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1

Toxic impact of effluents from petrochemical industry  

SciTech Connect

The toxicity of effluents from a petrochemical industry center in southern Finland was tested by conducting bioassays on organisms from three different trophic levels. In fish tests, rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) were caged at the discharge site and simultaneously at a reference area. The only clear differences, among the measurements of 25 metabolic parameters, were observed in fish liver where activities of two detoxication enzymes were significantly increased in the exposed group. The water flea (Daphnia magna) was used both in acute (EC50) and long-term reproduction tests. No acute lethal toxicity was detected in any of the wastewater samples investigated. A combined effluent, however, caused a reduction in the reproduction rate with an EC50 of 3%. No mutagenic activity was observed with the Ames test (Salmonella typhimurium, strains TA 97, TA 98, and TA 100) in concentrated effluents, in sediment samples, or in liver samples from predator fish caught from the discharge site.

Nikunen, E.

1985-02-01

2

Technology transfer in the petrochemical industry  

SciTech Connect

The paper deals with the development of the Japanese petrochemical industry from the 1950s through the 1960s solely from the standpoint of the process of technology transplantation. The Japanese petrochemical industry in this period is interesting as it relates to technology transfer to Japan because: (1) It was an industry at the core of the heavy and chemical industries, which were an important pillar of Japan's industrial policy; (2) It was a new technical field with no past history; and (3) Unraveling of technology was successfully pursued, with the result that Japan became a petrochemical technology-exporting country in the 1960s.

Tanaka, M.

1994-01-01

3

Ecotoxicological Evaluation in an Effluent and Petrochemical Waste Disposal Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water and sediment were studied to assess the impact of wastes from an area used for a disposal area of treated petrochemical\\u000a effluents in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The study was performed using the Daphnia magna (Straus 1820) for chronical evaluations, mutagenesis in Salmonella\\/microsome assays, and micronuclei induction in cultures of V79 cell to assess genotoxicity. Six sites were

N. R. Terra; I. R. Feiden; C. T. Lemos; N. C. D. Oliveira; T. F. Pastoriza; J. M. G. Fachel; V. M. F. Vargas

2009-01-01

4

31 CFR 538.210 - Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries. 538... Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries. ...United States persons relating to the petroleum or petrochemical industries in...

2013-07-01

5

Brazil's petrochemical industry to achieve first trade surplus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Government assistance in the form of restrictions, favorable export financing, and an attractive naphtha price helped Brazil's petrochemicals industry achieve its first trade surplus in 1984. Competition with Saudi Arabian petrochemical exports prompted government policies to help the industry in international trade, although a Saudi spokesman at the Latin American Petrochemical Association (APLA) denied any threat exists. Brazil points to

1984-01-01

6

Use of petrochemical waste in the glass industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is suggested that ferrochrome slags used for coloring container glass be replaced by waste materials of the petrochemical industry. The expediency of the use of the waste is shown. Recommendations are given on the use of petrochemical waste for coloring container glass.

V. P. Krokhin; O. V. Puchka

1996-01-01

7

Regional Industry Workforce Development: The Gulf Coast Petrochemical Information Network  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Gulf Coast Petrochemical Information Network (GC-PIN) is a workforce development partnership among industry businesses and area institutions of higher education in the four-county Gulf Coast region. GC-PIN partners develop new industry-specific curricula, foster industry career awareness, and retrain existing employees in new technologies.|

Hodgin, Johnette; Muha, Susan

2008-01-01

8

Brazil's petrochemical industry to achieve first trade surplus  

SciTech Connect

Government assistance in the form of restrictions, favorable export financing, and an attractive naphtha price helped Brazil's petrochemicals industry achieve its first trade surplus in 1984. Competition with Saudi Arabian petrochemical exports prompted government policies to help the industry in international trade, although a Saudi spokesman at the Latin American Petrochemical Association (APLA) denied any threat exists. Brazil points to US controls and subsidies and Common Market practices as examples that its policies are in line. Critics note the effect of demonetarization policies which have dried up Brazil's liquidity and the effect of other policies aimed at reducing the country's foreign debt, but the industry would be burdened with high interest rates and become uncompetitive without current policies. 1 figure.

Anderson, E.

1984-12-03

9

Growth and heavy metals accumulation potential of microalgae grown in sewage wastewater and petrochemical effluents.  

PubMed

Microalgae exhibit a number of heavy metal uptake process by different metabolism. In this study, the ability of microalgae for removal of heavy metal from wastewater was studied. Growth and biochemical contents of microalgae were determined by spectrophotometer. Heavy metal analysis of wastewater effluents were performed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer before and after treatment at laboratory scale. The growth of Scenedesmus bijuga and Oscillatoria quadripunctulata in sewage wastewater was higher than those grown in synthetic medium. Whereas, the growth of S. bijuga and O. quadripunctulata in sterilized petrochemical effluents was slightly lower than that grown in the standard synthetic medium. The chlorophyll, carotenoid and protein content of S. bijuga and O. quadripunctulata grown in sterilized sewage wastewater were higher than those grown in the standard medium. Similarly S. bijuga and O. quadripunctulata grown in sterilized petrochemical effluents showed lower contents of pigments and protein than those grown in sewage and synthetic medium. Heavy metals copper, cobalt, lead and zinc were removed by 37-50, 20.3-33.3, 34.6-100 and 32.1-100%, respectively from sewage wastewater and petrochemical effluent using Ocillatoria culture. The metal absorption by S. bijuga were (Cu, Co, Pb, Zn) 60-50, 29.6-66, 15.4-25 and 42.9-50%, respectively from sewage and petrochemical effluents. Both species showed high level of heavy metal removal efficiency and metal sorption efficiency of both microalgae depended on the type of biosorbent, the physiological status of the cells, availability of heavy metal, concentration of heavy metal and chemical composition of wastewater. PMID:22545355

Ajayan, K V; Selvaraju, M; Thirugnanamoorthy, K

2011-08-15

10

Application of an anaerobic hybrid reactor for petrochemical effluent treatment.  

PubMed

An anaerobic hybrid reactor (UASB/Filter) was used for petrochemical wastewater treatment in mesophilic conditions. The seeded flocculent sludge from a UASB plant treating dairy wastewater, acclimatized to the petrochemical wastes in a two-stage operation. After start up, under steady-state conditions, experiments were conducted at OLRs of between 0.5 and 24 kg TCOD m(-3) d(-1), hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 4-48 h and up-flow velocities 0.021-0.25 mh(-1). Removal efficiencies in the range of 42-86% were achieved at feed TCOD concentrations of 1,000-4,000 mg L(-1). The results of reactor performance at different operational conditions and its relations are presented and discussed in this paper. Then, the obtained data are used for determination of kinetic models. The results showed that a second-order model and a modified Stover-Kincannon model were the most appropriate models for this reactor. Finally, the biogas production data were used for the determination of biogas production kinetics. PMID:22643402

Jafarzadeh, Mohammad Taghi; Mehrdadi, Naser; Hashemian, Seyed Jamaladdin

2012-01-01

11

Petrochem industry expands North American MTBE capacity  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that petrochemical manufacturers continue to increase methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) capacity in North America. The action reflects refiners' reformulation of gasoline to help reduce auto emissions. Demand for gasoline blending oxygenates such as MTBE is expected to increase as U.S. refiners reconfigure processing trains to produce fuels meeting requirements of the Clean Air Act amendments of 1990. Recent progress includes plans to build an MTBE plant in Mexico and start-ups of plants on the U.S. Gulf Coast and in Canada.

Not Available

1992-10-05

12

Application of membrane separation processes in petrochemical industry: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a general review on different membrane processes and membrane reactors was done. As the main aim of this paper is to review the application of membrane processes in petrochemical industry, processes such as olefin\\/paraffin separation, light solvent separation, solvent dewaxing, phenol and aromatic recovery, dehydrogenation, oxidative coupling of methane and steam reforming of methane were discussed in

Maryam Takht Ravanchi; Tahereh Kaghazchi; Ali Kargari

2009-01-01

13

Reuse of waste catalysts from petrochemical industries for cement substitution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zeolite catalysts have been widely used in oil refinery and petrochemical industries. Two types of waste catalysts, equilibrium catalyst (Ecat), and electrostatic precipitator catalyst (EPcat), can be obtained after fluid catalytic cracking. This study analyzes the properties of these waste catalysts and examines the feasibility of reusing them to substitute part of the cement required in mortar preparation. These waste

Nan Su; Hung-Yuan Fang; Zong-Huei Chen; Fu-Shung Liu

2000-01-01

14

Structural decomposition of CO 2 emissions from Taiwan's petrochemical industries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an alternative use of input–output structural decomposition analysis to identify the key factors that affected CO2 emission changes of Taiwan's petrochemical industries during 1984–1994. Changes in CO2 emission are decomposed into eight factors by integrating index decomposition analysis, input–output theory, and structure decomposition approach (SDA). The empirical results show the relative contribution of each factor on industrial

Cheng F. Lee; Sue J. Lin

2001-01-01

15

Industrial Energy in Transition: A Petrochemical Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An industrial development involves the conversion of biomass, through fermentation, to useful chemical products and the gasification of municiple wastes to produce steam for electricity generation. These gases may also serve as chemical feedstocks. (Author/MA)|

Wishart, Ronald S.

1978-01-01

16

Treatment of industrial effluent water  

SciTech Connect

This article reports on a thematic exhibition on ''New Developments in Treatment of Natural and Effluent Water'' in the Sanitary-Technical Construction Section at the Exhibition of Achievements of the National Economy of the USSR. The exhibition acquainted visitors with the achievements of leading organizations in different branches of industry with respect to treatment of natural and industrial effluent water. The Kharkov ''Vodkanalproekt'' Institute and the Kharkov affiliate of the All-Union Scientific-Research Institute of Water and Geodesy has jointly developed a ''Polymer-25'' filter for removal of oil products from nonexplosive effluent water discharged by machine building plants. A Baku affiliate has developed a new ShFP-1 screw-type press filter for dewatering the sediments from water treatment plants as well as for sediments from chemical, food, and other types of plants. The State Institute for Applied Chemistry has designed a continuous process plant for treating effluent water and removing toxic organic waste by converting them into mineral salts with high efficiency.

Levitskii, Yu.N.

1982-09-01

17

Industrial effluent quality, pollution monitoring and environmental management.  

PubMed

Royal Commission Environmental Control Department (RC-ECD) at Yanbu industrial city in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has established a well-defined monitoring program to control the pollution from industrial effluents. The quality of effluent from each facility is monitored round the clock. Different strategic measures have been taken by the RC-ECD to implement the zero discharge policy of RC. Industries are required to pre-treat the effluent to conform pretreatment standards before discharging to central biological treatment plant. Industries are not allowed to discharge any treated or untreated effluent in open channels. After treatment, reclaimed water must have to comply with direct discharge standards before discharge to the sea. Data of industrial wastewater collected from five major industries and central industrial wastewater treatment plant (IWTP) is summarized in this report. During 5-year period, 3,705 samples were collected and analyzed for 43,436 parameters. There were 1,377 violations from pretreatment standards from all the industries. Overall violation percentage was 3.17%. Maximum violations were recorded from one of the petrochemical plants. The results show no significant pollution due to heavy metals. Almost all heavy metals were within RC pretreatment standards. High COD and TOC indicates that major pollution was due to hydrocarbons. Typical compounds identified by GC-MS were branched alkanes, branched alkenes, aliphatic ketones, substituted thiophenes, substituted phenols, aromatics and aromatic alcohols. Quality of treated water was also in compliance with RC direct discharge standards. In order to achieve the zero discharge goal, further studies and measures are in progress. PMID:18228156

Ahmad, Maqbool; Bajahlan, Ahmad S; Hammad, Waleed S

2008-01-29

18

Quality of effluents from Hattar Industrial Estate  

PubMed Central

Of 6634 registered industries in Pakistan, 1228 are considered to be highly polluting. The major industries include textile, pharmaceutical, chemicals (organic and inorganic), food industries, ceramics, steel, oil mills and leather tanning which spread all over four provinces, with the larger number located in Sindh and Punjab, with smaller number in North Western Frontier Province (NWFP) and Baluchistan. Hattar Industrial Estate extending over 700 acres located in Haripur district of NWFP is a new industrial estate, which has been developed with proper planning for management of industrial effluents. The major industries located in Hattar are ghee industry, chemical (sulfuric acid, synthetic fiber) industry, textile industry and pharmaceuticals industry. These industries, although developed with proper planning are discharging their effluents in the nearby natural drains and ultimately collected in a big drain near Wah. The farmers in the vicinity are using these effluents for growing vegetables and cereal crops due to shortage of water. In view of this discussion, there is a dire need to determine if these effluents are hazardous for soil and plant growth. So, effluents from different industries, sewage and normal tap water samples were collected and analysed for pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total soluble salts (TSS), biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen, cations and anions and heavy metals. The effluents of ghee and textile industries are highly alkaline. EC and TSS loads of ghee and textile industries are also above the National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS), Pakistan. All the effluents had residual sodium carbonates (RSCs), carbonates and bicarbonates in amounts that cannot be used for irrigation. Total toxic metals load in all the effluents is also above the limit i.e. 2.0 mg/L. Copper in effluents of textile and sewage, manganese in ghee industry effluents and iron contents in all the effluents were higher than NEQS. BOD and COD values of all the industries are also above the NEQS. On the whole, these effluents cannot be used for irrigation without proper treatment otherwise that may cause toxicity to soil, plants and animals as well add to the problems of salinity and sododicity. Similarly, these effluents cannot be used for fish farming.

Sial, R.A.; Chaudhary, M.F.; Abbas, S.T.; Latif, M.I.; Khan, A.G.

2006-01-01

19

Quality of effluents from Hattar Industrial Estate.  

PubMed

Of 6634 registered industries in Pakistan, 1228 are considered to be highly polluting. The major industries include textile, pharmaceutical, chemicals (organic and inorganic), food industries, ceramics, steel, oil mills and leather tanning which spread all over four provinces, with the larger number located in Sindh and Punjab, with smaller number in North Western Frontier Province (NWFP) and Baluchistan. Hattar Industrial Estate extending over 700 acres located in Haripur district of NWFP is a new industrial estate, which has been developed with proper planning for management of industrial effluents. The major industries located in Hattar are ghee industry, chemical (sulfuric acid, synthetic fiber) industry, textile industry and pharmaceuticals industry. These industries, although developed with proper planning are discharging their effluents in the nearby natural drains and ultimately collected in a big drain near Wah. The farmers in the vicinity are using these effluents for growing vegetables and cereal crops due to shortage of water. In view of this discussion, there is a dire need to determine if these effluents are hazardous for soil and plant growth. So, effluents from different industries, sewage and normal tap water samples were collected and analysed for pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total soluble salts (TSS), biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen, cations and anions and heavy metals. The effluents of ghee and textile industries are highly alkaline. EC and TSS loads of ghee and textile industries are also above the National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS), Pakistan. All the effluents had residual sodium carbonates (RSCs), carbonates and bicarbonates in amounts that cannot be used for irrigation. Total toxic metals load in all the effluents is also above the limit i.e. 2.0 mg/L. Copper in effluents of textile and sewage, manganese in ghee industry effluents and iron contents in all the effluents were higher than NEQS. BOD and COD values of all the industries are also above the NEQS. On the whole, these effluents cannot be used for irrigation without proper treatment otherwise that may cause toxicity to soil, plants and animals as well add to the problems of salinity and sododicity. Similarly, these effluents cannot be used for fish farming. PMID:17111466

Sial, R A; Chaudhary, M F; Abbas, S T; Latif, M I; Khan, A G

2006-12-01

20

31 CFR 538.536 - Activities relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic of South Sudan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...petrochemical industries in the Republic of South Sudan. 538.536 Section 538.536...petrochemical industries in the Republic of South Sudan. (a) To the extent they are...petrochemical industries in the Republic of South Sudan are authorized, including but...

2013-07-01

21

Automatic control in petroleum, petrochemical and desalination industries  

SciTech Connect

This is the second IFAC workshop on the subject of Automatic Control in Oil and Desalination Industries. Presentations and discussions underscored the priorities of oil and desalination industries in getting better overall quality, improved energy use, lower cost, and better safety and security. These factors will take on added importance to oil exporting nations that have been hit recently by large oil price declines, which are forcing them to improve the efficiency of their industries and rationalize all new capital expenditures. Papers presented at the workshop included reviews of theoretical developments in control and research in modelling, optimization, instrumentation and control. They included the latest developments in applications of control systems to petroleum, petrochemical and desalination industries such as refineries, multi-stage flash desalination, chemical reactors, and bioreactors. The papers covered the latest in the applications of adaptive control, robust control, decentralized control, bilinear control, measurement techniques, plant optimization and maintenance, and artificial intelligence. Several case studies on modernization of refineries and controls and its economics were included. Two panel discussions, on new projects at the Kuwait National Petroleum Company (KNPC) and needs for control systems were held. Participation in the workshop came from the oil industry and academic institutions.

Kotob, S.

1986-01-01

22

Sulfide removal in wastewater from petrochemical industries by autotrophic denitrification  

Microsoft Academic Search

An alternative flowchart for the biological removal of hydrogen sulfide from oil-refining wastewater is presented; autotrophic denitrification in a multi-stage treatment plant was utilized. A pilot-scale plant was fed with a mixture of the following constituents: (a) original wastewater from an oil refining industry (b), the effluent of the existing nitrification-stage treatment plant and (c) sulfide in the form of

Eleni Vaiopoulou; Paris Melidis; Alexander Aivasidis

2005-01-01

23

[Diagnostic value of biochemic and hematologic changes in petrochemical industry workers].  

PubMed

Thorough biochemic and hematologic studies covered workers engaged into various petrochemical industry branches. Lipid metabolism changes were seen in most examinees, the authors determined the most informative laboratory values to diagnose preclinical health disorders in the workers. PMID:20099389

Timasheva, G V; Valeeva, O V

2009-01-01

24

Membrane gas separation progresses for process intensification strategy in the petrochemical industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The focus of this paper is on the progresses in membrane gas separation technology applied in the oil refining and petrochemical\\u000a sector. Industrial applications, research trends on new materials and technical solutions, challenges and possible applications\\u000a will be discussed. Other membrane operations will be briefly addressed, owing to their increasing number of installed systems\\u000a in the refinery\\/petrochemical industry. This paper

P. Bernardo; E. Drioli

2010-01-01

25

Technology transfer to Saudi Arabia petrochemical industry experience  

SciTech Connect

Saudi Arabia sought transferring petrochemical technology. The transfer aims to reduce the country's dependence on oil and to utilize national resources more efficiently. To investigate the factors affecting the transfer, conditions related to the technology in question and the receiving entity are analyzed. Multinational corporations play a major role in the transfer process. The research shows that joint venture transfers more technology than direct foreign investment. Various economic models of transferring technology are discussed. Using regression analysis, two models are tested. Four variables are involved: investment resources involved in the process, labor, material, and transfer arrangement. Material advantage is the most significant factor in the Saudi case followed by transfer arrangement. Labor shortage slows the transfer. Four major policies are concluded from the study. (1) Additional effort is needed to recruit national workers; the number of expatriate is still large. (2) Carefully planned and implemented R and D program is essential for the transfer to be successful. (3) Starting some final products is due currently. It maximizes value added and it has better marketing conditions. (4) The stage of establishing industrial projects independent of foreign partner is set. The Saudis should have acquired sufficient technical experience to do so.

Al-Ghamdi, A.A.K.

1987-01-01

26

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emission characteristics and control strategies for a petrochemical industrial area in middle Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated VOC emissions from the largest petrochemical industrial district in Taiwan and recommended some control measures to reduce VOC emissions. In addition to the petrochemical industry, the district encompasses a chemical and fiber industry, a plastics industry and a harbor, which together produce more than 95% of the VOC emissions in the area. The sequence of VOC emission

Chia-Hsien Yen; Jao-Jia Horng

2009-01-01

27

Technology transfer to Saudi Arabia petrochemical industry experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saudi Arabia sought transferring petrochemical technology. The transfer aims to reduce the country's dependence on oil and to utilize national resources more efficiently. To investigate the factors affecting the transfer, conditions related to the technology in question and the receiving entity are analyzed. Multinational corporations play a major role in the transfer process. The research shows that joint venture transfers

A. A. K

1987-01-01

28

The genotoxicity of industrial wastes and effluents.  

PubMed

A review of the literature published on the genotoxicity of industrial wastes and effluents using short-term genetic bioassays is presented in this document. The importance of this task arises from the ubiquity of genotoxic compounds in the environment and the need to identify the sources of contamination so that efforts aimed at control and minimization can be implemented. Of even greater significance is the immediate concern for the welfare of human health and the environment. Subheadings of this document include a description of the genetic bioassays that have been used to test industrial wastes, a compendium of methods commonly used to prepare crude waste samples for bioassay, and a review of the genetic toxicity of wastes and effluents. Wastes and effluents have been grouped according to industrial source. Major categories include chemical and allied products, pulp and paper manufacturing, defense and munitions, petroleum refining, primary metal industries, and miscellaneous industrial manufacturers. Within each industrial category, a synopsis of individual genetic toxicity studies is presented, followed by an interpretation of results on a comprehensive, industry-wide basis. In this evaluation, a discussion of the types and extent of genotoxic damage caused by a particular set of wastes is presented, and potential sources of genotoxic activity are identified. Concluding the document is a commentary, which discloses potential shortcomings in the way in which current legislation protects human heath and the environment from the release of genotoxic substances via industrial wastes and effluents. It also provides an assessment of the genotoxic burden that industrial wastes place on the environment. PMID:1378533

Houk, V S

1992-08-01

29

Corporate Governance, Industrial Reform and Enterprises Performance in China: The Case of Shanghai Petrochemical Company  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case study of Shanghai Petrochemical Company (SPC) is used to analyse how industrial reform has impacted on corporate governance and enterprise performance. Industrial reforms have increased the level of competition and altered the corporate structure of large state enterprises such as SPC. The case study indicates that despite changes in corporate structure, property rights remain unclear resulting in a

Damian Tobin

30

Metal pollution of soils and vegetation in an area with petrochemical industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), and vanadium (V) in soil and chard samples collected in various industrial sites of Tarragona County (Spain), an area with an important number of petrochemical industries. Samples were also collected in urban (Tarragona downtown) and presumably unpolluted

M Nadal; M Schuhmacher; J. L Domingo

2004-01-01

31

The influence of different substrate pH values on the performance of a downflow anaerobic fixed bed reactor treating a petrochemical effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Neutralizing requirements for the anaerobic treatment of an acidic petrochemical effluent in a downflow anaerobic fixed bed reactor were examined. Neutralization (pH 6.0 with NaOH) of the effluent prior to digestion resulted in a Na+ concentration of over 3 g\\/l which was detrimental. Decreasing the Na+ concentration and subsequent replacement of NaOH by a mixture of Ca(OH)2, NaOH and

L. H. Nel; T. J. Britz

1986-01-01

32

Radioactivity in the industrial effluent disposed soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies on radiation and radioactivity distribution in the soils of effluent disposed from the sugar industry in India have been conducted. The external gamma dose rates in air and natural radionuclides activities in the soils were measured using an Environmental Radiation Dosimeter and a Gamma-ray Spectrometer respectively. The soil samples were also subject to various physico-chemical analyses. This study revealed some remarkable results that are discussed in the article.

Senthilkumar, R. D.; Narayanaswamy, R.; Meenashisundaram, V.

2012-04-01

33

Biomass alcohols as potential petroleum alternatives in the fuel and petrochemical industries: A generalized network model  

Microsoft Academic Search

A generalized network model called PETNET is developed to address this problem. The focus of the analysis presented is the role of biomass alcohols as potential alternatives to fossil hydrocarbons as raw materials in the petrochemical and oil industries. Illustrative scenarios for biomass-based alcohol replacements are investigated with PETNET by solving for alternative assumptions of price, capacity, resource availability and

R. F. Farina

1982-01-01

34

An optimization model for guiding the petrochemical industry development in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mixed integer linear programming model is formulated for determining the optimum plan for the expansion of the Saudi Arabian petrochemical industry. The products selected for consideration fall into four categories: propylene derivatives, ethylene derivatives, synthesis gas derivatives, and aromatic derivatives. The model incorporates new variables and constraints, and realistic estimates of production costs, which are calculated based on local

Hesham Alfares; Adnan Al-Amer

2002-01-01

35

Petrochemical industry in the Middle East: current status, uncertainties, global impact  

SciTech Connect

The situation and perspective of the petrochemical industry in Saudi Arabia, Qatar, IR Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Bahrain, the UAE, SP Libyan AJ, Algeria, and Egypt are reviewed. Special attention is given to the budgetary constraints, foreign partners, the costs, the markets, and the impact of falling oil prices.

Not Available

1983-01-01

36

Some mathematical planning models for management of the oil, gas, and petrochemical industry in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation develops studies and mathematical methods for the managerial analysis of situations involving the interrelations of the oil and gas network facilities and the petrochemical industry in Saudi Arabia. The first part develops a goal programming model to study the impact of crude oil develops a goal programming model to study the impact of crude oil production on the

Al-Zayer

1986-01-01

37

Perceived demands and musculoskeletal symptoms among employees of an Iranian petrochemical industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a part of a comprehensive ergonomics program, this study was conducted among employees of an Iranian petrochemical industry to determine the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms and to examine the relationship between perceived demands and reported symptoms. In this cross-sectional study, 928 randomly selected employees, corresponding to nearly 40% of all employees participated. Nordic Musculoskeletal Disorder Questionnaire and Job Content

Alireza Choobineh; Gholamreza Peyvandi Sani; Mohsen Sharif Rohani; Mohammad Gangi Pour; Masoud Neghab

2009-01-01

38

FTIR remote sensor measurements of air pollutants in the petrochemical industrial park  

Microsoft Academic Search

As FT-IR remote sensing techniques become more accessible, there are increasing interests to apply this open-path measurement method to detect and measure airborne pollutants. Thus a research for VOCs emission pollutants in the petrochemical industry park is conducted. In this study, we focused on the identification of the gaseous pollutants as well as the location of the VOCs pollutants from

Rong T. Wu; Shih-Yi Chang; Y. W. Chung; H. C. Tzou; Tai-Ly Tso

1995-01-01

39

Biomass alcohols as potential petroleum alternatives in the fuel and petrochemical industries: A generalized network model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A generalized network model called PETNET is developed to address this problem. The focus of the analysis presented is the role of biomass alcohols as potential alternatives to fossil hydrocarbons as raw materials in the petrochemical and oil industries. Illustrative scenarios for biomass-based alcohol replacements are investigated with PETNET by solving for alternative assumptions of price, capacity, resource availability and process technology.

Farina, R. F.

40

A multiobjective optimization model for the waste management of the petrochemical industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multiobjective optimization model based on the goal programming approach is proposed in this paper to assist in the proper management of hazardous waste generated by the petrochemical industry. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP), a decision-making approach, incorporating qualitative and quantitative aspects of a problem, is incorporated in the model to prioritize the conflicting goals usually encountered when addressing the

Abdulaziz S. Alidi

1996-01-01

41

The effect of petrochemical effluent on the water quality of Ubeji Creek in Niger Delta of Nigeria.  

PubMed

Water samples containing petrochemical effluents were evaluated for elemental contaminants along a kilometer distance in Ubeji Creek, a tributary of the Ubeji River in the Niger Delta of Nigeria. Twenty water samples were collected from six sites at various times. The water samples were analyzed for several physico-chemical parameters. Results showed wide varieties in temperature, pH, BOD, COD, dissolved and suspended solids as well as conductivity. The entire environment starting from the end-of-pipe source point was coated with black oily residue. Water quality parameters were very poor. The absence of fish and other aquatic lives, the high levels of Zn (2.4), Cr (0.24), Fe (63.44), Hg (4.24), Mn (2.49), and Pb (0.76) level (microg/L) confirm the toxic nature of Ubeji Creek. At the lower reaches, the mixing of effluent with brackish waters was not enough to support aquatic life, partly because of diminishing oxygen and toxic shock. Nevertheless, the study provides evidence to suggest that the water in Ubeji Creek is toxic. It also provides graphic data to suggest point source where effluents could be held for treatment or neutralization before being discharged into the aquatic environment. PMID:19448963

Achudume, A C

2009-05-16

42

Groundwater pollution by Cystine manufacturing industrial effluent around the factory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pollution potential of Cystine industrial effluents on groundwater pollution is assessed. The results indicate that the\\u000a Cystine industrial effluent which is partially treated and stored in lagoons contains a high concentration of inorganic solids\\u000a and soluble organics. The percolation of these effluents caused groundwater pollution impairing the water quality.

S. Srinivasa Gowd; B. Kotaiah

2000-01-01

43

Economic viability of the Saudi Arabian petrochemical industry: methanol as a case study  

SciTech Connect

In the pursuit of the diversification strategy, Saudi planners invested a sizable amount of oil surplus in export-oriented petrochemical projects at Jubail and Yanbu. For this strategy to be realized, the projects must be economically viable. Economic viability entails the presence of petrochemical plants that are self-sustaining and self-perpetuating in the long run without state subsidies. In view of the projects, heavy reliance on state subsidies along with their location in a remote area, far from the source of demand, it is hypothesized that, barring a significant shift in the development strategy, a dynamic industrial sector focusing on the development of the petrochemical industry is unlikely to emerge in Saudi Arabia and that the export-led growth strategy that accords it a key role in the nation's development is not likely to prove viable. In verifying the hypothesis, a comparative cost analysis was conducted comparing the cost structure at the Ibn-Sina methanol plant to a similar plant in Alberta, Canada. According to the authors forecast of methanol revenues and costs, the Saudi petrochemical industry exemplified by the methanol project emerges to be as a net absorber of rather than contributor to the nation's financial resources and in this regard appears to impede the process of capital formation and economic growth.

Al-Salem, A.M.

1987-01-01

44

Effect of petrochemical industrial emissions of reactive alkenes and NOx on tropospheric ozone formation in Houston, Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Petrochemical industrial facilities can emit large amounts of highly reactive hydrocarbons and NOx to the atmosphere; in the summertime, such colocated emissions are shown to consistently result in rapid and efficient ozone (O3) formation downwind. Airborne measurements show initial hydrocarbon reactivity in petrochemical source plumes in the Houston, TX, metropolitan area is primarily due to routine emissions of the alkenes

T. B. Ryerson; W. M. Angevine; C. A. Brock; R. W. Dissly; F. C. Fehsenfeld; G. J. Frost; P. D. Goldan; J. S. Holloway; G. Hübler; R. O. Jakoubek; W. C. Kuster; J. A. Neuman; D. K. Nicks; D. D. Parrish; J. M. Roberts; D. T. Sueper; E. L. Atlas; S. G. Donnelly; F. Flocke; A. Fried; W. T. Potter; S. Schauffler; V. Stroud; A. J. Weinheimer; B. P. Wert; C. Wiedinmyer; R. J. Alvarez; R. M. Banta; L. S. Darby; C. J. Senff

2003-01-01

45

Viability of industrial integration within the Gulf Cooperation Council: the case of petrochemical industries  

SciTech Connect

The formation of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) in 1981 among six Arab Gulf countries - Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates - was an essential step toward the comprehensive economic development of the region. These countries, with their great though declining financial capability arising from oil as the main source of income, had already tried individually to diversify their economies in order to decrease their total reliance on crude oil income in the wake of the world oil glut. Their limited base of natural resources other than oil is a major constraint. Industrialization, and specifically, industrialization through oil-based industries, seems to be the most-viable approach they have toward their successful economic development. This study concentrates on the issues of regional economic and industrial development as the main factor for economic gain that may result from the GCC scheme. The experience of different integration schemes provides some beneficial lessons for the GCC. The GCC region has a comparative advantage in petrochemical industries, which suit the region's factor endowments, arising from the availability of cheap energy feedstock.

Al-Sabban, M.S.

1983-01-01

46

Quantification of Ethene Emissions from Petrochemical Industries in Houston, Texas: Large Disagreements with Emission Inventories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reactive alkenes from petrochemical industries are known to play an important role in the formation of ozone in Houston, Texas. In this work we developed a fast-response detector of ethene based on laser photo-acoustic spectroscopy (LPAS) and used it onboard the NOAA WP-3D aircraft to measure ethene in industrial plumes around Houston in the summer of 2006. The new LPAS

J. A. de Gouw; C. Warneke; S. te Lintel Hekkert; J. S. Holloway; D. D. Parrish; J. Peischl; T. B. Ryerson; J. Mellqvist; E. A. Atlas; A. Fried

2007-01-01

47

Appropriate basis of effluent standards for industrial wastewaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Designing industrial discharge standards should reflect the numerical compromise between what can be achieved to prevent environmental pollution and sustainable development. They should involve categorical limitations for specific sources. Micropollutants represent the major concern for industrial effluents. A micropollutant-based subcategorization is needed for an effective control of industrial effluents. Regulations imposed require a comprehensive knowledge of polluting processes and sources,

A. Tilche; D. Orhon

48

Some mathematical planning models for management of the oil, gas, and petrochemical industry in Saudi Arabia  

SciTech Connect

This dissertation develops studies and mathematical methods for the managerial analysis of situations involving the interrelations of the oil and gas network facilities and the petrochemical industry in Saudi Arabia. The first part develops a goal programming model to study the impact of crude oil develops a goal programming model to study the impact of crude oil production on the petrochemical industry. The second part is concerned with transforming a linear work model, thus making the model amenable to a network code. The third part develops a framework for allocation of an insufficient supply of methane for different sectors of the economy. The three combine to form the decision analysis or decision support system, which is the objective of the dissertation.

Al-Zayer, J.A.

1986-01-01

49

Testing of power and distribution cables for the petrochemical industries in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The petrochemical industry in Saudi Arabia has expanded the scope, size and requirements of its in-plant distribution system until they now encompass all voltage levels up to and including 115\\/230 kV. The proper design of electrical power and instrumentation circuits has now become a more complicated task than was the case in the past. Electrical designers must carefully consider chemical,

A. S. Farag

1998-01-01

50

Overnight atmospheric transport and chemical processing of photochemically aged Houston urban and petrochemical industrial plume  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overnight atmospheric transport and chemical evolution of photochemically aged Houston urban and petrochemical industrial plume were investigated in July 2005. We report here on the 26 July episode in which the aged plume was tagged 1.5 h before sunset with a pair of free-floating controlled meteorological balloons, which guided quasi-Lagrangian aircraft sampling in the plume as it was advected 300

Rahul A. Zaveri; Paul B. Voss; Carl M. Berkowitz; Edward Fortner; Jun Zheng; Renyi Zhang; Ralph J. Valente; Roger L. Tanner; Daniel Holcomb; Thomas P. Hartley; Leslie Baran

2010-01-01

51

Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in petrochemical industries by measurement of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological monitoring of exposure of workers to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in petrochemical industries was performed by the measurement of urinary excretion of 1-hydroxypyrene. In 121 of the 462 workers studied (both smokers and non-smokers) who had had no recent occupational exposure to PAHs a median 1-hydroxypyrene concentration of 0.21 micrograms\\/g creatinine was found. The upper limit of the 95%

P J Boogaard; N J van Sittert

1994-01-01

52

Correspondence between whole effluent toxicity and the presence of priority substances in complex industrial effluents  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to examine broad-scale correlation between presence of priority substances and whole effluent toxicity (WET) across a range of industry types. Using regression analysis, the authors examined how chemical-based inferred toxicity predicted measured WET of the effluents. Whole effluent toxicity was determined using a suite of acute and chronic bioassays; chemical-based toxicity was inferred from concentrations of priority chemicals and from published chemical toxicity values. When inferred toxicity was corrected for bioavailable metal and ion concentrations, 43% of the variability in measured toxicity was explained. For many industries, priority contaminants accounted for WET, and their toxic action was generally additive. However, industry-specific analysis of the residuals highlighted effluent types for which there was over one order of magnitude variation in inferred and measured toxicity. In particular, chemical-based assessments tended to overestimate toxicity of effluents containing high concentrations of metals and to underestimate toxicity of pulp mill effluents.

Sarakinos, H.C.; Bermingham, N.; White, P.A.; Rasmussen, J.B.

2000-01-01

53

Saudi Arabia joins world market in commodity petrochemicals: utilizes joint-venture approach to promote rapid industrial growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saudi industry is emphasizing a program of efficiency and cost reduction. Assured of a supply of feedstock, the growth of private sector secondary industries along with the planned development of human resources can be expected to highlight the continuing industrialization of Saudi Arabia. This article focuses on the development and expansion of the petrochemical industry in Saudi Arabia.

Hodel

1985-01-01

54

Saudi Arabia joins world market in commodity petrochemicals: utilizes joint-venture approach to promote rapid industrial growth  

SciTech Connect

Saudi industry is emphasizing a program of efficiency and cost reduction. Assured of a supply of feedstock, the growth of private sector secondary industries along with the planned development of human resources can be expected to highlight the continuing industrialization of Saudi Arabia. This article focuses on the development and expansion of the petrochemical industry in Saudi Arabia.

Hodel, A.E.

1985-03-01

55

New petrochemical compositions for use in the coal industry  

SciTech Connect

Various aspects of the use of antifreezing agents in the coal industry are considered. It has been found that, unlike previously proposed compositions, these agents can be prepared based on the products of a single process, the vacuum distillation of fuel oil.

D.O. Safieva; E.V. Surov; O.G. Safiev [Institute for Fossil Fuels, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2008-12-15

56

Exchange rates and market power: evidence from the petrochemical industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper takes a microeconometric approach to the study of exchange rate pass-through in imperfectly competitive markets. We provide evidence for the hypothesis that incomplete exchange rate pass-through can be attributed to non-competitive conduct by foreign firms. A unique feature of our approach is the use of highly disaggregated industry data which is compatible with the behavioral assumptions of a

Daniel M. Bernhofen; Peng Xu

2000-01-01

57

Risk factors affecting visual-motor coordination deficit among children residing near a petrochemical industrial estate.  

PubMed

Thailand has been changed to rapid urbanization and industrialization since 1980s. During 1992 through 1996, the number of industrial factories in Rayong province increased very sharply. The major types of industries are petrol-chemical and plastic production. However, after the petrochemical industry boomed, the higher demand led to an industrial area expansion. The establishment of factories in this area leads to serious environmental and health impacts. The study aims to investigate the factors that affect visual-motor coordination deficit among children, 6-13 years of age, residing near the Petrochemical Industrial Estate, Map Ta Phut, Rayong province. A population-based cross-sectional study was employed for collecting data on neurobehavioral effects using the Digit Symbol Test. The study found one-third of 2,956 children presented with visual-motor coordination deficits. Three factors were identified that caused children to have a higher risk of visual-motor coordination deficits: gender (adjusted OR 1.934), monthly parental income (range of adjusted OR 1.977 - 2.612), and household environmental tobacco smoke (adjusted OR 1.284), while age (adjusted OR 0.874) and living period (adjusted OR 0.954) in study areas were reversed effects on visual-motor coordination deficit among children. The finding indicated that children with visual-motor coordination deficit were affected by gender, monthly parental income, age of children, length of living period, and household environmental tobacco smoke. PMID:20635602

Aungudornpukdee, P; Vichit-Vadakan, N

2009-12-01

58

Anaerobic digestion Of a Petrochemical Wastewater using the UASB process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic digestion of effluent from a petrochemical plant producing terephthalic acid has been tested using two Upflow Anaerobic\\u000a Sludge Blanket (USAB) reactors. The reactors were seeded with two different inocula: one from an anaerobic stabilization pond\\u000a receiving wasted sludge from the aerobic treatment plant of the petrochemical industry (reactor A); the other was an anaerobically\\u000a adapted activated sludge from a

J. P. Guyot; H. Macarie; A. Noyola

1990-01-01

59

Asbestos substitutes for valve packing in the petrochemical industry  

SciTech Connect

In recent years some well known manufacturers have removed asbestos products from their product lines. Compliance with governmental laws and regulations as well as potential liability are the reasons generally stated for such actions. It is expected that asbestos products will become less and less available in the future. This article addresses the qualities that allow a material to be considered a true asbestos substitute and outlines the current findings of the suitability of these substitutes for valve packing applications. In addition, through the course of the article, several areas will be noted where further research or development of industry standards are required. While there are several materials claiming to be asbestos substitutes, no material exactly matches the qualities of asbestos. However, pure graphite exhibits many of the qualities considered for a true substitute.

MacDonald, R.H.

1986-11-01

60

Characteristics of Occupational Exposure to Benzene during Turnaround in the Petrochemical Industries  

PubMed Central

Objectives The level of benzene exposure in the petrochemical industry during regular operation has been well established, but not in turnaround (TA), where high exposure may occur. In this study, the characteristics of occupational exposure to benzene during TA in the petrochemical companies were investigated in order to determine the best management strategies and improve the working environment. This was accomplished by evaluating the exposure level for the workers working in environments where benzene was being produced or used as an ingredient during the unit process. Methods From 2003 to 2008, a total of 705 workers in three petrochemical companies in Korea were studied. Long- and short-term (< 1 hr) samples were taken during TAs. TA was classified into three stages: shut-down, maintenance and start-up. All works were classified into 12 occupation categories. Results The long-term geometric mean (GM) benzene exposure level was 0.025 (5.82) ppm (0.005-42.120 ppm) and the short-term exposure concentration during TA was 0.020 (17.42) ppm (0.005-61.855 ppm). The proportions of TA samples exceeding the time-weighted average, occupational exposure level (TWA-OEL in Korea, 1 ppm) and the short-term exposure limit (STEL-OEL, 5 ppm) were 4.1% (20 samples of 488) and 6.0% (13 samples of 217), respectively. The results for the benzene exposure levels and the rates of exceeding the OEL were both statistically significant (p < 0.05). Among the 12 job categories of petrochemical workers, mechanical engineers, plumbers, welders, fieldman and scaffolding workers exhibited long-term samples that exceeded the OEL of benzene, and the rate of exceeding the OEL was statistically significant for the first two occupations (p < 0.05). Conclusion These findings suggest that the periodic work environment must be assessed during non-routine works such as TA.

Shin, Jung-Ah; Lee, Byung-Kyu; Kwon, Jiwoon; Lee, Naroo; Chung, Kwang-Jae; Lee, Jong-Han; Lee, In-Seop; Kang, Seong-Kyu; Jang, Jae-Kil

2010-01-01

61

Hydrocarbon Source Signatures in Houston, Texas: Influence of the Petrochemical Industry  

SciTech Connect

Observations of C1-C10 hydrocarbon mixing ratios measured by in-situ instrumentation at the La Porte super site during the TexAQS 2000 field experiment are reported. The La Porte data were compared to a roadway vehicle exhaust signature obtained from canister samples collected in the Houston Washburn tunnel during the same summer to better understand the impact of petrochemical emissions of hydrocarbons at the site. It is shown that the abundance of ethene, propene, 1-butene, C2-C4 alkanes, hexane, cyclohexane, methylcyclohexane, isopropylbenzene, and styrene at La Porte were systematically impacted by petrochemical industry emissions. Coherent power law relationships between frequency distribution widths of hydrocarbon mixing ratios and their local lifetimes clearly identify two major source groups, roadway vehicle emissions and industrial emissions. Distributions of most aromatics and long chain alkanes were consistent with roadway vehicle emissions as the dominant source. Airmass reactivity was generally dominated by C1-C3 aldehydes. Propene and ethene sometimes dominated air mass reactivity with HO loss frequencies often greater than 10 s-1. Ozone mixing ratios near 200 ppbv were observed on two separate occasions and these air masses appear to have been impacted by industrial emissions of alkenes from the Houston Ship Channel. The La Porte data provide evidence of the importance of industrial emissions of ethene and propene on air masses reactivity and ozone formation in Houston.

Jobson, B Tom T.; Berkowitz, Carl M.; Kuster, W. C.; Goldan, P. D.; Williams, E. J.; Fesenfeld, F.; Apel, Eric; Karl, Thomas G.; Lonneman, William A.; Riemer, D.

