Science.gov

Sample records for petrochemical effluents industries

  1. Toxic impact of effluents from petrochemical industry

    SciTech Connect

    Nikunen, E.

    1985-02-01

    The toxicity of effluents from a petrochemical industry center in southern Finland was tested by conducting bioassays on organisms from three different trophic levels. In fish tests, rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) were caged at the discharge site and simultaneously at a reference area. The only clear differences, among the measurements of 25 metabolic parameters, were observed in fish liver where activities of two detoxication enzymes were significantly increased in the exposed group. The water flea (Daphnia magna) was used both in acute (EC50) and long-term reproduction tests. No acute lethal toxicity was detected in any of the wastewater samples investigated. A combined effluent, however, caused a reduction in the reproduction rate with an EC50 of 3%. No mutagenic activity was observed with the Ames test (Salmonella typhimurium, strains TA 97, TA 98, and TA 100) in concentrated effluents, in sediment samples, or in liver samples from predator fish caught from the discharge site.

  2. The international petrochemical industry

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, K.

    1991-01-01

    The petrochemical industry occupies a crucial place in economic, strategic and political terms in the twentieth century. The author explains its growth and international distribution from the 1920s tot he present, relating the particular experience of petrochemicals to the processes that have shaped the long-term evolution of industry in general. The geographical coverage of this book extends from the regional to international scale, and its historical scope embraces one hundred years from the laboratory origins of polymer science and petrochemistry to the massive operations of modern industry. It represents the result of twenty years of research, and reflects the author's privileged access to company sources in both the U.S. and Europe.

  3. Petrochemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, T.S.

    1996-11-01

    This paper provides a review of literature published in 1995 on the subject of wastewater related to the petrochemicals industry. Topics covered include: wastewater characterization; treatment technologies; and water reuse and pollution prevention. 19 refs.

  4. 31 CFR 538.210 - Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries. 538... Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries. ...United States persons relating to the petroleum or petrochemical industries in...

  5. 31 CFR 538.210 - Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries. 538... Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries. ...United States persons relating to the petroleum or petrochemical industries in...

  6. 31 CFR 538.210 - Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries. 538... Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries. ...United States persons relating to the petroleum or petrochemical industries in...

  7. 31 CFR 538.210 - Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries. 538... Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries. ...United States persons relating to the petroleum or petrochemical industries in...

  8. 31 CFR 538.210 - Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries. 538... Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries. ...United States persons relating to the petroleum or petrochemical industries in...

  9. [Treatment of Petrochemical Treatment Plant Secondary Effluent by Fenton Oxidation].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Wu, Chang-yong; Zhou, Yue-xi; Zhang, Xue; Dong, Bo; Chen, Xue-min

    2015-07-01

    Fenton oxidation was applied to treat the petrochemical treatment plant secondary effluent by the continuous flow configuration. The effect of Fenton agent dosage on the COD and phosphorus removal and the variation of the dissolved organic matter characteristics during the treatment process were investigated. The results showed the average COD and PO(4)3- -P concentrations were 64.8 mg.L-1 and 0. 79 mg.L-1, respectively. When the dosage of H2O (30%), FeSO4.7H2O and PAM were 0. 4 mL.L-1, 0. 8 mg.L-1 and 0. 9 mg.L-1 and the residence time was 30 min, the average removal rate of COD and PO(4)3- -P were 24. 3% and 95. 5% respectively. The effluent COD was lower than 50 mg.L-1. The percentage of dissolved organic matters with molecular weight less than 1 x 10(3) was 80. 4% in the raw wastewater, however, the percentage increased to 95. 6% when treated by Fenton oxidation. Three-dimensional fluorescence analysis showed that the Fenton oxidation can effectively remove protein and phenols. GC-MS results showed that there were about 117 kinds of organic matters detected in the secondary effluent, while the number reduced to 27 after oxidation by Fenton. The organics containing unsaturated bond had a better removal than those of other types of organics. Fenton oxidation can be used in the advanced treatment of petrochemical secondary effluent. PMID:26489330

  10. Plantwide Energy Management for Hydrocarbon and Petrochemical Industry 

    E-print Network

    Ahmed, A.; Clinkscales, T.

    1988-01-01

    MANAGEMENT FOR HYDROCARBON AND PETROCHEMICAL INDUSTRY Anwar Ahmed Combustion Engineering Australia Pty. LId. Box HiI~ Victoria, Australia ABSTRACT Within the hydrocarbon and petrochemical industry the generation and utilization of various forms... Clinkscales Combustion Engineering Simcon, Inc. Houston, Texas WHAT IS PlANTWIDE EMS? Presently, many of the energy management systems installed in the hydrocarbon and petrochemical industry optimize the utility plant only and do not interface...

  11. Cogeneration in the petrochemical industry: Systems and their application

    SciTech Connect

    Gentner, R.T. )

    1988-01-01

    The large and diverse energy requirements of the petrochemical industry has led to the successful integration of cogeneration systems into petrochemical plants for many years. Federal legislation enacted within the past decade has expanded the horizons of cogeneration. This legislation provides the freedom to develop cogeneration systems that are independent of the plant electric power requirements. This freedom can yield cogeneration systems that are significantly different than those normally encountered in many past petrochemical plant applications. In addition, the newly available options can often yield attractive economics for smaller plants where cogeneration may not have been economically justified prior to the advent of this legislation.

  12. Regional Industry Workforce Development: The Gulf Coast Petrochemical Information Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgin, Johnette; Muha, Susan

    2008-01-01

    The Gulf Coast Petrochemical Information Network (GC-PIN) is a workforce development partnership among industry businesses and area institutions of higher education in the four-county Gulf Coast region. GC-PIN partners develop new industry-specific curricula, foster industry career awareness, and retrain existing employees in new technologies.

  13. Cancer mortality and residence near petrochemical industries in Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Chun-Yuh; Chiu, Hui-Fen; Chiu, Jeng-Fen

    1997-02-21

    An ecologic study design was used to investigate the relationship between cancer risks and residence in communities adjacent to petrochemical industrial counties (PICs). Directly age-adjusted mortality rates for cancer during 1982-1991 among 16 counties characterized by a heavy concentration of petrochemical industries were compared to rates among 16 matched counties with similar concentration of nonpetrochemical manufacturing industries, urbanization level, and demographic characteristics. An excess rate for liver cancer among males was found in the so-called PICs. The correlation could not be explained by confounding variables such as urbanization, socioeconomic class, or employment in nonpetrochemical industries. No other increased cancer risks were found to be associated with residence near petrochemical industries. 30 refs., 3 tabs.

  14. 31 CFR 538.536 - Activities relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic of South Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... false Activities relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic...538.536 Activities relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic...activities and transactions relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries...

  15. 31 CFR 538.536 - Activities relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic of South Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... false Activities relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic...538.536 Activities relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic...activities and transactions relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries...

  16. 31 CFR 538.536 - Activities relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic of South Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... false Activities relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic...538.536 Activities relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic...activities and transactions relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries...

  17. [HYGIENIC ASSESSMENT OF WORKING CONDITIONS IN MODERN PETROCHEMICAL INDUSTRY].

    PubMed

    Badamshina, G G; Karimova, L K; Timasheva, G V

    2015-01-01

    In the paper there are reported the results of the performance of hygiene assessment of working conditions in petrochemical industry. The studies have shown that workers' body is exposed to a complex of hazardous occupational factors including a chemical factor, noise, the severity and intensity of the working process. An overall assessment of working conditions corresponds to Class 3.3. PMID:26302562

  18. A demonstration of biofiltration for VOC removal in petrochemical industries.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lan; Huang, Shaobin; Wei, Zongmin

    2014-05-01

    A biotrickling filter demo has been set up in a petrochemical factory in Sinopec Group for about 10 months with a maximum inlet gas flow rate of 3000 m3 h(-1). The purpose of this project is to assess the ability of the biotrickling filter to remove hardly biodegradable VOCs such as benzene, toluene and xylene which are recalcitrant and poorly water soluble and commonly found in petrochemical factories. Light-weight hollow ceramic balls (? 5-8 cm) were used as the packing media treated with large amounts of circulating water (2.4 m3 m(-2) h(-1)) added with bacterial species. The controlled empty bed retention time (EBRT) of 240 s is a key parameter for reaching a removal efficiency of 95% for benzene, toluene, xylene, and 90% for total hydrocarbons. The demo has been successfully adopted and practically applied in waste air treatments in many petrochemical industries for about two years. The net inlet concentrations of benzene, toluene and xylene were varied from 0.5 to 3 g m(-3). The biofiltration process is highly efficient for the removal of hydrophobic and recalcitrant VOCs with various concentrations from the petrochemical factories. The SEM analysis of the bacterial community in the BTF during VOC removal showed that Pseudomonas putida and Klebsiella sp. phylum were dominant and shutdown periods could play a role in forming the community structural differences and leading to the changes of removal efficiencies. PMID:24569855

  19. Industrial Energy in Transition: A Petrochemical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wishart, Ronald S.

    1978-01-01

    An industrial development involves the conversion of biomass, through fermentation, to useful chemical products and the gasification of municiple wastes to produce steam for electricity generation. These gases may also serve as chemical feedstocks. (Author/MA)

  20. 31 CFR 538.210 - Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... petroleum and petrochemical industries. 538.210 Section 538.210 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... SUDANESE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 538.210 Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and... relating to the petroleum or petrochemical industries in Sudan, including, but not limited to,...

  1. 31 CFR 538.210 - Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... petroleum and petrochemical industries. 538.210 Section 538.210 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... SUDANESE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 538.210 Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and... relating to the petroleum or petrochemical industries in Sudan, including, but not limited to,...

  2. 31 CFR 538.210 - Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... petroleum and petrochemical industries. 538.210 Section 538.210 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... SUDANESE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 538.210 Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and... relating to the petroleum or petrochemical industries in Sudan, including, but not limited to,...

  3. 31 CFR 538.210 - Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... petroleum and petrochemical industries. 538.210 Section 538.210 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... SUDANESE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 538.210 Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and... relating to the petroleum or petrochemical industries in Sudan, including, but not limited to,...

  4. 31 CFR 538.210 - Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... petroleum and petrochemical industries. 538.210 Section 538.210 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... SUDANESE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 538.210 Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and... relating to the petroleum or petrochemical industries in Sudan, including, but not limited to,...

  5. Long term effects of irrigation with petrochemical industry wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Aziz, O.; Inam, A.; Samiullah; Siddiqi, R.H.

    1996-11-01

    Split plot designed field trials were conducted during 1988-1995 to study the long term effects of petrochemical industry wastewater on six crops and agricultural soils. It was observed that wastewater irrigation resulted in increased seed yield of all the crops selected, viz. wheat, triticale, chickpea, lentil and pigeonpea, except summer moong which showed a decrease in seed yield. Soil receiving the wastewater showed no significant changes in pH, total organic carbon, electrical conductivity, cation exchange capacity, micro- and macro-nutrients and SAR. Thus, it may be concluded that treated refinery wastewater met the irrigational quality requirements as its physico-chemical characteristics were within the permissible limits. The same could be said for the accumulation of heavy metals in the soil as well as in the grains making the latter safe for human consumption. 28 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Residue characteristics and pore development of petrochemical industry sludge pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Chiang, H L; Chao, C G; Chang, C Y; Wang, C F; Chiang, P C

    2001-12-01

    Petrochemical industry bio-sludge was pyrolyzed to investigate the composition and pore size distribution of pyrolytic residue. Results indicated that the carbon, nitrogen, and hydrogen concentrations could be reduced after an increase in pyrolytic temperature. The trace element analysis indicated that Al, Ca, Fe, Mg. K, Cu, Sr, and Sb concentrated during the pyrolytic process. When forty grams of pre-dried sludge were pyrolyzed at various pyrolytic temperatures, the transfers from the gas phase to liquid phase to residue were from 21.2 to 36.0%, from 49.0 to 70.0%, and from 8.3 to 16.5%. Results of the pore size distribution examination indicated that the mesopore had the greatest effect on the bio-sludge pyrolysis. The optimal pyrolytic temperatures and times were approximately 800 degrees C for 30 min and 900 degrees C for 10 min. The conceptual model can reasonably explain the pore structure development during the pyrolysis process. PMID:11763035

  7. Treatment of industrial effluent water

    SciTech Connect

    Levitskii, Yu.N.

    1982-09-01

    This article reports on a thematic exhibition on ''New Developments in Treatment of Natural and Effluent Water'' in the Sanitary-Technical Construction Section at the Exhibition of Achievements of the National Economy of the USSR. The exhibition acquainted visitors with the achievements of leading organizations in different branches of industry with respect to treatment of natural and industrial effluent water. The Kharkov ''Vodkanalproekt'' Institute and the Kharkov affiliate of the All-Union Scientific-Research Institute of Water and Geodesy has jointly developed a ''Polymer-25'' filter for removal of oil products from nonexplosive effluent water discharged by machine building plants. A Baku affiliate has developed a new ShFP-1 screw-type press filter for dewatering the sediments from water treatment plants as well as for sediments from chemical, food, and other types of plants. The State Institute for Applied Chemistry has designed a continuous process plant for treating effluent water and removing toxic organic waste by converting them into mineral salts with high efficiency.

  8. 31 CFR 538.536 - Activities relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic of South Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Activities relating to the petroleum... Policy § 538.536 Activities relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic of... and transactions relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic of South...

  9. 31 CFR 538.536 - Activities relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic of South Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Activities relating to the petroleum... Policy § 538.536 Activities relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic of... and transactions relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic of South...

  10. 31 CFR 538.536 - Activities relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic of South Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Activities relating to the petroleum... Policy § 538.536 Activities relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic of... and transactions relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic of South...

  11. Quality of effluents from Hattar Industrial Estate.

    PubMed

    Sial, R A; Chaudhary, M F; Abbas, S T; Latif, M I; Khan, A G

    2006-12-01

    Of 6634 registered industries in Pakistan, 1228 are considered to be highly polluting. The major industries include textile, pharmaceutical, chemicals (organic and inorganic), food industries, ceramics, steel, oil mills and leather tanning which spread all over four provinces, with the larger number located in Sindh and Punjab, with smaller number in North Western Frontier Province (NWFP) and Baluchistan. Hattar Industrial Estate extending over 700 acres located in Haripur district of NWFP is a new industrial estate, which has been developed with proper planning for management of industrial effluents. The major industries located in Hattar are ghee industry, chemical (sulfuric acid, synthetic fiber) industry, textile industry and pharmaceuticals industry. These industries, although developed with proper planning are discharging their effluents in the nearby natural drains and ultimately collected in a big drain near Wah. The farmers in the vicinity are using these effluents for growing vegetables and cereal crops due to shortage of water. In view of this discussion, there is a dire need to determine if these effluents are hazardous for soil and plant growth. So, effluents from different industries, sewage and normal tap water samples were collected and analysed for pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total soluble salts (TSS), biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen, cations and anions and heavy metals. The effluents of ghee and textile industries are highly alkaline. EC and TSS loads of ghee and textile industries are also above the National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS), Pakistan. All the effluents had residual sodium carbonates (RSCs), carbonates and bicarbonates in amounts that cannot be used for irrigation. Total toxic metals load in all the effluents is also above the limit i.e. 2.0 mg/L. Copper in effluents of textile and sewage, manganese in ghee industry effluents and iron contents in all the effluents were higher than NEQS. BOD and COD values of all the industries are also above the NEQS. On the whole, these effluents cannot be used for irrigation without proper treatment otherwise that may cause toxicity to soil, plants and animals as well add to the problems of salinity and sododicity. Similarly, these effluents cannot be used for fish farming. PMID:17111466

  12. Petrochemical industry in the Middle East: current status, uncertainties, global impact

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    The situation and perspective of the petrochemical industry in Saudi Arabia, Qatar, IR Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Bahrain, the UAE, SP Libyan AJ, Algeria, and Egypt are reviewed. Special attention is given to the budgetary constraints, foreign partners, the costs, the markets, and the impact of falling oil prices.

  13. Economics of Energy Conservation in the Chemical and Petrochemical Industries 

    E-print Network

    Nachod, J. E. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Catalytic Cracking Units where the expander on the effluent gas drives the air compressor. There are instances where the temperature and/or the energy level available from waste heat is relatively low. If there is no other cross exchange suitable... t decade. Such modifications as changing out the internals of a column to increase efficiency and/or lower the pressure drop; better sequencing of cross exchange; the use of heat pumps j cascading reboil and condensation where multiple columns...

  14. Trends in high performance compressors for petrochemical and natural gas industry in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yuanyang; Li, Liansheng

    2015-08-01

    Compressors are the key equipment in the petrochemical and natural gas industry system. The performance and reliability of them are very important for the process system. The application status of petrochemical & natural gas compressors in China is presented in this paper. The present status of design and operating technologies of compressors in China are mentioned in this paper. The turbo, reciprocating and twin screw compressors are discussed. The market demands for different structure compressors in process gas industries are analysed. This paper also introduces the research and developments for high performance compressors in China. The recent research results on efficiency improvement methods, stability improvement, online monitor and fault diagnosis will also be presented in details.

  15. Organic Rankine Cycles for the Petro-Chemical Industry 

    E-print Network

    Rose, R. K.; Colosimo, D. D.

    1979-01-01

    Under a cooperatively funded DOE/MTI program, a packaged organic Rankine power recovery system is being developed specifically to meet the needs of the petroleum refining and chemical industries. Program objectives include an actual in...

  16. New petrochemical compositions for use in the coal industry

    SciTech Connect

    D.O. Safieva; E.V. Surov; O.G. Safiev

    2008-12-15

    Various aspects of the use of antifreezing agents in the coal industry are considered. It has been found that, unlike previously proposed compositions, these agents can be prepared based on the products of a single process, the vacuum distillation of fuel oil.

  17. Gas Separation Membrane Use in the Refinery and Petrochemical Industries 

    E-print Network

    Vari, J.

    1992-01-01

    gas are discussed. 151 ESL-IE-92-04-26 Proceedings from the 14th National Industrial Energy Technology Conference, Houston, TX, April 22-23, 1992 ... stream_source_info ESL-IE-92-04-26.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 677 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name ESL-IE-92-04-26.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 GAS SEPARATION...

  18. Hydrocarbon Source Signatures in Houston, Texas: Influence of the Petrochemical Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Jobson, B Tom T.; Berkowitz, Carl M.; Kuster, W. C.; Goldan, P. D.; Williams, E. J.; Fesenfeld, F.; Apel, Eric; Karl, Thomas G.; Lonneman, William A.; Riemer, D.

    2004-12-22

    Observations of C1-C10 hydrocarbon mixing ratios measured by in-situ instrumentation at the La Porte super site during the TexAQS 2000 field experiment are reported. The La Porte data were compared to a roadway vehicle exhaust signature obtained from canister samples collected in the Houston Washburn tunnel during the same summer to better understand the impact of petrochemical emissions of hydrocarbons at the site. It is shown that the abundance of ethene, propene, 1-butene, C2-C4 alkanes, hexane, cyclohexane, methylcyclohexane, isopropylbenzene, and styrene at La Porte were systematically impacted by petrochemical industry emissions. Coherent power law relationships between frequency distribution widths of hydrocarbon mixing ratios and their local lifetimes clearly identify two major source groups, roadway vehicle emissions and industrial emissions. Distributions of most aromatics and long chain alkanes were consistent with roadway vehicle emissions as the dominant source. Airmass reactivity was generally dominated by C1-C3 aldehydes. Propene and ethene sometimes dominated air mass reactivity with HO loss frequencies often greater than 10 s-1. Ozone mixing ratios near 200 ppbv were observed on two separate occasions and these air masses appear to have been impacted by industrial emissions of alkenes from the Houston Ship Channel. The La Porte data provide evidence of the importance of industrial emissions of ethene and propene on air masses reactivity and ozone formation in Houston.

  19. Pulp and Paper Industry Effluent Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gove, George W.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from pulp and paper industry, covering publications of 1976-77. This review focuses on: (1) receiving water, toxicity, and effluent characterization; (2) pulping liquor disposal and recovery; and (3) physicochemical and biological treatment. A list of 238 references is also presented. (HM)

  20. Annoyance and Worry in a Petrochemical Industrial Area—Prevalence, Time Trends and Risk Indicators

    PubMed Central

    Axelsson, Gösta; Stockfelt, Leo; Andersson, Eva; Gidlof-Gunnarsson, Anita; Sallsten, Gerd; Barregard, Lars

    2013-01-01

    In 1992, 1998, and 2006, questionnaires were sent to stratified samples of residents aged 18–75 years living near petrochemical industries (n = 600–800 people on each occasion) and in a control area (n = 200–1,000). The aims were to estimate the long-term prevalence and change over time of annoyance caused by industrial odour, industrial noise, and worries about possible health effects, and to identify risk indicators. In 2006, 20% were annoyed by industrial odour, 27% by industrial noise (1–4% in the control area), and 40–50% were worried about health effects or industrial accidents (10–20% in the control area). Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed significantly lower prevalence of odour annoyance in 1998 and 2006 than in 1992, while industrial noise annoyance increased significantly over time. The prevalence of worry remained constant. Risk of odour annoyance increased with female sex, worry of health effects, annoyance by motor vehicle exhausts and industrial noise. Industrial noise annoyance was associated with traffic noise annoyance and worry of health effects of traffic. Health-risk worry due to industrial air pollution was associated with female sex, having children, annoyance due to dust/soot in the air, and worry of traffic air pollution. PMID:23552810

  1. Petrochemical industry standards activity aimed at improving the mechanical integrity of process piping

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, J.T.

    1996-07-01

    This paper will cover numerous changes being made to existing standards and several new standards being created, all focusing on increasing mechanical integrity of petrochemical industry process piping. Those new standards include ones for (1) Risk-Based Inspection (2) Fitness for Service Analysis, (3) Positive Material Identification, and (4) In-service Inspection and Maintenance for Process Piping. A progress report is included for the Process Industry Practices (PIP) being created to consolidate individual company piping standards into one consistent industry set. And finally, recent initiatives toward standards cooperation/coordination between the American Petroleum Institute(API), American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), International Standards Organization (ISO) and National Board are highlighted.

  2. Toxicity reduction in industrial effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Lankford, P.W.; Eckenfelder, W.W.

    1990-01-01

    The toxicity of manufacturing wastewaters to fish and other aquatic organisms is now being used by state and federal regulators to monitor and restrict industrial wastewater discharges. As a result, there is a great need for guidance on the subject of aquatic toxicity reduction in the field of industrial water pollution control. This book is a comprehensive reference source on the testing protocols, comparative data, and treatment techniques for effective toxicity reduction. Included in this book are detailed chapters covering various methods for toxicity reduction, such as the removal of metals, aerobic biological treatment, stripping of volatile organics, and management of sludges from toxic wastewater treatment. The book features: a complete overview of the subject, including background material for newcomers to the field; a basic summary and comparison of alternate treatment procedures; the latest methods for the identification of toxic components that readers can use for testing in their own laboratories; a description of applicable technologies for toxicity reduction; actual data from the use of processes that allow readers to compare technologies; solids management requirements including handling and disposal; useful economic comparisons of technologies; and illustrative case studies that demonstrate the application of the latest toxicity reduction technology and data to specific situations. Eleven chapters are processed separately in the appropriate data bases.

  3. Assessment of soil organic contamination in a typical petrochemical industry park in China.

    PubMed

    Teng, Yong; Zhou, Qixing; Miao, Xinyu; Chen, Yuming

    2015-07-01

    The concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), n-alkanes (n-C8 through n-C40), and 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils were determined to assess the level of organic contamination in soils from the Da-gang Petrochemical Industry Park with several big state-run enterprises, a recent rapid flourishing park in China. The results showed that the concentration of TPH in soil was high, up to 20 ng/g-12.8478%; in particular, the content in most sites ranged from 1 to 2%. Thus, it is clear that soil environment in the Da-gang Petrochemical Industry Park has been seriously polluted by TPH according to the Nemerow pollution index method. Furthermore, the average concentration of ?(n-C>16 through n-C34) in 30 sampling sites was above the maximum limit set for F3 under all the conditions in the Canada-wide standards for petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC CWS) with 43.33-93.33% soil samples exceeding F3 standards, and n-alkanes possessing higher concentrations were proved much abundant alkanes in this study. Besides, the predominance of even n-alkanes and lower carbon preference index (CPI) demonstrated that n-alkanes in surface soils were mainly caused by anthropogenic inputs, while the concentration of ?16-PAHs was in the range of 1652.5-8217.3 ng/g and the BaA/(BaA + Chr) and Flu/(Flu + Pyr) ratios indicated that pyrogenic PAHs may be the dominant PAHs in most soils with the contribution of petrogenic hydrocarbons in some sites. PMID:25697555

  4. Factors related to short-term memory dysfunction in children residing near a Petrochemical Industrial Estate.

    PubMed

    Aungudornpukdee, Piraya; Vichit-Vadakan, Nuntavarn; Taneepanichskul, Surasak

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the factors that affect short-term memory dysfunction among children, 6 to 13 years of age, residing near the Petrochemical Industrial Estate, Map Ta Phut sub-district, Rayong province. A population-based cross-sectional study was employed for collecting data on neurobehavioral effects using the Digit Span Test. The present study found one-third of 2,158 children presented with short-term memory dysfunction. It was found an inverse association between short-term memory dysfunction with 2 out of 25 communities; Islam (adjusted OR 0.382) and Taladmabtaput (adjusted OR 0.297). In addition, short-term memory dysfunction was also found an inverse association with distance from residential areas to the industrial park (adjusted OR 0.871). It was also found that an association between short-term memory dysfunction and length of living period in study areas was not clear The finding on short-term memory dysfunction indicated that children with short-term memory dysfunction were affected by the distance from residential areas to source of pollution and community. PMID:20420102

  5. The Effect of Social Trust on Citizens’ Health Risk Perception in the Context of a Petrochemical Industrial Complex

    PubMed Central

    López-Navarro, Miguel Ángel; Llorens-Monzonís, Jaume; Tortosa-Edo, Vicente

    2013-01-01

    Perceived risk of environmental threats often translates into psychological stress with a wide range of effects on health and well-being. Petrochemical industrial complexes constitute one of the sites that can cause considerable pollution and health problems. The uncertainty around emissions results in a perception of risk for citizens residing in neighboring areas, which translates into anxiety and physiological stress. In this context, social trust is a key factor in managing the perceived risk. In the case of industrial risks, it is essential to distinguish between trust in the companies that make up the industry, and trust in public institutions. In the context of a petrochemical industrial complex located in the port of Castellón (Spain), this paper primarily discusses how trust—both in the companies located in the petrochemical complex and in the public institutions—affects citizens’ health risk perception. The research findings confirm that while the trust in companies negatively affects citizens’ health risk perception, trust in public institutions does not exert a direct and significant effect. Analysis also revealed that trust in public institutions and health risk perception are essentially linked indirectly (through trust in companies). PMID:23337129

  6. Overnight atmospheric transport and chemical processing of photochemically aged Houston urban and petrochemical industrial plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaveri, Rahul A.; Voss, Paul B.; Berkowitz, Carl M.; Fortner, Edward; Zheng, Jun; Zhang, Renyi; Valente, Ralph J.; Tanner, Roger L.; Holcomb, Daniel; Hartley, Thomas P.; Baran, Leslie

    2010-12-01

    Overnight atmospheric transport and chemical evolution of photochemically aged Houston urban and petrochemical industrial plume were investigated in July 2005. We report here on the 26 July episode in which the aged plume was tagged 1.5 h before sunset with a pair of free-floating controlled meteorological balloons, which guided quasi-Lagrangian aircraft sampling in the plume as it was advected 300 km to the north over 8 h. The aged plume around sunset was well mixed within a 1600 m residual layer, and was characterized by enhanced levels of aerosol, O3, CO, olefins, acetaldehyde, total odd nitrogen compounds (NOy), and relatively small amounts (<1 ppbv) of NOx. The plume experienced appreciable shearing overnight due to the development of a low-altitude nocturnal jet between 300 and 500 m above mean sea level (MSL). However, the plume above 600 m MSL remained largely undiluted even after 8 h of transport due to lack of turbulent mixing above the jet. About 40-60% of the NOx present in the aged plume around sunset was found to be depleted over this 8 h period. A constrained plume modeling analysis of the quasi-Lagrangian aircraft observations suggested that by dawn this NOx was converted to nitric acid, organic nitrates, and peroxy acyl nitrates via reactions of NO3 radicals with enhanced levels of olefins and aldehydes in the plume. Sensitivity of NOx depletion to heterogeneous hydrolysis of N2O5 on aerosols was examined. These results have significant implications for the impacts of urban and industrial pollution on far downwind regions.

  7. Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in petrochemical industries by measurement of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene.

    PubMed Central

    Boogaard, P J; van Sittert, N J

    1994-01-01

    Biological monitoring of exposure of workers to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in petrochemical industries was performed by the measurement of urinary excretion of 1-hydroxypyrene. In 121 of the 462 workers studied (both smokers and non-smokers) who had had no recent occupational exposure to PAHs a median 1-hydroxypyrene concentration of 0.21 micrograms/g creatinine was found. The upper limit of the 95% confidence interval in these workers of 0.99 micrograms/g creatinine was used as the upper normal value for industrial workers. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations were measured in workers involved in manufacture and maintenance operations in oil refineries (13 studies in eight different settings), in workers manufacturing or handling products containing PAHs in chemical plants (five studies in three settings) and laboratories (four studies), and in workers digging soil contaminated with PAHs (three studies). In most studies in oil refineries 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations were only marginally greater than the values measured in the 121 workers with no recent occupational exposure to PAHs. This was also the case in maintenance operations with higher potential exposure to PAHs, indicating that personal protection equipment was generally adequate to prevent excessive exposure. The studies in chemical plants also showed that exposure to PAHs is low. An exception was the workers engaged in the production of needle coke from ethylene cracker residue, where increased urinary 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations were measured. The excretion of 1-hydroxypyrene by the operators and maintenance workers of this plant was investigated in relation to potential methods of exposure to PAHs. Dermal and inhalatory exposure were both significant determinants of exposure to PAHs. PMID:8199667

  8. The feasibility of effluent trading in the energy industries

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.A.

    1997-05-01

    In January 1996, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released a policy statement endorsing effluent trading in watersheds, hoping to spur additional interest in the subject. The policy describes five types of effluent trades - point source/point source, point source/nonpoint source, pretreatment, intraplant, and nonpoint source/nonpoint source. This report evaluates the feasibility of effluent trading for facilities in the oil and gas industry (exploration and production, refining, and distribution and marketing segments), electric power industry, and the coal industry (mines and preparation plants). Nonpoint source/nonpoint source trades are not considered since the energy industry facilities evaluated here are all point sources. EPA has administered emission trading programs in its air quality program for many years. Programs for offsets, bubbles, banking, and netting are supported by federal regulations, and the 1990 Clean Air Act (CAA) amendments provide a statutory basis for trading programs to control ozone and acid rain. Different programs have had varying degrees of success, but few have come close to meeting their expectations. Few trading programs have been established under the Clean Water Act (CWA). One intraplant trading program was established by EPA in its effluent limitation guidelines (ELGs) for the iron and steel industry. The other existing effluent trading programs were established by state or local governments and have had minimal success.

  9. SOURCE ASSESSMENT: NITROGEN FERTILIZER INDUSTRY WATER EFFLUENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes a study of waterborne pollutants from the manufacture of nitrogen fertilizers. It includes an evaluation of the ammonia, ammonium nitrate, urea, and nitric acid manufacturing processes. Water effluents in a nitrogen fertilizer plant originate from a variety o...

  10. Metabolic response of environmentally isolated microorganisms to industrial effluents: Use of a newly described cell culture assay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferebee, Robert N.

    1992-01-01

    An environmental application using a microtiter culture assay to measure the metabolic sensitivity of microorganisms to petrochemical effluents will be tested. The Biomedical Operations and Research Branch at NASA JSC has recently developed a rapid and nondestructive method to measure cell growth and metabolism. Using a colorimetric procedure the uniquely modified assay allows the metabolic kinetics of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells to be measured. Use of such an assay if adapted for the routine monitoring of waste products, process effluents, and environmentally hazardous substances may prove to be invaluable to the industrial community. The microtiter method as described will be tested using microorganisms isolated from the Galveston Bay aquatic habitat. The microbial isolates will be identified prior to testing using the automated systems available at JSC. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), cadmium, and lead will provide control toxic chemicals. The toxicity of industrial effluent from two industrial sites will be tested. An effort will be made to test the efficacy of this assay for measuring toxicity in a mixed culture community.

  11. Characterizing ozone pollution in a petrochemical industrial area in Beijing, China: a case study using a chemical reaction model.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Lv, Zhaofeng; Cheng, Shuiyuan; Wang, Lili; Ji, Dongsheng; Zhou, Ying; Han, Lihui; Wang, Litao

    2015-06-01

    This study selected a petrochemical industrial complex in Beijing, China, to understand the characteristics of surface ozone (O3) in this industrial area through the on-site measurement campaign during the July-August of 2010 and 2011, and to reveal the response of local O3 to its precursors' emissions through the NCAR-Master Mechanism model (NCAR-MM) simulation. Measurement results showed that the O3 concentration in this industrial area was significantly higher, with the mean daily average of 124.6 ?g/m(3) and mean daily maximum of 236.8 ?g/m(3), which are, respectively, 90.9 and 50.6 % higher than those in Beijing urban area. Moreover, the diurnal O3 peak generally started up early in 11:00-12:00 and usually remained for 5-6 h, greatly different with the normal diurnal pattern of urban O3. Then, we used NCAR-MM to simulate the average diurnal variation of photochemical O3 in sunny days of August 2010 in both industrial and urban areas. A good agreement in O3 diurnal variation pattern and in O3 relative level was obtained for both areas. For example of O3 daily maximum, the calculated value in the industrial area was about 51 % higher than in the urban area, while measured value in the industrial area was approximately 60 % higher than in the urban area. Finally, the sensitivity analysis of photochemical O3 to its precursors was conducted based on a set of VOCs/NOx emissions cases. Simulation results implied that in the industrial area, the response of O3 to VOCs was negative and to NOx was positive under the current conditions, with the sensitivity coefficients of -0.16~-0.43 and +0.04~+0.06, respectively. By contrast, the urban area was within the VOCs-limitation regime, where ozone enhancement in response to increasing VOCs emissions and to decreasing NOx emission. So, we think that the VOCs emissions control for this petrochemical industrial complex will increase the potential risk of local ozone pollution aggravation, but will be helpful to inhibit the ozone formation in Beijing urban area through reducing the VOCs transport from the industrial area to the urban area. PMID:26013656

  12. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Petrochemical Industry - An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect

    Neelis, Maarten; Worrell, Ernst; Masanet, Eric

    2008-09-01

    Energy is the most important cost factor in the U.S petrochemical industry, defined in this guide as the chemical industry sectors producing large volume basic and intermediate organic chemicals as well as large volume plastics. The sector spent about $10 billion on fuels and electricity in 2004. Energy efficiency improvement is an important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There are a variety of opportunities available at individual plants in the U.S. petrochemical industry to reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner. This Energy Guide discusses energy efficiency practices and energy efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, facility, and organizational levels. A discussion of the trends, structure, and energy consumption characteristics of the petrochemical industry is provided along with a description of the major process technologies used within the industry. Next, a wide variety of energy efficiency measures are described. Many measure descriptions include expected savings in energy and energy-related costs, based on case study data from real-world applications in the petrochemical and related industries worldwide. Typical measure payback periods and references to further information in the technical literature are also provided, when available. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers in the U.S. petrochemical industry reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner while maintaining the quality of products manufactured. Further research on the economics of all measures--and on their applicability to different production practices--is needed to assess their cost effectiveness at individual plants.

