may well have to design startup boilers, propane vaporizers, diesel generators and the like into the ethylene unit itself. Or we may have to obtain temporary supplies - truck-mounted...

Wallsgrove, C.

200

Directional drilling allows quick exit from petrochemical plant  

SciTech Connect

Horizontal directional drilling uses specialty tools and techniques largely taken from the oil field and the mining industry to very accurately install pipelines, utilities and other conduits under obstacles such as rivers, beaches, environmentally sensitive areas, roadways, railroads, airfields, and congested pipeline corridors. In the early part of 1990, a particularly interesting problem confronted the pipeline engineers at Union Carbides 2,500-acre Seadrift plant near Port Lavaca, Texas. Having started up in 1954, the plant today is a major supplier of chemicals and plastics to industry, shipping more than two billion pounds per year. Since very large volumes of cooling water are needed for the operation of a petrochemical complex of this magnitude, years of expansion and modifications have caused the plant to become nearly surrounded by a number of rather large segmented ponds.

Halderman, R.G. [BERCO Services, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

1994-12-31

201

Fate of thiabendazole through the treatment of a simulated agro-food industrial effluent by combined MBR/Fenton processes at ?g/L scale.  

PubMed

This study has been carried out to assess the performance of a combined system consisting of a membrane bioreactor (MBR) followed by an advanced oxidation process (Fenton/Photo-Fenton) for removing the fungicide thiabendazole (TBZ) in a simulated agro-food industrial wastewater. Previous studies have shown the presence of TBZ in the effluent of an agro-food industry treated by activated sludge in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR), thus reinforcing the need for alternative treatments for removal. In this study, a simulated agro-food industry effluent was enriched with 100 ?g L(-1) TBZ and treated by combined MBR/Fenton and MBR/solar photo-Fenton systems. Samples were directly injected into a highly sensitive liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole-linear ion trap-mass spectrometer (LC-QqLiT-MS/MS) analytical system to monitor the degradation of TBZ even at low concentration levels (ng L(-1)). Results showed that the biological treatment applied was not effective in TBZ degradation, which remained almost unaltered; although most dissolved organic matter was biodegraded effectively. Fenton and solar photo-Fenton, were assayed as tertiary treatments. The experiments were run without any pH adjustment by using an iron dosage strategy in the presence of excess hydrogen peroxide. Both treatments resulted in a total degradation of TBZ, obtaining more than 99% removal in both cases. To assure the total elimination of contaminants in the treated waters, transformation products (TPs) of TBZ generated during Fenton degradation experiments were identified and monitored by liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS/MS). Up to four TPs could be identified. Two of them corresponded to mono-hydroxylated derivatives, typically generated under hydroxyl radicals driven processes. The other two corresponded with the hydrolysis of the TBZ molecule to yield benzoimidazole and thiazole-4-carboxamidine. All of them were also degraded during the treatment. PMID:24388831

Sánchez Peréz, J A; Carra, I; Sirtori, C; Agüera, A; Esteban, B

2014-03-15

202

LANDFILLS EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS GUIDELINES DATABASE  

EPA Science Inventory

Resource Purpose: This resource served as the main information source for national characteristics of landfills for the landfills effluent guidelines. The database was developed based on responses to the "1994 Waste Treatment Industry Questionnaire: Phase II Landfills" and...

203

Determination of thimerosal in pharmaceutical industry effluents and river waters by HPLC coupled to atomic fluorescence spectrometry through post-column UV-assisted vapor generation.  

PubMed

A high performance liquid chromatography coupled with atomic fluorescence spectrometry method for the determination of thimerosal (sodium ethylmercury thiosalicylate, C9H9HgNaO2S), ethylmercury, and inorganic mercury is proposed. Mercury vapor is generated by the post-column reduction of mercury species in formic acid media using UV-radiation. Thimerosal is quantitatively converted to Hg(II) followed by the reduction of Hg(II) to Hg(0). This method is applied to the determination of thimerosal (THM), ethylmercury (EtHg) and inorganic Hg in samples of a pharmaceutical industry effluent, and in waters of the San Luis River situated in the west side of San Luis city (Middle West, Argentine) where the effluents are dumped. The limit of detections, calculated on the basis of the 3? criterion, where 0.09, 0.09 and 0.07?gL(-1) for THM, EtHg(II) and for Hg(II), respectively. Linearity was attained from levels close to the detection limit up to at least 100?gL(-1). PMID:25280990

Acosta, Gimena; Spisso, Adrián; Fernández, Liliana P; Martinez, Luis D; Pacheco, Pablo H; Gil, Raúl A

2015-03-15

204

Degradation and monitoring of acetamiprid, thiabendazole and their transformation products in an agro-food industry effluent during solar photo-Fenton treatment in a raceway pond reactor.  

PubMed

In this study, pesticides acetamiprid and thiabendazole and their transformation products (TPs), seven from each pesticide, were successfully monitored during solar photo-Fenton treatment in a real secondary effluent from an agro-food industry spiked with 100?gL(-1) of each pesticide. To this end, a highly sensitive procedure was developed, based on liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to hybrid quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometry (QqLIT-MS). In addition, finding low-cost and operational technology for the application of AOPs would then facilitate their use on a commercial level. Simple and extensive photoreactors such as raceway pond reactors (RPRs) are therefore proposed as an alternative for the application of solar photo-Fenton. Results showed that high degradation could be achieved in a complex water matrix (>99% TBZ and 91% ACTM in 240min) using a 120-L RPR pilot plant as novel technology. The analyses indicated that after the treatment only three TPs from ACTM were still present in the effluent, while the others had been removed. The study showed that the goal of either just removing the parent compounds, or going one step further and removing all the TPs, can significantly change the treatment time, which would affect process costs. PMID:25841181

Carra, Irene; Sirtori, Carla; Ponce-Robles, Laura; Sánchez Pérez, José Antonio; Malato, Sixto; Agüera, Ana

2015-07-01

205

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act industrial site environmental restoration site characterization report - area 6 steam cleaning effluent ponds  

SciTech Connect

The Area 6 North and South Steam Cleaning Effluent Ponds (SCEPs) are historic disposal units located at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nye County, Nevada. The NTS is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) which has been required by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) to characterize the site under the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B Permit for the NTS and Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations, Part 265.

NONE

1996-09-01

206

Evaluation of haloalkaliphilic sulfur-oxidizing microorganisms with potential application in the effluent treatment of the petroleum industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Haloalkaliphilic sulfur-oxidizing mixed cultures for the treatment of alkaline–saline effluents containing sulfide were characterized\\u000a and evaluated. The mixed cultures (IMP-PB, IMP-XO and IMP-TL) were obtained from Mexican alkaline soils collected in Puebla\\u000a (PB), Xochimilco (XO) and Tlahuac (TL), respectively. The Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis (RISA) revealed bacteria related\\u000a to Thioalkalibacterium and Thioalkalivibrio in IMP-XO and IMP-PB mixed cultures. Halomonas strains

P. Olguín-Lora; S. Le Borgne; G. Castorena-Cortés; T. Roldán-Carrillo; I. Zapata-Peñasco; J. Reyes-Avila; S. Alcántara-Pérez

2011-01-01

207

Exploiting the efficacy of Lysinibacillus sp. RGS for decolorization and detoxification of industrial dyes, textile effluent and bioreactor studies.  

PubMed

Complete decolorization and detoxification of Reactive Orange 4 within 5 h (pH 6.6, at 30°C) by isolated Lysinibacillus sp. RGS was observed. Significant reduction in TOC (93%) and COD (90%) was indicative of conversion of complex dye into simple products, which were identified as naphthalene moieties by various analytical techniques (HPLC, FTIR, and GC-MS). Supplementation of agricultural waste extract considered as better option to make the process cost effective. Oxido-reductive enzymes were found to be involved in the degradation mechanism. Finally Loofa immobilized Lysinibacillus sp. cells in a fixed-bed bioreactor showed significant decolorization with reduction in TOC (51 and 64%) and COD (54 and 66%) for synthetic and textile effluent at 30 and 35 mL h(-1) feeding rate, respectively. The degraded metabolites showed non-toxic nature revealed by phytotoxicity and photosynthetic pigments content study for Sorghum vulgare and Phaseolus mungo. In addition nitrogen fixing and phosphate solubilizing microbes were less affected in treated wastewater and thus the treated effluent can be used for the irrigation purpose. This work could be useful for the development of efficient and ecofriendly technologies to reduce dye content in the wastewater to permissible levels at affordable cost. PMID:25560264

Saratale, Rijuta G; Saratale, Ganesh D; Govindwar, Sanjay P; Kim, Dong S

2015-01-01

208

Draft Genome Sequence of Textile Azo Dye-Decolorizing and -Degrading Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strain PFK10, Isolated from the Common Effluent Treatment Plant of the Ankleshwar Industrial Area of Gujarat, India  

PubMed Central

Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PFK10, isolated from the common effluent treatment plant (CETP) of the Ankleshwar industrial area of Gujarat, India. The 6.04-Mb draft genome sequence of strain PFK10 provides information about the genes encoding enzymes that enable the strain to decolorize and degrade textile azo dye. PMID:24503984

Faldu, P. R.; Kothari, V. V.; Kothari, C. R.; Rawal, C. M.; Domadia, K. K.; Patel, P. A.; Bhimani, H. D.; Raval, V. H.; Parmar, N. R.; Nathani, N. M.; Koringa, P. G.; Joshi, C. G.

2014-01-01

209

Hazardous effects of effluent from the chrome plating industry: 70 kDa heat shock protein expression as a marker of cellular damage in transgenic Drosophila melanogaster (hsp70-lacZ).  

PubMed Central

Hazardous effects of an effluent from the chrome plating industry were examined by exposing transgenic Drosophila melanogaster (hsp70-lacZ) to various concentrations (0.05, 0.1, 1.0, 10.0, and 100.0 micro L/mL) of the effluent through diet. The emergence pattern of adult flies was affected, along with impaired reproductive performance at the higher dietary concentrations of the effluent. Interestingly, the effect of the effluent was more pronounced in male than in female flies. The effect of the effluent on development of adult flies was concurrent with the expression pattern of the heat shock protein 70 gene (hsp70), both in larval tissues and in the reproductive organs of adult flies. We observed a dose- and time-dependent expression of hsp70 in third instar larvae exposed for different time intervals. Absence of hsp70 expression in larvae exposed to 0.1 micro L/mL of the effluent indicated that this is the highest nontoxic concentration for Drosophila. The stress gene assay in the reproductive organs of adult flies revealed hsp70 expression in the testis of male flies only. However, trypan blue dye exclusion tests in these tissues indicate tissue damage in the male accessory gland of adult flies, which was further confirmed by ultrastructural observations. In the present study we demonstrate the utility of transgenic Drosophila as an alternative animal model for evaluating hazardous effects of the effluent from the chrome plating industry and further reveal the cytoprotective role of hsp70 and its expression as an early marker in environmental risk assessment. PMID:14644668

Mukhopadhyay, Indranil; Saxena, Daya Krishna; Chowdhuri, Debapratim Kar

2003-01-01

210

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act industrial site environmental restoration site characterization plan. Area 6 Steam Cleaning Effluent Ponds  

SciTech Connect

This plan presents the strategy for the characterization of the Area 6 South and North Steam Cleaning Effluent Ponds (SCEPs) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) to be conducted for the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), Environmental Restoration Division (ERD). The purposes of the planned activities are to: obtain sufficient, sample analytical data from which further assessment, remediation, and/or closure strategies may be developed for the site; obtain sufficient, sample analytical data for management of investigation-derived waste (IDW). The scope of the characterization may include excavation, drilling, and sampling of soil in and around both ponds; sampling of the excavated material; in situ sampling of the soil at the bottom and on the sides of the excavations as well as within subsurface borings; and conducting sample analysis for both characterization and waste management purposes. Contaminants of concern include RCRA-regulated VOCs and metals.

NONE

1996-02-01

211

Application of Ulva lactuca and Systoceira stricta algae-based activated carbons to hazardous cationic dyes removal from industrial effluents.  

PubMed

Marine algae Ulva lactuca (ULV-AC) and Systoceira stricta (SYS-AC) based activated carbons were investigated as potential adsorbents for the removal of hazardous cationic dyes. Both algae were surface oxidised by phosphoric acid for 2 and subsequently air activated at 600 °C for 3 h. Dyes adsorption parameters such as solution pH, contact time, carbon dosage, temperature and ionic strength were measured in batch experiments. Adsorption capacities of 400 and 526 mg/g for Malachite green and Safranine O by the SYS-AC and ULV-AC respectively were significantly enhanced by the chemical treatments. Model equations such as Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherms were used to analyse the adsorption equilibrium data and the best fits to the experimental data were provided by the first two isotherm models. BET, FT-IR, iodine number and methylene blue index determination were also performed to characterize the adsorbents. To describe the adsorption mechanism, kinetic models such as pseudo-second-order and the intra particle diffusion were applied. Thermodynamic analysis of the adsorption processes of both dyes confirms their spontaneity and endothermicity. Increasing solution ionic strength increased significantly the adsorption of Safranine O. This study shows that surface modified algae can be an alternative to the commercially available adsorbents for dyes removal from liquid effluents. PMID:23597681

Salima, Attouti; Benaouda, Bestani; Noureddine, Benderdouche; Duclaux, Laurent

2013-06-15

212

[Study on the quantitative estimation method for VOCs emission from petrochemical storage tanks based on tanks 4.0.9d model].  

PubMed

VOCs emission from petrochemical storage tanks is one of the important emission sources in the petrochemical industry. In order to find out the VOCs emission amount of petrochemical storage tanks, Tanks 4.0.9d model is utilized to calculate the VOCs emission from different kinds of storage tanks. VOCs emissions from a horizontal tank, a vertical fixed roof tank, an internal floating roof tank and an external floating roof tank were calculated as an example. The consideration of the site meteorological information, the sealing information, the tank content information and unit conversion by using Tanks 4.0.9d model in China was also discussed. Tanks 4.0.9d model can be used to estimate VOCs emissions from petrochemical storage tanks in China as a simple and highly accurate method. PMID:24640914

Li, Jing; Wang, Min-Yan; Zhang, Jian; He, Wan-Qing; Nie, Lei; Shao, Xia

2013-12-01

213

Cleaner production and methodological proposal of eco-efficiency measurement in a Mexican petrochemical complex.  

PubMed

Abstract In the frame of the Petróleos Mexicanos Institutional Program for Sustainable Development, processes were evaluated in the manufacture operation of the petrochemical industry, with the purpose of reducing their ecological fingerprint. Thirteen cleaner production opportunities were registered in six process plants: ethylene oxide and glycols, acetaldehyde, ethylene, high density polyethylene, polypropylene switch and acrylonitrile, and 45 recommendations in the waste water treatment plant. Morelos is the second most important petrochemical complex in the Mexican and Latin American petrochemical industry. A tool was developed to obtain eco-efficiency indicators in operation processes, and as a result, potential savings were obtained based on best performance, as well as the integrated distribution of Sankey diagrams. Likewise, a mechanism of calculation to obtain economic savings based on the reduction of residues during the whole productive process is proposed. These improvement opportunities and recommendations will result in economic and environmental benefits minimising the use of water, efficient use of energy, raw materials and reducing residues from source, generating less environmental impacts during the process. PMID:16862769

Morales, M A; Herrero, V M; Martínez, S A; Rodríguez, M G; Valdivieso, E; Garcia, G; de los Angeles Elías, Maria

2006-01-01

214

Removal of uranium(VI) from aqueous solutions and nuclear industry effluents using humic acid-immobilized zirconium-pillared clay.  

PubMed

Removal of uranium [U(VI)] from aqueous solutions with humic acid-immobilized zirconium-pillared clay (HA-Zr-PILC) was investigated using a batch adsorption technique. The adsorbent was characterized using XRD, FTIR, SEM, TG/DTG, surface area analyzer and potentiometric titration. The effects of pH, contact time, initial concentration, adsorbent dose, and adsorption isotherm on the removal process were evaluated. A maximum removal of 97.6+/-2.1 and 94.7+/-3.3% was observed for an initial concentration of 50 and 100 mg L(-1), respectively at pH 6.0 and an adsorbent dose of 2.0 g L(-1). Equilibrium was achieved in approximately 180 min. The mechanism for the removal of U(VI) ions by HA-Zr-PILC was based on an ion exchange reaction. The experimental kinetic and isotherm data were analyzed using a second-order kinetic equation and Langmuir isotherm model, respectively. The monolayer adsorption capacity for U(VI) removal was found to be 132.68+/-5.04 mg g(-1). An increase of temperature of the medium caused an increase in metal adsorption. Complete removal (approximately = 100%) of U(VI) from 1.0 L of a simulated nuclear industry effluent sample containing 10.0 mg U(VI) ions was possible with 1.5 g of HA-Zr-PILC. The adsorbent was suitable for repeated use (over 4 cycles) without any noticeable loss of capacity. PMID:20045229

Anirudhan, T S; Bringle, C D; Rijith, S

2010-03-01

215

EFFLUENT OF DAIRY TECHNOLOGY  

E-print Network

The rural areas were identified for milk production; the urban centers were collected for the location of milk processing plants and product manufacturing factories. Out of the total water consumed by human being, more than 50 % of it is consumed for industrial activity and only small proportion is used for drinking purpose. The water after use emerging out of industry is better termed as waste water or industrial effluent (Sukumar De, 2002). DAIRY TECHNOLOGY-As the rapid industrialization taking place all over the country, the number of dairies and allied industries are sharply rising. I.Product and process involved in dairy-Many dairies restrict themselves bottling pasteurized milk and making ghee from scoured milk. In few dairies

unknown authors

216

Petrochemical processes '95: A special report  

SciTech Connect

This data compilation describes application, synthesis process, yields, economics, commercial plants, and licensor for the following chemicals: alkylbenzene, methyl amines, ammonia, benzene, bisphenol-A, BTX aromatics, butadiene, butanediol, butene-1, butylene, butyraldehyde, caprolactam, cumene, cyclohexane, dimethyl terephthalate, ethanolamines, ethers, ethylbenzene, ethylene, ethylene glycols, ethylene oxide, formaldehyde, isobutane, isobutylene, maleic anhydride, methanol, olefins, paraxylene, phenol, polycaproamide, polyethylenes, polypropylene, polystyrene, propylene, PVC, styrene, urea, vinyl chloride, and xylene isomers. Also included is the licensor index, an inclusive listing of all petrochemical licensors and their technologies.

Not Available

1995-03-01

217

Concern About Petrochemical Health Risk Before and After a Refinery Explosion  

PubMed Central

On March 23, 2005, a large explosion at an oil refinery in Texas City, Texas caused 15 deaths and approximately 170 injuries. Little is known about how such an industrial accident influences concern about environmental health risks. We used measures of environmental health concern about nearby petrochemical production with a sample of Texas City residents to understand patterns of concern and change in concern after an industrial accident, as well as individual and contextual factors associated with those patterns. Survey interviews with residents of Texas City, Texas (N =315) both pre- and postexplosion using a brief Concern About Petrochemical Health Risk Scale (CAPHRS) and other questions were used to collect pertinent predictor information. CAPHRS baseline, postexplosion, and change scores were compared and modeled using ordinary least squares (OLS) regression and a mixed model. Higher preexplosion CAPHRS scores were predicted by younger adults, foreign-born Hispanics, non-Hispanic blacks, lower- and middle-income groups, and those who live with someone who has worked at the petrochemical plants. Higher CAPHRS change scores are predicted by the same variables (except income), as well as proximity to, or perception of, the explosion, and reports of neighborhood damage. Findings suggest these groups’ concern scores could indicate a greater vulnerability to psychological and physical harm generated by concern and stress arising from local petrochemical activities. A clearer understanding of concern about actual environmental health risks in exposed populations may enhance the evolving theory of stress and coping and eventually enable public health professionals to develop appropriate mitigation strategies. PMID:18643817

Cutchin, Malcolm P.; Martin, Kathryn Remmes; Owen, Steven V.; Goodwin, James S.

