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1

Industry Sector Analysis Mexico: Petrochemicals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Industry Sector Analyses (I.S.A.) for the petrochemical industry contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users, receptivity of Mexican consumers to U.S. products, the competitive situation - Mexican production, t...

1991-01-01

2

Evolution of the petrochemical industry in Singapore  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the historical development of the petrochemical industry in Singapore. While it had its origins in an earlier political economy, the petrochemical industry emerged only during the industrialization of Singapore. In addition, throughout the ensuing post-industrialization process, the enterprise was at the forefront of the endeavours of the state at maintaining a viable manufacturing sector. In its development,

Hing Ai Yun; Lee Kiat Jin

2009-01-01

3

31 CFR 538.210 - Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries. 538... Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries. ...United States persons relating to the petroleum or petrochemical industries in...

2013-07-01

4

Removal of nitrogen from secondary effluent of a petrochemical industrial park by a hybrid biofilm-carrier reactor with one-stage ANAMMOX.  

PubMed

A laboratory study was undertaken to explore the capability of one-stage ANAMMOX in a hybrid biofilm-carrier reactor (HBCR) fed with petrochemical wastewater. Under favorable operating conditions in continuous-flow operations (at the dissolved oxygen level of 0.5-1.0 mg L(-1)), the average total nitrogen (TN) removal efficiency reached 62-67% and approximately 90% of TN can be removed by ANAMMOX. In batch operations of the hybrid biofilm-carrier reactor (without adding carbon substrate), the specific TN removal rate of the reactor in which both Kaldnes and nonwoven carriers were kept was two-fold higher than that of the reactor in which only nonwoven carriers were kept. This indicated that the microbial activity of thinner biofilms (Kaldnes carriers) was remarkably higher than that of thicker biofilms (nonwoven carriers). Finally, based on the 16S rRNA clone library, a cluster of ANAMMOX Candidatus Kuenenia stuttgartiensis was identified. PMID:24960017

Lin, Han-Lin; Tsao, Hsiang-Wei; Huang, Yu-Wen; Wang, Yi-Chuan; Yang, Keng-Hao; Yang, Ya-Fei; Wang, Wei-Chiang; Wen, Chun-Kuei; Chen, Sheng-Kun; Cheng, Sheng-Shung

2014-01-01

5

31 CFR 538.210 - Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries. 538.210 Section...transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries. (a) Except as...persons relating to the petroleum or petrochemical industries in Sudan,...

2010-07-01

6

31 CFR 538.210 - Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries. 538.210 Section...transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries. (a) Except as...persons relating to the petroleum or petrochemical industries in Sudan,...

2009-07-01

7

Economic Analysis of the Petrochemical Industry in Texas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report examines the quantitative values of selected factors in determining the economic impact the petrochemical industry has on the state's economy. Employment and payrolls, sales, value added to manufacture, capital expenditures, and investments are...

N. C. Whitehorn

1973-01-01

8

Competitive Assessment of the U.S. Petrochemical Industry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A major restructuring of the worldwide petrochemical industry has already begun and will gain in momentum over the next two decades. This will occur as the hydrocarbon-rich countries build facilities to utilize their presently wasted (flared) or underutil...

1982-01-01

9

Regional Industry Workforce Development: The Gulf Coast Petrochemical Information Network  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Gulf Coast Petrochemical Information Network (GC-PIN) is a workforce development partnership among industry businesses and area institutions of higher education in the four-county Gulf Coast region. GC-PIN partners develop new industry-specific curricula, foster industry career awareness, and retrain existing employees in new technologies.

Hodgin, Johnette; Muha, Susan

2008-01-01

10

31 CFR 538.536 - Activities relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic of South Sudan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Activities relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic...538.536 Activities relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic...activities and transactions relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries...

2013-07-01

11

Growth and heavy metals accumulation potential of microalgae grown in sewage wastewater and petrochemical effluents.  

PubMed

Microalgae exhibit a number of heavy metal uptake process by different metabolism. In this study, the ability of microalgae for removal of heavy metal from wastewater was studied. Growth and biochemical contents of microalgae were determined by spectrophotometer. Heavy metal analysis of wastewater effluents were performed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer before and after treatment at laboratory scale. The growth of Scenedesmus bijuga and Oscillatoria quadripunctulata in sewage wastewater was higher than those grown in synthetic medium. Whereas, the growth of S. bijuga and O. quadripunctulata in sterilized petrochemical effluents was slightly lower than that grown in the standard synthetic medium. The chlorophyll, carotenoid and protein content of S. bijuga and O. quadripunctulata grown in sterilized sewage wastewater were higher than those grown in the standard medium. Similarly S. bijuga and O. quadripunctulata grown in sterilized petrochemical effluents showed lower contents of pigments and protein than those grown in sewage and synthetic medium. Heavy metals copper, cobalt, lead and zinc were removed by 37-50, 20.3-33.3, 34.6-100 and 32.1-100%, respectively from sewage wastewater and petrochemical effluent using Ocillatoria culture. The metal absorption by S. bijuga were (Cu, Co, Pb, Zn) 60-50, 29.6-66, 15.4-25 and 42.9-50%, respectively from sewage and petrochemical effluents. Both species showed high level of heavy metal removal efficiency and metal sorption efficiency of both microalgae depended on the type of biosorbent, the physiological status of the cells, availability of heavy metal, concentration of heavy metal and chemical composition of wastewater. PMID:22545355

Ajayan, K V; Selvaraju, M; Thirugnanamoorthy, K

2011-08-15

12

Reuse of waste catalysts from petrochemical industries for cement substitution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zeolite catalysts have been widely used in oil refinery and petrochemical industries. Two types of waste catalysts, equilibrium catalyst (Ecat), and electrostatic precipitator catalyst (EPcat), can be obtained after fluid catalytic cracking. This study analyzes the properties of these waste catalysts and examines the feasibility of reusing them to substitute part of the cement required in mortar preparation. These waste

Nan Su; Hung-Yuan Fang; Zong-Huei Chen; Fu-Shung Liu

2000-01-01

13

Application of membrane separation processes in petrochemical industry: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a general review on different membrane processes and membrane reactors was done. As the main aim of this paper is to review the application of membrane processes in petrochemical industry, processes such as olefin\\/paraffin separation, light solvent separation, solvent dewaxing, phenol and aromatic recovery, dehydrogenation, oxidative coupling of methane and steam reforming of methane were discussed in

Maryam Takht Ravanchi; Tahereh Kaghazchi; Ali Kargari

2009-01-01

14

Structural decomposition of CO 2 emissions from Taiwan's petrochemical industries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an alternative use of input–output structural decomposition analysis to identify the key factors that affected CO2 emission changes of Taiwan's petrochemical industries during 1984–1994. Changes in CO2 emission are decomposed into eight factors by integrating index decomposition analysis, input–output theory, and structure decomposition approach (SDA). The empirical results show the relative contribution of each factor on industrial

Cheng F. Lee; Sue J. Lin

2001-01-01

15

A demonstration of biofiltration for VOC removal in petrochemical industries.  

PubMed

A biotrickling filter demo has been set up in a petrochemical factory in Sinopec Group for about 10 months with a maximum inlet gas flow rate of 3000 m(3) h(-1). The purpose of this project is to assess the ability of the biotrickling filter to remove hardly biodegradable VOCs such as benzene, toluene and xylene which are recalcitrant and poorly water soluble and commonly found in petrochemical factories. Light-weight hollow ceramic balls (? 5-8 cm) were used as the packing media treated with large amounts of circulating water (2.4 m(3) m(-2) h(-1)) added with bacterial species. The controlled empty bed retention time (EBRT) of 240 s is a key parameter for reaching a removal efficiency of 95% for benzene, toluene, xylene, and 90% for total hydrocarbons. The demo has been successfully adopted and practically applied in waste air treatments in many petrochemical industries for about two years. The net inlet concentrations of benzene, toluene and xylene were varied from 0.5 to 3 g m(-3). The biofiltration process is highly efficient for the removal of hydrophobic and recalcitrant VOCs with various concentrations from the petrochemical factories. The SEM analysis of the bacterial community in the BTF during VOC removal showed that Pseudomonas putida and Klebsiella sp. phylum were dominant and shutdown periods could play a role in forming the community structural differences and leading to the changes of removal efficiencies. PMID:24569855

Zhao, Lan; Huang, Shaobin; Wei, Zongmin

2014-04-22

16

Symposium on Industrial Effluent: Control and Treatment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains a collection of papers on 'Industrial effluents: Control and Treatment,' symposium held at Pretoria, South Africa, November 23, 1981. The principal industrial effluents and control techniques described are from the steel, textile, meta...

S. N. van Biljon F. V. K. von Reiche J. J. Schoeman G. R. Botha R. J. L. C. Drews

1981-01-01

17

Treatment of industrial effluent water  

SciTech Connect

This article reports on a thematic exhibition on ''New Developments in Treatment of Natural and Effluent Water'' in the Sanitary-Technical Construction Section at the Exhibition of Achievements of the National Economy of the USSR. The exhibition acquainted visitors with the achievements of leading organizations in different branches of industry with respect to treatment of natural and industrial effluent water. The Kharkov ''Vodkanalproekt'' Institute and the Kharkov affiliate of the All-Union Scientific-Research Institute of Water and Geodesy has jointly developed a ''Polymer-25'' filter for removal of oil products from nonexplosive effluent water discharged by machine building plants. A Baku affiliate has developed a new ShFP-1 screw-type press filter for dewatering the sediments from water treatment plants as well as for sediments from chemical, food, and other types of plants. The State Institute for Applied Chemistry has designed a continuous process plant for treating effluent water and removing toxic organic waste by converting them into mineral salts with high efficiency.

Levitskii, Yu.N.

1982-09-01

18

Novel technology for flame and gas detection in the petrochemical industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reliable and high performance novel method of flame and gas optical spectral analysis was developed to meet the specific flame and gas detection of the petrochemical industry. Petrochemical industries, especially the offshore and unmanned areas in onshore refineries, pose a major safety hazard with respect to potential explosions and fire events. Unwanted fuel spills or fugitive flammable vapor clouds,

Yechiel Spector; Esther Jacobson

1999-01-01

19

Chemometric analysis of ecological toxicants in petrochemical and industrial environments.  

PubMed

The application of chemometrics in the assessment of toxicants, such as heavy metals (HMs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) potentially derived from petrochemical activities in the microenvironment, is vital in providing safeguards for human health of children and adults residing around petrochemical industrial regions. Several multivariate statistical methods are used in geosciences and environmental protection studies to classify, identify and group prevalent pollutants with regard to exhibited trends. Chemometrics can be applied for toxicant source identification, estimation of contaminants contributions to the toxicity of sites of interest, the assessment of the integral risk index of an area and provision of mitigating measures that limit or eliminate the contaminants identified. In this study, the principal component analysis (PCA) was used for dimensionality reduction of both organic and inorganic substances data in the environment, which are potentially hazardous. The high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs correlated positively with stronger impact on the model than the lower molecular weight (LMW) PAHs, the total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs), PAHs and BTEX correlate positively in the F1 vs F2 plot indicating similar source contributions of these pollutants in the environmental material. Cu, Cr, Cd, Fe, Zn and Pb all show positive correlation in the same space indicating similar source of contamination. Analytical processes involving environmental assessment data obtained in the Niger Delta area of Nigeria, confirmed the usefulness of chemometrics for comprehensive ecological evaluation. PMID:25048896

Olawoyin, Richard; Heidrich, Brenden; Oyewole, Samuel; Okareh, Oladapo T; McGlothlin, Charles W

2014-10-01

20

Cyanobacterial Flora from Polluted Industrial Effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effluents originating from pesticides, agro-chemicals, textile dyes and dyestuffs industries are always associated with high\\u000a turbidity, colour, nutrient load, and heavy metals, toxic and persistent compounds. But even with such an anthropogenic nature,\\u000a these effluents contain dynamic cyanobacterial communities. Documentation of cyanobacterial cultures along the water channels\\u000a of effluents discharged by above mentioned industries along the west coast of India

Amit Parikh; Vishal Shah; Datta Madamwar

2006-01-01

21

Industrial effluent quality, pollution monitoring and environmental management.  

PubMed

Royal Commission Environmental Control Department (RC-ECD) at Yanbu industrial city in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has established a well-defined monitoring program to control the pollution from industrial effluents. The quality of effluent from each facility is monitored round the clock. Different strategic measures have been taken by the RC-ECD to implement the zero discharge policy of RC. Industries are required to pre-treat the effluent to conform pretreatment standards before discharging to central biological treatment plant. Industries are not allowed to discharge any treated or untreated effluent in open channels. After treatment, reclaimed water must have to comply with direct discharge standards before discharge to the sea. Data of industrial wastewater collected from five major industries and central industrial wastewater treatment plant (IWTP) is summarized in this report. During 5-year period, 3,705 samples were collected and analyzed for 43,436 parameters. There were 1,377 violations from pretreatment standards from all the industries. Overall violation percentage was 3.17%. Maximum violations were recorded from one of the petrochemical plants. The results show no significant pollution due to heavy metals. Almost all heavy metals were within RC pretreatment standards. High COD and TOC indicates that major pollution was due to hydrocarbons. Typical compounds identified by GC-MS were branched alkanes, branched alkenes, aliphatic ketones, substituted thiophenes, substituted phenols, aromatics and aromatic alcohols. Quality of treated water was also in compliance with RC direct discharge standards. In order to achieve the zero discharge goal, further studies and measures are in progress. PMID:18228156

Ahmad, Maqbool; Bajahlan, Ahmad S; Hammad, Waleed S

2008-12-01

22

Quality of effluents from Hattar Industrial Estate  

PubMed Central

Of 6634 registered industries in Pakistan, 1228 are considered to be highly polluting. The major industries include textile, pharmaceutical, chemicals (organic and inorganic), food industries, ceramics, steel, oil mills and leather tanning which spread all over four provinces, with the larger number located in Sindh and Punjab, with smaller number in North Western Frontier Province (NWFP) and Baluchistan. Hattar Industrial Estate extending over 700 acres located in Haripur district of NWFP is a new industrial estate, which has been developed with proper planning for management of industrial effluents. The major industries located in Hattar are ghee industry, chemical (sulfuric acid, synthetic fiber) industry, textile industry and pharmaceuticals industry. These industries, although developed with proper planning are discharging their effluents in the nearby natural drains and ultimately collected in a big drain near Wah. The farmers in the vicinity are using these effluents for growing vegetables and cereal crops due to shortage of water. In view of this discussion, there is a dire need to determine if these effluents are hazardous for soil and plant growth. So, effluents from different industries, sewage and normal tap water samples were collected and analysed for pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total soluble salts (TSS), biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen, cations and anions and heavy metals. The effluents of ghee and textile industries are highly alkaline. EC and TSS loads of ghee and textile industries are also above the National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS), Pakistan. All the effluents had residual sodium carbonates (RSCs), carbonates and bicarbonates in amounts that cannot be used for irrigation. Total toxic metals load in all the effluents is also above the limit i.e. 2.0 mg/L. Copper in effluents of textile and sewage, manganese in ghee industry effluents and iron contents in all the effluents were higher than NEQS. BOD and COD values of all the industries are also above the NEQS. On the whole, these effluents cannot be used for irrigation without proper treatment otherwise that may cause toxicity to soil, plants and animals as well add to the problems of salinity and sododicity. Similarly, these effluents cannot be used for fish farming.

Sial, R.A.; Chaudhary, M.F.; Abbas, S.T.; Latif, M.I.; Khan, A.G.

2006-01-01

23

Sulfide removal in wastewater from petrochemical industries by autotrophic denitrification  

Microsoft Academic Search

An alternative flowchart for the biological removal of hydrogen sulfide from oil-refining wastewater is presented; autotrophic denitrification in a multi-stage treatment plant was utilized. A pilot-scale plant was fed with a mixture of the following constituents: (a) original wastewater from an oil refining industry (b), the effluent of the existing nitrification-stage treatment plant and (c) sulfide in the form of

Eleni Vaiopoulou; Paris Melidis; Alexander Aivasidis

2005-01-01

24

Survey reports on atmospheric emissions from the petrochemical industry. Volume IV. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document is one of a series of four volumes prepared for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to assist it in determining the significance of air pollution from the petrochemical industry. A total of 33 distinctly different processes which are used to produce 27 petrochemicals have been surveyed. This volume covers the following processes: Polypropylene, Polystyrene, Polyvinyl Chloride, Styrene, Styrene-Butadiene

J. W. Pervier; R. C. Barley; D. E. Field; B. M. Friedman; R. B. Morris

1974-01-01

25

Survey reports on atmospheric emissions from the petrochemical industry. Volume IV. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air pollution by the petrochemical industry was studied to provide data that can be used in the fulfillment of Environmental Protection Agency obligations under the terms of the Clean Air Amendments of 1970. The petrochemicals included are classified as large production, high growth rate, or significant air pollutants. A total of 33 distinctly different processes which are used to produce

J. W. Pervier; R. C. Barley; D. E. Field; B. M. Friedman; R. B. Morris; W. A. Schwartz

1974-01-01

26

NPRA meeting checks the pulse of the petrochemical industry  

SciTech Connect

The Globalization of Petrochemicals was the rather hackneyed theme of last week`s National Petroleum Refiners Association (NPRA) international petrochemical conference in San Antonio. But though petrochemicals may be taking on a more global character, the mood of delegates from different parts of the world was sharply different. There was a perceptible feeling of confidence among US delegates, that the current beginnings of an uptick in the economy will bolster the petrochemical business. Producers report that volumes are up during the first quarter and inventories are tightening, providing the backdrop for price initiatives during the second quarter that might this time have a chance of sticking.

Hunter, D.; Young, I.; Wood, A.

1992-04-08

27

Carbon Dioxide Separation Technology: R and D Need for the Chemical and Petrochemical Industries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A Chemical Industry Vision 2020 sub-committee was established in June 2004 and chartered with the responsibility of identifying research and development needs for separation technology to drive equilibrium processes for the Chemical and Petrochemical Indu...

A. D. Ebner J. A. Ritter

2008-01-01

28

Technology transfer to Saudi Arabia petrochemical industry experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saudi Arabia sought transferring petrochemical technology. The transfer aims to reduce the country's dependence on oil and to utilize national resources more efficiently. To investigate the factors affecting the transfer, conditions related to the technology in question and the receiving entity are analyzed. Multinational corporations play a major role in the transfer process. The research shows that joint venture transfers

A. A. K

1987-01-01

29

Metal pollution of soils and vegetation in an area with petrochemical industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), and vanadium (V) in soil and chard samples collected in various industrial sites of Tarragona County (Spain), an area with an important number of petrochemical industries. Samples were also collected in urban (Tarragona downtown) and presumably unpolluted

M Nadal; M Schuhmacher; J. L Domingo

2004-01-01

30

Advanced treatment of refractory organic pollutants in petrochemical industrial wastewater by bioactive enhanced ponds and wetland system.  

PubMed

A large-scale combined ponds-wetland system was applied for advanced treatment of refractory pollutants in petrochemical industrial wastewater. The system was designed to enhance bioactivity and biological diversity, which consisted of anaerobic ponds (APs), facultative ponds (FPs), aerobic pond and wetland. The refractory pollutants in the petrochemical wastewater to be treated were identified as alkanes, chloroalkanes, aromatic hydrocarbons, and olefins, which were significantly degraded and transformed along with the influent flowing through the enhanced bioactive ponds-wetland system. 8 years of recent operational data revealed that the average removal rate of stable chemical oxygen demand (COD) was 42.7 % and that influent COD varied from 92.3 to 195.6 mg/L. Final effluent COD could reach 65.8 mg/L (average). COD removal rates were high in the APs and FPs and accounted for 75 % of the total amount removed. This result indicated that the APs and FPs degraded refractory pollutants through the facilitation of bacteria growth. The changes in the community structures of major microbes were assessed by 16SrDNA-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. The same analysis was used to identify the main bacterial function for the removal of refractory pollutants in the APs and FPs. The APs and FPs displayed similar microbial diversities, and some of the identified bacteria degraded and removed refractory pollutants. The overall results proved the applicability, stability, and high efficiency of the ponds-wetland system with enhanced bioactivity in the advanced removal of refractory pollutants from petrochemical industrial wastewater. PMID:24578265

Liu, Shuo; Ma, Qiusha; Wang, Baozhen; Wang, Jifu; Zhang, Ying

2014-05-01

31

The influence of different substrate pH values on the performance of a downflow anaerobic fixed bed reactor treating a petrochemical effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Neutralizing requirements for the anaerobic treatment of an acidic petrochemical effluent in a downflow anaerobic fixed bed reactor were examined. Neutralization (pH 6.0 with NaOH) of the effluent prior to digestion resulted in a Na+ concentration of over 3 g\\/l which was detrimental. Decreasing the Na+ concentration and subsequent replacement of NaOH by a mixture of Ca(OH)2, NaOH and

L. H. Nel; T. J. Britz

1986-01-01

32

Managing workplace safety and health: The case of contract labor in the U. S. petrochemical industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study is to examine the safety and health issues relating to the use of contract labor in the U.S. petrochemical industry. The study was commissioned by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) following the October 23, 1989, explosion and fire at the Phillips 66 Houston Chemical Complex in Pasadena, TX. The explosion killed 23 workers

J. C. Wells; T. A. Kochan; M. Smith

1991-01-01

33

TREATMENT OF PETROLEUM REFINERY, PETROCHEMICAL AND COMBINED INDUSTRIAL-MUNICIPAL WASTEWATERS WITH ACTIVATED CARBON - LITERATURE REVIEW  

EPA Science Inventory

A review of the literature on activated carbon adsorption as a treatment concept for petroleum refinery, petrochemical plant, and combined industrial-municipal wastewaters is presented in this report. A total of 241 references are cited. These references cover the various aspects...

34

A multiobjective optimization model for the waste management of the petrochemical industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multiobjective optimization model based on the goal programming approach is proposed in this paper to assist in the proper management of hazardous waste generated by the petrochemical industry. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP), a decision-making approach, incorporating qualitative and quantitative aspects of a problem, is incorporated in the model to prioritize the conflicting goals usually encountered when addressing the

Abdulaziz S. Alidi

1996-01-01

35

Survey Reports on Atmospheric Emissions from the Petrochemical Industry. Volume IV.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document is one of a series of four volumes prepared for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to assist it in determining the significance of air pollution from the petrochemical industry. A total of 33 distinctly different processes which are u...

B. M. Friedman D. E. Field J. W. Pervier R. B. Morris R. C. Barley

1974-01-01

36

Mutagenic activity of airborne particulate matter in a petrochemical industrial area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure to airborne particulate matter has adverse effects on human health and ecosystem. Mutagenic activity of airborne particulate organic matter extracts in three time periods from total suspended particles (TSP) and particles less than 10?m (PM10) was evaluated in an area under the influence of a petrochemical industry located in the town of Triunfo, Brazil. The extracts were investigated using

Mariana Vieira Coronas; Rubem Cesar Horn; Adriana Ducatti; Jocelita Vaz Rocha; Vera Maria Ferrão Vargas

2008-01-01

37

Perceived demands and musculoskeletal symptoms among employees of an Iranian petrochemical industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a part of a comprehensive ergonomics program, this study was conducted among employees of an Iranian petrochemical industry to determine the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms and to examine the relationship between perceived demands and reported symptoms. In this cross-sectional study, 928 randomly selected employees, corresponding to nearly 40% of all employees participated. Nordic Musculoskeletal Disorder Questionnaire and Job Content

Alireza Choobineh; Gholamreza Peyvandi Sani; Mohsen Sharif Rohani; Mohammad Gangi Pour; Masoud Neghab

2009-01-01

38

The effect of petrochemical effluent on the water quality of Ubeji Creek in Niger Delta of Nigeria.  

PubMed

Water samples containing petrochemical effluents were evaluated for elemental contaminants along a kilometer distance in Ubeji Creek, a tributary of the Ubeji River in the Niger Delta of Nigeria. Twenty water samples were collected from six sites at various times. The water samples were analyzed for several physico-chemical parameters. Results showed wide varieties in temperature, pH, BOD, COD, dissolved and suspended solids as well as conductivity. The entire environment starting from the end-of-pipe source point was coated with black oily residue. Water quality parameters were very poor. The absence of fish and other aquatic lives, the high levels of Zn (2.4), Cr (0.24), Fe (63.44), Hg (4.24), Mn (2.49), and Pb (0.76) level (microg/L) confirm the toxic nature of Ubeji Creek. At the lower reaches, the mixing of effluent with brackish waters was not enough to support aquatic life, partly because of diminishing oxygen and toxic shock. Nevertheless, the study provides evidence to suggest that the water in Ubeji Creek is toxic. It also provides graphic data to suggest point source where effluents could be held for treatment or neutralization before being discharged into the aquatic environment. PMID:19448963

Achudume, A C

2009-09-01

39

Effect of petrochemical industrial emissions of reactive alkenes and NOx on tropospheric ozone formation in Houston, Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Petrochemical industrial facilities can emit large amounts of highly reactive hydrocarbons and NOx to the atmosphere; in the summertime, such colocated emissions are shown to consistently result in rapid and efficient ozone (O3) formation downwind. Airborne measurements show initial hydrocarbon reactivity in petrochemical source plumes in the Houston, TX, metropolitan area is primarily due to routine emissions of the alkenes

T. B. Ryerson; W. M. Angevine; C. A. Brock; R. W. Dissly; F. C. Fehsenfeld; G. J. Frost; P. D. Goldan; J. S. Holloway; G. Hübler; R. O. Jakoubek; W. C. Kuster; J. A. Neuman; D. K. Nicks; D. D. Parrish; J. M. Roberts; D. T. Sueper; E. L. Atlas; S. G. Donnelly; F. Flocke; A. Fried; W. T. Potter; S. Schauffler; V. Stroud; A. J. Weinheimer; B. P. Wert; C. Wiedinmyer; R. J. Alvarez; R. M. Banta; L. S. Darby; C. J. Senff

2003-01-01

40

Oil Refineries and Petrochemical Industries: Coping With The Mid-Life Crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The present chapter will give a succinct description of the postwar development of two basic industries: oil refining and\\u000a the closely related heavy-petrochemicals in case: ethylene. The discussion and the data for both industries refer to Western\\u000a Europe (all OECD member countries minus Turkey). The European Community constitutes a large part of this zone. European integration\\u000a as it has taken

Willem Molle

41

A survey of faults on induction motors in offshore oil industry, petrochemical industry, gas terminals, and oil refineries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents a survey of the reliability of squirrel cage motors on board drilling, production, and other platforms offshore, together with cage motors in the petrochemical industry, gas terminals, and refineries onshore. Most of the activity in this connection is related to The North Sea that offers a tough environment for motors. The collected data have been treated statistically,

Olav Vaag Thorsen; Magnus Dalva

1995-01-01

42

A survey of faults on induction motors in offshore oil industry, petrochemical industry, gas terminals and oil refineries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report presents a survey of the reliability of squirrel cage motors on board drilling, production and other platforms offshore, together with cage motors in the petrochemical industry, gas terminals and refineries onshore. Most of the activity in this connection is related to the North Sea that offers a tough environment for motors. The collected data have been treated statistically,

O. V. Thorsen; M. Dalva

1994-01-01

43

Large scale phycoremediation of acidic effluent from an alginate industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study deals with the successful commissioning of a phycoremediation plant to treat the acidic effluent from an alginate industry. The liquid effluent is highly acidic. Conventionally, sodium hydroxide has been used for the neutralization of the acidic effluent which results in an increase in total dissolved solids and the generation of solid waste. The study was conducted in

V. Sivasubramanian; V. V. Subramanian; B. G. Raghavan; R. Ranjithkumar

2009-01-01

44

Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in petrochemical industries by measurement of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological monitoring of exposure of workers to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in petrochemical industries was performed by the measurement of urinary excretion of 1-hydroxypyrene. In 121 of the 462 workers studied (both smokers and non-smokers) who had had no recent occupational exposure to PAHs a median 1-hydroxypyrene concentration of 0.21 micrograms\\/g creatinine was found. The upper limit of the 95%

P J Boogaard; N J van Sittert

1994-01-01

45

Overnight atmospheric transport and chemical processing of photochemically aged Houston urban and petrochemical industrial plume  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overnight atmospheric transport and chemical evolution of photochemically aged Houston urban and petrochemical industrial plume were investigated in July 2005. We report here on the 26 July episode in which the aged plume was tagged 1.5 h before sunset with a pair of free-floating controlled meteorological balloons, which guided quasi-Lagrangian aircraft sampling in the plume as it was advected 300

Rahul A. Zaveri; Paul B. Voss; Carl M. Berkowitz; Edward Fortner; Jun Zheng; Renyi Zhang; Ralph J. Valente; Roger L. Tanner; Daniel Holcomb; Thomas P. Hartley; Leslie Baran

2010-01-01

46

New petrochemical compositions for use in the coal industry  

SciTech Connect

Various aspects of the use of antifreezing agents in the coal industry are considered. It has been found that, unlike previously proposed compositions, these agents can be prepared based on the products of a single process, the vacuum distillation of fuel oil.

D.O. Safieva; E.V. Surov; O.G. Safiev [Institute for Fossil Fuels, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2008-12-15

47

Exchange rates and market power: evidence from the petrochemical industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper takes a microeconometric approach to the study of exchange rate pass-through in imperfectly competitive markets. We provide evidence for the hypothesis that incomplete exchange rate pass-through can be attributed to non-competitive conduct by foreign firms. A unique feature of our approach is the use of highly disaggregated industry data which is compatible with the behavioral assumptions of a

Daniel M. Bernhofen; Peng Xu

2000-01-01

48

[Evolution of technology and occupational exposures in petrochemical industry and in petroleum refining].  

PubMed

The industry of oil refining and petrochemical play an important role in terms of number of employees in the Italian production. Often the terms "petroleum refining" and "petrochemical" are used interchangeably to define processes that occur in complex plants, which grow outdoors on large surfaces and a visual impact is not irrelevant. In reality, the two areas involve potential exposure to different chemical agents, related to raw materials processed and the specific products. The petrochemical uses as raw materials, the oil fractions, obtained by distillation in the refinery, or natural gas; petrochemical products are, usually, single compounds with a specific degree of purity, used as basic raw materials for the entire industry of organic chemistry, from the production of plastics to pharmaceuticals. The oil refining, that is the topic of this paper, processes mainly oil to obtain mixtures of hydrocarbon compounds, the products of which are specified on the basis of aptitude for use. For example gasolines, are obtained by mixing of fractions of the first distillation, reforming products, antiknock. The paper illustrates, necessarily broadly due to the complexity of the productive sectors, the technological and organizational changes that have led to a significant reduction of occupational exposure to chemical agents, the results of environmental monitoring carried out in some refineries both during routine conditions that during scheduled maintenance activities with plant shutdown and a store of petroleum products. The chemical agents measured are typical for presence, physico-chemical properties and toxicological characteristics of the manufacturing processes of petroleum products like benzene, toluene, xylenes, ethyl benzene, n-hexane, Volatile Hydrocarbons belonging to gasoline, kerosene, diesel fuel. Data related to both personal sampling and fixed positions. PMID:24303703

Cottica, Danilo; Grignani, Elena

2013-01-01

49

Anaerobic digestion Of a Petrochemical Wastewater using the UASB process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic digestion of effluent from a petrochemical plant producing terephthalic acid has been tested using two Upflow Anaerobic\\u000a Sludge Blanket (USAB) reactors. The reactors were seeded with two different inocula: one from an anaerobic stabilization pond\\u000a receiving wasted sludge from the aerobic treatment plant of the petrochemical industry (reactor A); the other was an anaerobically\\u000a adapted activated sludge from a

J. P. Guyot; H. Macarie; A. Noyola

1990-01-01

50

Hydrocarbon Source Signatures in Houston, Texas: Influence of the Petrochemical Industry  

SciTech Connect

Observations of C1-C10 hydrocarbon mixing ratios measured by in-situ instrumentation at the La Porte super site during the TexAQS 2000 field experiment are reported. The La Porte data were compared to a roadway vehicle exhaust signature obtained from canister samples collected in the Houston Washburn tunnel during the same summer to better understand the impact of petrochemical emissions of hydrocarbons at the site. It is shown that the abundance of ethene, propene, 1-butene, C2-C4 alkanes, hexane, cyclohexane, methylcyclohexane, isopropylbenzene, and styrene at La Porte were systematically impacted by petrochemical industry emissions. Coherent power law relationships between frequency distribution widths of hydrocarbon mixing ratios and their local lifetimes clearly identify two major source groups, roadway vehicle emissions and industrial emissions. Distributions of most aromatics and long chain alkanes were consistent with roadway vehicle emissions as the dominant source. Airmass reactivity was generally dominated by C1-C3 aldehydes. Propene and ethene sometimes dominated air mass reactivity with HO loss frequencies often greater than 10 s-1. Ozone mixing ratios near 200 ppbv were observed on two separate occasions and these air masses appear to have been impacted by industrial emissions of alkenes from the Houston Ship Channel. The La Porte data provide evidence of the importance of industrial emissions of ethene and propene on air masses reactivity and ozone formation in Houston.

Jobson, B Tom T.; Berkowitz, Carl M.; Kuster, W. C.; Goldan, P. D.; Williams, E. J.; Fesenfeld, F.; Apel, Eric; Karl, Thomas G.; Lonneman, William A.; Riemer, D.

2004-12-22

51

Hydrocarbon source signatures in Houston, Texas: Influence of the petrochemical industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations of C1-C10 hydrocarbon mixing ratios measured by in situ instrumentation at the La Porte super site during the TexAQS 2000 field experiment are reported. The La Porte data were compared to a roadway vehicle exhaust signature obtained from canister samples collected in the Houston Washburn tunnel during the same summer to better understand the impact of petrochemical emissions of hydrocarbons at the site. It is shown that the abundance of ethene, propene, 1-butene, C2-C4 alkanes, hexane, cyclohexane, methylcyclohexane, isopropylbenzene, and styrene at La Porte were systematically affected by petrochemical industry emissions. Coherent power law relationships between frequency distribution widths of hydrocarbon mixing ratios and their local lifetimes clearly identify two major source groups, roadway vehicle emissions and industrial emissions. Distributions of most aromatics and long chain alkanes were consistent with roadway vehicle emissions as the dominant source. Air mass reactivity was generally dominated by C1-C3 aldehydes. Propene and ethene sometimes dominated air mass reactivity with HO loss frequencies often greater than 10 s-1. Ozone mixing ratios near 200 ppbv were observed on two separate occasions, and these air masses appear to have been affected by industrial emissions of alkenes from the Houston Ship Channel. The La Porte data provide evidence of the importance of industrial emissions of ethene and propene on air mass reactivity and ozone formation in Houston.

Jobson, B. T.; Berkowitz, C. M.; Kuster, W. C.; Goldan, P. D.; Williams, E. J.; Fesenfeld, F. C.; Apel, E. C.; Karl, T.; Lonneman, W. A.; Riemer, D.

2004-12-01

52

Statistical analysis of incidents reported in the Greek Petrochemical Industry for the period 1997-2003.  

PubMed

This paper makes an analysis of all reported accidents and incidents in the Greek Petrochemical Industry for the period spanning from 1997 to 2003. The work performed is related to the analysis of important parameters of the incidents, their inclusion in a database adequately designed for the purposes of this analysis and an importance assessment of this reporting scheme. Indeed, various stakeholders have highlighted the importance of a reporting system for industrial accidents and incidents. The European Union has established for this purpose the Major Accident Reporting System (MARS) for the reporting of major accidents in the Member States. However, major accidents are not the only measure that can characterize the safety status of an establishment; neither are the former the only events from which important lessons can be learned. Near misses, industrial incidents without major consequences, as well as occupational accidents could equally supply with important findings the interested analyst, while statistical analysis of these incidents could give significant insight in the understanding and the prevention of similar incidents or major accidents in the future. This analysis could be more significant, if each industrial sector was separately analyzed, as the authors do for the petrochemical sector in the present article. PMID:16386364

Konstandinidou, Myrto; Nivolianitou, Zoe; Markatos, Nikolaos; Kiranoudis, Chris

2006-07-31

53

Oxidative stress and anti-oxidative defense in schoolchildren residing in a petrochemical industry environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To evaluate the possible relationship between industrial air pollution and oxidative stress in schoolchildren by comparing\\u000a parameters from children residing in two nearby localities with contrasting environmental conditions.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Participants  42 schoolchildren (12–15 years) from Pancevo (site of Serbia’s largest petrochemical installation) formed the exposed group.\\u000a 82 schoolchildren from Kovacica village, located 30 km north of Pancevo, formed the non-exposed group.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Oxidative

A. Vujovic; J. Kotur-Stevuljevic; D. Kornic; S. Spasic; V. Spasojevic-Kalimanovska; N. Bogavac-Stanojevic; A. Stefanovic; M. Deanovic; S. Babka; B. Aleksic; Z. Jelic-Ivanovic

2010-01-01

54

Annoyance and Worry in a Petrochemical Industrial Area--Prevalence, Time Trends and Risk Indicators  

PubMed Central

In 1992, 1998, and 2006, questionnaires were sent to stratified samples of residents aged 18–75 years living near petrochemical industries (n = 600–800 people on each occasion) and in a control area (n = 200–1,000). The aims were to estimate the long-term prevalence and change over time of annoyance caused by industrial odour, industrial noise, and worries about possible health effects, and to identify risk indicators. In 2006, 20% were annoyed by industrial odour, 27% by industrial noise (1–4% in the control area), and 40–50% were worried about health effects or industrial accidents (10–20% in the control area). Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed significantly lower prevalence of odour annoyance in 1998 and 2006 than in 1992, while industrial noise annoyance increased significantly over time. The prevalence of worry remained constant. Risk of odour annoyance increased with female sex, worry of health effects, annoyance by motor vehicle exhausts and industrial noise. Industrial noise annoyance was associated with traffic noise annoyance and worry of health effects of traffic. Health-risk worry due to industrial air pollution was associated with female sex, having children, annoyance due to dust/soot in the air, and worry of traffic air pollution.

Axelsson, Gosta; Stockfelt, Leo; Andersson, Eva; Gidlof-Gunnarsson, Anita; Sallsten, Gerd; Barregard, Lars

2013-01-01

55

Annoyance and worry in a petrochemical industrial area--prevalence, time trends and risk indicators.  

PubMed

In 1992, 1998, and 2006, questionnaires were sent to stratified samples of residents aged 18-75 years living near petrochemical industries (n = 600-800 people on each occasion) and in a control area (n = 200-1,000). The aims were to estimate the long-term prevalence and change over time of annoyance caused by industrial odour, industrial noise, and worries about possible health effects, and to identify risk indicators. In 2006, 20% were annoyed by industrial odour, 27% by industrial noise (1-4% in the control area), and 40-50% were worried about health effects or industrial accidents (10-20% in the control area). Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed significantly lower prevalence of odour annoyance in 1998 and 2006 than in 1992, while industrial noise annoyance increased significantly over time. The prevalence of worry remained constant. Risk of odour annoyance increased with female sex, worry of health effects, annoyance by motor vehicle exhausts and industrial noise. Industrial noise annoyance was associated with traffic noise annoyance and worry of health effects of traffic. Health-risk worry due to industrial air pollution was associated with female sex, having children, annoyance due to dust/soot in the air, and worry of traffic air pollution. PMID:23552810

Axelsson, Gösta; Stockfelt, Leo; Andersson, Eva; Gidlof-Gunnarsson, Anita; Sallsten, Gerd; Barregard, Lars

2013-04-01

56

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in industrial and municipal effluents: concentrations, congener profiles, and partitioning onto particulates and organic carbon.  

PubMed

Wastewater effluent samples were collected in the summer of 2009 from 16 different locations which included municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants and petrochemical industrial outfalls in the Houston area. The effluent samples were analyzed for all 209 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) congeners using high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) using the USEPA method 1668A. The total PCBs (?209) concentration in the dissolved medium ranged from 1.01 to 8.12 ng/L and ranged from 2.03 to 31.2 ng/L in the suspended medium. Lighter PCB congeners exhibited highest concentrations in the dissolved phase whereas, in the suspended phase, heavier PCBs exhibited the highest concentrations. The PCB homolog concentrations were dominated by monochlorobiphenyls through hexachlorobiphenyls, with dichlorobiphenyls exhibiting the highest concentration amongst them at most of the effluent outfalls, in the suspended phase. Both total suspended solids (TSS) and various organic carbon fractions played an important role in the distribution of the suspended fractions of PCBs in the effluents. The log Koc values determined in the effluents suggest that effluent PCB loads might have more risk and impact than what standard partitioning models predict. PMID:24412916

Balasubramani, Aparna; Howell, Nathan L; Rifai, Hanadi S

2014-03-01

57

Novel technology for flame and gas detection in the petrochemical industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A reliable and high performance novel method of flame and gas optical spectral analysis was developed to meet the specific flame and gas detection of the petrochemical industry. Petrochemical industries, especially the offshore and unmanned areas in onshore refineries, pose a major safety hazard with respect to potential explosions and fire events. Unwanted fuel spills or fugitive flammable vapor clouds, migrating along congested pipe lines and hot production areas may cause upon ignition significant loss or damage. To help prevents events like the catastrophic fire that destroyed the offshore oil platform Piper Alpha in July 1988, a reliable and fast gas and flame detection system can be used to trigger effective risk management actions. The present paper describes a patented method of Triple Optical Spectral Analysis employed for the detection of various gases in the air according to their unique 'spectral finger print' absorption characteristics of radiation, as well as for analysis of emission and absorption radiation from combustion processes for flame detection purpose. The method has been applied in the development of unique gas and flame monitoring system designed for 'high risk - harsh/extreme weather conditions continuous operation'. These systems have been recently installed on several offshore platforms and oil rigs as well as on 'floating production Storage and Offloading' - FPSO vessels. The systems advantages and limitations as well as several installations and test data are presented. Various atmospheric conditions as well as false alarm stimulus are discussed.

Spector, Yechiel; Jacobson, Esther

1999-01-01

58

Aqueous Odor Thresholds of Organic Pollutants in Industrial Effluents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The investigation was designed to determine the odor thresholds in water of organic pollutants that have been identified in industrial effluents. Seven to fourteen judges were used to determine the odor threshold values of 13 compounds at room temperature...

D. A. Lillard J. J. Powers

1975-01-01

59

Managing Workplace Safety and Health: The Case of Contract Labor in the U.S. Petrochemical Industry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the study is to examine the safety and health issues relating to the use of contract labor in the U.S. petrochemical industry. The study was commissioned by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) following the October 23, ...

J. C. Wells M. Smith T. A. Kochan

1991-01-01

60

[Acid and osmotic resistance of RBC in workers engaged in rubber and technical rubber production in petrochemical industry].  

PubMed

The authors present results obtained in a study of how rubber and technical rubber products influence acid and osmotic resistance of RBC in workers engaged into petrochemical industry. Findings are that the rubber and technical rubber products sensitize the RBC to osmotic and acidic lysis. PMID:19062586

Kamilov, R F; Shakirova, E D; Kudriavtsev, V P; Shakirov, D F

2008-01-01

61

SOURCE ASSESSMENT: NITROGEN FERTILIZER INDUSTRY WATER EFFLUENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes a study of waterborne pollutants from the manufacture of nitrogen fertilizers. It includes an evaluation of the ammonia, ammonium nitrate, urea, and nitric acid manufacturing processes. Water effluents in a nitrogen fertilizer plant originate from a variety o...

62

Advanced treatment of high strength opium alkaloid industry effluents.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate an effective treatment system which can be applicable to treat opium alkaloid industry (OAI) effluents characterised with high COD, TKN, dark color and non-biodegradable organic pollutants. In the first phase of the study, lab-scale anaerobic (UASBR) + aerobic (SBR) treatability studies were carried out on opium processing industry effluents. Effluent CODs from the two staged biological treatment system were relatively high (-700 mg l(-1)) and additional post treatment was required. Physico-chemical treatability studies previously carried out on the effluent of opium alkaloid wastewater treatment plant, were not effective in removing residual COD and color. In the second phase of the study, the refractory organics causing higher inert COD values in the SBR effluent were additionally treated by using Fenton's Oxidation. The batch tests were performed to determine the optimum operating conditions including pH, H2O2 dosage, molar ratio of Fe2+/H2O2 and reaction time. It was found that removal efficiencies of COD and color for 30 minutes reaction time were about 90% and 95%, respectively. The ratio of H2O2/FeSO4 was determined as 200 mg l(-1)/600 mg l(-1) for the optimum oxidation and coagulation process at pH 4. Experimental results of the present study have clearly indicated that the Fenton's oxidation technology is capable to treat almost all parts of the organics which consist of both soluble initial and microbial inert fractions of COD for opium alkaloid industry effluents. Effluents from the Fenton's Oxidation process can satisfy effluent standards for COD and color in general. PMID:12448485

Aydin, A F; Altinbas, M; Sevimli, M F; Ozturk, I; Sarikaya, H Z

2002-01-01

63

CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN WHOLE EFFLUENT TOXICITY AND THE PRESENCE OF PRIORITY SUBSTANCES IN COMPLEX INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this study was to examine broad-scale correlation between presence of priority substances and whole effluent toxicity (WET) across a range of industry types. Using regression analysis, we examined how chemical-based inferred toxicity predicted measured WET of the e...

64

Viability study on two treatments for an industrial effluent containing sulphide and fluoride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most industrial effluents require treatment before dumping in order to comply with stricter environmental regulations. Nevertheless, each industrial process renders a peculiar effluent that can contain a great variety of toxic compounds. This study addresses the viability of two chemical treatments for reducing the content of sulphide and fluoride in a highly saline effluent. This effluent (flow rate of 30m3\\/h)

Luis Gurtubay; Iker Dañobeitia; Astrid Barona; Jesús Prado; Ana Elías

2010-01-01

65

Economic Analysis of Effluent Guidelines Organic Chemicals Industry (Major Products).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An initial analysis of the economic impact of proposed water effluent guidelines upon the organic chemicals industry (SIC 2815/2865 and 2818/2869) was performed based on abatement cost data supplied by the EPA. In view of limited cost data available, the ...