  13. THE GENOTOXICITY OF INDUSTRIAL WASTES AND EFFLUENTS: A REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    A review of the literature published on the genotoxicity of industrial wastes and effluents using short-term genetic bioassays is presented in this document. he importance of this task arises from the ubiquity of genotoxic compounds in the environment and the need to identify the...

  14. Trace metals in PM10 and PM 2.5 samples collected in a highly industrialized chemical/petrochemical area and its urbanized surroundings.

    PubMed

    dos Anjos Paulino, Silvia; Oliveira, Rafael Lopes; Loyola, Josiane; Minho, Alan Silva; Arbilla, Graciela; Quiterio, Simone Lorena; Escaleira, Viviane

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the potential impact of a highly industrialized area on its urbanized surroundings. The area studied is home to a refinery, a thermoelectric plant and several petrochemical facilities industries. The concentrations of twelve elements were determined in PM10 and PM2.5 samples collected along a busy highway and near the petrochemical complex. Significantly higher concentrations of Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Cu and Al were observed in the petrochemical zone, but principal component analysis revealed similar patterns for both the highway site and a site approximately 1.5 km from the petrochemical complex, suggesting that the main pollution source in the area is vehicular flux. Higher concentrations in the industrial area may be attributed to intense diesel-powered truck and bus traffic movement, mainly due to the transport of supplies, fuel and gas. The observed concentrations of the elements Cr, Co, Ni, Cd and Pb were always lower than the detection limits of the technique used. PMID:24509656

  15. INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT TREATMENT USING IONIZING RADIATION COMBINED TO TITANIUM DIOXIDE

    SciTech Connect

    Duarte, C.L.; Oikawa, H.; Mori, M.N.; Sampa, M.H.O.

    2004-10-04

    The Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) with OH radicals are the most efficient to mineralize organic compounds, and there are various methods to generate OH radicals as the use of ozone, hydrogen peroxide and ultra-violet radiation and ionizing radiation. The irradiation of aqueous solutions with high-energy electrons results in the excitation and ionizing of the molecules and rapid (10{sup -14} - 10{sup -9} s) formation of reactive intermediates. These reactive species will react with organic compounds present in industrial effluent inducing their decomposition. Titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) catalyzed photoreaction is used to remove a wide range of pollutants in air and water media, combined to UV/VIS light, FeO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, but as far as known there is no report on the combination with ionizing radiation. In some recent studies, the removal of organic pollutants in industrial effluent, such as Benzene, Toluene, and Xylene from petroleum production using ionizing radiation was investigated. It has been ob served that none of the methods can be used individually in wastewater treatment applications with good economics and high degree of energy efficiency. In the present work, the efficiency of ionizing radiation in presence of TiO{sub 2} to treat industrial effluent was evaluated. The main aim to combine these technologies is to improve the efficiency for very hard effluents and to reduce the processing cost for future implementation to large-scale design.

  16. Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Excluding dyes. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents exclusive of dyes. Topics include the recovery of lubricants, lye, sizing agents, polyvinyl alcohol, zinc, dirt, and heat from textile effluents. Air and water pollution control technology that is effective in treating textile effluents is discussed. Effluents from synthetic fiber manufacture and wool scouring processes are emphasized. Effluents that contain dyes are discusssed in a separate bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  17. Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Excluding dyes. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents exclusive of dyes. Topics include the recovery of lubricants, lye, sizing agents, polyvinyl alcohol, zinc, dirt, and heat from textile effluents. Air and water pollution control technology that is effective in treating textile effluents is discussed. Effluents from synthetic fiber manufacture and wool scouring processes are emphasized. Effluents that contain dyes are discusssed in a separate bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  18. Electrochemical degradation of specialty chemical industry effluent.

    PubMed

    Basha, C Ahmed; Soloman, P A; Velan, M; Miranda, Lima Rose; Balasubramanian, N; Siva, R

    2010-04-15

    Conventional wastewater treatment techniques are inefficient to manage large quantities of refractory organics discharged by specialty chemical industries. It is aimed in the present investigation to compare overall performance of the basic electrochemical reactor configurations such as batch, batch recirculation and continuous recycle reactors, in removing the organic part of wastewater from a medium-scale, specialty chemical industry. The effects of current density, supporting electrolyte concentration, electrolysis duration and fluid flow rate on the pollutant removal and energy consumption performances were critically evaluated. Continuous recycle reactor is found to be the better configuration, because of its flexibility of operation. Circulation flow rate and withdrawal flow rate enable control on transfer coefficients and treatment duration respectively. The ability of artificial neural network (ANN) in predicting the performance of the batch electrochemical treatment has also been demonstrated. PMID:19962826

  19. Soluble phosphate fertilizer production using acid effluent from metallurgical industry.

    PubMed

    Mattiello, Edson M; Resende Filho, Itamar D P; Barreto, Matheus S; Soares, Aline R; Silva, Ivo R da; Vergütz, Leonardus; Melo, Leônidas C A; Soares, Emanuelle M B

    2016-01-15

    Preventive and effective waste management requires cleaner production strategies and technologies for recycling and reuse. Metallurgical industries produce a great amount of acid effluent that must be discarded in a responsible manner, protecting the environment. The focus of this study was to examine the use of this effluent to increase reactivity of some phosphate rocks, thus enabling soluble phosphate fertilizer production. The effluent was diluted in deionized water with the following concentrations 0; 12.5; 25; 50; 75% (v v(-1)), which were added to four natural phosphate rocks: Araxá, Patos, Bayovar and Catalão and then left to react for 1 h and 24 h. There was an increase in water (PW), neutral ammonium citrate (PNAC) and citric acid (PCA) soluble phosphorus fractions. Such increases were dependent of rock type while the reaction time had no significant effect (p < 0.05) on the chemical and mineralogical phosphate characteristics. Phosphate fertilizers with low toxic metal concentrations and a high level of micronutrients were produced compared to the original natural rocks. The minimum amount of total P2O5, PNAC and PW, required for national legislation for phosphate partially acidulated fertilizer, were met when using Catalão and the effluent at the concentration of 55% (v v(-1)). Fertilizer similar to partially acidulated phosphate was obtained when Bayovar with effluent at 37.5% (v v(-1)) was used. Even though fertilizers obtained from Araxá and Patos did not contain the minimum levels of total P2O5 required by legislation, they can be used as a nutrient source and for acid effluent recycling and reuse. PMID:26496844

  20. Safety Culture Assessment in Petrochemical Industry: A Comparative Study of Two Algerian Plants

    PubMed Central

    Boughaba, Assia; Hassane, Chabane; Roukia, Ouddai

    2014-01-01

    Background To elucidate the relationship between safety culture maturity and safety performance of a particular company. Methods To identify the factors that contribute to a safety culture, a survey questionnaire was created based mainly on the studies of Fernández-Muñiz et al. The survey was randomly distributed to 1000 employees of two oil companies and realized a rate of valid answer of 51%. Minitab 16 software was used and diverse tests, including the descriptive statistical analysis, factor analysis, reliability analysis, mean analysis, and correlation, were used for the analysis of data. Ten factors were extracted using the analysis of factor to represent safety culture and safety performance. Results The results of this study showed that the managers' commitment, training, incentives, communication, and employee involvement are the priority domains on which it is necessary to stress the effort of improvement, where they had all the descriptive average values lower than 3.0 at the level of Company B. Furthermore, the results also showed that the safety culture influences the safety performance of the company. Therefore, Company A with a good safety culture (the descriptive average values more than 4.0), is more successful than Company B in terms of accident rates. Conclusion The comparison between the two petrochemical plants of the group Sonatrach confirms these results in which Company A, the managers of which are English and Norwegian, distinguishes itself by the maturity of their safety culture has significantly higher evaluations than the company B, who is constituted of Algerian staff, in terms of safety management practices and safety performance. PMID:25180135

  1. Entomological study of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in Asalouyeh, the heartland of an Iranian petrochemical industry

    PubMed Central

    Alipour, Hamzeh; Darabi, Hossien; Dabbaghmanesh, Tahere; Bonyani, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the fauna and seasonal activity of different species of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in Asalouyeh, the heartland of an Iranian petrochemical industry, Southern Iran, as a oil rich district. Sand flies are the vectors of at least three different kinds of disease, the most important of which is leishmaniasis, and it is a major public health problem in Iran with increased annual occurrence of clinical episodes. Methods A total of 3?497 sand flies of rural regions were collected by sticky traps fixed, and cleared in puris medium and identified morphologically, twice a month from April to March 2008. Results Predominant species included four of genus Phlebotomus (Phlebotomus alexandri Sinton, 1928, Phlebotomus papatasi Scopoli, 1910, Phlebotomus bergeroti Parrot and Phlebotomus sergenti Parrot) and one of genus Sergentomyia (Sergentomyia tiberiadis Alder, Theodor & Lourie, 1930). The most prevalent species was Phlebotomus papatasi, presented 56.4% of the identified flies. The others were Phlebotomus sergenti (22.5%), Phlebotomus alexandri (4.5%), Phlebotomus bergeroti (12%) and Sergentomyia tiberiadis (5%) as well. The percentage of females (68%) was more than that of males (32%). The abundance of sand flies represented two peaks of activity; one in early May and the other one in the first half of September in the region. Conclusion Phlebotomus papatasi is the probable vector of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in the region. Further molecular studies are needed to determine the definite vector of the region. PMID:25183089

  2. [The workplace injury trends in the petrochemical industry: from data analysis to risk management].

    PubMed

    Campo, Giuseppe; Martini, Benedetta

    2013-01-01

    The most recent INAIL data show that, in 2009-2011, the accident frequency rate and the severity rate of workplace injuries in the chemical industry are lower than for the total non-agricultural workforce. The chemical industry, primarily because of the complex and hazardous work processes, requires an appropriate system for assessing and monitoring specific risks.The implementation of Responsible Care, a risk management system specific for the chemical industry, in 1984, has represented a historical step in the process of critical awareness of risk management by the chemical companies. Responsible Care is a risk management system specifically designed on the risk profiles of this type of enterprise, which integrates safety, health and environment. A risk management system, suitable for the needs of a chemical company, should extend its coverage area, beyond the responsible management of products throughout the entire production cycle, to the issues of corporate responsibility. PMID:24303713

  3. Fundamental studies of hydrogen attack in carbon-0.5molybdenum steel and weldments applied in petroelum and petrochemical industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Peng

    High temperature hydrogen attack (HTHA) is a form of surface decarburization, internal decarburization, and/or intergranular cracking in steels exposed to high temperature (>400°F) and high hydrogen pressure. Hydrogen attack is an irreversible process which can cause permanent damage resulting in degradation of mechanical properties and failures such as leakage, bursting, fire, and/or explosion. The continuous progression of hydrogen attack in C-0.5Mo steel and weldments below the C-0.5Mo Nelson Curve has caused a significant concern for the integrity and serviceability of C-0.5Mo steel utilized for pressure vessels and piping in the petroleum refinery and petrochemical industries. A state-of-the-art literature review was implemented to provide a comprehensive overview of the published research efforts on hydrogen attack studies. The evolution of "Nelson Curves" for carbon steel, C-0.5Mo, and Cr-Mo steels was historically reviewed in regard to design applications and limitations. Testing techniques for hydrogen attack assessment were summarized under the categories of hydrogen exposure testing, mechanical evaluation, and dilatometric swelling testing. In accord with the demands of these industries, fundamental studies of hydrogen attack in C-0.5Mo steel and weldments were accomplished in terms of quantitative methodologies for hydrogen damage evaluation; hydrogen damage assessment of service exposed weldments and autoclave exposed materials; effects of carbon and alloying elements, heat treatments, hot and cold working, welding processes and postweld heat treatment (PWHT) on hydrogen attack susceptibility; development of continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagrams for C-0.5Mo base metals and the coarse grained heat-affected zone (CGHAZ); carbide evaluation for the C-0.5Mo steel after service exposure and heat treatment; methane evolution by the reaction of hydrogen and carbides; hydrogen diffusion and methane pressure through the wall thickness of one-sided hydrogen exposure assembly; hydrogen attack mechanism and hydrogen attack limit modeling.

  4. Technical Training in the MNCs in Malaysia: A Case Study Analysis of the Petrochemical Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooi, Lai Wan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to gain insight into some of the types of training and development practices that are carried out in the chemical industry for technical workers. A salient focus of the study is to make a comparative analysis of four MNCs, which were selected based on equity ownership, to ascertain whether T&D practices are…

  5. Adjustable Speed Drives in the U.S. Petroleum Refining, Petrochemical, and Chemical Industries 

    E-print Network

    Foley, D. J.; Chodorowski, A.

    1993-01-01

    their installation. A survey was conducted in which the VFD equipment suppliers, users, and interfacing parties (such as distributed control systems (DCS), pump and compressor suppliers) were contacted to discuss the various VFDs' applications. VFDs are still... or running two speed motors at the lower speed. VFD equipment suppliers will point out many cooling tower applications; however, a process industry cooling tower manufacturer indicated instead that out of 100 cooling tower installations over the last...

  6. Carbon Dioxide Separation Technology: R&D Needs for the Chemical and Petrochemical Industries

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2007-11-01

    This report, the second in a series, is designed to summarize and present recommendations for improved CO2 separation technology for industrial processes. This report provides an overview of 1) the principal CO2 producing processes, 2) the current commercial separation technologies and 3) emerging adsorption and membrane technologies for CO2 separation, and makes recommendations for future research.

  7. Use of TIE techniques to characterize industrial effluents in the Pearl River Delta region.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yi-Xiang; Ying, Guang-Guo; Zhang, Li-Juan; Zhao, Jian-Liang; Su, Hao-Chang; Yang, Bin; Liu, Shan

    2012-02-01

    We investigated the acute toxicity of various industrial effluents in the Pearl River Delta region using lux bacteria, duckweed, green algae, crustaceans and zebrafish. The potential toxicants in the industrial effluents were identified and evaluated by lux bacteria bioassay and chemical analysis. The results show that green algae (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata) and crustacean (Ceriodaphnia dubia) were more sensitive to the effluents from electronic and electroplate factories than other test species, while lux bacteria were more sensitive to all the other effluents. The toxicities of effluents from electronic and electroplate factories to the six test organisms were significantly higher than those of the other industrial effluents, and mainly caused by metals. Noticeably, organic pollutants were the main contributing factor to the toxicity of effluents from textile and dyeing plants, pulp and paper mills, fine chemical factories and municipal wastewater treatment plants. PMID:22019309

  8. [Evaluation of treatment technology of odor pollution source in petrochemical industry].

    PubMed

    Mu, Gui-Qin; Sui, Li-Hua; Guo, Ya-Feng; Ma, Chuan-Jun; Yang, Wen-Yu; Gao, Yang

    2013-12-01

    Using an environmental technology assessment system, we put forward the evaluation index system for treatment technology of the typical odor pollution sources in the petroleum refining process, which has been applied in the assessment of the industrial technology. And then the best available techniques are selected for emissions of gas refinery sewage treatment plant, headspace gas of acidic water jars, headspace gas of cold coke jugs/intermediate oil tank/dirty oil tank, exhaust of oxidative sweetening, and vapors of loading and unloading oil. PMID:24640922

  9. Efficacy of Allium cepa test system for screening cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of industrial effluents originated from different industrial activities.

    PubMed

    Pathiratne, Asoka; Hemachandra, Chamini K; De Silva, Nimal

    2015-12-01

    Efficacy of Allium cepa test system for screening cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of treated effluents originated from four types of industrial activities (two textile industries, three rubber based industries, two common treatment plants of industrial zones, and two water treatment plants) was assessed. Physico-chemical parameters including the heavy metal/metalloid levels of the effluents varied depending on the industry profile, but most of the measured parameters in the effluents were within the specified tolerance limits of Sri Lankan environmental regulations for discharge of industrial effluents into inland surface waters. In the A. cepa test system, the undiluted effluents induced statistically significant root growth retardation, mitosis depression, and chromosomal aberrations in root meristematic cells in most cases in comparison to the dilution water and upstream water signifying effluent induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. Ethyl methane sulphonate (a mutagen, positive control) and all the effluents under 1:8 dilution significantly induced total chromosomal aberrations in root meristematic cells in comparison to the dilution water and upstream water indicating inadequacy of expected 1:8 dilutions in the receiving waters for curtailing genotoxic impacts. The results support the use of a practically feasible A. cepa test system for rapid screening of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of diverse industrial effluents discharging into inland surface waters. PMID:26547320

  10. Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Excluding dyes. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents exclusive of dyes. Topics include the recovery of lubricants, lye, sizing agents, polyvinyl alcohol, zinc, dirt, and heat from textile effluents. Air and water pollution control technology that is effective in treating textile effluents is discussed. Effluents from synthetic fiber manufacture and wool scouring processes are emphasized. Effluents that contain dyes are discusssed in a separate bibliography.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  11. Anaerobic treatment of effluents from an industrial polymers synthesis plant

    SciTech Connect

    Araya, P.; Aroca, G.; Chamy, R.

    1999-06-01

    The feasibility of the anaerobic treatment of an industrial polymer synthesis plant effluent was evaluated. The composition of the wastewater includes acrylates, styrene, detergents, a minor amount of silicates and a significant amount of ferric chloride. The average chemical oxygen demand (COD) corresponding is about 2,000 mg/l. The anaerobic biodegradability of the effluent is shown and the toxicity effect on the populations of anaerobic bacteria is evaluated. The results of the anaerobic biodegradation assays show that 62% of the wastewater compounds, measured as COD, could be consumed. An upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor was used in the evaluation, it has a diameter-height ratio of 1:7, and 4-liter volume. The inoculum was obtained from a UASB pilot plant that treats brewery wastewaters. At the beginning of the operation, the biomass showed an anaerobic activity of 0.58 gCOD/(gVSS {times} d), it decreased only 2.5% in the subsequent 4 months. After 35 days of continuous operation, the reactor was operated at different steady states for 140 days. The COD was maintained at 2,200 mg/l in the feed. The results were: organic loading rate (OLR): 4.3 kg COD/(m{sup 3} {times} d), hydraulic retention time: 12 h, superficial velocity: 1 m/h, average biogas productivity: 290 L CH{sub 4}/kg COD fed, biogas composition: 70--75% methane and a COD removal percentage > 75%.

  12. Treatment of effluents from cardboard industry by coagulation-electroflotation.

    PubMed

    Mansour, L Ben; Kesentini, I

    2008-05-30

    The objective of the present study is to optimize the treatment of the cardboard industry wastewater generated in the process of machine washing. This type of effluent is usually treated by traditional physicochemical processes such as coagulation/flocculation and sedimentation. These processes give a limited purifying efficiency, particularly for the COD reduction. In this work, the treatment by coagulation-electroflotation process was adopted. In batch mode treatment, current density, pH and coagulant concentration are the operating parameters to optimize. The methodology of experimental research, with an orthogonal central composite plan was adopted. Good agreement between theoretical analysis and experimental results was obtained. Continuous mode was also studied in order to optimize the residence time. A physicochemical characterization including COD, BOD and suspended solids charge was done before and after the treatment in order to improve the efficiency of this process. PMID:18029093

  13. Removal of heavy metals from tannery effluents of Ambur industrial area, Tamilnadu by Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis.

    PubMed

    Balaji, S; Kalaivani, T; Rajasekaran, C; Shalini, M; Vinodhini, S; Priyadharshini, S Sunitha; Vidya, A G

    2015-06-01

    The present study was carried out with the tannery effluent contaminated with heavy metals collected from Ambur industrial area to determine the phycoremediation potential of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis. Two different concentrations (50 and 100 %) of heavy metals containing tannery effluent treated with A. platensis were analysed for growth, absorption spectra, biochemical properties and antioxidant enzyme activity levels. The effluent treatments revealed dose-dependent decrease in the levels of A. platensis growth (65.37 % for 50 % effluent and 49.32 % for 100 % effluent), chlorophyll content (97.43 % for 50 % effluent and 71.05 % for 100 % effluent) and total protein content (82.63 % for 50 % effluent and 62.10 % for 100 % effluent) that leads to the reduction of total solids, total dissolved solids and total suspended solids. A. platensis with lower effluent concentration was effective than at higher concentration. Treatment with the effluent also resulted in increased activity levels of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (14.58 units/g fresh weight for 50 % and 24.57 units/g fresh weight for 100 %) and catalase (0.963 units/g fresh weight for 50 % and 1.263 units/g fresh weight for 100 %). Furthermore, heavy metal content was determined using atomic absorption spectrometry. These results indicated that A. platensis has the ability to combat heavy metal stress by the induction of antioxidant enzymes demonstrating its potential usefulness in phycoremediation of tannery effluent. PMID:25944749

  14. Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Dyes. (Latest citations from World Textile Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents containing dyes. The citations explore bacteria that absorb dyes, neutralization of dye effluents, color removal by ozonization and by treatment with manganese solid waste, flocculation treatment, and dye absorption methods and materials. Membrane treatment, electrolysis, and ultrafiltration methods of removing dyes from wastewater are considered, as well as reuse of dye-containing effluents. Textile effluents that do not contain dyes are discussed in another bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 244 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  15. Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Dyes. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents containing dyes. The citations explore bacteria that absorb dyes, neutralization of dye effluents, decolorization by ozonization or ultraviolet radiation, flocculation treatment, and dye absorption methods and materials. Membrane treatment, electrolysis, and ultrafiltration methods of removing dyes from wastewater are considered, as well as reuse of dye-containing effluents. Textile effluents that do not contain dyes are discussed in another bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  16. Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Dyes. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents containing dyes. The citations explore bacteria that absorb dyes, neutralization of dye effluents, decolorization by ozonization or ultraviolet radiation, flocculation treatment, and dye absorption methods and materials. Membrane treatment, electrolysis, and ultrafiltration methods of removing dyes from wastewater are considered, as well as reuse of dye-containing effluents. Textile effluents that do not contain dyes are discussed in another bibliography.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  17. CHARACTERIZING THE GENOTOXICITY OF HAZARDOUS INDUSTRIAL WASTES AND EFFLUENTS USING SHORT-TERM BIOASSAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter demonstrates that short-term bioassays can reliably and expeditiously measure the genotoxic potential of hazardous industrial wastes and effluents. etrochemical wastes have been studied in detail, especially discharges from chemical manufacturing plants and textile a...

  18. ASSESSMENT OF TECHNOLOGY FOR CONTROL OF TOXIC EFFLUENTS FROM THE ELECTRIC UTILITY INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report assesses the applicability of control technologies for reducing priority pollutants in effluents from the steam-electric power generating industry. It surveys control technologies, identifying those that have demonstrated some control effectiveness for priority polluta...

  19. TOXICITY CHARACTERIZATION OF AN INDUSTRIAL AND A MUNICIPAL EFFLUENT DISCHARGING TO THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) methods have proven very useful in characterizing, identifying and confirming toxicants in environmental samples. his report describes the characterization of toxicants present in two effluents, industrial and municipal, discharged into th...

  20. Bioremediation of a Complex Industrial Effluent by Biosorbents Derived from Freshwater Macroalgae

    PubMed Central

    Kidgell, Joel T.; de Nys, Rocky; Hu, Yi; Paul, Nicholas A.; Roberts, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Biosorption with macroalgae is a promising technology for the bioremediation of industrial effluents. However, the vast majority of research has been conducted on simple mock effluents with little data available on the performance of biosorbents in complex effluents. Here we evaluate the efficacy of dried biomass, biochar, and Fe-treated biomass and biochar to remediate 21 elements from a real-world industrial effluent from a coal-fired power station. The biosorbents were produced from the freshwater macroalga Oedogonium sp. (Chlorophyta) that is native to the industrial site from which the effluent was sourced, and which has been intensively cultivated to provide a feed stock for biosorbents. The effect of pH and exposure time on sorption was also assessed. These biosorbents showed specificity for different suites of elements, primarily differentiated by ionic charge. Overall, biochar and Fe-biochar were more successful biosorbents than their biomass counterparts. Fe-biochar adsorbed metalloids (As, Mo, and Se) at rates independent of effluent pH, while untreated biochar removed metals (Al, Cd, Ni and Zn) at rates dependent on pH. This study demonstrates that the biomass of Oedogonium is an effective substrate for the production of biosorbents to remediate both metals and metalloids from a complex industrial effluent. PMID:24919058

  1. Bioremoval of heavy metals from industrial effluent by fixed-bed column of red macroalgae.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Wael M; Mutawie, Hawazin H

    2013-02-01

    Three different species of nonliving red algal biomass Laurancia obtusa, Geldiella acerosa and Hypnea sp. were used to build three types of fixed-bed column for the removal of toxic heavy metal ions such as Cu(2+), Zn(2+), Mn(2+) and Ni(2+) from industrial effluent. In general, the highest efficiency of metal ion bioremoval was recorded for algal column of L. obtusa followed by G. acerosa and the lowest one was recorded for Hypnea sp., with mean removal values of 94%, 85% and 71%, respectively. The obtained results showed that biological treatments of industrial effluents with these algal columns, using standard algal biotest, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, were capable of reducing effluent toxicities from 75% to 15%, respectively. Red algal column may be considered as an inexpensive and efficient alternative treatment for conventional removal technology, for sequestering heavy metal ions from industrial effluents. PMID:22661401

  2. Effluent-free papermaking: industrial experiences and latest developments in the German paper industry.

    PubMed

    Hamm, U; Schabel, S

    2007-01-01

    Thanks to multiple recirculation of process water, the German paper industry has succeeded in decreasing the specific fresh water demand from an average of 50 m3/t thirty years ago to 13 m3/t today. Although the increasing closure of white water loops creates many problems, it is bound to be part of the German paper industry's ongoing development. For a few years, in the production of packaging paper, two paper mills have been running with a totally closed water system including different process water treatment plants as 'kidneys'. This paper presents a comprehensive survey of the pros and cons of closed process water systems followed by significant examples of effluent-free production of corrugating medium and test liner. Additionally, operation experiences and economic aspects are discussed. PMID:17486853

  3. Pathogens Assessment in Reclaimed Effluent Used for Industrial Crops Irrigation

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sa’ed, R.

    2007-01-01

    Reuse of treated effluent is a highly valued water source in Palestine, however with limited success due to public health concerns. This paper assesses the potential pathogens in raw, treated and reclaimed wastewater at Albireh urban wastewater treatment facility, and provides scientific knowledge to update the Palestinian reuse guidelines. Laboratory analyses of collected samples over a period of 4 months have indicated that the raw wastewater from Albireh city contained high numbers of fecal coliforms and worm eggs while 31% of the samples were Salmonella positive. Treated effluent suitable for restricted irrigation demonstrated that the plant was efficient in removing indicator bacteria, where fecal coliforms and fecal streptococci removal averaged 99.64% and 93.44%, respectively. Although not disinfected, treated effluent was free of Salmonella and parasites, hence safe for restricted agricultural purposes. All samples of the reclaimed effluent and three samples of irrigated grass were devoid of microbial pathogens indicating a safe use in unrestricted agricultural utilization. Adequate operation of wastewater treatment facilities, scientific updating of reuse guidelines and launching public awareness campaigns are core factors for successful and sustainable large-scale wastewater reuse schemes in Palestine. PMID:17431318

  4. IDENTIFICATION OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT DISCHARGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Samples of 63 effluent and 22 intake waters were collected from a wide range of chemical manufacturers in areas across the United States. The samples were analyzed for organic compounds in an effort to identify previously unknown and potentially hazardous organic pollutants. Each...

  5. Biomass in a petrochemical world.

    PubMed

    Roddy, Dermot J

    2013-02-01

    The world's increasingly voracious appetite for fossil fuels is driven by fast-growing populations and ever-rising aspirations for the lifestyles and standard of living exemplified in the developed world. Forecasts for higher electricity consumption, more comfortable living environments (via heating or cooling) and greater demand for transport fuels are well known. Similar growth in demand is projected for petrochemical-based products in the form of man-made fibres for clothing, ubiquitous plastic artefacts, cosmetics, etc. All drawing upon the same finite oil, gas and coal feedstocks. Biomass can, in principle, substitute for all of these feedstocks. Although ultimately finite, biomass resources can be expanded and renewed if this is a societal priority. This paper examines the projected growth of an energy-intensive international petrochemicals industry, considers its demand for both utilities and feedstocks, and considers the extent to which biomass can substitute for fossil fuels. The scope of this study includes biomass component extraction, direct chemical conversion, thermochemical conversion and biochemical conversion. Noting that the petrochemicals industry consumes around 10 per cent of the world's fossil fuels as feedstocks and almost as much again in utilities, various strategies for addressing future demand are considered. The need for long-term infrastructure and logistics planning is highlighted. PMID:24427511

  6. Biomass in a petrochemical world

    PubMed Central

    Roddy, Dermot J.

    2013-01-01

    The world's increasingly voracious appetite for fossil fuels is driven by fast-growing populations and ever-rising aspirations for the lifestyles and standard of living exemplified in the developed world. Forecasts for higher electricity consumption, more comfortable living environments (via heating or cooling) and greater demand for transport fuels are well known. Similar growth in demand is projected for petrochemical-based products in the form of man-made fibres for clothing, ubiquitous plastic artefacts, cosmetics, etc. All drawing upon the same finite oil, gas and coal feedstocks. Biomass can, in principle, substitute for all of these feedstocks. Although ultimately finite, biomass resources can be expanded and renewed if this is a societal priority. This paper examines the projected growth of an energy-intensive international petrochemicals industry, considers its demand for both utilities and feedstocks, and considers the extent to which biomass can substitute for fossil fuels. The scope of this study includes biomass component extraction, direct chemical conversion, thermochemical conversion and biochemical conversion. Noting that the petrochemicals industry consumes around 10 per cent of the world's fossil fuels as feedstocks and almost as much again in utilities, various strategies for addressing future demand are considered. The need for long-term infrastructure and logistics planning is highlighted. PMID:24427511

  7. A Petrochemical Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Amy

    1991-01-01

    Informs the reader of the pervasiveness of petrochemicals in everyday life. Discusses the petroleum-to-petrochemical transformation at the refinery and issues related to how petroleum products will be utilized for fuel or nonfuel needs such as lubricants, computers, and medicine in the future. (MDH)

  8. Hazard zoning around electric substations of petrochemical industries by stimulation of extremely low-frequency magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Monireh; Monazzam, Mohammad Reza; Farhang Matin, Laleh; Khosroabadi, Hossein

    2015-05-01

    Electromagnetic fields in recent years have been discussed as one of the occupational hazards at workplaces. Hence, control and assessment of these physical factors is very important to protect and promote the health of employees. The present study was conducted to determine hazard zones based on assessment of extremely low-frequency magnetic fields at electric substations of a petrochemical complex in southern Iran, using the single-axis HI-3604 device. In measurement of electromagnetic fields by the single-axis HI-3604 device, the sensor screen should be oriented in a way to be perpendicular to the field lines. Therefore, in places where power lines are located in different directions, it is required to keep the device towards three axes of x, y, and z. For further precision, the measurements should be repeated along each of the three axes. In this research, magnetic field was measured, for the first time, in three axes of x, y, and z whose resultant value was considered as the value of magnetic field. Measurements were done based on IEEE std 644-1994. Further, the spatial changes of the magnetic field surrounding electric substations were stimulated using MATLAB software. The obtained results indicated that the maximum magnetic flux density was 49.90 ?T recorded from boiler substation, while the minimum magnetic flux density of 0.02 ?T was measured at the control room of the complex. As the stimulation results suggest, the spaces around incoming panels, transformers, and cables were recognized as hazardous zones of indoor electric substations. Considering the health effects of chronic exposure to magnetic fields, it would be possible to minimize exposure to these contaminants at workplaces by identification of risky zones and observation of protective considerations. PMID:25877640

  9. Identification of estrogenic activity change in sewage, industrial and livestock effluents by gamma-irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Byeong-Yong; Kang, Sung-Wook; Yoo, Jisu; Kim, Woong-Ki; Bae, Paek-Hyun; Jung, Jinho

    2012-11-01

    In this study, reduction of estrogenic activity in three different types of effluents from sewage, industrial and livestock wastewater treatment plants by gamma-irradiation was investigated using the yeast two-hybrid assay. After gamma-ray treatment at a dose of 10 kGy, estrogenic activities of sewage, industrial and livestock effluents decreased from 4.4 to 3.0, 1.5 to 1.0 and 16 to 9.9 ng-EEQ L-1, respectively. The substantial reduction of estrogenic activity in livestock effluent was attributable to the degradation of 17?-estradiol (E2), estrone (E1) and 17?-ethynylestradiol (EE2). Although bisphenol A (BPA) was found at the highest concentration in all effluents, its contribution to the estrogenic activity was not significant due to its low relative estrogenic potency. Meanwhile, the calculated estrogenic activity based on concentrations of E2, E1, EE2 and BPA in the effluents significantly differed from the measured ones. Overestimation may have resulted by dissolved organic matters in effluents inhibiting the estrogenic activity of E2, E1, EE2 and BPA, whereas underestimation was likely due to estrogenic by-products generated by gamma-irradiation.

