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1

Toxic impact of effluents from petrochemical industry  

SciTech Connect

The toxicity of effluents from a petrochemical industry center in southern Finland was tested by conducting bioassays on organisms from three different trophic levels. In fish tests, rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) were caged at the discharge site and simultaneously at a reference area. The only clear differences, among the measurements of 25 metabolic parameters, were observed in fish liver where activities of two detoxication enzymes were significantly increased in the exposed group. The water flea (Daphnia magna) was used both in acute (EC50) and long-term reproduction tests. No acute lethal toxicity was detected in any of the wastewater samples investigated. A combined effluent, however, caused a reduction in the reproduction rate with an EC50 of 3%. No mutagenic activity was observed with the Ames test (Salmonella typhimurium, strains TA 97, TA 98, and TA 100) in concentrated effluents, in sediment samples, or in liver samples from predator fish caught from the discharge site.

Nikunen, E.

1985-02-01

2

China`s petrochemical industry  

SciTech Connect

It is clear from the trade press that American, European, and Japanese chemical companies are making major capital investment commitments in China. They are also developing strategies to participate in the country`s growth. Many people wonder how long the window of opportunity will remain open. Some questions one may ask include: What are the driving forces for such intense activity? What role is the Chinese government playing in implementing growth plans? What are the classes of chemical products receiving priority attention? To what degree is China integrating upstream into energy and basic feedstocks? What are the long-term implications for Asia and the rest of the world with respect to foreign trade? To answer these and other questions, Martech, Inc., a subsidiary of Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation, recently completed a comprehensive report on China`s petrochemical industry. This article is adapted from the executive summary of that report.

Takeda, Makoto; Tamura, Kazuhisa [Martech, Inc., Tokyo (Japan)

1996-01-01

3

31 CFR 538.210 - Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries. 538... Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries. ...United States persons relating to the petroleum or petrochemical industries in...

2010-07-01

4

31 CFR 538.210 - Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries. 538... Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries. ...United States persons relating to the petroleum or petrochemical industries in...

2013-07-01

5

31 CFR 538.210 - Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries.  

... Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries. 538... Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries. ...United States persons relating to the petroleum or petrochemical industries in...

2014-07-01

6

31 CFR 538.210 - Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries. 538... Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries. ...United States persons relating to the petroleum or petrochemical industries in...

2012-07-01

7

31 CFR 538.210 - Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries. 538... Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries. ...United States persons relating to the petroleum or petrochemical industries in...

2011-07-01

8

Identification and chemical characterization of specific organic constituents of petrochemical effluents.  

PubMed

Based on extensive GC/MS screening analyses, the molecular diversity of petrochemical effluents discharged to a river in North Rhine-Westphalia was characterised. Within a wide spectrum of organic wastewater constituents, specific compounds that might act as source indicators have been determined. This differentiation was based on (i) the individual molecular structures, (ii) the quantitative appearance of organic compounds in treated effluents and (iii) the information on their general occurrence in the technosphere and hydrosphere. Principally, site-specific indicators have been distinguished from candidates to act as general petrochemical indicators. Further on, monitoring the environmental behaviour of target organic contaminants in an aquatic system shortly after their release into the river allowed a first evaluation of the impact of the petrogenic emission in terms of the quantity and spatial distribution. The identification of petrogenic contaminants was not restricted to constituents of the effluents only, but comprised the compounds circulating in the wastewater systems within a petrochemical plant. A number of environmentally relevant and structurally specific substances that are normally eliminated by wastewater treatment facilities were identified. Insufficient wastewater treatment, careless waste handling or accidents at industrial complexes are potential sources for a single release of the pollutants. This study demonstrates the relevance of source specific organic indicators to be an important tool for comprehensive assessment of the potential impact of petrochemical activities to the contamination of an aquatic environment. PMID:19577787

Botalova, Oxana; Schwarzbauer, Jan; Frauenrath, Tom; Dsikowitzky, Larissa

2009-08-01

9

Gas Separation Membrane Use in the Refinery and Petrochemical Industries  

E-print Network

Membranes have gained commercial acceptance as proven methods to recover valuable gases from waste gas streams. This paper explores ways in which gas separation membranes are used in the refinery and petrochemical industries to recover and purify...

Vari, J.

10

Plantwide Energy Management for Hydrocarbon and Petrochemical Industry  

E-print Network

PLANTWIDE ENERGY MANAGEMENT FOR HYDROCARBON AND PETROCHEMICAL INDUSTRY Anwar Ahmed Combustion Engineering Australia Pty. LId. Box HiI~ Victoria, Australia ABSTRACT Within the hydrocarbon and petrochemical industry the generation... and utilization of various forms of energy is a highly complex and dynamic process. The process plant normally generates steam and fuel in the form of process off-gas. The same process plant also requires fuel, steam, and electricity, which is supplied from...

Ahmed, A.; Clinkscales, T.

11

Regional Industry Workforce Development: The Gulf Coast Petrochemical Information Network  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Gulf Coast Petrochemical Information Network (GC-PIN) is a workforce development partnership among industry businesses and area institutions of higher education in the four-county Gulf Coast region. GC-PIN partners develop new industry-specific curricula, foster industry career awareness, and retrain existing employees in new technologies.

Hodgin, Johnette; Muha, Susan

2008-01-01

12

Cancer mortality and residence near petrochemical industries in Taiwan  

SciTech Connect

An ecologic study design was used to investigate the relationship between cancer risks and residence in communities adjacent to petrochemical industrial counties (PICs). Directly age-adjusted mortality rates for cancer during 1982-1991 among 16 counties characterized by a heavy concentration of petrochemical industries were compared to rates among 16 matched counties with similar concentration of nonpetrochemical manufacturing industries, urbanization level, and demographic characteristics. An excess rate for liver cancer among males was found in the so-called PICs. The correlation could not be explained by confounding variables such as urbanization, socioeconomic class, or employment in nonpetrochemical industries. No other increased cancer risks were found to be associated with residence near petrochemical industries. 30 refs., 3 tabs.

Yang, Chun-Yuh; Chiu, Hui-Fen; Chiu, Jeng-Fen [Kaohsiung Medical College (Taiwan, Province of China)] [and others

1997-02-21

13

31 CFR 538.536 - Activities relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic of South Sudan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...petrochemical industries in the Republic of South Sudan. 538.536 Section 538.536...petrochemical industries in the Republic of South Sudan. (a) To the extent they...petrochemical industries in the Republic of South Sudan are authorized, including...

2012-07-01

14

31 CFR 538.536 - Activities relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic of South Sudan.  

...petrochemical industries in the Republic of South Sudan. 538.536 Section 538.536...petrochemical industries in the Republic of South Sudan. (a) To the extent they...petrochemical industries in the Republic of South Sudan are authorized, including...

2014-07-01

15

31 CFR 538.536 - Activities relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic of South Sudan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...petrochemical industries in the Republic of South Sudan. 538.536 Section 538.536...petrochemical industries in the Republic of South Sudan. (a) To the extent they...petrochemical industries in the Republic of South Sudan are authorized, including...

2013-07-01

16

Application of membrane separation processes in petrochemical industry: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a general review on different membrane processes and membrane reactors was done. As the main aim of this paper is to review the application of membrane processes in petrochemical industry, processes such as olefin\\/paraffin separation, light solvent separation, solvent dewaxing, phenol and aromatic recovery, dehydrogenation, oxidative coupling of methane and steam reforming of methane were discussed in

Maryam Takht Ravanchi; Tahereh Kaghazchi; Ali Kargari

2009-01-01

17

A demonstration of biofiltration for VOC removal in petrochemical industries.  

PubMed

A biotrickling filter demo has been set up in a petrochemical factory in Sinopec Group for about 10 months with a maximum inlet gas flow rate of 3000 m3 h(-1). The purpose of this project is to assess the ability of the biotrickling filter to remove hardly biodegradable VOCs such as benzene, toluene and xylene which are recalcitrant and poorly water soluble and commonly found in petrochemical factories. Light-weight hollow ceramic balls (? 5-8 cm) were used as the packing media treated with large amounts of circulating water (2.4 m3 m(-2) h(-1)) added with bacterial species. The controlled empty bed retention time (EBRT) of 240 s is a key parameter for reaching a removal efficiency of 95% for benzene, toluene, xylene, and 90% for total hydrocarbons. The demo has been successfully adopted and practically applied in waste air treatments in many petrochemical industries for about two years. The net inlet concentrations of benzene, toluene and xylene were varied from 0.5 to 3 g m(-3). The biofiltration process is highly efficient for the removal of hydrophobic and recalcitrant VOCs with various concentrations from the petrochemical factories. The SEM analysis of the bacterial community in the BTF during VOC removal showed that Pseudomonas putida and Klebsiella sp. phylum were dominant and shutdown periods could play a role in forming the community structural differences and leading to the changes of removal efficiencies. PMID:24569855

Zhao, Lan; Huang, Shaobin; Wei, Zongmin

2014-05-01

18

Industrial Energy in Transition: A Petrochemical Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An industrial development involves the conversion of biomass, through fermentation, to useful chemical products and the gasification of municiple wastes to produce steam for electricity generation. These gases may also serve as chemical feedstocks. (Author/MA)

Wishart, Ronald S.

1978-01-01

19

[Treatment of petrochemical secondary effluent by ozone-biological aerated filter].  

PubMed

The advanced treatment of petrochemical secondary wastewater by ozone- aerated biological filter was carried out in this study. The effect of pH on ozonation and the removal of COD and UV254 by the ozone-aerated biological filter combined process were investigated. In addition, the variation of relative molecular mass distribution of organics and the characteristics of three-dimensional fluorescence spectra of the wastewater were also investigated. The results showed that the suitable operating conditions of the ozonation unit were: ozone dosage 10 mg x L(-1), contact time 4 min and slightly alkaline pH. Ozonation can transfer macromolecular organics into small molecular organics, resulting in a 15% increase in the percentage of the organics with small relative molecular mass (less than 1 000). The biodegradability of the petrochemical secondary effluent was significantly improved by ozonation, making it more suitable for the treatment by aerated biological filter. The removal efficiency of COD and UV254 were 40.8% and 45.8% when the hydraulic retention time was 3 hours and the gas to water ratio was 3:1 for BAF. The average COD of the petrochemical wastewater was 86.5 mg x L(-1) while the average COD of the effluent of the combined process was 49.4 mg x L(-1) when it was operated under optimal conditions. PMID:24812960

Liu, Ming-Guo; Wu, Chang-Yong; Zhou, Yue-Xi; Gao, Zhen; Wang, Pei-Chao; Yang, Qi; Dong, De

2014-02-01

20

Characterizing the genotoxicity of hazardous industrial wastes and effluents using short-term bioassays  

SciTech Connect

This paper demonstrates that short-term bioassays can reliably and expeditiously measure the genotoxic potential of hazardous industrial wastes and effluents. Petrochemical wastes have been studied in detail, especially discharges from chemical manufacturing plants and textile and dye effluents. However, there is little information on effluents from pesticide manufacturers. The most extensive evaluations have been conducted on effluents from pulp and paper mills. These studies have shown which pulping plants generate the most genotoxic effluents, which process wastes are most hazardous, have isolated and identified the compounds responsible for the genotoxic activity, have described the environmental fate of these compounds, have evaluated the types of genetic damage likely to occur upon exposure to the effluents, and have identified several treatment methods that effectively reduce the genotoxicity of the effluents. The coupling of bioassays for biological analysis with chemical evaluation provides the most powerful approach to assessing the overall health effects of complex industrial wastes and effluents.

Houk, V.S.; DeMarini, D.M.

1989-01-01

21

Emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the liquid injection incineration of petrochemical industrial wastewater.  

PubMed

This study investigated the emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from stack flue gas and air pollution control device (APCD) effluent of the liquid injection incinerator (LII) disposing the petrochemical industrial wastewater, and PAH removal efficiencies of wet electrostatic precipitator (WESP) and wet scrubber (WSB). The PAH carcinogenic potency were investigated with the benzo(a)pyrene equivalent concentration (BaP(eq)). The remarkably high total-BaP(eq) concentration (220 microgNm(-3)) in the stack flue gas was much higher than those of several published emission sources, and indicated the possible influence on its surrounding environment. The total-PAH emission factors of the WESP, WSB and stack flue gas were 78.9, 95.7 and 30,900 microgL(-1) wastewater, respectively. The removal efficiencies of total-PAHs were 0.254, 0.309 and 0.563% for WESP, WSB and overall, respectively, suggesting that the use of both WESP and WSB shows insignificant PAH removal efficiencies, and 99.4% of total-PAHs was directly emitted to the ambient air through the stack flue gas. This finding suggested that the better incineration efficiencies, and APCD removal efficiencies for disposing the petrochemical industrial wastewater are necessary in future. PMID:17368715

Wang, Lin-Chi; Wang, I-Ching; Chang, Juu-En; Lai, Soon-Onn; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping

2007-09-01

22

Long term effects of irrigation with petrochemical industry wastewater  

SciTech Connect

Split plot designed field trials were conducted during 1988-1995 to study the long term effects of petrochemical industry wastewater on six crops and agricultural soils. It was observed that wastewater irrigation resulted in increased seed yield of all the crops selected, viz. wheat, triticale, chickpea, lentil and pigeonpea, except summer moong which showed a decrease in seed yield. Soil receiving the wastewater showed no significant changes in pH, total organic carbon, electrical conductivity, cation exchange capacity, micro- and macro-nutrients and SAR. Thus, it may be concluded that treated refinery wastewater met the irrigational quality requirements as its physico-chemical characteristics were within the permissible limits. The same could be said for the accumulation of heavy metals in the soil as well as in the grains making the latter safe for human consumption. 28 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Aziz, O.; Inam, A.; Samiullah; Siddiqi, R.H. [Aligarh Muslim Univ. (India)

1996-11-01

23

Observations from Energy Audits in the Petrochemical Industry  

E-print Network

Du Pont Energy Management Services has done energy studies at a number of refining and petrochemical plants. These studies are done through a rigorous, systematic, and objective analysis of all plant systems and equipment that convert, transport...

Govindan, T. S.

1979-01-01

24

Proposed superfund tax increases and the US petrochemical industry: an economic analysis  

SciTech Connect

This report analyzes the expected economic impact of hypothesized large increases in Superfund taxes on the US petrochemical industry. In general, it finds that the hypothesized tax increases would raise average production costs of six major primary petrochemicals by 3 to 5%, and that the resulting decline in industry profitability in the long-run would lead to a reduction in output and employment and to an increase in prices. 4 tabs.

Lazzari, S.; Gelb, B.A.

1985-04-19

25

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emission characteristics and control strategies for a petrochemical industrial area in middle Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated VOC emissions from the largest petrochemical industrial district in Taiwan and recommended some control measures to reduce VOC emissions. In addition to the petrochemical industry, the district encompasses a chemical and fiber industry, a plastics industry and a harbor, which together produce more than 95% of the VOC emissions in the area. The sequence of VOC emission

Chia-Hsien Yen; Jao-Jia Horng

2009-01-01

26

Emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from fluidized and fixed bed incinerators disposing petrochemical industrial biological sludge.  

PubMed

This study investigated the emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from two fluidized bed incinerators (FLBI_A and FLBI_B) and one fixed bed incinerator (FIBI) disposing biological sludge generated from the petrochemical industries in Taiwan. The results of 21 individual PAHs (including low (LM-PAHs), middle (MM-PAHs) and high molecular weight PAHs (HM-PAHs)) were reported. The LM-PAHs mainly dominated the total-PAHs in the stack flue gases, whereas the LM- and HM-PAHs dominated the total-PAHs in the bottom fly, fly ash and WSB effluent. Due to high carcinogenic potencies (=total-BaP(eq) concentrations) in the bottom ash (195 ng g(-1)) and WSB effluent (20,600 ng L(-1)) of the FIBI, cautious should be taken in treating them to avoid second contamination. Lower combustion efficiency and elevated fuel/feedstock (F/W) ratio for the FIBI led to the highest total emission factor of total-PAHs (38,400 microg kg(-1)). Lower total-PAH removal efficiencies of wet scrubber (WSB) (0.837-5.89%), cyclone (0.109-0.255%) and electrostatic precipitator (ESP) (0.032%) than those reported elsewhere resulted in high fraction in PAH contributions from the stack flue gases. Lower total-PAH emission factor was found for FLBI_A (2380 microg kg(-1) biological sludge) with higher combustion efficiency compared to those for FLBI_B (11,500 microg kg(-1)) and FIBI (38,400 microg kg(-1) biological sludge), implying that combustion efficiency plays a vital role in PAH emissions. PMID:19272707

Wang, Lin-Chi; Lin, Long-Full; Lai, Soon-Onn

2009-08-30

27

Petrochemical industry in the Middle East: current status, uncertainties, global impact  

SciTech Connect

The situation and perspective of the petrochemical industry in Saudi Arabia, Qatar, IR Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Bahrain, the UAE, SP Libyan AJ, Algeria, and Egypt are reviewed. Special attention is given to the budgetary constraints, foreign partners, the costs, the markets, and the impact of falling oil prices.

Not Available

1983-01-01

28

Incidence of lymphohaematopoietic malignancies in a petrochemical industry cohort: 1983–94 follow up  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESIn response to a previous finding of increased mortality from lymphohaematopoietic (LH) malignancies, this study examines incidence of LH malignancy in a petrochemical industry cohort. Emphasis is on chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) and on comparisons by period of first employment.METHODThe study cohort consists of 8942 employees who were active in the period 1970–92 and alive on 31 December 1982. Record

Wendy W Huebner; Vivien W Chen; Barry R Friedlander; Xiao C Wu; Gail Jorgensen; Faiyaz A Bhojani; Craig H Friedmann; Beth A Schmidt; Eugene A Sales; Javed A Joy; Catherine N Correa

2000-01-01

29

Reproductive toxicity of organic extracts from petrochemical plant effluents discharged to the Yangtze River, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water pollution of the Yangtze River in China became one of challenges that the government is facing today. Increasing numbers of petrochemical plants were built along the river in past decades, and numbers of organic chemicals were discharged into the river. Our goal was to establish in vitro system on rat sertoli cells, spermatogenic cells and leydig cells to investigate

Xiaoyi Wang; Wei Shi; Jiang Wu; Yingqun Hao; Guanjiu Hu; Hongling Liu; Xiaodong Han; Hongxia Yu

2010-01-01

30

Pulp and Paper Industry Effluent Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a literature review of wastes from pulp and paper industry, covering publications of 1976-77. This review focuses on: (1) receiving water, toxicity, and effluent characterization; (2) pulping liquor disposal and recovery; and (3) physicochemical and biological treatment. A list of 238 references is also presented. (HM)

Gove, George W.

1978-01-01

31

A survey of faults on induction motors in offshore oil industry, petrochemical industry, gas terminals, and oil refineries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents a survey of the reliability of squirrel cage motors on board drilling, production, and other platforms offshore, together with cage motors in the petrochemical industry, gas terminals, and refineries onshore. Most of the activity in this connection is related to The North Sea that offers a tough environment for motors. The collected data have been treated statistically,

Olav Vaag Thorsen; Magnus Dalva

1995-01-01

32

New petrochemical compositions for use in the coal industry  

SciTech Connect

Various aspects of the use of antifreezing agents in the coal industry are considered. It has been found that, unlike previously proposed compositions, these agents can be prepared based on the products of a single process, the vacuum distillation of fuel oil.

D.O. Safieva; E.V. Surov; O.G. Safiev [Institute for Fossil Fuels, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2008-12-15

33

Effect of petrochemical industrial emissions of reactive alkenes and NOx on tropospheric ozone formation in Houston, Texas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Petrochemical industrial facilities can emit large amounts of highly reactive hydrocarbons and NOx to the atmosphere; in the summertime, such colocated emissions are shown to consistently result in rapid and efficient ozone (O3) formation downwind. Airborne measurements show initial hydrocarbon reactivity in petrochemical source plumes in the Houston, TX, metropolitan area is primarily due to routine emissions of the alkenes propene and ethene. Reported emissions of these highly reactive compounds are substantially lower than emissions inferred from measurements in the plumes from these sources. Net O3 formation rates and yields per NOx molecule oxidized in these petrochemical industrial source plumes are substantially higher than rates and yields observed in urban or rural power plant plumes. These observations suggest that reductions in reactive alkene emissions from petrochemical industrial sources are required to effectively address the most extreme O3 exceedences in the Houston metropolitan area.

Ryerson, T. B.; Trainer, M.; Angevine, W. M.; Brock, C. A.; Dissly, R. W.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.; Frost, G. J.; Goldan, P. D.; Holloway, J. S.; Hübler, G.; Jakoubek, R. O.; Kuster, W. C.; Neuman, J. A.; Nicks, D. K.; Parrish, D. D.; Roberts, J. M.; Sueper, D. T.; Atlas, E. L.; Donnelly, S. G.; Flocke, F.; Fried, A.; Potter, W. T.; Schauffler, S.; Stroud, V.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Wert, B. P.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Alvarez, R. J.; Banta, R. M.; Darby, L. S.; Senff, C. J.

2003-04-01

34

[Evolution of technology and occupational exposures in petrochemical industry and in petroleum refining].  

PubMed

The industry of oil refining and petrochemical play an important role in terms of number of employees in the Italian production. Often the terms "petroleum refining" and "petrochemical" are used interchangeably to define processes that occur in complex plants, which grow outdoors on large surfaces and a visual impact is not irrelevant. In reality, the two areas involve potential exposure to different chemical agents, related to raw materials processed and the specific products. The petrochemical uses as raw materials, the oil fractions, obtained by distillation in the refinery, or natural gas; petrochemical products are, usually, single compounds with a specific degree of purity, used as basic raw materials for the entire industry of organic chemistry, from the production of plastics to pharmaceuticals. The oil refining, that is the topic of this paper, processes mainly oil to obtain mixtures of hydrocarbon compounds, the products of which are specified on the basis of aptitude for use. For example gasolines, are obtained by mixing of fractions of the first distillation, reforming products, antiknock. The paper illustrates, necessarily broadly due to the complexity of the productive sectors, the technological and organizational changes that have led to a significant reduction of occupational exposure to chemical agents, the results of environmental monitoring carried out in some refineries both during routine conditions that during scheduled maintenance activities with plant shutdown and a store of petroleum products. The chemical agents measured are typical for presence, physico-chemical properties and toxicological characteristics of the manufacturing processes of petroleum products like benzene, toluene, xylenes, ethyl benzene, n-hexane, Volatile Hydrocarbons belonging to gasoline, kerosene, diesel fuel. Data related to both personal sampling and fixed positions. PMID:24303703

Cottica, Danilo; Grignani, Elena

2013-01-01

35

Annoyance and worry in a petrochemical industrial area--prevalence, time trends and risk indicators.  

PubMed

In 1992, 1998, and 2006, questionnaires were sent to stratified samples of residents aged 18-75 years living near petrochemical industries (n = 600-800 people on each occasion) and in a control area (n = 200-1,000). The aims were to estimate the long-term prevalence and change over time of annoyance caused by industrial odour, industrial noise, and worries about possible health effects, and to identify risk indicators. In 2006, 20% were annoyed by industrial odour, 27% by industrial noise (1-4% in the control area), and 40-50% were worried about health effects or industrial accidents (10-20% in the control area). Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed significantly lower prevalence of odour annoyance in 1998 and 2006 than in 1992, while industrial noise annoyance increased significantly over time. The prevalence of worry remained constant. Risk of odour annoyance increased with female sex, worry of health effects, annoyance by motor vehicle exhausts and industrial noise. Industrial noise annoyance was associated with traffic noise annoyance and worry of health effects of traffic. Health-risk worry due to industrial air pollution was associated with female sex, having children, annoyance due to dust/soot in the air, and worry of traffic air pollution. PMID:23552810

Axelsson, Gösta; Stockfelt, Leo; Andersson, Eva; Gidlof-Gunnarsson, Anita; Sallsten, Gerd; Barregard, Lars

2013-04-01

36

Annoyance and Worry in a Petrochemical Industrial Area--Prevalence, Time Trends and Risk Indicators  

PubMed Central

In 1992, 1998, and 2006, questionnaires were sent to stratified samples of residents aged 18–75 years living near petrochemical industries (n = 600–800 people on each occasion) and in a control area (n = 200–1,000). The aims were to estimate the long-term prevalence and change over time of annoyance caused by industrial odour, industrial noise, and worries about possible health effects, and to identify risk indicators. In 2006, 20% were annoyed by industrial odour, 27% by industrial noise (1–4% in the control area), and 40–50% were worried about health effects or industrial accidents (10–20% in the control area). Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed significantly lower prevalence of odour annoyance in 1998 and 2006 than in 1992, while industrial noise annoyance increased significantly over time. The prevalence of worry remained constant. Risk of odour annoyance increased with female sex, worry of health effects, annoyance by motor vehicle exhausts and industrial noise. Industrial noise annoyance was associated with traffic noise annoyance and worry of health effects of traffic. Health-risk worry due to industrial air pollution was associated with female sex, having children, annoyance due to dust/soot in the air, and worry of traffic air pollution. PMID:23552810

Axelsson, Gosta; Stockfelt, Leo; Andersson, Eva; Gidlof-Gunnarsson, Anita; Sallsten, Gerd; Barregard, Lars

2013-01-01

37

Occupational exposure to neurotoxicants: preliminary survey in five industries of the Camaçari Petrochemical Complex, Brazil.  

PubMed

The Camaçari Petrochemical Complex (CPC) is the biggest and most important industrial complex of the northeastern region of Brazil. At present, its 54 companies employ directly and indirectly about 50,000 people. Used there as solvent and raw material, compounds such as benzene and its homologues n-hexane, haloalkanes, and some alcohols have as their prime targets the central and peripheral nervous systems. Despite widespread use of these chemicals, the workers are little aware of their toxicity, and the evaluation of exposure to them has only recently become a worrisome issue. This paper discusses the contamination of occupational environments in some industries of the CPC, as well as the neurobehavioral impairment that could be found among their workers. PMID:8472667

Kato, M; Rocha, M L; Carvalho, A B; Chaves, M E; Raña, M C; Oliveira, F C

1993-04-01

38

Effect of Exposure to a Mixture of Organic Solvents on Hearing Thresholds in Petrochemical Industry Workers  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Hearing loss is one of the most common occupational diseases. In most workplaces, workers are exposed to noise and solvents simultaneously, so the potential risk of hearing loss due to solvents may be attributed to noise. In this study we aimed to assess the effect of exposure to mixed aromatic solvents on hearing in the absence of exposure to hazardous noise. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 99 workers from the petrochemical industry with exposure to a mixture of organic solvents whose noise exposure was lower than 85 dBA were compared with 100 un-exposed controls. After measuring sound pressure level and mean concentration of each solvent in the workplace, pure-tone-audiometry was performed and the two groups were compared in terms of high-frequency and low-frequency hearing loss. T-tests and Chi-square tests were used to compare the two groups. Results: The mean hearing threshold at all frequencies among petrochemical workers was normal (below 25 dB). We did not observe any significant association between solvent exposure and high-frequency or low-frequency hearing loss. Conclusion: This study showed that temporary exposure (less than 4 years) to a mixture of organic solvents, without exposure to noise, does not affect workers’ hearing threshold in audiometry tests. PMID:25320701

Loukzadeh, Ziba; Shojaoddiny-Ardekani, Ahmad; Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Yazdi, Zohreh; Mollasadeghi, Abolfazl

2014-01-01

39

Anaerobic treatment of effluents from an industrial polymers synthesis plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of the anaerobic treatment of an industrial polymer synthesis plant effluent was evaluated. The composition of the wastewater includes acrylates, styrene, detergents, a minor amount of silicates and a significant amount of ferric chloride. The average chemical oxygen demand (COD) corresponding is about 2000mg\\/l. The anaerobic biodegradability of the effluent is shown and the toxicity effect on the

P. Araya; G. Aroca; R. Chamy

1999-01-01

40

Ecotoxicological and chemical evaluation of phenolic compounds in industrial effluents.  

PubMed

The aim of this paper was to evaluate the ecotoxicological response of industrial effluents containing phenolic compounds. All complex effluents collected from a chemical plant and then after both a chemical-physical and biological treatment were characterised with chemical analysis, biodegradability tests and four ecotoxicological tests (Daphnia magna, Artemia salina, Brachionus plicatilis and Vibriofisheri with Microtox). The evaluation of the chemical and ecotoxicological data was useful for predicting the effect of the raw effluent on the treatment plant and the impact of the final treated effluent on the receiving water. Besides the toxicity of the effluent from the chemical plants, the acute toxicity of its main components was also determined. The results of the tests and toxicity data from literature were transformed in Toxic Units (TUs). Effluent toxicity was under- or over-estimated by calculating the sum of the TUs of the individual components, depending on which toxicity data and test organisms were used. PMID:11534905

Guerra, R

2001-09-01

41

40 CFR 419.30 - Applicability; description of the petrochemical subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PETROLEUM REFINING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Petrochemical Subcategory § 419.30 Applicability; description of the petrochemical...

2010-07-01

42

The Effect of Social Trust on Citizens' Health Risk Perception in the Context of a Petrochemical Industrial Complex  

PubMed Central

Perceived risk of environmental threats often translates into psychological stress with a wide range of effects on health and well-being. Petrochemical industrial complexes constitute one of the sites that can cause considerable pollution and health problems. The uncertainty around emissions results in a perception of risk for citizens residing in neighboring areas, which translates into anxiety and physiological stress. In this context, social trust is a key factor in managing the perceived risk. In the case of industrial risks, it is essential to distinguish between trust in the companies that make up the industry, and trust in public institutions. In the context of a petrochemical industrial complex located in the port of Castellón (Spain), this paper primarily discusses how trust—both in the companies located in the petrochemical complex and in the public institutions—affects citizens’ health risk perception. The research findings confirm that while the trust in companies negatively affects citizens’ health risk perception, trust in public institutions does not exert a direct and significant effect. Analysis also revealed that trust in public institutions and health risk perception are essentially linked indirectly (through trust in companies). PMID:23337129

Lopez-Navarro, Miguel Angel; Llorens-Monzonis, Jaume; Tortosa-Edo, Vicente

2013-01-01

43

[Effect of the working environment in the petrochemical industry on the periodontium and mucous membrane of vocational school students].  

PubMed

The clinical dental examination was carried out at 6 months intervals in a group of 41 vocational school pupils exposed to chemical hazards in the petrochemical industry and a control group consisting of 30 pupils of an economic grammar school. The paradontium and mucous membrane of vocational school pupils before occupational exposure was worse than that of grammar school pupils. Pupils exposed to working environment hazards exhibited an increased rate of paradontium diseases. PMID:4068993

Sentek, B; Iwanicka-Frankowska, E; Wierzbicka, M

1985-01-01

44

SOURCE ASSESSMENT: NITROGEN FERTILIZER INDUSTRY WATER EFFLUENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes a study of waterborne pollutants from the manufacture of nitrogen fertilizers. It includes an evaluation of the ammonia, ammonium nitrate, urea, and nitric acid manufacturing processes. Water effluents in a nitrogen fertilizer plant originate from a variety o...

45

Magnetic-Field Processing of Industrial Effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

• the field acts on pollutants in the colloidal state; and • the field influences the structure of the water. Magnetic treatment is simple, safe, and very inexpensive, but a patent search under the topic “Magnetic treatment of water and aqueous solutions” has shown that the existing devices and methods for using magnetic fields to process effluents containing heavy-metal ions

V. P. Malkin

2002-01-01

46

Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in petrochemical industries by measurement of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene.  

PubMed Central

Biological monitoring of exposure of workers to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in petrochemical industries was performed by the measurement of urinary excretion of 1-hydroxypyrene. In 121 of the 462 workers studied (both smokers and non-smokers) who had had no recent occupational exposure to PAHs a median 1-hydroxypyrene concentration of 0.21 micrograms/g creatinine was found. The upper limit of the 95% confidence interval in these workers of 0.99 micrograms/g creatinine was used as the upper normal value for industrial workers. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations were measured in workers involved in manufacture and maintenance operations in oil refineries (13 studies in eight different settings), in workers manufacturing or handling products containing PAHs in chemical plants (five studies in three settings) and laboratories (four studies), and in workers digging soil contaminated with PAHs (three studies). In most studies in oil refineries 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations were only marginally greater than the values measured in the 121 workers with no recent occupational exposure to PAHs. This was also the case in maintenance operations with higher potential exposure to PAHs, indicating that personal protection equipment was generally adequate to prevent excessive exposure. The studies in chemical plants also showed that exposure to PAHs is low. An exception was the workers engaged in the production of needle coke from ethylene cracker residue, where increased urinary 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations were measured. The excretion of 1-hydroxypyrene by the operators and maintenance workers of this plant was investigated in relation to potential methods of exposure to PAHs. Dermal and inhalatory exposure were both significant determinants of exposure to PAHs. PMID:8199667

Boogaard, P J; van Sittert, N J

1994-01-01

47

Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in petrochemical industries by measurement of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene.  

PubMed

Biological monitoring of exposure of workers to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in petrochemical industries was performed by the measurement of urinary excretion of 1-hydroxypyrene. In 121 of the 462 workers studied (both smokers and non-smokers) who had had no recent occupational exposure to PAHs a median 1-hydroxypyrene concentration of 0.21 micrograms/g creatinine was found. The upper limit of the 95% confidence interval in these workers of 0.99 micrograms/g creatinine was used as the upper normal value for industrial workers. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations were measured in workers involved in manufacture and maintenance operations in oil refineries (13 studies in eight different settings), in workers manufacturing or handling products containing PAHs in chemical plants (five studies in three settings) and laboratories (four studies), and in workers digging soil contaminated with PAHs (three studies). In most studies in oil refineries 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations were only marginally greater than the values measured in the 121 workers with no recent occupational exposure to PAHs. This was also the case in maintenance operations with higher potential exposure to PAHs, indicating that personal protection equipment was generally adequate to prevent excessive exposure. The studies in chemical plants also showed that exposure to PAHs is low. An exception was the workers engaged in the production of needle coke from ethylene cracker residue, where increased urinary 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations were measured. The excretion of 1-hydroxypyrene by the operators and maintenance workers of this plant was investigated in relation to potential methods of exposure to PAHs. Dermal and inhalatory exposure were both significant determinants of exposure to PAHs. PMID:8199667

Boogaard, P J; van Sittert, N J

1994-04-01

48

Quality of effluents from Hattar Industrial Estate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of 6634 registered industries in Pakistan, 1228 are considered to be highly polluting. The major industries include textile, pharmaceutical, chemicals (organic and inorganic), food industries, ceramics, steel, oil mills and leather tanning which spread all over four provinces, with the larger number located in Sindh and Punjab, with smaller number in North Western Frontier Province (NWFP) and Baluchistan. Hattar Industrial

49

PAH characteristics and genotoxicity in the ambient air of a petrochemical industry complex  

SciTech Connect

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) samples, at four sampling sites, in the ambient air of petrochemical plants were collected by several PS-1 samplers from October 1993 to July 1994 in a petrochemical complex area located in southern Taiwan. In addition, the genotoxicity of the PAH samples were investigated by the Ames Salmonella/microsomal assay system. The winter/summer ratios of total-PAH composition were 0.60, 1.39, 2.97, and 1.28 for sites A, B, C, and D, respectively. This result implied that wind direction is the most significant parameter affecting the total-PAH composition in these four sampling sites. Sampling sites B, C, and D were located on the downwind side of the petrochemical plant and gave higher total-PAH composition than those of sampling site A. Particle phase PAHs had higher mutagenicity than those in the gas phase.

Tsai, Jiun-Horng; Peng, Being-Hwa; Lee, Ding-Zang; Lee, Ching-Chang [National Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan (China)] [National Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan (China)

1995-05-01

50

Quality of effluents from Hattar Industrial Estate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of 6634 registered industries in Pakistan, 1228 are considered to be highly polluting. The major industries include textile,\\u000a pharmaceutical, chemicals (organic and inorganic), food industries, ceramics, steel, oil mills and leather tanning which spread\\u000a all over four provinces, with the larger number located in Sindh and Punjab, with smaller number in North Western Frontier\\u000a Province (NWFP) and Baluchistan. Hattar Industrial

R. A. Sial; M. F. Chaudhary; S. T. Abbas; M. I. Latif; A. G. Khan

2006-01-01

51

Genotoxicity of industrial wastes and effluents. A review  

SciTech Connect

A review of the literature published on the genotoxicity of industrial wastes and effluents using short-term genetic bioassays is presented in the document. The importance of this task arises from the ubiquity of genotoxic compounds in the environment and the need to identify the sources of contamination so that efforts aimed at control and minimization can be implemented. Of even greater significance is the immediate concern for the welfare of human health and the environment. Subheadings of the document include an introduction, a summary of the various genetic bioassays that have been used to test industrial wastes, a compendium of methods commonly used to prepare crude waste samples for bioassay, and a review of the genetic toxicity of wastes and effluents. Wastes have been grouped according to major industrial source. Within each industrial category, a synopsis of individual studies is presented, followed by an interpretation of results on an industry-wide basis.

Houk, V.S.

1992-01-01

52

Genotoxicity of industrial wastes and effluents. A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of the literature published on the genotoxicity of industrial wastes and effluents using short-term genetic bioassays is presented in the document. The importance of this task arises from the ubiquity of genotoxic compounds in the environment and the need to identify the sources of contamination so that efforts aimed at control and minimization can be implemented. Of even

V HOUK

1992-01-01

53

Metabolic response of environmentally isolated microorganisms to industrial effluents: Use of a newly described cell culture assay  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An environmental application using a microtiter culture assay to measure the metabolic sensitivity of microorganisms to petrochemical effluents will be tested. The Biomedical Operations and Research Branch at NASA JSC has recently developed a rapid and nondestructive method to measure cell growth and metabolism. Using a colorimetric procedure the uniquely modified assay allows the metabolic kinetics of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells to be measured. Use of such an assay if adapted for the routine monitoring of waste products, process effluents, and environmentally hazardous substances may prove to be invaluable to the industrial community. The microtiter method as described will be tested using microorganisms isolated from the Galveston Bay aquatic habitat. The microbial isolates will be identified prior to testing using the automated systems available at JSC. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), cadmium, and lead will provide control toxic chemicals. The toxicity of industrial effluent from two industrial sites will be tested. An effort will be made to test the efficacy of this assay for measuring toxicity in a mixed culture community.

Ferebee, Robert N.