1975-01-01

66

The Effect of Social Trust on Citizens' Health Risk Perception in the Context of a Petrochemical Industrial Complex  

PubMed Central

Perceived risk of environmental threats often translates into psychological stress with a wide range of effects on health and well-being. Petrochemical industrial complexes constitute one of the sites that can cause considerable pollution and health problems. The uncertainty around emissions results in a perception of risk for citizens residing in neighboring areas, which translates into anxiety and physiological stress. In this context, social trust is a key factor in managing the perceived risk. In the case of industrial risks, it is essential to distinguish between trust in the companies that make up the industry, and trust in public institutions. In the context of a petrochemical industrial complex located in the port of Castellón (Spain), this paper primarily discusses how trust—both in the companies located in the petrochemical complex and in the public institutions—affects citizens’ health risk perception. The research findings confirm that while the trust in companies negatively affects citizens’ health risk perception, trust in public institutions does not exert a direct and significant effect. Analysis also revealed that trust in public institutions and health risk perception are essentially linked indirectly (through trust in companies).

Lopez-Navarro, Miguel Angel; Llorens-Monzonis, Jaume; Tortosa-Edo, Vicente

2013-01-01

67

State?of?the?Art Adsorption and Membrane Separation Processes for Hydrogen Production in the Chemical and Petrochemical Industries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review on the use of adsorption and membrane technologies in H2 production is directed toward the chemical and petrochemical industries. The growing requirements for H2 in chemical manufacturing, petroleum refining, and the newly emerging clean energy concepts will place greater demands on sourcing, production capacity and supplies of H2. Currently, about 41 MM tons\\/yr of H2 is produced worldwide,

James A. Ritter; Armin D. Ebner

2007-01-01

68

INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE: CHAPTER 5. BASIC PETROCHEMICALS INDUSTRY  

EPA Science Inventory

The catalog was developed to aid in defining the environmental impacts of U.S. industrial activity. Entries for each industry are in consistent format and form separate chapters of the catalog. The basic petroleum industry includes companies that treat hydrocarbon streams from th...

69

Determination of Phenols and Trimethylamine in Industrial Effluents  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For regulatory purposes to control certain odorous compounds the analysis of phenols and trimethylamines in industrial effluents is necessary. The Bay Area Air Pollution Control District laboratory has been determining these gases by gas chromatographic techniques. The procedures for sample collection, preparation for analysis and determination are described in detail. Typical data from various sources showing the effect of proposed regulations is shown. Extensive sampling and usage of these procedures has shown them to be accurate, reliable and suitable to all types of source effluents.

Levaggi, D. A.; Feldstein, M.

1971-01-01

70

Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene as biomarker of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in workers in petrochemical industries: baseline values and dermal uptake  

Microsoft Academic Search

The suitability of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene as a biomarker for the assessment of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in petrochemical industries was evaluated in 562 workers involved in various operations in petrochemical industries. The median 1-hydroxypyrene concentration in 121 of these workers (both smokers and non-smokers) who had had no recent occupational exposure to PAH was 0.11 ?mol\\/mol creatinine. The

P. J. Boogaard; N. J. van Sittert

1995-01-01

71

Metabolic response of environmentally isolated microorganisms to industrial effluents: Use of a newly described cell culture assay  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An environmental application using a microtiter culture assay to measure the metabolic sensitivity of microorganisms to petrochemical effluents will be tested. The Biomedical Operations and Research Branch at NASA JSC has recently developed a rapid and nondestructive method to measure cell growth and metabolism. Using a colorimetric procedure the uniquely modified assay allows the metabolic kinetics of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells to be measured. Use of such an assay if adapted for the routine monitoring of waste products, process effluents, and environmentally hazardous substances may prove to be invaluable to the industrial community. The microtiter method as described will be tested using microorganisms isolated from the Galveston Bay aquatic habitat. The microbial isolates will be identified prior to testing using the automated systems available at JSC. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), cadmium, and lead will provide control toxic chemicals. The toxicity of industrial effluent from two industrial sites will be tested. An effort will be made to test the efficacy of this assay for measuring toxicity in a mixed culture community.

Ferebee, Robert N.

1992-01-01

72

Biological treatments of textile industrial effluents in Lagos metropolis, Nigeria.  

PubMed

The assessment of the effluents from two textile industries in Ilupeju in Lagos metropolis, Nigeria showed that they were high in conductivity, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total dissolved solids (TDS) and contained traces of heavy metals like Ca, Zn but high concentrations of Cr and Pb. These wastewaters are normally discharged into neighbouring water bodies. Five bacterial groups, namely Micrococcus sp., Enterobacter sp., Alcaligens sp., Bacillus sp. and Acinetobacter sp. were isolated from these effluents. They were used individually for biotreatment and found to be able to utilize the components of the wastewaters for growth, Bacillus sp. and Acinetobacter sp. being the most efficient utilizers as they were able to reduce BOD to zero. The total viable count (TVC) increased significantly depicting growth of the bacterial population. The pH was regulated from 3.4-6.80 for NSF effluent and 12.2-10.29 for STI effluent. The work emphasises the level of industrial pollution in our environment as wastes are indiscrimately dumped into surrounding water bodies in urban areas, the textile industry being a case study. The treatment of any form of waste before disposal into the environment is important and ensures safety of the populace. PMID:15907081

Ugoji, E O; Aboaba, O O

2004-10-01

73

Pyrolytic product characteristics of biosludge from the wastewater treatment plant of a petrochemical industry.  

PubMed

Biosludge was produced from the wastewater treatment plant of a petrochemical industry. The element compositions of pyrolytic residues, CO, CO(2), NOx, SOx, total hydrocarbons and detailed volatile organic compounds of pyrolytic gas, and C, H, N, S content and compositions in biofuel were determined in this study. Generally, 75-80% water content in sludge cakes and about 65-70% weight of water vapor and volatile compounds were volatilized during the drying process. Propene, propane, 1-butene, n-butane, isobutene, toluene and benzene were the major volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of the pyrolytic gas, and the concentrations for most of the top 20 VOC species were greater than 5 ppm. C(5)-C(9) compounds contributed 60% by weight of biofuel; 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone was the highest species, accounting for 28-53% of biofuel at various pyrolytic temperatures. Based on the dried residues, there was 8.5-13% weight in pyrolytic residues, 62-82% weight in liquid products (water and crude oil) and 5.8-30% weight in the gas phase after pyrolytic processing at 500-800 degrees C. Finally, 1.5-2.5 wt% liquid fuel was produced after the distillation process. The pyrolytic residues could be reused, the pyrolytic liquid product could be used as a fuel after distillation, and the pyrolytic gas could be recycled in the pyrolytic process to achieve non-toxic discharge and reduce the cost of sludge disposal. PMID:19570608

Lin, Kuo-Hsiung; Hsu, Hui-Tsung; Ko, Ya-Wen; Shieh, Zhu-Xin; Chiang, Hung-Lung

2009-11-15

74

Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in petrochemical industries by measurement of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene.  

PubMed Central

Biological monitoring of exposure of workers to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in petrochemical industries was performed by the measurement of urinary excretion of 1-hydroxypyrene. In 121 of the 462 workers studied (both smokers and non-smokers) who had had no recent occupational exposure to PAHs a median 1-hydroxypyrene concentration of 0.21 micrograms/g creatinine was found. The upper limit of the 95% confidence interval in these workers of 0.99 micrograms/g creatinine was used as the upper normal value for industrial workers. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations were measured in workers involved in manufacture and maintenance operations in oil refineries (13 studies in eight different settings), in workers manufacturing or handling products containing PAHs in chemical plants (five studies in three settings) and laboratories (four studies), and in workers digging soil contaminated with PAHs (three studies). In most studies in oil refineries 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations were only marginally greater than the values measured in the 121 workers with no recent occupational exposure to PAHs. This was also the case in maintenance operations with higher potential exposure to PAHs, indicating that personal protection equipment was generally adequate to prevent excessive exposure. The studies in chemical plants also showed that exposure to PAHs is low. An exception was the workers engaged in the production of needle coke from ethylene cracker residue, where increased urinary 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations were measured. The excretion of 1-hydroxypyrene by the operators and maintenance workers of this plant was investigated in relation to potential methods of exposure to PAHs. Dermal and inhalatory exposure were both significant determinants of exposure to PAHs.

Boogaard, P J; van Sittert, N J

1994-01-01

75

Barry Commoner Assails Petrochemicals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses Commoner's ideas on the social value of the petrochemical industry and his suggestions for curtailment or elimination of its productive operation to produce a higher environmental quality for mankind at a relatively low loss in social benefit. (CC)

Chemical and Engineering News, 1973

1973-01-01

76

Laboratory studies of electrochemical treatment of industrial azo dye effluent.  

PubMed

Removal of color and reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD) in an industrial azo dye effluent containing chiefly reactive dyes were investigated under single-pass conditions at a dimensionally stable anode (DSA) in a thin electrochemical flow reactor at different current densities, flow rates, and dilutions. With 50% diluted effluent, decolorization was achieved up to 85-99% at 10-40 mA/ cm2 at 5 mL/min flow rate and 50-88% at 30-40 mA/ cm2 at high (10-15 mL/min) flow rates. The COD reduction was maximum (81%) at 39.9 mA/cm2 or above when solution-electrode contact time (Ct) was as high as 21.7 s/cm2 and decreased as Ct declined at a given current density. Cyclic voltammetric studies suggesting an indirect oxidation of dye molecules over the anode surface were carried out at a glassy carbon electrode. The effect of pH on decolorization and COD reduction was determined. An electrochemical mechanism mediated by OCl- operating in the decolorization and COD reduction processes was suggested. The effluent was further treated with NaOCI. The oxidized products from the treated effluents were isolated and confirmed to be free from chlorine-substituted products by IR spectroscopy. From the apparent pseudo-first-order rate data, the second-order rate coefficients were evaluated to be 2.9 M(-1) s(-1) at 5 mL/ min, 76.2 M(-1) s(-1) at 10 mL/min, and 156.1 M(-1) s(-1) at 15 mL/ min for color removal, and 1.19 M(-1) s(-1) at 5 mL/min, 1.79 M(-1) s(-1) at 10 mL/min, and 3.57 M(-1) s(-1) at 15 mL/min for COD reduction. Field studies were also carried out with a pilot-scale cell at the source of effluent generation of different plants corresponding to the industry. Decolorization was achieved to about 94-99% with azo dye effluents at 0.7-1.0 L/min flow costing around Indian Rupees 0.02-0.04 per liter, and to about 54-75% in other related effluents at 0.3-1.0 L/min flow under single-pass conditions. PMID:15884385

Vaghela, Sanjay S; Jethva, Ashok D; Mehta, Bhavesh B; Dave, Sunil P; Adimurthy, Subbarayappa; Ramachandraiah, Gadde

2005-04-15

77

Public enterprise in the international petrochemical industry: The case of Singapore  

SciTech Connect

This article presents evidence from a case study of a particular state-owned, or public, enterprise in Singapore. The case history, together with the final analysis, attempts to ascertain any intrinsic advantages, disadvantages, or other differences in behavior and performance vis-a-vis private enterprise in the international petrochemicals business. The formation and progress of the Petrochemical Corporation of Singapore illustrate the competence of the Singapore government team and the value of the promotional, supportive presence of the government with regard to its enterprises. Organizational culture in public enterprise was enhanced by the role of the Singapore government.

Sikorski, D. [National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore). Dept. of Business Policy

1997-05-01

78

Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Excluding dyes. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents exclusive of dyes. Topics include the recovery of lubricants, lye, sizing agents, polyvinyl alcohol, zinc, dirt, and heat from textile effluents. Air and water pollution control technology that is effective in treating textile effluents is discussed. Effluents from synthetic fiber manufacture and wool scouring processes are emphasized. Effluents that contain dyes are discusssed in a separate bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-01-01

79

Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Excluding dyes. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents exclusive of dyes. Topics include the recovery of lubricants, lye, sizing agents, polyvinyl alcohol, zinc, dirt, and heat from textile effluents. Air and water pollution control technology that is effective in treating textile effluents is discussed. Effluents from synthetic fiber manufacture and wool scouring processes are emphasized. Effluents that contain dyes are discusssed in a separate bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-01-01

80

Prevention of water pollution by waste waters of the petrochemical industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors examine the problems of reception of waste waters of petrochemistry for biological treatment, improvement and introduction of new methods of toxicological control permitting active intervention, and management of the process of arrival of waste waters for biological treatment. In the investigations, they used activated sludge of the first stage of biological treatment of waste waters of a petrochemical

L. I. Gyunter; I. F. Shatalaev

1987-01-01

81

1988 worldwide petrochemical directory  

SciTech Connect

This directory makes available the names, addresses, phone and telex numbers of most of the world's companies which are involved in the petrochemical industry. The directory provides the names of over 14,000 key personnel at over 2,000 plant sites in the United States, Canada, Europe, Latin America, Asia-Pacific, Africa and the Middle East. A company index is provided for easy reference. The Oil and Gas Journal's Worldwide Petrochemical Survey appears in its entirety in this volume.

Not Available

1987-01-01

82

Impact of industrial waste effluents on river Damodar adjacent to Durgapur industrial complex, West Bengal, India.  

PubMed

The present study deals with the characterization of industrial effluents released from various industries and distribution of heavy metals in effluent discharge channel and its impact on the river Damodar. The effluent of tamlanala, a natural storm water channel, is extensively used for irrigation for growing vegetables in and around the study area. The heavy metals in water of the study area are in the order of Fe > Mn > Pb >?Cd and sediments follow similar trends too. The enrichment of heavy metals in the sediments are in the order of Cd (39.904) > Pb (33.156) > Mn (0.164) > Fe (0.013). The geoaccumulation index values reveal effluent channel is subjected to moderate to high pollution with respect to Cd (4.733) and Pb (4.466). The analyzed data for enrichment factors and the pollution load index (1.305) show that effluent channels have suffered from significant heavy metal contamination following industrialization and urbanization. Compared to baseline values, the surface sediment layers show high enrichment across the channel and at its discharge point. The factor analysis reveals three factors-industrial sources, surface runoff inputs, and background lithogenic factors which clarify the observed variance of the environmental variables. Metal pollution assessment of sediments suggests that pollution from the heavy metals observed is high in the tamlanala which in turn affects the downstream of the river system. PMID:22623168

Banerjee, U S; Gupta, S

2013-03-01

83

Current World Situation in Petrochemicals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents a brief review of developments in the petrochemical industry since the Second Consultation on the Petrochemical Industry, held in Istanbul, Turkey in 1981. It also gives the short-term outlook for its future development. The report thu...

1985-01-01

84

Biodegradation of slop oil from a petrochemical industry and bioreclamation of slop oil contaminated soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Slop oil, i.e. waste oil from a petrochemical complex, contains at least 240 hydrocarbon components, of which 54% are from C5 to C11 and the rest from C12 to C23. Of 22 isolated bacterial cultures that were able to degrade slop oil, seven could each degrade about 40% of the slop oil, and a mixture of all seven could degrade

H. Dave; C. Ramakrishna; B. D. Bhatt; J. D. Desai

1994-01-01

85

Characterization of ozone precursor volatile organic compounds in urban atmospheres and around the petrochemical industry in the Tarragona region.  

PubMed

This paper reports the results of an assessment of volatile organic compound (VOCs) levels in ambient air in samples collected at urban and industrial sites in southern Catalonia, which is home to one of the most important petrochemical complexes in southern Europe. This study contains data from a total of 192 samples collected in 2007, from May to October, at six air pollution measurement stations within the area of influence of several chemical and petrochemical industrial plants. The ambient air concentrations of a group of 65 VOCs, some of them ozone precursors, were determined by active sampling into sorbent tubes, thermal desorption and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. At the same time, several meteorological parameters were also recorded, and levels of NO, NO(2) and O(3) measured by the automatic stations, have been included in the study as well. Ambient air profiles of the different areas were studied, and the ozone formation dependent on VOCs and NO(2) levels was also analysed, taking into account the photochemical ozone creation potential (POCP) for different groups of VOCs. PMID:19423150

Ras, Maria Rosa; Marcé, Rosa Maria; Borrull, Francesc

2009-07-01

86

[Pretreatment and resource utilization of industrial effluent with benzoic acid].  

PubMed

Extraction equilibrium of benzoic acid were studied using 20%, 30% and 50% tributyl phosphate (TBP) in kerosene, 1-octanol and toluene as the extractants, to investigate the efficient method of recovering benzoic and acetic acid in the industrial effluent and meeting the requirement of the terminal wastewater treatment. The CODCr value in residual phase and the recovery of benzoic acid in various extractants were measured. The results showed that the recovery of benzoic acid was closed to 100% with 50% TBP/kerosene system, and depended on the polarity of extractant for pure solvent system. The recovery with 1-octanol was equivalent to the one with 30% TBP. The CODCr value in the residual phase depended on the CODCr value from benzoic acid and the solubility of extractant, which does not depend on the benzoic acid concentration in the residue phase apparently, and shown 50% TBP approximately equal to 30% TBP > 1-octanol > 20% TBP > toluene. Meanwhile, the profitable diagram of pretreatment of industrial effluent with benzoic acid was suggested, i.e. firstly, extract benzoic acid with toluene and return the toluene to the benzoic acid reactor, then, extract acetic acid with trialkylphosphine oxide and back-extract the acetic acid with CaO or MgO to produce calcium magnesium acetate. PMID:15515941

Qin, Wei; Wang, Sheng; Mei, Fan; Lin, Yi; Dai, You-yuan

2004-07-01

87

Physicochemical characterization of industrial effluents and their effect on fish survival.  

PubMed

Water samples taken from selected industrial drainages and receiving streams in and around Islamabad, Pakistan, during the summers of 1987 to 1990 showed disturbances in pH and low oxygen levels. Selected metals (Fe, Pb, Zn, Cd, Cu, Ni, Hg) were higher in all effluents than in receiving waters. Static bioassays of the undiluted industrial effluents from three sites caused 100% mortality in carp during the first 24 hrs. Fishes also suffered 30 to 60% mortality when exposed to other undiluted industrial effluents and some mortality when industrial effluents were diluted by 50%. PMID:1779125

Alam, M K; Maughan, O E; Van Ert, M D

1991-01-01

88

Selection of Bottom Liner for Land Disposal of Industrial Waste Containing Lead-Case Study: Tabriz Petrochemical Complex  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Industrial wastes generated at Tabriz Petrochemical Complex (TPC) were shown to contain significant concentration of lead. Environmentally sound landfilling of these waste streams was studied in terms of potential risk of associated groundwater contamination. The waste was to be disposed of in a landfill overlying an aquifer of fine sand texture and a water table depth of about 9 m. A modeling approach was employed for estimating the concentration of lead in groundwater downstream of the landfill site. The Industrial Waste Evaluation Model (IWEM) developed by US Environmental Protection Agency was used which estimates the receptor dose of lead, calculates the associated human health risk and recommends protective measures (i.e., liner type). Accordingly the appropriate liner being of composite type was selected as the required protective measure to minimize the transport of lead to the underlying aquifer which is a major source of drinking water for the downstream residential communities.

Soltani, Mohsen; Safari, Edwin; Baghvand, Akbar; Abduli, Mohammad Ali

89

Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Petrochemical Industry - An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers  

SciTech Connect

Energy is the most important cost factor in the U.S petrochemical industry, defined in this guide as the chemical industry sectors producing large volume basic and intermediate organic chemicals as well as large volume plastics. The sector spent about $10 billion on fuels and electricity in 2004. Energy efficiency improvement is an important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There are a variety of opportunities available at individual plants in the U.S. petrochemical industry to reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner. This Energy Guide discusses energy efficiency practices and energy efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, facility, and organizational levels. A discussion of the trends, structure, and energy consumption characteristics of the petrochemical industry is provided along with a description of the major process technologies used within the industry. Next, a wide variety of energy efficiency measures are described. Many measure descriptions include expected savings in energy and energy-related costs, based on case study data from real-world applications in the petrochemical and related industries worldwide. Typical measure payback periods and references to further information in the technical literature are also provided, when available. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers in the U.S. petrochemical industry reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner while maintaining the quality of products manufactured. Further research on the economics of all measures--and on their applicability to different production practices--is needed to assess their cost effectiveness at individual plants.

Neelis, Maarten; Worrell, Ernst; Masanet, Eric

2008-09-01

90

Anaerobic treatment of effluents from an industrial polymers synthesis plant  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility of the anaerobic treatment of an industrial polymer synthesis plant effluent was evaluated. The composition of the wastewater includes acrylates, styrene, detergents, a minor amount of silicates and a significant amount of ferric chloride. The average chemical oxygen demand (COD) corresponding is about 2,000 mg/l. The anaerobic biodegradability of the effluent is shown and the toxicity effect on the populations of anaerobic bacteria is evaluated. The results of the anaerobic biodegradation assays show that 62% of the wastewater compounds, measured as COD, could be consumed. An upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor was used in the evaluation, it has a diameter-height ratio of 1:7, and 4-liter volume. The inoculum was obtained from a UASB pilot plant that treats brewery wastewaters. At the beginning of the operation, the biomass showed an anaerobic activity of 0.58 gCOD/(gVSS {times} d), it decreased only 2.5% in the subsequent 4 months. After 35 days of continuous operation, the reactor was operated at different steady states for 140 days. The COD was maintained at 2,200 mg/l in the feed. The results were: organic loading rate (OLR): 4.3 kg COD/(m{sup 3} {times} d), hydraulic retention time: 12 h, superficial velocity: 1 m/h, average biogas productivity: 290 L CH{sub 4}/kg COD fed, biogas composition: 70--75% methane and a COD removal percentage > 75%.

Araya, P.; Aroca, G.; Chamy, R. [Univ. Catolica de Valparaiso (Chile). School of Biochemical Engineering] [Univ. Catolica de Valparaiso (Chile). School of Biochemical Engineering

1999-06-01

91

Treatment of effluents from cardboard industry by coagulation-electroflotation.  

PubMed

The objective of the present study is to optimize the treatment of the cardboard industry wastewater generated in the process of machine washing. This type of effluent is usually treated by traditional physicochemical processes such as coagulation/flocculation and sedimentation. These processes give a limited purifying efficiency, particularly for the COD reduction. In this work, the treatment by coagulation-electroflotation process was adopted. In batch mode treatment, current density, pH and coagulant concentration are the operating parameters to optimize. The methodology of experimental research, with an orthogonal central composite plan was adopted. Good agreement between theoretical analysis and experimental results was obtained. Continuous mode was also studied in order to optimize the residence time. A physicochemical characterization including COD, BOD and suspended solids charge was done before and after the treatment in order to improve the efficiency of this process. PMID:18029093

Mansour, L Ben; Kesentini, I

2008-05-30

92

Report to Congress on Petrochemicals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Report to Congress on Petrochemicals was prepared in response to Section 23, of Public Law 93-275 the 'Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974.' It analyzes the petrochemical industry's current supply/demand situation and its outlook through the end...

1974-01-01

93

Influence of relative humidity and temperature on quantity of electric charge of static protective clothing used in petrochemical industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the working principle of static protective clothing and its testing method of quantity of electric charge are introduced, and the influence of temperature and relative humidity on the quantity of electric charge (qe) of static protective clothing is studied by measuring qe of different clothing samples. The result shows that temperature and relative humidity can influence qe of static protective clothing to some extent and the influence of relative humidity is bigger than that of temperature. According to experimental results, the relationship of qe and relative humidity and temperature was analysed, and the safety boundary of quantity of electric charge is discussed. In order to reduce the occurrence of electrostatic accidents and ensure safe production and operation of petrochemical industry, some suggestions on choosing and using of static protective clothing are given for guaranteeing its static protective performance.

Zhang, Yunpeng; Liu, Quanzhen; Liu, Baoquan; Li, Yipeng; Zhang, Tingting

2013-03-01

94

Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Excluding dyes. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents exclusive of dyes. Topics include the recovery of lubricants, lye, sizing agents, polyvinyl alcohol, zinc, dirt, and heat from textile effluents. Air and water pollution control technology that is effective in treating textile effluents is discussed. Effluents from synthetic fiber manufacture and wool scouring processes are emphasized. Effluents that contain dyes are discusssed in a separate bibliography.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1996-09-01

95

Bioaugmentation and Biovalourization of Agro-Food and Beverage Industry Effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Food and beverage industry effluents form a major chunk of agro-industrial wastes throughout the world. Food industry effluents\\u000a mainly come from starchy foods, olive oil mill, palm oil mill, sugar refining and fermentation industries. It is imperative\\u000a to review the present status of food processing waste utilization for their safe disposal. Microbes are well-suited natural\\u000a agents for recycling of organic

Alok K. Pandey; Brijesh K. Mishra; Anju Arora; Surender Singh; Lata; Ramesh C. Ray

96

Trace metals in PM10 and PM 2.5 samples collected in a highly industrialized chemical/petrochemical area and its urbanized surroundings.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the potential impact of a highly industrialized area on its urbanized surroundings. The area studied is home to a refinery, a thermoelectric plant and several petrochemical facilities industries. The concentrations of twelve elements were determined in PM10 and PM2.5 samples collected along a busy highway and near the petrochemical complex. Significantly higher concentrations of Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Cu and Al were observed in the petrochemical zone, but principal component analysis revealed similar patterns for both the highway site and a site approximately 1.5 km from the petrochemical complex, suggesting that the main pollution source in the area is vehicular flux. Higher concentrations in the industrial area may be attributed to intense diesel-powered truck and bus traffic movement, mainly due to the transport of supplies, fuel and gas. The observed concentrations of the elements Cr, Co, Ni, Cd and Pb were always lower than the detection limits of the technique used. PMID:24509656

dos Anjos Paulino, Silvia; Oliveira, Rafael Lopes; Loyola, Josiane; Minho, Alan Silva; Arbilla, Graciela; Quiterio, Simone Lorena; Escaleira, Viviane

2014-05-01

97

Toxicity assessment of dye containing industrial effluents by acute toxicity test using Daphnia magna.  

PubMed

Toxicity of dye containing effluent of tannery, textile, dyes and pulp-paper industries was evaluated in an acute toxicity test using Daphnia magna. The 48-hour EC(50) values were 4.33% and 19.5% for tannery effluents (Tn1 and Tn2). Textile effluents (Tx1-Tx7) had 48-hour EC(50) values; >100%, >100%, 62.9%, 63.0%, 40.3%, >100% and >100%, respectively. Dye industries (D1-D7) had 48-hour EC(50) values; 14.1%, 15.5%, 24.5%, 29.7%, 23.2%, >100% and >100%, respectively. Similarly pulp-paper effluents (P1-P5) showed acute toxicity as 100%, 77.87%, 46.44%, 69.55% and 82.84%, respectively. These results showed linear relationship with high degree of confidence (r(2) ? 0.84-0.99) between immobility and test concentrations. Toxicity classification criteria showed that out of five effluents from pulp-paper mill, four were minor acutely toxic having 48-hour EC(50) value in between >46%-100%. Out of seven textile effluents, four were not acutely toxic (48-hour EC(50) value >100%) and three were minor acutely toxic (48-hour EC( 50) value in the range of 40.3%-63.0%). Similarly, out of seven dye industrial effluents, two were not acutely toxic and five minor acutely toxic. One of the two tanneries was moderately acutely toxic and another one was minor acutely toxic. Classification based on toxic unit revealed that four out of five pulp-paper effluent, three out of seven textile effluents, five out of seven dye effluents and both the tannery effluents were toxic. Overall, 66.67% effluents were found toxic and 33.33% as non-toxic. In general, tannery and dyes effluents showed more toxicity than textile and paper mill effluents. PMID:20823054

Verma, Yogendra

2011-02-01

98

Decolorization and detoxification of two textile industry effluents by the laccase/1-hydroxybenzotriazole system.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to determine the optimal conditions for the decolorization and the detoxification of two effluents from a textile industry-effluent A (the reactive dye bath Bezactive) and effluent B (the direct dye bath Tubantin)-using a laccase mediator system. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize textile effluents decolorization. A Box-Behnken design using RSM with the four variables pH, effluent concentration, 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (HBT) concentration, and enzyme (laccase) concentration was used to determine correlations between the effects of these variables on the decolorization of the two effluents. The optimum conditions for pH and concentrations of HBT, effluent and laccase were 5, 1 mM, 50 % and 0.6 U/ml, respectively, for maximum decolorization of effluent A (68 %). For effluent B, optima were 4, 1 mM, 75 %, and 0.6 U/ml, respectively, for maximum decolorization of approximately 88 %. Both effluents were treated at 30 °C for 20 h. A quadratic model was obtained for each decolorization through this design. The experimental and predicted values were in good agreement and both models were highly significant. In addition, the toxicity of the two effluents was determined before and after laccase treatment using Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Bacillus cereus, and germination of tomato seeds. PMID:23361176

Benzina, Ouafa; Daâssi, Dalel; Zouari-Mechichi, Héla; Frikha, Fakher; Woodward, Steve; Belbahri, Lassaad; Rodriguez-Couto, Susana; Mechichi, Tahar

2013-08-01

99

Water and materials recovery from fertilizer industry acidic effluents by membrane processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent developments in membrane technology are promising as regards drastic reduction of effluents from process plants, through cleaning and recycling polluted streams until recently considered untreatable. This paper outlines specific R & D activities in this direction. Results are reported, of a study in progress, towards recycling various effluent streams from a fertilizer industrial complex with the use of RO

A. J. Karabelas; S. G. Yiantsios; Z. Metaxiotou; N. Andritsos; A. Akiskalos; G. Vlachopoulos; S. Stavroulias

2001-01-01

100

Economic Impact Analysis of Effluent Limitations and Standards for the Leather Tanning Industry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

EPA issued final effluent guidelines and limitations for the leather tanning industry in November 1982. This report estimates the economic impact of pollution control costs in terms of the effects on profitability, plant closure, unemployment, price chang...

D. J. Wissman R. E. Seltzer A. C. Barker

1982-01-01

101

ASSESSMENT OF TECHNOLOGY FOR CONTROL OF TOXIC EFFLUENTS FROM THE ELECTRIC UTILITY INDUSTRY  

EPA Science Inventory

The report assesses the applicability of control technologies for reducing priority pollutants in effluents from the steam-electric power generating industry. It surveys control technologies, identifying those that have demonstrated some control effectiveness for priority polluta...

102

CHARACTERIZING THE GENOTOXICITY OF HAZARDOUS INDUSTRIAL WASTES AND EFFLUENTS USING SHORT-TERM BIOASSAYS  

EPA Science Inventory

This chapter demonstrates that short-term bioassays can reliably and expeditiously measure the genotoxic potential of hazardous industrial wastes and effluents. etrochemical wastes have been studied in detail, especially discharges from chemical manufacturing plants and textile a...

103

Does living near a constellation of petrochemical, steel, and other industries impair health?  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To investigate concern that local industrial air pollution in Teesside, England, was causing poor health, several areas there were compared with parts of the City of Sunderland. METHODS: Populations in similar social and economic circumstances but varying in their proximity to major industries were compared. Study populations lived in 27 housing estates in Teesside and Sunderland, north east England,

R. S. Bhopal; S. Moffatt; T. Pless-Mulloli; P. R. Phillimore; C. Foy; C. E. Dunn; J. A. Tate

1998-01-01

104

Bioremediation of a Complex Industrial Effluent by Biosorbents Derived from Freshwater Macroalgae  

PubMed Central

Biosorption with macroalgae is a promising technology for the bioremediation of industrial effluents. However, the vast majority of research has been conducted on simple mock effluents with little data available on the performance of biosorbents in complex effluents. Here we evaluate the efficacy of dried biomass, biochar, and Fe-treated biomass and biochar to remediate 21 elements from a real-world industrial effluent from a coal-fired power station. The biosorbents were produced from the freshwater macroalga Oedogonium sp. (Chlorophyta) that is native to the industrial site from which the effluent was sourced, and which has been intensively cultivated to provide a feed stock for biosorbents. The effect of pH and exposure time on sorption was also assessed. These biosorbents showed specificity for different suites of elements, primarily differentiated by ionic charge. Overall, biochar and Fe-biochar were more successful biosorbents than their biomass counterparts. Fe-biochar adsorbed metalloids (As, Mo, and Se) at rates independent of effluent pH, while untreated biochar removed metals (Al, Cd, Ni and Zn) at rates dependent on pH. This study demonstrates that the biomass of Oedogonium is an effective substrate for the production of biosorbents to remediate both metals and metalloids from a complex industrial effluent.

Kidgell, Joel T.; de Nys, Rocky; Hu, Yi; Paul, Nicholas A.; Roberts, David A.

2014-01-01

105

Bioremediation of a complex industrial effluent by biosorbents derived from freshwater macroalgae.  

PubMed

Biosorption with macroalgae is a promising technology for the bioremediation of industrial effluents. However, the vast majority of research has been conducted on simple mock effluents with little data available on the performance of biosorbents in complex effluents. Here we evaluate the efficacy of dried biomass, biochar, and Fe-treated biomass and biochar to remediate 21 elements from a real-world industrial effluent from a coal-fired power station. The biosorbents were produced from the freshwater macroalga Oedogonium sp. (Chlorophyta) that is native to the industrial site from which the effluent was sourced, and which has been intensively cultivated to provide a feed stock for biosorbents. The effect of pH and exposure time on sorption was also assessed. These biosorbents showed specificity for different suites of elements, primarily differentiated by ionic charge. Overall, biochar and Fe-biochar were more successful biosorbents than their biomass counterparts. Fe-biochar adsorbed metalloids (As, Mo, and Se) at rates independent of effluent pH, while untreated biochar removed metals (Al, Cd, Ni and Zn) at rates dependent on pH. This study demonstrates that the biomass of Oedogonium is an effective substrate for the production of biosorbents to remediate both metals and metalloids from a complex industrial effluent. PMID:24919058

Kidgell, Joel T; de Nys, Rocky; Hu, Yi; Paul, Nicholas A; Roberts, David A

2014-01-01

106

Entomological study of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in Asalouyeh, the heartland of an Iranian petrochemical industry  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the fauna and seasonal activity of different species of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in Asalouyeh, the heartland of an Iranian petrochemical industry, Southern Iran, as a oil rich district. Sand flies are the vectors of at least three different kinds of disease, the most important of which is leishmaniasis, and it is a major public health problem in Iran with increased annual occurrence of clinical episodes. Methods A total of 3?497 sand flies of rural regions were collected by sticky traps fixed, and cleared in puris medium and identified morphologically, twice a month from April to March 2008. Results Predominant species included four of genus Phlebotomus (Phlebotomus alexandri Sinton, 1928, Phlebotomus papatasi Scopoli, 1910, Phlebotomus bergeroti Parrot and Phlebotomus sergenti Parrot) and one of genus Sergentomyia (Sergentomyia tiberiadis Alder, Theodor & Lourie, 1930). The most prevalent species was Phlebotomus papatasi, presented 56.4% of the identified flies. The others were Phlebotomus sergenti (22.5%), Phlebotomus alexandri (4.5%), Phlebotomus bergeroti (12%) and Sergentomyia tiberiadis (5%) as well. The percentage of females (68%) was more than that of males (32%). The abundance of sand flies represented two peaks of activity; one in early May and the other one in the first half of September in the region. Conclusion Phlebotomus papatasi is the probable vector of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in the region. Further molecular studies are needed to determine the definite vector of the region.

Alipour, Hamzeh; Darabi, Hossien; Dabbaghmanesh, Tahere; Bonyani, Mehdi

2014-01-01

107

Fundamental studies of hydrogen attack in carbon-0.5molybdenum steel and weldments applied in petroelum and petrochemical industries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High temperature hydrogen attack (HTHA) is a form of surface decarburization, internal decarburization, and/or intergranular cracking in steels exposed to high temperature (>400°F) and high hydrogen pressure. Hydrogen attack is an irreversible process which can cause permanent damage resulting in degradation of mechanical properties and failures such as leakage, bursting, fire, and/or explosion. The continuous progression of hydrogen attack in C-0.5Mo steel and weldments below the C-0.5Mo Nelson Curve has caused a significant concern for the integrity and serviceability of C-0.5Mo steel utilized for pressure vessels and piping in the petroleum refinery and petrochemical industries. A state-of-the-art literature review was implemented to provide a comprehensive overview of the published research efforts on hydrogen attack studies. The evolution of "Nelson Curves" for carbon steel, C-0.5Mo, and Cr-Mo steels was historically reviewed in regard to design applications and limitations. Testing techniques for hydrogen attack assessment were summarized under the categories of hydrogen exposure testing, mechanical evaluation, and dilatometric swelling testing. In accord with the demands of these industries, fundamental studies of hydrogen attack in C-0.5Mo steel and weldments were accomplished in terms of quantitative methodologies for hydrogen damage evaluation; hydrogen damage assessment of service exposed weldments and autoclave exposed materials; effects of carbon and alloying elements, heat treatments, hot and cold working, welding processes and postweld heat treatment (PWHT) on hydrogen attack susceptibility; development of continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagrams for C-0.5Mo base metals and the coarse grained heat-affected zone (CGHAZ); carbide evaluation for the C-0.5Mo steel after service exposure and heat treatment; methane evolution by the reaction of hydrogen and carbides; hydrogen diffusion and methane pressure through the wall thickness of one-sided hydrogen exposure assembly; hydrogen attack mechanism and hydrogen attack limit modeling.

Liu, Peng

108

Mutagenicity assessment of effluents from textile/dye industries of Sanganer, Jaipur (India): a case study.  

PubMed

Sanganer town, district Jaipur (Rajasthan, India), is famous worldwide for its dyeing and printing industries. There are about 400 industries involved in textile printing processes, which discharge effluents into nearby ponds and drains, without any treatment. These effluents contain highly toxic dyes, bleaching agents, salts, acids, and alkalis. Heavy metals like cadmium, copper, zinc, chromium, and iron are also found in the dye effluents. Textile workers are exposed to such waters with no control over the length and frequency of exposure. Further, as the untreated effluents are discharged into the environment they can cause severe contamination of surface and underground water. Environmental pollution caused by such textile effluents results in adverse effects on flora, fauna, and the general health of not only the textile workers, but also the residents of Sanganer town. Therefore, to assess the possible genotoxic health risk and environmental genotoxicity due to the textile industry effluents, this study was carried out using the Ames Salmonella/microsome mutagenicity assay. The results clearly indicate that the effluents and the surface water of Amani Shah drainage have high mutagenic activity. Further, the drainage water and the dry bed of the drainage (during summer months) are not fit for agricultural or other recreational purposes. A low level of mutagenicity in the underground water of Sanganer again emphasizes the grave pollution problem existing in the area. Multiple post hoc comparison tests (LSD, Tukey's) were used for comparison of sample site, dose, and length of exposure. Quadratic Model was found to adequately fit the observed data. PMID:15814316

Mathur, Nupur; Bhatnagar, Pradeep; Nagar, Pankaj; Bijarnia, Mahendra Kumar

2005-05-01

109

Acute toxicity assessment of textile dyes and textile and dye industrial effluents using Daphnia magna bioassay.  

PubMed

Aquatic toxicity of textile dyes and textile and dye industrial effluents were evaluated in an acute toxicity study using Daphnia magna as an aquatic experimental animal model. The 48-h EC(50) value for the azo dyes, Remazol Parrot Green was 55.32 mg/L and for Remazol Golden Yellow was 46.84 mg/L. Whereas 48-h EC(50) values for three dye industrial effluents (D1, D2, and D3) were 14.12%, 15.52%, and 29.69%, respectively. Similarly, EC(50) value for three textile mill effluents (T1, T2, and T3) were >100%, 62.97%, and 63.04%, respectively. These results also showed linear relationship with high degree of confidence (r(2)A =A >0.84 to >0.99) between immobility and test concentrations. The ratio of 24 to 48-h EC(50) remains to be in between 1.1 and 1.2. The general criteria of toxicity classification showed that both dyes were minor acutely toxic having 48-h EC(50) in between 10 and 100 mg/L. Of the six textile and dye industrial effluents tested, one was not acutely toxic (48-h EC(50)A >A 100%) and five were minor acutely toxic (48-h EC(50)A >A 14.12-29.69%). The toxicity classification of effluent based on toxic unit (TU) showed that of the six effluents tested five were found toxic (TU = >1) and one was non-toxic (TU = <1). Thus, dye effluents showed highest toxicity and textile effluents lowest toxicity. The study also suggested that the assay with D.A magna was an excellent method for evaluation of aquatic toxicity of dyes and dyes containing industrial effluents. PMID:19028775

Verma, Y

2008-08-01

110

Oxidative Stress and Anti-oxidative Defense in Schoolchildren Residing in a Petrochemical Industry Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results: The children from Pancevo showed higher level of oxidative stress demonstrated by an elevated malondialdehyde concentration (P <0.001) and decreased superoxide dismutase activity (P<0.01) in comparison to the non-exposed group. Conclusions: The results suggested a relationship between the presence of air pollutants and increased oxidative stress in schoolchildren residing in an industrial environment.

A VUJOVIC; J KOTUR-STEVULJEVIC; D KORNIC; S SPASIC; V SPASOJEVIC-KALIMANOVSKA; N BOGAVAC-STANOJEVIC; A STEFANOVIC; M DEANOVIC; S BABKA; B ALEKSIC; Z JELIC-IVANOVIC

2009-01-01

111

Failure identification and analysis for high-voltage induction motors in the petrochemical industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper gives a synopsis of condition monitoring methods, both as a diagnostic tool and as a technique for failure identification in high-voltage induction motors in industry. New operating experience data for 483 motor units consisting of 6135 unit years are registered and processed statistically to ascertain the connection between motor data, protection and condition monitoring methods, maintenance philosophy and

Olav Vaag Thorsen; Magnus Dalva

1999-01-01

112

Technical Training in the MNCs in Malaysia: A Case Study Analysis of the Petrochemical Industry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The aim of this paper is to gain insight into some of the types of training and development practices that are carried out in the chemical industry for technical workers. A salient focus of the study is to make a comparative analysis of four MNCs, which were selected based on equity ownership, to ascertain whether T&D practices are…

Hooi, Lai Wan

2010-01-01

113

CHEM: Advanced decision support systems for chemical\\/petrochemical process industries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of CHEM1 project is to develop and implement an advanced Decision Support System (DSS) for process monitoring, data and event analysis, operation support in industrial processes. The system is a synergistic integration of innovative software tools based on statistical, system theoretic, and artificial intelligence. This paper presents the results of this 3 year project. It summarises the principles

Sylvie Cauvin; Benoit Celse

2004-01-01

114

Efficacy and reliability of upgraded industrial treatment plant at Porto Marghera, near Venice, Italy, in removing nutrients and dangerous micropollutants from petrochemical wastewaters.  

PubMed

Chemical and petrochemical wastewaters contain a host of contaminants that require different treatment strategies. Regulation of macropollutants and micropollutants in the final discharge from industrial wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) have become increasingly stringent in recent decades, requiring many WWTPs to be upgraded. This article presents an analysis of a WWTP treating petrochemicals in Porto Marghera, Italy, that recently was upgraded following legislative changes. Because of strict legal limits for macropollutants and micropollutants and a lack of space necessary for a full-scale WWTP overhaul, the existing activated sludge tank was converted into a membrane biological reactor. The paper presents experimental data collected during a five-month investigation showing the removal rates achieved by the upgraded plant for macropollutants (particularly nitrogen compounds) and micropollutants (heavy metals and organic and inorganic toxic compounds). PMID:21905411

Verlicchi, Paola; Cattaneo, Serena; Marciano, Ferdinando; Masotti, Luigi; Vecchiato, Giuseppe; Zaffaroni, Carlo

2011-08-01

115

Assessment of Tannery Industrial Effluents from Kano Metropolis, Kano State, Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim and objective of the study was to determined pollutant levels in tannery industrial effluent from kano metropolis, Nigeria. Effluents from five tannery industries were characterized and the major sources of industrial pollution determined. Levels of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Co, Mn, Fe, Pb and Cr) were determined using Atomic absorption Spectrophotomeric method, while pH, Eh, DO, TDS, Temperature, sulphate, nitrate and phosphate were also determined using standard procedure. The results of the study showed that effluent quality discharged between tanneries differed significantly. Effluent chromium concentrations varied between 1.02`0.13 to 1.56`0.06 mg LG1, which are above WHO and FEPA limit of 1.0 mg LG1. Hafawa Enterprise Tannery, Unique Leather Finishing had significantly high lead concentrations, while Great Northern Tannery could be a potential source of Iron contamination in this area. Mean levels of Zn for Tannorth Tannery Limited were above maximum permissible limits set by FEPA and WHO. Mean levels of sulphate, nitrate and dissolved Oxygen were also above maximum permissible limits for the entire tanneries studied. Mean values of pH total dissolved solid, phosphate, temperature, Cu, Co, Mn and Redox potential generally were below maximum and minimum permissible limits for effluent discharged into rivers. The monthly variations in the entire tannery fell within the range set up by FEPA and WHO for the discharged of tannery effluent into river. The study serves to generate relevant baseline information for Kano industrial estate.

Akan, J. C.; Moses, E. A.; Ogugbuaja, V. O.; Abah, J.

116

[Evaluation of treatment technology of odor pollution source in petrochemical industry].  

PubMed

Using an environmental technology assessment system, we put forward the evaluation index system for treatment technology of the typical odor pollution sources in the petroleum refining process, which has been applied in the assessment of the industrial technology. And then the best available techniques are selected for emissions of gas refinery sewage treatment plant, headspace gas of acidic water jars, headspace gas of cold coke jugs/intermediate oil tank/dirty oil tank, exhaust of oxidative sweetening, and vapors of loading and unloading oil. PMID:24640922

Mu, Gui-Qin; Sui, Li-Hua; Guo, Ya-Feng; Ma, Chuan-Jun; Yang, Wen-Yu; Gao, Yang

2013-12-01

117

Pathogens Assessment in Reclaimed Effluent Used for Industrial Crops Irrigation  

PubMed Central

Reuse of treated effluent is a highly valued water source in Palestine, however with limited success due to public health concerns. This paper assesses the potential pathogens in raw, treated and reclaimed wastewater at Albireh urban wastewater treatment facility, and provides scientific knowledge to update the Palestinian reuse guidelines. Laboratory analyses of collected samples over a period of 4 months have indicated that the raw wastewater from Albireh city contained high numbers of fecal coliforms and worm eggs while 31% of the samples were Salmonella positive. Treated effluent suitable for restricted irrigation demonstrated that the plant was efficient in removing indicator bacteria, where fecal coliforms and fecal streptococci removal averaged 99.64% and 93.44%, respectively. Although not disinfected, treated effluent was free of Salmonella and parasites, hence safe for restricted agricultural purposes. All samples of the reclaimed effluent and three samples of irrigated grass were devoid of microbial pathogens indicating a safe use in unrestricted agricultural utilization. Adequate operation of wastewater treatment facilities, scientific updating of reuse guidelines and launching public awareness campaigns are core factors for successful and sustainable large-scale wastewater reuse schemes in Palestine.