  10. Dyeing Industry Effluent System as Lipid Production Medium of Neochloris sp. for Biodiesel Feedstock Preparation

    PubMed Central

    Ramamurthy, Dhandapani

    2014-01-01

    Microalgae lipid feedstock preparation cost was an important factor in increasing biodiesel fuel hikes. This study was conducted with the concept of implementing an effluent wastewater as lipid production medium for microalgae cultivation. In our study textile dyeing industry effluent was taken as a lipid production medium for Neochloris sp. cultivation. The changes in physicochemical analysis of effluent before and after Neochloris sp. treatment were recorded using standard procedures and AAS analysis. There was especially a reduction in heavy metal like lead (Pb) concentration from 0.002?ppm to 0.001?ppm after Neochloris sp. treatment. Neochloris sp. cultivated in Bold Basal Medium (BBM) (specific algal medium) produced 41.93% total lipid and 36.69% lipid was produced in effluent based cultivation. Surprisingly Neochloris sp. cultivated in effluent was found with enhanced neutral lipid content, and it was confirmed by Nile red fluorescence assay. Further the particular enrichment in oleic acid content of the cells was confirmed with thin layer chromatography (TLC) with oleic acid pure (98%) control. The overall results suggested that textile dyeing industry effluent could serve as the best lipid productive medium for Neochloris sp. biodiesel feedstock preparation. This study was found to have a significant impact on reducing the biodiesel feedstock preparation cost with simultaneous lipid induction by heavy metal stress to microalgae. PMID:25247176

  11. The feasibility of effluent trading in the oil and gas industry

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.A.

    1997-09-01

    In January 1996, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released a policy statement endorsing wastewater effluent trading in watersheds, hoping to promote additional interest in the subject. The policy describes five types of effluent trades - point source/point source, point source/nonpoint source, pretreatment, intraplant, and nonpoint source/nonpoint source. This paper evaluates the feasibility of effluent trading for facilities in the oil and gas industry. The evaluation leads to the conclusion that potential for effluent trading is very low in the exploration and production and distribution and marketing sectors; trading potential is moderate for the refining sector except for intraplant trades, for which the potential is high. Good potential also exists for other types of water-related trades that do not directly involve effluents (e.g., wetlands mitigation banking). The potential for effluent trading in the energy industries and in other sectors would be enhanced if Congress amended the Clean Water Act (CWA) to formally authorize such trading.

  12. Industrial effluents as a source of mercury contamination in terrestrial riparian vertebrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, G.V.N.

    1983-01-01

    Eight species of piscivorous and insectivorous birds and one species of bat collected along Virginia's North Fork of the Holston River contained elevated mercury residues. The ubiquitous occurrence of mercury in riparian insectivores implicates aquatic insects as a vehicle for spreading mercury contamination from one ecosystem to another and expands the ecological ramifications of mercury-contaminated industrial effluents.

  13. Application of toxicity identification evaluation procedure to toxic industrial effluent in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Ra, Jin-Sung; Jeong, Tae-Yong; Lee, Sun-Hong; Kim, Sang Don

    2016-01-01

    Toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) was applied to the effluent from a pharmaceutical industrial complex, following the US EPA TIE guidelines. The whole effluent toxicity (WET) test found toxicity greater than 16toxic units (TU) in the effluent. Dissolved non-polar organic compounds were identified as the major contributor to the observed toxicity in the TIE manipulations in phases I and II. Among the 48 organic compounds identified, three compounds (i.e., acetophenone, benzoimide, and benzothiazole) were related to the pharmaceutical production procedure; however, no contribution to toxicity was predicted in the compounds. The results of the ECOSAR model, which predicts toxicity, indicated that the alkane compounds caused significant toxicity in the effluent. The toxicity test and heavy metal analysis, which used IC and ICP/MS, identified that particulate and heavy metals, such as Cu and Zn, contributed to the remaining toxicity, except dissolved organics. The results showed the applicability of the TIE method for predicting regional effluents produced by the industrial pharmaceutical complex in this study. Although the location was assumed to be affected by discharge of pharmaceutical related compounds in the river, no correlations were observed in the study. Based on the results, advanced treatment processes, such as activated carbon adsorption, are recommended for the wastewater treatment process in this location. PMID:25997865

  14. Application of membrane and ozonation technologies to remove color from agro-industry effluents.

    PubMed

    Koyuncu, I; Sevimli, M F; Ozturk, I; Aydin, A F

    2001-01-01

    The results of membrane and ozonation experiments carried out on various agro-industry effluents including fermentation (baker's yeast), corrugated board, opium alkaloid and textile dying industries are presented. The experiments were performed using lab-scale membrane and ozonation reactors. Color removals were in the range of 80 to 99% for the membrane treatment studies. Ozonation experiments have shown that color removals in the range of 83 to 98% are possible for the investigated wastewaters. Final color levels were lower than 100 Pt-Co unit, which is quite acceptable aesthetically. The relative unit treatment costs of ozonation were about two times higher than membrane systems especially for very strong colored effluents including fermentation and opium alkaloid industries. The study has demonstrated that both membrane and ozonation technologies are viable options for color removal. PMID:11443967

  15. Use of ozone and/or UV in the treatment of effluents from board paper industry.

    PubMed

    Amat, A M; Arques, A; Miranda, M A; López, F

    2005-08-01

    The aim of this work has been to study the viability of ozone and/or UV in the treatment of cardboard industry effluents. Several model compounds have been chosen for the experiments: guaicol, eugenol, glucose, acetate and butyrate. Significant differences in the ozonisation rates are observed between phenolic products coming from lignin (eugenol and guaiacol) and aliphatic compounds. Reactions fit in all cases a pseudo-first order kinetics and are influenced by the pH of the solution. Real effluents have also been tested, and the COD decrease has been found to depend on the fatty acids/phenols ratio. Finally, respirometric studies have shown an increase in the BODst in effluents subjected to a mild oxidation, while under stronger conditions a BODst decrease is observed. PMID:15993159

  16. Effects of industrial effluents, heavy metals, and organic solvents on mallard embryo development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, D.J.; Eastin, W.C., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Mallard eggs were externally exposed at 3 and 8 days of incubation to 7 different industrial effluents and to 7 different heavy metal, organic solvent, and petroleum solutions to screen for potential embryo-toxic effects. This route of exposure was chosen in order to simulate the transfer of pollutant from the plumage of aquatic birds to their eggs. Five of the effluents including mineral pigment, scouring effluent, sludge, and tannery effluent resulted in small but significant reductions in embryonic growth. Treatment with methyl mercury chloride solution of 50 ppm (Hg) impaired embryonic growth but much higher concentrations were required to affect survival and cause teratogenic effects. Oil used to suppress road dust was the most toxic of the pollutants tested and only 0.5 microliter/egg caused 60% mortality by 18 days of development. These findings, in combination with other studies suggest that petroleum pollutants, or effluents in combination with petroleum, may pose a hazard to birds' eggs when exposure is by this route.

  17. A comparative study on toxicity identification of industrial effluents using Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Yi, Xianliang; Kim, Eunhee; Jo, Hun-Je; Han, Taejun; Jung, Jinho

    2011-09-01

    In this study, acute toxicity monitoring and toxicity identification evaluation procedures were applied to identify causative toxicants in industrial effluents. Effluents from a metal plating factory and a rubber products factory were acutely toxic toward Daphnia magna and the toxicity varied over different sampling events (2.9-5.9 and 1.7-7.6 TU, respectively). For the rubber products effluent, it was confirmed that zinc (5.65-13.18 mg L(-1)) was found to be a major cause of toxicity, which is likely originated from zinc 2-mercaptobenzothiazole and zinc diethyldithiocarbamate used as vulcanization accelerators. For the metal plating effluent, it appeared that the presence of high concentrations of Cl(-) and SO(4)(2-) (8,539-11,400 and 3,588-4,850 mg L(-1), respectively) caused the observed toxicity. These toxicants likely originated from sodium bisulfate (NaHSO(3)) and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) used as reducing and oxidizing agents. Though copper was found to be present in levels much higher than the EC(50) (50% effective concentration) value, this was not attributable to the toxicity of metal plating effluent likely due to complexation with dissolved organic matter. PMID:21761172

  18. Investigating the differences between receptor and dispersion modeling for concentration prediction and health risk assessment of volatile organic compounds from petrochemical industrial complexes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Hsiang; Chen, Zheng-Bin; Yuan, Chung-Shin; Hung, Chung-Hsuang; Ning, Shu-Kuang

    2016-01-15

    Receptor and dispersion models both provide important information to help understand the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and develop effective management strategies. In this study, differences between the predicted concentrations of two models and the associated impacts on the estimated health risks due to different theories behind two models were investigated. Two petrochemical industrial complexes in Kaohsiung city of southern Taiwan were selected as the sites for this comparison. Although the study compares the approaches by applying the methods to this specific area, the results are expected to be adopted for other areas or industries. Ninety-nine VOC concentrations at eight monitoring sites were analyzed, with the effects of diurnal temperature and seasonal humidity variations being considered. The Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) receptor model was used for source apportionment, while the Industrial Source Complex (ISC) dispersion model was used to predict the VOC concentrations at receptor sites. In the results of receptor modeling, 54% ± 11% and 49% ± 20% of the monitored concentrations were contributed by process emissions in two complexes, whereas the numbers increased to 78% ± 41% and 64% ± 44% in the results of dispersion modeling. Significant differences were observed between two model predictions (p < 0.05). The receptor model was more reproducible given the smaller variances of its results. The effect of seasonal humidity variation on two model predictions was not negligible. Similar findings were observed given that the cancer and non-cancer risks estimated by the receptor model were lower but more reproducible. The adverse health risks estimated by the dispersion model exceeded and were 75.3%-132.4% of the values estimated by using the monitored data, whereas the percentages were lowered to the range from 27.4% to 53.8% when the prediction was performed by using the receptor model. As the results of different models could be significantly different and affect the final health risk assessment, it is important to carefully choose an appropriate model for prediction and to evaluate by monitoring to avoid providing false information for appropriate management. PMID:26555100

  19. Application of lipase from Burkholderia cepacia in the degradation of agro-industrial effluent.

    PubMed

    Mello Bueno, Pabline Rafaella; de Oliveira, Tatianne Ferreira; Castiglioni, Gabriel Luis; Soares Júnior, Manoel Soares; Ulhoa, Cirano Jose

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the physical and chemical characteristics of Amano PS commercial lipase - Burkholderia cepacia and lipase produced by Burkholderia cepacia strain ATCC 25416, in addition to studying the hydrolysis of agro-industrial effluent collected in a fried potato industry. The optimum temperature for increasing lipase activity was 37 °C. The temperature increase caused a decrease in thermostability of lipase, and the commercial lipase was less stable, with values of 10.5, 4.6 and 4.9%, respectively, lower than those obtained by lipase from strain ATCC 25416, at temperatures of 40, 50 and 60 °C. The enzymatic activity was higher in alkaline conditions, achieving better results at pH 8.0. The pH was the variable that most influenced the hydrolysis of triacylglycerides of the agro-industrial effluent, followed by enzyme concentration, and volume of gum arabic used in the reaction medium. Thus, it can be observed that the enzymatic hydrolytic process of the studied effluent presents a premising contribution to reduction of environmental impacts of potato chip processing industries. PMID:25860696

  20. Impact of industrial effluent on growth and yield of rice (Oryza sativa L.) in silty clay loam soil.

    PubMed

    Anwar Hossain, Mohammad; Rahman, Golum Kibria Muhammad Mustafizur; Rahman, Mohammad Mizanur; Molla, Abul Hossain; Mostafizur Rahman, Mohammad; Khabir Uddin, Mohammad

    2015-04-01

    Degradation of soil and water from discharge of untreated industrial effluent is alarming in Bangladesh. Therefore, buildup of heavy metals in soil from contaminated effluent, their entry into the food chain and effects on rice yield were quantified in a pot experiment. The treatments were comprised of 0, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% industrial effluents applied as irrigation water. Effluents, initial soil, different parts of rice plants and post-harvest pot soil were analyzed for various elements, including heavy metals. Application of elevated levels of effluent contributed to increased heavy metals in pot soils and rice roots due to translocation effects, which were transferred to rice straw and grain. The results indicated that heavy metal toxicity may develop in soil because of contaminated effluent application. Heavy metals are not biodegradable, rather they accumulate in soils, and transfer of these metals from effluent to soil and plant cells was found to reduce the growth and development of rice plants and thereby contributed to lower yield. Moreover, a higher concentration of effluent caused heavy metal toxicity as well as reduction of growth and yield of rice, and in the long run a more aggravated situation may threaten human lives, which emphasizes the obligatory adoption of effluent treatment before its release to the environment, and regular monitoring by government agencies needs to be ensured. PMID:25872732

  1. Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Excluding dyes. July 1983-September 1989 (Citations from World Textile Abstracts). Report for July 1983-September 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents. Effluents that contain dyes are discussed in a separate bibliography. Recovery of lubricants, lye, sizing agents, polyvinyl alcohol, zinc, dirt, and heat from textile effluents are discussed. Air and water pollution control technology that is effective in treating textile effluents is discussed. Effluents from synthetic fiber manufacture and wool scouring processes are emphasized. (This updated bibliography contains 322 citations, 22 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  2. USE OF TOXICITY IDENTIFICATION EVALUATION METHODS TO CHARACTERIZE IDENTIFY, AND CONFIRM HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM TOXICITY IN AN INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) was conducted on effluent from a major industrial discharger. Initial monitoring showed slight chronic toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia; later sample showed substantial toxicity to C. dubia. Chemical analysis detected hexavalent chromium ...

  3. Use of plant genotoxicity bioassay for the evaluation of efficiency of algal biofilters in bioremediation of toxic industrial effluent.

    PubMed

    Abdel Migid, Hala M; Azab, Yehia A; Ibrahim, Waeel M

    2007-01-01

    The toxicity and efficacy of an algal-based bioremediation technology were assessed through bioassays for ecological risk of contaminated industrial effluents. The algal bioremoval of heavy metals was evaluated using an in vitro approach. Phytogenotoxicity tests were conducted with Allium cepa and Vicia faba plants to evaluate the genotoxicity of the industrial effluents before and after treatment with different kinds of algal biofilters (BF). Root cells were exposed for 24 h to different dilutions of both raw and treated effluent of a chemical fertilizer factory. Three cytogenetic endpoints were used to assess the mutagenic potencies of the industrial effluent: mitotic inhibition, mitotic chromosome aberrations, and nuclear irregularities in interphase cells. Before algal treatment, the industrial effluent caused strong genotoxic effects represented by severe inhibition in mitotic activity of meristematic cells and high frequency of both chromosome and nucleus abnormalities. After algal treatment, the cytotoxic effects of 30% and 60% concentrations of the treated effluent were comparable to those of 5% and 10% concentrations before treatment, respectively, and the frequency of both chromosome and nuclear abnormalities declined by approximately 50%. Statistical analysis of the data indicates a significant reduction in genotoxicity associated with a remarkable reduction in heavy metal concentrations after bioremediation by algal BF. The Allium and Vicia genotoxicity approach was effective in monitoring bioremediated effluent for toxicity. PMID:16376989

  4. Use of recycling through medium size granular filters to treat small food processing industry effluents.

    PubMed

    Ménoret, C; Boutin, C; Liénard, A; Brissaud, F

    2002-01-01

    Currently there are no suitable wastewater treatment systems for effluents from small food processing industries (dairy, cheese, wine production). Such raw sewages are characterized by high organic matter concentrations (about 10 g COD L-1) and relatively low daily volumes (about 2 m3). An adaptation of attached-growth cultures on fine media processes, known to be easy and inexpensive to use, could fit both the technical and economical context of those industries. Coarser filter particle size distributions than those normally used allow a better aeration and reduce clogging risk. The transit time of the effluent through the porous filter materials is shortened and requires recycling to increase the contact time between the biomass and the substrate. A pilot plant was built to compare the efficiency of two kinds of filter materials, gravel (2-5 mm) and pozzolana (3-7 mm). Two measurement campaigns were undertaken on a full-scale unit dealing with cheese dairy effluents. Both pilot-scale and full-scale plants show high COD removal rates (> 95%). Pilot-scale experiments show that accumulation of organic matter leads to the clogging of the recycling filter. To prevent early clogging, a better definition of feeding cycles is needed. PMID:12201106

  5. Petroleum industry effluents and other oxygen-demanding wastes in Niger Delta, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Osuji, Leo C; Uwakwe, Augustine A

    2006-07-01

    In this article, we review the fundamental phenomenon of oxygenation within the overriding context of petroleum-industry effluents and the other oxygen demanding wastes in Niger Delta, Nigeria. Drill cuttings, drilling mud (fluids used to stimulate the production processes), and accidental discharges of crude petroleum constitute serious land and water pollution in the oil-bearing province. Effluents from other industrial establishments such as distilleries, pulp and paper mills, fertilizer plants, and breweries, as well as thermal effluents, plant nutrients (such as nitrates and phosphates), and eroded sediments have also contributed to the pollution of their surrounding environment. Since these wastes are oxygen-demanding in nature, their impact on the recipient environment can be reversed by the direct application of simple chemistry. The wastes can be reduced, particularly in natural bodies of water, by direct oxidation-reduction processes or simple chemical combinations, acid-base reactions, and solubility equilibria; these are pH- and temperature-dependent. A shift in pH and alkalinity affects the solubility equilibria of Na+, Cl-, SO(2-), NO3(-), HCO3(-), and PO4(3-), and other ions and compounds. PMID:17193303

  6. Synergetic effect of metals of electroplating industry effluent on physiology of the fish, Oreochromis mossambicus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navaraj, P. S.

    2003-05-01

    The electroplating industry effluent is discharged indiscriminately in to the environment with out proper treatment. This poses havoc to the water body, which could be seen in the physiology and biochemistry of the chosen fish, Oreochromis mossambicus. The metals strongly present in the electroplating effluent is chromium and nickel which is being tested individually and collectively to assess its toxic nature. The intensity of the toxicity of synergetic action of these metals is much stronger than individuai effect. The result is being noticed in feeding budget and respiratory physiology of the fish, Oreochromis mossambicus. Ail parameters of the feeding budget show a significant result in the synergetic effect of these metals. Subsequently the respiratory rate and oxygen consumption of the fish in the stress medium is highly affected by this combination. A serious threat is observed in the environment by these metals and a proper treatment is suggested before releasing into the environment.

  7. Economic analysis of effluent limitation guidelines and standards for the centralized waste treatment industry

    SciTech Connect

    Wheeler, W.

    1998-12-01

    This report estimates the economic and financial effects and the benefits of compliance with the proposed effluent limitations guidelines and standards for the Centralized Waste Treatment (CWT) industry. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has measured these impacts in terms of changes in the profitability of waste treatment operations at CWT facilities, changes in market prices to CWT services, and changes in the quantities of waste management at CWT facilities in six geographic regions. EPA has also examined the impacts on companies owning CWT facilities (including impacts on small entities), on communities in which CWT facilities are located, and on environmental justice. EPA examined the benefits to society of the CWT effluent limitations guidelines and standards by examining cancer and non-cancer health effects of the regulation, recreational benefits, and cost savings to publicly owned treatment works (POTWs) to which indirect-discharging CWT facilities send their wastewater.

  8. Impact of marble industry effluents on water and sediment quality of Barandu River in Buner District, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Mulk, Shahi; Azizullah, Azizullah; Korai, Abdul Latif; Khattak, Muhammad Nasir Khan

    2015-02-01

    Industries play an important role in improving the living standard but at the same time cause several environmental problems. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the impact of industries on the quality of environment. In the present study, the impact of marble industry effluents on water and sediment quality of Barandu River in Buner District, Pakistan was evaluated. Water and sediment samples were collected at three different sampling sites (upstream, industrial, and downstream sites) from Barandu River and their physicochemical properties were inter-compared. In addition, different marble stones and mix water (wastewater) from marble industry were analyzed. The measured physicochemical parameters of river water including pH, electrical conductivity (EC), alkalinity, total hardness, Ca and Mg hardness, total dissolved solid (TDS), total suspended solids (TSS), sulfates (SO4 (2-)), sodium (Na(+)), potassium (K(+)), nitrites (NO2 (-)), nitrate (NO3 (-)), chloride (Cl(-)), calcium (Ca(2+)), and magnesium (Mg(2+)) were found to be significantly altered by effluent discharges of marble industries. Similarly, heavy metal concentrations in both water and sediments of the river were significantly increased by marble industry wastewater. It is concluded that large quantities of different pollutants are added to Barandu River due to direct disposal of marble industry effluents which degrades its quality. Therefore, it is recommended that direct disposal of marble industry wastewater should be banned and all effluents must be properly treated before discharging in the river water. PMID:25616784

  9. Transfer of hexabromocyclododecane from industrial effluents to sediments and biota: Case study in Cinca river (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra, Paula; Cal, Agustina De La; Marsh, Göran; Eljarrat, Ethel; Barceló, Damià

    2009-05-01

    SummaryThis work is part of the research included in the European project AQUATERRA, focused on the study of different persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in different risk zones along the Ebro River basin. Within monitoring programmes, a high contaminated area was detected, located along the Cinca River, a tributary of Ebro River, downstream a heavily industrialized town (Monzón). Data showed a high hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) contamination in this area. Our work included the analysis of sediments and biota, with special attention on aspects such as temporal trends, bioavailability and bioaccumulation of these contaminants. Moreover, an attempt of identification of source contamination was carried out, with the analysis of industrial effluents. The industry responsible of the contamination was identified.

  10. 88. ARAIII. "Petrochem" heater is hoisted over south exterior wall ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    88. ARA-III. "Petro-chem" heater is hoisted over south exterior wall of heater pit in GCRE reactor building (ARA-608). Printing on heater says, "Petro-chem iso-flow furnace; American industrial fabrications, inc." Camera facing north. January 7, 1959. Ineel photo no. 529-124. Photographer: Ken Mansfield. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  11. Industrial effluent induced chromosomal aberration in catfish from Ogun River, Lagos, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Iji, O T; Adeogun, A O

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of effluents at inducing chromosomal aberrations, using this as a biomarker tool in wild Clarias pachynema for assessing and monitoring pollution of the aquatic environment. A total of 60 live fish (30 each downstream and upstream) were obtained and subjected to chromosomal analysis. Chromosomal aberration in the fish samples from the downstream sector was recorded at a rate of 30%, while there were no aberrations in the samples collected upstream the effluent discharge point. Water sample analysis revealed a high concentration of Ammonia and Nitrates above permissible standards of Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA) guidelines. Heavy metal analysis also revealed the presence of Cr (0.05), Cu (0.01), Pb (0.05), Zn (5.0) and Fe (0.3) above permissible standards from the downstream section of the river. This study shows clearly that the ever increasing discharge of effluents from the industry could increase chromosomal damage in the aquatic components. PMID:26031000

  12. Advanced oxidation processes for treatment of effluents from a detergent industry.

    PubMed

    Martins, Rui C; Silva, Adrián M T; Castro-Silva, Sérgio; Garção-Nunes, Paulo; Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa M

    2011-07-01

    Ozonation, catalytic ozonation, Fenton's and heterogeneous Fenton-like processes were investigated as possible pretreatments of a low biodegradable and highly toxic wastewater produced by a detergent industry. The presence of a Mn-Ce-O catalyst in ozonation enhances the biodegradability and improves the degradation at low pH values. However, a high content of carbonyl compounds adsorbed on the recovered solid indicates some limitations for real-scale application. A commercial Fe2O3-MnOx catalyst shows higher activity as well as higher stability concerning carbon adsorption, but the leaching of metals is larger than for Mn-Ce-O. Regarding the heterogeneous Fenton-like route with an Fe-Ce-O catalyst, even though a high activity and stability are attained, the intermediates are less biodegradable than the original compounds, indicating that the resulting effluent cannot be conducted to an activated sludge post-treatment. The highest enhancement of effluent biodegradability is obtained with the classic homogeneous Fenton's process, with the BOD5/COD ratio increasing from 0.32 to 0.80. This process was scaled up and the treated effluent is now safely directed to a municipal wastewater treatment plant. PMID:21882556

  13. Nutrient Loadings to Streams of the Continental United States from Municipal and Industrial Effluent1

    PubMed Central

    Maupin, Molly A; Ivahnenko, Tamara

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Data from the United States Environmental Protection Agency Permit Compliance System national database were used to calculate annual total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) loads to surface waters from municipal and industrial facilities in six major regions of the United States for 1992, 1997, and 2002. Concentration and effluent flow data were examined for approximately 118,250 facilities in 45 states and the District of Columbia. Inconsistent and incomplete discharge locations, effluent flows, and effluent nutrient concentrations limited the use of these data for calculating nutrient loads. More concentrations were reported for major facilities, those discharging more than 1 million gallons per day, than for minor facilities, and more concentrations were reported for TP than for TN. Analytical methods to check and improve the quality of the Permit Compliance System data were used. Annual loads were calculated using “typical pollutant concentrations” to supplement missing concentrations based on the type and size of facilities. Annual nutrient loads for over 26,600 facilities were calculated for at least one of the three years. Sewage systems represented 74% of all TN loads and 58% of all TP loads. This work represents an initial set of data to develop a comprehensive and consistent national database of point-source nutrient loads. These loads can be used to inform a wide range of water-quality management, watershed modeling, and research efforts at multiple scales. PMID:22457577

  14. Electrolytic recovery of dilute copper from a mixed industrial effluent of high strength COD.

    PubMed

    Chellammal, S; Raghu, S; Kalaiselvi, P; Subramanian, G

    2010-08-15

    In this study, the electrochemical treatment has been investigated in the real acidic effluent of copper-phthalocyanine dye manufacturing plant. Galvanostatic batch electrolyses have been carried out in an undivided cell using stainless steel as cathode, dimensionally stable anode (DSA) and graphite as anodes at different current densities and temperatures. The influence of these variables on current efficiency, cell voltage, energy consumption and deposit quality was reported. Under optimized conditions, the maximum copper recovery of 98% and COD removal efficiency of 87.3% with the energy consumption of about 11.23 kWh/kg of Cu and 6.08 kWh/kg of COD, respectively at 30 degrees C were achieved in the acidic raw effluent using 2D parallel-plate cathode. While in 3D stainless steel turning cathode reactor, 99.5% of copper can efficiently be recovered from dilute solution with an acceptable current efficiency of about 56.8% with minimum energy consumption of 2.37 kWh/kg of Cu. The experimental results suggested that the efficiency of copper removal is hindered by the presence of organic species in the mixed industrial effluent. PMID:20434836

  15. Effect of Industrial Effluents of Zob-Ahan on Soil, Water and Vegetable Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmani, Hamid Reza; Rezaei, Mosleheddin

    Monitoring harmful chemicals especially heavy metals in industrial effluent for prevention and degradation of natural resources are required. The Effluent Water (EW) of Zob-Ahan (steel industrial complex), were seasonally collected, three times during 48 h period. The soils, well-water and vegetable plant samples were collected in land irrigated with EW and soil in adjacent virgin lands. The EW EC, TDS, BOD, COD, sulfate, chloride, bicarbonate and N-NO3 and of Cd, Co and Cr were above permissible limit, wells-water for in the down side of evaporation ponds EC, TDS, N-NO3, sulfate, chloride, bicarbonate and concentration of Cu, Co, Fe and Cr were above permissible limit and the soils treated with EW Zn, Mn and Cd concentration were in critical range. Soils irrigated with EW had higher OC content and available concentration of Cd, Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn and Pb compared to control sample (adjacent virgin land). In vegetable plants, all measured heavy metals concentration (except Cu content in Taree Irani that was in critical rang) was in normal range. The heavy metals concentration in unwashed plant samples were higher than washed ones. The results showed that Zob-Ahan EW has limitation for application as irrigation water, discharge into surface and subsurface water. Therefore, the EW, should properly be treated before discharging into environment. The heavy metals in soil and well-water affected by EW and irrigated plants with EW should regularly and closely be monitored.

  16. Effluent treatment in the textile industry: excluding dyes. January 1983-January 1989 (Citations from World Textile Abstracts). Report for January 1983-January 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-02-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile-industry effluents. Effluents that contain dyes are discussed in a separate bibliography. Recovery of lubricants, lye, sizing agents, polyvinyl alcohol, zinc, dirt, and heat from textile effluents are discussed. Air and water pollution control technology that is effective in treating textile effluents is discussed. Effluents from synthetic-fiber manufacture and wool-scouring processes are emphasized. (This updated bibliography contains 300 citations, 84 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  17. Zero Discharge Performance of an Industrial Pilot-Scale Plant Treating Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, Qaisar; Qiu, Jiang-Ping; Li, Yin-Sheng; Chang, Yoon-Seong; Chi, Li-Na; Li, Xu-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Palm oil is one of the most important agroindustries in Malaysia. Huge quantities of palm oil mill effluent (POME) pose a great threat to aqueous environment due to its very high COD. To make full use of discharged wastes, the integrated “zero discharge” pilot-scale industrial plant comprising “pretreatment-anaerobic and aerobic process-membrane separation” was continuously operated for 1 year. After pretreatment in the oil separator tank, 55.6% of waste oil in raw POME could be recovered and sold and anaerobically digested through 2 AnaEG reactors followed by a dissolved air flotation (DAF); average COD reduced to about 3587?mg/L, and biogas production was 27.65 times POME injection which was used to generate electricity. The aerobic effluent was settled for 3?h or/and treated in MBR which could remove BOD3 (30°C) to less than 20?mg/L as required by Department of Environment of Malaysia. After filtration by UF and RO membrane, all organic compounds and most of the salts were removed; RO permeate could be reused as the boiler feed water. RO concentrate combined with anaerobic surplus sludge could be used as biofertilizer. PMID:25685798

  18. Identification of a new N-nitrosodimethylamine precursor in sewage containing industrial effluents.

    PubMed

    Kosaka, Koji; Asami, Mari; Ohkubo, Keiko; Iwamoto, Takuji; Tanaka, Yasuo; Koshino, Hiroyuki; Echigo, Shinya; Akiba, Michihiro

    2014-10-01

    N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), a potential human carcinogen, is known to be a disinfection byproduct of chloramination and ozonation. NDMA is formed during ozonation at water purification plants in the Yodo River basin, a major drinking water source in western Japan. An NDMA precursor, 1,1,5,5-tetramethylcarbohydrazide (TMCH) was identified in sewage containing industrial effluents via ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry, as well as nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The mean of the NDMA molar formation yield of TMCH upon ozonation in four water matrices was 140%. TMCH removal was low during biological treatment processes at a sewage treatment plant. The mean TMCH contribution to total NDMA precursors upon ozonation of the primary, secondary, and final effluents of the sewage treatment plant in January and February of 2014 was 43-72%, 51-72%, and 42-60%, respectively, while the contributions of 4,4'-hexamethylenebis(1,1-dimethylsemicarbazide) and 1,1,1',1'-tetramethyl-4,4'-(methylene-di-p-phenylene)disemicarbazide, two other known NDMA precursors, were limited to 0.6% and 6.9%, respectively. Thus, TMCH was identified as the primary precursor yielding NDMA upon ozonation in the Yodo River basin. PMID:25184404

  19. Ultrafiltration/nanofiltration for the tertiary treatment of leather industry effluents.

    PubMed

    Streit, Katia F; Ferreira, Jane Zoppas; Bernardes, Andréa M; Norberta De Pinho, Maria

    2009-12-15

    Biologically treated effluents from the leather industry pose severe problems for the environment due in part to both the inorganic charge and the high nitrogen content associated with the organic charge. Pressure-driven membrane processes, namely ultrafiltration/nanofiltration (UF/NF) technology, were investigated for their selective retention of the organics and permeation of the inorganic fraction. Permeation experiments were carried out with two model solutions representative of a treated tannery effluent. UF and NF of these model solutions were assessed in terms of both their inorganic/organic fractionation capability and their permeation productivity. The UF membranes with MWCOs ranging from 10,000 to 1000 Da yield retentate streams enriched in organic compounds and permeate streams enriched in salts. Despite their high capacity for pure water permeation, they displayed low permeation fluxes, as the result of concentration polarization and fouling phenomena. NF 200 and NF 270 membranes associated fractionation capability with high permeation rates. Furthermore, these membranes demonstrated the highest permeate fluxes -30 kg/h/m(2) and 16 kg/h/m(2) for different model solutions, at the transmembrane pressure of 8 bar. Although these membranes had lower hydraulic permeabilities relative to the other membranes tested, they exhibited the best characteristics in terms of minimization of colloidal fouling. PMID:20000502

  20. Zero discharge performance of an industrial pilot-scale plant treating palm oil mill effluent.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin; Mahmood, Qaisar; Qiu, Jiang-Ping; Li, Yin-Sheng; Chang, Yoon-Seong; Chi, Li-Na; Li, Xu-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Palm oil is one of the most important agroindustries in Malaysia. Huge quantities of palm oil mill effluent (POME) pose a great threat to aqueous environment due to its very high COD. To make full use of discharged wastes, the integrated "zero discharge" pilot-scale industrial plant comprising "pretreatment-anaerobic and aerobic process-membrane separation" was continuously operated for 1 year. After pretreatment in the oil separator tank, 55.6% of waste oil in raw POME could be recovered and sold and anaerobically digested through 2 AnaEG reactors followed by a dissolved air flotation (DAF); average COD reduced to about 3587?mg/L, and biogas production was 27.65 times POME injection which was used to generate electricity. The aerobic effluent was settled for 3 h or/and treated in MBR which could remove BOD3 (30°C) to less than 20 mg/L as required by Department of Environment of Malaysia. After filtration by UF and RO membrane, all organic compounds and most of the salts were removed; RO permeate could be reused as the boiler feed water. RO concentrate combined with anaerobic surplus sludge could be used as biofertilizer. PMID:25685798

  1. Biodegradation of phenanthrene using adapted microbial consortium isolated from petrochemical contaminated environment.

    PubMed

    Janbandhu, Anjali; Fulekar, M H

    2011-03-15

    In developing countries like India, there are many industrial areas discharging effluent containing large amount of polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) which causes hazardous effect on the soil-water environment. The objective of this study was to isolate and characterize high-efficiency PAH-degrading microbial consortium from 3 decade old petrochemical refinery field located in Nagpur, Maharashtra with history of PAH disposal. Based on biochemical tests and 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis the consortium was identified as Sphingobacterium sp., Bacillus cereus and a novel bacterium Achromobacter insolitus MHF ENV IV with effective phenanthrene-degrading ability. The biodegradation data of phenanthrene indicates about 100%, 56.9% and 25.8% degradation at the concentration of 100mg/l, 250 mg/l and 500 mg/l respectively within 14 days. The consortium and its monoculture isolates also utilized variety of other hydrocarbons for growth. To best of our knowledge this is the first time that Achromobacter insolitus has been reported to mineralize phenanthrene effectively. GC-MS analysis of phenanthrene degradation confirmed biodegradation by detection of intermediates like salicylaldehyde, salicylic acid and catechol. All the results indicated that the microbial consortium have a promising application in bioremediation of petrochemical contaminated environments and could be potentially useful for the study of PAH degradation and for bioremediation purposes. PMID:21281999

  2. Bioprospection and selection of bacteria isolated from environments contaminated with petrochemical residues for application in bioremediation.