2004-12-22

62

Hydrocarbon source signatures in Houston, Texas: Influence of the petrochemical industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations of C1-C10 hydrocarbon mixing ratios measured by in situ instrumentation at the La Porte super site during the TexAQS 2000 field experiment are reported. The La Porte data were compared to a roadway vehicle exhaust signature obtained from canister samples collected in the Houston Washburn tunnel during the same summer to better understand the impact of petrochemical emissions of hydrocarbons at the site. It is shown that the abundance of ethene, propene, 1-butene, C2-C4 alkanes, hexane, cyclohexane, methylcyclohexane, isopropylbenzene, and styrene at La Porte were systematically affected by petrochemical industry emissions. Coherent power law relationships between frequency distribution widths of hydrocarbon mixing ratios and their local lifetimes clearly identify two major source groups, roadway vehicle emissions and industrial emissions. Distributions of most aromatics and long chain alkanes were consistent with roadway vehicle emissions as the dominant source. Air mass reactivity was generally dominated by C1-C3 aldehydes. Propene and ethene sometimes dominated air mass reactivity with HO loss frequencies often greater than 10 s-1. Ozone mixing ratios near 200 ppbv were observed on two separate occasions, and these air masses appear to have been affected by industrial emissions of alkenes from the Houston Ship Channel. The La Porte data provide evidence of the importance of industrial emissions of ethene and propene on air mass reactivity and ozone formation in Houston.

Jobson, B. T.; Berkowitz, C. M.; Kuster, W. C.; Goldan, P. D.; Williams, E. J.; Fesenfeld, F. C.; Apel, E. C.; Karl, T.; Lonneman, W. A.; Riemer, D.

2004-12-01

63

Annoyance and Worry in a Petrochemical Industrial Area--Prevalence, Time Trends and Risk Indicators  

PubMed Central

In 1992, 1998, and 2006, questionnaires were sent to stratified samples of residents aged 18–75 years living near petrochemical industries (n = 600–800 people on each occasion) and in a control area (n = 200–1,000). The aims were to estimate the long-term prevalence and change over time of annoyance caused by industrial odour, industrial noise, and worries about possible health effects, and to identify risk indicators. In 2006, 20% were annoyed by industrial odour, 27% by industrial noise (1–4% in the control area), and 40–50% were worried about health effects or industrial accidents (10–20% in the control area). Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed significantly lower prevalence of odour annoyance in 1998 and 2006 than in 1992, while industrial noise annoyance increased significantly over time. The prevalence of worry remained constant. Risk of odour annoyance increased with female sex, worry of health effects, annoyance by motor vehicle exhausts and industrial noise. Industrial noise annoyance was associated with traffic noise annoyance and worry of health effects of traffic. Health-risk worry due to industrial air pollution was associated with female sex, having children, annoyance due to dust/soot in the air, and worry of traffic air pollution.

Axelsson, Gosta; Stockfelt, Leo; Andersson, Eva; Gidlof-Gunnarsson, Anita; Sallsten, Gerd; Barregard, Lars

2013-01-01

64

Modelling of MEMS Based Temperature Sensor and Temperature Control in a Petrochemical Industry Using LabVIEW  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temperature monitoring and control is an essential process in the continuous process industries like that of the petrochemical industries. Starting from the very storage of the different chemicals to their cracking and distillation, Temperature plays a very important role in all these processes. The total process consists of two major parts, such as the sensing of the temperature using a

A. Mallik; S. D. Gupta

2009-01-01

65

Ammonia recovery from high strength agro industry effluents.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to investigate ammonia recovery from high strength agro industry effluents involving significant amounts of ammonia, by applying magnesium ammonium phosphate (MAP) precipitation technology. Two types of industrial effluents have been tested in the study. The first plant was an opium alkaloid processing industry and the second one was a baker's yeast industry. High chemical oxygen demand (COD), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) and unacceptable dark brown color characterized effluents from both industries. Effluents from the biologically treated opium alkaloid and baker's yeast industries were both applied at the stoichiometric ratio (Mg:NH4:PO4 = 1:1:1) and above the stoichiometric ratio (Mg:NH4:PO4 = 1.1:1:1.1) to MAP precipitation. NH4 removals of 61-80% were achieved at the pH of 9.2 at the stoichiometric ratio, whereas 83% NH4 removal was obtained at the pH of 9.2 above the stoichiometric ratio. Experimental studies performed on both anaerobically and/or aerobically treated baker's yeast and opium alkaloid industry effluents have clearly indicated that MAP precipitation was an appropriate treatment option for NH4 removal or struvite recovery from high ammonia content agro industry effluents. Additional ammonia recovery studies were conducted on ozonated and Fenton's oxidation applied effluents and these have also indicated that the amounts of struvite and the quality of MAP precipitate was increased significantly. In this framework, MAP sludge recovered from combined biological and Fenton's oxidation treatment effluents were considered as a more valuable slow release fertilizer for agricultural use. PMID:12201102

Altinbas, M; Ozturk, I; Aydin, A F

2002-01-01

66

EMPLOYMENT AND EXPOSURES IN THE PETROLEUM REFINING AND PETROCHEMICAL INDUSTRIES AND THE RISK OF LUNG CANCER (EPIDEMIOLOGY, ASSESSMENT)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation addresses the risk of lung cancer associated with occupational exposures in the petroleum refining and petrochemical industries. Earlier epidemiologic studies of this association did not adjust for cigarette smoking or have specific exposure classifications. The Texas EXposure Assessment System (TEXAS) was developed with data from a population-based, case-comparison study conducted in five southeast Texas counties between 1976 and

TIMOTHY EARL ALDRICH

1985-01-01

67

Gulf-Asia Relations as “Post-Rentier” Diversification? The Case of the Petrochemical Industry in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: As the Gulf states embark on industrial diversification away from oil, their relationship with Asia is in the process of undergoing a significant transformation from uniform producer-consumer relations in the petroleum sector to a more complex multi-sectoral interaction. This article examines Saudi Arabia's relations with China and Japan in the petrochemical sector, the oldest and most competitive manufacturing sector

Makio Yamada

2011-01-01

68

SOURCE ASSESSMENT: NITROGEN FERTILIZER INDUSTRY WATER EFFLUENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes a study of waterborne pollutants from the manufacture of nitrogen fertilizers. It includes an evaluation of the ammonia, ammonium nitrate, urea, and nitric acid manufacturing processes. Water effluents in a nitrogen fertilizer plant originate from a variety o...

69

Correlation between environmental and biological monitoring of exposure to benzene in petrochemical industry operators.  

PubMed

The present work was aimed to study in petrochemical industry operators the correlation, if any, between environmental exposure to low levels of benzene and two biological exposure indexes in end-shift urine, i.e. trans, trans-muconic acid (t,t-MA) and S-phenylmercapturic acid (SPMA). Exposure to benzene was assessed in 133 male subjects employed in outdoor operations in a petrochemical plant, using personal passive-diffusive air samplers worn at the breathing zone; adsorbed benzene was determined by GC-FID analysis. S-PMA was determined by a new HPLCMS/MS method, after (quantitative) acidic hydrolysis of the cysteine conjugate precursor. t,t-MA was measured by an HPLC-UV method. Smoking habits were assessed by means of a self-administered questionnaire. Both environmental and biological monitoring data showed that benzene exposure of petrochemical industry operators was low (mean values were 0.014ppm, 101mug/g creat, and 2.8mug/g creat, for benzene, t,t-MA, and S-PMA, respectively) if compared with the ACGIH limits. Cigarette smoking was confirmed to be a strong confounding factor for the urinary excretion of both metabolites: statistically significant increases of t,t-MA and S-PMA levels were recorded in smokers when compared to non-smokers (p<0.0001). The best correlation found was that between exposure to benzene and S-PMA levels, particularly in non-smokers. This was partly due to the hydrolysis of the S-PMA precursor N-acetyl-S-(1,2-dihydro-2-hydroxyphenyl)-l-cysteine, a crucial step of the new analytical method used, which indeed reduced the variability of the results by means of an improved standardization of this critical preanalytical factor. A weaker correlation was found between exposure to benzene and t,t-MA, possibly explained by the fact that the latter is also a metabolite of sorbic acid, a common diet component. In summary, even at such low levels of exposure, urinary metabolites proved to be a useful tool for assessing individual occupational exposure to benzene, S-PMA appearing to be a more specific biomarker than t,t-MA, particularly in non-smokers. PMID:19628029

Carrieri, Mariella; Tranfo, Giovanna; Pigini, Daniela; Paci, Enrico; Salamon, Fabiola; Scapellato, Maria L; Fracasso, Maria E; Manno, Maurizio; Bartolucci, Giovanni B

2009-07-21

70

The feasibility of effluent trading in the energy industries  

SciTech Connect

In January 1996, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released a policy statement endorsing effluent trading in watersheds, hoping to spur additional interest in the subject. The policy describes five types of effluent trades - point source/point source, point source/nonpoint source, pretreatment, intraplant, and nonpoint source/nonpoint source. This report evaluates the feasibility of effluent trading for facilities in the oil and gas industry (exploration and production, refining, and distribution and marketing segments), electric power industry, and the coal industry (mines and preparation plants). Nonpoint source/nonpoint source trades are not considered since the energy industry facilities evaluated here are all point sources. EPA has administered emission trading programs in its air quality program for many years. Programs for offsets, bubbles, banking, and netting are supported by federal regulations, and the 1990 Clean Air Act (CAA) amendments provide a statutory basis for trading programs to control ozone and acid rain. Different programs have had varying degrees of success, but few have come close to meeting their expectations. Few trading programs have been established under the Clean Water Act (CWA). One intraplant trading program was established by EPA in its effluent limitation guidelines (ELGs) for the iron and steel industry. The other existing effluent trading programs were established by state or local governments and have had minimal success.

Veil, J.A.

1997-05-01

71

Effects of carbon taxes on different industries by fuzzy goal programming: A case study of the petrochemical-related industries, Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Implementation of a carbon tax is one of the major ways to mitigate CO2 emission. However, blanket taxes applied to all industries in a country might not always be fair or successful in CO2 reduction. This study aims to evaluate the effects of carbon taxes on different industries, and meanwhile to find an optimal carbon tax scenario for Taiwan's petrochemical

Cheng F. Lee; Sue J. Lin; Charles Lewis; Yih F. Chang

2007-01-01

72

Quality of effluents from Hattar Industrial Estate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of 6634 registered industries in Pakistan, 1228 are considered to be highly polluting. The major industries include textile, pharmaceutical, chemicals (organic and inorganic), food industries, ceramics, steel, oil mills and leather tanning which spread all over four provinces, with the larger number located in Sindh and Punjab, with smaller number in North Western Frontier Province (NWFP) and Baluchistan. Hattar Industrial

73

Quality of effluents from Hattar Industrial Estate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of 6634 registered industries in Pakistan, 1228 are considered to be highly polluting. The major industries include textile,\\u000a pharmaceutical, chemicals (organic and inorganic), food industries, ceramics, steel, oil mills and leather tanning which spread\\u000a all over four provinces, with the larger number located in Sindh and Punjab, with smaller number in North Western Frontier\\u000a Province (NWFP) and Baluchistan. Hattar Industrial

R. A. Sial; M. F. Chaudhary; S. T. Abbas; M. I. Latif; A. G. Khan

2006-01-01

74

Shell and Sabic (Saudi Basic Industries Corp. ) to construct Jubail petrochemical plant  

SciTech Connect

Shell Oil Co.'s Pecten Arabian Ltd. affiliate and Saudi Basic Industries Corp. have agreed to build a $3 billion petrochemical complex at Jubail, Saudi Arabia; the final documents will be signed in late Sept. 1980. The partners will invest about $400 million each in the joint venture, with Saudi public investment funds and commercial banks providing the balance of the funding. Shell will have the right to purchase Saudi crude oil on a long-term basis, as well as some chemical raw materials; the volume of crude made available will be determined by a formula that the Saudis are now developing. One plan under discussion would offer firms options to buy 500 bbl/day of Saudi crude for each $1 million of their investment. The feed for the new plant will be methane and ethane from associated gas now being flared. Product exports are scheduled to begin in late 1985. Product capacities will include (in thousands of metric tons/yr): ethane, 656; chlorine, 333; caustic soda, 377; ethylene dichloride, 454; ethyl benzene, 327; styrene, 295; and crude industrial ethanol, 281. Ships, terminals, and other infrastructure facilities are included in the agreement.

Not Available

1980-07-14

75

FTIR remote sensor measurements of air pollutants in the petrochemical industrial park  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As FT-IR remote sensing techniques become more accessible, there are increasing interests to apply this open-path measurement method to detect and measure airborne pollutants. Thus a research for VOCs emission pollutants in the petrochemical industry park is conducted. In this study, we focused on the identification of the gaseous pollutants as well as the location of the VOCs pollutants from different factories. Measurement is sampled at every half hour period to obtain the time series plots of observed gas concentration for the gaseous pollutants. Besides the inherent components in ambient air such as carbon monoxide, methane, and ozone, the results of the measurement indicate that the major pollutants detected in this industrial park include vinyl chloride, chloroform, hydrogen chloride, 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,3-butadiene, ethylene, propylene, n-hexane, acetic acid, methyl acetate and ammonia. Some of these toxic pollutants are carcinogens and also the chloride related compounds are potentially a threat to the depletion of ozone. All of these measurements indicate that the pattern of the pollutants for each location is significantly different from each other pattern. In addition, the concentrations and the presence of absence of pollutants were dramatically affected by wind directions. Under this case, suspicious polluting plants are successfully being identified by examining the pattern of compounds, pollutant's concentration time series, metrology, and manufacturing process.

Wu, Rong T.; Chang, Shih-Yi; Chung, Y. W.; Tzou, H. C.; Tso, Tai-Ly

1995-09-01

76

THE GENOTOXICITY OF INDUSTRIAL WASTES AND EFFLUENTS: A REVIEW  

EPA Science Inventory

A review of the literature published on the genotoxicity of industrial wastes and effluents using short-term genetic bioassays is presented in this document. he importance of this task arises from the ubiquity of genotoxic compounds in the environment and the need to identify the...

77

Genotoxicity of industrial wastes and effluents. A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of the literature published on the genotoxicity of industrial wastes and effluents using short-term genetic bioassays is presented in the document. The importance of this task arises from the ubiquity of genotoxic compounds in the environment and the need to identify the sources of contamination so that efforts aimed at control and minimization can be implemented. Of even

V HOUK

1992-01-01

78

Quantification of Ethene Emissions from Petrochemical Industries in Houston, Texas: Large Disagreements with Emission Inventories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reactive alkenes from petrochemical industries are known to play an important role in the formation of ozone in Houston, Texas. In this work we developed a fast-response detector of ethene based on laser photo-acoustic spectroscopy (LPAS) and used it onboard the NOAA WP-3D aircraft to measure ethene in industrial plumes around Houston in the summer of 2006. The new LPAS instrument was evaluated by comparison with measurement results from the whole air sampler (WAS), and the two measurements were found to agree within the combined measurement uncertainties of +/- (200 pptv + 15%). Emission fluxes of ethene were estimated (1) by integrating the measured ethene concentration across the width of industrial plumes, (2) by multiplying the concentration with the orthogonal wind speed measured from the aircraft, and (3) by assuming that the emissions are homogeneously distributed across the height of the boundary layer as estimated using aircraft ascents and descents. The estimated ethene fluxes were compared with the results of simultaneous Solar Occultation Flux (SOF) measurements inside a mobile laboratory, and agreement within a factor of 2 was obtained. Previous work had indicated that current emission inventories underestimate reactive alkene emissions in Houston by 1-2 orders of magnitude. These findings were confirmed both by the LPAS measurements onboard the NOAA WP-3D and the SOF measurements. Finally, the measured mixing ratios of ethene were compared between the results from 2006 and an earlier mission in 2000. In contrast with CO and ethyne, which are predominantly from traffic, ethene and its photoproduct formaldehyde showed the largest decreases between 2000 and 2006, suggesting possible reductions of approximately 40% in the industrial emissions of ethene.

de Gouw, J. A.; Warneke, C.; te Lintel Hekkert, S.; Holloway, J. S.; Parrish, D. D.; Peischl, J.; Ryerson, T. B.; Mellqvist, J.; Atlas, E. A.; Fried, A.

2007-12-01

79

The effect of social trust on citizens’ health risk perception in the context of a petrochemical industrial complex.  

PubMed

Perceived risk of environmental threats often translates into psychological stress with a wide range of effects on health and well-being. Petrochemical industrial complexes constitute one of the sites that can cause considerable pollution and health problems. The uncertainty around emissions results in a perception of risk for citizens residing in neighboring areas, which translates into anxiety and physiological stress. In this context, social trust is a key factor in managing the perceived risk. In the case of industrial risks, it is essential to distinguish between trust in the companies that make up the industry, and trust in public institutions. In the context of a petrochemical industrial complex located in the port of Castellón (Spain), this paper primarily discusses how trust - both in the companies located in the petrochemical complex and in the public institutions - affects citizens' health risk perception. The research findings confirm that while the trust in companies negatively affects citizens' health risk perception, trust in public institutions does not exert a direct and significant effect. Analysis also revealed that trust in public institutions and health risk perception are essentially linked indirectly (through trust in companies). PMID:23337129

López-Navarro, Miguel Angel; Llorens-Monzonís, Jaume; Tortosa-Edo, Vicente

2013-01-21

80

Seawater bittern for the treatment of alkalized industrial effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of magnesium-enriched liquid bittern in the treatment of a variety of industrial wastewaters was investigated. Fresh samples of effluents collected from such industries as ceramic, pulp and cardboard, dairy products, marble tiles, tannery and ready-mix concrete were initially adjusted to pH levels of 11.4±0.1 by the addition of slaked lime. Serial dosages of liquid bittern were added, and

G. M Ayoub; F Merhebi; A Acra; M El-Fadel; B Koopman

2000-01-01

81

Utilization of textile industrial effluent for raising Azadirachta indica A. Juss seedlings in Indian desert  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field experiment was conducted during 1993–1995 to study the effect of industrial effluent on the initial growth of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Neem) in arid region. The effluent released from textile industry had high pH, EC, SAR and RSC. Various treatments were: irrigation with effluent only (W1), effluent mixed with canal water at 1:1 ratio (W2), gypsum?treated effluent (W3),

Genda Singh; Nirmalya Bala; Thana Ram Rathod

2009-01-01

82

INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE: CHAPTER 5. BASIC PETROCHEMICALS INDUSTRY  

EPA Science Inventory

The catalog was developed to aid in defining the environmental impacts of U.S. industrial activity. Entries for each industry are in consistent format and form separate chapters of the catalog. The basic petroleum industry includes companies that treat hydrocarbon streams from th...

83

Health Risk Assessment of Xylene through Microenvironment Monitoring Data: A Case Study of the PetroChemical Industries, Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the absence of environmental health epidemiology, risk managers, policy makers and health-care authorities usually rely on estimates of human exposure level of proximity to hazardous waste site or regional ambient air quality data. Based on ambient concentrations without considering time-activity patterns, the estimation of personal exposure may be over- or underestimated. Twelve villages surrounding the petro-chemical industries located in

Pensri Watchalayann; Nantika Soonthornchaikul

84

State?of?the?Art Adsorption and Membrane Separation Processes for Hydrogen Production in the Chemical and Petrochemical Industries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review on the use of adsorption and membrane technologies in H2 production is directed toward the chemical and petrochemical industries. The growing requirements for H2 in chemical manufacturing, petroleum refining, and the newly emerging clean energy concepts will place greater demands on sourcing, production capacity and supplies of H2. Currently, about 41 MM tons\\/yr of H2 is produced worldwide,

James A. Ritter; Armin D. Ebner

2007-01-01

85

INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT TREATMENT USING IONIZING RADIATION COMBINED TO TITANIUM DIOXIDE  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) with OH radicals are the most efficient to mineralize organic compounds, and there are various methods to generate OH radicals as the use of ozone, hydrogen peroxide and ultra-violet radiation and ionizing radiation. The irradiation of aqueous solutions with high-energy electrons results in the excitation and ionizing of the molecules and rapid (10{sup -14} - 10{sup -9} s) formation of reactive intermediates. These reactive species will react with organic compounds present in industrial effluent inducing their decomposition. Titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) catalyzed photoreaction is used to remove a wide range of pollutants in air and water media, combined to UV/VIS light, FeO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, but as far as known there is no report on the combination with ionizing radiation. In some recent studies, the removal of organic pollutants in industrial effluent, such as Benzene, Toluene, and Xylene from petroleum production using ionizing radiation was investigated. It has been ob served that none of the methods can be used individually in wastewater treatment applications with good economics and high degree of energy efficiency. In the present work, the efficiency of ionizing radiation in presence of TiO{sub 2} to treat industrial effluent was evaluated. The main aim to combine these technologies is to improve the efficiency for very hard effluents and to reduce the processing cost for future implementation to large-scale design.

Duarte, C.L.; Oikawa, H.; Mori, M.N.; Sampa, M.H.O.

2004-10-04

86

Pyrolytic product characteristics of biosludge from the wastewater treatment plant of a petrochemical industry.  

PubMed

Biosludge was produced from the wastewater treatment plant of a petrochemical industry. The element compositions of pyrolytic residues, CO, CO(2), NOx, SOx, total hydrocarbons and detailed volatile organic compounds of pyrolytic gas, and C, H, N, S content and compositions in biofuel were determined in this study. Generally, 75-80% water content in sludge cakes and about 65-70% weight of water vapor and volatile compounds were volatilized during the drying process. Propene, propane, 1-butene, n-butane, isobutene, toluene and benzene were the major volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of the pyrolytic gas, and the concentrations for most of the top 20 VOC species were greater than 5 ppm. C(5)-C(9) compounds contributed 60% by weight of biofuel; 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone was the highest species, accounting for 28-53% of biofuel at various pyrolytic temperatures. Based on the dried residues, there was 8.5-13% weight in pyrolytic residues, 62-82% weight in liquid products (water and crude oil) and 5.8-30% weight in the gas phase after pyrolytic processing at 500-800 degrees C. Finally, 1.5-2.5 wt% liquid fuel was produced after the distillation process. The pyrolytic residues could be reused, the pyrolytic liquid product could be used as a fuel after distillation, and the pyrolytic gas could be recycled in the pyrolytic process to achieve non-toxic discharge and reduce the cost of sludge disposal. PMID:19570608

Lin, Kuo-Hsiung; Hsu, Hui-Tsung; Ko, Ya-Wen; Shieh, Zhu-Xin; Chiang, Hung-Lung

2009-06-06

87

Petrochemical Feasibility Study, Jim Thorpe, Pennsylvania Area, Carbon Schuylkill InDUSTRIAL Development Corporation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

With the more favorable delivered raw material cost and handling requirements and lower product values, the economic feasibility of the development of a Petrochemical Complex in the Jim Thorpe area becomes only slightly more attractive than originally ind...

1964-01-01

88

Economic viability of the Saudi Arabian petrochemical industry: methanol as a case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the pursuit of the diversification strategy, Saudi planners invested a sizable amount of oil surplus in export-oriented petrochemical projects at Jubail and Yanbu. For this strategy to be realized, the projects must be economically viable. Economic viability entails the presence of petrochemical plants that are self-sustaining and self-perpetuating in the long run without state subsidies. In view of the

Al-Salem

1987-01-01

89

Genotoxicity of industrial wastes and effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

In excess of several million pounds of genotoxic and\\/or carcinogenic industrial wastes are released into the U.S. environment each year. Chemical characterization of these waste materials can rarely provide an adequate assessment of their genotoxicity and potential hazard. Bioassays do not require prior information about chemical composition and can effectively assess the genotoxicity of complex waste materials. The most commonly

Larry D Claxton; Virginia S Houk; Thomas J Hughes

1998-01-01

90

Exploitation results of seven RO plants for recovery and reuse of treated effluents in textile industries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper comprises a case study on the implementation of the advance treatment process (ATP) in seven small-scale textile industries. The ATPs installed and commissioned are in compliance with the Statutory Board directions for recovery and reuse of treated effluent leading to zero effluent discharge. The textile effluents are treated in effluent treatment plants comprising a physicochemical option followed by

Rita S. Dhodapkar; Girish R. Pophali; Tapas Nandy; Sukumar Devotta

2007-01-01

91

Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in petrochemical industries by measurement of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene.  

PubMed Central

Biological monitoring of exposure of workers to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in petrochemical industries was performed by the measurement of urinary excretion of 1-hydroxypyrene. In 121 of the 462 workers studied (both smokers and non-smokers) who had had no recent occupational exposure to PAHs a median 1-hydroxypyrene concentration of 0.21 micrograms/g creatinine was found. The upper limit of the 95% confidence interval in these workers of 0.99 micrograms/g creatinine was used as the upper normal value for industrial workers. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations were measured in workers involved in manufacture and maintenance operations in oil refineries (13 studies in eight different settings), in workers manufacturing or handling products containing PAHs in chemical plants (five studies in three settings) and laboratories (four studies), and in workers digging soil contaminated with PAHs (three studies). In most studies in oil refineries 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations were only marginally greater than the values measured in the 121 workers with no recent occupational exposure to PAHs. This was also the case in maintenance operations with higher potential exposure to PAHs, indicating that personal protection equipment was generally adequate to prevent excessive exposure. The studies in chemical plants also showed that exposure to PAHs is low. An exception was the workers engaged in the production of needle coke from ethylene cracker residue, where increased urinary 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations were measured. The excretion of 1-hydroxypyrene by the operators and maintenance workers of this plant was investigated in relation to potential methods of exposure to PAHs. Dermal and inhalatory exposure were both significant determinants of exposure to PAHs.

Boogaard, P J; van Sittert, N J

1994-01-01

92

Overnight atmospheric transport and chemical processing of photochemically aged Houston urban and petrochemical industrial plume  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Overnight atmospheric transport and chemical evolution of photochemically aged Houston urban and petrochemical industrial plume were investigated in July 2005. We report here on the 26 July episode in which the aged plume was tagged 1.5 h before sunset with a pair of free-floating controlled meteorological balloons, which guided quasi-Lagrangian aircraft sampling in the plume as it was advected 300 km to the north over 8 h. The aged plume around sunset was well mixed within a 1600 m residual layer, and was characterized by enhanced levels of aerosol, O3, CO, olefins, acetaldehyde, total odd nitrogen compounds (NOy), and relatively small amounts (<1 ppbv) of NOx. The plume experienced appreciable shearing overnight due to the development of a low-altitude nocturnal jet between 300 and 500 m above mean sea level (MSL). However, the plume above 600 m MSL remained largely undiluted even after 8 h of transport due to lack of turbulent mixing above the jet. About 40-60% of the NOx present in the aged plume around sunset was found to be depleted over this 8 h period. A constrained plume modeling analysis of the quasi-Lagrangian aircraft observations suggested that by dawn this NOx was converted to nitric acid, organic nitrates, and peroxy acyl nitrates via reactions of NO3 radicals with enhanced levels of olefins and aldehydes in the plume. Sensitivity of NOx depletion to heterogeneous hydrolysis of N2O5 on aerosols was examined. These results have significant implications for the impacts of urban and industrial pollution on far downwind regions.

Zaveri, Rahul A.; Voss, Paul B.; Berkowitz, Carl M.; Fortner, Edward; Zheng, Jun; Zhang, Renyi; Valente, Ralph J.; Tanner, Roger L.; Holcomb, Daniel; Hartley, Thomas P.; Baran, Leslie

2010-12-01

93

Pervaporative recovery of isopropanol from industrial effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work the recovery of isopropanol from an industrial waste mixture coming from a pharmaceutical process was studied. The waste stream contains water (76.7%), isopropanol (17%), hydrochloric acid (3.4%) and sodium chloride (2.9%), with trace amounts of other impurities. A pretreatment process combining neutralization and distillation was successful to eliminate salts and the acidic character of the waste. The

A. M. Urtiaga; E. D. Gorri; I. Ortiz

2006-01-01

94

Degradation of malathion by microorganisms isolated from industrial effluents  

SciTech Connect

Malathion, S-(1,2-dicarbethoxyethyl)-o,o-dimethyl dithiophosphate, is a widely used insecticide of the organophosphorous group of pesticides that is degraded in soil, in aquatic systems, in terrestrial plants and animals. Despite the studies on the fate of malathion in soil and salt-marsh environments, little information is available about the degradation of this chemical by microorganisms present in industrial effluents. Further, the microorganisms isolated so far have not been found to degrade high concentrations of malathion. Therefore, in the present study attempts were made to isolate microorganism capable of readily degrading high concentrations of malathion from industrial effluents using an enrichment technique. Attempts were also made to isolate and identify the major metabolites of malathion formed during biodegradation of the pesticide.

Singh, A.K.; Seth, P.K. (Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, Lucknow (India))

1989-07-01

95

Statistical Support Document for the Proposed Effluent Limitations Guidelines for the Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Industry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document describes the statistical models and procedures used to estimate limitations supporting the proposed effluent guideline regulations for the pharmaceutical industry. These effluent limitations were estimated for technologies that formed the b...

1995-01-01

96

Statistical Support Document for Final Effluent Limitations Guidelines and Standards for the Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Industry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document describes the statistical analyses of concentrations in effluent wastewater from facilities in the pharmaceuticals industry. These statistical analyses were used in developing the proposed effluent limitations guidelines and standards for th...

1998-01-01

97

Public enterprise in the international petrochemical industry: The case of Singapore  

SciTech Connect

This article presents evidence from a case study of a particular state-owned, or public, enterprise in Singapore. The case history, together with the final analysis, attempts to ascertain any intrinsic advantages, disadvantages, or other differences in behavior and performance vis-a-vis private enterprise in the international petrochemicals business. The formation and progress of the Petrochemical Corporation of Singapore illustrate the competence of the Singapore government team and the value of the promotional, supportive presence of the government with regard to its enterprises. Organizational culture in public enterprise was enhanced by the role of the Singapore government.

Sikorski, D. [National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore). Dept. of Business Policy

1997-05-01

98

Bioremediation of sago industry effluent and its impact on seed germination (green gram and maize)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we attempted two investigational systems: one is treatment of sago industry effluent by aerobic bacterial consortium\\u000a and the other is impact of treated and untreated effluent on seed germination. For the treatment system, the starch degrading\\u000a bacteria were isolated from sago industry effluent and effluent contaminated soil. The genera, Alcaligenes, Bacillus and Corynebacterium were found efficient in

P. M. Ayyasamy; R. Banuregha; G. Vivekanandhan; S. Rajakumar; R. Yasodha; S. Lee; P. Lakshmanaperumalsamy

2008-01-01

99

Impact of industrial waste effluents on river Damodar adjacent to Durgapur industrial complex, West Bengal, India.  

PubMed

The present study deals with the characterization of industrial effluents released from various industries and distribution of heavy metals in effluent discharge channel and its impact on the river Damodar. The effluent of tamlanala, a natural storm water channel, is extensively used for irrigation for growing vegetables in and around the study area. The heavy metals in water of the study area are in the order of Fe > Mn > Pb >?Cd and sediments follow similar trends too. The enrichment of heavy metals in the sediments are in the order of Cd (39.904) > Pb (33.156) > Mn (0.164) > Fe (0.013). The geoaccumulation index values reveal effluent channel is subjected to moderate to high pollution with respect to Cd (4.733) and Pb (4.466). The analyzed data for enrichment factors and the pollution load index (1.305) show that effluent channels have suffered from significant heavy metal contamination following industrialization and urbanization. Compared to baseline values, the surface sediment layers show high enrichment across the channel and at its discharge point. The factor analysis reveals three factors-industrial sources, surface runoff inputs, and background lithogenic factors which clarify the observed variance of the environmental variables. Metal pollution assessment of sediments suggests that pollution from the heavy metals observed is high in the tamlanala which in turn affects the downstream of the river system. PMID:22623168

Banerjee, U S; Gupta, S

2012-05-25

100

1988 worldwide petrochemical directory  

SciTech Connect

This directory makes available the names, addresses, phone and telex numbers of most of the world's companies which are involved in the petrochemical industry. The directory provides the names of over 14,000 key personnel at over 2,000 plant sites in the United States, Canada, Europe, Latin America, Asia-Pacific, Africa and the Middle East. A company index is provided for easy reference. The Oil and Gas Journal's Worldwide Petrochemical Survey appears in its entirety in this volume.

Not Available

1987-01-01

101

Identification of inhibitory effects of industrial effluents on nitrification.  

PubMed

The aim of our work was to determine the extent of inhibition of oxygen consumption by activated sludge for carbonaceous and ammonium oxidation (ISO 8192 2007) for various wastewaters. We have selected several types of wastewaters different in their origin and composition: pharmaceutical wastewater, tannery wastewater and municipal landfill leachate. To confirm results of toxicity testing, additional ready biodegradability assessment test with measurement of oxygen consumption was accomplished to indicate the impact of effluents to nitrification process. Pharmaceutical wastewater was toxic to activated sludge, but it inhibited heterotrophic microorganisms much more than nitrifying ones. Biodegradability testing confirmed low impact to nitrification by high, non-suppressed oxygen consumption for nitrification process. Tannery effluent inhibited nitrification significantly (180 min EC(50) was 57 vol.%), but it did not affect heterotrophic microorganisms. Landfill leachate was very toxic to heterotrophic microorganisms (180 min EC(50) was 3 vol.%), while it inhibited nitrification less (180 min EC(50) was 24 vol.%). Presented research confirmed that the investigated experimental method is a reliable one for detection of occurrence of substances inhibiting nitrification in different industrial effluents. With regular monitoring of inhibitory impact biological treatment process upsets could be avoided and treatment optimised. PMID:19237775

Zgajnar Gotvajn, A; Zagorc-Koncan, J

2009-01-01

102

Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Petrochemical Industry - An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy is the most important cost factor in the U.S petrochemical industry, defined in this guide as the chemical industry sectors producing large volume basic and intermediate organic chemicals as well as large volume plastics. The sector spent about $10 billion on fuels and electricity in 2004. Energy efficiency improvement is an important way to reduce these costs and to

Maarten Neelis; Ernst Worrell; Eric Masanet

2008-01-01

103

Potential pollutants from petrochemical processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study identifies potential pollution sources, and emissions from these sources, associated with the industrial processing of petrochemicals. In completing this study basic petrochemical raw materials were first identified, and production and consumption data for each raw material were collected. The industries producing them were identified and the processes used by each were charted. Finally, the processes responsible for emission

W. H. Hedley; S. M. Mehta; C. M. Moscowitz; R. B. Reznik; G. A. Richardson; D. L. Zanders

1975-01-01

104

Biodegradation of slop oil from a petrochemical industry and bioreclamation of slop oil contaminated soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Slop oil, i.e. waste oil from a petrochemical complex, contains at least 240 hydrocarbon components, of which 54% are from C5 to C11 and the rest from C12 to C23. Of 22 isolated bacterial cultures that were able to degrade slop oil, seven could each degrade about 40% of the slop oil, and a mixture of all seven could degrade

H. Dave; C. Ramakrishna; B. D. Bhatt; J. D. Desai

1994-01-01

105

Protozoan and metazoan communities treating a simulated petrochemical industry wastewater in a rotating disc biological reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microfauna of adhered biofilms treating a simulated petrochemical plant wastewater was investigated in relation to the organic loading and the toxicity. Experiments in a six-compartment laboratory rotating biological reactor were performed at organic loadings of 0.99, 1.38 and 1.97g\\/l.day. The concentration of organic compounds in the artificial wastewater (phenol, acetophenone and styrene), toxicity of the wastewater, number of representative

S. Y. Selivanovskaya; A. M. Petrov; K. V. Egorova; R. P. Naumova

1997-01-01

106

Lack of association between cancer incidence and residence near petrochemical industry in the San Francisco Bay area  

SciTech Connect

Estimated age-adjusted incidence rates for cancer during 1971-77 among Kalser Foundation Health Plan (KFHP) members living in a portion of the San Francisco Bay area (SFBA) characterized by a heavy concentration of petroleum and chemical industries were compared to estimated rates among KFHP members in the remainder of the SFBA. One hundred fifty-four comparisons were done for 41 selected cancer sites. The number of significant differences did not appear inconsistent with what might be expected by chance alone; furthermore, in most of these instances the so-called exposed area showed the lower rate. These findings provided some assurance that place of residence near petrochemical industries is not associated with increased cancer risk.

Hearey, C.D. (Kaiser-Permanente Medical Center, Martinez, CA); Ury, H.; Siegelaub, A.; Ho, M.K.P.; Salomon, H.; Cella, R.L.

1980-06-01

107

Advanced oxidation process by electron-beam-irradiation-induced decomposition of pollutants in industrial effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electron-beam irradiation considered on advanced oxidation process induces the decomposition of pollutants in industrial effluent. Experiments were conducted using a radiation dynamics electron beam accelerator with 1.5MeV energy and 37kW power. The effluent samples from an industrial complex were irradiated using the IPEN's liquid effluent irradiation pilot plant. The experiments were conducted using one sample from each of eight separate

C. L Duarte; M. H. O Sampa; P. R Rela; H Oikawa; C. G Silveira; A. L Azevedo

2002-01-01

108

Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Petrochemical Industry - An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers  

SciTech Connect

Energy is the most important cost factor in the U.S petrochemical industry, defined in this guide as the chemical industry sectors producing large volume basic and intermediate organic chemicals as well as large volume plastics. The sector spent about $10 billion on fuels and electricity in 2004. Energy efficiency improvement is an important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There are a variety of opportunities available at individual plants in the U.S. petrochemical industry to reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner. This Energy Guide discusses energy efficiency practices and energy efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, facility, and organizational levels. A discussion of the trends, structure, and energy consumption characteristics of the petrochemical industry is provided along with a description of the major process technologies used within the industry. Next, a wide variety of energy efficiency measures are described. Many measure descriptions include expected savings in energy and energy-related costs, based on case study data from real-world applications in the petrochemical and related industries worldwide. Typical measure payback periods and references to further information in the technical literature are also provided, when available. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers in the U.S. petrochemical industry reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner while maintaining the quality of products manufactured. Further research on the economics of all measures--and on their applicability to different production practices--is needed to assess their cost effectiveness at individual plants.

Neelis, Maarten; Worrell, Ernst; Masanet, Eric

2008-09-01

109

Economic Analysis of Potential Effluent Guidelines for Selected Segments of the Fish Hatchery and Farm Industry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report analyzes the economic impact of the effluent control guidelines proposed by the Environmental Protection Agency on selected segments of the fish hatchery and fish farm industries, on specifically two four-digit SIC code industries: SIC 0921, Fi...

1976-01-01

110

Waste processing and pollution in the chemical and petrochemical industries. July, 1980-November, 1981 (citations from the NTIS data base). Report for Jul 80-Nov 81  

SciTech Connect

These citations from Federally funded research cover many aspects of waste processing and pollution in the chemical and petrochemical industries. The bibliography includes emissions, economics, control processes, pollution effects, and abatement strategies. (This updated bibliography contains 121 citations, all of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

Not Available

1981-12-01

111

Waste processing and pollution in the chemical and petrochemical industries. 1978-June, 1980 (citations from the NTIS data base). Report for 1978-Jun 80  

SciTech Connect

These citations from Federally funded research cover many aspects of waste processing and pollution in the chemical and petrochemical industries. The bibliography includes emissions, economics, control processes, pollution effects, and abatement strategies. (This updated bibliography contains 280 citations, none of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

Not Available

1981-12-01

112

Waste processing and pollution in the chemical and petrochemical industries. 1978-June 1980 (citations from the NTIS Data Base). Report for 1978-June 1980  

SciTech Connect

These citations from Federally funded research cover many aspects of waste processing and pollution in the chemical and petrochemical industries. The bibliography includes emissions, economics, control processes, pollution effects, and abatement strategies. (This updated bibliography contains 280 citations, 89 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

Cavagnaro, D.M.

1980-07-01

113

Bioaugmentation and Biovalourization of Agro-Food and Beverage Industry Effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Food and beverage industry effluents form a major chunk of agro-industrial wastes throughout the world. Food industry effluents\\u000a mainly come from starchy foods, olive oil mill, palm oil mill, sugar refining and fermentation industries. It is imperative\\u000a to review the present status of food processing waste utilization for their safe disposal. Microbes are well-suited natural\\u000a agents for recycling of organic

Alok K. Pandey; Brijesh K. Mishra; Anju Arora; Surender Singh; Lata; Ramesh C. Ray

114

Observer-based time-optimal control of an aerobic SBR for chemical and petrochemical wastewater treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study implements a time-optimal control strategy for a discontinuous aerobic bioreactor, used to treat highly concentrated toxic wastewater present in some effluents of the chemical and petrochemical industries, using respirometric techniques. The control strategy regulates the feed rate to maintain a constant optimal substrate concentration in the reactor, which in turn minimizes the reaction time. Since this control

A. Vargas; G. Soto; J. Moreno; G. Buitrón

2000-01-01

115

Comparative toxicity of an effluent from a chlor-alkali industry and HgCl 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Release of waste waters from industries severely affect aquatic flora and fauna. Effluents from industries involved in the production of pesticides, or from industries utilizing toxic substances in their production processes are of particular concern. One such industry, the chlor-alkali industry, utilizes mercury as a cathode in an electrolytic process. Though no mercury is being utilized in the production process,

B. P. Shaw; A. Sahu; A. K. Panigrahi

1990-01-01

116

Asian petrochemicals: What impact  

SciTech Connect

When the authors peer into their crystal ball for the global petrochemical industry's future, they see substantial growth in virtually all markets. These increases emanate from both the large demand base in developed countries and the rapidly evolving needs in industrializing nations. A perspective on global petrochemicals can be gained by referencing ethylene demand, forecast to grow at an average rate approaching 5%/yr through 2000. The importance of East Asia is particularly impressive in view of the region's portion of worldwide ethylene demand, projected to increase from 11.7% in 1993 to 15.3% by 2000. The paper discusses the following: global comparison; hazards of buildup; petrochemical development in China; competitiveness; feedstocks; prices/revenues; variety of products; and economic opportunities.

Rothman, S.N. (Chem Systems, Inc., Tarrytown, NY (United States))

1994-05-01

117

The feasibility of effluent trading in the energy industries  

Microsoft Academic Search

In January 1996, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released a policy statement endorsing effluent trading in watersheds, hoping to spur additional interest in the subject. The policy describes five types of effluent trades - point source\\/point source, point source\\/nonpoint source, pretreatment, intraplant, and nonpoint source\\/nonpoint source. This report evaluates the feasibility of effluent trading for facilities in the oil

Veil

1997-01-01

118

Decolorization of practical textile industry effluents by white rot fungus Coriolus versicolor IBL04  

Microsoft Academic Search

Textile industry discharges a vast amount of unused synthetic dyes in effluents. The discharge of these effluents into rivers and lakes leads to a reduction in sunlight penetration in natural water bodies, which, in turn, decreases both photosynthetic activity and dissolved oxygen concentration rendering it toxic to living beings. This paper describes the decolorization potential of a local white rot

Muhammad Asgher; Naseema Azim; Haq Nawaz Bhatti

2009-01-01

119

Cost benefit analysis of measures to reduce industrial effluent discharges.  

PubMed

In an environmentally harmonized society the most cost effective measures to reduce the total effluent discharges should be taken into account. Generalised discharge values are presented for organic material and nutrients in this paper. Depending on conditions in the receiving water any of these parameters can be the determining factor for the eutrophication and oxygen demand. These parameters can be generalized into equivalent loads of TOC, nitrogen or phosphorus by recalculation according to the Redfield ratio. The cost for reduction of organic material and nutrients from a pulp and paper mill is calculated as a cost per unit pollutant (cost equivalent). This cost equivalent is compared with alternative costs, expressed in the same way, for reduction of organic material and nutrients in adjacent industries, municipal treatment plants, impact from transportation, farming, air deposits etc. In order to find where the most cost efficient measures for the society should be taken the cost equivalent for the mill is compared with the alternative measures and their equivalent costs. PMID:20935381

Sivard, Asa; Ericsson, Tomas; Hylander, Nippe; Karlsson, Magnus; Malmaeus, Mikael

2010-01-01

120

Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Dyes. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents containing dyes. The citations explore bacteria that absorb dyes, neutralization of dye effluents, decolorization by ozonization or ultraviolet radiation, flocculation treatment, and dye absorption methods and materials. Membrane treatment, electrolysis, and ultrafiltration methods of removing dyes from wastewater are considered, as well as reuse of dye-containing effluents. Textile effluents that do not contain dyes are discussed in another bibliography.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1995-09-01

121

Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Dyes. (Latest citations from World Textile Abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents containing dyes. The citations explore bacteria that absorb dyes, neutralization of dye effluents, color removal by ozonization and by treatment with manganese solid waste, flocculation treatment, and dye absorption methods and materials. Membrane treatment, electrolysis, and ultrafiltration methods of removing dyes from wastewater are considered, as well as reuse of dye-containing effluents. Textile effluents that do not contain dyes are discussed in another bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 244 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1992-06-01

122

Electrical energy and the petro-chemical industry: Where are we going?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The petroleum and chemical industries use nearly 26% (? 1\\/4 th ) of all electricity consumed by industry and nearly 7% of all electrical energy consumed in the US. A segment of the overall energy industry using such a large percentage of the electricity can hardly help but be affected by the future trends in the usage and generation of

Keith Malmedal; P. K Sen; Jared Candelaria

2011-01-01

123

Economic Impact Analysis of Effluent Limitations and Standards for the Leather Tanning Industry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

EPA issued final effluent guidelines and limitations for the leather tanning industry in November 1982. This report estimates the economic impact of pollution control costs in terms of the effects on profitability, plant closure, unemployment, price chang...