Al-Sa'ed, R.

2007-01-01

118

Removal of arsenic and sulphate from the copper smelting industrial effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effluent from the processing of arsenic-bearing ores may contain varying amounts of As(III) and As(V), oxyanion, arsenite and arsenate. The industries are adopting the ferric arsenate precipitation; the problems aroused in this method are the formation of large amount of sludge. The effective pH range for the precipitation of ferric arsenate is 4–8. But pH of the effluent is about

C. Ahmed Basha; S. Josephine Selvi; E. Ramasamy; S. Chellammal

2008-01-01

119

Adsorption behavior of rice husk for the decontamination of chromium from industrial effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rice husk, an agricultural waste product, was studied as a potential decontaminant for chromium in the effluents of leather\\u000a tanning industries. Physico-chemical parameters such as selection of appropriate electrolyte, shaking time, concentration\\u000a of adsorbent and adsorbate were studied to optimize the best conditions in which this material can be utilized on commercial\\u000a scale for the decontamination of effluents. The radiotracer

N. Khalid; A. Rahman; S. Ahmad; A. Toheed; J. Ahmed

1999-01-01

120

Healthy environment--indoor air quality of Brazilian elementary schools nearby petrochemical industry.  

PubMed

The mitigation of pollution released to the environment originating from the industrial sector has been the aim of all policy-makers and its importance is evident if the adverse health effects on the world population are considered. Although this concern is controversial, petroleum refinery has been linked to some adverse health effects for people living nearby. Apart from home, school is the most important indoor environment for children and there is increasing concern about the school environment and its impact on health, also in developing countries where the prevalence of pollution is higher. As most of the children spend more than 40% of their time in schools, it is critical to evaluate the pollution level in such environment. In the metropolitan region of Curitiba, South Brazil, five schools nearby industries and highways with high density traffic, were selected to characterize the aerosol and gaseous compounds indoor and outdoor of the classrooms, during 2009-2011. Size segregated aerosol samples were collected for analyses of bulk and single particle elemental profiles. They were analyzed by electron probe X-ray micro-analysis (EPXMA), and by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF), to investigate the elemental composition of individual particles and bulk samples. The concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX); NO2; SO2; acetic acid; and formic acid were assessed indoor and outdoor using passive diffusion tubes. BTEX were analyzed by GC-MS and other collected gasses by ion chromatography. Individual exposition of BTEX was assessed by personal passive diffusion tubes. Results are interpreted separately and as a whole with the specific aim of identifying compounds that could affect the health of the scholars. In view of the chemical composition and size distribution of the aerosol particles, local deposition efficiencies in the children's respiratory systems were calculated, revealing the deposition of particles at extrathoracic, tracheobronchial and pulmonary levels. PMID:23838057

Godoi, Ricardo H M; Godoi, Ana F L; Gonçalves Junior, Sérgio J; Paralovo, Sarah L; Borillo, Guilherme C; Gonçalves Gregório Barbosa, Cybelli; Arantes, Manoela G; Charello, Renata C; Rosário Filho, Nelson A; Grassi, Marco T; Yamamoto, Carlos I; Potgieter-Vermaak, Sanja; Rotondo, Giuliana G; De Wael, Karolien; van Grieken, Rene

2013-10-01

121

Characteristics and control of industrial effluent-generated pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluates existing systems of collection and disposal of industrial waste water in the Lagos metropolis, Nigeria. Examines the rate of generation of waste water in the paints, foods and beverages, battery, textile, brewery, and pulp and paper industries. These include among others some selected industries in Ikeja Industrial Estate, Lagos. The cases chosen are believed to give a broad outline

A. Y. Sangodoyin

1995-01-01

122

Levels of metals, PCBs, PCNs and PAHs in soils of a highly industrialized chemical\\/petrochemical area: Temporal trend  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2005, the concentrations of various metals and organic pollutants were analyzed in soils collected in different areas of Tarragona (Catalonia, Spain), where an important chemical\\/petrochemical complex is located. The levels of seven elements (As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Mn, Pb and V), as well as those of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined

Martí Nadal; Marta Schuhmacher; José L. Domingo

2007-01-01

123

[Prevalence and characterization of hearing loss in workers exposed to industrial noise of the turbogenerated electric plant of a petrochemical industry].  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to assess the impact of occupational exposure to noise and its relationship with other factors that can induce hearing loss in the electric plant workers of a petrochemical industry of the west of Venezuela. A cross-sectional study was conducted that included sonometry tests, carried out according to the established methodology by COVENIN rules, and the occupational medical evaluation and liminal tonal audiometrics test in 75 workers. The equivalent noise levels (Leq) was quantified in different workplaces. It was found out that most of the workers are exposed to high noise levels [>85 dB(A)] and during more time than the recommended. All workers use hearing protectors appropriately. The hearing loss prevalence in workers was 16.0%, there were not noise-induced hearing losses. The hearing threshold registered in the audiometrics test was diminished, but inside the normal threshold values. We diagnosed 12 cases of conductive hearing loss, all grade I; there were not sensorial or mixed hearing losses. There was not a relationship between the equivalent noise level and hearing loss. It is suggested the design and implantation of a program of auditory conservation to protect the health and security of the workers and to conduct a longitudinal study considering the findings of the present study as it basis. PMID:16886774

Montiel-López, María; Corzo-Alvarez, Gilbert; Chacín-Almarza, Betulio; Rojas-González, Liliana; Quevedo, Ana; Rendiles, Hernando

2006-06-01

124

Assessment of the impact of petroleum and petrochemical industries to the surrounding areas in Malaysia using mosses as bioindicator supported by multivariate analysis.  

PubMed

Biomonitoring of multi-element atmospheric deposition using terrestrial moss is a well-established technique in Europe. Although the technique is widely known, there were very limited records of using this technique to study atmospheric air pollution in Malaysia. In this present study, the deposition of 11 trace metals surrounding the main petroleum refinery plant in Kerteh Terengganu (eastern part of peninsular Malaysia) has been evaluated using two local moss species, namely Hypnum plumaeforme and Taxithelium instratum as bioindicators. The study was also done by means of observing whether these metals are attributed to work related to oil exploration in this area. The moss samples have been collected at 30 sampling stations in the vicinity of the petrochemical industrial area covering up to 15 km to the south, north, and west in radius. The contents of heavy metal in moss samples were analyzed by energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence technique. Distribution of heavy metal content in all mosses is portrayed using Surfer software. Areas of the highest level of contaminations are highlighted. The results obtained using the principal components analysis revealed that the elements can be grouped into three different components that indirectly reflected three different sources namely anthropogenic factor, vegetation factor, and natural sources (soil dust or substrate) factor. Heavy metals deposited mostly in the distance after 9 km onward to the western part (the average direction of wind blow). V, Cr, Cu, and Hg are believed to have originated from local petrochemical-based industries operated around petroleum industrial area. PMID:21822578

Abdullah, Mohd Zahari Bin; Saat, Ahmad Bin; Hamzah, Zaini Bin

2012-06-01

125

Remaining competitive in refining and basic petrochemicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Companies involved in petroleum refining and basic petrochemicals production represent a major segment of the largest (Fortune 20) US corporations and account for a substantial share of the country's wealth. The 1980's have presented turbulent times for these businesses, causing massive restructuring which has not resulted in a return to former levels of financial performance. The refining and petrochemical industries

Cobb

1988-01-01

126

40 CFR 419.32 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PETROLEUM REFINING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Petrochemical Subcategory § 419.32 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

2013-07-01

127

40 CFR 419.34 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PETROLEUM REFINING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Petrochemical Subcategory § 419.34 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

2013-07-01

128

40 CFR 419.33 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PETROLEUM REFINING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Petrochemical Subcategory § 419.33 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

2013-07-01

129

Scale-up of electrochemical oxidation system for treatment of produced water generated by Brazilian petrochemical industry.  

PubMed

Scale-up of anodic oxidation system is critical to the practical application of electrochemical treatment in bio-refractory organic wastewater treatment. In this study, the scale-up of electrochemical flow system was investigated by treating petrochemical wastewater using platinized titanium (Ti/Pt) and boron-doped diamond (BDD) anodes. It was demonstrated that flow cell was successfully scaled-up because when it was compared with batch mode (Rocha et al. 2012b), higher performances on organic matter removal were achieved. Under the suitable operating conditions and better anode material, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of petrochemical wastewater was reduced from 2,746 to 200 mg L(-1) within 5 h with an energy consumption of only 56.2 kWh m(-3) in the scaled-up BDD anode system. These results demonstrate that anode flow system is very promising in practical bio-refractory organic wastewater treatment. PMID:24687787

Dos Santos, Elisama Vieira; Sena, Shirley Feitosa Machado; da Silva, Djalma Ribeiro; Ferro, Sergio; De Battisti, Achille; Martínez-Huitle, Carlos A

2014-07-01

130

AN ENZYMATIC METHOD FOR REMOVAL OF PHENOL FROM INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenols in an aqueous solution were removed after treatment with peroxidase in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. Phenols occur in wastewater of a number of industries, such as high temperature coal conversion, petroleum refining, resin and plastic, wood and dye industries, etc. It can be toxic when present at elevated levels and is known to be carcinogeneous. Thus, removal of

Naresh Singh; Jai Singh

2002-01-01

131

On-line flow injection monitoring of ammonia in industrial liquid effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

A flow-injection method was applied to on-line analysis for ammonia in industrial liquid effluents. The method utilised the diffusion of gaseous ammonia from an alkaline sample stream, through a microporous membrane, into a bromothymol blue indicator stream, with the resulting colour change measured photometrically using a red LED. Following initial development work, the method was adapted to an automated, portable

Kevin N. Andrew; Paul J. Worsfold; Michael Comber

1995-01-01

132

Fertilizer Industry Effluent Induced Biochemical Changes in Fresh water Teleost, Channa striatus ( Bloch )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The industrial activities pose threat to the life of aquatic organisms in many ways. This research communication presents\\u000a an account of the impact of fertilizer industry effluent upon the levels of protein and the activity of lactate dehydrogenase\\u000a (EC 1.1.1.28, LDH), a terminal key enzyme in glycolytic pathway, in different organs of a fresh water teleost fish, Channa striatus (Bloch).

Archana Yadav; Anita Gopesh; Ravi S. Pandey; Devendra K. Rai; Bechan Sharma

2007-01-01

133

Aerosol generation to simulate specific industrial fine particle effluents.  

PubMed

Techniques were developed for generating large quantities of fine particle metal oxide aerosols. The aerosols were generated by burning flammable solutions containing appropriate soluble compounds (nitrates, for example) of the desired elements. In the flame these compounds generally decomposed to oxides. The generated aerosol flow rates were as high as 42 m3 per minute (1500 cfm); the mass concentrations were as high as 16.8 g per m3 at STP. For most aerosols the particle concentrations were of the order of 10(9) particles per cm3. Electron microscopic pictures (SEM and TEM) of precipitated particles show that many of the larger particles (20 microm) are hollow and that the smaller particles (0.01 microm) are aggregated. Specific aerosols were generated to simulate the fine particulate effluents generated by combustion of pulverized coal (electricity generation) electric arc and basic oxygen furnaces (iron and steel production) and zinc smelters. Methods were developed to vary the sulfur dioxide concentration and the electrical resistivities of the simulants for coal combustion. PMID:15508480

Carroz, J W; Odencrantz, F K; Finnegan, W G; Drehmel, D C

1980-02-01

134

Decolorization of a dye industry effluent by Aspergillus fumigatus XC6  

Microsoft Academic Search

The strain Aspergillus fumigatus XC6 isolated from mildewing rice straw was evaluated for its ability to decolorize a dye industry effluent. The strain was\\u000a capable of decolorizing dyes effluent over a pH range 3.0–8.0 with the dyes as sole carbon and nitrogen sources. The optimum\\u000a pH was 3.0; however, supplemented with either appropriate nitrogen sources (0.2% NH4Cl or (NH4)2SO4 )

Xian-Chun Jin; Gao-Qiang Liu; Zheng-Hong Xu; Wen-Yi Tao

2007-01-01

135

Petrochemicals: An Integrated Technology Strategy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The summary of Integrated Technology Strategy comprises three parts. Part I focuses on a short-term (0-5 years) action plan in three technology areas. Part II overviews the totality of Petrochemicals Industry in the medium term (0-7 years): Technology nee...

1990-01-01

136

Treatment of whey effluents from dairy industries by nanofiltration membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Membrane separation processes are based on the principle of concentration-fractionation treatment of solutions without phase change. Ultrafiltration (UF) and reverse osmosis (RO) are well established pressure-driven membrane processes that are widely used in the dairy and other food industries throughout the world. Recent developments in the membrane technology have expanded the range of applicability of these traditional processes offering the

H. S. Alkhatim; M. I. Alcaina; E. Soriano; M. I. Iborra; J. Lora; J. Arnal

1998-01-01

137

Effects of industrial effluents, heavy metals, and organic solvents on mallard embryo development  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mallard eggs were externally exposed at 3 and 8 days of incubation to 7 different industrial effluents and to 7 different heavy metal, organic solvent, and petroleum solutions to screen for potential embryo-toxic effects. This route of exposure was chosen in order to simulate the transfer of pollutant from the plumage of aquatic birds to their eggs. Five of the effluents including mineral pigment, scouring effluent, sludge, and tannery effluent resulted in small but significant reductions in embryonic growth. Treatment with methyl mercury chloride solution of 50 ppm (Hg) impaired embryonic growth but much higher concentrations were required to affect survival and cause teratogenic effects. Oil used to suppress road dust was the most toxic of the pollutants tested and only 0.5 microliter/egg caused 60% mortality by 18 days of development. These findings, in combination with other studies suggest that petroleum pollutants, or effluents in combination with petroleum, may pose a hazard to birds' eggs when exposure is by this route.

Hoffman, D.J.; Eastin, W.C., Jr.

1981-01-01

138

A comparative study on toxicity identification of industrial effluents using Daphnia magna.  

PubMed

In this study, acute toxicity monitoring and toxicity identification evaluation procedures were applied to identify causative toxicants in industrial effluents. Effluents from a metal plating factory and a rubber products factory were acutely toxic toward Daphnia magna and the toxicity varied over different sampling events (2.9-5.9 and 1.7-7.6 TU, respectively). For the rubber products effluent, it was confirmed that zinc (5.65-13.18 mg L(-1)) was found to be a major cause of toxicity, which is likely originated from zinc 2-mercaptobenzothiazole and zinc diethyldithiocarbamate used as vulcanization accelerators. For the metal plating effluent, it appeared that the presence of high concentrations of Cl(-) and SO(4)(2-) (8,539-11,400 and 3,588-4,850 mg L(-1), respectively) caused the observed toxicity. These toxicants likely originated from sodium bisulfate (NaHSO(3)) and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) used as reducing and oxidizing agents. Though copper was found to be present in levels much higher than the EC(50) (50% effective concentration) value, this was not attributable to the toxicity of metal plating effluent likely due to complexation with dissolved organic matter. PMID:21761172

Yi, Xianliang; Kim, Eunhee; Jo, Hun-Je; Han, Taejun; Jung, Jinho

2011-09-01

139

Increased Risk of Preterm Delivery in Areas with Cancer Mortality Problems from Petrochemical Complexes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The petrochemical and petroleum industries are the main sources of industrial air pollution in Taiwan. Data in this study concern outdoor air pollution and the health of individuals living in communities in close proximity to petrochemical industrial complexes. The prevalence of delivery of preterm birth infants was significantly higher in mothers living near petrochemical industrial complexes than in control mothers

Chun-Yuh Yang; Hui-Fen Chiu; Shang-Shyue Tsai; Chih-Ching Chang; Hung-Yi Chuang

2002-01-01

140

Remediation of acidic industrial effluents by sulphate reducing bioreactors.  

PubMed

This research work was designed to examine the feasibility of sulphate reducing bioreactors with organic substrates, containing manures, and other cellulosic wastes for remediation of acidic industrial wastewater on bench scale. The pH of the wastewater increased from 5.5. to 7.18, alkalinity from 0 to 2566 mg/L as CaCO3, acidity removal was from 357 to 210 mg/L as CaCO3, sulphate removal was 92.7%, lead removal was 97.3%, zinc- 99.8%, copper-97.5%, cobalt-99.4%, manganese-98.9%, nickel- 98.3% and iron 99.5%, were observed in this study after the maximum retention of 106 days. This paper describes bioremediation as a state-of-art for the treatment of wastewater from the industries. PMID:24749196

Sheoran, V; Chaudhary, R; Tholia, N K

2012-07-01

141

Cleanup of industrial effluents containing heavy metals: a new opportunity of valorising the biomass produced by brewing industry.  

PubMed

Heavy metal pollution is a matter of concern in industrialised countries. Contrary to organic pollutants, heavy metals are not metabolically degraded. This fact has two main consequences: its bioremediation requires another strategy and heavy metals can be indefinitely recycled. Yeast cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are produced at high amounts as a by-product of brewing industry constituting a cheap raw material. In the present work, the possibility of valorising this type of biomass in the bioremediation of real industrial effluents containing heavy metals is reviewed. Given the auto-aggregation capacity (flocculation) of brewing yeast cells, a fast and off-cost yeast separation is achieved after the treatment of metal-laden effluent, which reduces the costs associated with the process. This is a critical issue when we are looking for an effective, eco-friendly, and low-cost technology. The possibility of the bioremediation of industrial effluents linked with the selective recovery of metals, in a strategy of simultaneous minimisation of environmental hazard of industrial wastes with financial benefits from reselling or recycling the metals, is discussed. PMID:23824444

Soares, Eduardo V; Soares, Helena M V M

2013-08-01

142

Effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals from leather industry effluents on male reproductive system.  

PubMed

The leather tanning industry is characterized by the production of different kinds of effluents, generated in each step of leather processing. These effluents have various chemical compounds which may cause toxicity and endocrine disruption and are thus known as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC). This study was aimed to examine the androgenic potential of leather industry effluents collected from northern region of India. Hershberger assay data showed a significant increase (p<0.05) in the weight and structure of sex accessory tissues of castrated rats. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis demonstrated a significant change (p<0.05) in the expression patterns of the major steroidogenic enzymes in adrenal and testes namely, cytochrome P450scc, 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydorgenase in castrated and intact rats. This was further supported by increased enzymatic activities measured in vitro spectrophotometrically. Serum hormone profile demonstrated a dose dependent increase in testicular and adrenal testosterone productions in intact and castrated rats, respectively. This was further supported by decreased level of gonadotrophic hormones (LH and FSH) in treated groups of animals. Further, the effluent treatment resulted in the development of hyperplasia in seminiferous tubules of testes in treated rats as evident from histopathological studies and about two-fold increases in daily sperm production. On analysis of water samples using GC-MS, it was found to contain various aromatic compounds (nonylphenol, hexaclrobenzene and several azo dyes) some of which independently demonstrated similar effects as shown by water samples. Our data suggests that the effluents from leather industry have potential EDC demonstrating androgenic activities. PMID:18606229

Kumar, Vikas; Majumdar, Chandrajeetbalo; Roy, Partha

2008-09-01

143

Reduction of toxic chromate in an industrial effluent by use of a chromate?reducing strain of Enterobacter cloacae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detoxification and removal of hexavalent chromium (chromate: CrO4 ) in an industrial effluent was investigated using Enterobacter cloacae HO1. This bacterium could completely reduce chromate to less toxic trivalent chromium when appropiate nutrients were supplied to the effluent. The reduction rate was strongly dependent on the amount of added carbon and energy sources, and also on cell density. Since the

H. Ohtake; E. Fujii; K. Toda

1990-01-01

144

Effluent treatment in the paint and coating industry. (Latest citations from World Surface Coatings abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the analysis and treatment of effluents from the coating industry. Filters used for solvent adsorption and recovery, activated carbon adsorption of paint fumes, hydrogen peroxide treatment of wastes, effluent heat recovery, and biological treatments are discussed. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1996-02-01

145

Ecotoxicological assessment of industrial effluent using duckweed ( Lemna minor L.) as a test organism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed at assessing the toxic effects of industrial effluents using duckweed (Lemna minor L.) plants as a test system. Growth inhibition test according to standardized protocol (ISO 20079) was performed. The suitability\\u000a of the Comet assay (indicates DNA damage) and certain parameters such as peroxidase activity and lipid peroxidation level,\\u000a as biomarkers for environmental monitoring was evaluated. The

Sandra Radi?; Draženka Stipani?ev; Petra Cvjetko; Ivanka Lovren?i? Mikeli?; Marija Marijanovi? Raj?i?; Siniša Širac; Branka Pevalek-Kozlina; Mirjana Pavlica

2010-01-01

146

Enzymatic saccharification and fermentation of paper and pulp industry effluent for biohydrogen production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paper and pulp industry effluent was enzymatically hydrolysed using crude cellulase enzyme (0.8–2.2FPU\\/ml) obtained from Trichoderma reesei and from the hydrolysate biohydrogen was produced using Enterobacter aerogenes. The influence of temperature and incubation time on enzyme production was studied. The optimum temperature for the growth of T. reesei was found to be around 29°C. The enzyme activity of 2.5FPU\\/ml was

Rajendran Lakshmidevi; Karuppan Muthukumar

2010-01-01

147

Decolourization of Industrial Effluents – Available Methods and Emerging Technologies – A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water pollution control is presently one of the major thrust areas of scientific research. While coloured organic compounds\\u000a generally impart only a minor fraction of the organic load to wastewaters, their colour renders them aesthetically unacceptable.\\u000a Stringent regulating measures are coaxing industries to treat their waste effluents to increasingly high standards. Colour\\u000a removal, in particular, has recently become an area

Y. Anjaneyulu; N. Sreedhara Chary; D. Samuel Suman Raj

2005-01-01

148

PROCESSING CRUDE OIL: SELECTION OF TECHNOLOGIES AND PETROCHEMICALS PRODUCTS USING MULTICRITERIA METHODS. {A CASE STUDY OF MULTILEVEL PLANNING}  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a system of models to show the importance of Petrochemical's Industry value added. The Petrochemical Industry is structured in a network, having different alternative routes of production and their correspondent technologies in a network formed initially from the basic until final petrochemicals. It has been considered that basic petrochemicals were produced through Refineries with a

Claudia García Aranda

149

Pollution control in pulp and paper industrial effluents using integrated chemical-biological treatment sequences.  

PubMed

The main objective of the present study was to improve the quality of pulp and paper industrial wastewater of two local mills RAKTA and El-Ahlia, Alexandria, Egypt, and to bring their pollutant contents to safe discharge levels. Quality improvement was carried out using integrated chemical and biological treatment approaches after their optimization. Chemical treatment (alum, lime, and ferric chloride) was followed by oxidation using hydrogen peroxide and finally biological treatment using activated sludge (90 min for RAKTA and 60 min for El-Ahlia effluents). Chemical coagulation produced low-quality effluents, while pH adjustment during coagulation treatment did not enhance the quality of the effluents. Maximum removal of the tested pollutants was achieved using the integrated treatment and the pollutants recorded residual concentrations (RCs) of 34.67, 17.33, 0.13, and 0.43 mg/l and 15.0, 11.0, 0.0, and 0.13 mg/l for chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), tannin and lignin, and silica in RAKTA and El-Ahlia effluents, respectively, all of which were below their maximum permissible limits (MPLs) for the safe discharge into water courses. Specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR) and sludge volume index (SVI) values reflect good conditions and healthy activated sludge. Based on the previous results, optimized conditions were applied as bench scale on the raw effluents of RAKTA and El-Ahlia via the batch chemical and the biological treatment sequences proposed. For RAKTA effluents, the sequence was as follows: (1) coagulation with 375 mg/l FeCl3, (2) oxidation with 50 mg/l hydrogen peroxide, and (3) biological treatment using activated sludge with 2,000 mg/l initial concentration and 90 min hydraulic retention time (HRT), while for El-Ahlia raw effluents, the sequence was (1) coagulation with 250 mg/l FeCl3, (2) oxidation with 45 mg/l hydrogen peroxide, and (3) biological treatment using activated sludge with 2,000 mg/l initial concentration and 60 min HRT. In conclusion, results confirmed that the application of the proposed sequential treatments removed almost all COD, BOD5, high molecular weight compounds, and silica from RAKTA and El-Ahlia influents and produced high-quality effluents, thus achieving the main objective of this study. PMID:18716811

El-Bestawy, Ebtesam; El-Sokkary, Ibrahim; Hussein, Hany; Keela, Alaa Farouk Abu

2008-11-01

150

Economic Impact Analysis of Final Effluent Limitations Guidelines and Standards of Performance for the Offshore Oil and Gas Industry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document is an economic impact analysis prepared in support of the promulgation of effluent limitations guidelines and standards of performance for drilling and production wastes for the offshore oil and gas industry. The report analyzes the economic ...

E. M. Sigler M. F. Kaplan

1993-01-01

151

Monitoring of xenobiotic ligands for human estrogen receptor and aryl hydrocarbon receptor in industrial wastewater effluents.  

PubMed

Industrial wastewater contains a variety of toxic substances, which may severely contaminate the aquatic environment if discharged without adequate treatment. In this study, effluents from a thin film transistor liquid crystal display wastewater treatment plant and the receiving water were analyzed by bioassays and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to investigate the presence of estrogenic compounds, aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists, and genotoxicants. Xenobiotic AhR agonists were frequently detected and, in particular, strong AhR agonist activity and genotoxicity were found in the suspended solids of the aeration tank outflow. The high AhR agonist activity in the final effluent (FE) and the downstream river water suggested that the treatment plant failed to remove the wastewater-related AhR agonists. In contrast, although significant estrogenic potency could be detected in raw wastewater or effluents from different treatment processes, the FE and the receiving river water exhibited no or weak estrogenicity. Instrumental analysis showed that bisphenol A was often detected in water samples. However, the investigated estrogenic compounds could only account for a small portion of the estrogenicity in the collected samples. Therefore, further investigation is necessary to identify the major estrogenic compounds and AhR agonist contaminants in the wastewater effluents. PMID:24680543

Chou, Pei-Hsin; Liu, Tong-Cun; Lin, Yi-Ling

2014-07-30

152

Treatment of industrial wastewater effluents using hydrodynamic cavitation and the advanced Fenton process.  

PubMed

For the first time, hydrodynamic cavitation induced by a liquid whistle reactor (LWR) has been used in conjunction with the advanced Fenton process (AFP) for the treatment of real industrial wastewater. Semi-batch experiments in the LWR were designed to investigate the performance of the process for two different industrial wastewater samples. The effect of various operating parameters such as pressure, H2O2 concentration and the initial concentration of industrial wastewater samples on the extent of mineralization as measured by total organic carbon (TOC) content have been studied with the aim of maximizing the extent of degradation. It has been observed that higher pressures, sequential addition of hydrogen peroxide at higher loadings and lower concentration of the effluent are more favourable for a rapid TOC mineralization. In general, the novel combination of hydrodynamic cavitation with AFP results in about 60-80% removal of TOC under optimized conditions depending on the type of industrial effluent samples. The combination described herein is most useful for treatment of bio-refractory materials where the diminution in toxicity can be achieved up to a certain level and then conventional biological oxidation can be employed for final treatment. The present work is the first to report the use of a hydrodynamic cavitation technique for real industrial wastewater treatment. PMID:17368951

Chakinala, Anand G; Gogate, Parag R; Burgess, Arthur E; Bremner, David H

2008-01-01

153

Petroleum industry effluents and other oxygen-demanding wastes in Niger Delta, Nigeria.  

PubMed

In this article, we review the fundamental phenomenon of oxygenation within the overriding context of petroleum-industry effluents and the other oxygen demanding wastes in Niger Delta, Nigeria. Drill cuttings, drilling mud (fluids used to stimulate the production processes), and accidental discharges of crude petroleum constitute serious land and water pollution in the oil-bearing province. Effluents from other industrial establishments such as distilleries, pulp and paper mills, fertilizer plants, and breweries, as well as thermal effluents, plant nutrients (such as nitrates and phosphates), and eroded sediments have also contributed to the pollution of their surrounding environment. Since these wastes are oxygen-demanding in nature, their impact on the recipient environment can be reversed by the direct application of simple chemistry. The wastes can be reduced, particularly in natural bodies of water, by direct oxidation-reduction processes or simple chemical combinations, acid-base reactions, and solubility equilibria; these are pH- and temperature-dependent. A shift in pH and alkalinity affects the solubility equilibria of Na+, Cl-, SO(2-), NO3(-), HCO3(-), and PO4(3-), and other ions and compounds. PMID:17193303

Osuji, Leo C; Uwakwe, Augustine A

2006-07-01

154

Electrolytic recovery of dilute copper from a mixed industrial effluent of high strength COD.  

PubMed

In this study, the electrochemical treatment has been investigated in the real acidic effluent of copper-phthalocyanine dye manufacturing plant. Galvanostatic batch electrolyses have been carried out in an undivided cell using stainless steel as cathode, dimensionally stable anode (DSA) and graphite as anodes at different current densities and temperatures. The influence of these variables on current efficiency, cell voltage, energy consumption and deposit quality was reported. Under optimized conditions, the maximum copper recovery of 98% and COD removal efficiency of 87.3% with the energy consumption of about 11.23 kWh/kg of Cu and 6.08 kWh/kg of COD, respectively at 30 degrees C were achieved in the acidic raw effluent using 2D parallel-plate cathode. While in 3D stainless steel turning cathode reactor, 99.5% of copper can efficiently be recovered from dilute solution with an acceptable current efficiency of about 56.8% with minimum energy consumption of 2.37 kWh/kg of Cu. The experimental results suggested that the efficiency of copper removal is hindered by the presence of organic species in the mixed industrial effluent. PMID:20434836

Chellammal, S; Raghu, S; Kalaiselvi, P; Subramanian, G

2010-08-15

155

Economic analysis of final effluent limitations guidelines and standards for the pharmaceutical manufacturing industry  

SciTech Connect

This economic analysis (EA) examines compliance costs and economic impacts resulting from the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) Final Effluent Limitations Guidelines and Standards for the Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Industry Point Source Category. It also investigates the costs and impacts associated with an air rule requiring Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) to control air emissions, both separately and together with the Final Pharmaceutical Industry Effluent Guidelines. The EA estimates the economic effects of compliance with both final rules in terms of total aggregate annualized costs of compliance, facility closures, impacts on firms (likelihood of bankruptcy and effects on profit margins), and impacts on new sources. The EA also investigates secondary impacts on employment and communities, foreign trade, specific demographic groups, and environmental justice. This report includes a Final Regulatory Flexibility Analysis (FRFA) detailing the impacts on small businesses within the pharmaceutical industry to meet the requirements of the Regulatory Flexibility Act (RFA), as amended by the Small Business Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Act (SBREFA). Finally, the EA presents a cost-benefit analysis to meet the requirements of Executive Order 12866 and the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act.

NONE

1998-07-01

156

Trends in the incidence of cryptorchidism and hypospadias of registry-based data in Korea: a comparison between industrialized areas of petrochemical estates and a non-industrialized area.  

PubMed

This study aimed to represent the recent trends in the nationwide incidence of cryptorchidism and hypospadias in Korea, and to determine whether there is evidence of spatial heterogeneity in the incidence. The incidence was calculated as the number of newly diagnosed patients (males) during the first 4 years after a live birth in a population, nationally and regionally (a non-industrialized area (Chuncheon) and petrochemical estates (Yeocheon and Ulsan)), between 2000 and 2005. The data (numerator) for new patients were acquired from the National Health Insurance Review Agency, and the data (denominator) for the resident registration population were from the National Statistical Office. Between 2000 and 2005, the national incidence of cryptorchidism and hypospadias had an increased tendency from 5.01 to 17.43 per 10 000 persons and from 1.40 to 3.28 per 10 000 persons, respectively. The incidence of cryptorchidism was significantly higher in Yeocheon (throughout the study period) and in Ulsan (2001, 2002, 2004 and 2005) than the national incidence, whereas the incidence in Chuncheon was significantly lower in 2001 and 2002. It was difficult to compare the rates of hypospadias yearly and regionally because of the small number of cases. In conclusion, the incidence of cryptorchidism has recently increased in Korea. The petrochemical estates, Yeocheon and Ulsan, had a significantly higher incidence of cyptorchidism than the national incidence, which suggests that further study is needed to obtain a more precise estimation of the trends in the incidence of the anomalies and to confirm the association between petrochemicals and the anomalies. PMID:20729869

Chul Kim, Sae; Kyoung Kwon, Su; Pyo Hong, Yeon

2011-09-01

157

Water pollution by industrial effluents in India: Discharge scenarios and case for participatory ecosystem specific local regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Around the world as countries are struggling to arrive at an effective regulatory regime to control the discharge of industrial effluents into their ecosystems, Indian economy holds a double edged sword of economic growth and ecosystem collapse. This situation if mishandled can cause irreparable ecological harm in the long term well masked by short term economic prosperity. Considering that Industries

T. Rajaram; Ashutosh Das

2008-01-01

158

Performance evaluation of low cost adsorbents in reduction of COD in sugar industrial effluent.  

PubMed

Studies on reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD) in effluent from sugar industry have been carried out by employing different absorbents optimizing various parameters, such as initial concentration of adsorbate, pH, adsorbent dosage and contact time. Experimental studies were carried out in batches using metakaolin, tamarind nut carbon and dates nut carbon as adsorbents by keeping initial adsorbent dosage at 1 g l(-1), agitation time over a range of 30-240 min, adsorbent dosage at 100-800 mg l(-1) by varying the pH range from 4 to 10. Characterization of there adsorbents were done using techniques such as Fourier transforms infra red spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The experimental adsorption data fitted well to Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms. The isotherms of the adsorbents indicate appreciable adsorption capacity. Higher COD removal was observed at neutral pH conditions. Studies reveal that maximum reduction efficiency of COD takes place using metakaolin as an absorbent at a dosage of 500 mg l(-1) in a contact time of 180 min at pH 7 and it could be used as an efficient absorbent for treating sugar industrial effluent. PMID:19304388

Parande, Anand K; Sivashanmugam, A; Beulah, H; Palaniswamy, N

2009-09-15

159

Biomass in a petrochemical world  

PubMed Central

The world's increasingly voracious appetite for fossil fuels is driven by fast-growing populations and ever-rising aspirations for the lifestyles and standard of living exemplified in the developed world. Forecasts for higher electricity consumption, more comfortable living environments (via heating or cooling) and greater demand for transport fuels are well known. Similar growth in demand is projected for petrochemical-based products in the form of man-made fibres for clothing, ubiquitous plastic artefacts, cosmetics, etc. All drawing upon the same finite oil, gas and coal feedstocks. Biomass can, in principle, substitute for all of these feedstocks. Although ultimately finite, biomass resources can be expanded and renewed if this is a societal priority. This paper examines the projected growth of an energy-intensive international petrochemicals industry, considers its demand for both utilities and feedstocks, and considers the extent to which biomass can substitute for fossil fuels. The scope of this study includes biomass component extraction, direct chemical conversion, thermochemical conversion and biochemical conversion. Noting that the petrochemicals industry consumes around 10 per cent of the world's fossil fuels as feedstocks and almost as much again in utilities, various strategies for addressing future demand are considered. The need for long-term infrastructure and logistics planning is highlighted.

Roddy, Dermot J.

2013-01-01

160

Biomass in a petrochemical world.  

PubMed

The world's increasingly voracious appetite for fossil fuels is driven by fast-growing populations and ever-rising aspirations for the lifestyles and standard of living exemplified in the developed world. Forecasts for higher electricity consumption, more comfortable living environments (via heating or cooling) and greater demand for transport fuels are well known. Similar growth in demand is projected for petrochemical-based products in the form of man-made fibres for clothing, ubiquitous plastic artefacts, cosmetics, etc. All drawing upon the same finite oil, gas and coal feedstocks. Biomass can, in principle, substitute for all of these feedstocks. Although ultimately finite, biomass resources can be expanded and renewed if this is a societal priority. This paper examines the projected growth of an energy-intensive international petrochemicals industry, considers its demand for both utilities and feedstocks, and considers the extent to which biomass can substitute for fossil fuels. The scope of this study includes biomass component extraction, direct chemical conversion, thermochemical conversion and biochemical conversion. Noting that the petrochemicals industry consumes around 10 per cent of the world's fossil fuels as feedstocks and almost as much again in utilities, various strategies for addressing future demand are considered. The need for long-term infrastructure and logistics planning is highlighted. PMID:24427511

Roddy, Dermot J

2013-02-01

161

Ecotoxicological assessment of industrial effluent using duckweed (Lemna minor L.) as a test organism.  

PubMed

This study aimed at assessing the toxic effects of industrial effluents using duckweed (Lemna minor L.) plants as a test system. Growth inhibition test according to standardized protocol (ISO 20079) was performed. The suitability of the Comet assay (indicates DNA damage) and certain parameters such as peroxidase activity and lipid peroxidation level, as biomarkers for environmental monitoring was evaluated. The water samples were collected monthly over a 3-month period from the stream near the industrial estate of Savski Marof, Croatia. All samples caused inhibition of growth rates based on frond number and biomass as well as decrease of chlorophylls content. In contrast, peroxidase activity, malondialdehyde content and tail extent moment (measure of DNA strand breaks) markedly increased. Obtained data demonstrate the relevance of duckweed as sensitive indicators of water quality as well as the significance of selected biological parameters in the reliable assessment of phyto- and genotoxic potential of complex wastewaters. PMID:19757030

Radi?, Sandra; Stipanicev, Drazenka; Cvjetko, Petra; Mikeli?, Ivanka Lovrenci?; Rajci?, Marija Marijanovi?; Sirac, Sinisa; Pevalek-Kozlina, Branka; Pavlica, Mirjana

2010-01-01

162

A Petrochemical Primer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Informs the reader of the pervasiveness of petrochemicals in everyday life. Discusses the petroleum-to-petrochemical transformation at the refinery and issues related to how petroleum products will be utilized for fuel or nonfuel needs such as lubricants, computers, and medicine in the future. (MDH)

Martin, Amy

1991-01-01

163

Evaluation of the phytotoxicity of polycontaminated industrial effluents using the lettuce plant (Lactuca sativa) as a bioindicator.  

PubMed

Industrial wastewater containing heavy metals is generally decontaminated by physicochemical treatment consisting in insolublizing the contaminants and separating the two phases, water and sludge, by a physical process (filtration, settling or flotation). However, chemical precipitation does not usually remove the whole pollution load and the effluent discharged into the environment can be toxic even if it comes up to regulatory standards. To assess the impact of industrial effluent from 4 different surface treatment companies, we performed standardized bioassays using seeds of the lettuce Lactuca sativa. We measured the rate of germination, and the length and mass of the lettuce plantlet. The results were used to compare the overall toxicity of the different effluents: effluents containing copper and nickel had a much higher impact than those containing zinc or aluminum. In addition, germination tests conducted using synthetic solutions confirmed that mixtures of metals have higher toxicity than the sum of their separate constituents. These biological tests are cheap, easy to implement, reproducible and highlight the effects caused by effluent treated with the methods commonly applied in industry today. They could be routinely used to check the impact of industrial discharges, even when they meet regulatory requirements for the individual metals. PMID:21835466

Charles, Jérémie; Sancey, Bertrand; Morin-Crini, Nadia; Badot, Pierre-Marie; Degiorgi, François; Trunfio, Giuseppe; Crini, Grégorio

2011-10-01

164

Effects of sludge retention time and biosurfactant on the treatment of polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) in a petrochemical industry wastewater.  

PubMed

A laboratory-scale aerobic activated sludge reactor (AASR) system was employed to investigate the effects of sludge retention time (SRT) on the removal of three polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with low benzene rings [(acenaphthene (ACT), fluorene (FLN) and phenanthrene (PHE)] and six PAHs with high benzene rings [(benzo[b]fluoranthene (BbF), benzo[k]fluoranthene (BkF), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene (DahA), benzo[g,h,i]perylene (BghiP)] in the presence of rhamnolipid (RD), emulsan (EM) and surfactine (SR) biosurfactants. This study showed that biosurfactants enhance the PAH biodegradation by increasing the biomass growth. RD exhibits a better performance than the other biosurfactants in the removal of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and PAHs. At a RD concentration of 15 mg/L aerobic treatment for 25 days, SRT was enough to remove over 95% of total PAHs, and COD(dis). Under the same conditions 75% of COD originating from the inert organics (COD(inert)) and 96% of COD originating from the inert soluble microbial products (COD(imp)) were removed. At 25 days SRT and 15 mg/L RD concentration, about 88% of PAHs were biodegraded by the AASR system, 4% were accumulated in the system, 3% were released in the effluent, and 5% remained in the waste sludge. PMID:22156134

Sponza, D T; Gok, O

2011-01-01

165

Glyphosate degradation by immobilized bacteria: field studies with industrial wastewater effluent.  

PubMed Central

Immobilized bacteria have been shown in the laboratory to effectively remove glyphosate from wastewater effluent discharged from an activated sludge treatment system. Bacterial consortia in lab columns maintained a 99% glyphosate-degrading activity (GDA) at a hydraulic residence time of less than 20 min. In this study, a pilot plant (capacity, 45 liters/min) was used for a field demonstration. Initially, activated sludge was enriched for microbes with GDA during a 3-week biocarrier activation period. Wastewater effluent was then spiked with glyphosate and NH4Cl and recycled through the pilot plant column during start-up. Microbes with GDA were enhanced by maintaining the pH at less than 8 and adding yeast extract (less than 10 mg/liter). Once the consortia were stabilized, the column capacity for glyphosate removal was determined in a 60-day continuous-flow study. Waste containing 50 mg of glyphosate per liter was pumped at increasing flow rates until a steady state was reached. A microbial GDA of greater than 90% was achieved at a 10-min hydraulic residence time (144 hydraulic turnovers per day). Additional studies showed that microbes with GDA were recoverable within (i) 5 days of an acid shock and (ii) 3 days after a 21-day dormancy (low-flow, low-maintenance) mode. These results suggest that full-scale use of immobilized bacteria can be a cost-effective and dependable technique for the biotreatment of industrial wastewater.

Hallas, L E; Adams, W J; Heitkamp, M A

1992-01-01

166

Removal of chromium from tannery industry effluents with (activated carbon and fly ash) adsorbents.  

PubMed

Adsorption is a strong choice for removal operations as it is very simple to recover a high quality product from waste sludge. The efficiency of adsorbents like fly ash and activated carbon are tested based on their performance to remove chrome at various pH values, bed heights, and concentration of adsorbents. The removal efficiency was also tested for wastewater characteristics in a pilot plant in addition to the use of adsorbents. The concentration of chromium was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer (Perkin Elmer). The results depicted that the efficiency of removal increased with increasing pH and bed height and decreased with increasing concentration. The removal efficiency with fly ash as an adsorbent was comparatively better than activatedcarbon. Thus, adsorbents can be used for chromium removal from tannery industry effluent. PMID:18476371

Rao, S; Lade, H S; Kadam, T A; Ramana, T V; Krishnamacharyulu, S K G; Deshmukh, S; Gyananath, G

2007-10-01

167

Biosequestration, transformation, and volatilization of mercury by Lysinibacillus fusiformis isolated from industrial effluent.  

PubMed

In the present study, an efficient mercury-tolerant bacterial strain (RS-5) was isolated from heavy-metalcontaminated industrial effluent. Under shake flask conditions, 97% of the supplemented mercuric chloride was sequestered by the biomass of RS-5 grown in a tryptone soy broth. The sequestered mercuric ions were transformed inside the bacterial cells, as an XRD analysis of the biomass confirmed the formation of mercurous chloride, which is only feasible following the reaction of the elemental mercury and the residual mercuric chloride present within the cells. Besides the sequestration and intracellular transformation, a significant fraction of the mercury (63%) was also volatilized. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of RS-5 revealed its phylogenetic relationship with the family Bacillaceae, and a 98% homology with Lysinibacillus fusiformis, a Gram-positive bacterium with swollen sporangia. This is the first observation of the sequestration and volatilization of mercuric ions by Lysinibacillus sp. PMID:22561864

Gupta, Saurabh; Goyal, Richa; Nirwan, Jashan; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh; Tejoprakash, Nagaraja

2012-05-01

168

Removal of Heavy Metals from Soil Polluted with Effluents from a Paint Industry Using Helianthus annuus L. and Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) as Influenced by Fertilizer Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contamination of soils by effluents from industries is on the increase. There is the possibility of remediating these contaminated soils through the use of certain plants. This work investigated the remediating ability of Helianthus annuus and Tithonia diversifolia on the soil polluted with effluents from a paint industry in Ibadan, Nigeria. The experiment consisted of three treatments (H. annuus, T.

M. B. Adewole; M. K. C. Sridhar; G. O. Adeoye

2010-01-01

169

Transformations and hydraulic captures of petrochemical contaminants in a karst-fractured aquifer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of a petrochemical industry may be responsible for petrochemical contamination of karst-fractured aquifers\\u000a in an urban water supply system. In the Dawu Well Field, a karst-fractured aquifer in Zibo City, in the east of China, has\\u000a been seriously polluted by petrochemicals from the operation of petrochemical plants. More than 60 species of organic contaminants\\u000a have been detected in

Yudao Chen; Xueshun Zhu; Yaping Jiang; Qinglin Xie

2000-01-01

170

Comparson of the metal content in acid sulfate soil runoff and industrial effluents in Finland.  