    PubMed

    Cerqueira, Vanessa S; Hollenbach, Emanuel B; Maboni, Franciele; Camargo, Flávio A O; Peralba, Maria do Carmo R; Bento, Fátima M

    2012-03-01

    The use of microorganisms with hydrocarbon degrading capability and biosurfactant producers have emerged as an alternative for sustainable treatment of environmental passives. In this study 45 bacteria were isolated from samples contaminated with petrochemical residues, from which 21 were obtained from Landfarming soil contaminated with oily sludge, 11 were obtained from petrochemical industry effluents and 13 were originated directly from oily sludge. The metabolization capability of different carbon sources, growth capacity and tolerance, biosurfactant production and enzymes detection were determined. A preliminary selection carried out through the analysis of capability for degrading hydrocarbons showed that 22% of the isolates were able to degrade all carbon sources employed. On the other hand, in 36% of the isolates, the degradation of the oily sludge started within 18-48 h. Those isolates were considered as the most efficient ones. Twenty isolates, identified based on partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, were pre-selected. These isolates showed ability for growing in a medium containing 1% of oily sludge as the sole carbon source, tolerance in a medium containing up to 30% of oily sludge, ability for biosurfactant production, and expression of enzymes involved in degradation of aliphatic and aromatic compounds. Five bacteria, identified as Stenotrophomonas acidaminiphila BB5, Bacillus megaterium BB6, Bacillus cibi, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Bacillus cereus BS20 were shown to be promising for use as inoculum in bioremediation processes (bioaugmentation) of areas contaminated with petrochemical residues since they can use oily sludge as the sole carbon source and produce biosurfactants. PMID:22805841

  3. Elimination of As, Hg and Zn from synthetic solutions and industrial effluents using modified bark

    SciTech Connect

    Gaballah, I.; Kilbertus, G.

    1995-08-01

    Elimination of arsenic, mercury and zinc from synthetic solutions containing H{sub 3}AsO{sub 4}, HgCl{sub 2} and ZnCl{sub 2} using modified barks was investigated. The pH range was varied from 1 to 10. The initial concentrations of individual element were 10, 100 and 1,000 ppm. More than 99% of mercury and 65% of zinc cations were removed by the modified bark. In this case, the modified bark reacts as a cation exchanger leading to the release of two protons for every Hg{sup II} or Zn{sup II} fixed by this material. About 30% of arsenic was eliminated from the solution. This low efficiency could be attributed to the presence of arsenic as anion. Decontamination of a treated industrial effluent containing 4 ppm of ion metals was performed on a pilot scale by the modified bark. More than 70% of these ion metals were eliminated.

  4. Evaluation of aquatic toxicities of chromium and chromium-containing effluents in reference to chromium electroplating industries.

    PubMed

    Baral, A; Engelken, R; Stephens, W; Farris, J; Hannigan, R

    2006-05-01

    This study evaluated aquatic toxicities of chromium and chromium-containing laboratory samples representative of effluents from chromium electroplating industries, and compared the aquatic environmental risks of hexavalent and trivalent chromium electroplating operations. Trivalent chromium electroplating has emerged as an acceptable alternative to hazardous hexavalent chromium electroplating. This process substitution has reduced the human health impact in the workplace and minimized the production of hazardous sludge regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The thrust behind this research was to investigate whether trivalent chromium electroplating operations have lower adverse impacts on standardized toxicity test organisms. Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas were used to investigate toxicities of trivalent chromium (Cr (III)), hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI)), and industrial effluents. In agreement with previous studies, Cr (III) was found to be less toxic than Cr (VI). Despite having several organic and inorganic constituents in the effluents obtained from trivalent chromium plating baths, they exhibited less adverse effects to C. dubia than effluents obtained from hexavalent chromium electroplating baths. Thus, transition from hexavalent to trivalent chromium electroplating processes may be justified. However, because of the presence of organic constituents such as formate, oxalate, and triethylene glycol in effluents, trivalent chromium electroplating operations may face additional regulatory requirements for removal of total organic carbon. PMID:16418891

  5. Fouling of reverse osmosis and nanofiltration membranes by dairy industry effluents.

    PubMed

    Turan, M; Ates, A; Inanc, B

    2002-01-01

    Fouling experiments of nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) are reported for treatment of the effluent of chemical-biological treatment plant and the original effluent of dairy industry respectively. In the experiments, a thin film composite type of spiral wound was used and fitted with flowmeters and pressure sensors. The feed water was stored into a feed tank and passed a fine filter and was pumped to membrane. Brine and permeate were recirculated back to the feed tank. Membrane fouling was investigated with 16 and 30% water recovery of a single membrane at different pressures and flowrates for RO and NF membranes respectively. Fouling is evaluated with a relationship between relative flux (J/Jo) which is the ratio of the flux at any time during the fouling test to the initial flux and relative resistance (Rf/Rm) which is the ratio of fouling (cake) layer resistance to clean membrane resistance. Turbidity, conductivity, chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS) and total hardness were measured in the feed and permeate side of each membrane. The effluent total hardness concentrations of chemical-biological treatment plant were found greater than the influents. The results are presented in terms of the relative flux as a function of time related to hydrodynamic conditions and pollution characteristics of wastewater. The permeate water flux of RO membrane decreases more rapidly than NF membrane, the relative flux decreases with increasing the fouling layer resistance, Rf onto membrane surface. 50% the drop of permeate flux was observed for RO and NF membranes after 50 h and 80 h of operation, respectively. The fouling rate increases with an increase in the concentration of the wastewater constituents in the dairy industry. The relative flux decreased 10 and 20% with increasing chemical oxygen demand (COD) from 5,000 mgl-1 to 10,000 mgl-1 and from 45 mgl-1 to 450 mgl-1 for RO and NF membranes, respectively after 45 h of time. Fouling of membranes resulted in 100% increase of specific energy consumption as the relative permeate fluxes of NF and RO membranes decreased 30 and 40% respectively. The average of specific energy consumption was obtained at 6 and 10 kWhm-3; consequently, operational costs were estimated at U.S. $0.45 m-3 and U.S. $0.75 m-3 for NF and RO units respectively. Also, operational cost for chemical-biological treatment was found at U.S. $0.30 m-3. PMID:12201123

  6. Sequential in situ hydrotalcite precipitation and biological denitrification for the treatment of high-nitrate industrial effluent.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ka Yu; Kaksonen, Anna H; Douglas, Grant B

    2014-11-01

    A sequential process using hydrotalcite precipitation and biological denitrification was evaluated for the treatment of a magnesium nitrate (Mg(NO3)2)-rich effluent (17,000mgNO3(-)-N/L, 13,100mgMg/L) generated from an industrial nickel-mining process. The hydrotalcite precipitation removed 41% of the nitrate (7000mgNO3(-)-N/L) as an interlayer anion with an approximate formula of Mg5Al2(OH)14(NO3)2·6H2O. The resultant solute chemistry was a Na-NO3-Cl type with low trace element concentrations. The partially treated effluent was continuously fed (hydraulic retention time of 24h) into a biological fluidised bed reactor (FBR) with sodium acetate as a carbon source for 33days (1:1 v/v dilution). The FBR enabled >70% nitrate removal and a maximal NOx (nitrate+nitrite) removal rate of 97mg NOx-N/Lh under alkaline conditions (pH 9.3). Overall, this sequential process reduced the nitrate concentration of the industrial effluent by >90% and thus represents an efficient method to treat Mg(NO3)2-rich effluents on an industrial scale. PMID:25280045

  7. Transcriptional response of stress-regulated genes to industrial effluent exposure in the cockle Cerastoderma glaucum.

    PubMed

    Karray, Sahar; Tastard, Emmanuelle; Moreau, Brigitte; Delahaut, Laurence; Geffard, Alain; Guillon, Emmanuel; Denis, Françoise; Hamza-Chaffai, Amel; Chénais, Benoît; Marchand, Justine

    2015-11-01

    This study assessed the responses of molecular biomarkers and heavy metal levels in Cerastoderma glaucum exposed for 1 week to two industrial effluents (1 %) discharged into the Tunisian coastal area, F1 and F2, produced by different units of production of a phosphate treatment plant. A significant uptake of metals (Cd, Cu, Zn, and Ni) was observed in exposed cockles compared to controls, with an uptake higher for F1 than for F2. A decrease in LT50 (stress on stress test) was also observed after an exposure to the effluent F1. Treatments resulted in different patterns of messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of the different genes tested in this report. Gene transcription monitoring performed on seven genes potentially involved in the tolerance to metal exposure showed that for both exposures, mechanisms are rapidly and synchronically settled down to prevent damage to cellular components, by (1) handling and exporting out metal ions through the up-regulation of ATP-binding cassette xenobiotic transporter (ABCB1) and metallothionein (MT), (2) increasing the mRNA expression of antioxidant enzymes (catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutases, CuZnSOD and MnSOD), (3) protecting and/or repairing proteins through the expression of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) mRNAs, and (4) increasing ATP production (through the up-regulation of cytochrome c oxidase 1 (CO1)) to provide energy for cells to tolerate stress exposure. The tools developed may be useful both for future control strategies and for the use of the cockle C. glaucum as a sentinel species. PMID:25613800

  8. Usefulness of sediment toxicity tests with estuarine plants and animals to indicate municipal and industrial effluent impact

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, M.A.; Weber, D.E.

    1994-12-31

    The environmental impact of municipal and industrial effluents has been predicted from results from single species toxicity tests. The goal of these tests is to ensure that water quality criteria and the designated use of the waterbody is not impacted. Recently, the focus of some effluent toxicity evaluation has centered on determining the effluent impact on the sediment in the receiving water. This study evaluated the toxicities of several sediment samples collected above and below six outfalls to the Pensacola Bay system. Toxicities were determined using three macrophytic plants and four animal species. The sediments, with few exceptions, exhibited a low level of toxicity. The mysid shrimp was more sensitive than Ampelisca, Leptocheirus and the sheepshead minnow. The sensitivities of the plants, Echinochloa crusgalli, Scirpus robustus and Sesbania macrocarpa, were comparable to those of the animal species. The toxicity of time sediment, when compared to that of the effluent, determined using standard single species of plants and animals was less. Overall, the sediment toxicity tests were useful in providing insight on the impact of effluents. However, the application and usefulness of this assessment tool is highly dependent upon a variety of factors, including the geomorphological characteristics of the receiving waters.

  9. Nanocelluloses and their phosphorylated derivatives for selective adsorption of Ag(+), Cu(2+) and Fe(3+) from industrial effluents.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng; Borrell, Pere Ferrer; Boži?, Mojca; Kokol, Vanja; Oksman, Kristiina; Mathew, Aji P

    2015-08-30

    The potential of nanoscaled cellulose and enzymatically phosphorylated derivatives as bio-adsorbents to remove metal ions (Ag(+), Cu(2+) and Fe(3+)) from model water and industrial effluents is demonstrated. Introduction of phosphate groups onto nanocelluloses significantly improved the metal sorption velocity and sorption capacity. The removal efficiency was considered to be driven by the high surface area of these nanomaterials as well as the nature and density of functional groups on the nanocellulose surface. Generally, in the solutions containing only single types of metal ions, the metal ion selectivity was in the order Ag(+)>Cu(2+)>Fe(3+), while in the case of mixtures of ions, the order changed to Ag(+)>Fe(3+)>Cu(2+), irrespective of the surface functionality of the nanocellulose. In the case of industrial effluent from the mirror making industry, 99% removal of Cu(2+) and Fe(3+) by phosphorylated nanocellulose was observed. The study showed that phosphorylated nanocelluloses are highly efficient biomaterials for scavenging multiple metal ions, simultaneously, from industrial effluents. PMID:25867590

  10. Assessment of heavy metals in the industrial effluents, tube-wells and municipal supplied water of Dehradun, India.

    PubMed

    Kulshrestha, Shail; Awasthi, Alok; Dabral, S K

    2013-07-01

    The bio-geochemical cycles of metals involve the lands, rivers, oceans and the atmosphere. Although a large number of metals are introduced to the water bodies during their mining and extraction processes and geochemical weathering of rocks, but the role of domestic and industrial wastes is predominant and of much concern. Increased industrial activities has increased the incidence of percolation of toxic metal ions to the soil and water bodies and presently their presence in ecosystem, have reached to an alarming level that environmentalists are finding it difficult to enforce control measures. Human activities and large number of small and big industrial units are increasingly discharging deleterious metals present in the effluents and wastes, to the environment and aquatic systems and have contaminated heavily even the ground water. The toxic metals have a great tendency of bioaccumulation through which they enter the food chain system and ultimately affect adversely the life on this planet Earth in various ways. Further, due to contamination of irrigation system by the harmful Chemicals and toxic metals, the farm products, vegetables, fruits, potable water and even milk is not spared. This paper describes the assessment of the heavy metal concentration in various industrial effluents of the surrounding area. Various physico-chemical characteristics of the effluents collected from various sites are also reported. To assess the status of ground water quality, water samples from four tube wells of different localities of the area and four drinking water samples supplied by Municipal Distribution System were also analyzed. PMID:25509947

  11. Palm oil mill effluent treatment and utilization to ensure the sustainability of palm oil industries.

    PubMed

    Hasanudin, U; Sugiharto, R; Haryanto, A; Setiadi, T; Fujie, K

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the current condition of palm oil mill effluent (POME) treatment and utilization and to propose alternative scenarios to improve the sustainability of palm oil industries. The research was conducted through field survey at some palm oil mills in Indonesia, in which different waste management systems were used. Laboratory experiment was also carried out using a 5 m(3) pilot-scale wet anaerobic digester. Currently, POME is treated through anaerobic digestion without or with methane capture followed by utilization of treated POME as liquid fertilizer or further treatment (aerobic process) to fulfill the wastewater quality standard. A methane capturing system was estimated to successfully produce renewable energy of about 25.4-40.7 kWh/ton of fresh fruit bunches (FFBs) and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by about 109.41-175.35 kgCO2e/tonFFB (CO2e: carbon dioxide equivalent). Utilization of treated POME as liquid fertilizer increased FFB production by about 13%. A palm oil mill with 45 ton FFB/hour capacity has potential to generate about 0.95-1.52 MW of electricity. Coupling the POME-based biogas digester and anaerobic co-composting of empty fruit bunches (EFBs) is capable of adding another 0.93 MW. The utilization of POME and EFB not only increases the added value of POME and EFB by producing renewable energy, compost, and liquid fertilizer, but also lowers environmental burden. PMID:26398023

  12. Continuous metal removal from solution and industrial effluents using Spirogyra biomass-packed column reactor.

    PubMed

    Singh, Alpana; Kumar, Dhananjay; Gaur, J P

    2012-03-01

    The granules of Spirogyra neglecta biomass, diameter 0.2-0.5mm, were successfully prepared by boiling it in urea-formaldehyde mixture. Metal sorption performance of the column packed with Spirogyra granules was assessed under variable operating conditions, such as, different influent metal concentrations, bed heights and flow rates. These conditions greatly influenced the breakthrough time and volume, saturation time and volume, and the ability of the column to attain saturation after reaching the breakthrough. The experimental breakthrough curves obtained under varying experimental conditions were modeled using Bohart-Adams, Wolborska, Thomas, Yoon-Nelson and modified dose-response models. The first two models were valid only in representing the initial part of the breakthrough curves; however, the other three models were good in representing the entire breakthrough curve. The granule-packed column could be successfully used up to 6 and 9 cycles of sorption and desorption for the removal of Cu(II) and Pb(II), respectively. The column could efficiently remove different metals from real industrial effluents, and hence the test biomass (Spirogyra granules) is a good candidate for commercial application. PMID:22169159

  13. Removal of Cd(II) ions from aqueous solution and industrial effluent using reverse osmosis and nanofiltration membranes.

    PubMed

    Kheriji, Jamel; Tabassi, Dorra; Hamrouni, Béchir

    2015-01-01

    Industrial effluents loaded with cadmium have contributed to the pollution of the environment and health troubles for humans. Therefore, these effluents need treatment to reduce cadmium concentration before releasing them to public sewage. The purpose of the research is to study the major role of reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) processes, which can contribute to the removal of cadmium ions from model water and wastewater from the battery industry. For this reason, two RO and two nanofiltration membranes have been used. The effects of feed pressure, concentration, ionic strength, nature of anion associated with cadmium and pH on the retention of Cd(II) were studied with model solutions. Thereafter, NF and RO membranes were used to reduce cadmium ions and total salinity of battery industry effluent. Among these membranes, there are only three which eliminate more than 95% of cadmium. This was found to depend on operating conditions. It is worth noting that the Spiegler-Kedem model was applied to fit the experimental results. PMID:26398037

  14. Amphibian embryos as a biological test for environmental pollutants in leachates, industrial effluents, surface and ground water

    SciTech Connect

    Herkovits, J.; Perez-Coll, C.S.; Herkovits, F.D.; Tarlato, M.

    1995-12-31

    Test of early life stages are very sensitive to toxic effects and moreover a good predictive correlation between embryo-larval survival and independent ecological parameters such as species richness and diversity have been established. The main purpose of this preliminary study is to report that Bufo arenarum embryos are very sensitive to contaminants from a variety of sources such as leachates, industrial effluents, surface and ground water. The toxicity of 30 samples (five from each category plus controls of surface and ground water from reference places) was evaluated during a 14 day renewal toxicity test at 20 C, conducted with 10 embryos (by triplicate) from stage 23--25 onwards using six concentrations (V/V) of each sample of Holtfreter`s solution. For industrial effluents and leachates the results range from a concentration of 0.6% resulting in 24hs LC100 up to a sample which exert 20% of lethality after 14 days of treatment. The survival of controls and in samples from reference places was over 90% for 7 days and over 80% for 14 days. The results with Bufo arenarum embryos confirm that a 7 day Short-term Chronic Toxicity Test is appropriate for toxicity screening of industrial effluents (as it was established by EPA for whole effluent toxicity test for aquatic life protection performed with other species) as well as for leachates. On the other hand, for freshwater (surface and ground), it is convenient to extend the exposure period until 14 days in order to record situations of low, but significant levels of toxicity, which could be of particular value for surface as well as ground water quality criteria.

  15. 31 CFR 561.330 - Petrochemical products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Petrochemical products. 561.330 Section 561.330 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... Definitions § 561.330 Petrochemical products. The term petrochemical products includes any aromatic,...

  16. 31 CFR 561.330 - Petrochemical products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Petrochemical products. 561.330 Section 561.330 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... Definitions § 561.330 Petrochemical products. The term petrochemical products includes any aromatic,...

  17. Aplastic anemia in a petrochemical factory worker.

    PubMed Central

    Baak, Y M; Ahn, B Y; Chang, H S; Kim, J H; Kim, K A; Lim, Y

    1999-01-01

    A petrochemical worker with aplastic anemia was referred to our hospital. He worked in a petroleum resin-producing factory and had been exposed to low-level benzene while packaging the powder resin and pouring lime into a deactivation tank. According to the yearly environmental survey of the working area, the airborne benzene level was approximately 0.28 ppm. Exposure to benzene, a common chemical used widely in industry, may progressively lead to pancytopenia, aplastic anemia, and leukemia. The hematotoxicity of benzene is related to the amount and duration of exposure. Most risk predictions for benzene exposures have been based on rubber workers who were exposed to high concentrations. In the petroleum industry, the concentration of benzene is relatively low, and there are disputes over the toxicity of low-level benzene because of a lack of evidence. In this paper we report the case of aplastic anemia induced by low-level benzene exposure. Images Figure 1 PMID:10504154

  18. Evaluation of Changes in Effluent Quality from Industrial Complexes on the Korean Nationwide Scale Using a Self-Organizing Map

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Mi-Jung; Kim, Jun-Su; Park, Young-Seuk

    2012-01-01

    One of the major issues related to the environment in the 21st century is sustainable development. The innovative economic growth policy has supported relatively successful economic development, but poor environmental conservation efforts, have consequently resulted in serious water quality pollution issues. Hence, assessments of water quality and health are fundamental processes towards conserving and restoring aquatic ecosystems. In this study, we characterized spatial and temporal changes in water quality (specifically physico-chemical variables plus priority and non-priority pollutants) of discharges from industrial complexes on a national scale in Korea. The data were provided by the Water Quality Monitoring Program operated by the Ministry of Environment, Korea and were measured from 1989 to 2008 on a monthly basis at 61 effluent monitoring sites located at industrial complexes. Analysis of monthly and annual changes in water quality, using the seasonal Mann-Kendall test, indicated an improvement in water quality, which was inferred from a continuous increase in dissolved oxygen and decrease in other water quality factors. A Self-Organizing Map, which is an unsupervised artificial neural network, also indicated an improvement of effluent water quality, by showing spatial and temporal differences in the effluent water quality as well as in the occurrence of priority pollutants. Finally, our results suggested that continued long-term monitoring is necessary to establish plans and policies for wastewater management and health assessment. PMID:22690190

  19. The application of advanced oxidation technologies to the treatment of effluents from the pulp and paper industry: a review.

    PubMed

    Hermosilla, Daphne; Merayo, Noemí; Gascó, Antonio; Blanco, Ángeles

    2015-01-01

    The paper industry is adopting zero liquid effluent technologies to reduce freshwater use and meet environmental regulations, which implies closure of water circuits and the progressive accumulation of pollutants that must be removed before water reuse and final wastewater discharge. The traditional water treatment technologies that are used in paper mills (such as dissolved air flotation or biological treatment) are not able to remove recalcitrant contaminants. Therefore, advanced water treatment technologies, such as advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), are being included in industrial wastewater treatment chains aiming to either improve water biodegradability or its final quality. A comprehensive review of the current state of the art regarding the use of AOPs for the treatment of the organic load of effluents from the paper industry is herein addressed considering mature and emerging treatments for a sustainable water use in this sector. Wastewater composition, which is highly dependent on the raw materials being used in the mills, the selected AOP itself, and its combination with other technologies, will determine the viability of the treatment. In general, all AOPs have been reported to achieve good organic removal efficiencies (COD removal >40%, and about an extra 20% if AOPs are combined with biological stages). Particularly, ozonation has been the most extensively reported and successfully implemented AOP at an industrial scale for effluent treatment or reuse within pulp and paper mills, although Fenton processes (photo-Fenton particularly) have actually addressed better oxidative results (COD removal???65-75%) at a lab scale, but still need further development at a large scale. PMID:25185495

  20. Evaluation of opportunities for effluent trading in the steam-electric, petroleum-refining, and coal mining industries

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, M.J.

    1983-10-01

    This study examined the opportunities for energy industries (steam-electric, petroleum refining, and coal mining) to use various effluent trading options. The study was based on an examination of the options applicable to these industries and on an extensive inventory of energy facilities with water-quality-based conditions in their discharge permits. The results obtained tend to overstate any opportunities available. The most viable candidates for interplant trading are petroleum refineries with water-quality-based limits on BOD. Point/nonpoint source trading involving coal mines (or possibly other energy facilities) might be profitable at some future time if permit limits that require TDS removal are imposed on facilities in the arid west. No attractive opportunities for intraplant training are available. Other conclusions are as follows: There appear to be no widespread opportunities available for effluent trading involving multiple energy facilities. Localized opportunities may exist in Louisiana and Texas, where there are small groups of petroleum refineries with water-quality-based permit limits. For interplant trading to be feasible the participation of nonenergy facilities will be necessary. However, opportunities for trading with nonenergy facilities appear to be limited. Seasonal or variable permits appear to be a more attractive and more easily implementable means for cost-effective pollution control for energy industries than does effluent trading, since each facility can use such an approach independently of the presence of any other compatible trading partners. The viability of interplant trading is dependent on a concentration of compatible dischargers, with at least some having water-quality-based permit limits on the same, appropiate pollutants. The lack of such concentrations limits the utility of the concept for energy industries. 21 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  1. Application of industrial hygiene techniques for work-place exposure assessment protocols related to petro-chemical exploration and production field activities

    SciTech Connect

    Koehn, J.

    1995-12-31

    Standard industrial hygiene techniques for recognition, evaluation, and control can be directly applied to development of technical protocols for workplace exposure assessment activities for a variety of field site locations. Categories of occupational hazards include chemical and physical agents. Examples of these types of hazards directly related to oil and gas exploration and production workplaces include hydrocarbons, benzene, oil mist, hydrogen sulfide, Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM), asbestos-containing materials, and noise. Specific components of well process chemicals include potential hazardous chemical substances such as methanol, acrolein, chlorine dioxide, and hydrochloric acid. Other types of exposure hazards may result from non-routine conduct of sandblasting and painting operations.

  2. Application of novel consortium TSR for treatment of industrial dye manufacturing effluent with concurrent removal of ADMI, COD, heavy metals and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Patel, Tallika L; Patel, Bhargav C; Kadam, Avinash A; Tipre, Devayani R; Dave, Shailesh R

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed towards the effective bio-treatment of actual industrial effluent containing as high as 42,000 mg/L COD (chemical oxygen demand), >28,000 ADMI (American Dye Manufacturers Institute) color value and four heavy metals using indigenous developed bacterial consortium TSR. Mineral salt medium supplemented with as low as 0.02% (w/v) yeast extract and glucose was found to remove 70% ADMI, 69% COD and >99% sorption of heavy metals in 24 h from the effluent by consortium TSR. The biodegradation of effluent was monitored by UV-vis light, HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography), HPTLC (high performance thin layer chromotography) and FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) and showed significant differences in spectra of untreated and treated effluent, confirming degradation of the effluent. Induction of intracellular azoreductase (107%) and NADH-DCIP reductase (128%) in addition to extracellular laccase (489%) indicates the vital role of the consortium TSR in the degradation process. Toxicity study of the effluent using Allium cepa by single cell gel electrophoresis showed detoxification of the effluent. Ninety per cent germination of plant seeds, Triticum aestivum and Phaseolus mungo, was achieved after treatment by consortium TSR in contrast to only 20% and 30% germination of the respective plants in case of untreated effluent. PMID:25945844

  3. Generation of continuous packed bed reactor with PVA-alginate blend immobilized Ochrobactrum sp. DGVK1 cells for effective removal of N,N-dimethylformamide from industrial effluents.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S Sanjeev; Kumar, M Santosh; Siddavattam, D; Karegoudar, T B

    2012-01-15

    Effective removal of dimethylformamide (DMF), the organic solvent found in industrial effluents of textile and pharma industries, was demonstrated by using free and immobilized cells of Ochrobactrum sp. DGVK1, a soil isolate capable of utilizing DMF as a sole source of carbon, nitrogen. The free cells have efficiently removed DMF from culture media and effluents, only when DMF concentration was less than 1% (v/v). Entrapment of cells either in alginate or in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) failed to increase tolerance limits. However, the cells of Ochrobactrum sp. DGVK1 entrapped in PVA-alginate mixed matrix tolerated higher concentration of DMF (2.5%, v/v) and effectively removed DMF from industrial effluents. As determined through batch fermentation, these immobilized cells have retained viability and degradability for more than 20 cycles. A continuous packed bed reactor, generated by using PVA-alginate beads, efficiently removed DMF from industrial effluents, even in the presence of certain organic solvents frequently found in effluents along with DMF. PMID:22079508

  4. Headspace SPME followed by GC/PFPD for the analysis of malodorous sulfur compounds in liquid industrial effluents.

    PubMed

    Lestremau, François; Desauziers, Valérie; Fanlo, Jean-Louis

    2004-01-01

    Headspace SPME was used to analyse malodorous sulfur compounds in liquid industrial effluents. A pulsed flame photometric detector (PFPD) was selected for a specific and sensitive analysis. Two fibres, PDMS/Dvb and PDMS/Carboxen, which are particularly convenient for extracting small and volatile molecules were tested. To compare these fibres, both sensitivity and artefact formation were considered. The PDMS/Carboxen fibre showed the lower limits of detection and moreover the least artefact formation yields. It was therefore selected and headspace SPME extraction conditions were optimised. Limits of detection of the target compounds evaluated were 12-31 ng L(-1) and repeatability was around 7%. Due to the adsorption mechanism involved, extraction is strongly influenced by the sample matrix and the low affinity compounds can suffer displacement effects. To investigate the occurrence of this phenomenon, two sampling times corresponding to non-equilibrium (5 min) and equilibrium conditions (60 min) were investigated. An external calibration was carried out by using standard solutions for both sampling times. The developed procedure was then compared to the standard addition method on a real industrial effluent. The results obtained from the two methods and for the two extraction times were in good agreement, demonstrating that even a long sampling time can be used. Therefore, the simple and timesaving external calibration was defined as relevant for an accurate quantification of sulfur compounds by headspace SPME. PMID:14576971

  5. Results of a technology demonstration project to compare rapid aquatic toxicity screening tests in the analysis of industrial effluents.

    PubMed

    Daniel, M; Sharpe, A; Driver, J; Knight, A W; Keenan, P O; Walmsley, R M; Robinson, A; Zhang, T; Rawson, D

    2004-11-01

    The results of a 'BioWise' demonstration project to assess the comparative sensitivity and practicality of seven new assays for the direct assessment of ecotoxicity in industrial effluents are presented. In addition the aim of the project was to validate the results of the new assays against benchmark data generated from non-proprietary, rapid, microplate screening assays using the regulatory species; freshwater crustacean Daphnia magna and green algae Selenastrum capricornutum, chosen in view of their environmental relevance. The new commercial test assays were: Daphnia magna, Selenastrum capricornutum and Thamnocephalus platyurus Toxkits supplied by Vickers Laboratories Ltd, containing dormant, immobilised life stages of the test species; GreenScreen EM, a yeast based assay for genotoxicity and general acute toxicity supplied by Gentronix Ltd; and CellSense a mediated, amperometric whole cell biosensor based on immobilised activated sludge and E. coli. 38 effluent samples supplied by members of SOCSA (Specialised Organic Chemicals Sector Association) were examined over a period of 13 months, in the project co-ordinated by the AstraZeneca Brixham Environmental Laboratory, and part funded by BioWise via the UK Government Department of Trade and Industry. PMID:15536498

  6. Ecological effects of contaminated sediments following a decade of no industrial effluents emissions: the Sediment Quality Triad approach.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Marta Lobão; Rodrigues, Ana Maria; Quintino, Victor

    2014-10-15

    Sediments contaminated by industrial effluents a decade after the emissions were stopped were statistically compared to sediments from reference channels, using the Sediment Quality Triad approach. The metals and metalloid concentrations, mainly Hg and As, increased towards the upper part of a contaminated channel, where the industrial discharge was located. A bioaccumulation assay with Scrobicularia plana showed the highest bioaccumulation and mortality in the most contaminated sediments and bioaccumulation strongly correlated with the sediments metals and metalloid concentrations. The resident macroinvertebrate community also showed significant differences between the contaminated and reference channels, in the upper areas, where the community was most affected. All three elements of the quality triad rejected the null hypothesis and indicated that despite the emissions ceasing in 2004, sediments remain contaminated by high levels of metals and metalloid, leading to bioaccumulation and with severe community level consequences. PMID:25152187

  7. The 1987 refining and petrochemical technology yearbook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This annual covers the latest in refining and petrochemical technology written by the experts in the field. Opening with a foreword by Richard Corbett, Refining and Petrochemical Editior of the Oil and Gas Journal. The annual includes nearly 100 articles from the 1986 issues of the Oil and Gas Journal, comprising a collection of new technical information, methods of analysis, forecasts and trends in such subject areas as plants, fuels, gasolines, coking, processing, contents, hydrocracking, equipment, catalysts, and petrochemicals.

  8. Genotoxic evaluation of an industrial effluent from an oil refinery using plant and animal bioassays

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are genotoxic chemicals commonly found in effluents from oil refineries. Bioassays using plants and cells cultures can be employed for assessing environmental safety and potential genotoxicity. In this study, the genotoxic potential of an oil refinery effluent was analyzed by means of micronucleus (MN) testing of Alium cepa, which revealed no effect after 24 h of treatment. On the other hand, primary lesions in the DNA of rat (Rattus norvegicus) hepatoma cells (HTC) were observed through comet assaying after only 2 h of exposure. On considering the capacity to detect DNA damage of a different nature and of these cells to metabolize xenobiotics, we suggest the association of the two bioassays with these cell types, plant (Allium cepa) and mammal (HTC) cells, for more accurately assessing genotoxicity in environmental samples. PMID:21637622

  9. Purification of effluent waters from industrial enterprises using a biosorption technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolaeva, L. A.; Nedzvetskaya, R. Ya.

    2012-03-01

    A technology for purifying effluent waters that uses carbonate sludge from thermal power stations as sorbent is considered. Initial experimental data are presented, as well as their approximation and correlation analysis. A model is used for mathematically describing the biosorption process, which is constructed on the assumption that diffusion is the main process that goes in the course of sorbing pollutants by sludge and biologically oxidizing them by active sludge.