1992-01-01

54

Genotoxicity of industrial wastes and effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

In excess of several million pounds of genotoxic and\\/or carcinogenic industrial wastes are released into the U.S. environment each year. Chemical characterization of these waste materials can rarely provide an adequate assessment of their genotoxicity and potential hazard. Bioassays do not require prior information about chemical composition and can effectively assess the genotoxicity of complex waste materials. The most commonly

Larry D Claxton; Virginia S Houk; Thomas J Hughes

1998-01-01

55

Biodegradation of slop oil from a petrochemical industry and bioreclamation of slop oil contaminated soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Slop oil, i.e. waste oil from a petrochemical complex, contains at least 240 hydrocarbon components, of which 54% are from C5 to C11 and the rest from C12 to C23. Of 22 isolated bacterial cultures that were able to degrade slop oil, seven could each degrade about 40% of the slop oil, and a mixture of all seven could degrade

H. Dave; C. Ramakrishna; B. D. Bhatt; J. D. Desai

1994-01-01

56

Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Petrochemical Industry - An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers  

SciTech Connect

Energy is the most important cost factor in the U.S petrochemical industry, defined in this guide as the chemical industry sectors producing large volume basic and intermediate organic chemicals as well as large volume plastics. The sector spent about $10 billion on fuels and electricity in 2004. Energy efficiency improvement is an important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There are a variety of opportunities available at individual plants in the U.S. petrochemical industry to reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner. This Energy Guide discusses energy efficiency practices and energy efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, facility, and organizational levels. A discussion of the trends, structure, and energy consumption characteristics of the petrochemical industry is provided along with a description of the major process technologies used within the industry. Next, a wide variety of energy efficiency measures are described. Many measure descriptions include expected savings in energy and energy-related costs, based on case study data from real-world applications in the petrochemical and related industries worldwide. Typical measure payback periods and references to further information in the technical literature are also provided, when available. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers in the U.S. petrochemical industry reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner while maintaining the quality of products manufactured. Further research on the economics of all measures--and on their applicability to different production practices--is needed to assess their cost effectiveness at individual plants.

Neelis, Maarten; Worrell, Ernst; Masanet, Eric

2008-09-01

57

Trace metals in PM10 and PM 2.5 samples collected in a highly industrialized chemical/petrochemical area and its urbanized surroundings.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the potential impact of a highly industrialized area on its urbanized surroundings. The area studied is home to a refinery, a thermoelectric plant and several petrochemical facilities industries. The concentrations of twelve elements were determined in PM10 and PM2.5 samples collected along a busy highway and near the petrochemical complex. Significantly higher concentrations of Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Cu and Al were observed in the petrochemical zone, but principal component analysis revealed similar patterns for both the highway site and a site approximately 1.5 km from the petrochemical complex, suggesting that the main pollution source in the area is vehicular flux. Higher concentrations in the industrial area may be attributed to intense diesel-powered truck and bus traffic movement, mainly due to the transport of supplies, fuel and gas. The observed concentrations of the elements Cr, Co, Ni, Cd and Pb were always lower than the detection limits of the technique used. PMID:24509656

dos Anjos Paulino, Silvia; Oliveira, Rafael Lopes; Loyola, Josiane; Minho, Alan Silva; Arbilla, Graciela; Quiterio, Simone Lorena; Escaleira, Viviane

2014-05-01

58

Use of TIE techniques to characterize industrial effluents in the Pearl River Delta region.  

PubMed

We investigated the acute toxicity of various industrial effluents in the Pearl River Delta region using lux bacteria, duckweed, green algae, crustaceans and zebrafish. The potential toxicants in the industrial effluents were identified and evaluated by lux bacteria bioassay and chemical analysis. The results show that green algae (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata) and crustacean (Ceriodaphnia dubia) were more sensitive to the effluents from electronic and electroplate factories than other test species, while lux bacteria were more sensitive to all the other effluents. The toxicities of effluents from electronic and electroplate factories to the six test organisms were significantly higher than those of the other industrial effluents, and mainly caused by metals. Noticeably, organic pollutants were the main contributing factor to the toxicity of effluents from textile and dyeing plants, pulp and paper mills, fine chemical factories and municipal wastewater treatment plants. PMID:22019309

Fang, Yi-Xiang; Ying, Guang-Guo; Zhang, Li-Juan; Zhao, Jian-Liang; Su, Hao-Chang; Yang, Bin; Liu, Shan

2012-02-01

59

Safety Culture Assessment in Petrochemical Industry: A Comparative Study of Two Algerian Plants  

PubMed Central

Background To elucidate the relationship between safety culture maturity and safety performance of a particular company. Methods To identify the factors that contribute to a safety culture, a survey questionnaire was created based mainly on the studies of Fernández-Muñiz et al. The survey was randomly distributed to 1000 employees of two oil companies and realized a rate of valid answer of 51%. Minitab 16 software was used and diverse tests, including the descriptive statistical analysis, factor analysis, reliability analysis, mean analysis, and correlation, were used for the analysis of data. Ten factors were extracted using the analysis of factor to represent safety culture and safety performance. Results The results of this study showed that the managers' commitment, training, incentives, communication, and employee involvement are the priority domains on which it is necessary to stress the effort of improvement, where they had all the descriptive average values lower than 3.0 at the level of Company B. Furthermore, the results also showed that the safety culture influences the safety performance of the company. Therefore, Company A with a good safety culture (the descriptive average values more than 4.0), is more successful than Company B in terms of accident rates. Conclusion The comparison between the two petrochemical plants of the group Sonatrach confirms these results in which Company A, the managers of which are English and Norwegian, distinguishes itself by the maturity of their safety culture has significantly higher evaluations than the company B, who is constituted of Algerian staff, in terms of safety management practices and safety performance. PMID:25180135

Boughaba, Assia; Hassane, Chabane; Roukia, Ouddai

2014-01-01

60

Dangerous and cancer-causing properties of products and chemicals in the oil refining and petrochemical industry: Part 5--Asbestos-caused cancers and exposure of workers in the oil refining industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the oil refining and petrochemical industries exposure to cancer-causing asbestos particles, especially during equipment repair and maintenance, is very high. Up to 90% of workers in the oil refining industry had direct and\\/or indirect contact with asbestos, and more than half of this contact occurred without the use of any kind of precaution, thus these workers are in high

Mehlman

1991-01-01

61

Yersinia in effluents from the food-processing industry.  

PubMed

Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis are current sources of pathogenic strains in humans and animals. Yersiniae infections occur throughout the world, but are most prevalent in regions with moderate and subtropical climates. In Australia, Central Europe and North America, cases of human infections with Yersinia enterocolitica now rank in third place. The food-processing industry may influence the epidemiological situation in different ways. Effluents which contaminate the environment may originate from slaughterhouses; e.g. from sewage contaminated with faeces from the lairage or contaminated effluents from the actual slaughter areas. The carcasses may serve as carriers of the organisms to the food-processing plants where they eventually contaminate the processed foods. Rodents and pests may also be carriers. Pathogenic Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis strains mainly occur in swine and pork. The ability to multiply under refrigeration and in vacuum-packaged products means that pathogenic Y. enterocolitica can cause foodborne diseases. If a plant harbours any pathogenic Yersiniae, transfer of the contaminant to the sewage is possible. Although pathogenic Yersiniae from infected animals can survive in sewage and in surface waters, the role of properly treated sewage in the transmission of yersiniosis seems to be of minor importance. If the recommendations for modern slaughter techniques are properly followed, the spread of pathogens in the slaughterhouses and, subsequently, into other food-processing plants can be minimised. PMID:1782430

Hartung, M; Gerigk, K

1991-09-01

62

Anaerobic treatment of effluents from an industrial polymers synthesis plant  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility of the anaerobic treatment of an industrial polymer synthesis plant effluent was evaluated. The composition of the wastewater includes acrylates, styrene, detergents, a minor amount of silicates and a significant amount of ferric chloride. The average chemical oxygen demand (COD) corresponding is about 2,000 mg/l. The anaerobic biodegradability of the effluent is shown and the toxicity effect on the populations of anaerobic bacteria is evaluated. The results of the anaerobic biodegradation assays show that 62% of the wastewater compounds, measured as COD, could be consumed. An upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor was used in the evaluation, it has a diameter-height ratio of 1:7, and 4-liter volume. The inoculum was obtained from a UASB pilot plant that treats brewery wastewaters. At the beginning of the operation, the biomass showed an anaerobic activity of 0.58 gCOD/(gVSS {times} d), it decreased only 2.5% in the subsequent 4 months. After 35 days of continuous operation, the reactor was operated at different steady states for 140 days. The COD was maintained at 2,200 mg/l in the feed. The results were: organic loading rate (OLR): 4.3 kg COD/(m{sup 3} {times} d), hydraulic retention time: 12 h, superficial velocity: 1 m/h, average biogas productivity: 290 L CH{sub 4}/kg COD fed, biogas composition: 70--75% methane and a COD removal percentage > 75%.

Araya, P.; Aroca, G.; Chamy, R. [Univ. Catolica de Valparaiso (Chile). School of Biochemical Engineering] [Univ. Catolica de Valparaiso (Chile). School of Biochemical Engineering

1999-06-01

63

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CONSTRUCTION CONTRACTORS AND THEIR CLIENTS IN PETROCHEMICAL AND RELATED INDUSTRIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The construction industry has higher accident rates than normal manufacturing. Very high accident rates were found amongst contractors in parts of the Norwegian offshore industry. The term contractor includes individual workers, small firms, and large construction companies with many employees. The contractor is exposed to process risks and diverse occupational risks while doing maintenance or construction work. Clients have legal

STEFÁN EINARSSON

64

Does living near a constellation of petrochemical, steel, and other industries impair health?  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To investigate concern that local industrial air pollution in Teesside, England, was causing poor health, several areas there were compared with parts of the City of Sunderland. METHODS: Populations in similar social and economic circumstances but varying in their proximity to major industries were compared. Study populations lived in 27 housing estates in Teesside and Sunderland, north east England,

R. S. Bhopal; S. Moffatt; T. Pless-Mulloli; P. R. Phillimore; C. Foy; C. E. Dunn; J. A. Tate

1998-01-01

65

40 CFR 419.30 - Applicability; description of the petrochemical subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PETROLEUM REFINING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Petrochemical Subcategory...to all discharges from any facility that produces petroleum products by the use of topping, cracking, and petrochemical...

2013-07-01

66

40 CFR 419.30 - Applicability; description of the petrochemical subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PETROLEUM REFINING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Petrochemical Subcategory...to all discharges from any facility that produces petroleum products by the use of topping, cracking, and petrochemical...

2011-07-01

67

40 CFR 419.30 - Applicability; description of the petrochemical subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PETROLEUM REFINING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Petrochemical Subcategory...to all discharges from any facility that produces petroleum products by the use of topping, cracking, and petrochemical...

2012-07-01

68

Entomological study of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in Asalouyeh, the heartland of an Iranian petrochemical industry  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the fauna and seasonal activity of different species of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in Asalouyeh, the heartland of an Iranian petrochemical industry, Southern Iran, as a oil rich district. Sand flies are the vectors of at least three different kinds of disease, the most important of which is leishmaniasis, and it is a major public health problem in Iran with increased annual occurrence of clinical episodes. Methods A total of 3?497 sand flies of rural regions were collected by sticky traps fixed, and cleared in puris medium and identified morphologically, twice a month from April to March 2008. Results Predominant species included four of genus Phlebotomus (Phlebotomus alexandri Sinton, 1928, Phlebotomus papatasi Scopoli, 1910, Phlebotomus bergeroti Parrot and Phlebotomus sergenti Parrot) and one of genus Sergentomyia (Sergentomyia tiberiadis Alder, Theodor & Lourie, 1930). The most prevalent species was Phlebotomus papatasi, presented 56.4% of the identified flies. The others were Phlebotomus sergenti (22.5%), Phlebotomus alexandri (4.5%), Phlebotomus bergeroti (12%) and Sergentomyia tiberiadis (5%) as well. The percentage of females (68%) was more than that of males (32%). The abundance of sand flies represented two peaks of activity; one in early May and the other one in the first half of September in the region. Conclusion Phlebotomus papatasi is the probable vector of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in the region. Further molecular studies are needed to determine the definite vector of the region.

Alipour, Hamzeh; Darabi, Hossien; Dabbaghmanesh, Tahere; Bonyani, Mehdi

2014-01-01

69

Conventional, microwave, and ultrasound sequential extractions for the fractionation of metals in sediments within the Petrochemical Industry, Serbia.  

PubMed

In this paper, the main objective was fractionation of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Ca, Fe, and K in certificate material and sediment samples gathered from and around the Petrochemical Industry using the conventional, microwave and ultrasonic sequential extraction. Microwave oven and ultrasound bath were used as an energy source for achieving faster extraction. Additional heating and boiling of samples were avoided by using lower power and shorter time for microwave and ultrasound extraction. Precision and accuracy of procedure were evaluated by using certificate material (BCR701). Acceptable accuracy of metals (87.0-111.3 %) was achieved for all three-step sequential of conventional extraction protocol. An accuracy of the fourth step has been verified with two certificate materials: BCR143R and 146R. The range of total extracted metal concentrations from sediments was similar for all three extraction techniques. A significant high percentage of Cd, Cu, and Zn were obtained after extraction of the exchangeable and acid soluble sediment fraction. Principal component analysis of values obtained after determination of risk assessment code using conventional and ultrasound sequential extraction show similarity of these values. Accuracy, recovery, and risk assessment code values imply that ultrasound sequential extraction is a more suitable, accelerated sequential extraction procedure (30 min per extraction step) than microwave extraction in applied conditions. PMID:23420522

Reli?, Dubravka; Dor?evi?, Dragana; Sakan, Sanja; An?elkovi?, Ivan; Panteli?, Ana; Stankovi?, Ratomir; Popovi?, Aleksandar

2013-09-01

70

Biological anoxic treatment of O?-free VOC emissions from the petrochemical industry: a proof of concept study.  

PubMed

An innovative biofiltration technology based on anoxic biodegradation was proposed in this work for the treatment of inert VOC-laden emissions from the petrochemical industry. Anoxic biofiltration does not require conventional O2 supply to mineralize VOCs, which increases process safety and allows for the reuse of the residual gas for inertization purposes in plant. The potential of this technology was evaluated in a biotrickling filter using toluene as a model VOC at loads of 3, 5, 12 and 34 g m(-3)h(-1) (corresponding to empty bed residence times of 16, 8, 4 and 1.3 min) with a maximum elimination capacity of ?3 g m(-3)h(-1). However, significant differences in the nature and number of metabolites accumulated at each toluene load tested were observed, o- and p-cresol being detected only at 34 g m(-3)h(-1), while benzyl alcohol, benzaldehyde and phenol were detected at lower loads. A complete toluene removal was maintained after increasing the inlet toluene concentration from 0.5 to 1 g m(-3) (which entailed a loading rate increase from 3 to 6 g m(-3)h(-1)), indicating that the system was limited by mass transfer rather than by biological activity. A high bacterial diversity was observed, the predominant phyla being Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria. PMID:23811365

Muñoz, Raúl; Souza, Theo S O; Glittmann, Lina; Pérez, Rebeca; Quijano, Guillermo

2013-09-15

71

[The workplace injury trends in the petrochemical industry: from data analysis to risk management].  

PubMed

The most recent INAIL data show that, in 2009-2011, the accident frequency rate and the severity rate of workplace injuries in the chemical industry are lower than for the total non-agricultural workforce. The chemical industry, primarily because of the complex and hazardous work processes, requires an appropriate system for assessing and monitoring specific risks.The implementation of Responsible Care, a risk management system specific for the chemical industry, in 1984, has represented a historical step in the process of critical awareness of risk management by the chemical companies. Responsible Care is a risk management system specifically designed on the risk profiles of this type of enterprise, which integrates safety, health and environment. A risk management system, suitable for the needs of a chemical company, should extend its coverage area, beyond the responsible management of products throughout the entire production cycle, to the issues of corporate responsibility. PMID:24303713

Campo, Giuseppe; Martini, Benedetta

2013-01-01

72

Fundamental studies of hydrogen attack in carbon-0.5molybdenum steel and weldments applied in petroelum and petrochemical industries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High temperature hydrogen attack (HTHA) is a form of surface decarburization, internal decarburization, and/or intergranular cracking in steels exposed to high temperature (>400°F) and high hydrogen pressure. Hydrogen attack is an irreversible process which can cause permanent damage resulting in degradation of mechanical properties and failures such as leakage, bursting, fire, and/or explosion. The continuous progression of hydrogen attack in C-0.5Mo steel and weldments below the C-0.5Mo Nelson Curve has caused a significant concern for the integrity and serviceability of C-0.5Mo steel utilized for pressure vessels and piping in the petroleum refinery and petrochemical industries. A state-of-the-art literature review was implemented to provide a comprehensive overview of the published research efforts on hydrogen attack studies. The evolution of "Nelson Curves" for carbon steel, C-0.5Mo, and Cr-Mo steels was historically reviewed in regard to design applications and limitations. Testing techniques for hydrogen attack assessment were summarized under the categories of hydrogen exposure testing, mechanical evaluation, and dilatometric swelling testing. In accord with the demands of these industries, fundamental studies of hydrogen attack in C-0.5Mo steel and weldments were accomplished in terms of quantitative methodologies for hydrogen damage evaluation; hydrogen damage assessment of service exposed weldments and autoclave exposed materials; effects of carbon and alloying elements, heat treatments, hot and cold working, welding processes and postweld heat treatment (PWHT) on hydrogen attack susceptibility; development of continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagrams for C-0.5Mo base metals and the coarse grained heat-affected zone (CGHAZ); carbide evaluation for the C-0.5Mo steel after service exposure and heat treatment; methane evolution by the reaction of hydrogen and carbides; hydrogen diffusion and methane pressure through the wall thickness of one-sided hydrogen exposure assembly; hydrogen attack mechanism and hydrogen attack limit modeling.

Liu, Peng

73

Failure identification and analysis for high-voltage induction motors in the petrochemical industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper gives a synopsis of condition monitoring methods, both as a diagnostic tool and as a technique for failure identification in high-voltage induction motors in industry. New operating experience data for 483 motor units consisting of 6135 unit years are registered and processed statistically to ascertain the connection between motor data, protection and condition monitoring methods, maintenance philosophy and

Olav Vaag Thorsen; Magnus Dalva

1999-01-01

74

Ground Water Pollution and Emerging Environmental Challenges of Industrial Effluent Irrigation : A Case Study of Mettupalayam Taluk, Tamilnadu  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial disposal of effluents on land and subsequent pollution of groundwater and soil of surrounding farmlands is a relatively new area of research. Environmenal and socio-economic aspects of industrial effluent irrigation have not been studied as extensively as domesticsewage based irrigation practices, at least for developing countries like India. Disposal of treated and untreated industrial effluents on land has become

Sacchidananda Mukherjee; Prakash Nelliyat

2006-01-01

75

New industrial heat pump applications to a petrochemical plant, Phase IIA: Final report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the energy conservation potential of a heat pump in an industrial site. The proper placement of the heat pump was based on the principles of Pinch Technology. Chevron`s refinery at Port Arthur, Texas, was selected as the industrial site for this study. Two energy conservation options were identified for this site with a combined total savings of $570,000 per year. This represents over 10% reduction in current thermal energy consumption of the process units, which were part of this study. The details of each option are described. The first option was a passive heat integration scheme. The second option involves a semi-open cycle mechanical vapor recompression heat pump that compresses the steam generated from the reactor exhaust streams of the cyclohexane unit to provide part of the reboiling duty of the benzene column.

NONE

1995-12-31

76

Adjustable Speed Drives in the U.S. Petroleum Refining, Petrochemical, and Chemical Industries  

E-print Network

prevalently in these industries. Installations work best where both an energy efficiency improvement and a process control function can be accomplished with the same installation. AJthough these applications are quite familiar to mechanical and electrical... engineers, they are still considered new technology among chemical and process engineers. Therefore, a significant amount of education is required to overcome natural resistance to these new "black box" systems. A survey conducted of VFD equipment sup...

Foley, D. J.; Chodorowski, A.

77

Decolorization and detoxification of two textile industry effluents by the laccase/1-hydroxybenzotriazole system.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to determine the optimal conditions for the decolorization and the detoxification of two effluents from a textile industry-effluent A (the reactive dye bath Bezactive) and effluent B (the direct dye bath Tubantin)-using a laccase mediator system. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize textile effluents decolorization. A Box-Behnken design using RSM with the four variables pH, effluent concentration, 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (HBT) concentration, and enzyme (laccase) concentration was used to determine correlations between the effects of these variables on the decolorization of the two effluents. The optimum conditions for pH and concentrations of HBT, effluent and laccase were 5, 1 mM, 50 % and 0.6 U/ml, respectively, for maximum decolorization of effluent A (68 %). For effluent B, optima were 4, 1 mM, 75 %, and 0.6 U/ml, respectively, for maximum decolorization of approximately 88 %. Both effluents were treated at 30 °C for 20 h. A quadratic model was obtained for each decolorization through this design. The experimental and predicted values were in good agreement and both models were highly significant. In addition, the toxicity of the two effluents was determined before and after laccase treatment using Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Bacillus cereus, and germination of tomato seeds. PMID:23361176

Benzina, Ouafa; Daâssi, Dalel; Zouari-Mechichi, Héla; Frikha, Fakher; Woodward, Steve; Belbahri, Lassaad; Rodriguez-Couto, Susana; Mechichi, Tahar

2013-08-01

78

Healthy environment--indoor air quality of Brazilian elementary schools nearby petrochemical industry.  

PubMed

The mitigation of pollution released to the environment originating from the industrial sector has been the aim of all policy-makers and its importance is evident if the adverse health effects on the world population are considered. Although this concern is controversial, petroleum refinery has been linked to some adverse health effects for people living nearby. Apart from home, school is the most important indoor environment for children and there is increasing concern about the school environment and its impact on health, also in developing countries where the prevalence of pollution is higher. As most of the children spend more than 40% of their time in schools, it is critical to evaluate the pollution level in such environment. In the metropolitan region of Curitiba, South Brazil, five schools nearby industries and highways with high density traffic, were selected to characterize the aerosol and gaseous compounds indoor and outdoor of the classrooms, during 2009-2011. Size segregated aerosol samples were collected for analyses of bulk and single particle elemental profiles. They were analyzed by electron probe X-ray micro-analysis (EPXMA), and by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF), to investigate the elemental composition of individual particles and bulk samples. The concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX); NO2; SO2; acetic acid; and formic acid were assessed indoor and outdoor using passive diffusion tubes. BTEX were analyzed by GC-MS and other collected gasses by ion chromatography. Individual exposition of BTEX was assessed by personal passive diffusion tubes. Results are interpreted separately and as a whole with the specific aim of identifying compounds that could affect the health of the scholars. In view of the chemical composition and size distribution of the aerosol particles, local deposition efficiencies in the children's respiratory systems were calculated, revealing the deposition of particles at extrathoracic, tracheobronchial and pulmonary levels. PMID:23838057

Godoi, Ricardo H M; Godoi, Ana F L; Gonçalves Junior, Sérgio J; Paralovo, Sarah L; Borillo, Guilherme C; Gonçalves Gregório Barbosa, Cybelli; Arantes, Manoela G; Charello, Renata C; Rosário Filho, Nelson A; Grassi, Marco T; Yamamoto, Carlos I; Potgieter-Vermaak, Sanja; Rotondo, Giuliana G; De Wael, Karolien; van Grieken, Rene

2013-10-01

79

Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Dyes. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents containing dyes. The citations explore bacteria that absorb dyes, neutralization of dye effluents, decolorization by ozonization or ultraviolet radiation, flocculation treatment, and dye absorption methods and materials. Membrane treatment, electrolysis, and ultrafiltration methods of removing dyes from wastewater are considered, as well as reuse of dye-containing effluents. Textile effluents that do not contain dyes are discussed in another bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-06-01

80

Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Dyes. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents containing dyes. The citations explore bacteria that absorb dyes, neutralization of dye effluents, decolorization by ozonization or ultraviolet radiation, flocculation treatment, and dye absorption methods and materials. Membrane treatment, electrolysis, and ultrafiltration methods of removing dyes from wastewater are considered, as well as reuse of dye-containing effluents. Textile effluents that do not contain dyes are discussed in another bibliography.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1995-09-01

81

Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Dyes. (Latest citations from World Textile Abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents containing dyes. The citations explore bacteria that absorb dyes, neutralization of dye effluents, color removal by ozonization and by treatment with manganese solid waste, flocculation treatment, and dye absorption methods and materials. Membrane treatment, electrolysis, and ultrafiltration methods of removing dyes from wastewater are considered, as well as reuse of dye-containing effluents. Textile effluents that do not contain dyes are discussed in another bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 244 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1992-06-01

82

Petrochemical industry guidelines for controlled repair welding of chrome-moly components  

SciTech Connect

The development of controlled deposition repair welding procedures for 2{1/4}Cr-1Mo and 1{1/4}Cr-{1/2}Mo steels without postweld heat treatment has been made possible as the result of two joint industry programs at EWI/TWI and other research work. In the United States, Section RD (Repair Methods) of the 1995 edition of the National Board Inspection Code (NBIC) rules has given guidance on some areas where such repair techniques might be permitted and equally some specific items on which such repairs must clearly not be attempted. The Cr-Mo heat-resisting steels are not tolerant materials in the context of welding without subsequent thermal treatment. Therefore, repairs to existing Cr-Mo pressure vessels, heat exchangers, and piping can be made only after detailed consideration of all relevant factors including, but not limited to: Material composition and product form; age and thermal history of the component to be repaired; metallurgical condition of the plant item at operating temperature and normal ambient temperature; estimated stresses acting on the component, including residual stress; evaluation of the environment in which the repaired plant will operate after repair.

Hammond, J.; Dennis, R.A.

1996-06-01

83

CHARACTERIZING THE GENOTOXICITY OF HAZARDOUS INDUSTRIAL WASTES AND EFFLUENTS USING SHORT-TERM BIOASSAYS  

EPA Science Inventory

This chapter demonstrates that short-term bioassays can reliably and expeditiously measure the genotoxic potential of hazardous industrial wastes and effluents. etrochemical wastes have been studied in detail, especially discharges from chemical manufacturing plants and textile a...

84

Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Proposed Effluent Limitations Guidelines for the Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Industry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This analysis is submitted in support of the effluent limitations guidelines and standards for the Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Industry. The report analyzes the cost-effectiveness of 11 regulatory options organized into four regulatory groupings. This do...

1995-01-01

85

ASSESSMENT OF TECHNOLOGY FOR CONTROL OF TOXIC EFFLUENTS FROM THE ELECTRIC UTILITY INDUSTRY  

EPA Science Inventory

The report assesses the applicability of control technologies for reducing priority pollutants in effluents from the steam-electric power generating industry. It surveys control technologies, identifying those that have demonstrated some control effectiveness for priority polluta...

86

Ground Water Pollution and Emerging Environmental Challenges of Industrial Effluent Irrigation: A Case Study of Mettupalayam Taluk, Tamilnadu  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial disposal of effluents on land and the subsequent pollution of groundwater and soil of surrounding farmlands – is a relatively new area of research. The environmental and socioeconomic aspects of industrial effluent irrigation have not been studied as extensively as domestic sewage based irrigation practices, at least for a developing country like India. The disposal of effluents on land

Sacchidananda Mukherjee; Prakash Nelliyat

2006-01-01

87

Assessment of the Microbiological Quality of Clarias gariepinus Exposed to an Industrial Effluent in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microbiological impact of a detergent and soap industries effluent on Clarias gariepinus was assessed under laboratory conditions. The heterotrophic bacterial count obtained from fish surfaces ranged from 1.2 × 102?2.0 × 102cfu\\/ml amongst the control, while values of 4.8× 106?8.6 × 106 cfu\\/ml were obtained for the experimental fish exposed to the industrial effluent (0.025 ppm). The fungal count

S. O. Adewoye; A. Lateef

2004-01-01

88

Bioremediation of a Complex Industrial Effluent by Biosorbents Derived from Freshwater Macroalgae  

PubMed Central

Biosorption with macroalgae is a promising technology for the bioremediation of industrial effluents. However, the vast majority of research has been conducted on simple mock effluents with little data available on the performance of biosorbents in complex effluents. Here we evaluate the efficacy of dried biomass, biochar, and Fe-treated biomass and biochar to remediate 21 elements from a real-world industrial effluent from a coal-fired power station. The biosorbents were produced from the freshwater macroalga Oedogonium sp. (Chlorophyta) that is native to the industrial site from which the effluent was sourced, and which has been intensively cultivated to provide a feed stock for biosorbents. The effect of pH and exposure time on sorption was also assessed. These biosorbents showed specificity for different suites of elements, primarily differentiated by ionic charge. Overall, biochar and Fe-biochar were more successful biosorbents than their biomass counterparts. Fe-biochar adsorbed metalloids (As, Mo, and Se) at rates independent of effluent pH, while untreated biochar removed metals (Al, Cd, Ni and Zn) at rates dependent on pH. This study demonstrates that the biomass of Oedogonium is an effective substrate for the production of biosorbents to remediate both metals and metalloids from a complex industrial effluent. PMID:24919058

Kidgell, Joel T.; de Nys, Rocky; Hu, Yi; Paul, Nicholas A.; Roberts, David A.

2014-01-01

89

Petro-safe `95: 6. Annual environmental, safety and health conference and exhibition for the oil, gas and petrochemical industries. Book 1  

SciTech Connect

This conference was held January 31--February 2, 1995 in Houston Texas. The purpose of the conference was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on process safety issues in the petrochemical industry. Topics of discussion include the following: environmental issues; process safety management and risk management; waste and remediation issues; train, health and safety issues; business risk management; and emergency response and spill control. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

NONE

1995-12-31

90

Safety culture in petrochemical companies in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A framework to measure safety culture maturity in Brazilian petrochemical companies was formulated. A questionnaire was designed to measure 5 aspects of organizational safety indicative of 5 levels of cultural maturity in Brazilian industry. The questionnaire was completed by the safety managers of 23 petrochemical companies based in Camacari, Brazil. The reliability of the questionnaire was tested by asking the

A. P. Goncalves Filho; J. C. S. Andrade; M. M. O. Marinho

2009-01-01

91

Electrocoagulation for the treatment of textile industry effluent--a review.  

PubMed

Various techniques such as physical, chemical, biological, advanced oxidation and electrochemical are used for the treatment of industrial effluent. The commonly used conventional biological treatment processes are time consuming, need large operational area and are not effective for effluent containing toxic elements. Advanced oxidation techniques result in high treatment cost and are generally used to obtain high purity grade water. The chemical coagulation technique is slow and generates large amount of sludge. Electrocoagulation has recently attracted attention as a potential technique for treating industrial effluent due to its versatility and environmental compatibility. This technique uses direct current source between metal electrodes immersed in the effluent, which causes the dissolution of electrode plates into the effluent. The metal ions, at an appropriate pH, can form wide range of coagulated species and metal hydroxides that destabilize and aggregate particles or precipitate and adsorb the dissolved contaminants. Therefore, the objective of the present manuscript is to review the potential of electrocoagulation for the treatment of industrial effluents, mainly removal of dyes from textile effluent. PMID:23892280

Khandegar, V; Saroha, Anil K

2013-10-15

92

Scale-up of electrochemical oxidation system for treatment of produced water generated by Brazilian petrochemical industry.  

PubMed

Scale-up of anodic oxidation system is critical to the practical application of electrochemical treatment in bio-refractory organic wastewater treatment. In this study, the scale-up of electrochemical flow system was investigated by treating petrochemical wastewater using platinized titanium (Ti/Pt) and boron-doped diamond (BDD) anodes. It was demonstrated that flow cell was successfully scaled-up because when it was compared with batch mode (Rocha et al. 2012b), higher performances on organic matter removal were achieved. Under the suitable operating conditions and better anode material, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of petrochemical wastewater was reduced from 2,746 to 200 mg L(-1) within 5 h with an energy consumption of only 56.2 kWh m(-3) in the scaled-up BDD anode system. These results demonstrate that anode flow system is very promising in practical bio-refractory organic wastewater treatment. PMID:24687787

dos Santos, Elisama Vieira; Sena, Shirley Feitosa Machado; da Silva, Djalma Ribeiro; Ferro, Sergio; De Battisti, Achille; Martínez-Huitle, Carlos A

2014-07-01

93

IDENTIFICATION OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT DISCHARGES  

EPA Science Inventory

Samples of 63 effluent and 22 intake waters were collected from a wide range of chemical manufacturers in areas across the United States. The samples were analyzed for organic compounds in an effort to identify previously unknown and potentially hazardous organic pollutants. Each...

94

Correlating Biochemical and Chemical Oxygen Demand of Effluents - A Case Study of Selected Industries in Kumasi, Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study aims at establishing an empirical correla tion between biochemical oxygen demand (BOD 5) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) of effluents from selected industries in the Kumasi Metropolis to facilitate speed y effluent quality assessment or optimal process control. Hour ly effluent samples were collected for an 8-h perio d three times per week for analysis of the principal

F. K. Attiogbe; Mary Glover-Amengor; K. T. Nyadziehe

95

[Variation characteristics and removal rate of fluorescence organic matter in the petrochemical wastewater treatment process].  

PubMed

Petrochemical wastewater is of huge quantity released during the production and complicated contaminants of petrochemical wastewater will have immense negative impact on ecology environment. Three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix fluorescence(3D-EEM) was used to investigate the characteristic fluorescence of influent and effluent from each processing unit of Hydrolysis-acidification +A/O+ Contact-oxidation Process in a typical petrochemical wastewater treatment plant . The results showed that there were 4 fluorescence peaks named Peak A, Peak B, Peak D, Peak E in the spectrum chart of influent, they are around lambda(ex/lambda(em) = 220/300, 225/340, 270/300, 275/340 nm, the primary source of fluorescence organic matter(FOM) is industrial wastewater. The fluorescence intensity of each fluorescence peak was decreased, while location was unchanged in the effluent of Hydrolysis-acidification. Peak C appeared from the effluent of anaerobic tank at lambda(ex)/lambda(em) = 250/425 nm, then the fluorescence intensity of Peak C was enhanced in the effluent of aerobic tank. Peak A disappeared from the effluent of secondary sedimentation tank. The spectrum chart of the wastewater had no obvious variation after secondary sedimentation tank. The removal rate of FOM was expressed with the degradation percentage of the fluorescence intensity, the total FOM was reduced by 92.0% after processing, and the removal rate of the FOM fluoresce around Peak A, Peak B, Peak D, Peak E were 100.0%, 91.2%, 80.3%, 92.0% respectively. A volatile I(Peak B)/I(Peak E) value of influent but a relatively stable value of effluent demonstrated that the wastewater treatment plant operated steadily and the process has higher capacity in resistance to shock loading. PMID:25208396

Zhou, Jing-Ling; Xi, Hong-Bo; Zhou, Yue-Xi; Xu, Ji-Xian; Song, Guang-Qing

2014-03-01

96

Integrated process for the removal of emulsified oils from effluents in the steel industry  

SciTech Connect

Emulsified oils contained in aqueous effluents from cold-rolling mills of the steel industry can be effectively removed via an integrated process consisting of a coagulation/flocculation stage followed by ultrafiltration of the resulting aqueous phase. The effects of CaCl{sub 2}, NaOH, and lime on the stability of different industrial effluents were studied in the coagulation experiments. The flocculants tested were inorganic prehydrolyzed aluminum salts and quaternary polyamines. Ultrafiltration of the aqueous phase from the coagulation/flocculation stage was carried out in a stirred cell using Amicon PM30 and XM300 organic membranes. Permeate fluxes were measured for industrial effluents to which the indicated coagulants and flocculants had been added. Oil concentrations in the permeate were 75% lower than the limits established by all European Union countries. Complete regeneration of the membrane was accomplished with an aqueous solution of a commercial detergent.

Benito, J.M.; Rios, G.; Gutierrez, B.; Pazos, C.; Coca, J.

1999-11-01

97

Characteristics and control of industrial effluent-generated pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluates existing systems of collection and disposal of industrial waste water in the Lagos metropolis, Nigeria. Examines the rate of generation of waste water in the paints, foods and beverages, battery, textile, brewery, and pulp and paper industries. These include among others some selected industries in Ikeja Industrial Estate, Lagos. The cases chosen are believed to give a broad outline

A. Y. Sangodoyin

1995-01-01

98

Dyeing Industry Effluent System as Lipid Production Medium of Neochloris sp. for Biodiesel Feedstock Preparation  

PubMed Central

Microalgae lipid feedstock preparation cost was an important factor in increasing biodiesel fuel hikes. This study was conducted with the concept of implementing an effluent wastewater as lipid production medium for microalgae cultivation. In our study textile dyeing industry effluent was taken as a lipid production medium for Neochloris sp. cultivation. The changes in physicochemical analysis of effluent before and after Neochloris sp. treatment were recorded using standard procedures and AAS analysis. There was especially a reduction in heavy metal like lead (Pb) concentration from 0.002?ppm to 0.001?ppm after Neochloris sp. treatment. Neochloris sp. cultivated in Bold Basal Medium (BBM) (specific algal medium) produced 41.93% total lipid and 36.69% lipid was produced in effluent based cultivation. Surprisingly Neochloris sp. cultivated in effluent was found with enhanced neutral lipid content, and it was confirmed by Nile red fluorescence assay. Further the particular enrichment in oleic acid content of the cells was confirmed with thin layer chromatography (TLC) with oleic acid pure (98%) control. The overall results suggested that textile dyeing industry effluent could serve as the best lipid productive medium for Neochloris sp. biodiesel feedstock preparation. This study was found to have a significant impact on reducing the biodiesel feedstock preparation cost with simultaneous lipid induction by heavy metal stress to microalgae.

Ramamurthy, Dhandapani

2014-01-01

99

Incorporation of effluent trading in the city of Millville, NJ industrial pretreatment program  

SciTech Connect

The City of Millville, NJ recently updated its sewer use ordinance to incorporate technically defensible effluent limitations for industrial users of their POTW. These limitations were designed to protect the POTW from the potential inhibitory effects of pollutants in the waste stream, to protect the quality of the biosolids generated at the POTW, and to protect the quality of effluent discharged by the POTW. Along with these technically defensible limits, the City also developed a pollutant trading program which allows industries to set up agreements, under the City's supervision, which affect the allocation of pollutant loadings.

Taylor, S.T.; Dimino, M.A.; Tarasevich, A.

1998-07-01

100

The use of Microtox to assess toxicity removal of industrial effluents from the industrial district of Camaçari (BA, Brazil).  