2014-01-01

218

Toxicity Identification Evaluation (Phase I) of water and sediment samples from a tropical reservoir contaminated with industrial and domestic effluents.  

PubMed

The Funil Reservoir (Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil) is an environment degraded by constant discharge of nutrients and pollution coming from the most industrialized region of the country. As a consequence of eutrophication, there are continuous cyanobacteria blooms, which cause acute and chronic toxicity to zooplankton. In this context, Phase I of Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) was performed on Daphnia similis using water and interstitial water from the reservoir, with the aim of identifying classes of compounds responsible for toxicity. The results indicated that water toxicity was due to cyanobacteria resulting from blooms in the reservoir and surfactants. Metals, especially copper, contributed to sediment toxicity. This research is the first attempt to describe the nature of toxicity in this reservoir using this method. PMID:25103213

Matos, Mariana de F; Botta, Clarice Maria Rispoli; Fonseca, Ana Lúcia

2014-11-01

219

Membrane research in energy and solvent recovery from industrial effluent streams: Final report, November 1, 1982--November 31, 1987  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a five-year program to develop a membrane process for separating organic vapors from air. The process uses membranes much more permeable to organic solvents than to air. A vacuum pump on the permeate side of the membrane is used to draw organic vapors through the membrane leaving a solvent-depleted air stream behind and producing a concentrated solvent-containing permeate stream. Solvent is recovered from the permeate stream by cooling and condensation. The program started with basic permeability measurements with thick films to determine suitable membrane materials. The technology required to form these materials into thin composite membranes was then developed and these membranes were fabricated into spiral-wound membrane modules. These membrane modules, containing from 0.3 to 4 m/sup 2/ of membrane, were evaluated with model solvent-containing air streams in the laboratory and in the field. The process appears to be an attractive method of treating air streams containing 0.5 to 5.0% solvent. A number of industrial applications are being investigated and we are currently developing pilot units able to treat 50 to 100 scfm of solvent-containing air for field evaluations. Our goal is to install the first commercial systems in the beginning of 1989. 7 refs., 57 figs., 15 tabs.

Baker, R.W.

1988-10-01

220

Adsorptive removal of Cu(II) from aqueous solution and industrial effluent using natural/agricultural wastes.  

PubMed

The potentiality of low cost natural/agricultural waste biomasses for the removal of Cu(II) ion from aqueous solution has been investigated in batch experiments. The effect of various physico-chemical parameters such as initial pH, initial Cu(II) concentration, adsorbent dosage, contact time and temperature has been studied. The optimum pH for adsorption was found to be 6 for all adsorbents used. Kinetics data were best described by the pseudo-2nd-order model. The experimental data were fitted well with Freundlich and Halsey isotherm models. The diffusion coefficient and sorption energy indicated that the adsorption process was chemical in nature. Thermodynamic parameters such as ?G°, ?H° and ?S° were calculated, and it was observed that the adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic. The mean sorption energy was calculated using Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm model and it confirmed that the sorption process was chemical in nature. Different active functional groups were identified by FTIR studies which were responsible for Cu(II) ion adsorption process. Application study using electroplating industrial waste water and regeneration experiment of the adsorbent were also investigated. Design procedure for the batch process was also reported. PMID:23466548

Singha, Biswajit; Das, Sudip Kumar

2013-07-01

221

Evaluation of the genotoxicity of waters impacted by domestic and industrial effluents of a highly industrialized region of São Paulo State, Brazil, by the comet assay in HTC cells.  

PubMed

The problems that most affect the quality of the waters of rivers and lakes are associated with the discharges performed in these environments, mainly industrial and domestic effluents inappropriately treated or untreated. The comet assay is a sensitive tool and is recommended for studies of environmental biomonitoring, which aim to determine the genotoxicity potential of water pollutants. This study aimed to assess the genotoxic potential of the Ribeirão Tatu waters, region of Limeira, São Paulo (SP), by the comet assay with mammalian cells (hepatoma tissue culture (HTC)). Water samples were collected along the Ribeirão Tatu at three distinct periods: November 2008, February 2009 and August 2009, and five collection sites were established: P1, source of the stream; P2, site located downstream the urban perimeter of the municipality of Cordeirópolis and after receiving the pollution load of this city; P3, collection site located upstream the urban perimeter of the city of Limeira; P4, urban area of Limeira; and P5, rural area of Limeira, downstream the discharges of the city sewage. The results showed that for the November 2008 collection, there was no water sample-induced genotoxicity; for the February 2009 collection, the sites P1 and P2 were statistically significant in relation to the negative control (NC), and for the August 2009 collection, the site P5 was statistically significant. These results could be explained by the content of different metals during the different seasons that are under the influence of domestic, industrial and agricultural effluents and also due to the seasonality, since the water samples collected in the period of heavy rain (February 2009) presented a higher genotoxicity possibly due to the entrainment of contaminants into the bed of the stream promoted by the outflow of rainwaters. The comet assay showed to be a useful and sensitive tool in the evaluation of hydric resources impacted by pollutants of diverse origins, and a constant monitoring should be done in order to verify the influence of different factors (season, amount of contaminants) in the water quality. PMID:25146123

Manzano, Bárbara Cassu; Roberto, Matheus Mantuanelli; Hoshina, Márcia Miyuki; Menegário, Amauri Antônio; Marin-Morales, Maria Aparecida

2015-01-01

222

A nano-structured material for reliable speciation of chromium and manganese in drinking waters, surface waters and industrial wastewater effluents.  

PubMed

A simple solid phase extraction system based on the applying the nickel-aluminum layered double hydroxide (Ni-Al LDH) as a nano-sorbent was developed for the speciation analysis of chromium and manganese by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The method is based on the fact that Cr(VI) and Mn(VII) oxyanions could be adsorbed on the Ni-Al(NO(3)(-)) LDH and/or exchanged with LDH interlayer NO(3)(-) ions at pH 6.0, whereas Cr(III) and Mn(II) cations pass through the LDH-packed column without retention. The determinations of total Cr and Mn, and hence indirectly Cr(III) and Mn(II), involve the pre-oxidations of Cr(III) and Mn(II) to Cr(VI) and Mn(VII) with H(2)O(2) and acidic solution of KIO(4), respectively. Several important factors affecting the retention efficiency were investigated and optimized. In the optimum experimental conditions, the limits of detection (3S(b)/m) for Cr(VI) and Mn(VII) were 0.51 and 0.47 ng mL(-1), and the relative standard deviations were 2.5 and 3.2% (C=30.0 ng mL(-1), n=6), respectively. The presented method was validated by the analysis of a certified reference material, and applied to the speciation of Cr and Mn in drinking waters, surface waters and industrial wastewater effluents. PMID:22608436

Abdolmohammad-Zadeh, H; Sadeghi, G H

2012-05-30

223

COLLECTION OF INTEGRATED SAMPLES OF GASEOUS EFFLUENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described for collecting gaseous samples of effluents from ; both cyclic and continuous industrial operations. The equipment is simpie and ; easily operated to give samples which can be analyzed by mass spectrometry. ; (C.H.);

P. A. Drinker

1958-01-01

224

Excess cancer mortality among children and adolescents in residential districts polluted by petrochemical manufacturing plants in Taiwan  

SciTech Connect

We have collected data on the cancer deaths of children and adolescents 0-19 yr old living in a residential area near 3 large petroleum and petrochemical complexes in and near Kaohsiung city (petrochemical industrial districts, PIDs) in the period of 1971-1990 and compared these with the cancer deaths of children and adolescents 0-19 yr old among the entire population of Taiwan (national reference) and among the residents of 26 administrative districts, comprising all of Kaohsiung city and Kaohsiung county (local reference), except for 8 sparsely populated, rural districts. Having scrutinized all cancer death certificates, we have identified various statistically significant excess deaths, as compared with the national and local reference, due to cancers at all sites. Cancer of the bone, brain, and bladder in boys and girls 0-9 yr and 10-19 yr of age in the 1981-1990 decade that followed the establishment of petrochemical production in the PIDs was studied. However, excess cancer deaths seemed to have clustered in the 10-19 yr age group, who had been potentially exposed to the petrochemical pollutants for the longest period of time from the youngest age. Almost all bone, brain, and bladder cancer deaths registered were within 3 km of the 3 complexes. Bone and brain cancers in particular occurred in girls in the PIDs more frequently than in boys, even though these are believed to occur more in males than females elsewhere. 32 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

Bi Jen Pan; Yu Jue Hong; Gwo Chin Chang; Frigyes F. Cinkotai; Ying Chin Ko [Kaohsiung Medical College, Taiwan (China); Ming Tsan Wang [Kaohsiung Municipal Ta-Tung Hospital, Taiwan (China)

1994-12-31

225

Cogeneration Design Considerations for a Major Petrochemical Facility  

E-print Network

currently under construction at the petrochemical facility. The paper addresses the following distinct steps taken in the design process. 1. Examination of past, current, and future electricity and steam demand. 2. Examination of the regulatory climate...

Good, R. L.

226

Induction of chromosome aberrations in the Allium cepa test system caused by the exposure of seeds to industrial effluents contaminated with azo dyes.  

PubMed

Numerous potentially mutagenic chemicals have been studied mainly because they can cause damaging and inheritable changes in the genetic material. Several tests are commonly used for biomonitoring pollution levels and to evaluate the effects of toxic and mutagenic agents present in the natural environment. This study aimed at assessing the potential of a textile effluent contaminated with azo dyes to induce chromosomal and nuclear aberrations in Allium cepa test systems. A continuous exposure of seeds in samples of the textile effluent in different concentrations was carried out (0.3%, 3%, 10%, and 100%). Cells in interphase and undergoing division were examined to assess the presence of chromosome aberrations, nuclear changes, and micronuclei. Our results revealed a mutagenic effect of the effluent at concentrations of 10% and 100%. At lower concentrations, the effluent (3% and 0.3%) did not induce mutagenic alterations in the test organism A. cepa. These findings are of concern, since cell damage may be transmitted to subsequent generations, possibly affecting the organism as a whole, as well as the local biota exposed to the effluent discharge. If the damage results in cell death, the development of the organism may be affected, which could also lead to its death. PMID:18495201

Caritá, R; Marin-Morales, M A

2008-06-01

227

Enhanced degradation of textile effluent in constructed wetland system using Typha domingensis and textile effluent-degrading endophytic bacteria.  

PubMed

Textile effluent is one of the main contributors of water pollution and it adversely affects fauna and flora. Constructed wetland is a promising approach to remediate the industrial effluent. The detoxification of industrial effluent in a constructed wetland system may be enhanced by applying beneficial bacteria that are able to degrade contaminants present in industrial effluent. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of inoculation of textile effluent-degrading endophytic bacteria on the detoxification of textile effluent in a vertical flow constructed wetland reactor. A wetland plant, Typha domingensis, was vegetated in reactor and inoculated with two endophytic bacterial strains, Microbacterium arborescens TYSI04 and Bacillus pumilus PIRI30. These strains possessed textile effluent-degrading and plant growth-promoting activities. Results indicated that bacterial inoculation improved plant growth, textile effluent degradation and mutagenicity reduction and were correlated with the population of textile effluent-degrading bacteria in the rhizosphere and endosphere of T. domingensis. Bacterial inoculation enhanced textile effluent-degrading bacterial population in rhizosphere, root and shoot of T. domingensis. Significant reductions in COD (79%), BOD (77%) TDS (59%) and TSS (27%) were observed by the combined use of plants and bacteria within 72 h. The resultant effluent meets the wastewater discharge standards of Pakistan and can be discharged into the environment without any risks. This study revealed that the combined use of plant and endophytic bacteria is one of the approaches to enhance textile effluent degradation in a constructed wetland system. PMID:24755300

Shehzadi, Maryam; Afzal, Muhammad; Khan, Muhammad Umar; Islam, Ejazul; Mobin, Amina; Anwar, Samina; Khan, Qaiser Mahmood

2014-07-01

228

Gas Separation Membrane Use in the Refinery and Petrochemical Industries  

E-print Network

GAS SEPARATION MEMBRANE USE IN THE REFINERY AND PETROCHEMICALINDUSTJUES (Abstract Only) Joe Vari, Hoechst-Celanese, Charlotte, NC Membranes have gained commercial acceptance as proven methods to recover valuable gases from waste gas streams...

Vari, J.

229

Economics of Energy Conservation in the Chemical and Petrochemical Industries  

E-print Network

this facet of new design. WHERE DOES THE ENEKGY GO? The energy input into a process plant goes to four general areas: 1. Endothermic heats of reaction. 2. Drivers for pumps and compressors and other equipment. 3. Losses to the air including stack... for endothermic heats I of reaction, except perhaps recover s011Je of that energy by burning one or more of the by-products of the reaction such as we do in a cracking furnace; or recoveripg a useful product for sale or recycle. I Drivers can be large energy...

Nachod, J. E. Jr.

230

Observations from Energy Audits in the Petrochemical Industry  

E-print Network

TEMP. (OF) 570.0 FURNACE EFFICIENCY (%) 80.69 COMBUSTIBLES LOSS (%) .74 RADIATION LOSS (%) .66 UNIT EFFICIENCY (%) 79.29 INPUT (MM BTU/HR) 140.63 OUTPUT (MM BTU/HR) 111.50 GOAL EXIT GAS OXYGEN (%) 2.00 GOAL EXIT GAS COMBUSTIBLES (%) .00... EXPECTED EXIT TEMP. (OF) 570.0 GOAL FURNACE EFFICIENCY (%) 82.57 RADIATION LOSS (%) .66 EXPECTED FURNACE EFFICIENCY (%) 81.91 GOAL INPUT (MM BTU/HRl 136.13 INPUT SAVINGS FROM REDUCTION OF 02 - (MM BTU/HR) 3.20 INPUT SAVINGS FROM ELIMINATION...

Govindan, T. S.

1979-01-01

231

Plantwide Energy Management for Hydrocarbon and Petrochemical Industry  

E-print Network

programming Or incrcmcntal cost technique is used for this optimization runction. Figurc 3 is a schematic diagram of the boiler control system. PROCESS HEATING FURNACES The control functions provided for boiler control are also gcnerally applicablc... with conventional control systems. EMS functions available for steam plants include boiler combustion control and optimization. Optimal control of the boiler combustion process and optimization of multiple fuels, as discussed above, are provided. The air fuel...

Ahmed, A.; Clinkscales, T.

232

Lanthanum and lanthanides in atmospheric fine particles and their apportionment to refinery and petrochemical operations in Houston, TX  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted in Houston, TX focusing on rare earth elements (REEs) in atmospheric fine particles and their sources. PM2.5 samples were collected from an ambient air quality monitoring site (HRM3) located in the proximity of a large number of oil refineries and petrochemical industries to estimate the potential contributions of emissions from fluidized-bed catalytic cracking operations to ambient

Pranav Kulkarni; Shankararaman Chellam; Matthew P. Fraser

2006-01-01

233

Dynamical modelling of an activated sludge system of a petrochemical plant operating at high temperatures.  

PubMed

The Mexican petrochemical industry, Morelos S.A. de C.V., is one of the biggest and more important petroleum industries in Mexico and Latin America. It has an activated sludge system to treat its wastewater flow, which is approximately 7,000 m3/d. The wastewater contains volatile organic carbon substances classified as toxics. The old surface aeration system was changed for fine bubble diffusers; however, one major drawback of the new aeration system is that the temperature in the bioreactor has increased due to the compression of the air, which at the compressor exit reaches 85 degrees C. This effect results in the temperature in the bioreactor attaining 32 degrees C during the fall, whereas in the spring and summer, the bioreactor temperature reaches higher values than 40 degrees C. The high temperatures reduce the microorganism activity and cause a higher volatilisation rate of volatile compounds, among other effects, which affect the performance of the biological treatment. This work was performed to obtain a better modelling of the wastewater treatment from the petrochemical industry. The model describes the effect of the temperature on the performance of the biological treatment. The model was obtained from tests that were carried out in laboratory reactors with 14 L capacity, which were operated at different temperatures (from 30 to 45 degrees C), with the same wastewater and conditions as the actual system. PMID:16862783

Maqueda, M A M; Martinez, Sergio A; Narváez, D; Rodriguez, Miriam G; Aguilar, Ricardo; Herrero, Victor M

2006-01-01

234

Determination of boiling point of petrochemicals by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and multivariate regression analysis of structural activity relationship.  

PubMed

Accurate understanding of analyte boiling points (BP) is of critical importance in gas chromatographic (GC) separation and crude oil refinery operation in petrochemical industries. This study reported the first combined use of GC separation and partial-least-square (PLS1) multivariate regression analysis of petrochemical structural activity relationship (SAR) for accurate BP determination of two commercially available (D3710 and MA VHP) calibration gas mix samples. The results of the BP determination using PLS1 multivariate regression were further compared with the results of traditional simulated distillation method of BP determination. The developed PLS1 regression was able to correctly predict analytes BP in D3710 and MA VHP calibration gas mix samples, with a root-mean-square-%-relative-error (RMS%RE) of 6.4%, and 10.8% respectively. In contrast, the overall RMS%RE of 32.9% and 40.4%, respectively obtained for BP determination in D3710 and MA VHP using a traditional simulated distillation method were approximately four times larger than the corresponding RMS%RE of BP prediction using MRA, demonstrating the better predictive ability of MRA. The reported method is rapid, robust, and promising, and can be potentially used routinely for fast analysis, pattern recognition, and analyte BP determination in petrochemical industries. PMID:24881546

Fakayode, Sayo O; Mitchell, Breanna S; Pollard, David A

2014-08-01

235

TOXICITY TESTS OF EFFLUENTS WITH MARSH PLANTS IN WATER AND SEDIMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Methods are described for toxicity testing of water and sediment with the rooted marsh plants, Echinochloa crusgalli var. crusgalli and var. zelavensis (freshwater) and Spartina alterniflora (estuarine). ive industrial effluents, a sewage treatment plant effluent and a herbicide ...

236

CleanTechnica The Sun is Setting on Petrochemicals, with a Little Help from Lovley Microbes  

E-print Network

CleanTechnica The Sun is Setting on Petrochemicals, with a Little Help from Lovley Microbes (http://cleantechnica.com/2010/06/01/the-sun-is-setting-on-petrochemicals-with-a-little-help-from- lovley-microbes/) (http://cleantechnica.com/2010/06/01/the-sun-is-setting- on-petrochemicals

Lovley, Derek

237

Demographic Factors and their Relation to Fatigue and Mental Disorders in 12-Hour Petrochemical Shift Workers  

PubMed Central

Background: Shift workers may be exposed to fatigue and mental disorders due to various work-related risk factors. This study evaluated the impact of demographic characteristics on fatigue and mental disorders among 12-hour shift workers in petrochemical industries. Methods: This study was conducted among 290 shift workers of Pardis Petrochemical Company in Iran. Data were collected using a general questionnaire for the demographic characteristic as well as multidimensional fatigue inventory (MFI-20) and general health questionnaire (GHQ-28). Results: Married workers were less likely to suffer from reduced activity levels (P< 0.027), depression (P< 0.032) and mental disorders (P< 0.040). Social dysfunction score (P< 0.029) and mental disorders (P< 0.048) decreased with shift work experience. Shift workers with non-academic education less likely to suffer from reduced activity levels (P< 0.000) and mental fatigue (P< 0.028). Conclusion: Despite the significant difference between the variables, this study showed a weak effect of individual and occupational demographic characteristics on fatigue and mental disorders. PMID:25648196

Bazazan, Ahmad; Rasoulzadeh, Yahya; Dianat, Iman; Safaiyan, Abdolrasoul; Mombeini, Zohreh; Shiravand, Ehsan

2014-01-01

238

Pipeline Stop Valves for Chemical, Oil Refining, and Petrochemical Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern chemical, oil refining, and petrochemical plants are equipped with a large number of pipeline valves (fittings) differing in purpose, type, and parameters for corrosive, toxic, explosion- and fire-prone media as well as for liquids containing abrasive particles. Among all types of pipeline valves, a special place belongs to stop valves intended for complete shutting off of flow of the

V. V. Burenin

2002-01-01

239

A novel "wastes-treat-wastes" technology: Role and potential of spent fluid catalytic cracking catalyst assisted ozonation of petrochemical wastewater.  