  10. Identification of toxicity variations in a stream affected by industrial effluents using Daphnia magna and Ulva pertusa.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jisu; Ahn, Byeongyong; Oh, Jeong-Ju; Han, Taejun; Kim, Woo-Keun; Kim, Sanghoon; Jung, Jinho

    2013-09-15

    A comprehensive toxicity monitoring study from August to October 2011 using Daphnia magna and Ulva pertusa was conducted to identify the cause of toxicity in a stream receiving industrial effluents (IEs) from a textile and leather products manufacturing complex. Acute toxicity toward both species was observed consistently in IE, which influenced toxicity of downstream (DS) water. A toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) confirmed that both Cu and Zn were key toxicants in the IE, and that the calculated toxicity based on Cu and Zn concentrations well simulated the variation in the observed toxicity (r(2)=0.9216 and 0.7256 for D. magna and U. pertusa, respectively). In particular, U. pertusa was sensitive enough to detect acute toxicity in DS and was useful to identify Zn as a key toxicant. Activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase, and malondialdehyde were induced significantly in D. magna, although acute toxicity was not observed. In addition, higher levels of antioxidant enzymes were expressed in DS than upstream waters, likely due to the Cu and Zn from IE. Overall, TIE procedures with a battery of bioassays were effective for identifying the cause of lethal and sub-lethal toxicity in effluent and stream water. PMID:23892313

  11. New Mexico Water Resources Research Institute, New Mexico State University http://wrri.nmsu.edu Land application of industrial effluent on a Chihuahuan Desert

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Eric E.

    wastewater treatment technologies like land application can provide low-cost wastewater treatment in re- gions that can't afford expensive wastewater treatment infrastructure and in areas where wastewater://wrri.nmsu.edu Land application of industrial effluent on a Chihuahuan Desert ecosystem: Impact on soil physical

  12. [Enhanced bio-contact oxidation method to treat petrochemical wastewater by tourmaline].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Kan; Ma, Fang; Sun, Tie-Heng; Feng, Zhi-Yun

    2009-06-15

    Aiming at the complexity and poor biochemical degradability of petrochemical wastewater, the effect of tourmaline on bio-contact oxidation method was investigated. The influent and effluent of petrochemical wastewater were analyzed by GC-MS, and the carrier was observed in reactor by scanning electron microscope (SEM). As the loading rates of influent were COD 0.64-0.72 kg/(m3 x d) and NH4(+) -N 0.058-0.072 kg/(m3 x d), the start up of pilot system supported tourmaline were improved, and the removal rate of COD and NH4(+) -N of effluent was increased 8.7% and 6.4%, respectively. Organic pollutants of 100 kinds were detected in influent, mainly including aromatic hydrocarbon, acids, lipids, phenols, alcohols, and alkanes compounds. The removal efficiency of organic pollutant of reactor 1 with tourmaline was higher than reactor 2 without tourmaline. The number of organic pollutant in effluent from reactor 1 and 2 were 14 and 28, respectively. Zoogloea can be observed on carrier supported tourmaline, and the biomass of bacteria was predominant. The efficiency of bio-contact oxidation method on petrochemical wastewater treatment can be enhanced by tourmaline. PMID:19662849

  13. Risk assessment of domestic and industrial effluents unloaded into a freshwater environment.

    PubMed

    Di Marzio, W D; Sáenz, M; Alberdi, J; Tortorelli, M; Silvana, Galassi

    2005-07-01

    An ecotoxicologic study was performed to assess the environmental status of the Lujan River. It is an important freshwater system in the northeast of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. Surface waters (SWs) and liquids effluents (LEs), before they reached the river, and sediments were assessed via acute toxicity screening using a battery of tests with native species. Additionally, the presence, in each LE and SW sample, of bioaccumulatable compounds was checked by SPME extraction and gas chromatograph-MS determination. An environmental risk assessment of each LE was carried out via toxic units and assessment factors approach and through extrapolation methods. Hazardous concentrations for each LE were compared with their river effluent concentrations. Ninety-one percent (91%) of the total toxic load of the river was due to 4 of 11 LEs (37%) evaluated. Although SW samples were not toxic, a real environmental risk was found for this freshwater environment. Sediment toxicity was found to be related to the proximity to pipe discharges. Bioaccumulatable compounds were found in SWs and in LEs. Esters of phthalic acids, morpholine, hydroquinone, and nonylphenol were found throughout the river at different sample sites and in different months during the 1-year sampling program. PMID:15922804

  14. Treatment of colored and real industrial effluents through electrocoagulation using solar energy.

    PubMed

    Pirkarami, Azam; Olya, Mohammad Ebrahim; Tabibian, Sahar

    2013-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the removal of Acid Orange 2 (sodium 4-[(2E)-2-(2-oxonaphthalen-1-ylidene) hydrazinyl] benzenesulfonate) and Reactive Blue 19 (2-Anthracenesulfonicacid,1-amino-9,10-dihydro-9,10-dioxo-4-[[3-[[2-(sulfooxy) ethyl] sulfonyl] phenyl] amino]-,sodium salt (1:2)) from synthesized and real effluents through electrocoagulation using solar cells for the purpose of improving economic efficiency of the process. The impact of a number of key operating parameters was explored including current density, anode type, temperature, pH, and electrolyte concentration. The current density of 45 Am(-2) proved to be the optimum level for both dyes. The same optimum alternatives were found for the other parameters in both cases: iron anode, a temperature level of 25°C, a pH of 7, and an electrolyte concentration of 15 mg L(-1). Both effluent samples were subjected to COD (chemical oxygen demand) and TOC (total organic carbon) tests. Cost analysis was performed for the treatment process. PMID:23647115

  15. Simultaneously bio treatment of textiles and food industries effluent at difference ratios with the aid of e-beam radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakar, Khomsaton Abu; Selambakkannu, Sarala; Ting, Teo Ming; Shariff, Jamaliah

    2012-09-01

    The combination of irradiation and biological technique was used to study COD, BOD5 and colour removal of textiles effluent in the presence of food industry wastewater at two different ratios. Two biological treatment system, the first consisting a mix of unirradiated textile and food industry wastewater and the second a mix of irradiated textile wastewater and food industry wastewater were operated in parallel. The experiment was conducted by batch. For the first batch the ratio was use for textile wastewater and food industry wastewater in biological treatment was 1:1. Meanwhile, for the second batch the ratio used for textile wastewater and food industry wastewater in biological treatment was 1:2. The results obtained for the first and second batch varies from each other. After irradiation, COD reduce in textile wastewater for the both batches are roughly 29% - 33% from the unirradiated wastewater. But after undergoing the biological treatment the percentage of COD reduction for first batch and second batch was 62.1% and 80.7% respectively. After irradiation the BOD5 of textile wastewater reduced by 22.2% for the first batch and 55.1% for the second batch. But after biological treatment, the BOD5 value for the first batch was same as its initial, 36mg/l and 40.4mg/l for the second batch. Colour had decreased from 899.5 ADMI to 379.3 ADMI after irradiation and decrease to 109.3 after undergoes biological treatment for the first batch. Meantime for the batch two, colour had decreased from 1000.44 ADMI to 363.40 ADMI after irradiation and dropped to 79.20 ADMI after biological treatment. The experiment show that 1:2 ratio show better reduction on COD, BOD5 and colour, compared to the ratio of 1:1.

  16. Combined treatment of chemical, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industrial effluents by waste stabilization ponds.

    PubMed

    Veeresh, Mangala; Veeresh, A V; Hosetti, B B

    2002-10-01

    Influent and final effluent was collected from the CMM Ltd., Bethora, Ponda, Goa and were analysed for pH, DO, BOD, enzyme activity and chlorophyll content of the waste stabilization pond for over a period of two years of which the data for one year (pre monsoon, monsoon and post monsoon periods) is given. The study revealed that the DO was maximum during the pre-monsoon months and least during the monsoon. Maximum removal of BOD and phosphate was observed during the pre-monsoon periods. Enzymatic activity was at its peak during the monsoons than during the other months. Chlorophyll content was maximum during the pre-monsoon months due to increased growth of phytoplankton as the conditions were favourable for their growth. Also depending on the concentration of different chlorophyll pigments, one can come to know the different groups of algae inhabiting the stabilization ponds. PMID:12674388

  17. Dual application of duckweed and azolla plants for wastewater treatment and renewable fuels and petrochemicals production

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Shortages in fresh water supplies today affects more than 1 billion people worldwide. Phytoremediation strategies, based on the abilities of aquatic plants to recycle nutrients offer an attractive solution for the bioremediation of water pollution and represents one of the most globally researched issues. The subsequent application of the biomass from the remediation for the production of fuels and petrochemicals offers an ecologically friendly and cost-effective solution for water pollution problems and production of value-added products. Results In this paper, the feasibility of the dual application of duckweed and azolla aquatic plants for wastewater treatment and production of renewable fuels and petrochemicals is explored. The differences in absorption rates of the key wastewater nutrients, ammonium and phosphorus by these aquatic macrophytes were used as the basis for optimization of the composition of wastewater effluents. Analysis of pyrolysis products showed that azolla and algae produce a similar range of bio-oils that contain a large spectrum of petrochemicals including straight-chain C10-C21 alkanes, which can be directly used as diesel fuel supplement, or a glycerin-free component of biodiesel. Pyrolysis of duckweed produces a different range of bio-oil components that can potentially be used for the production of “green” gasoline and diesel fuel using existing techniques, such as catalytic hydrodeoxygenation. Conclusions Differences in absorption rates of the key wastewater nutrients, ammonium and phosphorus by different aquatic macrophytes can be used for optimization of composition of wastewater effluents. The generated data suggest that the composition of the petrochemicals can be modified in a targeted fashion, not only by using different species, but also by changing the source plants’ metabolic profile, by exposing them to different abiotic or biotic stresses. This study presents an attractive, ecologically friendly and cost-effective solution for efficient bio-filtration of swine wastewater and petrochemicals production from generated biomass. PMID:24576349

  18. Phthalates and alkylphenols in industrial and domestic effluents: case of Paris conurbation (France).

    PubMed

    Bergé, A; Gasperi, J; Rocher, V; Gras, L; Coursimault, A; Moilleron, R

    2014-08-01

    Phthalates and alkylphenols are toxics classified as endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs). They are of particular concern due to their ubiquity and generally higher levels found in the environment comparatively to other EDCs. Industrial and domestic discharges might affect the quality of receiving waters by discharging organic matter and contaminants through treated waters and combined sewer overflows. Historically, industrial discharges are often considered as the principal vector of pollution in urban areas. If this observation was true in the past for some contaminants, no current data are today available to compare the quality of industrial and domestic discharges as regards EDCs. In this context, a total of 45 domestic samples as well as 101 industrial samples were collected from different sites, including 14 residential and 33 industrial facilities. This study focuses more specifically on 4 phthalates and 2 alkylphenols, among the most commonly studied congeners. A particular attention was also given to routine wastewater quality parameters. For most substances, wastewaters from the different sites were heavily contaminated; they display concentrations up to 1200 ?g/l for di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and between 10 and 100 ?g/l for diethyl phthalate and nonylphenol. Overall, for the majority of compounds, the industrial contribution to the flux of contaminant reaching the wastewater treatment plants ranges between 1 and 3%. The data generated during this work constitutes one of the first studies conducted in Europe on industrial fluxes for a variety of sectors of activity. The study of the wastewater contribution was used to better predict the industrial and domestic contributions at the scale of a huge conurbation heavily urbanized but with a weak industrial cover, illustrated by Paris. Our results indicate that specific investigations on domestic discharges are necessary in order to reduce the release of phthalates and alkylphenols in the sewer systems for such conurbations. PMID:24815554

  19. Biomarker responses in whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus L. s.l.) experimentally exposed in a large lake receiving effluents from pulp and paper industry.

    PubMed

    Soimasuo, M R; Karels, A E; Leppänen, H; Santti, R; Oikari, A O

    1998-01-01

    Physiological and biochemical biomarker responses were studied in juvenile whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus L. s.l.) exposed experimentally to effluent from the forest industry. The large study area (609 km2), Southern Lake Saimaa, in Southeast Finland, receives 330,000 m3 d-1 of biologically and 55,000 m3 d-1 of chemically treated effluents, discharged from two integrated elementary chlorine free (ECF) bleached kraft pulp and paper mills, from one ECF pulp mill, and from one mill producing unbleached pulp and cardboard. The assessment of exposure to effluent discharged from the mills was based on lake water chlorophenolics (CPs) and resin acids (RAs) measured in samples collected from the 22 experimental sites along the area. Despite the low levels of effluent constituents in the lake, they were still accumulated in detectable levels in fish bile, indicating an exposure to the bioactive compounds of effluents. In comparison to the reference area, a two- to four-fold increase in ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity was observed in whitefish exposed in the vicinity (1-6 km) of all the mills. However, cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) gene expression was increased in only one of the receiving areas, indicating higher sensitivity of the EROD activity in the present study. There were no statistically significant correlations between EROD activity and the ambient water concentrations of the CPs, the RAs, or effluent dilution expressed by water sodium concentration. Neither bile chlorophenolics nor bile resin acids showed a significant correlation with EROD. No significant changes in circulating reproductive steroids, 17beta-estradiol and testosterone, in juvenile whitefish were observed. The vitellogenin gene was expressed in the vicinity of the pulp mill discharging the most wood-derived compounds, i.e. resin acids and wood-sterols, including beta-sitosterol. No differences were observed in plasma immunoglobulin M, glucose, or lactate concentrations between the effluent sources. PMID:9419275

  20. BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT, EFFLUENT REUSE, AND SLUDGE HANDLING FOR THE SIDE LEATHER TANNING INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    An evaluation of the treatability of unsegregated, unequalized, and unneutralized wastewaters from a side-leather tanning industry utilizing the hair pulping process by primary and secondary biological and gravity separation in clarifier-thickeners, whereas the secondary treatmen...

  1. Morphological, Physiological and Biochemical Impact of Ink Industry Effluent on Germination of Maize (Zea mays), Barley (Hordeum vulgare) and Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor).

    PubMed

    Zayneb, Chaâbene; Lamia, Khanous; Olfa, Ellouze; Naïma, Jebahi; Douglas Grubb, C; Bassem, Khemakhem; Hafedh, Mejdoub; Amine, Elleuch

    2015-11-01

    The present study focuses on effects of untreated and treated ink industry wastewater on germination of maize, barley and sorghum. Wastewater had a high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and metal content compared to treated effluent. Germination decreased with increasing COD concentration. Speed of germination also followed the same trend, except for maize seeds exposed to untreated effluent (E), which germinated slightly faster than controls. These alterations of seedling development were mirrored by changes in soluble protein content. E exerted a positive effect on soluble protein content and maximum levels occurred after 10 days with treated effluent using coagulation/flocculation (TEc/f) process and treated effluent using combined process (coagulation/flocculation/biosorption) (TEc/f/b). Likewise, activity of ?-amylase was influenced by effluent composition. Its expression depended on the species, exposure time and applied treatment. Nevertheless, current results indicated TEc/f/b had no observable toxic effects on germination and could be a beneficial alternative resource to irrigation water. PMID:26341252

  2. Energy Productivity Improvement in Petrochemical Plants 

    E-print Network

    Robinson, A. M.

    1984-01-01

    Energy Management and Conservation have become mutually inclusive in operation of today's petrochemical plants. This presentation shows how the efficient conversion and distribution of energy and the efficient energy ...

  3. Energy Philosophy in Prospective Petrochemical Projects 

    E-print Network

    Wallsgrove, C.

    1994-01-01

    involved with establishing an energy philosophy for major petrochemical projects. This philosophy subsequently directs many aspects of the fundamental process design of these plants. For illustrative example ethylene plants are considered. Ethylene...

  4. BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF HIGH STRENGTH PETROCHEMICAL WASTEWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The biological treatment of a complex petrochemical wastewater containing high concentrations of organic chlorides, nitrates, and amines was initially studied using a sequence of anaerobic methanogenesis and oxygen activated sludge. Bench-scale and pilot-plant treatability studie...

  5. Zero Liquid Discharge approach in plating industry: treatment of degreasing effluents by electrocoagulation and anodic oxidation.

    PubMed

    Hermon, S; Grange, D; Pellet, Y; Lloret, G; Oyonarte, S; Bosch, F; Coste, M

    2008-01-01

    Degreasing waste effluents issued from a surface treatment plant were treated by electrochemical techniques in an attempt to reduce COD so that clean water can be returned to the rinse bath. Electrocoagulation, both with iron and aluminium anodes, and anodic oxidation with boron doped diamond (BDD) anodes were tested. In the electrocoagulation tests, the nature of the anodes did not impact significantly the reduction of COD. Electrocoagulation showed good COD removal rates, superior to 80%, but it was not able to reduce COD down to low levels. Anodic oxidation was able to reduce COD down to discharge limits; the oxidation efficiency was superior to 50%. Economical calculations show that anodic oxidation is best used as a polishing step after electrocoagulation. The bulk of the COD would be reduced by electrocoagulation and, then, anodic oxidation would reduce COD below discharge limits. The maximum treatable flow is somewhat hindered by the small sizes of current BDD installation but it would reach 600 m(3)/year if anodic oxidation is coupled with electrocoagulation, the operational cost being 2.90 Euros /m(3). PMID:18725717

  6. Hydrocarbon Processing`s petrochemical processes `97

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    The paper compiles information on numerous petrochemical processes, describing the application, the process, yields, economics, commercial plants, references, and licensor. Petrochemicals which are synthesized include: alkylbenzene, methylamines, ammonia, benzene, bisphenol-A, BTX aromatics, butadiene, butanediol, butyraldehyde, caprolactam, cumene, dimethyl terephthalate, ethanolamines, ethylbenzene, ethylene, ethylene glycols, ethylene oxide, formaldehyde, maleic anhydride, methanol, olefins, paraxylene, phenol, phthalic anhydride, polycaproamide, polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate, polypropylene, PVC, styrene, terephthalic acid, urea, vinyl chloride, and xylene isomers.

  7. Rapid analysis of effluents generated by the dairy industry for fat determination by preconcentration in nylon membranes and attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy measurement.

    PubMed

    Moliner Martínez, Y; Muñoz-Ortuño, M; Herráez-Hernández, R; Campíns-Falcó, P

    2014-02-01

    This paper describes a new approach for the determination of fat in the effluents generated by the dairy industry which is based on the retention of fat in nylon membranes and measurement of the absorbances on the membrane surface by ATR-IR spectroscopy. Different options have been evaluated for retaining fat in the membranes using milk samples of different origin and fat content. Based on the results obtained, a method is proposed for the determination of fat in effluents which involves the filtration of 1 mL of the samples through 0.45 µm nylon membranes of 13 mm diameter. The fat content is then determined by measuring the absorbance of band at 1745 cm(-1). The proposed method can be used for the direct estimation of fat at concentrations in the 2-12 mg/L interval with adequate reproducibility. The intraday precision, expressed as coefficients of variation CVs, were ? 11%, whereas the interday CVs were ? 20%. The method shows a good tolerance towards conditions typically found in the effluents generated by the dairy industry. The most relevant features of the proposed method are simplicity and speed as the samples can be characterized in a few minutes. Sample preparation does not involve either additional instrumentation (such as pumps or vacuum equipment) or organic solvents or other chemicals. Therefore, the proposed method can be considered a rapid, simple and cost-effective alternative to gravimetric methods for controlling fat content in these effluents during production or cleaning processes. PMID:24401379

  8. POLISHING INDUSTRIAL WASTE STREAM EFFLUENTS USING FLY ASH - NATURAL CLAY SORBENT COMBINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A laboratory evaluation of the use of acidic and basic fly ashes, bentonite, bauxite, illite, kaolinite, zeolite, vermiculite, and activated alumina is presented for polishing a 3.8 x 10 to the 6th power liters per day waste stream from the feldspar mining and processing industry...

  9. Assessing toxicity of copper, cadmium and chromium levels relevant to discharge limits of industrial effluents into inland surface waters using common onion, Allium cepa bioassay.

    PubMed

    Hemachandra, Chamini K; Pathiratne, Asoka

    2015-02-01

    Toxicity of copper, cadmium and chromium relevant to established tolerance limits for the discharge of industrial effluents into inland surface waters was evaluated by Allium cepa bioassay. The roots of A. cepa bulbs exposed to Cu(2+) (3 mg L(-1)) individually or in mixtures with Cd(2+) (0.1 mg L(-1)) or/and Cr(6+) (0.1 mg L(-1)) exhibited the highest growth inhibition, mitotic index depression and nuclear abnormalities. Root tip cells exposed to Cr(6+) or Cd(2+) alone or in mixture displayed significant chromosomal aberrations in comparison to the controls. EC50s for root growth inhibition followed the order Cu(2+) < Cd(2+) < Cr(6+) indicating greater toxicity of copper. The results show that the industrial effluent discharge regulatory limits for these metals need to be reviewed considering potential cyto-genotoxicity to biological systems. PMID:25201323

  10. Treatment of industrial effluents by a continuous system: electrocoagulation--activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Moisés, Tejocote-Pérez; Patricia, Balderas-Hernández; Barrera-Díaz, C E; Gabriela, Roa-Morales; Natividad-Rangel, Reyna

    2010-10-01

    A continuous system electrocoagulation--active sludge was designed and built for the treatment of industrial wastewater. The system included an electrochemical reactor with aluminum electrodes, a clarifier and a biological reactor. The electrochemical reactor was tested under different flowrates (50, 100 and 200 mL/min). In the biological reactor, the performance of different cultures of active sludge was assessed: coliform bacterial, ciliate and flagellate protozoa and aquatic fungus. Overall treatment efficiencies of color, turbidity and COD removal were 94%, 92% and 80%, respectively, under optimal conditions of 50 mL/min flowrate and using ciliate and flagellate protozoa. It was concluded that the system was efficient for the treatment of industrial wastewater. PMID:20570506

  11. Integration of Biomass processes in an existing Petrochemical ComplexPetrochemical Complex

    E-print Network

    Pike, Ralph W.

    Integration of Biomass processes in an existing Petrochemical ComplexPetrochemical Complex Debalina · Biomass conversion processes · Integration in existing plant complex l i· Conclusions #12;Sustainability;Overview · Biomass based processes integrated into a chemical production complex. Utili b di id f i th l

  12. Dynamics of microbiological parameters, enzymatic activities and worm biomass production during vermicomposting of effluent treatment plant sludge of bakery industry.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Anoop; Suthar, S; Garg, V K

    2015-10-01

    This paper reports the changes in microbial parameters and enzymatic activities during vermicomposting of effluent treatment plant sludge (ETPS) of bakery industry spiked with cow dung (CD) by Eisenia fetida. Six vermibins containing different ratios of ETPS and CD were maintained under controlled laboratory conditions for 15 weeks. Total bacterial and total fungal count increased upto 7th week and declined afterward in all the bins. Maximum bacterial and fungal count was 31.6 CFU?×?10(6) g(-1) and 31 CFU?×?10(4) g(-1) in 7th week. Maximum dehydrogenase activity was 1921 ?g TPF g(-1) h(-1) in 9th week in 100 % CD containing vermibin, whereas maximum urease activity was 1208 ?g NH4 (-)N g(-1) h(-1) in 3rd week in 100 % CD containing vermibin. The enzyme activity and microbial counts were lesser in ETPS containing vermibins than control (100 % CD). The growth and fecundity of the worms in different vermibins were also investigated. The results showed that initially biomass and fecundity of the worms increased but decreased at the later stages due to non-availability of the palatable feed. This showed that quality and palatability of food directly affect biological parameters of the system. PMID:25982984

  13. ZnO/Ag/CdO nanocomposite for visible light-induced photocatalytic degradation of industrial textile effluents.

    PubMed

    Saravanan, R; Mansoob Khan, M; Gupta, Vinod Kumar; Mosquera, E; Gracia, F; Narayanan, V; Stephen, A

    2015-08-15

    A ternary ZnO/Ag/CdO nanocomposite was synthesized using thermal decomposition method. The resulting nanocomposite was characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The ZnO/Ag/CdO nanocomposite exhibited enhanced photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation for the degradation of methyl orange and methylene blue compared with binary ZnO/Ag and ZnO/CdO nanocomposites. The ZnO/Ag/CdO nanocomposite was also used for the degradation of the industrial textile effluent (real sample analysis) and degraded more than 90% in 210 min under visible light irradiation. The small size, high surface area and synergistic effect in the ZnO/Ag/CdO nanocomposite is responsible for high photocatalytic activity. These results also showed that the Ag nanoparticles induced visible light activity and facilitated efficient charge separation in the ZnO/Ag/CdO nanocomposite, thereby improving the photocatalytic performance. PMID:25935283

  14. Adsorptive removal of heavy metal ions from industrial effluents using activated carbon derived from waste coconut buttons.

    PubMed

    Anirudhan, T S; Sreekumari, S S

    2011-01-01

    Activated carbon (AC) derived from waste coconut buttons (CB) was investigated as a suitable adsorbent for the removal of heavy metal ions such as Pb(II), Hg(II) and Cu(II) from industrial effluents through batch adsorption process. The AC was characterized by elemental analysis, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, thermal gravimetric and differential thermal analysis, surface area analyzer and potentiometric titrations. The effects of initial metal concentration, contact time, pH and adsorbent dose on the adsorption of metal ions were studied. The adsorbent revealed a good adsorption potential for Pb(II) and Cu(II) at pH 6.0 and for Hg(II) at pH 7.0. The experimental kinetic data were a better fit with pseudo second-order equation rather than pseudo first-order equation. The Freundlich isotherm model was found to be more suitable to represent the experimental equilibrium isotherm results for the three metals than the Langmuir model. The adsorption capacities of the AC decreased in the order: Pb(II) > Hg(II) > Cu(II). PMID:22432329

  15. Estimating effluent COD

    SciTech Connect

    Eckenfelder, W.W.; Landine, R.

    1995-06-01

    In many parts of the world, chemical oxygen demand (COD) is a primary effluent parameter. Unlike BOD, which considers only biodegradable organics, COD also includes non-degradable organics and non-degradable biological oxidation by-products, generally referred to as soluble microbial products (SMP). The SMP can vary from 2% to 10% of the influent degradable COD. If the technology is limited to biological treatment only, the degradable COD will be removed. Further reductions in COD will require physical chemical treatments such as activated carbon. Effluent COD values for several industrial wastewaters are presented. Effluent characteristics from the anaerobic treatment of industrial wastewaters are also discussed.

  16. Aerobic treatability of waste effluent from the leather finishing industry. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Vinger, J.A.

    1993-12-01

    The Seton Company supplies finished leather products exclusively for the automotive industry. In the process of finishing leather, two types of wastewaters are generated. The majority of the wastewater is composed of water-based paint residuals while the remainder is composed of solvent-based coating residuals. Aerobic treatability studies were conducted using water-based and solvent-based waste recirculatory waters from the Seton Company's Saxton, Pennsylvania processing plant. The specific objective was to determine the potential for using aerobic biological processes to biodegrade the industry's wastes and determine the potential for joint treatment at the local publicly owned treatment works (POTW). This study was accomplished in two phases. Phase I was conducted during the Spring Semester 1993 and consisted of aerobic respirometer tests of the raw wastes and mass balance analysis. The results of Phase I were published in a report to the Seton Company as Environmental Resources Research Institute project number 92C.II40R-1. Phase II was conducted during the Summer Semester 1993 and consisted of bench-scale reactor tests and additional aerobic respirometer tests. The aerobic respirometer batch tests and bench-scale reactor tests were used to assess the treatability of solvent-based and water-based wastewaters and determine the degree of biodegradability of the wastewaters. Mass balance calculations were made using measured characteristics.

  17. Cancer incidence and mortality among temporary maintenance workers in a refinery/petrochemical complex in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Dong-Hee; Chung, Eun-Kyo; Jang, Jae-Kil; Lee, Hye-Eun; Ryu, Hyang-Woo; Yoo, Kye-Mook; Kim, Eun-A; Kim, Kyoo-Sang

    2014-01-01

    Background: Petrochemical plant maintenance workers are exposed to various carcinogens such as benzene and metal fumes. In Korea, maintenance operations in petrochemical plants are typically performed by temporary employees hired as contract workers. Objectives: The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate cancer risk in temporary maintenance workers in a refinery/petrochemical complex in Korea. Methods: Subjects consisted of 14 698 male workers registered in a regional petrochemical plant maintenance workers union during 2002–2007. Cancer mortality and incidence were identified by linking with the nationwide death and cancer registries during 2002–2007 and 2002–2005, respectively. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) and standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated for each cancer. Results: Increased SMR 3.61 (six cases, 95% CI: 1.32–7.87) and SIR 3.18 (five cases, 95% CI: 1.03–7.42) were observed in oral and pharyngeal cancers. Conclusion: Our findings may suggest a potential association between oral and pharyngeal cancers and temporary maintenance jobs in the petrochemical industry. Future studies should include a longer follow-up period and a quantitative exposure assessment. PMID:24999849

  18. Impact of urban and industrial effluents on the coastal marine environment in Oran, Algeria.

    PubMed

    Tayeb, A; Chellali, M R; Hamou, A; Debbah, S

    2015-09-15

    In Algeria most of the urban waste water is dumped without treatment into the Sea. It is tremendously important to assess the consequences of organic matter rich sewage on marine ecosystem. In this study we investigated the effects of industrial and urban sewage on the dissolved oxygen (O2), chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demands (BOD5), pH, salinity, electrical conductivity (EC), Metal element (Hg, Pb, Cu, Ni, Cr, Cd), petroleum hydrocarbons (HC), oil and grease (OG) in Bay of Oran, Algeria. A ten-year follow-up research showed that the concentrations of oil and grease released into the bionetwork are of higher ecological impact and this needs to be given the desired consideration. Information on bathing water quality revealed that the most beaches in Oran are under the national environmental standard limit. PMID:26164780

  19. Bacterial bioluminescence response to long-term exposure to reverse osmosis treated effluents from dye industries.

    PubMed

    Ravindran, J; Manikandan, B; Shirodkar, P V; Francis, K X; Mani Murali, R; Vethamony, P

    2014-10-01

    The bacterial bioluminescence assay is one of the novel means for toxicity detection. The bioluminescence response of 2 marine bioluminescent bacteria was tested upon their long-term exposure to 9 different reverse osmosis (RO) rejects with varying chemical composition sampled from various dye industries. Bioluminescent bacteria were cultured in the RO reject samples, at different concentrations, and their growth rate and luminescence was measured for 24 h. The RO reject samples caused sublethal effects upon exposure and retarded the growth of bacteria, confirming their toxic nature. Further, continuation of the exposure showed that the initial luminescence, though reduced, recovered and increased beyond the control cultures irrespective of cell density, and finally decreased once again. The present study emphasizes the need of evolving a long-term exposure assay and shows that the method followed in this study is suitable to evaluate the toxicants that exert delayed toxicity, using lower concentrations of toxicants as well as coloured samples. PMID:25302530

  20. The impact of petrochemical industrialisation on life expectancy and per capita income in Taiwan: an 11-year longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Petrochemical industries have been identified as important sources of emissions of chemical substances, and adverse health outcomes have been reported for residents who live nearby. The purpose of the current study was to examine the adverse effects of petrochemical industrialization in Taiwan on the life expectancy and personal income of people living in nearby communities. Methods This study compared life expectancies and personal income between one industrial county (Yunlin County) and one reference county (Yilan County), which had no significant industrial activity that might emit pollutants, in Taiwan through analysis of 11 year long and publicly available data. Data from before and after the petrochemical company in the industrial county started (year 1999) operating were compared. Results Residents of the industrialized county had lesser increases in life expectancy over time than did residents of a similar but less-industrialized county, with difference means ranging from 0.89 years (p?industrialization. There were no significant differences in individual income between the two counties. Conclusions Countries, including Taiwan and the U.S., embracing petrochemical industries now face the challenge of environmental injustice. Our findings suggested that life expectancy lengthening was slowed and income growth was stalled for residents living in the industrial communities. PMID:24621018

  1. FISH COUGH RESPONSE - A METHOD FOR EVALUATING QUALITY OF TREATED COMPLEX EFFLUENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) showed increases in cough frequency commensurate with effluent concentration when exposed for 24 h to different industrial and municipal effluents. Effluents known to be toxic caused steadily increasing cough rates in the fish as effluent co...

  2. Phytoaccumulation of heavy metals in natural plants thriving on wastewater effluent at Hattar industrial estate, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Irshad, Muhammad; Ahmad, Sajjad; Pervez, Arshid; Inoue, Mitsuhiro

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research was to compare the potential of native plants for the phytoaccumulation of heavy metals (HM). Thirteen predominant plant species (including trees, bushes and grasses) namely Ricinus communis, Ipomoea carnea, Cannabis sativa, Parthenium hysterophorus, Acacia nilotica, Dalbergia sissoo, Acacia modesta, Solanum nigrum, Xanthium stromarium, Chenopodium album, Cynodon dactylon, Eleusine indica, and Dactyloctenium aegyptium were collected from the wastewater originated from Hattar industrial estate of Pakistan, Plants shoots and roots were analyzed for heavy metals/metalloid: Pb, Cr, Cd, Zn, Fe, Ni, and As. Among plant species, the accumulation potential for HM varied depending on the type of element. Regardless of the plant species, HM concentrations varied in the order of Fe>Zn>Cr>Pb>Ni>Cd>As. Tree species of R. communis, A. nilotica, A. modesta, and D. sissoo exhibited an enhanced concentrations of metals. Accumulation pattern of Fe, Pb, Cd, and As in plants could be related to the HM composition of soil and wastewater. Most of the species exhibited higher HM composition in the root as compared to shoot. The species that found with greater ability to absorb HM in the root, got higher HM concentrations in its shoot. Shoot tissue concentrations of HM were attained by the species as D. sissoo>A. modesta>A. nilotica>R. communis>I. carnea>C. album>E. indica>P. hysterophorus>S. nigrum>C. sativa>D. aegyptium>X. strumarium>C. dactylon. Based on results, tree plants were noticed as higher accumulators of HM in polluted soils. PMID:25254600

  3. 40 CFR 436.42 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS MINERAL MINING AND PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Industrial Sand Subcategory § 436.42 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  4. 40 CFR 436.42 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) MINERAL MINING AND PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Industrial Sand Subcategory § 436.42 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  5. 40 CFR 436.42 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) MINERAL MINING AND PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Industrial Sand Subcategory § 436.42 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  6. 40 CFR 436.42 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) MINERAL MINING AND PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Industrial Sand Subcategory § 436.42 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  7. 40 CFR 436.42 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS MINERAL MINING AND PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Industrial Sand Subcategory § 436.42 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  8. "Matrix/Modular" - An Approach to Analyzing Cogeneration Opportunities in Industry 

    E-print Network

    Canty, W. R.

    1979-01-01

    The petrochemical industry has long recognized that electrical and mechanical energy can be generated as a by-product of its process steam requirements. Years ago, some petrochemical plants generated all of their own electrical power. However, over...

  9. Effects of sewage and industrial effluent on the concentration of Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd in water and sediments along Waterfalls stream and lower Mukuvisi River in Harare, Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyamangara, J.; Bangira, C.; Taruvinga, T.; Masona, C.; Nyemba, A.; Ndlovu, D.

    The disposal of sewage and industrial effluent is a problem confronting municipalities in most developing countries. A study was conducted to determine the effects of the disposal of sewage and industrial effluent into Mukuvisi River and Waterfalls stream, a tributary of Mukuvisi River in Harare, Zimbabwe. Water and sediment samples were collected over two seasons (October 2003 to November 2004). Sampling sites were located before and after Firle Sewage Treatment Works (FSTW) along Mukuvisi River and before and after Prospect Industrial Area (PIA) along the Waterfalls stream. The water and sediment samples were analysed for pH, and total Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd. The FSTW had no effect on water and sediment pH in Mukuvisi River, which ranged 6.8-7.0 and 5.0-5.6, respectively. The heavy metal concentration upstream of the sewage processing plant was higher than down stream implying that the effluent disposed into the river had lower metal concentrations compared to the river water. Metal concentrations in water and sediment samples along the Waterfalls stream showed an increase just after the PIA, and were more significant in sediment samples. It was concluded that the metal pollution of the two streams was due to industrial pollution rather than sewage effluent disposal. Accumulation of heavy metals in streams is better monitored using sediments where they accumulate rather than water. Continued dumping of industrial effluent into Mukuvisi River and its tributaries will cause further damage to the ecosystem and the food chain.