PubMed

The magnitude of the diffuse leakage of metals (Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn) from Finnish acid sulfate soils (AS soils) into streams was assessed and then compared to the metal discharges in effluent from Finnish industry. The diffuse leakage was calculated by using median metal concentrations for a total of 30 ditches draining AS soils and the mean annual runoff from such soils. In comparison to the present-day industrial discharges, AS soils are a massive supplier of Al, Cd, Co, Mn, Ni, and Zn to the aquatic environment. Also Cu exists abundantly in runoff from such soils, while Pb, Cr, Fe, As, and V in general do not. Since the AS soils are anthropogenic (developed as a result of deep ditching for farming purposes), the comparison with industry is justified and shows that there is an urgent need to take measures against the extensive metal leakage from these soils. It is likely that high quantities of metals are leached, in a similar manner, from corresponding soils distributed in many coastal plains worldwide. PMID:12387397

Sundström, Robert; Aström, Mats; Osterholm, Peter

2002-10-15

171

Petrochemicals in nontechnical language  

SciTech Connect

This book reviews the basics of organic chemistry. The authors lead readers through the basic petrochemical processes and product properties to the downstream derivatives such as plastics and fibers and their end uses. Latest processing techniques are discussed.

Burdick, D.L.; Leffler, W.L.

1990-01-01

172

Petrochemicals in Texas - 1972.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents a comparison of the present status of major petrochemicals in Texas with the remainder of the United States including: Ethylene, propylene, benzene, toluene/xylenes, butanes/butylenes, carbon black and elastomers, and ammonia/methanol...

1974-01-01

173

COPPER REMOVAL FROM AN EFFLUENT GENERATED BY A PLASTICS CHROMIUM?PLATING INDUSTRY USING A ROTATING CYLINDER ELECTRODE (RCE) REACTOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work shows the application of a rotating cylinder electrode (RCE) in the removal of Cu(II) content from an effluent generated by a plastics chromium?plating industry, on the laboratory scale; in particular, it deals with rinse water from the electrolytic copper process. This process was designed to convert cupric ions in solution to metal powder. The generation of metal powders

F. F. Rivera; I. González; J. L. Nava

2008-01-01

174

Adsorption–desorption studies of indigocarmine from industrial effluents by using deoiled mustard and its comparison with charcoal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deoiled mustard obtained from local oil mills has been used as an inexpensive and effective adsorbent for the removal of indigocarmine dye from industrial effluents. The influence of various factors on the adsorption capacity has been studied by batch experiments. The adsorption studies validate both Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms. Thermodynamic parameters such as ?G°, ?H°, and ?S° for the

Vinod K. Gupta; Rajeev Jain; S. Malathi; Arunima Nayak

2010-01-01

175

Economic impact analysis of final effluent limitations guidelines and standards of performance for the offshore oil and gas industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The document is an economic impact analysis prepared in support of the promulgation of effluent limitations guidelines and standards of performance for drilling and production wastes for the offshore oil and gas industry. The report analyzes the economic impact of alternative regulatory options considered for drilling fluids, drill cuttings, produced water, produced sand, and treatment, workover, and completion fluids.

M. F. Kaplan; E. M. Sigler

1993-01-01

176

Evaluation of aquatic toxicities of chromium and chromium-containing effluents in reference to chromium electroplating industries.  

PubMed

This study evaluated aquatic toxicities of chromium and chromium-containing laboratory samples representative of effluents from chromium electroplating industries, and compared the aquatic environmental risks of hexavalent and trivalent chromium electroplating operations. Trivalent chromium electroplating has emerged as an acceptable alternative to hazardous hexavalent chromium electroplating. This process substitution has reduced the human health impact in the workplace and minimized the production of hazardous sludge regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The thrust behind this research was to investigate whether trivalent chromium electroplating operations have lower adverse impacts on standardized toxicity test organisms. Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas were used to investigate toxicities of trivalent chromium (Cr (III)), hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI)), and industrial effluents. In agreement with previous studies, Cr (III) was found to be less toxic than Cr (VI). Despite having several organic and inorganic constituents in the effluents obtained from trivalent chromium plating baths, they exhibited less adverse effects to C. dubia than effluents obtained from hexavalent chromium electroplating baths. Thus, transition from hexavalent to trivalent chromium electroplating processes may be justified. However, because of the presence of organic constituents such as formate, oxalate, and triethylene glycol in effluents, trivalent chromium electroplating operations may face additional regulatory requirements for removal of total organic carbon. PMID:16418891

Baral, A; Engelken, R; Stephens, W; Farris, J; Hannigan, R

2006-05-01

177

Thermodynamic and breakthrough column studies for the selective sorption of chromium from industrial effluent on activated eucalyptus bark.  

PubMed

Studies were carried out on adsorption of Cr(VI) on an adsorbent made from eucalyptus bark. Results revealed that sorption of chromium on activated eucalyptus bark (AEB) was endothermic in nature. Thermodynamic parameters such as the entropy change, enthalpy change and Gibb's free energy change were found out to be 100.97 J mol(-1)K(-1), 33 kJ mol(-1) and -0.737 kJ mol(-1), respectively. Industrial chrome effluent of different chromium concentration at different pH was used as feedstock for the fixed bed adsorption studies. When effluent was fed to the column at low pH of 2, the breakthrough volume increased significantly compared to effluent at higher pH of 4.85. The surface properties of sorbent were characterized by the Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction technique and Infrared techniques. It was concluded that AEB sorbent column could be used effectively for removal of chromium from industrial effluents by reducing the pH of chrome effluent to two and at optimal column conditions. PMID:16311033

Sarin, Vikrant; Singh, Tony Sarvinder; Pant, K K

2006-11-01

178

Evaluation of opportunities for effluent trading in the steam-electric, petroleum-refining, and coal mining industries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the opportunities for energy industries (steam-electric, petroleum refining, and coal mining) to use various effluent trading options. The study was based on an examination of the options applicable to these industries and on an extensive inventory of energy facilities with water-quality-based conditions in their discharge permits. The results obtained tend to overstate any opportunities available. The most

1983-01-01

179

Pulping effluents: Biological treatment. (Latest citations from the Paper and Board, Printing, and Packaging Industries Research Associations database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning effluent and wastewater biological treatment and disposal in the pulping industry. Effluent toxicity; treatment plant management, treatment systems, and equipment design; combined mechanical and biological treatment processes; biological degradation treatment in chemical pulp mills; and the handling and disposal of solid wastes are among the topics discussed. Also examined are performance evaluations of biological treatment processes in domestic and foreign plants in full scale operation and pilot programs. (Contains a minimum of 168 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-12-01

180

Petrochemical makers warned of capacity pitfall  

Microsoft Academic Search

Producers of large-volume organic chemicals are being cautioned to curb their euphoria over current high profitability and to avoid rushing to invest in new plant capacity that would lead to another round of overcapacity. The petrochemical industry is advised to examine carefully future U.S. demand growth, to be aware of competition to its rising exports, and to continue improving its

Greek

1988-01-01

181

Assessment of Acrylamide Degradation Potential of Pseudomonas aeruginosa BAC-6 Isolated from Industrial Effluent.  

PubMed

Acrylamide finds diverse industrial applications but is considered an environmental threat because of its neurotoxic, carcinogenic, and teratogenic effects. Certain bacteria enzymatically degrade acrylamide to acrylic acid and ammonia. The present investigation was carried out to isolate and identify an acrylamide-degrading bacterium from industrial effluent. Bacterial growth and extent of acrylamide degradation in the presence of different acrylamide concentrations, nutrients, varied range of pH, and temperature were analyzed. Among the eight acrylamide-degrading isolates, isolate BAC-6 demonstrated the highest degradation, and based upon the partial 16S rDNA sequencing, it was identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. P. aeruginosa BAC-6 grew over a wide range of acrylamide concentrations, but the highest degradation was recorded at 500 mg/L concentration with concomitant cell growth. Among the carbon supplements, mannitol supported the highest growth and degradation. Maximum degradation was reported at neutral pH. A mesophilic temperature range (25-40 °C) facilitated conducive bacterial growth followed by degradation. The highest degradation and bacterial growth were observed at 30 and 35 °C, respectively. Thus, it could be inferred from the present investigation that cultural conditions strongly affected the degradation potential of P. aeruginosa BAC-6 and advocated the utilization of the isolate in bioremediation of sites polluted with acrylamide. PMID:24771288

Chandrashekar, Vijayashree; Chandrashekar, Chandrika; Shivakumar, Rajath; Bhattacharya, Sourav; Das, Arijit; Gouda, Bhaskar; Rajan, Subbaramiah Sundara

2014-07-01

182

Effect of lead on growth, protein and biosorption capacity of Bacillus cereus isolated from industrial effluent.  

PubMed

A bacterial strain (Bacillus cereus) with the ability to grow under conditions of high concentrations of lead was isolated from the industrial effluent collected from Peenya Industrial Area, Bangalore. The effect of lead on growth, protein content and lead biosorption capacity of Bacillus cereus was investigated. The results revealed that with increase in lead concentration (100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 mg I(-1)) there was a decrease in growth, protein content (10.6, 8.2, 6.7, 3.8 and 1.9 mg g(-1) d. wt.) and lead biosorption (90.3, 57.8, 48.94, 31.3 and 22.24%) Bacillus cereus, signifying toxic effect of lead on the bacterial strain. Plasmid DNA was isolated from Bacillus cereus to study its resistance mechanism. The size of the plasmid was approximately 33kb. Transformation results suggest that lead resistance gene may be present on the chromosomal DNA ratherthan the plasmid DNA as the transformants did not show lead resistance. PMID:24665770

Murthy, Shruti; Bali, Geetha; Sarangi, S K

2014-03-01

183

Biosorptive removal of Ni(Ii) from wastewater and industrial effluent.  

PubMed

The objective of the present work was to investigate the removal of Ni(II) by the fresh biomass (FBM) and chemically treated leached biomass (LBM) of Calotropis procera. The scope of the work included screening of the biosorbents for their metal uptake potential, batch equilibrium, column mode removal studies and kinetic studies at varying pH (2-6), contact time, biosorbent dosages (1-25 g/L) and initial metal ion concentration (5-500 mg/L). The development of batch kinetic model and determination of order, desorption studies, column studies were investigated. It was observed that pH had marked effect on the Ni(II) uptake. Langmuir and Freundlich models were used to correlate equilibrium data on sorption of Ni(II) metallic ion by using both FBM and LBM at 28 degrees C and pH 3 and different coefficients were calculated. It was found that both biomasses were statistically significant fit for Freundlich model. The biomass was successfully used for removal nickel from synthetic and industrial effluents and the technique appears industrially applicable and viable. PMID:18180544

Pandey, Piyush Kant; Choubey, Shweta; Verma, Yashu; Pandey, Madhurima; Kamal, S S Kalyan; Chandrashekhar, K

2007-12-01

184

Chromium in tannery industry effluent and its effect on plant metabolism and growth.  

PubMed

Different dilution levels of tannery treated effluent and their corresponding concentration of chromium (Cr6+) were studied in a petridish culture experiment on seed germination and seedling growth in radish (Raphanus sativus L). The different concentrations of Cr6+ (2, 5 and 10 ppm) and treated tannery effluent (10, 25 and 50%) showed reduction in seedling growth and related enzymatic activities with increase in concentration of Cr6+ in treatments and effluent both. The low concentration of chromium (2 ppm) and effluent dilution (10%) showed significant growth reduction separately. At this concentration of chromium and effluent dilution chlorophyll content, amylase, catalase and protein contents remained unchanged while with increase in Cr6+ concentration (>2ppm) and effluent dilution (> 10%) in treatments showed growth inhibitory effects. PMID:16161973

Nath, Kamlesh; Saini, Sonia; Sharma, Yogesh Kumar

2005-04-01

185

Reduction in the estrogenic activity of a treated sewage effluent discharge to an English river as a result of a decrease in the concentration of industrially derived surfactants.  

PubMed

As a result of the introduction of tighter discharge limits and effluent treatment processes at source, the concentration of alkylphenol ethoxylates and nonylphenol present in the final effluent discharge from a sewage treatment works that treats trade effluent from the textiles industry was reduced. The estrogenic effects of the final effluent discharge to the Aire River were compared over a four-year period during which various treatment measures were introduced. Male rainbow trout exposed to the effluent on four occasions in consecutive years (1994-1997) showed a reduction in the level of induced vitellogenesis between 1994 and 1997. A marked decrease in gonadosomatic index (GSI) and increase in heptaosomatic index (HSI) was measured in fish exposed to the effluent in 1994. In successive years, these differences diminished, and in the case of the GSI no measurable difference was observed between fish exposed to the final effluent or those in the control group in 1997. However, an increase in HSI was still measurable in 1997 in fish exposed to the final effluent and at sites farther downstream. The reduction in the effects of the effluent paralleled the reduction in the concentration of nonylphenol as well as its mono- and diethoxylates, which have been demonstrated to produce estrogenic effects in trout exposed to these compounds in the laboratory. This study demonstrates that the setting of more restricted discharge limits for known estrogenic chemicals of industrial origin can lead to significant reductions in the estrogenic activity of the watercourses into which the effluents are discharged. PMID:11878464

Sheahan, David A; Brighty, Geoff C; Daniel, Mic; Jobling, Susan; Harries, Jule E; Hurst, Mark R; Kennedy, Joe; Kirby, Sonia J; Morris, Steven; Routledge, Edwin J; Sumpter, John P; Waldock, Michael J

2002-03-01

186

Evaluation of technology transfer strategy of petrochemical process  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present technology transfer strategy of petrochemical process to Iranian industries. Petrochemical industries\\u000a import requested technology by some known strategies such as Foreign Direct Investment (FDI), Licensing, Joint Venture (JV),\\u000a Turn-key, Reverse Engineering (RE) and Research & Development (RD). The strengths and weaknesses of each strategy was evaluated\\u000a according to our situation and condition. In first step,

Ali Mohaghar; Abbas Monawarian; Hamid Raassed

187

A modular success story the Saudi petrochemical project  

SciTech Connect

The Saudi Petrochemical Company is referred to within this paper as ''Sadaf''. Sadaf is the phonetic spelling of the Arabic word for seashell and is a joint venture of Saudi Basic Industries Corporation (SABIC) and Pecten Arabian Ltd., an affiliate of Shell Oil Comapny, U.S.A. SABIC is a joint stock corporation responsible for the development of basic industries in the Kingdom in the petrochemicals, metals and fertilizers field.

Kirven, J.B.; Swenson, C.R.

1986-01-01

188

Analysis of inlet and outlet industrial wastewater effluents by means of benchtop total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry.  

PubMed

The monitoring of heavy metals in industrial waste water effluents is an important activity in many laboratories. Of special interest is the screening of elemental composition of inlet effluents and quantitative analysis of outlet effluents to study the efficiency of chemical treatment process to eliminate metals and to comply with current established concentration limits, respectively. In this sense, fast analytical methodologies which entail simple sample preparation are desired. In the present work, the possibilities and drawbacks of a benchtop total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (TXRF) for the rapid and simple determination of some inorganic impurities (As, Ba, Cd, Cu, Cr, Sn, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn) in inlet and outlet industrial waste water effluents from metallurgical and tanning leather factories have been tested. An evaluation of different simple sample treatments is presented and it is followed by a discussion of spectral and chemical matrix effects when dealing with this type of samples. Analytical figures of merit such as accuracy, precision and limits of detection have also been carefully studied. Finally, the data obtained by direct TXRF analysis has been compared to that obtained by ICP-OES/ICP-MS after a microwave digestion. PMID:20471056

Marguí, E; Tapias, J C; Casas, A; Hidalgo, M; Queralt, I

2010-06-01

189

Recycling of aluminum and caustic soda solution from waste effluents generated during the cleaning of the extruder matrixes of the aluminum industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anodising industries use a concentrated caustic soda solution to remove aluminum from extruder matrixes. This procedure produces very alkaline effluents containing high amounts of aluminum. The work reported here was focussed on recycling aluminum, as aluminum hydroxide, from these effluents and regenerating an alkaline sodium hydroxide solution. Briefly, the method comprises a dilution step (necessary for reducing the viscosity of

Pieter Tansens; Alberto T. Rodal; Carina M. M. Machado; Helena M. V. M. Soares

2011-01-01

190

Headspace SPME followed by GC\\/PFPD for the analysis of malodorous sulfur compounds in liquid industrial effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Headspace SPME was used to analyse malodorous sulfur compounds in liquid industrial effluents. A pulsed flame photometric detector (PFPD) was selected for a specific and sensitive analysis. Two fibres, PDMS\\/Dvb and PDMS\\/Carboxen, which are particularly convenient for extracting small and volatile molecules were tested. To compare these fibres, both sensitivity and artefact formation were considered. The PDMS\\/Carboxen fibre showed the

François Lestremau; Valérie Desauziers; Jean-Louis Fanlo

2004-01-01

191

Removal and recovery of heavy metals by bacteria isolated from activated sludge treating industrial effluents and municipal wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of nineteen metal-resistant and non-resistant bacteria from activated sludge treating both metal-contaminated industrial effluents and municipal wastewater were isolated and identified. These included both Gram-positive (e.g. Micrococcus) and Gram-negative (e.g. Pseudomonas) bacteria. The biosorption capacity of these strains for five different heavy metals (copper, nickel, zinc, lead and chromium) was determined at pH 5 and initial metal concentration

W. C. Leung; M. F. Wong; H. Chua; W. Lo; P. H. F. Yu; C. K. Leung

192

Production of bioethanol by direct bioconversion of oil-palm industrial effluent in a stirred-tank bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of producing bioethanol from palm-oil mill effluent generated by\\u000a the oil-palm industries through direct bioconversion process. The bioethanol production was carried out through the treatment\\u000a of compatible mixed cultures such as Thrichoderma harzianum, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Mucor hiemalis, and yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Simultaneous inoculation of T. harzianum and S. cerevisiae was

Nassereldeen A. Kabbashi; S. Nahdatul I. S. Hussin

2009-01-01

193

Petroleum and Petrochemicals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper is divided into three sections: crude oil, petrochemicals, and final use of the products. Within each of these, special emphasis is paid to the biological, ecological, and medical effects of the chemical compounds. In the section on crude oil a ...

H. Haakansson A. Jerneloev

1977-01-01

194

Cost Effectiveness Analysis of Proposed Effluent Limitations Guidelines for the Pulp, Paper, and Paperboard Industry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The cost-effectiveness (CE) analysis presents an evaluation of the technical efficiency of pollutant control options for the proposed effluent limitations guidelines. The proposed BAT and PSES apply to six subcategories: Dissolving Kraft; Dissolving Sulfi...

1993-01-01

195

Biogas production from water hyacinth and channel grass used for phytoremediation of industrial effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reports on the biogas production from water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and channel grass (Vallisneria spiralis) employed separately for phytoremediation of lignin and metal-rich pulp and paper mill and highly acidic distillery effluents. These plants eventually grow well in diluted effluent up to 40% (i.e., 2.5-times dilution with deionized water) and often take up metals and toxic materials from

V Singhal; J. P. N Rai

2003-01-01

196

Trends in U.S. Petrochemical Demand. Topical Report, June 1991.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Chemical industry product growth patterns are examined by considering the foundation of petrochemical industry growth since the early part of the 20th century. The following reasons are presented for the trends in demand growth for the industry not changi...

C. K. Kasten

1991-01-01

197

88. ARAIII. "Petrochem" heater is hoisted over south exterior wall ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

88. ARA-III. "Petro-chem" heater is hoisted over south exterior wall of heater pit in GCRE reactor building (ARA-608). Printing on heater says, "Petro-chem iso-flow furnace; American industrial fabrications, inc." Camera facing north. January 7, 1959. Ineel photo no. 529-124. Photographer: Ken Mansfield. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

198

Reduction of carbon dioxide to petrochemical intermediates  

SciTech Connect

The electrochemical reduction of CO{sub 2} at the Cu electrode was investigated in methanol-based electrolyte using various cesium supporting salts as the ionophore at an extremely low temperature (243 K). Cesium acetate, chloride, bromide, iodide, and thiocyanate were used as the ionophore. The main products from CO{sub 2} by electrochemical reduction were methane, ethylene, ethane, carbon monoxide, and formic acid. In the methanol-based electrolyte using cesium supporting salts, except for acetate, the Faradaic efficiency for ethylene was larger than that for methane. This research can contribute to large-scale manufacturing of petrochemical intermediate products, such as methane and ethylene, from readily available and cheap raw materials: CO{sub 2}-saturated methanol from industrial absorbers (the Rectisol process). Thus the synthesis of hydrocarbons by the electrochemical reduction of CO{sub 2} may be of practical interest for fuel production, storage of solar energy, and production of intermediate materials for the petrochemical industry.

Kaneco, S.; Iiba, K.; Ohta, K.; Mizuno, T.

2000-03-01

199

Decision-making for Petrochemical Planning Using Multiobjective and Strategic Tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

ecision-making for planning a petrochemical industry is a difficult task, particularly when decisions are required to be made under constraints and different objectives. This paper presents the application of multiobjective optimization tools for planning of a mixed-integer model of a petrochemical industry to arrive at a small set of good solutions out of the Pareto optimal solutions. The two main

G. K. Al-sharrah; G. Hankinson; A. Elkamel

2006-01-01

200

Application of a continuously stirred tank bioreactor (CSTR) for bioremediation of hydrocarbon-rich industrial wastewater effluents.  

PubMed

A continuously stirred tank bioreactor (CSTR) was used to optimize feasible and reliable bioprocess system in order to treat hydrocarbon-rich industrial wastewaters. A successful bioremediation was developed by an efficient acclimatized microbial consortium. After an experimental period of 225 days, the process was shown to be highly efficient in decontaminating the wastewater. The performance of the bioaugmented reactor was demonstrated by the reduction of COD rates up to 95%. The residual total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) decreased from 320 mg TPH l(-1) to 8 mg TPH l(-1). Analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) identified 26 hydrocarbons. The use of the mixed cultures demonstrated high degradation performance for hydrocarbons range n-alkanes (C10-C35). Six microbial isolates from the CSTR were characterized and species identification was confirmed by sequencing the 16S rRNA genes. The partial 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrated that 5 strains were closely related to Aeromonas punctata (Aeromonas caviae), Bacillus cereus, Ochrobactrum intermedium, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Rhodococcus sp. The 6th isolate was affiliated to genera Achromobacter. Besides, the treated wastewater could be considered as non toxic according to the phytotoxicity test since the germination index of Lepidium sativum ranged between 57 and 95%. The treatment provided satisfactory results and presents a feasible technology for the treatment of hydrocarbon-rich wastewater from petrochemical industries and petroleum refineries. PMID:21419572

Gargouri, Boutheina; Karray, Fatma; Mhiri, Najla; Aloui, Fathi; Sayadi, Sami

2011-05-15

201

The Sequential Application of Macroalgal Biosorbents for the Bioremediation of a Complex Industrial Effluent  

PubMed Central

Fe-treated biochar and raw biochar produced from macroalgae are effective biosorbents of metalloids and metals, respectively. However, the treatment of complex effluents that contain both metalloid and metal contaminants presents a challenging scenario. We test a multiple-biosorbent approach to bioremediation using Fe-biochar and biochar to remediate both metalloids and metals from the effluent from a coal-fired power station. First, a model was derived from published data for this effluent to predict the biosorption of 21 elements by Fe-biochar and biochar. The modelled outputs were then used to design biosorption experiments using Fe-biochar and biochar, both simultaneously and in sequence, to treat effluent containing multiple contaminants in excess of water quality criteria. The waste water was produced during ash disposal at an Australian coal-fired power station. The application of Fe-biochar and biochar, either simultaneously or sequentially, resulted in a more comprehensive remediation of metalloids and metals compared to either biosorbent used individually. The most effective treatment was the sequential use of Fe-biochar to remove metalloids from the waste water, followed by biochar to remove metals. Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn were reduced to the lowest concentration following the sequential application of the two biosorbents, and their final concentrations were predicted by the model. Overall, 17 of the 21 elements measured were remediated to, or below, the concentrations that were predicted by the model. Both metalloids and metals can be remediated from complex effluent using biosorbents with different characteristics but derived from a single feedstock. Furthermore, the extent of remediation can be predicted for similar effluents using additive models.

Kidgell, Joel T.; de Nys, Rocky; Paul, Nicholas A.; Roberts, David A.

2014-01-01

202

31 CFR 561.330 - Petrochemical products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Petrochemical products. 561.330 Section 561.330...REGULATIONS General Definitions § 561.330 Petrochemical products. The term petrochemical products includes any aromatic,...

2013-07-01

203

Extracellular synthesis and characterization of nickel oxide nanoparticles from Microbacterium sp. MRS-1 towards bioremediation of nickel electroplating industrial effluent.  

PubMed

In the present study, a nickel resistant bacterium MRS-1 was isolated from nickel electroplating industrial effluent, capable of converting soluble NiSO4 into insoluble NiO nanoparticles and identified as Microbacterium sp. The formation of NiO nanoparticles in the form of pale green powder was observed on the bottom of the flask upon prolonged incubation of liquid nutrient medium containing high concentration of 2000ppm NiSO4. The properties of the produced NiO nanoparticles were characterized. NiO nanoparticles exhibited a maximum absorbance at 400nm. The NiO nanoparticles were 100-500nm in size with unique flower like structure. The elemental composition of the NiO nanoparticles was 44:39. The cells of MRS-1 were utilized for the treatment of nickel electroplating industrial effluent and showed nickel removal efficiency of 95%. Application of Microbacterium sp. MRS-1 would be a potential bacterium for bioremediation of nickel electroplating industrial waste water and simultaneous synthesis of NiO nanoparticles. PMID:24685513

Sathyavathi, S; Manjula, A; Rajendhran, J; Gunasekaran, P

2014-08-01

204

Electrocatalytic treatment of waste: studies on discoloration of an industrial azo dye effluent.  

PubMed

A textile dye effluent containing chiefly reactive azo dyes has been treated electrochemically for discoloration and COD (chemical oxygen demand) reduction at different current densities, flow rates and dilution. Experiments have been carried out in a thin electrochemical reactor under single pass conditions using a dimensionally stable catalytic anode (DSA) and a stainless steel cathode. PMID:14672378

Vaghela, Sanjay S; Jethva, Ashok D; Gohil, Mahendra S; Subbarayappa, Adimurthy; Gour, Prem M; Susarla, Venkataramakrishna S; Gadde, Ramachandraiah; Ghosh, Puspito K

2003-01-01

205

Application of chemical, biological and membrane separation processes in textile industry with recourse to zero effluent discharge--a case study.  

PubMed

Environmental concerns associated with textile processing had placed the textile sector in a Southern State of India under serious threat of survival. The textile industries were closed under the orders of the Statutory Board for reason of inadequate compliance to environmental discharge norms of the State for the protection of the drinking water source of the State capital. In compliance with the direction of the Board for zero effluent discharge, advanced treatment process have been implemented for recovery of boiler feed quality water with recourse to effluent recycling/reuse. The paper describes to a case study on the adequacy assessment of the full scale effluent treatment plant comprising chemical, biological and filtration processes in a small scale textile industry. In addition, implementation of measures for discernable improvement in the performance of the existing units through effective operation & maintenance, and application of membrane separation processes leading to zero effluent discharge is also highlighted. PMID:16196413

Nandy, T; Dhodapkar, R S; Pophali, G R; Kaul, S N; Devotta, S

2005-09-01

206

Whole effluent assessment of industrial wastewater for determination of BAT compliance. Part 2: metal surface treatment industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim and scope  Toxicity testing has become a suitable tool for wastewater evaluation included in several reference documents on best available\\u000a techniques of the Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) Directive. The IPPC Directive requires that for direct\\u000a dischargers as well as for indirect dischargers, the same best available techniques should be applied. Within the study, the\\u000a whole effluent assessment

Stefan Gartiser; Christoph Hafner; Christoph Hercher; Kerstin Kronenberger-Schäfer; Albrecht Paschke

2010-01-01

207

Enhanced removal of arsenic from a highly laden industrial effluent using a combined coprecipitation/nano-adsorption process.  

PubMed

Effective arsenic removal from highly laden industrial wastewater is an important but challenging task. Here, a combined coprecipitation/nano-adsorption process, with ferric chloride and calcium chloride as coprecipitation agents and polymer-based nanocomposite as selective adsorbent, has been validated for arsenic removal from tungsten-smelting wastewater. On the basis of operating optimization, a binary FeCl3 (520 mg/L)-CaCl2 (300 mg/L) coprecipitation agent could remove more than 93% arsenic from the wastewater. The resulting precipitate has proved environmental safety based on leaching toxicity test. Fixed-bed column packed with zirconium or ferric-oxide-loaded nanocomposite was employed for further elimination of arsenic in coprecipitated effluent, resulting in a significant decrease of arsenic (from 0.96 to less than 0.5 mg/L). The working capacity of zirconium-loaded nanocomposite was 220 bed volumes per run, much higher than that of ferric-loaded nanocomposite (40 bed volumes per run). The exhausted zirconium-loaded nanocomposite could be efficiently in situ regenerated with a binary NaOH-NaCl solution for reuse without any significant capacity loss. The results validated the combinational coprecipitation/nano-adsorption process to be a potential alternative for effective arsenic removal from highly laden industrial effluent. PMID:24504774

Jiang, Yingnan; Hua, Ming; Wu, Bian; Ma, Hongrui; Pan, Bingcai; Zhang, Quanxing

2014-05-01

208

Novel physico-biological treatment for the remediation of textile dyes-containing industrial effluents.  

PubMed

In this work, a novel remediation strategy consisting of a sequential biological and physical process is proposed to remove dyes from a textile polluted effluent. The decolorization ability of Anoxybacillus flavithermus in an aqueous effluent containing two representative textile finishing dyes (Reactive Black 5 and Acid Black 48, as di-azo and antraquinone class, respectively) was proved. The decolorization efficiency for a mixture of both dyes reached almost 60% in less than 12h, which points out the suitability of the selected microorganism. In a sequential stage, an aqueous biphasic system consisting of non-ionic surfactants and a potassium-based organic salt, acting as the salting out agent, was investigated. The phase segregation potential of the selected salts was evaluated in the light of different thermodynamic models, and remediation levels higher than 99% were reached. PMID:23985354

Álvarez, M S; Moscoso, F; Rodríguez, A; Sanromán, M A; Deive, F J

2013-10-01

209

Physicochemical characteristics of paper industry effluents--a case study of South India Paper Mill (SIPM).  

PubMed

Pulp and paper mills generate varieties of pollutants depending upon type of the pulping process being used. This paper presents the characteristics of wastewater from South India Paper Mill, Karnataka, India which is using recycled waste paper as a raw material. The raw wastewater consists of 80-90 mg L(?-?1) suspended solid and 1,010-1,015 mg L(?-?1) dissolved solid. However, pH varied from 5.5-6.8. The biochemical oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand ranged from 200-210 and 1,120-1,160 mg L(?-?1), respectively. Aerobic treatment of raw effluent attribute to significant reduction in suspended solid (range between 25 to 30 mg L(?-?1)) and total dissolved solid (range between 360 to 390 mg L(?-?1)). However, pH, temperature, and electrical conductivity were found superior after treatment. Copper, cadmium, iron, lead, nickel, and zinc were found in less quantity in raw effluent and were almost completely removed after treatment. The dendrogram of the effluent quality parameters clearly indicate that South India Paper Mill does not meet Minimal National Standard set by central Pollution Control Board to discharge in agricultural field. PMID:20661771

Devi, Ningombam Linthoingambi; Yadav, Ishwar Chandra; Shihua, Q I; Singh, Surendra; Belagali, S L

2011-06-01

210

Biogas production from water hyacinth and channel grass used for phytoremediation of industrial effluents.  

PubMed

The paper reports on the biogas production from water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and channel grass (Vallisneria spiralis) employed separately for phytoremediation of lignin and metal-rich pulp and paper mill and highly acidic distillery effluents. These plants eventually grow well in diluted effluent up to 40% (i.e., 2.5-times dilution with deionized water) and often take up metals and toxic materials from wastewater for their metabolic use. Slurry of the two plants used for phytoremediation produced significantly more biogas than that produced by the plants grown in deionized water; the effect being more marked with plants used for phytoremediation of 20% pulp and paper mill effluent. Biogas production from channel grass was relatively greater and quicker (maximum in 6-9 days) than that from water hyacinth (in 9-12 days). Such variation in biogas production by the two macrophytes has been correlated with the changes in C, N and C/N ratio of their slurry brought by phytoremediation. PMID:12688463

Singhal, V; Rai, J P N

2003-02-01

211

Evaluation of ELISA kits followed by liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry for the determination of organic pollutants in industrial effluents  

SciTech Connect

Contaminated industrial effluents often contain a variety of organic pollutants which are difficult to analyze by standard GC-MS methods since they often miss the more polar or nonvolatile of these organic compounds. The identification of highly polar analytes by chemical or rapid biological techniques is needed for characterization of the effluents. The present work evaluates the use of enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) kits for determining pentachlorophenol, carcinogenic PAHs and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and o-, m-, and p-xylene) among the organic analytes present in various industrial effluents from Europe. The analytical protocol applied for the evaluation of the kits was based on the use of ELISA followed by solid-phase extraction (SPE) for the preconcentration of a variety of organic pollutants such as pentachlorophenol, phthalates, and nonylphenol and final determination with LC-MS characterization using an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) interface in the positive and negative ionization modes. The developed protocol permitted the unequivocal identification of target analytes such as pentachlorophenol, nonylphenol, dibutylphthalate, dimethylphthalate, bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate 2-methylbenzenesulfonamide, and 2,2-dimethylbenzene-sulfonamide present in industrial effluents. The advantages and limitations of the three RaPID-magnetic particle-based ELISA kits applied to the characterization of industrial effluents are also reported.

Castillo, M.; Oubina, A.; Barcelo, D. [CID-CSIC, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry] [CID-CSIC, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry

1998-07-15

212

Generation of continuous packed bed reactor with PVA-alginate blend immobilized Ochrobactrum sp. DGVK1 cells for effective removal of N,N-dimethylformamide from industrial effluents.  

PubMed

Effective removal of dimethylformamide (DMF), the organic solvent found in industrial effluents of textile and pharma industries, was demonstrated by using free and immobilized cells of Ochrobactrum sp. DGVK1, a soil isolate capable of utilizing DMF as a sole source of carbon, nitrogen. The free cells have efficiently removed DMF from culture media and effluents, only when DMF concentration was less than 1% (v/v). Entrapment of cells either in alginate or in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) failed to increase tolerance limits. However, the cells of Ochrobactrum sp. DGVK1 entrapped in PVA-alginate mixed matrix tolerated higher concentration of DMF (2.5%, v/v) and effectively removed DMF from industrial effluents. As determined through batch fermentation, these immobilized cells have retained viability and degradability for more than 20 cycles. A continuous packed bed reactor, generated by using PVA-alginate beads, efficiently removed DMF from industrial effluents, even in the presence of certain organic solvents frequently found in effluents along with DMF. PMID:22079508

Kumar, S Sanjeev; Kumar, M Santosh; Siddavattam, D; Karegoudar, T B

2012-01-15

213

Assessing acute toxicity of effluent from a textile industry and nearby river waters using sulfur-oxidizing bacteria in continuous mode.  

PubMed

Bioassays are becoming an important tool for assessing the toxicity of complex mixtures of substances in aquatic environments in which Daphnia magna is routinely used as a test organism. Bioassays outweigh physicochemical analyses and are valuable in the decision-making process pertaining to the final discharge of effluents from wastewater treatment plants as they measure the total effect of the discharge which is ecologically relevant. In this study, the aquatic toxicity of a textile plant effluent and river water downstream from the plant were evaluated with sulfur-oxidizing bacterial biosensors in continuous mode. Collected samples were analysed for different physicochemical parameters and 1,4-dioxane was detected in the effluent. The effluent contained a relatively high chemical oxygen demand of 60 mg L(-1), which exceeded the limit set by the Korean government for industrial effluent discharges. Results showed that both the effluent and river waters were toxic to sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. These results show the importance of incorporating bioassays to detect toxicity in wastewater effluents for the sustainable management of water resources. PMID:22329151

Gurung, Anup; Hassan, Sedky H A; Oh, Sang-Eun

2011-10-01

214

Production of bioethanol from effluents of the dairy industry by Kluyveromyces marxianus.  

PubMed

Whey and scotta are effluents coming from cheese and ricotta processing respectively. Whey contains minerals, lipids, lactose and proteins; scotta contains mainly lactose. Whey can be reused in several ways, such as protein extraction or animal feeding, while nowadays scotta is just considered as a waste; moreover, due to very high volumes of whey produced in the world, it poses serious environmental and disposal problems. Alternative destinations of these effluents, such as biotechnological transformations, can be a way to reach both goals of improving the added value of the agroindustrial processes and reducing their environmental impact. In this work we investigated the way to produce bioethanol from lactose of whey and scotta and to optimize the fermentation yields. Kluyveromyces marxianus var. marxianus was chosen as lactose-fermenting yeast. Batch, aerobic and anaerobic, fermentations and semicontinuous fermentations in dispersed phase and in packed bed reactor were carried out of row whey, scotta and mix 1:1 whey:scotta at a laboratory scale. Different temperatures (28-40°C) were also tested to check whether the thermotolerance of the chosen yeast could be useful to improve the ethanol yield. The best performances were reached at low temperatures (28°C); high temperatures are also compatible with good ethanol yields in whey fermentations, but not in scotta fermentations. Semicontinuous fermentations in dispersed phase gave the best fermentation performances, particularly with scotta. Then both effluents can be considered suitable for ethanol production. The good yields obtained from scotta allow us to transform this waste in a source. PMID:23201075

Zoppellari, Francesca; Bardi, Laura

2013-09-25

215

Natural gas liquids remain strong petrochemical feedstock  

SciTech Connect

The supply of petrochemical feedstocks in the USA are discussed. The US petrochemical network starts with three main sources, i.e., olefins, aromatics, and natural gas. Petrochemical technology has been pushed to lower costs and improve yields in the face of a determined market drive from new petrochemical producing regions with vast supplies of low-cost gas liquids.

Greek, B.F.

1984-03-12

216

Phytoremediation efficiency of Portulaca tuberosa rox and Portulaca oleracea L. naturally growing in an industrial effluent irrigated area in Vadodra, Gujrat, India.  

PubMed

Phytoremediation is a novel, solar-driven and cost-effective technology for the remediation of heavy metal contaminated environments through exploitation of plants ability to accumulate heavy metals in their harvestable shoot parts. In the present investigation, we collected plants of two species of Portulaca i.e. P. tuberosa and P. oleracea from field sites in Vadodra, Gujrat, India. At one site, field was being irrigated with industrial effluent while at other with tube well water. Analysis of heavy metals was performed in industrial effluent, tube well water, soils irrigated with them, and in different parts viz., roots, stem, leaves and flowers of the plant samples. Industrial effluent and soil irrigated with it had very high level of heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Cd, Cr and As) as compared to the tube well water and soil irrigated with that. Plants of both the species growing in effluent irrigated soils showed high accumulation of metals in all plant parts with the maximum being in roots and the least in flowers. Interestingly, both species of Portulaca hyperaccumulated more than one heavy metal viz., Cd, Cr and As. The total shoot concentrations (microg g(-1) dw) of Cd, Cr and As in P. tuberosa were 1,571, 7,957 and 3,118, respectively while in P. oleracea, these were 1,128, 7,552 and 2,476, respectively. Portulaca plants have good biomass and high regeneration potential; hence appear to be suitable for the remediation of effluent (metal) contaminated areas. PMID:18193484

Tiwari, K K; Dwivedi, S; Mishra, S; Srivastava, S; Tripathi, R D; Singh, N K; Chakraborty, S

2008-12-01

217

Improving neural network prediction of effluent from biological wastewater treatment plant of industrial park using fuzzy learning approach.  

PubMed

Three types of adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) in which the online monitoring parameters served as the input variable were employed to predict suspended solids (SS(eff)), chemical oxygen demand (COD(eff)), and pH(eff) in the effluent from a biological wastewater treatment plant in industrial park. Artificial neural network (ANN) was also used for comparison. The results indicated that ANFIS statistically outperforms ANN in terms of effluent prediction. When predicting, the minimum mean absolute percentage errors of 2.90, 2.54 and 0.36% for SS(eff), COD(eff) and pH(eff) could be achieved using ANFIS. The maximum values of correlation coefficient for SS(eff), COD(eff), and pH(eff) were 0.97, 0.95, and 0.98, respectively. The minimum mean square errors of 0.21, 1.41 and 0.00, and the minimum root mean square errors of 0.46, 1.19 and 0.04 for SS(eff), COD(eff), and pH(eff) could also be achieved. PMID:19253022

Pai, Tzu-Yi; Wang, S C; Chiang, C F; Su, H C; Yu, L F; Sung, P J; Lin, C Y; Hu, H C

2009-10-01

218

Alaska Petrochemical Company Refinery and Petrochemical Facility, Valdez, Alaska.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this project is the issuance of a New Source National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit for wastewater discharge from the proposed Alaska Petrochemical Company (ALPETCO). ALPETCO proposes to build a new refinery and pe...

1980-01-01

219

Treatment of colored and real industrial effluents through electrocoagulation using solar energy.  

PubMed

This study was undertaken to investigate the removal of Acid Orange 2 (sodium 4-[(2E)-2-(2-oxonaphthalen-1-ylidene) hydrazinyl] benzenesulfonate) and Reactive Blue 19 (2-Anthracenesulfonicacid,1-amino-9,10-dihydro-9,10-dioxo-4-[[3-[[2-(sulfooxy) ethyl] sulfonyl] phenyl] amino]-,sodium salt (1:2)) from synthesized and real effluents through electrocoagulation using solar cells for the purpose of improving economic efficiency of the process. The impact of a number of key operating parameters was explored including current density, anode type, temperature, pH, and electrolyte concentration. The current density of 45 Am(-2) proved to be the optimum level for both dyes. The same optimum alternatives were found for the other parameters in both cases: iron anode, a temperature level of 25°C, a pH of 7, and an electrolyte concentration of 15 mg L(-1). Both effluent samples were subjected to COD (chemical oxygen demand) and TOC (total organic carbon) tests. Cost analysis was performed for the treatment process. PMID:23647115

Pirkarami, Azam; Olya, Mohammad Ebrahim; Tabibian, Sahar

2013-01-01

220

Simultaneous determination of the textile dyes in industrial effluents by first-order derivative spectrophotometry.  

PubMed

A first-order derivative spectrophotometric method for the simultaneous determination of three textile dyes, Procion Yellow HE4R, Procion Red HE7B and Remazol Black 5 (RB5), has been developed. The effects of pH, heating and ionic strength of the solution on the absorption spectra of the dyes were investigated. The wavelengths selected for the measures of the derivative signals of HE4R (395 nm), HE7B (604 nm) and RB5 (659 nm) presented these coefficients of linear correlation: 0.9978, 0.9992 and 0.9999, and these detection limits: 0.180, 0.317 and 0.0233 mg L(-1), respectively. The reliability and reproducibility of the method were tested and showed recovery values of 95.7 to 109%. The proposed method was applied for the determination of dyes in binary and ternary mixtures of textile effluents and showed an estimate of the loss of dyes for the effluents between 6.67 and 28.9%. PMID:19359787

Almeida, Vitor C; Vargas, Alexandro M M; Garcia, Juliana C; Lenzi, Ervim; Oliveira, Cláudio C; Nozaki, Jorge

2009-04-01

221

Reducing the Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 for its application to an industrial wastewater treatment plant treating winery effluent wastewater.  

PubMed

The Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) is a complex model which is widely accepted as a common platform for anaerobic process modeling and simulation. However, it has a large number of parameters and states that hinder its calibration and use in control applications. A principal component analysis (PCA) technique was extended and applied to simplify the ADM1 using data of an industrial wastewater treatment plant processing winery effluent. The method shows that the main model features could be obtained with a minimum of two reactions. A reduced stoichiometric matrix was identified and the kinetic parameters were estimated on the basis of representative known biochemical kinetics (Monod and Haldane). The obtained reduced model takes into account the measured states in the anaerobic wastewater treatment (AWT) plant and reproduces the dynamics of the process fairly accurately. The reduced model can support on-line control, optimization and supervision strategies for AWT plants. PMID:23411455

García-Diéguez, Carlos; Bernard, Olivier; Roca, Enrique

2013-03-01

222

Measurement of sucrose and ethanol concentrations in process streams and effluents of sugarcane bioethanol industry by optical fiber sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The measurement of process streams and effluents from sugar-ethanol industry by using optical fiber sensor based on Fresnel reflection principle is reported. Firstly, binary sucrose-water and ethanol-water solutions were measured in order to determine the calibration curves. Secondly, the co-products from various processing stages were analyzed in order to identify the sucrose or ethanol concentration. The absolute error was calculated by comparison between the nominal concentration values obtained by plant laboratory analysis and the sensor response, yielding errors <= 5 wt% and <= 5 vol% for sucrose and ethanol content, respectively. The fiber sensor provided reliable results even for samples with more complex compositions than pure sucrose or ethanol solutions, with perspectives of application on the several stages of the plant facility.

Fujiwara, Eric; Ono, Eduardo; Manfrim, Tarcio P.; Santos, Juliana S.; Suzuki, Carlos K.

2011-05-01

223

Effects of sewage and industrial effluent on the concentration of Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd in water and sediments along Waterfalls stream and lower Mukuvisi River in Harare, Zimbabwe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The disposal of sewage and industrial effluent is a problem confronting municipalities in most developing countries. A study was conducted to determine the effects of the disposal of sewage and industrial effluent into Mukuvisi River and Waterfalls stream, a tributary of Mukuvisi River in Harare, Zimbabwe. Water and sediment samples were collected over two seasons (October 2003 to November 2004).

J. Nyamangara; C. Bangira; T. Taruvinga; C. Masona; A. Nyemba; D. Ndlovu

2008-01-01

224

Impact of biodegradation on the potential bioaccumulation and toxicity of refinery effluents.  