PubMed

Catalytic ozonation is a promising wastewater treatment technology. However, the high cost of the catalyst hinders its application. A novel "wastes-treat-wastes" technology was developed to reuse spent fluid catalytic cracking catalysts (sFCCc) for the ozonation of petrochemical wastewater in this study. Multivalent vanadium (V(4+) and V(5+)), iron (Fe(2+) and Fe(3+)) and nickel (Ni(2+)) oxides that are distributed on the surface of sFCCc and poisoned FCC catalysts are the catalytic components for ozonation. The sFCCc assisted catalytic ozonation (sFCCc-O) of nitrobenzene indicated that the sFCCc significantly promoted hydroxyl radical mediated oxidation. The degradation rate constant of nitrobenzene in sFCCc-O (0.0794 min(-1) at 298 K) was approximately doubled in comparison with that in single ozonation (0.0362 min(-1) at 298 K). The sFCCc-O of petrochemical wastewater increased chemical oxygen demand removal efficiency by three-fold relative to single ozonation. The number of oxygen-containing (Ox) polar contaminants in the effluent (253) from sFCCc-O treatment decreased to about 70% of the initial wastewater (353). The increased oxygen/carbon atomic ratio and decreased number of Ox polar contaminants indicated a high degree of degradation. The present study showed the role and potential of sFCCc for catalytic ozonation of petrochemical wastewater, particularly in an advantage of the cost-effectiveness through "wastes-treat-wastes". PMID:25617869

Chen, Chunmao; Yu, Ji; Yoza, Brandon A; Li, Qing X; Wang, Gang

2015-04-01

240

CO{sub 2} Reuse in Petrochemical Facilities  

SciTech Connect

To address public concerns regarding the consequences of climate change from anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions, the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) is actively funding a CO{sub 2} management program to develop technologies capable of mitigating CO{sub 2} emissions from power plant and industrial facilities. Over the past decade, this program has focused on reducing the costs of carbon capture and storage technologies. Recently, DOE/NETL launched an alternative CO{sub 2} mitigation program focused on beneficial CO{sub 2} reuse to support the development of technologies that mitigate emissions by converting CO{sub 2} into valuable chemicals and fuels. RTI, with DOE/NETL support, has been developing an innovative beneficial CO{sub 2} reuse process for converting CO{sub 2} into substitute natural gas (SNG) by using by-product hydrogen (H{sub 2)-containing fuel gas from petrochemical facilities. This process leveraged commercial reactor technology currently used in fluid catalytic crackers in petroleum refining and a novel nickel (Ni)-based catalyst developed by RTI. The goal was to generate an SNG product that meets the pipeline specifications for natural gas, making the SNG product completely compatible with the existing natural gas infrastructure. RTI's technology development efforts focused on demonstrating the technical feasibility of this novel CO{sub 2} reuse process and obtaining the necessary engineering information to design a pilot demonstration unit for converting about 4 tons per day (tons/day) of CO{sub 2} into SNG at a suitable host site. This final report describes the results of the Phase I catalyst and process development efforts. The methanation activity of several commercial fixed-bed catalysts was evaluated under fluidized-bed conditions in a bench-scale reactor to identify catalyst performance targets. RTI developed two fluidizable Ni-based catalyst formulations (Cat-1 and Cat-3) that demonstrated equal or better performance than that of commercial methanation catalysts. The Cat-1 and Cat-3 formulations were successfully scaled up using commercial manufacturing equipment at the Sud-Chemie Inc. pilot-plant facility in Louisville, KY. Pilot transport reactor testing with RTI's Cat-1 formulation at Kellog Brown & Root's Technology Center demonstrated the ability of the process to achieve high single-pass CO{sub 2} conversion. Using information acquired from bench- and pilot-scale testing, a basic engineering design package was prepared for a 4-ton/day CO{sub 2} pilot demonstration unit, including process and instrumentation diagrams, equipment list, control philosophy, and preliminary cost estimate.

Jason Trembly; Brian Turk; Maruthi Pavani; Jon McCarty; Chris Boggs; Aqil Jamal; Raghubir Gupta

2010-12-31

241

Behavior of natural radionuclides in surficial sediments from an estuary impacted by acid mine discharge and industrial effluents in Southwest Spain.  

PubMed

The environmental degradation resulting from the acid mine drainage (AMD) and discharge from effluents of phosphogypsum (PG) piles in the watershed of Tinto and Odiel Rivers estuary over long periods of time has resulted in significant impact on the ecosystem of this estuary, resulting that the sediments are highly polluted by heavy metals and radionuclides from the discharge AMD and leachates from the PG. During resuspension of benthic sediments some of the radionuclides are desorbed making them bioavailable. In the present study, we investigate the spatial distribution of radionuclides U, Th and Ra and assess the factors and processes that caused the spatial distribution of these nuclides in this estuarine system. This study has global significance for other polluted environmental systems that are impacted by AMD and PG. PMID:22327046

Hierro, A; Bolivar, J P; Vaca, F; Borrego, J

2012-08-01

242

The influence of industrial effluents on intertidal benthic communities in Panweol, Kyeonggi Bay (Yellow Sea) on the west coast of Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impacts of industrial wastes on benthic infaunal communities were assessed for an intertidal mudflat near Panweol on the west coast of Korea. Species number and density have decreased sharply compared with values available for these communities before this area was heavily industrialized. At a site near the outfall of a sewage treatment plant almost all pre-existing macrobenthic infauna have disappeared,

In-Young Ahn; Young-Chul Kang; Jin-Woo Choi

1995-01-01

243

UTILIZATION OF OKRA GUM FOR TREATMENT OF TANNERY EFFLUENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several natural polymeric flocculants are used for water purification. Natural polymers, mainly polysaccharides, by virtue of being biodegradable, non-toxic, shear stable and easily available, are becoming popular in domestic and industrial effluent treatment. Okra gum obtained from seedpods of Hibiscus esculentus is an anionic polysaccharide. It is used as flocculant for removal of solid wastes from tannery effluent in this

M. Agarwal; S. Rajani; A. Mishra; J. S. P. Rai

2003-01-01

244

Biomass and bioenergy production potential of microalgae consortium in open and closed bioreactors using untreated carpet industry effluent as growth medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improved wastewater management with beneficial utilization will result in enhanced sustainability and enormous cost savings in industries. Algae cultivation systems viz. raceway ponds, vertical tank reactors (VTR) and polybags were evaluated for mass production of algal consortium using carpet industry (CI) untreated wastewater. Overall areal biomass productivity of polybags (21.1gm?2d?1) was the best followed by VTR (8.1gm?2d?1) and raceways (5.9gm?2d?1).

Senthil Chinnasamy; Ashish Bhatnagar; Ronald Claxton; K. C. Das

2010-01-01

245

The Mexican petrochemical sector in the NAFTA negotiations  

SciTech Connect

Since 1985, there have been important changes in the Mexican petrochemical sector, including trade liberalization, deregulation and the elimination of subsidies. NAFTA represents another step towards liberalization of the sector. Given the low tariffs currently applied to international trade among the three nations, the authors do not anticipate major impacts of NAFTA on trade flows. Nevertheless, the elimination of restrictions to foreign investment is expected to increase capital flows into the sector and to promote productivity increases. On the other hand, the new barriers to trade in petrochemical feedstocks and the restrictions on private investment in infrastructure may negatively affect the sector`s growth, making it necessary to adjust domestic regulations to improve the performance of Pemex. 12 refs., 4 tabs.

Kessel, G.; Kim, C.S. [Instituto Technologico Autonomo de Mexico, Magdalena Contreras (Mexico)

1993-12-31

246

Heterotrophic denitrification of aquaculture effluent using fluidized sand biofilters  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The ability to consistently and cost-effectively reduce nitrate-nitrogen loads in effluent from recirculating aquaculture systems would enhance the industry's environmental stewardship and allow improved facility proximity to large markets in sensitive watersheds. Heterotrophic denitrification techn...

247

CHEMICAL INTERACTIONS AMONG CHLOROHYDROCARBON MIXTURES FOUND IN WASTEWATER EFFLUENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Various chlorohydrocarbons found in industrial waste effluents, including chloroform (CHC13) and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), can eventually contaminate public drinking water supplies. The present study was designed to evaluate the interaction between orally administered CHCl3 an...

248

Fish bioassay monitoring of waste effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spills of toxic materials into bodies of water receiving industrial waste discharges can be prevented only if frequent or continuous assessments of effluent quality can be made. Currently available methods can automatically measure individual physical or chemical waste components but cannot assess toxicity caused by the interaction of components or the presence of an unsuspected material. Aquatic organisms, in contrast,

W. H. van der Schalie; K. L. Dickson; G. F. Westlake; J. Cairns

1979-01-01

249

Utilization of algal assays to assess the effects of municipal, industrial, and agricultural wastewater effluents upon phytoplankton production in the Snake River system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most characteristic water quality problem of the Snake River Basin is the excessive aquatic growth and thick blooms of algae. The cause of these aquatic growths is related to the high concentrations of basic nutrients — nitrogen and phosphorus — in the Snake system. Industrial wastes, natural phosphate levels, irrigation return flows, municipal wastes, and the decay of aquatic

Joseph C. Greene; William E. Miller; Tamotsu Shiroyama; Thomas E. Maloney

1975-01-01

250

Industry  

SciTech Connect

This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of industrial mitigation for sustainable development is discussed in Section 7.7. Section 7.8 discusses the sector's vulnerability to climate change and options for adaptation. A number of policies have been designed either to encourage voluntary GHG emission reductions from the industrial sector or to mandate such reductions. Section 7.9 describes these policies and the experience gained to date. Co-benefits of reducing GHG emissions from the industrial sector are discussed in Section 7.10. Development of new technology is key to the cost-effective control of industrial GHG emissions. Section 7.11 discusses research, development, deployment and diffusion in the industrial sector and Section 7.12, the long-term (post-2030) technologies for GHG emissions reduction from the industrial sector. Section 7.13 summarizes gaps in knowledge.

Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

2007-12-01

251

Considerations for Planning a Monitoring Campaign at Petrochemical Complexes: Lessons Learned  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An air quality monitoring campaign was developed for the late spring of 2009 near Houston area petrochemical facilities. The focus of the field campaign was to measure free radicals that contribute to the formation of ozone, however refinery and chemical plants monitored are also emitters of many different volatile organic compounds (vocs) and hazardous air pollutants (haps). The Houston area is home to the largest aggregation of petrochemical facilities in the U.S. Three specific geographical areas with industrial facilities were considered: Mont Belvieu, the Houston Ship Channel and the Texas City Industrial Complex. Previous experiences with field campaigns in the area led to the presumption that there would be little if any access inside the facilities. Considerations for which areas to focus on included: how close could the facility be approached, what were the directions of the prevailing winds, what kind of barriers to measurement existed (e.g. trees, buildings, highways, privately owned land, etc.), and what were the possible chemical interferences from other sources near the measurement sites? Close communications with the plant security, the local police, the Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI), Homeland Security, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), and the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) were required. Substantial delays can occur due to local concerns regarding homeland security and plant safety. Also, a system of communications is essential to coordinate the participating scientists operating stationary analyzers with the scientists who have analyzers mounted in ground vehicles and in aircraft. The researchers were provided with information regarding plant operations, types of equipment and potential pollutants. A wide variety of stationery and mobile ambient air monitoring techniques were used to measure formaldehyde and other volatile organic compounds. In order to identify likely formaldehyde sources the self-reported submissions to the EPA in the Toxic Release Inventory and emissions reports to the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality were reviewed. Other considerations were the locations of boilers, furnaces and flares, since formaldehyde is a product of combustion. In addition, a review was made to identify any sources of formaldehyde stored, consumed or produced in the petrochemical processes. The Texas City complex was chosen for the focus on formaldehyde study due to the very heavy concentration (fence-line to fence-line) of several refineries, chemical plants and storage facilities. Also there were sites upwind and downwind of the complex that were available for installing critical stationary analyzers for the study. Formaldehyde was identified in several locations, including from flares and smokestacks on ships. Also, benzene was measured less than a mile away from a plume emanating from a 200 foot flare. The solar occultation flux method was used to identify voc emissions that were 5-10 times higher than expected based on the emissions reported to the state environmental agency by the facilities. This paper will describe how the site selection and preparation enhanced the data that was retrieved, and how preparations might be adjusted to improve future air quality studies at petrochemical sites.

Cuclis, A.

2010-12-01

252

Health planning for remote petrochemical field operations  

SciTech Connect

Occupational/Public Health Services are becoming increasingly required in projects that involve the extended presence of expatriates in remote underdeveloped areas of the world. These ``expats`` are defined as individuals living and working in the environment who are not indigenous to the area. Under this definition, workers who are resistant to a ``local`` strain of malaria and then relocate to another geographic within the same country can also be considered as ``biologic expatriates`` since their resistance profile for certain tropical diseases is not reflective of their new environment. Unlike a major infrastructure project in the industrialized world, project planners in remote areas of the developing world should be expected to make significant long term medical and environmental commitments. US companies have extensive experience in the business of large-scale development projects, e.g. oil and gas pipelines and well field development; however, these projects represent major long-term in-country commitments with potentially large labor forces and substantial and sustained impacts on local health and safety resources. The initial structuring of health and safety programs will, therefore, have long-term ramifications on the project both during construction and ``routine`` operations since the multi-national companies are increasingly expected to develop and maintain self-sustaining health, safety and environmental programs.

Krieger, G.R.; Balge, M.Z.

1995-12-31

253

Job strain (demands and control model) as a predictor of cardiovascular risk factors among petrochemical personnel  

PubMed Central

Background: One of the practical models for the assessment of stressful working conditions due to job strain is job demand and control model, which explains how physical and psychological adverse consequences, including cardiovascular risk factors can be established due to high work demands (the amount of workload, in addition to time limitations to complete that work) and low control of the worker on his/her work (lack of decision making) in the workplace. The aim of this study was to investigate how certain cardiovascular risk factors (including body mass index [BMI], heart rate, blood pressure, cholesterol and smoking) and the job demand and job control are related to each other. Materials and Methods: This prospective cohort study was conducted on 500 workers of the petrochemical industry in south of Iran, 2009. The study population was selected using simple random statistical method. They completed job demand and control questionnaire. The cardiovascular risk factors data was extracted from the workers hygiene profiles. Chi-square (?2) test and hypothesis test (?) were used to assess the possible relationship between different quantified variables, individual demographic and cardiovascular risk factors. Results: The results of this study revealed that a significant relationship can be found between job demand control model and cardiovascular risk factors. Chi-square test result for the heart rate showed the highest (?2 = 145.078) relationship, the corresponding results for smoking and BMI were ?2 = 85.652 and ?2 = 30.941, respectively. Subsequently, hypothesis testing results for cholesterol and hypertension was 0.469 and 0.684, respectively. Discussion: Job strain is likely to be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular risk factors among male staff in a petrochemical company in Iran. The parameters illustrated in the Job demands and control model can act as acceptable predictors for the probability of job stress occurrence followed by showing a high trend of CVD risk factors. PMID:25861661

Habibi, Ehsanollah; Poorabdian, Siamak; Shakerian, Mahnaz

2015-01-01

254

Prospects for a bio-based succinate industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bio-based succinate is receiving increasing attention as a potential intermediary feedstock for replacing a large petrochemical-based\\u000a bulk chemical market. The prospective economical and environmental benefits of a bio-based succinate industry have motivated\\u000a research and development of succinate-producing organisms. Bio-based succinate is still faced with the challenge of becoming\\u000a cost competitive against petrochemical-based alternatives. High succinate concentrations must be produced at

James B. McKinlay; C. Vieille; J. Gregory Zeikus

2007-01-01

255

Petrochemical types of kimberlites and their diamond-bearing capacity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kimberlite rocks of Yakutian province (belong to 1 group of kimberlites after Smith, 1983) are characterized by wide variations of rock-forming oxides [Ilupin et al., 1986; Milashev, 1965; Kharkiv et al., 1991]. A number of factors could be discussed to explain the variety of chemical compositions of rocks. The first factor, explaining the regional differences in the kimberlite composition with primarily different composition of source kimberlite melt-fluid, is conventionally called «primary». All other factors are connected with the secondary redistribution of chemical components of kimberlites. Irrespective of intensity of secondary factors, the primary composition of kimberlites varies broadly, which is noticeable in kimberlites of some provinces, kimberlites fields, pipe clusters and individual pipes. The petrochemical types are classified based on the contents of such oxides as FeO, TiO2 and K2O, being relatively inert in the secondary processes. In the Yakutian Province we have distinguished 5 petrochemical types of kimberlites (Kostrovitsky et al, 2007); with principal ones - high-Mg, magnesium-ferruginous (Mg-Fe) and ferruginous-titaniferous, their composition: < 6; 6-9; 8-15 % FeOtotal and < 1; 1-2.5; 1.5-5.0 % TiO2). Some petrochemical and mineralogical criteria of diamond-bearing capacity of kimberlites were identified some time before. The essence of petrochemical criterion consists of the inverse correlation dependence between the contents FeOtotal, TiO2 in kimberlite rocks and their diamond-bearing capacity (Milashev, 1965; Krivonos, 1998). The mineralogical criteria of diamond-bearing capacity infer presence of direct dependence of the rate of capacity on the content in kimberlites of low-Ca, high-Cr garnet and chrome spinellids with Cr2O3 > 62% and TiO2 < 0.5%, of dunite-harzburgite paragenesis (Sobolev, 1974; Meyer, 1968). The acquired results are applied to evaluate «efficiency» of criteria of diamond-bearing capacity exemplified by the deposits of Yakutian Province. The high-Mg kimberlites of the Njurba, Botuoba, International and Aikhal pipes are known as mostly diamondiferous. Kimberlites of these fields are marked by absence or minor abundance of minerals of low-Cr megacryst association - picroilmenite and orange-red garnet, and on the other hand, increased content of chrome spinellids and garnets, referred to as dunite-harzburgite paragenesis. Whereas most of the other deposits of Yakutia (pipes Mir, Udachnaya-Vostochnaya, Udachnaya-Zapadnaya, Yubileinaya, Komsomolskaya, Zarnitsa and Sytykan) are referred to the Mg-Fe petrochemical type distinguished by fairly raised content of TiO2 and FeOtotal and high content of minerals of low-Cr megacryst association. The minerals of dunite-harzburgite paragenesis in kimberlites of Mg-Fe type occur as varying amounts, but in general they are less numerous than in high-Mg type of kimberlites. The enumerated deposits have different rates of diamond-bearing capacity, but none of them reaches the rate of capacity common for the Mg-type deposits. The kimberlites with higher content of TiO2 and FeOtotal, referred to the Fe-Ti petrochemical type, do not produce commercial diamond fields within the Yakutian Province. The kimberlites of this type practically do not contain garnet and spinellids of dunite-harzburgite paragenesis. Therefore, comparison of kimberlite deposits of different petrochemical types points out that the petrochemical criterion of diamond capacity is as if «workable». But on the other hand, there are pipes composed of kimberlites of high-Mg and Mg-Fe petrochemical types with a poor capacity or devoid diamonds, which essentially conceal supposed dependence of parameter of diamond-bearing capacity on the chemical composition of rocks. Thus, the negative correlation between the contents FeOtotal, TiO2 in kimberlite rocks and their diamond capacity manifests itself as a tendency in general for kimberlite rocks. Different petrochemical types of kimberlites, varying in the rate of diamond capacity, are indistinguishable in the conte

Kostrovitsky, Sergey

2010-05-01

256

Industry  

E-print Network

Blok, 2003a) and strip casting in the steel industry (Luitennet shape casting. ULCOS (Ultra-Low CO 2 Steel making), acasting, introduced in the 1970s and 1980s, saves both energy and mate- rial, and now accounts for 88% of global steel

Bernstein, Lenny

2008-01-01

257

Electrochemical oxidation of bio-refractory dye in a simulated textile industry effluent using DSA electrodes in a filter-press type FM01LC reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents a study on degradation of indigo carmine dye in a filter-press type FM01-LC reactor using Sb2O5-doped Ti\\/IrO2-SnO2 dimensionally stable anode (DSA) electrodes. Micro- and macroelectrolysis studies were carried out using solutions of 0.8 mM indigo carmine in 0.05 M NaCl, which resemble blue denim laundry industrial wastewater. Microelectrolysis results show the behaviour of DSA electrodes in comparison with the

Francisca A. Rodríguez; María N. Mateo; Juan M. Aceves; Eligio P. Rivero; Ignacio González

2012-01-01

258

Biomass and bioenergy production potential of microalgae consortium in open and closed bioreactors using untreated carpet industry effluent as growth medium.  