  10. The chemical industry, by country

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-03-01

    Beijing will be the site for the third ACHEMASIA, international petrochemical and chemical exhibition and conference, May 15--20, 1995. In preparation for this conference, Hydrocarbon Processing contacted executives of petrochemical/chemical industries and trade associations, seeking views on the state of the industry. The Asia-Pacific region is the center of new construction and expanded capacity and also a mixture of mature, developing and emerging petrochemical industries. Established countries must mold and grow with emerging economies as the newcomers access natural resources and develop their own petrochemical infrastructures. The following nation reports focus on product supply/demand trends, economic forecasts, new construction, etc. Space limitations prohibit publishing commentaries from all countries that have petrochemical/chemical capacity. Reports are published from the following countries: Australia, China, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam.

  11. Petrochemical Expo '93 to tackle safety, environment and more

    SciTech Connect

    Howes, C.

    1993-03-01

    AIChE's 1993 Spring National Meeting is coming up in Houston at the end of this month. This event promises to take on many of the topics that plant and operating management need to think about these days, among them safety, the environment and environmental regulations. For the meeting's theme, [open quotes]Process Plants for the '90s: Reliable, Safe and Clean,[close quotes] the Institute has lined up two keynote speakers, several plant tours and a full schedule of topical sessions, with more than 500 presentations. This year's keynote addresses will focus on [open quotes]Investment in the Fuels and Petrochemical Industries - Here and Abroad.[close quotes] Dr. E. Gary Cook is senior vice president of Ethyl Corp. and president of the Chemicals Group, and Frank Y.S. Chen is chairman of Chinese Petroleum Corp. in Taipei, Taiwan.

  12. Ultratrace Determination of Cr(VI) and Pb(II) by Microsample Injection System Flame Atomic Spectroscopy in Drinking Water and Treated and Untreated Industrial Effluents

    PubMed Central

    Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Elci, Latif; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Khan, Muhammad Irfan; Naseer, Hafiz Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    Simple and robust analytical procedures were developed for hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) and lead (Pb(II)) by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) using microsample injection system coupled with flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (MIS-FAAS). For the current study, ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC), carbon tetrachloride, and ethanol were used as chelating agent, extraction solvent, and disperser solvent, respectively. The effective variables of developed method have been optimized and studied in detail. The limit of detection of Cr(VI) and Pb(II) were 0.037 and 0.054?µg/L, respectively. The enrichment factors in both cases were 400 with 40?mL of initial volumes. The relative standard deviations (RSDs, n = 6) were <4%. The applicability and the accuracy of DLLME were estimated by the analysis of Cr(VI) and Pb(II) in industrial effluent wastewater by standard addition method (recoveries >96%). The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of Cr(VI) and Pb(II) at ultratrace levels in natural drinking water and industrial effluents wastewater of Denizli. Moreover, the proposed method was compared with the literature reported method. PMID:24163779

  13. INEEL Liquid Effluent Inventory

    SciTech Connect

    Major, C.A.

    1997-06-01

    The INEEL contractors and their associated facilities are required to identify all liquid effluent discharges that may impact the environment at the INEEL. This liquid effluent information is then placed in the Liquid Effluent Inventory (LEI) database, which is maintained by the INEEL prime contractor. The purpose of the LEI is to identify and maintain a current listing of all liquid effluent discharge points and to identify which discharges are subject to federal, state, or local permitting or reporting requirements and DOE order requirements. Initial characterization, which represents most of the INEEL liquid effluents, has been performed, and additional characterization may be required in the future to meet regulations. LEI information is made available to persons responsible for or concerned with INEEL compliance with liquid effluent permitting or reporting requirements, such as the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System, Wastewater Land Application, Storm Water Pollution Prevention, Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasures, and Industrial Wastewater Pretreatment. The State of Idaho Environmental Oversight and Monitoring Program also needs the information for tracking liquid effluent discharges at the INEEL. The information provides a baseline from which future liquid discharges can be identified, characterized, and regulated, if appropriate. The review covered new and removed buildings/structures, buildings/structures which most likely had new, relocated, or removed LEI discharge points, and at least 10% of the remaining discharge points.

  14. Determination of pesticide residues and related compounds in water and industrial effluent by solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Martins, Manoel L; Donato, Filipe F; Prestes, Osmar D; Adaime, Martha B; Zanella, Renato

    2013-09-01

    Pollution of drinking water supplies from industrial waste is a result of several industrial processes and disposal practices, and the establishment of analytical methods for monitoring organic compounds related to environmental and health problems is very important. In this work, a method using solid-phase extraction (SPE) and gas chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (GC-QqQ-MS/MS) was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of pesticide residues and related compounds in drinking and surface water as well as in industrial effluent. Optimization of the method was achieved by using a central composite design approach on parameters such as the sample pH and SPE eluent composition. A single SPE consisting of the loading on a polymeric sorbent of 100 mL of sample adjusted to pH 3 and elution with methanol/methylene chloride (10:90, v/v) permitted the obtaining of acceptable recoveries in most cases. The concentration factor associated with sensitivity of the chromatographic analysis permitted the achievement of the method limit of detection values between 0.01 and 0.25 ?g L(-1). Recovery assays presented mean recoveries between 70 and 120% for most of the compounds with very good precision, despite the different chemical nature of the compounds analyzed. The selectivity of the method, evaluated through the relative intensity of quantification and qualification ions obtained by GC-QqQ-MS/MS, was considered adequate. The developed method was finally applied to the determination of target analytes in real samples. River water and treated industrial effluent samples presented residues of some compounds, but no detectable residues were found in the drinking water samples evaluated. PMID:23995504

  15. Dissipation, metabolism and sorption of pesticides used in fruit-packaging plants: Towards an optimized depuration of their pesticide-contaminated agro-industrial effluents.

    PubMed

    Karas, Panagiotis; Metsoviti, Aria; Zisis, Vasileios; Ehaliotis, Constantinos; Omirou, Michalis; Papadopoulou, Evangelia S; Menkissoglou-Spiroudi, Urania; Manta, Stella; Komiotis, Dimitri; Karpouzas, Dimitrios G

    2015-10-15

    Wastewaters from the fruit-packaging industry constitute a serious point source contamination with pesticides. In the absence of effective depuration methods, they are discharged in municipal wastewater treatment plants or spread to land. Modified biobeds could be an applicable solution for their treatment. We studied the dissipation of thiabendazole (TBZ), imazalil (IMZ), ortho-phenylphenol (OPP), diphenylamine (DPA) and ethoxyquin (EQ), used by the fruit-packaging industry, in anaerobically digested sewage sludge, liquid aerobic sewage sludge and in various organic substrates (biobeds packing materials) composed of soil, straw and spend mushroom substrate (SMS) in various volumetric ratios. Pesticide sorption was also determined. TBZ and IMZ showed higher persistence especially in the anaerobically digested sewage sludge (DT50=32.3-257.6d), in contrast to OPP and DPA which were rapidly dissipated especially in liquid aerobic sewage sludge (DT50=1.3-9.3d). EQ was rapidly oxidized mainly to quinone imine (QI) which did not persist and dimethyl ethoxyquinoline (EQNL, minor metabolite) which persisted for longer. Sterilization of liquid aerobic sewage sludge inhibited pesticide decay verifying the microbial nature of pesticide dissipation. Organic substrates rich in SMS showed the highest dissipation capacity with TBZ and IMZ DT50s of ca. 28 d compared to DT50s of >50 d in the other substrates. TBZ and IMZ showed the highest sorption affinity, whereas OPP and DPA were weakly sorbed. Our findings suggest that current disposal practices could not guarantee an efficient depuration of effluents from the fruit-packaging industry, whereas SMS-rich biobed organic substrates show efficient depuration of effluents from the fruit-packaging industry via accelerated dissipation even of recalcitrant fungicides. PMID:26042894

  16. Effects of domestic and industrial pollution on distribution and abundance of aquatic oligochaetes in the Forth estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLusky, D. S.; Teare, M.; Phizacklea, P.

    1980-03-01

    The Forth estuary is a major estuary on the east coast of Scotland; it receives effluent from domestic and industrial (petro-chemical and distilling) sources. Following a study on the distribution of the macrofauna of the intertidal areas in relation to pollution (McLusky et al., 1978), this paper is concerned with the distribution and abundance of aquatic oligochaetes and the small polychaete Manayunkia aestuarina in relation to estuarine salinity, organic enrichment, and industrial effluent. In the most polluted parts of the estuary oligochaetes are the sole inhabitants of the mudflats; in other less polluted flats they are very abundant. In the least polluted parts the numbers of oligochaetes diminish as the numbers and diversity of macrofauna increase. Estimates of the production of oligochaetes are given.

  17. Economic benefits of final effluent limitations guidelines and standards for the offshore oil and gas industry. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-14

    The report provides an overview of the benefits analysis of the effluent limitation guidelines for offshore oil and gas facilities. Regulatory options were evaluated for two wastestreams: (1) drilling fluids (muds) and cuttings; and (2) produced water. The analysis focuses on the human health-related benefits of the regulatory options considered. These health risk reduction benefits are associated with reduced human exposure to various carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic contaminants, including lead, by way of consumption of shrimp and recreationally caught finfish from the Gulf of Mexico. Most of the health-risk reduction benefits analysis is based upon a previous report (RCG/Hagler, Bailly, January 1991), developed in support of the proposed rulemaking. Recreational, commercial, and nonuse benefits have not been estimated for these regulations, due to data limitations and the difficulty of estimating these values for effluent controls in the open-water marine environment.

  18. Process-specific emission characteristics of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from petrochemical facilities in the Yangtze River Delta, China.

    PubMed

    Mo, Ziwei; Shao, Min; Lu, Sihua; Qu, Hang; Zhou, Mengyi; Sun, Jin; Gou, Bin

    2015-11-15

    Process-specific emission characteristics of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from petrochemical facilities were investigated in the Yangtze River Delta, China. Source samples were collected from various process units in the petrochemical, basic chemical, and chlorinated chemical plants, and were measured using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/flame ionization detection. The results showed that propane (19.9%), propene (11.7%), ethane (9.5%) and i-butane (9.2%) were the most abundant species in the petrochemical plant, with propene at much higher levels than in petrochemical profiles measured in other regions. Styrene (15.3%), toluene (10.3%) and 1,3-butadiene (7.5%) were the major species in the basic chemical industry, while halocarbons, especially dichloromethane (15.2%) and chloromethane (7.5%), were substantial in the chlorinated chemical plant. Composite profiles were calculated using a weight-average approach based on the VOC emission strength of various process units. Emission profiles for an entire petrochemical-related industry were found to be process-oriented and should be established considering the differences in VOC emissions from various manufacturing facilities. The VOC source reactivity and carcinogenic risk potential of each process unit were also calculated in this study, suggesting that process operations mainly producing alkenes should be targeted for possible controls with respect to reducing the ozone formation potential, while process units emitting 1,3-butadiene should be under priority control in terms of toxicity. This provides a basis for further measurements of process-specific VOC emissions from the entire petrochemical industry. Meanwhile, more representative samples should be collected to reduce the large uncertainties. PMID:26179779

  19. Degradation and monitoring of acetamiprid, thiabendazole and their transformation products in an agro-food industry effluent during solar photo-Fenton treatment in a raceway pond reactor.

    PubMed

    Carra, Irene; Sirtori, Carla; Ponce-Robles, Laura; Sánchez Pérez, José Antonio; Malato, Sixto; Agüera, Ana

    2015-07-01

    In this study, pesticides acetamiprid and thiabendazole and their transformation products (TPs), seven from each pesticide, were successfully monitored during solar photo-Fenton treatment in a real secondary effluent from an agro-food industry spiked with 100?gL(-1) of each pesticide. To this end, a highly sensitive procedure was developed, based on liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to hybrid quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometry (QqLIT-MS). In addition, finding low-cost and operational technology for the application of AOPs would then facilitate their use on a commercial level. Simple and extensive photoreactors such as raceway pond reactors (RPRs) are therefore proposed as an alternative for the application of solar photo-Fenton. Results showed that high degradation could be achieved in a complex water matrix (>99% TBZ and 91% ACTM in 240min) using a 120-L RPR pilot plant as novel technology. The analyses indicated that after the treatment only three TPs from ACTM were still present in the effluent, while the others had been removed. The study showed that the goal of either just removing the parent compounds, or going one step further and removing all the TPs, can significantly change the treatment time, which would affect process costs. PMID:25841181

  20. Petrochemical processes '95: A special report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-03-01

    This data compilation describes application, synthesis process, yields, economics, commercial plants, and licensor for the following chemicals: alkylbenzene, methyl amines, ammonia, benzene, bisphenol-A, BTX aromatics, butadiene, butanediol, butene-1, butylene, butyraldehyde, caprolactam, cumene, cyclohexane, dimethyl terephthalate, ethanolamines, ethers, ethylbenzene, ethylene, ethylene glycols, ethylene oxide, formaldehyde, isobutane, isobutylene, maleic anhydride, methanol, olefins, paraxylene, phenol, polycaproamide, polyethylenes, polypropylene, polystyrene, propylene, PVC, styrene, urea, vinyl chloride, and xylene isomers. Also included is the licensor index, an inclusive listing of all petrochemical licensors and their technologies.

  1. Exploiting the efficacy of Lysinibacillus sp. RGS for decolorization and detoxification of industrial dyes, textile effluent and bioreactor studies.

    PubMed

    Saratale, Rijuta G; Saratale, Ganesh D; Govindwar, Sanjay P; Kim, Dong S

    2015-01-01

    Complete decolorization and detoxification of Reactive Orange 4 within 5 h (pH 6.6, at 30°C) by isolated Lysinibacillus sp. RGS was observed. Significant reduction in TOC (93%) and COD (90%) was indicative of conversion of complex dye into simple products, which were identified as naphthalene moieties by various analytical techniques (HPLC, FTIR, and GC-MS). Supplementation of agricultural waste extract considered as better option to make the process cost effective. Oxido-reductive enzymes were found to be involved in the degradation mechanism. Finally Loofa immobilized Lysinibacillus sp. cells in a fixed-bed bioreactor showed significant decolorization with reduction in TOC (51 and 64%) and COD (54 and 66%) for synthetic and textile effluent at 30 and 35 mL h(-1) feeding rate, respectively. The degraded metabolites showed non-toxic nature revealed by phytotoxicity and photosynthetic pigments content study for Sorghum vulgare and Phaseolus mungo. In addition nitrogen fixing and phosphate solubilizing microbes were less affected in treated wastewater and thus the treated effluent can be used for the irrigation purpose. This work could be useful for the development of efficient and ecofriendly technologies to reduce dye content in the wastewater to permissible levels at affordable cost. PMID:25560264

  2. Concern About Petrochemical Health Risk Before and After a Refinery Explosion

    PubMed Central

    Cutchin, Malcolm P.; Martin, Kathryn Remmes; Owen, Steven V.; Goodwin, James S.

    2014-01-01

    On March 23, 2005, a large explosion at an oil refinery in Texas City, Texas caused 15 deaths and approximately 170 injuries. Little is known about how such an industrial accident influences concern about environmental health risks. We used measures of environmental health concern about nearby petrochemical production with a sample of Texas City residents to understand patterns of concern and change in concern after an industrial accident, as well as individual and contextual factors associated with those patterns. Survey interviews with residents of Texas City, Texas (N =315) both pre- and postexplosion using a brief Concern About Petrochemical Health Risk Scale (CAPHRS) and other questions were used to collect pertinent predictor information. CAPHRS baseline, postexplosion, and change scores were compared and modeled using ordinary least squares (OLS) regression and a mixed model. Higher preexplosion CAPHRS scores were predicted by younger adults, foreign-born Hispanics, non-Hispanic blacks, lower- and middle-income groups, and those who live with someone who has worked at the petrochemical plants. Higher CAPHRS change scores are predicted by the same variables (except income), as well as proximity to, or perception of, the explosion, and reports of neighborhood damage. Findings suggest these groups’ concern scores could indicate a greater vulnerability to psychological and physical harm generated by concern and stress arising from local petrochemical activities. A clearer understanding of concern about actual environmental health risks in exposed populations may enhance the evolving theory of stress and coping and eventually enable public health professionals to develop appropriate mitigation strategies. PMID:18643817

  3. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act industrial site environmental restoration site characterization plan. Area 6 Steam Cleaning Effluent Ponds

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    This plan presents the strategy for the characterization of the Area 6 South and North Steam Cleaning Effluent Ponds (SCEPs) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) to be conducted for the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), Environmental Restoration Division (ERD). The purposes of the planned activities are to: obtain sufficient, sample analytical data from which further assessment, remediation, and/or closure strategies may be developed for the site; obtain sufficient, sample analytical data for management of investigation-derived waste (IDW). The scope of the characterization may include excavation, drilling, and sampling of soil in and around both ponds; sampling of the excavated material; in situ sampling of the soil at the bottom and on the sides of the excavations as well as within subsurface borings; and conducting sample analysis for both characterization and waste management purposes. Contaminants of concern include RCRA-regulated VOCs and metals.

  4. Coagulation pretreatment of highly concentrated acrylonitrile wastewater from petrochemical plants.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Dongju; Qin, Lin; Wang, Tao; Ren, Xiaojing; Zhang, Zhongguo; Li, Jiding

    2014-01-01

    Acrylonitrile (AN) wastewater is a heavily polluted and a likely hazardous liquid that is generated during the production of AN. Several chemical methods for the pretreatment of AN wastewater are available in laboratory scale. However, the harsh reaction conditions and high operational cost make these methods undesirable. Until now, four-effect evaporation is the only pretreatment method used for AN wastewater in industry despite its huge energy consumption and high cost. It is difficult to find an energy-saving pretreatment technique from the perspective of industrial application. In this study, a safe and low-cost coagulation technique was developed for the pretreatment of AN wastewater. Three types of inorganic coagulant and three types of polymer coagulant were investigated for the coagulation treatment of highly concentrated AN wastewater from petrochemical plants. The effects of coagulant type, dosage, and coagulation conditions on the pretreatment efficiency of AN wastewater were investigated. The results show that a combination of inorganic and polymer coagulants is effective for the pretreatment of AN wastewater. PMID:25051483

  5. Deposition of chromium in aquatic ecosystem from effluents of handloom textile industries in Ranaghat-Fulia region of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Sanyal, Tanmay; Kaviraj, Anilava; Saha, Subrata

    2015-11-01

    Accumulation of chromium (Cr) was determined in water, sediment, aquatic plants, invertebrates and fish in aquatic ecosystems receiving effluents from handloom textile industries in Ranaghat-Fulia region of West Bengal in India. Cr was determined in the samples by atomic absorption spectrophotometer and data were analyzed functionally by Genetic Algorithm to determine trend of depositions of Cr in the sediment and water. Area plot curve was used to represent accumulation of Cr in biota. The results indicate that the aquatic ecosystems receiving the effluents from handloom textile factories are heavily contaminated by Cr. The contamination is hardly reflected in the concentration of Cr in water, but sediment exhibits seasonal fluctuation in deposition of Cr, concentration reaching to as high as 451.0 ?g g(-1) during the peak production period. There is a clear trend of gradual increase in the deposition of Cr in the sediment. Aquatic weed, insect and mollusk specimens collected from both closed water bodies (S1 & S2) and riverine resources (S3 & S4) showed high rate of accumulation of Cr. Maximum concentration of Cr was detected in roots of aquatic weeds (877.5 ?g g(-1)). Fish specimens collected from the polluted sites (S3 & S4) of river Churni showed moderate to high concentration of Cr in different tissues. Maximum concentration was detected in the liver of Glossogobius giuris (679.7 ?g g(-1)) during monsoon followed by gill of Mystus bleekeri (190.0 ?g g(-1)) and gut of G. giuris (123.7 ?g g(-1)) during summer. Eutropiichthys vacha showed moderately high concentration of Cr in different tissues (65-99 ?g g(-1)) while Puntius sarana showed relatively low concentration of Cr (below detection limit to 18.0 ?g g(-1)) in different tissues except in gill (64.4 ?g g(-1)). PMID:26644938

  6. Deposition of chromium in aquatic ecosystem from effluents of handloom textile industries in Ranaghat–Fulia region of West Bengal, India

    PubMed Central

    Sanyal, Tanmay; Kaviraj, Anilava; Saha, Subrata

    2014-01-01

    Accumulation of chromium (Cr) was determined in water, sediment, aquatic plants, invertebrates and fish in aquatic ecosystems receiving effluents from handloom textile industries in Ranaghat–Fulia region of West Bengal in India. Cr was determined in the samples by atomic absorption spectrophotometer and data were analyzed functionally by Genetic Algorithm to determine trend of depositions of Cr in the sediment and water. Area plot curve was used to represent accumulation of Cr in biota. The results indicate that the aquatic ecosystems receiving the effluents from handloom textile factories are heavily contaminated by Cr. The contamination is hardly reflected in the concentration of Cr in water, but sediment exhibits seasonal fluctuation in deposition of Cr, concentration reaching to as high as 451.0 ?g g?1 during the peak production period. There is a clear trend of gradual increase in the deposition of Cr in the sediment. Aquatic weed, insect and mollusk specimens collected from both closed water bodies (S1 & S2) and riverine resources (S3 & S4) showed high rate of accumulation of Cr. Maximum concentration of Cr was detected in roots of aquatic weeds (877.5 ?g g?1). Fish specimens collected from the polluted sites (S3 & S4) of river Churni showed moderate to high concentration of Cr in different tissues. Maximum concentration was detected in the liver of Glossogobius giuris (679.7 ?g g?1) during monsoon followed by gill of Mystus bleekeri (190.0 ?g g?1) and gut of G. giuris (123.7 ?g g?1) during summer. Eutropiichthys vacha showed moderately high concentration of Cr in different tissues (65–99 ?g g?1) while Puntius sarana showed relatively low concentration of Cr (below detection limit to 18.0 ?g g?1) in different tissues except in gill (64.4 ?g g?1). PMID:26644938

  7. Environmental Exposure to Emissions from Petrochemical Sites and Lung Cancer: The Lower Mississippi Interagency Cancer Study

    PubMed Central

    Simonsen, Neal; Scribner, Richard; Su, L. Joseph; Williams, Donna; Luckett, Brian; Yang, Tong; Fontham, Elizabeth T. H.

    2010-01-01

    To investigate potential links between environmental exposure to petrochemical plant emissions and lung cancer, a population-based case-control study (LMRICS) was conducted in eleven Louisiana parishes bordering the Mississippi River. Cases and age, gender, and race-matched controls were interviewed regarding potential risk factors. Residential history was geocoded to provide indices of long-term proximity to industrial sites. Cases were more likely to have lived near a petrochemical site. Models adjusted for other risk factors, however, showed small or no association with lung cancer (odds ratio for residence within a half-mile of a site = 1.10, 95% confidence interval 0.58–2.08). While associations were strongest for exposures exceeding 15 years, none approached statistical significance and there was no clear dose-response across exposure duration, distance categories, or when sites were grouped according to carcinogenicity rating of chemical releases. Residential proximity to petrochemical plants along the lower Mississippi thus showed no significant association with lung cancer. PMID:20300547

  8. TOTAL RECYCLE SYSTEMS FOR PETROCHEMICAL WASTE BRINES CONTAINING REFRACTORY CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Petrochemical wastewaters containing relatively high concentrations of salt and refractory organics were selected to study their feasibility for total recycle. A combination of reverse osmosis and electrodialysis was operated as a hybrid system using the pretreated wastes to prod...

  9. Excess cancer mortality among children and adolescents in residential districts polluted by petrochemical manufacturing plants in Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Bi Jen Pan; Yu Jue Hong; Gwo Chin Chang; Frigyes F. Cinkotai; Ying Chin Ko; Ming Tsan Wang

    1994-12-31

    We have collected data on the cancer deaths of children and adolescents 0-19 yr old living in a residential area near 3 large petroleum and petrochemical complexes in and near Kaohsiung city (petrochemical industrial districts, PIDs) in the period of 1971-1990 and compared these with the cancer deaths of children and adolescents 0-19 yr old among the entire population of Taiwan (national reference) and among the residents of 26 administrative districts, comprising all of Kaohsiung city and Kaohsiung county (local reference), except for 8 sparsely populated, rural districts. Having scrutinized all cancer death certificates, we have identified various statistically significant excess deaths, as compared with the national and local reference, due to cancers at all sites. Cancer of the bone, brain, and bladder in boys and girls 0-9 yr and 10-19 yr of age in the 1981-1990 decade that followed the establishment of petrochemical production in the PIDs was studied. However, excess cancer deaths seemed to have clustered in the 10-19 yr age group, who had been potentially exposed to the petrochemical pollutants for the longest period of time from the youngest age. Almost all bone, brain, and bladder cancer deaths registered were within 3 km of the 3 complexes. Bone and brain cancers in particular occurred in girls in the PIDs more frequently than in boys, even though these are believed to occur more in males than females elsewhere. 32 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  10. A cohort mortality study of petrochemical workers

    SciTech Connect

    Austin, S.G.; Schnatter, A.R.

    1983-04-01

    A historical prospective cohort mortality study was conducted for a cohort of 6,588 white male employees of a Texas petrochemical plant because of a suspected increased incidence of malignant brain tumors. Mortality experience from 1941 to 1977 was determined and compared with that of the general U.S. white male population adjusting for age and time period. Overall and cause-specific standardized mortality ratios were calculated for various subgroups of the population defined by length of employment, latency and payroll status. Significant deficits in total cohort mortality were found for all causes of death, all circulatory diseases, all respiratory diseases and all digestive diseases. Although not statistically significant, fewer deaths were observed (O) than expected (E) for all malignant neoplasms. No statistically significant excess of malignant brain tumors was found in the overall plant population (O/E = 12/7.42 = 1.62). A borderline significant excess of brain cancer deaths was found among hourly employees with more than six months' employment based on 10 observed and five expected deaths. This excess was observed to occur among elderly employees (over 55 years) and in later follow-up years (post-1970). Risk did not appear to be related to length of employment. Because of the nature of the problem that prompted this study, the small number of cases involved and the lack of a suspect agent in the plant that could have produced this excess, insufficient evidence was found to conclude that these tumors were occupationally related.

  11. Observations from Energy Audits in the Petrochemical Industry 

    E-print Network

    Govindan, T. S.

    1979-01-01

    versus fuel fired, two stage energy input to use low level waste heat, etc.) o Reflux control in distillation columns, energy input control in dryers, etc. 3. Energy recovery potential: o Heat recovery and process heat exchange o Energy recovery... and with standard controls, most operators like to run with a little more boil up to be "on the safe side." In the simplest computerized control system, the reflux flow is adjusted on a feedback basis to maintain a desired reflux ratio. Some averaging is used...

  12. Developing Process Safety Indicators for Organizational Factors in Petrochemical Industries 

    E-print Network

    Alnashwan, Mohammed

    2015-07-09

    Most major process safety incidents are preventable and can be avoided as shown in several incident investigation reports. Moreover, these reports indicated that these incidents were certain to occur as shown from the related near-misses and safety...

  13. Toxicity Identification Evaluation (Phase I) of water and sediment samples from a tropical reservoir contaminated with industrial and domestic effluents.

    PubMed

    Matos, Mariana de F; Botta, Clarice Maria Rispoli; Fonseca, Ana Lúcia

    2014-11-01

    The Funil Reservoir (Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil) is an environment degraded by constant discharge of nutrients and pollution coming from the most industrialized region of the country. As a consequence of eutrophication, there are continuous cyanobacteria blooms, which cause acute and chronic toxicity to zooplankton. In this context, Phase I of Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) was performed on Daphnia similis using water and interstitial water from the reservoir, with the aim of identifying classes of compounds responsible for toxicity. The results indicated that water toxicity was due to cyanobacteria resulting from blooms in the reservoir and surfactants. Metals, especially copper, contributed to sediment toxicity. This research is the first attempt to describe the nature of toxicity in this reservoir using this method. PMID:25103213

  14. Energy And The Foods Processing Industry 

    E-print Network

    Baker, R.

    2001-01-01

    heat to another step of the process. This analysis of heat inputs and outputs is known as "Pinch Technology". Pinch Technology has been employed in the Petrochemical industry for decades. A methodical, brutally analytical mapping of process flows...

  15. Uranium behaviour in an estuary polluted by mining and industrial effluents: the Ría of Huelva (SW of Spain).

    PubMed

    Hierro, A; Martín, J E; Olías, M; Vaca, F; Bolivar, J P

    2013-10-15

    This paper describes a comprehensive study of the behaviour of U in the Ría of Huelva estuary, formed by the Tinto and Odiel rivers. This ecosystem is conditioned by two hydrochemical facts: one connected with the acid mining drainage (AMD) generated in the first section of the river basins, and another one related to the fertilizer industry located at the estuary. AMD gives a singular character to these rivers; low pH and high redox potential that keep high amounts of toxic elements and radionuclides in dissolution. Most of the data for dissolved U in estuaries indicate conservative mixing, but there are examples of non-conservative behaviour attributed to oxidation/reduction processes or solubility variations. In the Ría of Huelva estuary the U shows a non-conservative behaviour due to solubility changes produced by variations in the pH. A complete removal of riverine dissolved U is observed in a pH range of 4-6. At higher pH values, U release from suspended matter, and probably also from sediments into the dissolved phase is found. PMID:23973258

  16. Toxicity identification in metal plating effluent: implications in establishing effluent discharge limits using bioassays in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunhee; Jun, You-Ree; Jo, Hun-Je; Shim, Seung-Bo; Jung, Jinho

    2008-01-01

    Because of complexity and diversity of toxicants in effluent, chemical analysis alone gives very limited information on identifying toxic chemicals to test organisms. Toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) techniques have been widely used to identify toxicants in various samples including industrial wastewater as well as natural waters. In response to new regulation for effluent discharge in Korea, which will be effective from 2011, a necessity of studies emerges that investigates toxicity levels in industrial effluents. This work was a preliminary study examining toxicity levels in effluent from one metal plating factory using Daphnia magna (48 h immobility) and identifying toxicity-causing substances. Toxicity tests showed variability on different sampling occasions and the results of TIE methods indicated that both organic compounds and metals contributed to the observed toxicity in metal plating effluent. Further studies are necessary to help reduce effluent toxicity especially from direct dischargers, who will have to comply with the new regulation. PMID:18406429

  17. Synergize fuel and petrochemical processing plans with catalytic reforming

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    Depending on the market, refiner`s plans to produce clean fuels and higher value petrochemicals will weigh heavily on the catalytic reformer`s flexibility. It seems that as soon as a timely article related to catalytic reforming operations is published, a new {open_quotes}boutique{close_quotes} gasoline fuel specification is slapped on to existing fuel standards, affecting reformer operations and processing objectives. Just as importantly, the petrochemical market (such as aromatics) that refiners are targeting, can be very fickle. That`s why process engineers have endeavored to maintain an awareness of the flexibility that technology suppliers are building into modern catalytic reformers.

  18. LANDFILLS EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS GUIDELINES DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Resource Purpose:This resource served as the main information source for national characteristics of landfills for the landfills effluent guidelines. The database was developed based on responses to the "1994 Waste Treatment Industry Questionnaire: Phase II Landfills" and...

  19. Understanding the petrochemical cycle: Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Sedriks, W. )

    1994-03-01

    Fitness in the hydrocarbon processing industry (HPI) arena involves understanding and coping with business cycles: supply and demand. This becomes increasingly more important as the industry globalizes and matures. Competitive-edge thinking needs to look hard at the forces that influence business cycles. Recognition of potential pitfalls is very important when considering: future capacity expansion, mergers and acquisitions, market departure, plant closure, potential product substitution, etc. Understanding pricing mechanisms and the workings of hockey-stick profitability profiles help HPI operators endure cycle downturns and prepare plants to maximize profits for the next upswing. The paper discusses characteristic trends, cycles in the hydrocarbon processing industry, current conditions, and mitigating cycle effects.