PubMed

The treatment efficiency, as toxicity removal, of complex effluents from the Industrial District of Camaçari (BA, Brazil), after biological treatment with activated sludge was evaluated using Microtox. Samples of the equalised effluent (EE) were collected prior to treatment together with samples of the treated effluent (TE), which remained 24 h in the treatment plant. Rehydrated colonies of Vibrio fischeri were exposed to sequential dilutions of EE and TE to assess luminosity interference. Values for EC50 were calculated, together with the respective toxicity units. In all, twenty assays of each effluent type were carried out and the mean toxicity removal was 92.71%, while the chemical oxygen demand (COD) presented mean reduction of 83.04%. There was a variability of an order of magnitude between the Microtox results for the two types of effluents. The mean EC50 values were 2.12 for EE and 47.78% for TE. In spite of its weakness in some conditions, the Microtox system demonstrated to work adequately in assessing effluent toxicity removal in this treatment plant and therefore can be used for further toxicity removal programs. PMID:15667847

Araújo, Cristiano V M; Nascimento, Renato B; Oliveira, Carla A; Strotmann, Uwe J; da Silva, Eduardo M

2005-03-01

101

Use of chemical and biological parameters to characterize complex industrial effluents  

SciTech Connect

Hitherto, the concern for possible environmental effects due to aqueous industrial discharges has been directed toward clearly observable effects such as eutrophication and fish kills. However, the development of environmental toxicology and chemistry has made it clear that more subtle and potential long-term effects also have to be taken into account in the regulatory work. The Swedish Environment Protection Board has recently completed a research project: Characterization of Industrial Effluents. Initially, analytical methods and laboratory tests, originally developed for single substances, were identified. Laboratories were then invited to participate, with their own methods, in ring tests with a variety of industrial effluent waters. The studies indicated that a number of chemical and biological methods can be used to characterize complex industrial wastewaters with regard to their content of toxic, persistent, and bioaccumulative substances. A frame program was established for the construction of test batteries adapted to various administrative regulatory purposes. To date, this strategy has been applied to several industries by the authorities, resulting in valuable experience of cost-effectiveness and the usefulness in the administrative decision-making process. Besides the studies on single industries, two other approaches have been applied, namely for the assessment of the impact of several industries on a common receiving water body, and for the evaluation of a whole industrial branch, that is, kraft pulp mill bleachery effluents. In the latter case, the studies have resulted in a ranking of processes and treatment methods to protect the environment.

Bengtsson, B.E.; Renberg, L.

1986-09-01

102

Use of plant genotoxicity bioassay for the evaluation of efficiency of algal biofilters in bioremediation of toxic industrial effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

The toxicity and efficacy of an algal-based bioremediation technology were assessed through bioassays for ecological risk of contaminated industrial effluents. The algal bioremoval of heavy metals was evaluated using an in vitro approach. Phytogenotoxicity tests were conducted with Allium cepa and Vicia faba plants to evaluate the genotoxicity of the industrial effluents before and after treatment with different kinds of

Hala M. Abdel Migid; Yehia A. Azab; Waeel M. Ibrahim

2007-01-01

103

Algae in the assessment of industrial effluents: case study in Southern Bengal, India.  

PubMed

This article is an assessment of the diversity of scum and bloom algae encountered in different industrial effluents of Southern Bengal, India, analyzing their habitat and correlating the habitat ecology of each study site. The study was conducted during the period May 2009 to August 2010. The study sites include effluent release areas of the dairy industry, a distillery unit, the leather industry, and an herbal medicine unit. Habitat were analyzed for pH, dissolved oxygen, biological oxygen demand, salinity, alkalinity, and phosphate and nitrate levels. Correlation coefficients were calculated for habitat parameters and algae encountered, showing a significant positive correlation between the richness of dominant and subdominant species with biochemical oxygen demand and salinity and a significant negative correlation with alkalinity, phosphates, and the nitrate-to-phosphate ratio. The richness of dominant and subdominant species in the effluent discharge areas show average values of 9 and 5 in the distillery unit, 8 and 5 in the dairy industry, 7 and 8 in the leather industry, and 5 and 9 in the herbal medicine unit, respectively, with a few (ranging between 3 and 7) co-occurring species in each case. The algal groups encountered were cyanobacteria, euglenophytes, chlorophytes, and bacillariophytes, showing Palmer's Algal Pollution Index of 15 in the dairy industry, 20 in the distillery unit, 28 in the leather industry, and 8 in the herbal medicine unit. PMID:24099424

Sen Sarkar, Neera; Bandyopadhyaya, Tuli; Datta, Shilpa; Das, Swapna

2013-01-01

104

Some studies on UASB bioreactors for the stabilization of low strength industrial effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The suitability of two stage biomethanation process using upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) bioreactors was studied for the treatment of low strength industrial effluents like rice mill wastewater. Maximum VFA yield was 0.75 mg (as acetic acid) per mg of COD consumed at a flow rate of 25 ml\\/min. Hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 1 hr was found suitable for

G. Rajesh; M. Bandyopadhyay; D. Das

1999-01-01

105

AN ENZYMATIC METHOD FOR REMOVAL OF PHENOL FROM INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenols in an aqueous solution were removed after treatment with peroxidase in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. Phenols occur in wastewater of a number of industries, such as high temperature coal conversion, petroleum refining, resin and plastic, wood and dye industries, etc. It can be toxic when present at elevated levels and is known to be carcinogeneous. Thus, removal of

Naresh Singh; Jai Singh

2002-01-01

106

Simultaneous methanogenesis and denitrification of pretreated effluents from a fish canning industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A lab-scale hybrid upflow sludge bed-filter (USBF) reactor was employed to carry out methanogenesis and denitrification of the effluent from an anaerobic industrial reactor (EAIR) in a fish canning industry. The reactor was initially inoculated with methanogenic sludge and there were two different operational steps. During the first step (Step I: days 1–61), the methanogenic process was carried out at

A Mosquera-Corral; M Sánchez; J. L Campos; R Méndez; J. M Lema

2001-01-01

107

A correlation for the mass transfer coefficients during the biodegradation of phenolic effluents in a packed bed reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biological methods of treatment in continuous reactors using immobilized microorganisms have gained wide recognition due to their high degradation efficiency and their usage at high dilution rates. The present study in a cocurrent upflow packed bed reactor involves the treatment of phenolic effluents obtained from petrochemical, leather and polymer industries, using a microorganism Pseudomonas pictorum (NCIM 2077) immobilized on

T. Murugesan; R. Y. Sheeja

2005-01-01

108

Decolorization of a dye industry effluent by Aspergillus fumigatus XC6  

Microsoft Academic Search

The strain Aspergillus fumigatus XC6 isolated from mildewing rice straw was evaluated for its ability to decolorize a dye industry effluent. The strain was\\u000a capable of decolorizing dyes effluent over a pH range 3.0–8.0 with the dyes as sole carbon and nitrogen sources. The optimum\\u000a pH was 3.0; however, supplemented with either appropriate nitrogen sources (0.2% NH4Cl or (NH4)2SO4 )

Xian-Chun Jin; Gao-Qiang Liu; Zheng-Hong Xu; Wen-Yi Tao

2007-01-01

109

Aerosol generation to simulate specific industrial fine particle effluents.  

PubMed

Techniques were developed for generating large quantities of fine particle metal oxide aerosols. The aerosols were generated by burning flammable solutions containing appropriate soluble compounds (nitrates, for example) of the desired elements. In the flame these compounds generally decomposed to oxides. The generated aerosol flow rates were as high as 42 m3 per minute (1500 cfm); the mass concentrations were as high as 16.8 g per m3 at STP. For most aerosols the particle concentrations were of the order of 10(9) particles per cm3. Electron microscopic pictures (SEM and TEM) of precipitated particles show that many of the larger particles (20 microm) are hollow and that the smaller particles (0.01 microm) are aggregated. Specific aerosols were generated to simulate the fine particulate effluents generated by combustion of pulverized coal (electricity generation) electric arc and basic oxygen furnaces (iron and steel production) and zinc smelters. Methods were developed to vary the sulfur dioxide concentration and the electrical resistivities of the simulants for coal combustion. PMID:15508480

Carroz, J W; Odencrantz, F K; Finnegan, W G; Drehmel, D C

1980-02-01

110

Cleanup of industrial effluents containing heavy metals: a new opportunity of valorising the biomass produced by brewing industry.  

PubMed

Heavy metal pollution is a matter of concern in industrialised countries. Contrary to organic pollutants, heavy metals are not metabolically degraded. This fact has two main consequences: its bioremediation requires another strategy and heavy metals can be indefinitely recycled. Yeast cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are produced at high amounts as a by-product of brewing industry constituting a cheap raw material. In the present work, the possibility of valorising this type of biomass in the bioremediation of real industrial effluents containing heavy metals is reviewed. Given the auto-aggregation capacity (flocculation) of brewing yeast cells, a fast and off-cost yeast separation is achieved after the treatment of metal-laden effluent, which reduces the costs associated with the process. This is a critical issue when we are looking for an effective, eco-friendly, and low-cost technology. The possibility of the bioremediation of industrial effluents linked with the selective recovery of metals, in a strategy of simultaneous minimisation of environmental hazard of industrial wastes with financial benefits from reselling or recycling the metals, is discussed. PMID:23824444

Soares, Eduardo V; Soares, Helena M V M

2013-08-01

111

Application of electron beam irradiation combined to conventional treatment to treat industrial effluents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A preliminary study to combine electron beam irradiation process with biological treatment was carried out. Experiments were conducted using samples from a governmental wastewater treatment plant (WTP) that receives about 20% of industrial wastewater, with the objective of destroying the refractory organic pollutants and to obtain a better performance of this plant. Samples from five different steps of WTP were collected and irradiated in the electron beam accelerator in a batch system with 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 kGy doses. The main results showed a removal of 99% of all organic compound analysed in the industrial receiver unit (IRU) effluent and in the coarse bar screen (CBS) effluent with a 20 kGy dose, and for the medium bar screen (MBS) and primary sedimentation (PS) effluent a 10 kGy dose was sufficient. In the case of final effluent (FE), a dose of 5 kGy removed the remaining organic compounds and dyes present after biological treatment.

Duarte, C. L.; Sampa, M. H. O.; Rela, P. R.; Oikawa, H.; Cherbakian, E. H.; Sena, H. C.; Abe, H.; Sciani, V.

2000-03-01

112

Enzymatic removal of dissolved aromatics from industrial aqueous effluents  

SciTech Connect

A new method has been elaborated for the removal of phenols and aromatic amines from industrial waste waters. It involves the treatment of solutions containing the pollutants with horseradish peroxidase and hydrogen peroxide. Such treatment results in precipitation of phenols and aromatic amines from water due to their enzymatic crosslinking. This approach was used to remove over 40 different phenols and aromatic amines (including known human carcinogens and mutagens) from water. For many pollutants, the efficiencies of the enzymatic removal are very high (exceeding 99%), whereas for others they are significantly lower. It was discovered that easily removed phenols and aromatic amines greatly enhance the enzymatic precipitation of those that have relatively low removal efficiencies. This finding is of great importance for the treatment of real industrial wastewaters, which always contain mixtures of pollutants. The described method appears to be economically feasible and has been successfully employed for treatment of wastewaters obtained from a chemical plant.

Alberti, B.N.; Klibanov, A.M.

1981-01-01

113

Purification of industrial effluent by microfiltration and ultrafiltration ceramic membranes: comparative study between commercial and elaborated Tunisian clay membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial effluents treatment was investigated using ceramic Microfiltration (MF) and Ultrafitration (UF) tubular membranes. The comparison of performances between commercial ceramic membranes based on alumina material and elaborated ones based on Tunisian clay material was studied. MF and UF tests applied to cuttlefish effluent treatment were carried out respectively with 0.2 ?m and 5 nm commercial membranes and 0.18 ?m

Sabeur Khemakhem; Raja Ben Amara

2012-01-01

114

Pervaporation as a deodorization process applied to food industry effluents: recovery and valorisation of aroma compounds from cauliflower blanching water  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the food industry, unit operations of stabilisation (such as blanching) produce aqueous effluents generally non-polluting but often odorous. The objective of this study was to apply the pervaporation process to the deodorization of a cauliflower blanching effluent in order to reduce its volatile organic compounds content and to try to recover a valuable food flavouring fraction. A systematic study

I. Souchon; F. X. Pierre; V. Athes-Dutour; M. Marin

2002-01-01

115

Respirometric biomonitor for the control of industrial effluent toxicity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A yeast cell biosystem has been recently developed for the total toxicity testing of a sample that may contain a number of different polluting species. The method uses an amperometric gas diffusion oxygen sensor as indicating electrode and is based on the perturbation of the respiratory activity of the immobilized yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae; glucose acts as substrate. Several toxic substances were tested: metal ions, phenol and cationic, anionic or nonionic surfactants. Some results of a monitoring program of an industrial wastewater are also reported and discussed.

Campanella, Luigi; Favero, G.; Mastrofini, D.; Tomassetti, M.

1995-10-01

116

Treatment of a petrochemical wastewater in sequencing batch reactors  

SciTech Connect

The response of sequencing batch reactors (SBR's) in an industrial application was investigated. Four bench-scale SBR's and a bench-scale conventional activated sludge unit were operated with wastewater from a petrochemical complex. In terms of the degradation of BOD material and nitrification, the performance of the SBR's was comparable or slightly superior to that of the conventional activated sludge unit. However, for high strength wastes with BOD/sub 5/ > 300 mg/l and under organic shock loading conditions, effluent from an SBR may have a high solids content as a result of abundant dispersed-cells growth. The SBR reacted well to a series of phenolic shock loadings; phenols were degraded from initial concentrations ranging from 200 to 950 mg/l to <0.1 mg/l. A model of the SBR, which incorporated the Monod kinetics, was presented as a design aid.

Hsu, E.H.

1986-05-01

117

Industrial effluents and surface waters genotoxicity and mutagenicity evaluation of a river of Tucuman, Argentina.  

PubMed

Assessment of water pollution and its effect upon river biotic communities and human health is indispensable to develop control and management strategies. The aim of this work was to ascertain the biotoxicity of water pollution in samples from industrial effluent discharge areas of Tucumán, Argentina by means of biological tests. Chemical characterization of the water pollution was verified by measuring dissolved oxygen concentration or levels of suspended matter and salts. Genotoxic/mutagenic potential was determined using Allium anaphase-telophase and Ames/Salmonella tests. All samples were phytotoxic and genotoxic for Allium roots. Micronucleus and anaphase aberrations were observed, but they did not show mutagenic effects on Salmonella typhimurium, TA98 and TA100 strains with and without metabolic activation (S9). Our results show the importance of testing industrial effluents by chemical methods and complementary biological tests to optimize the control policy on these environmental samples. PMID:18178309

Gana, Jimena Mesón; Ordóñez, Roxana; Zampini, Catiana; Hidalgo, Margarita; Meoni, Susana; Isla, María Inés

2008-07-15

118

A Petrochemical Primer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Informs the reader of the pervasiveness of petrochemicals in everyday life. Discusses the petroleum-to-petrochemical transformation at the refinery and issues related to how petroleum products will be utilized for fuel or nonfuel needs such as lubricants, computers, and medicine in the future. (MDH)

Martin, Amy

1991-01-01

119

Isolation, selection and characterization of a cyanide-degrading fungus from an industrial effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amongst 14 fungi isolates from a cyanide-containing industrial effluent, a strain of Fusarium oxysporum developed a particularly high tolerance for cyanide when incubated in a medium containing cyanide. Tolerance apparently involves the ability of the fungus to convert cyanide to non-toxic formamide by formamide hydro-lyase enzyme. The contribution of the alternate cyanide insensitive respiratory system to ensure the formamide hydro-lyase

P. T. Pereira; J. D. Arrabaça; M. T. Amaral-Collaço

1996-01-01

120

Biomass in a petrochemical world.  

PubMed

The world's increasingly voracious appetite for fossil fuels is driven by fast-growing populations and ever-rising aspirations for the lifestyles and standard of living exemplified in the developed world. Forecasts for higher electricity consumption, more comfortable living environments (via heating or cooling) and greater demand for transport fuels are well known. Similar growth in demand is projected for petrochemical-based products in the form of man-made fibres for clothing, ubiquitous plastic artefacts, cosmetics, etc. All drawing upon the same finite oil, gas and coal feedstocks. Biomass can, in principle, substitute for all of these feedstocks. Although ultimately finite, biomass resources can be expanded and renewed if this is a societal priority. This paper examines the projected growth of an energy-intensive international petrochemicals industry, considers its demand for both utilities and feedstocks, and considers the extent to which biomass can substitute for fossil fuels. The scope of this study includes biomass component extraction, direct chemical conversion, thermochemical conversion and biochemical conversion. Noting that the petrochemicals industry consumes around 10 per cent of the world's fossil fuels as feedstocks and almost as much again in utilities, various strategies for addressing future demand are considered. The need for long-term infrastructure and logistics planning is highlighted. PMID:24427511

Roddy, Dermot J

2013-02-01

121

Selective biosorption and recovery of Ruthenium from industrial effluents with Rhodopseudomonas palustris strains.  

PubMed

This study demonstrated for the first time the possibility to remove and partially recover the Ruthenium contained in industrial effluents by using purple non sulfur bacteria (PNSB) as microbial biosorbents. Up to date, the biosorption was only claimed as possible tool for the removal of the platinum-group metals (PGM) but the biosorption of Ru was never experimentally investigated. The PNSBs tested have adsorbed around 40 mg g (dry biomass)(-1) of the Ru contained in the real industrial effluents. At the end of the bioremoval experiments, the amount of Ru recovered from the biomass ranged from 42 % to 72 % of that adsorbed by PNSB, depending by the characteristics of the Ru effluent used. In any case, the use of microbial sorbents such as PNSB for the biosorption and recovery of Ru can be considered a way to reduce both the costs and the impact on the environment of the mining activities needed to obtain the increasing amounts of this rare and precious metal requested by the industrial activities related to its use. PMID:22552900

Colica, Giovanni; Caparrotta, Stefania; De Philippis, Roberto

2012-07-01

122

Use of bioassay-based whole effluent toxicity (WET) tests to predict benthic community response to a complex industrial effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whole effluent toxicity (WET) tests are a usefulmonitoring tool because they provide a rapid andreplicable measure of the potential ecotoxicologicaleffect of effluents. Although WET tests have beenincorporated into toxicity-based effluent limits toprotect receiving systems from adverse effects, fewstudies have attempted to quantitativelyfield-validate laboratory-derived toxicity thresholds.In this study, we examine the ability of WET tests topredict response thresholds of an invertebratecommunity

Helen C. Sarakinos; Joseph B. Rasmussen

1997-01-01

123

USE OF TOXICITY IDENTIFICATION EVALUATION METHODS TO CHARACTERIZE IDENTIFY, AND CONFIRM HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM TOXICITY IN AN INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT  

EPA Science Inventory

A toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) was conducted on effluent from a major industrial discharger. Initial monitoring showed slight chronic toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia; later sample showed substantial toxicity to C. dubia. Chemical analysis detected hexavalent chromium ...

124

Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Excluding dyes. July 1983-September 1989 (Citations from World Textile Abstracts). Report for July 1983-September 1989  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents. Effluents that contain dyes are discussed in a separate bibliography. Recovery of lubricants, lye, sizing agents, polyvinyl alcohol, zinc, dirt, and heat from textile effluents are discussed. Air and water pollution control technology that is effective in treating textile effluents is discussed. Effluents from synthetic fiber manufacture and wool scouring processes are emphasized. (This updated bibliography contains 322 citations, 22 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

Not Available

1989-12-01

125

Traitements d'effluents issus de l'industrie de la pêche par un procédé de coagulation\\/floculation Treatment of cuttlefish effluent by a coagulation- flocculation process  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The aim of this work was to compare the efficiency of a coagulation-floccula- tion process using différent Systems individually or in combination. The waste water used was an industrial cuttlefish effluent principally composed of colloidal particles from the cuttlefish. The initial turbidity and chemical oxygen demand were approximately 700 NTU and 22,000 mg-L\\

A. SIALA; S. BOUFI; R. B. AMAR; A. B. SALAH

126

Use of recycling through medium size granular filters to treat small food processing industry effluents.  

PubMed

Currently there are no suitable wastewater treatment systems for effluents from small food processing industries (dairy, cheese, wine production). Such raw sewages are characterized by high organic matter concentrations (about 10 g COD L-1) and relatively low daily volumes (about 2 m3). An adaptation of attached-growth cultures on fine media processes, known to be easy and inexpensive to use, could fit both the technical and economical context of those industries. Coarser filter particle size distributions than those normally used allow a better aeration and reduce clogging risk. The transit time of the effluent through the porous filter materials is shortened and requires recycling to increase the contact time between the biomass and the substrate. A pilot plant was built to compare the efficiency of two kinds of filter materials, gravel (2-5 mm) and pozzolana (3-7 mm). Two measurement campaigns were undertaken on a full-scale unit dealing with cheese dairy effluents. Both pilot-scale and full-scale plants show high COD removal rates (> 95%). Pilot-scale experiments show that accumulation of organic matter leads to the clogging of the recycling filter. To prevent early clogging, a better definition of feeding cycles is needed. PMID:12201106

Ménoret, C; Boutin, C; Liénard, A; Brissaud, F

2002-01-01

127

Learning from petrochemical history: Strategies to the year 2000  

SciTech Connect

The constant appearance of new products and processes has marked the petrochemical industry as a leader in innovation. Furthermore, the industry is global in scope and of major importance in the world economy. In 1988, the output of the U.S. petrochemical industry is expected to reach $90 billion, and world output will approximate $300 to $350 billion. Thus, the outlook for this industry is important for companies and governments. A review of some of the historical patterns of the petrochemical industry is necessary for a discussion of the industry's future prospects. These prospects, in turn, have strong implications for company strategies and government policies. But first, a look at the state of the petrochemical industry today.

Stobaugh, R.; Gagne, J.

1988-07-01

128

Remaining competitive in refining and basic petrochemicals  

SciTech Connect

Companies involved in petroleum refining and basic petrochemicals production represent a major segment of the largest (Fortune 20) US corporations and account for a substantial share of the country's wealth. The 1980's have presented turbulent times for these businesses, causing massive restructuring which has not resulted in a return to former levels of financial performance. The refining and petrochemical industries will continue to play a major role in the American economy over the next few decades, but they are currently struggling to achieve the performance necessary to remain viable over the long term. Since chemical engineers are prominent professionals in petrochemical and refining companies, the Government Programs Steering Committee of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers has prepared this analysis to inform federal, state, and local government officials about the future viability of these basic industries. 2 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

Cobb, C.

1988-03-01

129

Transfer of hexabromocyclododecane from industrial effluents to sediments and biota: Case study in Cinca river (Spain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryThis work is part of the research included in the European project AQUATERRA, focused on the study of different persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in different risk zones along the Ebro River basin. Within monitoring programmes, a high contaminated area was detected, located along the Cinca River, a tributary of Ebro River, downstream a heavily industrialized town (Monzón). Data showed a high hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) contamination in this area. Our work included the analysis of sediments and biota, with special attention on aspects such as temporal trends, bioavailability and bioaccumulation of these contaminants. Moreover, an attempt of identification of source contamination was carried out, with the analysis of industrial effluents. The industry responsible of the contamination was identified.

Guerra, Paula; Cal, Agustina De La; Marsh, Göran; Eljarrat, Ethel; Barceló, Damià

2009-05-01

130

Influence of the sample preservation mode to assess the chronic toxicity of an industrial effluent.  

PubMed

To improve the preservation of effluent samples, the contribution of refrigeration, freezing, and freeze-drying techniques to maintain the toxic characteristics of the samples was evaluated. To achieve this evaluation one acute test, three long-term toxicity tests, a biochemical test (P450 induction), and a mutagenicity test (Ames test) were used on the same industrial effluent. Refrigeration and freezing demonstrated a similar capacity of preservation. However, freezing should be recommended when the delay between sampling and the start of the bioassay exceeds 48 hr. Freeze-drying did not prove to be useful in that case but this could be due to methodological problems. Nevertheless, this technique allowed the detection of mutagenic compounds because of its aptitude to concentrate effluent samples. For the toxic evaluation of the samples the advantages of the use of a battery of biotests were confirmed and it was noted that the cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia) reproduction test and the algal (Selenastrum capricornutum) growth test had a higher sensitivity within the three tests used. PMID:7540537

Naudin, S; Garric, J; Vindimian, E; Bray, M; Migeon, B; Vollat, B; Lenon, G

1995-02-01

131

Petrochemicals: Raw material change from fossil to biomass?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The petrochemical industry, which is based on crude oil and natural gas, competes with the energy providing industry for the\\u000a same fossil raw material, but uses only 10% of it. This leaves the energy providers in the driver seat and makes the petrochemical\\u000a industry dependent on them. Dwindling oil and gas reserves, concern regarding the greenhouse effect (carbon dioxide emissions)

W. Keim

2010-01-01

132

Dangerous and cancer-causing properties of products and chemicals in the oil refining and petrochemical industry: Part 5--Asbestos-caused cancers and exposure of workers in the oil refining industry  

SciTech Connect

In the oil refining and petrochemical industries exposure to cancer-causing asbestos particles, especially during equipment repair and maintenance, is very high. Up to 90% of workers in the oil refining industry had direct and/or indirect contact with asbestos, and more than half of this contact occurred without the use of any kind of precaution, thus these workers are in high risk of developing lung cancer and mesothelioma, both fatal diseases. The hazards include: inadequate health and safety training for both company personnel and workers, failure to inform about the dangers and diseases (cancers) resulting from exposure to asbestos; excessive use of large numbers of untrained and uninformed contract workers; lack of use of protective equipment; and archaeological approaches and responses to repairing asbestos breaks and replacement of asbestos in oil refining facilities. For a better understanding of practices and policies in the oil refining industry, refer to Rachel Scott's Muscle and Blood, in particular the chapter Oil (E.P. Dutton, New York, 1974), as well as to an editorial which appeared in the Oil and Gas Journal, April, 1968.

Mehlman, M.A. (UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical Group, Environmental and Community Medicine, Piscataway, NJ (USA))

1991-01-01

133

[AF + BAF for treating effluent in the sewage plant of the resin and chemical industry park].  

PubMed

The anaerobic filter (AF) and biological aerated filter (BAF) were employed to treat the effluent in a sewage plant of the resin and chemical industry park. The ceramsite was used in BAF. In this study, the influent COD was 200-300 mg x L(-1) and the pilot model scale was 2-4 L x d(-1). According to the results, the AF-BAF treatment had a good effect on organic wastewater. When the AF HRT was 24 h and BAF was 12 h, the removal of COD reached 73.4%, and that of NH4(+)-N reached 93.8%. From gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and three-dimensional fluorescence analysis, it was found that small organic molecules and microbial metabolites could be removed effectively. However, there was no obviously effect on the removal of saturated alkane and nitrogenous heterocyclic compounds. From the denature gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) spectra analysis, it was shown that there were more kinds of microorganism in the sludge of the AF than in the up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB), which indicates that the AF-BAF system is more effective on treating effluent in a sewage plant of the resin and chemical industry park. PMID:25158498

Tu, Yong; Liu, Wei-Jing; Zhang, Yao-Hui; Xu, Jun; Tang, Min; Chen, Yong; Bai, Yong-Gang

2014-06-01

134

Simultaneous methanogenesis and denitrification of pretreated effluents from a fish canning industry.  

PubMed

A lab-scale hybrid upflow sludge bed-filter (USBF) reactor was employed to carry out methanogenesis and denitrification of the effluent from an anaerobic industrial reactor (EAIR) in a fish canning industry. The reactor was initially inoculated with methanogenic sludge and there were two different operational steps. During the first step (Step I: days 1-61), the methanogenic process was carried out at organic loading rates (OLR) of 1.0-1.25 g COD l-1 d-1 reaching COD removal percentages of 80%. During the second step (Step II: days 62-109) nitrate was added as KNO3 to the industrial effluent and the OLR was varied between 1.0 and 1.25 g COD l-1 d-1. Two different nitrogen loads of 0.10 and 0.22 g NO3(-)-N l-1 d-1 were applied and these led to nitrogen removal percentages of around 100% in both cases and COD removal percentages of around 80%. Carbon to nitrogen ratio (C:N) in the influent was maintained at 2.0 and eventually it was increased to 3.0, by means of glucose addition, to control the denitrification process. From these results it is possible to establish that wastewater produced in a fish canning industry can be used as a carbon source for denitrification and that denitrifying microorganisms were present in the initially methanogenic sludge. Biomass productions of 0.23 and 0.61 g VSS:g TOC fed for Steps I and II, respectively, were calculated from carbon global balances, showing an increase in biomass growth due to denitrification. PMID:11228993

Mosquera-Corral, A; Sánchez, M; Campos, J L; Méndez, R; Lema, J M

2001-02-01

135

Evaluation of the phytotoxicity of polycontaminated industrial effluents using the lettuce plant (Lactuca sativa) as a bioindicator.  

PubMed

Industrial wastewater containing heavy metals is generally decontaminated by physicochemical treatment consisting in insolublizing the contaminants and separating the two phases, water and sludge, by a physical process (filtration, settling or flotation). However, chemical precipitation does not usually remove the whole pollution load and the effluent discharged into the environment can be toxic even if it comes up to regulatory standards. To assess the impact of industrial effluent from 4 different surface treatment companies, we performed standardized bioassays using seeds of the lettuce Lactuca sativa. We measured the rate of germination, and the length and mass of the lettuce plantlet. The results were used to compare the overall toxicity of the different effluents: effluents containing copper and nickel had a much higher impact than those containing zinc or aluminum. In addition, germination tests conducted using synthetic solutions confirmed that mixtures of metals have higher toxicity than the sum of their separate constituents. These biological tests are cheap, easy to implement, reproducible and highlight the effects caused by effluent treated with the methods commonly applied in industry today. They could be routinely used to check the impact of industrial discharges, even when they meet regulatory requirements for the individual metals. PMID:21835466

Charles, Jérémie; Sancey, Bertrand; Morin-Crini, Nadia; Badot, Pierre-Marie; Degiorgi, François; Trunfio, Giuseppe; Crini, Grégorio

2011-10-01

136

Low effluent processing in the pulp and paper industry: Electrodialysis for continuous selective chloride removal  

SciTech Connect

Pollution prevention is currently a major focus of the United States pulp and paper industry. Significant process changes are inevitable to implement low effluent processing. The kraft pulping process is prevalent for the production of wood pulp. About 50 million tons of wood pulp are produced annually in the United States alone using the kraft process. Water consumption is currently roughly between 30 and 200 m{sup 3} of water per ton of air dry bleached kraft pulp. In-process recycling of water is now being implemented by many mills to reduce the use of increasingly scarce water resources and to reduce the need for waste-water treatment. Mass balance considerations and industrial experience show that nonprocess elements, which are detrimental to the kraft process, such as chloride and potassium, will quickly build up once water use is significantly reduced. High concentrations of chloride and potassium can cause corrosion and lead to more frequent mill shutdowns due to fouling of heat exchanger surfaces in the kraft recovery furnace. Electrodialysis will monovalent selective anion and cation exchange membranes was explored here to selectively remove chlorine as sodium and potassium chloride from a feed stream with very high ionic strength. Experiments with model solutions and extended tests with the actual pulp mill materials were performed. Very good selectivities and current efficiencies were observed for chloride over sulfate. The outstanding performance of the process with actual mill materials containing organic and inorganic contamination shows great promise for rapid transfer to the pilot scale. This work is an example of the usefulness of membrane separations as a kidney in low effluent industrial processing.

Pfromm, P.H. [Institute of Paper Science and Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

1997-12-01

137

Identification of a new N-nitrosodimethylamine precursor in sewage containing industrial effluents.  

PubMed

N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), a potential human carcinogen, is known to be a disinfection byproduct of chloramination and ozonation. NDMA is formed during ozonation at water purification plants in the Yodo River basin, a major drinking water source in western Japan. An NDMA precursor, 1,1,5,5-tetramethylcarbohydrazide (TMCH) was identified in sewage containing industrial effluents via ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry, as well as nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The mean of the NDMA molar formation yield of TMCH upon ozonation in four water matrices was 140%. TMCH removal was low during biological treatment processes at a sewage treatment plant. The mean TMCH contribution to total NDMA precursors upon ozonation of the primary, secondary, and final effluents of the sewage treatment plant in January and February of 2014 was 43-72%, 51-72%, and 42-60%, respectively, while the contributions of 4,4'-hexamethylenebis(1,1-dimethylsemicarbazide) and 1,1,1',1'-tetramethyl-4,4'-(methylene-di-p-phenylene)disemicarbazide, two other known NDMA precursors, were limited to 0.6% and 6.9%, respectively. Thus, TMCH was identified as the primary precursor yielding NDMA upon ozonation in the Yodo River basin. PMID:25184404

Kosaka, Koji; Asami, Mari; Ohkubo, Keiko; Iwamoto, Takuji; Tanaka, Yasuo; Koshino, Hiroyuki; Echigo, Shinya; Akiba, Michihiro

2014-10-01

138

Application of Trapa bipinosa for the treatment of pulp and paper industry effluent.  

PubMed

The ability of aquatic plants to absorb, translocate and concentrate metals has led to the development of various plant-based treatment systems. The potential to accumulate metals like iron, nickel, manganese and copper by Trapa bipinosa was assessed by subjecting them to different effluent concentrations of pulp and paper industry under laboratory conditions. Trapa showed the ability to accumulate substantial amounts of the metals during a short span of one week. When the plants were grown in different concentrations they caused significant reduction in various parameters like dissolved oxygen, biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total alkalinity total hardness, chloride and sulphate. While there was an increase in biomass, no visible phytotoxic symptoms were shown by treated plants. PMID:20136044

Kousar, Hina; Puttaiah, E T

2009-09-01

139

Effluent treatment in the textile industry: excluding dyes. January 1983-January 1989 (Citations from World Textile Abstracts). Report for January 1983-January 1989  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile-industry effluents. Effluents that contain dyes are discussed in a separate bibliography. Recovery of lubricants, lye, sizing agents, polyvinyl alcohol, zinc, dirt, and heat from textile effluents are discussed. Air and water pollution control technology that is effective in treating textile effluents is discussed. Effluents from synthetic-fiber manufacture and wool-scouring processes are emphasized. (This updated bibliography contains 300 citations, 84 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

Not Available

1989-02-01

140

COPPER REMOVAL FROM AN EFFLUENT GENERATED BY A PLASTICS CHROMIUM?PLATING INDUSTRY USING A ROTATING CYLINDER ELECTRODE (RCE) REACTOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work shows the application of a rotating cylinder electrode (RCE) in the removal of Cu(II) content from an effluent generated by a plastics chromium?plating industry, on the laboratory scale; in particular, it deals with rinse water from the electrolytic copper process. This process was designed to convert cupric ions in solution to metal powder. The generation of metal powders

F. F. Rivera; I. González; J. L. Nava

2008-01-01

141

Wastewater Treatment Costs and Outlays in Organic Petrochemicals: Standards Versus Taxes With Methodology Suggestions for Marginal Cost Pricing and Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the methodology recommended by Baumol and Oates, comparable estimates of wastewater treatment costs and industry outlays are developed for effluent standard and effluent tax instruments for pollution abatement in five hypothetical organic petrochemicals (olefins) plants. The computational method uses a nonlinear simulation model for wastewater treatment to estimate the system state inputs for linear programming cost estimation, following a practice developed in a National Science Foundation (Research Applied to National Needs) study at the University of Houston and used to estimate Houston Ship Channel pollution abatement costs for the National Commission on Water Quality. Focusing on best practical and best available technology standards, with effluent taxes adjusted to give nearly equal pollution discharges, shows that average daily treatment costs (and the confidence intervals for treatment cost) would always be less for the effluent tax than for the effluent standard approach. However, industry's total outlay for these treatment costs, plus effluent taxes, would always be greater for the effluent tax approach than the total treatment costs would be for the effluent standard approach. Thus the practical necessity of showing smaller outlays as a prerequisite for a policy change toward efficiency dictates the need to link the economics at the microlevel with that at the macrolevel. Aggregation of the plants into a programming modeling basis for individual sectors and for the economy would provide a sound basis for effective policy reform, because the opportunity costs of the salient regulatory policies would be captured. Then, the government's policymakers would have the informational insights necessary to legislate more efficient environmental policies in light of the wealth distribution effects.

Thompson, Russell G.; Singleton, F. D., Jr.

1986-04-01

142

Analytic prognostic for petrochemical pipelines  

E-print Network

Pipelines tubes are part of vital mechanical systems largely used in petrochemical industries. They serve to transport natural gases or liquids. They are cylindrical tubes and are submitted to the risks of corrosion due to high PH concentrations of the transported liquids in addition to fatigue cracks due to the alternation of pressure-depression of gas along the time, initiating therefore in the tubes body micro-cracks that can propagate abruptly to lead to failure. The development of the prognostic process for such systems increases largely their performance and their availability, as well decreases the global cost of their missions. Therefore, this paper deals with a new prognostic approach to improve the performance of these pipelines. Only the first mode of crack, that is, the opening mode, is considered.

Abdo Abou Jaoude; Seifedine Kadry; Khaled El-Tawil; Hassan Noura; Mustapha Ouladsine

2012-12-25

143

Effect of lead on growth, protein and biosorption capacity of Bacillus cereus isolated from industrial effluent.  

PubMed

A bacterial strain (Bacillus cereus) with the ability to grow under conditions of high concentrations of lead was isolated from the industrial effluent collected from Peenya Industrial Area, Bangalore. The effect of lead on growth, protein content and lead biosorption capacity of Bacillus cereus was investigated. The results revealed that with increase in lead concentration (100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 mg I(-1)) there was a decrease in growth, protein content (10.6, 8.2, 6.7, 3.8 and 1.9 mg g(-1) d. wt.) and lead biosorption (90.3, 57.8, 48.94, 31.3 and 22.24%) Bacillus cereus, signifying toxic effect of lead on the bacterial strain. Plasmid DNA was isolated from Bacillus cereus to study its resistance mechanism. The size of the plasmid was approximately 33kb. Transformation results suggest that lead resistance gene may be present on the chromosomal DNA ratherthan the plasmid DNA as the transformants did not show lead resistance. PMID:24665770

Murthy, Shruti; Bali, Geetha; Sarangi, S K

2014-03-01

144

Biosorptive Removal of Ni(Ii) from Wastewater and Industrial Effluent  

PubMed Central

The objective of the present work was to investigate the removal of Ni(II) by the fresh biomass (FBM) and chemically treated leached biomass (LBM) of Calotropis procera. The scope of the work included screening of the biosorbents for their metal uptake potential, batch equilibrium, column mode removal studies and kinetic studies at varying pH (2–6), contact time, biosorbent dosages (1–25 g/L) and initial metal ion concentration (5–500 mg/L). The development of batch kinetic model and determination of order, desorption studies, column studies were investigated. It was observed that pH had marked effect on the Ni(II) uptake. Langmuir and Freundlich models were used to correlate equilibrium data on sorption of Ni(II) metallic ion by using both FBM and LBM at 28°C and pH 3 and different coefficients were calculated. It was found that both biomasses were statistically significant fit for Freundlich model. The biomass was successfully used for removal nickel from synthetic and industrial effluents and the technique appears industrially applicable and viable. PMID:18180544

Pandey, Piyush Kant; Choubey, Shweta; Verma, Yashu; Pandey, Madhurima; Kalyan Kamal, S. S.; Chandrashekhar, K.

2007-01-01

145

Assessment of acrylamide degradation potential of Pseudomonas aeruginosa BAC-6 isolated from industrial effluent.  