PubMed

Improved wastewater management with beneficial utilization will result in enhanced sustainability and enormous cost savings in industries. Algae cultivation systems viz. raceway ponds, vertical tank reactors (VTR) and polybags were evaluated for mass production of algal consortium using carpet industry (CI) untreated wastewater. Overall areal biomass productivity of polybags (21.1 g m(-2)d(-1)) was the best followed by VTR (8.1 g m(-2)d(-1)) and raceways (5.9 g m(-2)d(-1)). An estimated biomass productivity of 51 and 77 tons ha(-1)year(-1) can be achieved using 20 and 30 L capacity polybags, respectively with triple row arrangement. Biomass obtained from algal consortium was rich in proteins (approximately 53.8%) and low in carbohydrates (approximately 15.7%) and lipids (approximately 5.3%). Consortium cultivated in polybags has the potential to produce 12,128 m(3) of biomethane ha(-1)year(-1). To be economically viable, the capital expenditure for polybag reactors needs to be reduced to $10 m(-2) for bioenergy/biofuel production. PMID:20444599

Chinnasamy, Senthil; Bhatnagar, Ashish; Claxton, Ronald; Das, K C

2010-09-01

259

Treatment of rayon waste effluent for the removal of Zn and Ca using Indion BSR resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc is an important non-ferrous metal which finds application in different industries viz. electroplating, metal finishing, textile, galvanising etc. These industries generate effluents containing zinc during processing. The discharge of these effluents not only pollutes the environment but also affects health. In the present studies, an ion exchange process has been used to remove zinc and calcium from the synthetic

M. K. Jha; R. R. Upadhyay; Jae-chun Lee; Vinay Kumar

2008-01-01

260

The use of phytotoxicity tests (common duckweed, cabbage, and millet) for determining effluent toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to use higher plants for detecting effluent toxicity. Eight effluent samples were obtained from three industrial sources prior to their entry into a sewer system. The tests were the duckweed reproduction test, and root growth tests using cabbage and millet. The results of repeated phytotoxicity tests were reproducible. Of the three industrial sources, the

Wuncheng Wang; Judson M. Williams

1990-01-01

261

Agent orange herbicides, organophosphate and triazinic pesticides analysis in olive oil and industrial oil mill waste effluents using new organic phase immunosensors.  

PubMed

New immunosensors working in organic solvent mixtures (OPIEs) for the analysis of traces of different pesticides (triazinic, organophosphates and chlorurates) present in hydrophobic matrices such as olive oil were developed and tested. A Clark electrode was used as transducer and peroxidase enzyme as marker. The competitive process took place in a chloroform-hexane 50% (V/V) mixture, while the subsequent enzymatic final measurement was performed in decane and using tert-butylhydroperoxide as substrate of the enzymatic reaction. A linear response of between about 10nM and 5.0?M was usually obtained in the presence of olive oil. Recovery tests were carried out in commercial or artisanal extra virgin olive oil. Traces of pesticides were also checked in the oily matrix, in pomace and mill wastewaters from an industrial oil mill. Immunosensors show good selectivity and satisfactory precision and recovery tests performed in olive oil gave excellent results. PMID:25236238

Martini, Elisabetta; Merola, Giovanni; Tomassetti, Mauro; Campanella, Luigi

2015-02-15

262

NATIONAL WWTP EFFLUENT STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

Reports of potential wildlife risk from exposure to environmental estrogens emphasize the need to better understand both estrogenic presence and persistence in treated wastewater effluents. In addition to wildlife exposure, human exposure should also be examined, especially in si...

263

GEOTHERMAL EFFLUENT SAMPLING WORKSHOP  

EPA Science Inventory

This report outlines the major recommendations resulting from a workshop to identify gaps in existing geothermal effluent sampling methodologies, define needed research to fill those gaps, and recommend strategies to lead to a standardized sampling methodology....

264

Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) for the removal of Hg2+ and Cd2+ from synthetic petrochemical factory wastewater.  

PubMed

Petrochemical factories which manufacture vinyl chloride monomer and poly vinyl chloride (PVC) are among the largest industries which produce wastewater contains mercury and cadmium. The objective of this research is to evaluate the performance of a lab-scale Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) to treat a synthetic petrochemical wastewater containing mercury and cadmium. After acclimatization of the system which lasted 60 days, the SBR was introduced to mercury and cadmium in low concentrations which then was increased gradually to 9.03±0.02 mg/L Hg and 15.52±0.02 mg/L Cd until day 110. The SBR performance was assessed by measuring Chemical Oxygen Demand, Total and Volatile Suspended Solids as well as Sludge Volume Index. At maximum concentrations of the heavy metals, the SBR was able to remove 76-90% of Hg(2+) and 96-98% of Cd(2+). The COD removal efficiency and MLVSS (microorganism population) in the SBR was affected by mercury and cadmium concentrations in influent. Different species of microorganisms such as Rhodospirilium-like bacteria, Gomphonema-like algae, and sulfate reducing-like bacteria were identified in the system. While COD removal efficiency and MLVSS concentration declined during addition of heavy metals, the appreciable performance of SBR in removal of Hg(2+) and Cd(2+) implies that the removal in SBR was not only a biological process, but also by the biosorption process of the sludge. PMID:21592658

Malakahmad, Amirhossein; Hasani, Amirhesam; Eisakhani, Mahdieh; Isa, Mohamed Hasnain

2011-07-15

265

Assessing vanadium and arsenic exposure of people living near a petrochemical complex with two-stage dispersion models.  

PubMed

The goal of this study is to demonstrate that it is possible to construct a two-stage dispersion model empirically for the purpose of estimating air pollution levels in the vicinity of petrochemical plants. We studied oil refineries and coal-fired power plants in the No. 6 Naphtha Cracking Complex, an area of 2,603-ha situated on the central west coast of Taiwan. The pollutants targeted were vanadium (V) from oil refineries and arsenic (As) from coal-fired power plants. We applied a backward fitting method to determine emission rates of V and As, with 192 PM10 filters originally collected between 2009 and 2012. Our first-stage model estimated emission rates of V and As (median and 95% confidence intervals at 0.0202 (0.0040-0.1063) and 0.1368 (0.0398-0.4782) g/s, respectively. In our second stage model, the predicted zone-average concentrations showed a strong correlation with V, but a poor correlation with As. Our findings show that two-stage dispersion models are relatively precise for estimating V levels at residents' addresses near the petrochemical complex, but they did not work as well for As levels. In conclusion, our model-based approach can be widely used for modeling exposure to air pollution from industrial areas in countries with limited resources. PMID:24607528

Chio, Chia-Pin; Yuan, Tzu-Hsuen; Shie, Ruei-Hao; Chan, Chang-Chuan

2014-04-30

266

Are metal mining effluent regulations adequate: identification of a novel bleached fish syndrome in association with iron-ore mining effluents in Labrador, Newfoundland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water quality guidelines for industrial effluents are in place in many countries but they have generally evolved within a limited ecotoxicological framework. Effluents from iron-ore mines have traditionally been viewed by regulatory bodies as posing little or no risk to the aquatic environment. However, it was recently reported that lake trout taken from a large iron-ore contaminated Lake in Labrador

J. F. Payne; D. Hamoutene; P. Yeats; A. Rahimtula; D. Scruton; C. Andrews

2001-01-01

267

ACTIVATED CARBON TREATMENT OF INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATERS: SELECTED TECHNICAL PAPERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Because of the tremendous interest in the organic constituent removal by activated carbon, the two industrial categories displaying the most interest are the petroleum refining and petrochemical industries. EPA's Office of Research and Development has co-sponsored two technical s...

268

Industrial water conservation, recycle and reuse: A literature survey  

SciTech Connect

The results of a literature survey on industrial water conservation, recycle and reuse, sponsored by NACE T-7N (Minimization of Aqueous Discharges) are presented. A majority of the references cited are from the chemical and petrochemical industries. Categorization and definition of terms used in water conservation are given. 120 refs.

Breske, T.C. [E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Co., Inc., Wilmington, DE (United States)

1997-09-01

269

Environmental assessment for effluent reduction, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to eliminate industrial effluent from 27 outfalls at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The Proposed Action includes both simple and extensive plumbing modifications, which would result in the elimination of industrial effluent being released to the environment through 27 outfalls. The industrial effluent currently going to about half of the 27 outfalls under consideration would be rerouted to LANL`s sanitary sewer system. Industrial effluent from other outfalls would be eliminated by replacing once-through cooling water systems with recirculation systems, or, in a few instances, operational changes would result in no generation of industrial effluent. After the industrial effluents have been discontinued, the affected outfalls would be removed from the NPDES Permit. The pipes from the source building or structure to the discharge point for the outfalls may be plugged, or excavated and removed. Other outfalls would remain intact and would continue to discharge stormwater. The No Action alternative, which would maintain the status quo for LANL`s outfalls, was also analyzed. An alternative in which industrial effluent would be treated at the source facilities was considered but dismissed from further analysis because it would not reasonably meet the DOE`s purpose for action, and its potential environmental effects were bounded by the analysis of the Proposed Action and the No Action alternatives.

NONE

1996-09-11

270

Coal and Co-generation at a Petro-Chemical Complex  

E-print Network

Celanese Chemical Company, Inc. is converting from natural gas to coal as boiler fuel at its petrochemical plant in the Texas Panhandle. Coincident with that fuel conversion is a project in conjunction with Southwestern Public Service Company. High...

Turek, P.; Gibson, G. L.

1979-01-01

271

Investigation of fugitive emissions from petrochemical transport barges using optical remote sensing  

EPA Science Inventory

Recent airborne remote sensing survey data acquired with passive gas imaging equipment (PGIE), in this case infrared cameras, have shown potentially significant fugitive volatile organic carbon (VOC) emissions from petrochemical transport barges. The experiment found remote sens...

272

Bioremediation of an Industrial Effluent Containing Monocrotophos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Almost 30% of the precious agricultural output of India is lost owing to pest infestation. In India, pesticide consumption\\u000a for protecting crops is about 3% of the total world consumption. Monocrotophos (MCP), an organophosphorus insecticide, is\\u000a widely used to control insects on crops. Being readily water soluble and highly toxic, its removal from wastewater generated\\u000a during manufacture becomes inevitable. Bioremediation

Bharati J. Bhadbhade; Seema S. Sarnaik; Pradnya P. Kanekar

2002-01-01

273

Volatile organic monitor for industrial effluents  

SciTech Connect

1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act have created the need for instruments capable of monitoring volatile organic compounds (VOCS) in public air space in an unattended and low cost manner. The purpose of the study was to develop and demonstrate the capability to do long term automatic and unattended ambient air monitoring using an inexpensive portable analytic system at a commercial manufacturing plant site. A gas chromatograph system personal computer hardware, meteorology tower & instruments, and custom designed hardware and software were developed. Comparison with an EPA approved method was performed. The system was sited at an aircraft engines manufacturing site and operated in a completely unattended mode for 60 days. Two VOCs were monitored every 30 minutes during the 24hr day. Large variation in the concentration from 800ppb to the limits of detection of about 10ppb were observed. Work to increase the capabilities of the system is ongoing.

Laguna, G.R.; Peter, F.J.; Stuart, A.D.; Loyola, V.M.

1993-07-01

274

The effect of solids retention time on tertiary ozonation and carbon adsorption of petrochemical wastewaters  

E-print Network

THE EFFECT OF SOLIDS RETENTION TIME ON TERTIARY OZONATION AND CARBON ADSORPTION OF PETROCHEMICAL WASTEWATERS A Thesis by RONALD EARL BUYS Submitted to the Graduate College Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement...: (Chairman of Co ittee) (Member) / (Member) (Head of Department) December 1980 ABSTRACT The Effect of Solids Retention Time on Tertiary Ozonation and Carbon Adsorption of Petrochemical Wastewaters. (December 1980) Ronald Earl Buys, B. S. , Texas A...

Buys, Ronald Earl

1980-01-01

275

Lanthanum and lanthanides in atmospheric fine particles and their apportionment to refinery and petrochemical operations in Houston, TX  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study was conducted in Houston, TX focusing on rare earth elements (REEs) in atmospheric fine particles and their sources. PM 2.5 samples were collected from an ambient air quality monitoring site (HRM3) located in the proximity of a large number of oil refineries and petrochemical industries to estimate the potential contributions of emissions from fluidized-bed catalytic cracking operations to ambient fine particulate matter. The elemental composition of ambient PM 2.5, several commercially available zeolite catalysts, and local soil was measured after microwave assisted acid digestion using inductively coupled plasma—mass spectrometry. Source identification and apportionment was performed by principal component factor analysis (PCFA) in combination with multiple linear regression. REE relative abundance sequence, ratios of La to light REEs (Ce, Pr, Nd, and Sm), and enrichment factor analysis indicated that refining and petrochemical cat cracking operations were predominantly responsible for REE enrichment in ambient fine particles. PCFA yielded five physically meaningful PM 2.5 sources: cat cracking operations, a source predominantly comprised of crustal material, industrial high temperature operations, oil combustion, and sea spray. These five sources accounted for 82% of the total mass of atmospheric fine particles (less carbon and sulfate). Factor analysis confirmed that emissions from cat cracking operations primarily contributed to REE enrichment in PM 2.5 even though they comprised only 2.0% of the apportioned mass. Results from this study demonstrate the need to characterize catalysts employed in the vicinity of the sampling stations to accurately determine local sources of atmospheric REEs.

Kulkarni, Pranav; Chellam, Shankararaman; Fraser, Matthew P.

276

Gene expression of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) exposed to two types of treated municipal wastewater effluents.  

PubMed

Contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) in treated municipal effluents have the potential to adversely impact exposed organisms prompting elevated public concern. Using transcriptomic tools, we investigated changes in gene expression and cellular pathways in the liver of male fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) exposed to 5% concentrations of full secondary-treated (HTP) or advanced primary-treated (PL) municipal wastewater effluents containing CECs. Gene expression changes were associated with apical end points (plasma vitellogenin and changes in secondary sexual characteristics). Of 32 effluent CECs analyzed, 28 were detected including pharmaceuticals, personal care products, hormones, and industrial compounds. Exposure to both effluents produced significantly higher levels of plasma VTG and changes in secondary sexual characteristics (e.g., ovipositor development). Transcript patterns differed between effluents, with <10% agreement in the detected response (e.g., altered production of transcripts involved in xenobiotic detoxification, oxidative stress, and apoptosis were observed following exposure to both effluents). Exposure to PL effluent caused changes in transcription of genes involved in metabolic pathways (e.g., lipid transport and steroid metabolism). Exposure to HTP effluent affected transcripts involved in signaling pathways (e.g., focal adhesion assembly and extracellular matrix). The results suggest a potential association between some transcriptomic changes and physiological responses following effluent exposure. This study identified responses in pathways not previously implicated in exposure to complex chemical mixtures containing CECs, which are consistent with effluent exposure (e.g., oxidative stress) in addition to other pathway responses specific to the effluent type. PMID:23919544

Vidal-Dorsch, Doris E; Colli-Dula, R Cristina; Bay, Steven M; Greenstein, Darrin J; Wiborg, Lan; Petschauer, Dawn; Denslow, Nancy D

2013-10-01

277

How One Utility is Building Industrial Consumer Relationships  

E-print Network

assessments, prepares industry level profiles, analyzes electrical equipment applications, conducts pinch analyses and simulates customer processes. All analyses include customer inputs obtained through a variety of customer contacts. Analyses are made...HOW ONE UT1~ITY IS BUILDING INDUSTRIAL CONSUMER RELATIONSHIPS DONALD E. HAMILTON Manager-Industrial Services and Cogeneration Gulf States Utilities Company Beaumont, Texas COMPETITION AND THE UTILITY INDUSTRY The refining and petrochemical...

Hamilton, D. E.

278

Tropical fruit trees as bioindicators of industrial air pollution in southeast Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psidium guajava L., Psidium cattleyanum Sabine and Mangifera indica L. were tested under field conditions as possible tropical bioindicators of industrial air pollution. The study was performed around the industrial complex of Cubatão, SE Brazil, which comprises 23 industries, including fertilizer, cement, chemical, petrochemical, and steel plants, with 110 production units and 260 emission sources of pollutants. Saplings were exposed

R. M Moraes; A Klumpp; C. M Furlan; G Klumpp; M Domingos; M. C. S Rinaldi; I. F Modesto

2002-01-01

279

Trace element removal by Spirulina sp. from copper smelter and refinery effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents the studies carried out on the applicability of microalga Spirulina sp. for trace elements removal from the conditioned (large volume, low contaminants concentration) industrial effluent, from copper smelter and refinery, containing a variety of trace elements, particularly mercury, cadmium, ammonia–nitrogen in concentrations exceeding Polish permissible limits for effluents discharged into water and soil. Trace elements removal is

K Chojnacka; A Chojnacki; H Górecka

2004-01-01

280

The effect of mean cell residence time on the adsorbability of dissolved organic compounds found in petrochemical wastewaters  

E-print Network

THF EFFECT OF MEAN CELL RESIDENCE TIME ON THE ADSORBABILITY OF DISSOLVED ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FOUND IN PETROCHEMICAL WASTEWATERS A Thesis by TIMOTHY LURING JOHNSON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University ir, Partia. fulfillment... Compounds Found in Petrochemical Mastewaters (August 1979) Timothy Loring Johnson, B. S. , University of Missouri-Columbia Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. Thomas D. Reynolds A sample of untreated petrochem1cal wastewater was taken from the influent...

Johnson, Timothy Loring

1979-01-01

281

Substance abuse in the refining industry  

SciTech Connect

In order to provide some background for the NPRA Annual Meeting Management Session panel discussion on Substance Abuse in the Refining and Petrochemical Industries, NPRA distributed a questionnaire to member companies requesting information regarding the status of their individual substance abuse policies. The questionnaire was designed to identify general trends in the industry. The aggregate responses to the survey are summarized in this paper, as background for the Substance Abuse panel discussions.