  20. 89. ARAIII. Petrochem oilfired gas heater installed in reactor building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    89. ARA-III. Petro-chem oil-fired gas heater installed in reactor building (ARA-608). View is at floor level. Shows hand rails around heater pit and top of pit extending upwards through ceiling. January 20, 1959. Ineel photo no. 59-321. Photographer: Jack L. Anderson. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  1. Occurrence and distribution of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in industrial and domestic sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Balasubramani, Aparna; Rifai, Hanadi S

    2015-10-01

    Sewage sludge samples collected from 43 different domestic and industrial wastewater treatment plants and petrochemical industries that discharge to the Houston Ship Channel (HSC) were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), which are highly toxic and carcinogenic towards humans and animals. The measured total PCDD/F toxic equivalency (TEQ) ranged between 0.73 and 7348.40 pg/g dry weight. The mean TEQ of PCDD/Fs in industrial sludge was approximately 40 times higher than that in sewage sludge. The PCDD homolog concentrations in the industrial samples were higher than those observed at the wastewater treatment plants by a factor of 10, with total heptachlorodibenzodioxin (HpCDD) exhibiting the maximum concentration in most of the samples. Among the PCDF homologs, total heptadichlorodibenzofuran (HpCDF) dominated the total homolog concentration in sludge from the wastewater treatment plants, whereas total tetradichlorodibenzofuran (TeCDF) dominated the industrial sludge samples. Overall, the total PCDD/F TEQ in sludge samples was much higher than that in effluent samples from the same facility. A linear correlation (R (2)?=?0.62, p value?effluent concentrations in wastewater treatment plants but not for industrial discharges. PMID:25989862

  2. Pulp mill effluents: Activated sludge treatment process. (Latest citations from the Paper and Board, Printing, and Packaging Industries Research Associations database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning plant histories, laboratory analyses, field applications, performance evaluations, and cost factors of pulping mill activated sludge treatment facilities. Monitoring techniques of the activated sludge effluent treatment process, and operating problems and solutions are discussed. Computerized simulation of activated sludge plants is included. (Contains a minimum of 75 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  3. CO{sub 2} Reuse in Petrochemical Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Jason Trembly; Brian Turk; Maruthi Pavani; Jon McCarty; Chris Boggs; Aqil Jamal; Raghubir Gupta

    2010-12-31

    To address public concerns regarding the consequences of climate change from anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions, the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) is actively funding a CO{sub 2} management program to develop technologies capable of mitigating CO{sub 2} emissions from power plant and industrial facilities. Over the past decade, this program has focused on reducing the costs of carbon capture and storage technologies. Recently, DOE/NETL launched an alternative CO{sub 2} mitigation program focused on beneficial CO{sub 2} reuse to support the development of technologies that mitigate emissions by converting CO{sub 2} into valuable chemicals and fuels. RTI, with DOE/NETL support, has been developing an innovative beneficial CO{sub 2} reuse process for converting CO{sub 2} into substitute natural gas (SNG) by using by-product hydrogen (H{sub 2)-containing fuel gas from petrochemical facilities. This process leveraged commercial reactor technology currently used in fluid catalytic crackers in petroleum refining and a novel nickel (Ni)-based catalyst developed by RTI. The goal was to generate an SNG product that meets the pipeline specifications for natural gas, making the SNG product completely compatible with the existing natural gas infrastructure. RTI's technology development efforts focused on demonstrating the technical feasibility of this novel CO{sub 2} reuse process and obtaining the necessary engineering information to design a pilot demonstration unit for converting about 4 tons per day (tons/day) of CO{sub 2} into SNG at a suitable host site. This final report describes the results of the Phase I catalyst and process development efforts. The methanation activity of several commercial fixed-bed catalysts was evaluated under fluidized-bed conditions in a bench-scale reactor to identify catalyst performance targets. RTI developed two fluidizable Ni-based catalyst formulations (Cat-1 and Cat-3) that demonstrated equal or better performance than that of commercial methanation catalysts. The Cat-1 and Cat-3 formulations were successfully scaled up using commercial manufacturing equipment at the Sud-Chemie Inc. pilot-plant facility in Louisville, KY. Pilot transport reactor testing with RTI's Cat-1 formulation at Kellog Brown & Root's Technology Center demonstrated the ability of the process to achieve high single-pass CO{sub 2} conversion. Using information acquired from bench- and pilot-scale testing, a basic engineering design package was prepared for a 4-ton/day CO{sub 2} pilot demonstration unit, including process and instrumentation diagrams, equipment list, control philosophy, and preliminary cost estimate.

  4. The U.S. Chemical Industry, the Raw Materials It Uses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1972

    1972-01-01

    The raw materials used by the industry are considered in this section of the annual chemical industry report, including data covering: natural gas, lead, mercury, phosphate rock, potash, salt, petroleum products including petrochemical feedstocks. (PR)

  5. Radio Frequency & Microwave Energy for the Petro Chemical Industry 

    E-print Network

    Raburn, R.

    1999-01-01

    Electro-Magnetic Energy has finally made its way into the Petro-Chemical market twenty-five years after market acceptance in the Food Processing Industry. Major factors influencing this change are tighter environmental regulations, price competition...

  6. TOXICITY TESTS OF EFFLUENTS WITH MARSH PLANTS IN WATER AND SEDIMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methods are described for toxicity testing of water and sediment with the rooted marsh plants, Echinochloa crusgalli var. crusgalli and var. zelavensis (freshwater) and Spartina alterniflora (estuarine). ive industrial effluents, a sewage treatment plant effluent and a herbicide ...

  7. The reuse of biosludge as an adsorbent from a petrochemical wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Hung-Lung; Choa, Ching-Guan; Chen, Shih-Yu; Tsai, Mu-Chuan

    2003-09-01

    Biosludge was obtained from a petrochemical industry's biological wastewater treatment plant. Zinc chloride (ZnCl2) was used as a sludge activation agent during the pyrolytic process. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) image photographs, element composition, surface functional group, and pore structure were analyzed for the sludge adsorbent characteristics. Results indicated the proper ZnCl2-immersed concentration, pyrolytic temperature, and time could produce adsorbent from the biosludge. The optimal conditions for a larger surface area adsorbent were 3 M ZnCl2-immersed sludge pyrolyzed at 600 degrees C for 30 min and washed with 3 N hydrochloric acid (HCl) solution and distilled water. The predominant pore size of the sludge adsorbent was the mesopore. PMID:13678362

  8. Industrial Fuel Flexibility Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2006-09-01

    On September 28, 2006, in Washington, DC, ITP and Booz Allen Hamilton conducted a fuel flexibility workshop with attendance from various stakeholder groups. Workshop participants included representatives from the petrochemical, refining, food and beverage, steel and metals, pulp and paper, cement and glass manufacturing industries; as well as representatives from industrial boiler manufacturers, technology providers, energy and waste service providers, the federal government and national laboratories, and developers and financiers.

  9. Carbohydrate-mediated purification of petrochemicals.

    PubMed

    Holcroft, James M; Hartlieb, Karel J; Moghadam, Peyman Z; Bell, Jon G; Barin, Gokhan; Ferris, Daniel P; Bloch, Eric D; Algaradah, Mohammed M; Nassar, Majed S; Botros, Youssry Y; Thomas, K Mark; Long, Jeffrey R; Snurr, Randall Q; Stoddart, J Fraser

    2015-05-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are known to facilitate energy-efficient separations of important industrial chemical feedstocks. Here, we report how a class of green MOFs-namely CD-MOFs-exhibits high shape selectivity toward aromatic hydrocarbons. CD-MOFs, which consist of an extended porous network of ?-cyclodextrins (?-CDs) and alkali metal cations, can separate a wide range of benzenoid compounds as a result of their relative orientation and packing within the transverse channels formed from linking (?-CD)6 body-centered cuboids in three dimensions. Adsorption isotherms and liquid-phase chromatographic measurements indicate a retention order of ortho- > meta- > para-xylene. The persistence of this regioselectivity is also observed during the liquid-phase chromatography of the ethyltoluene and cymene regioisomers. In addition, molecular shape-sorting within CD-MOFs facilitates the separation of the industrially relevant BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene isomers) mixture. The high resolution and large separation factors exhibited by CD-MOFs for benzene and these alkylaromatics provide an efficient, reliable, and green alternative to current isolation protocols. Furthermore, the isolation of the regioisomers of (i) ethyltoluene and (ii) cymene, together with the purification of (iii) cumene from its major impurities (benzene, n-propylbenzene, and diisopropylbenzene) highlight the specificity of the shape selectivity exhibited by CD-MOFs. Grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations and single component static vapor adsorption isotherms and kinetics reveal the origin of the shape selectivity and provide insight into the capability of CD-MOFs to serve as versatile separation platforms derived from renewable sources. PMID:25806952

  10. LC-MS-MS analysis and occurrence of octyl- and nonylphenol, their ethoxylates and their carboxylates in Belgian and Italian textile industry, waste water treatment plant effluents and surface waters.

    PubMed

    Loos, Robert; Hanke, Georg; Umlauf, Gunther; Eisenreich, Steven J

    2007-01-01

    Alkylphenols (APs), alkylphenol ethoxylates (APEOs), ethoxycarboxylate metabolites (APECs) and bisphenol A were determined in surface water using solid-phase extraction (SPE) followed by triple-quadrupole LC-MS-MS. APs were separated by LC from APECs using an acetonitrile-water-gradient without the addition of any buffer. Nonylphenol ethoxycarboxylates (NPECs) interfere in the detection of nonylphenols (NPs) when using an acidic mobile phase, because they produce the same MS-MS fragment ions (219>133 and 147). 4n-NP shows the characteristic transition 219>106; it is well suited as internal standard. Nonylphenol ethoxylates NPE(n)Os (n=1-17) were analysed separately in a second run by positive ionization using an ammonium acetate mobile phase. Textile industry discharges, the corresponding wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents and the receiving rivers in Belgium and Italy were analysed. Among the substances investigated, NPE1C and NPE2O exhibited the highest concentrations in the water samples, up to 4.5 microg l(-1) NPE1C in a WWTP effluent and 3.6 microg l(-1) NPE2O in a river. The highest NP levels were found in the receiving rivers (max. 2.5 microg l(-1)). The predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) for NP of 0.33 microg l(-1) for water species was frequently exceeded in the surface waters investigated, suggesting potential adverse effects to the aquatic environment. PMID:16949635

  11. Health planning for remote petrochemical field operations

    SciTech Connect

    Krieger, G.R.; Balge, M.Z.

    1995-12-31

    Occupational/Public Health Services are becoming increasingly required in projects that involve the extended presence of expatriates in remote underdeveloped areas of the world. These ``expats`` are defined as individuals living and working in the environment who are not indigenous to the area. Under this definition, workers who are resistant to a ``local`` strain of malaria and then relocate to another geographic within the same country can also be considered as ``biologic expatriates`` since their resistance profile for certain tropical diseases is not reflective of their new environment. Unlike a major infrastructure project in the industrialized world, project planners in remote areas of the developing world should be expected to make significant long term medical and environmental commitments. US companies have extensive experience in the business of large-scale development projects, e.g. oil and gas pipelines and well field development; however, these projects represent major long-term in-country commitments with potentially large labor forces and substantial and sustained impacts on local health and safety resources. The initial structuring of health and safety programs will, therefore, have long-term ramifications on the project both during construction and ``routine`` operations since the multi-national companies are increasingly expected to develop and maintain self-sustaining health, safety and environmental programs.

  12. Mortality and morbidity study of petrochemical employees in a polluted site

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The area of Gela was included among the 57 Italian polluted sites of national interest for environmental remediation because of its widespread contamination from a petrochemical complex. The present study investigates mortality and morbidity of the cohort of Gela petrochemical workers with the aim of disentangling occupational from residential risk. Methods Mortality was assessed for 5,627 men hired from 1960, year of the plant start-up, to 1993; it was followed up for vital status in the period 1960–2002. Morbidity was analysed for 5,431 workers neither dead nor lost to follow-up from 1960 to 2001 and was based on Hospital Discharge Records in the period 2001–2006. The work experience was classified in terms of job categories such as blue collars, white collars, and both – workers who shifted from blue to white collar (95%) or vice versa. An ad hoc mobility model was applied to define qualitative categories of residence in Gela, as residents and commuters. Standardized Mortality Ratios (SMRs) and Mortality Rate Ratios (MRRs) were computed, the latter by using a Poisson regression model. Morbidity was analyzed in terms of Hospital Discharge Odds Ratios (HDORs) through a logistic regression model. While performing the internal comparisons, white collars was the reference category for the job analysis, and commuters was the reference category for the residential analysis. Results In the light of epidemiological evidence about health risk from petrochemical industries in both occupational and environmental settings, and/or on the basis of information about occupational and residential contamination and health risk in the area of Gela, noteworthy results are shown for lung cancer [MRR: 2.11 (CI 90%; 0.96-4.63) in blue collars; 1.71 (1.09-2.69) in residents], respiratory diseases [HDOR: 2.0 (1.0-3.0) in blue collars; 1.4 (0.96-2.06) in residents] and genitourinary diseases [HDOR: 1.34 (1.06-1.68) in blue collars; 1.23 (1.04-1.45) in residents]. Conclusions The results support a role of the exposures in the occupational and residential settings, the latter due to the local ascertained contamination, in affecting the workers’ health. These results underline the urgent need of water, soil, air and food-chain monitoring programs, to discover active sources of exposure and consequently define public health interventions. PMID:22607492

  13. Considerations for Planning a Monitoring Campaign at Petrochemical Complexes: Lessons Learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuclis, A.

    2010-12-01

    An air quality monitoring campaign was developed for the late spring of 2009 near Houston area petrochemical facilities. The focus of the field campaign was to measure free radicals that contribute to the formation of ozone, however refinery and chemical plants monitored are also emitters of many different volatile organic compounds (vocs) and hazardous air pollutants (haps). The Houston area is home to the largest aggregation of petrochemical facilities in the U.S. Three specific geographical areas with industrial facilities were considered: Mont Belvieu, the Houston Ship Channel and the Texas City Industrial Complex. Previous experiences with field campaigns in the area led to the presumption that there would be little if any access inside the facilities. Considerations for which areas to focus on included: how close could the facility be approached, what were the directions of the prevailing winds, what kind of barriers to measurement existed (e.g. trees, buildings, highways, privately owned land, etc.), and what were the possible chemical interferences from other sources near the measurement sites? Close communications with the plant security, the local police, the Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI), Homeland Security, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), and the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) were required. Substantial delays can occur due to local concerns regarding homeland security and plant safety. Also, a system of communications is essential to coordinate the participating scientists operating stationary analyzers with the scientists who have analyzers mounted in ground vehicles and in aircraft. The researchers were provided with information regarding plant operations, types of equipment and potential pollutants. A wide variety of stationery and mobile ambient air monitoring techniques were used to measure formaldehyde and other volatile organic compounds. In order to identify likely formaldehyde sources the self-reported submissions to the EPA in the Toxic Release Inventory and emissions reports to the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality were reviewed. Other considerations were the locations of boilers, furnaces and flares, since formaldehyde is a product of combustion. In addition, a review was made to identify any sources of formaldehyde stored, consumed or produced in the petrochemical processes. The Texas City complex was chosen for the focus on formaldehyde study due to the very heavy concentration (fence-line to fence-line) of several refineries, chemical plants and storage facilities. Also there were sites upwind and downwind of the complex that were available for installing critical stationary analyzers for the study. Formaldehyde was identified in several locations, including from flares and smokestacks on ships. Also, benzene was measured less than a mile away from a plume emanating from a 200 foot flare. The solar occultation flux method was used to identify voc emissions that were 5-10 times higher than expected based on the emissions reported to the state environmental agency by the facilities. This paper will describe how the site selection and preparation enhanced the data that was retrieved, and how preparations might be adjusted to improve future air quality studies at petrochemical sites.

  14. AlternativeAlternative FeedstocksFeedstocks for the Petrochemical Industryfor the Petrochemical Industry from Biomassfrom Biomass LigninsLignins

    E-print Network

    Pennycook, Steve

    .) salicylic acid syringic acid ferulic acid Salicylic acidSalicylic acid Summary and Outlook Research: Quantitative conversion of lignins achieved by Lewis acid treatment Lewis acid reactions can be carried out Model Compounds OH O CH3O CH3 Catalyst HBr OH OH OH Lewis Acid Catalyst Essentially complete ether

  15. Job strain (demands and control model) as a predictor of cardiovascular risk factors among petrochemical personnel

    PubMed Central

    Habibi, Ehsanollah; Poorabdian, Siamak; Shakerian, Mahnaz

    2015-01-01

    Background: One of the practical models for the assessment of stressful working conditions due to job strain is job demand and control model, which explains how physical and psychological adverse consequences, including cardiovascular risk factors can be established due to high work demands (the amount of workload, in addition to time limitations to complete that work) and low control of the worker on his/her work (lack of decision making) in the workplace. The aim of this study was to investigate how certain cardiovascular risk factors (including body mass index [BMI], heart rate, blood pressure, cholesterol and smoking) and the job demand and job control are related to each other. Materials and Methods: This prospective cohort study was conducted on 500 workers of the petrochemical industry in south of Iran, 2009. The study population was selected using simple random statistical method. They completed job demand and control questionnaire. The cardiovascular risk factors data was extracted from the workers hygiene profiles. Chi-square (?2) test and hypothesis test (?) were used to assess the possible relationship between different quantified variables, individual demographic and cardiovascular risk factors. Results: The results of this study revealed that a significant relationship can be found between job demand control model and cardiovascular risk factors. Chi-square test result for the heart rate showed the highest (?2 = 145.078) relationship, the corresponding results for smoking and BMI were ?2 = 85.652 and ?2 = 30.941, respectively. Subsequently, hypothesis testing results for cholesterol and hypertension was 0.469 and 0.684, respectively. Discussion: Job strain is likely to be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular risk factors among male staff in a petrochemical company in Iran. The parameters illustrated in the Job demands and control model can act as acceptable predictors for the probability of job stress occurrence followed by showing a high trend of CVD risk factors. PMID:25861661

  16. 1985 US energy industry yearbook

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, C.

    1985-01-01

    The annual yearbook directory designed to discuss the US petroleum industry is presented. The information is presented under the following topics: major intergrated oil companies, drilling and exploration companies, independent petroleum companies, petrochemical giants, engineering and construction companies, marketing and refining companies, and terminal companies.

  17. Case study: inorganic pollutants associated with particulate matter from an area near a petrochemical plant.

    PubMed

    Bosco, M L; Varrica, D; Dongarrà, G

    2005-09-01

    The area of Gela (Sicily, Italy) contains one of the largest petroleum refineries in Europe and also has several oil fields both on land and offshore. This paper discusses how the oil refinery and traffic-related air pollution affect the chemical composition of airborne particulate matter over the town of Gela, using pine needles and urban road dust as the means of survey. Forty-one samples of pine needles from Pinus halepensis (Mill.) and two composite samples of roadway dust, each subdivided into six size fractions, were analyzed for major and trace elements. Information on the natural or anthropogenic origin of the observed heavy metals was deduced from factor analysis and element distribution maps. Factor analysis was applied to a data set of 20 element concentrations in pine needles and identified three main sources of metals: soil, vehicle traffic, and industrial emissions. The petrochemical plant appears to be associated with raised levels of As, Mo, Ni, S, Se, V, and Zn. Similarly, enhanced Cu, Pb, Pt, Pd, Sb, and partly Zn concentrations are closely associated with traffic. High correlations between Ni and V, As and Se, and Pb and Sb were observed. Element distribution maps, showing a decrease in heavy metal contents immediately farther inland, confirm that local sources play a considerable role in heavy metal pollution. Morphological alterations and accumulation of phenols were observed in sections of Pinus halepensis needles collected from sites with high traffic density and industrial emissions. PMID:16053924

  18. Technology transfer through a network of standard methods and recommended practices - The case of petrochemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batzias, Dimitris F.; Karvounis, Sotirios

    2012-12-01

    Technology transfer may take place in parallel with cooperative action between companies participating in the same organizational scheme or using one another as subcontractor (outsourcing). In this case, cooperation should be realized by means of Standard Methods and Recommended Practices (SRPs) to achieve (i) quality of intermediate/final products according to specifications and (ii) industrial process control as required to guarantee such quality with minimum deviation (corresponding to maximum reliability) from preset mean values of representative quality parameters. This work deals with the design of the network of SRPs needed in each case for successful cooperation, implying also the corresponding technology transfer, effectuated through a methodological framework developed in the form of an algorithmic procedure with 20 activity stages and 8 decision nodes. The functionality of this methodology is proved by presenting the path leading from (and relating) a standard test method for toluene, as petrochemical feedstock in the toluene diisocyanate production, to the (6 generations distance upstream) performance evaluation of industrial process control systems (ie., from ASTM D5606 to BS EN 61003-1:2004 in the SRPs network).

  19. CHEMICAL INTERACTIONS AMONG CHLOROHYDROCARBON MIXTURES FOUND IN WASTEWATER EFFLUENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Various chlorohydrocarbons found in industrial waste effluents, including chloroform (CHC13) and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), can eventually contaminate public drinking water supplies. The present study was designed to evaluate the interaction between orally administered CHCl3 an...

  20. Industry/Utility Partnerships: Formula for Success 

    E-print Network

    Smith, W. R.; Spriggs, H. D.

    1995-01-01

    environmental regulations, and be able to compete and thrive within their global markets. HL&P in return will gain customer loyalty, a stable customer base, and be able to grow and succeed as their customers succeed. This is win, win. PETROCHEMICAL INDUSTRY... with senior management and/or technical representatives. These were chosen to be representative of HL&P's petrochemical industry customer base and accounted for approximately 50% of HL&P's sales to this group. The interviews were used to detennine...

  1. Photocatalytic treatment of an industrial effluent using artificial and solar UV radiation: an operational cost study on a pilot plant scale.

    PubMed

    Durán, A; Monteagudo, J M; San Martín, I

    2012-05-15

    The aim of this work was to study the operation costs of treating a real effluent from an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power station located in Spain. The study compares different homogeneous photocatalytic processes on a pilot plant scale using different types of radiation (artificial UV or solar UV with a compound parabolic collector). The efficiency of the processes was evaluated by an analysis of the total organic carbon (TOC) removed. The following processes were considered in the study: (i) a photo-Fenton process at an artificial UV pilot plant (with the initial addition of H(2)O(2)), (ii) a modified photo-Fenton process with continuous addition of H(2)O(2) and O(2) to the system and (iii) a ferrioxalate-assisted solar photo-Fenton process at a compound parabolic collector (CPC) pilot plant. The efficiency of these processes in degrading pollutants has been studied previously, and the results obtained in each of those studies have been published elsewhere. The operational costs due to the consumption of electrical energy, reagents and catalysts were calculated from the optimal conditions of each process. The results showed that the solar photo-Fenton system was economically feasible, being able to achieve up to 75% mineralization with a total cost of 6 €/m(3), which can be reduced to 3.6 €/m(3) by subtracting the electrical costs because the IGCC plant is self-sufficient in terms of energy. PMID:22325636

  2. Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of industrial mitigation for sustainable development is discussed in Section 7.7. Section 7.8 discusses the sector's vulnerability to climate change and options for adaptation. A number of policies have been designed either to encourage voluntary GHG emission reductions from the industrial sector or to mandate such reductions. Section 7.9 describes these policies and the experience gained to date. Co-benefits of reducing GHG emissions from the industrial sector are discussed in Section 7.10. Development of new technology is key to the cost-effective control of industrial GHG emissions. Section 7.11 discusses research, development, deployment and diffusion in the industrial sector and Section 7.12, the long-term (post-2030) technologies for GHG emissions reduction from the industrial sector. Section 7.13 summarizes gaps in knowledge.

  3. Electrotechnologies and Industrial Pollution Control 

    E-print Network

    Schmidt, P. S.

    1990-01-01

    The role of electrotechnologies in the control of emissions and effluents from industrial processes is discussed. Matrices are presented identifying those electrotechnologies which impact pollution in various industries. Specific examples...

  4. Wastewater reclamation and reuse in a petrochemical plant

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, J.M.

    1996-11-01

    A large petrochemical plant located in a water-limited area is a major water user. The plant is facing a critical water problem because of several factors: (1) the raw water total dissolved solids (TDS) content has been increasing, (2) water rationing, which limits plant production, occurs during drought periods, (3) the plant is planning for a major expansion that requires major additional water supply, and (4) there is persistent community pressure for wastewater discharge reduction. A water resource management and planning study was conducted for this plant to resolve the water problem. This chapter describes the results of the study and the design of a pilot plant program for the testing of a wastewater treatment and recycling system.

  5. Cancer incidence and mortality near the Baglan Bay petrochemical works, South Wales.

    PubMed Central

    Sans, S; Elliott, P; Kleinschmidt, I; Shaddick, G; Pattenden, S; Walls, P; Grundy, C; Dolk, H

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To study incidence and mortality of leukaemias, cancer of the larynx, and other cancers near the petrochemical plant at Baglan Bay, in response to local concerns of an alleged cluster of cancers in the vicinity. METHODS--This is a small area study of cancer incidence, 1974-84 and of mortality, 1981-91 based on the national postcoded data held by the Small Area Health Statistics Unit and with population and socioeconomic data from the 1981 census. The study is centred on BP Chemicals Ltd, Baglan Bay, Port Talbot, West Glamorgan, South Wales and includes a general population sample of 115,721 people (1981 census) living within 7.5 km of the plant. Cancer incidence and mortality for all cancers, leukaemias, and cancer of the larynx were examined within 7.5 km and 3 km of the plant, and tests for decline in risk of these cancers with distance from the plant were carried out. Mortality from several other cancers possibly associated with the petrochemical industry was also studied. RESULTS--There were 5417 incident cancer cases and 2458 cancer deaths within 7.5 km of the plant during the periods of study. There was an 8% excess incidence of all cancers within 7.5 km, and a 24% excess of cancer of the larynx, consistent with a general excess of these cancers in West Glamorgan, but no apparent decline in incidence with distance from the plant, nor excess mortality. There was also no evidence of decline in leukaemia incidence or mortality with distance, at all ages or in children. Among the other causes included in the mortality study, there was an excess of multiple myeloma within 7.5 km, especially among women, and a significant decline in mortality from non-Hodgkin's lymphomas although there was no excess overall within 7.5 km. CONCLUSIONS--The apparent excess incidence of all cancers and cancer of the larynx within 7.5 km of the BP Chemical Ltd works was consistent with an excess more generally in West Glamorgan, possibly related, at least to some extent, to cancer registration in Wales. There was no excess mortality from these cancers. The results for multiple myeloma and especially non-Hodgkin's lymphomas may have been chance findings in view of the multiple tests of significance carried out in the study. A study of lymphatic and haematopoietic cancers near oil refineries in Great Britain is to be undertaken that will help put the findings of the present study in wider context. PMID:7795735

  6. Investigation of fugitive emissions from petrochemical transport barges using optical remote sensing

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent airborne remote sensing survey data acquired with passive gas imaging equipment (PGIE), in this case infrared cameras, have shown potentially significant fugitive volatile organic carbon (VOC) emissions from petrochemical transport barges. The experiment found remote sens...

  7. Anaerobic/aerobic treatment of a petrochemical wastewater from two aromatic transformation processes by fluidized bed reactors.

    PubMed

    Estrada-Arriaga, Edson B; Ramirez-Camperos, Esperanza; Moeller-Chavez, Gabriela E; García-Sanchez, Liliana

    2012-01-01

    An integrated fluidized bed reactor (FBR) has been employed as the treatment for petrochemical industry wastewaters with high organic matter and aromatic compounds, under anaerobic and aerobic conditions. The system was operated at hydraulic residence time (HRT) of 2.7 and 2.2 h in the anaerobic and aerobic reactor, respectively. The degree of fluidization in the beds was 30%. This system showed a high performance on the removal of organic matter and aromatic compounds. At different organic loading rates (OLR), the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal in the anaerobic reactor was close to 85% and removals of the COD up to 94% were obtained in the aerobic reactor. High removals of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, styrene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene and naphthalene were achieved in this study. PMID:23109595

  8. Recovery of enthalpy as work from thermal effluents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molini, A. E.

    1982-08-01

    Enthalpy is recovered as work from hot industrial effluents by the controlled expansion of liquids through convergent-divergent nozzles in true reaction turbines. For hot liquid effluents, the effluent itself serves as the working fluid. For gaseous effluents, a high boiling stable liquid is heated by the gas in a scrubbing tower and then the liquid is expanded as the work fluid. If the effluents contain undesirable levels of particulate pollutants, the liquid is cleaned before it is expanded. The results predicted when using both impulse and true reaction turbines are reported. Results predicted when using work fluids as glycerol, tricresyl phosphate, bi-phenyls, and silicone oils are presented. Cycle efficiencies as high as 26% are predicted as possible.

  9. Purification of effluent gases

    SciTech Connect

    Drouet, M.G.; Munz, R.J.

    1987-03-24

    This patent describes a method of treating gaseous effluents to remove substantially all condensable and particulate impurities therefrom, the gaseous effluents flowing out from a high temperature reaction, and a particulate material being fed into the reactor. The method comprises directing the flow of gaseous effluents counter-currently through the particulate material being fed into the reactor. The improvement described here comprises: feeding the particulate material through a duct in which there is provided a screw conveyor; adjusting the speed of the screw conveyor so as to feed to the reactor an amount of particulate material which is sufficient to meet the demand of the reactor; passing all the gaseous effluents through the particulate material in the screw conveyor; and providing the screw conveyor with a specific pitch and diameter so as to adjust the velocity of the gaseous effluents through the particulate material in order that substantially all condensable and particulate impurities present in the gaseous effluents be trapped by the particulate material as the gaseous effluents travel through the duct.

  10. Characterization of an Am-Be PGNAA set-up developed for in situ liquid analysis: Application to domestic waste water and industrial liquid effluents analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idiri, Z.; Mazrou, H.; Amokrane, A.; Bedek, S.

    2010-01-01

    A prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) set-up with an Am-Be source developed for in situ analysis of liquid samples is described. The linearity of its response was tested for chlorine and cadmium dissolved in water. Prompt gamma efficiency of the system has been determined experimentally using prompt gamma of chlorine dissolved in water and detection limits for different elements have been derived for domestic waste water. A methodology to analyze any kind of liquid is then proposed. This methodology consists mainly on using standards with water as bulk or in the case of absolute method, to use gamma efficiency determined with prompt gammas emitted by chlorine dissolved in water. To take into account the thermal neutron flux variations inside the samples, flux monitoring was carried out using a He-3 neutron detector placed at the external sample container surface. Finally, to correct for the differences in gamma attenuation, average gamma attenuations factors were calculated using MCNP5 code. This method was then checked successfully by determining cadmium in industrial phosphoric acid and our result was in good agreement with that obtained with inductively coupled plasma (ICP) method.

  11. NATIONAL WWTP EFFLUENT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reports of potential wildlife risk from exposure to environmental estrogens emphasize the need to better understand both estrogenic presence and persistence in treated wastewater effluents. In addition to wildlife exposure, human exposure should also be examined, especially in si...

  12. GEOTHERMAL EFFLUENT SAMPLING WORKSHOP

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report outlines the major recommendations resulting from a workshop to identify gaps in existing geothermal effluent sampling methodologies, define needed research to fill those gaps, and recommend strategies to lead to a standardized sampling methodology.

  13. Genotoxicity of swine effluents.

    PubMed

    Techio, V H; Stolberg, J; Kunz, A; Zanin, E; Perdomo, C C

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed at the investigation of genotoxic effects of swine effluents from different stages of a treatment system for swine wastes through bioassay of stamen hairs and micronuclei in Tradescantia (clone BNL 4430). No significant differences (p?0.05) regarding the genic mutations were found in the bioassay of stamen hairs, independently of the effluent analysed. For the genotoxicity test with micronuclei, the plants exposed to raw wastes, to sludge, and to effluent of the biodigester have presented higher rates of chromosomal damages (micronuclei), with significant differences in relation to the control group and other effluent of the waste treatment system (p?0.05). The association between the chemical parameters and the genotoxicity data have shown that the variables COD and TKN have presented significant correlation (p?0.05) with the number of mutagenic events in the tetrads. PMID:21411948

  14. Applications of fusion thermal energy to industrial processes

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, R. M.; Jody, B. J.; Lu, K. C.

    1980-01-01

    The feasibility of applying fusion thermal energy as process heat in the iron-steel industry, petrochemical industry, cement industry, and in the production of acetylene fom coal via calcium carbide are discussed. These four industries were selected for analysis because they require massive amounts of energy. This preliminary study concludes that the production of synthetic fuels using fusion heat appears to be the most promising method of storing and transporting this heat. Of the four industries studied, the iron-steel and the petrochemical industries appear to be the most promising because they consume substantial amounts of hydrogen and oxygen as feedstocks. These can be produced from water using the high-temperature fusion heat. The production of hydrogen and oxygen using fusion heat will also reduce the capital investment required for these industries. These two industries also consume tremendous amounts of heat at temperatures which can be delivered from a fusion blanket via chemical heat pipes.

  15. How One Utility is Building Industrial Consumer Relationships 

    E-print Network

    Hamilton, D. E.

    1989-01-01

    competitive positions within their market places, and to attract new customers to the Gulf States service area. The Gulf States marketing organization uses a Key Account concept. Marketing programs are based upon the wise use of energy. Both... IS BUILDING INDUSTRIAL CONSUMER RELATIONSHIPS DONALD E. HAMILTON Manager-Industrial Services and Cogeneration Gulf States Utilities Company Beaumont, Texas COMPETITION AND THE UTILITY INDUSTRY The refining and petrochemical industries enjoyed...

  16. Identification and chemical characterization of specific organic indicators in the effluents from chemical production sites.

    PubMed

    Botalova, Oxana; Schwarzbauer, Jan; al Sandouk, Nadia

    2011-06-01

    The structural diversity of the wastewater composition was described by the use of detailed non-target screening analyses of industrial effluents from chemical production sites. Determination of the indicative organic compounds acting as potential molecular indicators for industrial emissions from chemical production industries has been possible due to (i) detailed characterisation of industrial contaminants and identification of compounds with high source specificity, (ii) quantitative determination of the organic constituents in the industrial effluents and (iii) the review of their industrial applications. The determination of potential site-specific markers and industrial molecular indicators corresponding to certain production processes (production of starting materials for manufacturing paper and printing inks, powder coatings as well as epichlorohydrin production) was performed in this work. The results of this study allowed significant contributions to the chemical characterisation of industrial contaminants and isolation of indicators that can act as representatives of industrial effluents in the aquatic environment. PMID:21565380

  17. Environmental assessment for effluent reduction, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-11

    The Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to eliminate industrial effluent from 27 outfalls at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The Proposed Action includes both simple and extensive plumbing modifications, which would result in the elimination of industrial effluent being released to the environment through 27 outfalls. The industrial effluent currently going to about half of the 27 outfalls under consideration would be rerouted to LANL`s sanitary sewer system. Industrial effluent from other outfalls would be eliminated by replacing once-through cooling water systems with recirculation systems, or, in a few instances, operational changes would result in no generation of industrial effluent. After the industrial effluents have been discontinued, the affected outfalls would be removed from the NPDES Permit. The pipes from the source building or structure to the discharge point for the outfalls may be plugged, or excavated and removed. Other outfalls would remain intact and would continue to discharge stormwater. The No Action alternative, which would maintain the status quo for LANL`s outfalls, was also analyzed. An alternative in which industrial effluent would be treated at the source facilities was considered but dismissed from further analysis because it would not reasonably meet the DOE`s purpose for action, and its potential environmental effects were bounded by the analysis of the Proposed Action and the No Action alternatives.

  18. Optimization of a biological wastewater treatment process at a petrochemical plant using process simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.M.; Dold, P.L.; Baker, A.J.; Briggs, T.

    1996-12-31

    A research study was conducted on the activated sludge process treating the wastewater from a petrochemical manufacturing facility in Ontario, Canada. The objective of the study was to improve the level of understanding of the process and to evaluate the use of model-based simulation tools as an aid in the optimization of the wastewater treatment facility. Models such as the IAWQ Activated Sludge Model No. 1 (ASM1) have previously been developed and applied to assist in designing new systems and to assist in the optimization of existing systems for the treatment of municipal wastewaters, However, due to significant differences between the characteristics of the petrochemical plant wastewater and municipal wastewaters, this study required the development of a mechanistic model specifically to describe the behavior of the activated sludge treatment of the petrochemical wastewater. This paper outlines the development of the mechanistic model and gives examples of how plant performance issues were investigated through process simulation.