PubMed

Whole effluent assessments (WEA) are being investigated as potential tools for controlling aqueous industrial discharges and minimizing environmental impact. The present study investigated how toxicity and the presence of potentially bioaccumulative substances altered when refinery effluents were subjected to biodegradation tests. Three petrochemical effluents were assessed, two freshwater and one saline, and subjected to two different types of biodegradation tests, resembling either a ready style (dissolved organic carbon (DOC)-die away) or an inherent style (Zahn-Wellens) test and the toxicity and potential to bioaccumulate parameters were re-analysed during and after biodegradation. A high proportion of the potentially bioaccumulative substances (PBS) in these effluents was easily biodegradable. Biodegradation not only lowered the PBS concentration but also toxicity. Appropriate controls are required however, as some increases in toxicity were observed after 4 h. In the present study, six other petrochemical effluents were also assessed for their PBS content and toxicity to increase the understanding of the relationship between PBS and toxicity. The results showed that the PBS concentrations in these samples were lower than the estimated benchmarks of acute toxicity for algae, fish and crustacean, although two samples were above the critical PBS values for chronic narcotic toxicity for Daphnia magna, which support the assumption that narcotic effects are mainly responsible for the observed toxicity in refinery effluents. It can be concluded that for facilities processing petroleum products that the measurement of PBS is a suitable surrogate for toxicity tests at the screening stage. Finally, the combination of persistency, bioaccumulation, and toxicity tests was shown to have additional value compared to an approach using only toxicity tests. PMID:21796668

Leonards, Pim E G; Postma, Jaap F; Comber, Mike; Whale, Graham; Stalter, George

2011-10-01

225

Cost effectiveness analysis of proposed effluent limitations guidelines for the pulp, paper, and paperboard industry  

SciTech Connect

The cost-effectiveness (CE) analysis presents an evaluation of the technical efficiency of pollutant control options for the proposed effluent limitations guidelines. The proposed BAT and PSES apply to six subcategories: Dissolving Kraft; Dissolving Sulfite; Bleached Papergrade Kraft; Papergrade Sulfite; Unbleached Kraft; and Semichemical. The document compares the total annualized cost incurred for each of the regulatory options within each subcategory to the corresponding effectiveness of that option in reducing the discharge of pollutants. Section Two discusses the cost-effectiveness methodology and identifies the pollutants included in the analysis and their toxic weighting factors. Section Three describes the options evaluated for each subcategory. Section Four presents the results of the CE analysis. Section Five presents a separate analysis of AOX (adsorbable organic halides).

Not Available

1993-11-01

226

Physiological studies of some weeds grown under heavy metal and industrial effluent discharge zone of fertilizer factory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study deals with the characterization of effluent released from Brahmaputra valley Fertilizer complex, Namrup, Assam, India and distribution of heavy metals in water near to effluent discharge channel. The extent of damage caused by the effluents on physiological and biochemical properties of plants was investigated. Chlorophyll pigment, foliar protein and sugar concentration were measured in Amaranthus spinosus L.,

Hemen Sarma; Aniruddha Sarma; C. M. Sarma

2009-01-01

227

Treatment of industrial wastewater effluents using hydrodynamic cavitation and the advanced Fenton process  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the first time, hydrodynamic cavitation induced by a liquid whistle reactor (LWR) has been used in conjunction with the advanced Fenton process (AFP) for the treatment of real industrial wastewater. Semi-batch experiments in the LWR were designed to investigate the performance of the process for two different industrial wastewater samples. The effect of various operating parameters such as pressure,

Anand G. Chakinala; Parag R. Gogate; Arthur E. Burgess; David H. Bremner

2008-01-01

228

Effects of an industrial effluent on plant colonization and on the germination and post-germinative growth of seeds of terrestrial and aquatic plant species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major oil sands industrial companies are located in the Athabasca Oil Sands Deposit in northeastern Alberta, Canada. During the process used to extract light crude oil (via hot water digestion and flotation), gypsum is usually added to produce consolidated tails (CT) and CT release water. The vast volumes of process-treated waters (effluent) are held within large dyked tailings ponds. Toward

A. U. Crowe; A. L. Plant; A. R. Kermode

2002-01-01

229

Valve movement response of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis to metals (Cu, Hg, Cd and Zn) and phosphate industry effluents from Moroccan Atlantic coast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Valve activity was measured in the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis in response to sublethal concentrations of four metals (Hg, Cu, Zn and Cd) and two phosphate industry effluents from the Atlantic coast of Morocco. Valve movements were monitored using a proximity inductive sensor which could display all activity figures from full closure to wide opening of the shell valves. In

Mohamed Ait Fdil; Abdelfattah Mouabad; Abdelkader Outzourhit; Ali Benhra; Abdelmalek Maarouf; Jean Claude Pihan

2006-01-01

230

Greek petrochemicals finds buyers for plants  

SciTech Connect

Greek Petrochemicals (Athens) has found buyers for two polyethylene (PE) plants it ordered from U.K. contractors 10 years ago and that are currently stored in Manchester. It is understood that Thai Polyethylene (Bangkok) has been selected to acquire the 70,000-m.t./year ICI process low-density PE plant engineered by Simon-Carves. Reliance Industries is in talks to by the 50,000-m.t./year Union Carbide Unipol process high-density PE unit. The plants are to be installed at Map Ta Put, Thailand and Hazira, India, respectively.

Alperowicz, N.

1993-02-17

231

Simultaneously bio treatment of textiles and food industries effluent at difference ratios with the aid of e-beam radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The combination of irradiation and biological technique was used to study COD, BOD5 and colour removal of textiles effluent in the presence of food industry wastewater at two different ratios. Two biological treatment system, the first consisting a mix of unirradiated textile and food industry wastewater and the second a mix of irradiated textile wastewater and food industry wastewater were operated in parallel. The experiment was conducted by batch. For the first batch the ratio was use for textile wastewater and food industry wastewater in biological treatment was 1:1. Meanwhile, for the second batch the ratio used for textile wastewater and food industry wastewater in biological treatment was 1:2. The results obtained for the first and second batch varies from each other. After irradiation, COD reduce in textile wastewater for the both batches are roughly 29% - 33% from the unirradiated wastewater. But after undergoing the biological treatment the percentage of COD reduction for first batch and second batch was 62.1% and 80.7% respectively. After irradiation the BOD5 of textile wastewater reduced by 22.2% for the first batch and 55.1% for the second batch. But after biological treatment, the BOD5 value for the first batch was same as its initial, 36mg/l and 40.4mg/l for the second batch. Colour had decreased from 899.5 ADMI to 379.3 ADMI after irradiation and decrease to 109.3 after undergoes biological treatment for the first batch. Meantime for the batch two, colour had decreased from 1000.44 ADMI to 363.40 ADMI after irradiation and dropped to 79.20 ADMI after biological treatment. The experiment show that 1:2 ratio show better reduction on COD, BOD5 and colour, compared to the ratio of 1:1.

Bakar, Khomsaton Abu; Selambakkannu, Sarala; Ting, Teo Ming; Shariff, Jamaliah

2012-09-01

232

Respiratory and Irritant Health Effects of a Population Living in a Petrochemical-Polluted Area in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reported herewith are the results from an ongoing study of outdoor air pollution and the health of persons living in the communities in close proximity to petrochemical industrial complexes. To determine if there is an excess of adverse health outcomes in the population exposed to petrochemical industrial emissions, a health survey was undertaken in 1996 in this area and in

Chun-Yuh Yang; Jung-Der Wang; Chang-Chuan Chan; Pao-Chung Chen; Jing-Shiang Huang; Ming-Fen Cheng

1997-01-01

233

Effects of an industrial effluent on plant colonization and on the germination and post-germinative growth of seeds of terrestrial and aquatic plant species.  

PubMed

Major oil sands industrial companies are located in the Athabasca Oil Sands Deposit in northeastern Alberta, Canada. During the process used to extract light crude oil (via hot water digestion and flotation), gypsum is usually added to produce consolidated tails (CT) and CT release water. The vast volumes of process-treated waters (effluent) are held within large dyked tailings ponds. Toward testing viable options for reclamation, various hummock-wetlands systems have been constructed; in addition, natural wetlands (inhabited by obligate wetland plant species) have become established as a result of seeping of the effluents held within the large dyked ponds. Vegetation surveys conducted on and around the industrial site revealed that the constructed wetlands associated with the dyke drainage (effluent treated with phosphorous) and consolidated tails (CT; effluent treated with gypsum) had low biodiversity and were not invaded by many aquatic plants. Although the natural wetland was also not invaded by many aquatic species, it was found to be as diverse as the reference wetlands (i.e. off-site wetlands not exposed to the effluents). Exposure to oil sands effluents had an inhibitory effect on the germination (percent and/or rate) of several plant species (tomato, clover, wheat, rye, pea, reed canary grass, loblolly pine); clover and tomato seed germination were most affected. Two treatments in particular (effluents from the natural on-site wetland and the CT constructed wetland), delayed germination, and also led to reduced fresh weight of seedlings of tomato, wheat, clover and loblolly pine. The osmolarities of the effluents associated with the natural on-site wetland and CT constructed wetland were 712 and 728 mOs/kg, respectively; substituting these effluents with solutions of polyethylene glycol of the same osmotic potentials had a greater inhibitory effect on germination rate. The negative effects of the effluents on seed germination may account for the paucity of aquatic species that invaded the oil sands impacted wetlands. This factor will also be critical in determining the long-term feasibility of hummock-wetland systems. PMID:11843534

Crowe, A U; Plant, A L; Kermode, A R

2002-01-01

234

Phthalates and alkylphenols in industrial and domestic effluents: Case of Paris conurbation (France).  

PubMed

Phthalates and alkylphenols are toxics classified as endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs). They are of particular concern due to their ubiquity and generally higher levels found in the environment comparatively to other EDCs. Industrial and domestic discharges might affect the quality of receiving waters by discharging organic matter and contaminants through treated waters and combined sewer overflows. Historically, industrial discharges are often considered as the principal vector of pollution in urban areas. If this observation was true in the past for some contaminants, no current data are today available to compare the quality of industrial and domestic discharges as regards EDCs. In this context, a total of 45 domestic samples as well as 101 industrial samples were collected from different sites, including 14 residential and 33 industrial facilities. This study focuses more specifically on 4 phthalates and 2 alkylphenols, among the most commonly studied congeners. A particular attention was also given to routine wastewater quality parameters. For most substances, wastewaters from the different sites were heavily contaminated; they display concentrations up to 1200?g/l for di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and between 10 and 100?g/l for diethyl phthalate and nonylphenol. Overall, for the majority of compounds, the industrial contribution to the flux of contaminant reaching the wastewater treatment plants ranges between 1 and 3%. The data generated during this work constitutes one of the first studies conducted in Europe on industrial fluxes for a variety of sectors of activity. The study of the wastewater contribution was used to better predict the industrial and domestic contributions at the scale of a huge conurbation heavily urbanized but with a weak industrial cover, illustrated by Paris. Our results indicate that specific investigations on domestic discharges are necessary in order to reduce the release of phthalates and alkylphenols in the sewer systems for such conurbations. PMID:24815554

Bergé, A; Gasperi, J; Rocher, V; Gras, L; Coursimault, A; Moilleron, R

2014-08-01

235

Cost-effectiveness analysis of effluent standards and limitations for the metal finishing industry. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The report summarizes the results of a cost-effectiveness analysis of the metal finishing industry. The analysis considers the cost-effectiveness of the final metal finishing regulations for direct and indirect dischargers.

Not Available

1983-06-01

236

BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT, EFFLUENT REUSE, AND SLUDGE HANDLING FOR THE SIDE LEATHER TANNING INDUSTRY  

EPA Science Inventory

An evaluation of the treatability of unsegregated, unequalized, and unneutralized wastewaters from a side-leather tanning industry utilizing the hair pulping process by primary and secondary biological and gravity separation in clarifier-thickeners, whereas the secondary treatmen...

237

Treatment of a petrochemical wastewater in sequencing batch reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The response of sequencing batch reactors (SBR's) in an industrial application was investigated. Four bench-scale SBR's and a bench-scale conventional activated sludge unit were operated with wastewater from a petrochemical complex. In terms of the degradation of BOD material and nitrification, the performance of the SBR's was comparable or slightly superior to that of the conventional activated sludge unit. However,

E. H. Hsu

1986-01-01

238

Performance assessment and hydrodynamic analysis of a submerged membrane bioreactor for treating dairy industrial effluent.  

PubMed

Submerged membrane bioreactor (SMBR) is a relatively advanced technology for waste water treatment that involves integrated aerobic and anaerobic biological processes with membrane filtration. In the present investigation, hydrophobic polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and hydrophilic polyacrylonitrile (PAN) hollow fiber (HF) membranes were tested in an indigenously fabricated SMBR for dairy effluent treatment under aerobic conditions using mixed microbial consortia. Effect of operating parameters such as suction pressure, degree of aeration and trans-membrane pressure (TMP) on membrane performance in terms of flux, rejection of turbidity, BOD and COD besides fouling characteristics was investigated. The observed optimum permeabilities of PVDF and PAN HF membranes were approximately 108 and 115 LMH bar(-1) with high extent of impurity removal. The rejection of COD was found to be 93% for PVDF and 91% for PAN HF membranes whereas corresponding rejection of BOD was observed to be 92% and 86%. A two-dimensional comprehensive model was developed to predict the hydrodynamic profile inside the module. Regression analysis revealed that the simulation results agreed well with experimental data. PMID:24793299

K, Praneeth; Moulik, Siddhartha; Vadthya, Pavani; Bhargava, Suresh K; Tardio, James; S, Sridhar

2014-06-15

239

Treatment of pulp and paper industry bleaching effluent by electrocoagulant process.  

PubMed

The experiments were carried out in an electrocoagulation reactor with aluminum as sacrificial electrodes. The influence of electrolysis time, current density, pH, NaCl concentration, rotational speed of the stirrer and electrode distance on reduction of color, COD and BOD were studied in detail. From the experimental results, 15 mA/cm(2) current density, pH of 7, 1 g/l NaCl, 100 rpm, 28°C temperature and 3 cm electrode distance were found to be optimum for maximum reduction of color, COD and BOD. The reduction of color, COD and BOD under the optimum condition were found to be 94%, 90% and 87% respectively. The electrode energy consumption was calculated and found to be varied from 10.1 to 12.9 kWh/m(3) depending on the operating conditions. Under optimal operating condition such as 15 mA/cm(2) current density, pH of 7, 1 g/l NaCl, 100 rpm, 28°C temperature and 3 cm electrode distance, the operating cost was found to be 1.56 US $/m(3). The experimental results proved that the electrocoagulation is a suitable method for treating bleaching plant effluents for reuse. PMID:21227578

Sridhar, R; Sivakumar, V; Prince Immanuel, V; Prakash Maran, J

2011-02-28

240

Evaluation of haloalkaliphilic sulfur-oxidizing microorganisms with potential application in the effluent treatment of the petroleum industry.  

PubMed

Haloalkaliphilic sulfur-oxidizing mixed cultures for the treatment of alkaline-saline effluents containing sulfide were characterized and evaluated. The mixed cultures (IMP-PB, IMP-XO and IMP-TL) were obtained from Mexican alkaline soils collected in Puebla (PB), Xochimilco (XO) and Tlahuac (TL), respectively. The Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis (RISA) revealed bacteria related to Thioalkalibacterium and Thioalkalivibrio in IMP-XO and IMP-PB mixed cultures. Halomonas strains were detected in IMP-XO and IMP-TL. In addition, an uncultured Bacteroides bacterium was present in IMP-TL. Mixed cultures were evaluated at different pH and NaCl concentrations at 30°C. IMP-PB and IMP-TL expressed thiosulfate-oxidizing activity in the 7.5-10.5 pH range, whereas IMP-XO presented its maximal activity with 19.0 mg O? g (protein)?¹ min?¹, at pH 10.6; it was not affected by NaCl concentrations up to 1.7 M. In continuous culture, IMP-XO showed a growth rate of 15 day?¹, productivity of 433.4 mg(protein) l?¹ day?¹ and haloalkaliphilic sulfur-oxidizing activity was also detected up to 170 mM by means of N-methyl-diethanolamine (MDEA). Saline-alkaline soil samples are potential sources of haloalkaliphilic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria and the mixed cultures could be applied in the treatment of inorganic sulfur compounds in petroleum industry effluents under alkaline-saline conditions. PMID:20582453

Olguín-Lora, P; Le Borgne, S; Castorena-Cortés, G; Roldán-Carrillo, T; Zapata-Peñasco, I; Reyes-Avila, J; Alcántara-Pérez, S

2011-02-01

241

Removal of Hexavalent Chromium from Electroplating Industrial Effluents by Using Hydrothermally Treated Fly Ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chromium in the wastewater coming out from tanneries and electroplating industries is to be treated because of exposure to it may produce effects on the liver, kidney, gastrointestinal and immune systems. On the other hand, fly ash produced from coal fired power plants is having disposal problem and it has to be properly utilized. In this study, the fly ash,

S. Ram Mohan Rao; V. V. Basava Rao

2007-01-01

242

INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT AND HEALTH STATUS A CASE STUDY OF NOYYAL RIVER BASIN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial pollution has been and continues to be, a major factor causing the degradation of the environment around us, affecting the water we use, the air we breathe and the soil we live on. But of the se, pollution of water is arguably the most serious threat to current human welfare. Environmental pollution is an 'externality' in welfare economics. An

K. Govindarajalu

243

Treatment of aqueous effluents of the leather industry by membrane processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general overview on the potentiality of membrane processes in the treatment of aqueous solutions coming from the leather industry is reported. The wet operations of the leather cycle which can be combined with or modified by membrane processes, such as microfiltration, ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis, have been described on the basis of consolidated applications and experimental

A Cassano; R Molinari; M Romano; E Drioli

2001-01-01

244

Process for removing sulfur and sulfur compounds from the effluent of industrial processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfur dioxide in the stack gas from an industrial process is converted to elemental sulfur in a claus reactor at low temperature to produce sulfur fume. The sulfur is condensed by direct heat transfer with a continuously flowing countercurrent recirculating catalyst and a substantially sulfur dioxide-free gas is discharged. Catalyst and condensed sulfur are fed into the top of a

Sims

1981-01-01

245

Economic Analysis of Effluent Guidelines: The Ore Mining and Dressing Industry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the study is to assess the economic impact on the U.S. metallic ore mining and dressing industry of the cost of meeting EPA standards for pollution abatement applicable to the discharge of water streams from point sources.

1977-01-01

246

Distribution of petroleum hydrocarbon in sediment from coastal area receiving industrial effluents in Kuwait  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sediment samples from the coastal area facing Shuaiba industrial area (15×1.5km2) were examined for contamination with petroleum hydrocarbons. Aliphatic hydrocarbons in sediment extracts were characterized largely by unresolved complex mixture from nC22–nC33. The sediment samples from the upstream area facing Mina Al-Ahmadi refinery to Shuaiba Harbor were heavily polluted with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) possibly due to the higher depth

M. U Beg; T Saeed; S Al-Muzaini; K. R Beg; M Al-Bahloul

2003-01-01

247

Aerobic treatability of waste effluent from the leather finishing industry. Master's thesis  

SciTech Connect

The Seton Company supplies finished leather products exclusively for the automotive industry. In the process of finishing leather, two types of wastewaters are generated. The majority of the wastewater is composed of water-based paint residuals while the remainder is composed of solvent-based coating residuals. Aerobic treatability studies were conducted using water-based and solvent-based waste recirculatory waters from the Seton Company's Saxton, Pennsylvania processing plant. The specific objective was to determine the potential for using aerobic biological processes to biodegrade the industry's wastes and determine the potential for joint treatment at the local publicly owned treatment works (POTW). This study was accomplished in two phases. Phase I was conducted during the Spring Semester 1993 and consisted of aerobic respirometer tests of the raw wastes and mass balance analysis. The results of Phase I were published in a report to the Seton Company as Environmental Resources Research Institute project number 92C.II40R-1. Phase II was conducted during the Summer Semester 1993 and consisted of bench-scale reactor tests and additional aerobic respirometer tests. The aerobic respirometer batch tests and bench-scale reactor tests were used to assess the treatability of solvent-based and water-based wastewaters and determine the degree of biodegradability of the wastewaters. Mass balance calculations were made using measured characteristics.

Vinger, J.A.

1993-12-01

248

Isolation and characterization of phenol utilizing bacteria from industrial effluent-contaminated soil and kinetic evaluation of their biodegradation potential.  

PubMed

Microbial degradation of phenol by pure bacterial species is a well-known approach towards alleviation of environmental pollution. In this study, five phenol-degrading bacterial species designated as CUPS-1 to CUPS-5 were isolated from the oil-effluent dumped sites of Haldia Industrial area of West Bengal, India. Detailed morphological, biochemical and molecular characterization identified CUPS-3 as a novel strain- Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (GU358076), while the others could be identified as Pseudomonas (CUPS-2, 5), Delftia (CUPS-1) and Micrococcus (CUPS-4) genera, respectively. Although all of these strains utilized phenol as their sole carbon source supporting growth, three among them, CUPS-2, CUPS-3 and CUPS-5 proved potential phenol degraders and hence used for further biodegradation studies. Degradation experiments were carried out for several initial phenol concentrations of 500 mg/L, 750 mg/L, 1000 mg/L, 1250 mg/L and 1500 mg/L. The novel strain, CUPS-3 could completely degrade 500 mg/L phenol within 48 h, with 0.0937/h substrate degradation rate and 16.34 mg/L/h substrate consumption rate. The strains degraded phenol via meta-cleavage pathway. Prediction of kinetic parameters of the biodegradation was accomplished Haldane model using the experimental data of degradation rate and phenol concentration as function of time. PMID:24117085

Pal Basak, Sreela; Sarkar, Priyabrata; Pal, Priyabrata

2014-01-01

249

Response of ammonia-oxidizing archaea and bacteria to long-term industrial effluent-polluted soils, Gujarat, Western India.  

PubMed

Soil nitrifiers have been showing an important role in assessing environmental pollution as sensitive biomarkers. In this study, the abundance and diversity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) were investigated in long-term industrial waste effluent (IWE) polluted soils. Three different IWE polluted soils characterized as uncontaminated (R1), moderately contaminated (R2), and highly contaminated (R3) were collected in triplicate along Mahi River basin, Gujarat, Western India. Quantitative numbers of ammonia monooxygenase ?-subunit (amoA) genes as well as 16S rRNA genes indicated apparent deleterious effect of IWE on abundance of soil AOA, AOB, bacteria, and archaeal populations. Relatively, AOB was more abundant than AOA in the highly contaminated soil R3, while predominance of AOA was noticed in uncontaminated (R1) and moderately contaminated (R2) soils. Soil potential nitrification rate (PNR) significantly (P?

Subrahmanyam, Gangavarapu; Shen, Ju-Pei; Liu, Yu-Rong; Archana, Gattupalli; He, Ji-Zheng

2014-07-01

250

English for Petrochemical Plant Operators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development of a program and curriculum for instruction in technical English for Saudi Arabian petrochemical plant operator trainees studying in the United States for two years was undertaken by the University of South Alabama's English Language Center. The program was designed to accommodate (1) the degree of skills and prior learning of the…

Bynum, Henri Sue

251

Biochemical responses of the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis to petrochemical environmental contamination along the North-western coast of Portugal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the development of urban and industrial centres petrochemical products have become a widespread class of contaminants. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of petrochemical contamination in wild populations of mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) along the NW Atlantic coast of Portugal by applying antioxidant and energetic metabolism parameters as biomarkers. For that, mussels were collected at five

Inês Lima; Susana M. Moreira; Jaime Rendón-Von Osten; Amadeu M. V. M. Soares; Lúcia Guilhermino

2007-01-01

252

Removal of Hexavalent Chromium from Electroplating Industrial Effluents by Using Hydrothermally Treated Fly Ash  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chromium in the wastewater coming out from tanneries and electroplating industries is to be treated because of exposure to it may produce effects on the liver, kidney, gastrointestinal and immune systems. On the other hand, fly ash produced from coal fired power plants is having disposal problem and it has to be properly utilized. In this study, the fly ash, subjected to hydrothermal treatment is used as adsorbent to remove Cr (VI) from synthetic samples. The effect of initial stock solution, contact time, adsorbent dose and pH were studied in a batch experiment. Results are compared with powdered activated carbon, granular activated carbon and untreated fly ash. The capacity of adsorption was found to be increased in the case of treated fly ash and it follows the order of powdered activated carbon >granular activated carbon >treated fly ash >untreated fly ash. The adsorption isotherms of Langmuir constants and Freundlich constants for all the adsorbents were determined. The Langmuir adsorption isotherm was recommended.

Ram Mohan Rao, S.; Basava Rao, V. V.

253

Surface Alteration of Activated Carbon for Detoxification of Copper (ii) from Industrial Effluents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The low-cost modified activated carbons were prepared from Thar and Lakhra (Pakistan) coals by activation with sulfuric acid and further modified with citric, tartaric and acetic acids for the selective adsorption of Cu(II) from aqueous solution. The original carbon obtained from activated Thar and Lakhra coals at pH 3.0 displayed significant adsorption capacity for lead and insignificant capacity values (0.880 and 0.830 mg?g-1) for copper. However, after modification with citric, tartaric and acetic acid the copper adsorption capacities enhanced in the range of 5.56-21.85 and 6.05-44.61 times, respectively. The Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin adsorption isotherms were used to elucidate the observed sorption phenomena. The isotherm equilibrium data was well fitted by the Langmuir and sufficiently fitted to the Freundlich models. The calculated thermodynamic parameters such as change in Gibbs free energy (?G°), enthalpy (?H°) and entropy (?S°) inferred that the investigated adsorption was spontaneous and endothermic in nature. Based on the results, it was concluded that the surface alteration with citric and tartaric acid, Thar and Lakhra activated carbons had significant potential for selective removal of copper(II) from industrial wastewater.

Bhutto, Sadaf; Khan, M. Nasiruddin

2013-04-01

254

Bioremediation and Detoxification of Synthetic Wastewater Containing Triarylmethane Dyes by Aeromonas hydrophila Isolated from Industrial Effluent  

PubMed Central

Economical and bio-friendly approaches are needed to remediate dye-contaminated wastewater from various industries. In this study, a novel bacterial strain capable of decolorizing triarylmethane dyes was isolated from a textile wastewater treatment plant in Greece. The bacterial isolate was identified as Aeromonas hydrophila and was shown to decolorize three triarylmethane dyes tested within 24?h with color removal in the range of 72% to 96%. Decolorization efficiency of the bacterium was a function of operational parameters (aeration, dye concentration, temperature, and pH) and the optimal operational conditions obtained for decolorization of the dyes were: pH 7-8, 35°C and culture agitation. Effective color removal within 24?h was obtained at a maximum dye concentration of 50?mg/L. Dye decolorization was monitored using a scanning UV/visible spectrophotometer which indicated that decolorization was due to the degradation of dyes into non-colored intermediates. Phytotoxicity studies carried out using Triticum aestivum, Hordeum vulgare, and Lens esculenta revealed the triarylmethane dyes exerted toxic effects on plant growth parameters monitored. However, significant reduction in toxicity was obtained with the decolorized dye metabolites thus, indicating the detoxification of the dyes following degradation by Aeromonas hydrophila.

Ogugbue, Chimezie Jason; Sawidis, Thomas

2011-01-01

255

Impact of textile dyeing industries effluent on groundwater quality in Karur Amaravathi River basin, Tamil Nadu (India)--a field study.  

PubMed

Karur is an industrial town located on the bank of river Amaravathi. There are 487 textile processing units in operation and discharge about 14610 kilo litres per day of treated effluent into the river. The groundwater quality in the downstream is deteriorated due to continuous discharge of effluent. In order to assess the present quality of groundwater, 13 open wells were identified in the river basin around Karur and samples were collected during pre-monsoon, post monsoon and summer, and analyzed for physico-chemical parameters. TDS, total alkalinity, total hardness, calcium, chlorides and sulphates exceeded the desirable limit. Amaravathi River water samples were also colleted at the upstream and downstream of Karur and the result shows the river is polluted. During summer season, there is no flow in the river and the river acts as a drainage for the effluent. Hence, there is severe impact on the groundwater quality in the downstream. The best option to protect the groundwater quality in the river basin is that the textile processing units should adopt zero liquid discharge (ZLD) system and completely recycle the treated effluent. PMID:22312801

Rajamanickam, R; Nagan, S

2010-10-01

256

The impact of an industrial effluent on the water quality, submersed macrophytes and benthic macroinvertebrates in a dammed river of Central Spain.  

PubMed

This research was conducted in the middle Duratón River (Central Spain), in the vicinity of Burgomillodo Reservoir. An industrial effluent enters the river 300 m downstream from the dam. Fluoride and turbidity levels significantly increased downstream from the effluent, these levels being to some extent affected by differential water releases from the dam. The community of submersed macrophytes exhibited slighter responses and, accordingly, lower discriminatory power than the community of benthic macroinvertebrates, this indicating that metrics and indices based on macroinvertebrates may be more suitable for the biological monitoring of water pollution and habitat degradation in dammed rivers receiving industrial effluents. However, in relation to fluoride bioaccumulation at the organism level, macrophytes (Fontinalis antipyretica and Potamogeton pectinatus) were as suitable bioindicators of fluoride pollution as macroinvertebrates (Ancylus fluviatilis and Pacifastacus leniusculus). Fluoride bioaccumulation in both hard and soft tissues of these aquatic organisms could be used as suitable bioindicator of fluoride pollution (even lower than 1 mg F(-)L(-1)) in freshwater ecosystems. Echinogammarus calvus exhibited a great sensitivity to the toxicity of fluoride ions, with a 96 h LC?? of 7.5 mg F(-)L(-1) and an estimated safe concentration of 0.56 mg F(-)L(-1). The great capacity of E. calvus to take up and retain fluoride during exposures to fluoride ions would be a major cause of its great sensitivity to fluoride toxicity. It is concluded that the observed fluoride pollution might be partly responsible for the absence of this native amphipod downstream from the industrial effluent. PMID:23830885

Gonzalo, Cristina; Camargo, Julio A

2013-10-01

257

Economic Analysis of Final Effluent Limitations Guidelines and Standards for the Transportation Equipment Cleaning Industry Point Source Category.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Economic Analysis (EA) report evaluates the costs, economic impacts, and benefits of final effluent limitations guidelines and standards (known herein as the Final Rule) that provide for pollution control requirements for the transportation equipment...

2000-01-01

258

Biosorption of heavy metals by Bacillus thuringiensis strain OSM29 originating from industrial effluent contaminated north Indian soil  

PubMed Central

The study was navigated to examine the metal biosorbing ability of bacterial strain OSM29 recovered from rhizosphere of cauliflower grown in soil irrigated consistently with industrial effluents. The metal tolerant bacterial strain OSM29 was identified as Bacillus thuringiensis following 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. In the presence of the varying concentrations (25–150 mgl?1) of heavy metals, such as cadmium, chromium, copper, lead and nickel, the B. thuringiensis strain OSM29 showed an obvious metal removing potential. The effect of certain physico-chemical factors such as pH, initial metal concentration, and contact time on biosorption was also assessed. The optimum pH for nickel and chromium removal was 7, while for cadmium, copper and lead, it was 6. The optimal contact time was 30 min. for each metal at 32 ± 2 °C by strain OSM29. The biosorption capacity of the strain OSM29 for the metallic ions was highest for Ni (94%) which was followed by Cu (91.8%), while the lowest sorption by bacterial biomass was recorded for Cd (87%) at 25 mgl?1 initial metal ion concentration. The regression coefficients obtained for heavy metals from the Freundlich and Langmuir models were significant. The surface chemical functional groups of B. thuringiensis biomass identified by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) were amino, carboxyl, hydroxyl, and carbonyl groups, which may be involved in the biosorption of heavy metals. The biosorption ability of B. thuringiensis OSM29 varied with metals and was pH and metal concentration dependent. The biosorption of each metal was fairly rapid which could be an advantage for large scale treatment of contaminated sites.

Oves, Mohammad; Khan, Mohammad Saghir; Zaidi, Almas

2012-01-01

259

Treatment of colored effluent of the textile industry in Bangladesh using zinc chloride treated indigenous activated carbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption of colored compounds from the textile dyeing effluents of Bangladesh on granulated activated carbons produced from indigenous vegetable sources by chemical activation with zinc chloride was studied. The most important parameters in chemical activation were found be the chemical ratio of ZnCl2 to feed (3:1), carbonization temperature (450–465°C) and activation time (80min). The adsorbances at 511nm (red effluent)

Mohammad Mainul Karim; Ajoy Kumar Das; Sang Hak Lee

2006-01-01

260

Anaerobic biodegradability and methanogenic toxicity of key constituents in copper chemical mechanical planarization effluents of the semiconductor industry.  

PubMed

Copper chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) effluents can account for 30-40% of the water discharge in semiconductor manufacturing. CMP effluents contain high concentrations of soluble copper and a complex mixture of organic constituents. The aim of this study is to perform a preliminary assessment of the treatability of CMP effluents in anaerobic sulfidogenic bioreactors inoculated with anaerobic granular sludge by testing individual compounds expected in the CMP effluents. Of all the compounds tested (copper (II), benzotriazoles, polyethylene glycol (M(n) 300), polyethylene glycol (M(n) 860) monooleate, perfluoro-1-octane sulfonate, citric acid, oxalic acid and isopropanol) only copper was found to be inhibitory to methanogenic activity at the concentrations tested. Most of the organic compounds tested were biodegradable with the exception of perfluoro-1-octane sulfonate and benzotriazoles under sulfate reducing conditions and with the exception of the same compounds as well as Triton X-100 under methanogenic conditions. The susceptibility of key components in CMP effluents to anaerobic biodegradation combined with their low microbial inhibition suggest that CMP effluents should be amenable to biological treatment in sulfate reducing bioreactors. PMID:15857633

Hollingsworth, Jeremy; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes; Zhou, Michael; Ogden, Kimberly L; Field, Jim A

2005-06-01

261

Improvement of dewatering capacity of a petrochemical sludge.  

PubMed

Oily sludge produced from a petrochemical industry was used to investigate the improvement of its dewatering properties. The oil content (OC) and the dry solid content (DS) of the raw sludge were respectively, 15% and 3.6% by weight. The capillary suction time (CST) and the specific resistance to filtration (SRF) of the raw petrochemical industrial sludge were found to be 2000s and approximately 5.5x10(16)m/kg, respectively. Conventional chemical conditioners such as alum, lime, and polyelectrolyte, and less conventional ones like fly ash, gypsum, and bentonite were used in the sludge conditioning studies. Conventional chemical conditioners gave better results for the enhancement of the dewatering capacity of the sludge. The best result was obtained by using 0.9% cationic polyelectrolyte by weight, and a decrease of 99%-95% were achieved for CST and SRF, respectively, when this dosage of cationic polyelectrolyte was used. PMID:17101214

Buyukkamaci, Nurdan; Kucukselek, Emrah

2007-06-01

262

Maximum fossil fuel feedstock replacement potential of petrochemicals via biorefineries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The search for feedstock replacement options within the petrochemical industry should logically be based upon non-fossil resources. Retaining the functionality of the biochemicals in biomass for use as chemical products and precursors can lead to a sizeable reduction of fossil fuel consumption. This was assessed by using a limited energetic and exergetic cradle-to-factory gate analysis following the principles of life

Ben Brehmer; Remko M. Boom; Johan Sanders

2009-01-01

263

Recovery of Enthalpy as Work from Thermal Effluents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Enthalpy is recovered as work from hot industrial effluents by the controlled expansion of liquids through convergent-divergent nozzles in true reaction turbines. For hot liquid effluents, the effluent itself serves as the working fluid. For gaseous efflu...

A. E. Molini

1982-01-01

264

FISH COUGH RESPONSE - A METHOD FOR EVALUATING QUALITY OF TREATED COMPLEX EFFLUENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) showed increases in cough frequency commensurate with effluent concentration when exposed for 24 h to different industrial and municipal effluents. Effluents known to be toxic caused steadily increasing cough rates in the fish as effluent co...

265

Development of a simultaneous partial nitrification, anaerobic ammonia oxidation and denitrification (SNAD) bench scale process for removal of ammonia from effluent of a fertilizer industry.  

PubMed

A simultaneous partial nitrification, anammox and denitrification (SNAD) process was developed for the treatment of ammonia laden effluent of a fertilizer industry. Autotrophic aerobic and anaerobic ammonia oxidizing biomass was enriched and their ammonia removal ability was confirmed in synthetic effluent system. Seed consortium developed from these was applied in the treatment of effluent in an oxygen limited bench scale SNAD type (1L) reactor run at ambient temperature (?30°C). Around 98.9% ammonia removal was achieved with ammonia loading rate 0.35kgNH(4)(+)-N/m(3)day in the presence of 46.6mg/L COD at 2.31days hydraulic retention time. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the biomass from upper and lower zone of the reactor revealed presence of autotrophic ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB), Planctomycetes and denitrifiers as the dominant bacteria carrying out anoxic oxidation of ammonia in the reactor. Physiological and molecular studies strongly indicate presence of anammox bacteria in the anoxic zone of the SNAD reactor. PMID:23313684

Keluskar, Radhika; Nerurkar, Anuradha; Desai, Anjana

2013-02-01

266

[Enhanced bio-contact oxidation method to treat petrochemical wastewater by tourmaline].  

PubMed

Aiming at the complexity and poor biochemical degradability of petrochemical wastewater, the effect of tourmaline on bio-contact oxidation method was investigated. The influent and effluent of petrochemical wastewater were analyzed by GC-MS, and the carrier was observed in reactor by scanning electron microscope (SEM). As the loading rates of influent were COD 0.64-0.72 kg/(m3 x d) and NH4(+) -N 0.058-0.072 kg/(m3 x d), the start up of pilot system supported tourmaline were improved, and the removal rate of COD and NH4(+) -N of effluent was increased 8.7% and 6.4%, respectively. Organic pollutants of 100 kinds were detected in influent, mainly including aromatic hydrocarbon, acids, lipids, phenols, alcohols, and alkanes compounds. The removal efficiency of organic pollutant of reactor 1 with tourmaline was higher than reactor 2 without tourmaline. The number of organic pollutant in effluent from reactor 1 and 2 were 14 and 28, respectively. Zoogloea can be observed on carrier supported tourmaline, and the biomass of bacteria was predominant. The efficiency of bio-contact oxidation method on petrochemical wastewater treatment can be enhanced by tourmaline. PMID:19662849

Jiang, Kan; Ma, Fang; Sun, Tie-Heng; Feng, Zhi-Yun

2009-06-15

267

Oestrogenic activity of a textile industrial wastewater treatment plant effluent evaluated by the E-screen test and MELN gene-reporter luciferase assay.  

PubMed

This study quantified the biological oestrogenic activity in the effluent of a textile industrial wastewater treatment plant (IWWTP) in northwestern Italy. Samples of the IWWTP effluent were collected monthly, both before and after tertiary treatment (ozonation). After solid phase extraction, all samples were subjected to two in vitro tests of total estrogenic activity, the human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7 BUS) proliferation assay, or E-screen test, and the luciferase-transfected human breast cancer cell line (MELN) gene-reporter assay, to measure the 17?-oestradiol equivalent quantity (EEQ). In the E-screen test, the mean EEQ values were 2.35±1.68 ng/L pre-ozonation and 0.72±0.58 ng/L post-ozonation; in the MELN gene-reporter luciferase assay, the mean EEQ values were 4.18±3.54 ng/L pre-ozonation and 2.53±2.48 ng/L post-ozonation. These results suggest that the post-ozonation IWWTP effluent had a lower oestrogenic activity (simple paired t-tests, p<0.05). The average reduction of estrogenic activity of IWWTP effluent after ozonation was 67±26% and 52±27% as measured by E-screen test and MELN gene-reporter luciferase assay, respectively. There was a positive and significant correlation between the two tests (Rho S=0.650, p=0.022). This study indicates that the environmental risk is low because oestrogenic substances are deposited into the river via IWWTP at concentrations lower than those at which chronic exposure has been reported to affect the endocrine system of living organisms. PMID:22750186

Schilirò, Tiziana; Porfido, Arianna; Spina, Federica; Varese, Giovanna Cristina; Gilli, Giorgio

2012-08-15

268

Ceramic membrane treatment of petrochemical wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ceramic alumina microfiltration membranes were evaluated for treatment of 3 aqueous streams containing heavy metals, oils, and solids at petrochemical manufacturing facilities. To the best of the author's knowledge, this is the first reported use of ceramic alumina membranes for process water and wastewater treatment in a US petrochemical plant. In a pilot test at a vinyl chloride monomer (VCM)

Richard J. Lahiere; Kenneth P. Goodboy

1993-01-01

269

Association of petrochemical exposure with spontaneous abortion  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To assess the association between petrochemical exposure and spontaneous abortion, a retrospective epidemiological study in a large petrochemical complex in Beijing, China was conducted. METHODS: Plant employment records identified 3105 women who were married, were 20-44 years of age, and had never smoked. Of those, 3070 women (98.8%) reported at least one pregnancy. From this group, 2853 (93%) of

X. Xu; S. I. Cho; M. Sammel; L. You; S. Cui; Y. Huang; G. Ma; C. Padungtod; L. Pothier; T. Niu; D. Christiani; T. Smith; L. Ryan; L. Wang

1998-01-01

270

Ultratrace Determination of Cr(VI) and Pb(II) by Microsample Injection System Flame Atomic Spectroscopy in Drinking Water and Treated and Untreated Industrial Effluents.  

PubMed

Simple and robust analytical procedures were developed for hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) and lead (Pb(II)) by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) using microsample injection system coupled with flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (MIS-FAAS). For the current study, ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC), carbon tetrachloride, and ethanol were used as chelating agent, extraction solvent, and disperser solvent, respectively. The effective variables of developed method have been optimized and studied in detail. The limit of detection of Cr(VI) and Pb(II) were 0.037 and 0.054?µg/L, respectively. The enrichment factors in both cases were 400 with 40?mL of initial volumes. The relative standard deviations (RSDs, n = 6) were <4%. The applicability and the accuracy of DLLME were estimated by the analysis of Cr(VI) and Pb(II) in industrial effluent wastewater by standard addition method (recoveries >96%). The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of Cr(VI) and Pb(II) at ultratrace levels in natural drinking water and industrial effluents wastewater of Denizli. Moreover, the proposed method was compared with the literature reported method. PMID:24163779

Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Elci, Latif; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Khan, Muhammad Irfan; Naseer, Hafiz Muhammad

2013-01-01

271

Ultratrace Determination of Cr(VI) and Pb(II) by Microsample Injection System Flame Atomic Spectroscopy in Drinking Water and Treated and Untreated Industrial Effluents  

PubMed Central

Simple and robust analytical procedures were developed for hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) and lead (Pb(II)) by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) using microsample injection system coupled with flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (MIS-FAAS). For the current study, ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC), carbon tetrachloride, and ethanol were used as chelating agent, extraction solvent, and disperser solvent, respectively. The effective variables of developed method have been optimized and studied in detail. The limit of detection of Cr(VI) and Pb(II) were 0.037 and 0.054?µg/L, respectively. The enrichment factors in both cases were 400 with 40?mL of initial volumes. The relative standard deviations (RSDs, n = 6) were <4%. The applicability and the accuracy of DLLME were estimated by the analysis of Cr(VI) and Pb(II) in industrial effluent wastewater by standard addition method (recoveries >96%). The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of Cr(VI) and Pb(II) at ultratrace levels in natural drinking water and industrial effluents wastewater of Denizli. Moreover, the proposed method was compared with the literature reported method.

Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Elci, Latif; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Khan, Muhammad Irfan; Naseer, Hafiz Muhammad

2013-01-01

272

pH-Controlled precipitation of cobalt and molybdenum from industrial waste effluents of a cobalt electrodeposition process  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was carried out in attempt to investigate how to efficiently treat effluents generated from a novel electrodeposition of nanocrystalline Co-based alloys using pH-controlled precipitation of cobalt and molybdenum from Co–Mo aqueous solutions. The most significant factors studied included the effects of pH, cobalt and molybdenum concentrations, reaction temperature and reaction time on the precipitation process and kinetics. The

J. H. Huang; C. Kargl-Simard; M. Oliazadeh; A. M. Alfantazi

2004-01-01

273

Dual application of duckweed and azolla plants for wastewater treatment and renewable fuels and petrochemicals production  

PubMed Central

Background Shortages in fresh water supplies today affects more than 1 billion people worldwide. Phytoremediation strategies, based on the abilities of aquatic plants to recycle nutrients offer an attractive solution for the bioremediation of water pollution and represents one of the most globally researched issues. The subsequent application of the biomass from the remediation for the production of fuels and petrochemicals offers an ecologically friendly and cost-effective solution for water pollution problems and production of value-added products. Results In this paper, the feasibility of the dual application of duckweed and azolla aquatic plants for wastewater treatment and production of renewable fuels and petrochemicals is explored. The differences in absorption rates of the key wastewater nutrients, ammonium and phosphorus by these aquatic macrophytes were used as the basis for optimization of the composition of wastewater effluents. Analysis of pyrolysis products showed that azolla and algae produce a similar range of bio-oils that contain a large spectrum of petrochemicals including straight-chain C10-C21 alkanes, which can be directly used as diesel fuel supplement, or a glycerin-free component of biodiesel. Pyrolysis of duckweed produces a different range of bio-oil components that can potentially be used for the production of “green” gasoline and diesel fuel using existing techniques, such as catalytic hydrodeoxygenation. Conclusions Differences in absorption rates of the key wastewater nutrients, ammonium and phosphorus by different aquatic macrophytes can be used for optimization of composition of wastewater effluents. The generated data suggest that the composition of the petrochemicals can be modified in a targeted fashion, not only by using different species, but also by changing the source plants’ metabolic profile, by exposing them to different abiotic or biotic stresses. This study presents an attractive, ecologically friendly and cost-effective solution for efficient bio-filtration of swine wastewater and petrochemicals production from generated biomass.

2014-01-01

274

Bioremediation of industrial effluents containing heavy metals using brewing cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a green technology: a review.  