Little, A. Jr. (Sun Refining and Marketing Co., Philadelphia, PA (US)); Ross, J.K. (Ashalnd Petroleum Co., Ashland, KY (US)); Lavorerio, R. (Chevron U.S.A. Inc., Richmond, CA (US)); Richards, T.A. (Total Petroleum, Inc., Denver, CO (US))

1989-01-01

282

Fueling Industrial Biotechnology Growth with Bioethanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial biotechnology is the conversion of biomass via biocatalysis, microbial fermentation, or\\u000a cell culture to produce chemicals, materials, and\\/or energy. Industrial biotechnology processes aim to\\u000a be cost-competitive, environmentally favorable, and self-sustaining compared to their petrochemical equivalents.\\u000a Common to all processes for the production of energy, commodity, added value, or fine chemicals is that\\u000a raw materials comprise the most significant cost

José Manuel Otero; Gianni Panagiotou; Lisbeth Olsson

283

Treatment of Colored Effluents with Lignin-Degrading Enzymes: An Emerging Role of Marine-Derived Fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some of the industries that discharge highly colored effluents are paper and pulp mills, textiles and dye-making industries, alcohol distilleries and leather industries. Terrestrial white-rot basidiomycetous fungi and their lignin-degrading enzymes laccase, manganese-peroxidase and lignin peroxidases are useful in the treatment of colored industrial effluents and other xenobiotics. Free mycelia, mycelial pellets, immobilized fungi or their lignin-degrading enzymes from terrestrial

Chandralata Raghukumar; Donna D'Souza-Ticlo; Ashutosh Kumar Verm

2008-01-01

284

A combined chemical and biological assessment of industrial contamination in an estuarine system in Kerala, India.  

PubMed

The Cochin Backwaters in India are part of the Vembanad-Kol system, which is a protected wetland and one of the largest estuarine ecosystems in South Asia. The backwaters are a major supplier of fisheries resources and are developed as tourist destination. Periyar River discharges into the northern arm of the system and receives effluents from chemical, petrochemical and metal processing industries which release huge amounts of wastewaters after little treatment. We investigated water and sediment contamination in the industrial vicinity and at one station further away including organic and inorganic contaminants. In total 83 organic contaminants were found, e.g. well known priority pollutants such as endosulfan, hexachlorobenzene, DDT, hexachlorocyclohexane and their metabolites, which likely stem from the industrial manufacturing of organochlorine pesticides. Furthermore, several benzothiazole, dibenzylamine and dicyclohexylamine derivatives were detected, which indicated inputs from rubber producing facilities. Several of these compounds have not been reported as environmental contaminants so far. A comparison of organic contaminant and trace hazardous element concentrations in sediments with reported sediment quality guidelines revealed that adverse effects on benthic species are likely at all stations. The chemical assessment was combined with an investigation of macrobenthic diversity and community composition. Benthic organisms were completely lacking at the site with the highest trace hazardous element concentrations. Highest species numbers, diversity indices and abundances were recorded at the station with the greatest distance to the industrial area. Filter feeders were nearly completely lacking, probably leading to an impairment of the filter function in this area. This study shows that a combination of chemical and biological methods is an innovative approach to achieve a comprehensive characterization of industrial contamination, to evaluate associated risks for bottom dwelling consumers regarding sediment quality guidelines, and to observe related adverse effects on the benthic community directly in the field. PMID:24735943

Dsikowitzky, Larissa; Nordhaus, Inga; Sujatha, C H; Akhil, P S; Soman, Kunjupilai; Schwarzbauer, Jan

2014-07-01

285

EVALUATION OF A SHORT-TERM CHRONIC EFFLUENT TOXICITY TEST USING SHEEPSHEAD MINNOW (CYPRINODON VARIEGATUS) LARVAE  

EPA Science Inventory

In response to recent changes in National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit regulations, rapid (7-day) static renewal toxicity tests have been developed to detect chronic (sublethal and lethal) effect concentrations of municipal and industrial effluents on fre...

286

DETERMINATION OF TRACE METALS IN EFFLUENTS BY DIFFERENTIAL PULSE ANODIC STRIPPING VOLTAMETRY  

EPA Science Inventory

Differential pulse anodic stripping voltametry (DPASV) was evaluated to determine its applicability to industrial and domestic effluents. The results show that trace amounts of zinc, cadmium, lead, bismuth, copper, thallium, indium, antimony, tin and nickel can be determined indi...

287

Risk assessment study of fire following an earthquake: a case study of petrochemical enterprises in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After an earthquake, the fire risk of petrochemical enterprises is higher than that of other enterprises as it involves production processes with inflammable and explosive characteristics. Using Chinese petrochemical enterprises as the research object, this paper uses a literature review and case summaries to study, amongst others, the classification of petrochemical enterprises, the proportion of daily fires, and fire loss ratio. This paper builds a fire following an earthquake risk assessment model of petrochemical enterprises based on a previous earthquake fire hazard model, and the earthquake loss prediction assessment method, calculates the expected loss of the fire following an earthquake in various counties and draws a risk map. Moreover, this research identifies high-risk areas, concentrating on the Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan region, and Shandong, Jiangsu, and Zhejiang provinces. Differences in enterprise type produce different levels and distribution of petrochemical enterprise earthquake fire risk. Furthermore, areas at high risk of post-earthquake fires and with low levels of seismic fortification require extra attention to ensure appropriate mechanisms are in place.

Li, J.; Wang, Y.; Chen, H.; Lin, L.

2014-04-01

288

Modeling of Flow and Water Quality Processes with Finite Volume Method due to Spreading and Dispersion of Petrochemical Pollution in the Hydro-Environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Having two water frontiers, namely (everlasting) Persian Gulf and Oman Sea in the south and Caspian Sea in the north, intense dependence on extracting and exporting oil, especially via marine fleets and ever-increasing development of petrochemical industry, Iran is exposed to severe environmental damages caused by oil and petrochemical industries. This essay investigates how oil spill is diffused and its environmental pollution is spread. The movement of oil spill, and its diffusion in water and its effects on water and the environment has been simulated by developing a Depth-Averaged numerical model and using the Finite Volume method. The existing models are not efficient enough to fulfill current modeling needs. The developed model uses the parameters useful in the advection and diffusion of oil pollutions in a model appropriate for predicting the transport of oil spill. Since the Navier-Stokes Equations play an important role in the advection and diffusion of oil pollutions, it is highly important to choose an appropriate numerical method in the advection and diffusion section. In this essay, choosing the methods used in the advection and diffusion have been emphasized and highly-accurate algorithms has been used in the advection terms. These algorithms are not present in similar models. The resulting equations have been solved using the ADI method. This method solves the unknown parameters with solving a Penta-Diagonal matrix in each time step. It does so without sacrificing the desired precision.

Sarhadi Zadeh, Ehsan; Hejazi, Kourosh

2009-11-01

289

Treatment of Textile Dye Plant Effluent by Nanofiltration Membrane  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was concerned primarily with characterization of the NF45 membrane. Its pure water permeability, the mass transfer coefficient of NaCl, and the mean radius of the membrane pores were determined. Experiments run with five pure dye solutions and an industrial dye pulp solution confirmed the potential of nanofiltration membrane separation for the treatment of textile dye plant effluent. The

YAZHEN XU; RÉMI E. LEBRUN; PIERRE-JEAN GALLO; PIERRE BLOND

1999-01-01

290

Microbial decolorization of textile-dyecontaining effluents: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water-pollution control is presently one of the major areas of scientific activity. While coloured organic compounds generally impart only a minor fraction of the organic load to wastewater, their colour renders them aesthetically unacceptable. Effluent discharge from textile and dyestuff industries to neighbouring water bodies and wastewater treatment systems is currently causing significant health concerns to environmental regulatory agencies. Colour

Ibrahim M. Banat; Poonam Nigam; Datel Singh; Roger Marchant

1996-01-01

291

Use of permeable reactive barriers to treat acid mine effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid mine drainage (AMD) is one of the most serious environmental problems facing the Canadian Mineral Industry. The AMD results from oxidation of sulphide minerals (e.g. pyrite or pyrrhotite) contained in mine waste or mine tailings. It is characterised by acid effluents rich in heavy metals, which are released into the environment. A new acid remediation technology is presented in

Kostas Fytas

2010-01-01

292

Evolution Of Converters \\/ Downstream Evolution Of Converters \\/ Downstream Industries In The Middle East And Asia Industries In The Middle East And Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plastics processing industry plays an important role in the supply chain and acts as the linkage between the oil & petrochemicals industry and the consumers. Plastic resins are processed and converted into a form which can be sold as primary or secondary products. China's position as the factory for the world results in a huge appetite for energy, commodities

London Düsseldorf Düsseldorf Dubai; Andrew Ho

293

Genotoxicity assessment of a pharmaceutical effluent using four bioassays  

PubMed Central

Pharmaceutical industries are among the major contributors to industrial waste. Their effluents when wrongly handled and disposed of endanger both human and environmental health. In this study, we investigated the potential genotoxicity of a pharmaceutical effluent, by using the Allium cepa, mouse- sperm morphology, bone marrow chromosome aberration (CA) and micronucleus (MN) assays. Some of the physico-chemical properties of the effluent were also determined. The A. cepa and the animal assays were respectively carried out at concentrations of 0.5, 1, 2.5, 5 and 10%; and 1, 5, 10, 25 and 50% of the effluent. There was a statistically different (p < 0.05), concentration-dependent inhibition of onion root growth and mitotic index, and induction of chromosomal aberrations in the onion and mouse CA test. Assessment of sperm shape showed that the fraction of the sperm that was abnormal in shape was significantly (p < 0.05) greater than the negative control value. MN analysis showed a dose-dependent induction of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes across the treatment groups. These observations were provoked by the toxic and genotoxic constituents present in test samples. The tested pharmaceutical effluent is a potentially genotoxic agent and germ cell mutagen, and may induce adverse health effects in exposed individuals. PMID:21637694

2009-01-01

294

The Analysis and Development of Large Industrial Steam Systems  

E-print Network

be said about the use of steam on process industrial plants. Unfortunately, there are a lot of bad things, as well. The petro leum processing and petrochemical technology that we are using today was, unfortunately, developed during an era of almost...? Certainly, our industrial expertise must include a knowledge of basic steam thermodynamics. The problem is many fold, I have already mentioned the disastrous affect of unrealis tically low energy costs for the petroleum and petro chemical industries...

Waterland, A. F.

1980-01-01

295

Assessment of the levels of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene and air polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in PM2.5 for adult exposure to the petrochemical complex emissions.  

PubMed

The relationship between external exposure and internal doses of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has not been established for people living in industrial areas. This study was carried out to estimate the relationship between particle-phase PAH exposure and urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) levels among the adults living near a large petrochemical complex in Mailiao, Taiwan. We measured urinary 1-OHP in 781 residents above 35 years old and PM2.5 PAHs within a 20-km radius downwind from the petrochemical complex. Urinary 1-OHP was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography, while 16 ambient particle-phase PAHs were measured by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. External exposures to individual PAHs at each study subject's address were estimated by kriging interpolation from air sampling results and regressed against the subjects' urinary 1-OHP levels, adjusting for confounding factors. The study population's urinary 1-OHP levels ranged from 0.001 to 3.005 ?mol/mol-creatinine with significantly higher levels for females, grilled food consumers, and residents living close to roads. All 16 particle-phase PAHs were present in the study area with total PAH concentrations ranging from 0.111 to 1.982 ng/m(3). The spatial distribution of 4- and 5-ring PAHs identified high-concentration hotspots close to the complex in Mailiao. The multiple regression models showed that the adults' urinary 1-OHP levels were significantly correlated with 5 out of the 16 PAHs, including benzo[a]anthracene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, fluoranthene, pyrene, and dibenzo[a,h]anthracene; a 0.01 ng/m(3) increase in the concentration of these 5 PAHs at the study subjects' addresses was associated with a 20% elevation in urinary 1-OHP levels (?g/g-creatinine). Emissions from a petrochemical complex can elevate particle-phase PAH concentrations in surrounding areas and increase the urinary 1-OHP levels of adults living nearby. PMID:25460640

Yuan, Tzu-Hsuen; Shie, Ruei-Hao; Chin, Yu-Yen; Chan, Chang-Chuan

2015-01-01

296

Public health assessment for Mattiace Petrochemical Company, Glenwood Landing, Nassau County, New York, Region 2. CERCLIS No. NYD000512459. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Mattiace Petrochemical Site, which is on the National Priorities List, is on the north shore of Nassau County, near Hempstead Harbor, in the City of Glen Cove. On-site soils and groundwater are contaminated with volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds. Metals are elevated in groundwater. The site is next to several one-story, industrial-commercial buildings. Glen Cove Creek, a tributary to the Hempstead Harbor portion of Long Island Sound, is about 500 feet from the site. The contaminated soil and shallow groundwater may result in contamination of the vapor-phase of soil (soil gas) and may affect indoor-air quality in the industrial-commercial buildings. Runoff from the site may have contaminated the driveway and storm drains. Employees of adjacent businesses may be exposed to contaminated soils from the site.

Not Available

1993-05-28

297

Bioremediation of metal-rich effluents: could the invasive bivalve work as a biofilter?  

PubMed

Industrial effluents are important sources of contamination of water and sediments, frequently causing serious damage at different levels of biological organization. Management and treatment of harmful industrial wastes is thus a major concern. Metal-bearing effluents, such as acid mine drainage (AMD), are particularly problematic because metals can easily bioaccumulate in organisms and biomagnify across the trophic chain. Several solutions have been proposed to treat AMD, including active methods involving the addition of neutralizing agents and passive techniques that use natural energy sources for remediation. However, increasing environmental and economic requirements lead the constant search for more sustainable solutions. The present study explores the possibility of using , an invasive freshwater bivalve, as a bioremediation tool using AMD as a model, metal-bearing effluent. The study compares untreated and biotreated effluents at two dilution levels (4 and 10% v/v) following two distinct approaches: (i) chemical characterization of the metal concentrations in water complemented by determination of the accumulation in the clams' soft tissues and shells; and (ii) ecotoxicity assessment using standard organisms (the bacterium , the microalgae , and the cladoceran ). Significant removal of metals from water was recorded for both effluent dilutions, with higher purification levels found for the 4% effluent. The environmental toxicity of the effluents generally decreased after the treatment with the clams. Thus, this study provides evidence for the suitability of as a bioremediator for metal-bearing effluents, especially if the treatment can be materialized in a multistage configuration system. PMID:25603239

Rosa, Inês Correia; Costa, Raquel; Gonçalves, Fernando; Pereira, Joana Luísa

2014-09-01

298

Challenges and technological opportunities for the oil refining industry: A Brazilian refinery case  

Microsoft Academic Search

The worldwide oil refining industry currently faces strong challenges related to uncertainties about future feedstock and characteristics of oil products. These challenges favor two main strategies for the sector: the first strategy is increasing refinery complexity and versatility; the second is integrating the refining and petrochemical industries, adding value to the crude oil while guaranteeing market share to premium oil

David A. Castelo Branco; Gabriel L. Gomes; Alexandre S. Szklo

2010-01-01

299

Decomposition of energy consumption and energy intensity in Indian manufacturing industries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of the total final energy consumption in India, the industrial sector accounts for about 37 percent, of which the manufacturing sector consumes about 66 percent (2004-2005 figures) with chemicals and petrochemicals, iron and steel, pulp and paper and cement industries being the largest energy users. In the recent past, energy intensity in the manufacturing sector has been decreasing. This decline

Binay Kumar Ray; B. Sudhakara Reddy

2007-01-01

300

Decomposition of energy consumption and energy intensity in Indian manufacturing industries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of the total final energy consumption in India, the industrial sector accounts for about 36%, of which the manufacturing sector consumes about 66% (2004–2005 figures) with iron and steel, chemicals and petrochemicals, pulp and paper and cement industries being the largest energy users. In the recent past, energy intensity has been decreasing in the manufacturing sector, mainly due to fuel

B. Sudhakara Reddy; Binay Kumar Ray

2010-01-01

301

Decomposition of Energy Consumption and Energy Intensity in Indian Manufacturing Industries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of the total final energy consumption in India, the industrial sector accounts for about 37 percent, of which the manufacturing sector consumes about 66 percent (2004-2005 figures) with chemicals and petrochemicals, iron and steel, pulp and paper and cement industries being the largest energy users. In the recent past, energy intensity in the manufacturing sector has been decreasing. This decline

Binay Kumar Ray; B. Sudhakara Reddy

2007-01-01

302

Reproductive Disruption in Wild Longear Sunfish (Lepomis megalotis) Exposed to Kraft Mill Effluent  

PubMed Central

Worldwide, wild fish living in rivers receiving municipal and industrial discharges may experience endocrine disruption as a result of exposure to anthropogenic pollutants. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hormonal status of wild fish in a U.S. river receiving unbleached kraft and recycled pulp mill effluent (Pearl River at Bogalusa, LA). We evaluated two alternative hypotheses: the effluent contained constituents that suppressed male and female reproduction, or it contained an androgenic substance that masculinized females. To evaluate the likelihood of fish exposure to effluent, we marked 697 longear sunfish (Lepomis megalotis) over a 2-year period; 83% of recaptured fish were found at the site of initial capture, and only one fish migrated from an effluent-receiving site to a reference site. We can reasonably assume that fish captured from an effluent-receiving site are residents, not transitory migrants. To diagnose endocrine disruption, we measured sex steroid hormone [17?-estradiol (E2), testosterone (T), and 11-ketotestosterone (11KT)] and vitellogenin (VTG) concentrations in male and female longear sunfish captured at two sites upstream and two sites downstream of the effluent outfall. Kraft pulp mill effluent did not affect male reproductive physiology but did suppress female T and VTG levels when effluent constituted ? 1% of river flow. Masculinization was not observed. Longear sunfish in the Pearl River experience moderate reproductive suppression in response to unbleached kraft and recycled pulp mill effluent. PMID:16393656

Fentress, Jennifer A.; Steele, Stacy L.; Bart, Henry L.; Cheek, Ann Oliver

2006-01-01

303

Reproductive disruption in wild longear sunfish (Lepomis megalotis) exposed to kraft mill effluent.  

PubMed

Worldwide, wild fish living in rivers receiving municipal and industrial discharges may experience endocrine disruption as a result of exposure to anthropogenic pollutants. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hormonal status of wild fish in a U.S. river receiving unbleached kraft and recycled pulp mill effluent (Pearl River at Bogalusa, LA). We evaluated two alternative hypotheses: the effluent contained constituents that suppressed male and female reproduction, or it contained an androgenic substance that masculinized females. To evaluate the likelihood of fish exposure to effluent, we marked 697 longear sunfish (Lepomis megalotis) over a 2-year period; 83% of recaptured fish were found at the site of initial capture, and only one fish migrated from an effluent-receiving site to a reference site. We can reasonably assume that fish captured from an effluent-receiving site are residents, not transitory migrants. To diagnose endocrine disruption, we measured sex steroid hormone [17beta-estradiol (E2), testosterone (T), and 11-ketotestosterone (11KT)] and vitellogenin (VTG) concentrations in male and female longear sunfish captured at two sites upstream and two sites downstream of the effluent outfall. Kraft pulp mill effluent did not affect male reproductive physiology but did suppress female T and VTG levels when effluent constituted>or=1% of river flow. Masculinization was not observed. Longear sunfish in the Pearl River experience moderate reproductive suppression in response to unbleached kraft and recycled pulp mill effluent. PMID:16393656

Fentress, Jennifer A; Steele, Stacy L; Bart, Henry L; Cheek, Ann Oliver

2006-01-01

304

Evaluation of dairy effluent management options using multiple criteria analysis.  