PubMed

Acrylamide finds diverse industrial applications but is considered an environmental threat because of its neurotoxic, carcinogenic, and teratogenic effects. Certain bacteria enzymatically degrade acrylamide to acrylic acid and ammonia. The present investigation was carried out to isolate and identify an acrylamide-degrading bacterium from industrial effluent. Bacterial growth and extent of acrylamide degradation in the presence of different acrylamide concentrations, nutrients, varied range of pH, and temperature were analyzed. Among the eight acrylamide-degrading isolates, isolate BAC-6 demonstrated the highest degradation, and based upon the partial 16S rDNA sequencing, it was identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. P. aeruginosa BAC-6 grew over a wide range of acrylamide concentrations, but the highest degradation was recorded at 500 mg/L concentration with concomitant cell growth. Among the carbon supplements, mannitol supported the highest growth and degradation. Maximum degradation was reported at neutral pH. A mesophilic temperature range (25-40 °C) facilitated conducive bacterial growth followed by degradation. The highest degradation and bacterial growth were observed at 30 and 35 °C, respectively. Thus, it could be inferred from the present investigation that cultural conditions strongly affected the degradation potential of P. aeruginosa BAC-6 and advocated the utilization of the isolate in bioremediation of sites polluted with acrylamide. PMID:24771288

Chandrashekar, Vijayashree; Chandrashekar, Chandrika; Shivakumar, Rajath; Bhattacharya, Sourav; Das, Arijit; Gouda, Bhaskar; Rajan, Subbaramiah Sundara

2014-07-01

146

Long-term evaluation of lethal and sublethal toxicity of industrial effluents using Daphnia magna and Moina macrocopa.  

PubMed

Acute toxicity and feeding rate inhibition of effluent from a wastewater treatment plant and its adjacent stream water on Daphnia magna and Moina macrocopa were comparatively studied. The acute toxicity of the final effluent (FE) fluctuated greatly over the sampling period from January to August 2009. Toxicity identification results of the FE in July 2009 showed that Cu originating from the Fenton's reagent was likely a key toxicant. In addition, the feeding rate of both species was still inhibited by the FEs in which acute toxicity was not observed. These findings indicate that the feeding response would be a useful tool for monitoring sublethal effects of industrial effluents. For the acute toxicity test, M. macrocopa was more sensitive than D. magna, but the opposite result was true in the case of the feeding rate inhibition. These suggest that different species have different sensitivities to toxic chemicals and to the test methods. PMID:20211525

Yi, Xianliang; Kang, Sung-Wook; Jung, Jinho

2010-06-15

147

Energy Philosophy in Prospective Petrochemical Projects  

E-print Network

, it is convenient to consider the modem ethylene plant process scheme to illustrate the concept of energy design philosophy. Process designers of ethylene plants have to be very aware of the local energy economics, because the energy-related options available.... ETHYLENE Ethylene is the basic "building block" for a vast range of plastics, rubbers, synthetic fibers and other petrochemical ingredients of the modem industrialized world. Ethylene plants frequently co-produce other key compounds such as propylene...

Wallsgrove, C.

148

Analysis of inlet and outlet industrial wastewater effluents by means of benchtop total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry.  

PubMed

The monitoring of heavy metals in industrial waste water effluents is an important activity in many laboratories. Of special interest is the screening of elemental composition of inlet effluents and quantitative analysis of outlet effluents to study the efficiency of chemical treatment process to eliminate metals and to comply with current established concentration limits, respectively. In this sense, fast analytical methodologies which entail simple sample preparation are desired. In the present work, the possibilities and drawbacks of a benchtop total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (TXRF) for the rapid and simple determination of some inorganic impurities (As, Ba, Cd, Cu, Cr, Sn, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn) in inlet and outlet industrial waste water effluents from metallurgical and tanning leather factories have been tested. An evaluation of different simple sample treatments is presented and it is followed by a discussion of spectral and chemical matrix effects when dealing with this type of samples. Analytical figures of merit such as accuracy, precision and limits of detection have also been carefully studied. Finally, the data obtained by direct TXRF analysis has been compared to that obtained by ICP-OES/ICP-MS after a microwave digestion. PMID:20471056

Marguí, E; Tapias, J C; Casas, A; Hidalgo, M; Queralt, I

2010-06-01

149

Treatment of combined bleaching effluent by membrane filtration technology for system closure in paper industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study has been carried out for the treatment of combined bleaching effluent of an Indian pulp and paper mill. The Chlorination, extraction, Hypo-1 & Hypo-2 (CEHH) sequence is being used for the bleaching of hardwood pulp in the mill. Effluent was treated by the Ultrafiltration (UF), Nanofiltration (NF) and Reverse Osmosis (RO). Thin film composite spiral-wound modules, having crass

Sudheer Kumar Shukla; Vivek Kumar; M. C. Bansal

2010-01-01

150

Removal and recovery of heavy metals by bacteria isolated from activated sludge treating industrial effluents and municipal wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of nineteen metal-resistant and non-resistant bacteria from activated sludge treating both metal-contaminated industrial effluents and municipal wastewater were isolated and identified. These included both Gram-positive (e.g. Micrococcus) and Gram-negative (e.g. Pseudomonas) bacteria. The biosorption capacity of these strains for five different heavy metals (copper, nickel, zinc, lead and chromium) was determined at pH 5 and initial metal concentration

W. C. Leung; M. F. Wong; H. Chua; W. Lo; P. H. F. Yu; C. K. Leung

151

Assessment of the effluent quality from a gold mining industry in Ghana.  

PubMed

The physical and chemical qualities of the process effluent and the tailings dam wastewater of AngloGold-Ashanti Limited, a gold mining company in Ghana, were studied from June to September, 2010. The process effluent from the gold extraction plant contains high amounts of suspended solids and is therefore highly turbid. Arsenic, copper and cyanide were identified as the major pollutants in the process effluent with average concentrations of 10.0, 3.1 and 21.6 mg?L(-1), respectively. Arsenic, copper, iron and free cyanide (CN(-)) concentrations in the process effluent exceeded the Ghana EPA discharge limits; therefore, it is necessary to treat the process effluent before it can be discharged into the environment. Principal component analysis of the data indicated that the process effluent characteristics were influenced by the gold extraction process as well as the nature of the gold-bearing ore processed. No significant correlation was observed between the wastewater characteristics themselves, except for the dissolved oxygen and the biochemical oxygen demand. The process effluent is fed to the Sansu tailings dam, which removes 99.9 % of the total suspended solids and 99.7 % of the turbidity; but copper, arsenic and cyanide concentrations were still high. The effluent produced can be classified as inorganic with a high load of non-biodegradable compounds. It was noted that, though the Sansu tailings dam stores the polluted effluent from the gold extraction plant, there will still be serious environmental problems in the event of failure of the dam. PMID:23179219

Acheampong, Mike A; Paksirajan, Kannan; Lens, Piet N L

2013-06-01

152

Efficient solid-phase extraction procedures for trace enrichment of priority phenols from industrial effluents with high total organic carbon content  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polymeric solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges and Speedisks were used to extract 17 phenols from HPLC-grade water, tap water, river water and industrial effluents. With SPE cartridges, recoveries between 60 and 120% were obtained for waters with a total organic carbon (TOC) content below 20 mg C\\/l. However, when extracting industrial effluent waters with higher TOC values (75 mg C\\/l), only

S??lvia Lacorte; Daniel Fraisse; Damià Barceló

1999-01-01

153

Regulatory impact assessment of proposed effluent guidelines and NESHAP for the pulp, paper, and paperboard industry. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The report has been prepared to comply with Executive Order 12866, which requires that federal agencies assess costs and benefits of each significant rule they propose or promulgate. The pulp and paper industry is the eighth largest manufacturing industry in the U.S. in terms of the value of goods shipped and third among the nondurables sector in sales. The products of this industry are used every day and involve many aspects of our lives. Approximately 200 companies are engaged in the manufacture of pulp, paper, and paperboard in the United States. These companies own and operate 565 facilities in 42 states. The pulp, paper, and paperboard industry is one of the largest users of water in the U.S.; because large quantities of water are used in making pulp and paper products, these mills recycle, treat and discharge large quantities of effluent water. The main categories of aquatic pollutants found in pulp and paper mill effluent are conventional pollutants, such as biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), and toxic pollutants such as chlorinated compounds. Conventional pollution abatement in the U.S. paper industry has focused on reducing solids and BOD.

Not Available

1993-11-01

154

Biogas production from water hyacinth and channel grass used for phytoremediation of industrial effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reports on the biogas production from water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and channel grass (Vallisneria spiralis) employed separately for phytoremediation of lignin and metal-rich pulp and paper mill and highly acidic distillery effluents. These plants eventually grow well in diluted effluent up to 40% (i.e., 2.5-times dilution with deionized water) and often take up metals and toxic materials from

V Singhal; J. P. N Rai

2003-01-01

155

Evaluation of changes in effluent quality from industrial complexes on the Korean nationwide scale using a self-organizing map.  

PubMed

One of the major issues related to the environment in the 21st century is sustainable development. The innovative economic growth policy has supported relatively successful economic development, but poor environmental conservation efforts, have consequently resulted in serious water quality pollution issues. Hence, assessments of water quality and health are fundamental processes towards conserving and restoring aquatic ecosystems. In this study, we characterized spatial and temporal changes in water quality (specifically physico-chemical variables plus priority and non-priority pollutants) of discharges from industrial complexes on a national scale in Korea. The data were provided by the Water Quality Monitoring Program operated by the Ministry of Environment, Korea and were measured from 1989 to 2008 on a monthly basis at 61 effluent monitoring sites located at industrial complexes. Analysis of monthly and annual changes in water quality, using the seasonal Mann-Kendall test, indicated an improvement in water quality, which was inferred from a continuous increase in dissolved oxygen and decrease in other water quality factors. A Self-Organizing Map, which is an unsupervised artificial neural network, also indicated an improvement of effluent water quality, by showing spatial and temporal differences in the effluent water quality as well as in the occurrence of priority pollutants. Finally, our results suggested that continued long-term monitoring is necessary to establish plans and policies for wastewater management and health assessment. PMID:22690190

Bae, Mi-Jung; Kim, Jun-Su; Park, Young-Seuk

2012-04-01

156

Decolorization of salt-alkaline effluent with industrial reactive dyes by laccase-producing Basidiomycetes strains.  

PubMed

The discharge of highly coloured synthetic dye effluents into rivers and lakes is harmful to the water bodies, and therefore, intensive researches have been focussed on the decolorization of wastewater by biological, physical or chemical treatments. In the present study, 12 basidiomycetes strains from the genus Pleurotus, Trametes, Lentinus, Peniophora, Pycnoporus, Rigidoporus, Hygrocybe and Psilocybe were evaluated for decolorization of the reactive dyes Cibacron Brilliant Blue H-GR and Cibacron Red FN-2BL, both in solid and liquid media. Among the evaluated fungi, seven showed great ability to decolorize the synthetic textile effluent, both in vivo (74-77%) or in vitro (60-74%), and laccase was the main ligninolytic enzyme involved on dyes decolorization. Pleurotus ostreatus, Trametes villosa and Peniophora cinerea reduced near to 60% of the effluent colour after only 1 h of treatment. The decolorization results were still improved by establishing the nitrogen source and amount to be used during the fungal strains cultivation in synthetic medium previous their action on the textile effluent, with yeast extract being a better nitrogen source than ammonium tartarate. These results contribute for the development of an effective microbiological process for decolorization of dye effluents with reduced time of treatment. PMID:23350659

Moreira-Neto, S L; Mussatto, S I; Machado, K M G; Milagres, A M F

2013-04-01

157

The Sequential Application of Macroalgal Biosorbents for the Bioremediation of a Complex Industrial Effluent  

PubMed Central

Fe-treated biochar and raw biochar produced from macroalgae are effective biosorbents of metalloids and metals, respectively. However, the treatment of complex effluents that contain both metalloid and metal contaminants presents a challenging scenario. We test a multiple-biosorbent approach to bioremediation using Fe-biochar and biochar to remediate both metalloids and metals from the effluent from a coal-fired power station. First, a model was derived from published data for this effluent to predict the biosorption of 21 elements by Fe-biochar and biochar. The modelled outputs were then used to design biosorption experiments using Fe-biochar and biochar, both simultaneously and in sequence, to treat effluent containing multiple contaminants in excess of water quality criteria. The waste water was produced during ash disposal at an Australian coal-fired power station. The application of Fe-biochar and biochar, either simultaneously or sequentially, resulted in a more comprehensive remediation of metalloids and metals compared to either biosorbent used individually. The most effective treatment was the sequential use of Fe-biochar to remove metalloids from the waste water, followed by biochar to remove metals. Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn were reduced to the lowest concentration following the sequential application of the two biosorbents, and their final concentrations were predicted by the model. Overall, 17 of the 21 elements measured were remediated to, or below, the concentrations that were predicted by the model. Both metalloids and metals can be remediated from complex effluent using biosorbents with different characteristics but derived from a single feedstock. Furthermore, the extent of remediation can be predicted for similar effluents using additive models. PMID:25061756

Kidgell, Joel T.; de Nys, Rocky; Paul, Nicholas A.; Roberts, David A.

2014-01-01

158

Risk assessment of domestic and industrial effluents unloaded into a freshwater environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ecotoxicologic study was performed to assess the environmental status of the Luján River. It is an important freshwater system in the northeast of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. Surface waters (SWs) and liquids effluents (LEs), before they reached the river, and sediments were assessed via acute toxicity screening using a battery of tests with native species. Additionally, the presence, in

W. D. Di Marzio; M. Sáenz; J. Alberdi; M. Tortorelli; Galassi Silvana

2005-01-01

159

Combined physical-chemical and biological treatment of poorly biodegradable industrial effluents.  

PubMed

Effluents from small and medium sized chemical plants may contain significant amounts of poorly biodegradable aromatic compounds, which could negatively affect water quality and public health. This is a key environmental issue, particularly in areas where effluents are discharged into drinking water sources. Unfortunately, conventional biological treatment may not be able to meet discharge standards, and combined systems should be implemented. In this context, this paper presents experimental results on the application of a combined sequential ozonation-activated carbon-biological system to treat effluents containing chlorinated aromatic contaminants from chlorine based pulp bleaching. The experimental system consisted of an ozone bubble column reactor (0.3 dm3), an activated carbon fixed bed reactor (0.2 dm3), and an aerobic bioreactor (20 dm3). Ozone was produced from pure O2 using a generator rated at 2 mmol O3 h(-1). The bleaching effluent was pretreated and fed into the aerated sequencing batch bioreactor containing preconditioned biological sludge (3-4 g VSS dm(-3)), and cultured for 24 h. Samples of raw and treated effluents were assayed for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic carbon (TOC), total phenols, and adsorbable organic halogens (AOX), using standard techniques. The presence of potential genotoxic activity in untreated and treated samples was assessed using the Ames tests. Results show that biological treatment of raw samples could not remove mutagenic activity on its own. On the other hand, ozonation followed by activated carbon treatment and biological treatment successfully removed genotoxicity in all cases. Reductions in BOD, COD, TOC, AOX, and phenols by biological treatment increased when samples were pretreated with ozone/activated carbon. PMID:14524674

González, Patricia; Zaror, Claudio; Carrasco, Virginia; Mondaca, Maria Angelica; Mansilla, Hector

2003-01-01

160

Enhanced removal of arsenic from a highly laden industrial effluent using a combined coprecipitation/nano-adsorption process.  

PubMed

Effective arsenic removal from highly laden industrial wastewater is an important but challenging task. Here, a combined coprecipitation/nano-adsorption process, with ferric chloride and calcium chloride as coprecipitation agents and polymer-based nanocomposite as selective adsorbent, has been validated for arsenic removal from tungsten-smelting wastewater. On the basis of operating optimization, a binary FeCl3 (520 mg/L)-CaCl2 (300 mg/L) coprecipitation agent could remove more than 93% arsenic from the wastewater. The resulting precipitate has proved environmental safety based on leaching toxicity test. Fixed-bed column packed with zirconium or ferric-oxide-loaded nanocomposite was employed for further elimination of arsenic in coprecipitated effluent, resulting in a significant decrease of arsenic (from 0.96 to less than 0.5 mg/L). The working capacity of zirconium-loaded nanocomposite was 220 bed volumes per run, much higher than that of ferric-loaded nanocomposite (40 bed volumes per run). The exhausted zirconium-loaded nanocomposite could be efficiently in situ regenerated with a binary NaOH-NaCl solution for reuse without any significant capacity loss. The results validated the combinational coprecipitation/nano-adsorption process to be a potential alternative for effective arsenic removal from highly laden industrial effluent. PMID:24504774

Jiang, Yingnan; Hua, Ming; Wu, Bian; Ma, Hongrui; Pan, Bingcai; Zhang, Quanxing

2014-05-01

161

Ecological effects of contaminated sediments following a decade of no industrial effluents emissions: The Sediment Quality Triad approach.  

PubMed

Sediments contaminated by industrial effluents a decade after the emissions were stopped were statistically compared to sediments from reference channels, using the Sediment Quality Triad approach. The metals and metalloid concentrations, mainly Hg and As, increased towards the upper part of a contaminated channel, where the industrial discharge was located. A bioaccumulation assay with Scrobicularia plana showed the highest bioaccumulation and mortality in the most contaminated sediments and bioaccumulation strongly correlated with the sediments metals and metalloid concentrations. The resident macroinvertebrate community also showed significant differences between the contaminated and reference channels, in the upper areas, where the community was most affected. All three elements of the quality triad rejected the null hypothesis and indicated that despite the emissions ceasing in 2004, sediments remain contaminated by high levels of metals and metalloid, leading to bioaccumulation and with severe community level consequences. PMID:25152187

Lopes, Marta Lobão; Rodrigues, Ana Maria; Quintino, Victor

2014-10-15

162

Purification of effluent waters from industrial enterprises using a biosorption technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A technology for purifying effluent waters that uses carbonate sludge from thermal power stations as sorbent is considered. Initial experimental data are presented, as well as their approximation and correlation analysis. A model is used for mathematically describing the biosorption process, which is constructed on the assumption that diffusion is the main process that goes in the course of sorbing pollutants by sludge and biologically oxidizing them by active sludge.

Nikolaeva, L. A.; Nedzvetskaya, R. Ya.

2012-03-01

163

Comparing the presence, potency, and potential hazard of genotoxins extracted from a broad range of industrial effluents  

SciTech Connect

The genotoxicity of dichloromethane extracts from effluent samples collected from 42 industries, including pulp and paper, chemical manufacturing, metal refining, metal surface treatment, and municipal waste water treatment, was examined. Genotoxicity of extracts was found to be related to sample type, industry type, metabolic activation reduced genotoxic potency values per equivalent unit or original sample revealed that effluent particulate particulate matter is on average, almost four orders of magnitude more potent than aqueous filtrates. Suspended particulate matter from organic and inorganic chemical production, petroleum and metal refining, and from metal surface treatment facilities, provided extracts significantly more genotoxic than those from sewage treatment and pulp and paper facilities. Aqueous filtrates from inorganic and organic chemical production, metal refining, and surface treatment facilities were significantly more genotoxic than those emitted by aluminum and petroleum refineries. Overall, the results suggest that pulp and paper mills emit mostly soluble genotoxins, while petroleum and aluminum refineries emit predominantly particle-associated genotoxins. Predicted Ames mutagenic potency values corresponded reasonably well with industrial waste mutagenic potency values published by other researchers. Genotoxic loading values were calculated to quantify the total daily genotoxic emission and potential hazard of each industry. Highest loading were from sewage treatment, pulp and paper, and metal refining facilities. Highest loading values were the SOS genotoxic equivalent of over 30 kg of benzo(a)pyrene per day. The ultimate hazard of genotoxic emissions is not known. Actual hazard assessment is complicated by a poor understanding assessment is complicated by a poor understanding of the postemission behavior of genotoxins. Exposure of downstream biota is likely substantial. 130 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

White, P.; Rasmussen, J.B. [McGill Univ., Montreal (Canada)] [McGill Univ., Montreal (Canada); Blaise, C. [St. Lawrence Center, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)] [St. Lawrence Center, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

1996-12-31

164

In-situ ionic liquid-dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method to determine endocrine disrupting phenols in seawaters and industrial effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have evaluated an in-situ ionic liquid-dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction procedure for the determination of six\\u000a endocrine disrupting phenols in seawaters and industrial effluents using HPLC. The optimized method requires 38 ?L of the\\u000a water-soluble ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, and 5 mL of seawater or industrial effluent. After appropriate\\u000a work-up, a drop (~10 ?L) of an ionic liquid is formed that contains the analytes

Jessica López-Darias; Verónica Pino; Juan H. Ayala; Ana M. Afonso

165

Impact of biodegradation on the potential bioaccumulation and toxicity of refinery effluents.  

PubMed

Whole effluent assessments (WEA) are being investigated as potential tools for controlling aqueous industrial discharges and minimizing environmental impact. The present study investigated how toxicity and the presence of potentially bioaccumulative substances altered when refinery effluents were subjected to biodegradation tests. Three petrochemical effluents were assessed, two freshwater and one saline, and subjected to two different types of biodegradation tests, resembling either a ready style (dissolved organic carbon (DOC)-die away) or an inherent style (Zahn-Wellens) test and the toxicity and potential to bioaccumulate parameters were re-analysed during and after biodegradation. A high proportion of the potentially bioaccumulative substances (PBS) in these effluents was easily biodegradable. Biodegradation not only lowered the PBS concentration but also toxicity. Appropriate controls are required however, as some increases in toxicity were observed after 4 h. In the present study, six other petrochemical effluents were also assessed for their PBS content and toxicity to increase the understanding of the relationship between PBS and toxicity. The results showed that the PBS concentrations in these samples were lower than the estimated benchmarks of acute toxicity for algae, fish and crustacean, although two samples were above the critical PBS values for chronic narcotic toxicity for Daphnia magna, which support the assumption that narcotic effects are mainly responsible for the observed toxicity in refinery effluents. It can be concluded that for facilities processing petroleum products that the measurement of PBS is a suitable surrogate for toxicity tests at the screening stage. Finally, the combination of persistency, bioaccumulation, and toxicity tests was shown to have additional value compared to an approach using only toxicity tests. PMID:21796668

Leonards, Pim E G; Postma, Jaap F; Comber, Mike; Whale, Graham; Stalter, George

2011-10-01

166

Production of bioethanol from effluents of the dairy industry by Kluyveromyces marxianus.  

PubMed

Whey and scotta are effluents coming from cheese and ricotta processing respectively. Whey contains minerals, lipids, lactose and proteins; scotta contains mainly lactose. Whey can be reused in several ways, such as protein extraction or animal feeding, while nowadays scotta is just considered as a waste; moreover, due to very high volumes of whey produced in the world, it poses serious environmental and disposal problems. Alternative destinations of these effluents, such as biotechnological transformations, can be a way to reach both goals of improving the added value of the agroindustrial processes and reducing their environmental impact. In this work we investigated the way to produce bioethanol from lactose of whey and scotta and to optimize the fermentation yields. Kluyveromyces marxianus var. marxianus was chosen as lactose-fermenting yeast. Batch, aerobic and anaerobic, fermentations and semicontinuous fermentations in dispersed phase and in packed bed reactor were carried out of row whey, scotta and mix 1:1 whey:scotta at a laboratory scale. Different temperatures (28-40°C) were also tested to check whether the thermotolerance of the chosen yeast could be useful to improve the ethanol yield. The best performances were reached at low temperatures (28°C); high temperatures are also compatible with good ethanol yields in whey fermentations, but not in scotta fermentations. Semicontinuous fermentations in dispersed phase gave the best fermentation performances, particularly with scotta. Then both effluents can be considered suitable for ethanol production. The good yields obtained from scotta allow us to transform this waste in a source. PMID:23201075

Zoppellari, Francesca; Bardi, Laura

2013-09-25

167

Whole effluent assessment of industrial wastewater for determination of bat compliance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim and scope  The applicability of the Whole Effluent Assessment concept for the proof of compliance with the “best available techniques”\\u000a has been analysed with paper mill wastewater from Germany by considering its persistency (P), potentially bio-accumulative\\u000a substances (B) and toxicity (T).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  Twenty wastewater samples from 13 paper mills using different types of cellulose fibres as raw materials

Stefan Gartiser; Christoph Hafner; Christoph Hercher; Kerstin Kronenberger-Schäfer; Albrecht Paschke

2010-01-01

168

Identification of toxicity variations in a stream affected by industrial effluents using Daphnia magna and Ulva pertusa.  

PubMed

A comprehensive toxicity monitoring study from August to October 2011 using Daphnia magna and Ulva pertusa was conducted to identify the cause of toxicity in a stream receiving industrial effluents (IEs) from a textile and leather products manufacturing complex. Acute toxicity toward both species was observed consistently in IE, which influenced toxicity of downstream (DS) water. A toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) confirmed that both Cu and Zn were key toxicants in the IE, and that the calculated toxicity based on Cu and Zn concentrations well simulated the variation in the observed toxicity (r(2)=0.9216 and 0.7256 for D. magna and U. pertusa, respectively). In particular, U. pertusa was sensitive enough to detect acute toxicity in DS and was useful to identify Zn as a key toxicant. Activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase, and malondialdehyde were induced significantly in D. magna, although acute toxicity was not observed. In addition, higher levels of antioxidant enzymes were expressed in DS than upstream waters, likely due to the Cu and Zn from IE. Overall, TIE procedures with a battery of bioassays were effective for identifying the cause of lethal and sub-lethal toxicity in effluent and stream water. PMID:23892313

Yoo, Jisu; Ahn, Byeongyong; Oh, Jeong-Ju; Han, Taejun; Kim, Woo-Keun; Kim, Sanghoon; Jung, Jinho

2013-09-15

169

Fully automated measuring equipment for aqueous boron and its application to online monitoring of industrial process effluents  

SciTech Connect

Fully automated measuring equipment for aqueous boron (referred to as the online boron monitor) was developed on the basis of a rapid potentiometric determination method using a commercial BF{sub 4}{sup -} ion-selective electrode (ISE). The equipment can measure boron compounds with concentration ranging from a few to several hundred mg/L, and the measurement is completed in less than 20 min without any pretreatment of the sample. In the monitor, a series of operations for the measurement, i.e., sampling and dispensing of the sample, addition of the chemicals, acquisition and processing of potentiometric data, rinsing of the measurement cell, and calibration of the BF{sub 4}{sup -} ISE, is automated. To demonstrate the performance, we installed the monitor in full-scale coal-fired power plants and measured the effluent from a flue gas desulfurization unit. The boron concentration in the wastewater varied significantly depending on the type of coal and the load of power generation. An excellent correlation (R{sup 2} = 0.987) was obtained in the measurements between the online boron monitor and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry, which proved that the developed monitor can serve as a useful tool for managing boron emission in industrial process effluent. 22 refs., 6 figs.

Seiichi Ohyama; Keiko Abe; Hitoshi Ohsumi; Hirokazu Kobayashi; Naotsugu Miyazaki; Koji Miyadera; Kin-ichi Akasaka [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Chiba (Japan)

2009-06-15

170

Understanding the petrochemical cycle: Part 2  

SciTech Connect

The manager of a petrochemical enterprise, to survive the competitive 1990s, must have a good understanding of the industry's cyclicality, and a good grasp of coping alternatives. To select the best strategies and tactics calls for a familiarity with such concepts as the hockey-stick profile for profitability and the experience curve for cost reductions at both ends of the supply curve. The manager must carefully weigh advantages of build-and-scrap policies and differentiation vs. diversification and recognize the pitfalls associated with the prisoner's dilemma. With these elements well understood, the manager is in an improved position to cope with the industry's boom-and-bust characteristics. The paper discusses practicalities, the prisoner's dilemma in game theory, individual company actions, leveraging cyclicability, differentiation and diversification/integration, improvement of competitiveness, and structure as part of the problem.

Sedriks, W. (SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States))

1994-04-01

171

Aplastic anemia in a petrochemical factory worker.  

PubMed Central

A petrochemical worker with aplastic anemia was referred to our hospital. He worked in a petroleum resin-producing factory and had been exposed to low-level benzene while packaging the powder resin and pouring lime into a deactivation tank. According to the yearly environmental survey of the working area, the airborne benzene level was approximately 0.28 ppm. Exposure to benzene, a common chemical used widely in industry, may progressively lead to pancytopenia, aplastic anemia, and leukemia. The hematotoxicity of benzene is related to the amount and duration of exposure. Most risk predictions for benzene exposures have been based on rubber workers who were exposed to high concentrations. In the petroleum industry, the concentration of benzene is relatively low, and there are disputes over the toxicity of low-level benzene because of a lack of evidence. In this paper we report the case of aplastic anemia induced by low-level benzene exposure. Images Figure 1 PMID:10504154

Baak, Y M; Ahn, B Y; Chang, H S; Kim, J H; Kim, K A; Lim, Y

1999-01-01

172

Generate clean fuels from downstream petrochemical operations  

SciTech Connect

Selective catalytic hydrogenations have become important tools in optimizing the overall economics of a steamcracker. A variety of processes and catalysts have been developed to a high standard. In the future, steamcracker downstream processing will become even more versatile. For example, isomerization can be used to adapt utilization of the C{sub 4} and C{sub 5} streams to the ever-changing demands of the market. An example of this trend is the skeletal isomerization of n-butenes to isobutylene, which is increasingly practiced in western countries. As the worldwide petrochemical industry evolved since the 1950s, the steamcracker became the predominant source for the major raw materials upon which the industry depends today. Currently, prices for steamcracker products are at profitable levels. Selective hydrogeneration processes for steam cracker applications can generate valuable transportation fuel components and intermediates.

Polanek, P; Artrip, D.; Mueller, H.J.; Kons, G. [BASF Aktiengesellschaft, Ludwigshafen (Germany)

1996-05-01

173

Genotoxicity evaluation of effluents from textile industries of the region Fez-Boulmane, Morocco: a case study.  

PubMed

In order to investigate the biological hazard of effluents from textile industries of Fez-Boulmane region in Morocco, mutagenicity and phytotoxicity tests were performed on different biological systems. Moreover, the efficiency of a Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) system, working by activated sludge on a laboratory scale, was estimated by comparing the ecotoxicity results observed before and after wastewater treatment. Evaluation of the genotoxic potential was investigated by means of classic mutagenicity tests on D7 strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and by phytotoxicity tests on Allium sativum L., Vicia faba L. and Lactuca sativa L., estimating micronuclei presence, mitotic index and cytogenetic anomalies. The results obtained by testing untreated wastewater demonstrated major genotoxicity effects in S. cerevisiae and various levels of phytotoxicity in the three plant systems, while after SBR treatment no more ecotoxicological consequences were observed. These data confirm the effectiveness of the SBR system in removing toxic substances from textile wastewaters in Fez-Boulmane region. PMID:21840051

Giorgetti, Lucia; Talouizte, Hakima; Merzouki, Mohammed; Caltavuturo, Leonardo; Geri, Chiara; Frassinetti, Stefania

2011-11-01

174

Characterization of a phenol-degrading bacterium isolated from an industrial effluent and its potential application for bioremediation.  

PubMed

The use of native microorganisms is a useful strategy for phenol bioremediation. In the present work, a bacterial strain, named RTE1.4, was isolated from effluents of a chemical industry. The strain was able to grow at high concentrations of phenol and its derivatives, such as guaiacol, 2,4-dichlorophenol and pentachlorophenol, as well as in a medium containing industrial effluents. This bacterium was identified as Acinetobacter sp. using morphological, physiological, biochemical and 16S rRNA gene analysis. Acinetobacter sp. RTE1.4 degraded phenol (200 to 600 mg/L) at wide pH range and temperature (5-9 and 25-37 degrees C, respectively) demonstrating high adaptation ability to different conditions. The strain would metabolize phenol by the ortho-pathway since catechol 1,2-dioxygenase activity was detected. When bacteria were grown in medium containing phenol, an altered whole-cell protein pattern was observed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), with the lack of some low-molecular mass polypeptides and an increase in the relative abundance of high-molecular mass proteins after treatment. Considering that the use of native strains in bioremediation studies shows several ecological advantages and that the studied bacterium showed high tolerance and biodegradation capabilities, Acinetobacter sp. RTE1.4 could be an appropriate microorganism for improving bioremediation and biotreatment of areas polluted with phenol and/or some of its derivatives. Moreover, the establishment of the optimal growth conditions (pH, temperature, concentration of the pollutant) would provide baseline data for bulk production of the strain and its use in bioremediation processes. PMID:23530363

Paisio, Cintia E; Talano, Melina A; González, Paola S; Pajuelo-Domínguez, Eloisa; Agostini, Elizabeth

2013-01-01

175

Valve movement response of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis to metals (Cu, Hg, Cd and Zn) and phosphate industry effluents from Moroccan Atlantic coast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Valve activity was measured in the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis in response to sublethal concentrations of four metals (Hg, Cu, Zn and Cd) and two phosphate industry effluents from the Atlantic coast of Morocco. Valve movements were monitored using a proximity inductive sensor which could display all activity figures from full closure to wide opening of the shell valves. In

Mohamed Ait Fdil; Abdelfattah Mouabad; Abdelkader Outzourhit; Ali Benhra; Abdelmalek Maarouf; Jean Claude Pihan

2006-01-01

176

Method for the automated analysis of volatile organic compounds in industrial effluents with a dedicated GC\\/MS (Gas Chromatograph\\/Mass Spectrometer) System  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for the automated analysis of volatile organic compounds in industrial effluents with a dedicated GC\\/MS (Gas Chromatograph\\/Mass Spectrometer) System has been developed for priority pollutant analyses according to EPA's Verification Protocol. The method allows confirmational analysis, in which specific priority pollutants, even at low levels and in the presence of interfering compounds, are determined with a mass spectral

W. C. Schnute; D. Smith

1980-01-01

177

Effects of an industrial effluent on plant colonization and on the germination and post-germinative growth of seeds of terrestrial and aquatic plant species.  

PubMed

Major oil sands industrial companies are located in the Athabasca Oil Sands Deposit in northeastern Alberta, Canada. During the process used to extract light crude oil (via hot water digestion and flotation), gypsum is usually added to produce consolidated tails (CT) and CT release water. The vast volumes of process-treated waters (effluent) are held within large dyked tailings ponds. Toward testing viable options for reclamation, various hummock-wetlands systems have been constructed; in addition, natural wetlands (inhabited by obligate wetland plant species) have become established as a result of seeping of the effluents held within the large dyked ponds. Vegetation surveys conducted on and around the industrial site revealed that the constructed wetlands associated with the dyke drainage (effluent treated with phosphorous) and consolidated tails (CT; effluent treated with gypsum) had low biodiversity and were not invaded by many aquatic plants. Although the natural wetland was also not invaded by many aquatic species, it was found to be as diverse as the reference wetlands (i.e. off-site wetlands not exposed to the effluents). Exposure to oil sands effluents had an inhibitory effect on the germination (percent and/or rate) of several plant species (tomato, clover, wheat, rye, pea, reed canary grass, loblolly pine); clover and tomato seed germination were most affected. Two treatments in particular (effluents from the natural on-site wetland and the CT constructed wetland), delayed germination, and also led to reduced fresh weight of seedlings of tomato, wheat, clover and loblolly pine. The osmolarities of the effluents associated with the natural on-site wetland and CT constructed wetland were 712 and 728 mOs/kg, respectively; substituting these effluents with solutions of polyethylene glycol of the same osmotic potentials had a greater inhibitory effect on germination rate. The negative effects of the effluents on seed germination may account for the paucity of aquatic species that invaded the oil sands impacted wetlands. This factor will also be critical in determining the long-term feasibility of hummock-wetland systems. PMID:11843534

Crowe, A U; Plant, A L; Kermode, A R

2002-01-01

178

Sequential (anaerobic\\/aerobic) biological treatment of Dalaman SEKA Pulp and Paper Industry effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the pulp and paper industry, lignin and other color compounds are removed by chemical agents in bleaching process. Use of chlorine-based agents results in production of degradation products which include various chloro-organic derivatives. Since these new compounds are highly chlorinated, they cause a problem in the treatment of pulp and paper industry wastewaters. Chemical precipitation, lagooning, activated sludge, and

Ulas Tezel; Engin Guven; Tuba H Erguder; Goksel N Demirer

2001-01-01

179

Treatment and reuse of industrial effluents: case study of a thermal power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a study of the potential of industrial wastewater reuse in Jordan's Al Hussein thermal power station. A comprehensive review of the processes involved, industrial waste generation and water requirements was carried out, and areas of potential improvment were identified. They include a water treatment system, blow-down system, flue gas desulfurization and finding alternative process water sources such

Mousa S. Mohsen

2004-01-01

180

Performance assessment and hydrodynamic analysis of a submerged membrane bioreactor for treating dairy industrial effluent.  

PubMed

Submerged membrane bioreactor (SMBR) is a relatively advanced technology for waste water treatment that involves integrated aerobic and anaerobic biological processes with membrane filtration. In the present investigation, hydrophobic polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and hydrophilic polyacrylonitrile (PAN) hollow fiber (HF) membranes were tested in an indigenously fabricated SMBR for dairy effluent treatment under aerobic conditions using mixed microbial consortia. Effect of operating parameters such as suction pressure, degree of aeration and trans-membrane pressure (TMP) on membrane performance in terms of flux, rejection of turbidity, BOD and COD besides fouling characteristics was investigated. The observed optimum permeabilities of PVDF and PAN HF membranes were approximately 108 and 115 LMH bar(-1) with high extent of impurity removal. The rejection of COD was found to be 93% for PVDF and 91% for PAN HF membranes whereas corresponding rejection of BOD was observed to be 92% and 86%. A two-dimensional comprehensive model was developed to predict the hydrodynamic profile inside the module. Regression analysis revealed that the simulation results agreed well with experimental data. PMID:24793299

K, Praneeth; Moulik, Siddhartha; Vadthya, Pavani; Bhargava, Suresh K; Tardio, James; S, Sridhar

2014-06-15

181

Zero Liquid Discharge approach in plating industry: treatment of degreasing effluents by electrocoagulation and anodic oxidation.  

PubMed

Degreasing waste effluents issued from a surface treatment plant were treated by electrochemical techniques in an attempt to reduce COD so that clean water can be returned to the rinse bath. Electrocoagulation, both with iron and aluminium anodes, and anodic oxidation with boron doped diamond (BDD) anodes were tested. In the electrocoagulation tests, the nature of the anodes did not impact significantly the reduction of COD. Electrocoagulation showed good COD removal rates, superior to 80%, but it was not able to reduce COD down to low levels. Anodic oxidation was able to reduce COD down to discharge limits; the oxidation efficiency was superior to 50%. Economical calculations show that anodic oxidation is best used as a polishing step after electrocoagulation. The bulk of the COD would be reduced by electrocoagulation and, then, anodic oxidation would reduce COD below discharge limits. The maximum treatable flow is somewhat hindered by the small sizes of current BDD installation but it would reach 600 m(3)/year if anodic oxidation is coupled with electrocoagulation, the operational cost being 2.90 Euros /m(3). PMID:18725717

Hermon, S; Grange, D; Pellet, Y; Lloret, G; Oyonarte, S; Bosch, F; Coste, M

2008-01-01

182

Treatment of pulp and paper industry bleaching effluent by electrocoagulant process.  