D. J. Wissman R. E. Seltzer A. C. Barker

1982-01-01

124

Economic Impact and Regulatory Flexibility Analysis of Proposed Effluent Guidelines for the Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Industry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The economic impact analysis (EIA) examines compliance costs and economic impacts resulting from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) proposed revisions to effluent guidelines for the U.S. pharmaceutical industry. The EIA estimates the econo...

1995-01-01

125

Economic Analysis of Final Effluent Limitations Guidelines and Standards for the Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Industry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This economic analysis (EA) examines compliance costs and economic impacts resulting from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Final Effluent Limitations Guidelines and Standards for the Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Industry Point Source Cat...

1998-01-01

126

Loss prevention in the petrochemical and chemical-process high-tech industries in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial safety has noticeably improved in recent years in Taiwan. Despite these improvements, however, serious accidents including explosions, chemical releases, and fires have still occurred in companies such as the Fu Guo Chemical Company (2001), Sin Hun Chemical Company (2005), Motech Industries, Inc. (2005) and Nanpao Resin Co. (2010). These accidents resulted in great loss of life and property, and

Chien-Chung Chen; Tzu-Chi Wang; Lu-Yen Chen; Jie-Huei Dai; Chi-Min Shu

2010-01-01

127

Does living near a constellation of petrochemical, steel, and other industries impair health?  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To investigate concern that local industrial air pollution in Teesside, England, was causing poor health, several areas there were compared with parts of the City of Sunderland. METHODS: Populations in similar social and economic circumstances but varying in their proximity to major industries were compared. Study populations lived in 27 housing estates in Teesside and Sunderland, north east England,

R. S. Bhopal; S. Moffatt; T. Pless-Mulloli; P. R. Phillimore; C. Foy; C. E. Dunn; J. A. Tate

1998-01-01

128

Failure identification and analysis for high-voltage induction motors in the petrochemical industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper gives a synopsis of condition monitoring methods, both as a diagnostic tool and as a technique for failure identification in high-voltage induction motors in industry. New operating experience data for 483 motor units consisting of 6135 unit years are registered and processed statistically to ascertain the connection between motor data, protection and condition monitoring methods, maintenance philosophy and

Olav Vaag Thorsen; Magnus Dalva

1999-01-01

129

Technical training in the MNCs in Malaysia: a case study analysis of the petrochemical industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The aim of this paper is to gain insight into some of the types of training and development practices that are carried out in the chemical industry for technical workers. A salient focus of the study is to make a comparative analysis of four MNCs, which were selected based on equity ownership, to ascertain whether T&D practices are

Lai Wan Hooi

2010-01-01

130

Does living near a constellation of petrochemical, steel, and other industries impair health?  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To investigate concern that local industrial air pollution in Teesside, England, was causing poor health, several areas there were compared with parts of the City of Sunderland. METHODS: Populations in similar social and economic circumstances but varying in their proximity to major industries were compared. Study populations lived in 27 housing estates in Teesside and Sunderland, north east England, with some data from subsets of estates. The estates were aggregated into zones (designated as A, B, and C in Teesside where A is closest to and C furthest from industry, and S in Sunderland). Zone S provided a reference area. The hypothesis was that a health gradient both within Teesside (A > B > C) and between Teesside and Sunderland (ABC > S) would indicate a possible health effect of local industrial air pollution. Data presented were: mortality (1981-91) from 27 housing estates; population self completion questionnaire survey data (1993, 9115 subjects) from 15 housing estates; and general practitioner (GP) consultation data (1989-94) from 2201 subjects in 12 Teesside estates. RESULTS: The populations in the four zones were comparable for indicators including smoking habits, residential histories, and unemployment. All cause and cause specific mortalities were high compared with England and Wales. Mortality in all Teesside zones (ABC) combined was mostly higher than in zone S. In people aged 0-64, lung cancer and respiratory disease showed gradients with highest mortality in areas closest to industry (A > B > C and ABC > S). The association was clearest for lung cancer in women (0-64 years old, trend across zones ABC, p = 0.07, directly standardised rate ratio relative to zone S was 169 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 116-122)). There were no important, consistent gradients in the hypothesised direction between zones in consultation rates in general practice, and self reported respiratory and nonrespiratory health including asthma. CONCLUSIONS: There was no clear evidence that living close to industry was associated with morbidity, including asthma, or for most measures of mortality. For lung cancer in women the gradients indicated a health effect of local industrial air pollution. In the age group 0-64 observed gradients in lung cancer in men and mortality from respiratory disease in men and women were consistent with the study hypothesis, although not significant. The reasons for the different patterns at different ages, and between men and women, remain a puzzle.  

Bhopal, R. S.; Moffatt, S.; Pless-Mulloli, T.; Phillimore, P. R.; Foy, C.; Dunn, C. E.; Tate, J. A.

1998-01-01

131

Assessment of Tannery Industrial Effluents from Kano Metropolis, Kano State, Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim and objective of the study was to determined pollutant levels in tannery industrial effluent from kano metropolis, Nigeria. Effluents from five tannery industries were characterized and the major sources of industrial pollution determined. Levels of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Co, Mn, Fe, Pb and Cr) were determined using Atomic absorption Spectrophotomeric method, while pH, Eh, DO, TDS, Temperature, sulphate, nitrate and phosphate were also determined using standard procedure. The results of the study showed that effluent quality discharged between tanneries differed significantly. Effluent chromium concentrations varied between 1.02`0.13 to 1.56`0.06 mg LG1, which are above WHO and FEPA limit of 1.0 mg LG1. Hafawa Enterprise Tannery, Unique Leather Finishing had significantly high lead concentrations, while Great Northern Tannery could be a potential source of Iron contamination in this area. Mean levels of Zn for Tannorth Tannery Limited were above maximum permissible limits set by FEPA and WHO. Mean levels of sulphate, nitrate and dissolved Oxygen were also above maximum permissible limits for the entire tanneries studied. Mean values of pH total dissolved solid, phosphate, temperature, Cu, Co, Mn and Redox potential generally were below maximum and minimum permissible limits for effluent discharged into rivers. The monthly variations in the entire tannery fell within the range set up by FEPA and WHO for the discharged of tannery effluent into river. The study serves to generate relevant baseline information for Kano industrial estate.

Akan, J. C.; Moses, E. A.; Ogugbuaja, V. O.; Abah, J.

132

Ambient levels of volatile organic compounds in the vicinity of petrochemical industrial area of Yokohama, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban ambient air concentrations of 39 aromatic (including benzene, toluene, and xylenes) and aliphatic volatile organic compounds\\u000a (VOCs) were measured in Yokohama city, Japan. Yokohama city was selected as a case study to assess the amount of VOC released\\u000a from Industrial area to characterize the ambient air quality with respect to VOC as well as to know the impact of

Vasu Tiwari; Yoshimichi Hanai; Shigeki Masunaga

2010-01-01

133

Glass Fiber Mats to Reduce Effluents from Industrial Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many effluents from process operations produce submicron, organic, sticky par-ticulates that are difficult to filter. They may be associated with odors. Until now, incineration or high energy scrubbers operating at as high as 60-70 in. of water were among the possible air cleaners that could solve these problems. The operating costs and the possible water pollution problems make it desirable

Joseph Goldfield; Vincent Greco; Kumud Gandhi

1970-01-01

134

Remediation of tannery effluent polluted soils with industrial waste. Réhabilitation de sols pollués par des effluents de tannerie à l'aide de déchets industriels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tannery industry in India though earns considerable foreign exchange through leather export, it also pollutes the cultivable land through the discharge of effluent. The tannery effluent containing large quantities of sodium, chloride, sulphate, sulphide and chromium contaminates the irrigation water sources. When the contaminated water is used for irrigation it affects the productivity of crops grown (Singaram, 1977). To augment

SINGARAM Palanisamy

135

Correlating Biochemical and Chemical Oxygen Demand of Effluents - A Case Study of Selected Industries in Kumasi, Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study aims at establishing an empirical correla tion between biochemical oxygen demand (BOD 5) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) of effluents from selected industries in the Kumasi Metropolis to facilitate speed y effluent quality assessment or optimal process control. Hour ly effluent samples were collected for an 8-h perio d three times per week for analysis of the principal

F. K. Attiogbe; Mary Glover-Amengor; K. T. Nyadziehe

136

The feasibility of effluent trading in the oil and gas industry  

SciTech Connect

In January 1996, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released a policy statement endorsing wastewater effluent trading in watersheds, hoping to promote additional interest in the subject. The policy describes five types of effluent trades - point source/point source, point source/nonpoint source, pretreatment, intraplant, and nonpoint source/nonpoint source. This paper evaluates the feasibility of effluent trading for facilities in the oil and gas industry. The evaluation leads to the conclusion that potential for effluent trading is very low in the exploration and production and distribution and marketing sectors; trading potential is moderate for the refining sector except for intraplant trades, for which the potential is high. Good potential also exists for other types of water-related trades that do not directly involve effluents (e.g., wetlands mitigation banking). The potential for effluent trading in the energy industries and in other sectors would be enhanced if Congress amended the Clean Water Act (CWA) to formally authorize such trading.

Veil, J.A.

1997-09-01

137

Identification of estrogenic activity change in sewage, industrial and livestock effluents by gamma-irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, reduction of estrogenic activity in three different types of effluents from sewage, industrial and livestock wastewater treatment plants by gamma-irradiation was investigated using the yeast two-hybrid assay. After gamma-ray treatment at a dose of 10 kGy, estrogenic activities of sewage, industrial and livestock effluents decreased from 4.4 to 3.0, 1.5 to 1.0 and 16 to 9.9 ng-EEQ L-1, respectively. The substantial reduction of estrogenic activity in livestock effluent was attributable to the degradation of 17?-estradiol (E2), estrone (E1) and 17?-ethynylestradiol (EE2). Although bisphenol A (BPA) was found at the highest concentration in all effluents, its contribution to the estrogenic activity was not significant due to its low relative estrogenic potency. Meanwhile, the calculated estrogenic activity based on concentrations of E2, E1, EE2 and BPA in the effluents significantly differed from the measured ones. Overestimation may have resulted by dissolved organic matters in effluents inhibiting the estrogenic activity of E2, E1, EE2 and BPA, whereas underestimation was likely due to estrogenic by-products generated by gamma-irradiation.

Ahn, Byeong-Yong; Kang, Sung-Wook; Yoo, Jisu; Kim, Woong-Ki; Bae, Paek-Hyun; Jung, Jinho

2012-11-01

138

Levels of metals, PCBs, PCNs and PAHs in soils of a highly industrialized chemical\\/petrochemical area: Temporal trend  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2005, the concentrations of various metals and organic pollutants were analyzed in soils collected in different areas of Tarragona (Catalonia, Spain), where an important chemical\\/petrochemical complex is located. The levels of seven elements (As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Mn, Pb and V), as well as those of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined

Martí Nadal; Marta Schuhmacher; José L. Domingo

2007-01-01

139

Assessment of the impact of petroleum and petrochemical industries to the surrounding areas in Malaysia using mosses as bioindicator supported by multivariate analysis.  

PubMed

Biomonitoring of multi-element atmospheric deposition using terrestrial moss is a well-established technique in Europe. Although the technique is widely known, there were very limited records of using this technique to study atmospheric air pollution in Malaysia. In this present study, the deposition of 11 trace metals surrounding the main petroleum refinery plant in Kerteh Terengganu (eastern part of peninsular Malaysia) has been evaluated using two local moss species, namely Hypnum plumaeforme and Taxithelium instratum as bioindicators. The study was also done by means of observing whether these metals are attributed to work related to oil exploration in this area. The moss samples have been collected at 30 sampling stations in the vicinity of the petrochemical industrial area covering up to 15 km to the south, north, and west in radius. The contents of heavy metal in moss samples were analyzed by energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence technique. Distribution of heavy metal content in all mosses is portrayed using Surfer software. Areas of the highest level of contaminations are highlighted. The results obtained using the principal components analysis revealed that the elements can be grouped into three different components that indirectly reflected three different sources namely anthropogenic factor, vegetation factor, and natural sources (soil dust or substrate) factor. Heavy metals deposited mostly in the distance after 9 km onward to the western part (the average direction of wind blow). V, Cr, Cu, and Hg are believed to have originated from local petrochemical-based industries operated around petroleum industrial area. PMID:21822578

Abdullah, Mohd Zahari Bin; Saat, Ahmad Bin; Hamzah, Zaini Bin

2011-08-06

140

Algae in the assessment of industrial effluents: case study in southern bengal, India.  

PubMed

This article is an assessment of the diversity of scum and bloom algae encountered in different industrial effluents of Southern Bengal, India, analyzing their habitat and correlating the habitat ecology of each study site. The study was conducted during the period May 2009 to August 2010. The study sites include effluent release areas of the dairy industry, a distillery unit, the leather industry, and an herbal medicine unit. Habitat were analyzed for pH, dissolved oxygen, biological oxygen demand, salinity, alkalinity, and phosphate and nitrate levels. Correlation coefficients were calculated for habitat parameters and algae encountered, showing a significant positive correlation between the richness of dominant and subdominant species with biochemical oxygen demand and salinity and a significant negative correlation with alkalinity, phosphates, and the nitrate-to-phosphate ratio. The richness of dominant and subdominant species in the effluent discharge areas show average values of 9 and 5 in the distillery unit, 8 and 5 in the dairy industry, 7 and 8 in the leather industry, and 5 and 9 in the herbal medicine unit, respectively, with a few (ranging between 3 and 7) co-occurring species in each case. The algal groups encountered were cyanobacteria, euglenophytes, chlorophytes, and bacillariophytes, showing Palmer's Algal Pollution Index of 15 in the dairy industry, 20 in the distillery unit, 28 in the leather industry, and 8 in the herbal medicine unit. PMID:24099424

Sen Sarkar, Neera; Bandyopadhyaya, Tuli; Datta, Shilpa; Das, Swapna

2013-01-01

141

Use of recycling through medium size granular filters to treat small food processing industry effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently there are no suitable wastewater treatment systems for effluents from small food processing industries (dairy, cheese, wine production). Such raw sewages are characterized by high organic matter concentrations (about 10 g COD L-1) and relatively low daily volumes (about 2 m3). An adaptation of attached-growth cultures on fine media processes, known to be easy and inexpensive to use, could

C. Ménoret; C. Boutin; A. Liénard; F. Brissaud

142

Remotion of organic compounds of actual industrial effluents by electron beam irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic compounds has been a great problem of environmental pollution, the traditional methods are not efficient on removing these compounds and most of them are deposited to ambient and stay there for long time causing problems to the environment. Ionizing radiation has been used with success to destroy organic molecules. Actual industrial effluents were irradiated using IPEN's electron beam wastewater

M. H. O. Sampa; C. L. Duarte; P. R. Rela; E. S. R. Somessari; C. G. Silveira; A. L. Azevedo

1998-01-01

143

Remotion of organic compounds of actual industrial effluents by electron beam irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic compounds has been a great problem of environmental pollution, the traditional methods are not effecient on removing these compounds and most of them are deposited to ambient and stay there for long time causing problems to the environment. Ionizing radiation has been used with success to destroy organic molecules. Actual industrial effluents were irradiated using IPEN's electron beam wastewater

M. H. O. Sampa; C. L. Duarte; P. R. Rela; E. S. R. Somessari; C. G. Silveira; A. L. Azevedo

1998-01-01

144

Cement kiln dust and coal filters treatment of textile industrial effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effluent discharge from textile industries to neighbouring water bodies and wastewater treatment systems is currently causing significant health concerns to environmental regulatory agencies. This study records lab scale experiments to test efficiency of cement kiln dust (CKD) and CKD+Coal filters in removing a colour, turbidity, and organic substances (BOD and COD) and heavy metals from textile wastewater. The results showed

Esawy Kasem Mahmoued

2010-01-01

145

Recovery of heavy metal ions through decontamination of synthetic solutions and industrial effluents using modified barks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Raw and chemically treated tree barks were used for the decontamination of synthetic solutions containing 10, 100 and 1000 ppm of arsenic, cadmium, copper, chromium, iron, lead, mercury, nickel and zinc. Industrial effluents were decontaminated on the laboratory and pilot scales. Metal removal from solutions depends on the pH, the initial concentration, the bark species and, to some extent, on

I Gaballah; G Kilbertus

1998-01-01

146

SURVEY ANALYSIS OF PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS IN INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENTS BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY  

EPA Science Inventory

Analyzing industrial effluents for phenolic compounds involves a number of problems both in the separation of these compounds from the aqueous medium and in the chromatography of the extracted compounds. Use of continuous liquid-liquid extractor improved the recovery of phenolic ...

147

Assessing Pollution Levels in Effluents of Industries in City Zone of Faisalabad, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

In present study, assessment of the effluents from seven industries including ghee, Ni-Cr plating, battery, tannery: Lower Heat Unit (LHU), tannery: Higher Heat Unit (HHU), textile: Dying Unit (DU) and textile: Finishing Unit (FU) in city zone of Faisalabad, Pakistan showed that some of them were high in some water pollutants while some were high in other types of water

Muhammad Asif Hanif; Raziya Nadeem; Umer Rashid; Muhammad Nadeem Zafar

2005-01-01

148

OPTIMIZATION OF SORPTION PURIFICATION OF INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENTS, WASTE WATERS AND TECHNOLOGICAL SOLUTIONS FROM POLYVALENT METAL IONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper critically reviews the existing methods which are applied for the sorption purification of industrial effluents, waste waters and technological solutions from polyvalent metal ions (such as mercury, cadmium, calcium, copper, nickel and zinc), and also describes the novel purification processes developed recently by the authors. Particular attention is paid to the optimization of purification processes through the use

Tatyana Mitchenko; Paul Stender; Natalya Makarova

1998-01-01

149

THE ROLE OF BACTERIA METABOLISM IN THE BIOPRECIPITATION OF METAL IONS FROM INDUSTRIAL LIQUID EFFLUENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper focuses on the bioprecipitation of metal ions from industrial liquid effluents by bacterial metabolism. Three main metabolically mediated mechanisms are presented and briefly discussed on the basis of the metabolic characteristics of bacterial activity: (i) aerobic, (ii) anaerobic and (iii) anoxic. The advantages and disadvantages of each mechanism are commented. Applications in bioreactors are briefly presented. 1.

Artin Hatzikioseyian; Emmanouela Remoundaki; Marios Tsezos

150

Geochemical Characterization of Organic Pollutants in Effluents Discharged from Various Industrial Sources to Riverine Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The detailed characterization of the organic composition of industrial effluents discharged from various industrial branches\\u000a and the distribution of the emitted pollutants in the surface waters in North Rhine-Westphalia have been done with the use\\u000a of non-target screening analyses. Based on the characterization of molecular structures of wastewater constituents, their\\u000a quantification as well as the available information on their origin

Oxana Botalova; Jan Schwarzbauer

151

Economic impact analysis of proposed effluent standards and limitations for the coil coating industry. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The report provides an identification and analysis of the economic impacts which are likely to result from the promulgation of EPA's effluent regulations on the Coil Coating Industry. The primary economic impact variables assessed in the study include the costs of the proposed regulations and potential for these regulations to cause plant closures, price changes, unemployment, changes in industry profitability, structure and competition, shifts in the balance of foreign trade, new source impacts, and impacts on small businesses.

Not Available

1982-11-01

152

Industrial and biotechnological applications of laccases: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laccases have received much attention from researchers in last decades due to their ability to oxidise both phenolic and non-phenolic lignin related compounds as well as highly recalcitrant environmental pollutants, which makes them very useful for their application to several biotechnological processes. Such applications include the detoxification of industrial effluents, mostly from the paper and pulp, textile and petrochemical industries,

Susana Rodríguez Couto; José Luis Toca Herrera

2006-01-01

153

Impact of sugar industry effluents on soil cellulase activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

An assessment on the impact of sugar industry wastes on soil physicochemical and cellulase activity in waste dump sites, carried out in urban Nandyal, Southern India. Some core samples were collected from the selected profile pits at different soil horizons of dump (test) and non-dump sites (control). The experimental results indicated that, most of the physicochemical properties such as silt,

M. Nagaraju; G. Narasimha; V. Rangaswamy

2009-01-01

154

Cleanup of industrial effluents containing heavy metals: a new opportunity of valorising the biomass produced by brewing industry.  

PubMed

Heavy metal pollution is a matter of concern in industrialised countries. Contrary to organic pollutants, heavy metals are not metabolically degraded. This fact has two main consequences: its bioremediation requires another strategy and heavy metals can be indefinitely recycled. Yeast cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are produced at high amounts as a by-product of brewing industry constituting a cheap raw material. In the present work, the possibility of valorising this type of biomass in the bioremediation of real industrial effluents containing heavy metals is reviewed. Given the auto-aggregation capacity (flocculation) of brewing yeast cells, a fast and off-cost yeast separation is achieved after the treatment of metal-laden effluent, which reduces the costs associated with the process. This is a critical issue when we are looking for an effective, eco-friendly, and low-cost technology. The possibility of the bioremediation of industrial effluents linked with the selective recovery of metals, in a strategy of simultaneous minimisation of environmental hazard of industrial wastes with financial benefits from reselling or recycling the metals, is discussed. PMID:23824444

Soares, Eduardo V; Soares, Helena M V M

2013-07-04

155

Increased Risk of Preterm Delivery in Areas with Cancer Mortality Problems from Petrochemical Complexes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The petrochemical and petroleum industries are the main sources of industrial air pollution in Taiwan. Data in this study concern outdoor air pollution and the health of individuals living in communities in close proximity to petrochemical industrial complexes. The prevalence of delivery of preterm birth infants was significantly higher in mothers living near petrochemical industrial complexes than in control mothers

Chun-Yuh Yang; Hui-Fen Chiu; Shang-Shyue Tsai; Chih-Ching Chang; Hung-Yi Chuang

2002-01-01

156

Efficiency of industrial minerals on the removal of mercury species from liquid effluents.  

PubMed

Increasing attention has been given, by the industrial sector, to the removal of heavy metals from liquid effluents to satisfy environmental regulations. For this purpose, the most common methods utilized include: chemical precipitation, cementation, ion exchange, adsorption and solvent extraction. All these methods have limitations such as slow kinetics, low adsorption capacity and they are usually very expensive. Thus, new technologies for heavy metal removal are of great interest. This study consisted on a screening of industrial minerals to check their efficiencies to remove mercury from liquid effluents. The methodology employed a batch adsorption technique. The tested minerals included: atapulgites, zeolites, magnetites, kaolin, vermiculite and bentonite. Results show relatively high efficiencies of magnetite and zeolite on mercury removal. These minerals were capable to remove mercury species from effluents with concentrations reaching 1,000 ppm, corresponding to a sorption capacity of 10,000 mg Hg/kg. The sorption maximum was not reached in these tests. In addition, it became evident the importance of mercury speciation at the solid:liquid interface, with relevant consequences on the application of this technology to effluent treatment. PMID:16274731

Melamed, Ricardo; da Luz, Adão Benvindo

2005-11-07

157

SABIC developing key role in petrochemical markets  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that Sabic, Saudi Arabia's state petrochemical company, has emerged as a major player in that industry. Sabic was created in 1976 mainly to add value to Saudi hydrocarbon resources by using associated gas, formerly mostly flared, as feedstock for basic petrochemical products. Its role expanded to include downstream petrochemical products, fertilizer, and metals, essentially creating an industrial base in Saudi Arabia. Since then, Sabic has developed with joint venture partners 15 companies, each representing a world scale industrial plant. The first 12 of those were on stream by yearend 1985. Total industrial output, mainly petrochemicals, has increased to more than 11 million metric tons in 1989 from almost 3 million tons in 1984.

Not Available

1991-01-07

158

Removal of chromium from electroplating industry effluents by ion exchange resins.  

PubMed

Effluent discharged from the chromium electroplating industry contains a large number of metals, including chromium, copper, nickel, zinc, manganese and lead. The ion exchange process is an alternative technique for application in the treatment of industrial wastewater containing heavy metals and indeed it has proven to be very promising in the removal and recovery of valuable species. The main objective of the present work is to evaluate the performance of commercial ion exchange resins for removing chromium trivalent from industrial effluents, and for this purpose two resins were tested: a chelating exchange resin (Diaion CR11) and a weak cationic resin (Amberlite IRC86). In order to evaluate the sorption capacity of the resins some equilibrium experiments were carried out, being the temperature and pH the main variables considered. The chromium solutions employed in the experiments were synthetic solutions and industrial effluents. In addition, a transient test was also performed as an attempt to understand the kinetic behaviour of the process. PMID:17336455

Cavaco, Sofia A; Fernandes, Sandra; Quina, Margarida M; Ferreira, Licínio M

2007-01-30

159

Assessment of the impact of industrial effluents on water quality of receiving rivers in urban areas of Malawi  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was carried out in Malawi to assess the extent of chemical pollution in a receiving river as affected by industrial effluents. Both the effluents and the water at selected points in the river were analysed for pH, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, electrical conductivity, suspended solids, nitrate, alkalinity, hardness, chloride and phosphate in the dry and rainy seasons.

O. Phiri; P. Mumba; B. H. Z. Moyo; W. Kadewa

160

Respirometric biomonitor for the control of industrial effluent toxicity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A yeast cell biosystem has been recently developed for the total toxicity testing of a sample that may contain a number of different polluting species. The method uses an amperometric gas diffusion oxygen sensor as indicating electrode and is based on the perturbation of the respiratory activity of the immobilized yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae; glucose acts as substrate. Several toxic substances were tested: metal ions, phenol and cationic, anionic or nonionic surfactants. Some results of a monitoring program of an industrial wastewater are also reported and discussed.

Campanella, L.; Favero, G.; Mastrofini, D.; Tomassetti, M.

1995-10-01

161

Feedstock limitations in Saudi Arabian petrochemical plants dictate products  

SciTech Connect

Few changes in the petrochemical industry in the Saudi Arabia are likely through the early 1990s. Although the country produces substantial quantities of petrochemicals, products are limited to those that can be most economically produced from natural gas-based feedstocks. Heavy reliance on natural gas-based feeds means that the Saudi industry produces mainly olefins and olefins derivatives. Thus, other important products, in particular aromatics derivatives, cannot be economically produced. The author gives an overview of the petrochemical industry in the Persian Gulf, with a specific look at the petrochemical industry in Saudi Arabia.

AlMutaz, I.S. (King Saud Univ., Riyadh (SA))

1989-09-04

162

Enzymatic saccharification and fermentation of paper and pulp industry effluent for biohydrogen production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paper and pulp industry effluent was enzymatically hydrolysed using crude cellulase enzyme (0.8–2.2FPU\\/ml) obtained from Trichoderma reesei and from the hydrolysate biohydrogen was produced using Enterobacter aerogenes. The influence of temperature and incubation time on enzyme production was studied. The optimum temperature for the growth of T. reesei was found to be around 29°C. The enzyme activity of 2.5FPU\\/ml was

Rajendran Lakshmidevi; Karuppan Muthukumar

2010-01-01

163

The Effect of Industrial Effluent from Pulp and Paper Mills on the Marine Benthic Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The types of effluent discharged by wood-processing industries and their effects on the benthic environment are described. A brief summary of the results of the Lochs Linnhe-Eil survey 1964-70 is given. Populations of the molluscs Corbula, Thyasira and Myrtea have increased in most areas, and appear to be favoured by a moderate increase in the organic input to the system.

T. H. Pearson

1972-01-01

164

Tracing Organic Footprints from Industrial Effluent Discharge in Recalcitrant Riverine Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excitation–emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy, combined with parallel factor analysis and measurements of UV absorption\\u000a and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations, was used to trace the footprints of industrial effluents discharged into\\u000a the lower Kishon River (Israel). The lower Kishon River typifies streams that are affected by seawater tidal intrusion and\\u000a represents an extreme case of severe long-term pollution caused mainly

Mikhail Borisover; Yael Laor; Ibrahim Saadi; Marcos Lado; Nadezhda Bukhanovsky

165

Removal of Heavy Metals from Industrial Effluents by the Submerged Aquatic Plant Myriophyllum spicatum L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential use of Myriophyllum spicatum L. for the removal of Co, Ni, Cu and Zn from industrial effluents was studied. The removal kinetics, tolerance and accumulation\\u000a capacity of the submerged aquatic plant were assessed. Removal of Cu and Zn was similar and occurred rapidly with time whereas\\u000a removal of Co and Ni was slower. Plant growth was not adversely

Els Lesage; Charity Mundia; Diederik P. L. Rousseau; Annelies Moortel; Gijs Du Laing; Filip M. G. Tack; Niels Pauw; Marc G. Verloo

166

Characterization of organic pollutants in industrial effluents by high-temperature gas chromatography–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characterization of complex mixtures of organic contaminants present in industrial effluents is a well-known problem. The determination of individual target analytes depends very much on the analytical method used. In this article, the possibilities of using high-temperature gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (HT-GC–MS) are explored. In HT-GC–MS non-polar and medium-polarity phases can be operated at temperatures up to 370–420°C, allowing the

A. S Pereira; F. R Aquino Neto

1999-01-01

167

Development of effluent guidelines and Environmental Protection Agency research and development program for edible oils industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the statutory basis for the establishment of effluent limitations guidelines and standards of performance\\u000a for this industry including remarks on water quality standards. The Environmental Protection Agency’s research, development,\\u000a and demonstration program is presented. The specific objectives, solution required, activities, and best available treatment,\\u000a zero discharge concept, and total elimination of discharges (elimination of multi-media pollution discharges)

William J. Lacy; George Keeler; George R. Webster

1975-01-01

168

USE OF TOXICITY IDENTIFICATION EVALUATION METHODS TO CHARACTERIZE IDENTIFY, AND CONFIRM HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM TOXICITY IN AN INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT  

EPA Science Inventory

A toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) was conducted on effluent from a major industrial discharger. Initial monitoring showed slight chronic toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia; later sample showed substantial toxicity to C. dubia. Chemical analysis detected hexavalent chromium ...

169

Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Excluding dyes. July 1983-September 1989 (Citations from World Textile Abstracts). Report for July 1983-September 1989  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents. Effluents that contain dyes are discussed in a separate bibliography. Recovery of lubricants, lye, sizing agents, polyvinyl alcohol, zinc, dirt, and heat from textile effluents are discussed. Air and water pollution control technology that is effective in treating textile effluents is discussed. Effluents from synthetic fiber manufacture and wool scouring processes are emphasized. (This updated bibliography contains 322 citations, 22 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

Not Available

1989-12-01

170

Characterization of a phenol-degrading bacterium isolated from an industrial effluent and its potential application for bioremediation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of native microorganisms is a useful strategy for phenol bioremediation. In the present work, a bacterial strain, named RTE1.4, was isolated from effluents of a chemical industry. The strain was able to grow at high concentrations of phenol and its derivatives, such as guaiacol, 2,4-dichlorophenol and pentachlorophenol, as well as in a medium containing industrial effluents. This bacterium

Cintia E. Paisio; Melina A. Talano; Paola S. González; Eloisa Pajuelo-Domínguez; Elizabeth Agostini

2012-01-01

171

Removal of coloured compounds from textile industry effluents by UV\\/H2O2 advanced oxidation and toxicity evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study has investigated the reduction in coloured substances and toxic compounds present in textile industry effluent by the use of an advanced oxidation process using hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as oxidant, activated by ultraviolet radiation. The investigation was carried out on industrial effluents, both raw and after biological treatment, using different concentrations of H2O2 in a photochemical reactor equipped with

Maria Eliza Nagel-Hassemer; Catia Regina S. Carvalho-Pinto; William Gerson Matias; Flávio Rubens Lapolli

2011-01-01

172

SUPPLY AND DEMAND OF LIGHT NAPHTHA AS POTENTIAL PETROCHEMICAL FEEDSTOCK IN SAUDI ARABIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saudi Arabia is a major crude oil producer and exporter. Additionally, with the completion of its master gas gathering and treatment system petrochemical industries became the Kingdom's second major industrial sector. Currently, the Saudi petrochemical industry depends mainly on (C1) methane and (C2) ethane components of associated gas (AG) and natural gas (NG) as feedstocks. A variety of basic petrochemicals

Dawoud S. Redwan; Mohammed M. Abu-Shbak; Khalid A. Bubshait

1999-01-01

173

Treatment of industrial wastewater effluents using hydrodynamic cavitation and the advanced Fenton process.  

PubMed

For the first time, hydrodynamic cavitation induced by a liquid whistle reactor (LWR) has been used in conjunction with the advanced Fenton process (AFP) for the treatment of real industrial wastewater. Semi-batch experiments in the LWR were designed to investigate the performance of the process for two different industrial wastewater samples. The effect of various operating parameters such as pressure, H2O2 concentration and the initial concentration of industrial wastewater samples on the extent of mineralization as measured by total organic carbon (TOC) content have been studied with the aim of maximizing the extent of degradation. It has been observed that higher pressures, sequential addition of hydrogen peroxide at higher loadings and lower concentration of the effluent are more favourable for a rapid TOC mineralization. In general, the novel combination of hydrodynamic cavitation with AFP results in about 60-80% removal of TOC under optimized conditions depending on the type of industrial effluent samples. The combination described herein is most useful for treatment of bio-refractory materials where the diminution in toxicity can be achieved up to a certain level and then conventional biological oxidation can be employed for final treatment. The present work is the first to report the use of a hydrodynamic cavitation technique for real industrial wastewater treatment. PMID:17368951

Chakinala, Anand G; Gogate, Parag R; Burgess, Arthur E; Bremner, David H

2007-02-03

174

Assessment of ecological risks linked to the discharge of saline industrial effluent into a river.  

PubMed

Discharges of saline effluents into rivers can lead to risks for local aquatic ecosystems. A specific ecological risk assessment methodology has been developed to propose a management tool to organisations responsible for managing rivers and industrial companies producing saline effluents. This methodology involves the detailed description of the spatiotemporal system concerned, the choice of ecological targets to be preserved, and the performance of bioassays adapted to each of the compartments of the river. Following development, it was applied to an industrial effluent in eastern France. For the scenario studied, results obtained suggest a high risk for the organisms of the water column and a low risk for the organisms of the periphyton. This difference can be explained by the structure of the latter which integrate extracellular polymers secreted by the organisms of the biofilm, forming a gel with a porous structure that acts as a barrier to diffusion. The methodology formulated permitted identifying the critical points of the spatiotemporal system studied and then using them as the basis for making well-grounded proposals for management. Lastly, proposals to improve the methodology itself are made, especially concerning the integration of the sediment compartment in the version formulated initially. PMID:22684878

Perrodin, Yves; Volatier, Laurence; Bazin, Christine; Boisson, Jean-Claude

2012-06-10

175

Petroleum industry effluents and other oxygen-demanding wastes in Niger Delta, Nigeria.  

PubMed

In this article, we review the fundamental phenomenon of oxygenation within the overriding context of petroleum-industry effluents and the other oxygen demanding wastes in Niger Delta, Nigeria. Drill cuttings, drilling mud (fluids used to stimulate the production processes), and accidental discharges of crude petroleum constitute serious land and water pollution in the oil-bearing province. Effluents from other industrial establishments such as distilleries, pulp and paper mills, fertilizer plants, and breweries, as well as thermal effluents, plant nutrients (such as nitrates and phosphates), and eroded sediments have also contributed to the pollution of their surrounding environment. Since these wastes are oxygen-demanding in nature, their impact on the recipient environment can be reversed by the direct application of simple chemistry. The wastes can be reduced, particularly in natural bodies of water, by direct oxidation-reduction processes or simple chemical combinations, acid-base reactions, and solubility equilibria; these are pH- and temperature-dependent. A shift in pH and alkalinity affects the solubility equilibria of Na+, Cl-, SO(2-), NO3(-), HCO3(-), and PO4(3-), and other ions and compounds. PMID:17193303

Osuji, Leo C; Uwakwe, Augustine A

2006-07-01

176

Use of recycling through medium size granular filters to treat small food processing industry effluents.  

PubMed

Currently there are no suitable wastewater treatment systems for effluents from small food processing industries (dairy, cheese, wine production). Such raw sewages are characterized by high organic matter concentrations (about 10 g COD L-1) and relatively low daily volumes (about 2 m3). An adaptation of attached-growth cultures on fine media processes, known to be easy and inexpensive to use, could fit both the technical and economical context of those industries. Coarser filter particle size distributions than those normally used allow a better aeration and reduce clogging risk. The transit time of the effluent through the porous filter materials is shortened and requires recycling to increase the contact time between the biomass and the substrate. A pilot plant was built to compare the efficiency of two kinds of filter materials, gravel (2-5 mm) and pozzolana (3-7 mm). Two measurement campaigns were undertaken on a full-scale unit dealing with cheese dairy effluents. Both pilot-scale and full-scale plants show high COD removal rates (> 95%). Pilot-scale experiments show that accumulation of organic matter leads to the clogging of the recycling filter. To prevent early clogging, a better definition of feeding cycles is needed. PMID:12201106

Ménoret, C; Boutin, C; Liénard, A; Brissaud, F

2002-01-01

177

Removal of Cu and Cr from an industrial effluent using a packed-bed column with algae Gelidium-derived material  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this work was to evaluate the potential of algal waste from the agar extraction industry, immobilized in a polymer, and the algae Gelidium itself, the raw material of agar extraction, to remove Cu(II) and Cr(III) from industrial effluents. The study involved a Cu(II) bearing effluent and the mixture of this effluent with an effluent containing Cr(VI), previously

Vítor J. P. Vilar; Ramiro J. E. Martins; Cidália M. S. Botelho; Rui A. R. Boaventura

2009-01-01

178

Economic analysis of effluent limitation guidelines and standards for the centralized waste treatment industry  

SciTech Connect

This report estimates the economic and financial effects and the benefits of compliance with the proposed effluent limitations guidelines and standards for the Centralized Waste Treatment (CWT) industry. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has measured these impacts in terms of changes in the profitability of waste treatment operations at CWT facilities, changes in market prices to CWT services, and changes in the quantities of waste management at CWT facilities in six geographic regions. EPA has also examined the impacts on companies owning CWT facilities (including impacts on small entities), on communities in which CWT facilities are located, and on environmental justice. EPA examined the benefits to society of the CWT effluent limitations guidelines and standards by examining cancer and non-cancer health effects of the regulation, recreational benefits, and cost savings to publicly owned treatment works (POTWs) to which indirect-discharging CWT facilities send their wastewater.

Wheeler, W.

1998-12-01

179

Study of biological aerated filters for the treatment of effluents from the citrus industry.  

PubMed

The primary objective of this research study was to test the applicability and optimize the design parameters of a system of biological aerated filters in order to obtain an optimal effluent from the citrus industry, which would allow its drainage into the municipal sewer system. Expanded clay was used as a support material. After experimenting with both countercurrent and cocurrent flows as well different aeration levels, it was found that cocurrent flow was more efficient. Backwashing was carried out on a daily basis. The results of our study showed that for an aeration of 10.47 Nm3/h/m2, the volumetric load should be less than 20 Kg. COD/m3/d in order to obtain an effluent with a maximum concentration of 600 mgCOD/L, and the hydraulic load should be less than 0.36 m/h. PMID:17114100

Osorio, Francisco; Torres, Juan C; Hontoria, Ernesto

2006-01-01

180

Advanced oxidation processes for treatment of effluents from a detergent industry.  

PubMed

Ozonation, catalytic ozonation, Fenton's and heterogeneous Fenton-like processes were investigated as possible pretreatments of a low biodegradable and highly toxic wastewater produced by a detergent industry. The presence of a Mn-Ce-O catalyst in ozonation enhances the biodegradability and improves the degradation at low pH values. However, a high content of carbonyl compounds adsorbed on the recovered solid indicates some limitations for real-scale application. A commercial Fe2O3-MnOx catalyst shows higher activity as well as higher stability concerning carbon adsorption, but the leaching of metals is larger than for Mn-Ce-O. Regarding the heterogeneous Fenton-like route with an Fe-Ce-O catalyst, even though a high activity and stability are attained, the intermediates are less biodegradable than the original compounds, indicating that the resulting effluent cannot be conducted to an activated sludge post-treatment. The highest enhancement of effluent biodegradability is obtained with the classic homogeneous Fenton's process, with the BOD5/COD ratio increasing from 0.32 to 0.80. This process was scaled up and the treated effluent is now safely directed to a municipal wastewater treatment plant. PMID:21882556

Martins, Rui C; Silva, Adrián M T; Castro-Silva, Sérgio; Garção-Nunes, Paulo; Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa M

2011-07-01

181

Economic analysis of final effluent limitations guidelines and standards for the pharmaceutical manufacturing industry  

SciTech Connect

This economic analysis (EA) examines compliance costs and economic impacts resulting from the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) Final Effluent Limitations Guidelines and Standards for the Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Industry Point Source Category. It also investigates the costs and impacts associated with an air rule requiring Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) to control air emissions, both separately and together with the Final Pharmaceutical Industry Effluent Guidelines. The EA estimates the economic effects of compliance with both final rules in terms of total aggregate annualized costs of compliance, facility closures, impacts on firms (likelihood of bankruptcy and effects on profit margins), and impacts on new sources. The EA also investigates secondary impacts on employment and communities, foreign trade, specific demographic groups, and environmental justice. This report includes a Final Regulatory Flexibility Analysis (FRFA) detailing the impacts on small businesses within the pharmaceutical industry to meet the requirements of the Regulatory Flexibility Act (RFA), as amended by the Small Business Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Act (SBREFA). Finally, the EA presents a cost-benefit analysis to meet the requirements of Executive Order 12866 and the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act.

NONE

1998-07-01

182

Treatment of a petrochemical wastewater in sequencing batch reactors  

SciTech Connect

The response of sequencing batch reactors (SBR's) in an industrial application was investigated. Four bench-scale SBR's and a bench-scale conventional activated sludge unit were operated with wastewater from a petrochemical complex. In terms of the degradation of BOD material and nitrification, the performance of the SBR's was comparable or slightly superior to that of the conventional activated sludge unit. However, for high strength wastes with BOD/sub 5/ > 300 mg/l and under organic shock loading conditions, effluent from an SBR may have a high solids content as a result of abundant dispersed-cells growth. The SBR reacted well to a series of phenolic shock loadings; phenols were degraded from initial concentrations ranging from 200 to 950 mg/l to <0.1 mg/l. A model of the SBR, which incorporated the Monod kinetics, was presented as a design aid.

Hsu, E.H.

1986-05-01

183

Behavioral analysis of sources of occupational stress and responses of middle-level managers in the Gulf Coast petrochemical industry  

SciTech Connect

A behavioral assessment interview procedure was used to identify sources of occupational stress, responses and effectiveness of these responses to stress. Seventy-three middle-level managers in three petrochemical companies in the Texas gulf area were interviewed. Six categories of stress were used to categorize the sources of stress obtained during the interview. The frequencies in sources of stress reported by managers were not significantly different among areas of the plants; however, there were significant differences among companies. The most frequent source of stress for all companies is factors intrinsic to the job. The responses the managers made to sources of stress were categorized. Some of the types of responses were: making new policy, seeking information, and not addressing the problem. Each manager rated the effectiveness of his response in terms of its ability to reduce stress. There is an advantage when subjects list their responses to stress and then rate the effectiveness of each response. In research of this type subjects do not consciously select their best response, but give their most frequent response and then rate its effectiveness. The results of this study indicate that the most frequent response to a source of stress and the most effective response in reducing stress are not always the same. The most frequent response is direct/delayed problem resolution, while the most effective response in reducing stress is prevention. There is a significant difference among the effectiveness ratings of middle-level managers' responses to stress. Not addressing the problem proved to be the least effective response in reducing middle-level managers' stress.