PubMed

This article describes how options for managing dairy effluent on the Lower Murray River in South Australia were evaluated using multiple criteria analysis (MCA). Multiple criteria analysis is a framework for combining multiple environmental, social, and economic objectives in policy decisions. At the time of the study, dairy irrigation in the region was based on flood irrigation which involved returning effluent to the river. The returned water contained nutrients, salts, and microbial contaminants leading to environmental, human health, and tourism impacts. In this study MCA was used to evaluate 11 options against 6 criteria for managing dairy effluent problems. Of the 11 options, the MCA model selected partial rehabilitation of dairy paddocks with the conversion of remaining land to other agriculture. Soon after, the South Australian Government adopted this course of action and is now providing incentives for dairy farmers in the region to upgrade irrigation infrastructure and/or enter alternative industries. PMID:18193318

Hajkowicz, Stefan A; Wheeler, Sarah A

2008-04-01

305

Evaluation of Dairy Effluent Management Options Using Multiple Criteria Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article describes how options for managing dairy effluent on the Lower Murray River in South Australia were evaluated using multiple criteria analysis (MCA). Multiple criteria analysis is a framework for combining multiple environmental, social, and economic objectives in policy decisions. At the time of the study, dairy irrigation in the region was based on flood irrigation which involved returning effluent to the river. The returned water contained nutrients, salts, and microbial contaminants leading to environmental, human health, and tourism impacts. In this study MCA was used to evaluate 11 options against 6 criteria for managing dairy effluent problems. Of the 11 options, the MCA model selected partial rehabilitation of dairy paddocks with the conversion of remaining land to other agriculture. Soon after, the South Australian Government adopted this course of action and is now providing incentives for dairy farmers in the region to upgrade irrigation infrastructure and/or enter alternative industries.

Hajkowicz, Stefan A.; Wheeler, Sarah A.

2008-04-01

306

Risk assessment study of fire following earthquake: a case study of petrochemical enterprises in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After an earthquake, the fire risk of petrochemistry enterprises is higher than that of other enterprises as it involves production processes with inflammable and explosive characteristics. Using Chinese petrochemical enterprises as the research object, this paper uses a literature review and case summaries to study, amongst others, the classification of petrochemical enterprises, the proportion of daily fires, and fire loss ratio. This paper builds a fire following earthquake risk assessment model of petrochemical enterprises based on a previous earthquake fire hazard model, and the earthquake loss prediction assessment method, calculates the expected loss of the fire following earthquake in various counties and draws a risk map. Moreover, this research identifies high-risk areas, concentrating on the Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan region, and Shandong, Jiangsu, and Zhejiang provinces. Differences in enterprise type produce different levels and distribution of petrochemical enterprises earthquake fire risk. Furthermore, areas at high risk of post-earthquake fires and with low levels of seismic fortification require extra attention to ensure appropriate mechanisms are in place.

Li, J.; Wang, Y.; Chen, H.; Lin, L.

2013-04-01

307

Ambient volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations around a petrochemical complex and a petroleum refinery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air samples were collected between September 2000 and September 2001 in Izmir, Turkey at three sampling sites located around a petrochemical complex and an oil refinery to measure ambient volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations. VOC concentrations were 4–20-fold higher than those measured at a suburban site in Izmir, Turkey. Ethylene dichloride, a leaded gasoline additive used in petroleum refining and

Eylem Cetin; Mustafa Odabasi; Remzi Seyfioglu

2003-01-01

308

The role of human resource practices in petro-chemical refinery performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the impact of human resource (HR) practices (selection, training, compensation and appraisal) and participation on the financial performance of US petro-chemical refineries. Survey results from HR and operations respondents indicated that appraisal and training were significantly related to workforce skills and that training and compensation were marginally related to workforce motivation. In addition, only training was significantly

Patrick M. Wright; Blaine Mccormick; W. Scott Sherman; Gary C. Mcmahan

1999-01-01

309

Startup and shakedown of vacuum gasoil hydrotreating section at Burgas Petrochemical Combine  

SciTech Connect

During the period of startup and shakedown operation of the vacuum gasoil hydrotreating section in the catalytic cracking unit at the Burgas Petrochemical Combine, all of the indexes specified in the design were actually achieved and the specified degree of feedstock improvement was obtained.

Strel'tsov, A.L.; Anichkin, A.I.

1987-05-01

310

Sensing of Petrochemical Fuels in Soils Using Headspace Analysis with Photoionization-Ion Mobility Spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photoionization-Ion Mobility Spectrometry (PI-IMS) was used to distinguish among common petrochemical fuels including leaded gasoline, unleaded gasoline, kerosene, and diesel fuel through sampling of headpsace vapors over liquid samples. Positive ion mobility spectra obtained in air at ambient pressure were comprised of 3 to 5 peaks which were tentatively identified as benzene, alkylated benzenes, naphthalene and alkylated naphthalenes. The simple

G. A. Eiceman; M. E. Fleischer; C. S. Leasure

1987-01-01

311

Integrated management of liquid effluents at the Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect

This poster session illustrates the integrated approach that the Hanford Site has taken in managing high-priority liquid effluent streams. These waste waters are produced from a variety of process- and utility-related sources. The Hanford Site approach to management of liquid effluents focusses on eliminating the source, reusing where possible, and treating and disposing of the water that cannot be eliminated or recycled prior to disposal. Thirteen of the high-priority waste water streams have been or will be eliminated by the end of 1995. Some of these streams have been eliminated as the result of shutting down the associated operation. However, the elimination of other streams has been the result of process modifications, equipment substitutions, or recycling. Several of the waste water streams will receive treatment at the individual generating facility before being discharged into a new industrial sewer (the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility). The industrial sewer will collect treated streams from various plants in the 200 Areas and dispose of the clean effluent at two uncontaminated new 20,235-square meter (5-acre) ponds permitted by Washington State. Finally, condensate from the 200 Areas tank waste evaporator and waste water from operations in the 300 Area will be treated at two end-of-the-pipe treatment facilities. The 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility will treat condensate (a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (1)-listed waste) from the tank waste evaporator, thereby allowing the waste to be delisted prior to disposal. The treated effluent will be pumped to a state-approved land disposal site selected to maximize the migration time to the river. This disposal site allows for the decay of tritium, which will be present in the condensate but cannot be removed using current technologies.

Lindsey, D.W.; Eacker, J.A.; Crane, A.F.; Veneziano, T.B.

1994-04-01

312

Facility effluent monitoring plan for WESF  

SciTech Connect

The FEMP for the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) provides sufficient information on the WESF effluent characteristics and the effluent monitoring systems so that a compliance assessment against applicable requirements may be performed. Radioactive and hazardous material source terms are related to specific effluent streams that are in turn, related to discharge points and, finally are compared to the effluent monitoring system capability.

SIMMONS, F.M.

1999-09-01

313

Development document for proposed effluent limitations guidelines and standards for the pulp, paper and paperboard point source category  

SciTech Connect

The proposed regulations for the pulp, paper, and paperboard industry include effluent limitations guidelines and standards for the control of wastewater pollutants and national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants. This document presents the information and rationale supporting the proposed effluent limitations guidelines and standards.

Not Available

1993-10-01

314

Steel industry wastes  

SciTech Connect

In this annual literature review, the regulations of the EPA which apply to the steel industry are discussed. Coke plant wastes are discussed. The characterization of the suspended solids in steel plant river intake water and in plant discharge effluent by electron-optical and x-ray diffraction techniques are discussed. 12 references.

Chung, N.K.

1985-06-01

315

Liquid Effluent Retention Facility/Effluent Treatment Facility Hazards Assessment  

SciTech Connect

This document establishes the technical basis in support of Emergency Planning activities for the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and Effluent Treatment Facility the Hanford Site. The document represents an acceptable interpretation of the implementing guidance document for DOE ORDER 5500.3A. Through this document, the technical basis for the development of facility specific Emergency Action Levels and the Emergency Planning Zone is demonstrated.

Simiele, G.A.

1994-09-29

316

Effluent Monitoring 4-1 4. Effluent Monitoring  

E-print Network

Effluent Monitoring 4-1 4. Effluent Monitoring S. M. Adams, S. Baloga, D. C. Bonner, M. L. Coffey, E. T. Collins, J. W. Evans, M. S. Greeley, Jr., L. V. Hamilton, K. G. Hanzelka, W. R. Hill, R. L. Hinzman, L. A. Kszos, D. M. Maguire, J. F. McCarthy, H. B. McElhoe, J. L. Murphy, M. J. Peterson, R. A

Pennycook, Steve

317

Effluent Monitoring 4-1 4. Effluent Monitoring  

E-print Network

Effluent Monitoring 4-1 4. Effluent Monitoring S. M. Adams, S. Baloga, D. C. Bonner, D. S. Cicerone, M. L. Coffey, E. T. Collins, L. L. Cunningham, J. M. Eaton, J. W. Evans, M. S. Greeley, Jr., L. V. Hamilton, K. G. Hanzelka, W. R. Hill, L. A. Kszos, D. M. Maguire, J. F. McCarthy, H. B. McElhoe, M. J

Pennycook, Steve

318

Management of nonprocess elements in low-effluent bleached kraft pulp mills  

SciTech Connect

Increasing environmental regulation for the discharge of chlorinated organics in bleach plant effluents has required most manufacturers in the pulp and paper industry to reduce the charge of elemental chlorine in the bleaching of kraft pulp. The best long term solution for reducing effluent pollutants from bleached kraft pulp mills is to move towards low-effluent (closed-cycle) bleaching. Closure of operating bleach plants would dramatically reduce both the volume and the pollutant concentration of pulp mill effluents. However, closing the mill creates many operational problems including a concentration build-up of nonprocess elements (NPE`s) in process streams. NPE`s usually enter the pulp process as trace constituents of wood. Recent studies have lead to a fundamental understanding of how NPE`s partition between the solid cellulose phase and the liquid aqueous phase in pulp mill process streams. This knowledge will help in the design, operation and optimization of future low-effluent bleach plants.

Bryant, P.S. [Institute of Paper Science and Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

1995-12-31

319

Adjustable Speed Drives in the U.S. Petroleum Refining, Petrochemical, and Chemical Industries  

E-print Network

, and others revealed that properly designed installations can accomplish the advertised energy savings while simultaneously realizing incentives for process control, product quality control, reduced maintenance, and others....

Foley, D. J.; Chodorowski, A.

320

Role of livestock effluent suspended particulate in sealing effluent ponds.  

PubMed

Intensive livestock feed-lots have become more prevalent in recent years to help in meeting the predicted food production targets based on expected population growth. Effluent from these is stored in ponds, representing a potential concern for seepage and contamination of groundwater. Whilst previous literature suggests that effluent particulate can limit seepage adequately in combination with a clay liner, this research addresses potential concerns for sealing of ponds with low concentration fine and then evaluates this against proposed filter-cake based methodologies to describe and predict hydraulic reduction. Short soil cores were compacted to 98% of the maximum dry density and subject to ponded head percolation with unfiltered-sediment-reduced effluent, effluent filtered to <3 ?m, and chemically synthesized effluent. Reduction in hydraulic conductivity was observed to be primarily due to the colloidal fraction of the effluent, with larger particulate fractions providing minimal further reduction. Pond sealing was shown to follow mathematical models of filter-cake formation, but without the formation of a physical seal on top of the soil surface. Management considerations based on the results are presented. PMID:25721977

Bennett, J McL; Warren, B R

2015-05-01

321

Effects of brine addition on effluent toxicity and marine toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) manipulations  

SciTech Connect

Little information is available concerning the effect of salinity adjustment on effluent storage and toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) performance. These factors are important for accurate assessments of potential toxicity to marine organisms. The objective of this study was to determine (a) the effect of salinity adjustment using hypersaline brine on the toxicity of effluents stored up to 40 d, and (b) to determine the effect of salinity adjustment on TIE manipulations. Changes in effluent toxicity over time were examined by using a municipal and an industrial effluent. A toxicity time series was performed for 16 d for the industrial effluent and 40 d for the municipal effluent. Toxicity was measured with modified 48-h acute Mysidopsis bahia and Menidia beryllina tests. Results indicate that, compared to day 0 test results, effluent stored with brine had fewer significant changes in toxicity than did effluent stored without brine. To determine the effects of brine addition on TIE manipulations, the authors conducted a series of manipulations in which one aliquot of an effluent had brine added prior to the TIE manipulations and the other aliquot had brine added after the TIE manipulation. The manipulations conducted were EDTA addition, sodium thiosulfate addition, C[sub 18] extraction, aeration, filtration, and graduated pH manipulations. Toxicity was measured with the modified 48-h acute mysid test. Addition of brine had no effect on the outcome of TIE manipulations. They have concluded that it is operationally easier to add brine as soon as possible after sampling and that effluent tests should be conducted as soon as practical.

Ho, K.T.; Burgess, R.M. (Environmental Protection Agency, Narragansett, RI (United States)); Mitchell, K. (Xavier Univ. of Louisiana, New Orleans, LA (United States). Biology Dept.); Zappala, M. (Univ. of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI (United States))

1995-02-01

322

Biosorption of simulated dyed effluents by inactivated fungal biomasses.  

PubMed

Treatment of dyed effluents presents several problems mainly due to the toxicity and recalcitrance of dyestuffs. Innovative technologies, such as biosorption, are needed as alternatives to conventional methods to find inexpensive ways of removing dyes from large volumes of effluents. Inactivated biomasses do not require a continuous supply of nutrients and are not sensitive to the toxicity of dyes or toxic wastes. They can also be regenerated and reused in many cycles and are both safe and environment-friendly. The sorption capacities (SC) of autoclaved biomasses of three Mucorales fungi (Cunninghamella elegans, Rhizomucor pusillus and Rhizopus stolonifer), cultured on two different media, were evaluated against simulated effluents containing concentrations of 1000 and 5000 ppm of a single dye and a mix of 10 industrial textile dyes in batch experiments. SC values of up to 532.8 mg of dye g(-1) dry weight of biomass were coupled with high effluent decolourisation percentages (up to 100%). These biomasses may thus prove to be extremely powerful candidates for dye biosorption from industrial wastewaters. Even better results were obtained when a column system with the immobilised and inactivated biomass of one fungus was employed. PMID:17888654

Prigione, Valeria; Varese, Giovanna Cristina; Casieri, Leonardo; Marchisio, Valeria Filipello

2008-06-01

323

Effects of oil sands effluent on cattail and clover: photosynthesis and the level of stress proteins.  

PubMed

The oil sands industry located in northeastern Alberta, Canada, generates large volumes of effluent characterized by a high level of dissolved ions and naphthenic acids. The dikes used to store the effluent seep, creating wetlands which are subsequently invaded by obligate wetland flora such as cattail (Typha latifolia L.). The appearance of these wetlands prompted the oil sands industry to consider wetlands as part of their reclamation strategy. However, to ensure long-term viability of such wetlands, the response of the flora to the industrial effluent needed to be determined. To this end, apparent photosynthesis (APS), the level of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBisCo) large subunit, dehydrin-related polypeptides, and protein disulphide isomerase (PDI) were evaluated in cattail and alsike clover plants (Trifolium hybridum L.) exposed to the oil sands effluent. APS measured in plants impacted by oil sands effluent was significantly higher than that of plants in the non-impacted off-site location. Among the on-site locations, plants growing in the natural wetlands site had higher APS compared to all other sites. The level of RuBisCo was not increased in cattail or clover growing in effluent-contaminated sites indicating that enhanced photosynthesis was not due to greater levels of this enzyme. Dehydrin-related polypeptides were detected only in the roots of cattail and were absent in clover. The polypeptide profile was altered in cattail exposed to oil sands effluent indicating that they were responding to an osmotic stress. The level of PDI was unaffected in the leaves of cattail regardless of the nature of the effluent to which they were exposed. Overall, the data indicate that cattail and clover are adapted to the oil sands effluent, although further studies are needed to assess their long-term ability to survive in the presence of this anthropogenic stress. PMID:11428139

Crowe, A U; Han, B; Kermode, A R; Bendell-Young, L I; Plant, A L

2001-01-01

324

Characteristics of treated effluents and their potential applications for producing concrete.  

PubMed

Conservation and preservation of freshwater is increasingly becoming important as the global population grows. Presently, enormous volumes of freshwater are used to mix concrete. This paper reports experimental findings regarding the feasibility of using treated effluents as alternatives to freshwater in mixing concrete. Samples were obtained from three effluent sources: heavy industry, a palm-oil mill and domestic sewage. The effluents were discharge into public drain without danger to human health and natural environment. Chemical compositions and physical properties of the treated effluents were investigated. Fifteen compositional properties of each effluent were correlated with the requirements set out by the relevant standards. Concrete mixes were prepared using the effluents and freshwater to establish a base for control performance. The concrete samples were evaluated with regard to setting time, workability, compressive strength and permeability. The results show that except for some slight excesses in total solids and pH, the properties of the effluents satisfy the recommended disposal requirements. Two concrete samples performed well for all of the properties investigated. In fact, one sample was comparatively better in compressive strength than the normal concrete; a 9.4% increase was observed at the end of the curing period. Indeed, in addition to environmental conservation, the use of treated effluents as alternatives to freshwater for mixing concrete could save a large amount of freshwater, especially in arid zones. PMID:22705857

Noruzman, Ainul Haezah; Muhammad, Bala; Ismail, Mohammad; Abdul-Majid, Zaiton

2012-11-15

325

40 CFR 415.343 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chrome Pigments Production Subcategory § 415.343 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2010-07-01

326

40 CFR 415.347 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chrome Pigments Production Subcategory § 415.347 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2010-07-01

327

40 CFR 415.43 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.43 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2010-07-01

328

40 CFR 415.113 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Potassium Metal Production Subcategory § 415.113 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2011-07-01

329

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Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Potassium Dichromate Production Subcategory § 415.123 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2011-07-01

330

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Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Potassium Dichromate Production Subcategory § 415.122 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2011-07-01

331

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Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Potassium Metal Production Subcategory § 415.112 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2011-07-01

332

40 CFR 420.62 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Continuous Casting Subcategory § 420.62 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent...

2014-07-01

333

40 CFR 420.63 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Continuous Casting Subcategory § 420.63 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent...

2013-07-01

334

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Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Continuous Casting Subcategory § 420.62 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent...

2011-07-01

335

40 CFR 420.63 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Continuous Casting Subcategory § 420.63 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent...

2012-07-01

336

40 CFR 420.62 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Continuous Casting Subcategory § 420.62 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent...

2012-07-01

337

40 CFR 420.63 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Continuous Casting Subcategory § 420.63 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent...

2014-07-01

338

40 CFR 420.63 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Continuous Casting Subcategory § 420.63 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent...

2011-07-01

339

40 CFR 420.62 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Continuous Casting Subcategory § 420.62 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent...