PubMed

The experiments were carried out in an electrocoagulation reactor with aluminum as sacrificial electrodes. The influence of electrolysis time, current density, pH, NaCl concentration, rotational speed of the stirrer and electrode distance on reduction of color, COD and BOD were studied in detail. From the experimental results, 15 mA/cm(2) current density, pH of 7, 1 g/l NaCl, 100 rpm, 28°C temperature and 3 cm electrode distance were found to be optimum for maximum reduction of color, COD and BOD. The reduction of color, COD and BOD under the optimum condition were found to be 94%, 90% and 87% respectively. The electrode energy consumption was calculated and found to be varied from 10.1 to 12.9 kWh/m(3) depending on the operating conditions. Under optimal operating condition such as 15 mA/cm(2) current density, pH of 7, 1 g/l NaCl, 100 rpm, 28°C temperature and 3 cm electrode distance, the operating cost was found to be 1.56 US $/m(3). The experimental results proved that the electrocoagulation is a suitable method for treating bleaching plant effluents for reuse. PMID:21227578

Sridhar, R; Sivakumar, V; Prince Immanuel, V; Prakash Maran, J

2011-02-28

183

INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT AND HEALTH STATUS A CASE STUDY OF NOYYAL RIVER BASIN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial pollution has been and continues to be, a major factor causing the degradation of the environment around us, affecting the water we use, the air we breathe and the soil we live on. But of the se, pollution of water is arguably the most serious threat to current human welfare. Environmental pollution is an 'externality' in welfare economics. An

K. Govindarajalu

184

ECONOMIC IMPACT ANALYSIS OF EFFLUENT STANDARDS AND LIMITATIONS FOR THE METAL FINISHING INDUSTRY  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency issued e-fluent guidelines and limitations for the Metal Finishing Industry in June 1983. This report estimates the economic impact of pollution control costs in terms of price changes, effects profitability, potential plant closures, unem...

185

POLISHING INDUSTRIAL WASTE STREAM EFFLUENTS USING FLY ASH - NATURAL CLAY SORBENT COMBINATION  

EPA Science Inventory

A laboratory evaluation of the use of acidic and basic fly ashes, bentonite, bauxite, illite, kaolinite, zeolite, vermiculite, and activated alumina is presented for polishing a 3.8 x 10 to the 6th power liters per day waste stream from the feldspar mining and processing industry...

186

Use of chemical and biological parameters to characterize complex industrial effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hitherto, the concern for possible environmental effects due to aqueous industrial discharges has been directed toward clearly observable effects such as eutrophication and fish kills. However, the development of environmental toxicology and chemistry has made it clear that more subtle and potential long-term effects also have to be taken into account in the regulatory work. The Swedish Environment Protection Board

B. E. Bengtsson; L. Renberg

1986-01-01

187

Cogeneration Design Considerations for a Major Petrochemical Facility  

E-print Network

conditions with the State's utilities, the decision was made to size the cogeneration plant as close to the petrochemical facility energy demand as prudent equipment selec tion would allow. FUEL EFFICIENCY AND PROCESS LINKAGE The large aero derivative... gas turbines generally have a higher open cycle efficiency than the comparably sized industrial frame machines. The aero derivative machines were evaluated and rejected because the higher capital cost was not justified by the higher efficiencies...

Good, R. L.

188

Rapid analysis of effluents generated by the dairy industry for fat determination by preconcentration in nylon membranes and attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy measurement.  

PubMed

This paper describes a new approach for the determination of fat in the effluents generated by the dairy industry which is based on the retention of fat in nylon membranes and measurement of the absorbances on the membrane surface by ATR-IR spectroscopy. Different options have been evaluated for retaining fat in the membranes using milk samples of different origin and fat content. Based on the results obtained, a method is proposed for the determination of fat in effluents which involves the filtration of 1 mL of the samples through 0.45 µm nylon membranes of 13 mm diameter. The fat content is then determined by measuring the absorbance of band at 1745 cm(-1). The proposed method can be used for the direct estimation of fat at concentrations in the 2-12 mg/L interval with adequate reproducibility. The intraday precision, expressed as coefficients of variation CVs, were ? 11%, whereas the interday CVs were ? 20%. The method shows a good tolerance towards conditions typically found in the effluents generated by the dairy industry. The most relevant features of the proposed method are simplicity and speed as the samples can be characterized in a few minutes. Sample preparation does not involve either additional instrumentation (such as pumps or vacuum equipment) or organic solvents or other chemicals. Therefore, the proposed method can be considered a rapid, simple and cost-effective alternative to gravimetric methods for controlling fat content in these effluents during production or cleaning processes. PMID:24401379

Moliner Martínez, Y; Muñoz-Ortuño, M; Herráez-Hernández, R; Campíns-Falcó, P

2014-02-01

189

Response of ammonia-oxidizing archaea and bacteria to long-term industrial effluent-polluted soils, Gujarat, Western India.  

PubMed

Soil nitrifiers have been showing an important role in assessing environmental pollution as sensitive biomarkers. In this study, the abundance and diversity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) were investigated in long-term industrial waste effluent (IWE) polluted soils. Three different IWE polluted soils characterized as uncontaminated (R1), moderately contaminated (R2), and highly contaminated (R3) were collected in triplicate along Mahi River basin, Gujarat, Western India. Quantitative numbers of ammonia monooxygenase ?-subunit (amoA) genes as well as 16S rRNA genes indicated apparent deleterious effect of IWE on abundance of soil AOA, AOB, bacteria, and archaeal populations. Relatively, AOB was more abundant than AOA in the highly contaminated soil R3, while predominance of AOA was noticed in uncontaminated (R1) and moderately contaminated (R2) soils. Soil potential nitrification rate (PNR) significantly (P?

Subrahmanyam, Gangavarapu; Shen, Ju-Pei; Liu, Yu-Rong; Archana, Gattupalli; He, Ji-Zheng

2014-07-01

190

Isolation and characterization of phenol utilizing bacteria from industrial effluent-contaminated soil and kinetic evaluation of their biodegradation potential.  

PubMed

Microbial degradation of phenol by pure bacterial species is a well-known approach towards alleviation of environmental pollution. In this study, five phenol-degrading bacterial species designated as CUPS-1 to CUPS-5 were isolated from the oil-effluent dumped sites of Haldia Industrial area of West Bengal, India. Detailed morphological, biochemical and molecular characterization identified CUPS-3 as a novel strain- Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (GU358076), while the others could be identified as Pseudomonas (CUPS-2, 5), Delftia (CUPS-1) and Micrococcus (CUPS-4) genera, respectively. Although all of these strains utilized phenol as their sole carbon source supporting growth, three among them, CUPS-2, CUPS-3 and CUPS-5 proved potential phenol degraders and hence used for further biodegradation studies. Degradation experiments were carried out for several initial phenol concentrations of 500 mg/L, 750 mg/L, 1000 mg/L, 1250 mg/L and 1500 mg/L. The novel strain, CUPS-3 could completely degrade 500 mg/L phenol within 48 h, with 0.0937/h substrate degradation rate and 16.34 mg/L/h substrate consumption rate. The strains degraded phenol via meta-cleavage pathway. Prediction of kinetic parameters of the biodegradation was accomplished Haldane model using the experimental data of degradation rate and phenol concentration as function of time. PMID:24117085

Pal Basak, Sreela; Sarkar, Priyabrata; Pal, Priyabrata

2014-01-01

191

Microbial Populations Associated with Treatment of an Industrial Dye Effluent in an Anaerobic Baffled Reactor  

PubMed Central

Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) using 16S and 23S rRNA-targeted probes together with construction of an archaeal 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) clone library was used to characterize the microbial populations of an anaerobic baffled reactor successfully treating industrial dye waste. Wastewater produced during the manufacture of food dyes containing several different azo and other dye compounds was decolorized and degraded under sulfidogenic and methanogenic conditions. Use of molecular methods to describe microbial populations showed that a diverse group of Bacteria and Archaea was involved in this treatment process. FISH enumeration showed that members of the gamma subclass of the class Proteobacteria and bacteria in the Cytophaga-Flexibacter-Bacteroides phylum, together with sulfate-reducing bacteria, were prominent members of a mixed bacterial population. A combination of FISH probing and analysis of 98 archaeal 16S rDNA clone inserts revealed that together with the bacterial population, a methanogenic population dominated by Methanosaeta species and containing species of Methanobacterium and Methanospirillum and a relatively unstudied methanogen, Methanomethylovorans hollandica, contributed to successful anaerobic treatment of the industrial waste. We suggest that sulfate reducers, or more accurately sulfidogenic bacteria, together with M. hollandica contribute considerably to the treatment process through metabolism of dye-associated sulfonate groups and subsequent conversion of sulfur compounds to carbon dioxide and methane. PMID:11425746

Plumb, Jason J.; Bell, Joanne; Stuckey, David C.

2001-01-01

192

Simultaneous determination of phenol, methylphenols, chlorophenols and bisphenol-A by headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in water samples and industrial effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

A headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) automatic method for simultaneous determination of trace amounts of phenol, methylphenols (MPs), chlorophenols (CPs) and bisphenol-A (BPA) in water samples and industrial effluents has been developed. Prior to SPME extraction, a direct derivatisation step using acetic anhydride was performed. Four different SPME fibre coatings (75 µm CAR-PDMS, 65 µm

Intissar Limam; Angéline Guenne; Mohamed Ridha Driss; Laurent Mazéas

2010-01-01

193

Bacterial bioluminescence response to long-term exposure to reverse osmosis treated effluents from dye industries.  

PubMed

The bacterial bioluminescence assay is one of the novel means for toxicity detection. The bioluminescence response of 2 marine bioluminescent bacteria was tested upon their long-term exposure to 9 different reverse osmosis (RO) rejects with varying chemical composition sampled from various dye industries. Bioluminescent bacteria were cultured in the RO reject samples, at different concentrations, and their growth rate and luminescence was measured for 24 h. The RO reject samples caused sublethal effects upon exposure and retarded the growth of bacteria, confirming their toxic nature. Further, continuation of the exposure showed that the initial luminescence, though reduced, recovered and increased beyond the control cultures irrespective of cell density, and finally decreased once again. The present study emphasizes the need of evolving a long-term exposure assay and shows that the method followed in this study is suitable to evaluate the toxicants that exert delayed toxicity, using lower concentrations of toxicants as well as coloured samples. PMID:25302530

Ravindran, J; Manikandan, B; Shirodkar, P V; Francis, K X; Mani Murali, R; Vethamony, P

2014-10-01

194

Estimating effluent COD  

SciTech Connect

In many parts of the world, chemical oxygen demand (COD) is a primary effluent parameter. Unlike BOD, which considers only biodegradable organics, COD also includes non-degradable organics and non-degradable biological oxidation by-products, generally referred to as soluble microbial products (SMP). The SMP can vary from 2% to 10% of the influent degradable COD. If the technology is limited to biological treatment only, the degradable COD will be removed. Further reductions in COD will require physical chemical treatments such as activated carbon. Effluent COD values for several industrial wastewaters are presented. Effluent characteristics from the anaerobic treatment of industrial wastewaters are also discussed.

Eckenfelder, W.W.; Landine, R.

1995-06-01

195

Petrochemical producers gain advantage with novel business strategies  

SciTech Connect

After 50 years of gradual change in the petrochemicals industry, the rules of the game are rapidly being written. Parity among competitors has made strategies based on minimizing costs increasingly ineffectual. Some competitors are now finding new business approaches that may allow them to leave others behind. Although the recent upturn in the chemical cycle has brought with it high utilization rates and encouraging financial returns for manufacturers of both petrochemicals and other chemicals, chemical managers need to be aware that the next downturn may erase these gains. The industry has experienced periods of poor financial performance in the past, and there is little reason to expect that the future will bring improvements. Until recently, petrochemical companies have generally pursued strategies focused on optimizing particular portions of the value chain. For the purposes of this article, it is helpful to think of the value chain in terms of four main business segments: feedstocks, products, production processes, and service/distribution. Some chemical companies have managed to avoid a competitive stalemate by developing strategies that have fundamentally changed the way the game is played. Granted, it will still be necessary to pursue maximum efficiency, but the emerging strategies will allow the companies that adopt them to differentiate themselves further than they otherwise could have done. These strategies are discussed.

Glauthier, T.; Kalkstein, H.; Williamson, R. [Boston Consulting Group, San Francisco, CA (United States)

1997-05-19

196

Surface Alteration of Activated Carbon for Detoxification of Copper (ii) from Industrial Effluents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The low-cost modified activated carbons were prepared from Thar and Lakhra (Pakistan) coals by activation with sulfuric acid and further modified with citric, tartaric and acetic acids for the selective adsorption of Cu(II) from aqueous solution. The original carbon obtained from activated Thar and Lakhra coals at pH 3.0 displayed significant adsorption capacity for lead and insignificant capacity values (0.880 and 0.830 mg?g-1) for copper. However, after modification with citric, tartaric and acetic acid the copper adsorption capacities enhanced in the range of 5.56-21.85 and 6.05-44.61 times, respectively. The Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin adsorption isotherms were used to elucidate the observed sorption phenomena. The isotherm equilibrium data was well fitted by the Langmuir and sufficiently fitted to the Freundlich models. The calculated thermodynamic parameters such as change in Gibbs free energy (?G°), enthalpy (?H°) and entropy (?S°) inferred that the investigated adsorption was spontaneous and endothermic in nature. Based on the results, it was concluded that the surface alteration with citric and tartaric acid, Thar and Lakhra activated carbons had significant potential for selective removal of copper(II) from industrial wastewater.

Bhutto, Sadaf; Khan, M. Nasiruddin

2013-04-01

197

Bioremediation and Detoxification of Synthetic Wastewater Containing Triarylmethane Dyes by Aeromonas hydrophila Isolated from Industrial Effluent  

PubMed Central

Economical and bio-friendly approaches are needed to remediate dye-contaminated wastewater from various industries. In this study, a novel bacterial strain capable of decolorizing triarylmethane dyes was isolated from a textile wastewater treatment plant in Greece. The bacterial isolate was identified as Aeromonas hydrophila and was shown to decolorize three triarylmethane dyes tested within 24?h with color removal in the range of 72% to 96%. Decolorization efficiency of the bacterium was a function of operational parameters (aeration, dye concentration, temperature, and pH) and the optimal operational conditions obtained for decolorization of the dyes were: pH 7-8, 35°C and culture agitation. Effective color removal within 24?h was obtained at a maximum dye concentration of 50?mg/L. Dye decolorization was monitored using a scanning UV/visible spectrophotometer which indicated that decolorization was due to the degradation of dyes into non-colored intermediates. Phytotoxicity studies carried out using Triticum aestivum, Hordeum vulgare, and Lens esculenta revealed the triarylmethane dyes exerted toxic effects on plant growth parameters monitored. However, significant reduction in toxicity was obtained with the decolorized dye metabolites thus, indicating the detoxification of the dyes following degradation by Aeromonas hydrophila. PMID:21808740

Ogugbue, Chimezie Jason; Sawidis, Thomas

2011-01-01

198

The impact of an industrial effluent on the water quality, submersed macrophytes and benthic macroinvertebrates in a dammed river of Central Spain.  

PubMed

This research was conducted in the middle Duratón River (Central Spain), in the vicinity of Burgomillodo Reservoir. An industrial effluent enters the river 300 m downstream from the dam. Fluoride and turbidity levels significantly increased downstream from the effluent, these levels being to some extent affected by differential water releases from the dam. The community of submersed macrophytes exhibited slighter responses and, accordingly, lower discriminatory power than the community of benthic macroinvertebrates, this indicating that metrics and indices based on macroinvertebrates may be more suitable for the biological monitoring of water pollution and habitat degradation in dammed rivers receiving industrial effluents. However, in relation to fluoride bioaccumulation at the organism level, macrophytes (Fontinalis antipyretica and Potamogeton pectinatus) were as suitable bioindicators of fluoride pollution as macroinvertebrates (Ancylus fluviatilis and Pacifastacus leniusculus). Fluoride bioaccumulation in both hard and soft tissues of these aquatic organisms could be used as suitable bioindicator of fluoride pollution (even lower than 1 mg F(-)L(-1)) in freshwater ecosystems. Echinogammarus calvus exhibited a great sensitivity to the toxicity of fluoride ions, with a 96 h LC?? of 7.5 mg F(-)L(-1) and an estimated safe concentration of 0.56 mg F(-)L(-1). The great capacity of E. calvus to take up and retain fluoride during exposures to fluoride ions would be a major cause of its great sensitivity to fluoride toxicity. It is concluded that the observed fluoride pollution might be partly responsible for the absence of this native amphipod downstream from the industrial effluent. PMID:23830885

Gonzalo, Cristina; Camargo, Julio A

2013-10-01

199

Recycling of aluminum and caustic soda solution from waste effluents generated during the cleaning of the extruder matrixes of the aluminum industry.  

PubMed

Anodising industries use a concentrated caustic soda solution to remove aluminum from extruder matrixes. This procedure produces very alkaline effluents containing high amounts of aluminum. The work reported here was focussed on recycling aluminum, as aluminum hydroxide, from these effluents and regenerating an alkaline sodium hydroxide solution. Briefly, the method comprises a dilution step (necessary for reducing the viscosity of the effluent and allowing the subsequent filtration) followed by a filtration to eliminate a substantial amount of the insoluble iron. Then, sulphuric acid was added to neutralize the waste solution down to pH 12 and induce aluminum precipitation. The purity of the aluminum salt was improved after washing the precipitate with deionised water. The characterization of the solid recovered, performed by thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, indicated characteristics typical of bayerite. The proposal method allowed recovering 82% of the aluminum present in the wastewater with high purity (99.5%). Additionally, a sufficiently concentrated caustic soda solution was also recovered, which can be reused in the anodising industries. This procedure can be easily implemented and ensures economy by recycling reagents (concentrated caustic soda solution) and by recovering commercial by-products (aluminum hydroxide), while avoiding environmental pollution. PMID:21300435

Tansens, Pieter; Rodal, Alberto T; Machado, Carina M M; Soares, Helena M V M

2011-03-15

200

Dual application of duckweed and azolla plants for wastewater treatment and renewable fuels and petrochemicals production  

PubMed Central

Background Shortages in fresh water supplies today affects more than 1 billion people worldwide. Phytoremediation strategies, based on the abilities of aquatic plants to recycle nutrients offer an attractive solution for the bioremediation of water pollution and represents one of the most globally researched issues. The subsequent application of the biomass from the remediation for the production of fuels and petrochemicals offers an ecologically friendly and cost-effective solution for water pollution problems and production of value-added products. Results In this paper, the feasibility of the dual application of duckweed and azolla aquatic plants for wastewater treatment and production of renewable fuels and petrochemicals is explored. The differences in absorption rates of the key wastewater nutrients, ammonium and phosphorus by these aquatic macrophytes were used as the basis for optimization of the composition of wastewater effluents. Analysis of pyrolysis products showed that azolla and algae produce a similar range of bio-oils that contain a large spectrum of petrochemicals including straight-chain C10-C21 alkanes, which can be directly used as diesel fuel supplement, or a glycerin-free component of biodiesel. Pyrolysis of duckweed produces a different range of bio-oil components that can potentially be used for the production of “green” gasoline and diesel fuel using existing techniques, such as catalytic hydrodeoxygenation. Conclusions Differences in absorption rates of the key wastewater nutrients, ammonium and phosphorus by different aquatic macrophytes can be used for optimization of composition of wastewater effluents. The generated data suggest that the composition of the petrochemicals can be modified in a targeted fashion, not only by using different species, but also by changing the source plants’ metabolic profile, by exposing them to different abiotic or biotic stresses. This study presents an attractive, ecologically friendly and cost-effective solution for efficient bio-filtration of swine wastewater and petrochemicals production from generated biomass. PMID:24576349

2014-01-01

201

Texas facility treats, recycles refinery, petrochemical wastes  

SciTech Connect

A US Gulf Coast environmental services company is treating refinery and petrochemical plant wastes to universal treatment standards (UTS). DuraTherm Inc.`s recycling center uses thermal desorption to treat a variety of refinery wastes and other hazardous materials. The plant is located in San Leon, Tex., near the major Houston/Texas City refining and petrochemical center. DuraTherm`s customers include major US refining companies, plus petrochemical, terminal, pipeline, transportation, and remediation companies. Examples of typical contaminant concentrations and treatment levels for refinery wastes are shown. The paper discusses thermal desorption, the process description and testing.

NONE

1996-09-16

202

FISH COUGH RESPONSE - A METHOD FOR EVALUATING QUALITY OF TREATED COMPLEX EFFLUENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) showed increases in cough frequency commensurate with effluent concentration when exposed for 24 h to different industrial and municipal effluents. Effluents known to be toxic caused steadily increasing cough rates in the fish as effluent co...

203

Assessing the application of advanced oxidation processes, and their combination with biological treatment, to effluents from pulp and paper industry.  

PubMed

The closure of water circuits within pulp and paper mills has resulted in a higher contamination load of the final mill effluent, which must consequently be further treated in many cases to meet the standards imposed by the legislation in force. Different treatment strategies based on advanced oxidation processes (ozonation and TiO2-photocatalysis), and their combination with biological treatment (MBR), are herein assessed for effluents of a recycled paper mill and a kraft pulp mill. Ozone treatment achieved the highest efficiency of all. The consumption of 2.4 g O3 L(-1) resulted in about a 60% COD reduction treating the effluent from the kraft pulp mill at an initial pH=7; although it only reached about a 35% COD removal for the effluent of the recycled paper mill. Otherwise, photocatalysis achieved about a 20-30% reduction of the COD for both type of effluents. In addition, the effluent from the recycled paper mill showed a higher biodegradability, so combinations of these AOPs with biological treatment were tested. As a result, photocatalysis did not report any significant COD reduction improvement whether being performed as pre- or post-treatment of the biological process; whereas the use of ozonation as post-biological treatment enhanced COD removal a further 10%, summing up a total 90% reduction of the COD for the combined treatment, as well as it also supposed an increase of the presence of volatile fatty acids, which might ultimately enable the resultant wastewater to be recirculated back to further biological treatment. PMID:24076569

Merayo, Noemí; Hermosilla, Daphne; Blanco, Laura; Cortijo, Luis; Blanco, Angeles

2013-11-15

204

Effects of sewage and industrial effluent on the concentration of Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd in water and sediments along Waterfalls stream and lower Mukuvisi River in Harare, Zimbabwe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The disposal of sewage and industrial effluent is a problem confronting municipalities in most developing countries. A study was conducted to determine the effects of the disposal of sewage and industrial effluent into Mukuvisi River and Waterfalls stream, a tributary of Mukuvisi River in Harare, Zimbabwe. Water and sediment samples were collected over two seasons (October 2003 to November 2004). Sampling sites were located before and after Firle Sewage Treatment Works (FSTW) along Mukuvisi River and before and after Prospect Industrial Area (PIA) along the Waterfalls stream. The water and sediment samples were analysed for pH, and total Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd. The FSTW had no effect on water and sediment pH in Mukuvisi River, which ranged 6.8-7.0 and 5.0-5.6, respectively. The heavy metal concentration upstream of the sewage processing plant was higher than down stream implying that the effluent disposed into the river had lower metal concentrations compared to the river water. Metal concentrations in water and sediment samples along the Waterfalls stream showed an increase just after the PIA, and were more significant in sediment samples. It was concluded that the metal pollution of the two streams was due to industrial pollution rather than sewage effluent disposal. Accumulation of heavy metals in streams is better monitored using sediments where they accumulate rather than water. Continued dumping of industrial effluent into Mukuvisi River and its tributaries will cause further damage to the ecosystem and the food chain.

Nyamangara, J.; Bangira, C.; Taruvinga, T.; Masona, C.; Nyemba, A.; Ndlovu, D.

205

Integration of Biomass processes in an existing Petrochemical ComplexPetrochemical Complex  

E-print Network

Integration of Biomass processes in an existing Petrochemical ComplexPetrochemical Complex Debalina · Biomass conversion processes · Integration in existing plant complex l i· Conclusions #12;Sustainability;Overview · Biomass based processes integrated into a chemical production complex. Utili b di id f i th l

Pike, Ralph W.

206

INEEL Liquid Effluent Inventory  

SciTech Connect

The INEEL contractors and their associated facilities are required to identify all liquid effluent discharges that may impact the environment at the INEEL. This liquid effluent information is then placed in the Liquid Effluent Inventory (LEI) database, which is maintained by the INEEL prime contractor. The purpose of the LEI is to identify and maintain a current listing of all liquid effluent discharge points and to identify which discharges are subject to federal, state, or local permitting or reporting requirements and DOE order requirements. Initial characterization, which represents most of the INEEL liquid effluents, has been performed, and additional characterization may be required in the future to meet regulations. LEI information is made available to persons responsible for or concerned with INEEL compliance with liquid effluent permitting or reporting requirements, such as the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System, Wastewater Land Application, Storm Water Pollution Prevention, Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasures, and Industrial Wastewater Pretreatment. The State of Idaho Environmental Oversight and Monitoring Program also needs the information for tracking liquid effluent discharges at the INEEL. The information provides a baseline from which future liquid discharges can be identified, characterized, and regulated, if appropriate. The review covered new and removed buildings/structures, buildings/structures which most likely had new, relocated, or removed LEI discharge points, and at least 10% of the remaining discharge points.

Major, C.A.

1997-06-01

207

Ultratrace Determination of Cr(VI) and Pb(II) by Microsample Injection System Flame Atomic Spectroscopy in Drinking Water and Treated and Untreated Industrial Effluents.  

PubMed

Simple and robust analytical procedures were developed for hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) and lead (Pb(II)) by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) using microsample injection system coupled with flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (MIS-FAAS). For the current study, ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC), carbon tetrachloride, and ethanol were used as chelating agent, extraction solvent, and disperser solvent, respectively. The effective variables of developed method have been optimized and studied in detail. The limit of detection of Cr(VI) and Pb(II) were 0.037 and 0.054?µg/L, respectively. The enrichment factors in both cases were 400 with 40?mL of initial volumes. The relative standard deviations (RSDs, n = 6) were <4%. The applicability and the accuracy of DLLME were estimated by the analysis of Cr(VI) and Pb(II) in industrial effluent wastewater by standard addition method (recoveries >96%). The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of Cr(VI) and Pb(II) at ultratrace levels in natural drinking water and industrial effluents wastewater of Denizli. Moreover, the proposed method was compared with the literature reported method. PMID:24163779

Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Elci, Latif; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Khan, Muhammad Irfan; Naseer, Hafiz Muhammad

2013-01-01

208

The impact of petrochemical industrialisation on life expectancy and per capita income in Taiwan: an 11-year longitudinal study  

PubMed Central

Background Petrochemical industries have been identified as important sources of emissions of chemical substances, and adverse health outcomes have been reported for residents who live nearby. The purpose of the current study was to examine the adverse effects of petrochemical industrialization in Taiwan on the life expectancy and personal income of people living in nearby communities. Methods This study compared life expectancies and personal income between one industrial county (Yunlin County) and one reference county (Yilan County), which had no significant industrial activity that might emit pollutants, in Taiwan through analysis of 11 year long and publicly available data. Data from before and after the petrochemical company in the industrial county started (year 1999) operating were compared. Results Residents of the industrialized county had lesser increases in life expectancy over time than did residents of a similar but less-industrialized county, with difference means ranging from 0.89 years (p?industrialization. There were no significant differences in individual income between the two counties. Conclusions Countries, including Taiwan and the U.S., embracing petrochemical industries now face the challenge of environmental injustice. Our findings suggested that life expectancy lengthening was slowed and income growth was stalled for residents living in the industrial communities. PMID:24621018

2014-01-01

209

Fate of thiabendazole through the treatment of a simulated agro-food industrial effluent by combined MBR/Fenton processes at ?g/L scale.  

PubMed

This study has been carried out to assess the performance of a combined system consisting of a membrane bioreactor (MBR) followed by an advanced oxidation process (Fenton/Photo-Fenton) for removing the fungicide thiabendazole (TBZ) in a simulated agro-food industrial wastewater. Previous studies have shown the presence of TBZ in the effluent of an agro-food industry treated by activated sludge in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR), thus reinforcing the need for alternative treatments for removal. In this study, a simulated agro-food industry effluent was enriched with 100 ?g L(-1) TBZ and treated by combined MBR/Fenton and MBR/solar photo-Fenton systems. Samples were directly injected into a highly sensitive liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole-linear ion trap-mass spectrometer (LC-QqLiT-MS/MS) analytical system to monitor the degradation of TBZ even at low concentration levels (ng L(-1)). Results showed that the biological treatment applied was not effective in TBZ degradation, which remained almost unaltered; although most dissolved organic matter was biodegraded effectively. Fenton and solar photo-Fenton, were assayed as tertiary treatments. The experiments were run without any pH adjustment by using an iron dosage strategy in the presence of excess hydrogen peroxide. Both treatments resulted in a total degradation of TBZ, obtaining more than 99% removal in both cases. To assure the total elimination of contaminants in the treated waters, transformation products (TPs) of TBZ generated during Fenton degradation experiments were identified and monitored by liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS/MS). Up to four TPs could be identified. Two of them corresponded to mono-hydroxylated derivatives, typically generated under hydroxyl radicals driven processes. The other two corresponded with the hydrolysis of the TBZ molecule to yield benzoimidazole and thiazole-4-carboxamidine. All of them were also degraded during the treatment. PMID:24388831

Sánchez Peréz, J A; Carra, I; Sirtori, C; Agüera, A; Esteban, B

2014-03-15

210

Mercury removal from liquid effluents of the chlor-alkali industry by using the biomass Sargassum sp  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, the used biomass, for removing the mercuric species from the liquid effluents of the chlor-alkali plants was the macro-algae Sargassum sp. According to the results obtained, until this moment in time, it was possible to remove more than 99% of the ionic mercury with the advantage of not releasing me aqueous phase, that returns to the operation of brine production, the electrolyte of the electrolytic cells. In addition, it was verified that the biomass, once loaded with Mercury, can be reused in the biosorption step, after suffering an elution process.

Sobral, L. G. S.; de Barros Lima, R.; Leite, S. G. F.; Fernandes, A. L. V.

2003-05-01

211

Trends in petrochemical technology. The impact of the energy crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing petrochemicals and their basic building blocks, and most important, the economics of processing and product qualities are discussed. Petrochemicals are presented in their respective groups indicating the relationship between fossil fuels and petrochemicals. A critique of current process economics is provided, and potential competitive technology is described. Individual chapters included are: (1) Energy-analysis of the oil producing countries; (2)

1976-01-01

212

Draft Genome Sequence of Textile Azo Dye-Decolorizing and -Degrading Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strain PFK10, Isolated from the Common Effluent Treatment Plant of the Ankleshwar Industrial Area of Gujarat, India  

PubMed Central

Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PFK10, isolated from the common effluent treatment plant (CETP) of the Ankleshwar industrial area of Gujarat, India. The 6.04-Mb draft genome sequence of strain PFK10 provides information about the genes encoding enzymes that enable the strain to decolorize and degrade textile azo dye. PMID:24503984

Faldu, P. R.; Kothari, V. V.; Kothari, C. R.; Rawal, C. M.; Domadia, K. K.; Patel, P. A.; Bhimani, H. D.; Raval, V. H.; Parmar, N. R.; Nathani, N. M.; Koringa, P. G.; Joshi, C. G.

2014-01-01

213

Draft Genome Sequence of Textile Azo Dye-Decolorizing and -Degrading Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strain PFK10, Isolated from the Common Effluent Treatment Plant of the Ankleshwar Industrial Area of Gujarat, India.  

PubMed

Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PFK10, isolated from the common effluent treatment plant (CETP) of the Ankleshwar industrial area of Gujarat, India. The 6.04-Mb draft genome sequence of strain PFK10 provides information about the genes encoding enzymes that enable the strain to decolorize and degrade textile azo dye. PMID:24503984

Faldu, P R; Kothari, V V; Kothari, C R; Rawal, C M; Domadia, K K; Patel, P A; Bhimani, H D; Raval, V H; Parmar, N R; Nathani, N M; Koringa, P G; Joshi, C G; Kothari, R K

2014-01-01

214

Studies on Simultaneous Effluent Evaporation and Water Recovery System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leather tanning industry uses large quantity of water for processing which results in copious quantity of liquid effluent. Disposal of tannery effluent has become a major environmental concern. A new technique has been developed to augment the water evaporation rate from the tannery effluent (soak liquor) and to recover fresh water. In this work, water in the tannery effluent (soak

S. SATHISH KUMAR; A. MANI

215

Sorption of Co, Cu, Ni and Zn from industrial effluents by the submerged aquatic macrophyte Myriophyllum spicatum L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The submerged aquatic plant Myriophyllum spicatum L. (Eurasian water milfoil) has been suggested as an efficient plant species for the treatment of metal-contaminated industrial wastewater. The process of metal removal by plants involves a combination of rapid sorption on the surface and slow accumulation and translocation in the biomass. This study focussed on the sorption\\/desorption characteristics of the surface of

E. Lesage; C. Mundia; D. P. L. Rousseau; A. M. K. Van de Moortel; G. Du Laing; E. Meers; F. M. G. Tack; N. De Pauw; M. G. Verloo

2007-01-01

216

Removal of mercury(II) from aqueous solutions and chlor-alkali industry effluent by steam activated and sulphurised activated carbons prepared from bagasse pith: kinetics and equilibrium studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption of mercury from aqueous solutions and chlor-alkali industry effluent on steam activated and sulphurised steam activated carbons prepared from bagasse pith have been studied comparatively. The uptake of mercury(II) (Hg(II)) was maximum by steam activated carbon in presence of SO2 and H2S (SA–SO2–H2S–C) followed by steam activated carbon in presence of SO2 (SA–SO2–C), steam activated carbon in presence

K. Anoop Krishnan; T. S. Anirudhan

2002-01-01

217

Toxicity Identification Evaluation (Phase I) of water and sediment samples from a tropical reservoir contaminated with industrial and domestic effluents.  

PubMed

The Funil Reservoir (Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil) is an environment degraded by constant discharge of nutrients and pollution coming from the most industrialized region of the country. As a consequence of eutrophication, there are continuous cyanobacteria blooms, which cause acute and chronic toxicity to zooplankton. In this context, Phase I of Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) was performed on Daphnia similis using water and interstitial water from the reservoir, with the aim of identifying classes of compounds responsible for toxicity. The results indicated that water toxicity was due to cyanobacteria resulting from blooms in the reservoir and surfactants. Metals, especially copper, contributed to sediment toxicity. This research is the first attempt to describe the nature of toxicity in this reservoir using this method. PMID:25103213

Matos, Mariana de F; Botta, Clarice Maria Rispoli; Fonseca, Ana Lúcia

2014-11-01

218

Uranium behaviour in an estuary polluted by mining and industrial effluents: the Ría of Huelva (SW of Spain).  

PubMed

This paper describes a comprehensive study of the behaviour of U in the Ría of Huelva estuary, formed by the Tinto and Odiel rivers. This ecosystem is conditioned by two hydrochemical facts: one connected with the acid mining drainage (AMD) generated in the first section of the river basins, and another one related to the fertilizer industry located at the estuary. AMD gives a singular character to these rivers; low pH and high redox potential that keep high amounts of toxic elements and radionuclides in dissolution. Most of the data for dissolved U in estuaries indicate conservative mixing, but there are examples of non-conservative behaviour attributed to oxidation/reduction processes or solubility variations. In the Ría of Huelva estuary the U shows a non-conservative behaviour due to solubility changes produced by variations in the pH. A complete removal of riverine dissolved U is observed in a pH range of 4-6. At higher pH values, U release from suspended matter, and probably also from sediments into the dissolved phase is found. PMID:23973258

Hierro, A; Martín, J E; Olías, M; Vaca, F; Bolivar, J P

2013-10-15

219

Ceramic membrane treatment of petrochemical wastewater  

SciTech Connect

Ceramic alumina microfiltration membranes were evaluated for treatment of 3 aqueous streams containing heavy metals, oils, and solids at petrochemical manufacturing facilities. To the best of the author's knowledge, this is the first reported use of ceramic alumina membranes for process water and wastewater treatment in a US petrochemical plant. In a pilot test at a vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) plant, precipitated heavy metal solids were filtered with the membranes. On another stream at that site, the ceramic membrane pilot system successfully treated emulsions of 1,2-dichloroethane (EDC), water, and solids. Membrane filtration of a linear alkyl benzene (LAB) oily wastewater stream produced water with less than 5 ppmw oil and grease, after pretreatment with HCl and ferric chloride. A preliminary financial analysis shows that the installed system cost for a ceramic membrane unit is comparable to other membrane technologies, while operating costs are anticipated to be lower. Specific process conditions that are particularly amenable to treatment by ceramic membrane microfiltration are also given in the paper. 10 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.

Lahiere, R.J. (Vista Chemical Co., Houston, TX (United States)); Goodboy, K.P.

1993-05-01

220

Concern About Petrochemical Health Risk Before and After a Refinery Explosion  

PubMed Central

On March 23, 2005, a large explosion at an oil refinery in Texas City, Texas caused 15 deaths and approximately 170 injuries. Little is known about how such an industrial accident influences concern about environmental health risks. We used measures of environmental health concern about nearby petrochemical production with a sample of Texas City residents to understand patterns of concern and change in concern after an industrial accident, as well as individual and contextual factors associated with those patterns. Survey interviews with residents of Texas City, Texas (N =315) both pre- and postexplosion using a brief Concern About Petrochemical Health Risk Scale (CAPHRS) and other questions were used to collect pertinent predictor information. CAPHRS baseline, postexplosion, and change scores were compared and modeled using ordinary least squares (OLS) regression and a mixed model. Higher preexplosion CAPHRS scores were predicted by younger adults, foreign-born Hispanics, non-Hispanic blacks, lower- and middle-income groups, and those who live with someone who has worked at the petrochemical plants. Higher CAPHRS change scores are predicted by the same variables (except income), as well as proximity to, or perception of, the explosion, and reports of neighborhood damage. Findings suggest these groups’ concern scores could indicate a greater vulnerability to psychological and physical harm generated by concern and stress arising from local petrochemical activities. A clearer understanding of concern about actual environmental health risks in exposed populations may enhance the evolving theory of stress and coping and eventually enable public health professionals to develop appropriate mitigation strategies. PMID:18643817

Cutchin, Malcolm P.; Martin, Kathryn Remmes; Owen, Steven V.; Goodwin, James S.

2014-01-01

221

Concern about petrochemical health risk before and after a refinery explosion.  