PubMed

The release of heavy metals into the environment, mainly as a consequence of anthropogenic activities, constitutes a worldwide environmental pollution problem. Unlike organic pollutants, heavy metals are not degraded and remain indefinitely in the ecosystem, which poses a different kind of challenge for remediation. It seems that the "best treatment technologies" available may not be completely effective for metal removal or can be expensive; therefore, new methodologies have been proposed for the detoxification of metal-bearing wastewaters. The present work reviews and discusses the advantages of using brewing yeast cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the detoxification of effluents containing heavy metals. The current knowledge of the mechanisms of metal removal by yeast biomass is presented. The use of live or dead biomass and the influence of biomass inactivation on the metal accumulation characteristics are outlined. The role of chemical speciation for predicting and optimising the efficiency of metal removal is highlighted. The problem of biomass separation, after treatment of the effluents, and the use of flocculent characteristics, as an alternative process of cell-liquid separation, are also discussed. The use of yeast cells in the treatment of real effluents to bridge the gap between fundamental and applied studies is presented and updated. The convenient management of the contaminated biomass and the advantages of the selective recovery of heavy metals in the development of a closed cycle without residues (green technology) are critically reviewed. PMID:22139299

Soares, Eduardo V; Soares, Helena M V M

2012-05-01

275

Trends in the incidence of cryptorchidism and hypospadias of registry-based data in Korea: a comparison between industrialized areas of petrochemical estates and a non-industrialized area  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to represent the recent trends in the nationwide incidence of cryptorchidism and hypospadias in Korea, and to determine whether there is evidence of spatial heterogeneity in the incidence. The incidence was calculated as the number of newly diagnosed patients (males) during the first 4 years after a live birth in a population, nationally and regionally (a non-industrialized

Sae Chul Kim; Su Kyoung Kwon; Yeon Pyo Hong

2011-01-01

276

Fate of thiabendazole through the treatment of a simulated agro-food industrial effluent by combined MBR/Fenton processes at ?g/L scale.  

PubMed

This study has been carried out to assess the performance of a combined system consisting of a membrane bioreactor (MBR) followed by an advanced oxidation process (Fenton/Photo-Fenton) for removing the fungicide thiabendazole (TBZ) in a simulated agro-food industrial wastewater. Previous studies have shown the presence of TBZ in the effluent of an agro-food industry treated by activated sludge in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR), thus reinforcing the need for alternative treatments for removal. In this study, a simulated agro-food industry effluent was enriched with 100 ?g L(-1) TBZ and treated by combined MBR/Fenton and MBR/solar photo-Fenton systems. Samples were directly injected into a highly sensitive liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole-linear ion trap-mass spectrometer (LC-QqLiT-MS/MS) analytical system to monitor the degradation of TBZ even at low concentration levels (ng L(-1)). Results showed that the biological treatment applied was not effective in TBZ degradation, which remained almost unaltered; although most dissolved organic matter was biodegraded effectively. Fenton and solar photo-Fenton, were assayed as tertiary treatments. The experiments were run without any pH adjustment by using an iron dosage strategy in the presence of excess hydrogen peroxide. Both treatments resulted in a total degradation of TBZ, obtaining more than 99% removal in both cases. To assure the total elimination of contaminants in the treated waters, transformation products (TPs) of TBZ generated during Fenton degradation experiments were identified and monitored by liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS/MS). Up to four TPs could be identified. Two of them corresponded to mono-hydroxylated derivatives, typically generated under hydroxyl radicals driven processes. The other two corresponded with the hydrolysis of the TBZ molecule to yield benzoimidazole and thiazole-4-carboxamidine. All of them were also degraded during the treatment. PMID:24388831

Sánchez Peréz, J A; Carra, I; Sirtori, C; Agüera, A; Esteban, B

2014-03-15

277

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act industrial site environmental restoration site characterization report - area 6 steam cleaning effluent ponds  

SciTech Connect

The Area 6 North and South Steam Cleaning Effluent Ponds (SCEPs) are historic disposal units located at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nye County, Nevada. The NTS is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) which has been required by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) to characterize the site under the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B Permit for the NTS and Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations, Part 265.

NONE

1996-09-01

278

Texas facility treats, recycles refinery, petrochemical wastes  

SciTech Connect

A US Gulf Coast environmental services company is treating refinery and petrochemical plant wastes to universal treatment standards (UTS). DuraTherm Inc.`s recycling center uses thermal desorption to treat a variety of refinery wastes and other hazardous materials. The plant is located in San Leon, Tex., near the major Houston/Texas City refining and petrochemical center. DuraTherm`s customers include major US refining companies, plus petrochemical, terminal, pipeline, transportation, and remediation companies. Examples of typical contaminant concentrations and treatment levels for refinery wastes are shown. The paper discusses thermal desorption, the process description and testing.

NONE

1996-09-16

279

Effluent standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the conference there was a considerable interest in research reactor standards and effluent standards in particular. On the program, this is demonstrated by the panel discussion on effluents, the paper on argon 41 measured by Sims, and the summary paper by Ringle, et al. on the activities of ANS research reactor standards committee (ANS-15). As a result, a meeting

Geisler

1974-01-01

280

LANDFILLS EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS GUIDELINES DATABASE  

EPA Science Inventory

Resource Purpose: This resource served as the main information source for national characteristics of landfills for the landfills effluent guidelines. The database was developed based on responses to the "1994 Waste Treatment Industry Questionnaire: Phase II Landfills" and...

281

Combined electrocoagulation and TiO(2) photoassisted treatment applied to wastewater effluents from pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries.  

PubMed

The treated wastewater consists of refractory materials and high organic content of hydrolyzed peptone residues from pharmaceutical factory. The combination of electrocoagulation (EC) followed by heterogeneous photocatalysis (TiO(2)) conditions was maximized. The EC: iron cathode/anode (12.50 cmx2.50 cmx0.10 cm), current density 763Am(-2), 90min and initial pH 6.0. As EC consequence, the majority of the dissolved organic and suspended material was removed (about 91% and 86% of the turbidity and chemical oxygen demand (COD), respectively). After EC, refractory residues still remained in the effluent. The subsequent photocatalysis: UV/TiO(2)/H(2)O(2) (mercury lamps), pH 3.0, 4h irradiation, 0.25gL(-1) TiO(2) and 10mmolL(-1) H(2)O(2) shows high levels of inorganic and organic compounds eliminations. The obtained COD values: 1753mgL(-1) for the sample from the factory, 160mgL(-1) after EC and 50mgL(-1) after EC/photocatalyzed effluents pointed out that the combined treatment stresses this water purification. PMID:18573596

Boroski, Marcela; Rodrigues, Angela Cláudia; Garcia, Juliana Carla; Sampaio, Luiz Carlos; Nozaki, Jorge; Hioka, Noboru

2009-02-15

282

40 CFR 419.30 - Applicability; description of the petrochemical subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the petrochemical subcategory. 419.30 Section...REFINING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Petrochemical Subcategory § 419.30 Applicability; description of the petrochemical subcategory. The...

2010-07-01

283

40 CFR 419.30 - Applicability; description of the petrochemical subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Applicability; description of the petrochemical subcategory. 419.30 Section...REFINING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Petrochemical Subcategory § 419.30 Applicability; description of the petrochemical subcategory. The...

2013-07-01

284

40 CFR 419.30 - Applicability; description of the petrochemical subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the petrochemical subcategory. 419.30 Section...REFINING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Petrochemical Subcategory § 419.30 Applicability; description of the petrochemical subcategory. The...

2009-07-01

285

Excess cancer mortality among children and adolescents in residential districts polluted by petrochemical manufacturing plants in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have collected data on the cancer deaths of children and adolescents 0–19 yr old living in a residential area near 3 large petroleum and petrochemical complexes in and near Kaohsiung city (petrochemical industrial districts, PIDs) in the period of 1971–1990 and compared these with the cancer deaths of children and adolescents 0–19 yr old among the entire population of

Bi Jen Pan; Yu Jue Hong; Gwo Chin Chang; Ming Tsan Wang; Frigyes F. Cinkotai; Ying Chin Ko

1994-01-01

286

Emerging Petrochemicals Technology: Implications for Developing Countries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objectives of this document are to identify: Major developments in petrochemical technology in the advanced countries; The major factors influencing technology change; The implications of technology ownership in relation to the mobility and transferab...

V. R. S. Arni

1982-01-01

287

BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF HIGH STRENGTH PETROCHEMICAL WASTEWATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The biological treatment of a complex petrochemical wastewater containing high concentrations of organic chlorides, nitrates, and amines was initially studied using a sequence of anaerobic methanogenesis and oxygen activated sludge. Bench-scale and pilot-plant treatability studie...

288

Hydrocarbon Processing`s petrochemical processes `97  

SciTech Connect

The paper compiles information on numerous petrochemical processes, describing the application, the process, yields, economics, commercial plants, references, and licensor. Petrochemicals which are synthesized include: alkylbenzene, methylamines, ammonia, benzene, bisphenol-A, BTX aromatics, butadiene, butanediol, butyraldehyde, caprolactam, cumene, dimethyl terephthalate, ethanolamines, ethylbenzene, ethylene, ethylene glycols, ethylene oxide, formaldehyde, maleic anhydride, methanol, olefins, paraxylene, phenol, phthalic anhydride, polycaproamide, polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate, polypropylene, PVC, styrene, terephthalic acid, urea, vinyl chloride, and xylene isomers.

NONE

1997-03-01

289

Recovery of enthalpy as work from thermal effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enthalpy is recovered as work from hot industrial effluents by the controlled expansion of liquids through convergent-divergent nozzles in true reaction turbines. For hot liquid effluents, the effluent itself serves as the working fluid. For gaseous effluents, a high boiling stable liquid is heated by the gas in a scrubbing tower and then the liquid is expanded as the work

A. E. Molini

1982-01-01

290

New method of dynamic and multispectral thermography elaborated for inspection of petrochemical process furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major concern in the petrochemical industry is both safety and efficiency of process heaters operation. As the tubes temperature and the symmetry of heating belong to the critical components, infrared imaging and measuring methods have been used worldwide for many years. Monitoring these high temperature objects has frequently been relying on highly subjective analyses, particularly due to fluctuations of

Piotr Pregowski; Grzegorz Goleniewski; Wojciech Komosa; Waldemar Korytkowski; Slawomir Zwolenik

2005-01-01

291

Cancer incidence and mortality among temporary maintenance workers in a refinery/petrochemical complex in Korea.  

PubMed

Background: Petrochemical plant maintenance workers are exposed to various carcinogens such as benzene and metal fumes. In Korea, maintenance operations in petrochemical plants are typically performed by temporary employees hired as contract workers. Objectives: The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate cancer risk in temporary maintenance workers in a refinery/petrochemical complex in Korea. Methods: Subjects consisted of 14 698 male workers registered in a regional petrochemical plant maintenance workers union during 2002-2007. Cancer mortality and incidence were identified by linking with the nationwide death and cancer registries during 2002-2007 and 2002-2005, respectively. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) and standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated for each cancer. Results: Increased SMR 3·61 (six cases, 95% CI: 1·32-7·87) and SIR 3·18 (five cases, 95% CI: 1·03-7·42) were observed in oral and pharyngeal cancers. Conclusion: Our findings may suggest a potential association between oral and pharyngeal cancers and temporary maintenance jobs in the petrochemical industry. Future studies should include a longer follow-up period and a quantitative exposure assessment. PMID:24999849

Koh, Dong-Hee; Chung, Eun-Kyo; Jang, Jae-Kil; Lee, Hye-Eun; Ryu, Hyang-Woo; Yoo, Kye-Mook; Kim, Eun-A; Kim, Kyoo-Sang

2014-01-01

292

The impact of petrochemical industrialisation on life expectancy and per capita income in Taiwan: an 11-year longitudinal study  

PubMed Central

Background Petrochemical industries have been identified as important sources of emissions of chemical substances, and adverse health outcomes have been reported for residents who live nearby. The purpose of the current study was to examine the adverse effects of petrochemical industrialization in Taiwan on the life expectancy and personal income of people living in nearby communities. Methods This study compared life expectancies and personal income between one industrial county (Yunlin County) and one reference county (Yilan County), which had no significant industrial activity that might emit pollutants, in Taiwan through analysis of 11 year long and publicly available data. Data from before and after the petrochemical company in the industrial county started (year 1999) operating were compared. Results Residents of the industrialized county had lesser increases in life expectancy over time than did residents of a similar but less-industrialized county, with difference means ranging from 0.89 years (p?industrialization. There were no significant differences in individual income between the two counties. Conclusions Countries, including Taiwan and the U.S., embracing petrochemical industries now face the challenge of environmental injustice. Our findings suggested that life expectancy lengthening was slowed and income growth was stalled for residents living in the industrial communities.

2014-01-01

293

Impact of industrial waste water effluents on mycoflora of the shore sediments of the 3rd oxidation pond, with reference to biosorption of heavy metals.  

PubMed

The third oxidation pond at 10th of Ramadan desert receives a number of industrial waste water effluents contaminated with the heavy metal ions Zn, Cd, Cu and Ni. The species diversity and fungal community structure of seven different sites at the onshore sediments and offshore were studied. Mycological analysis resulted in isolation of 3912 fungal colonies, 11.7% of this count were recovered from the onshore sediment sites (4 sites) whereas 88.3% were from the offshore sites (3 sites), in the desert. Fungal counts and species diversity at the onshore sites tend to increase with increasing distance far from the waste water input. A complete accordance was observed among the total fungal counts and species variabilities with organic matter content at each sampling site. This relationship was reversed in case of heavy metal contents with both counts and diversity. Seventeen fungal species belonging to seven genera were isolated from all sites under study. Aspergillus spp. constituted the majority of the isolates (51.7% of the total isolates), followed by Curvularia, Cephalosporium, and Humicola. Of nine isolated Aspergillus spp., A. humicola was the most dominant (37.4% of the total catch) and appeared at all polluted sites. Therefore, A. humicola was chosen to investigate its potential for heavy metals sorption from the contaminated waste water effluent. Four days old biomass pellets could sorb a large amount of heavy metals according to the following sequence: Zn>Cd>Cu>Ni ions. Agitation significantly increased Zn and Cd sorption, but not Cu and Ni. Heavy metals sorption took place at a wide pH range and particularly increased at alkaline pH (8-9). PMID:12588104

Sharaf, Eman F

2002-01-01

294

Heavy metal removal from industrial effluents by sorption on cross-linked starch: chemical study and impact on water toxicity.  

PubMed

Batch sorption experiments using a starch-based sorbent were carried out for the removal of heavy metals present in industrial water discharges. The influence of contact time, mass of sorbent and pollutant load was investigated. Pollutant removal was dependent on the mass of sorbent and contact time, but independent of the contaminant load. The process was uniform, rapid and efficient. Sorption reached equilibrium in 60 min irrespective of the metal considered (e.g. Zn, Pb, Cu, Ni, Fe and Cd), reducing concentrations below those permitted by law. The material also removed residual turbidity and led to a significant decrease in the residual chemical oxygen demand (COD) present in the industrial water discharge. The germination success of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) was used as a laboratory indicator of phytotoxicity. The results show that the sorption using a starch-based sorbent as non-conventional material, is a viable alternative for treating industrial wastewaters. PMID:21067859

Sancey, Bertrand; Trunfio, Giuseppe; Charles, Jérémie; Minary, Jean-François; Gavoille, Sophie; Badot, Pierre-Marie; Crini, Grégorio

2011-03-01

295

Mortality among workers employed in petroleum refining and petrochemical plants  

SciTech Connect

The cause-specific mortality experience of 3,105 members of the Oil, Chemical and Atomic Workers International Union was examined to determine if there were unusual patterns of fatal disease that may be indicative of hazardous agents in the work environment. Deaths among active Union members that were reported by locals in Texas between 1947 and 1977 were identified through membership records, and proportionate mortality was analyzed in several broad industrial categories. PMRs for cancers of the liver and biliary passages, pancreas, lung and skin were elevated among refinery and petrochemical plant workers; however risks did not increase with length of membership. Increased relative frequencies of stomach cancer, cancer of the brain, leukemia and multiple myeloma were confined to white males in the same category who had been Union members for 10 or more years. Excess deaths from stomach cancer and brain cancer were found among white male members employed at one specific oil refinery and petrochemical plant. Observed numbers of deaths from cancer of the stomach were greater than expected among whites and nonwhites, and an elevated PMR for lung cancer among nonwhites was found at an additional plant. Findings suggest that workers in this industry may be at increased risk of certain cancers and indicate areas for further investigation.

Thomas, T.L. (National Cancer Inst., Bethesda, MD); Decoufle, P.; Moure-Eraso, R.

1980-02-01

296

Fish Cough Response - A Method for Evaluating Quality of Treated Complex Effluents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) showed increases in cough frequency commensurate with effluent concentration when exposed for 24 h to different industrial and municipal effluents. Effluents known to be toxic caused steadily increasing cough rates i...

R. W. Carlson R. A. Drummond

1977-01-01

297

Dehydroabietic acid, a major effluent component of paper and pulp industry, decreases erythrocyte pH in lamprey ( Lampetra fluviatilis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resin acids, forming a major component of wood industry, cause numerous toxic effects on liver and red blood cells of fish. Effect of dehydroabietic acid (DHAA) on erythrocyte pH of river lamprey was investigated using [14C]DMO distribution to determine pHi. Exposure of the cells to more than 200 ?M DHAA caused hemolysis within 10 min of incubation. Treatment with 50–200

Anna Yu. Bogdanova; Mikko Nikinmaa

1998-01-01

298

Effect of voltage dips on frequency relays: Case study of Power Quality improvements in a petrochemical plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial process interruption is one of the major power quality issues. Load-shedding schemes based on sub-frequency monitoring are normally employed to disconnect loads so that the balance between the system generation and loading is restored. This procedure should be very reliable and well adjusted. In this paper, a case study is presented, wherein an industrial process of a petrochemical plant

H. S. Bronzeado; S. L. Zimath; J. Coser

2008-01-01

299

SONAR-BASED VOLUMETRIC FLOW METER FOR CHEMICAL AND PETROCHEMICAL APPLICATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sonar-based flow measurement technology, capable of clamp-on flow measurement of single and multiphase flow applications within the chemical and petrochemical industries, is described. Developed and field proven in oil and gas production industry over the last five years, sonar-based flow measurement technology provides robust accurate volumetric flow rate measurement for a broad range of process fluids, slurries, pipes sizes

Daniel L. Gysling; Douglas H. Loose

300

Prices for petrochemical raw materials and synthetic fibres and thread in the second half of 2005  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyzed the situation in the second half of 2005 for crude oil, petrochemical raw materials — acrylonitrile, caprolactam,\\u000a p-xylene, terephthalic acid, and monoethylene glycol; commercial polymers — polypropylene and polyethylene terephthalate,\\u000a and for the basic types of synthetic fibres and thread made from these raw materials: polycapronitrile tow, polyester fibres,\\u000a textile and industrial cord, polyamide industrial (cord) and textile

E. M. Aizenshtein

2006-01-01

301

Investigation for the possibility of nitrogen removal from industrial effluent of bone glue industry using a batch electrocoagulation unit with monopolar horizontal electrodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present work is to investigate the possibility of using the electrocoagulation technique (EC) for the treatment of wastewater generated from bone glue industry especially for the removal of nitrogen as pollutant. A batch electrochemical reactor with monopolar horizontally oriented aluminum electrodes was used. Variables studied were initial nitrogen concentration measured as total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), applied

A. H. El-Shazly

2011-01-01

302

Concern About Petrochemical Health Risk Before and After a Refinery Explosion  

PubMed Central

On March 23, 2005, a large explosion at an oil refinery in Texas City, Texas caused 15 deaths and approximately 170 injuries. Little is known about how such an industrial accident influences concern about environmental health risks. We used measures of environmental health concern about nearby petrochemical production with a sample of Texas City residents to understand patterns of concern and change in concern after an industrial accident, as well as individual and contextual factors associated with those patterns. Survey interviews with residents of Texas City, Texas (N =315) both pre- and postexplosion using a brief Concern About Petrochemical Health Risk Scale (CAPHRS) and other questions were used to collect pertinent predictor information. CAPHRS baseline, postexplosion, and change scores were compared and modeled using ordinary least squares (OLS) regression and a mixed model. Higher preexplosion CAPHRS scores were predicted by younger adults, foreign-born Hispanics, non-Hispanic blacks, lower- and middle-income groups, and those who live with someone who has worked at the petrochemical plants. Higher CAPHRS change scores are predicted by the same variables (except income), as well as proximity to, or perception of, the explosion, and reports of neighborhood damage. Findings suggest these groups’ concern scores could indicate a greater vulnerability to psychological and physical harm generated by concern and stress arising from local petrochemical activities. A clearer understanding of concern about actual environmental health risks in exposed populations may enhance the evolving theory of stress and coping and eventually enable public health professionals to develop appropriate mitigation strategies.

Cutchin, Malcolm P.; Martin, Kathryn Remmes; Owen, Steven V.; Goodwin, James S.

2014-01-01

303

Uranium behaviour in an estuary polluted by mining and industrial effluents: the Ría of Huelva (SW of Spain).  

PubMed

This paper describes a comprehensive study of the behaviour of U in the Ría of Huelva estuary, formed by the Tinto and Odiel rivers. This ecosystem is conditioned by two hydrochemical facts: one connected with the acid mining drainage (AMD) generated in the first section of the river basins, and another one related to the fertilizer industry located at the estuary. AMD gives a singular character to these rivers; low pH and high redox potential that keep high amounts of toxic elements and radionuclides in dissolution. Most of the data for dissolved U in estuaries indicate conservative mixing, but there are examples of non-conservative behaviour attributed to oxidation/reduction processes or solubility variations. In the Ría of Huelva estuary the U shows a non-conservative behaviour due to solubility changes produced by variations in the pH. A complete removal of riverine dissolved U is observed in a pH range of 4-6. At higher pH values, U release from suspended matter, and probably also from sediments into the dissolved phase is found. PMID:23973258

Hierro, A; Martín, J E; Olías, M; Vaca, F; Bolivar, J P

2013-10-15

304

Adsorptive removal of Cu(II) from aqueous solution and industrial effluent using natural/agricultural wastes.  

PubMed

The potentiality of low cost natural/agricultural waste biomasses for the removal of Cu(II) ion from aqueous solution has been investigated in batch experiments. The effect of various physico-chemical parameters such as initial pH, initial Cu(II) concentration, adsorbent dosage, contact time and temperature has been studied. The optimum pH for adsorption was found to be 6 for all adsorbents used. Kinetics data were best described by the pseudo-2nd-order model. The experimental data were fitted well with Freundlich and Halsey isotherm models. The diffusion coefficient and sorption energy indicated that the adsorption process was chemical in nature. Thermodynamic parameters such as ?G°, ?H° and ?S° were calculated, and it was observed that the adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic. The mean sorption energy was calculated using Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm model and it confirmed that the sorption process was chemical in nature. Different active functional groups were identified by FTIR studies which were responsible for Cu(II) ion adsorption process. Application study using electroplating industrial waste water and regeneration experiment of the adsorbent were also investigated. Design procedure for the batch process was also reported. PMID:23466548

Singha, Biswajit; Das, Sudip Kumar

2013-07-01

305

Pulp and paper mill effluents: Toxicity to humans. (Latest citations from the Paper and Board, Printing, and Packaging Industries Research Associations database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the hazards of toxic pulping and papermaking effluents to plant workers and the populace surrounding the plant. Biomonitoring studies, bioassay performance and reliability, cost factors of reducing toxicity, and effects of reducing toxicity on biological treatment of wastes are discussed. Evaluation of toxicity and mutagenicity of effluents within the plants compared with those discharged to the outside environment is included. Toxicity of pulping effluents to fish and water vegetation is covered in another bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 131 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-07-01

306

Assessing Nutrient Recovery from Piggery Effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The past few decades has seen an increase in livestock intensification within the Australian pig industry, which has lead to a waste management problem due to increased volumes of nutrient rich effluent leaving these facilities. Land application of these nutrient-rich effluents is economically and environmentally unsustainable in some circumstances. One promising alternative is to remove the nitrogen and phosphorus compounds

M. I. Ali; P. A. Schneider; N. Hudson

307

Factored estimating guidelines - refinery\\/petrochemical projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the very difficult task of estimating the cost (specifically of refinery\\/petrochemical units) and getting it right when little or no design work is completed and scope definition may be understated. The information provided is from an owner`s perspective and includes actual case studies. It also includes an owner`s costs, although these are broken out. The methodology discussed

1997-01-01

308

Enhanced biodegradation of petrochemical wastewater using ozonation and bac advanced treatment system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characteristics of degradation\\/conversion of bio-refractory and the growth of a biofilm are investigated in laboratory-scale pre-ozonation and lifted moving-bed biological activated carbon (BAC) advanced treatment processes treating phenol, benzoic acid, aminobenzoic acid and petrochemical industry wastewater which contains acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS). The optimal reaction time and ozone dosage of pre-ozonation for bio-refractory conversion were determined to be 30min

Chi-Kang Lin; Tsung-Yueh Tsai; Jiunn-Ching Liu; Mei-Chih Chen

2001-01-01

309

Metal distribution in road dust samples collected in an urban area close to a petrochemical plant at Gela, Sicily  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight samples of road dust were collected from three different localities (industrial, urban, peripheral) of the town of Gela (Italy) to characterize their chemical composition and to assess (a) the influence of the petrochemical plant and the urban traffic on the trace element content in different grain-size fractions of street dust and (b) the solid-phase speciation of the analysed metal

Emanuela Manno; Daniela Varrica; Gaetano Dongarrà

2006-01-01

310

Toxicity identification in metal plating effluent: implications in establishing effluent discharge limits using bioassays in Korea.  

PubMed

Because of complexity and diversity of toxicants in effluent, chemical analysis alone gives very limited information on identifying toxic chemicals to test organisms. Toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) techniques have been widely used to identify toxicants in various samples including industrial wastewater as well as natural waters. In response to new regulation for effluent discharge in Korea, which will be effective from 2011, a necessity of studies emerges that investigates toxicity levels in industrial effluents. This work was a preliminary study examining toxicity levels in effluent from one metal plating factory using Daphnia magna (48 h immobility) and identifying toxicity-causing substances. Toxicity tests showed variability on different sampling occasions and the results of TIE methods indicated that both organic compounds and metals contributed to the observed toxicity in metal plating effluent. Further studies are necessary to help reduce effluent toxicity especially from direct dischargers, who will have to comply with the new regulation. PMID:18406429

Kim, Eunhee; Jun, You-Ree; Jo, Hun-Je; Shim, Seung-Bo; Jung, Jinho

2008-01-01

311

Induction of chromosome aberrations in the Allium cepa test system caused by the exposure of seeds to industrial effluents contaminated with azo dyes.  

PubMed

Numerous potentially mutagenic chemicals have been studied mainly because they can cause damaging and inheritable changes in the genetic material. Several tests are commonly used for biomonitoring pollution levels and to evaluate the effects of toxic and mutagenic agents present in the natural environment. This study aimed at assessing the potential of a textile effluent contaminated with azo dyes to induce chromosomal and nuclear aberrations in Allium cepa test systems. A continuous exposure of seeds in samples of the textile effluent in different concentrations was carried out (0.3%, 3%, 10%, and 100%). Cells in interphase and undergoing division were examined to assess the presence of chromosome aberrations, nuclear changes, and micronuclei. Our results revealed a mutagenic effect of the effluent at concentrations of 10% and 100%. At lower concentrations, the effluent (3% and 0.3%) did not induce mutagenic alterations in the test organism A. cepa. These findings are of concern, since cell damage may be transmitted to subsequent generations, possibly affecting the organism as a whole, as well as the local biota exposed to the effluent discharge. If the damage results in cell death, the development of the organism may be affected, which could also lead to its death. PMID:18495201

Caritá, R; Marin-Morales, M A

2008-06-01

312

78 FR 7442 - Accreditation and Approval of Chemical and Petrochemical Inspections, LP, as a Commercial Gauger...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Accreditation and Approval of Chemical and Petrochemical Inspections, LP, as a Commercial...accreditation and approval of Chemical and Petrochemical Inspections, LP, as a commercial...CBP regulations, that Chemical and Petrochemical Inspections, LP, has been...

2013-02-01

313

[Study on the quantitative estimation method for VOCs emission from petrochemical storage tanks based on tanks 4.0.9d model].  

PubMed

VOCs emission from petrochemical storage tanks is one of the important emission sources in the petrochemical industry. In order to find out the VOCs emission amount of petrochemical storage tanks, Tanks 4.0.9d model is utilized to calculate the VOCs emission from different kinds of storage tanks. VOCs emissions from a horizontal tank, a vertical fixed roof tank, an internal floating roof tank and an external floating roof tank were calculated as an example. The consideration of the site meteorological information, the sealing information, the tank content information and unit conversion by using Tanks 4.0.9d model in China was also discussed. Tanks 4.0.9d model can be used to estimate VOCs emissions from petrochemical storage tanks in China as a simple and highly accurate method. PMID:24640914

Li, Jing; Wang, Min-Yan; Zhang, Jian; He, Wan-Qing; Nie, Lei; Shao, Xia

2013-12-01

314

Enhanced degradation of textile effluent in constructed wetland system using Typha domingensis and textile effluent-degrading endophytic bacteria.  

PubMed

Textile effluent is one of the main contributors of water pollution and it adversely affects fauna and flora. Constructed wetland is a promising approach to remediate the industrial effluent. The detoxification of industrial effluent in a constructed wetland system may be enhanced by applying beneficial bacteria that are able to degrade contaminants present in industrial effluent. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of inoculation of textile effluent-degrading endophytic bacteria on the detoxification of textile effluent in a vertical flow constructed wetland reactor. A wetland plant, Typha domingensis, was vegetated in reactor and inoculated with two endophytic bacterial strains, Microbacterium arborescens TYSI04 and Bacillus pumilus PIRI30. These strains possessed textile effluent-degrading and plant growth-promoting activities. Results indicated that bacterial inoculation improved plant growth, textile effluent degradation and mutagenicity reduction and were correlated with the population of textile effluent-degrading bacteria in the rhizosphere and endosphere of T. domingensis. Bacterial inoculation enhanced textile effluent-degrading bacterial population in rhizosphere, root and shoot of T. domingensis. Significant reductions in COD (79%), BOD (77%) TDS (59%) and TSS (27%) were observed by the combined use of plants and bacteria within 72 h. The resultant effluent meets the wastewater discharge standards of Pakistan and can be discharged into the environment without any risks. This study revealed that the combined use of plant and endophytic bacteria is one of the approaches to enhance textile effluent degradation in a constructed wetland system. PMID:24755300

Shehzadi, Maryam; Afzal, Muhammad; Khan, Muhammad Umar; Islam, Ejazul; Mobin, Amina; Anwar, Samina; Khan, Qaiser Mahmood

2014-07-01

315

Cleaner production and methodological proposal of eco-efficiency measurement in a Mexican petrochemical complex.  

PubMed

Abstract In the frame of the Petróleos Mexicanos Institutional Program for Sustainable Development, processes were evaluated in the manufacture operation of the petrochemical industry, with the purpose of reducing their ecological fingerprint. Thirteen cleaner production opportunities were registered in six process plants: ethylene oxide and glycols, acetaldehyde, ethylene, high density polyethylene, polypropylene switch and acrylonitrile, and 45 recommendations in the waste water treatment plant. Morelos is the second most important petrochemical complex in the Mexican and Latin American petrochemical industry. A tool was developed to obtain eco-efficiency indicators in operation processes, and as a result, potential savings were obtained based on best performance, as well as the integrated distribution of Sankey diagrams. Likewise, a mechanism of calculation to obtain economic savings based on the reduction of residues during the whole productive process is proposed. These improvement opportunities and recommendations will result in economic and environmental benefits minimising the use of water, efficient use of energy, raw materials and reducing residues from source, generating less environmental impacts during the process. PMID:16862769

Morales, M A; Herrero, V M; Martínez, S A; Rodríguez, M G; Valdivieso, E; Garcia, G; de los Angeles Elías, Maria

2006-01-01

316

Chemicals from biomass: petrochemical substitution options  

SciTech Connect

As a source of chemicals, biomass has several intrinsic advantages over fossil mass: it is renewable, flexible through crop switching, and adaptable through genetic manipulation. Inflexibility of the fossil mass resource is compensated for by highly effective technology for production of olefins and aromatics, economies of scale, and a highly developed system of conversion products with large markets. Direct and indirect strategies to substitute for petrochemicals are based on ecological succession concepts. A proliferation of lignocellulosic fractionation processes is arising from the need for inexpensive, homogeneous, chemically useful biomass feedstocks.

Lipinsky, E.S.

1981-06-26

317

Petrochemical processes '95: A special report  

SciTech Connect

This data compilation describes application, synthesis process, yields, economics, commercial plants, and licensor for the following chemicals: alkylbenzene, methyl amines, ammonia, benzene, bisphenol-A, BTX aromatics, butadiene, butanediol, butene-1, butylene, butyraldehyde, caprolactam, cumene, cyclohexane, dimethyl terephthalate, ethanolamines, ethers, ethylbenzene, ethylene, ethylene glycols, ethylene oxide, formaldehyde, isobutane, isobutylene, maleic anhydride, methanol, olefins, paraxylene, phenol, polycaproamide, polyethylenes, polypropylene, polystyrene, propylene, PVC, styrene, urea, vinyl chloride, and xylene isomers. Also included is the licensor index, an inclusive listing of all petrochemical licensors and their technologies.

Not Available

1995-03-01

318

ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF VARIOUS FUNGAL STRAINS FROM TEXTILE EFFLUENT FOR THEIR USE IN BIOREMEDIATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioremediation is an inexpensive mean to remove hazardous metal ions from the contaminated effluent. Effluent from the local textile industry was characterized for the incidence of fungal strains and its physiochemical properties were investigated. Sampling was done spanning a distance of five km from the effluent's discharge point. Effluent was analyzed and highest colony forming units per mL were found

RANI FARYAL; ABDUL HAMEED

319

Simulated cotton dye effluents treatment and reuse by nanofiltration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The textile industry uses enormous quantities of water which in many cases are disposed to the environment with inadequate treatment. The effluent contains high salts and organics concentrations and they are therefore difficult to be treated. In this work the effluents from the cotton textile industry was treated by nanofiltration membrane in order to reduce the quantity of the disposed

S. A. Avlonitis; I. Poulios; D. Sotiriou; M. Pappas; K. Moutesidis

2008-01-01

320

Demonstration of a maximum recycle, sidestream softening system at a petrochemical plant  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to delineate the performance of maximum recycle, sidestream softening system at the USS Chemicals plant in Houston, Texas. The system is composed of two lime softening units that treat the blowdown from the cooling water system. The softeners remove the calcium, magnesium, silica, and carbonate ions. The water is then processed through a recarbonator and filter for return to the cooling water system. Various process effluents from the petrochemical units are treated and added to the cooling water. The only liquid discharge from the plant is the high salt content spent demineralizer regeneration water. The major problem discovered was biofouling in the heat transfer system caused by high concentrations of organic materials in the cooling water. Softener operation was stabilized and improved during the study period. Other investigations included: the fate of carbon dioxide used for pH control in the cooling towers, the toxicity of the softener sludge, and the design of an emergency blowdown.

Matson, J.V.; Mouche, W.G.; Rosenblum, E.

1985-01-01

321

QUANTIFICATION OF FUGITIVE REACTIVE ALKENE EMISSIONS FROM PETROCHEMICAL PLANTS WITH PERFLUOROCARBON TRACERS.  

SciTech Connect

Recent studies demonstrate the impact of fugitive emissions of reactive alkenes on the atmospheric chemistry of the Houston Texas metropolitan area (1). Petrochemical plants located in and around the Houston area emit atmospheric alkenes, such as ethene, propene and 1,3-butadiene. The magnitude of emissions is a major uncertainty in assessing their effects. Even though the petrochemical industry reports that fugitive emissions of alkenes have been reduced to less than 0.1% of daily production, recent measurement data, obtained during the TexAQS 2000 experiment indicates that emissions are perhaps a factor of ten larger than estimated values. Industry figures for fugitive emissions are based on adding up estimated emission factors for every component in the plant to give a total estimated emission from the entire facility. The dramatic difference between estimated and measured rates indicates either that calculating emission fluxes by summing estimates for individual components is seriously flawed, possibly due to individual components leaking well beyond their estimated tolerances, that not all sources of emissions for a facility are being considered in emissions estimates, or that there are known sources of emissions that are not being reported. This experiment was designed to confirm estimates of reactive alkene emissions derived from analysis of the TexAQS 2000 data by releasing perfluorocarbon tracers (PFTs) at a known flux from a petrochemical plant and sampling both the perfluorocarbon tracer and reactive alkenes downwind using the Piper-Aztec research aircraft operated by Baylor University. PFTs have been extensively used to determine leaks in pipelines, air infiltration in buildings, and to characterize the transport and dispersion of air parcels in the atmosphere. Over 20 years of development by the Tracer Technology Center (TTC) has produced a range of analysis instruments, field samplers and PFT release equipment that have been successfully deployed in a large variety of experiments. PFTs are inert, nontoxic, noncombustible and nonreactive. Up to seven unique PFTs can be simultaneously released, sampled and analyzed and the technology is well suited for determining emission fluxes from large petrochemical facilities. The PFT experiment described here was designed to quantitate alkene emissions from a single petrochemical facility, but such experiments could be applied to other industrial sources or groups of sources in the Houston area.

SENUM,G.I.; DIETZ,R.N.

2004-06-30

322

Activated Carbon Treatment of Industrial Wastewaters: Selected Technical Papers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Because of the tremendous interest in the organic constituent removal by activated carbon, the two industrial categories displaying the most interest are the petroleum refining and petrochemical industries. EPA's Office of Research and Development has co-...

1979-01-01

323

Waste monitoring system for effluents  

SciTech Connect

The waste monitoring system in use at Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Plutonium Facility, TA-55, is a computer-based system that proves real-time information on industrial effluents. Remote computers monitor discharge events and data moves from one system to another via a local area network. This report describes the history, system design, summary, instrumentation list, displays, trending screens, and layout of the waste monitoring system.

Macdonald, J.M.; Gomez, B.; Trujillo, L.; Malcom, J.E.; Nekimken, H.; Pope, N.; Bibeau, R.

1995-07-01

324

TOXICITY TESTS OF EFFLUENTS WITH MARSH PLANTS IN WATER AND SEDIMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Methods are described for toxicity testing of water and sediment with the rooted marsh plants, Echinochloa crusgalli var. crusgalli and var. zelavensis (freshwater) and Spartina alterniflora (estuarine). ive industrial effluents, a sewage treatment plant effluent and a herbicide ...

325

Excess cancer mortality among children and adolescents in residential districts polluted by petrochemical manufacturing plants in Taiwan  

SciTech Connect

We have collected data on the cancer deaths of children and adolescents 0-19 yr old living in a residential area near 3 large petroleum and petrochemical complexes in and near Kaohsiung city (petrochemical industrial districts, PIDs) in the period of 1971-1990 and compared these with the cancer deaths of children and adolescents 0-19 yr old among the entire population of Taiwan (national reference) and among the residents of 26 administrative districts, comprising all of Kaohsiung city and Kaohsiung county (local reference), except for 8 sparsely populated, rural districts. Having scrutinized all cancer death certificates, we have identified various statistically significant excess deaths, as compared with the national and local reference, due to cancers at all sites. Cancer of the bone, brain, and bladder in boys and girls 0-9 yr and 10-19 yr of age in the 1981-1990 decade that followed the establishment of petrochemical production in the PIDs was studied. However, excess cancer deaths seemed to have clustered in the 10-19 yr age group, who had been potentially exposed to the petrochemical pollutants for the longest period of time from the youngest age. Almost all bone, brain, and bladder cancer deaths registered were within 3 km of the 3 complexes. Bone and brain cancers in particular occurred in girls in the PIDs more frequently than in boys, even though these are believed to occur more in males than females elsewhere. 32 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

Bi Jen Pan; Yu Jue Hong; Gwo Chin Chang; Frigyes F. Cinkotai; Ying Chin Ko [Kaohsiung Medical College, Taiwan (China); Ming Tsan Wang [Kaohsiung Municipal Ta-Tung Hospital, Taiwan (China)

1994-12-31

326

Selection of wear resistant materials for the petrochemical industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanical equipment used in BP operations is subjected to extremely adverse conditions, often in remote locations. Downtime due to wear and component failure can be very costly and the need to choose materials based upon an understanding of wear resistance is required. Selection is often based on the economics of component manufacture and on physical properties of materials such as

D. Cooper; F. A. Davis; R. J. K. Wood

1992-01-01

327

Survey of Processes and Pollution of the Stenungsund Petrochemical Industries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Processes described: -Steam cracking ethene production. -chlorine production. -Production of vinyl chloride and PVC. -Production of polyethylene. -Production of tensides and amines. -Production of buturaldehyde, octanol and phtalates. -Oilfired power plan...

K. Andren

1985-01-01

328

DEVELOPMENT OF TREATMENT AND CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR REFRACTORY PETROCHEMICAL WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

This summary document presents the results of research and development work pertaining to the treatment of biorefractory organic pollutants emanating from petrochemical processing plants. Specifically, it covers application of the unit operations of (1) carbon adsorption, (2) ste...

329

TOTAL RECYCLE SYSTEMS FOR PETROCHEMICAL WASTE BRINES CONTAINING REFRACTORY CONTAMINANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Petrochemical wastewaters containing relatively high concentrations of salt and refractory organics were selected to study their feasibility for total recycle. A combination of reverse osmosis and electrodialysis was operated as a hybrid system using the pretreated wastes to prod...

330

Analysis of corrosion failure of petrochemical pipe elbow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corrosive failure is frequently found in petrochemical pipelines which may lead to the leakage of the pipes and even the shutdown\\u000a of the system. However, the corrosion mechanism is still not well understood due to the complex service environment, e.g.\\u000a the corrosive fluids and the long term operation at higher temperature. The corrosion behaviour of a petrochemical pipe elbow\\u000a was

Xiao-yan Li; Tao Lü

2005-01-01

331

Monte Carlo simulations of vapor–liquid–liquid equilibrium of some ternary petrochemical mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine the capability and accuracy of Monte Carlo simulations to predict ternary vapor–liquid–liquid equilibrium (VLLE) for some industrial systems. Hence, Gibbs ensemble Monte Carlo simulations in the isobaric–isothermal (NpT) and isochoric–isothermal (NVT) ensembles were performed to determine vapor–liquid–liquid equilibrium state points for three ternary petrochemical mixtures: methane\\/n-heptane\\/water (1), n-butane\\/1-butene\\/water (2) and n-hexane\\/ethanol\\/water (3).

Suren Moodley; Kim Bolton; Deresh Ramjugernath

2010-01-01

332

The influence of industrial effluents on intertidal benthic communities in Panweol, Kyeonggi Bay (Yellow Sea) on the west coast of Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impacts of industrial wastes on benthic infaunal communities were assessed for an intertidal mudflat near Panweol on the west coast of Korea. Species number and density have decreased sharply compared with values available for these communities before this area was heavily industrialized. At a site near the outfall of a sewage treatment plant almost all pre-existing macrobenthic infauna have disappeared,

In-Young Ahn; Young-Chul Kang; Jin-Woo Choi

1995-01-01

333

Petrochemical wastewater odor treatment by biofiltration.  

PubMed

The treatment of odorous pollutants by microorganisms on packed waste straw and cortex was investigated at the wastewater treatment plant of the Shanghai petrochemical factory. The removal efficiency of H(2)S, NH(3) and VOCs (volatile organic compounds) reached 98%, 91% and 90%, respectively after operation for one month at an empty bed retention time (EBRT) of 120s. The heterotrophic bacteria were found to be the dominant microorganism in the biofilter, while fungi and actinomycetes were also present. The bacteria were mostly identified as the members of the genus Bacillus (62.5% of cultured bacteria). The single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) results revealed that the genus Bacillus and Pseudomonas were the predominant bacteria. The microbial diversity gradually increased as the treatment progressed, which indicated that the microbial community in the biofilter became more stable upon pollutant removal. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed to evaluate the microorganism growth on the media. It was found that the waste straw and cortex were suitable for microorganism attachment and growth, and may have potential application in odor treatment. PMID:19056260

Xie, B; Liang, S B; Tang, Y; Mi, W X; Xu, Y

2009-04-01

334

UTILIZATION OF OKRA GUM FOR TREATMENT OF TANNERY EFFLUENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several natural polymeric flocculants are used for water purification. Natural polymers, mainly polysaccharides, by virtue of being biodegradable, non-toxic, shear stable and easily available, are becoming popular in domestic and industrial effluent treatment. Okra gum obtained from seedpods of Hibiscus esculentus is an anionic polysaccharide. It is used as flocculant for removal of solid wastes from tannery effluent in this

M. Agarwal; S. Rajani; A. Mishra; J. S. P. Rai

2003-01-01

335

Photocatalytic treatment of an industrial effluent using artificial and solar UV radiation: an operational cost study on a pilot plant scale.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to study the operation costs of treating a real effluent from an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power station located in Spain. The study compares different homogeneous photocatalytic processes on a pilot plant scale using different types of radiation (artificial UV or solar UV with a compound parabolic collector). The efficiency of the processes was evaluated by an analysis of the total organic carbon (TOC) removed. The following processes were considered in the study: (i) a photo-Fenton process at an artificial UV pilot plant (with the initial addition of H(2)O(2)), (ii) a modified photo-Fenton process with continuous addition of H(2)O(2) and O(2) to the system and (iii) a ferrioxalate-assisted solar photo-Fenton process at a compound parabolic collector (CPC) pilot plant. The efficiency of these processes in degrading pollutants has been studied previously, and the results obtained in each of those studies have been published elsewhere. The operational costs due to the consumption of electrical energy, reagents and catalysts were calculated from the optimal conditions of each process. The results showed that the solar photo-Fenton system was economically feasible, being able to achieve up to 75% mineralization with a total cost of 6 €/m(3), which can be reduced to 3.6 €/m(3) by subtracting the electrical costs because the IGCC plant is self-sufficient in terms of energy. PMID:22325636

Durán, A; Monteagudo, J M; San Martín, I

2012-05-15

336

Determination of boiling point of petrochemicals by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and multivariate regression analysis of structural activity relationship.  