2013-07-01

340

40 CFR 415.427 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hydrogen Cyanide Production Subcategory § 415.427 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2010-07-01

341

40 CFR 415.412 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hydrogen Production Subcategory § 415.412 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2010-07-01

342

40 CFR 426.62 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Tempering Subcategory § 426.62 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2013-07-01

343

40 CFR 426.77 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Laminating Subcategory § 426.77 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2012-07-01

344

40 CFR 426.67 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Tempering Subcategory § 426.67 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2011-07-01

345

40 CFR 426.62 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Tempering Subcategory § 426.62 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2012-07-01

346

40 CFR 426.62 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Tempering Subcategory § 426.62 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2010-07-01

347

40 CFR 426.62 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Tempering Subcategory § 426.62 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2014-07-01

348

40 CFR 426.62 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Tempering Subcategory § 426.62 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2011-07-01

349

40 CFR 426.77 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Laminating Subcategory § 426.77 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2011-07-01

350

40 CFR 426.77 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Laminating Subcategory § 426.77 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2013-07-01

351

40 CFR 426.67 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Tempering Subcategory § 426.67 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2014-07-01

352

40 CFR 426.67 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Tempering Subcategory § 426.67 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2012-07-01

353

40 CFR 424.67 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Electrolytic Manganese Products Subcategory § 424.67 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2014-07-01

354

40 CFR 424.67 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Electrolytic Manganese Products Subcategory § 424.67 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2011-07-01

355

40 CFR 424.67 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Electrolytic Manganese Products Subcategory § 424.67 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2012-07-01

356

40 CFR 424.67 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Electrolytic Manganese Products Subcategory § 424.67 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2013-07-01

357

40 CFR 418.67 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ammonium Sulfate Production Subcategory § 418.67 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2011-07-01

358

40 CFR 418.62 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ammonium Sulfate Production Subcategory § 418.62 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2010-07-01

359

40 CFR 418.62 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ammonium Sulfate Production Subcategory § 418.62 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2014-07-01

360

40 CFR 418.62 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ammonium Sulfate Production Subcategory § 418.62 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2013-07-01

361

40 CFR 418.63 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ammonium Sulfate Production Subcategory § 418.63 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2012-07-01

362

40 CFR 418.62 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ammonium Sulfate Production Subcategory § 418.62 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2011-07-01

363

40 CFR 418.67 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ammonium Sulfate Production Subcategory § 418.67 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2012-07-01

364

40 CFR 418.63 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ammonium Sulfate Production Subcategory § 418.63 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2011-07-01

365

40 CFR 418.63 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ammonium Sulfate Production Subcategory § 418.63 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2010-07-01

366

40 CFR 418.63 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ammonium Sulfate Production Subcategory § 418.63 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2013-07-01

367

40 CFR 418.67 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ammonium Sulfate Production Subcategory § 418.67 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2014-07-01

368

40 CFR 418.62 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ammonium Sulfate Production Subcategory § 418.62 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2012-07-01

369

40 CFR 418.67 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ammonium Sulfate Production Subcategory § 418.67 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2013-07-01

370

40 CFR 418.63 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ammonium Sulfate Production Subcategory § 418.63 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2014-07-01

371

40 CFR 415.142 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory § 415.142 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2014-07-01

372

40 CFR 415.142 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory § 415.142 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2013-07-01

373

40 CFR 415.142 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory § 415.142 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2012-07-01

374

40 CFR 415.143 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory § 415.143 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2012-07-01

375

40 CFR 415.143 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory § 415.143 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2013-07-01

376

40 CFR 415.143 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory § 415.143 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2010-07-01

377

40 CFR 415.142 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory § 415.142 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2010-07-01

378

40 CFR 415.143 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory § 415.143 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2014-07-01

379

40 CFR 415.142 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory § 415.142 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2011-07-01

380

40 CFR 415.143 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory § 415.143 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2011-07-01

381

40 CFR 428.82 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wet Digestion Reclaimed Rubber Subcategory § 428.82 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2012-07-01

382

40 CFR 428.83 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wet Digestion Reclaimed Rubber Subcategory § 428.83 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2013-07-01

383

40 CFR 428.82 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wet Digestion Reclaimed Rubber Subcategory § 428.82 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2013-07-01

384

40 CFR 428.82 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wet Digestion Reclaimed Rubber Subcategory § 428.82 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2014-07-01

385

40 CFR 428.83 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wet Digestion Reclaimed Rubber Subcategory § 428.83 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2012-07-01

386

40 CFR 428.83 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wet Digestion Reclaimed Rubber Subcategory § 428.83 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2014-07-01

387

40 CFR 415.292 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Bromine Production Subcategory § 415.292 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2012-07-01

388

40 CFR 415.292 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Bromine Production Subcategory § 415.292 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2011-07-01

389

40 CFR 415.292 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Bromine Production Subcategory § 415.292 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2010-07-01

390

40 CFR 415.292 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Bromine Production Subcategory § 415.292 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2014-07-01

391

40 CFR 415.292 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Bromine Production Subcategory § 415.292 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2013-07-01

392

40 CFR 415.432 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Iodine Production Subcategory § 415.432 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2014-07-01

393

40 CFR 415.432 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Iodine Production Subcategory § 415.432 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2011-07-01

394

40 CFR 415.432 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Iodine Production Subcategory § 415.432 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2013-07-01

395

40 CFR 415.432 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Iodine Production Subcategory § 415.432 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2010-07-01

396

40 CFR 415.432 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Iodine Production Subcategory § 415.432 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2012-07-01

397

40 CFR 424.32 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Slag Processing Subcategory § 424.32 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2010-07-01

398

40 CFR 424.33 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Slag Processing Subcategory § 424.33 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2010-07-01

399

40 CFR 415.402 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Fluorine Production Subcategory § 415.402 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2010-07-01

400

40 CFR 415.402 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Fluorine Production Subcategory § 415.402 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2013-07-01

401

40 CFR 415.402 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Fluorine Production Subcategory § 415.402 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2012-07-01

402

40 CFR 415.402 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Fluorine Production Subcategory § 415.402 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2014-07-01

403

40 CFR 415.402 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Fluorine Production Subcategory § 415.402 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2011-07-01

404

40 CFR 415.657 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cobalt Salts Production Subcategory § 415.657 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2010-07-01

405

40 CFR 415.133 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Potassium Sulfate Production Subcategory § 415.133 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2010-07-01

406

40 CFR 415.122 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Potassium Dichromate Production Subcategory § 415.122 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2010-07-01

407

40 CFR 415.502 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Potassium Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.502 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2010-07-01

408

40 CFR 424.37 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Slag Processing Subcategory § 424.37 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2013-07-01

409

40 CFR 424.37 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Slag Processing Subcategory § 424.37 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2011-07-01

410

40 CFR 424.33 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Slag Processing Subcategory § 424.33 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2013-07-01

411

40 CFR 424.32 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Slag Processing Subcategory § 424.32 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2013-07-01

412

40 CFR 424.33 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Slag Processing Subcategory § 424.33 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2014-07-01

413

40 CFR 424.33 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Slag Processing Subcategory § 424.33 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2011-07-01

414

40 CFR 424.37 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Slag Processing Subcategory § 424.37 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2014-07-01

415

40 CFR 424.37 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Slag Processing Subcategory § 424.37 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2012-07-01

416

40 CFR 424.32 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Slag Processing Subcategory § 424.32 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2014-07-01

417

40 CFR 424.32 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Slag Processing Subcategory § 424.32 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2012-07-01

418

40 CFR 424.33 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Slag Processing Subcategory § 424.33 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2012-07-01

419

40 CFR 424.32 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Slag Processing Subcategory § 424.32 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2011-07-01

420

40 CFR 415.227 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Dioxide Production Subcategory § 415.227 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2010-07-01

421

40 CFR 415.227 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Dioxide Production Subcategory § 415.227 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2011-07-01

422

40 CFR 415.227 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Dioxide Production Subcategory § 415.227 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2012-07-01

423

40 CFR 415.227 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Dioxide Production Subcategory § 415.227 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2014-07-01

424

40 CFR 415.227 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Dioxide Production Subcategory § 415.227 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2013-07-01

425

40 CFR 415.427 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hydrogen Cyanide Production Subcategory § 415.427 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2014-07-01

426

40 CFR 415.412 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hydrogen Production Subcategory § 415.412 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2014-07-01

427

40 CFR 415.412 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hydrogen Production Subcategory § 415.412 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2013-07-01

428

40 CFR 415.427 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hydrogen Cyanide Production Subcategory § 415.427 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2012-07-01

429

40 CFR 415.412 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hydrogen Production Subcategory § 415.412 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2012-07-01

430

40 CFR 415.427 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hydrogen Cyanide Production Subcategory § 415.427 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2011-07-01

431

40 CFR 415.427 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hydrogen Cyanide Production Subcategory § 415.427 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2013-07-01

432

40 CFR 415.412 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hydrogen Production Subcategory § 415.412 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2011-07-01

433

Nanofiltration of Bleaching Pulp and Paper Effluents in Tubular Polymeric Membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A systematic investigation of the nanofiltration (NF) of alkaline bleaching effluent (E1) from the pulp and paper industry is carried out through a first assessment of NF of model systems, namely, solutions of salts—NaCl and Na2SO4—and organic solutes—glucose, saccharose, and raffinose—which develop membrane–solute(s) interactions similar to those developed by the bleaching effluent. The ampholytic polymer of the membrane active layer,

Maria Diná Afonso; Maria Norberta De Pinho

1997-01-01

434

Biological treatment of chemically flocculated agro-industrial waste from the wool scouring industry by an aerobic process without sludge recycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new agro-industrial effluent known as Sirolan CF effluent is the aqueous phase remaining after the chemical flocculation of wool scouring effluent by the Sirolan CF process. This effluent has been characterized, and shown to be effectively treated by biological degradation. It has a high concentration of organic material (5750mg\\/L COD), with a low BOD5\\/COD ratio (0.29). Aerobic biological treatment

Andrew J Poole; Ralf Cord-Ruwisch; F. William Jones

1999-01-01

435

Pitting of 316L stainless steel in flare piping of a petrochemical plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pitting was observed on a 6-in. (15cm) flare piping made of stainless steel ASTM A312 Gr. Tp 316L, prior going into service in a petrochemical plant. The pits were in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) and fusion zone (FZ) boundary of the pipe seam welds. The FZ was also uniformly corroded. The SEM photomicrographs showed large inclusions in the welded area,

E. Mohammadi Zahrani; A. Saatchi; A. Alfantazi

2010-01-01

436

Ambient volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations around a petrochemical complex and a petroleum refinery.  

PubMed

Air samples were collected between September 2000 and September 2001 in Izmir, Turkey at three sampling sites located around a petrochemical complex and an oil refinery to measure ambient volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations. VOC concentrations were 4-20-fold higher than those measured at a suburban site in Izmir, Turkey. Ethylene dichloride, a leaded gasoline additive used in petroleum refining and an intermediate product of the vinyl chloride process in the petrochemical complex, was the most abundant volatile organic compound, followed by ethyl alcohol and acetone. Evaluations based on wind direction clearly indicated that ambient VOC concentrations measured were affected by the refinery and petrochemical complex emissions. VOC concentrations showed seasonal variations at all sampling sites. Concentrations were highest in summer, followed by autumn, probably due to increased evaporation of VOCs from fugitive sources as a result of higher temperatures. VOC concentrations generally increased with temperature and wind speed. Temperature and wind speed together explained 1-60% of the variability in VOC concentrations. The variability in ambient VOC concentrations that could not be explained by temperature and wind speed can be attributed to the effect of other factors (i.e. wind direction, other VOC sources). PMID:12873403

Cetin, Eylem; Odabasi, Mustafa; Seyfioglu, Remzi

2003-08-01

437

An evaluation of the whole effluent toxicity test method  

SciTech Connect

Whole effluent toxicity (WET) testing has become increasingly more important to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the States in the permitting of wastewater discharges from industry and municipalities. The primary purpose of the WET test is to protect aquatic life by predicting the effect of an effluent on the receiving stream. However, there are both scientific and regulatory concerns that using WET tests to regulate industrial effluents may result in either false positives and/or false negatives. In order to realistically predict the effect of an effluent on the receiving stream, the test should be as representative as possible of the conditions in the receiving stream. Studies (Rand and Petrocelli 1985) suggested several criteria for an ideal aquatic toxicity test organism, one of which is that the organism be indigenous to, or representative of, the ecosystem receiving the effluent. The other component needed in the development of a predictive test is the use of the receiving stream water or similar synthetic water as the control and dilution water in the test method. Use of an indigenous species and receiving water in the test should help reduce the variability in the method and allow the test to predict the effect of the effluent on the receiving stream. The experience with toxicity testing at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has yielded inconclusive data because of the inconsistency and unreliability of the results. The SRS contention is that the WET method in its present form does not adequately mimic actual biological/chemical conditions of the receiving streams and is neither reasonable nor accurate. This paper discusses the rationale for such a position by SRS on toxicity testing in terms of historical permitting requirements, outfall effluent test results, standard test method evaluation, scientific review of alternate test species, and concerns over the test method expressed by other organizations. This paper presents the Savannah River Site position that the EPA test is neither reasonable nor accurate and thus cannot adequately establish the impact of NPDES outfall discharges on receiving streams.

Osteen, D.V.

1999-12-17

438

Phytoremediation of the coalmine effluent.  

PubMed

Coal mine effluent was subjected to detoxification by phytoremediation using two macrophytes Azolla pinnata and Lemna minor. Both plants were kept separately in the effluents for 7 day. The initial concentration (mg L?¹) of eight metals: Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Ni, Pb, Cr and Cd investigated in the effluent were 22.91±0.02, 9.61±1.6, 2.04±0.23, 1.03±0.15, 0.86±0.19, 0.69±0.11, 0.18±0.007 and 0.06±0.008 respectively. The initial fresh biomass of each plant was 100g. After one week, metals removed in A. pinnata-phytoremediated effluent were in the order: Mn (98%)>Fe (95.4%)>Zn (95%)>Cu (93%)>Pb (86.9%)>Cd (85%)>Cr (77.7%)>Ni (66.2%) and metal decrease in L. minor-phytoremediated effluent were: Mn (99.5%)>Cu (98.8%)>Zn (96.7%)>Ni (94.5%)>Fe (93.1%)>Cd (86.7%)>Pb (84%)>Cr (76%). Due to metal toxicity the total chlorophyll and protein contents of L. minor decreased by 29.3% and 38.55% respectively. The decrease of these macromolecules in A. pinnata was 27% and 15.56% respectively. Also, the reduction in biomass of L. minor was greater than that for A. pinnata. Based on the finding we could suggest that both the plants are suitable for bioremediation of mine effluent at the contaminated sites. However, attention for quick disposal of these metal loaded plants is urgently required. PMID:22571948

Bharti, Sandhya; Kumar Banerjee, Tarun

2012-07-01

439

Potential microbiological contamination of effluents in poultry and swine abattoirs.  

PubMed

Health risks in the effluents of seven swine abattoirs and of seven poultry abattoirs were evaluated with regard to environment degradation and to dissemination of pathogenic microorganisms during the rainy and dry seasons. Supply-water samples from affluents and effluents of the treatment systems at different sites within the abattoir processing system were analysed. Similarly, water samples from the three recipient sites (emission point, 100 m upstream, 100 m downstream) were also analysed. Temperature, free residual chlorine (FRC), total coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli, enterococci, identification and serotyping of salmonellae were assessed. Scalding is the most significant stage in the slaughtering chain (P<0.05) when temperature is taken into account. Temperatures at effluents and at the sampled sites in the water bodies accorded to state and federal legislation standards. Supply waters did not meet the standards for FRC and microbial count standards according to the Ministry of Health and within limits imposed by the Industrial and Sanitary Inspection Regulations for Animal Products. Feather plucking and evisceration in poultry slaughter and the cleansing of carcasses and facilities in poultry and swine slaughtering had the highest contamination impact. The three loci at the water bodies were above the microbiological standards for classes II and III sites, in conformity with Law 8468 of the state of São Paulo, Brazil and Conama. Salmonella was found at several sites during slaughter, at both types of abattoirs, including in the effluent treatment system. This showed that these sites were the dissemination sources of the microorganism. PMID:16893484

Barros, L S S; Amaral, L A; Lorenzon, C S; Junior, J L; Neto, J G Machado

2007-04-01

440

Malondialdehyde–Deoxyguanosine Adducts among Workers of a Thai Industrial Estate and Nearby Residents  

PubMed Central

Background Humans living near industrial point emissions can experience high levels of exposures to air pollutants. Map Ta Phut Industrial Estate in Thailand is the location of the largest steel, oil refinery, and petrochemical factory complexes in Southeast Asia. Air pollution is an important source of oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species, which interact with DNA and lipids, leading to oxidative damage and lipid peroxidation, respectively. Objective We measured the levels of malondialdehyde–deoxyguanosine (dG) adducts, a biomarker of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation, in petrochemical workers, nearby residents, and subjects living in a control district without proximity to industrial sources. Design We conducted a cross-sectional study to compare the prevalence of malondialdehyde-dG adducts in groups of subjects experiencing various degrees of air pollution. Results The multivariate regression analysis shows that the adduct levels were associated with occupational and environmental exposures to air pollution. The highest adduct level was observed in the steel factory workers. In addition, the formation of DNA damage tended to be associated with tobacco smoking, but without reaching statistical significance. A nonsignificant increase in DNA adducts was observed after 4–6 years of employment among the petrochemical complexes. Conclusions Air pollution emitted from the Map Ta Phut Industrial Estate complexes was associated with increased adduct levels in petrochemical workers and nearby residents. Considering the mutagenic potential of DNA lesions in the carcinogenic process, we recommend measures aimed at reducing the levels of air pollution. PMID:20056580

Peluso, Marco; Srivatanakul, Petcharin; Munnia, Armelle; Jedpiyawongse, Adisorn; Ceppi, Marcello; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Piro, Sara; Boffetta, Paolo

2010-01-01

441

Jere Kolstad, VP of Finance & Business Development NREL Industry Growth Forum November 4, 2009  

E-print Network

Jere Kolstad, VP of Finance & Business Development NREL Industry Growth Forum ­ November 4, 2009 #12;Renewable Chemical Company We create nontoxic, biodegradable chemicals from plant sugarsfrom plant & Pollute Phosphates Petrochemicals Pollute water 7%+ of petroleum supply Being phased out of consumer 200

442

Wood–Thermoplastic Composites Based on Industrial Waste and Virgin High-Density Polyethylene (HDPE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article investigated the water resistance, mechanical and thermal properties, and the microstructure of wood–plastic composites, which were made by hot pressing using either virgin or high-density polyethylene (HDPE) as industrial waste with wood filler. The waste polyethylene was collected from residues of polymer production from Petrochemical plant, and wood particles were obtained from a local sawmill. The mechanical and

M. Perisi?; V. Radojevi?; P. S. Uskokovi?; D. Stojanovi?; B. Joki?; R. Aleksi?

2009-01-01

443

État du développement technologique en matière d'enlèvement des métaux des effluents industriels State of the art of technologies for métal removal from industriat effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY This study is dedicated to the review of the différent technologies used and evaluated for the removal and\\/or recovery of metals from industrial effluents. The principles involved in thèse technologies are discussed, as well as the advantages and limits associated with thèse processes. The métal removal and recovery processes include the following techniques : précipitation, adsorp- tion and biosorption,

J.-F. BLAIS; S. DUFRESNE; G. MERCIER

2000-01-01

444

A comparative study of alginate beads and an ion-exchange resin for the removal of heavy metals from a metal plating effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capacity of dry protonated calcium alginate beads to sorb metals from an industrial effluent was studied and compared with a commercial ion-exchange resin (Lewatit TP 207). Both sorbents decreased zinc, nickel, iron and calcium concentrations in the effluent, and released sodium during treatment. Alginate beads removed lower amounts of heavy metals than the resin, but exhibited faster uptake kinetics.

Rui M. P. Silva; João P. H. Manso; Joaquim R. C. Rodrigues; Ricardo J. L. Lagoa

2008-01-01

445

Evaluation of site-specific criteria for copper and zinc: an integration of metal addition toxicity, effluent and receiving water toxicity, and ecological survey data  

SciTech Connect

Comparative laboratory toxicity tests using daphnids Ceriodaphnia dubia and fathead minnows Pimephales promelas were conducted to establish and evaluate relationships between the toxicity of domestic and industrial effluents containing copper and zinc, toxicity of the effluents in Naugatuck River, Connecticut receiving water, toxicity of each metal added to the receiving water and a reference water, and receiving water ecological survey data.

Carlson, A.R.; Nelson, H.; Hammermeister, D.E.