PubMed

On March 23, 2005, a large explosion at an oil refinery in Texas City, Texas caused 15 deaths and approximately 170 injuries. Little is known about how such an industrial accident influences concern about environmental health risks. We used measures of environmental health concern about nearby petrochemical production with a sample of Texas City residents to understand patterns of concern and change in concern after an industrial accident, as well as individual and contextual factors associated with those patterns. Survey interviews with residents of Texas City, Texas (N= 315) both pre- and postexplosion using a brief Concern About Petrochemical Health Risk Scale (CAPHRS) and other questions were used to collect pertinent predictor information. CAPHRS baseline, postexplosion, and change scores were compared and modeled using ordinary least squares (OLS) regression and a mixed model. Higher preexplosion CAPHRS scores were predicted by younger adults, foreign-born Hispanics, non-Hispanic blacks, lower- and middle-income groups, and those who live with someone who has worked at the petrochemical plants. Higher CAPHRS change scores are predicted by the same variables (except income), as well as proximity to, or perception of, the explosion, and reports of neighborhood damage. Findings suggest these groups' concern scores could indicate a greater vulnerability to psychological and physical harm generated by concern and stress arising from local petrochemical activities. A clearer understanding of concern about actual environmental health risks in exposed populations may enhance the evolving theory of stress and coping and eventually enable public health professionals to develop appropriate mitigation strategies. PMID:18643817

Cutchin, Malcolm P; Martin, Kathryn Remmes; Owen, Steven V; Goodwin, James S

2008-06-01

222

A nano-structured material for reliable speciation of chromium and manganese in drinking waters, surface waters and industrial wastewater effluents.  

PubMed

A simple solid phase extraction system based on the applying the nickel-aluminum layered double hydroxide (Ni-Al LDH) as a nano-sorbent was developed for the speciation analysis of chromium and manganese by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The method is based on the fact that Cr(VI) and Mn(VII) oxyanions could be adsorbed on the Ni-Al(NO(3)(-)) LDH and/or exchanged with LDH interlayer NO(3)(-) ions at pH 6.0, whereas Cr(III) and Mn(II) cations pass through the LDH-packed column without retention. The determinations of total Cr and Mn, and hence indirectly Cr(III) and Mn(II), involve the pre-oxidations of Cr(III) and Mn(II) to Cr(VI) and Mn(VII) with H(2)O(2) and acidic solution of KIO(4), respectively. Several important factors affecting the retention efficiency were investigated and optimized. In the optimum experimental conditions, the limits of detection (3S(b)/m) for Cr(VI) and Mn(VII) were 0.51 and 0.47 ng mL(-1), and the relative standard deviations were 2.5 and 3.2% (C=30.0 ng mL(-1), n=6), respectively. The presented method was validated by the analysis of a certified reference material, and applied to the speciation of Cr and Mn in drinking waters, surface waters and industrial wastewater effluents. PMID:22608436

Abdolmohammad-Zadeh, H; Sadeghi, G H

2012-05-30

223

QUANTIFICATION OF FUGITIVE REACTIVE ALKENE EMISSIONS FROM PETROCHEMICAL PLANTS WITH PERFLUOROCARBON TRACERS.  

SciTech Connect

Recent studies demonstrate the impact of fugitive emissions of reactive alkenes on the atmospheric chemistry of the Houston Texas metropolitan area (1). Petrochemical plants located in and around the Houston area emit atmospheric alkenes, such as ethene, propene and 1,3-butadiene. The magnitude of emissions is a major uncertainty in assessing their effects. Even though the petrochemical industry reports that fugitive emissions of alkenes have been reduced to less than 0.1% of daily production, recent measurement data, obtained during the TexAQS 2000 experiment indicates that emissions are perhaps a factor of ten larger than estimated values. Industry figures for fugitive emissions are based on adding up estimated emission factors for every component in the plant to give a total estimated emission from the entire facility. The dramatic difference between estimated and measured rates indicates either that calculating emission fluxes by summing estimates for individual components is seriously flawed, possibly due to individual components leaking well beyond their estimated tolerances, that not all sources of emissions for a facility are being considered in emissions estimates, or that there are known sources of emissions that are not being reported. This experiment was designed to confirm estimates of reactive alkene emissions derived from analysis of the TexAQS 2000 data by releasing perfluorocarbon tracers (PFTs) at a known flux from a petrochemical plant and sampling both the perfluorocarbon tracer and reactive alkenes downwind using the Piper-Aztec research aircraft operated by Baylor University. PFTs have been extensively used to determine leaks in pipelines, air infiltration in buildings, and to characterize the transport and dispersion of air parcels in the atmosphere. Over 20 years of development by the Tracer Technology Center (TTC) has produced a range of analysis instruments, field samplers and PFT release equipment that have been successfully deployed in a large variety of experiments. PFTs are inert, nontoxic, noncombustible and nonreactive. Up to seven unique PFTs can be simultaneously released, sampled and analyzed and the technology is well suited for determining emission fluxes from large petrochemical facilities. The PFT experiment described here was designed to quantitate alkene emissions from a single petrochemical facility, but such experiments could be applied to other industrial sources or groups of sources in the Houston area.

SENUM,G.I.; DIETZ,R.N.

2004-06-30

224

TEXTILE TECHNOLOGY Cotton Textile Processing: Waste Generation and Effluent Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review discusses cotton textile process- ing and methods of treating effluent in the textile industry. Several countries, including India, have introduced strict ecological standards for textile industries. With more stringent controls expected in the future, it is essential that control measures be implemented to minimize effluent problems. Industrial textile processing comprises pretreat- ment, dyeing, printing, and finishing operations. These

B. Ramesh Babu; A. K. Parande; S. Raghu; T. Prem; Kumar B. R. Babu; T. P. Kumar

2007-01-01

225

Furnace for oil refineries and petrochemical plants  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a furnace for use in oil refineries and petrochemical plants. It comprises: burner means for heating a hydrocarbon feedstock; stack means positioned above the burner for discharging combustion gases emitted from the burner means; wall means peripherally enclosing and annularly surrounding the burning means; substantially uniform heat distribution including a set of substantially horizontal radiant furnace tubes extending along the wall means for passage of the hydrocarbon feedstock about the burner means; and a composite floor under the burner means having refractory bricks, temperature and strain resistant ceramic fiber boards beneath the bricks, high density ceramic fiber modules beneath the boards, and a carbon steel plate beneath the molecules with an underside having a corrosion resistant coating.

Pickell, F.W.; Varesic, J.Z.; Melton, M.S.; Melton, S.H.

1990-01-22

226

Environmental Exposure to Emissions from Petrochemical Sites and Lung Cancer: The Lower Mississippi Interagency Cancer Study  

PubMed Central

To investigate potential links between environmental exposure to petrochemical plant emissions and lung cancer, a population-based case-control study (LMRICS) was conducted in eleven Louisiana parishes bordering the Mississippi River. Cases and age, gender, and race-matched controls were interviewed regarding potential risk factors. Residential history was geocoded to provide indices of long-term proximity to industrial sites. Cases were more likely to have lived near a petrochemical site. Models adjusted for other risk factors, however, showed small or no association with lung cancer (odds ratio for residence within a half-mile of a site = 1.10, 95% confidence interval 0.58–2.08). While associations were strongest for exposures exceeding 15 years, none approached statistical significance and there was no clear dose-response across exposure duration, distance categories, or when sites were grouped according to carcinogenicity rating of chemical releases. Residential proximity to petrochemical plants along the lower Mississippi thus showed no significant association with lung cancer. PMID:20300547

Simonsen, Neal; Scribner, Richard; Su, L. Joseph; Williams, Donna; Luckett, Brian; Yang, Tong; Fontham, Elizabeth T. H.

2010-01-01

227

TOTAL RECYCLE SYSTEMS FOR PETROCHEMICAL WASTE BRINES CONTAINING REFRACTORY CONTAMINANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Petrochemical wastewaters containing relatively high concentrations of salt and refractory organics were selected to study their feasibility for total recycle. A combination of reverse osmosis and electrodialysis was operated as a hybrid system using the pretreated wastes to prod...

228

DEVELOPMENT OF TREATMENT AND CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR REFRACTORY PETROCHEMICAL WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

This summary document presents the results of research and development work pertaining to the treatment of biorefractory organic pollutants emanating from petrochemical processing plants. Specifically, it covers application of the unit operations of (1) carbon adsorption, (2) ste...

229

Enhanced degradation of textile effluent in constructed wetland system using Typha domingensis and textile effluent-degrading endophytic bacteria.  

PubMed

Textile effluent is one of the main contributors of water pollution and it adversely affects fauna and flora. Constructed wetland is a promising approach to remediate the industrial effluent. The detoxification of industrial effluent in a constructed wetland system may be enhanced by applying beneficial bacteria that are able to degrade contaminants present in industrial effluent. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of inoculation of textile effluent-degrading endophytic bacteria on the detoxification of textile effluent in a vertical flow constructed wetland reactor. A wetland plant, Typha domingensis, was vegetated in reactor and inoculated with two endophytic bacterial strains, Microbacterium arborescens TYSI04 and Bacillus pumilus PIRI30. These strains possessed textile effluent-degrading and plant growth-promoting activities. Results indicated that bacterial inoculation improved plant growth, textile effluent degradation and mutagenicity reduction and were correlated with the population of textile effluent-degrading bacteria in the rhizosphere and endosphere of T. domingensis. Bacterial inoculation enhanced textile effluent-degrading bacterial population in rhizosphere, root and shoot of T. domingensis. Significant reductions in COD (79%), BOD (77%) TDS (59%) and TSS (27%) were observed by the combined use of plants and bacteria within 72 h. The resultant effluent meets the wastewater discharge standards of Pakistan and can be discharged into the environment without any risks. This study revealed that the combined use of plant and endophytic bacteria is one of the approaches to enhance textile effluent degradation in a constructed wetland system. PMID:24755300

Shehzadi, Maryam; Afzal, Muhammad; Khan, Muhammad Umar; Islam, Ejazul; Mobin, Amina; Anwar, Samina; Khan, Qaiser Mahmood

2014-07-01

230

Economics of Energy Conservation in the Chemical and Petrochemical Industries  

E-print Network

/or the energy level available from waste heat is relatively low. If there is no other cross exchange suitable for this temperature level low pressure steam is often generated for a turbine drive. This would probably require a vacuum condenser at the end... of the system to maximize energy recovery. Such an installation is capital sensitive and may not meet the accepted economic criteria, particularly where the source of heat is relatively small. Several authors (2) have proposed a closed loop using a working...

Nachod, J. E. Jr.

231

Organic Rankine Cycles for the Petro-Chemical Industry  

E-print Network

and economically convert this type of heat flow into useful power. The system under development by MTI is one based on a conventional fluorocarbon refrigerant to generate a nominal 1000 kW from typical liquid and vapor streams in the process plant. The 220 F...

Rose, R. K.; Colosimo, D. D.

1979-01-01

232

Excess cancer mortality among children and adolescents in residential districts polluted by petrochemical manufacturing plants in Taiwan  

SciTech Connect

We have collected data on the cancer deaths of children and adolescents 0-19 yr old living in a residential area near 3 large petroleum and petrochemical complexes in and near Kaohsiung city (petrochemical industrial districts, PIDs) in the period of 1971-1990 and compared these with the cancer deaths of children and adolescents 0-19 yr old among the entire population of Taiwan (national reference) and among the residents of 26 administrative districts, comprising all of Kaohsiung city and Kaohsiung county (local reference), except for 8 sparsely populated, rural districts. Having scrutinized all cancer death certificates, we have identified various statistically significant excess deaths, as compared with the national and local reference, due to cancers at all sites. Cancer of the bone, brain, and bladder in boys and girls 0-9 yr and 10-19 yr of age in the 1981-1990 decade that followed the establishment of petrochemical production in the PIDs was studied. However, excess cancer deaths seemed to have clustered in the 10-19 yr age group, who had been potentially exposed to the petrochemical pollutants for the longest period of time from the youngest age. Almost all bone, brain, and bladder cancer deaths registered were within 3 km of the 3 complexes. Bone and brain cancers in particular occurred in girls in the PIDs more frequently than in boys, even though these are believed to occur more in males than females elsewhere. 32 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

Bi Jen Pan; Yu Jue Hong; Gwo Chin Chang; Frigyes F. Cinkotai; Ying Chin Ko [Kaohsiung Medical College, Taiwan (China); Ming Tsan Wang [Kaohsiung Municipal Ta-Tung Hospital, Taiwan (China)

1994-12-31

233

Petrochemical wastewater odor treatment by biofiltration.  

PubMed

The treatment of odorous pollutants by microorganisms on packed waste straw and cortex was investigated at the wastewater treatment plant of the Shanghai petrochemical factory. The removal efficiency of H(2)S, NH(3) and VOCs (volatile organic compounds) reached 98%, 91% and 90%, respectively after operation for one month at an empty bed retention time (EBRT) of 120s. The heterotrophic bacteria were found to be the dominant microorganism in the biofilter, while fungi and actinomycetes were also present. The bacteria were mostly identified as the members of the genus Bacillus (62.5% of cultured bacteria). The single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) results revealed that the genus Bacillus and Pseudomonas were the predominant bacteria. The microbial diversity gradually increased as the treatment progressed, which indicated that the microbial community in the biofilter became more stable upon pollutant removal. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed to evaluate the microorganism growth on the media. It was found that the waste straw and cortex were suitable for microorganism attachment and growth, and may have potential application in odor treatment. PMID:19056260

Xie, B; Liang, S B; Tang, Y; Mi, W X; Xu, Y

2009-04-01

234

Simulated cotton dye effluents treatment and reuse by nanofiltration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The textile industry uses enormous quantities of water which in many cases are disposed to the environment with inadequate treatment. The effluent contains high salts and organics concentrations and they are therefore difficult to be treated. In this work the effluents from the cotton textile industry was treated by nanofiltration membrane in order to reduce the quantity of the disposed

S. A. Avlonitis; I. Poulios; D. Sotiriou; M. Pappas; K. Moutesidis

2008-01-01

235

iWitness pollution map: crowdsourcing petrochemical accident research.  

PubMed

Community members living near any one of Louisiana's 160 chemical plants or refineries have always said that accidents occurring in these petrochemical facilities significantly impact their health and safety. This article reviews the iWitness Pollution Map tool and Rapid Response Team (RRT) approach led by the Louisiana Bucket Brigade, an environmental nonprofit group, and their effectiveness in documenting these health and safety impacts during petrochemical accidents. Analysis of a January 2013 RRT deployment in Chalmette, LA, showed increased documentation of current petrochemical accidents and suggested increased preparedness to report future accidents. The RRT model encourages government response and enforcement agencies to integrate with organized community groups to fully document the impacts during ongoing accidents, lead a more timely response to the accident, and prevent future accidents from occurring. PMID:24135064

Bera, Risha; Hrybyk, Anna

2013-01-01

236

Determination of boiling point of petrochemicals by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and multivariate regression analysis of structural activity relationship.  

PubMed

Accurate understanding of analyte boiling points (BP) is of critical importance in gas chromatographic (GC) separation and crude oil refinery operation in petrochemical industries. This study reported the first combined use of GC separation and partial-least-square (PLS1) multivariate regression analysis of petrochemical structural activity relationship (SAR) for accurate BP determination of two commercially available (D3710 and MA VHP) calibration gas mix samples. The results of the BP determination using PLS1 multivariate regression were further compared with the results of traditional simulated distillation method of BP determination. The developed PLS1 regression was able to correctly predict analytes BP in D3710 and MA VHP calibration gas mix samples, with a root-mean-square-%-relative-error (RMS%RE) of 6.4%, and 10.8% respectively. In contrast, the overall RMS%RE of 32.9% and 40.4%, respectively obtained for BP determination in D3710 and MA VHP using a traditional simulated distillation method were approximately four times larger than the corresponding RMS%RE of BP prediction using MRA, demonstrating the better predictive ability of MRA. The reported method is rapid, robust, and promising, and can be potentially used routinely for fast analysis, pattern recognition, and analyte BP determination in petrochemical industries. PMID:24881546

Fakayode, Sayo O; Mitchell, Breanna S; Pollard, David A

2014-08-01

237

CleanTechnica The Sun is Setting on Petrochemicals, with a Little Help from Lovley Microbes  

E-print Network

CleanTechnica The Sun is Setting on Petrochemicals, with a Little Help from Lovley Microbes (http://cleantechnica.com/2010/06/01/the-sun-is-setting-on-petrochemicals-with-a-little-help-from- lovley-microbes/) (http://cleantechnica.com/2010/06/01/the-sun-is-setting- on-petrochemicals

Lovley, Derek

238

Understanding the petrochemical cycle: Part 1  

SciTech Connect

Fitness in the hydrocarbon processing industry (HPI) arena involves understanding and coping with business cycles: supply and demand. This becomes increasingly more important as the industry globalizes and matures. Competitive-edge thinking needs to look hard at the forces that influence business cycles. Recognition of potential pitfalls is very important when considering: future capacity expansion, mergers and acquisitions, market departure, plant closure, potential product substitution, etc. Understanding pricing mechanisms and the workings of hockey-stick profitability profiles help HPI operators endure cycle downturns and prepare plants to maximize profits for the next upswing. The paper discusses characteristic trends, cycles in the hydrocarbon processing industry, current conditions, and mitigating cycle effects.

Sedriks, W. (SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States))

1994-03-01

239

Imaging industrial contaminant plumes with resistivity techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A systematic geophysical procedure has been developed and applied to image groundwater contamination caused by industrial activities in Bahia, Brazil. The procedure combines the use of conventional Schlumberger sounding with a regular scheme of sampling the resistivity stratification in depth. This is achieved by traversing an area with multiple profiles measured at selected electrode spacing. By multiple profiles we mean closely spaced partial soundings made using only six electrode spacings. Partial and complete soundings are correlated and inverted assuming horizontally stratified models within the limits covered by each electrode array. Pseudo-resistivity sections constructed from these data are inverted and adjusted using a two-dimensional finite difference algorithm. Electrical and lithological well logs are used to constrain this interpretation. The procedure was successfully applied to investigate the groundwater conditions and to outline contaminant plumes within industrial areas of the Camaçari Petrochemical Center, Recôncavo basin, Bahia. The study includes cases of electrically conductive plumes generated by infiltration of inorganic aqueous effluents and a resistive plume containing hydrocarbon contaminants.

de Lima, Olivar A. L.; Sato, Hédison K.; Porsani, Milton J.

1995-12-01

240

The influence of industrial effluents on intertidal benthic communities in Panweol, Kyeonggi Bay (Yellow Sea) on the west coast of Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impacts of industrial wastes on benthic infaunal communities were assessed for an intertidal mudflat near Panweol on the west coast of Korea. Species number and density have decreased sharply compared with values available for these communities before this area was heavily industrialized. At a site near the outfall of a sewage treatment plant almost all pre-existing macrobenthic infauna have disappeared,

In-Young Ahn; Young-Chul Kang; Jin-Woo Choi

1995-01-01

241

The U.S. Chemical Industry, the Raw Materials It Uses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The raw materials used by the industry are considered in this section of the annual chemical industry report, including data covering: natural gas, lead, mercury, phosphate rock, potash, salt, petroleum products including petrochemical feedstocks. (PR)

Chemical and Engineering News, 1972

1972-01-01

242

CO{sub 2} Reuse in Petrochemical Facilities  

SciTech Connect

To address public concerns regarding the consequences of climate change from anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions, the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) is actively funding a CO{sub 2} management program to develop technologies capable of mitigating CO{sub 2} emissions from power plant and industrial facilities. Over the past decade, this program has focused on reducing the costs of carbon capture and storage technologies. Recently, DOE/NETL launched an alternative CO{sub 2} mitigation program focused on beneficial CO{sub 2} reuse to support the development of technologies that mitigate emissions by converting CO{sub 2} into valuable chemicals and fuels. RTI, with DOE/NETL support, has been developing an innovative beneficial CO{sub 2} reuse process for converting CO{sub 2} into substitute natural gas (SNG) by using by-product hydrogen (H{sub 2)-containing fuel gas from petrochemical facilities. This process leveraged commercial reactor technology currently used in fluid catalytic crackers in petroleum refining and a novel nickel (Ni)-based catalyst developed by RTI. The goal was to generate an SNG product that meets the pipeline specifications for natural gas, making the SNG product completely compatible with the existing natural gas infrastructure. RTI's technology development efforts focused on demonstrating the technical feasibility of this novel CO{sub 2} reuse process and obtaining the necessary engineering information to design a pilot demonstration unit for converting about 4 tons per day (tons/day) of CO{sub 2} into SNG at a suitable host site. This final report describes the results of the Phase I catalyst and process development efforts. The methanation activity of several commercial fixed-bed catalysts was evaluated under fluidized-bed conditions in a bench-scale reactor to identify catalyst performance targets. RTI developed two fluidizable Ni-based catalyst formulations (Cat-1 and Cat-3) that demonstrated equal or better performance than that of commercial methanation catalysts. The Cat-1 and Cat-3 formulations were successfully scaled up using commercial manufacturing equipment at the Sud-Chemie Inc. pilot-plant facility in Louisville, KY. Pilot transport reactor testing with RTI's Cat-1 formulation at Kellog Brown & Root's Technology Center demonstrated the ability of the process to achieve high single-pass CO{sub 2} conversion. Using information acquired from bench- and pilot-scale testing, a basic engineering design package was prepared for a 4-ton/day CO{sub 2} pilot demonstration unit, including process and instrumentation diagrams, equipment list, control philosophy, and preliminary cost estimate.

Jason Trembly; Brian Turk; Maruthi Pavani; Jon McCarty; Chris Boggs; Aqil Jamal; Raghubir Gupta

2010-12-31

243

UTILIZATION OF OKRA GUM FOR TREATMENT OF TANNERY EFFLUENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several natural polymeric flocculants are used for water purification. Natural polymers, mainly polysaccharides, by virtue of being biodegradable, non-toxic, shear stable and easily available, are becoming popular in domestic and industrial effluent treatment. Okra gum obtained from seedpods of Hibiscus esculentus is an anionic polysaccharide. It is used as flocculant for removal of solid wastes from tannery effluent in this

M. Agarwal; S. Rajani; A. Mishra; J. S. P. Rai

2003-01-01

244

CO 2 emission reduction for Japanese petrochemicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy efficiency in the Japanese industry is one of the highest in the world. As a consequence, reduction of CO2 emissions is considered to be difficult and costly. However little attention has been paid as of yet to changes related to so-called non-energy use of fossil fuels. The analysis in this paper suggests that a large number of options exist

D. J Gielen; Y Moriguchi; H Yagita

2002-01-01

245

Brain cancer in petrochemical workers: a case series report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eighteen primary brain cancer deaths among male workers at one Texas petrochemical plant from 1965-1980 are reported. Federal officials from OSHA and NIOSH are performing with company cooperation an historical prospective cohort mortality study, a case-control study, and neuropathological case confirmation. Average age at death was 53 (range 30-66). Median employment was 21 years and median latency was 24 years.

Victor Alexander; Sanford S. Leffingwell; J. William Lloyd; Richard J. Waxweiler; Richard L. Miller

1980-01-01

246

Petrochemical feedstock by thermal cracking of plastic waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal cracking is one of the possible ways to obtain petrochemical feedstock from polymer wastes. The properties of the cracking products depend mainly on the type of the raw material. In this study the degradation of different mixtures of polymer wastes (polypropylene and polystyrene) were investigated in a horizontal tube reactor. Temperature of 510–520°C and residence time of 15–30min

András Angyal; Norbert Miskolczi; László Bartha

2007-01-01

247

CHEMICAL INTERACTIONS AMONG CHLOROHYDROCARBON MIXTURES FOUND IN WASTEWATER EFFLUENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Various chlorohydrocarbons found in industrial waste effluents, including chloroform (CHC13) and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), can eventually contaminate public drinking water supplies. The present study was designed to evaluate the interaction between orally administered CHCl3 an...

248

Tracing polar benzene- and naphthalenesulfonates in untreated industrial effluents and water treatment works by ion-pair chromatography-fluorescence and electrospray-mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a protocol for the determination of a class of polar, ionic and highly water-soluble organic pollutants: benzene- and naphthalenesulfonic acids, compounds widely used in chemical, pharmaceutical, tannery, paper and textile industries. This protocol involves the use of a solid-phase extraction (SPE) followed by ion-pair chromatography-electrospray-mass spectrometry (IPC-ESI-MS). In this work two polymeric solid-phase extraction cartridges (Isolute ENV+

M. C Alonso; D Barceló

1999-01-01

249

Optimum multi-plant, multi-supplier production planning for multi-grade petrochemicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mixed-integer linear programming model is presented for the optimum planning of multi-plant, multi-supplier, and multi-grade petrochemical production. In the production of multiple grades of a given petrochemical product, the amount of transitional off-spec production depends on the sequencing of different grades. For each time period, the discrete-time model determines the optimum mix of petrochemical grades for each plant, the

Hesham K. Alfares

2009-01-01

250

The use of lidar as optical remote sensors in the assessment of air quality near oil refineries and petrochemical sites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Petrochemical and oil refining facilities play an increasingly important role in the industrial context. The corresponding need for monitoring emissions from these facilities as well as in their neighborhood has raised in importance, leading to the present tendency of creating real time data acquisition and analysis systems. The use of LIDAR-based techniques, both for air quality and emissions monitoring purposes is currently being developed for the area of Cubatao, Sao Paulo, one of the largest petrochemical and industrial sites in Brazil. In a partnership with the University of SÃ#o Paulo (USP) the Brazilian oil company PETROBRAS has implemented an Environmental Research Center - CEPEMA - located in the industrial site, in which the development of fieldwork will be carried out. The current joint R&D project focuses on the development of a real time acquisition system, together with automated multicomponent chemical analysis. Additionally, fugitive emissions from oil processing and storage sites will be measured, together with the main greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4), and aerosols. Our first effort is to assess the potential chemical species coming out of an oil refinery site and to verify which LIDAR technique, DIAL, Raman, fluorescence would be most efficient in detecting and quantifying the specific atmospheric emissions.

Steffens, Juliana; Landulfo, Eduardo; Guardani, Roberto; Oller do Nascimento, Cláudio A.; Moreira, Andréia

2008-10-01

251

Health planning for remote petrochemical field operations  

SciTech Connect

Occupational/Public Health Services are becoming increasingly required in projects that involve the extended presence of expatriates in remote underdeveloped areas of the world. These ``expats`` are defined as individuals living and working in the environment who are not indigenous to the area. Under this definition, workers who are resistant to a ``local`` strain of malaria and then relocate to another geographic within the same country can also be considered as ``biologic expatriates`` since their resistance profile for certain tropical diseases is not reflective of their new environment. Unlike a major infrastructure project in the industrialized world, project planners in remote areas of the developing world should be expected to make significant long term medical and environmental commitments. US companies have extensive experience in the business of large-scale development projects, e.g. oil and gas pipelines and well field development; however, these projects represent major long-term in-country commitments with potentially large labor forces and substantial and sustained impacts on local health and safety resources. The initial structuring of health and safety programs will, therefore, have long-term ramifications on the project both during construction and ``routine`` operations since the multi-national companies are increasingly expected to develop and maintain self-sustaining health, safety and environmental programs.

Krieger, G.R.; Balge, M.Z.

1995-12-31

252

Industry  

SciTech Connect

This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of industrial mitigation for sustainable development is discussed in Section 7.7. Section 7.8 discusses the sector's vulnerability to climate change and options for adaptation. A number of policies have been designed either to encourage voluntary GHG emission reductions from the industrial sector or to mandate such reductions. Section 7.9 describes these policies and the experience gained to date. Co-benefits of reducing GHG emissions from the industrial sector are discussed in Section 7.10. Development of new technology is key to the cost-effective control of industrial GHG emissions. Section 7.11 discusses research, development, deployment and diffusion in the industrial sector and Section 7.12, the long-term (post-2030) technologies for GHG emissions reduction from the industrial sector. Section 7.13 summarizes gaps in knowledge.

Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

2007-12-01

253

Petrochemical types of kimberlites and their diamond-bearing capacity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kimberlite rocks of Yakutian province (belong to 1 group of kimberlites after Smith, 1983) are characterized by wide variations of rock-forming oxides [Ilupin et al., 1986; Milashev, 1965; Kharkiv et al., 1991]. A number of factors could be discussed to explain the variety of chemical compositions of rocks. The first factor, explaining the regional differences in the kimberlite composition with primarily different composition of source kimberlite melt-fluid, is conventionally called «primary». All other factors are connected with the secondary redistribution of chemical components of kimberlites. Irrespective of intensity of secondary factors, the primary composition of kimberlites varies broadly, which is noticeable in kimberlites of some provinces, kimberlites fields, pipe clusters and individual pipes. The petrochemical types are classified based on the contents of such oxides as FeO, TiO2 and K2O, being relatively inert in the secondary processes. In the Yakutian Province we have distinguished 5 petrochemical types of kimberlites (Kostrovitsky et al, 2007); with principal ones - high-Mg, magnesium-ferruginous (Mg-Fe) and ferruginous-titaniferous, their composition: < 6; 6-9; 8-15 % FeOtotal and < 1; 1-2.5; 1.5-5.0 % TiO2). Some petrochemical and mineralogical criteria of diamond-bearing capacity of kimberlites were identified some time before. The essence of petrochemical criterion consists of the inverse correlation dependence between the contents FeOtotal, TiO2 in kimberlite rocks and their diamond-bearing capacity (Milashev, 1965; Krivonos, 1998). The mineralogical criteria of diamond-bearing capacity infer presence of direct dependence of the rate of capacity on the content in kimberlites of low-Ca, high-Cr garnet and chrome spinellids with Cr2O3 > 62% and TiO2 < 0.5%, of dunite-harzburgite paragenesis (Sobolev, 1974; Meyer, 1968). The acquired results are applied to evaluate «efficiency» of criteria of diamond-bearing capacity exemplified by the deposits of Yakutian Province. The high-Mg kimberlites of the Njurba, Botuoba, International and Aikhal pipes are known as mostly diamondiferous. Kimberlites of these fields are marked by absence or minor abundance of minerals of low-Cr megacryst association - picroilmenite and orange-red garnet, and on the other hand, increased content of chrome spinellids and garnets, referred to as dunite-harzburgite paragenesis. Whereas most of the other deposits of Yakutia (pipes Mir, Udachnaya-Vostochnaya, Udachnaya-Zapadnaya, Yubileinaya, Komsomolskaya, Zarnitsa and Sytykan) are referred to the Mg-Fe petrochemical type distinguished by fairly raised content of TiO2 and FeOtotal and high content of minerals of low-Cr megacryst association. The minerals of dunite-harzburgite paragenesis in kimberlites of Mg-Fe type occur as varying amounts, but in general they are less numerous than in high-Mg type of kimberlites. The enumerated deposits have different rates of diamond-bearing capacity, but none of them reaches the rate of capacity common for the Mg-type deposits. The kimberlites with higher content of TiO2 and FeOtotal, referred to the Fe-Ti petrochemical type, do not produce commercial diamond fields within the Yakutian Province. The kimberlites of this type practically do not contain garnet and spinellids of dunite-harzburgite paragenesis. Therefore, comparison of kimberlite deposits of different petrochemical types points out that the petrochemical criterion of diamond capacity is as if «workable». But on the other hand, there are pipes composed of kimberlites of high-Mg and Mg-Fe petrochemical types with a poor capacity or devoid diamonds, which essentially conceal supposed dependence of parameter of diamond-bearing capacity on the chemical composition of rocks. Thus, the negative correlation between the contents FeOtotal, TiO2 in kimberlite rocks and their diamond capacity manifests itself as a tendency in general for kimberlite rocks. Different petrochemical types of kimberlites, varying in the rate of diamond capacity, are indistinguishable in the conte

Kostrovitsky, Sergey

2010-05-01

254

Considerations for Planning a Monitoring Campaign at Petrochemical Complexes: Lessons Learned  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An air quality monitoring campaign was developed for the late spring of 2009 near Houston area petrochemical facilities. The focus of the field campaign was to measure free radicals that contribute to the formation of ozone, however refinery and chemical plants monitored are also emitters of many different volatile organic compounds (vocs) and hazardous air pollutants (haps). The Houston area is home to the largest aggregation of petrochemical facilities in the U.S. Three specific geographical areas with industrial facilities were considered: Mont Belvieu, the Houston Ship Channel and the Texas City Industrial Complex. Previous experiences with field campaigns in the area led to the presumption that there would be little if any access inside the facilities. Considerations for which areas to focus on included: how close could the facility be approached, what were the directions of the prevailing winds, what kind of barriers to measurement existed (e.g. trees, buildings, highways, privately owned land, etc.), and what were the possible chemical interferences from other sources near the measurement sites? Close communications with the plant security, the local police, the Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI), Homeland Security, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), and the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) were required. Substantial delays can occur due to local concerns regarding homeland security and plant safety. Also, a system of communications is essential to coordinate the participating scientists operating stationary analyzers with the scientists who have analyzers mounted in ground vehicles and in aircraft. The researchers were provided with information regarding plant operations, types of equipment and potential pollutants. A wide variety of stationery and mobile ambient air monitoring techniques were used to measure formaldehyde and other volatile organic compounds. In order to identify likely formaldehyde sources the self-reported submissions to the EPA in the Toxic Release Inventory and emissions reports to the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality were reviewed. Other considerations were the locations of boilers, furnaces and flares, since formaldehyde is a product of combustion. In addition, a review was made to identify any sources of formaldehyde stored, consumed or produced in the petrochemical processes. The Texas City complex was chosen for the focus on formaldehyde study due to the very heavy concentration (fence-line to fence-line) of several refineries, chemical plants and storage facilities. Also there were sites upwind and downwind of the complex that were available for installing critical stationary analyzers for the study. Formaldehyde was identified in several locations, including from flares and smokestacks on ships. Also, benzene was measured less than a mile away from a plume emanating from a 200 foot flare. The solar occultation flux method was used to identify voc emissions that were 5-10 times higher than expected based on the emissions reported to the state environmental agency by the facilities. This paper will describe how the site selection and preparation enhanced the data that was retrieved, and how preparations might be adjusted to improve future air quality studies at petrochemical sites.

Cuclis, A.

2010-12-01

255

Agent orange herbicides, organophosphate and triazinic pesticides analysis in olive oil and industrial oil mill waste effluents using new organic phase immunosensors.  

PubMed

New immunosensors working in organic solvent mixtures (OPIEs) for the analysis of traces of different pesticides (triazinic, organophosphates and chlorurates) present in hydrophobic matrices such as olive oil were developed and tested. A Clark electrode was used as transducer and peroxidase enzyme as marker. The competitive process took place in a chloroform-hexane 50% (V/V) mixture, while the subsequent enzymatic final measurement was performed in decane and using tert-butylhydroperoxide as substrate of the enzymatic reaction. A linear response of between about 10nM and 5.0?M was usually obtained in the presence of olive oil. Recovery tests were carried out in commercial or artisanal extra virgin olive oil. Traces of pesticides were also checked in the oily matrix, in pomace and mill wastewaters from an industrial oil mill. Immunosensors show good selectivity and satisfactory precision and recovery tests performed in olive oil gave excellent results. PMID:25236238

Martini, Elisabetta; Merola, Giovanni; Tomassetti, Mauro; Campanella, Luigi

2015-02-15

256

Industry  

E-print Network

Blok, 2003a) and strip casting in the steel industry (Luitennet shape casting. ULCOS (Ultra-Low CO 2 Steel making), acasting, introduced in the 1970s and 1980s, saves both energy and mate- rial, and now accounts for 88% of global steel

Bernstein, Lenny

2008-01-01

257

Recovery of enthalpy as work from thermal effluents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Enthalpy is recovered as work from hot industrial effluents by the controlled expansion of liquids through convergent-divergent nozzles in true reaction turbines. For hot liquid effluents, the effluent itself serves as the working fluid. For gaseous effluents, a high boiling stable liquid is heated by the gas in a scrubbing tower and then the liquid is expanded as the work fluid. If the effluents contain undesirable levels of particulate pollutants, the liquid is cleaned before it is expanded. The results predicted when using both impulse and true reaction turbines are reported. Results predicted when using work fluids as glycerol, tricresyl phosphate, bi-phenyls, and silicone oils are presented. Cycle efficiencies as high as 26% are predicted as possible.

Molini, A. E.

1982-08-01

258

Effects of oil sands effluent on cattail and clover: photosynthesis and the level of stress proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oil sands industry located in northeastern Alberta, Canada, generates large volumes of effluent characterized by a high level of dissolved ions and naphthenic acids. The dikes used to store the effluent seep, creating wetlands which are subsequently invaded by obligate wetland flora such as cattail (Typha latifolia L.). The appearance of these wetlands prompted the oil sands industry to

A. U Crowe; B Han; A. R Kermode; L. I Bendell-Young; A. L Plant

2001-01-01

259

The use of phytotoxicity tests (common duckweed, cabbage, and millet) for determining effluent toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to use higher plants for detecting effluent toxicity. Eight effluent samples were obtained from three industrial sources prior to their entry into a sewer system. The tests were the duckweed reproduction test, and root growth tests using cabbage and millet. The results of repeated phytotoxicity tests were reproducible. Of the three industrial sources, the

Wuncheng Wang; Judson M. Williams

1990-01-01

260

Prospects for a bio-based succinate industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bio-based succinate is receiving increasing attention as a potential intermediary feedstock for replacing a large petrochemical-based\\u000a bulk chemical market. The prospective economical and environmental benefits of a bio-based succinate industry have motivated\\u000a research and development of succinate-producing organisms. Bio-based succinate is still faced with the challenge of becoming\\u000a cost competitive against petrochemical-based alternatives. High succinate concentrations must be produced at

James B. McKinlay; C. Vieille; J. Gregory Zeikus

2007-01-01

261

Technology transfer through a network of standard methods and recommended practices - The case of petrochemicals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Technology transfer may take place in parallel with cooperative action between companies participating in the same organizational scheme or using one another as subcontractor (outsourcing). In this case, cooperation should be realized by means of Standard Methods and Recommended Practices (SRPs) to achieve (i) quality of intermediate/final products according to specifications and (ii) industrial process control as required to guarantee such quality with minimum deviation (corresponding to maximum reliability) from preset mean values of representative quality parameters. This work deals with the design of the network of SRPs needed in each case for successful cooperation, implying also the corresponding technology transfer, effectuated through a methodological framework developed in the form of an algorithmic procedure with 20 activity stages and 8 decision nodes. The functionality of this methodology is proved by presenting the path leading from (and relating) a standard test method for toluene, as petrochemical feedstock in the toluene diisocyanate production, to the (6 generations distance upstream) performance evaluation of industrial process control systems (ie., from ASTM D5606 to BS EN 61003-1:2004 in the SRPs network).