Richard, H.W.

1982-01-01

184

Ecotoxicological study of the influence of an industrial effluent on a net-spinning caddisfly assemblage in a regulated river  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of an industrial effluent on the spatial distribution of net-spinning caddisflies (Trichoptera, Insecta) in the regulated Rio Duratón (northern Spain) was studied using field and laboratory methods. The effluent caused an increase in the fluoride concentration at three downstream sampling sites (mean values 6.8, 2.7 and 1.3 mg F-L-1 at S-3, S-4 and S-5) compared with control stations

Julio A. Camargo

1991-01-01

185

Trends in the incidence of cryptorchidism and hypospadias of registry-based data in Korea: a comparison between industrialized areas of petrochemical estates and a non-industrialized area  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to represent the recent trends in the nationwide incidence of cryptorchidism and hypospadias in Korea, and to determine whether there is evidence of spatial heterogeneity in the incidence. The incidence was calculated as the number of newly diagnosed patients (males) during the first 4 years after a live birth in a population, nationally and regionally (a non-industrialized area (Chuncheon) and petrochemical estates (Yeocheon and Ulsan)), between 2000 and 2005. The data (numerator) for new patients were acquired from the National Health Insurance Review Agency, and the data (denominator) for the resident registration population were from the National Statistical Office. Between 2000 and 2005, the national incidence of cryptorchidism and hypospadias had an increased tendency from 5.01 to 17.43 per 10 000 persons and from 1.40 to 3.28 per 10 000 persons, respectively. The incidence of cryptorchidism was significantly higher in Yeocheon (throughout the study period) and in Ulsan (2001, 2002, 2004 and 2005) than the national incidence, whereas the incidence in Chuncheon was significantly lower in 2001 and 2002. It was difficult to compare the rates of hypospadias yearly and regionally because of the small number of cases. In conclusion, the incidence of cryptorchidism has recently increased in Korea. The petrochemical estates, Yeocheon and Ulsan, had a significantly higher incidence of cyptorchidism than the national incidence, which suggests that further study is needed to obtain a more precise estimation of the trends in the incidence of the anomalies and to confirm the association between petrochemicals and the anomalies.

Chul Kim, Sae; Kyoung Kwon, Su; Pyo Hong, Yeon

2011-01-01

186

Treatment of nickel containing industrial effluents with a hybrid process comprising of polymer complexation–ultrafiltration–electrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process was studied at the laboratory level and on a pre-industrial pilot for pollutant removal from industrial waste waters containing nickel cations. Five successive steps are involved: (1) complexation of the metal by means of polymeric ligands; (2) ultrafiltration of the complex, which produced a purified effluent and a concentrated metal complex solution; (3) decomplexation by acidification; (4) ultrafiltration

P. Baticle; C. Kiefer; N. Lakhchaf; O. Leclerc; M. Persin; J. Sarrazin

2000-01-01

187

Evaluation of chelating ion-exchange resins for separating Cr(III) from industrial effluents.  

PubMed

In this study two chelating resins containing iminodiacetic acid groups (Amberlite IRC 748 and Diaion CR 11) and a chelating resin based on sulfonic and diphosphonic acid groups (Diphonix) were investigated in order to separate Cr(III) from industrial effluents produced in hard and decorative electroplating. Samples of two industrial plants were characterized during a period of about one year and a half in terms of the metals content (Cr, Cu, Na, Ca, Fe and Ni), Total Suspended Solids (TSS), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and pH. Some of the physical properties of the resins, namely the moisture content, apparent density, intraparticle porosity and the particle size distribution were also evaluated. To quantify the sorption capacity of the resins, batch experiments were performed using synthetic solutions of Cr(III), as well as solutions of Fe in the case of Diphonix. The Langmuir and Langmuir-Freundlich isotherms enabled a good description of the ion-exchange equilibrium data, and the maximum sorption capacity determined for Amberlite and Diaion was 3.6 mequiv./g(dry resin). For Diphonix that parameter was 3.4 mequiv./g(dry resin). The Diphonix resin exhibits a high selectivity for transition metals (Fe, Ni) over the chromium trivalent. Therefore, it was screened as the most suitable for selectively removing those metal impurities from chromium electroplating effluents. For this resin, the sorption capacity is strongly dependent on the initial pH of the solution. Though, high regeneration efficiencies of Diphonix for stripping Cr(III) were found by using a mixture of NaOH/H(2)O(2). The mathematical model tested for describing the dynamics of the process allowed a good fitting to the experimental data and enabled the estimation of effective pore diffusivity of Cr(III). The saturations of Diphonix with industrial effluents demonstrated that the breakthrough capacity of the resin is affected by the presence of other species in solution, such as Fe and Ni. Nevertheless, these effluents may be treated with this resin, being possible to separate Cr(III) from other transition metallic ions in solution. PMID:19406569

Cavaco, Sofia A; Fernandes, Sandra; Augusto, Cátia M; Quina, Margarida J; Gando-Ferreira, Licínio M

2009-04-05

188

Material-flow Modeling Technology and Its Application in Manufacturing Execution Systems of Petrochemical Industry * * Supported by the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (No.2007AA04Z191)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The management and control of material flow forms the core of manufacturing execution systems (MES) in the petrochemical industry. The bottleneck in the application of MES is the ability to match the material-flow model with the production processes. A dynamic material-flow model is proposed in this paper after an analysis of the material-flow characteristics of the production process in a

Defang LI; Lu LIU; Wei ZHU; Gang RONG

2008-01-01

189

EVALUATION OF ELECTRODIALYSIS FOR WATER AND SALT RECOVERY FROM AN INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

A chemical manufacturing company in South Africa produces an effluent with high concentrations of sodium chloride, calcium sulphate and organics. This effluent is disposed of on an effluent farm (3 km²) in evaporation ponds. Water evaporation is taking place in the ponds and the sodium chloride in the effluent is concentrated to approximately 3 to 4%. Part of the organics

J J Schoeman; A Steyn

190

Low effluent processing in the pulp and paper industry: Electrodialysis for continuous selective chloride removal  

SciTech Connect

Pollution prevention is currently a major focus of the United States pulp and paper industry. Significant process changes are inevitable to implement low effluent processing. The kraft pulping process is prevalent for the production of wood pulp. About 50 million tons of wood pulp are produced annually in the United States alone using the kraft process. Water consumption is currently roughly between 30 and 200 m{sup 3} of water per ton of air dry bleached kraft pulp. In-process recycling of water is now being implemented by many mills to reduce the use of increasingly scarce water resources and to reduce the need for waste-water treatment. Mass balance considerations and industrial experience show that nonprocess elements, which are detrimental to the kraft process, such as chloride and potassium, will quickly build up once water use is significantly reduced. High concentrations of chloride and potassium can cause corrosion and lead to more frequent mill shutdowns due to fouling of heat exchanger surfaces in the kraft recovery furnace. Electrodialysis will monovalent selective anion and cation exchange membranes was explored here to selectively remove chlorine as sodium and potassium chloride from a feed stream with very high ionic strength. Experiments with model solutions and extended tests with the actual pulp mill materials were performed. Very good selectivities and current efficiencies were observed for chloride over sulfate. The outstanding performance of the process with actual mill materials containing organic and inorganic contamination shows great promise for rapid transfer to the pilot scale. This work is an example of the usefulness of membrane separations as a kidney in low effluent industrial processing.

Pfromm, P.H. [Institute of Paper Science and Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

1997-12-01

191

Ultrafiltration/nanofiltration for the tertiary treatment of leather industry effluents.  

PubMed

Biologically treated effluents from the leather industry pose severe problems for the environment due in part to both the inorganic charge and the high nitrogen content associated with the organic charge. Pressure-driven membrane processes, namely ultrafiltration/nanofiltration (UF/NF) technology, were investigated for their selective retention of the organics and permeation of the inorganic fraction. Permeation experiments were carried out with two model solutions representative of a treated tannery effluent. UF and NF of these model solutions were assessed in terms of both their inorganic/organic fractionation capability and their permeation productivity. The UF membranes with MWCOs ranging from 10,000 to 1000 Da yield retentate streams enriched in organic compounds and permeate streams enriched in salts. Despite their high capacity for pure water permeation, they displayed low permeation fluxes, as the result of concentration polarization and fouling phenomena. NF 200 and NF 270 membranes associated fractionation capability with high permeation rates. Furthermore, these membranes demonstrated the highest permeate fluxes -30 kg/h/m(2) and 16 kg/h/m(2) for different model solutions, at the transmembrane pressure of 8 bar. Although these membranes had lower hydraulic permeabilities relative to the other membranes tested, they exhibited the best characteristics in terms of minimization of colloidal fouling. PMID:20000502

Streit, Katia F; Ferreira, Jane Zoppas; Bernardes, Andréa M; Norberta De Pinho, Maria

2009-12-15

192

Modelling activated sludge treatment of petroleum and petrochemical wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to establish the general framework of a comprehensive dynamic mechanistic mathematical model for predicting the behaviour of an activated sludge plant treating petroleum\\/petrochemical industrial wastewaters. Specifically, the aim was to develop two activated sludge mechanistic models which predicted the behaviour of systems treating: (1) petroleum refinery wastewater, and (2) petrochemical refinery wastewater. The wastewater

Alison Julia Baker

1994-01-01

193

Cost effectiveness analysis of effluent limitations guidelines and standards for the centralized waste treament industry  

SciTech Connect

EPA has proposed effluent limitations guidelines and standards for the centralized waste treatment (CWT) industry. This report investigates the cost-effectiveness of all possible combinations of proposed control options for the three subcategories of CWT operations. EPA considered three control options for metals, two for oils and two for organics, with 12 possible combinations of these options. The report measures cost-effectiveness through a comparison of compliance costs to the quantity of pollutants removed under each combination of control options. The effectiveness of the regulations is measured in terms of reductions in the pounds of pollutants discharged to surface waters, weighted to account for the pollutants` toxicity. Some pollutants removed are specifically addressed by the regulation, while others and not directly regulated but are removed incidentally as a result of controlling for other pollutants.

Wheeler, W.

1998-12-01

194

Screening and characterization of potential cadmium biosorbent Alcaligenes strain from industrial effluent.  

PubMed

Cadmium (Cd) is a heavy metal that is easily accumulated in the living organisms in connection with anthropogenic activities which may result in serious health problems. In the present study, five potential cadmium tolerant bacterial strains were isolated from industrial effluent with heavy metal contamination and were screened for biosorption potential with their active growth in different media. After growth in shake flasks containing mineral salt media and tryptone soya broth, cell pellet of AS-5 removed by centrifugation sequestered almost 98% and 69% of cadmium (a.i. 25 mg/l Cd) respectively. Other strains accumulated variable amounts of Cd. 16S rRNA gene sequence of AS-5 and its homology analysis using BLAST reveals its phylogenetic relationship with family ?-proteobacteriaceae and 98% homology with Alcaligenes sp., a facultative anaerobe. PMID:21656817

Kumar, Abhijit; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh; Gupta, Saurabh

2011-06-09

195

Effluent treatment in the textile industry: excluding dyes. January 1983-January 1989 (Citations from World Textile Abstracts). Report for January 1983-January 1989  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile-industry effluents. Effluents that contain dyes are discussed in a separate bibliography. Recovery of lubricants, lye, sizing agents, polyvinyl alcohol, zinc, dirt, and heat from textile effluents are discussed. Air and water pollution control technology that is effective in treating textile effluents is discussed. Effluents from synthetic-fiber manufacture and wool-scouring processes are emphasized. (This updated bibliography contains 300 citations, 84 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

Not Available

1989-02-01

196

Whole acute toxicity removal from industrial and domestic effluents treated by electron beam radiation: emphasis on anionic surfactants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electron beam radiation has been applied to improve real industrial and domestic effluents received by Suzano wastewater treatment plant. Radiation efficacy has been evaluated as toxicity reduction, using two biological assays. Three sites were sampled and submitted for toxicity assays, anionic surfactant determination and electron beam irradiation. This paper shows the reduction of acute toxicity for both test-organisms, the marine

M. C. F. Moraes; M. F. Romanelli; H. C. Sena; G. Pasqualini da Silva; M. H. O. Sampa; S. I. Borrely

2004-01-01

197

Adaptation de la separation cryomagnetique aux technologies de l'environnement: application a l'epuration d'effluents liquides industriels. (Cryo magnetic separation adaptation to environment technologies: application to industrial effluents).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cryomagnetic separation adaptation to environment technologies application to industrial liquid effluents. The performance, obtained by superconducting high filed - high gradient magnetic separation, permitted to foresee the magnetic treatment of heavy me...

V. Bureau

1993-01-01

198

Cadmium resistant Enterobacter cloacae and Klebsiella sp. isolated from industrial effluents and their possible role in cadmium detoxification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three bacterial strains, two of Klebsiella sp. and one Enterobacter cloacae were isolated from industrial effluents of chemical and textile industries. They showed high efficiency in removing cadmium (Cd2+) from the medium. When 100 µg\\/ml of Cd was added to the medium, the three isolates namely CMBL-Cd1, CMBL-Cd2 and CMBL-Cd3 removed or accumulated 86%, 87% and 85% of Cd, respectively,

Riazul Haq; SayyedKaleem Zaidi; A. R. Shakoori

1999-01-01

199

Evaluation of opportunities for effluent trading in the steam-electric, petroleum-refining, and coal mining industries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the opportunities for energy industries (steam-electric, petroleum refining, and coal mining) to use various effluent trading options. The study was based on an examination of the options applicable to these industries and on an extensive inventory of energy facilities with water-quality-based conditions in their discharge permits. The results obtained tend to overstate any opportunities available. The most

1983-01-01

200

Petrochemicals in nontechnical language  

SciTech Connect

This book reviews the basics of organic chemistry. The authors lead readers through the basic petrochemical processes and product properties to the downstream derivatives such as plastics and fibers and their end uses. Latest processing techniques are discussed.

Burdick, D.L.; Leffler, W.L.

1990-01-01

201

Petrochemicals: changing markets and limits to growth alter outlook  

SciTech Connect

The basic petrochemical industry has grown eight-fold since 1947, twice the growth of all manufactures, but the current recession has closed down a quarter of production capacity and lowered the output of the remainder. The US has a world advantage in petrochemicals because the industry grew along with the expanding automobile industry. However, petrochemical markets have become more cyclical as supplies of feedstocks became less abundant, production costs rose, and demand became tied to the container, construction, housing, and automobile markets. Foreign competition is growing as producing countries build their own petrochemical industries, but rapid expansion in Canada and Mexico offer the greatest potential competition. The development of new products with higher value will enable the industry to meet this competition. 2 figures, 2 tables. (DCK)

McClelland, E.L.

1982-05-01

202

Dangerous and cancer-causing properties of products and chemicals in the oil refining and petrochemical industry: Part V--Asbestos-caused cancers and exposure of workers in the oil refining industry.  

PubMed

In the oil refining and petrochemical industries exposure to cancer-causing asbestos particles, especially during equipment repair and maintenance, is very high. Up to 90% of workers in the oil refining industry had direct and/or indirect contact with asbestos, and more than half of this contact occurred without the use of any kind of precaution, thus these workers are in high risk of developing lung cancer and mesothelioma, both fatal diseases. The hazards include: inadequate health and safety training for both company personnel and workers, failure to inform about the dangers and diseases (cancers) resulting from exposure to asbestos; excessive use of large numbers of untrained and uninformed contract workers; lack of use of protective equipment; and archaeological approaches and responses to repairing asbestos breaks and replacement of asbestos in oil refining facilities. For a better understanding of practices and policies in the oil refining industry, refer to Rachel Scott's Muscle and Blood, in particular the chapter "Oil" (E.P. Dutton, New York, 1974), as well as to an editorial which appeared in the Oil and Gas Journal, April, 1968. PMID:1853354

Mehlman, M A

203

Thai petrochemical boom on track  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that Thailand continues to mark progress on the ambitious expansion of its petrochemical industry. Among recent developments: The outlook for Thailand's troubled worldscale aromatics project has improved with a major cut in its estimated cost. In addition, the project apparently has drawn the interest of other companies seeking a possible equity stake. Amoco Chemical Co., which lost a tender to build a worldscale purified terephathalic acid (PTA) complex in Thailand to Taiwan's Tuntex Co., is reviving its bid with a proposal similar to its earlier one. Amoco contends there will be enough demand to warrant a second PTA plant in Thailand. Tuntex is negotiating with several business groups to take part in its $333 million, 350,000 ton/year PTA project in Thailand. Tuntex is soliciting interest from a number of Thai companies, including Bangkok Bank and the Saha Union industrial conglomerate to acquire portions of the 51% interest in the project earmarked for Thai shareholders. The firm also is negotiating with a number of Japanese companies with whom it has long trade ties, including Mitsui and Co. and Marubeni Corp. to acquire part of the 49% foreign shareholding in the project. Thai Olefins Co. (TOC) marked further progress with feedstock contracts and financing arrangements for its proposed $720 million olefins plant, part of Thailand's second worldscale petrochemical complex (NPC II). Indian industrial giant Birla proposed a $20 million ethylene glycol (EG) project in Thailand.

Not Available

1992-03-16

204

Biosorptive Removal of Ni(Ii) from Wastewater and Industrial Effluent  

PubMed Central

The objective of the present work was to investigate the removal of Ni(II) by the fresh biomass (FBM) and chemically treated leached biomass (LBM) of Calotropis procera. The scope of the work included screening of the biosorbents for their metal uptake potential, batch equilibrium, column mode removal studies and kinetic studies at varying pH (2–6), contact time, biosorbent dosages (1–25 g/L) and initial metal ion concentration (5–500 mg/L). The development of batch kinetic model and determination of order, desorption studies, column studies were investigated. It was observed that pH had marked effect on the Ni(II) uptake. Langmuir and Freundlich models were used to correlate equilibrium data on sorption of Ni(II) metallic ion by using both FBM and LBM at 28°C and pH 3 and different coefficients were calculated. It was found that both biomasses were statistically significant fit for Freundlich model. The biomass was successfully used for removal nickel from synthetic and industrial effluents and the technique appears industrially applicable and viable.

Pandey, Piyush Kant; Choubey, Shweta; Verma, Yashu; Pandey, Madhurima; Kalyan Kamal, S. S.; Chandrashekhar, K.

2007-01-01

205

Feedstock limitations in Saudi Arabian petrochemical plants dictate products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few changes in the petrochemical industry in the Saudi Arabia are likely through the early 1990s. Although the country produces substantial quantities of petrochemicals, products are limited to those that can be most economically produced from natural gas-based feedstocks. Heavy reliance on natural gas-based feeds means that the Saudi industry produces mainly olefins and olefins derivatives. Thus, other important products,

AlMutaz

1989-01-01

206

A modular success story the Saudi petrochemical project  

SciTech Connect

The Saudi Petrochemical Company is referred to within this paper as ''Sadaf''. Sadaf is the phonetic spelling of the Arabic word for seashell and is a joint venture of Saudi Basic Industries Corporation (SABIC) and Pecten Arabian Ltd., an affiliate of Shell Oil Comapny, U.S.A. SABIC is a joint stock corporation responsible for the development of basic industries in the Kingdom in the petrochemicals, metals and fertilizers field.

Kirven, J.B.; Swenson, C.R.

1986-01-01

207

Acute and early life stage toxicity of industrial effluent on Japanese medaka ( Oryzias latipes)  

Microsoft Academic Search

To develop the whole effluent toxicity testing methods (WET), embryo larval stage toxicity test using Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) was conducted to evaluate an effluent from a banknote printing plant (BPP). The method is based on acute toxicity using endpoint of 96-h larval morality and on chronic toxicity using endpoints such as the time to hatch, hatching success, deformity, growth

Jinmiao Zha; Zijian Wang

2006-01-01

208

Combined Physical-Chemical and Biological Treatment of Poorly Biodegradable Industrial Effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effluents from small and medium sized chemical plants may contain significant amounts of poorly biodegradable aromatic compounds, which could negatively affect water quality and public health. This is a key environmental issue, particularly in areas where effluents are discharged into drinking water sources. Unfortunately, conventional biological treatment may not be able to meet discharge standards, and combined systems should be

Patricia González; Claudio Zaror; Virginia Carrasco; Maria Angelica Mondaca; Hector Mansilla

2003-01-01

209

Removal and recovery of heavy metals by bacteria isolated from activated sludge treating industrial effluents and municipal wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of nineteen metal-resistant and non-resistant bacteria from activated sludge treating both metal-contaminated industrial effluents and municipal wastewater were isolated and identified. These included both Gram-positive (e.g. Micrococcus) and Gram-negative (e.g. Pseudomonas) bacteria. The biosorption capacity of these strains for five different heavy metals (copper, nickel, zinc, lead and chromium) was determined at pH 5 and initial metal concentration

W. C. Leung; M. F. Wong; H. Chua; W. Lo; P. H. F. Yu; C. K. Leung

210

Anodic, cathodic and combined treatments for the electrochemical oxidation of an effluent from the flame retardant industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrochemical oxidation of an effluent from the manufacture of phosphorus based flame retardants was studied. To reach\\u000a a residual concentration of reduced phosphorus lower than 10 mg L?1, in compliance with Italian law for industrial wastewater disposal, anodic oxidation using a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode\\u000a and electro-Fenton (EF) treatment were tested. The effects of some factors are optimised and a comparison

Daniele Montanaro; Elisabetta Petrucci; Carlo Merli

2008-01-01

211

Production of bioethanol by direct bioconversion of oil-palm industrial effluent in a stirred-tank bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of producing bioethanol from palm-oil mill effluent generated by\\u000a the oil-palm industries through direct bioconversion process. The bioethanol production was carried out through the treatment\\u000a of compatible mixed cultures such as Thrichoderma harzianum, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Mucor hiemalis, and yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Simultaneous inoculation of T. harzianum and S. cerevisiae was

Nassereldeen A. Kabbashi; S. Nahdatul I. S. Hussin

2009-01-01

212

How will Southeast Asian petrochemicals impact the HPI?  

SciTech Connect

Development of East Asia`s petrochemical industry has been phenomenal, with major complexes built in numerous locations. The Southeast Asian countries of particular interest are members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN): Singapore, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines, Brunei and Vietnam. As new capacity is built in this region, these large operating facilities will affect supply and demand for key petrochemical products--ethylene and polyolefins. What are the potential regional effects from this new capacity? Traditional net export countries will have to re-evaluate their future marketing strategies to remain competitive in Southeast Asia and other trading areas. As East Asia`s petrochemical industry comes of age, competition will undoubtedly increase. However, this growing region offers opportunities to widen manufacturing basis. The paper discusses basic chemical demands and the outlook for the Asian petrochemical industry.

Rothman, S.N. [Chem Systems, Tarrytown, NY (United States)

1997-05-01

213

Assessment of the effluent quality from a gold mining industry in Ghana.  

PubMed

The physical and chemical qualities of the process effluent and the tailings dam wastewater of AngloGold-Ashanti Limited, a gold mining company in Ghana, were studied from June to September, 2010. The process effluent from the gold extraction plant contains high amounts of suspended solids and is therefore highly turbid. Arsenic, copper and cyanide were identified as the major pollutants in the process effluent with average concentrations of 10.0, 3.1 and 21.6 mg?L(-1), respectively. Arsenic, copper, iron and free cyanide (CN(-)) concentrations in the process effluent exceeded the Ghana EPA discharge limits; therefore, it is necessary to treat the process effluent before it can be discharged into the environment. Principal component analysis of the data indicated that the process effluent characteristics were influenced by the gold extraction process as well as the nature of the gold-bearing ore processed. No significant correlation was observed between the wastewater characteristics themselves, except for the dissolved oxygen and the biochemical oxygen demand. The process effluent is fed to the Sansu tailings dam, which removes 99.9 % of the total suspended solids and 99.7 % of the turbidity; but copper, arsenic and cyanide concentrations were still high. The effluent produced can be classified as inorganic with a high load of non-biodegradable compounds. It was noted that, though the Sansu tailings dam stores the polluted effluent from the gold extraction plant, there will still be serious environmental problems in the event of failure of the dam. PMID:23179219

Acheampong, Mike A; Paksirajan, Kannan; Lens, Piet N L

2012-11-22

214

Efficient solid-phase extraction procedures for trace enrichment of priority phenols from industrial effluents with high total organic carbon content  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polymeric solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges and Speedisks were used to extract 17 phenols from HPLC-grade water, tap water, river water and industrial effluents. With SPE cartridges, recoveries between 60 and 120% were obtained for waters with a total organic carbon (TOC) content below 20 mg C\\/l. However, when extracting industrial effluent waters with higher TOC values (75 mg C\\/l), only

S??lvia Lacorte; Daniel Fraisse; Damià Barceló

1999-01-01

215

Regulatory impact assessment of proposed effluent guidelines and NESHAP for the pulp, paper, and paperboard industry. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The report has been prepared to comply with Executive Order 12866, which requires that federal agencies assess costs and benefits of each significant rule they propose or promulgate. The pulp and paper industry is the eighth largest manufacturing industry in the U.S. in terms of the value of goods shipped and third among the nondurables sector in sales. The products of this industry are used every day and involve many aspects of our lives. Approximately 200 companies are engaged in the manufacture of pulp, paper, and paperboard in the United States. These companies own and operate 565 facilities in 42 states. The pulp, paper, and paperboard industry is one of the largest users of water in the U.S.; because large quantities of water are used in making pulp and paper products, these mills recycle, treat and discharge large quantities of effluent water. The main categories of aquatic pollutants found in pulp and paper mill effluent are conventional pollutants, such as biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), and toxic pollutants such as chlorinated compounds. Conventional pollution abatement in the U.S. paper industry has focused on reducing solids and BOD.

Not Available

1993-11-01

216

Cost Effectiveness Analysis of Proposed Effluent Limitations Guidelines for the Pulp, Paper, and Paperboard Industry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The cost-effectiveness (CE) analysis presents an evaluation of the technical efficiency of pollutant control options for the proposed effluent limitations guidelines. The proposed BAT and PSES apply to six subcategories: Dissolving Kraft; Dissolving Sulfi...

1993-01-01

217

Characterization of new biosurfactant produced by Trichosporon montevideense CLOA 72 isolated from dairy industry effluents.  

PubMed

The yeast strain CLOA 72 isolated from the effluent of a dairy industry in Brazil and identified as Trichosporon montevideense, was able to grow and produce a glycolipid biosurfactant when cultured on a mineral medium (MM) with sunflower oil as the carbon source. Biosurfactant production was partially growth-associated and maximal emulsification activity was observed at 144 h of cultivation (78.92%). The biosurfactant purified by precipitation with ethanol showed 78.66% emulsifying activity when used in concentrations above 4.5 mg/ml and was able to reduce the surface tension of water to values below 44.9 mN/m. The critical micellar concentration (CMC) was found to be 2.2 mg/ml. The highest emulsifying activity (E(24)) has been observed with vegetable oils, toluene, kerosene, isooctane, cyclohexane, hexane, diesel oil and hexadecane as compared to mineral oil and oleic acid. The biosurfactant also showed good stability during exposure to 100 degrees C for different periods of time (10 to 60 min), to high salinity (30% of NaCl, KCl and NaHCO(3)), and to a wide range of pH values (1-10). The biosurfactant purified by gel filtration chromatography is a glycolipid, with lipid portion containing 16.03% (9Z)-octadec-9-enoic acid, 14.92% hexadecanoic acid, and 9.63% (E) octadec-9-enoic acid and the carbohydrate portion containing mannose (35.29%), xylose (41.99%), arabinose (17.47%), and glucose (5.25%). PMID:19810042

Monteiro, Andrea S; Coutinho, Joana O P A; Júnior, Ary C; Rosa, Carlos A; Siqueira, Ezequias P; Santos, Vera L

2009-12-01

218

Biogas production from water hyacinth and channel grass used for phytoremediation of industrial effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reports on the biogas production from water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and channel grass (Vallisneria spiralis) employed separately for phytoremediation of lignin and metal-rich pulp and paper mill and highly acidic distillery effluents. These plants eventually grow well in diluted effluent up to 40% (i.e., 2.5-times dilution with deionized water) and often take up metals and toxic materials from

V Singhal; J. P. N Rai

2003-01-01

219

Evaluation of changes in effluent quality from industrial complexes on the Korean nationwide scale using a self-organizing map.  

PubMed

One of the major issues related to the environment in the 21st century is sustainable development. The innovative economic growth policy has supported relatively successful economic development, but poor environmental conservation efforts, have consequently resulted in serious water quality pollution issues. Hence, assessments of water quality and health are fundamental processes towards conserving and restoring aquatic ecosystems. In this study, we characterized spatial and temporal changes in water quality (specifically physico-chemical variables plus priority and non-priority pollutants) of discharges from industrial complexes on a national scale in Korea. The data were provided by the Water Quality Monitoring Program operated by the Ministry of Environment, Korea and were measured from 1989 to 2008 on a monthly basis at 61 effluent monitoring sites located at industrial complexes. Analysis of monthly and annual changes in water quality, using the seasonal Mann-Kendall test, indicated an improvement in water quality, which was inferred from a continuous increase in dissolved oxygen and decrease in other water quality factors. A Self-Organizing Map, which is an unsupervised artificial neural network, also indicated an improvement of effluent water quality, by showing spatial and temporal differences in the effluent water quality as well as in the occurrence of priority pollutants. Finally, our results suggested that continued long-term monitoring is necessary to establish plans and policies for wastewater management and health assessment. PMID:22690190

Bae, Mi-Jung; Kim, Jun-Su; Park, Young-Seuk

2012-04-11

220

Potential of ultrafiltration for organic matter removal in the polymer industry effluent based on particle size distribution analysis.  

PubMed

The purpose of the study was the experimental evaluation of ultrafiltration as a potential innovative technology for the removal of organic matter of around 15,000 mg chemical oxygen demand (COD) per liter in the polymer industry wastewater. Particle size distribution (PSD) analysis served as the major experimental instrument along with conventional chemical settling. Biodegradation characteristics of the remaining COD after ultrafiltration were determined by model interpretation of the corresponding oxygen uptake rate (OUR) profile. The study first involved a detailed characterization of the polymer wastewater including PSD analysis of the COD content. Chemical treatability was investigated using lime alone and with ferric chloride as coagulants followed with a PSD assessment of the chemically settled effluent. Modeling of the OUR profile generated by the ultrafiltration effluent defined related biodegradation kinetics and provided information on the overall COD removal potential. PSD analysis indicated that more than 70 % of the total COD accumulated in the 220- to 450-nm size range. It indicated that ultrafiltration was potentially capable of removing more than 90 % of the COD with an effluent lower than 1,500 mg COD/L. Chemical settling with 750 mg/L of FeCl(3) dosing at a pH of 7.0 provided a similar performance. The ultrafiltration effluent included mainly hydrolysable COD and proved to be biodegradable, with the process kinetics compatible with domestic sewage. PSD evaluation proved to be a valuable scientific instrument for underlining the merit of ultrafiltration as the appropriate innovative technology for polymer wastewater, removing the major portion of the COD in a way that is suitable for recovery and reuse and producing a totally biodegradable effluent. PMID:22585390

Do?ruel, Serdar; Çokgör, Emine Ubay; Ince, Orhan; Sözen, Seval; Orhon, Derin

2012-05-15

221

Ionic imbalance as a source of toxicity in an estuarine effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

A toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) was conducted on the effluent from a petrochemical plant which discharges into an estuary. The effluent had been consistently toxic to mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia) but not toxic to sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus). Phase I effluent toxicity characterization tests revealed that treatment of the effluent with a cation exchange resin (Amberlite® IR-120 Plus) was partially

W. S. Douglas; S. S. Grasso; D. G. Hutton; K. R. Schroeder

1996-01-01

222

Petrochemicals in Texas, 1972. Special project C, final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States petrochemical industry is, currently, highly concentrated in Texas. The primary motive force for this concentration has been the ample availability, of indigenous natural resources--natural gas and crude oil--for the support of a large energy products (gasoline, natural gas, etc.) processing industry. In return, the energy products industry has through refineries and gas processing plants, provided sufficient quantities

J. S. Murchison; W. B. Sheely; T. J. Manning; J. R. Dosher

1974-01-01

223

Decision-making for Petrochemical Planning Using Multiobjective and Strategic Tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

ecision-making for planning a petrochemical industry is a difficult task, particularly when decisions are required to be made under constraints and different objectives. This paper presents the application of multiobjective optimization tools for planning of a mixed-integer model of a petrochemical industry to arrive at a small set of good solutions out of the Pareto optimal solutions. The two main

G. K. Al-sharrah; G. Hankinson; A. Elkamel

2006-01-01

224

Application of a continuously stirred tank bioreactor (CSTR) for bioremediation of hydrocarbon-rich industrial wastewater effluents.  

PubMed

A continuously stirred tank bioreactor (CSTR) was used to optimize feasible and reliable bioprocess system in order to treat hydrocarbon-rich industrial wastewaters. A successful bioremediation was developed by an efficient acclimatized microbial consortium. After an experimental period of 225 days, the process was shown to be highly efficient in decontaminating the wastewater. The performance of the bioaugmented reactor was demonstrated by the reduction of COD rates up to 95%. The residual total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) decreased from 320 mg TPH l(-1) to 8 mg TPH l(-1). Analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) identified 26 hydrocarbons. The use of the mixed cultures demonstrated high degradation performance for hydrocarbons range n-alkanes (C10-C35). Six microbial isolates from the CSTR were characterized and species identification was confirmed by sequencing the 16S rRNA genes. The partial 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrated that 5 strains were closely related to Aeromonas punctata (Aeromonas caviae), Bacillus cereus, Ochrobactrum intermedium, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Rhodococcus sp. The 6th isolate was affiliated to genera Achromobacter. Besides, the treated wastewater could be considered as non toxic according to the phytotoxicity test since the germination index of Lepidium sativum ranged between 57 and 95%. The treatment provided satisfactory results and presents a feasible technology for the treatment of hydrocarbon-rich wastewater from petrochemical industries and petroleum refineries. PMID:21419572

Gargouri, Boutheina; Karray, Fatma; Mhiri, Najla; Aloui, Fathi; Sayadi, Sami

2011-02-24

225

Sabic details outlook for key petrochemicals  

SciTech Connect

World methanol markets will tighten after 1991, Saudi Basic Industries Corp. (Sabic) predicts. Underpinning that tightness will be continuing strong growth for methanol derived methyl tertiary butyl ether. Meantime, the Saudi state owned petrochemical company expects environmental concerns and slower economic growth to keep polyethylene markets soft the next 2 years. In addition, Sabic foresees a return to stability for ethylene oxide/ethylene glycol markets after volatility in the latter 1980s.

Not Available

1991-01-28

226

Whole effluent assessment of industrial wastewater for determination of BAT compliance. Part 2: metal surface treatment industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim and scope  Toxicity testing has become a suitable tool for wastewater evaluation included in several reference documents on best available\\u000a techniques of the Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) Directive. The IPPC Directive requires that for direct\\u000a dischargers as well as for indirect dischargers, the same best available techniques should be applied. Within the study, the\\u000a whole effluent assessment

Stefan Gartiser; Christoph Hafner; Christoph Hercher; Kerstin Kronenberger-Schäfer; Albrecht Paschke

2010-01-01

227

Genotoxic evaluation of an industrial effluent from an oil refinery using plant and animal bioassays  

PubMed Central

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are genotoxic chemicals commonly found in effluents from oil refineries. Bioassays using plants and cells cultures can be employed for assessing environmental safety and potential genotoxicity. In this study, the genotoxic potential of an oil refinery effluent was analyzed by means of micronucleus (MN) testing of Alium cepa, which revealed no effect after 24 h of treatment. On the other hand, primary lesions in the DNA of rat (Rattus norvegicus) hepatoma cells (HTC) were observed through comet assaying after only 2 h of exposure. On considering the capacity to detect DNA damage of a different nature and of these cells to metabolize xenobiotics, we suggest the association of the two bioassays with these cell types, plant (Allium cepa) and mammal (HTC) cells, for more accurately assessing genotoxicity in environmental samples.

2010-01-01

228

Sodium sulfate from mine-effluent water as a raw material for the glass industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the products of the combined reprocessing of sulfate-chloride mine-effluent water is sodium sulfate the annual discharge of which in the brackish water from the Donbas mines (3-5 g\\/liter) alone is ~250,000 tons. The technology for the reprocessing of such water to obtain sodium sulfate has been described in the literature [2]. The aim of the present study was

V. I. Maksin; O. Z. Standritchuk; R. S. Zolotareva; I. A. Klyuchnik; L. D. Kravchenko

1985-01-01

229

Morphological response of Typha domingensis to an industrial effluent containing heavy metals in a constructed wetland.  

PubMed

Typha domingensis had become the dominant species after 2 years of operation of a wetland constructed for metallurgical effluent treatment. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to investigate its ability to tolerate the effluent and to maintain the contaminant removal efficiency of the constructed wetland. Plant, sediment, and water at the inlet and outlet of the constructed wetland and in two natural wetlands were sampled. Metal concentration (Cr, Ni, and Zn) and total phosphorus were significantly higher in tissues of plants growing at the inlet in comparison with those from the outlet and natural wetlands. Even though the chlorophyll concentration was sensitive to effluent toxicity, biomass and plant height at the inlet and outlet were significantly higher than those in the natural wetlands. The highest root and stele cross-sectional areas, number of vessels, and biomass registered in inlet plants promoted the uptake, transport, and accumulation of contaminants in tissues. The modifications recorded accounted for the adaptability of T. domingensis to the conditions prevailing in the constructed wetland, which allowed this plant to become the dominant species and enabled the wetland to maintain a high contaminant retention capacity. PMID:20041323

Hadad, H R; Mufarrege, M M; Pinciroli, M; Di Luca, G A; Maine, M A

2009-12-30

230

A modular success story the Saudi petrochemical project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Saudi Petrochemical Company is referred to within this paper as ''Sadaf''. Sadaf is the phonetic spelling of the Arabic word for seashell and is a joint venture of Saudi Basic Industries Corporation (SABIC) and Pecten Arabian Ltd., an affiliate of Shell Oil Comapny, U.S.A. SABIC is a joint stock corporation responsible for the development of basic industries in the

J. B. Kirven; C. R. Swenson

1986-01-01

231

Generation of continuous packed bed reactor with PVA-alginate blend immobilized Ochrobactrum sp. DGVK1 cells for effective removal of N,N-dimethylformamide from industrial effluents.  

PubMed

Effective removal of dimethylformamide (DMF), the organic solvent found in industrial effluents of textile and pharma industries, was demonstrated by using free and immobilized cells of Ochrobactrum sp. DGVK1, a soil isolate capable of utilizing DMF as a sole source of carbon, nitrogen. The free cells have efficiently removed DMF from culture media and effluents, only when DMF concentration was less than 1% (v/v). Entrapment of cells either in alginate or in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) failed to increase tolerance limits. However, the cells of Ochrobactrum sp. DGVK1 entrapped in PVA-alginate mixed matrix tolerated higher concentration of DMF (2.5%, v/v) and effectively removed DMF from industrial effluents. As determined through batch fermentation, these immobilized cells have retained viability and degradability for more than 20 cycles. A continuous packed bed reactor, generated by using PVA-alginate beads, efficiently removed DMF from industrial effluents, even in the presence of certain organic solvents frequently found in effluents along with DMF. PMID:22079508

Kumar, S Sanjeev; Kumar, M Santosh; Siddavattam, D; Karegoudar, T B

2011-11-03

232

In-situ ionic liquid-dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method to determine endocrine disrupting phenols in seawaters and industrial effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have evaluated an in-situ ionic liquid-dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction procedure for the determination of six\\u000a endocrine disrupting phenols in seawaters and industrial effluents using HPLC. The optimized method requires 38 ?L of the\\u000a water-soluble ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, and 5 mL of seawater or industrial effluent. After appropriate\\u000a work-up, a drop (~10 ?L) of an ionic liquid is formed that contains the analytes

Jessica López-Darias; Verónica Pino; Juan H. Ayala; Ana M. Afonso

233

Impact on surface ozone by fugitive emissons of ethylene and propylene from a petrochemical plant cluster  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethylene and propylene are two most produced organic compounds in the world which are mainly produced from the cracking process in the oil refinery industry. In a large petrochemical plant cluster a large variety of petrochemical products are derived from these two compounds used as starting reagents. Fugitive emissions of these two compounds from storage tanks and pipelines are often

H. Hsieh; J. Chang; S. Chen; J. Wang

2010-01-01

234

QUANTIFICATION OF FUGITIVE REACTIVE ALKENE EMISSIONS FROM PETROCHEMICAL PLANTS WITH PERFLUOROCARBON TRACERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies demonstrate the impact of fugitive emissions of reactive alkenes on the atmospheric chemistry of the Houston Texas metropolitan area (1). Petrochemical plants located in and around the Houston area emit atmospheric alkenes, such as ethene, propene and 1,3-butadiene. The magnitude of emissions is a major uncertainty in assessing their effects. Even though the petrochemical industry reports that fugitive

G. I. SENUM; R. N. DIETZ

2004-01-01

235

Production of bioethanol from effluents of the dairy industry by Kluyveromyces marxianus.  

PubMed

Whey and scotta are effluents coming from cheese and ricotta processing respectively. Whey contains minerals, lipids, lactose and proteins; scotta contains mainly lactose. Whey can be reused in several ways, such as protein extraction or animal feeding, while nowadays scotta is just considered as a waste; moreover, due to very high volumes of whey produced in the world, it poses serious environmental and disposal problems. Alternative destinations of these effluents, such as biotechnological transformations, can be a way to reach both goals of improving the added value of the agroindustrial processes and reducing their environmental impact. In this work we investigated the way to produce bioethanol from lactose of whey and scotta and to optimize the fermentation yields. Kluyveromyces marxianus var. marxianus was chosen as lactose-fermenting yeast. Batch, aerobic and anaerobic, fermentations and semicontinuous fermentations in dispersed phase and in packed bed reactor were carried out of row whey, scotta and mix 1:1 whey:scotta at a laboratory scale. Different temperatures (28-40°C) were also tested to check whether the thermotolerance of the chosen yeast could be useful to improve the ethanol yield. The best performances were reached at low temperatures (28°C); high temperatures are also compatible with good ethanol yields in whey fermentations, but not in scotta fermentations. Semicontinuous fermentations in dispersed phase gave the best fermentation performances, particularly with scotta. Then both effluents can be considered suitable for ethanol production. The good yields obtained from scotta allow us to transform this waste in a source. PMID:23201075

Zoppellari, Francesca; Bardi, Laura

2012-11-29

236

Whole effluent assessment of industrial wastewater for determination of bat compliance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim and scope  The applicability of the Whole Effluent Assessment concept for the proof of compliance with the “best available techniques”\\u000a has been analysed with paper mill wastewater from Germany by considering its persistency (P), potentially bio-accumulative\\u000a substances (B) and toxicity (T).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  Twenty wastewater samples from 13 paper mills using different types of cellulose fibres as raw materials

Stefan Gartiser; Christoph Hafner; Christoph Hercher; Kerstin Kronenberger-Schäfer; Albrecht Paschke

2010-01-01

237

Economic impact analysis of proposed effluent limitations and standards for the gold placer mining industry  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the study is to analyze the economic impacts that are likely to result from promulgation of the proposed best practicable control technology (BPT), best available technology economically achievable (BAT) and Best Conventional Technology (BCT) effluent limitations and standards on placer mining in the United States. The results of the economic impact analysis will help establish pollution control regulations that are economically achievable. The analysis examines how each of four alternative pollution control technologies affects the financial viability of placer mines in the United States. The impacts examined include reduced profitability, production cutbacks, mine closures, and employment and earning losses, as well as impacts to the local economies.