1986-04-01

446

Sleep quality and general health status of employees exposed to extremely low frequency magnetic fields in a petrochemical complex  

PubMed Central

Background Advances in science and technology of electrical equipment, despite increasing human welfare in everyday life, have increased the number of people exposed to Electro-Magnetic Fields (EMFs). Because of possible adverse effects on the health of exposed individuals, the EMFs have being the center of attention. This study was performed to determine possible correlation between Extremely Low Frequency Electro-Magnetic Fields (ELF EMFs) and sleep quality and public health of those working in substation units of a petrochemical complex in southern Iran. Materials and method To begin with, magnetic flux density was measured at different parts of a Control Building and two substations in accordance with IEEE std 644–1994. Subsequently, the questionnaires “Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index” (PSQI) and “General Health Quality (GHQ)” were used to investigate relationship between ELF exposure level and sleep quality and public health, respectively. Both questionnaires were placed at disposal of a total number of 40 workers at the complex. The filled out questionnaires were analyzed by T-test, Duncan and the Chi-square tests. Results The obtained results revealed that 28% of those in case group suffered from poor health status and 61% were diagnosed with a sleep disorder. However, all members in control group were in good health condition and only 4.5% of them had undesirable sleep quality. Conclusion In spite of a significant difference between the case and control groups in terms of sleep quality and general health, no significant relationship was found between the exposure level and sleep quality and general health. It is worth noting that the measured EMF values were lower than the standard limits recommended by American Conference of Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). However, given the uncertainties about the pathogenic effects caused by exposure to ELF EMFs, further epidemiological studies and periodic testing of personnel working in high voltage substations are of utmost importance. PMID:24904752

2014-01-01

447

Fermentative Succinate Production: An Emerging Technology to Replace the Traditional Petrochemical Processes  

PubMed Central

Succinate is a valuable platform chemical for multiple applications. Confronted with the exhaustion of fossil energy resources, fermentative succinate production from renewable biomass to replace the traditional petrochemical process is receiving an increasing amount of attention. During the past few years, the succinate-producing process using microbial fermentation has been made commercially available by the joint efforts of researchers in different fields. In this review, recent attempts and experiences devoted to reduce the production cost of biobased succinate are summarized, including strain improvement, fermentation engineering, and downstream processing. The key limitations and challenges faced in current microbial production systems are also proposed. PMID:24396827

Cao, Yujin; Zhang, Rubing; Sun, Chao; Cheng, Tao; Liu, Yuhua; Xian, Mo

2013-01-01

448

Mesoarchean gabbroanorthosite magmatism of the Kola region: Petrochemical, geochronological, and isotope-geochemical data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents results of petrochemical, geochemical, and isotope-geochemical study of the Patchemvarek and Severnyi gabbroanorthosite\\u000a massifs of the Kola Peninsula. It was shown that the rocks of these massifs differ from the gabbroanorthosite massifs of the\\u000a Neoarchean Keivy-Kolmozero Complex in the more calcic composition (70–85% An) of normative plagioclase, and low contents of\\u000a TiO2, FeO, and Fe2O3. In terms

N. M. Kudryashov; A. V. Mokrushin

2011-01-01

449

Voluntary GHG reduction of industrial sectors in Taiwan.  

PubMed

The present paper describes the voluntary greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction agreements of six different industrial sectors in Taiwan, as well as the fluorinated gases (F-gas) reduction agreement of the semiconductor and Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) industries. The operating mechanisms, GHG reduction methods, capital investment, and investment effectiveness are also discussed. A total of 182 plants participated in the voluntary energy saving and GHG reduction in six industrial sectors (iron and steel, petrochemical, cement, paper, synthetic fiber, and textile printing and dyeing), with 5.35 Mt reduction from 2004 to 2008, or 33% higher than the target goal (4.02 Mt). The reduction accounts for 1.6% annual emission or 7.8% during the 5-yr span. The petrochemical industry accounts for 49% of the reduction, followed by the cement sector (21%) and the iron and steel industry (13%). The total investment amounted to approximately USD 716 million, in which, the majority of the investment went to the modification of the manufacturing process (89%). The benefit was valued at around USD 472 million with an average payback period of 1.5 yr. Moreover, related energy saving was achieved through different approaches, e.g., via electricity (iron and steel), steam and oil consumption (petrochemical) and coal usage (cement). The cost for unit CO(2) reduction varies per industry, with the steel and iron industrial sector having the highest cost (USD 346 t(-1) CO(2)) compared with the average cost of the six industrial sectors (USD 134 t(-1) CO(2)). For the semiconductor and Thin-Film Transistor LCD industries, F-gas emissions were reduced from approximately 4.1 to about 1.7 Mt CO(2)-eq, and from 2.2 to about 1.1 Mt CO(2)-eq, respectively. Incentive mechanisms for participation in GHG reduction are also further discussed. PMID:22627150

Chen, Liang-Tung; Hu, Allen H

2012-08-01

450

Effluent treatment for nuclear thermal propulsion ground testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objectives are to define treatment functions, review concept options, discuss PIPET effluent treatment system (ETS), and outline future activities. The topics covered include the following: reactor exhaust; effluent treatment functions; effluent treatment categories; effluent treatment options; concept evaluation; PIPETS ETS envelope; PIPET effluent treatment concept; and future activities.

Shipers, Larry R.

1993-01-01

451

High Speed/ Low Effluent Process for Ethanol  

SciTech Connect

n this project, BPI demonstrated a new ethanol fermentation technology, termed the High Speed/ Low Effluent (HS/LE) process on both lab and large pilot scale as it would apply to wet mill and/or dry mill corn ethanol production. The HS/LE process allows very rapid fermentations, with 18 to 22% sugar syrups converted to 9 to 11% ethanol ‘beers’ in 6 to 12 hours using either a ‘consecutive batch’ or ‘continuous cascade’ implementation. This represents a 5 to 8X increase in fermentation speeds over conventional 72 hour batch fermentations which are the norm in the fuel ethanol industry today. The ‘consecutive batch’ technology was demonstrated on a large pilot scale (4,800 L) in a dry mill corn ethanol plant near Cedar Rapids, IA (Xethanol Biofuels). The pilot demonstrated that 12 hour fermentations can be accomplished on an industrial scale in a non-sterile industrial environment. Other objectives met in this project included development of a Low Energy (LE) Distillation process which reduces the energy requirements for distillation from about 14,000 BTU/gal steam ($0.126/gal with natural gas @ $9.00 MCF) to as low as 0.40 KW/gal electrical requirements ($0.022/gal with electricity @ $0.055/KWH). BPI also worked on the development of processes that would allow application of the HS/LE fermentation process to dry mill ethanol plants. A High-Value Corn ethanol plant concept was developed to produce 1) corn germ/oil, 2) corn bran, 3) ethanol, 4) zein protein, and 5) nutritional protein, giving multiple higher value products from the incoming corn stream.

M. Clark Dale

2006-10-30

452

Opportunities for the chemical industry in space, part 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The chemical/petrochemical industry devotes a large percentage of its gross income to research and development, with much of its R and D of a long-term nature. As the chemical industry is examined as a candidate for space investigations, it is readily apparent that research and development in the space environment may lead to attractive commercial opportunities. The advantages of low gravity manufacturing, with a particular emphasis on chemical catalysts, are presented herein specifically for the chemical industry. Research from the Skylab program and Apollo Soyuz test project is reviewed, including acoustic levitation, crystal growth, and container less melts. Space processing of composite materials, alloys, and coatings is also discussed.

1984-01-01

453

Use of an open-path FTIR sensor at Camacari Petrochemical Complex--Bahia, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CETREL--Empresa de Protecao Ambiental, is an environmental engineering company, which is owned by the member companies in the Camacari Petrochemical Complex, the largest petrochemical complex in Brazil. CETREL operates a centralized waste treatment plant, treatment and disposal facilities, an incineration unit, groundwater monitoring and air quality monitoring networks. The air monitoring network was designed based on mathematical modeling, and the results showed that the monoitoring of hydrocarbons is important not just within the complex but also at the area surrounding the complex. There are presently no regulations for hydrocarbons in Brazil, however they are monitored due to concerns about health problems arising from human exposure. The network has eight multiparameter monitoring stations, located at the villages nearby, where hydrocarbons are sampled with Summa canisters and subsequently analyzed with a GC/MS, using a Cryogenic trap at the interface. The open-path FTIR is used to monitor at the individual plants and in the areas in between because it is more efficient and costs less than it would to attempt to achieve the same level of coverage using the canisters. Ten locations were selected based on mathematical modeling and knowledge of the likely emission sources. Since August 1993, there have been five different measurement campaigns.

Neves, Neuza; Couto, Elizabeth d. R.; Kagann, Robert H.

1995-05-01

454

Ovulation but not milt production is inhibited in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) exposed to a reproductively inhibitory pulp mill effluent  

PubMed Central

Background A 5-day fathead minnow (FHM) spawning assay is used by industry to monitor pulp mill effluent quality, with some mill effluents capable of completely inhibiting spawning. The purpose of this report is to characterize the effect of an inhibitory effluent on egg and milt production in FHM. Methods Eight tanks were treated with an inhibitory effluent while eight were kept with clean water. Each tank contained two males and four females as per the 5-day FHM spawning assay used by industry. Females were stripped of ovulated eggs and males of milt in four effluent-exposed and four control tanks. Eggs oviposited in every tank were also counted and checked for fertilization and data analyzed with 2-way ANOVA. Results We show that female, but not male, fathead minnow reproductive function is impaired in the 5-day fathead minnow spawning assay used by industry to evaluate pulp mill effluent quality in Canada. Milt production was not changed in the control or exposed males mid-way and at the end of the five day exposure (p?>?0.05; n?=?8). Total egg production (stripped?+?oviposited) was impaired (p?effluent (288 eggs/tank, n?=?4 tanks) compared to those in control tanks (753 eggs/tank, n?=?4 tanks). Conclusions Our results indicate that males are able to detect female signals and prepare appropriately for spawning while in females inhibition of ovulation is occurring somewhere along the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad reproductive axis. These results suggest female-specific neuroendocrine disruption and provide mechanistic insight into an assay used by industry to assess pulp mill effluent quality. PMID:24884628

2014-01-01

455

Single cell protein from pineapple cannery effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Candida utilis was grown on pineapple cannery effluent as the sole carbon and energy source. These effluents are rich in microbially utilizable nutrients. The principal sugars in the effluent were glucose, fructose and sucrose, and when supplemented with diammonium hydrogen phosphate to prevent nitrogen limitation they supported good growth. The maximum specific growth rate (µm=0.46h–1) and cell yield coefficient (Yc\\/s=0.30)

J. N. Nigam

1998-01-01

456

Advanced Oxidation Technology for Pulp Mill Effluent  

E-print Network

ADVANCED OXIDATION TECHNOLOGY FOR PULP MILL EFFLUENT J. ROBERT HART, MANAGER, EPRI PULP & PAPER OFFICE, ATLANTA, GA ABSTRACT The composition of effluent from various pulping processes can exhibit a wide range of physical and chemical... parameters. The dissolved solids consist of the chemicals derived from the wood material plus the chemicals added to the specific pulping process. No one technology can adequately treat these effluent streams, rather a combination of treatment methods...

Hart, J. R.

457

EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF THE INCIDENCE OF CANCER AS RELATED TO INDUSTRIAL EMISSIONS IN CONTRA COSTA COUNTY, CALIFORNIA  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of lung cancer incidence in Contra Costa County to ambient levels of air pollution. It was suspected that the presence of heavy industry in the county, mainly petrochemical plants and oil refineries, could be a contributin...

458

Decolorization of triphenylmethane dyes and textile and dye-stuff effluent by Kurthia sp  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of soil and water samples were collected from the vicinity of effluent treatment plant of a textile and dyeing industry. Several organisms were screened for their ability to decolorize triphenylmethane group of dyes. A Kurthia sp. was selected on the basis of rapid dye decolorizing activity. Under aerobic conditions, 98% color was removed intracellularly by this strain. A

Rajesh Kumar Sani; Uttam Chand Banerjee

1999-01-01

459

Turning waste to wealth-biodegradable plastics polyhydroxyalkanoates from palm oil mill effluent – a Malaysian perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Palm oil industries have been contributing significantly towards the country’s economy and increase standard of living among Malaysians. However, it has also been identified as the major contributor for discharging the largest pollution load throughout the country. Owing to high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD), the palm oil mill effluent (POME) cannot be discharged directly into

Tabassum Mumtaz; Noor Amalina Yahaya; Suraini Abd-Aziz; Nor’Aini Abdul Rahman; Phang Lai Yee; Yoshihito Shirai; Mohd Ali Hassan

2010-01-01

460

Comparison of complex effluent treatability in different bench scale microbial electrolysis cells  

E-print Network

Comparison of complex effluent treatability in different bench scale microbial electrolysis cells 2014 Accepted 5 August 2014 Available online 13 August 2014 Keywords: Microbial electrolysis cells Industrial wastewater Treatability Mini microbial electrolysis cells Wastewater screening a b s t r a c

461

A REVIEW OF RESEARCH NEEDS FOR DAIRY SHED EFFLUENT MANAGEMENT, STATE OF VICTORIA, AUSTRALIA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This technical report provides a brief review of current activities in dairy effluent management in the Victorian (Australia) dairy industry, and recommendations for future research priorities to be potentially supported by the Division of Agricultural Development in the Department of Primary Indust...

462

Nitrogen balance for an agroforestry system irrigated with a saline, high nitrogen effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land disposal is commonly used for urban and industrial wastewater, largely due to the high costs involved in alternative treatments or disposal systems. However, the viability of such systems depends on many factors, including the composition of the effluent water, soil type, the plant species grown, growth rate, and planting density. The objective of this study is to establish whether

C. A. MacDonald; Neal W. Menzies; P. Dart; Ross C. Bigwood

2004-01-01

463

Transplants of aquatic mosses as biomonitors of metals released by a mine effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transplants of the aquatic moss Fontinalis antipyretica Hedw. were used to assess the contamination of an industrial effluent discharge on a river located in south Portugal. The sampling program was run for 2 years, using a newly developed transplant device in ten stations, and the elements analysed were Cu, Zn, Pb, Fe, Ni, Ca, K, and Mg. An increase of

Rui Figueira; Teresa Ribeiro

2005-01-01

464

EFFLUENT AND AMBIENT TOXICITY TESTING IN THE GOETA AELV AND VISKAN RIVERS, SWEDEN  

EPA Science Inventory

A joint United States-Sweden effluent field study on the Gota Alv River was conducted on site in Sweden in the fall of 1985. The Gota Alv River has a mean flow of 575 cu m/s and is the largest river in Sweden. There are many industrial dischargers along the river and Sweden has b...

465

Control Strategy of PCDD\\/Fs in an Industrial Fluidized Bed Incinerator via Activated Carbon Injection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emissions of a full range of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD\\/Fs) from incinerators have become a significant issue in both aspects of environmental and public health protection. Fluidized bed incinerators (FBI) have been widely used as a typical technology for industrial waste treatment in recent years, especially in the petrochemical industry in Japan, Germany, and Taiwan. In response

K.-S. Lin; N.-B. Chang

2008-01-01

466

Treatability study of industrial waste using sanitary sewage to supply nutrients  

E-print Network

Ferguson, B. S. , U. S. Merchant Marine Academy Co-Chairmen of Advisory Conmittee: Dr. Harold W. Wolf Dr. Tom D. Reynolds Industrial wastewaters in many instances do not contain suffi- cient nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus to permit effective... treatment by biological treatment methods. The most effective biological process is the activated sludge process. To treat most petrochemical industrial wastewaters by the activated sludge process requires the addition of the nutrients nitrogen...

Ferguson, James Ritchie

1978-01-01

467

REDUCTION OF TOXICITY TO AQUATIC ORGANISMS BY INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The specific goal of this research was to conduct 24-hour static acute bioassays with 'untreated' influent and 'treated' effluent using fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and water flea (Daphnia magna) to biologically evaluate the effectiveness of industrial wastewater facilit...

468

Treatment of textile dye plant effluent by nanofiltration membrane  

SciTech Connect

The study was concerned primarily with characterization of the NF45 membrane. Its pure water permeability, the mass transfer coefficient of NaCl, and the mean radius of the membrane pores were determined. Experiments run with five pure dye solutions and an industrial dye pulp solution confirmed the potential of nanofiltration membrane separation for the treatment of textile dye plant effluent. The effects of such significant parameters as initial solution concentration, transmembrane pressure, and type of dye on two fundamental characteristics of nanofiltration (flux and separation factor) were studied.

Xu, Y.; Lebrun, R.E. [Univ. du Quebec, Trois-Rivieres, Quebec (Canada). Dept. du Genie Chimique] [Univ. du Quebec, Trois-Rivieres, Quebec (Canada). Dept. du Genie Chimique; Gallo, P.J.; Blond, P. [I.C.P.I. Lyon (France)] [I.C.P.I. Lyon (France)

1999-09-01

469

Microalgae cultivation in a wastewater dominated by carpet mill effluents for biofuel applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial and municipal wastewaters are potential resources for production of microalgae biofuels. Dalton – the Carpet Capital of the World generates 100–115millionL of wastewaterd?1. A study was conducted using a wastewater containing 85–90% carpet industry effluents with 10–15% municipal sewage, to evaluate the feasibility of algal biomass and biodiesel production. Native algal strains were isolated from carpet wastewater. Preliminary growth

Senthil Chinnasamy; Ashish Bhatnagar; Ryan W. Hunt; K. C. Das

2010-01-01

470

Chromosomal aberrations in native small mammals ( Peromyscus leucopus and Sigmodon hispidus ) at a petrochemical waste disposal site: I. Standard karyology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examination of standard metaphase chromosome preparations was employed to evaluate the use of resident small mammals as indicators of environmental mutagenesis. Small mammals of two species, (Peromyscus leucopus andSigmodon hispidus) were trapped over a two-year period at a locality polluted with a complex mixture of petrochemical waste products, heavy metals, and PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls), and from two uncontaminated localities. Significant

Karen McBee; John W. Bickham; K. W. Brown; K. C. Donnelly

1987-01-01

471

13. PETROCHEMICAL STUDY OF THE BASALTIC BASEMENT OF THE MID-INDIAN RIDGE: LEG 24, DJIBOUTI TO MAURITIUS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four of eight holes drilled on Leg 24 encountered basaltic basement, and one other (233A) penetrated through a diabasic sill. The position of these holes is shown on an index map of the northwest Indian Ocean (Figure 1). To date there are 32 chemical analyses (Table 1) for the five holes studied petrographically. These data are sufficient for preliminary petrochemical

Leonid V. Dmitriev

472

Process for treating effluent from a supercritical water oxidation reactor  

DOEpatents

A method for treating a gaseous effluent from a supercritical water oxidation reactor containing entrained solids is provided comprising the steps of expanding the gas/solids effluent from a first to a second lower pressure at a temperature at which no liquid condenses; separating the solids from the gas effluent; neutralizing the effluent to remove any acid gases; condensing the effluent; and retaining the purified effluent to the supercritical water oxidation reactor.

Barnes, Charles M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Shapiro, Carolyn (Idaho Falls, ID)

1997-01-01

473

Process for treating effluent from a supercritical water oxidation reactor  

DOEpatents

A method for treating a gaseous effluent from a supercritical water oxidation reactor containing entrained solids is provided comprising the steps of expanding the gas/solids effluent from a first to a second lower pressure at a temperature at which no liquid condenses; separating the solids from the gas effluent; neutralizing the effluent to remove any acid gases; condensing the effluent; and retaining the purified effluent to the supercritical water oxidation reactor. 6 figs.

Barnes, C.M.; Shapiro, C.

1997-11-25

474

40 CFR 440.33 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Uranium, Radium and Vanadium Ores Subcategory § 440.33 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2010-07-01

475

40 CFR 440.35 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Uranium, Radium and Vanadium Ores Subcategory § 440.35 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2010-07-01

476

40 CFR 408.197 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY West Coast Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.197 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2011-07-01

477

40 CFR 408.197 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY West Coast Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.197 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2014-07-01

478

40 CFR 408.177 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.177 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2014-07-01

479

40 CFR 408.192 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY West Coast Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.192 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2013-07-01

480

40 CFR 408.182 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY West Coast Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.182 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2012-07-01