Batzias, Dimitris F.; Karvounis, Sotirios

2012-12-01

262

Effects-Directed Studies of Pulp and Paper Mill Effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The history of effects-directed investigations of pulp and paper mill effluents has been driven primarily by the environmental\\u000a effects associated with mill discharges. The first effect to confront the industry was acute toxicity to aquatic biota. Through\\u000a a series of effects-directed studies in the 1970s and 1980s the causative agents were elucidated, subsequent regulations enacted,\\u000a and effluent treatment technologies implemented

Mark Hewitt

263

Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) for the removal of Hg2+ and Cd2+ from synthetic petrochemical factory wastewater.  

PubMed

Petrochemical factories which manufacture vinyl chloride monomer and poly vinyl chloride (PVC) are among the largest industries which produce wastewater contains mercury and cadmium. The objective of this research is to evaluate the performance of a lab-scale Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) to treat a synthetic petrochemical wastewater containing mercury and cadmium. After acclimatization of the system which lasted 60 days, the SBR was introduced to mercury and cadmium in low concentrations which then was increased gradually to 9.03±0.02 mg/L Hg and 15.52±0.02 mg/L Cd until day 110. The SBR performance was assessed by measuring Chemical Oxygen Demand, Total and Volatile Suspended Solids as well as Sludge Volume Index. At maximum concentrations of the heavy metals, the SBR was able to remove 76-90% of Hg(2+) and 96-98% of Cd(2+). The COD removal efficiency and MLVSS (microorganism population) in the SBR was affected by mercury and cadmium concentrations in influent. Different species of microorganisms such as Rhodospirilium-like bacteria, Gomphonema-like algae, and sulfate reducing-like bacteria were identified in the system. While COD removal efficiency and MLVSS concentration declined during addition of heavy metals, the appreciable performance of SBR in removal of Hg(2+) and Cd(2+) implies that the removal in SBR was not only a biological process, but also by the biosorption process of the sludge. PMID:21592658

Malakahmad, Amirhossein; Hasani, Amirhesam; Eisakhani, Mahdieh; Isa, Mohamed Hasnain

2011-07-15

264

Environmental assessment for effluent reduction, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to eliminate industrial effluent from 27 outfalls at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The Proposed Action includes both simple and extensive plumbing modifications, which would result in the elimination of industrial effluent being released to the environment through 27 outfalls. The industrial effluent currently going to about half of the 27 outfalls under consideration would be rerouted to LANL`s sanitary sewer system. Industrial effluent from other outfalls would be eliminated by replacing once-through cooling water systems with recirculation systems, or, in a few instances, operational changes would result in no generation of industrial effluent. After the industrial effluents have been discontinued, the affected outfalls would be removed from the NPDES Permit. The pipes from the source building or structure to the discharge point for the outfalls may be plugged, or excavated and removed. Other outfalls would remain intact and would continue to discharge stormwater. The No Action alternative, which would maintain the status quo for LANL`s outfalls, was also analyzed. An alternative in which industrial effluent would be treated at the source facilities was considered but dismissed from further analysis because it would not reasonably meet the DOE`s purpose for action, and its potential environmental effects were bounded by the analysis of the Proposed Action and the No Action alternatives.

NONE

1996-09-11

265

Observations and Modeling of Ozone Photochemistry in Plumes from Petrochemical Facilities near Houston, TX.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Comprehensive airborne measurements of ozone and its precursors, as well as other secondary photochemical products were made during the Texas 2000 Air Quality Study in the plumes of power plants, petrochemical facilities and the Houston urban plume. These measurements indicate particularly rapid and efficient ozone formation as a result of the collocation of significant emissions of NOx and reactive alkenes (mainly ethene and propene) at some of the petrochemical facilities. In a two dimensional Lagrangian plume model the emission rates of NOx, as well as, ethene and propene were adjusted by comparison with the observations downwind from isolated petrochemical facilities. While adopted and reported NOx emission rates compare reasonably well for these facilities, the reported alkene emission rates are much lower than the observation based estimates. The model, using the observation based emission rates, reproduces the observed formation of ozone and other secondary products such as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and the partitioning of the reactive nitrogen species well in the plumes of petrochemical facilities.

Trainer, M.; Angevine, W.; Atlas, E.; Dissley, R.; Donnelly, S.; Fehsenfeld, F.; Flocke, F.; Fried, A.; Goldan, P.; Hansel, A.; Holloway, J.; Huebler, G.; Neuman, A.; Nicks, D.; Parrish, D.; Ryerson, T.; Schauffler, S.; Weinheimer, A.; Wert, B.; Wisthaler, A.

2002-12-01

266

Investigation of fugitive emissions from petrochemical transport barges using optical remote sensing  

EPA Science Inventory

Recent airborne remote sensing survey data acquired with passive gas imaging equipment (PGIE), in this case infrared cameras, have shown potentially significant fugitive volatile organic carbon (VOC) emissions from petrochemical transport barges. The experiment found remote sens...

267

Silage effluent management: a review.  

PubMed

Silage effluent is a potent wastewater that can be produced when ensiling crops that have a high moisture content (MC). Silage effluent can cause fish-kills and eutrophication due to its high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and nutrient content, respectively. It has a high acidity (pH ? 3.5-5) making it corrosive to steel and damaging to concrete, which makes handling, storage and disposal a challenge. Although being recognized as a concentrated wastewater, most research has focused on preventing its production. Despite noted imprecision in effluent production models-and therefore limited ability to predict when effluent will flow-there has been little research aimed at identifying effective reactive management options, such as containment and natural treatment systems. Increasing climate variability and intensifying livestock agriculture are issues that will place a greater importance on developing comprehensive, multi-layered management strategies that include both preventative and reactive measures. This paper reviews important factors governing the production of effluent, approaches to minimize effluent flows as well as treatment and disposal options. The challenges of managing silage effluent are reviewed in the context of its chemical constituents. A multi-faceted approach should be utilized to minimize environmental risks associated with silage effluent. This includes: (i) managing crop moisture content prior to ensiling to reduce effluent production, (ii) ensuring the integrity of silos and effluent storages, and (iii) establishing infrastructure for effluent treatment and disposal. A more thorough investigation of constructed wetlands and vegetated infiltration areas for treating dilute silage effluent is needed. In particular, there should be efforts to improve natural treatment system design criteria by identifying pre-treatment processes and appropriate effluent loading rates. There is also a need for research aimed at understanding the effects of repeated land application of effluent on soil quality and crop yields, as spreading is a common disposal practice. PMID:24905641

Gebrehanna, M M; Gordon, R J; Madani, A; VanderZaag, A C; Wood, J D

2014-10-01

268

Computer-Aided Design Reveals Potential of Gas Turbine Cogeneration in Chemical and Petrochemical Plants  

E-print Network

process steam, and producing process heat from conventional fossil fuel sources. AND PETROCHEMICAL PLANTS William J. Baker ?1 Paso Products Company Odessa, Texas These critical items, in most processes, can dictate how competitive the end product... process steam, and producing process heat from conventional fossil fuel sources. AND PETROCHEMICAL PLANTS William J. Baker ?1 Paso Products Company Odessa, Texas These critical items, in most processes, can dictate how competitive the end product...

Nanny, M. D.; Koeroghlian, M. M.; Baker, W. J.

1984-01-01

269

The effect of solids retention time on tertiary ozonation and carbon adsorption of petrochemical wastewaters  

E-print Network

THE EFFECT OF SOLIDS RETENTION TIME ON TERTIARY OZONATION AND CARBON ADSORPTION OF PETROCHEMICAL WASTEWATERS A Thesis by RONALD EARL BUYS Submitted to the Graduate College Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1980 Major Subject: Civil Engineering THE EFFECT OF SOLIDS RETENTION TIME ON TERTIARY OZONATION AND CARBON ADSORPTION OF PETROCHEMICAL HASTENATERS A Thesis RONALD EARL BL'YS Approved as to style and content by...

Buys, Ronald Earl

2012-06-07

270

Gene expression of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) exposed to two types of treated municipal wastewater effluents.  

PubMed

Contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) in treated municipal effluents have the potential to adversely impact exposed organisms prompting elevated public concern. Using transcriptomic tools, we investigated changes in gene expression and cellular pathways in the liver of male fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) exposed to 5% concentrations of full secondary-treated (HTP) or advanced primary-treated (PL) municipal wastewater effluents containing CECs. Gene expression changes were associated with apical end points (plasma vitellogenin and changes in secondary sexual characteristics). Of 32 effluent CECs analyzed, 28 were detected including pharmaceuticals, personal care products, hormones, and industrial compounds. Exposure to both effluents produced significantly higher levels of plasma VTG and changes in secondary sexual characteristics (e.g., ovipositor development). Transcript patterns differed between effluents, with <10% agreement in the detected response (e.g., altered production of transcripts involved in xenobiotic detoxification, oxidative stress, and apoptosis were observed following exposure to both effluents). Exposure to PL effluent caused changes in transcription of genes involved in metabolic pathways (e.g., lipid transport and steroid metabolism). Exposure to HTP effluent affected transcripts involved in signaling pathways (e.g., focal adhesion assembly and extracellular matrix). The results suggest a potential association between some transcriptomic changes and physiological responses following effluent exposure. This study identified responses in pathways not previously implicated in exposure to complex chemical mixtures containing CECs, which are consistent with effluent exposure (e.g., oxidative stress) in addition to other pathway responses specific to the effluent type. PMID:23919544

Vidal-Dorsch, Doris E; Colli-Dula, R Cristina; Bay, Steven M; Greenstein, Darrin J; Wiborg, Lan; Petschauer, Dawn; Denslow, Nancy D

2013-10-01

271

Environmental comparison of biobased chemicals from glutamic acid with their petrochemical equivalents.  

PubMed

Glutamic acid is an important constituent of waste streams from biofuels production. It is an interesting starting material for the synthesis of biobased chemicals, thereby decreasing the dependency on fossil fuels. The objective of this paper was to compare the environmental impact of four biobased chemicals from glutamic acid with their petrochemical equivalents, that is, N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP), N-vinylpyrrolidone (NVP), acrylonitrile (ACN), and succinonitrile (SCN). A consequential life cycle assessment was performed, wherein glutamic acid was obtained from sugar beet vinasse. The removed glutamic acid was substituted with cane molasses and ureum. The comparison between the four biobased and petrochemical products showed that for NMP and NVP the biobased version had less impact on the environment, while for ACN and SCN the petrochemical version had less impact on the environment. For the latter two an optimized scenario was computed, which showed that the process for SCN can be improved to a level at which it can compete with the petrochemical process. For biobased ACN large improvements are required to make it competitive with its petrochemical equivalent. The results of this LCA and the research preceding it also show that glutamic acid can be a building block for a variety of molecules that are currently produced from petrochemical resources. Currently, most methods to produce biobased products are biotechnological processes based on sugar, but this paper demonstrates that the use of amino acids from low-value byproducts can certainly be a method as well. PMID:21870885

Lammens, Tijs M; Potting, José; Sanders, Johan P M; De Boer, Imke J M

2011-10-01

272

Industrial water conservation, recycle and reuse: A literature survey  

SciTech Connect

The results of a literature survey on industrial water conservation, recycle and reuse, sponsored by NACE T-7N (Minimization of Aqueous Discharges) are presented. A majority of the references cited are from the chemical and petrochemical industries. Categorization and definition of terms used in water conservation are given. 120 refs.

Breske, T.C. [E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Co., Inc., Wilmington, DE (United States)

1997-09-01

273

Trace element removal by Spirulina sp. from copper smelter and refinery effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents the studies carried out on the applicability of microalga Spirulina sp. for trace elements removal from the conditioned (large volume, low contaminants concentration) industrial effluent, from copper smelter and refinery, containing a variety of trace elements, particularly mercury, cadmium, ammonia–nitrogen in concentrations exceeding Polish permissible limits for effluents discharged into water and soil. Trace elements removal is

K Chojnacka; A Chojnacki; H Górecka

2004-01-01

274

Microbiological studies of effluents from the Nigerian fertilizer and paper recycling mill plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effluent collected from two very important industries in Nigeria, the Nigerian Fertilizer company, Port Harcourt and Star Paper Mill, Owerrinta, were examined for its chemical and microbiological quality. Quantitative examination of the microorganisms present in the effluent revealed that as many as 2.03 x 10 viable bacteria (cfu per ml) were present. The predominant bacterial forms include: Nitrosomonas, Nitrobacter, Kleb?siella,

O. U. Ezeronye; N. Amogu

1998-01-01

275

Mercury pollution of effluent, air, and soil near a battery factory in Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effluent, air, and soil samples near a battery factory in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, where HgCl2 is used to prevent mold growth, were collected to explore the potential for pollution of the environment from industrial discharge of Hg. Flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry was used for Hg determinations. The concentration of Hg in the effluent ranged from -1 and the Hg

E. Semu; B. R. Singh; A. R. Selmer-Olsen

1986-01-01

276

Chem Systems sets stage for European petrochemical restructuring  

SciTech Connect

At least four high-cost crackers in Europe will be redundant by the year 2000 as a result of imports of ethylene derivatives, says Chem Systems (London) in its long-awaited study, European Petrochemical Strategy in the 1990s. Margins in Europe are at their lowest point since 1982, and companies have indicated that they would move ahead with restructuring once the study had been compiled. The report's author, Chem Systems director Roger Longley, says managers at almost every company have failed to address inefficiencies and have allowed high costs to persist while remaining in uncompetitive businesses. While the study concludes low costs are the prime factor for successful operations, few firms get anywhere near minimum achievable costs. Benefits gained from having high-value grades are less significant that those of low costs. In each product sector, smallest producers and least efficient plants need to be eliminated, leaving 8-12 players. Currently, about 25 companies or joint ventures produce ethylene in Europe.

Chynoweth, E.

1993-01-27

277

EVALUATION OF A SHORT-TERM CHRONIC EFFLUENT TOXICITY TEST USING SHEEPSHEAD MINNOW (CYPRINODON VARIEGATUS) LARVAE  

EPA Science Inventory

In response to recent changes in National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit regulations, rapid (7-day) static renewal toxicity tests have been developed to detect chronic (sublethal and lethal) effect concentrations of municipal and industrial effluents on fre...

278

Treatment of Textile Dye Plant Effluent by Nanofiltration Membrane  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was concerned primarily with characterization of the NF45 membrane. Its pure water permeability, the mass transfer coefficient of NaCl, and the mean radius of the membrane pores were determined. Experiments run with five pure dye solutions and an industrial dye pulp solution confirmed the potential of nanofiltration membrane separation for the treatment of textile dye plant effluent. The

YAZHEN XU; RÉMI E. LEBRUN; PIERRE-JEAN GALLO; PIERRE BLOND

1999-01-01

279

Microbial decolorization of textile-dyecontaining effluents: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water-pollution control is presently one of the major areas of scientific activity. While coloured organic compounds generally impart only a minor fraction of the organic load to wastewater, their colour renders them aesthetically unacceptable. Effluent discharge from textile and dyestuff industries to neighbouring water bodies and wastewater treatment systems is currently causing significant health concerns to environmental regulatory agencies. Colour

Ibrahim M. Banat; Poonam Nigam; Datel Singh; Roger Marchant

1996-01-01

280

Seawater desalination plants influents and effluents analysis in Libya  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to analyse seawater desalination plants influents and effluents. Most of desalination plants in Libya use the Mediterranean Sea as the major source for producing drinking and industrial waters. The discharge of the concentrates from desalination plants to the sea may carry different pollutants, which can render the water harmful for human and marine life.

Ibrahim M. El-Azizi

2003-01-01

281

Substance abuse in the refining industry  

SciTech Connect

In order to provide some background for the NPRA Annual Meeting Management Session panel discussion on Substance Abuse in the Refining and Petrochemical Industries, NPRA distributed a questionnaire to member companies requesting information regarding the status of their individual substance abuse policies. The questionnaire was designed to identify general trends in the industry. The aggregate responses to the survey are summarized in this paper, as background for the Substance Abuse panel discussions.

Little, A. Jr. (Sun Refining and Marketing Co., Philadelphia, PA (US)); Ross, J.K. (Ashalnd Petroleum Co., Ashland, KY (US)); Lavorerio, R. (Chevron U.S.A. Inc., Richmond, CA (US)); Richards, T.A. (Total Petroleum, Inc., Denver, CO (US))

1989-01-01

282

A combined chemical and biological assessment of industrial contamination in an estuarine system in Kerala, India.  

PubMed

The Cochin Backwaters in India are part of the Vembanad-Kol system, which is a protected wetland and one of the largest estuarine ecosystems in South Asia. The backwaters are a major supplier of fisheries resources and are developed as tourist destination. Periyar River discharges into the northern arm of the system and receives effluents from chemical, petrochemical and metal processing industries which release huge amounts of wastewaters after little treatment. We investigated water and sediment contamination in the industrial vicinity and at one station further away including organic and inorganic contaminants. In total 83 organic contaminants were found, e.g. well known priority pollutants such as endosulfan, hexachlorobenzene, DDT, hexachlorocyclohexane and their metabolites, which likely stem from the industrial manufacturing of organochlorine pesticides. Furthermore, several benzothiazole, dibenzylamine and dicyclohexylamine derivatives were detected, which indicated inputs from rubber producing facilities. Several of these compounds have not been reported as environmental contaminants so far. A comparison of organic contaminant and trace hazardous element concentrations in sediments with reported sediment quality guidelines revealed that adverse effects on benthic species are likely at all stations. The chemical assessment was combined with an investigation of macrobenthic diversity and community composition. Benthic organisms were completely lacking at the site with the highest trace hazardous element concentrations. Highest species numbers, diversity indices and abundances were recorded at the station with the greatest distance to the industrial area. Filter feeders were nearly completely lacking, probably leading to an impairment of the filter function in this area. This study shows that a combination of chemical and biological methods is an innovative approach to achieve a comprehensive characterization of industrial contamination, to evaluate associated risks for bottom dwelling consumers regarding sediment quality guidelines, and to observe related adverse effects on the benthic community directly in the field. PMID:24735943

Dsikowitzky, Larissa; Nordhaus, Inga; Sujatha, C H; Akhil, P S; Soman, Kunjupilai; Schwarzbauer, Jan

2014-07-01

283

Exposure to organic solvents and its effects on the central nervous system in workers of the Camaçari petrochemical complex in Brazil.  

PubMed

While numerous studies have been carried out in industrialized countries, only very few epidemiologic investigations performed in developing countries are reported in the international literature. This study is one of the few examples of investigations carried out in a region where industrialization is at its beginning. A sample of 188 workers employed at the Camaçari Petrochemical Complex in Bahia, Brazil, and exposed for over five years to organic solvents was submitted to neurobehavioral testing (QQS questionnaire, MANS battery) together with a 1/1 control group paired for age, school attendance and alcohol consumption. The exposed subjects showed differences significantly worse at emotional status, manual dexterity, recognition memory and subjective symptoms. Exposed subjects are therefore characterized by decreased psychophysical well-being. PMID:9419828

Saretto, G; Oliveira, F C; Kato, M; Reis, E J; Castro, R C; Dorigatti, F; Camerino, D; Gilioli, R

1997-01-01

284

Ambient volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations around a petrochemical complex and a petroleum refinery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air samples were collected between September 2000 and September 2001 in Izmir, Turkey at three sampling sites located around a petrochemical complex and an oil refinery to measure ambient volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations. VOC concentrations were 4–20-fold higher than those measured at a suburban site in Izmir, Turkey. Ethylene dichloride, a leaded gasoline additive used in petroleum refining and

Eylem Cetin; Mustafa Odabasi; Remzi Seyfioglu

2003-01-01

285

Effect of petrochemical sludge concentrations on microbial communities during soil bioremediation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Qualitative and quantitative changes of microbial communities in soil microcosms during bioremediation were determined throughout one year. The soil was contaminated with 0%, 2.5%, 5%, 10% (wt\\/wt) of petrochemical sludge containing polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. We analyzed the hydrocarbon concentration in the microcosms, the number of cultivable bacteria using CFU and most probable number assays, the community structure using denaturing gradient

María T. Del Panno; Irma S. Morelli; Bert Engelen; Luise Berthe-Corti

2005-01-01

286

Impact of a Disability Management Program on Employee Productivity in a Petrochemical Company  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: An inhouse disability management program was im- plemented to reduce nonoccupational absences in a petrochemical corporation. The program was administered by full-time certified, corporate-based case managers and nine manufacturing location nurses. Methods: Employees were required to report all absences on the first day and again on the fourth workday of absence. A medical certification form was required for absences

Christopher M. Skisak; Faiyaz Bhojani; Shan P. Tsai

2006-01-01

287

A contribution to the surface analysis and characterisation of HVOF coatings for petrochemical application  

Microsoft Academic Search

The appropriate selection of bulk materials and coatings of valve components is an important factor for the economic success of oil and gas production activities in the petrochemical field. Materials and coatings are important because particle erosion and surface wear are associated to corrosion by hydrogen sulphide during oil and gas flow. The wear of high pressure valves of gas

A Scrivani; S Ianelli; A Rossi; R Groppetti; F Casadei; G Rizzi

2001-01-01

288

Fuzzy Logic Modeling of the Fluidized Catalytic Cracking Unit of a Petrochemical Refinery  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes investigations carried out regarding the application of Fuzzy Logic Control to the Fluidized Catalytic Cracking Unit (FCCU) of Kaduna Refinery and Petrochemical Company in Northern Nigeria, as a case study. An optimal control solution where the objective is to determine a well-defined relationship between the vital variables (reactor temperature\\/riser outlet temperature, regenerator gas temperature, regenerated catalyst feed

P. B. Osofisan; O. J. Obafaiye

2007-01-01

289

[Dental caries, periodontal diseases and the condition of mouth mucosa in workers of the petrochemical industry].  

PubMed

259 workers of the divisions of the highest toxic substances risk in the working environment were examined. The masticatory system was examined clinically. The examinations indicated considerable caries in all workers. The intensity of the disease differed insignificantly between workers of particular divisions. Peridontal disorders were found in almost all workers (over 80% of subjects). The highest rate of those disorders was that in the workers of the Divisions of Furfural and Asphalt Oxidation. The periodontal disorders were fairly advanced. In most (over 60%) cases the destructive periodontal disease was diagnosed. Among the diseases of oral mucosa, leukoplakia was most frequent, affecting 42.8% of workers of Divisions of Furfural and 26.0% of workers of the Division Phenol. PMID:6645941

Wierzbicka, M; Marchlewska, B; Musur, E; Sentek, B

1983-01-01

290

Management of nonprocess elements in low-effluent bleached kraft pulp mills  

SciTech Connect

Increasing environmental regulation for the discharge of chlorinated organics in bleach plant effluents has required most manufacturers in the pulp and paper industry to reduce the charge of elemental chlorine in the bleaching of kraft pulp. The best long term solution for reducing effluent pollutants from bleached kraft pulp mills is to move towards low-effluent (closed-cycle) bleaching. Closure of operating bleach plants would dramatically reduce both the volume and the pollutant concentration of pulp mill effluents. However, closing the mill creates many operational problems including a concentration build-up of nonprocess elements (NPE`s) in process streams. NPE`s usually enter the pulp process as trace constituents of wood. Recent studies have lead to a fundamental understanding of how NPE`s partition between the solid cellulose phase and the liquid aqueous phase in pulp mill process streams. This knowledge will help in the design, operation and optimization of future low-effluent bleach plants.

Bryant, P.S. [Institute of Paper Science and Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

1995-12-31

291

Perceived health change in the aftermath of a petrochemical accident: an examination of pre-accident, within-accident, and post-accident variables  

PubMed Central

Background Little research has been conducted on changes in perceived health after an industrial accident. Using data from an ongoing survey on stress and health in a petrochemical complex in Texas City, Texas, the associations of a petrochemical accident with perceived health changes were examined. Methods The mean changes in perceived mental and physical health across pre-accident, within-accident, and post-accident categories were compared. The association of these categorical variables with the change in perceived mental and physical health using multiple regression was also examined. Results Significant declines in both perceived mental and physical health were observed for the sample. Regression analyses showed that middle age, lower education level and reported damage in the neighbourhood were associated with decreases in perceived mental health. Lower education level, explosion impact, and distance from the explosion site were associated with decreases in perceived physical health. Conclusions These results indicate that both pre-accident and within-accident variables, such as education level and explosion impact, are associated with decreases in perceived physical and mental health. Even a modest event within the range of accidents and disasters was shown to be associated with negative health outcomes for a population-based sample. PMID:18192597

Peek, M K; Cutchin, M P; Freeman, D H; Perez, N A; Goodwin, J S

2013-01-01

292

Biosorption of simulated dyed effluents by inactivated fungal biomasses.  

PubMed

Treatment of dyed effluents presents several problems mainly due to the toxicity and recalcitrance of dyestuffs. Innovative technologies, such as biosorption, are needed as alternatives to conventional methods to find inexpensive ways of removing dyes from large volumes of effluents. Inactivated biomasses do not require a continuous supply of nutrients and are not sensitive to the toxicity of dyes or toxic wastes. They can also be regenerated and reused in many cycles and are both safe and environment-friendly. The sorption capacities (SC) of autoclaved biomasses of three Mucorales fungi (Cunninghamella elegans, Rhizomucor pusillus and Rhizopus stolonifer), cultured on two different media, were evaluated against simulated effluents containing concentrations of 1000 and 5000 ppm of a single dye and a mix of 10 industrial textile dyes in batch experiments. SC values of up to 532.8 mg of dye g(-1) dry weight of biomass were coupled with high effluent decolourisation percentages (up to 100%). These biomasses may thus prove to be extremely powerful candidates for dye biosorption from industrial wastewaters. Even better results were obtained when a column system with the immobilised and inactivated biomass of one fungus was employed. PMID:17888654

Prigione, Valeria; Varese, Giovanna Cristina; Casieri, Leonardo; Marchisio, Valeria Filipello

2008-06-01

293

Treatment of effluents from uranium oxide production.  

PubMed

The nuclear fuel cycle comprises a series of industrial processes which involve the production of electricity from uranium in nuclear power reactors. In Brazil the conversion of uranium hexafluoride (UF6) into uranium dioxide (UO2) takes place in Resende (RJ) at the Nuclear Fuel Factory (FCN). The process generates liquid effluents with significant concentrations of uranium, which might be treated before being discharged into the environment. This study investigates the recovery of uranium from three distinct liquid effluents: one with a high carbonate content and the other with an elevated fluoride concentration. This paper also presents a study on carbonate removal from an effluent that consists of a water-methanol solution generated during the filtration of the yellow cake (ammonium uranyl tricarbonate). The results showed that: (1) the uranium from the carbonated solution can be recovered through the ion exchange technique using the strong base anionic resin IRA 910-U, as the carbonate has been removed as CO2 after heating; (2) the most suitable technique to recover uranium from the fluoride solution is its precipitation as (NH4)2UO4F2 (ammonium fluorouranate peroxide), (3) the solution free of carbonate can be added to the fluoride solution and the uranium from the final solution can be recovered by precipitation as ammonium fluorouranate peroxide as well; (4) the carbonate from the water-methanol solution can be recovered as calcium carbonate through the addition of calcium chloride, or it can be recovered as ammonium sulphate through the addition of sulphuric acid. The ammonium sulphate product can be used as a fertilizer. PMID:21473275

Ladeira, A C Q; Gonçalves, J S; Morais, C A

2011-01-01

294

Technology Competitiveness in Emerging Markets: The Case of the Brazilian Polymer Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Brazilian polymer industry (plastics, rubbers, fibers, adhesives, paints, and varnishes) is the fastest growing segment of the Petrochemical Chain. Since the polymer industry is characterized as science based, the capacity to create technology is vital for its long-range survival in the market. This paper analyzes how Brazilian polymer firms maintain their technological competitiveness, explains the main modes of technology

Carlos A. Hemais; Henrique M. Barros; Elizabeth O. R. Rosa

2005-01-01

295

40 CFR 415.272 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Borax Production Subcategory § 415.272 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2010-07-01

296

40 CFR 415.653 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cobalt Salts Production Subcategory § 415.653 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2014-07-01

297

40 CFR 415.362 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Copper Salts Production Subcategory § 415.362 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2014-07-01

298

40 CFR 415.472 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Nickel Salts Production Subcategory § 415.472 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2014-07-01

299

40 CFR 415.367 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Copper Salts Production Subcategory § 415.367 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2014-07-01

300

40 CFR 415.363 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Copper Salts Production Subcategory § 415.363 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2014-07-01

301

40 CFR 415.657 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cobalt Salts Production Subcategory § 415.657 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2014-07-01

302

40 CFR 415.477 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Nickel Salts Production Subcategory § 415.477 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2014-07-01

303

40 CFR 415.657 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cobalt Salts Production Subcategory § 415.657 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2011-07-01

304

40 CFR 415.657 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cobalt Salts Production Subcategory § 415.657 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2010-07-01

305

40 CFR 415.427 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hydrogen Cyanide Production Subcategory § 415.427 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2010-07-01

306

40 CFR 415.292 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Bromine Production Subcategory § 415.292 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2010-07-01

307

40 CFR 415.227 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Dioxide Production Subcategory § 415.227 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2010-07-01

308

40 CFR 415.427 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hydrogen Cyanide Production Subcategory § 415.427 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2014-07-01

309

40 CFR 415.123 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Potassium Dichromate Production Subcategory § 415.123 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2014-07-01

310

40 CFR 415.123 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Potassium Dichromate Production Subcategory § 415.123 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2012-07-01

311

40 CFR 415.122 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Potassium Dichromate Production Subcategory § 415.122 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2014-07-01

312

40 CFR 415.432 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Iodine Production Subcategory § 415.432 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2010-07-01

313

40 CFR 424.67 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Electrolytic Manganese Products Subcategory § 424.67 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2012-07-01

314

40 CFR 424.67 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Electrolytic Manganese Products Subcategory § 424.67 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2011-07-01

315

40 CFR 424.67 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Electrolytic Manganese Products Subcategory § 424.67 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2010-07-01

316

40 CFR 424.67 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Electrolytic Manganese Products Subcategory § 424.67 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2013-07-01

317

40 CFR 426.13 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Insulation Fiberglass Subcategory § 426.13 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2010-07-01

318

40 CFR 426.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Insulation Fiberglass Subcategory § 426.12 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2010-07-01

319

40 CFR 426.17 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Insulation Fiberglass Subcategory § 426.17 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2013-07-01

320

40 CFR 426.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Insulation Fiberglass Subcategory § 426.12 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2011-07-01

321

40 CFR 415.552 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Fluoride Production Subcategory § 415.552 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2012-07-01

322

40 CFR 415.552 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Fluoride Production Subcategory § 415.552 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2010-07-01

323

40 CFR 415.237 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Fluoride Production Subcategory § 415.237 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2010-07-01

324

40 CFR 415.552 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Fluoride Production Subcategory § 415.552 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2011-07-01

325

40 CFR 415.237 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Fluoride Production Subcategory § 415.237 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2012-07-01

326

40 CFR 415.237 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Fluoride Production Subcategory § 415.237 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2011-07-01

327

40 CFR 415.552 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Fluoride Production Subcategory § 415.552 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2013-07-01

328

40 CFR 415.237 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Fluoride Production Subcategory § 415.237 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2013-07-01

329

Large-scale petrochemical projects: Modern approach to execution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current globalization of the world economic market has forced the industry to adjust its traditional operating strategies. To achieve more competitive rates, engineering and consulting companies are sub-contracting or outsourcing part of their workload to partners located in more financially \\

Jack Ostrzenski

2008-01-01

330

Nutrient removal from farm effluents.  

PubMed

The objectives of the study were: (i) to examine the efficiency of nutrient removal during the treatment of dairy farm effluent in a two-pond system, and (ii) to produce an inexpensive but effective nutrient trap which could be recycled as a nutrient source or soil mulch. The concentration of chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) in a two-pond system used to treat dairy farm effluent was monitored over a period of 7 months. The retention of nutrients by two porous materials was examined both in the laboratory batch (zeolite and bark) and pilot-scale field (bark) experiments. The results indicated that biological treatment of farm effluents using the two-pond system was not effective in the removal of nutrients, which are likely to become pollutant when discharged to waterways. Both the bark and zeolite materials were effective in the removal of N, P and K from effluent. These materials can be placed in the second (i.e., aerobic) pond to treat effluents, which can then be discharged to streams with minimum impact on water quality. The nutrient-enriched porous materials can be recycled as a source of nutrients and soil conditioner. PMID:15182831

Bolan, N S; Wong, L; Adriano, D C

2004-09-01

331

Study of performances of ceramic microfiltration membrane from Tunisian clay applied to cuttlefish effluents treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microfiltration membrane is increasingly used in wastewater treatment to produce a higer quality effluent. In this study a microfiltration membrane from Tunisian clay (JM18\\/SI2) was used to treat cuttlefish effluents generated from the conditioning (freezing and washing) seawater food industry which consume a great amount of water. In Sfax (Tunisia), about 1000 m3\\/day are usually discharged in the littoral. The

S. Khemakhem; A. Larbot; R. Ben Amar

2006-01-01

332

Phytoremediation of the coalmine effluent.  

PubMed

Coal mine effluent was subjected to detoxification by phytoremediation using two macrophytes Azolla pinnata and Lemna minor. Both plants were kept separately in the effluents for 7 day. The initial concentration (mg L?¹) of eight metals: Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Ni, Pb, Cr and Cd investigated in the effluent were 22.91±0.02, 9.61±1.6, 2.04±0.23, 1.03±0.15, 0.86±0.19, 0.69±0.11, 0.18±0.007 and 0.06±0.008 respectively. The initial fresh biomass of each plant was 100g. After one week, metals removed in A. pinnata-phytoremediated effluent were in the order: Mn (98%)>Fe (95.4%)>Zn (95%)>Cu (93%)>Pb (86.9%)>Cd (85%)>Cr (77.7%)>Ni (66.2%) and metal decrease in L. minor-phytoremediated effluent were: Mn (99.5%)>Cu (98.8%)>Zn (96.7%)>Ni (94.5%)>Fe (93.1%)>Cd (86.7%)>Pb (84%)>Cr (76%). Due to metal toxicity the total chlorophyll and protein contents of L. minor decreased by 29.3% and 38.55% respectively. The decrease of these macromolecules in A. pinnata was 27% and 15.56% respectively. Also, the reduction in biomass of L. minor was greater than that for A. pinnata. Based on the finding we could suggest that both the plants are suitable for bioremediation of mine effluent at the contaminated sites. However, attention for quick disposal of these metal loaded plants is urgently required. PMID:22571948

Bharti, Sandhya; Kumar Banerjee, Tarun

2012-07-01

333

Chromium speciation in tannery effluent—II. Speciation in the effluent and in a receiving estuary  

Microsoft Academic Search

The forms and transformations of chromium were characterised in the effluent of an Irish tannery before and after discharge into an estuary. The three primary effluent streams in the tannery were studied, i.e. the chrome and sulphide streams and the final composite effluent. Chromium was fully speciated in the final effluent, the discharge plume, and in the estuary outside discharge

Andrew R. Walsh; John O'Halloran

1996-01-01

334

An evaluation of the whole effluent toxicity test method  

SciTech Connect

Whole effluent toxicity (WET) testing has become increasingly more important to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the States in the permitting of wastewater discharges from industry and municipalities. The primary purpose of the WET test is to protect aquatic life by predicting the effect of an effluent on the receiving stream. However, there are both scientific and regulatory concerns that using WET tests to regulate industrial effluents may result in either false positives and/or false negatives. In order to realistically predict the effect of an effluent on the receiving stream, the test should be as representative as possible of the conditions in the receiving stream. Studies (Rand and Petrocelli 1985) suggested several criteria for an ideal aquatic toxicity test organism, one of which is that the organism be indigenous to, or representative of, the ecosystem receiving the effluent. The other component needed in the development of a predictive test is the use of the receiving stream water or similar synthetic water as the control and dilution water in the test method. Use of an indigenous species and receiving water in the test should help reduce the variability in the method and allow the test to predict the effect of the effluent on the receiving stream. The experience with toxicity testing at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has yielded inconclusive data because of the inconsistency and unreliability of the results. The SRS contention is that the WET method in its present form does not adequately mimic actual biological/chemical conditions of the receiving streams and is neither reasonable nor accurate. This paper discusses the rationale for such a position by SRS on toxicity testing in terms of historical permitting requirements, outfall effluent test results, standard test method evaluation, scientific review of alternate test species, and concerns over the test method expressed by other organizations. This paper presents the Savannah River Site position that the EPA test is neither reasonable nor accurate and thus cannot adequately establish the impact of NPDES outfall discharges on receiving streams.

Osteen, D.V.

1999-12-17

335

Diverse Applications of Pinch Technology Within the Process Industries  

E-print Network

DIVERSE APPLICATIONS OF PINCH TECHNOLOGY WITHIN THE PROCESS INDUSTRIES H. P. Spriggs and Greg Ashton Linnhoff March Charleston, WV ABSTRACT PINCH ANALYSIS Within the past few years, pinch technology has revolutionised the way engineers... design and retrofit processes. The technology offers a new approach to process integration based on the applic?tion of the pinch principle. Early applications were mostly in the petrochemical and bulk chemical industries. In this paper we report...

Spriggs, H. D.; Ashton, G.

336

Tory IIC effluent gas sampling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Declassified 28 Nov 1973. Isokinetic gas and particulate samples were ; collected from reactor effluent during the two Tory IIC power runs to determine ; the loss of fuel-element materials and the release of radioactive fission ; products. The dual sampling system, designed to withstand a blast velocity of ; 600 ft\\/sec at 500 deg F, was located 164 ft

Ackerman

1965-01-01

337

Spectroscopic Imaging of Effluent Gases.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper investigates the possibilities of imaging effluent gases in atmosphere, using a passive gas-correlation technique in the UV and visible region. The experiments have been focused on SO/sub 2/ but some measurements of NO/sub 2/ have also been car...

P. Ragnarson

1988-01-01

338

COMPETITIVE INTELLIGENCE COMPARISON BASED ON THE TYPES OF INDUSTRY. CASE STUDY: LISTED COMPANIES IN TEHRAN STOCK EXCHANGE (TSE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to compare competitive intelligence based on the types of industry. In order to do this, the listed companies in Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE) during a five year period (2004-2008) have been selected. These companies’ products are grouped into five industrial categories; that are, food & drink, tile & ceramic, petrochemical, automobile & parts manufacturing,

Mortazavi Mahdy; Javadi Pour Far Mahnoosh

2011-01-01

339

Removing textile mill effluent recalcitrant COD and toxicity using the H2O2/UV system.  