Not Available

1985-08-01

238

Fully automated measuring equipment for aqueous boron and its application to online monitoring of industrial process effluents  

SciTech Connect

Fully automated measuring equipment for aqueous boron (referred to as the online boron monitor) was developed on the basis of a rapid potentiometric determination method using a commercial BF{sub 4}{sup -} ion-selective electrode (ISE). The equipment can measure boron compounds with concentration ranging from a few to several hundred mg/L, and the measurement is completed in less than 20 min without any pretreatment of the sample. In the monitor, a series of operations for the measurement, i.e., sampling and dispensing of the sample, addition of the chemicals, acquisition and processing of potentiometric data, rinsing of the measurement cell, and calibration of the BF{sub 4}{sup -} ISE, is automated. To demonstrate the performance, we installed the monitor in full-scale coal-fired power plants and measured the effluent from a flue gas desulfurization unit. The boron concentration in the wastewater varied significantly depending on the type of coal and the load of power generation. An excellent correlation (R{sup 2} = 0.987) was obtained in the measurements between the online boron monitor and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry, which proved that the developed monitor can serve as a useful tool for managing boron emission in industrial process effluent. 22 refs., 6 figs.

Seiichi Ohyama; Keiko Abe; Hitoshi Ohsumi; Hirokazu Kobayashi; Naotsugu Miyazaki; Koji Miyadera; Kin-ichi Akasaka [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Chiba (Japan)

2009-06-15

239

An integrated MBR-TiO2 photocatalysis process for the removal of Carbamazepine from simulated pharmaceutical industrial effluent.  

PubMed

This paper aims to demonstrate that integrating biological process and photocatalytic oxidation in a system operated in recycling mode can be a promising technology to treat pharmaceutical wastewater characterized by simultaneous presence of biodegradable and refractory/inhibitory compounds. A lab-scale system integrating a membrane bioreactor (MBR) and a TiO(2) slurry photoreactor was fed on simulated wastewater containing 10mg/L of the refractory drug Carbamazepine (CBZ). Majority of chemical oxygen demand (COD) was removed by the MBR, while the photocatalytic oxidation was capable to degrade CBZ. CBZ degradation kinetics and its impacts on the biological process were studied. The adoption of a recycling ratio of 4:1 resulted in removal of up to 95% of CBZ. Effluent COD reduction, sludge yield increase and respirometric tests suggested that the oxidation products were mostly biodegradable and not inhibiting the microbial activity. These results evidenced the advantages of the proposed approach for treating pharmaceutical wastewater and similar industrial effluents. PMID:21558053

Laera, G; Chong, M N; Jin, Bo; Lopez, A

2011-04-23

240

Treatment of colored and real industrial effluents through electrocoagulation using solar energy.  

PubMed

This study was undertaken to investigate the removal of Acid Orange 2 (sodium 4-[(2E)-2-(2-oxonaphthalen-1-ylidene) hydrazinyl] benzenesulfonate) and Reactive Blue 19 (2-Anthracenesulfonicacid,1-amino-9,10-dihydro-9,10-dioxo-4-[[3-[[2-(sulfooxy) ethyl] sulfonyl] phenyl] amino]-,sodium salt (1:2)) from synthesized and real effluents through electrocoagulation using solar cells for the purpose of improving economic efficiency of the process. The impact of a number of key operating parameters was explored including current density, anode type, temperature, pH, and electrolyte concentration. The current density of 45 Am(-2) proved to be the optimum level for both dyes. The same optimum alternatives were found for the other parameters in both cases: iron anode, a temperature level of 25°C, a pH of 7, and an electrolyte concentration of 15 mg L(-1). Both effluent samples were subjected to COD (chemical oxygen demand) and TOC (total organic carbon) tests. Cost analysis was performed for the treatment process. PMID:23647115

Pirkarami, Azam; Olya, Mohammad Ebrahim; Tabibian, Sahar

2013-01-01

241

Simultaneous determination of the textile dyes in industrial effluents by first-order derivative spectrophotometry.  

PubMed

A first-order derivative spectrophotometric method for the simultaneous determination of three textile dyes, Procion Yellow HE4R, Procion Red HE7B and Remazol Black 5 (RB5), has been developed. The effects of pH, heating and ionic strength of the solution on the absorption spectra of the dyes were investigated. The wavelengths selected for the measures of the derivative signals of HE4R (395 nm), HE7B (604 nm) and RB5 (659 nm) presented these coefficients of linear correlation: 0.9978, 0.9992 and 0.9999, and these detection limits: 0.180, 0.317 and 0.0233 mg L(-1), respectively. The reliability and reproducibility of the method were tested and showed recovery values of 95.7 to 109%. The proposed method was applied for the determination of dyes in binary and ternary mixtures of textile effluents and showed an estimate of the loss of dyes for the effluents between 6.67 and 28.9%. PMID:19359787

Almeida, Vitor C; Vargas, Alexandro M M; Garcia, Juliana C; Lenzi, Ervim; Oliveira, Cláudio C; Nozaki, Jorge

2009-04-01

242

Genotoxicity evaluation of effluents from textile industries of the region Fez-Boulmane, Morocco: a case study.  

PubMed

In order to investigate the biological hazard of effluents from textile industries of Fez-Boulmane region in Morocco, mutagenicity and phytotoxicity tests were performed on different biological systems. Moreover, the efficiency of a Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) system, working by activated sludge on a laboratory scale, was estimated by comparing the ecotoxicity results observed before and after wastewater treatment. Evaluation of the genotoxic potential was investigated by means of classic mutagenicity tests on D7 strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and by phytotoxicity tests on Allium sativum L., Vicia faba L. and Lactuca sativa L., estimating micronuclei presence, mitotic index and cytogenetic anomalies. The results obtained by testing untreated wastewater demonstrated major genotoxicity effects in S. cerevisiae and various levels of phytotoxicity in the three plant systems, while after SBR treatment no more ecotoxicological consequences were observed. These data confirm the effectiveness of the SBR system in removing toxic substances from textile wastewaters in Fez-Boulmane region. PMID:21840051

Giorgetti, Lucia; Talouizte, Hakima; Merzouki, Mohammed; Caltavuturo, Leonardo; Geri, Chiara; Frassinetti, Stefania

2011-08-12

243

Reducing the Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 for its application to an industrial wastewater treatment plant treating winery effluent wastewater.  

PubMed

The Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) is a complex model which is widely accepted as a common platform for anaerobic process modeling and simulation. However, it has a large number of parameters and states that hinder its calibration and use in control applications. A principal component analysis (PCA) technique was extended and applied to simplify the ADM1 using data of an industrial wastewater treatment plant processing winery effluent. The method shows that the main model features could be obtained with a minimum of two reactions. A reduced stoichiometric matrix was identified and the kinetic parameters were estimated on the basis of representative known biochemical kinetics (Monod and Haldane). The obtained reduced model takes into account the measured states in the anaerobic wastewater treatment (AWT) plant and reproduces the dynamics of the process fairly accurately. The reduced model can support on-line control, optimization and supervision strategies for AWT plants. PMID:23411455

García-Diéguez, Carlos; Bernard, Olivier; Roca, Enrique

2013-01-03

244

Removal of Dyes from the Effluent of Textile and Dyestuff Manufacturing Industry: A Review of Emerging Techniques With Reference to Biological Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological removal of dyes from effluents of textile and dyestuff manufacturing industry offers some distinct advantages over the commonly used chemicals and physicochemical methods. These include possible mineralization of the dyes to harmless inorganic compounds like carbon dioxide and water, and formation of a lesser quantity of relatively harmless sludge. Removal of dyes from these wastewaters has been reviewed with

HARPREET SINGH RAI; MANI SHANKAR BHATTACHARYYA; JAGDEEP SINGH; T. K. BANSAL; PURVA VATS; U. C. BANERJEE

2005-01-01

245

Treatment of industrial wastewater effluents using hydrodynamic cavitation and the advanced Fenton process  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the first time, hydrodynamic cavitation induced by a liquid whistle reactor (LWR) has been used in conjunction with the advanced Fenton process (AFP) for the treatment of real industrial wastewater. Semi-batch experiments in the LWR were designed to investigate the performance of the process for two different industrial wastewater samples. The effect of various operating parameters such as pressure,

Anand G. Chakinala; Parag R. Gogate; Arthur E. Burgess; David H. Bremner

2008-01-01

246

Upgrade of a petrochemical wastewater treatment plant by an upflow anaerobic pond  

Microsoft Academic Search

A petrochemical plant producing terephthalic acid faced a saturation of its wastewater treatment facilities due to an increase in production. In fact, the plant has been growing in recent years, and the effluents have been treated by reproducing the original activated sludge design. However, owing to lack of space, as well as energy consumption and sludge production reaching a certain

A. Noyola; H. Macarie; F. Varela; S. Landrieu; R. Marcelo; M. A. Rosas

2000-01-01

247

Respiratory and Irritant Health Effects of a Population Living in a Petrochemical-Polluted Area in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reported herewith are the results from an ongoing study of outdoor air pollution and the health of persons living in the communities in close proximity to petrochemical industrial complexes. To determine if there is an excess of adverse health outcomes in the population exposed to petrochemical industrial emissions, a health survey was undertaken in 1996 in this area and in

Chun-Yuh Yang; Jung-Der Wang; Chang-Chuan Chan; Pao-Chung Chen; Jing-Shiang Huang; Ming-Fen Cheng

1997-01-01

248

BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT, EFFLUENT REUSE, AND SLUDGE HANDLING FOR THE SIDE LEATHER TANNING INDUSTRY  

EPA Science Inventory

An evaluation of the treatability of unsegregated, unequalized, and unneutralized wastewaters from a side-leather tanning industry utilizing the hair pulping process by primary and secondary biological and gravity separation in clarifier-thickeners, whereas the secondary treatmen...

249

Regulatory Impact Assessment of Proposed Effluent Guidelines for the Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Industry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report has been prepared to comply with Executive Order 12866, which requires federal agencies to assess the costs and benefits of each significant rule they propose or promulgate. The regulations for the pharmaceutical industry, which are proposed by...

1995-01-01

250

Treatment of a petrochemical wastewater in sequencing batch reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The response of sequencing batch reactors (SBR's) in an industrial application was investigated. Four bench-scale SBR's and a bench-scale conventional activated sludge unit were operated with wastewater from a petrochemical complex. In terms of the degradation of BOD material and nitrification, the performance of the SBR's was comparable or slightly superior to that of the conventional activated sludge unit. However,

E. H. Hsu

1986-01-01

251

Biomass feedstocks for petrochemical markets: an overview and case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of analysis is developed identifying several target chemicals for potential biomass feedstock substitution. An overview of the petroleum\\/petrochemical industries is presented and a general discussion of refinery trends. A case study of methanol production for formaldehyde manufacturing is presented. The technical, economic, and market implications of producing biomass-derived methanol for formaldehyde manufacturing appear highly favorable. The appendices provide

S. J. Flaim; A. M. Hill; D. Lippe

1981-01-01

252

Zero Liquid Discharge approach in plating industry: treatment of degreasing effluents by electrocoagulation and anodic oxidation.  

PubMed

Degreasing waste effluents issued from a surface treatment plant were treated by electrochemical techniques in an attempt to reduce COD so that clean water can be returned to the rinse bath. Electrocoagulation, both with iron and aluminium anodes, and anodic oxidation with boron doped diamond (BDD) anodes were tested. In the electrocoagulation tests, the nature of the anodes did not impact significantly the reduction of COD. Electrocoagulation showed good COD removal rates, superior to 80%, but it was not able to reduce COD down to low levels. Anodic oxidation was able to reduce COD down to discharge limits; the oxidation efficiency was superior to 50%. Economical calculations show that anodic oxidation is best used as a polishing step after electrocoagulation. The bulk of the COD would be reduced by electrocoagulation and, then, anodic oxidation would reduce COD below discharge limits. The maximum treatable flow is somewhat hindered by the small sizes of current BDD installation but it would reach 600 m(3)/year if anodic oxidation is coupled with electrocoagulation, the operational cost being 2.90 Euros /m(3). PMID:18725717

Hermon, S; Grange, D; Pellet, Y; Lloret, G; Oyonarte, S; Bosch, F; Coste, M

2008-01-01

253

Phenol degradation by Aureobasidium pullulans FE13 isolated from industrial effluents.  

PubMed

The degradation of phenol (2-30 mM) by free cells and by alginate-immobilized cells of Aureobasidium pullulans FE13 isolated from stainless steel effluents was studied in batch cultures with saline solution not supplemented with nutrients or yeast extract. The rate at which the immobilized cells degrade phenol was similar to the rate at which the suspended cells could degrade phenol, for a concentration of up to 16 mM of phenol. The maximum phenol volumetric degradation rate for 16 mM phenol was found to be 18.35 mg l(-1)h(-1) in the assays with free cells and 20.45 mg l(-1)h(-1) in the assays with alginate-immobilized cells, 18 mM phenol and cellular concentration of 0.176 g/l. At concentrations higher than this, an inhibitory effect was observed, resulting in the lowering of the phenol degradation rates. The immobilization was detrimental to the catechol 1,2-dioxygenase activity. However, the immobilized cells remained viable for a longer period, increasing the efficiency of phenol degradation. The yeast showed catechol 1,2-dioxygenase activity only after growth in the phenol, which was induced at phenol concentrations as low as 0.05 mM and up to 25 mM at 45 h of incubation at 30 degrees C. Phenol concentrations higher than 6mM were inhibitory to the enzyme. Addition of glucose, lactate, succinate, and benzoate reduced the rate at which phenol is consumed by cells. Our results suggest that inoculants based on immobilized cells of A. pullulans FE13 has potential application in the biodegradation of phenol and possibly in the degradation of other related aromatic compounds. PMID:18541369

Dos Santos, Vera Lúcia; Monteiro, Andrea de Souza; Braga, Danúbia Telles; Santoro, Marcelo Matos

2008-05-03

254

Application of electron beam irradiation combined to conventional treatment to treat industrial effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

A preliminary study to combine electron beam irradiation process with biological treatment was carried out. Experiments were conducted using samples from a governmental wastewater treatment plant (WTP) that receives about 20% of industrial wastewater, with the objective of destroying the refractory organic pollutants and to obtain a better performance of this plant. Samples from five different steps of WTP were

C. L Duarte; M. H. O Sampa; P. R Rela; H. Oikawa; E. H Cherbakian; H. C Sena; H. Abe; V. Sciani

2000-01-01

255

POLISHING INDUSTRIAL WASTE STREAM EFFLUENTS USING FLY ASH - NATURAL CLAY SORBENT COMBINATION  

EPA Science Inventory

A laboratory evaluation of the use of acidic and basic fly ashes, bentonite, bauxite, illite, kaolinite, zeolite, vermiculite, and activated alumina is presented for polishing a 3.8 x 10 to the 6th power liters per day waste stream from the feldspar mining and processing industry...

256

Pollution of water resources from industrial effluents: a case study — Benghazi, Libya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water shortage problem is considered to be one of the biggest problems facing the middle eastern region, specifically the Arab countries located in semi-arid zones. The natural water resources of the region are suffering from outside control dominated by complex political circumstances, and inside deteriorations imposed by the combination of a fast growing population, and the challenges of industrialization which

Abdulmonem Elhassadi

2008-01-01

257

Effluent Variability in the Meat-Packing and Poultry Processing Industries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Long-term BOD 5 and suspended solids (SS) wastewater quality data on six meat-packing and four poultry processing plants was analyzed with respect to its variability. Results were compared to the discharge limitations for the respective industry categorie...

J. F. Scaief

1975-01-01

258

ECONOMIC IMPACT ANALYSIS OF EFFLUENT STANDARDS AND LIMITATIONS FOR THE METAL FINISHING INDUSTRY  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency issued e-fluent guidelines and limitations for the Metal Finishing Industry in June 1983. This report estimates the economic impact of pollution control costs in terms of price changes, effects profitability, potential plant closures, unem...

259

Cost-effectiveness analysis of effluent limitations and standards for the placer gold mining industry  

SciTech Connect

The paper reports the results of a cost-effectiveness (CE) analysis of alternative water pollution control regulations for the placer gold mining industry. The primary cost of interest in the analysis is the total annualized cost incurred by the mines under each control option.

Not Available

1985-08-01

260

Effluent management for a metal finishing industry aiming zero discharge conditions.  

PubMed

Technical applicability of zero discharge conditions is evaluated for the specific case of a large metal finishing industry located within the protection zone of a surface water body designated as a potential source for domestic water supply. Within the context of a sound water management strategy, a detailed process profile of the plant is established with relevant balance between water demand and wastewater generation. Quality restrictions for various water uses are identified. Wastewater flows are segregated depending on significant quality parameters. A comprehensive treatment scheme is defined for optimum wastewater recycle and reuse. Source allocation is made for the reuse of different streams of recycled wastewater. The study indicates that wastewater reuse can only be implemented with an efficiency of around 85-90% for the selected industry. PMID:16849126

Babuna, Fatos Germirli; Kabdasli, Isik; Sözen, Seval; Orhon, Derin

2006-01-01

261

Advanced oxidation processes for treatment of effluents from a detergent industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ozonation, catalytic ozonation, Fenton’s and heterogeneous Fenton?like processes were investigated as possible pretreatments of a low biodegradable and highly toxic wastewater produced by a detergent industry. The presence of a Mn–Ce–O catalyst in ozonation enhances the biodegradability and improves the degradation at low pH values. However, a high content of carbonyl compounds adsorbed on the recovered solid indicates some limitations

Rui C. Martins; Adrián M. T. Silva

2011-01-01

262

Impact assessment of industrial effluent of arid soils by using satellite imageries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visual interpretation ofIRS-LISS-II (1:50,000 Scale) FCC, band 2, 3 and 4 was carried out for the Industrial effluence assessment\\u000a on soils (21900 ha) along the Bandi river course in Pali district of arid Rajasthan. Very severe (4378 ha), severe (3427 ha),\\u000a moderate (5856 ha) and slight (1388 ha) categories of anthropogenic salt affected soils with the varied image characteristics\\u000a in

B K Sharma; P C Bohra

2000-01-01

263

Isolation and characterization of phenol utilizing bacteria from industrial effluent-contaminated soil and kinetic evaluation of their biodegradation potential.  

PubMed

Microbial degradation of phenol by pure bacterial species is a well-known approach towards alleviation of environmental pollution. In this study, five phenol-degrading bacterial species designated as CUPS-1 to CUPS-5 were isolated from the oil-effluent dumped sites of Haldia Industrial area of West Bengal, India. Detailed morphological, biochemical and molecular characterization identified CUPS-3 as a novel strain- Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (GU358076), while the others could be identified as Pseudomonas (CUPS-2, 5), Delftia (CUPS-1) and Micrococcus (CUPS-4) genera, respectively. Although all of these strains utilized phenol as their sole carbon source supporting growth, three among them, CUPS-2, CUPS-3 and CUPS-5 proved potential phenol degraders and hence used for further biodegradation studies. Degradation experiments were carried out for several initial phenol concentrations of 500 mg/L, 750 mg/L, 1000 mg/L, 1250 mg/L and 1500 mg/L. The novel strain, CUPS-3 could completely degrade 500 mg/L phenol within 48 h, with 0.0937/h substrate degradation rate and 16.34 mg/L/h substrate consumption rate. The strains degraded phenol via meta-cleavage pathway. Prediction of kinetic parameters of the biodegradation was accomplished Haldane model using the experimental data of degradation rate and phenol concentration as function of time. PMID:24117085

Basak, Sreela Pal; Sarkar, Priyabrata; Pal, Priyabrata

2014-01-01

264

Petrochemicals for the nonchemical person  

SciTech Connect

Petrochemicals for the Nontechnical Person is the second book in a series designed to inform the curious novice or frustrated veteran of what petrochemicals are and how they're made. Contents include: The complete course in organic chemistry; Benzene, toluene, and the xylenes; Cyclohexane; Olefin plants; The C/sub 4/ hydrocarbon family; Cumene and phenol; Ethylbenzene and styrene; Ethylene dichloride and vinyl chloride; Ethylene oxide and ethylene glycol; Propylene oxide and propylene glycol; Methanol and synthesis gas; The other alcohols; Acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, and methyl isobutyl ketone; The acids; Acrylonitriles and the acrylates; Maleic anhydride; The nature of polymers; Thermoplastics; Resins and fibers; Index.

Burdick, D.L.; Leffler, W.L.

1983-01-01

265

Potential for bioremediation of agro-industrial effluents with high loads of pesticides by selected fungi.  

PubMed

Wastewaters from the fruit packaging industry contain a high pesticide load and require treatment before their environmental discharge. We provide first evidence for the potential bioremediation of these wastewaters. Three white rot fungi (WRF) (Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Trametes versicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus) and an Aspergillus niger strain were tested in straw extract medium (StEM) and soil extract medium (SEM) for degrading the pesticides thiabendazole (TBZ), imazalil (IMZ), thiophanate methyl (TM), ortho-phenylphenol (OPP), diphenylamine (DPA) and chlorpyrifos (CHL). Peroxidase (LiP, MnP) and laccase (Lac) activity was also determined to investigate their involvement in pesticide degradation. T. versicolor and P. ostreatus were the most efficient degraders and degraded all pesticides (10 mg l?¹) except TBZ, with maximum efficiency in StEM. The phenolic pesticides OPP and DPA were rapidly degraded by these two fungi with a concurrent increase in MnP and Lac activity. In contrast, these enzymes were not associated with the degradation of CHL, IMZ and TM implying the involvement of other enzymes. T. versicolor degraded spillage-level pesticide concentrations (50 mg l?¹) either fully (DPA, OPP) or partially (TBZ, IMZ). The fungus was also able to rapidly degrade a mixture of TM/DPA (50 mg l?¹), whereas it failed to degrade IMZ and TBZ when supplied in a mixture with OPP. Overall, T. versicolor and P. ostreatus showed great potential for the bioremediation of wastewaters from the fruit packaging industry. However, degradation of TBZ should be also achieved before further scaling up. PMID:20635121

Karas, Panagiotis A; Perruchon, Chiara; Exarhou, Katerina; Ehaliotis, Constantinos; Karpouzas, Dimitrios G

2010-07-16

266

Microbial Populations Associated with Treatment of an Industrial Dye Effluent in an Anaerobic Baffled Reactor  

PubMed Central

Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) using 16S and 23S rRNA-targeted probes together with construction of an archaeal 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) clone library was used to characterize the microbial populations of an anaerobic baffled reactor successfully treating industrial dye waste. Wastewater produced during the manufacture of food dyes containing several different azo and other dye compounds was decolorized and degraded under sulfidogenic and methanogenic conditions. Use of molecular methods to describe microbial populations showed that a diverse group of Bacteria and Archaea was involved in this treatment process. FISH enumeration showed that members of the gamma subclass of the class Proteobacteria and bacteria in the Cytophaga-Flexibacter-Bacteroides phylum, together with sulfate-reducing bacteria, were prominent members of a mixed bacterial population. A combination of FISH probing and analysis of 98 archaeal 16S rDNA clone inserts revealed that together with the bacterial population, a methanogenic population dominated by Methanosaeta species and containing species of Methanobacterium and Methanospirillum and a relatively unstudied methanogen, Methanomethylovorans hollandica, contributed to successful anaerobic treatment of the industrial waste. We suggest that sulfate reducers, or more accurately sulfidogenic bacteria, together with M. hollandica contribute considerably to the treatment process through metabolism of dye-associated sulfonate groups and subsequent conversion of sulfur compounds to carbon dioxide and methane.

Plumb, Jason J.; Bell, Joanne; Stuckey, David C.

2001-01-01

267

Co-production of high quality NH 4SCN and sulfur slow release agent from industrial effluent using calcined MgAl–hydrotalcite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thiosulfate (S2O32?) is the main impurity in ammonium thiocyanate (NH4SCN) extracted from the effluent from industries such as electroplating or mining. It significantly lowers the quality of NH4SCN. Here we report a method for selective removal of S2O32? from aqueous solutions containing thiocyanate (SCN?) using the material produced by calcination of MgAl–CO3 hydrotalcites also known as layered double hydroxides (LDHs).

Xiao Yu; Zheng Chang; Xiaoming Sun; Xiaodong Lei; David G. Evans; Sailong Xu; Fazhi Zhang

2011-01-01

268

Biochemical responses of the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis to petrochemical environmental contamination along the North-western coast of Portugal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the development of urban and industrial centres petrochemical products have become a widespread class of contaminants. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of petrochemical contamination in wild populations of mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) along the NW Atlantic coast of Portugal by applying antioxidant and energetic metabolism parameters as biomarkers. For that, mussels were collected at five

Inês Lima; Susana M. Moreira; Jaime Rendón-Von Osten; Amadeu M. V. M. Soares; Lúcia Guilhermino

2007-01-01

269

Removal of Hexavalent Chromium from Electroplating Industrial Effluents by Using Hydrothermally Treated Fly Ash  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chromium in the wastewater coming out from tanneries and electroplating industries is to be treated because of exposure to it may produce effects on the liver, kidney, gastrointestinal and immune systems. On the other hand, fly ash produced from coal fired power plants is having disposal problem and it has to be properly utilized. In this study, the fly ash, subjected to hydrothermal treatment is used as adsorbent to remove Cr (VI) from synthetic samples. The effect of initial stock solution, contact time, adsorbent dose and pH were studied in a batch experiment. Results are compared with powdered activated carbon, granular activated carbon and untreated fly ash. The capacity of adsorption was found to be increased in the case of treated fly ash and it follows the order of powdered activated carbon >granular activated carbon >treated fly ash >untreated fly ash. The adsorption isotherms of Langmuir constants and Freundlich constants for all the adsorbents were determined. The Langmuir adsorption isotherm was recommended.

Ram Mohan Rao, S.; Basava Rao, V. V.

270

Bioremediation and Detoxification of Synthetic Wastewater Containing Triarylmethane Dyes by Aeromonas hydrophila Isolated from Industrial Effluent.  

PubMed

Economical and bio-friendly approaches are needed to remediate dye-contaminated wastewater from various industries. In this study, a novel bacterial strain capable of decolorizing triarylmethane dyes was isolated from a textile wastewater treatment plant in Greece. The bacterial isolate was identified as Aeromonas hydrophila and was shown to decolorize three triarylmethane dyes tested within 24?h with color removal in the range of 72% to 96%. Decolorization efficiency of the bacterium was a function of operational parameters (aeration, dye concentration, temperature, and pH) and the optimal operational conditions obtained for decolorization of the dyes were: pH 7-8, 35°C and culture agitation. Effective color removal within 24?h was obtained at a maximum dye concentration of 50?mg/L. Dye decolorization was monitored using a scanning UV/visible spectrophotometer which indicated that decolorization was due to the degradation of dyes into non-colored intermediates. Phytotoxicity studies carried out using Triticum aestivum, Hordeum vulgare, and Lens esculenta revealed the triarylmethane dyes exerted toxic effects on plant growth parameters monitored. However, significant reduction in toxicity was obtained with the decolorized dye metabolites thus, indicating the detoxification of the dyes following degradation by Aeromonas hydrophila. PMID:21808740

Ogugbue, Chimezie Jason; Sawidis, Thomas

2011-07-25

271

English for Petrochemical Plant Operators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The development of a program and curriculum for instruction in technical English for Saudi Arabian petrochemical plant operator trainees studying in the United States for two years was undertaken by the University of South Alabama's English Language Center. The program was designed to accommodate (1) the degree of skills and prior learning of the…

Bynum, Henri Sue

272

The impact of an industrial effluent on the water quality, submersed macrophytes and benthic macroinvertebrates in a dammed river of Central Spain.  

PubMed

This research was conducted in the middle Duratón River (Central Spain), in the vicinity of Burgomillodo Reservoir. An industrial effluent enters the river 300m downstream from the dam. Fluoride and turbidity levels significantly increased downstream from the effluent, these levels being to some extent affected by differential water releases from the dam. The community of submersed macrophytes exhibited slighter responses and, accordingly, lower discriminatory power than the community of benthic macroinvertebrates, this indicating that metrics and indices based on macroinvertebrates may be more suitable for the biological monitoring of water pollution and habitat degradation in dammed rivers receiving industrial effluents. However, in relation to fluoride bioaccumulation at the organism level, macrophytes (Fontinalis antipyretica and Potamogeton pectinatus) were as suitable bioindicators of fluoride pollution as macroinvertebrates (Ancylus fluviatilis and Pacifastacus leniusculus). Fluoride bioaccumulation in both hard and soft tissues of these aquatic organisms could be used as suitable bioindicator of fluoride pollution (even lower than 1mgF(-)L(-1)) in freshwater ecosystems. Echinogammarus calvus exhibited a great sensitivity to the toxicity of fluoride ions, with a 96h LC50 of 7.5mgF(-)L(-1) and an estimated safe concentration of 0.56mgF(-)L(-1). The great capacity of E. calvus to take up and retain fluoride during exposures to fluoride ions would be a major cause of its great sensitivity to fluoride toxicity. It is concluded that the observed fluoride pollution might be partly responsible for the absence of this native amphipod downstream from the industrial effluent. PMID:23830885

Gonzalo, Cristina; Camargo, Julio A

2013-07-05

273

Dangerous and cancer-causing properties of products and chemicals in the oil refining and petrochemical industry: Part I. Carcinogenicity of motor fuels: gasoline.  

PubMed

Studies in humans and animals have shown that gasoline contains a number of cancer-causing and toxic chemicals such as 1,3-butadiene, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, isoparaffins, methyltert-butylether, and others. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in its Monograph Supplement 7 (1987) concludes that "in the absence of adequate data on humans, it is biologically plausible and prudent to regard agents for which there is sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals as if they present a carcinogenic risk to humans." Epidemiological studies in humans provide important evidence of potential increased risk of leukemia, lymphatic tissue cancers, cancers of the brain, liver, and other organs and tissues. Recently (July, 1990) the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygiene (ACGIH) recommended that the TLV-TWA for benzene be reduced from 1 ppm to 0.1 ppm (ACGIH, 1990). The Collegium Ramazzini and others have also recommended that the exposure level for 1,3-Butadiene be reduced from 1,000 ppm to below 0.2 ppm. This recommendation is based on the findings that were presented at the Symposium on Toxicology, Carcinogenesis, and Human Health Aspects of 1,3-Butadiene (Environ. Health Perspec., 1990). Thus, studies on health effects resulting from very low levels of benzene, 1,3-butadiene, and other cancer-causing chemicals--components of gasoline--necessitate that all avoidable exposure to gasoline or gasoline vapors be avoided. PMID:1780852

Mehlman, M A

274

Economic Analysis of Final Effluent Limitations Guidelines and Standards for the Transportation Equipment Cleaning Industry Point Source Category.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Economic Analysis (EA) report evaluates the costs, economic impacts, and benefits of final effluent limitations guidelines and standards (known herein as the Final Rule) that provide for pollution control requirements for the transportation equipment...

2000-01-01

275

Biosorption of heavy metals by Bacillus thuringiensis strain OSM29 originating from industrial effluent contaminated north Indian soil  

PubMed Central

The study was navigated to examine the metal biosorbing ability of bacterial strain OSM29 recovered from rhizosphere of cauliflower grown in soil irrigated consistently with industrial effluents. The metal tolerant bacterial strain OSM29 was identified as Bacillus thuringiensis following 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. In the presence of the varying concentrations (25–150 mgl?1) of heavy metals, such as cadmium, chromium, copper, lead and nickel, the B. thuringiensis strain OSM29 showed an obvious metal removing potential. The effect of certain physico-chemical factors such as pH, initial metal concentration, and contact time on biosorption was also assessed. The optimum pH for nickel and chromium removal was 7, while for cadmium, copper and lead, it was 6. The optimal contact time was 30 min. for each metal at 32 ± 2 °C by strain OSM29. The biosorption capacity of the strain OSM29 for the metallic ions was highest for Ni (94%) which was followed by Cu (91.8%), while the lowest sorption by bacterial biomass was recorded for Cd (87%) at 25 mgl?1 initial metal ion concentration. The regression coefficients obtained for heavy metals from the Freundlich and Langmuir models were significant. The surface chemical functional groups of B. thuringiensis biomass identified by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) were amino, carboxyl, hydroxyl, and carbonyl groups, which may be involved in the biosorption of heavy metals. The biosorption ability of B. thuringiensis OSM29 varied with metals and was pH and metal concentration dependent. The biosorption of each metal was fairly rapid which could be an advantage for large scale treatment of contaminated sites.

Oves, Mohammad; Khan, Mohammad Saghir; Zaidi, Almas

2012-01-01

276

Toxicity evaluation of reactive dyestuffs, auxiliaries and selected effluents in textile finishing industry to luminescent bacteria Vibrio fischeri  

Microsoft Academic Search

The toxicity of 17 selected process effluents, 11 reactive dyestuffs and 8 auxiliaries from a textile dyeing and finishing mill in Ayazaga, Istanbul, Turkey was evaluated by bioluminescence test using bacteria Vibrio fischeri in LUMIStox 300. The EC20 and EC50 for auxiliaries, the EC20 for dyestuffs were determined. For selected process effluents GL-values, the dilution level at which a wastewater

Chunxia Wang; Ayfer Yediler; Doris Lienert; Zijian Wang; Antonius Kettrup

2002-01-01

277

Oral exposure to industrial effluent with exceptionally high levels of drugs does not indicate acute toxic effects in rats.  

PubMed

The Patancheru area near Hyderabad in India is recognized as a key link in the global supply chain for many bulk drugs. A central treatment plant receives wastewater from approximately 90 different manufacturers, and the resulting complex effluent has contaminated surface, ground, and drinking water in the region. Ecotoxicological testing of the effluent has shown adverse effects for several organisms, including aquatic vertebrates, at high dilutions. In addition, a recent study of microbial communities in river sediment indicated that the contamination of antibiotic substances might contribute to the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance genes. In an attempt to start investigating how exposure to effluent-contaminated water may directly affect humans and other terrestrial vertebrates, rats were tube-fed effluent. Several pharmaceuticals present in the effluent could be detected in rat blood serum at low concentrations. However, results from exploratory microarray and quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays indicated no marked effects on hepatic gene transcription after 5 d of exposure. Clinical analysis of blood serum constituents, used as biomarkers for human disease did not reveal any significant changes, nor was there an effect on weight gain. The authors could not find evidence for any acute toxicity in the rat; however, the authors cannot rule out that [corrected] higher doses of effluent or a longer exposure time may still be associated with risks for terrestrial vertebrates. PMID:23258772

Rutgersson, Carolin; Gunnarsson, Lina; Fick, Jerker; Kristiansson, Erik; Larsson, D G Joakim

2013-03-01

278

Modeling of Flow and Water Quality Processes with Finite Volume Method due to Spreading and Dispersion of Petrochemical Pollution in the Hydro-Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Having two water frontiers, namely (everlasting) Persian Gulf and Oman Sea in the south and Caspian Sea in the north, intense dependence on extracting and exporting oil, especially via marine fleets and ever-increasing development of petrochemical industry, Iran is exposed to severe environmental damages caused by oil and petrochemical industries. This essay investigates how oil spill is diffused and its

Ehsan Sarhadi Zadeh; Kourosh Hejazi

2009-01-01

279

Failure analysis of air preheater tubes of a petrochemicals plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat resistant alloy tubes used in the higher temperature range of 1150–1273K depends on the protective scale integrity for prevention of corrosion induced premature failures in a mixed gas environment with potential corrodents for oxidation, carburization and sulphidation attack. Cast HK40+Nb alloy tubes of an air pre-heater unit of a petrochemical industry failed prematurely after 13,000h in service. The unit

J. Swaminathan; Raghuvir Singh; Manoj Kumar Gunjan; Indranil Chattoraj

2009-01-01

280

Maximum fossil fuel feedstock replacement potential of petrochemicals via biorefineries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The search for feedstock replacement options within the petrochemical industry should logically be based upon non-fossil resources. Retaining the functionality of the biochemicals in biomass for use as chemical products and precursors can lead to a sizeable reduction of fossil fuel consumption. This was assessed by using a limited energetic and exergetic cradle-to-factory gate analysis following the principles of life

Ben Brehmer; Remko M. Boom; Johan Sanders

2009-01-01

281

The 1987 refining and petrochemical technology yearbook  

SciTech Connect

This annual covers the latest in refining and petrochemical technology written by the experts in the field. Opening with a foreword by Richard Corbett, Refining and Petrochemical Editior of the Oil and Gas Journal. The annual includes nearly 100 articles from the 1986 issues of the Oil and Gas Journal, comprising a collection of new technical information, methods of analysis, forecasts and trends in such subject areas as plants, fuels, gasolines, coking, processing, contents, hydrocracking, equipment, catalysts, and petrochemicals.

Not Available

1987-01-01

282

Development of a simultaneous partial nitrification, anaerobic ammonia oxidation and denitrification (SNAD) bench scale process for removal of ammonia from effluent of a fertilizer industry.  

PubMed

A simultaneous partial nitrification, anammox and denitrification (SNAD) process was developed for the treatment of ammonia laden effluent of a fertilizer industry. Autotrophic aerobic and anaerobic ammonia oxidizing biomass was enriched and their ammonia removal ability was confirmed in synthetic effluent system. Seed consortium developed from these was applied in the treatment of effluent in an oxygen limited bench scale SNAD type (1L) reactor run at ambient temperature (?30°C). Around 98.9% ammonia removal was achieved with ammonia loading rate 0.35kgNH(4)(+)-N/m(3)day in the presence of 46.6mg/L COD at 2.31days hydraulic retention time. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the biomass from upper and lower zone of the reactor revealed presence of autotrophic ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB), Planctomycetes and denitrifiers as the dominant bacteria carrying out anoxic oxidation of ammonia in the reactor. Physiological and molecular studies strongly indicate presence of anammox bacteria in the anoxic zone of the SNAD reactor. PMID:23313684

Keluskar, Radhika; Nerurkar, Anuradha; Desai, Anjana

2012-12-20

283

[Enhanced bio-contact oxidation method to treat petrochemical wastewater by tourmaline].  

PubMed

Aiming at the complexity and poor biochemical degradability of petrochemical wastewater, the effect of tourmaline on bio-contact oxidation method was investigated. The influent and effluent of petrochemical wastewater were analyzed by GC-MS, and the carrier was observed in reactor by scanning electron microscope (SEM). As the loading rates of influent were COD 0.64-0.72 kg/(m3 x d) and NH4(+) -N 0.058-0.072 kg/(m3 x d), the start up of pilot system supported tourmaline were improved, and the removal rate of COD and NH4(+) -N of effluent was increased 8.7% and 6.4%, respectively. Organic pollutants of 100 kinds were detected in influent, mainly including aromatic hydrocarbon, acids, lipids, phenols, alcohols, and alkanes compounds. The removal efficiency of organic pollutant of reactor 1 with tourmaline was higher than reactor 2 without tourmaline. The number of organic pollutant in effluent from reactor 1 and 2 were 14 and 28, respectively. Zoogloea can be observed on carrier supported tourmaline, and the biomass of bacteria was predominant. The efficiency of bio-contact oxidation method on petrochemical wastewater treatment can be enhanced by tourmaline. PMID:19662849

Jiang, Kan; Ma, Fang; Sun, Tie-Heng; Feng, Zhi-Yun

2009-06-15

284

Biological alternatives to chemical identification for the ecotoxicological assessment of industrial effluents: The RTG-2 in vitro cytotoxicity test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecotoxicology is concerned with the effects of chemicals on biological systems. Identifying components of complex aqueous effluents poses special problems, and can be useless if there is a lack of information on the biological effects of the identified chemicals. Toxicity-based (bioassay-directed) sample fractionation can be very useful, but the small amount of fractioned material is a constraint that can be

A. Castano; Milagros Vega; Teresa Blazquez; Jose V. Tarazona

1994-01-01

285

INEEL Liquid Effluent Inventory  

SciTech Connect

The INEEL contractors and their associated facilities are required to identify all liquid effluent discharges that may impact the environment at the INEEL. This liquid effluent information is then placed in the Liquid Effluent Inventory (LEI) database, which is maintained by the INEEL prime contractor. The purpose of the LEI is to identify and maintain a current listing of all liquid effluent discharge points and to identify which discharges are subject to federal, state, or local permitting or reporting requirements and DOE order requirements. Initial characterization, which represents most of the INEEL liquid effluents, has been performed, and additional characterization may be required in the future to meet regulations. LEI information is made available to persons responsible for or concerned with INEEL compliance with liquid effluent permitting or reporting requirements, such as the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System, Wastewater Land Application, Storm Water Pollution Prevention, Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasures, and Industrial Wastewater Pretreatment. The State of Idaho Environmental Oversight and Monitoring Program also needs the information for tracking liquid effluent discharges at the INEEL. The information provides a baseline from which future liquid discharges can be identified, characterized, and regulated, if appropriate. The review covered new and removed buildings/structures, buildings/structures which most likely had new, relocated, or removed LEI discharge points, and at least 10% of the remaining discharge points.

Major, C.A.

1997-06-01

286

Association of petrochemical exposure with spontaneous abortion  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To assess the association between petrochemical exposure and spontaneous abortion, a retrospective epidemiological study in a large petrochemical complex in Beijing, China was conducted. METHODS: Plant employment records identified 3105 women who were married, were 20-44 years of age, and had never smoked. Of those, 3070 women (98.8%) reported at least one pregnancy. From this group, 2853 (93%) of

X. Xu; S. I. Cho; M. Sammel; L. You; S. Cui; Y. Huang; G. Ma; C. Padungtod; L. Pothier; T. Niu; D. Christiani; T. Smith; L. Ryan; L. Wang

1998-01-01

287

Ceramic membrane treatment of petrochemical wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ceramic alumina microfiltration membranes were evaluated for treatment of 3 aqueous streams containing heavy metals, oils, and solids at petrochemical manufacturing facilities. To the best of the author's knowledge, this is the first reported use of ceramic alumina membranes for process water and wastewater treatment in a US petrochemical plant. In a pilot test at a vinyl chloride monomer (VCM)

Richard J. Lahiere; Kenneth P. Goodboy

1993-01-01

288

Ultratrace Determination of Cr(VI) and Pb(II) by Microsample Injection System Flame Atomic Spectroscopy in Drinking Water and Treated and Untreated Industrial Effluents  

PubMed Central

Simple and robust analytical procedures were developed for hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) and lead (Pb(II)) by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) using microsample injection system coupled with flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (MIS-FAAS). For the current study, ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC), carbon tetrachloride, and ethanol were used as chelating agent, extraction solvent, and disperser solvent, respectively. The effective variables of developed method have been optimized and studied in detail. The limit of detection of Cr(VI) and Pb(II) were 0.037 and 0.054?µg/L, respectively. The enrichment factors in both cases were 400 with 40?mL of initial volumes. The relative standard deviations (RSDs, n = 6) were <4%. The applicability and the accuracy of DLLME were estimated by the analysis of Cr(VI) and Pb(II) in industrial effluent wastewater by standard addition method (recoveries >96%). The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of Cr(VI) and Pb(II) at ultratrace levels in natural drinking water and industrial effluents wastewater of Denizli. Moreover, the proposed method was compared with the literature reported method.

Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Elci, Latif; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Khan, Muhammad Irfan; Naseer, Hafiz Muhammad

2013-01-01

289

Economic benefits of final effluent limitations guidelines and standards for the offshore oil and gas industry. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The report provides an overview of the benefits analysis of the effluent limitation guidelines for offshore oil and gas facilities. Regulatory options were evaluated for two wastestreams: (1) drilling fluids (muds) and cuttings; and (2) produced water. The analysis focuses on the human health-related benefits of the regulatory options considered. These health risk reduction benefits are associated with reduced human exposure to various carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic contaminants, including lead, by way of consumption of shrimp and recreationally caught finfish from the Gulf of Mexico. Most of the health-risk reduction benefits analysis is based upon a previous report (RCG/Hagler, Bailly, January 1991), developed in support of the proposed rulemaking. Recreational, commercial, and nonuse benefits have not been estimated for these regulations, due to data limitations and the difficulty of estimating these values for effluent controls in the open-water marine environment.