PubMed

Accurate understanding of analyte boiling points (BP) is of critical importance in gas chromatographic (GC) separation and crude oil refinery operation in petrochemical industries. This study reported the first combined use of GC separation and partial-least-square (PLS1) multivariate regression analysis of petrochemical structural activity relationship (SAR) for accurate BP determination of two commercially available (D3710 and MA VHP) calibration gas mix samples. The results of the BP determination using PLS1 multivariate regression were further compared with the results of traditional simulated distillation method of BP determination. The developed PLS1 regression was able to correctly predict analytes BP in D3710 and MA VHP calibration gas mix samples, with a root-mean-square-%-relative-error (RMS%RE) of 6.4%, and 10.8% respectively. In contrast, the overall RMS%RE of 32.9% and 40.4%, respectively obtained for BP determination in D3710 and MA VHP using a traditional simulated distillation method were approximately four times larger than the corresponding RMS%RE of BP prediction using MRA, demonstrating the better predictive ability of MRA. The reported method is rapid, robust, and promising, and can be potentially used routinely for fast analysis, pattern recognition, and analyte BP determination in petrochemical industries. PMID:24881546

Fakayode, Sayo O; Mitchell, Breanna S; Pollard, David A

2014-08-01

337

Overview of the application of anaerobic treatment to chemical and petrochemical wastewaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last 20 years, as a result of its low cost, anaerobic digestion has turned into a popular wastewater treatment technology. Today, with at least 1330 reactors constructed in the world, it is considered to have reached technological maturity. Until recently however, it was used quite exclusively for the treatment of food industry effluents. It is only during the

H. Macarie

2000-01-01

338

iWitness pollution map: crowdsourcing petrochemical accident research.  

PubMed

Community members living near any one of Louisiana's 160 chemical plants or refineries have always said that accidents occurring in these petrochemical facilities significantly impact their health and safety. This article reviews the iWitness Pollution Map tool and Rapid Response Team (RRT) approach led by the Louisiana Bucket Brigade, an environmental nonprofit group, and their effectiveness in documenting these health and safety impacts during petrochemical accidents. Analysis of a January 2013 RRT deployment in Chalmette, LA, showed increased documentation of current petrochemical accidents and suggested increased preparedness to report future accidents. The RRT model encourages government response and enforcement agencies to integrate with organized community groups to fully document the impacts during ongoing accidents, lead a more timely response to the accident, and prevent future accidents from occurring. PMID:24135064

Bera, Risha; Hrybyk, Anna

2013-01-01

339

Effects-directed analysis of organic toxicants in wastewater effluent from Zagreb, Croatia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The organic toxicants present in the effluent of the main sewer of the city of Zagreb, Croatia were isolated and identified through the use of effects-directed characterisation techniques. At the time of investigation, the wastewater effluent received no treatment and was comprised of a mixture of effluent from domestic and industrial sources. The organic load of the wastewater was isolated

Merete Grung; Rainer Lichtenthaler; Marijan Ahel; Knut-Erik Tollefsen; Katherine Langford; Kevin V. Thomas

2007-01-01

340

Imaging DOAS detection of primary formaldehyde and sulfur dioxide emissions from petrochemical flares  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

areas with a high number of petrochemical facilities are often struggling to meet current and future air quality standards. The Houston-Galveston area, for example, continues to be in noncompliance with the U.S. federal air quality standard of ozone, despite significant progress in mitigating air pollution. In recent years, the magnitude and role of primary emissions of ozone-forming chemicals, and in particular formaldehyde, from flares in petrochemical facilities have been discussed as a potential factor contributing to ozone formation. However, no direct observations of flare emissions of formaldehyde have thus far been reported. Here we present observations of formaldehyde and sulfur dioxide emissions from petrochemical flares in the Houston-Galveston area during the 2009 Formaldehyde and Olefin from Large Industrial Sources campaign using a new imaging differential optical absorption spectrometer (I-DOAS). Formaldehyde emissions from burning flares were observed directly above the flare stack and ranged from 0.2 to 8.5 kg/h. Unlit flares were found not to emit formaldehyde. SO2 emission rates from a burning acid gas flare ranged between 2 and 4 kg/h. None of the sampled flares coemitted HCHO and SO2. Comparison of the emission fluxes measured by the I-DOAS instrument with those from emission inventories and with fluxes calculated from plumes detected by the long-path DOAS over downtown Houston shows that the flares observed by the I-DOAS were relatively small. While burning flares clearly emit HCHO, a larger observational database is needed to assess the importance of flare emissions for ozone formation.

Pikelnaya, Olga; Flynn, James H.; Tsai, Catalina; Stutz, Jochen

2013-08-01

341

CHEMICAL INTERACTIONS AMONG CHLOROHYDROCARBON MIXTURES FOUND IN WASTEWATER EFFLUENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Various chlorohydrocarbons found in industrial waste effluents, including chloroform (CHC13) and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), can eventually contaminate public drinking water supplies. The present study was designed to evaluate the interaction between orally administered CHCl3 an...

342

The U.S. Chemical Industry, the Raw Materials It Uses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The raw materials used by the industry are considered in this section of the annual chemical industry report, including data covering: natural gas, lead, mercury, phosphate rock, potash, salt, petroleum products including petrochemical feedstocks. (PR)

Chemical and Engineering News, 1972

1972-01-01

344

Electrochemical oxidation of bio-refractory dye in a simulated textile industry effluent using DSA electrodes in a filter-press type FM01LC reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents a study on degradation of indigo carmine dye in a filter-press type FM01-LC reactor using Sb2O5-doped Ti\\/IrO2-SnO2 dimensionally stable anode (DSA) electrodes. Micro- and macroelectrolysis studies were carried out using solutions of 0.8 mM indigo carmine in 0.05 M NaCl, which resemble blue denim laundry industrial wastewater. Microelectrolysis results show the behaviour of DSA electrodes in comparison with the

Francisca A. Rodríguez; María N. Mateo; Juan M. Aceves; Eligio P. Rivero; Ignacio González

2012-01-01

345

Assessment of the Mutagenicity of Some Pharmaceutical Effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem statement: The pharmaceutical industry is a major contributor to industrial wastes globally. Effluents from this industry are usually discharged into the environment and when not properly handled and disposed, they affect both hum an health and the environment. Approach: This study evaluated the mutagenic potentials of effluen ts from six pharmaceutical companies in the Lagos province of Nigeria using

A. Akintonwa; O. Awodele; A. T. Olofinnade; C. Anyakora; G. O. Afolayan; H. A. B. Coker

2009-01-01

346

Female Lung Cancer and Petrochemical Air Pollution in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the relationship between petrochemical air pollution and female lung cancer, we conducted a matched case-control study among women who had died in Taiwan from 1990 through 1994. Data about all eligible female lung cancer deaths were obtained from the Bureau of Vital Statistics of the Taiwan Provincial Department of Health. The control group included women who died from

Chun-Yuh Yang; Ming-Fen Cheng; Jeng-Fen Chiu; Shang-Shyue Tsai

1999-01-01

347

Ceramic foam materials based on wastes from petrochemical fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of leucoxene concentrate — a waste from the Yaregskoe Petrochemical Field — as a carbide-forming additive for obtaining\\u000a ceramic foam materials is examined. Comparative physical – mechanical, thermophysical, and electrical characteristics of the\\u000a ceramic foam materials obtained are presented and new carbide-forming formulas are proposed.

V. A. Kuzurman; I. V. Zadorzhnyi; V. Yu. Chukhlanov; É. P. Sysoev

2008-01-01

348

Hprt mutant lymphocyte frequencies in workers in a petrochemical plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The autoradiographic hprt mutant lymphocyte assay was used to evaluate a population of petrochemical workers employed in the manufacture of styrene and xylenes and potentially exposed to benzene. Production units were areas of potential high exposure and other areas of the same facility were areas of low exposure. Exposures to benzene, styrene and xylenes were determined in workers from production

J. B. Jr. Ward; D. A. Hastings; E. B. Jr. Whorton; M. M. Ammenheuser

1997-01-01

349

Particle Growth in Urban and Industrial Plumes in the Houston Metropolitan Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the Texas 2000 Air Quality Study, airborne measurements of particle size distributions were made in the vicinity of Houston, Texas in the plumes from power plants, petrochemical facilities, and the Houston urban center. Particle size distributions from 0.004-8.5 mum diameter were measured with 1 s time resolution. In all plumes from power plant and petrochemical industry sources, substantial enhancements

C. A. Brock; T. B. Ryerson; J. A. Neuman; D. D. Parrish; J. S. Holloway; J. C. Wilson; J. M. Reeves; E. L. Atlas; V. F. Stroud

2002-01-01

350

NATIONAL WWTP EFFLUENT STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

Reports of potential wildlife risk from exposure to environmental estrogens emphasize the need to better understand both estrogenic presence and persistence in treated wastewater effluents. In addition to wildlife exposure, human exposure should also be examined, especially in si...

351

GEOTHERMAL EFFLUENT SAMPLING WORKSHOP  

EPA Science Inventory

This report outlines the major recommendations resulting from a workshop to identify gaps in existing geothermal effluent sampling methodologies, define needed research to fill those gaps, and recommend strategies to lead to a standardized sampling methodology....

352

Economic Impact Analysis of Proposed Amendment to Effluent Limitations and Standards for the Fertilizer Manufacturing Industry. Economic Analysis of the Phosphate Subcategory of the Fertilizer Manufacturing Industry: Louisiana Phosphoric Acid Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report analyzes the economic impact of various point source control alternatives for the phosphate subcategory of the fertilizer manufacturing industry. It focuses on the impacts resulting from the remedial control operations currently under considera...

1984-01-01

353

CO{sub 2} Reuse in Petrochemical Facilities  

SciTech Connect

To address public concerns regarding the consequences of climate change from anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions, the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) is actively funding a CO{sub 2} management program to develop technologies capable of mitigating CO{sub 2} emissions from power plant and industrial facilities. Over the past decade, this program has focused on reducing the costs of carbon capture and storage technologies. Recently, DOE/NETL launched an alternative CO{sub 2} mitigation program focused on beneficial CO{sub 2} reuse to support the development of technologies that mitigate emissions by converting CO{sub 2} into valuable chemicals and fuels. RTI, with DOE/NETL support, has been developing an innovative beneficial CO{sub 2} reuse process for converting CO{sub 2} into substitute natural gas (SNG) by using by-product hydrogen (H{sub 2)-containing fuel gas from petrochemical facilities. This process leveraged commercial reactor technology currently used in fluid catalytic crackers in petroleum refining and a novel nickel (Ni)-based catalyst developed by RTI. The goal was to generate an SNG product that meets the pipeline specifications for natural gas, making the SNG product completely compatible with the existing natural gas infrastructure. RTI's technology development efforts focused on demonstrating the technical feasibility of this novel CO{sub 2} reuse process and obtaining the necessary engineering information to design a pilot demonstration unit for converting about 4 tons per day (tons/day) of CO{sub 2} into SNG at a suitable host site. This final report describes the results of the Phase I catalyst and process development efforts. The methanation activity of several commercial fixed-bed catalysts was evaluated under fluidized-bed conditions in a bench-scale reactor to identify catalyst performance targets. RTI developed two fluidizable Ni-based catalyst formulations (Cat-1 and Cat-3) that demonstrated equal or better performance than that of commercial methanation catalysts. The Cat-1 and Cat-3 formulations were successfully scaled up using commercial manufacturing equipment at the Sud-Chemie Inc. pilot-plant facility in Louisville, KY. Pilot transport reactor testing with RTI's Cat-1 formulation at Kellog Brown & Root's Technology Center demonstrated the ability of the process to achieve high single-pass CO{sub 2} conversion. Using information acquired from bench- and pilot-scale testing, a basic engineering design package was prepared for a 4-ton/day CO{sub 2} pilot demonstration unit, including process and instrumentation diagrams, equipment list, control philosophy, and preliminary cost estimate.

Jason Trembly; Brian Turk; Maruthi Pavani; Jon McCarty; Chris Boggs; Aqil Jamal; Raghubir Gupta

2010-12-31

354

Industry  

SciTech Connect

This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of industrial mitigation for sustainable development is discussed in Section 7.7. Section 7.8 discusses the sector's vulnerability to climate change and options for adaptation. A number of policies have been designed either to encourage voluntary GHG emission reductions from the industrial sector or to mandate such reductions. Section 7.9 describes these policies and the experience gained to date. Co-benefits of reducing GHG emissions from the industrial sector are discussed in Section 7.10. Development of new technology is key to the cost-effective control of industrial GHG emissions. Section 7.11 discusses research, development, deployment and diffusion in the industrial sector and Section 7.12, the long-term (post-2030) technologies for GHG emissions reduction from the industrial sector. Section 7.13 summarizes gaps in knowledge.

Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

2007-12-01

355

Effects of oil sands effluent on cattail and clover: photosynthesis and the level of stress proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oil sands industry located in northeastern Alberta, Canada, generates large volumes of effluent characterized by a high level of dissolved ions and naphthenic acids. The dikes used to store the effluent seep, creating wetlands which are subsequently invaded by obligate wetland flora such as cattail (Typha latifolia L.). The appearance of these wetlands prompted the oil sands industry to

A. U Crowe; B Han; A. R Kermode; L. I Bendell-Young; A. L Plant

2001-01-01

356

Development Document for Effluent Limitations Guidelines, and Standards for the Pesticide Point Source Category.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report provides the technical data base for the promulgation of effluent limitations guidelines for the Pesticide Chemicals Industry. For the purpose of the study, the Pesticide Industry consists of organic pesticide chemicals manufacturers, metallo-o...

G. M. Jett

1985-01-01

357

Petrochemical feedstock by thermal cracking of plastic waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal cracking is one of the possible ways to obtain petrochemical feedstock from polymer wastes. The properties of the cracking products depend mainly on the type of the raw material. In this study the degradation of different mixtures of polymer wastes (polypropylene and polystyrene) were investigated in a horizontal tube reactor. Temperature of 510–520°C and residence time of 15–30min

András Angyal; Norbert Miskolczi; László Bartha

2007-01-01

358

NMR shielding and a thermodynamic study of the effect of environmental exposure to petrochemical solvent on DPPC, an important component of lung surfactant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical and petrochemical industries are the major air polluters. Millions of workers are exposed to toxic chemicals\\u000a on the job, and it is becoming more toxic, causing much damage to respiratory system, today. One of the main components of\\u000a lung alveoli is a surfactant. DPPC (Dipalmitolphosphatidylcholine) is the predominant lipid component in the lung surfactant,\\u000a which is responsible for

M. Monajjemi; S. Afsharnezhad; M. R. Jaafari; T. Abdolahi; A. Nikosade; H. Monajemi

2007-01-01

359

The use of lidar as optical remote sensors in the assessment of air quality near oil refineries and petrochemical sites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Petrochemical and oil refining facilities play an increasingly important role in the industrial context. The corresponding need for monitoring emissions from these facilities as well as in their neighborhood has raised in importance, leading to the present tendency of creating real time data acquisition and analysis systems. The use of LIDAR-based techniques, both for air quality and emissions monitoring purposes is currently being developed for the area of Cubatao, Sao Paulo, one of the largest petrochemical and industrial sites in Brazil. In a partnership with the University of São Paulo (USP) the Brazilian oil company PETROBRAS has implemented an Environmental Research Center - CEPEMA - located in the industrial site, in which the development of fieldwork will be carried out. The current joint R&D project focuses on the development of a real time acquisition system, together with automated multicomponent chemical analysis. Additionally, fugitive emissions from oil processing and storage sites will be measured, together with the main greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4), and aerosols. Our first effort is to assess the potential chemical species coming out of an oil refinery site and to verify which LIDAR technique, DIAL, Raman, fluorescence would be most efficient in detecting and quantifying the specific atmospheric emissions.

Steffens, Juliana; Landulfo, Eduardo; Guardani, Roberto; Oller do Nascimento, Cláudio A.; Moreira, Andréia

2008-10-01

360

Effluent guidelines, leather tanning, and pollution prevention: A retrospective study  

SciTech Connect

This study was undertaken to learn: in what ways and for what reasons a specific industry in the past already was implementing pollution in order to comply with existing effuent guidelines and to what degree the effluent guidelines development document for that industry had already previously projected that outcome.

NONE

1995-06-01

361

Mortality and morbidity study of petrochemical employees in a polluted site  

PubMed Central

Background The area of Gela was included among the 57 Italian polluted sites of national interest for environmental remediation because of its widespread contamination from a petrochemical complex. The present study investigates mortality and morbidity of the cohort of Gela petrochemical workers with the aim of disentangling occupational from residential risk. Methods Mortality was assessed for 5,627 men hired from 1960, year of the plant start-up, to 1993; it was followed up for vital status in the period 1960–2002. Morbidity was analysed for 5,431 workers neither dead nor lost to follow-up from 1960 to 2001 and was based on Hospital Discharge Records in the period 2001–2006. The work experience was classified in terms of job categories such as blue collars, white collars, and both – workers who shifted from blue to white collar (95%) or vice versa. An ad hoc mobility model was applied to define qualitative categories of residence in Gela, as residents and commuters. Standardized Mortality Ratios (SMRs) and Mortality Rate Ratios (MRRs) were computed, the latter by using a Poisson regression model. Morbidity was analyzed in terms of Hospital Discharge Odds Ratios (HDORs) through a logistic regression model. While performing the internal comparisons, white collars was the reference category for the job analysis, and commuters was the reference category for the residential analysis. Results In the light of epidemiological evidence about health risk from petrochemical industries in both occupational and environmental settings, and/or on the basis of information about occupational and residential contamination and health risk in the area of Gela, noteworthy results are shown for lung cancer [MRR: 2.11 (CI 90%; 0.96-4.63) in blue collars; 1.71 (1.09-2.69) in residents], respiratory diseases [HDOR: 2.0 (1.0-3.0) in blue collars; 1.4 (0.96-2.06) in residents] and genitourinary diseases [HDOR: 1.34 (1.06-1.68) in blue collars; 1.23 (1.04-1.45) in residents]. Conclusions The results support a role of the exposures in the occupational and residential settings, the latter due to the local ascertained contamination, in affecting the workers’ health. These results underline the urgent need of water, soil, air and food-chain monitoring programs, to discover active sources of exposure and consequently define public health interventions.

2012-01-01

362

Effluent Monitoring Procedures: Nutrients.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A manual is provided for students in a chemistry course designed for the treatment plant operator or technician who is required to monitor effluent discharges under a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit, and who has had little or no pre...

A. D. Kroner

1976-01-01

363

Prospects for a bio-based succinate industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bio-based succinate is receiving increasing attention as a potential intermediary feedstock for replacing a large petrochemical-based\\u000a bulk chemical market. The prospective economical and environmental benefits of a bio-based succinate industry have motivated\\u000a research and development of succinate-producing organisms. Bio-based succinate is still faced with the challenge of becoming\\u000a cost competitive against petrochemical-based alternatives. High succinate concentrations must be produced at

James B. McKinlay; C. Vieille; J. Gregory Zeikus

2007-01-01

364

Simulating industrial effluent treatment in an electrocoagulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors construct a mathematical model for the combined flocculation and electrophoresis of waste water consisting of an oil-water emulsion in an apparatus designed to carry out the two processes simultaneously. The model is designed for an ascending laminar flow of a stable dilute emulsion in a channel between oppositely charged plates. The purpose of the simulation is to optimize

V. A. Plesovskikh; A. A. Bezdeneszhnykh; L. L. Voloshuk

1986-01-01

365

Considerations for Planning a Monitoring Campaign at Petrochemical Complexes: Lessons Learned  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An air quality monitoring campaign was developed for the late spring of 2009 near Houston area petrochemical facilities. The focus of the field campaign was to measure free radicals that contribute to the formation of ozone, however refinery and chemical plants monitored are also emitters of many different volatile organic compounds (vocs) and hazardous air pollutants (haps). The Houston area is home to the largest aggregation of petrochemical facilities in the U.S. Three specific geographical areas with industrial facilities were considered: Mont Belvieu, the Houston Ship Channel and the Texas City Industrial Complex. Previous experiences with field campaigns in the area led to the presumption that there would be little if any access inside the facilities. Considerations for which areas to focus on included: how close could the facility be approached, what were the directions of the prevailing winds, what kind of barriers to measurement existed (e.g. trees, buildings, highways, privately owned land, etc.), and what were the possible chemical interferences from other sources near the measurement sites? Close communications with the plant security, the local police, the Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI), Homeland Security, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), and the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) were required. Substantial delays can occur due to local concerns regarding homeland security and plant safety. Also, a system of communications is essential to coordinate the participating scientists operating stationary analyzers with the scientists who have analyzers mounted in ground vehicles and in aircraft. The researchers were provided with information regarding plant operations, types of equipment and potential pollutants. A wide variety of stationery and mobile ambient air monitoring techniques were used to measure formaldehyde and other volatile organic compounds. In order to identify likely formaldehyde sources the self-reported submissions to the EPA in the Toxic Release Inventory and emissions reports to the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality were reviewed. Other considerations were the locations of boilers, furnaces and flares, since formaldehyde is a product of combustion. In addition, a review was made to identify any sources of formaldehyde stored, consumed or produced in the petrochemical processes. The Texas City complex was chosen for the focus on formaldehyde study due to the very heavy concentration (fence-line to fence-line) of several refineries, chemical plants and storage facilities. Also there were sites upwind and downwind of the complex that were available for installing critical stationary analyzers for the study. Formaldehyde was identified in several locations, including from flares and smokestacks on ships. Also, benzene was measured less than a mile away from a plume emanating from a 200 foot flare. The solar occultation flux method was used to identify voc emissions that were 5-10 times higher than expected based on the emissions reported to the state environmental agency by the facilities. This paper will describe how the site selection and preparation enhanced the data that was retrieved, and how preparations might be adjusted to improve future air quality studies at petrochemical sites.

Cuclis, A.

2010-12-01

366

EVALUATION OF SITE-SPECIFIC CRITERIA FOR COPPER AND ZINC: AN INTEGRATION OF METAL ADDITION TOXICITY, EFFLUENT AND RECEIVING WATER TOXICITY, AND ECOLOGICAL SURVEY DATA  

EPA Science Inventory

Comparative laboratory toxicity tests using daphnids Ceriodaphnia dubia and fathead minnows Pimephales promelas were conducted to establish and evaluate relationships between the toxicity of domestic and industrial effluents containing copper and zinc, toxicity of the effluents i...

367

Petrochemical types of kimberlites and their diamond-bearing capacity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kimberlite rocks of Yakutian province (belong to 1 group of kimberlites after Smith, 1983) are characterized by wide variations of rock-forming oxides [Ilupin et al., 1986; Milashev, 1965; Kharkiv et al., 1991]. A number of factors could be discussed to explain the variety of chemical compositions of rocks. The first factor, explaining the regional differences in the kimberlite composition with primarily different composition of source kimberlite melt-fluid, is conventionally called «primary». All other factors are connected with the secondary redistribution of chemical components of kimberlites. Irrespective of intensity of secondary factors, the primary composition of kimberlites varies broadly, which is noticeable in kimberlites of some provinces, kimberlites fields, pipe clusters and individual pipes. The petrochemical types are classified based on the contents of such oxides as FeO, TiO2 and K2O, being relatively inert in the secondary processes. In the Yakutian Province we have distinguished 5 petrochemical types of kimberlites (Kostrovitsky et al, 2007); with principal ones - high-Mg, magnesium-ferruginous (Mg-Fe) and ferruginous-titaniferous, their composition: < 6; 6-9; 8-15 % FeOtotal and < 1; 1-2.5; 1.5-5.0 % TiO2). Some petrochemical and mineralogical criteria of diamond-bearing capacity of kimberlites were identified some time before. The essence of petrochemical criterion consists of the inverse correlation dependence between the contents FeOtotal, TiO2 in kimberlite rocks and their diamond-bearing capacity (Milashev, 1965; Krivonos, 1998). The mineralogical criteria of diamond-bearing capacity infer presence of direct dependence of the rate of capacity on the content in kimberlites of low-Ca, high-Cr garnet and chrome spinellids with Cr2O3 > 62% and TiO2 < 0.5%, of dunite-harzburgite paragenesis (Sobolev, 1974; Meyer, 1968). The acquired results are applied to evaluate «efficiency» of criteria of diamond-bearing capacity exemplified by the deposits of Yakutian Province. The high-Mg kimberlites of the Njurba, Botuoba, International and Aikhal pipes are known as mostly diamondiferous. Kimberlites of these fields are marked by absence or minor abundance of minerals of low-Cr megacryst association - picroilmenite and orange-red garnet, and on the other hand, increased content of chrome spinellids and garnets, referred to as dunite-harzburgite paragenesis. Whereas most of the other deposits of Yakutia (pipes Mir, Udachnaya-Vostochnaya, Udachnaya-Zapadnaya, Yubileinaya, Komsomolskaya, Zarnitsa and Sytykan) are referred to the Mg-Fe petrochemical type distinguished by fairly raised content of TiO2 and FeOtotal and high content of minerals of low-Cr megacryst association. The minerals of dunite-harzburgite paragenesis in kimberlites of Mg-Fe type occur as varying amounts, but in general they are less numerous than in high-Mg type of kimberlites. The enumerated deposits have different rates of diamond-bearing capacity, but none of them reaches the rate of capacity common for the Mg-type deposits. The kimberlites with higher content of TiO2 and FeOtotal, referred to the Fe-Ti petrochemical type, do not produce commercial diamond fields within the Yakutian Province. The kimberlites of this type practically do not contain garnet and spinellids of dunite-harzburgite paragenesis. Therefore, comparison of kimberlite deposits of different petrochemical types points out that the petrochemical criterion of diamond capacity is as if «workable». But on the other hand, there are pipes composed of kimberlites of high-Mg and Mg-Fe petrochemical types with a poor capacity or devoid diamonds, which essentially conceal supposed dependence of parameter of diamond-bearing capacity on the chemical composition of rocks. Thus, the negative correlation between the contents FeOtotal, TiO2 in kimberlite rocks and their diamond capacity manifests itself as a tendency in general for kimberlite rocks. Different petrochemical types of kimberlites, varying in the rate of diamond capacity, are indistinguishable in the conte

Kostrovitsky, Sergey

2010-05-01

368

Environmental assessment for effluent reduction, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to eliminate industrial effluent from 27 outfalls at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The Proposed Action includes both simple and extensive plumbing modifications, which would result in the elimination of industrial effluent being released to the environment through 27 outfalls. The industrial effluent currently going to about half of the 27 outfalls under consideration would be rerouted to LANL`s sanitary sewer system. Industrial effluent from other outfalls would be eliminated by replacing once-through cooling water systems with recirculation systems, or, in a few instances, operational changes would result in no generation of industrial effluent. After the industrial effluents have been discontinued, the affected outfalls would be removed from the NPDES Permit. The pipes from the source building or structure to the discharge point for the outfalls may be plugged, or excavated and removed. Other outfalls would remain intact and would continue to discharge stormwater. The No Action alternative, which would maintain the status quo for LANL`s outfalls, was also analyzed. An alternative in which industrial effluent would be treated at the source facilities was considered but dismissed from further analysis because it would not reasonably meet the DOE`s purpose for action, and its potential environmental effects were bounded by the analysis of the Proposed Action and the No Action alternatives.

NONE

1996-09-11

369

Industrial and occupational ergonomics in the petrochemical process industry: A regression trees approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work is an attempt to apply classification tree methods to data regarding accidents in a medium-sized refinery, so as to identify the important relationships between the variables, which can be considered as decision-making rules when adopting any measures for improvement.The results obtained using the CART (Classification And Regression Trees) method proved to be the most precise and, in general,

M. Bevilacqua; F. E. Ciarapica; G. Giacchetta

2008-01-01

370

Anaerobic biodegradation of methyl tert-butyl ether and tert-butyl alcohol in petrochemical wastewater.  

PubMed

A laboratory-scale anaerobic sequencing batch reactor was used to evaluate treatment of a synthetic substrate mixture representing petrochemical wastewater containing methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), ethanol and acetic acid. Influent MTBE concentrations were 5, 10 and 50 mg/l (corresponding to MTBE loading rates of 0.2, 0.4 and 2 mg/l.d) with overall organic loading rates (OLRs) of 1.51, 3.23 and 3.25 g COD/1.d, respectively. These OLRs resulted in removal efficiencies for MTBE of 78%, 98% and 88%. Removal efficiencies for chemical oxygen demand were 85% and 90% with influent MTBE concentrations of 5 and 10mg/l, but were significantly reduced to 72% with influent MTBE concentrations of 50mg/l. During all reactor runs, effluent concentrations oftert-butyl alcohol (TBA) were below the detection limit. Batch degradation of the organic substrate mixture demonstrated initial inhibitory effects when exposed to MTBE concentrations of 50 mg/l and complete inhibition with MTBE concentrations above 2000 mg/l. It is interesting to note that in batch tests using MTBE as the sole organic substrate (initial MTBE concentrations of 50, 100 and 200 mg/l), the specific methanogenic activity decreased to below detection within the first 96 hours, but following a 72-hour lag phase the methane production increased again. Based on low volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration, disappearance of TBA peaks and no findings of any other intermediate via gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, while the MTBE concentration is still high, it can be suggested that during the batch tests the breakdown of gas production and the following lag phase were the direct effect of higher MTBE concentrations (more than 50 mg/l) and not because of the TBA or VFA accumulations. PMID:23240186

Ghasemian, Mohammad; Amin, Mohammad Mehdi; Morgenroth, Eberhard; Jaafarzadeh, Neemat

2012-09-01

371

Widespread Risks of Dental Fluorosis in Cotton Rats (Sigmodon hispidus) Residing on Petrochemical Waste Sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluoride has been identified as a ubiquitous contaminant of soils where petrochemical wastes have been disposed. The purpose of this study was to assess how widespread toxicity risks are to resident vertebrates from chronic exposure to fluoride in the soil of petrochemical-contaminated waste sites. In total, 573 wild cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) were examined. The rats that were seasonally collected

Soochong Kim; Eric L. Stair; Robert L. Lochmiller; Daniel P. Rafferty; Jackie L. Schroder; Nicholas T. Basta; James W. Lish; Charles W. Qualls Jr

2001-01-01

372

Efficacy of histopathology in detecting petrochemical-induced toxicity in wild cotton rats ( Sigmodon hispidus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of chemical mixtures exist in the soil of petrochemical waste sites, and many of these compounds are known immunotoxicants that have been observed to induce immune alterations in wild rodents inhabiting many of these petrochemical waste sites. Conventional histopathological assessments have been widely used with considerable success to investigate immunotoxicity of various agents under laboratory conditions. We hypothesized

S Kim; R. L Lochmiller; E. L Stair; J. W Lish; D. P Rafferty; C. W Qualls

2001-01-01

373

Characterization of oil-shale retort effluents  

SciTech Connect

Characterization studies involve the determination of the physical and chemical properties of all effluents, products and feed stocks involved in the retorting of oil shale to produce oil and/or gas. As such, characterization is an integral part of many environmental and process related studies of the oil shale industry. The characterization studies are described which emphasize environmental aspects of characterization rather than the process side. This paper addresses both what we do know from previous characterization studies of oil shale retorts plus a section on what we do not yet know and what remains to be done. Data are included on the characterization of gaseous pollutants, trace element distributions, refined products, retort waters, raw and spent shales, effluents from various retorting technologies, chemical fractionation studies, and mutagen screening of oil shale fractions. (DMC)

Fruchter, J.S.; Wilkerson, C.L.

1980-08-01

374

Gene expression of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) exposed to two types of treated municipal wastewater effluents.  

PubMed

Contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) in treated municipal effluents have the potential to adversely impact exposed organisms prompting elevated public concern. Using transcriptomic tools, we investigated changes in gene expression and cellular pathways in the liver of male fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) exposed to 5% concentrations of full secondary-treated (HTP) or advanced primary-treated (PL) municipal wastewater effluents containing CECs. Gene expression changes were associated with apical end points (plasma vitellogenin and changes in secondary sexual characteristics). Of 32 effluent CECs analyzed, 28 were detected including pharmaceuticals, personal care products, hormones, and industrial compounds. Exposure to both effluents produced significantly higher levels of plasma VTG and changes in secondary sexual characteristics (e.g., ovipositor development). Transcript patterns differed between effluents, with <10% agreement in the detected response (e.g., altered production of transcripts involved in xenobiotic detoxification, oxidative stress, and apoptosis were observed following exposure to both effluents). Exposure to PL effluent caused changes in transcription of genes involved in metabolic pathways (e.g., lipid transport and steroid metabolism). Exposure to HTP effluent affected transcripts involved in signaling pathways (e.g., focal adhesion assembly and extracellular matrix). The results suggest a potential association between some transcriptomic changes and physiological responses following effluent exposure. This study identified responses in pathways not previously implicated in exposure to complex chemical mixtures containing CECs, which are consistent with effluent exposure (e.g., oxidative stress) in addition to other pathway responses specific to the effluent type. PMID:23919544

Vidal-Dorsch, Doris E; Colli-Dula, R Cristina; Bay, Steven M; Greenstein, Darrin J; Wiborg, Lan; Petschauer, Dawn; Denslow, Nancy D

2013-10-01

375

PFOS and PFOA in influents, effluents, and biosolids of Chinese wastewater treatment plants and effluent-receiving marine environments.  

PubMed

Concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in influents, effluents and sludges were investigated by analyzing the samples from twelve wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in China. The highest concentrations of PFOS and PFOA in influents were found to occur in municipal and industrial WWTPs, respectively. Relative to PFOS and PFOA concentrations in influents, elevated concentrations were observed in effluents from WWTPs applying anaerobic-anoxic-oxic wastewater treatment process. Importantly, application of previously reported organic carbon normalized partition coefficients (K(OC)) derived from sediment-based sorption experiments appear to underestimate the PFOS and PFOA levels in biosolids quantified in the current study. PFOS and PFOA levels in effluents were found to be approximately 27 and 2 times higher than those detected in the effluent-receiving seawater, respectively. However, their levels in this area of seawater haven't exceeded the provisional short-term health advisories in drinking water issued by U.S. EPA yet. PMID:22763327

Chen, Hong; Zhang, Can; Han, Jianbo; Yu, Yixuan; Zhang, Peng

2012-11-01

376

Technology transfer through a network of standard methods and recommended practices - The case of petrochemicals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Technology transfer may take place in parallel with cooperative action between companies participating in the same organizational scheme or using one another as subcontractor (outsourcing). In this case, cooperation should be realized by means of Standard Methods and Recommended Practices (SRPs) to achieve (i) quality of intermediate/final products according to specifications and (ii) industrial process control as required to guarantee such quality with minimum deviation (corresponding to maximum reliability) from preset mean values of representative quality parameters. This work deals with the design of the network of SRPs needed in each case for successful cooperation, implying also the corresponding technology transfer, effectuated through a methodological framework developed in the form of an algorithmic procedure with 20 activity stages and 8 decision nodes. The functionality of this methodology is proved by presenting the path leading from (and relating) a standard test method for toluene, as petrochemical feedstock in the toluene diisocyanate production, to the (6 generations distance upstream) performance evaluation of industrial process control systems (ie., from ASTM D5606 to BS EN 61003-1:2004 in the SRPs network).

Batzias, Dimitris F.; Karvounis, Sotirios

2012-12-01

377

Effect of textile auxiliaries on the biodegradation of dyehouse effluent in activated sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The textile industry is confronted with serious environmental problems associated with its immense wastewater discharge, substantial pollution load, extremely high salinity, and alkaline, heavily coloured effluent. Particular sources of recalcitrance and toxicity in dyehouse effluent are two frequently used textile auxiliaries; i.e. dye carriers and biocidal finishing agents. The present experimental work reports the observation of scientific and practical significance

Idil Arslan Alaton; Güçlü Insel; Gülen Eremektar; Fatos Germirli Babuna; Derin Orhon

2006-01-01

378

Improvement in anaerobic degradation of olive mill effluent (OME) by chemical pretreatment using batch systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, feasibility of using chemical pretreatment to improve the anaerobic biological degradation of industrial effluents containing high concentrations of phenolic compounds was investigated. For this purpose, chemical pretreatment of the wastewater generated from olive oil production process, namely olive mill effluent (OME), was conducted by means of acid cracking followed by coagulation–flocculation process using one of the coagulating

Nuri Azbar; Tugba Keskin; Ebru Cokay Catalkaya

2008-01-01

379

Trace element removal by Spirulina sp. from copper smelter and refinery effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents the studies carried out on the applicability of microalga Spirulina sp. for trace elements removal from the conditioned (large volume, low contaminants concentration) industrial effluent, from copper smelter and refinery, containing a variety of trace elements, particularly mercury, cadmium, ammonia–nitrogen in concentrations exceeding Polish permissible limits for effluents discharged into water and soil. Trace elements removal is

K Chojnacka; A Chojnacki; H Górecka

2004-01-01

380

Adsorption of Heavy Metals in Industrial Wastewater by Magnetic Nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial wastewater containing heavy metals is of great concern because of their toxic impact to living species and environments. Removal of metal ions from industrial effluent using nano-particles is an area of extensive research. This study collected wastewaters and effluents from 11 industrial companies in tanning, electronic plating, printed circuit board manufacturing, semi-conductor, and metal surface treatment industry and studied

Y. Tu; C. You

2010-01-01

381

Treatment of silica effluents: ultrafiltration or coagulation-decantation.  

PubMed

In the electronics industry, the preparation of silicon plates generates effluents that contain a great amount of colloidal silica. Two processes--decantation and ultrafiltration--are studied with in view the treatment of the effluents released by the firm Rockwood Electronic Materials. The feasibility of each of the two processes is studied separately and their operating parameters optimized. Both processes allow the recovery of a great proportion of the initial effluent (over 89%) as transparent and colorless water that can be reused at the start of a line. In view of the results and of the compared advantages and disadvantages of the two processes, ultrafiltration will be selected for the industrial unit. PMID:15561365

Ndiaye, P I; Moulin, P; Dominguez, L; Millet, J C; Charbit, F

2004-12-10

382

Industry and Education: A Winning Combination.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how the petrochemical employers of Texas City, Texas developed a fully accredited two-year associate degree program at the local community college tailored to train process operators for entry into the refining and chemical industry. Discusses planning; scholarship funds; vendor and community support; student population; outcomes of the…

Payne, John H.; Williams-Foster, Cathy

1997-01-01

383

Valuable product production from wood mill effluents.  

PubMed

Fibreboard production is one of the most important industrial activities in Galicia (Spain). Great amounts of wastewater are generated, with properties depending on the type of wood, treatment process, final product and water reusing, among others. These effluents are characterized by a high chemical oxygen demand (COD), low pH and nutrients limitation. Aerobic and anaerobic processes have been used for their treatment. Presently, bioplastics production (mainly polyhydroxyalkanoates or PHA) from wastewaters with mixed cultures is being studied. Substrate requirements for these processes are a high organic matter content and low nutrient concentration. Therefore, wood mill effluents could be a suitable feedstock. PHA production from wastewaters is carried out in three steps. First, complex organic matter is converted into volatile fatty acids (VFA) through acidogenic fermentation. Then, VFA are used as substrate in an aerobic sequencing batch reactor (SBR), in which the enrichement of PHA producing bacteria from a mixed culture is favoured. Finally, the sludge from the SBR is fed with a pulse containing high VFA concentrations, resulting in PHA accumulation inside the cells. In this work, the possibility of applying this process to wood mill effluents is proposed. An acidification percentage of 37% and a storage yield (Y(STO)) of 0.23 Cmmol/Cmmol were obtained. PMID:21076215

Mato, T; Ben, M; Kennes, C; Veiga, M C

2010-01-01

384

Long-term effects of land application of aqueous oil effluent on photosynthetic efficiency of certain varieties of Oryza sativa L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effluents discharged from industries form the main sources of organic and inorganic pollutants in the environment. When untreated effluents are discharged into the environment, they disrupt the ecological niches of fauna and flora. Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited(BHEL), at Tiruchirapalli, Tamilnadu (one of the largest boiler plants in India) releases a huge volume of aqueous oil effluent through a drainage canal

K. Ilangovan; M. Vivekanandan

1989-01-01

385

Biological treatment of mining effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multi?stage biological process is described for treating effluents containing high levels of calcium sulphate, soluble organic matter and. heavy metals. Sulphate is reduced anaerobically to sulphide which is used to precipitate heavy metals, while the remaining H2S is stripped off. Residual soluble organic matter from the first stage is removed aerobically in a second stage. Effluent saturated with respect

J. P. Maree; A. Gerber; A. R. McLaren; E. Hill

1987-01-01

386

Carbohydrates as green raw materials for the chemical industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

In view of the impending transition of chemical industry from depleting fossil raw materials to renewable feedstocks ? the end of cheap oil is predicted for 2040 at the latest ? this account gives an overview on chemically transforming low-molecular weight carbohydrates into products with versatile industrial application profiles and the potential to replace those presently derived from petrochemical sources. To

Frieder W Lichtenthaler; Siegfried Peters

2004-01-01

387

Opportunities for the Chemical Industry in Space, Part 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The chemical/petrochemical industry devotes a large percentage of its gross income to research and development, with much of its R and D of a long-term nature. As the chemical industry is examined as a candidate for space investigations, it is readily app...

1984-01-01

388

ACTIVATED CARBON TREATMENT OF INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATERS: SELECTED TECHNICAL PAPERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Because of the tremendous interest in the organic constituent removal by activated carbon, the two industrial categories displaying the most interest are the petroleum refining and petrochemical industries. EPA's Office of Research and Development has co-sponsored two technical s...

389

Treatment of Textile Dye Plant Effluent by Nanofiltration Membrane  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was concerned primarily with characterization of the NF45 membrane. Its pure water permeability, the mass transfer coefficient of NaCl, and the mean radius of the membrane pores were determined. Experiments run with five pure dye solutions and an industrial dye pulp solution confirmed the potential of nanofiltration membrane separation for the treatment of textile dye plant effluent. The

YAZHEN XU; RÉMI E. LEBRUN; PIERRE-JEAN GALLO; PIERRE BLOND

1999-01-01

390

Microbial decolorization of textile-dyecontaining effluents: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water-pollution control is presently one of the major areas of scientific activity. While coloured organic compounds generally impart only a minor fraction of the organic load to wastewater, their colour renders them aesthetically unacceptable. Effluent discharge from textile and dyestuff industries to neighbouring water bodies and wastewater treatment systems is currently causing significant health concerns to environmental regulatory agencies. Colour

Ibrahim M. Banat; Poonam Nigam; Datel Singh; Roger Marchant

1996-01-01

391

Techno-Economic Study on Measures to Mitigrate the Environmental Impact of the Leather Industry, Particularly in Developing Countries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

UNIDO pub on pollution control in leather industry, with special reference to effluent treatment - covers (1) traditional tanning technology; industrial wastes and pollutants (2) improved environmental tannery processing; treatment of effluent; choice of ...

D. Winters

1984-01-01

392

DETERMINATION OF TRACE METALS IN EFFLUENTS BY DIFFERENTIAL PULSE ANODIC STRIPPING VOLTAMETRY  

EPA Science Inventory

Differential pulse anodic stripping voltametry (DPASV) was evaluated to determine its applicability to industrial and domestic effluents. The results show that trace amounts of zinc, cadmium, lead, bismuth, copper, thallium, indium, antimony, tin and nickel can be determined indi...

393

Development Document for Effluent Limitations Guidelines and Standards for the Aluminum Forming. Point Source Category.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

EPA has collected and analyzed data for plants in the Aluminum Forming Point Source Category. There are no existing effluent limitations or performance standards for this industry. This document and the administrative record provide the technical basis fo...

1982-01-01

394

Genotoxicity assessment of a pharmaceutical effluent using four bioassays  

PubMed Central

Pharmaceutical industries are among the major contributors to industrial waste. Their effluents when wrongly handled and disposed of endanger both human and environmental health. In this study, we investigated the potential genotoxicity of a pharmaceutical effluent, by using the Allium cepa, mouse- sperm morphology, bone marrow chromosome aberration (CA) and micronucleus (MN) assays. Some of the physico-chemical properties of the effluent were also determined. The A. cepa and the animal assays were respectively carried out at concentrations of 0.5, 1, 2.5, 5 and 10%; and 1, 5, 10, 25 and 50% of the effluent. There was a statistically different (p < 0.05), concentration-dependent inhibition of onion root growth and mitotic index, and induction of chromosomal aberrations in the onion and mouse CA test. Assessment of sperm shape showed that the fraction of the sperm that was abnormal in shape was significantly (p < 0.05) greater than the negative control value. MN analysis showed a dose-dependent induction of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes across the treatment groups. These observations were provoked by the toxic and genotoxic constituents present in test samples. The tested pharmaceutical effluent is a potentially genotoxic agent and germ cell mutagen, and may induce adverse health effects in exposed individuals.

2009-01-01

395

Exploring the potential of natural bacterial consortium to degrade mixture of dyes and textile effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mixture of 8 textile dyes was degraded in nutrient broth by using natural bacterial consortium within 3.5h at static condition. The same consortium effectively degraded textile industry effluent within 3h. ADMI (American Dye Manufacturer’s Institute) value removal was 89% and 67% for dye mixture and industrial effluent, respectively. The optimum pH and temperature for the decolorization of dye mixture was

Swati M. Joshi; Shrirang A. Inamdar; Amar A. Telke; Dhawal P. Tamboli; Sanjay P. Govindwar

2010-01-01

396

Surveys in industrial wastewater treatment, Vol. 3: Manufacturing and chemical industries  

SciTech Connect

The author presents a detailed review of the treatment of wastewaters from groups of industries. Individual reviews are written by experts and reflect established or proven practice. This third volume, which deals with inorganic waste waters, covers plating, silver recovery (particularly from the photographic industry), general inorganic chemical industries, chloro-alkalai (particularly the treatment and disposal of mercury sludges), and the steel industry. The second volume discusses organic-based waste waters, with chapters on the dyestuffs, petrochemicals, oil refining, and synthetic fuels industries. The first volume is concerned with the food and beverage industries, with chapters on sugar, dairy, beverage, fruit and vegetable, and meat and poultry industry wastes.

Barnes, D.