PubMed

The potential of the H2O2/UV process for improving quality of an industrial textile effluent before biological treatment was evaluated in the laboratory using a multivariate experimental design to determine the effects of pH, H2O2 dose and reaction time on colour, COD and toxicity removal efficiencies. Increasing reaction time (from 10 to 120 min) and H2O2 dose (from 0 to 5 mmol L(-1)) significantly improved removal efficiencies, while increasing pH (from 4 to 10) had a negative effect on colour and toxicity removals. Laboratory H2O2/UV treatment of the mill effluent under optimum conditions (pH 7, 5 mmol L(-1) H2O2, 120 min) resulted in decreases in colour (70%), COD (21%) and toxicity (67%), without lowering BOD. H2O2 was consumed within the first 30-60 min, while the effluent average oxidation state stabilized after 60 min. Decreasing reaction time to 60 min resulted in similar colour (63%) and COD (20%) removals but lower toxicity removal (44%). Spectrophotometric monitoring of the optimized reaction indicated partial destruction of residual aromatic azo dyes. H2O2 and residual peroxide and average oxidation state of the effluent Effluent biodegradability (BOD/COD) increased by 28% after the H2O2/UV treatment. Improvements observed in effluent quality are expected to enhance combined AOP-biological treatment efficiency of the mill effluent. PMID:19809153

Mounteer, A H; Leite, T A; Lopes, A C; Medeiros, R C

2009-01-01

340

Efficiency of combined process of ozone and bio-filtration in the treatment of secondary effluent.  

PubMed

The present work was aimed at studying the efficiency of the combined process of biofiltration with ozonation to improve the quality of secondary effluent. The secondary effluent from the Dinapur Sewage Treatment Plant Varanasi, India was used in this work. The process of biofiltration with the plant species of Eichornia crassipes and Lemna minor, at a flow rate of 262 ml min(-1) and plant density of 30 mg L(-1) for 48 h, in combination with the process of ozonation with ozone dose of 10 mg L(-1) and contact time of 5 min was applied. Results revealed that combined process was statistically most suitable for the highest degradation of physico-chemical and microbial parameters with improving BDOC value. The biofiltration process is able to remove highest percentage of toxic heavy metals from the secondary effluent without production of toxicity. This technique is highly recommendable for tropical wastewater where sewage is mixed with industrial effluents. PMID:21550800

Tripathi, Smriti; Tripathi, B D

2011-07-01

341

Liquid Effluents Program mission analysis  

SciTech Connect

Systems engineering is being used to identify work to cleanup the Hanford Site. The systems engineering process transforms an identified mission need into a set of performance parameters and a preferred system configuration. Mission analysis is the first step in the process. Mission analysis supports early decision-making by clearly defining the program objectives, and evaluating the feasibility and risks associated with achieving those objectives. The results of the mission analysis provide a consistent basis for subsequent systems engineering work. A mission analysis was performed earlier for the overall Hanford Site. This work was continued by a ``capstone`` team which developed a top-level functional analysis. Continuing in a top-down manner, systems engineering is now being applied at the program and project levels. A mission analysis was conducted for the Liquid Effluents Program. The results are described herein. This report identifies the initial conditions and acceptable final conditions, defines the programmatic and physical interfaces and sources of constraints, estimates the resources to carry out the mission, and establishes measures of success. The mission analysis reflects current program planning for the Liquid Effluents Program as described in Liquid Effluents FY 1995 Multi-Year Program Plan.

Lowe, S.S.

1994-09-27

342

Evaluation of site-specific criteria for copper and zinc: an integration of metal addition toxicity, effluent and receiving water toxicity, and ecological survey data  

SciTech Connect

Comparative laboratory toxicity tests using daphnids Ceriodaphnia dubia and fathead minnows Pimephales promelas were conducted to establish and evaluate relationships between the toxicity of domestic and industrial effluents containing copper and zinc, toxicity of the effluents in Naugatuck River, Connecticut receiving water, toxicity of each metal added to the receiving water and a reference water, and receiving water ecological survey data.

Carlson, A.R.; Nelson, H.; Hammermeister, D.E.

1986-04-01

343

A Mössbauer spectroscopic study of an industrial catalyst for dehydrogenation of etylbenzene to styrene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Iron oxide catalyst with spinel structure used for dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene is one kind of important catalyst in petrochemical industry. In this work several series of industrial catalyst were prepared with different components and different manufacturing processes. Mössbauer Spectroscopy has been used to determine the optimal components and the better manufacturing process for spinel structure formation. The results may prove useful for producing the industrial dehydrogenation catalyst with better catalytic property.

Jiang, K. Y.; Fan, Q.; Zhao, Z. J.; Mao, L. S.; Yang, X. L.

2006-01-01

344

A Mössbauer spectroscopic study of an industrial catalyst for dehydrogenation of etylbenzene to styrene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Iron oxide catalyst with spinel structure used for dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene is one kind of importantcatalyst in petrochemical industry. In this work several series of industrial catalyst were prepared with differentcomponents and differentmanufacturing processes. Mössbauer Spectroscopy has been used to determine the optimal components and the better manufacturing process for spinel structure formation. The results may prove useful for producing the industrial dehydrogenation catalyst with better catalytic property.

Jiang, K. Y.; Fan, Q.; Zhao, Z. J.; Mao, L. S.; Yang, X. L.

345

Prevalence and risk factors of gallbladder polypoid lesions in Chinese petrochemical employees  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the prevalence and risk factors of polypoid lesions of the gallbladder (PLGs) in petrochemical employees in Ningbo, Zhejiang Province, China. METHODS: All active and retired employees aged 20-90 years (n = 11098) of a refinery and chemical plant in eastern China were requested to participate in a health survey. The participants were subjected to interview, physical examination, laboratory assessments and ultrasonography. All the participants were invited to have a physical examination after a face-to-face interview. Fasting blood samples were obtained from the antecubital vein, and the samples were used for the analysis of biochemical values. Abdominal ultrasonography was conducted. RESULTS: A total of 10461 (7331 men and 3130 women) current and former petrochemical employees attended for screening. The overall prevalence of post-cholecystectomy, gallstones and PLGs was 0.9%, 5.2% and 7.4%, respectively. Compared with the increased prevalence of either gallstones or post-cholecystectomy in older persons, PLGs were more common in the middle-aged, peaking in those aged 40-59 years. Excluding the patients with gallstones, gallstones mixed with PLGs, or those who had undergone cholecystectomy, in the remaining 9828 participants, the prevalence of PLGs in men (8.9%) was significantly higher than that in women (5.5%, P < 0.001). The analyzed risk factors with increased OR for the development of PLGs were male gender (OR = 1.799, P < 0.001), age ? 30 years (OR = 2.699, P < 0.001) and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positivity (OR = 1.374, P = 0.006). CONCLUSION: PLGs are not rare among Chinese petrochemical employees. Male gender, HBsAg positivity, and middle age are risk factors for developing PLGs. PMID:23885152

Mao, Yu-Shan; Mai, Yi-Feng; Li, Fu-Jun; Zhang, Yan-Ming; Hu, Ke-Min; Hong, Zhong-Li; Zhu, Zhong-Wei

2013-01-01

346

Effluent treatment for nuclear thermal propulsion ground testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objectives are to define treatment functions, review concept options, discuss PIPET effluent treatment system (ETS), and outline future activities. The topics covered include the following: reactor exhaust; effluent treatment functions; effluent treatment categories; effluent treatment options; concept evaluation; PIPETS ETS envelope; PIPET effluent treatment concept; and future activities.

Shipers, Larry R.

1993-01-01

347

Fermentative Succinate Production: An Emerging Technology to Replace the Traditional Petrochemical Processes  

PubMed Central

Succinate is a valuable platform chemical for multiple applications. Confronted with the exhaustion of fossil energy resources, fermentative succinate production from renewable biomass to replace the traditional petrochemical process is receiving an increasing amount of attention. During the past few years, the succinate-producing process using microbial fermentation has been made commercially available by the joint efforts of researchers in different fields. In this review, recent attempts and experiences devoted to reduce the production cost of biobased succinate are summarized, including strain improvement, fermentation engineering, and downstream processing. The key limitations and challenges faced in current microbial production systems are also proposed. PMID:24396827

Cao, Yujin; Zhang, Rubing; Sun, Chao; Cheng, Tao; Liu, Yuhua; Xian, Mo

2013-01-01

348

Malondialdehyde-Deoxyguanosine Adducts among Workers of a Thai Industrial Estate and Nearby Residents  

PubMed Central

Background Humans living near industrial point emissions can experience high levels of exposures to air pollutants. Map Ta Phut Industrial Estate in Thailand is the location of the largest steel, oil refinery, and petrochemical factory complexes in Southeast Asia. Air pollution is an important source of oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species, which interact with DNA and lipids, leading to oxidative damage and lipid peroxidation, respectively. Objective We measured the levels of malondialdehyde–deoxyguanosine (dG) adducts, a biomarker of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation, in petrochemical workers, nearby residents, and subjects living in a control district without proximity to industrial sources. Design We conducted a cross-sectional study to compare the prevalence of malondialdehyde-dG adducts in groups of subjects experiencing various degrees of air pollution. Results The multivariate regression analysis shows that the adduct levels were associated with occupational and environmental exposures to air pollution. The highest adduct level was observed in the steel factory workers. In addition, the formation of DNA damage tended to be associated with tobacco smoking, but without reaching statistical significance. A nonsignificant increase in DNA adducts was observed after 4–6 years of employment among the petrochemical complexes. Conclusions Air pollution emitted from the Map Ta Phut Industrial Estate complexes was associated with increased adduct levels in petrochemical workers and nearby residents. Considering the mutagenic potential of DNA lesions in the carcinogenic process, we recommend measures aimed at reducing the levels of air pollution. PMID:20056580

Peluso, Marco; Srivatanakul, Petcharin; Munnia, Armelle; Jedpiyawongse, Adisorn; Ceppi, Marcello; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Piro, Sara; Boffetta, Paolo

2010-01-01

349

From a fossil-fuel to a biobased economy: the politics of industrial biotechnology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial biotechnology involves the replacement of petrochemical processes and inputs with more energy-efficient and renewable biological ones. It is already being used in the production of biofuels and bioplastics and has been touted as a means by which modern economies can be shifted toward a more competitive, low-carbon growth model. This paper does two things. First, it outlines the policy

Ben Richardson

2012-01-01

350

40 CFR 434.43 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS COAL MINING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY BPT, BAT, BCT LIMITATIONS AND NEW SOURCE PERFORMANCE STANDARDS Alkaline Mine Drainage § 434.43 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2010-07-01

351

40 CFR 434.43 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CONTINUED) COAL MINING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY BPT, BAT, BCT LIMITATIONS AND NEW SOURCE PERFORMANCE STANDARDS Alkaline Mine Drainage § 434.43 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by application...

2012-07-01

352

40 CFR 434.43 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) COAL MINING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY BPT, BAT, BCT LIMITATIONS AND NEW SOURCE PERFORMANCE STANDARDS Alkaline Mine Drainage § 434.43 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by application...

2013-07-01

353

Effects of municipal effluent on algal growth  

E-print Network

stream. The result is the eventual return of some eighty percent of *he removed phosphorus back to the effluent. Biological methods therefore may only result in a partial reduc*ion of phosphorus. 2. Chemical Methods: In 1944, C. N. Sawyer developed.... "Nitrogen Removal from Waste Effluent. " Journal of Public Works, 97(2 ) 90-92 (1966) 12, Ivy, J ~ T. . "Eutrophication Potential of' Secondary and Tertiary Wastewater Effluent Masters Thesis, Texas AEcM University (1972 ) 1g. Sawyer, C. N...

Sung, Yeh-Min

2012-06-07

354

High Speed/ Low Effluent Process for Ethanol  

SciTech Connect

n this project, BPI demonstrated a new ethanol fermentation technology, termed the High Speed/ Low Effluent (HS/LE) process on both lab and large pilot scale as it would apply to wet mill and/or dry mill corn ethanol production. The HS/LE process allows very rapid fermentations, with 18 to 22% sugar syrups converted to 9 to 11% ethanol ‘beers’ in 6 to 12 hours using either a ‘consecutive batch’ or ‘continuous cascade’ implementation. This represents a 5 to 8X increase in fermentation speeds over conventional 72 hour batch fermentations which are the norm in the fuel ethanol industry today. The ‘consecutive batch’ technology was demonstrated on a large pilot scale (4,800 L) in a dry mill corn ethanol plant near Cedar Rapids, IA (Xethanol Biofuels). The pilot demonstrated that 12 hour fermentations can be accomplished on an industrial scale in a non-sterile industrial environment. Other objectives met in this project included development of a Low Energy (LE) Distillation process which reduces the energy requirements for distillation from about 14,000 BTU/gal steam ($0.126/gal with natural gas @ $9.00 MCF) to as low as 0.40 KW/gal electrical requirements ($0.022/gal with electricity @ $0.055/KWH). BPI also worked on the development of processes that would allow application of the HS/LE fermentation process to dry mill ethanol plants. A High-Value Corn ethanol plant concept was developed to produce 1) corn germ/oil, 2) corn bran, 3) ethanol, 4) zein protein, and 5) nutritional protein, giving multiple higher value products from the incoming corn stream.

M. Clark Dale

2006-10-30

355

Coupling of solar-assisted advanced oxidative and biological treatment for degradation of agro-residue-based soda bleaching effluent.  

PubMed

This study evaluates the effect of integrated solar-assisted advanced oxidation process (AOP) and biological treatment on the extent of degradation of effluents from chlorination (C) and first alkaline extraction (E(1)) stages of soda pulp bleaching in agro-residue-based pulp and paper mill. Biodegradation of the effluents was attempted in suspended mode using activated sludge from the functional pulp and paper industry effluent treatment plant acclimatized to effluents in question. The photocatalytic treatment was employed using zinc oxide (ZnO) in slurry mode for decontamination of effluents in a batch manner and the degradation was evaluated in terms of reduction in chemical oxygen demand. The biological treatment (24 h) of C and E(1) effluent resulted in 30 and 57 % of degradation, respectively. Solar-induced AOP of C and E(1) effluents resulted in 53 and 43 % degradation under optimized conditions (2.5 g L(-1) ZnO at pH 8.0) after 6 h of exposure. For C effluent, a short duration of solar/ZnO (1 h) prior to biological treatment reduced the time required at biological step from 24 to 12 h for almost same extent (92 %) of degradation. However, sequential biological treatment (24 h) followed by solar/ZnO (2 h) resulted in 85.5 % degradation. In contrast, in the case of E(1) effluent, sequential biological (24 h)-solar/ZnO (2 h) system effectively degrades effluent to 95.4 % as compared to 84.8 % degradation achieved in solar/ZnO (2 h)-biological treatment (24 h) system. In the present study, the sequencing of photocatalysis with the biological treatment is observably efficient and technically viable process for the complete mineralization of the effluents. PMID:22645007

Dhir, Amit; Prakash, Nagaraja Tejo; Sud, Dhiraj

2012-11-01

356

Removal of Toxic Metal Cr(VI) from Industrial Wastewater Using Sawdust as Adsorbent: Equilibrium, Kinetics and Regeneration Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chromium is abundant in nature and has a dominant presence in most of the effluent streams as compared to other heavy metal ions. The presence of highly toxic and carcinogenic hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) in effluent streams is a major environmental issue. The electroplating and tannery industry effluents are the major source for the Cr(VI) production in wastewater streams. The present

Suresh Gupta; B. V. Babu

357

Assessment of the Effects of Processes of Change on Resistance Skills against Substance Abuse Among petrochemical Workers in Assaluyeh Plant in Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This research has studied the effect of Processes of Change on resistance skills against substance abuse among petrochemical workers in Assaluyeh Plant in Iran. Methods: This research is an experimental study (Randomized Intervention Trial) that has enrolled 181 workers of Petrochemical Company in Assaluyeh in two groups: 90 participants in intervention group and 91 participants in control group. Data

Mafi Ali Reza

2009-01-01

358

Relation between substrate feeding pattern and development of filamentous bacteria in activated sludge processes: Part III. applications with industrial waste waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory scale activated sludge systems were operated under regimes of continuous or intermittent feeding of the waste water. Industrial waste waters from breweries, a dairy plant and a petro-chemical plant were investigated. The systems were started up with sludge from a municipal waste water plant or more often with sludges obtained from the corresponding industrial waste water treatment plants. It

E. Van den Eynde; L. Vriens; H. Verachtert

1982-01-01

359

Excitation-emission matrices applied to the study of urban effluent discharges in the Chubut River (Patagonia, Argentina).  

PubMed

Natural and contaminated waters of the final reaches of the Chubut River (Patagonia, Argentina) were studied to obtain information about river organic matter and effects of domestic and industrial discharges (fishery effluents and sewages). Fluorescence Excitation-Emission Matrices (EEMs) were obtained from samples only filtered (0.45 ?m) and diluted, if necessary, to avoid the inner filter effect. In addition, physicochemical parameters were measured to know the quality of the water and the effluents. Results show that EEMs allow a rapid and simple control of the effluents from fisheries and domestic sewage in Chubut River estuary, necessary to take management decisions. PMID:23325315

Chiarandini Fiore, Jessica Paola; Scapini, María del Carmen; Olivieri, Alejandro César

2013-08-01

360

Use of an open-path FTIR sensor at Camacari Petrochemical Complex--Bahia, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CETREL--Empresa de Protecao Ambiental, is an environmental engineering company, which is owned by the member companies in the Camacari Petrochemical Complex, the largest petrochemical complex in Brazil. CETREL operates a centralized waste treatment plant, treatment and disposal facilities, an incineration unit, groundwater monitoring and air quality monitoring networks. The air monitoring network was designed based on mathematical modeling, and the results showed that the monoitoring of hydrocarbons is important not just within the complex but also at the area surrounding the complex. There are presently no regulations for hydrocarbons in Brazil, however they are monitored due to concerns about health problems arising from human exposure. The network has eight multiparameter monitoring stations, located at the villages nearby, where hydrocarbons are sampled with Summa canisters and subsequently analyzed with a GC/MS, using a Cryogenic trap at the interface. The open-path FTIR is used to monitor at the individual plants and in the areas in between because it is more efficient and costs less than it would to attempt to achieve the same level of coverage using the canisters. Ten locations were selected based on mathematical modeling and knowledge of the likely emission sources. Since August 1993, there have been five different measurement campaigns.

Neves, Neuza; Couto, Elizabeth d. R.; Kagann, Robert H.

1995-05-01

361

Transport and Fate of Copper in Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of toxic heavy metals in industrial effluents is one of the serious threats to the environment. Heavy metals such as Cadmium, Chromium, Lead, Nickel, Zinc, Mercury, Copper, Arsenic are found in the effluents of industries such as foundries, electroplating, petrochemical, battery manufacturing, tanneries, fertilizer, dying, textiles, metallurgical and metal finishing. Tremendous increase of industrial copper usage and its

S K Sharma; N S Sehkon; S Deswal; Siby John

2009-01-01

362

Ovulation but not milt production is inhibited in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) exposed to a reproductively inhibitory pulp mill effluent  

PubMed Central

Background A 5-day fathead minnow (FHM) spawning assay is used by industry to monitor pulp mill effluent quality, with some mill effluents capable of completely inhibiting spawning. The purpose of this report is to characterize the effect of an inhibitory effluent on egg and milt production in FHM. Methods Eight tanks were treated with an inhibitory effluent while eight were kept with clean water. Each tank contained two males and four females as per the 5-day FHM spawning assay used by industry. Females were stripped of ovulated eggs and males of milt in four effluent-exposed and four control tanks. Eggs oviposited in every tank were also counted and checked for fertilization and data analyzed with 2-way ANOVA. Results We show that female, but not male, fathead minnow reproductive function is impaired in the 5-day fathead minnow spawning assay used by industry to evaluate pulp mill effluent quality in Canada. Milt production was not changed in the control or exposed males mid-way and at the end of the five day exposure (p?>?0.05; n?=?8). Total egg production (stripped?+?oviposited) was impaired (p?effluent (288 eggs/tank, n?=?4 tanks) compared to those in control tanks (753 eggs/tank, n?=?4 tanks). Conclusions Our results indicate that males are able to detect female signals and prepare appropriately for spawning while in females inhibition of ovulation is occurring somewhere along the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad reproductive axis. These results suggest female-specific neuroendocrine disruption and provide mechanistic insight into an assay used by industry to assess pulp mill effluent quality. PMID:24884628

2014-01-01

363

Identification of the isoflavonoid genistein in bleached kraft mill effluent.  

PubMed

Plants synthesize many phytochemicals, including flavonoids, which may be present in the heartwood of trees used in the pulp and paper industry. Extracts were prepared from wood pulp and mill effluent collected from a bleached kraft mill in Ontario, Canada, and these extracts were subfractionated by LH-20 gel filtration chromatography and analyzed by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) and LC-ESI-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS-MS). Initial LC-MS analysis in negative ion mode was conducted by monitoring ions corresponding to the deprotonated molecular ions of a range of flavonoid compounds. The presence of chromatographic peaks generated by selected ion monitoring (SIM) in samples of both mill effluent and wood pulp encouraged further analysis. Of the compounds highlighted by LC-ESI-MS-SIM analysis, the isoflavonoid genistein was positively identified by LC-ESI-MS-MS. Genistein was quantified at a concentration of 30.0 microg/kg in air-dried wood pulp and concentrations of 13.1 microg/L and 10.5 microg/L in untreated and treated (final) effluent, respectively. Genistein is a known endocrine disruptorsubstance and,therefore, could contribute to the alterations in sex steroid levels and reduced reproductive capacity observed in fish captured near the discharges of pulp mills. PMID:11432543

Kiparissis, Y; Hughes, R; Metcalfe, C; Ternes, T

2001-06-15

364

Process for treating effluent from a supercritical water oxidation reactor  

DOEpatents

A method for treating a gaseous effluent from a supercritical water oxidation reactor containing entrained solids is provided comprising the steps of expanding the gas/solids effluent from a first to a second lower pressure at a temperature at which no liquid condenses; separating the solids from the gas effluent; neutralizing the effluent to remove any acid gases; condensing the effluent; and retaining the purified effluent to the supercritical water oxidation reactor.

Barnes, Charles M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Shapiro, Carolyn (Idaho Falls, ID)

1997-01-01

365

Genotoxicity and mutagenicity of water samples from the Monjolinho River (Brazil) after receiving untreated effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and mutagenicity assays, using the Allium cepa test-system, were carried out in order to evaluate the effects of domestic and industrial effluents in the Monjolinho River in different seasons of the year. In the summer and intermediate seasons, chromosome aberration, micronuclei, cell death and inhibition of the mitotic index were observed in water samples collected at different sites.

Jaqueline Bianchi; Evaldo Luiz Gaeta Espindola; Maria Aparecida Marin-Morales

2011-01-01

366

Turning waste to wealth-biodegradable plastics polyhydroxyalkanoates from palm oil mill effluent – a Malaysian perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Palm oil industries have been contributing significantly towards the country’s economy and increase standard of living among Malaysians. However, it has also been identified as the major contributor for discharging the largest pollution load throughout the country. Owing to high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD), the palm oil mill effluent (POME) cannot be discharged directly into

Tabassum Mumtaz; Noor Amalina Yahaya; Suraini Abd-Aziz; Nor’Aini Abdul Rahman; Phang Lai Yee; Yoshihito Shirai; Mohd Ali Hassan

2010-01-01

367

FISHERY WASTE EFFLUENTS: A METHOD TO DETERMINE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN CHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND AND RESIDUE  

E-print Network

1638, Kodiak, AK 99615. 2Tenney, R. D. 1972. COD for Industrial Waste Water, Tech. Rep. 97, 5 p.; 1972 of screened waste effluents from November 1973 to September 1974: shrimp using fresh or salt water processing. Chemical Oxygen Demand, Tech. Rep. 101, 12 p.; 1973. Shrimp Waste Streams and COD, Tech. Rep. 104, 3 p

368

Laminaria culture for reduction of dissolved inorganic nitrogen in salmon farm effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Finfish culture is a growing industry, and it causes a nutrient loading problem. To investigate the feasibility of an integrated culture of kelp and salmon, 15-cm long kelp (Laminaria saccharina) was grown in salmon culture effluent. The objectives were to test the effects of flow rate and kelp density on dissolved inorganic nitrogen removal (DIN), and DIN uptake and growth

A. Subandar; R. J. Petrell; P. J. Harrison

1993-01-01

369

Decolorization of triphenylmethane dyes and textile and dye-stuff effluent by Kurthia sp  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of soil and water samples were collected from the vicinity of effluent treatment plant of a textile and dyeing industry. Several organisms were screened for their ability to decolorize triphenylmethane group of dyes. A Kurthia sp. was selected on the basis of rapid dye decolorizing activity. Under aerobic conditions, 98% color was removed intracellularly by this strain. A

Rajesh Kumar Sani; Uttam Chand Banerjee

1999-01-01

370

EFFLUENT AND AMBIENT TOXICITY TESTING IN THE GOETA AELV AND VISKAN RIVERS, SWEDEN  

EPA Science Inventory

A joint United States-Sweden effluent field study on the Gota Alv River was conducted on site in Sweden in the fall of 1985. The Gota Alv River has a mean flow of 575 cu m/s and is the largest river in Sweden. There are many industrial dischargers along the river and Sweden has b...

371

Efficiency of the coagulation\\/flocculation method for the treatment of dyebath effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Textile dyeing processes are among the most environmentally unfriendly industrial processes, because they produce coloured wastewaters that are heavily polluted with dyes, textile auxiliaries and chemicals. The coagulation\\/flocculation method was studied as a wastewater treatment technique for the decolourization of residual dyebath effluents after dyeing cotton\\/polyamide blends using reactive and acid dyes. It was discovered that a combination of aluminium

Vera Golob; Aleksandra Vinder; Marjana Simoni?

2005-01-01

372

Enhancement of biogas production from olive mill effluent (OME) by co-digestion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The olive oil has a healthy image during its consumption due to its oleic acid content, which may prevent some human diseases. Ironically, by-products of olive mill production such as olive mill effluent (OME) and olive cake pose a serious environmental risk where it is produced. In this study, feasibility of using some agro-industrial residue streams such as cheese whey

Nuri Azbar; Tugba Keskin; Aysegul Yuruyen

2008-01-01

373

CATALYTIC HYDROGENATION OF SUGARCANE BAGASSE DISSOLVING PULP EFFLUENTS OVER RU\\/C CATALYST: AN ECO EFFICIENT ENVIRONMENTALLY-FRIENDLY APPROACH  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional processes for production of dissolving pulps from sugarcane bagasse use an acid hydrolysis step to remove hemicelluloses, generating a xylose-rich solution as a liquid effluent. Xylose can be converted to xylitol, a high valued natural sweetener used in the food industry by catalytic hydrogenation. Traditionally, nickel catalysts are employed in the production of xylitol on industrial scale. Nevertheless, these

HM Baudel; C. Z. Zaror; CAM de Abreu

374

Treatment of textile dye plant effluent by nanofiltration membrane  

SciTech Connect

The study was concerned primarily with characterization of the NF45 membrane. Its pure water permeability, the mass transfer coefficient of NaCl, and the mean radius of the membrane pores were determined. Experiments run with five pure dye solutions and an industrial dye pulp solution confirmed the potential of nanofiltration membrane separation for the treatment of textile dye plant effluent. The effects of such significant parameters as initial solution concentration, transmembrane pressure, and type of dye on two fundamental characteristics of nanofiltration (flux and separation factor) were studied.

Xu, Y.; Lebrun, R.E. [Univ. du Quebec, Trois-Rivieres, Quebec (Canada). Dept. du Genie Chimique] [Univ. du Quebec, Trois-Rivieres, Quebec (Canada). Dept. du Genie Chimique; Gallo, P.J.; Blond, P. [I.C.P.I. Lyon (France)] [I.C.P.I. Lyon (France)

1999-09-01

375

40 CFR 420.117 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alkaline Cleaning Subcategory § 420.117 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2011-07-01

376

40 CFR 420.112 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alkaline Cleaning Subcategory § 420.112 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2011-07-01

377

40 CFR 440.15 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Iron Ore Subcategory § 440.15 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2010-07-01

378

40 CFR 440.15 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Iron Ore Subcategory § 440.15 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2011-07-01

379

40 CFR 406.37 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Normal Wheat Flour Milling Subcategory § 406.37 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2011-07-01

380

40 CFR 406.47 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Bulgur Wheat Flour Milling Subcategory § 406.47 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2012-07-01

381

40 CFR 406.42 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Bulgur Wheat Flour Milling Subcategory § 406.42 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2012-07-01

382

40 CFR 406.32 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Normal Wheat Flour Milling Subcategory § 406.32 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2011-07-01

383

40 CFR 406.33 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Normal Wheat Flour Milling Subcategory § 406.33 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2011-07-01

384

40 CFR 406.37 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Normal Wheat Flour Milling Subcategory § 406.37 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2013-07-01

385

40 CFR 406.37 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Normal Wheat Flour Milling Subcategory § 406.37 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2012-07-01

386

40 CFR 406.47 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Bulgur Wheat Flour Milling Subcategory § 406.47 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2013-07-01

387

40 CFR 406.33 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Normal Wheat Flour Milling Subcategory § 406.33 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2013-07-01

388

40 CFR 406.42 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Bulgur Wheat Flour Milling Subcategory § 406.42 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2011-07-01

389

40 CFR 406.32 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Normal Wheat Flour Milling Subcategory § 406.32 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2013-07-01

390

40 CFR 406.33 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Normal Wheat Flour Milling Subcategory § 406.33 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2012-07-01

391

40 CFR 406.32 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Normal Wheat Flour Milling Subcategory § 406.32 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2012-07-01

392

40 CFR 406.42 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Bulgur Wheat Flour Milling Subcategory § 406.42 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2013-07-01

393

40 CFR 409.37 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Liquid Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.37 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2011-07-01

394

40 CFR 409.27 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Crystalline Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.27 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2011-07-01

395

40 CFR 409.37 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Liquid Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.37 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2010-07-01

396

40 CFR 409.27 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Crystalline Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.27 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2010-07-01

397

40 CFR 461.31 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS BATTERY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY ...0 at all times. (5) Subpart C—Battery Wash (with Detergent). BPT Effluent...0 at all times. (6) Subpart C—Battery Wash (Water Only). BPT Effluent...

2010-07-01

398

40 CFR 461.31 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS BATTERY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY ...0 at all times. (5) Subpart C—Battery Wash (with Detergent). BPT Effluent...0 at all times. (6) Subpart C—Battery Wash (Water Only). BPT Effluent...

2011-07-01

399

40 CFR 430.23 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Bleached Papergrade Kraft and Soda Subcategory § 430.23 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2011-07-01

400

40 CFR 430.23 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Bleached Papergrade Kraft and Soda Subcategory § 430.23 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2010-07-01

401

40 CFR 430.22 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CATEGORY Bleached Papergrade Kraft and Soda Subcategory § 430.22 Effluent...Subpart B [BPT effluent limitations for soda facilities where pulp and paper are produced...Subpart B [BPT effluent limitations for soda facilities where pulp and papers are...

2011-07-01

402

40 CFR 406.107 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wheat Starch and Gluten Subcategory § 406.107 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2011-07-01

403

40 CFR 406.107 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wheat Starch and Gluten Subcategory § 406.107 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2010-07-01

404

40 CFR 406.102 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wheat Starch and Gluten Subcategory § 406.102 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2011-07-01

405

40 CFR 406.102 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wheat Starch and Gluten Subcategory § 406.102 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2014-07-01

406

40 CFR 406.102 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wheat Starch and Gluten Subcategory § 406.102 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2013-07-01

407

40 CFR 406.107 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wheat Starch and Gluten Subcategory § 406.107 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2013-07-01

408

40 CFR 406.102 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wheat Starch and Gluten Subcategory § 406.102 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2010-07-01

409

40 CFR 406.107 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wheat Starch and Gluten Subcategory § 406.107 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2012-07-01

410

40 CFR 406.102 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wheat Starch and Gluten Subcategory § 406.102 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2012-07-01

411

40 CFR 406.107 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wheat Starch and Gluten Subcategory § 406.107 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2014-07-01

412

40 CFR 440.142 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Gold Placer Mine Subcategory § 440.142 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2010-07-01

413

40 CFR 440.142 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Gold Placer Mine Subcategory § 440.142 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2011-07-01

414

40 CFR 440.142 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Gold Placer Mine Subcategory § 440.142 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2013-07-01

415

40 CFR 467.67 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Drawing With Emulsions or Soaps Subcategory § 467.67 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

2011-07-01

416

40 CFR 471.36 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Nickel-Cobalt Forming Subcategory § 471.36 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2011-07-01

417

40 CFR 471.36 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Nickel-Cobalt Forming Subcategory § 471.36 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2010-07-01

418

40 CFR 411.23 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CEMENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Leaching Subcategory § 411.23 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2010-07-01

419

40 CFR 411.22 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CEMENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Leaching Subcategory § 411.22 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2012-07-01

420

40 CFR 411.23 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CEMENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Leaching Subcategory § 411.23 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2011-07-01

421

40 CFR 411.22 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CEMENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Leaching Subcategory § 411.22 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2011-07-01

422

40 CFR 411.23 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CEMENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Leaching Subcategory § 411.23 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2012-07-01

423

40 CFR 411.22 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CEMENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Leaching Subcategory § 411.22 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2010-07-01

424

40 CFR 411.22 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CEMENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Leaching Subcategory § 411.22 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2013-07-01

425

40 CFR 411.27 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CEMENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Leaching Subcategory § 411.27 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2011-07-01

426

40 CFR 411.27 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CEMENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Leaching Subcategory § 411.27 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2013-07-01

427

40 CFR 411.27 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CEMENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Leaching Subcategory § 411.27 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2010-07-01

428

40 CFR 411.23 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CEMENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Leaching Subcategory § 411.23 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2013-07-01

429

40 CFR 411.27 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CEMENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Leaching Subcategory § 411.27 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2012-07-01

430

40 CFR 467.67 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Drawing With Emulsions or Soaps Subcategory § 467.67 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2010-07-01

431

40 CFR 467.57 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Drawing With Neat Oils Subcategory § 467.57 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2010-07-01

432

40 CFR 422.43 - Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHOSPHATE MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Defluorinated Phosphate Rock Subcategory § 422.43 Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2012-07-01

433

40 CFR 422.43 - Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHOSPHATE MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Defluorinated Phosphate Rock Subcategory § 422.43 Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2013-07-01

434

40 CFR 422.42 - Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...  

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHOSPHATE MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Defluorinated Phosphate Rock Subcategory § 422.42 Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2014-07-01

435

40 CFR 422.47 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHOSPHATE MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Defluorinated Phosphate Rock Subcategory § 422.47 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2013-07-01

436

40 CFR 422.42 - Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHOSPHATE MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Defluorinated Phosphate Rock Subcategory § 422.42 Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2010-07-01

437

40 CFR 422.43 - Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...  

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHOSPHATE MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Defluorinated Phosphate Rock Subcategory § 422.43 Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2014-07-01

438

40 CFR 422.42 - Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHOSPHATE MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Defluorinated Phosphate Rock Subcategory § 422.42 Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2013-07-01

439

40 CFR 422.43 - Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHOSPHATE MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Defluorinated Phosphate Rock Subcategory § 422.43 Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2011-07-01

440

40 CFR 422.43 - Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHOSPHATE MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Defluorinated Phosphate Rock Subcategory § 422.43 Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2010-07-01

441

40 CFR 422.47 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHOSPHATE MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Defluorinated Phosphate Rock Subcategory § 422.47 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2011-07-01

442

40 CFR 422.47 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHOSPHATE MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Defluorinated Phosphate Rock Subcategory § 422.47 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2010-07-01

443

40 CFR 422.47 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHOSPHATE MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Defluorinated Phosphate Rock Subcategory § 422.47 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2014-07-01

444

40 CFR 422.42 - Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHOSPHATE MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Defluorinated Phosphate Rock Subcategory § 422.42 Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2012-07-01

445

40 CFR 422.47 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHOSPHATE MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Defluorinated Phosphate Rock Subcategory § 422.47 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2012-07-01

446

40 CFR 422.42 - Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHOSPHATE MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Defluorinated Phosphate Rock Subcategory § 422.42 Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2011-07-01

447

40 CFR 408.277 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Steamed and Canned Oyster Processing Subcategory § 408.277 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2013-07-01

448

40 CFR 408.272 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Steamed and Canned Oyster Processing Subcategory § 408.272 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2013-07-01

449

40 CFR 408.277 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Steamed and Canned Oyster Processing Subcategory § 408.277 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2010-07-01

450

40 CFR 408.252 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Pacific Coast Hand-Shucked Oyster Processing Subcategory § 408.252 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2011-07-01

451

40 CFR 408.277 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Steamed and Canned Oyster Processing Subcategory § 408.277 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2011-07-01

452

40 CFR 408.252 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Pacific Coast Hand-Shucked Oyster Processing Subcategory § 408.252 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2012-07-01

453

40 CFR 408.252 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Pacific Coast Hand-Shucked Oyster Processing Subcategory § 408.252 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2010-07-01

454

40 CFR 408.257 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Pacific Coast Hand-Shucked Oyster Processing Subcategory § 408.257 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2011-07-01

455

40 CFR 408.257 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Pacific Coast Hand-Shucked Oyster Processing Subcategory § 408.257 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2010-07-01

456

40 CFR 408.257 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Pacific Coast Hand-Shucked Oyster Processing Subcategory § 408.257 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2013-07-01

457

40 CFR 408.252 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Pacific Coast Hand-Shucked Oyster Processing Subcategory § 408.252 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2013-07-01

458

40 CFR 408.272 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Steamed and Canned Oyster Processing Subcategory § 408.272 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2010-07-01

459

40 CFR 408.272 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Steamed and Canned Oyster Processing Subcategory § 408.272 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2012-07-01

460

40 CFR 440.65 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Tungsten Ore Subcategory § 440.65 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2011-07-01

461

40 CFR 415.332 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Carbon Monoxide and By-Product Hydrogen Production Subcategory § 415.332 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2011-07-01

462

40 CFR 405.127 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS DAIRY PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Dry Whey Subcategory § 405.127 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2010-07-01

463

40 CFR 405.117 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS DAIRY PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Condensed Whey Subcategory § 405.117 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2010-07-01

464

40 CFR 440.45 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Mercury Ore Subcategory § 440.45 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2011-07-01

465

40 CFR 440.45 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Mercury Ore Subcategory § 440.45 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2010-07-01

466

40 CFR 440.45 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Mercury Ore Subcategory § 440.45 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2013-07-01

467

40 CFR 440.45 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Mercury Ore Subcategory § 440.45 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2012-07-01

468

40 CFR 408.37 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Mechanized Blue Crab Processing Subcategory § 408.37 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2012-07-01

469

40 CFR 408.42 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.42 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2013-07-01

470

40 CFR 408.47 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.47 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2012-07-01

471

40 CFR 408.47 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.47 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2011-07-01

472

40 CFR 408.22 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Conventional Blue Crab Processing Subcategory § 408.22 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2013-07-01

473

40 CFR 408.37 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Mechanized Blue Crab Processing Subcategory § 408.37 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2013-07-01

474

40 CFR 408.27 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Conventional Blue Crab Processing Subcategory § 408.27 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2013-07-01

475

40 CFR 408.52 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.52 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2013-07-01

476

40 CFR 408.57 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.57 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2013-07-01

477

40 CFR 408.47 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.47 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the