Not Available

1993-01-14

290

Removal and recovery of Cu(II) from industrial effluent by immobilized cells of Pseudomonas putida II-11  

Microsoft Academic Search

A copper [Cu(II)]-accumulating strain, Pseudomonas putida II-11, isolated from electroplating effluent removed a significantly high amount of Cu(II) from growth medium and buffer. A laboratory-scale fixed bed reactor with cells of P. putida II-11 immobilized in polyacrylamide gel was constructed. The adsorption of Cu(II) by the immobilized cells was pH-dependent. Maximum removal of Cu(II) by the immobilized cells was at

P. K. Wong; K. C. Lam; C. M. So

1993-01-01

291

Evaluation of haloalkaliphilic sulfur-oxidizing microorganisms with potential application in the effluent treatment of the petroleum industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Haloalkaliphilic sulfur-oxidizing mixed cultures for the treatment of alkaline–saline effluents containing sulfide were characterized\\u000a and evaluated. The mixed cultures (IMP-PB, IMP-XO and IMP-TL) were obtained from Mexican alkaline soils collected in Puebla\\u000a (PB), Xochimilco (XO) and Tlahuac (TL), respectively. The Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis (RISA) revealed bacteria related\\u000a to Thioalkalibacterium and Thioalkalivibrio in IMP-XO and IMP-PB mixed cultures. Halomonas strains

P. Olguín-Lora; S. Le Borgne; G. Castorena-Cortés; T. Roldán-Carrillo; I. Zapata-Peñasco; J. Reyes-Avila; S. Alcántara-Pérez

2011-01-01

292

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act industrial site environmental restoration site characterization report - area 6 steam cleaning effluent ponds  

SciTech Connect

The Area 6 North and South Steam Cleaning Effluent Ponds (SCEPs) are historic disposal units located at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nye County, Nevada. The NTS is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) which has been required by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) to characterize the site under the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B Permit for the NTS and Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations, Part 265.

NONE

1996-09-01

293

Mercury removal from liquid effluents of the chlor-alkali industry by using the biomass Sargassum sp  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, the used biomass, for removing the mercuric species from the liquid effluents of the chlor-alkali plants was the macro-algae Sargassum sp. According to the results obtained, until this moment in time, it was possible to remove more than 99% of the ionic mercury with the advantage of not releasing me aqueous phase, that returns to the operation of brine production, the electrolyte of the electrolytic cells. In addition, it was verified that the biomass, once loaded with Mercury, can be reused in the biosorption step, after suffering an elution process.

Sobral, L. G. S.; de Barros Lima, R.; Leite, S. G. F.; Fernandes, A. L. V.

2003-05-01

294

Combined electrocoagulation and TiO(2) photoassisted treatment applied to wastewater effluents from pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries.  

PubMed

The treated wastewater consists of refractory materials and high organic content of hydrolyzed peptone residues from pharmaceutical factory. The combination of electrocoagulation (EC) followed by heterogeneous photocatalysis (TiO(2)) conditions was maximized. The EC: iron cathode/anode (12.50 cmx2.50 cmx0.10 cm), current density 763Am(-2), 90min and initial pH 6.0. As EC consequence, the majority of the dissolved organic and suspended material was removed (about 91% and 86% of the turbidity and chemical oxygen demand (COD), respectively). After EC, refractory residues still remained in the effluent. The subsequent photocatalysis: UV/TiO(2)/H(2)O(2) (mercury lamps), pH 3.0, 4h irradiation, 0.25gL(-1) TiO(2) and 10mmolL(-1) H(2)O(2) shows high levels of inorganic and organic compounds eliminations. The obtained COD values: 1753mgL(-1) for the sample from the factory, 160mgL(-1) after EC and 50mgL(-1) after EC/photocatalyzed effluents pointed out that the combined treatment stresses this water purification. PMID:18573596

Boroski, Marcela; Rodrigues, Angela Cláudia; Garcia, Juliana Carla; Sampaio, Luiz Carlos; Nozaki, Jorge; Hioka, Noboru

2008-05-21

295

Hydrocarbon Processing`s petrochemical processes `97  

SciTech Connect

The paper compiles information on numerous petrochemical processes, describing the application, the process, yields, economics, commercial plants, references, and licensor. Petrochemicals which are synthesized include: alkylbenzene, methylamines, ammonia, benzene, bisphenol-A, BTX aromatics, butadiene, butanediol, butyraldehyde, caprolactam, cumene, dimethyl terephthalate, ethanolamines, ethylbenzene, ethylene, ethylene glycols, ethylene oxide, formaldehyde, maleic anhydride, methanol, olefins, paraxylene, phenol, phthalic anhydride, polycaproamide, polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate, polypropylene, PVC, styrene, terephthalic acid, urea, vinyl chloride, and xylene isomers.

NONE

1997-03-01

296

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act industrial site environmental restoration site characterization plan. Area 6 Steam Cleaning Effluent Ponds  

SciTech Connect

This plan presents the strategy for the characterization of the Area 6 South and North Steam Cleaning Effluent Ponds (SCEPs) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) to be conducted for the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), Environmental Restoration Division (ERD). The purposes of the planned activities are to: obtain sufficient, sample analytical data from which further assessment, remediation, and/or closure strategies may be developed for the site; obtain sufficient, sample analytical data for management of investigation-derived waste (IDW). The scope of the characterization may include excavation, drilling, and sampling of soil in and around both ponds; sampling of the excavated material; in situ sampling of the soil at the bottom and on the sides of the excavations as well as within subsurface borings; and conducting sample analysis for both characterization and waste management purposes. Contaminants of concern include RCRA-regulated VOCs and metals.

NONE

1996-02-01

297

Harmonic signals in Saudi Arabia industrial plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of a preliminary survey of harmonic levels within the Saudi Arabian power network and industrial facilities are presented. The major industries are petrochemical related and a number of arc furnaces. The voltage and current harmonic levels are within the IEEE 519-1992 standard. The results indicate a growing level of harmonics as more and more petrochemical industries are connected to

Ibrahim El-Amin; A. Al-Shehri

1999-01-01

298

Economic Analysis of Effluent Guidelines: The Textiles, Friction and Sealing Materials Segment of the Asbestos Manufacturing Industry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report estimates the broad economic effects (including product price increases, continued viability of affected plants, employment, industry growth and foreign trade) of the required application of various control technologies.

S. V. Margolin B. U. N. Igwe

1975-01-01

299

Application of Ulva lactuca and Systoceira stricta algae-based activated carbons to hazardous cationic dyes removal from industrial effluents.  

PubMed

Marine algae Ulva lactuca (ULV-AC) and Systoceira stricta (SYS-AC) based activated carbons were investigated as potential adsorbents for the removal of hazardous cationic dyes. Both algae were surface oxidised by phosphoric acid for 2 and subsequently air activated at 600 °C for 3 h. Dyes adsorption parameters such as solution pH, contact time, carbon dosage, temperature and ionic strength were measured in batch experiments. Adsorption capacities of 400 and 526 mg/g for Malachite green and Safranine O by the SYS-AC and ULV-AC respectively were significantly enhanced by the chemical treatments. Model equations such as Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherms were used to analyse the adsorption equilibrium data and the best fits to the experimental data were provided by the first two isotherm models. BET, FT-IR, iodine number and methylene blue index determination were also performed to characterize the adsorbents. To describe the adsorption mechanism, kinetic models such as pseudo-second-order and the intra particle diffusion were applied. Thermodynamic analysis of the adsorption processes of both dyes confirms their spontaneity and endothermicity. Increasing solution ionic strength increased significantly the adsorption of Safranine O. This study shows that surface modified algae can be an alternative to the commercially available adsorbents for dyes removal from liquid effluents. PMID:23597681

Salima, Attouti; Benaouda, Bestani; Noureddine, Benderdouche; Duclaux, Laurent

2013-03-28

300

Mortality among workers employed in petroleum refining and petrochemical plants  

SciTech Connect

The cause-specific mortality experience of 3,105 members of the Oil, Chemical and Atomic Workers International Union was examined to determine if there were unusual patterns of fatal disease that may be indicative of hazardous agents in the work environment. Deaths among active Union members that were reported by locals in Texas between 1947 and 1977 were identified through membership records, and proportionate mortality was analyzed in several broad industrial categories. PMRs for cancers of the liver and biliary passages, pancreas, lung and skin were elevated among refinery and petrochemical plant workers; however risks did not increase with length of membership. Increased relative frequencies of stomach cancer, cancer of the brain, leukemia and multiple myeloma were confined to white males in the same category who had been Union members for 10 or more years. Excess deaths from stomach cancer and brain cancer were found among white male members employed at one specific oil refinery and petrochemical plant. Observed numbers of deaths from cancer of the stomach were greater than expected among whites and nonwhites, and an elevated PMR for lung cancer among nonwhites was found at an additional plant. Findings suggest that workers in this industry may be at increased risk of certain cancers and indicate areas for further investigation.

Thomas, T.L. (National Cancer Inst., Bethesda, MD); Decoufle, P.; Moure-Eraso, R.

1980-02-01

301

Dehydroabietic acid, a major effluent component of paper and pulp industry, decreases erythrocyte pH in lamprey ( Lampetra fluviatilis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resin acids, forming a major component of wood industry, cause numerous toxic effects on liver and red blood cells of fish. Effect of dehydroabietic acid (DHAA) on erythrocyte pH of river lamprey was investigated using [14C]DMO distribution to determine pHi. Exposure of the cells to more than 200 ?M DHAA caused hemolysis within 10 min of incubation. Treatment with 50–200

Anna Yu. Bogdanova; Mikko Nikinmaa

1998-01-01

302

The Potentiality of Free Gram-negative Bacteria for Removing Oil and Grease from Contaminated Industrial Effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight bacterial species were isolated from vegetable oil and grease-contaminated industrial wastewater, only four of which were found to have the ability to degrade oil and grease in the contaminated wastewater. These isolates were identified according to morphological and biochemical profiles as, Pseudomonas sp. (L1), P. diminuta (L2), P. pseudoalcaligenes (L3), and Escherichia sp. (L5). The degradative capabilities of the

Ebtesam El-Bestawy; Mohamed H. El-Masry; Nawal E. El-Adl

2005-01-01

303

Heavy metal resistant freshwater ciliate, Euplotes mutabilis, isolated from industrial effluents has potential to decontaminate wastewater of toxic metals.  

PubMed

The ciliate, Euplotes mutabilis, isolated from industrial wastewater of tanneries of Kasur, Pakistan, showed tolerance against Cd2+ (22 microg ml(-1)), Cr6+ (60 microg ml(-1)), Pb2+ (75 microg ml(-1)) and Cu2+ (22 microg ml(-1)). The heavy metals, Cr and Pb, were randomly selected for determining the capability of the ciliate to reduce the concentration of these metal ions in the medium and to evaluate its potential use as bioremediator of wastewater. The live protozoans could remove 97% of Pb2+ and 98% of Cr6+ from the medium, 96 h after inoculation of the medium containing 10 micro gml(-1) of metal ions. The acid digestion of ciliate showed 89% of Pb2+ and 93% of Cr6+ ions accumulated in the organism. When the ciliate was exposed to heavy metals at a larger scale viz., 10 l of water containing 10 micro gml(-1) of heavy metals, it removed 86% of Pb2+ and 90% of Cr6+ from the medium. The metal uptake ability of E. mutabilis, as evidenced by its survival and growth in 100ml and 10 l of water containing 10 microg ml(-1) of metal ions, reduction in the concentration of heavy metals in the medium and its increased uptake by the live cells, and no metal uptake by the heat killed ciliate can be exploited for metal detoxification of industrial wastes and environmental clean-up operations. PMID:17888657

Rehman, Abdul; Shakoori, Farah Rauf; Shakoori, Abdul Rauf

2007-09-20

304

Electrochemical oxidation of bio-refractory dye in a simulated textile industry effluent using DSA electrodes in a filter-press type FM01-LC reactor.  

PubMed

This work presents a study on degradation of indigo carmine dye in a filter-press type FM01-LC reactor using Sb2O5-doped Ti/IrO2-SnO2 dimensionally stable anode (DSA) electrodes. Micro- and macroelectrolysis studies were carried out using solutions of 0.8 mM indigo carmine in 0.05 M NaCl, which resemble blue denim laundry industrial wastewater. Microelectrolysis results show the behaviour of DSA electrodes in comparison with the behaviour of boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes. In general, dye degradation reactions are carried out indirectly through active chlorine generated on DSA, whereas in the case of BDD electrodes more oxidizing species are formed, mainly OH radicals, on the electrode surface. The well-characterized geometry, flow pattern and mass transport of the FM01-LC reactor used in macroelectrolysis experiments allowed the evaluation of the effect of hydrodynamic conditions on the chlorine-mediated degradation rate. Four values of Reynolds number (Re) (93, 371, 464 and 557) at four current densities (50, 100, 150 and 200 A/m2) were tested. The results show that the degradation rate is independent of Re at low current density (50 A/m2) but becomes dependent on the Re at high current density (200 A/m2). This behaviour shows the central role of mass transport and the reactor parameters and design. The low energy consumption (2.02 and 9.04 kWh/m3 for complete discolouration and chemical oxygen demand elimination at 50 A/m2, respectively) and the low cost of DSA electrodes compared to BDD make DSA electrodes promising for practical application in treating industrial textile effluents. In the present study, chlorinated organic compounds were not detected. PMID:23837306

Rodríguez, Francisca A; Mateo, María N; Aceves, Juan M; Rivero, Eligio P; González, Ignacio

305

Application of hydrocyanic acid vapor generation via focused microwave radiation to the preparation of industrial effluent samples prior to free and total cyanide determinations by spectrophotometric flow injection analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sample preparation procedure for the quantitative determination of free and total cyanides in industrial effluents has been\\u000a developed that involves hydrocyanic acid vapor generation via focused microwave radiation. Hydrocyanic acid vapor was generated\\u000a from free cyanides using only 5 min of irradiation time (90 W power) and a purge time of 5 min. The HCN generated was absorbed\\u000a into an accepting NaOH

Maria Cristina Baptista Quaresma; Maria de Fátima Batista de Carvalho; Francis Assis Meirelles; Vânia Maria Junqueira Santiago; Ricardo Erthal Santelli

2007-01-01

306

VOC removal and deodorization of effluent gases from an industrial plant by photo-oxidation, chemical oxidation, and ozonization.  

PubMed

The efficiency of photo-oxidation, chemical oxidation by sodium hypochlorite, and ozonization for the industrial-scale removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and odors from gaseous emissions was studied by applying these treatments (in an experimental system) to substances passing through an emission stack of a factory producing maize derivatives. Absorption and ozonization were the most efficient treatment, removing 75% and 98% of VOCs, respectively, while photo-oxidation only removed about 59%. The emitted chemical compounds and odors were identified and quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (in full-scan mode). In addition to presenting the results, their implications for selecting optimal processes for treating volatile emissions are discussed. PMID:20192167

Domeño, Celia; Rodríguez-Lafuente, Angel; Martos, J M; Bilbao, Rafael; Nerín, Cristina

2010-04-01

307

Petrochemical feedstock from basic oxygen steel furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the development of alternate feedstock sources, and the recognition of coal as such an alternate energy and feedstock source. The process routes for converting coal to methanol, SNG, and oil are outlined. Such processes are energy inefficient and expensive, with less than half the energy being recovered as product. Coal-based petrochemical plants are shown to be more

C. W. Greenwood; W. E. Hardwick

1982-01-01

308

Petrochemical wastewater odor treatment by biofiltration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The treatment of odorous pollutants by microorganisms on packed waste straw and cortex was investigated at the wastewater treatment plant of the Shanghai petrochemical factory. The removal efficiency of H2S, NH3 and VOCs (volatile organic compounds) reached 98%, 91% and 90%, respectively after operation for one month at an empty bed retention time (EBRT) of 120s. The heterotrophic bacteria were

B. Xie; S. B. Liang; Y. Tang; W. X. Mi; Y. Xu

2009-01-01

309

Uranium behaviour in an estuary polluted by mining and industrial effluents: The Ría of Huelva (SW of Spain).  

PubMed

This paper describes a comprehensive study of the behaviour of U in the Ría of Huelva estuary, formed by the Tinto and Odiel rivers. This ecosystem is conditioned by two hydrochemical facts: one connected with the acid mining drainage (AMD) generated in the first section of the river basins, and another one related to the fertilizer industry located at the estuary. AMD gives a singular character to these rivers; low pH and high redox potential that keep high amounts of toxic elements and radionuclides in dissolution. Most of the data for dissolved U in estuaries indicate conservative mixing, but there are examples of non-conservative behaviour attributed to oxidation/reduction processes or solubility variations. In the Ría of Huelva estuary the U shows a non-conservative behaviour due to solubility changes produced by variations in the pH. A complete removal of riverine dissolved U is observed in a pH range of 4-6. At higher pH values, U release from suspended matter, and probably also from sediments into the dissolved phase is found. PMID:23973258

Hierro, A; Martín, J E; Olías, M; Vaca, F; Bolivar, J P

2013-08-06

310

Adsorptive removal of Cu(II) from aqueous solution and industrial effluent using natural/agricultural wastes.  

PubMed

The potentiality of low cost natural/agricultural waste biomasses for the removal of Cu(II) ion from aqueous solution has been investigated in batch experiments. The effect of various physico-chemical parameters such as initial pH, initial Cu(II) concentration, adsorbent dosage, contact time and temperature has been studied. The optimum pH for adsorption was found to be 6 for all adsorbents used. Kinetics data were best described by the pseudo-2nd-order model. The experimental data were fitted well with Freundlich and Halsey isotherm models. The diffusion coefficient and sorption energy indicated that the adsorption process was chemical in nature. Thermodynamic parameters such as ?G°, ?H° and ?S° were calculated, and it was observed that the adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic. The mean sorption energy was calculated using Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm model and it confirmed that the sorption process was chemical in nature. Different active functional groups were identified by FTIR studies which were responsible for Cu(II) ion adsorption process. Application study using electroplating industrial waste water and regeneration experiment of the adsorbent were also investigated. Design procedure for the batch process was also reported. PMID:23466548

Singha, Biswajit; Das, Sudip Kumar

2013-02-09

311

Association of petrochemical exposure with spontaneous abortion  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To assess the association between petrochemical exposure and spontaneous abortion, a retrospective epidemiological study in a large petrochemical complex in Beijing, China was conducted. METHODS: Plant employment records identified 3105 women who were married, were 20-44 years of age, and had never smoked. Of those, 3070 women (98.8%) reported at least one pregnancy. From this group, 2853 (93%) of the women participated in the study. According to their plant employment record, about 57% of these women workers reported occupational exposure to petrochemicals during the first trimester of their pregnancy. Trained interviewers administered a standardised questionnaire to this group of women and their husbands, collecting information on reproductive history, pregnancy outcomes, employment history, occupational exposure, smoking habits, alcohol consumption, indoor air pollution, and demographic variables. The results from the womens' first pregnancies were analysed. RESULTS: There was a significantly increased risk of spontaneous abortion for women working in all of the production plants with frequent exposure to petrochemicals (8.8%; range of 5.8%-9.8%) compared with those working in nonchemical plants (2.2%; range of 0.0%-7.1%). Also, when a comparison was made between exposed and non-exposed groups within each plant, exposure to petrochemicals was consistently associated with an increased risk of spontaneous abortion. The overall odds ratio (OR) was 2.7 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.8 to 3.9) after adjusting for potential confounders. When the analysis was performed with the exposure information obtained from the women' interview responses for (self reported) exposures, the estimated OR for spontaneous abortions was 2.9 (95% CI 2.0 to 4.0). The analysis was repeated by excluding those 452 women who provided inconsistent reports between recalled exposure and work history, and a comparable risk of spontaneous abortion (OR 2.9; 95% CI 2.0 to 4.4) was found. In analyses for exposure to specific chemicals, an increased risk of spontaneous abortion was found with exposure to most chemicals, and the results for benzene (OR 2.5; 95% CI 1.7 to 3.7), gasoline (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.1 to 2.9), and hydrogen sulphide (OR 2.3; 95% CI 1.2 to 4.4) were significant. CONCLUSION: An increased risk of spontaneous abortion was found associated with the exposure to petrochemicals, including benzene, gasoline, and hydrogen sulphide.  

Xu, X.; Cho, S. I.; Sammel, M.; You, L.; Cui, S.; Huang, Y.; Ma, G.; Padungtod, C.; Pothier, L.; Niu, T.; Christiani, D.; Smith, T.; Ryan, L.; Wang, L.

1998-01-01

312

Refiners, petrochem plants focus on new waste challenges  

SciTech Connect

The author discusses how refineries and petrochemical plants face tough regulations on emissions of hazardous wastes and air emissions during the next decade. During the 1990s, process plants will have to substantially change the way they generate, handle, store, and dispose of hazardous wastes, particularly spent catalysts, and they will likely have to substantially reduce air emissions. An important area of concern for process plant operators is the disposal or recycle of spent process catalysts. Particular attention is directed toward the disposal or recycling of spent FCC equilibrium catalysts and spent hydrotreating catalysts. These catalysts, for the most part, are not yet considered hazardous by EPA, but the industry is concerned that they soon may be. A spent hydrotreating catalyst reclamation plant, described in detail, is typical of facilities refiners will rely more on for the disposition of spent catalysts.

Corbett, R.A

1990-03-05

313

Application of hydrocyanic acid vapor generation via focused microwave radiation to the preparation of industrial effluent samples prior to free and total cyanide determinations by spectrophotometric flow injection analysis.  

PubMed

A sample preparation procedure for the quantitative determination of free and total cyanides in industrial effluents has been developed that involves hydrocyanic acid vapor generation via focused microwave radiation. Hydrocyanic acid vapor was generated from free cyanides using only 5 min of irradiation time (90 W power) and a purge time of 5 min. The HCN generated was absorbed into an accepting NaOH solution using very simple glassware apparatus that was appropriate for the microwave oven cavity. After that, the cyanide concentration was determined within 90 s using a well-known spectrophotometric flow injection analysis system. Total cyanide analysis required 15 min irradiation time (90 W power), as well as chemical conditions such as the presence of EDTA-acetate buffer solution or ascorbic acid, depending on the effluent to be analyzed (petroleum refinery or electroplating effluents, respectively). The detection limit was 0.018 mg CN l(-1) (quantification limit of 0.05 mg CN l(-1)), and the measured RSD was better than 8% for ten independent analyses of effluent samples (1.4 mg l(-1) cyanide). The accuracy of the procedure was assessed via analyte spiking (with free and complex cyanides) and by performing an independent sample analysis based on the standard methodology recommended by the APHA for comparison. The sample preparation procedure takes only 10 min for free and 20 min for total cyanide, making this procedure much faster than traditional methodologies (conventional heating and distillation), which are time-consuming (they require at least 1 h). Samples from oil (sour and stripping tower bottom waters) and electroplating effluents were analyzed successfully. PMID:17143595

Quaresma, Maria Cristina Baptista; de Carvalho, Maria de Fátima Batista; Meirelles, Francis Assis; Santiago, Vânia Maria Junqueira; Santelli, Ricardo Erthal

2006-12-02

314

Mineral Accumulation, Growth, and Physiological Functions in Dalbergiasissoo Seedlings Irrigated with Different Effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Present study aimed to observe the mineral accumulation added through effluent application and their influence on physiological functions and growth of Dalberiasissoo and ultimately to find out suitable combination of industrial and municipal effluent for their utilization in raising tree plantation. Dalbergiasissoo seedlings were irrigated with: canal water (T1); municipal effluent (T2); textile effluent (T3); steel effluent (T4); textile + municipal effluent

Genda Singh; Madhulika Bhati

2003-01-01

315

Multi-compartmental environmental surveillance of a petrochemical area: Levels of micropollutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 2002, the chemical\\/petrochemical industrial zone of Tarragona County (Catalonia, Spain) is being annually monitored. As part of the environmental surveillance program, in this study the levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD\\/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and metals (As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Mn, Pb and V) were determined in soil and vegetation samples

Martí Nadal; Montse Mari; Marta Schuhmacher; José L. Domingo

2009-01-01

316

Enhanced biodegradation of petrochemical wastewater using ozonation and bac advanced treatment system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characteristics of degradation\\/conversion of bio-refractory and the growth of a biofilm are investigated in laboratory-scale pre-ozonation and lifted moving-bed biological activated carbon (BAC) advanced treatment processes treating phenol, benzoic acid, aminobenzoic acid and petrochemical industry wastewater which contains acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS). The optimal reaction time and ozone dosage of pre-ozonation for bio-refractory conversion were determined to be 30min

Chi-Kang Lin; Tsung-Yueh Tsai; Jiunn-Ching Liu; Mei-Chih Chen

2001-01-01

317

Metal distribution in road dust samples collected in an urban area close to a petrochemical plant at Gela, Sicily  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight samples of road dust were collected from three different localities (industrial, urban, peripheral) of the town of Gela (Italy) to characterize their chemical composition and to assess (a) the influence of the petrochemical plant and the urban traffic on the trace element content in different grain-size fractions of street dust and (b) the solid-phase speciation of the analysed metal

Emanuela Manno; Daniela Varrica; Gaetano Dongarrà

2006-01-01

318

Growth for U. S. petrochemicals seen as continuing in the 1980's  

SciTech Connect

According to W. S. Sneath (Union Carbide Corp.), a continued strong growth is expected in the U.S. petrochemical industry in the 1980's. Although U.S. energy and feed prices are increasing to world levels, the range of feed alternatives in the U.S., the size of U.S. plants, and U.S. technical capability will continue to make U.S. petrochemical producers very competitive in world markets. The automobile industry is using plastics increasingly as replacements for heavier materials to reduce weight and improve gas mileage; the use of plastics has already increased to an average of 200 lb/car, and may reach 350 lb/car by 1985, or an additional 1 billion lb/yr of plastics. Sneath noted the great progress made by the petrochemical industry in energy conservation, including Union Carbide Corp.'s new low-pressure process which cuts energy requirements by approx. 75% for low-density polyethylene production. A Worldwatch Institute study on the higher energy efficiency of synthetics over natural products is briefly discussed.

Sneath, W.S.

1980-08-01

319

Toxicity identification in metal plating effluent: Implications in establishing effluent discharge limits using bioassays in Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of complexity and diversity of toxicants in effluent, chemical analysis alone gives very limited information on identifying toxic chemicals to test organisms. Toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) techniques have been widely used to identify toxicants in various samples including industrial wastewater as well as natural waters. In response to new regulation for effluent discharge in Korea, which will be effective

Eunhee Kim; You-Ree Jun; Hun-Je Jo; Seung-Bo Shim; Jinho Jung

2008-01-01

320

Environmental control technology survey of selected US strip mining sites. Volume 4. Evaluation of effluent guidelines for the coal mining industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

An evaluation is made of the effectiveness of the federal Office of Surface mining coal mine wastewater effluent limitations as they relate to the Surface Mining control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (P.L. 95-87). The act was formulated to protect society and the environment from the adverse effects of surface coal mining operations; it also requires that an adequate coal

R. J. Henning; R. W. Vocke

1981-01-01

321

Factors Influencing Pulp Mill Effluent Treatment in Alberta  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pulping industry in Alberta employs state-of-the-art effluent treatment technology. The parameter levels set by the provincial government are as low as any in the world, and the industry consistently discharges below these limits. Factors influencing in-plant and external effluent treatment systems in six Alberta pulp mills were investigated. These factors included environmental impacts of pulp mill effluent, pulp mill

Kate M. Lindsay; D. W. Smith

1995-01-01

322

Dangerous and cancer-causing properties of products and chemicals in the oil-refining and petrochemical industry--Part XXII: Health hazards from exposure to gasoline containing methyl tertiary butyl ether: study of New Jersey residents.  

PubMed

Methyl tertiary butyl ether has caused the following cancers in rats and mice: kidney, testicular, liver, lymphomas, and leukemias. Thus, in the absence of adequate data on humans, it is biologically plausible and prudent to regard methyl tertiary butyl ether-for which there is sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals-as a probable human carcinogen. This means that some humans are at extreme risk of contracting cancers resulting from their exposure to oxygenated gasoline containing methyl tertiary butyl ether. Immediately after the introduction of methyl tertiary butyl ether into gasoline, many consumers of this product in New Jersey, New York, Alaska, Maine, Pennsylvania, Colorado, Arizona, Montana, Massachusetts, California, and other areas, experienced a variety of neurotoxic, allergic, and respiratory illnesses. These illnesses were similar to those suffered by refinery workers from the Oil, Chemical, and Atomic Workers Union who mixed methyl tertiary butyl ether with gasoline. Additionally, these illnesses occurred following exposure to extremely low levels of methyl tertiary butyl ether in gasoline, particularly when compared to the adverse health effects that occurred only after exposure to very high levels of conventional gasoline. Thus, gasoline containing methyl tertiary butyl ether exhibited substantially more toxicity in humans than gasoline without this additive. A number of oil industry-sponsored or influenced reports alleged that these illnesses were either unrelated to exposure to reformulated gasoline or were characteristic of some yet-to-be-identified communicable disease. These studies further alleged that the widespread concern was not about illness, but was merely a reaction to the odor and the five cent increase in the price of gasoline. To clarify the significance of this issue, it is important to note that consumers have been using gasoline for many decades, with complaints only occurring following exposure to high levels at 100s ppm or higher. After the introduction of methyl tertiary butyl ether gasoline there were thousands of human health complaints. The sudden increase in widespread illnesses from which many thousands of individuals throughout the United States began to suffer immediately following the introduction of methyl tertiary butyl ether into gasoline provides strong and unquestionable evidence that gasoline containing methyl tertiary butyl ether is associated with human illnesses. When considering the severity of the illnesses in humans, it is prudent that this highly dangerous chemical be promptly removed from gasoline and comprehensive studies be conducted to assess the long-term effects that human may experience in the future from past and current exposure. PMID:8989842

Mehlman, M A

323

QUANTIFICATION OF FUGITIVE REACTIVE ALKENE EMISSIONS FROM PETROCHEMICAL PLANTS WITH PERFLUOROCARBON TRACERS.  

SciTech Connect

Recent studies demonstrate the impact of fugitive emissions of reactive alkenes on the atmospheric chemistry of the Houston Texas metropolitan area (1). Petrochemical plants located in and around the Houston area emit atmospheric alkenes, such as ethene, propene and 1,3-butadiene. The magnitude of emissions is a major uncertainty in assessing their effects. Even though the petrochemical industry reports that fugitive emissions of alkenes have been reduced to less than 0.1% of daily production, recent measurement data, obtained during the TexAQS 2000 experiment indicates that emissions are perhaps a factor of ten larger than estimated values. Industry figures for fugitive emissions are based on adding up estimated emission factors for every component in the plant to give a total estimated emission from the entire facility. The dramatic difference between estimated and measured rates indicates either that calculating emission fluxes by summing estimates for individual components is seriously flawed, possibly due to individual components leaking well beyond their estimated tolerances, that not all sources of emissions for a facility are being considered in emissions estimates, or that there are known sources of emissions that are not being reported. This experiment was designed to confirm estimates of reactive alkene emissions derived from analysis of the TexAQS 2000 data by releasing perfluorocarbon tracers (PFTs) at a known flux from a petrochemical plant and sampling both the perfluorocarbon tracer and reactive alkenes downwind using the Piper-Aztec research aircraft operated by Baylor University. PFTs have been extensively used to determine leaks in pipelines, air infiltration in buildings, and to characterize the transport and dispersion of air parcels in the atmosphere. Over 20 years of development by the Tracer Technology Center (TTC) has produced a range of analysis instruments, field samplers and PFT release equipment that have been successfully deployed in a large variety of experiments. PFTs are inert, nontoxic, noncombustible and nonreactive. Up to seven unique PFTs can be simultaneously released, sampled and analyzed and the technology is well suited for determining emission fluxes from large petrochemical facilities. The PFT experiment described here was designed to quantitate alkene emissions from a single petrochemical facility, but such experiments could be applied to other industrial sources or groups of sources in the Houston area.

SENUM,G.I.; DIETZ,R.N.

2004-06-30

324

Impact on surface ozone by fugitive emissons of ethylene and propylene from a petrochemical plant cluster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ethylene and propylene are two most produced organic compounds in the world which are mainly produced from the cracking process in the oil refinery industry. In a large petrochemical plant cluster a large variety of petrochemical products are derived from these two compounds used as starting reagents. Fugitive emissions of these two compounds from storage tanks and pipelines are often inevitable, which could pose a great burden on the formation of surface ozone and thus deteriorate air quality if leakage is significant. In this study, a photochemical assessment monitoring station (PAMS) was deployed 7 kilometers south of a large petrochemical plant cluster. Concentration spikes of ethylene and propylene were frequently observed by the on-line gas chromatographic system whenever northerly prevailed. The impact of ethylene and propylene’s leakage on ozone formation was simulated by an air quality model (i.e., PAMS-AQM), of which emission inventory of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) were speciated and calibrated by the PAMS measurements. Contribution to ozone formation by these two compounds in the downwind areas was able to be assessed by turning off the emissions of ethylene and propylene from this plant cluster while maintaining those of other precursors in the model. Scenarios of precursor (NMHC and NOx) reduction or increase were also simulated from the perspectives of ozone control strategies.

Hsieh, H.; Chang, J.; Chen, S.; Wang, J.

2010-12-01

325

Waste monitoring system for effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The waste monitoring system in use at Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Plutonium Facility, TA-55, is a computer-based system that proves real-time information on industrial effluents. Remote computers monitor discharge events and data moves from one system to another via a local area network. This report describes the history, system design, summary, instrumentation list, displays, trending screens, and layout of the

J. M. Macdonald; B. Gomez; L. Trujillo; J. E. Malcom; H. Nekimken; N. Pope; R. Bibeau

1995-01-01

326

TOXICITY TESTS OF EFFLUENTS WITH MARSH PLANTS IN WATER AND SEDIMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Methods are described for toxicity testing of water and sediment with the rooted marsh plants, Echinochloa crusgalli var. crusgalli and var. zelavensis (freshwater) and Spartina alterniflora (estuarine). ive industrial effluents, a sewage treatment plant effluent and a herbicide ...

327

Excess cancer mortality among children and adolescents in residential districts polluted by petrochemical manufacturing plants in Taiwan  

SciTech Connect

We have collected data on the cancer deaths of children and adolescents 0-19 yr old living in a residential area near 3 large petroleum and petrochemical complexes in and near Kaohsiung city (petrochemical industrial districts, PIDs) in the period of 1971-1990 and compared these with the cancer deaths of children and adolescents 0-19 yr old among the entire population of Taiwan (national reference) and among the residents of 26 administrative districts, comprising all of Kaohsiung city and Kaohsiung county (local reference), except for 8 sparsely populated, rural districts. Having scrutinized all cancer death certificates, we have identified various statistically significant excess deaths, as compared with the national and local reference, due to cancers at all sites. Cancer of the bone, brain, and bladder in boys and girls 0-9 yr and 10-19 yr of age in the 1981-1990 decade that followed the establishment of petrochemical production in the PIDs was studied. However, excess cancer deaths seemed to have clustered in the 10-19 yr age group, who had been potentially exposed to the petrochemical pollutants for the longest period of time from the youngest age. Almost all bone, brain, and bladder cancer deaths registered were within 3 km of the 3 complexes. Bone and brain cancers in particular occurred in girls in the PIDs more frequently than in boys, even though these are believed to occur more in males than females elsewhere. 32 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

Bi Jen Pan; Yu Jue Hong; Gwo Chin Chang; Frigyes F. Cinkotai; Ying Chin Ko [Kaohsiung Medical College, Taiwan (China); Ming Tsan Wang [Kaohsiung Municipal Ta-Tung Hospital, Taiwan (China)

1994-12-31

328

Selection of wear resistant materials for the petrochemical industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanical equipment used in BP operations is subjected to extremely adverse conditions, often in remote locations. Downtime due to wear and component failure can be very costly and the need to choose materials based upon an understanding of wear resistance is required. Selection is often based on the economics of component manufacture and on physical properties of materials such as

D. Cooper; F. A. Davis; R. J. K. Wood

1992-01-01

329

Refractories for lining chemical and petrochemical industry reactors (review)  

SciTech Connect

The authors determine that the corundum-base filler used for preparation of the concrete mixtures and unified parts of them is the thermodynamically most resistant to chemical and mechanical actions under conditions of variable oxidizing and reducing atmospheres. Thermodynamic calculations show that a hydraulically hardening binder of high-alumina cement is a relatively more resistant binder in service of the concretes in reducing atmospheres. Highly refractory concretes of corundum composition with a hydraulically hardening binder are promising and highly effective materials for the construction of unfired, monolithic, wear-resistant, constant-volume linings for reactors for the production of technical grade carbon.

Usatikov, I.F.; Degtyareva, E.V.; Gal'chenko, T.G.; Karavlov, A.G.; Tarnopol'skaya, R.A.

1986-05-01

330

Identification and Control of Petrochemical Pollutants Inhibitory to Anaerobic Processes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Treatment of aqueous wastes from petrochemical manufacturing facilities has been found to be complicated components inhibitory to biological treatment systems at relatively low concentrations. During anaerobic process development, the use of high rate ana...

J. C. Hovious G. T. Waggy R. A. Conway

1973-01-01

331

Petron Refinery and Petrochemical Project Feasibility Study. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study concerns the building of a new grassroots refinery, a power plant, and selected petrochemical facilities or block expanding the existing refinery in Limay, Bataan. The study was commissioned to determine if the development of new refining and pe...

1998-01-01

332

Total Recycle Systems for Petrochemical Waste Brines Containing Refractory Contaminants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Petrochemical wastewaters containing relatively high concentrations of salt and refractory organics were selected to study their feasibility for total recycle. A combination of reverse osmosis and electrodialysis was operated as a hybrid system using the ...

M. A. Zeitoun C. A. Roorda G. R. Powers

1979-01-01

333

Activated carbon adsorption and ozone treatment of a petrochemical wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activated carbon adsorption and ozonation were evaluated on a bench scale for the treatment of petrochemical wastewater for possible reuse in Saudi Petrochemical Company (SADAF), Al?Jubail, Saudi Arabia. Batch adsorption studies indicated that low values of initial pH and temperature were favorable for adsorption, A non?adsorbable portion of 49 to 27 percent of TOC was found to be ubiquitous to

Shaukat Farooq; Mohammed Misbahuddin

1991-01-01

334

Biological treatment of a petrochemical wastewater using sequencing batch reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characterization and biological treatability studies using sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) were conducted for the petrochemical wastewater of Saudi Petrochemical Company (SADAF) at Al?Jubail, Saudi Arabia. During wastewater survey, hourly grab samples were collected for one week of the normal plant operation and analyzed for different water pollution parameters. The average concentrations of BOD, TKN and total?P were 69, 2.6 and

Mohammed Misbahuddin; Shaukat Fabooq

1991-01-01

335

Behavior of natural radionuclides in surficial sediments from an estuary impacted by acid mine discharge and industrial effluents in Southwest Spain.  

PubMed

The environmental degradation resulting from the acid mine drainage (AMD) and discharge from effluents of phosphogypsum (PG) piles in the watershed of Tinto and Odiel Rivers estuary over long periods of time has resulted in significant impact on the ecosystem of this estuary, resulting that the sediments are highly polluted by heavy metals and radionuclides from the discharge AMD and leachates from the PG. During resuspension of benthic sediments some of the radionuclides are desorbed making them bioavailable. In the present study, we investigate the spatial distribution of radionuclides U, Th and Ra and assess the factors and processes that caused the spatial distribution of these nuclides in this estuarine system. This study has global significance for other polluted environmental systems that are impacted by AMD and PG. PMID:22327046

Hierro, A; Bolivar, J P; Vaca, F; Borrego, J

2012-02-09

336

Dynamical modelling of an activated sludge system of a petrochemical plant operating at high temperatures.  

PubMed

The Mexican petrochemical industry, Morelos S.A. de C.V., is one of the biggest and more important petroleum industries in Mexico and Latin America. It has an activated sludge system to treat its wastewater flow, which is approximately 7,000 m3/d. The wastewater contains volatile organic carbon substances classified as toxics. The old surface aeration system was changed for fine bubble diffusers; however, one major drawback of the new aeration system is that the temperature in the bioreactor has increased due to the compression of the air, which at the compressor exit reaches 85 degrees C. This effect results in the temperature in the bioreactor attaining 32 degrees C during the fall, whereas in the spring and summer, the bioreactor temperature reaches higher values than 40 degrees C. The high temperatures reduce the microorganism activity and cause a higher volatilisation rate of volatile compounds, among other effects, which affect the performance of the biological treatment. This work was performed to obtain a better modelling of the wastewater treatment from the petrochemical industry. The model describes the effect of the temperature on the performance of the biological treatment. The model was obtained from tests that were carried out in laboratory reactors with 14 L capacity, which were operated at different temperatures (from 30 to 45 degrees C), with the same wastewater and conditions as the actual system. PMID:16862783

Maqueda, M A M; Martinez, Sergio A; Narváez, D; Rodriguez, Miriam G; Aguilar, Ricardo; Herrero, Victor M

2006-01-01

337

Industrial-Scale Electron Beam Purification of Chemically Polluted Wastewaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

First results obtained in the pilot run of an ELV-8 electron accelerator-based technological complex designed for purification of chemically polluted waste effluents from petroleum refineries and petrochemical plants are reported. To provide the effective treatment of the effluents, favorable conditions for the removal of hydrogen sulfide and salt ammonia were found—the initial acidity of pH0 = 7.5 and pH0 =

N. A. Strokin; S. M. Churilov; I. G. Shukhman; D. V. Shekera; V. S. Chernykh; I. D. Reznichenko; A. M. Myasnikov; A. V. Kovalenko; V. Yu. Ivanov

2002-01-01

338

Petrochemical wastewater odor treatment by biofiltration.  

PubMed

The treatment of odorous pollutants by microorganisms on packed waste straw and cortex was investigated at the wastewater treatment plant of the Shanghai petrochemical factory. The removal efficiency of H(2)S, NH(3) and VOCs (volatile organic compounds) reached 98%, 91% and 90%, respectively after operation for one month at an empty bed retention time (EBRT) of 120s. The heterotrophic bacteria were found to be the dominant microorganism in the biofilter, while fungi and actinomycetes were also present. The bacteria were mostly identified as the members of the genus Bacillus (62.5% of cultured bacteria). The single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) results revealed that the genus Bacillus and Pseudomonas were the predominant bacteria. The microbial diversity gradually increased as the treatment progressed, which indicated that the microbial community in the biofilter became more stable upon pollutant removal. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed to evaluate the microorganism growth on the media. It was found that the waste straw and cortex were suitable for microorganism attachment and growth, and may have potential application in odor treatment. PMID:19056260

Xie, B; Liang, S B; Tang, Y; Mi, W X; Xu, Y

2008-12-03

339

Overview of the application of anaerobic treatment to chemical and petrochemical wastewaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last 20 years, as a result of its low cost, anaerobic digestion has turned into a popular wastewater treatment technology. Today, with at least 1330 reactors constructed in the world, it is considered to have reached technological maturity. Until recently however, it was used quite exclusively for the treatment of food industry effluents. It is only during the

H. Macarie

2000-01-01

340

Toxicity Identification Evaluation: Characterization of Chronically Toxic Effluents, Phase I.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This manual is intended to provide guidance to aid dischargers in characterizing the type of toxicants that are causing chronic toxicity in industrial and municipal effluents. In a regulatory context, a toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) may be requ...

D. A. Jensen D. I. Mount J. A. Thompson J. R. Amato T. J. Norberg-King

1992-01-01

341

CHEMICAL INTERACTIONS AMONG CHLOROHYDROCARBON MIXTURES FOUND IN WASTEWATER EFFLUENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Various chlorohydrocarbons found in industrial waste effluents, including chloroform (CHC13) and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), can eventually contaminate public drinking water supplies. The present study was designed to evaluate the interaction between orally administered CHCl3 an...

342

Agricultural Utilization of Sewage Effluent and Sludge. An Annotated Bibliography.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effluent and sewage sludge from municipal and industrial treatment plants is a source of water and nutrients for agricultural uses. Considering its potential, only a few instances of agricultural uses of waste water in crop production have been record...

J. P. Law

1968-01-01

343

Biphasic biomethanation of wood-hydrolysate effluent.  