1987-01-01

397

Cancer incidence and mortality near the Baglan Bay petrochemical works, South Wales.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES--To study incidence and mortality of leukaemias, cancer of the larynx, and other cancers near the petrochemical plant at Baglan Bay, in response to local concerns of an alleged cluster of cancers in the vicinity. METHODS--This is a small area study of cancer incidence, 1974-84 and of mortality, 1981-91 based on the national postcoded data held by the Small Area Health Statistics Unit and with population and socioeconomic data from the 1981 census. The study is centred on BP Chemicals Ltd, Baglan Bay, Port Talbot, West Glamorgan, South Wales and includes a general population sample of 115,721 people (1981 census) living within 7.5 km of the plant. Cancer incidence and mortality for all cancers, leukaemias, and cancer of the larynx were examined within 7.5 km and 3 km of the plant, and tests for decline in risk of these cancers with distance from the plant were carried out. Mortality from several other cancers possibly associated with the petrochemical industry was also studied. RESULTS--There were 5417 incident cancer cases and 2458 cancer deaths within 7.5 km of the plant during the periods of study. There was an 8% excess incidence of all cancers within 7.5 km, and a 24% excess of cancer of the larynx, consistent with a general excess of these cancers in West Glamorgan, but no apparent decline in incidence with distance from the plant, nor excess mortality. There was also no evidence of decline in leukaemia incidence or mortality with distance, at all ages or in children. Among the other causes included in the mortality study, there was an excess of multiple myeloma within 7.5 km, especially among women, and a significant decline in mortality from non-Hodgkin's lymphomas although there was no excess overall within 7.5 km. CONCLUSIONS--The apparent excess incidence of all cancers and cancer of the larynx within 7.5 km of the BP Chemical Ltd works was consistent with an excess more generally in West Glamorgan, possibly related, at least to some extent, to cancer registration in Wales. There was no excess mortality from these cancers. The results for multiple myeloma and especially non-Hodgkin's lymphomas may have been chance findings in view of the multiple tests of significance carried out in the study. A study of lymphatic and haematopoietic cancers near oil refineries in Great Britain is to be undertaken that will help put the findings of the present study in wider context.

Sans, S; Elliott, P; Kleinschmidt, I; Shaddick, G; Pattenden, S; Walls, P; Grundy, C; Dolk, H

1995-01-01

398

Investigation of fugitive emissions from petrochemical transport barges using optical remote sensing  

EPA Science Inventory

Recent airborne remote sensing survey data acquired with passive gas imaging equipment (PGIE), in this case infrared cameras, have shown potentially significant fugitive volatile organic carbon (VOC) emissions from petrochemical transport barges. The experiment found remote sens...

399

Liquid Effluent Retention Facility/Effluent Treatment Facility Hazards Assessment  

SciTech Connect

This document establishes the technical basis in support of Emergency Planning activities for the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and Effluent Treatment Facility the Hanford Site. The document represents an acceptable interpretation of the implementing guidance document for DOE ORDER 5500.3A. Through this document, the technical basis for the development of facility specific Emergency Action Levels and the Emergency Planning Zone is demonstrated.

Simiele, G.A.

1994-09-29

400

Lanthanum and lanthanides in atmospheric fine particles and their apportionment to refinery and petrochemical operations in Houston, TX  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study was conducted in Houston, TX focusing on rare earth elements (REEs) in atmospheric fine particles and their sources. PM 2.5 samples were collected from an ambient air quality monitoring site (HRM3) located in the proximity of a large number of oil refineries and petrochemical industries to estimate the potential contributions of emissions from fluidized-bed catalytic cracking operations to ambient fine particulate matter. The elemental composition of ambient PM 2.5, several commercially available zeolite catalysts, and local soil was measured after microwave assisted acid digestion using inductively coupled plasma—mass spectrometry. Source identification and apportionment was performed by principal component factor analysis (PCFA) in combination with multiple linear regression. REE relative abundance sequence, ratios of La to light REEs (Ce, Pr, Nd, and Sm), and enrichment factor analysis indicated that refining and petrochemical cat cracking operations were predominantly responsible for REE enrichment in ambient fine particles. PCFA yielded five physically meaningful PM 2.5 sources: cat cracking operations, a source predominantly comprised of crustal material, industrial high temperature operations, oil combustion, and sea spray. These five sources accounted for 82% of the total mass of atmospheric fine particles (less carbon and sulfate). Factor analysis confirmed that emissions from cat cracking operations primarily contributed to REE enrichment in PM 2.5 even though they comprised only 2.0% of the apportioned mass. Results from this study demonstrate the need to characterize catalysts employed in the vicinity of the sampling stations to accurately determine local sources of atmospheric REEs.

Kulkarni, Pranav; Chellam, Shankararaman; Fraser, Matthew P.

401

Pulp mill effluent color removal process  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a method for removing color from an effluent having a low pH and containing organic chromophores. It comprises: increasing the pressure of the effluent to between 200 and 600 psi to prevent the liquid within the effluent from changing phase; heating the effluent to a temperature between 200{degrees} and 250{degrees} C. for a retention time up to 20 minutes in accordance with the temperature to alter the chemical structure of lignin chromophores in the effluent; cooling the effluent to a temperature between 35{degrees} and 60{degrees} C.; adjusting the pressure of the effluent to between 0 to 10 psi; adjusting the pH of the effluent to between 10 and 12 to initiate flocculation of the altered chromophores in the effluent; and separating the chromophores from effluent.

Newman, H.L.; Adams, W.S. Jr.; Boyden, B.

1991-07-16

402

Decolorization of textile dye effluent by genetically improved bacterial strains.  

PubMed

Synthetic dyes are released into the environment from textile industrial effluents. The discharge of this colored wastewater into rivers and lakes leads to a reduction in sunlight penetration in natural water bodies, which, in turn, decreases both photosynthetic activity and dissolved oxygen concentration and is toxic to living beings. Bacterial isolates are optimized for growth and biomass production before using them for decolorizing dye effluent. The bacterial isolates Bacillus sp. 1 and Bacillus sp. 2 were employed at different percentages by volume with standard nutrient concentration. Of these bacterial isolates Bacillus sp. 2 recorded maximum color reduction. The pH and electrical conductivity (EC) were reduced in the decolorized effluent, and a reduction in biologic oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total suspended solids, and total dissolved solids (TDS) were also observed. PMID:17416977

Sukumar, M; Sivasamy, A; Swaminathan, G

2007-01-01

403

Evaluation of Dairy Effluent Management Options Using Multiple Criteria Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article describes how options for managing dairy effluent on the Lower Murray River in South Australia were evaluated using multiple criteria analysis (MCA). Multiple criteria analysis is a framework for combining multiple environmental, social, and economic objectives in policy decisions. At the time of the study, dairy irrigation in the region was based on flood irrigation which involved returning effluent to the river. The returned water contained nutrients, salts, and microbial contaminants leading to environmental, human health, and tourism impacts. In this study MCA was used to evaluate 11 options against 6 criteria for managing dairy effluent problems. Of the 11 options, the MCA model selected partial rehabilitation of dairy paddocks with the conversion of remaining land to other agriculture. Soon after, the South Australian Government adopted this course of action and is now providing incentives for dairy farmers in the region to upgrade irrigation infrastructure and/or enter alternative industries.

Hajkowicz, Stefan A.; Wheeler, Sarah A.

2008-04-01

404

A combined chemical and biological assessment of industrial contamination in an estuarine system in Kerala, India.  

PubMed

The Cochin Backwaters in India are part of the Vembanad-Kol system, which is a protected wetland and one of the largest estuarine ecosystems in South Asia. The backwaters are a major supplier of fisheries resources and are developed as tourist destination. Periyar River discharges into the northern arm of the system and receives effluents from chemical, petrochemical and metal processing industries which release huge amounts of wastewaters after little treatment. We investigated water and sediment contamination in the industrial vicinity and at one station further away including organic and inorganic contaminants. In total 83 organic contaminants were found, e.g. well known priority pollutants such as endosulfan, hexachlorobenzene, DDT, hexachlorocyclohexane and their metabolites, which likely stem from the industrial manufacturing of organochlorine pesticides. Furthermore, several benzothiazole, dibenzylamine and dicyclohexylamine derivatives were detected, which indicated inputs from rubber producing facilities. Several of these compounds have not been reported as environmental contaminants so far. A comparison of organic contaminant and trace hazardous element concentrations in sediments with reported sediment quality guidelines revealed that adverse effects on benthic species are likely at all stations. The chemical assessment was combined with an investigation of macrobenthic diversity and community composition. Benthic organisms were completely lacking at the site with the highest trace hazardous element concentrations. Highest species numbers, diversity indices and abundances were recorded at the station with the greatest distance to the industrial area. Filter feeders were nearly completely lacking, probably leading to an impairment of the filter function in this area. This study shows that a combination of chemical and biological methods is an innovative approach to achieve a comprehensive characterization of industrial contamination, to evaluate associated risks for bottom dwelling consumers regarding sediment quality guidelines, and to observe related adverse effects on the benthic community directly in the field. PMID:24735943

Dsikowitzky, Larissa; Nordhaus, Inga; Sujatha, C H; Akhil, P S; Soman, Kunjupilai; Schwarzbauer, Jan

2014-07-01

405

Statistical Evaluation of Effluent Monitoring Data for the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility  

SciTech Connect

This report updates the original effluent variability study for the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) and provides supporting justification for modifying the effluent monitoring portion of the discharge permit. Four years of monitoring data were evaluated and used to statistically justify changes in permit effluent monitoring conditions. As a result, the TEDF effluent composition and variability of the effluent waste stream are now well defined.

Chou, Charissa J.; Johnson, Vernon G.

2000-03-08

406

Production of biofertilizers using baker's yeast effluent and their application to wheat and barley grown in north Sinai deserts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effluent from the baker's yeast industry was experimented on as a culture medium for the growth and biomass production of diazotrophs. The effluent supported good growth of Azotobacter chroococcum, Enterobacter agglomerans and Klebsiella pneuomoniae, Azospirillum brasilense, Bacillus polymyxa and Pseudomonas putida and strongly proposed for biofertilizers production of associative diazotrophs. Slurry preparations containing natural polymers, e.g. Arabic gum (5%), pero-dextrin

Sayeda M. Ali; Mervat A. Hamza; Gamil Amin; Mohammed Fayez; Mahmod El-Tahan; Mohammed Monib; Nabil A. Hegazi

2005-01-01

407

Effects of brine addition on effluent toxicity and marine toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) manipulations  

SciTech Connect

Little information is available concerning the effect of salinity adjustment on effluent storage and toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) performance. These factors are important for accurate assessments of potential toxicity to marine organisms. The objective of this study was to determine (a) the effect of salinity adjustment using hypersaline brine on the toxicity of effluents stored up to 40 d, and (b) to determine the effect of salinity adjustment on TIE manipulations. Changes in effluent toxicity over time were examined by using a municipal and an industrial effluent. A toxicity time series was performed for 16 d for the industrial effluent and 40 d for the municipal effluent. Toxicity was measured with modified 48-h acute Mysidopsis bahia and Menidia beryllina tests. Results indicate that, compared to day 0 test results, effluent stored with brine had fewer significant changes in toxicity than did effluent stored without brine. To determine the effects of brine addition on TIE manipulations, the authors conducted a series of manipulations in which one aliquot of an effluent had brine added prior to the TIE manipulations and the other aliquot had brine added after the TIE manipulation. The manipulations conducted were EDTA addition, sodium thiosulfate addition, C[sub 18] extraction, aeration, filtration, and graduated pH manipulations. Toxicity was measured with the modified 48-h acute mysid test. Addition of brine had no effect on the outcome of TIE manipulations. They have concluded that it is operationally easier to add brine as soon as possible after sampling and that effluent tests should be conducted as soon as practical.

Ho, K.T.; Burgess, R.M. (Environmental Protection Agency, Narragansett, RI (United States)); Mitchell, K. (Xavier Univ. of Louisiana, New Orleans, LA (United States). Biology Dept.); Zappala, M. (Univ. of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI (United States))

1995-02-01

408

40 CFR 415.432 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Iodine Production Subcategory § 415.432 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2012-07-01

409

40 CFR 415.432 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Iodine Production Subcategory § 415.432 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2011-07-01

410

40 CFR 415.53 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Oxide Production Subcategory § 415.53 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2013-07-01

411

40 CFR 415.142 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory § 415.142 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2009-07-01

412

40 CFR 415.632 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Zinc Sulfate Production Subcategory § 415.632 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2009-07-01

413

Risk assessment study of fire following an earthquake: a case study of petrochemical enterprises in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After an earthquake, the fire risk of petrochemical enterprises is higher than that of other enterprises as it involves production processes with inflammable and explosive characteristics. Using Chinese petrochemical enterprises as the research object, this paper uses a literature review and case summaries to study, amongst others, the classification of petrochemical enterprises, the proportion of daily fires, and fire loss ratio. This paper builds a fire following an earthquake risk assessment model of petrochemical enterprises based on a previous earthquake fire hazard model, and the earthquake loss prediction assessment method, calculates the expected loss of the fire following an earthquake in various counties and draws a risk map. Moreover, this research identifies high-risk areas, concentrating on the Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan region, and Shandong, Jiangsu, and Zhejiang provinces. Differences in enterprise type produce different levels and distribution of petrochemical enterprise earthquake fire risk. Furthermore, areas at high risk of post-earthquake fires and with low levels of seismic fortification require extra attention to ensure appropriate mechanisms are in place.

Li, J.; Wang, Y.; Chen, H.; Lin, L.

2014-04-01

414

Development Document for Effluent Limitations Guidelines and New Source Performance Standards for the Building, Construction, and Paper Segment of the Asbestos Manufacturing Point Source Catergory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document presents the findings of an extensive study of a segment of the asbestos manufacturing industry for the purpose of developing effluent limitations guidelines and Federal standards of performance for the industry. The development of data and ...

R. J. Carton

1974-01-01

415

Effects of oil sands effluent on cattail and clover: photosynthesis and the level of stress proteins.  

PubMed

The oil sands industry located in northeastern Alberta, Canada, generates large volumes of effluent characterized by a high level of dissolved ions and naphthenic acids. The dikes used to store the effluent seep, creating wetlands which are subsequently invaded by obligate wetland flora such as cattail (Typha latifolia L.). The appearance of these wetlands prompted the oil sands industry to consider wetlands as part of their reclamation strategy. However, to ensure long-term viability of such wetlands, the response of the flora to the industrial effluent needed to be determined. To this end, apparent photosynthesis (APS), the level of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBisCo) large subunit, dehydrin-related polypeptides, and protein disulphide isomerase (PDI) were evaluated in cattail and alsike clover plants (Trifolium hybridum L.) exposed to the oil sands effluent. APS measured in plants impacted by oil sands effluent was significantly higher than that of plants in the non-impacted off-site location. Among the on-site locations, plants growing in the natural wetlands site had higher APS compared to all other sites. The level of RuBisCo was not increased in cattail or clover growing in effluent-contaminated sites indicating that enhanced photosynthesis was not due to greater levels of this enzyme. Dehydrin-related polypeptides were detected only in the roots of cattail and were absent in clover. The polypeptide profile was altered in cattail exposed to oil sands effluent indicating that they were responding to an osmotic stress. The level of PDI was unaffected in the leaves of cattail regardless of the nature of the effluent to which they were exposed. Overall, the data indicate that cattail and clover are adapted to the oil sands effluent, although further studies are needed to assess their long-term ability to survive in the presence of this anthropogenic stress. PMID:11428139

Crowe, A U; Han, B; Kermode, A R; Bendell-Young, L I; Plant, A L

2001-01-01

416

Preliminary research on geothermal energy industrial complexes. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overall purpose of this study was to provide economic, technical and other related information on developing industrial complexes to utilize geothermal energy. An initial screening of products and production processes led to the selection of the following potential Geothermal Energy Industrial Complexes (GEICs): forest products; chlor-alkali industries; alumina-aluminum; cellulosic fibers; magnesium compounds and soda ash; petro-chemicals complex; food and

C. C. Hornburg; B. Lindal

1978-01-01

417

Phytoremediation of the coalmine effluent.  

PubMed

Coal mine effluent was subjected to detoxification by phytoremediation using two macrophytes Azolla pinnata and Lemna minor. Both plants were kept separately in the effluents for 7 day. The initial concentration (mg L?¹) of eight metals: Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Ni, Pb, Cr and Cd investigated in the effluent were 22.91±0.02, 9.61±1.6, 2.04±0.23, 1.03±0.15, 0.86±0.19, 0.69±0.11, 0.18±0.007 and 0.06±0.008 respectively. The initial fresh biomass of each plant was 100g. After one week, metals removed in A. pinnata-phytoremediated effluent were in the order: Mn (98%)>Fe (95.4%)>Zn (95%)>Cu (93%)>Pb (86.9%)>Cd (85%)>Cr (77.7%)>Ni (66.2%) and metal decrease in L. minor-phytoremediated effluent were: Mn (99.5%)>Cu (98.8%)>Zn (96.7%)>Ni (94.5%)>Fe (93.1%)>Cd (86.7%)>Pb (84%)>Cr (76%). Due to metal toxicity the total chlorophyll and protein contents of L. minor decreased by 29.3% and 38.55% respectively. The decrease of these macromolecules in A. pinnata was 27% and 15.56% respectively. Also, the reduction in biomass of L. minor was greater than that for A. pinnata. Based on the finding we could suggest that both the plants are suitable for bioremediation of mine effluent at the contaminated sites. However, attention for quick disposal of these metal loaded plants is urgently required. PMID:22571948

Bharti, Sandhya; Kumar Banerjee, Tarun

2012-07-01

418

Major ion toxicity in effluents: A review with permitting recommendations  

SciTech Connect

Effluent toxicity testing methods have been well defined, but for the most part, these methods do not attempt to segregate the effects of active ionic concentrations and ion imbalances upon test and species performances. The role of various total dissolved solids in effluents on regulatory compliance has emerged during the last few years and has caused confusion in technical assessment and in permitting and compliance issues. This paper assesses the issue of ionic strength and ion imbalance, provides a brief summary of applicable data, presents several case studies demonstrating successful tools to address toxicity resulting from salinity and ion imbalance, and provides recommendations for regulatory and compliance options to manage discharges with salinity/ion imbalance issues. Effluent toxicity resulting from inorganic ion imbalance and the ion concentration of the effluent is pervasive in permitted discharge from many industrial process and municipal discharges where process streams are concentrated, adjusted, or modified. This paper discusses procedures that use weight-of-evidence approaches to identify ion imbalance toxicity, including direct measurement, predictive toxicity models for freshwater, exchange resins, mock effluents, and ion imbalance toxicity with tolerant/susceptible test species. Cost-effective waste treatment control options for a facility whose effluent is toxic because of total dissolved solids (TDS) or because of specific ion(s) are scarce at best. Depending on the discharge situation, TDS toxicity may not be viewed with the same level of concern as other, more traditional, toxicants. These discharge situations often do not require the conservative safety factors required by other toxicants. Selection of the alternative regulatory solutions discussed in this paper may be beneficial, especially because they do not require potentially expensive or high-energy-using treatment options that may be ineffective control options. The information presented is intended to provide a better understanding of the role of ion imbalance in aquatic toxicity testing and to provide various recommendations that should be considered in addressing these issues.

Goodfellow, W.L.; Ausley, L.W.; Burton, D.T.; Denton, D.L.; Dorn, P.B.; Grothe, D.R.; Heber, M.A.; Norberg-King, T.J.; Rodgers, J.H. Jr.

2000-01-01

419

Improve industrial process plant safety & availability via reliability engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

International Petrochemical, Chemical, Refining and Petroleum Industries are trying to implement reliability programs to improve plant safety while trying to maintain plant availability. These programs can vary significantly in size and complexity. Any kind of reliability program, like a preventive maintenance (PM) program, consists always of one or more reliability models and reliability data to execute these models. It is

Michel Houtermans; Mufeed Al-ghumgham; Tino Vande Capelle

2008-01-01

420

Refinery and petrochemical complex: The master plan study report. Volumes 5-9. Export trade information  

SciTech Connect

The study, conducted by ABB Lummus Crest, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The report focuses on the modernization and upgrading of the Angarsk Petrochemical Company. The Master Plan addresses the need of modernization to make the refinery and petrochemical complex more in line with western standards and products produced. The plan also defines a proposed configuration implementation and schedule consistent with APCC strategic objectives. This is the second of two volumes and it contains volumes 5-9 of the Master Plan. It is divided into the following sections: (5) Volume 5: Petrochemical Complex Study; (6) Volume 6: Cost Estimates and Implementation Schedules; (7) Volume 7: Economic Analysis & Overall Project Implementation (8) Volume 8: Linear Program Study; (9) Volume 9: Local Conditions Examination Summary.

NONE

1995-06-01

421

Effect of indigo dye effluent on the growth, biomass production and phenotypic plasticity of Scenedesmus quadricauda (Chlorococcales).  

PubMed

The effect of indigo dye effluent on the freshwater microalga Scenedesmus quadricauda ABU12 was investigated under controlled laboratory conditions. The microalga was exposed to different concentrations of the effluent obtained by diluting the dye effluent from 100 to 175 times in bold basal medium (BBM). The growth rate of the microalga decreased as indigo dye effluent concentration increased (p <0.05). The EC50 was found to be 166 dilution factor of the effluent. Chlorophyll a, cell density and dry weight production as biomarkers were negatively affected by high indigo dye effluent concentration, their levels were higher at low effluent concentrations (p <0.05). Changes in coenobia size significantly correlated with the dye effluent concentration. A shift from large to small coenobia with increasing indigo dye effluent concentration was obtained. We conclude that even at low concentrations; effluents from textile industrial processes that use indigo dye are capable of significantly reducing the growth and biomass production, in addition to altering the morphological characteristics of the freshwater microalga S. quadricauda. The systematic reduction in the number of cells per coenobium observed in this study further confirms that environmental stress affects coenobium structure in the genus Scenedesmus, which means it can be considered an important biomarker for toxicity testing. PMID:24676177

Chia, Mathias A; Musa, Rilwan I

2014-03-01

422

Ecotoxicological Risks Associated with Land Treatment of Petrochemical Wastes. I. Residual Soil Contamination and Bioaccumulation by Cotton Rats (Sigmodon Hispidus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Petrochemical waste contains both organic and inorganic contaminants that can pollute soil and may pose significant ecological risks to wildlife. Petrochemical waste typically is disposed of in land treatment units, which are widespread throughout Oklahoma and the United States. Few studies have been conducted evaluating possible toxicity risks to terrestrial organisms residing on these units. In this study, the extent

Jackie Schroder; Nicholas Basta; Mark Payton; James Wilson; Ruth Carlson; David Janz; Robert Lochmiller

2003-01-01

423

Production of rhizobia biofertilizers using baker's yeast effluent and their application to Leucaena leucocephala  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial baker's yeast effluent (BYE) was experimented on as a culture medium for growth and biomass production of six fast-growing rhizobia strains. Diluting the effluent with distilled water was necessary to maximize bacterial biomass production. The addition of phosphate buffer, ammonium chloride or trace-elements did not improve the final biomass yield of tested micro-organisms. Rhizobial growth and biomass on the

Sayeda M. Ali; Gamil Amin; Mohammed Fayez; Mahmoud El-Tahan; Mohammed Monib; Nabil A. Hegazi

2005-01-01

424

Ureolytic phosphate precipitation from anaerobic effluents.  

PubMed

In this work, the elimination of phosphate from industrial anaerobic effluents was evaluated at lab-scale. For that purpose, the ureolytic method previously developed for the precipitation of Ca(2 + ) from wastewater as calcite was adapted for the precipitation of phosphate as struvite. In the first part of the study, computer simulations using MAPLE and PHREEQC were performed to model phosphate precipitation from wastewater as struvite. The results obtained showed that relative high concentrations of ammonium and magnesium are needed to precipitate phosphate as struvite. The total molar concentrations ratio of Mg(2 + ):PO(4) (3-)-P:NH(4) (+) required to decrease PO(4) (3-)-P concentrations from 20 to 6 mg PO(4) (3-)-P/l at pH 8.4-8.5 was estimated on 4.6:1:8. In the second part of the study, lab-scale experiments with either synthetic wastewater or the anaerobic effluent from a vegetable processing industry were carried out in batch and continuous mode. Overall, the continuous operation at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 2.4 h and an added molar concentration [Mg(2 + )]:[PO(4) (3-)-P]:[NH(4) (+)] ratio of 1.6:1:2.3 resulted in a constant pH value in the reactor (around 8.5) and an efficient phosphate removal (>90%) to residual levels of 1-2 mg PO(4) (3-)-P/l. Different operational conditions, such as the initial phosphate concentration, HRT and the use of CaCl(2) or MgO instead of MgCl(2), were analysed and the performance of the reactor was satisfactory under a broad range of them. Yet, overall, optimal results (higher phosphate removal) were obtained with MgCl(2). PMID:19474493

Desmidt, E; Verstraete, W; Dick, J; Meesschaert, B D; Carballa, M

2009-01-01

425

Bioaccumulation in fish of chlorinated phenols from kraft pulp mill bleachery effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last ten years the gross water pollution caused by oxygen consuming organic substances in the effluents from the pulp and paper industry has been considerably reduced. The greatest remaining pollution problem in the pulp industry is connected with the bleaching process. In this process the pulp is treated first with chlorine or a mixture of chlorine and chlorine

L. Landner; K. Lindström; M. Karlsson; J. Nordin; L. Sörensen

1977-01-01

426

Recovery of Drinking Water and By-products from Gold Mine Effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

South Africa is a water constrained country with a large mining industry. Effluents from the mining industry, which is rich in calcium sulphate, resulted in salination of the limited amount of surface water. South Africa is also a large importer of sulphur because it is required for the manufacture of sulphuric acid. It is argued that importation of sulphur can

Solly Motaung; Jannie Maree; Marinda De Beer; Lucky Bologo; Dieks Theron; Jacobin Baloyi

2008-01-01

427

Benefits and Costs of Pulp and Paper Effluent Controls Under the Clean Water Act  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study quantifies local improvements in environmental quality from controlling effluents in the pulp and paper industry. Although it is confined to a single industry, this study is the first effort to assess the actual net benefits of the Clean Water Act pollution control program. An assessment of water quality benefits requires linking regulatory policy, technical effects, and behavioral responses.

Ralph A. Luken; F. Reed Johnson; Virginia Kibler

1992-01-01

428

Reducing Effluent While Raising Affluence: Water Pollution Abatement in Malaysia. How did Malaysia Manage to Nearly Eliminate its Leading Water Pollution Problem, without Simultaneously Blocking Growth of the Industry Generating the Pollution.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Production of crude palm oil (CPO) in Malaysia more than tripled between 1975 and 1985. This expansion solidified the industry's ranking as the largest in the world - it accounted for half of world production and three-fourths of world exports in 19801 - ...

J. R. Vincent

1993-01-01

429

Technology Competitiveness in Emerging Markets: The Case of the Brazilian Polymer Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Brazilian polymer industry (plastics, rubbers, fibers, adhesives, paints, and varnishes) is the fastest growing segment of the Petrochemical Chain. Since the polymer industry is characterized as science based, the capacity to create technology is vital for its long-range survival in the market. This paper analyzes how Brazilian polymer firms maintain their technological competitiveness, explains the main modes of technology

Carlos A. Hemais; Henrique M. Barros; Elizabeth O. R. Rosa

2005-01-01

430

An evaluation of the whole effluent toxicity test method  

SciTech Connect

Whole effluent toxicity (WET) testing has become increasingly more important to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the States in the permitting of wastewater discharges from industry and municipalities. The primary purpose of the WET test is to protect aquatic life by predicting the effect of an effluent on the receiving stream. However, there are both scientific and regulatory concerns that using WET tests to regulate industrial effluents may result in either false positives and/or false negatives. In order to realistically predict the effect of an effluent on the receiving stream, the test should be as representative as possible of the conditions in the receiving stream. Studies (Rand and Petrocelli 1985) suggested several criteria for an ideal aquatic toxicity test organism, one of which is that the organism be indigenous to, or representative of, the ecosystem receiving the effluent. The other component needed in the development of a predictive test is the use of the receiving stream water or similar synthetic water as the control and dilution water in the test method. Use of an indigenous species and receiving water in the test should help reduce the variability in the method and allow the test to predict the effect of the effluent on the receiving stream. The experience with toxicity testing at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has yielded inconclusive data because of the inconsistency and unreliability of the results. The SRS contention is that the WET method in its present form does not adequately mimic actual biological/chemical conditions of the receiving streams and is neither reasonable nor accurate. This paper discusses the rationale for such a position by SRS on toxicity testing in terms of historical permitting requirements, outfall effluent test results, standard test method evaluation, scientific review of alternate test species, and concerns over the test method expressed by other organizations. This paper presents the Savannah River Site position that the EPA test is neither reasonable nor accurate and thus cannot adequately establish the impact of NPDES outfall discharges on receiving streams.

Osteen, D.V.

1999-12-17

431

Potential microbiological contamination of effluents in poultry and swine abattoirs.  

PubMed

Health risks in the effluents of seven swine abattoirs and of seven poultry abattoirs were evaluated with regard to environment degradation and to dissemination of pathogenic microorganisms during the rainy and dry seasons. Supply-water samples from affluents and effluents of the treatment systems at different sites within the abattoir processing system were analysed. Similarly, water samples from the three recipient sites (emission point, 100 m upstream, 100 m downstream) were also analysed. Temperature, free residual chlorine (FRC), total coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli, enterococci, identification and serotyping of salmonellae were assessed. Scalding is the most significant stage in the slaughtering chain (P<0.05) when temperature is taken into account. Temperatures at effluents and at the sampled sites in the water bodies accorded to state and federal legislation standards. Supply waters did not meet the standards for FRC and microbial count standards according to the Ministry of Health and within limits imposed by the Industrial and Sanitary Inspection Regulations for Animal Products. Feather plucking and evisceration in poultry slaughter and the cleansing of carcasses and facilities in poultry and swine slaughtering had the highest contamination impact. The three loci at the water bodies were above the microbiological standards for classes II and III sites, in conformity with Law 8468 of the state of São Paulo, Brazil and Conama. Salmonella was found at several sites during slaughter, at both types of abattoirs, including in the effluent treatment system. This showed that these sites were the dissemination sources of the microorganism. PMID:16893484

Barros, L S S; Amaral, L A; Lorenzon, C S; Junior, J L; Neto, J G Machado

2007-04-01

432

Characterization and source identification of chemical elements near a petrochemical industrial area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non?destructive instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and X?ray fluorescence (XRF) were utilized to determine the concentrations of 18 chemical elements in size?fractionated aerosol samples collected by dichotomous samplers at Toufen of Taiwan, ROC. The intensive survey studies were conducted in August 1992 and from August to September 1993. During the sampling period, a special case of open burning at the

C. F. Wang; P. C. Chiang; Y. C. Chiang; W. H. Cheh; E. E. Chang

1997-01-01

433

Seasonal source-receptor relationships in a petrochemical industrial district over northern Taiwan.  

PubMed

This study investigated the relationships between meteorological data, pollution sources, and receptors over northern Taiwan. During the intensive sampling period in summer 1992, the weather was controlled predominantly by a Pacific subtropical high and by Typhoon Mark. During the other intensive sampling period in winter 1993, while a cold frontal system approached Taiwan, the northeasterly winds prevailed most of the time. The local circulation such as land-sea breeze only developed under weak synoptic environment. Particle concentrations and element composition in winter were higher than in summer. This can be attributed to the high convection of air mass, which leads to the vertical dispersion of pollutants in summer. In addition to the subtropical high pressure, typhoons are frequently accompanied with high-wind speeds and unstable weather conditions that also dilute and eliminate the pollutants. In winter, the prevailing northeasterlies might carry pollutants from Midland China. Furthermore, the anticyclone system develops a stagnant condition that easily leads to pollutant accumulation. In this case, the wind direction affected the source contribution of the receptor and the PM10 displays a higher correlation with coarse and fine particulate than meteorological parameters in summer. In addition, the mixing height shows a high correlation with PM10 in winter. PMID:15828675

Chiang, Pen-Chi; Chang, E E; Chang, Tzu-Chi; Chiang, Hung-Lung

2005-03-01

434

Incorporation of air-cooled condensers in refineries and petrochemical plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

By and large, the construction of oil-processing and petrochemical plants and individual production units is being carried out in accordance with obsolete general plans and drafts, not allowing for any radical reduction in the intervals between fitting and apparatus, and without the new effective plant, waste-heat boilers for the spent heat, the huge centrifugal, rotary and opposed compressors or cylindrical

Ya. G. Sorking; S. Yu. Barit; V. M. Shmerkovich

1966-01-01

435

Characterization of a Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon–Degrading Microbial Consortium from a Petrochemical Sludge Landfarming Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthracene, phenanthrene, and pyrene are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) that display both mutagenic and carcinogenic properties. They are recalcitrant to microbial degradation in soil and water due to their complex molecular structure and low solubility in water. This study presents the characterization of an efficient PAH (anthracene, phenanthrene, and pyrene)-degrading microbial consortium, isolated from a petrochemical sludge landfarming site. Soil

Rodrigo J. S. Jacques; Benedict C. Okeke; Fatima M. Bento; Maria C. R. Peralba; Flávio A. O. Camargo

2007-01-01

436

Experimental research on vibration reduction of high-rise petrochemical equipment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wind-induced vibration of high-rise petrochemical equipment would do great harm to equipment operation and cause fatigue damage easily. Thus it is necessary to install some control device to reduce the vibration actively. Existing reinforcement methods include enlarging structural section, welding wind girder, adding braced frame system, fixing taut cable, etc. But each has some shortcomings. Therefore, the tuned mass

W Hao; L D He; J Chang; W F Han; L X Wang

2012-01-01

437

Use of Geochemical Forensics to Determine Release Eras of Petrochemicals to Groundwater, Whitehorse, Yukon  

Microsoft Academic Search

At sites where petrochemical releases have occurred comparatively recently (i.e., over the last 20 years), explicit age-dating is a viable approach. However, differentiating among multiparty contamination at sites with several decades of history may mandate a different allocation strategy, especially when there is an uncoordinated body of environmental data. At a location where a refinery operated for 11 months during

Andy Davis; B. Howe; A. Nicholson; S. McCaffery; K. A. Hoenke

2005-01-01

438

Fluidised bed pyrolysis of low density polyethylene to produce petrochemical feedstock  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pyrolysis of plastic waste has been proposed as a tertiary or feedstock recycling route where the plastic waste materials are processed back to produce basic petrochemicals that can be used as feedstock to make virgin plastic or refined fuels. The detailed analysis of the derived products from the pyrolysis of plastics provides data on the suitability of the process and

Paul T Williams; Elizabeth A Williams

1999-01-01

439

Ambient volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations around a petrochemical complex and a petroleum refinery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air samples were collected between September 2000 and September 2001 in Izmir, Turkey at three sampling sites located around a petrochemical complex and an oil refinery to measure ambient volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations. VOC concentrations were 4–20-fold higher than those measured at a suburban site in Izmir, Turkey. Ethylene dichloride, a leaded gasoline additive used in petroleum refining and

Eylem Cetin; Mustafa Odabasi; Remzi Seyfioglu

2003-01-01

440

Risk assessment study of fire following earthquake: a case study of petrochemical enterprises in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After an earthquake, the fire risk of petrochemistry enterprises is higher than that of other enterprises as it involves production processes with inflammable and explosive characteristics. Using Chinese petrochemical enterprises as the research object, this paper uses a literature review and case summaries to study, amongst others, the classification of petrochemical enterprises, the proportion of daily fires, and fire loss ratio. This paper builds a fire following earthquake risk assessment model of petrochemical enterprises based on a previous earthquake fire hazard model, and the earthquake loss prediction assessment method, calculates the expected loss of the fire following earthquake in various counties and draws a risk map. Moreover, this research identifies high-risk areas, concentrating on the Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan region, and Shandong, Jiangsu, and Zhejiang provinces. Differences in enterprise type produce different levels and distribution of petrochemical enterprises earthquake fire risk. Furthermore, areas at high risk of post-earthquake fires and with low levels of seismic fortification require extra attention to ensure appropriate mechanisms are in place.

Li, J.; Wang, Y.; Chen, H.; Lin, L.

2013-04-01

441

A contribution to the surface analysis and characterisation of HVOF coatings for petrochemical application  

Microsoft Academic Search

The appropriate selection of bulk materials and coatings of valve components is an important factor for the economic success of oil and gas production activities in the petrochemical field. Materials and coatings are important because particle erosion and surface wear are associated to corrosion by hydrogen sulphide during oil and gas flow. The wear of high pressure valves of gas

A Scrivani; S Ianelli; A Rossi; R Groppetti; F Casadei; G Rizzi

2001-01-01

442

Ecological interface design for petrochemical applications: supporting operator adaptation, continuous learning, and distributed, collaborative work  

Microsoft Academic Search

Future support systems for operators of petrochemical refineries will have to support operator adaptation to unanticipated events, foster continuous learning, and facilitate distributed, collaborative work. This paper describes Ecological Interface Design, a candidate framework for human–computer interface design that has the potential to fulfill these diverse demands. Support for adaptation and continuous learning is demonstrated though the design of a

Greg A. Jamieson; Kim J. Vicente

2001-01-01

443

Rhamnolipid production by indigenous Pseudomonas aeruginosa J4 originating from petrochemical wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pseudomonas aeruginosa J4, isolated from wastewater of a petrochemical factory located in southern Taiwan, was used to produce rhamnolipid from a variety of carbon substrates, including hydrophilic substrates, vegetable oils, and mineral oils. The P. aeruginosa J4 strain was able to assimilate the seven carbon substrates examined (namely, glucose, glycerol, olive oil, sunflower oil, grape seed oil, diesel, and kerosene),

Yu-Hong Wei; Chien-Liang Chou; Jo-Shu Chang

2005-01-01

444

Environmental Comparison of Biobased Chemicals from Glutamic Acid with Their Petrochemical Equivalents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glutamic acid is an important constituent of waste streams from biofuels production. It is an interesting starting material for the synthesis of biobased chemicals, thereby decreasing the dependency on fossil fuels. The objective of this paper was to compare the environmental impact of four biobased chemicals from glutamic acid with their petrochemical equivalents, that is, N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP), N-vinylpyrrolidone (NVP), acrylonitrile

T. M. Lammens; J. Potting; J. P. M. Sanders; Boer de I. J. M

2011-01-01

445

The role of human resource practices in petro-chemical refinery performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the impact of human resource (HR) practices (selection, training, compensation and appraisal) and participation on the financial performance of US petro-chemical refineries. Survey results from HR and operations respondents indicated that appraisal and training were significantly related to workforce skills and that training and compensation were marginally related to workforce motivation. In addition, only training was significantly

Patrick M. Wright; Blaine Mccormick; W. Scott Sherman; Gary C. Mcmahan

1999-01-01

446

The Comparison of MBBR and ASP for Treatment on Petrochemical Wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to study the character of a Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor (MBBR) in treating petrochemical wastewater, the authors offer the comparison experiment between MBBR and activated sludge process (ASP) regarding such factors as hydraulic retention time (HRT), organic loading rate, and air flow rate. The optimal condition of MBBR is that air flow rate be equal to 1.25 L\\/min

C.-Y. Cao; Y.-H. Zhao

2012-01-01

447

Pulp and paper mill effluent treatments have differential endocrine-disrupting effects on rainbow trout.  

PubMed

Endocrine disruption (ED) effects due to pulp and paper mill effluents extracts involving different industrial procedures and effluent treatments (nontreated, primary, and secondary treated) were evaluated using immature triploid rainbow trout in a pulse-exposure toxicity experiment. The protocol involved the use of intraperitoneal injection of mill extracts (solid-phase extraction [SPE]) corrected for individual fish weight and included several laboratory standards (steroidal hormones and phytosterols). Biological endpoints at two different levels of biological organization were analyzed (molecular and individual organism). Results indicated that nonsignificant changes were observed in the individual physiological indices represented by condition factor, liver somatic index, and gonad somatic index during the experiment. Significant induction of liver ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity was observed between different effluent treatments and experimental controls. Significant endocrine-disrupting effects at the reproductive level were observed in all effluent treatments involving significant increments in plasma vitellogenin (VTG) levels. Fish exposed to untreated effluent extracts had significantly higher VTG levels compared to fish exposed to primary and secondary treatment effluent extracts, indicating a decrease of the estrogenic effect due to the effluent treatment. The present study has shown that for the Chilean pulp and paper mill SPE extracts evaluated, an endocrine disruption effect was induced in immature triploid rainbow, reaffirming the significant estrogenic effects demonstrated previously in laboratory and field experiments. PMID:18717619

Orrego, Rodrigo; Guchardi, John; Hernandez, Victor; Krause, Rachelle; Roti, Lucia; Armour, Jeffrey; Ganeshakumar, Mathumai; Holdway, Douglas

2009-01-01

448

A comparative study of toxicity identification using Daphnia magna and Tigriopus japonicus: implications of establishing effluent discharge limits in Korea.  

PubMed

In Korea, the new permission criteria for industrial effluents based on Daphnia magna acute toxicity tests will be gradually implemented starting from 2011. Thus, in this study, toxicity assessment and identification using a marine species (Tigriopus japonicus) and the freshwater species (D. magna) was comparatively investigated. Effluent from an acid mine drainage treatment plant showed acute toxicity toward both organisms due to low pH, which was removed by neutralization of the effluent. Additionally, evaluation of the effluent of an electronics company revealed that Cu was attributable to the observed toxicity, and the effluent was more toxic toward T. japonicus than D. magna. Moreover, effluents from a metal plating factory were acutely toxic toward D. magna (6.50 TU), while they were not toxic against T. japonicus. Toxicity identification revealed that the high level of Cl- (12,841 mg L(-1)) was the cause of toxicity. Thus, the effluents had no effect on the marine species, T. japonicus. These findings suggest that a marine species rather than a freshwater species is more desirable for toxicity assessment of industrial effluent discharged into the saltwater, and thus should be considered in the legislation of toxicity-based discharge limits in Korea. PMID:21172718

Kang, Sung-Wook; Seo, Jaehwan; Han, Jeonghoon; Lee, Jae-Seong; Jung, Jinho

2011-01-01

449

Decolourization and detoxification of textile industry wastewater by the laccase-mediator system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decolourization and detoxification of a textile industry effluent by laccase from Trametes trogii in the presence and the absence of laccase mediators was investigated. Laccase alone was not able to decolourize the effluent efficiently even at the highest enzyme concentration tested: less than 10% decolourization was obtained with 9U\\/mL reaction mixture. To enhance effluent decolourization, several potential laccase mediators were

Rim Khlifi; Lassad Belbahri; Steve Woodward; Mariem Ellouz; Abdelhafidh Dhouib; Sami Sayadi; Tahar Mechichi

2010-01-01

450

Biogas production from plant biomass used for phytoremediation of industrial wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In present study, potentials of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and water chestnut (Trapa bispinnosa) employed for phytoremediation of toxic metal rich brass and electroplating industry effluent, were examined in terms of biogas generation. Inability of the plants to grow in undiluted effluent directed to select 20%, 40% and 60% effluent concentrations (with deionized water) for phytoremediation experiments. Slurry of both

V. K. Verma; Y. P. Singh; J. P. N. Rai

2007-01-01

451

Liquid Effluents Program mission analysis  

SciTech Connect

Systems engineering is being used to identify work to cleanup the Hanford Site. The systems engineering process transforms an identified mission need into a set of performance parameters and a preferred system configuration. Mission analysis is the first step in the process. Mission analysis supports early decision-making by clearly defining the program objectives, and evaluating the feasibility and risks associated with achieving those objectives. The results of the mission analysis provide a consistent basis for subsequent systems engineering work. A mission analysis was performed earlier for the overall Hanford Site. This work was continued by a ``capstone`` team which developed a top-level functional analysis. Continuing in a top-down manner, systems engineering is now being applied at the program and project levels. A mission analysis was conducted for the Liquid Effluents Program. The results are described herein. This report identifies the initial conditions and acceptable final conditions, defines the programmatic and physical interfaces and sources of constraints, estimates the resources to carry out the mission, and establishes measures of success. The mission analysis reflects current program planning for the Liquid Effluents Program as described in Liquid Effluents FY 1995 Multi-Year Program Plan.

Lowe, S.S.

1994-09-27

452

Diagnosis of Water Pollution Caused by Chemical Effluents Using Hydrobiological Methods (Diagnostic de la Pollution des Eaux Par les Effluents Chimiques au Moyen des Methodes Hydrobiologiques).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Industrial plants which discharge chemical effluents into rivers are faced with a double problem. (1) To avoid excessive pollution which leads to an important modification of the medium and to a poisoning of the aquatic fauna, and in particular to the kil...

C. Simeon J. Bonnefoy-Claudet

1965-01-01

453

Measurement of fugitive volatile organic compound emissions from a petrochemical tank farm using open-path Fourier transform infrared spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fugitive emission of air pollutants is conventionally estimated based on standard emission factors. The Vertical Radial Plume Mapping (VRPM) technique, as described in the US EPA OTM-10, is designed to measure emission flux by directly monitoring the concentration of the plume crossing a vertical plane downwind of the site of interest. This paper describes the evaluation results of implementing VRPM in a complex industrial setting (a petrochemical tank farm). The vertical plane was constructed from five retroreflectors and an open-path Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The VRPM configuration was approximately 189.2 m in width × 30.7 m in height. In the accompanying tracer gas experiment, the bias of the VRPM estimate was less than 2% and its 95% confidence interval contained the true release rate. Emission estimates of the target VOCs (benzene, m-xylene, o-xylene, p-xylene, and toluene) ranged from 0.86 to 2.18 g s-1 during the 14-day field campaign, while estimates based on the standard emission factors were one order of magnitude lower, possibly leading to an underestimation of the impact of these fugitive emissions on air quality and human health. It was also demonstrated that a simplified 3-beam geometry (i.e., without one dimensional scanning lines) resulted in higher uncertainties in the emission estimates.

Wu, Chang-Fu; Wu, Tzong-gang; Hashmonay, Ram A.; Chang, Shih-Ying; Wu, Yu-Syuan; Chao, Chun-Ping; Hsu, Cheng-Ping; Chase, Michael J.; Kagann, Robert H.

2014-01-01

454

Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan determination for the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this document is to determine whether the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility meets the criteria for requiring a Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan. This document contains a brief facility description, the source term (i.e., inventory) of rad...

G. M. Crummel

1991-01-01