PubMed

The dissolving pulp industry, spread throughout the world, is the principal source of wood-hydrolysate effluent rich in hemicelluloses. This effluent is the major source of pollution in the industry. COD and BOD5 values of the effluent range from 60,000 to 103,000 and 42,000 to 78,000 mg/l respectively. Biomethanation of this effluent is the best possible treatment option for reducing the COD load and recovering the bioenergy embedded in the effluent. This paper deals with the study on the biphasic biomethanation of the wood-hydrolysate in upflow acidogenic reactor coupled with anaerobic filter methanogenic reactor. The two reactors were operated at organic loading rates of 69.6 and 30.1 g COD/l/d respectively. The overall COD, hemicelluloses and lignin reductions, and methane generation were observed to be 88%, 92%, 82% and 6.5 l/l reactor volume/d respectively. The relative size of the biphasic, anaerobic filter (mono-phasic) and upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (mono-phasic) reactors is found to be 1:1.6:2.03 respectively. PMID:10595449

Chakrabarti, S K; Roychoudhury, P K; Bajpai, P K

344

The U.S. Chemical Industry, the Raw Materials It Uses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The raw materials used by the industry are considered in this section of the annual chemical industry report, including data covering: natural gas, lead, mercury, phosphate rock, potash, salt, petroleum products including petrochemical feedstocks. (PR)|

Chemical and Engineering News, 1972

1972-01-01

345

Development Document for Effluent Limitations Guidelines and New Source Performance Standards for the Cement Manufacturing Point Source Category.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the findings of a study of the cement manufacturing industry by Southern Research Institute for the Environmental Protection Agency for the purpose of developing effluent limitation guidelines -- setting forth, the degree of effluent ...

J. E. Riley

1974-01-01

346

Synergize fuel and petrochemical processing plans with catalytic reforming  

SciTech Connect

Depending on the market, refiner`s plans to produce clean fuels and higher value petrochemicals will weigh heavily on the catalytic reformer`s flexibility. It seems that as soon as a timely article related to catalytic reforming operations is published, a new {open_quotes}boutique{close_quotes} gasoline fuel specification is slapped on to existing fuel standards, affecting reformer operations and processing objectives. Just as importantly, the petrochemical market (such as aromatics) that refiners are targeting, can be very fickle. That`s why process engineers have endeavored to maintain an awareness of the flexibility that technology suppliers are building into modern catalytic reformers.

NONE

1997-03-01

347

Applicability of MIKE 21 to assess temporal and spatial variation in water quality of an estuary under the impact of effluent from an industrial estate.  

PubMed

This study aims at analysing the impact of wastewater load of industrial units in Haldia on the water quality of the Hoogly estuary using numerical modelling techniques. Modelling was never attempted in this region because it was generally felt that simulating such a complex system would not be easy with limited data availability but MIKE 21, a hydrodynamic and water quality model, was used to simulate BOD and DO profiles in the study area and simulation provided reasonably good predictions. A scenario assessment was also carried by increasing the flows from various sources to understand the site-specific relationships between pollution sources and water quality conditions and also to calculate the assimilative capacity of Hoogly with respect to waste discharged from the industrial units at Haldia. The results suggested that water quality of the canal towards closed Oil Jetty was highly deteriorated due to stagnant pond condition and discharges from a refinery. But large part of the canal was found to be well drained under tidal influence as a consequence of which both DO and BOD conform to the prescribed water quality standards most of the times. The impact of industrial waste load on the Hoogly was found to be negligible and the radius of influence was limited to about 200-300 m across the estuary and about 1.6 km along the shore during ebb conditions. Assimilative capacity of the region was estimated to be 837 kg/d as against the present load of 121 kg/d. The study suggested that the estuary had good dilution capacity and intense tidal mixing helped in rapidly diluting the pollutants. PMID:21902033

Paliwal, Ritu; Patra, Rashmi R

2011-01-01

348

Electrochemical oxidation of bio-refractory dye in a simulated textile industry effluent using DSA electrodes in a filter-press type FM01LC reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents a study on degradation of indigo carmine dye in a filter-press type FM01-LC reactor using Sb2O5-doped Ti\\/IrO2-SnO2 dimensionally stable anode (DSA) electrodes. Micro- and macroelectrolysis studies were carried out using solutions of 0.8 mM indigo carmine in 0.05 M NaCl, which resemble blue denim laundry industrial wastewater. Microelectrolysis results show the behaviour of DSA electrodes in comparison with the

Francisca A. Rodríguez; María N. Mateo; Juan M. Aceves; Eligio P. Rivero; Ignacio González

2012-01-01

349

The Merrimack: Designs for a Clean River. Consultant's Industrial Wastewater Profiles. Annex C.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Brief Overview, Industrial Wastewater Profile, Plastics Industry; Report on Industrial Wastes Profiles of Metal Plating; The Nature and Treatment of Textile Effluent; The Nature and Treatment of Tannery Effluent; and The Nature and Treatment of ...

1971-01-01

350

Particle Growth in Urban and Industrial Plumes in the Houston Metropolitan Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the Texas 2000 Air Quality Study, airborne measurements of particle size distributions were made in the vicinity of Houston, Texas in the plumes from power plants, petrochemical facilities, and the Houston urban center. Particle size distributions from 0.004-8.5 mum diameter were measured with 1 s time resolution. In all plumes from power plant and petrochemical industry sources, substantial enhancements

C. A. Brock; T. B. Ryerson; J. A. Neuman; D. D. Parrish; J. S. Holloway; J. C. Wilson; J. M. Reeves; E. L. Atlas; V. F. Stroud

2002-01-01

351

Distribution of volatile organohalogen compounds in petrochemical plant water streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study assesses halogenated volatile organic compound concentrations in the water and wastewater streams of a petrochemical plant. Water samples were collected at 11 sampling points during 5 sampling campaigns. The samples were collected from the oil dewaxing unit and in the wastewater treatment plant. Dichloromethane and 1,2-dichloroethane were the most frequently determined compounds. Tetrachloroethene was also detected at the

Marek Tobiszewski; Jacek Namie?nik

2012-01-01

352

Refiners, petrochem plants focus on new waste challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author discusses how refineries and petrochemical plants face tough regulations on emissions of hazardous wastes and air emissions during the next decade. During the 1990s, process plants will have to substantially change the way they generate, handle, store, and dispose of hazardous wastes, particularly spent catalysts, and they will likely have to substantially reduce air emissions. An important area

1990-01-01

353

89. ARAIII. Petrochem oilfired gas heater installed in reactor building ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

89. ARA-III. Petro-chem oil-fired gas heater installed in reactor building (ARA-608). View is at floor level. Shows hand rails around heater pit and top of pit extending upwards through ceiling. January 20, 1959. Ineel photo no. 59-321. Photographer: Jack L. Anderson. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

354

Female Lung Cancer and Petrochemical Air Pollution in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the relationship between petrochemical air pollution and female lung cancer, we conducted a matched case-control study among women who had died in Taiwan from 1990 through 1994. Data about all eligible female lung cancer deaths were obtained from the Bureau of Vital Statistics of the Taiwan Provincial Department of Health. The control group included women who died from

Chun-Yuh Yang; Ming-Fen Cheng; Jeng-Fen Chiu; Shang-Shyue Tsai

1999-01-01

355

Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO accounts for more than 90% of CO-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO emissions arise from

Lenny Bernstein; Joyashree Roy; K. Casey Delhotal; Jochen Harnisch; Ryuji Matsuhashi; Lynn Price; Kanako Tanaka; Ernst Worrell; Francis Yamba; Zhou Fengqi; Dolf Gielen; Suzanne Joosen; Manaswita Konar; Anna Matysek; Reid Miner; Teruo Okazaki; Johan Sanders; Claudia Sheinbaum Parado

2007-01-01

356

Disposal of Tritiated Effluents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

After some introductory remarks on the origin of tritium, its properties and its behaviour in a reprocessing plant three alternative methods for the disposal of tritiated effluents produced during reprocessing are described (deep well injection, in-situ s...

K. Hartmann H. Bruecher

1981-01-01

357

Geothermal Effluent Sampling Workshop.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report outlines the major recommendations resulting from a workshop to identify gaps in existing geothermal effluent sampling methodologies, define needed research to fill those gaps, and recommend strategies to lead to a standardized sampling method...

1981-01-01

358

Industry  

SciTech Connect

This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of industrial mitigation for sustainable development is discussed in Section 7.7. Section 7.8 discusses the sector's vulnerability to climate change and options for adaptation. A number of policies have been designed either to encourage voluntary GHG emission reductions from the industrial sector or to mandate such reductions. Section 7.9 describes these policies and the experience gained to date. Co-benefits of reducing GHG emissions from the industrial sector are discussed in Section 7.10. Development of new technology is key to the cost-effective control of industrial GHG emissions. Section 7.11 discusses research, development, deployment and diffusion in the industrial sector and Section 7.12, the long-term (post-2030) technologies for GHG emissions reduction from the industrial sector. Section 7.13 summarizes gaps in knowledge.

Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

2007-12-01

359

Recycle unit wastewater treatment in petrochemical complex using reverse osmosis process.  

PubMed

The implementation of reverse osmosis (RO) process is a solution for increasing water demand. In this work the treatment feasibility of effluent wastewater in Tabriz Petrochemical Complex was evaluated using RO pilot plant. After a pretreatment with cartridge filters, wastewater was introduced to RO unit with a rate of 2000-12,000 l/h. The permeated rate was 600-1500 l/h using different applied pressures of 5-22 bars. The results showed that Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Conductivity, Total Dissolved Solid (TDS), color, turbidity, SO(4), NH(4), Calcium Hardness (CaH), Total Hardness (TH), suspended solid (SS) and SiO(2) of the wastewater were decreased and removed extensively using RO membranes. The flux of permeated stream and the recovery rate were increased with the feed pressure. However the optimum operating pressure for the reverse osmosis pilot was determined as 15 bars leading to a recovery rate of 45%. The results indicate that achieving the "Zero Discharge" goal is possible using RO system. The plan for zero discharge is conducting the concentrated waste from the reverse osmosis system to evaporation pond. PMID:19836881

Madaeni, S S; Eslamifard, M R

2009-09-20

360

Mutagenic potential of water concentrates from the effluent of a waste oil storage pond  

Microsoft Academic Search

A consequence of the rapid expansion of the petrochemical industry over the past thirty years has been the generation of large quantities of hazardous waste. The EPA (1979) estimates that approximately 40 million tons of hazardous waste will be generated in 1980. Many hazardous wastes are stored on site prior to disposal in a pit, pond, or lagoon. JOSEPHSON (1980)

K. W. Brown; K. C. Donnelly

1982-01-01

361

CO{sub 2} Reuse in Petrochemical Facilities  

SciTech Connect

To address public concerns regarding the consequences of climate change from anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions, the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) is actively funding a CO{sub 2} management program to develop technologies capable of mitigating CO{sub 2} emissions from power plant and industrial facilities. Over the past decade, this program has focused on reducing the costs of carbon capture and storage technologies. Recently, DOE/NETL launched an alternative CO{sub 2} mitigation program focused on beneficial CO{sub 2} reuse to support the development of technologies that mitigate emissions by converting CO{sub 2} into valuable chemicals and fuels. RTI, with DOE/NETL support, has been developing an innovative beneficial CO{sub 2} reuse process for converting CO{sub 2} into substitute natural gas (SNG) by using by-product hydrogen (H{sub 2)-containing fuel gas from petrochemical facilities. This process leveraged commercial reactor technology currently used in fluid catalytic crackers in petroleum refining and a novel nickel (Ni)-based catalyst developed by RTI. The goal was to generate an SNG product that meets the pipeline specifications for natural gas, making the SNG product completely compatible with the existing natural gas infrastructure. RTI's technology development efforts focused on demonstrating the technical feasibility of this novel CO{sub 2} reuse process and obtaining the necessary engineering information to design a pilot demonstration unit for converting about 4 tons per day (tons/day) of CO{sub 2} into SNG at a suitable host site. This final report describes the results of the Phase I catalyst and process development efforts. The methanation activity of several commercial fixed-bed catalysts was evaluated under fluidized-bed conditions in a bench-scale reactor to identify catalyst performance targets. RTI developed two fluidizable Ni-based catalyst formulations (Cat-1 and Cat-3) that demonstrated equal or better performance than that of commercial methanation catalysts. The Cat-1 and Cat-3 formulations were successfully scaled up using commercial manufacturing equipment at the Sud-Chemie Inc. pilot-plant facility in Louisville, KY. Pilot transport reactor testing with RTI's Cat-1 formulation at Kellog Brown & Root's Technology Center demonstrated the ability of the process to achieve high single-pass CO{sub 2} conversion. Using information acquired from bench- and pilot-scale testing, a basic engineering design package was prepared for a 4-ton/day CO{sub 2} pilot demonstration unit, including process and instrumentation diagrams, equipment list, control philosophy, and preliminary cost estimate.

Jason Trembly; Brian Turk; Maruthi Pavani; Jon McCarty; Chris Boggs; Aqil Jamal; Raghubir Gupta

2010-12-31

362

Effects of oil sands effluent on cattail and clover: photosynthesis and the level of stress proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oil sands industry located in northeastern Alberta, Canada, generates large volumes of effluent characterized by a high level of dissolved ions and naphthenic acids. The dikes used to store the effluent seep, creating wetlands which are subsequently invaded by obligate wetland flora such as cattail (Typha latifolia L.). The appearance of these wetlands prompted the oil sands industry to

A. U Crowe; B Han; A. R Kermode; L. I Bendell-Young; A. L Plant

2001-01-01

363

1985 US energy industry yearbook  

SciTech Connect

The annual yearbook directory designed to discuss the US petroleum industry is presented. The information is presented under the following topics: major intergrated oil companies, drilling and exploration companies, independent petroleum companies, petrochemical giants, engineering and construction companies, marketing and refining companies, and terminal companies.

Hoffman, C. (ed.)

1985-01-01

364

Development Document for Effluent Limitations Guidelines, and Standards for the Pesticide Point Source Category.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report provides the technical data base for the promulgation of effluent limitations guidelines for the Pesticide Chemicals Industry. For the purpose of the study, the Pesticide Industry consists of organic pesticide chemicals manufacturers, metallo-o...

G. M. Jett

1985-01-01

365

Methanogenic toxicity and continuous anaerobic treatment of wood processing effluents.  

PubMed

Wood processing effluents contain different types of phenolic compounds, from simple monomers to high molecular weight (MW) polyphenolic polymers, that can inhibit wastewater treatment. This work presents a comparative study of the methanogenic toxicity produced by three wood processing effluents (hardboard, fiberboard and BKME (kraft mill effluent)) using Pinus radiata, Eucalyptus and Tepa as feedstock (the last one being a native Chilean tree species). This study evaluates the influence of non-adapted granular and adapted flocculent sludge on forest industrial wastewater treatment as well as continuous anaerobic biodegradation of hardboard processing effluent using the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB). The adapted biomass (flocculent sludge) did not show any lag-phase signs. The 50% IC (the concentration causing 50% inhibition of methanogenic activity) was 4.3 g COD-effluent (chemical oxygen demand (COD)-of the effluent)/l and 2.8 g COD-effluent/l for the flocculent sludge and the granular sludge, respectively. The UASB system worked at low organic load rates (0.1-0.4 g COD/l d) with the COD removal ranging between 10 and 30%, and color removal did not occur under anaerobic conditions due to high MW. Indeed, the MW analysis indicates the presence of phenolic compounds over 25,000 Da in the anaerobic effluent. PMID:15737456

Vidal, G; Diez, M C

2005-03-01

366

[Environmental impact on the formation of the public opinion among the urban population with developed oil refining industry, chemical petroleum industry and chemical industry].  

PubMed

The research proved oil-processing, petrochemical and chemical enterprises to be potent releasers of chemical hazards containing in industrial waste. The petrochemical and oil enterprises pollute environment and deteriorate sanitary conditions in populated area. The residents evaluate actual ecologic danger adequately. Sociologic analysis of how city dwellers assess quality of their environment and health is quate objective indicator of urban ecology and could be assigned to priority methods of ecologic and hygienic studies. PMID:9574983

Sharafutdinov, I Ia; Galiev, M A

1997-01-01

367

Petrochemical feedstock by thermal cracking of plastic waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal cracking is one of the possible ways to obtain petrochemical feedstock from polymer wastes. The properties of the cracking products depend mainly on the type of the raw material. In this study the degradation of different mixtures of polymer wastes (polypropylene and polystyrene) were investigated in a horizontal tube reactor. Temperature of 510–520°C and residence time of 15–30min

András Angyal; Norbert Miskolczi; László Bartha

2007-01-01

368

Effluent guidelines, leather tanning, and pollution prevention: A retrospective study  

SciTech Connect

This study was undertaken to learn: in what ways and for what reasons a specific industry in the past already was implementing pollution in order to comply with existing effuent guidelines and to what degree the effluent guidelines development document for that industry had already previously projected that outcome.

NONE

1995-06-01

369

Optimum multi-plant, multi-supplier production planning for multi-grade petrochemicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mixed-integer linear programming model is presented for the optimum planning of multi-plant, multi-supplier, and multi-grade petrochemical production. In the production of multiple grades of a given petrochemical product, the amount of transitional off-spec production depends on the sequencing of different grades. For each time period, the discrete-time model determines the optimum mix of petrochemical grades for each plant, the

Hesham K. Alfares

2009-01-01

370

Emergency effluent monitoring and assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the use of effluent monitoring equipment during radiological emergencies that may require initiation of protective actions for the general public. It expands upon the effluent guide coverage, and includes methods on use of portable instruments for effluent monitoring when all other monitors fail to work, the importance of plume monitoring, and how and when it should be

Corbit

1982-01-01

371

Prospects for a bio-based succinate industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bio-based succinate is receiving increasing attention as a potential intermediary feedstock for replacing a large petrochemical-based\\u000a bulk chemical market. The prospective economical and environmental benefits of a bio-based succinate industry have motivated\\u000a research and development of succinate-producing organisms. Bio-based succinate is still faced with the challenge of becoming\\u000a cost competitive against petrochemical-based alternatives. High succinate concentrations must be produced at

James B. McKinlay; C. Vieille; J. Gregory Zeikus

2007-01-01

372

Appendix I: developments in the petrochemical sector  

SciTech Connect

The new Gulf chemical producers have a solid cost advantage over OCED companies and over producers elsewhere. This advantage is much stronger than the questionable economics of Gulf refining; these ventures are relatively sound investments from a purely commercial point of view. Most of what has been said about refining applies here as well, however: (1) Asia, and to a lesser degree, Western Europe, are far more attractive markets than the US. If products flowed to the points of maximum netbacks, little would arrive in the US. (2) The heavy involvement of US companies in Saudi joint ventures is likely to bring significant quantities of chemicals into the US for captive consumption in the companies downstream operations. This is particularly true of the more easily transported liquid chemicals; Shell US, the partner in the SADAF project at Jubail, will probably bring a major proportion of its output of styrene and ethanol into the US. (3) As in refining, larger quantities of chemicals could be diverted to the US economy by trade barriers and poor economic conditions in other countries. The impact of these possible imports on the US is far lower, however, than in refined product imports. First of all, it is difficult to argue that such imports may have a substantial effect on US security. Second, the Gulf industry can hardly be considered a serious competitor to the overall US chemical industry; the Gulf will be exporting only a small range of basic, bulk chemicals, while the US produces the widest array of sophisticated products in the world. There are few arguments for new trade measures against emerging chemical imports from the Gulf. As in other sectors, US interests are likely to be served by encouraging freer trade and more international competition in this market. 7 figures, 12 tables.

Not Available

1985-02-01

373

Are metal mining effluent regulations adequate: identification of a novel bleached fish syndrome in association with iron-ore mining effluents in Labrador, Newfoundland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water quality guidelines for industrial effluents are in place in many countries but they have generally evolved within a limited ecotoxicological framework. Effluents from iron-ore mines have traditionally been viewed by regulatory bodies as posing little or no risk to the aquatic environment. However, it was recently reported that lake trout taken from a large iron-ore contaminated Lake in Labrador

J. F. Payne; D. Hamoutene; P. Yeats; A. Rahimtula; D. Scruton; C. Andrews

2001-01-01

374

Mortality and morbidity study of petrochemical employees in a polluted site  

PubMed Central

Background The area of Gela was included among the 57 Italian polluted sites of national interest for environmental remediation because of its widespread contamination from a petrochemical complex. The present study investigates mortality and morbidity of the cohort of Gela petrochemical workers with the aim of disentangling occupational from residential risk. Methods Mortality was assessed for 5,627 men hired from 1960, year of the plant start-up, to 1993; it was followed up for vital status in the period 1960–2002. Morbidity was analysed for 5,431 workers neither dead nor lost to follow-up from 1960 to 2001 and was based on Hospital Discharge Records in the period 2001–2006. The work experience was classified in terms of job categories such as blue collars, white collars, and both – workers who shifted from blue to white collar (95%) or vice versa. An ad hoc mobility model was applied to define qualitative categories of residence in Gela, as residents and commuters. Standardized Mortality Ratios (SMRs) and Mortality Rate Ratios (MRRs) were computed, the latter by using a Poisson regression model. Morbidity was analyzed in terms of Hospital Discharge Odds Ratios (HDORs) through a logistic regression model. While performing the internal comparisons, white collars was the reference category for the job analysis, and commuters was the reference category for the residential analysis. Results In the light of epidemiological evidence about health risk from petrochemical industries in both occupational and environmental settings, and/or on the basis of information about occupational and residential contamination and health risk in the area of Gela, noteworthy results are shown for lung cancer [MRR: 2.11 (CI 90%; 0.96-4.63) in blue collars; 1.71 (1.09-2.69) in residents], respiratory diseases [HDOR: 2.0 (1.0-3.0) in blue collars; 1.4 (0.96-2.06) in residents] and genitourinary diseases [HDOR: 1.34 (1.06-1.68) in blue collars; 1.23 (1.04-1.45) in residents]. Conclusions The results support a role of the exposures in the occupational and residential settings, the latter due to the local ascertained contamination, in affecting the workers’ health. These results underline the urgent need of water, soil, air and food-chain monitoring programs, to discover active sources of exposure and consequently define public health interventions.

2012-01-01

375

Basic industries development by SABIC: eight years' experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article offers background information on Saudi Basic Industries Corporation (SABIC) and puts into perspective the implications of Saudi Arabia's entry into the world petrochemical industry. Established in 1976 as a wholly owned government corporation, SABIC has been charged with the planning and construction of hydrocarbon-based industries for conversion of the Kingdom's abundant gas and gas-liquid reserves into a host

Al-Jarbou

2009-01-01

376

EVALUATION OF PERFORMANCE OF INDUSTRIAL PUBLIC ENTERPRISES: CRITERIA AND POLICIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The industrial public enterprise sector plays an important role in the economies of developing countries. It spans a whole variety of industries from petrochemicals to textiles. It has produced over 50 per cent of industrial output in countries such as Egypt, Somalia or the United Republic of Tanzania and over 25 per cent in India and Turkey. Its share in

Glenn Jenkins; Mohamed Lahouel

1984-01-01

377

Petrochemical types of kimberlites and their diamond-bearing capacity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kimberlite rocks of Yakutian province (belong to 1 group of kimberlites after Smith, 1983) are characterized by wide variations of rock-forming oxides [Ilupin et al., 1986; Milashev, 1965; Kharkiv et al., 1991]. A number of factors could be discussed to explain the variety of chemical compositions of rocks. The first factor, explaining the regional differences in the kimberlite composition with primarily different composition of source kimberlite melt-fluid, is conventionally called «primary». All other factors are connected with the secondary redistribution of chemical components of kimberlites. Irrespective of intensity of secondary factors, the primary composition of kimberlites varies broadly, which is noticeable in kimberlites of some provinces, kimberlites fields, pipe clusters and individual pipes. The petrochemical types are classified based on the contents of such oxides as FeO, TiO2 and K2O, being relatively inert in the secondary processes. In the Yakutian Province we have distinguished 5 petrochemical types of kimberlites (Kostrovitsky et al, 2007); with principal ones - high-Mg, magnesium-ferruginous (Mg-Fe) and ferruginous-titaniferous, their composition: < 6; 6-9; 8-15 % FeOtotal and < 1; 1-2.5; 1.5-5.0 % TiO2). Some petrochemical and mineralogical criteria of diamond-bearing capacity of kimberlites were identified some time before. The essence of petrochemical criterion consists of the inverse correlation dependence between the contents FeOtotal, TiO2 in kimberlite rocks and their diamond-bearing capacity (Milashev, 1965; Krivonos, 1998). The mineralogical criteria of diamond-bearing capacity infer presence of direct dependence of the rate of capacity on the content in kimberlites of low-Ca, high-Cr garnet and chrome spinellids with Cr2O3 > 62% and TiO2 < 0.5%, of dunite-harzburgite paragenesis (Sobolev, 1974; Meyer, 1968). The acquired results are applied to evaluate «efficiency» of criteria of diamond-bearing capacity exemplified by the deposits of Yakutian Province. The high-Mg kimberlites of the Njurba, Botuoba, International and Aikhal pipes are known as mostly diamondiferous. Kimberlites of these fields are marked by absence or minor abundance of minerals of low-Cr megacryst association - picroilmenite and orange-red garnet, and on the other hand, increased content of chrome spinellids and garnets, referred to as dunite-harzburgite paragenesis. Whereas most of the other deposits of Yakutia (pipes Mir, Udachnaya-Vostochnaya, Udachnaya-Zapadnaya, Yubileinaya, Komsomolskaya, Zarnitsa and Sytykan) are referred to the Mg-Fe petrochemical type distinguished by fairly raised content of TiO2 and FeOtotal and high content of minerals of low-Cr megacryst association. The minerals of dunite-harzburgite paragenesis in kimberlites of Mg-Fe type occur as varying amounts, but in general they are less numerous than in high-Mg type of kimberlites. The enumerated deposits have different rates of diamond-bearing capacity, but none of them reaches the rate of capacity common for the Mg-type deposits. The kimberlites with higher content of TiO2 and FeOtotal, referred to the Fe-Ti petrochemical type, do not produce commercial diamond fields within the Yakutian Province. The kimberlites of this type practically do not contain garnet and spinellids of dunite-harzburgite paragenesis. Therefore, comparison of kimberlite deposits of different petrochemical types points out that the petrochemical criterion of diamond capacity is as if «workable». But on the other hand, there are pipes composed of kimberlites of high-Mg and Mg-Fe petrochemical types with a poor capacity or devoid diamonds, which essentially conceal supposed dependence of parameter of diamond-bearing capacity on the chemical composition of rocks. Thus, the negative correlation between the contents FeOtotal, TiO2 in kimberlite rocks and their diamond capacity manifests itself as a tendency in general for kimberlite rocks. Different petrochemical types of kimberlites, varying in the rate of diamond capacity, are indistinguishable in the conte

Kostrovitsky, Sergey

2010-05-01

378

Enhanced production of laccase by a marine fungus during treatment of colored effluents and synthetic dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paper and pulp mills, textile and dye-making industries and alcohol distilleries release highly colored effluents that are relatively difficult to decolorize by chemical and physical treatments. White-rot basidiomycetous fungi that produce lignin-degrading enzymes are reported to be the most efficient in decolorizing such effluents. We report here decolorization of all the three effluents by a marine fungal isolate, NIOCC #

Donna Trella D'Souza; Rakesh Tiwari; Awdhesh Kumar Sah; Chandralata Raghukumar

2006-01-01

379

Statistical support document of proposed effluent limitations guidelines and standards for the transportation equipment cleaning category  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the statistical analyses of concentration in effluent wastewater from transportation equipment cleaning facilities. These statistical analyses were used in developing the proposed effluent limitations guidelines and standards in the proposed rulemaking for the Transportation Equipment Cleaning Industry (TECI). Details of all statistical analyses conducted and data used in the analyses to support the effluent limitations guidelines and standards for the TECI are provided. This document is organized into six chapters and seven appendices.

NONE

1998-05-01

380

Environmental assessment for effluent reduction, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to eliminate industrial effluent from 27 outfalls at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The Proposed Action includes both simple and extensive plumbing modifications, which would result in the elimination of industrial effluent being released to the environment through 27 outfalls. The industrial effluent currently going to about half of the 27 outfalls under consideration would be rerouted to LANL`s sanitary sewer system. Industrial effluent from other outfalls would be eliminated by replacing once-through cooling water systems with recirculation systems, or, in a few instances, operational changes would result in no generation of industrial effluent. After the industrial effluents have been discontinued, the affected outfalls would be removed from the NPDES Permit. The pipes from the source building or structure to the discharge point for the outfalls may be plugged, or excavated and removed. Other outfalls would remain intact and would continue to discharge stormwater. The No Action alternative, which would maintain the status quo for LANL`s outfalls, was also analyzed. An alternative in which industrial effluent would be treated at the source facilities was considered but dismissed from further analysis because it would not reasonably meet the DOE`s purpose for action, and its potential environmental effects were bounded by the analysis of the Proposed Action and the No Action alternatives.

NONE

1996-09-11

381

Identification and chemical characterization of specific organic indicators in the effluents from chemical production sites.  

PubMed

The structural diversity of the wastewater composition was described by the use of detailed non-target screening analyses of industrial effluents from chemical production sites. Determination of the indicative organic compounds acting as potential molecular indicators for industrial emissions from chemical production industries has been possible due to (i) detailed characterisation of industrial contaminants and identification of compounds with high source specificity, (ii) quantitative determination of the organic constituents in the industrial effluents and (iii) the review of their industrial applications. The determination of potential site-specific markers and industrial molecular indicators corresponding to certain production processes (production of starting materials for manufacturing paper and printing inks, powder coatings as well as epichlorohydrin production) was performed in this work. The results of this study allowed significant contributions to the chemical characterisation of industrial contaminants and isolation of indicators that can act as representatives of industrial effluents in the aquatic environment. PMID:21565380

Botalova, Oxana; Schwarzbauer, Jan; al Sandouk, Nadia

2011-04-16

382

Anaerobic biodegradation of methyl tert-butyl ether and tert-butyl alcohol in petrochemical wastewater.  

PubMed

A laboratory-scale anaerobic sequencing batch reactor was used to evaluate treatment of a synthetic substrate mixture representing petrochemical wastewater containing methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), ethanol and acetic acid. Influent MTBE concentrations were 5, 10 and 50 mg/l (corresponding to MTBE loading rates of 0.2, 0.4 and 2 mg/l.d) with overall organic loading rates (OLRs) of 1.51, 3.23 and 3.25 g COD/1.d, respectively. These OLRs resulted in removal efficiencies for MTBE of 78%, 98% and 88%. Removal efficiencies for chemical oxygen demand were 85% and 90% with influent MTBE concentrations of 5 and 10mg/l, but were significantly reduced to 72% with influent MTBE concentrations of 50mg/l. During all reactor runs, effluent concentrations oftert-butyl alcohol (TBA) were below the detection limit. Batch degradation of the organic substrate mixture demonstrated initial inhibitory effects when exposed to MTBE concentrations of 50 mg/l and complete inhibition with MTBE concentrations above 2000 mg/l. It is interesting to note that in batch tests using MTBE as the sole organic substrate (initial MTBE concentrations of 50, 100 and 200 mg/l), the specific methanogenic activity decreased to below detection within the first 96 hours, but following a 72-hour lag phase the methane production increased again. Based on low volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration, disappearance of TBA peaks and no findings of any other intermediate via gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, while the MTBE concentration is still high, it can be suggested that during the batch tests the breakdown of gas production and the following lag phase were the direct effect of higher MTBE concentrations (more than 50 mg/l) and not because of the TBA or VFA accumulations. PMID:23240186

Ghasemian, Mohammad; Amin, Mohammad Mehdi; Morgenroth, Eberhard; Jaafarzadeh, Neemat

2012-09-01

383

Viability of industrial integration within the Gulf Cooperation Council: the case of petrochemical industries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) in 1981 among six Arab Gulf countries - Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates - was an essential step toward the comprehensive economic development of the region. These countries, with their great though declining financial capability arising from oil as the main source of income, had already

Al-Sabban

1983-01-01

384

Adsorption of Heavy Metals in Industrial Wastewater by Magnetic Nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial wastewater containing heavy metals is of great concern because of their toxic impact to living species and environments. Removal of metal ions from industrial effluent using nano-particles is an area of extensive research. This study collected wastewaters and effluents from 11 industrial companies in tanning, electronic plating, printed circuit board manufacturing, semi-conductor, and metal surface treatment industry and studied

Y. Tu; C. You

2010-01-01

385

Mercury pollution of effluent, air, and soil near a battery factory in Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effluent, air, and soil samples near a battery factory in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, where HgCl2 is used to prevent mold growth, were collected to explore the potential for pollution of the environment from industrial discharge of Hg. Flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry was used for Hg determinations. The concentration of Hg in the effluent ranged from -1 and the Hg

E. Semu; B. R. Singh; A. R. Selmer-Olsen

1986-01-01

386

Evaluation of effluent toxicity and ambient toxicity in a polluted lowland river  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of an industrial effluent containing high loads of calcium, cadmium, lead chloride and sulphate, on a river ecosystem was assessed using a combination of an effluent toxicity test, an ambient toxicity test and an ecological survey. Only this combination of techniques made it possible to discriminate between the effects of the discharge and those of the background pollution.

Lieven Bervoets; Marc Baillieul; Ronny Blust; Rudolf Verheyen

1996-01-01

387

Improvement in anaerobic degradation of olive mill effluent (OME) by chemical pretreatment using batch systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, feasibility of using chemical pretreatment to improve the anaerobic biological degradation of industrial effluents containing high concentrations of phenolic compounds was investigated. For this purpose, chemical pretreatment of the wastewater generated from olive oil production process, namely olive mill effluent (OME), was conducted by means of acid cracking followed by coagulation–flocculation process using one of the coagulating

Nuri Azbar; Tugba Keskin; Ebru Cokay Catalkaya

2008-01-01

388

Electrochemical treatment of the effluent of a fine chemical manufacturing plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, the electrochemical oxidation of an actual industrial wastewater with conductive-diamond anodes has been studied. The wastewater is the effluent of a fine chemicals plant. This effluent consists of an aqueous solution of solvents (ketones and alcohols) with a high concentration of aromatic compounds coming from the raw materials, intermediates and products of the different processes of the

P. Cañizares; R. Paz; J. Lobato; C. Sáez; M. A. Rodrigo

2006-01-01

389

Trace element removal by Spirulina sp. from copper smelter and refinery effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents the studies carried out on the applicability of microalga Spirulina sp. for trace elements removal from the conditioned (large volume, low contaminants concentration) industrial effluent, from copper smelter and refinery, containing a variety of trace elements, particularly mercury, cadmium, ammonia–nitrogen in concentrations exceeding Polish permissible limits for effluents discharged into water and soil. Trace elements removal is

K Chojnacka; A Chojnacki; H Górecka

2004-01-01

390

Case study: inorganic pollutants associated with particulate matter from an area near a petrochemical plant.  

PubMed

The area of Gela (Sicily, Italy) contains one of the largest petroleum refineries in Europe and also has several oil fields both on land and offshore. This paper discusses how the oil refinery and traffic-related air pollution affect the chemical composition of airborne particulate matter over the town of Gela, using pine needles and urban road dust as the means of survey. Forty-one samples of pine needles from Pinus halepensis (Mill.) and two composite samples of roadway dust, each subdivided into six size fractions, were analyzed for major and trace elements. Information on the natural or anthropogenic origin of the observed heavy metals was deduced from factor analysis and element distribution maps. Factor analysis was applied to a data set of 20 element concentrations in pine needles and identified three main sources of metals: soil, vehicle traffic, and industrial emissions. The petrochemical plant appears to be associated with raised levels of As, Mo, Ni, S, Se, V, and Zn. Similarly, enhanced Cu, Pb, Pt, Pd, Sb, and partly Zn concentrations are closely associated with traffic. High correlations between Ni and V, As and Se, and Pb and Sb were observed. Element distribution maps, showing a decrease in heavy metal contents immediately farther inland, confirm that local sources play a considerable role in heavy metal pollution. Morphological alterations and accumulation of phenols were observed in sections of Pinus halepensis needles collected from sites with high traffic density and industrial emissions. PMID:16053924

Bosco, M L; Varrica, D; Dongarrà, G

2005-09-01

391

Impact of sugar factory effluent on the growth and biochemical characteristics of terrestrial and aquatic plants.  

PubMed

The physico-chemical characteristics of sugar industry effluent were measured and some were found to be above those limits permissible in the Indian irrigation water standard. A pot study was initially conducted to study the effects of different concentrations (20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100%) of sugar factory effluent on seed germination, seedling growth and biochemical characteristics of green gram and maize. A similar study was also carried out using the aquatic plants, water hyacinth and water lettuce. The higher effluent concentrations (above 60%) were found to affect plant growth, but diluted effluent (up to 60%) favored seedling growth. PMID:18784897

Ayyasamy, P M; Yasodha, R; Rajakumar, S; Lakshmanaperumalsamy, P; Rahman, P K S M; Lee, Sanghoon

2008-09-11

392

Industry. Pollution prevention: The Chevron story  

SciTech Connect

This article outlines the efforts of Chevron to control pollution in the San Francisco Bay area. The company worked on reducing the numbers and types of pollutants used in the petrochemical industry. By changing the raw materials used in production as well as altering the finished products, the Chevron refinery was able to significantly reduce the toxic metals in the Bay area.

Karras, G. (Citizens for a Better Environment, San Francisco, CA (USA))

1989-10-01

393

Effluent recycle and waste minimization in prawn farm effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prawn farms withdraw huge quantities of sea water and discharge 5–30% of it back to the estuary during water exchange process. The effluent from the prawn ponds contains large quantities of solids, nitrogen, phosphorus and algae and it cannot be discharged into the estuary or ocean without proper effluent treatment. Sedimentation could form a partial treatment system. In this study,

S Vigneswaran; H. H Ngo; K. L Wee

1999-01-01

394

FCC reactor effluent sampling  

SciTech Connect

Optimizing the FCC unit requires fast and accurate measurements of the effects of operating variables on yields. Unfortunately, the FCC unit material balance is often uncertain due to the complexity of product recovery systems and the injection of extraneous streams into the gas plant. Reactor effluent sampling, or Reaction Mix Sampling (RMS) as it is sometimes called, provides a faster, more accurate method of obtaining FCC unit performance data compared to standard test run techniques. This paper describes the RMS procedure and illustrates how it was used at the Ultramar refinery in Wilmington, California, to quantify the effect of two major operating variables.

Campagna, R.J.; Bricklemyer (Refining Process Services, Cheswick, PA (US)); Bodnar, W.M.; Laux, M.A.; Chung, H. (Ultramar Refining, Long Beach, CA (US))

1989-01-01

395

Mixing of effluent in tidal coastal waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Industrial effluent is commonly released into shallow coastal waters, where it is subsequently transported by tidal currents and dispersed by mixing with the ambient. The buoyancy of an effluent (either positive or negative) plays an important role in its interaction with the surrounding ocean, and leads to the formation of gravity currents, which flow along either the sea bed or surface, depending on the sign of the buoyancy. We present a theoretical study of such gravity currents, including the effects of mixing and/or a flowing ambient on the current dynamics, and find that inclusion of mixing in depth-integrated gravity current models (in particular, the dependence of such mixing, or entrainment, on the bulk Richardson number) results in fundamental changes to the long-time behaviour of currents. For example, the long-time behaviour of an instantaneous release of a fixed volume of dense effluent is similarity solution of the second kind, in which the gravity current spreads as a power of time that is dependent on the form of the entrainment model, approximately as t0.44. A diverse range of flow regimes exist in which the effects of buoyancy-driven spreading, mixing and the ambient flow are more or less important, but we find that mixing generically plays an important role in gravity currents at late times.

Johnson, Chris; Hogg, Andrew

2013-04-01

396

Use of permeable reactive barriers to treat acid mine effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid mine drainage (AMD) is one of the most serious environmental problems facing the Canadian Mineral Industry. The AMD results from oxidation of sulphide minerals (e.g. pyrite or pyrrhotite) contained in mine waste or mine tailings. It is characterised by acid effluents rich in heavy metals, which are released into the environment. A new acid remediation technology is presented in

Kostas Fytas

2010-01-01

397

Controlling Effluent Discharges from Canadian Pulp and Paper Manufacturers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The review and analysis presented here indicate that it is both economically desirable and technically feasible for the pulp and paper industry to use the best known and available controls and treatments to safeguard the nation's waters. Government environmental authorities have overestimated the negative economic impact of mills adopting the technologies necessary to control effluents; they have overestimated the degree

William F. Sinclair

1991-01-01

398

ACTIVATED CARBON TREATMENT OF INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATERS: SELECTED TECHNICAL PAPERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Because of the tremendous interest in the organic constituent removal by activated carbon, the two industrial categories displaying the most interest are the petroleum refining and petrochemical industries. EPA's Office of Research and Development has co-sponsored two technical s...

399

Complete physico-chemical treatment for coke plant effluents.  

PubMed

Naturally found coal is converted to coke which is suitable for metallurgical industries. Large quantities of liquid effluents produced contain a large amount of suspended solids, high COD, BOD, phenols, ammonia and other toxic substances which are causing serious pollution problem in the receiving water to which they are discharged. There are a large number of coke plants in the vicinity of Jharia Coal Field (JCF). Characteristics of the effluents have been evaluated. The present effluent treatment systems were found to be inadequate. Physico-chemical treatment has been considered as a suitable option for the treatment of coke plant effluents. Ammonia removal by synthetic zeolite, activated carbon for the removal of bacteria, viruses, refractory organics, etc. were utilized and the results are discussed. A scheme has been proposed for the complete physico-chemical treatment, which can be suitably adopted for the recycling, reuse and safe disposal of the treated effluent. Various unit process and unit operations involved in the treatment system have been discussed. The process may be useful on industrial scale at various sites. PMID:11902769

Ghose, M K

2002-03-01

400

101 A CRITICAL EVALUATION OF THE INDUS TRIAL EFFLUENT PERMITTING SYSTEM USED BY ETHEKWINI MUNICIPALITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates the industrial effluent permitting system used by eThekwini Municipality by examining operating data at several wastewater treatment works (WWTWs) to assess the impact that industrial effluents have on their performa nce. This evaluation was conducted for Umbilo (15 Ml\\/d), Mariannridge (10 Ml\\/d), Central (65 Ml\\/d) and Southern works (180 Ml\\/d). Chemical analysis data (2005 to 2007) for

C. J. Brouckaert; C. Fennemore; C. A. Buckley

401

Surveys in industrial wastewater treatment, Vol. 3: Manufacturing and chemical industries  

SciTech Connect

The author presents a detailed review of the treatment of wastewaters from groups of industries. Individual reviews are written by experts and reflect established or proven practice. This third volume, which deals with inorganic waste waters, covers plating, silver recovery (particularly from the photographic industry), general inorganic chemical industries, chloro-alkalai (particularly the treatment and disposal of mercury sludges), and the steel industry. The second volume discusses organic-based waste waters, with chapters on the dyestuffs, petrochemicals, oil refining, and synthetic fuels industries. The first volume is concerned with the food and beverage industries, with chapters on sugar, dairy, beverage, fruit and vegetable, and meat and poultry industry wastes.

Barnes, D.

1987-01-01

402

Study of Phase Equilibria of Petrochemical Fluids using Gibbs Ensemble Monte Carlo Methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge of phase behavior of hydrocarbons and related compounds are highly of interest to chemical and petrochemical industries. For example, design of processes such as supercritical fluid extraction, petroleum refining, enhanced oil recovery, gas treatment, and fractionation of wax products. A precise knowledge of the phase equilibria of alkanes, alkenes and related compounds and their mixtures are required for efficient design of these processes. Experimental studies to understand the related phase equilibria often become unsuitable for various reasons. With the advancement of simulation technology, molecular simulations could provide a useful complement and alternative in the study and description of phase behavior of these systems. In this work we study vapor-liquid phase equilibria of pure hydrocarbons and their mixtures using Gibbs ensemble simulation. Insertion of long and articulated chain molecules are facilitated in our simulations by means of configurational bias and expanded ensemble methods. We use the newly developed NERD force field in our simulation. In this work NERD force field is extended to provide coverage for hydrocarbons with any arbitrary architecture. Our simulation results provide excellent quantitative agreement with available experimental phase equilibria data for both the pure components and mixtures.

Nath, Shyamal

2001-03-01

403

New method of dynamic and multispectral thermography elaborated for inspection of petrochemical process furnaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A major concern in the petrochemical industry is both safety and efficiency of process heaters operation. As the tubes temperature and the symmetry of heating belong to the critical components, infrared imaging and measuring methods have been used worldwide for many years. Monitoring these high temperature objects has frequently been relying on highly subjective analyses, particularly due to fluctuations of flame and heating medium and/or sometimes inaccurate or not well-fit thermocouple data. Recent developments in infrared camera technology and data processing possibilities have brought significant progress for high resolution spatial and temporal analysis of infrared radiation distributions. This paper presents an innovative method which deals with the flickering and spectrally selective features of the heating mediums, analysed basing on capturing and elaboration of long sequence of images instead of the snapshot method. Thereupon, digital image processing algorithms enable automatic search of a few chosen statistic values for every pixel of the every frame, with the aim to form substitute images, which consist only from pixels of min., max, or mean values and their standard deviation distributions. By applying this new methodology, it is possible to separate extremes of fluctuating signals and, in result, to obtain deeper and more reliable knowledge about temperature distributions or about heating phenomena inside process furnaces. These data can be utilised to significantly increase heater throughput while helping to ensure safe operation of the heater. Many other applications could take advantage of presented idea, algorithm and tools.

Pregowski, Piotr; Goleniewski, Grzegorz; Komosa, Wojciech; Korytkowski, Waldemar; Zwolenik, Slawomir

2005-09-01

404

Characterization of Industrial Emission Sources and Photochemistry in Houston, Texas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Houston-Galveston urban area contains a number of large industrial petrochemical emission sources that produce volatile organic compounds and nitrogen oxides. These co-located emissions result in rapid and efficient ozone production downwind. Unlike a single large power plant, the industrial complexes consist of numerous sources that can be difficult to quantify in emission inventories. During September - October 2006, the NOAA WP-3 aircraft conducted research flights as part of the second Texas Air Quality Study (TexAQS II). We examine measurements of NOx, SO2, and speciated hydrocarbons from the Houston Ship Channel, which contains a dense concentration of industrial petrochemical sources, and isolated petrochemical facilities. These measurements are used to derive source emission estimates, which are then compared to available emission inventories. We find that high hydrocarbon emissions are typical for the Houston Ship Channel and isolated petrochemical facilities. Ethene and propene are found to be major contributors to ozone formation. Ratios of C2H4 / NOx and C3H6 / NOx exceed emission inventory values by factors of 10 - 50. These findings are consistent with the first TexAQS study in 2000. We examine trends in C2H4 / NOx and C3H6 / NOx ratios between 2000 and 2006, and determine that day-to-day variability and within-plume variability exceeds any long-term reduction in ethene and propene emissions for the isolated petrochemical sources. We additionally examine downwind photochemical products formed by these alkenes.

Washenfelder, R. A.; Atlas, E. L.; Degouw, J.; Flocke, F. M.; Fried, A.; Frost, G. J.; Holloway, J.; Richter, D.; Ryerson, T. B.; Schauffler, S.; Trainer, M.; Walega, J.; Warneke, C.; Weibring, P.; Zheng, W.

2009-12-01

405

Investigation of fugitive emissions from petrochemical transport barges using optical remote sensing  

EPA Science Inventory

Recent airborne remote sensing survey data acquired with passive gas imaging equipment (PGIE), in this case infrared cameras, have shown potentially significant fugitive volatile organic carbon (VOC) emissions from petrochemical transport barges. The experiment found remote sens...

406

The Propagation of Noise from Petroleum and Petrochemical Complexes to Neighbouring Communities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A model has been developed which enables noise levels from petroleum and petrochemical complexes to be predicted over large distances, varying terrain, and for a range of meteorological conditions. Where direct comparison with existing prediction techniqu...

L. A. Bijl R. R. Barchha M. Grashof K. J. Marsh R. Sarteur

1981-01-01

407

40 CFR 419.30 - Applicability; description of the petrochemical subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to all discharges from any facility that produces petroleum products by the use of topping, cracking, and petrochemical operations whether or not the facility includes any process...

2012-07-01

408

Increased Abundance of Terrestrial Isopod Populations in Terrestrial Ecosystems Contaminated with Petrochemical Wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arthropods are integral components of the food chain, and because many reside in close association to the soil and its contaminants,\\u000a their communities may be sensitive indicators of ecotoxicity. We examined the influence of petrochemical contaminants on the\\u000a abundance of several taxonomic groups of macroarthropods, with an emphasis on isopods, residing on two reference sites and\\u000a three petrochemical-contaminated sites at

B. C. Faulkner; R. L. Lochmiller

2000-01-01

409

Facility effluent monitoring plan for WESF  

SciTech Connect

The FEMP for the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) provides sufficient information on the WESF effluent characteristics and the effluent monitoring systems so that a compliance assessment against applicable requirements may be performed. Radioactive and hazardous material source terms are related to specific effluent streams that are in turn, related to discharge points and, finally are compared to the effluent monitoring system capability.

SIMMONS, F.M.

1999-09-01

410

Decolorization of textile effluent by bitter gourd peroxidase immobilized on concanavalin A layered calcium alginate–starch beads  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bitter gourd peroxidase immobilized on the surface of concanavalin A layered calcium alginate–starch beads was used for the successful and effective decolorization of textile industrial effluent. Effluent was recalcitrant to the action of bitter gourd peroxidase; however, in the presence of some redox mediators, it was successfully decolorized. Effluent decolorization was maximum (70%) in the presence of 1.0mM 1-hydroxybenzotriazole within

Mahreen Matto; Qayyum Husain

2009-01-01

411

Liquid Effluent Retention Facility/Effluent Treatment Facility Hazards Assessment  

SciTech Connect

This document establishes the technical basis in support of Emergency Planning activities for the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and Effluent Treatment Facility the Hanford Site. The document represents an acceptable interpretation of the implementing guidance document for DOE ORDER 5500.3A. Through this document, the technical basis for the development of facility specific Emergency Action Levels and the Emergency Planning Zone is demonstrated.

Simiele, G.A.

1994-09-29

412

Substance abuse in the refining industry  

SciTech Connect

In order to provide some background for the NPRA Annual Meeting Management Session panel discussion on Substance Abuse in the Refining and Petrochemical Industries, NPRA distributed a questionnaire to member companies requesting information regarding the status of their individual substance abuse policies. The questionnaire was designed to identify general trends in the industry. The aggregate responses to the survey are summarized in this paper, as background for the Substance Abuse panel discussions.

Little, A. Jr. (Sun Refining and Marketing Co., Philadelphia, PA (US)); Ross, J.K. (Ashalnd Petroleum Co., Ashland, KY (US)); Lavorerio, R. (Chevron U.S.A. Inc., Richmond, CA (US)); Richards, T.A. (Total Petroleum, Inc., Denver, CO (US))

1989-01-01

413

Environmental comparison of biobased chemicals from glutamic acid with their petrochemical equivalents.  

PubMed

Glutamic acid is an important constituent of waste streams from biofuels production. It is an interesting starting material for the synthesis of biobased chemicals, thereby decreasing the dependency on fossil fuels. The objective of this paper was to compare the environmental impact of four biobased chemicals from glutamic acid with their petrochemical equivalents, that is, N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP), N-vinylpyrrolidone (NVP), acrylonitrile (ACN), and succinonitrile (SCN). A consequential life cycle assessment was performed, wherein glutamic acid was obtained from sugar beet vinasse. The removed glutamic acid was substituted with cane molasses and ureum. The comparison between the four biobased and petrochemical products showed that for NMP and NVP the biobased version had less impact on the environment, while for ACN and SCN the petrochemical version had less impact on the environment. For the latter two an optimized scenario was computed, which showed that the process for SCN can be improved to a level at which it can compete with the petrochemical process. For biobased ACN large improvements are required to make it competitive with its petrochemical equivalent. The results of this LCA and the research preceding it also show that glutamic acid can be a building block for a variety of molecules that are currently produced from petrochemical resources. Currently, most methods to produce biobased products are biotechnological processes based on sugar, but this paper demonstrates that the use of amino acids from low-value byproducts can certainly be a method as well. PMID:21870885

Lammens, Tijs M; Potting, José; Sanders, Johan P M; De Boer, Imke J M

2011-09-09

414

A comparative study of toxicity identification using Daphnia magna and Tigriopus japonicus: Implications of establishing effluent discharge limits in Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Korea, the new permission criteria for industrial effluents based on Daphnia magna acute toxicity tests will be gradually implemented starting from 2011. Thus, in this study, toxicity assessment and identification using a marine species (Tigriopus japonicus) and the freshwater species (D. magna) was comparatively investigated. Effluent from an acid mine drainage treatment plant showed acute toxicity toward both organisms

Sung-Wook Kang; Jaehwan Seo; Jeonghoon Han; Jae-Seong Lee; Jinho Jung

2011-01-01

415

Production of biofertilizers using baker's yeast effluent and their application to wheat and barley grown in north Sinai deserts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effluent from the baker's yeast industry was experimented on as a culture medium for the growth and biomass production of diazotrophs. The effluent supported good growth of Azotobacter chroococcum, Enterobacter agglomerans and Klebsiella pneuomoniae, Azospirillum brasilense, Bacillus polymyxa and Pseudomonas putida and strongly proposed for biofertilizers production of associative diazotrophs. Slurry preparations containing natural polymers, e.g. Arabic gum (5%), pero-dextrin

Sayeda M. Ali; Mervat A. Hamza; Gamil Amin; Mohammed Fayez; Mahmod El-Tahan; Mohammed Monib; Nabil A. Hegazi

2005-01-01

416

Hprt mutant lymphocyte frequencies in workers in a petrochemical plant  

SciTech Connect

The autoradiographic hprt mutant lymphocyte assay was used to evaluate a population of petrochemical workers employed in the manufacture of styrene and xylenes and potentially exposed to benzene. Production units were areas of potential high exposure and other areas of the same facility were areas of low exposure. Exposures to benzene, styrene and xylenes were determined in workers from production units using 3M passive badge dosimeters. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were cryopreserved then thawed and assayed to determine the frequency of hprt mutants using the autoradiographic version of the assay. Exposures were measured on 23 workers in production areas and 3 in low exposure areas. Average exposures in the production areas were less than 0.027 ppm for benzene, and 1 ppm for styrene and xylene. Hprt variant (mutant) frequencies (Vf) were determined for 9 workers in production areas, 11 in non-production areas and 12 outside controls. All were non-smokers. The mean Vf ({+-} SD) per million evaluatable cells for the three groups were 3.01 {+-}1.68, 1.82{+-}0.87, and 1.80{+-}0.80 respectively. The two control groups were not significantly different from each other and, when combined, were significantly different from the production area group (p<0.04, Kruskal Wallis ANOVA). A tenth worker in the production area group with a Vf of 21.16 was excluded from analysis. Further investigation is needed to identify potential source(s) of mutagen exposure.

Ward, J.B. Jr.; Hastings, D.A.; Whorton, E.B. Jr.; Ammenheuser, M.M. [Univ. of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX (United States)

1997-10-01

417

Treatment of effluents from uranium oxide production.  

PubMed

The nuclear fuel cycle comprises a series of industrial processes which involve the production of electricity from uranium in nuclear power reactors. In Brazil the conversion of uranium hexafluoride (UF6) into uranium dioxide (UO2) takes place in Resende (RJ) at the Nuclear Fuel Factory (FCN). The process generates liquid effluents with significant concentrations of uranium, which might be treated before being discharged into the environment. This study investigates the recovery of uranium from three distinct liquid effluents: one with a high carbonate content and the other with an elevated fluoride concentration. This paper also presents a study on carbonate removal from an effluent that consists of a water-methanol solution generated during the filtration of the yellow cake (ammonium uranyl tricarbonate). The results showed that: (1) the uranium from the carbonated solution can be recovered through the ion exchange technique using the strong base anionic resin IRA 910-U, as the carbonate has been removed as CO2 after heating; (2) the most suitable technique to recover uranium from the fluoride solution is its precipitation as (NH4)2UO4F2 (ammonium fluorouranate peroxide), (3) the solution free of carbonate can be added to the fluoride solution and the uranium from the final solution can be recovered by precipitation as ammonium fluorouranate peroxide as well; (4) the carbonate from the water-methanol solution can be recovered as calcium carbonate through the addition of calcium chloride, or it can be recovered as ammonium sulphate through the addition of sulphuric acid. The ammonium sulphate product can be used as a fertilizer. PMID:21473275

Ladeira, A C Q; Gonçalves, J S; Morais, C A

2011-01-01

418

Development Document for Proposed Effluent Limitations Guidelines and New Source Performance Standards: Beet Sugar Segment of the Sugar Processing Point Source Category.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document presents the findings of a study of the beet sugar processing industry for the purpose of developing effluent limitations guidelines, standards of performance, and pretreatment standards for the industry. Supporting data and rationale for dev...

1973-01-01

419

Development Document for Effluent Limitations Guidelines and New Source Performance Standards for the Building, Construction, and Paper Segment of the Asbestos Manufacturing Point Source Catergory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document presents the findings of an extensive study of a segment of the asbestos manufacturing industry for the purpose of developing effluent limitations guidelines and Federal standards of performance for the industry. The development of data and ...

R. J. Carton

1974-01-01

420

40 CFR 415.502 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Potassium Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.502 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2010-07-01

421

40 CFR 415.142 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory § 415.142 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2009-07-01

422

40 CFR 415.352 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chromic Acid Production Subcategory § 415.352 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2009-07-01

423

40 CFR 415.352 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chromic Acid Production Subcategory § 415.352 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2010-07-01

424

40 CFR 415.412 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hydrogen Production Subcategory § 415.412 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2012-07-01

425

40 CFR 415.427 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hydrogen Cyanide Production Subcategory § 415.427 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2012-07-01

426

40 CFR 415.122 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Potassium Dichromate Production Subcategory § 415.122 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2010-07-01

427

40 CFR 415.123 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Potassium Dichromate Production Subcategory § 415.123 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2009-07-01

428

40 CFR 415.122 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Potassium Dichromate Production Subcategory § 415.122 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2009-07-01

429

Characteristics of treated effluents and their potential applications for producing concrete.  

PubMed

Conservation and preservation of freshwater is increasingly becoming important as the global population grows. Presently, enormous volumes of freshwater are used to mix concrete. This paper reports experimental findings regarding the feasibility of using treated effluents as alternatives to freshwater in mixing concrete. Samples were obtained from three effluent sources: heavy industry, a palm-oil mill and domestic sewage. The effluents were discharge into public drain without danger to human health and natural environment. Chemical compositions and physical properties of the treated effluents were investigated. Fifteen compositional properties of each effluent were correlated with the requirements set out by the relevant standards. Concrete mixes were prepared using the effluents and freshwater to establish a base for control performance. The concrete samples were evaluated with regard to setting time, workability, compressive strength and permeability. The results show that except for some slight excesses in total solids and pH, the properties of the effluents satisfy the recommended disposal requirements. Two concrete samples performed well for all of the properties investigated. In fact, one sample was comparatively better in compressive strength than the normal concrete; a 9.4% increase was observed at the end of the curing period. Indeed, in addition to environmental conservation, the use of treated effluents as alternatives to freshwater for mixing concrete could save a large amount of freshwater, especially in arid zones. PMID:22705857

Noruzman, Ainul Haezah; Muhammad, Bala; Ismail, Mohammad; Abdul-Majid, Zaiton

2012-06-15

430

Modeling of Flow and Water Quality Processes with Finite Volume Method due to Spreading and Dispersion of Petrochemical Pollution in the Hydro-Environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Having two water frontiers, namely (everlasting) Persian Gulf and Oman Sea in the south and Caspian Sea in the north, intense dependence on extracting and exporting oil, especially via marine fleets and ever-increasing development of petrochemical industry, Iran is exposed to severe environmental damages caused by oil and petrochemical industries. This essay investigates how oil spill is diffused and its environmental pollution is spread. The movement of oil spill, and its diffusion in water and its effects on water and the environment has been simulated by developing a Depth-Averaged numerical model and using the Finite Volume method. The existing models are not efficient enough to fulfill current modeling needs. The developed model uses the parameters useful in the advection and diffusion of oil pollutions in a model appropriate for predicting the transport of oil spill. Since the Navier-Stokes Equations play an important role in the advection and diffusion of oil pollutions, it is highly important to choose an appropriate numerical method in the advection and diffusion section. In this essay, choosing the methods used in the advection and diffusion have been emphasized and highly-accurate algorithms has been used in the advection terms. These algorithms are not present in similar models. The resulting equations have been solved using the ADI method. This method solves the unknown parameters with solving a Penta-Diagonal matrix in each time step. It does so without sacrificing the desired precision.

Sarhadi Zadeh, Ehsan; Hejazi, Kourosh

2009-11-01

431

Temperature effects on biological treatment of petrochemical wastewaters  

SciTech Connect

Empirical models have been developed to make it possible to determine the most significant variables and operating parameters affected by temperature. In the study the interrelationship among the following variables for Union Carbide Corporation plants, A, B and C biosystems are presented: (1) hydraulic retention time; (2) mixed-liquor volatile suspended solids; (3) temperature; (4) effluent total suspended solids; (5) total and soluble chemical oxygen demand; and (6) total and soluble biochemical oxygen demand. The mathematical models and contour maps developed have been used to determine optimum operating conditions within the ranges studied to comply with present and future effluent standards. Extrapolation beyond the regions of experimentation studied is not recommended. The effect of temperature on sludge compactness and settleability as measured by the sludge volume index (SVI) and the initial settling velocity (ISV) were inconclusive and no empirical model could be developed. Statistically designed experiments were utilized to develop the mathematical models and contour maps presented. This allows for obtaining more information from fewer experiments. 8 references, 14 figures, 4 tables.

del Pino, M.P.; Zirk, W.E.

1982-05-01

432

Major ion toxicity in effluents: A review with permitting recommendations  

SciTech Connect

Effluent toxicity testing methods have been well defined, but for the most part, these methods do not attempt to segregate the effects of active ionic concentrations and ion imbalances upon test and species performances. The role of various total dissolved solids in effluents on regulatory compliance has emerged during the last few years and has caused confusion in technical assessment and in permitting and compliance issues. This paper assesses the issue of ionic strength and ion imbalance, provides a brief summary of applicable data, presents several case studies demonstrating successful tools to address toxicity resulting from salinity and ion imbalance, and provides recommendations for regulatory and compliance options to manage discharges with salinity/ion imbalance issues. Effluent toxicity resulting from inorganic ion imbalance and the ion concentration of the effluent is pervasive in permitted discharge from many industrial process and municipal discharges where process streams are concentrated, adjusted, or modified. This paper discusses procedures that use weight-of-evidence approaches to identify ion imbalance toxicity, including direct measurement, predictive toxicity models for freshwater, exchange resins, mock effluents, and ion imbalance toxicity with tolerant/susceptible test species. Cost-effective waste treatment control options for a facility whose effluent is toxic because of total dissolved solids (TDS) or because of specific ion(s) are scarce at best. Depending on the discharge situation, TDS toxicity may not be viewed with the same level of concern as other, more traditional, toxicants. These discharge situations often do not require the conservative safety factors required by other toxicants. Selection of the alternative regulatory solutions discussed in this paper may be beneficial, especially because they do not require potentially expensive or high-energy-using treatment options that may be ineffective control options. The information presented is intended to provide a better understanding of the role of ion imbalance in aquatic toxicity testing and to provide various recommendations that should be considered in addressing these issues.

Goodfellow, W.L.; Ausley, L.W.; Burton, D.T.; Denton, D.L.; Dorn, P.B.; Grothe, D.R.; Heber, M.A.; Norberg-King, T.J.; Rodgers, J.H. Jr.

2000-01-01

433

Water Quality of Effluent-dominated Ecosystems: Ecotoxicological, Hydrological, and Management Considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In arid and semi-arid regions of the southwestern United States and other parts of the world, flows of historically ephemeral\\u000a streams are now perennially dominated by municipal and\\/or industrial effluent discharges, particularly in urbanized watersheds.\\u000a Because effluent-dominated and dependent water bodies have previously received limited scientific study, we reviewed select\\u000a contemporary topics associated with water quality of ephemeral streams receiving

Bryan W. Brooks; Timothy M. Riley; Ritchie D. Taylor

2006-01-01

434

Production of rhizobia biofertilizers using baker's yeast effluent and their application to Leucaena leucocephala  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial baker's yeast effluent (BYE) was experimented on as a culture medium for growth and biomass production of six fast-growing rhizobia strains. Diluting the effluent with distilled water was necessary to maximize bacterial biomass production. The addition of phosphate buffer, ammonium chloride or trace-elements did not improve the final biomass yield of tested micro-organisms. Rhizobial growth and biomass on the

Sayeda M. Ali; Gamil Amin; Mohammed Fayez; Mahmoud El-Tahan; Mohammed Monib; Nabil A. Hegazi

2005-01-01

435

Radioactive effluents in Savannah River  

SciTech Connect

During 1990, low-level radiometric studies of the Savannah River continued to distinguish between effluent contributions from Plant Vogtle and the Savannah River Site. Measurements of these radioactive effluents are of mutual interest to both institutions, as they can address disturbing trends before they become health and legal concerns. The Environmental Technology Section (ETS) has conducted radiometric studies of Plant Vogtle since late 1986, prior to its startup. The plant has two 1100 MWe pressurized water reactors developed by Westinghouse. Unit 1 started commercial operations in June 1987, and Unit 2 began in May 1989. During powered operations, ETS has routinely detected neutron-activated isotopes in controlled releases but all activities have been several orders of magnitude below the DOE guide values. In 1990, processing improvements for Vogtle effluents have yielded even lower activities in the river. The Vogtle release data and the ETS measurements have tracked well over the past four years.

Winn, W.G.

1991-11-27

436

Nitrification-Denitrification of Wastewaters with a High Organic and Ammonia Nitrogen Content (Waste Effluents from Sugar Refineries).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Biological removal of nitrogen in the case of sewage is discussed in numerous scientific journals, and a certain number of installations are now in operation. However, considerably fewer articles are published concerning certain industrial waste effluents...

G. M. Faup M. A. Picard C. Delzappo

1977-01-01

437

Water Pollution: EPA Has Improved Its Review of Effluent Guidelines but Could Benefit from More Information on Treatment Technologies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) uses a two-phase process to identify industrial categories potentially needing new or revised effluent guidelines to help reduce their pollutant discharges. EPAs 2002 draft Strategy for National Clean Water Indust...

2012-01-01

438

Characterization of phytotoxicity of metal engraving effluent samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two effluent samples were collected from an acid bath of a metal engraving industry. Sample A was lime-treated to pH 6 and sample B, pH 9. Zn concentrations in samples A and B were 1207 and 4.24 mg L-1, respectively. Both samples A and B caused 100% inhibition on millet seed germination. Sample A was more toxic than B. The

Wuncheng Wang

1990-01-01

439

Application of Rotating Biological Contactor Technology for Mine Effluent Treatment and Metal Bioleaching Operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rotating biological contactor (RBC) technology is commonly used for municipal and industrial effluent treatment. RBCs have also been successfully used in the mining industry for the removal of contaminants such as ferrous iron (Fe2+) (Nokolov et al. 2001; Olem and Unz, 1977,1980), cyanide and its various species (Whitlock, 1995), oxalate (Brassinga et. al. 1992; Beaudette et al. 1993), and selenium

A. Kapoor; O. Dinardo; W. D. Gould; A. Kuiper; J. Kawaja; P. Bédard

2001-01-01

440

Electrochemical pretreatment of textile effluents and effect of electrode materials on the removal of organics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aquatic environment around the textile industries in India was severely affected due to continuous discharge of effluents. In order to avoid further deterioration, the pollution control board of Tamil Nadu, India has enforced zero discharge concepts throughout the state. Consequently, most of the industries have opted membrane technology to recover water. The present study was aimed to find out

G. Bhaskar Raju; M. Thalamadai Karuppiah; S. S. Latha; D. Latha Priya; S. Parvathy; S. Prabhakar

2009-01-01

441

Treatability studies of alternative wastewaters for Metal Finishing Effluent Treatment Facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 300-M Area Liquid Effluent Treatment Facility (LETF) of the Savannah River Site (SRS) is an end-of-pipe industrial wastewater treatment facility that uses precipitation and filtration, which is the EPA Best Available Technology economically achievable for a Metal Finishing and Aluminum Form Industries. Upon the completion of stored waste treatment, the LETF will be shut down, because production of nuclear

D. M. Wittry; H. L. Martin

1994-01-01

442

Industrial enzymology: the application of enzymes in industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This reference book contains detailed data on kinetics of enzymes which relate mathematical models to actual industrial practice; comments on legislative thinking, toxicology, test systems, and guidance on industrial safety when working with enzymes; and explains the uses of enzymes for the following products or processes: potable alcohol, fuel alcohol, analytical applications, baking, brewing, dairy, detergents, effluents\\/by-products\\/biogas, flavors and colors,

T. Godfrey; J. Reichelt

1982-01-01

443

Micropollutants Produced by Disinfection of Wastewater Effluents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recent research conducted with the objective of determining some of the chemical mutagenic characteristics of nonvolatile micropollutants in treated wastewater effluents is summarized. The effluents from nine wastewater plants were examined relative to th...

R. L. Jolley R. B. Cumming N. E. Lee J. E. Thompson L. R. Lewis

1981-01-01

444

In situ adaptation of activated sludge by shock leading to enhance treatment of high ammonia content petrochemical waste water  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modified activated sludge process that includes both carbonaceous and nitrogenous oxidation to reduce high levels of ammonia in petrochemical waste water was studied in a pilot plant design. Dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature, and sludge age were controlled and measured. Ammonia concentration in the petrochemical waste water used as the influent waste to the pilot plant was maintained up to

L. T. Thiem; E. A. Alkhatib

1988-01-01

445

A nonlinear industrial model predictive controller using integrated PLS and neural net state-space model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Model predictive control (MPC) technology has been well developed and successfully applied in the refinery and petrochemical process industries over the last 20years. Recent development has been focused on nonlinear MPC and robust MPC technologies because new challenges have been encountered in the polymer and chemical industries where many processes show strong nonlinearity and uncertainty. This paper presents a nonlinear

Hong Zhao; John Guiver; Ramesh Neelakantan; Lorenz. T. Biegler

2001-01-01

446

REVERSE OSMOSIS RENOVATION OF SECONDARY EFFLUENT  

EPA Science Inventory

A demonstration of the performance and economics of reverse osmosis treatment of municipal secondary effluent on a sufficient scale to project large plant costs was attempted. The desalted effluent was blended with additional secondary effluent and used for irrigation through an ...

447

Effect of cassava effluent on Okada denizens  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was designed to investigate the effect of cassava effluent on Okada environment. Two sets of same five plant species were germinated and watered with cassava effluent for 10 days at alternate days. One part of the effluent had read palm oil in it from processing while a part of it had non. Significant results were obtained from the

J. E. Ehiagbonare; S. A. Enabulele; B. B. Babatunde; R. Adjarhore

2009-01-01

448

Reducing Effluent While Raising Affluence: Water Pollution Abatement in Malaysia. How did Malaysia Manage to Nearly Eliminate its Leading Water Pollution Problem, without Simultaneously Blocking Growth of the Industry Generating the Pollution.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Production of crude palm oil (CPO) in Malaysia more than tripled between 1975 and 1985. This expansion solidified the industry's ranking as the largest in the world - it accounted for half of world production and three-fourths of world exports in 19801 - ...

J. R. Vincent

1993-01-01

449

Nutrient removal from farm effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of the study were: (i) to examine the efficiency of nutrient removal during the treatment of dairy farm effluent in a two-pond system, and (ii) to produce an inexpensive but effective nutrient trap which could be recycled as a nutrient source or soil mulch. The concentration of chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), nitrogen (N), phosphorus

N. S. Bolan; L. Wong; D. C. Adriano

2004-01-01

450

Anaerobic Treatment of CTMP Effluent.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Experiments with anaerobic treatment of a CTMP effluent in a contact reactor and in a submerged filter (one-stage processes) were carried out on a pilot-plant scale at the pulp and paper mill of Rockhammar. The treatment process was also tried with the tw...

B. Boman M. Almemark R. Bergstroem

1986-01-01

451

Mortality among maintenance employees potentially exposed to asbestos in a refinery and petrochemical plant.  

PubMed

This paper reports the mortality experience from 1948 to 1989 of 2,504 maintenance employees who had a minimum of one year of employment in jobs with potential exposure to asbestos at a Texas refinery and petrochemical plant. For the purposes of this study, "potential exposure" is equated with those jobs or crafts having the greatest direct potential proximity to, or which worked directly with, asbestos-containing materials, especially asbestos-containing thermal insulation. Approximately one-half of the study population had 10 years or longer potential exposure, and 80% had their first potential exposure before 1970. The total population exhibited significantly lower mortality for all causes, the standardized mortality ratio (SMR = 77); and for all cancer (SMR = 85), as compared to residents in the surrounding communities. Statistically significant deficits in mortality were also observed in a number of noncancerous diseases such as heart disease (SMR = 78; 95% CI = 69-88), nonmalignant respiratory disease (SMR = 70; 95% CI = 50-95), and cirrhosis of the liver (SMR = 44; 95% CI = 22-79). Mortality among employees who had 20 years or longer since their first potential exposure was also examined; the pattern of mortality was similar to that exhibited by the total cohort, with a slight increase in the SMR for most of the causes. The only statistically significant excess of mortality found was a fourfold increase in mesothelioma (5 observed and 1.2 expected deaths) the SMR was 428 (95% CI = 139-996) for the total cohort and was 469 (95% CI = 152-1093) for those who had 20 years or more since first potential exposure. In contrast to asbestos industry worker studies, mortality for lung cancer was substantially lower than the general population (SMR = 81; 95% CI = 63-103). The observed number of deaths for cancer of the larynx was virtually the same as expected (3 observed vs. 2.8 expected). This study also showed decreased mortality for cancers of gastrointestinal organs such as the esophagus (SMR = 78), stomach (SMR = 63), large intestine (SMR = 91), rectum (SMR = 55), or pancreas (SMR = 90)--cancers that have been reported to be elevated in studies of various industry workers directly exposed to asbestos. PMID:8808046

Tsai, S P; Waddell, L C; Gilstrap, E L; Ransdell, J D; Ross, C E

1996-01-01

452

Biogas production from plant biomass used for phytoremediation of industrial wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In present study, potentials of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and water chestnut (Trapa bispinnosa) employed for phytoremediation of toxic metal rich brass and electroplating industry effluent, were examined in terms of biogas generation. Inability of the plants to grow in undiluted effluent directed to select 20%, 40% and 60% effluent concentrations (with deionized water) for phytoremediation experiments. Slurry of both

V. K. Verma; Y. P. Singh; J. P. N. Rai

2007-01-01

453

Decolourization and detoxification of textile industry wastewater by the laccase-mediator system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decolourization and detoxification of a textile industry effluent by laccase from Trametes trogii in the presence and the absence of laccase mediators was investigated. Laccase alone was not able to decolourize the effluent efficiently even at the highest enzyme concentration tested: less than 10% decolourization was obtained with 9U\\/mL reaction mixture. To enhance effluent decolourization, several potential laccase mediators were

Rim Khlifi; Lassad Belbahri; Steve Woodward; Mariem Ellouz; Abdelhafidh Dhouib; Sami Sayadi; Tahar Mechichi

2010-01-01

454

Pulp and paper mill effluent treatments have differential endocrine-disrupting effects on rainbow trout.  

PubMed

Endocrine disruption (ED) effects due to pulp and paper mill effluents extracts involving different industrial procedures and effluent treatments (nontreated, primary, and secondary treated) were evaluated using immature triploid rainbow trout in a pulse-exposure toxicity experiment. The protocol involved the use of intraperitoneal injection of mill extracts (solid-phase extraction [SPE]) corrected for individual fish weight and included several laboratory standards (steroidal hormones and phytosterols). Biological endpoints at two different levels of biological organization were analyzed (molecular and individual organism). Results indicated that nonsignificant changes were observed in the individual physiological indices represented by condition factor, liver somatic index, and gonad somatic index during the experiment. Significant induction of liver ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity was observed between different effluent treatments and experimental controls. Significant endocrine-disrupting effects at the reproductive level were observed in all effluent treatments involving significant increments in plasma vitellogenin (VTG) levels. Fish exposed to untreated effluent extracts had significantly higher VTG levels compared to fish exposed to primary and secondary treatment effluent extracts, indicating a decrease of the estrogenic effect due to the effluent treatment. The present study has shown that for the Chilean pulp and paper mill SPE extracts evaluated, an endocrine disruption effect was induced in immature triploid rainbow, reaffirming the significant estrogenic effects demonstrated previously in laboratory and field experiments. PMID:18717619

Orrego, Rodrigo; Guchardi, John; Hernandez, Victor; Krause, Rachelle; Roti, Lucia; Armour, Jeffrey; Ganeshakumar, Mathumai; Holdway, Douglas

2009-01-01

455

NMR shielding and a thermodynamic study of the effect of environmental exposure to petrochemical solvent on DPPC, an important component of lung surfactant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemical and petrochemical industries are the major air polluters. Millions of workers are exposed to toxic chemicals on the job, and it is becoming more toxic, causing much damage to respiratory system, today. One of the main components of lung alveoli is a surfactant. DPPC (Dipalmitolphosphatidylcholine) is the predominant lipid component in the lung surfactant, which is responsible for lowering surface tension in alveoli. In this article, we used an approximate model and ab initio computations to describe interactions between DPPC and some chemical solvents, such as benzene, toluene, heptane, acetone, chloroform, ether, and ethanol, which cause lung injuries and lead to respiratory distress such as ARDS. The effect of these solvents on the conformation and disordering of the DPPC head group was investigated by calculations at the Hatree-Fock level using the 6-31G basis set with the Onsager continuum solvation, GAIO, and frequency models. The simulation model was confirmed by accurate NMR measurements as concerns conformational energy. Water can be the most suitable solvent for DPPC. Furthermore, this study shows that ethanol has the most destructive effect on the conformation and lipid disorder of the DPPC head group of the lung surfactant in our model. Our finding will be useful for detecting the dysfunction of DPPC in the lung surfactant caused by acute or chronic exposures to air toxics from petrochemical organic solvent emission source and chronic alcohol consumption, which may lead to ARDS.

Monajjemi, M.; Afsharnezhad, S.; Jaafari, M. R.; Abdolahi, T.; Nikosade, A.; Monajemi, H.

2007-12-01

456

Seasonal source-receptor relationships in a petrochemical industrial district over northern Taiwan.  

PubMed

This study investigated the relationships between meteorological data, pollution sources, and receptors over northern Taiwan. During the intensive sampling period in summer 1992, the weather was controlled predominantly by a Pacific subtropical high and by Typhoon Mark. During the other intensive sampling period in winter 1993, while a cold frontal system approached Taiwan, the northeasterly winds prevailed most of the time. The local circulation such as land-sea breeze only developed under weak synoptic environment. Particle concentrations and element composition in winter were higher than in summer. This can be attributed to the high convection of air mass, which leads to the vertical dispersion of pollutants in summer. In addition to the subtropical high pressure, typhoons are frequently accompanied with high-wind speeds and unstable weather conditions that also dilute and eliminate the pollutants. In winter, the prevailing northeasterlies might carry pollutants from Midland China. Furthermore, the anticyclone system develops a stagnant condition that easily leads to pollutant accumulation. In this case, the wind direction affected the source contribution of the receptor and the PM10 displays a higher correlation with coarse and fine particulate than meteorological parameters in summer. In addition, the mixing height shows a high correlation with PM10 in winter. PMID:15828675

Chiang, Pen-Chi; Chang, E E; Chang, Tzu-Chi; Chiang, Hung-Lung

2005-03-01

457

Hydrogen market in refining and petrochemicals in France.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The french hydrogen market on industrial sites can be divided into three main parts. Captive hydrogen is produced by thermofor catalytic reforming, catalytic cracking and hydrotreating of vacuum distillates, and is consumed in hydrotreating of petrol, hyd...

P. Lutz P. Borel

1991-01-01

458

Risk assessment study of fire following earthquake: a case study of petrochemical enterprises in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After an earthquake, the fire risk of petrochemistry enterprises is higher than that of other enterprises as it involves production processes with inflammable and explosive characteristics. Using Chinese petrochemical enterprises as the research object, this paper uses a literature review and case summaries to study, amongst others, the classification of petrochemical enterprises, the proportion of daily fires, and fire loss ratio. This paper builds a fire following earthquake risk assessment model of petrochemical enterprises based on a previous earthquake fire hazard model, and the earthquake loss prediction assessment method, calculates the expected loss of the fire following earthquake in various counties and draws a risk map. Moreover, this research identifies high-risk areas, concentrating on the Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan region, and Shandong, Jiangsu, and Zhejiang provinces. Differences in enterprise type produce different levels and distribution of petrochemical enterprises earthquake fire risk. Furthermore, areas at high risk of post-earthquake fires and with low levels of seismic fortification require extra attention to ensure appropriate mechanisms are in place.

Li, J.; Wang, Y.; Chen, H.; Lin, L.

2013-04-01

459

Incorporation of air-cooled condensers in refineries and petrochemical plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

By and large, the construction of oil-processing and petrochemical plants and individual production units is being carried out in accordance with obsolete general plans and drafts, not allowing for any radical reduction in the intervals between fitting and apparatus, and without the new effective plant, waste-heat boilers for the spent heat, the huge centrifugal, rotary and opposed compressors or cylindrical

Ya. G. Sorking; S. Yu. Barit; V. M. Shmerkovich

1966-01-01

460

Petrochemical study of Al-Mizil plutonic rocks of Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A petrochemical study of some rock samples has been carried out using different experimental techniques. The rock samples were collected from the Al-Mizil area, Saudi Arabia. Al-Mizil area consists of Precambrian metasediments which belong to the Halaban Formation. The plutonic rocks later intruded into the Halaban Formation. Major oxides and trace elements in these rocks are presented. The study indicates

A. Naeem; A. A. Almohandis

1986-01-01

461

Assessment of the genotoxicity in toad Bufo raddei exposed to petrochemical contaminants in Lanzhou Region, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single cell gel electrophoresis or comet assay, micronucleus (MN) test and global DNA methylation detection were used to assess the genotoxicity in toad Bufo raddei exposed to the petrochemical (mainly oil and phenol) polluted area in Lanzhou Region (LZR) comparing with a relatively unpolluted area in Liujiaxia Region (LJXR). The results from the present study indicated that DNA damage and

Dejun Huang; Yingmei Zhang; Yejing Wang; Zhuoyi Xie; Weihong Ji

2007-01-01

462

Criticality evaluation of petrochemical equipment based on fuzzy comprehensive evaluation and a BP neural network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Equipment criticality evaluation is an important base for maintenance decision-making to prevent accidents and to optimize maintenance management in Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM), particularly in a new petrochemical plant. In this study, a new model using fuzzy comprehensive evaluation is developed. To do so, this study focuses on the description of fuzzy comprehensive evaluation. In the evaluation, the following are

Lijie Guo; Jinji Gao; Jianfeng Yang; Jianxin Kang

2009-01-01

463

Working conditions, work organization and consequences for health of Brazilian petrochemical workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cross-sectional study carried out in a Brazilian petrochemical plant aimed to examine the working conditions, work organization, and effects caused by combinations of multiple stressors. The workers completed a comprehensive questionnaire and self-assessed their working conditions (general and specific risks), sick leaves, drinking and smoking habits, sleep disturbances, diagnosed diseases, symptoms and complaints, personal availability for use of health

Frida Marina Fischer; Antonio de Castro Bruni; Claudia Roberta de C. Moreno; Adelaide Berwerth; Claudia Riviello; Marta Maria L. Vianna

1998-01-01

464

The Comparison of MBBR and ASP for Treatment on Petrochemical Wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to study the character of a Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor (MBBR) in treating petrochemical wastewater, the authors offer the comparison experiment between MBBR and activated sludge process (ASP) regarding such factors as hydraulic retention time (HRT), organic loading rate, and air flow rate. The optimal condition of MBBR is that air flow rate be equal to 1.25 L\\/min

C.-Y. Cao; Y.-H. Zhao

2012-01-01

465

Characterization of a Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon–Degrading Microbial Consortium from a Petrochemical Sludge Landfarming Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthracene, phenanthrene, and pyrene are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) that display both mutagenic and carcinogenic properties. They are recalcitrant to microbial degradation in soil and water due to their complex molecular structure and low solubility in water. This study presents the characterization of an efficient PAH (anthracene, phenanthrene, and pyrene)-degrading microbial consortium, isolated from a petrochemical sludge landfarming site. Soil

Rodrigo J. S. Jacques; Benedict C. Okeke; Fatima M. Bento; Maria C. R. Peralba; Flávio A. O. Camargo

2007-01-01

466

Evaluation of a wellness program at a large private sector petrochemical company in Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study purpose was to analyze the effects Integrated Health Solutions (IHS), an employee wellness program that has been implemented for one year on the corporate campus of a major private sector petrochemical company in Houston, TX, has on employee health. ^ Chronic diseases are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the United States and are the most

Haley Fox Amick

2012-01-01

467

Petrochemicals from oil, natural gas, coal and biomass: Production costs in 2030–2050  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methane, coal and biomass are being considered as alternatives to crude oil for the production of basic petrochemicals, such as light olefins. This paper is a study on the production costs of 24 process routes utilizing these primary energy sources. A wide range of projected energy prices in 2030–2050 found in the open literature is used. The basis for comparison

Tao Ren; Bert Daniëls; Martin K. Patel; Kornelis Blok

2009-01-01

468

Considerations for Planning a Monitoring Campaign at Petrochemical Complexes: Lessons Learned  

Microsoft Academic Search

An air quality monitoring campaign was developed for the late spring of 2009 near Houston area petrochemical facilities. The focus of the field campaign was to measure free radicals that contribute to the formation of ozone, however refinery and chemical plants monitored are also emitters of many different volatile organic compounds (vocs) and hazardous air pollutants (haps). The Houston area

A. Cuclis

2010-01-01

469

Location and Characterization of VOC Emissions at a Petrochemical Plant in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research aimed to locate and characterize emission sources for airborne volatile organic compounds (VOCs) inside a petrochemical plant in Chiayi, Taiwan. Air was sampled with canisters at 20 sites inside this plant, twice per quarter, and analyzed by gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry following the TO–14 method. Data were interpreted by means of a database and contour maps. Alkanes were most

Ching-Liang Chen; Chi-Min Shu; Hung-Yuan Fang

2006-01-01

470

Source Location and Characterization of Volatile Organic Compound Emissions at a Petrochemical Plant in Kaohsiung, Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper elucidated a novel approach to locating volatile organic compound (VOC) emission sources and characterizing their VOCs by database and contour plotting. The target of this survey was a petrochemical plant in Linyan, Kaohsiung County, Taiwan. Samples were taken with canisters from 25 sites inside this plant, twice per season, and analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The survey covered

Chin-Liang Chen; Hung Yuan Fang; Chi-Min Shu

2005-01-01

471

Ambient volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations around a petrochemical complex and a petroleum refinery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air samples were collected between September 2000 and September 2001 in Izmir, Turkey at three sampling sites located around a petrochemical complex and an oil refinery to measure ambient volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations. VOC concentrations were 4–20-fold higher than those measured at a suburban site in Izmir, Turkey. Ethylene dichloride, a leaded gasoline additive used in petroleum refining and

Eylem Cetin; Mustafa Odabasi; Remzi Seyfioglu

2003-01-01

472

Corporate Governance and the Challenges of Economic Transition: The Case of Shanghai Petrochemical Company  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case study of Shanghai Petrochemical Company (SPC) is used to analyse how economic reforms in China have impacted on corporate governance and enterprise performance. Reforms have increased the level of competition and altered the corporate structure of large state enterprises such as SPC. The case examines how SPC had responded to the opportunities and challenges created by the reform

Damian Tobin

2005-01-01

473

Steam CHPP site level optimal integration into a refinery \\/ petrochemical plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Petrochemical plants generate from their process products that can be burned, and are important consumers of process heat, work and power. This paper purpose a method for better integration of a steam CHPP into plant sites. For efficiency reasons we assume that power will be produced only with backpressure steam turbines. The authors build a methodology for generation, computation and

Victor Eduard Cenu??; Horia Ionu? Petcu; Florin Niculae Alexe

2007-01-01

474

A contribution to the surface analysis and characterisation of HVOF coatings for petrochemical application  

Microsoft Academic Search

The appropriate selection of bulk materials and coatings of valve components is an important factor for the economic success of oil and gas production activities in the petrochemical field. Materials and coatings are important because particle erosion and surface wear are associated to corrosion by hydrogen sulphide during oil and gas flow. The wear of high pressure valves of gas

A Scrivani; S Ianelli