  19. Substance abuse in the refining industry

    SciTech Connect

    Little, A. Jr. ); Ross, J.K. ); Lavorerio, R. ); Richards, T.A. )

    1989-01-01

    In order to provide some background for the NPRA Annual Meeting Management Session panel discussion on Substance Abuse in the Refining and Petrochemical Industries, NPRA distributed a questionnaire to member companies requesting information regarding the status of their individual substance abuse policies. The questionnaire was designed to identify general trends in the industry. The aggregate responses to the survey are summarized in this paper, as background for the Substance Abuse panel discussions.

  20. A combined chemical and biological assessment of industrial contamination in an estuarine system in Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Dsikowitzky, Larissa; Nordhaus, Inga; Sujatha, C H; Akhil, P S; Soman, Kunjupilai; Schwarzbauer, Jan

    2014-07-01

    The Cochin Backwaters in India are part of the Vembanad-Kol system, which is a protected wetland and one of the largest estuarine ecosystems in South Asia. The backwaters are a major supplier of fisheries resources and are developed as tourist destination. Periyar River discharges into the northern arm of the system and receives effluents from chemical, petrochemical and metal processing industries which release huge amounts of wastewaters after little treatment. We investigated water and sediment contamination in the industrial vicinity and at one station further away including organic and inorganic contaminants. In total 83 organic contaminants were found, e.g. well known priority pollutants such as endosulfan, hexachlorobenzene, DDT, hexachlorocyclohexane and their metabolites, which likely stem from the industrial manufacturing of organochlorine pesticides. Furthermore, several benzothiazole, dibenzylamine and dicyclohexylamine derivatives were detected, which indicated inputs from rubber producing facilities. Several of these compounds have not been reported as environmental contaminants so far. A comparison of organic contaminant and trace hazardous element concentrations in sediments with reported sediment quality guidelines revealed that adverse effects on benthic species are likely at all stations. The chemical assessment was combined with an investigation of macrobenthic diversity and community composition. Benthic organisms were completely lacking at the site with the highest trace hazardous element concentrations. Highest species numbers, diversity indices and abundances were recorded at the station with the greatest distance to the industrial area. Filter feeders were nearly completely lacking, probably leading to an impairment of the filter function in this area. This study shows that a combination of chemical and biological methods is an innovative approach to achieve a comprehensive characterization of industrial contamination, to evaluate associated risks for bottom dwelling consumers regarding sediment quality guidelines, and to observe related adverse effects on the benthic community directly in the field. PMID:24735943

  1. Volatile organic monitor for industrial effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Laguna, G.R.; Peter, F.J.; Stuart, A.D.; Loyola, V.M.

    1993-07-01

    1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act have created the need for instruments capable of monitoring volatile organic compounds (VOCS) in public air space in an unattended and low cost manner. The purpose of the study was to develop and demonstrate the capability to do long term automatic and unattended ambient air monitoring using an inexpensive portable analytic system at a commercial manufacturing plant site. A gas chromatograph system personal computer hardware, meteorology tower & instruments, and custom designed hardware and software were developed. Comparison with an EPA approved method was performed. The system was sited at an aircraft engines manufacturing site and operated in a completely unattended mode for 60 days. Two VOCs were monitored every 30 minutes during the 24hr day. Large variation in the concentration from 800ppb to the limits of detection of about 10ppb were observed. Work to increase the capabilities of the system is ongoing.

  2. FISHERY WASTE EFFLUENTS: A METHOD TO DETERMINE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN CHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND AND RESIDUE

    E-print Network

    of screened waste effluents from November 1973 to September 1974: shrimp using fresh or salt water processing 1638, Kodiak, AK 99615. 2Tenney, R. D. 1972. COD for Industrial Waste Water, Tech. Rep. 97, 5 p.; 1972FISHERY WASTE EFFLUENTS: A METHOD TO DETERMINE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN CHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND

  3. 76 FR 66286 - Notice of Final 2010 Effluent Guidelines Program Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-26

    ...This notice presents the final 2010 Effluent Guidelines Program Plan(``final 2010 Plan''), which, as required under the Clean Water Act (CWA), identifies any new or existing industrial dischargers, both those discharging directly to surface waters and those discharging to publicly owned treatment works (POTWs), selected for effluent guidelines rulemaking and provides a schedule for such......

  4. Ultrasonic and Thermal Pretreatments on Anaerobic Digestion of Petrochemical Sludge: Dewaterability and Degradation of PAHs

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jun; Xu, Weizhong; Wong, Jonathan W. C.; Yong, Xiaoyu; Yan, Binghua; Zhang, Xueying; Jia, Honghua

    2015-01-01

    Effects of different pretreatment methods on sludge dewaterability and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) degradation during petrochemical sludge anaerobic digestion were studied. Results showed that the total biogas production volume in the thermal pretreatment system was 4 and 5 times higher than that in the ultrasound pretreatment and in the control system, and the corresponding volatile solid removal efficiencies reached 28%, 15%, and 8%. Phenanthrene, paranaphthalene, fluoranthene, benzofluoranthene, and benzopyrene removal rates reached 43.3%, 55.5%, 30.6%, 42.9%, and 41.7%, respectively, in the thermal pretreatment system, which were much higher than those in the ultrasound pretreatment and in the control system. Moreover, capillary suction time (CST) of sludge increased after pretreatment, and then reduced after 20 days of anaerobic digestion, indicating that sludge dewaterability was greatly improved after anaerobic digestion. The decrease of protein and polysaccharide in the sludge could improve sludge dewaterability during petrochemical sludge anaerobic digestion. This study suggested that thermal pretreatment might be a promising enhancement method for petrochemical sludge solubilization, thus contributing to degradation of the PAHs, biogas production, and improvement of dewaterability during petrochemical sludge anaerobic digestion. PMID:26327510

  5. Ultrasonic and Thermal Pretreatments on Anaerobic Digestion of Petrochemical Sludge: Dewaterability and Degradation of PAHs.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jun; Xu, Weizhong; Wong, Jonathan W C; Yong, Xiaoyu; Yan, Binghua; Zhang, Xueying; Jia, Honghua

    2015-01-01

    Effects of different pretreatment methods on sludge dewaterability and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) degradation during petrochemical sludge anaerobic digestion were studied. Results showed that the total biogas production volume in the thermal pretreatment system was 4 and 5 times higher than that in the ultrasound pretreatment and in the control system, and the corresponding volatile solid removal efficiencies reached 28%, 15%, and 8%. Phenanthrene, paranaphthalene, fluoranthene, benzofluoranthene, and benzopyrene removal rates reached 43.3%, 55.5%, 30.6%, 42.9%, and 41.7%, respectively, in the thermal pretreatment system, which were much higher than those in the ultrasound pretreatment and in the control system. Moreover, capillary suction time (CST) of sludge increased after pretreatment, and then reduced after 20 days of anaerobic digestion, indicating that sludge dewaterability was greatly improved after anaerobic digestion. The decrease of protein and polysaccharide in the sludge could improve sludge dewaterability during petrochemical sludge anaerobic digestion. This study suggested that thermal pretreatment might be a promising enhancement method for petrochemical sludge solubilization, thus contributing to degradation of the PAHs, biogas production, and improvement of dewaterability during petrochemical sludge anaerobic digestion. PMID:26327510

  6. DETERMINATION OF TRACE METALS IN EFFLUENTS BY DIFFERENTIAL PULSE ANODIC STRIPPING VOLTAMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Differential pulse anodic stripping voltametry (DPASV) was evaluated to determine its applicability to industrial and domestic effluents. The results show that trace amounts of zinc, cadmium, lead, bismuth, copper, thallium, indium, antimony, tin and nickel can be determined indi...

  7. Measurement and removal of bioconcentratable compounds in refinery effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Gala, W.R.; Dorn, P.B.; Means, J.C.; Jenkins, K.D.; Folwarkow, S.

    1994-12-31

    Public concern regarding the presence of persistent, bioconcentratable compounds in fish and shellfish has led the petroleum industry to investigate methods for the measurement of bioconcentratable compounds in refinery effluents. Research has focused on developing methods to measure polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other hydrocarbons directly in the effluent and in bivalves exposed to refinery effluents in the field and in the laboratory. Results from a multi-refinery study in the San Francisco Bay Area using selective ion monitoring GC/MS-MS indicated that alkylated and non-substituted 2--3 ring PAHs are rarely present in refinery effluents at concentrations greater than 100 ng/L. Higher MW PAHs were rarely detected. PAHs did not substantially bioconcentrate in bivalves exposed in the laboratory to refinery effluent and reference sea water. Total PAHs were generally less than 50 {mu}g/g in the effluent-exposed bivalves. A comparison of the waste water treatment facilities at each refinery suggest that biological treatment already required by existing regulations is sufficient to reduce PAH concentrations to these low levels.

  8. Fatigue and Psychological Distress: A Case Study Among Shift Workers of an Iranian Petrochemical Plant, During 2013, in Bushehr

    PubMed Central

    Rasoulzadeh, Yahya; Bazazan, Ahmad; Safaiyan, Abdolrasoul; Dianat, Iman

    2015-01-01

    Background: Shift work is a well-recognized occupational health hazard in both industrialized and industrially developing countries. Prolonged working time, day/night shift rotation, circadian rhythm and sleep disorders, family and social problems are the most important features of shift working, which have serious complications. Objectives: The present study evaluated the fatigue and psychological distress and their relationship among shift workers, in a petrochemical plant (Southern Pars gas field) in Southwest Iran. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional field study, 400 shift workers from a plant were involved, with participation rate of 72.5% (290 persons). The multidimensional fatigue inventory (MFI-20) and general health questionnaire (GHQ-28) were used to evaluate the level of fatigue and psychological distress, respectively. Results: The results showed that the fatigue and psychological distress (particularly social dysfunction, anxiety and insomnia) are frequent among 12-hour shift workers (the total MFI and total GHQ scores were 42.68 ± 17.88 and 34.66 ± 18.56). A relatively strong positive correlation was found between fatigue and psychological distress (r = 0.62). The results of the stepwise regression model indicated that the psychological distress was significantly related only to general fatigue, mental fatigue and reduced motivation, whereas it was not to the physical fatigue and reduced activity. Conclusions: The study findings highlight the importance of the mental aspect of fatigue in this working group. These results have possible implications for workers’ health and well-being and for the design of shift work systems, for industrial workers. PMID:26568862

  9. Measurement of fugitive volatile organic compound emissions from a petrochemical tank farm using open-path Fourier transform infrared spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chang-Fu; Wu, Tzong-gang; Hashmonay, Ram A.; Chang, Shih-Ying; Wu, Yu-Syuan; Chao, Chun-Ping; Hsu, Cheng-Ping; Chase, Michael J.; Kagann, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    Fugitive emission of air pollutants is conventionally estimated based on standard emission factors. The Vertical Radial Plume Mapping (VRPM) technique, as described in the US EPA OTM-10, is designed to measure emission flux by directly monitoring the concentration of the plume crossing a vertical plane downwind of the site of interest. This paper describes the evaluation results of implementing VRPM in a complex industrial setting (a petrochemical tank farm). The vertical plane was constructed from five retroreflectors and an open-path Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The VRPM configuration was approximately 189.2 m in width × 30.7 m in height. In the accompanying tracer gas experiment, the bias of the VRPM estimate was less than 2% and its 95% confidence interval contained the true release rate. Emission estimates of the target VOCs (benzene, m-xylene, o-xylene, p-xylene, and toluene) ranged from 0.86 to 2.18 g s-1 during the 14-day field campaign, while estimates based on the standard emission factors were one order of magnitude lower, possibly leading to an underestimation of the impact of these fugitive emissions on air quality and human health. It was also demonstrated that a simplified 3-beam geometry (i.e., without one dimensional scanning lines) resulted in higher uncertainties in the emission estimates.

  10. Integration of Industrial Scale Processes using Biomass Feedstock in the Petrochemical Complex ofBiomass Feedstock in the Petrochemical Complex of

    E-print Network

    Pike, Ralph W.

    of biotechnology in existing plant complex· Integration of biotechnology in existing plant complex · Conclusions of the world. · Utilize carbon dioxide from processes in the complex to make chemicals and produce algae material and energy balances, product demand, raw material availability, and plant capacities · Use

  11. Facility effluent monitoring plan for WESF

    SciTech Connect

    SIMMONS, F.M.

    1999-09-01

    The FEMP for the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) provides sufficient information on the WESF effluent characteristics and the effluent monitoring systems so that a compliance assessment against applicable requirements may be performed. Radioactive and hazardous material source terms are related to specific effluent streams that are in turn, related to discharge points and, finally are compared to the effluent monitoring system capability.

  12. Liquid Effluent Retention Facility/Effluent Treatment Facility Hazards Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Simiele, G.A.

    1994-09-29

    This document establishes the technical basis in support of Emergency Planning activities for the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and Effluent Treatment Facility the Hanford Site. The document represents an acceptable interpretation of the implementing guidance document for DOE ORDER 5500.3A. Through this document, the technical basis for the development of facility specific Emergency Action Levels and the Emergency Planning Zone is demonstrated.

  13. Role of livestock effluent suspended particulate in sealing effluent ponds.

    PubMed

    Bennett, J McL; Warren, B R

    2015-05-01

    Intensive livestock feed-lots have become more prevalent in recent years to help in meeting the predicted food production targets based on expected population growth. Effluent from these is stored in ponds, representing a potential concern for seepage and contamination of groundwater. Whilst previous literature suggests that effluent particulate can limit seepage adequately in combination with a clay liner, this research addresses potential concerns for sealing of ponds with low concentration fine and then evaluates this against proposed filter-cake based methodologies to describe and predict hydraulic reduction. Short soil cores were compacted to 98% of the maximum dry density and subject to ponded head percolation with unfiltered-sediment-reduced effluent, effluent filtered to <3 ?m, and chemically synthesized effluent. Reduction in hydraulic conductivity was observed to be primarily due to the colloidal fraction of the effluent, with larger particulate fractions providing minimal further reduction. Pond sealing was shown to follow mathematical models of filter-cake formation, but without the formation of a physical seal on top of the soil surface. Management considerations based on the results are presented. PMID:25721977

  14. Exposure to volatile organic compounds and health risks among residents in an area affected by a petrochemical complex in Rayong, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Tanyanont, W; Vichit-Vadakan, N

    2012-01-01

    In Thailand, there is a growing concern regarding the possible effects of air pollution on the health of residents living near a petrochemical complex in Map Ta Phut Industrial Estate (MTPIE), Rayong Province, Thailand. We studied exposure to selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in Map Ta Phut and the association between residing near the petrochemical complex and respiratory ailments. We carried out a population-based cross-sectional study, utilizing health data regarding respiratory problems among adults collected as part of a Health Effects of Air Pollution study of residents living in Map Ta Phut Municipality, Thailand, using a standardized questionnaire. The distance from the subject's residence to the center of the MTPIE was mapped using a geographical information system (GIS). A total of 15,441 adults aged > or = 13 years who lived in Map Ta Phut Municipality for at least 1 year were included in the study. Multiple logistic regression models were used to examine the relationship between the distance between the subject's residence and the MTPIE and the presence of the respiratory problems during the previous 12 months. A 5 km distance was chosen as the maximum study radius. Volatile organic compounds were observed higher concentrations at sites downwind from the MTPIE, and closer to the MTPIE. Study subjects who lived closer to the MTPIE reported an odor more frequently than subjects who lived farther from the MTPIE. Living closer to the MTPIE was associated with more acute respiratory problems, but not more chronic respiratory problems than living farther from the MTPIE. Adults aged > or = 40 years were more likely to have respiratory symptoms and eye irritation than those aged < 40 years. Females were more likely to have dyspnea, wheezing and upper respiratory symptoms than males. Living near the MTPIE for more than 5 years was associated with an increased risk of wheezing and upper respiratory symptoms. PMID:23082571

  15. Comparison of complex effluent treatability in different bench scale microbial electrolysis cells

    E-print Network

    operated with various wastewaters and substrates. Organic treatment and current generation were compared.9 V Cube Mini Industrial Wastewater Domestic Wastewater Fermentation Effluent Acetate Medium MEC Industrial wastewater Treatability Mini microbial electrolysis cells Wastewater screening a b s t r a c

  16. Sleep quality and general health status of employees exposed to extremely low frequency magnetic fields in a petrochemical complex

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Advances in science and technology of electrical equipment, despite increasing human welfare in everyday life, have increased the number of people exposed to Electro-Magnetic Fields (EMFs). Because of possible adverse effects on the health of exposed individuals, the EMFs have being the center of attention. This study was performed to determine possible correlation between Extremely Low Frequency Electro-Magnetic Fields (ELF EMFs) and sleep quality and public health of those working in substation units of a petrochemical complex in southern Iran. Materials and method To begin with, magnetic flux density was measured at different parts of a Control Building and two substations in accordance with IEEE std 644–1994. Subsequently, the questionnaires “Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index” (PSQI) and “General Health Quality (GHQ)” were used to investigate relationship between ELF exposure level and sleep quality and public health, respectively. Both questionnaires were placed at disposal of a total number of 40 workers at the complex. The filled out questionnaires were analyzed by T-test, Duncan and the Chi-square tests. Results The obtained results revealed that 28% of those in case group suffered from poor health status and 61% were diagnosed with a sleep disorder. However, all members in control group were in good health condition and only 4.5% of them had undesirable sleep quality. Conclusion In spite of a significant difference between the case and control groups in terms of sleep quality and general health, no significant relationship was found between the exposure level and sleep quality and general health. It is worth noting that the measured EMF values were lower than the standard limits recommended by American Conference of Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). However, given the uncertainties about the pathogenic effects caused by exposure to ELF EMFs, further epidemiological studies and periodic testing of personnel working in high voltage substations are of utmost importance. PMID:24904752

  17. 40 CFR 428.42 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Latex Rubber Subcategory § 428.42 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  18. 40 CFR 428.23 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Emulsion Crumb Rubber Subcategory § 428.23 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  19. 40 CFR 428.23 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Emulsion Crumb Rubber Subcategory § 428.23 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  20. 40 CFR 428.43 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Latex Rubber Subcategory § 428.43 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  1. 40 CFR 428.33 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Solution Crumb Rubber Subcategory § 428.33 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  2. 40 CFR 428.33 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Solution Crumb Rubber Subcategory § 428.33 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  3. 40 CFR 428.43 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Latex Rubber Subcategory § 428.43 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  4. 40 CFR 428.42 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Latex Rubber Subcategory § 428.42 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  5. 40 CFR 428.43 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Latex Rubber Subcategory § 428.43 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  6. 40 CFR 415.227 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Dioxide Production Subcategory § 415.227 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  7. 40 CFR 415.227 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Dioxide Production Subcategory § 415.227 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  8. 40 CFR 415.227 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Dioxide Production Subcategory § 415.227 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  9. 40 CFR 415.113 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Potassium Metal Production Subcategory § 415.113 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  10. 40 CFR 415.122 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Potassium Dichromate Production Subcategory § 415.122 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  11. 40 CFR 415.112 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Potassium Metal Production Subcategory § 415.112 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  12. 40 CFR 415.122 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Potassium Dichromate Production Subcategory § 415.122 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  13. 40 CFR 415.123 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Potassium Dichromate Production Subcategory § 415.123 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  14. 40 CFR 415.113 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Potassium Metal Production Subcategory § 415.113 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  15. 40 CFR 415.123 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Potassium Dichromate Production Subcategory § 415.123 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  16. 40 CFR 415.112 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Potassium Metal Production Subcategory § 415.112 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  17. 40 CFR 415.122 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Potassium Dichromate Production Subcategory § 415.122 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  18. 40 CFR 415.502 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Potassium Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.502 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  19. 40 CFR 415.113 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Potassium Metal Production Subcategory § 415.113 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  20. 40 CFR 415.122 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Potassium Dichromate Production Subcategory § 415.122 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  1. 40 CFR 415.502 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Potassium Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.502 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  2. 40 CFR 415.122 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Potassium Dichromate Production Subcategory § 415.122 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  3. 40 CFR 415.133 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Potassium Sulfate Production Subcategory § 415.133 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  4. 40 CFR 415.133 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Potassium Sulfate Production Subcategory § 415.133 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  5. 40 CFR 415.227 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Dioxide Production Subcategory § 415.227 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  6. 40 CFR 415.227 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Dioxide Production Subcategory § 415.227 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  7. 40 CFR 426.77 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Laminating Subcategory § 426.77 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  8. 40 CFR 426.62 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Tempering Subcategory § 426.62 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  9. 40 CFR 415.432 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Iodine Production Subcategory § 415.432 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  10. 40 CFR 415.432 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Iodine Production Subcategory § 415.432 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  11. 40 CFR 415.432 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Iodine Production Subcategory § 415.432 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  12. 40 CFR 415.432 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Iodine Production Subcategory § 415.432 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  13. 40 CFR 415.432 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Iodine Production Subcategory § 415.432 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  14. 40 CFR 427.33 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper (Starch Binder) Subcategory § 427.33 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  15. 40 CFR 427.32 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper (Starch Binder) Subcategory § 427.32 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  16. 40 CFR 427.33 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper (Starch Binder) Subcategory § 427.33 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  17. 40 CFR 427.32 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper (Starch Binder) Subcategory § 427.32 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  18. 40 CFR 427.33 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper (Starch Binder) Subcategory § 427.33 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  19. 40 CFR 427.32 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper (Starch Binder) Subcategory § 427.32 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  20. 40 CFR 415.272 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Borax Production Subcategory § 415.272 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  1. 40 CFR 415.347 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chrome Pigments Production Subcategory § 415.347 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  2. 40 CFR 415.343 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chrome Pigments Production Subcategory § 415.343 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  3. 40 CFR 415.343 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chrome Pigments Production Subcategory § 415.343 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  4. 40 CFR 415.343 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chrome Pigments Production Subcategory § 415.343 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  5. 40 CFR 415.347 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chrome Pigments Production Subcategory § 415.347 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  6. 40 CFR 415.347 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chrome Pigments Production Subcategory § 415.347 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  7. 40 CFR 415.347 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chrome Pigments Production Subcategory § 415.347 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  8. 40 CFR 415.343 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chrome Pigments Production Subcategory § 415.343 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  9. 40 CFR 415.347 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chrome Pigments Production Subcategory § 415.347 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  10. 40 CFR 428.82 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wet Digestion Reclaimed Rubber Subcategory § 428.82 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  11. 40 CFR 428.83 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wet Digestion Reclaimed Rubber Subcategory § 428.83 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  12. 40 CFR 428.83 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wet Digestion Reclaimed Rubber Subcategory § 428.83 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  13. 40 CFR 428.82 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wet Digestion Reclaimed Rubber Subcategory § 428.82 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  14. 40 CFR 428.82 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wet Digestion Reclaimed Rubber Subcategory § 428.82 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  15. 40 CFR 428.83 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wet Digestion Reclaimed Rubber Subcategory § 428.83 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  16. 40 CFR 409.17 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Beet Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.17 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  17. 40 CFR 409.27 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Crystalline Cane...Subcategory § 409.27 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  18. 40 CFR 409.47 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Louisiana Raw...Subcategory § 409.47 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  19. 40 CFR 409.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Beet Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.12 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  20. 40 CFR 409.67 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hilo-Hamakua...Subcategory § 409.67 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  1. 40 CFR 409.62 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hilo-Hamakua...Subcategory § 409.62 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  2. 40 CFR 409.77 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hawaiian Raw...Subcategory § 409.77 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  3. 40 CFR 409.87 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Puerto Rican...Subcategory § 409.87 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  4. 40 CFR 415.32 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Carbide Production Subcategory § 415.32 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  5. 40 CFR 415.33 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Carbide Production Subcategory § 415.33 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  6. 40 CFR 415.32 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Carbide Production Subcategory § 415.32 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  7. 40 CFR 415.33 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Carbide Production Subcategory § 415.33 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  8. 40 CFR 415.32 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Carbide Production Subcategory § 415.32 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  9. 40 CFR 415.33 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Carbide Production Subcategory § 415.33 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  10. 40 CFR 415.32 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Carbide Production Subcategory § 415.32 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  11. 40 CFR 415.32 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Carbide Production Subcategory § 415.32 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  12. 40 CFR 415.33 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Carbide Production Subcategory § 415.33 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  13. 40 CFR 415.33 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Carbide Production Subcategory § 415.33 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  14. 40 CFR 435.52 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS OIL AND GAS EXTRACTION POINT SOURCE CATEGORY... exceed the following daily maximum limitation: Effluent characteristics: Effluent limitation (mg/l)....

  15. 40 CFR 415.427 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hydrogen Cyanide Production Subcategory § 415.427 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  16. 40 CFR 415.412 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hydrogen Production Subcategory § 415.412 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  17. 40 CFR 415.412 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hydrogen Production Subcategory § 415.412 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  18. 40 CFR 415.412 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hydrogen Production Subcategory § 415.412 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  19. 40 CFR 415.427 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hydrogen Cyanide Production Subcategory § 415.427 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  20. 40 CFR 415.427 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hydrogen Cyanide Production Subcategory § 415.427 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  1. 40 CFR 415.412 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hydrogen Production Subcategory § 415.412 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  2. 40 CFR 415.427 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hydrogen Cyanide Production Subcategory § 415.427 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  3. 40 CFR 415.412 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hydrogen Production Subcategory § 415.412 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  4. 40 CFR 415.427 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hydrogen Cyanide Production Subcategory § 415.427 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  5. 40 CFR 415.143 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory § 415.143 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  6. 40 CFR 415.143 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory § 415.143 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  7. 40 CFR 415.142 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory § 415.142 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  8. 40 CFR 415.143 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory § 415.143 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  9. 40 CFR 415.142 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory § 415.142 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  10. 40 CFR 415.142 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory § 415.142 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  11. 40 CFR 415.142 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory § 415.142 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  12. 40 CFR 415.142 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory § 415.142 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  13. 40 CFR 415.143 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory § 415.143 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  14. 40 CFR 415.143 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory § 415.143 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  15. 40 CFR 415.402 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Fluorine Production Subcategory § 415.402 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  16. 40 CFR 415.402 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Fluorine Production Subcategory § 415.402 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  17. 40 CFR 415.402 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Fluorine Production Subcategory § 415.402 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  18. 40 CFR 415.402 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Fluorine Production Subcategory § 415.402 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  19. 40 CFR 415.402 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Fluorine Production Subcategory § 415.402 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  20. 40 CFR 415.292 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Bromine Production Subcategory § 415.292 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  1. 40 CFR 415.292 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Bromine Production Subcategory § 415.292 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  2. 40 CFR 415.292 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Bromine Production Subcategory § 415.292 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  3. 40 CFR 415.292 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Bromine Production Subcategory § 415.292 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  4. 40 CFR 415.292 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Bromine Production Subcategory § 415.292 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  5. 40 CFR 409.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Beet Sugar... beet sugar processing operation. Effluent characteristic Effluent limitations Maximum for any 1...

  6. 40 CFR 409.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Beet Sugar... beet sugar processing operation. Effluent characteristic Effluent limitations Maximum for any 1...

  7. 40 CFR 409.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Beet Sugar... beet sugar processing operation. Effluent characteristic Effluent limitations Maximum for any 1...

  8. 40 CFR 409.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Beet Sugar... beet sugar processing operation. Effluent characteristic Effluent limitations Maximum for any 1...

  9. 40 CFR 409.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Beet Sugar... beet sugar processing operation. Effluent characteristic Effluent limitations Maximum for any 1...

  10. 40 CFR 415.237 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Fluoride Production Subcategory § 415.237 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  11. 40 CFR 415.552 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Fluoride Production Subcategory § 415.552 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  12. Fermentative Succinate Production: An Emerging Technology to Replace the Traditional Petrochemical Processes

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yujin; Zhang, Rubing; Sun, Chao; Cheng, Tao; Liu, Yuhua; Xian, Mo

    2013-01-01

    Succinate is a valuable platform chemical for multiple applications. Confronted with the exhaustion of fossil energy resources, fermentative succinate production from renewable biomass to replace the traditional petrochemical process is receiving an increasing amount of attention. During the past few years, the succinate-producing process using microbial fermentation has been made commercially available by the joint efforts of researchers in different fields. In this review, recent attempts and experiences devoted to reduce the production cost of biobased succinate are summarized, including strain improvement, fermentation engineering, and downstream processing. The key limitations and challenges faced in current microbial production systems are also proposed. PMID:24396827

  13. An evaluation of the whole effluent toxicity test method

    SciTech Connect

    Osteen, D.V.

    1999-12-17

    Whole effluent toxicity (WET) testing has become increasingly more important to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the States in the permitting of wastewater discharges from industry and municipalities. The primary purpose of the WET test is to protect aquatic life by predicting the effect of an effluent on the receiving stream. However, there are both scientific and regulatory concerns that using WET tests to regulate industrial effluents may result in either false positives and/or false negatives. In order to realistically predict the effect of an effluent on the receiving stream, the test should be as representative as possible of the conditions in the receiving stream. Studies (Rand and Petrocelli 1985) suggested several criteria for an ideal aquatic toxicity test organism, one of which is that the organism be indigenous to, or representative of, the ecosystem receiving the effluent. The other component needed in the development of a predictive test is the use of the receiving stream water or similar synthetic water as the control and dilution water in the test method. Use of an indigenous species and receiving water in the test should help reduce the variability in the method and allow the test to predict the effect of the effluent on the receiving stream. The experience with toxicity testing at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has yielded inconclusive data because of the inconsistency and unreliability of the results. The SRS contention is that the WET method in its present form does not adequately mimic actual biological/chemical conditions of the receiving streams and is neither reasonable nor accurate. This paper discusses the rationale for such a position by SRS on toxicity testing in terms of historical permitting requirements, outfall effluent test results, standard test method evaluation, scientific review of alternate test species, and concerns over the test method expressed by other organizations. This paper presents the Savannah River Site position that the EPA test is neither reasonable nor accurate and thus cannot adequately establish the impact of NPDES outfall discharges on receiving streams.

  14. The potential of organic substrates based on mushroom substrate and straw to dissipate fungicides contained in effluents from the fruit-packaging industry - Is there a role for Pleurotus ostreatus?

    PubMed

    Karas, Panagiotis A; Makri, Sotirina; Papadopoulou, Evangelia S; Ehaliotis, Constantinos; Menkissoglu-Spiroudi, Urania; Karpouzas, Dimitrios G

    2016-02-01

    Citrus fruit-packaging plants (FPP) produce large wastewater volumes with high loads of fungicides like ortho-phenylphenol (OPP) and imazalil (IMZ). No methods are in place for the treatment of those effluents and biobeds appear as a viable alternative. We employed a column study to investigate the potential of spent mushroom substrate (SMS) of Pleurotus ostreatus, either alone or in mixture with straw and soil plus a mixture of straw /soil to retain and dissipate IMZ and OPP. The role of P. ostreatus on fungicides dissipation was also investigated by studying in parallel the performance of fresh mushroom substrate of P. ostreatus (FMS) and measuring lignolytic enzymatic activity in the leachates. All substrates effectively reduced the leaching of OPP and IMZ which corresponded to 0.014-1.1% and 0.120-0.420% of their initial amounts respectively. Mass balance analysis revealed that FMS and SMS/Straw/Soil (50/25/25 by vol) offered the most efficient removal of OPP and IMZ from wastewaters respectively. Regardless of the substrate, OPP was restricted in the top 0-20cm of the columns and was bioavailable (extractable with water), compared to IMZ which was less bioavailable (extractable with acetonitrile) but diffused at deeper layers (20-50, 50-80cm) in the SMS- and Straw/Soil-columns. PLFAs showed that fungal abundance was significantly lower in the top layer of all substrates from where the highest pesticide amounts were recovered suggesting an inhibitory effect of fungicides on total fungi in the substrates tested. Our data suggest that biobeds packed with SMS-rich substrates could ensure the efficient removal of IMZ and OPP from wastewaters of citrus FPP. PMID:26624931

  15. Radioactive effluents in Savannah River

    SciTech Connect

    Winn, W.G.

    1991-11-27

    During 1990, low-level radiometric studies of the Savannah River continued to distinguish between effluent contributions from Plant Vogtle and the Savannah River Site. Measurements of these radioactive effluents are of mutual interest to both institutions, as they can address disturbing trends before they become health and legal concerns. The Environmental Technology Section (ETS) has conducted radiometric studies of Plant Vogtle since late 1986, prior to its startup. The plant has two 1100 MWe pressurized water reactors developed by Westinghouse. Unit 1 started commercial operations in June 1987, and Unit 2 began in May 1989. During powered operations, ETS has routinely detected neutron-activated isotopes in controlled releases but all activities have been several orders of magnitude below the DOE guide values. In 1990, processing improvements for Vogtle effluents have yielded even lower activities in the river. The Vogtle release data and the ETS measurements have tracked well over the past four years.

  16. A case-control study of chemical exposures and brain tumors in petrochemical workers

    SciTech Connect

    Austin, S.G.; Schnatter, A.R.

    1983-04-01

    The relationship between chemical exposures and deaths attributable to primary brain tumors among employees of a Texas petrochemical plant was investigated. Cases consisted of 21 deaths in which the underlying cause was confirmed as a primary brain tumor. Two control groups of 80 employees each were randomly selected from 450 decedents known to the company in June, 1979. Potential exposures while employed were compared between cases and controls for five known or suspect carcinogens. Exposure potentials were also compared for an additional 37 chemicals to which at least four cases were potentially exposed. Overall and 15-year latency analyses were performed. The proportion of cases exposed to the five potentially carcinogenic chemicals (including vinyl chloride) were lower than or consistent with the proportion of exposed controls. No statistically significant differences between the proportions of cases and controls exposed to the 37 other chemicals were found.

  17. [Assessement of combined impact of hazards on petrochemical and chemical workers' health].

    PubMed

    Badamshina, G G; Karimova, L K; Tkacheva, T A; Mavrina, L N; Bakirova, A É

    2013-01-01

    We have conducted a study on working conditions and health status of petrochemical workers. The main hazardous factor of work environment and manufacture process has been found to be work environment air pollution caused by Class 2-3 hazards. Depending on the composition of the current complex of hazards, the manufacture workers comprise three groups determined by the impact of aromatic hydrocarbons, olefin oxides and their combinations. It has been shown that the combined impact of aromatic hydrocarbons and olefin oxides combination may produce a more pronounced hazardous impact on workers' health compared with the impact of aromatic hydrocarbons or olefin oxides taken separately. This may be due to the summing up of biological effects. PMID:24006618

  18. Opportunities for the chemical industry in space, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The chemical/petrochemical industry devotes a large percentage of its gross income to research and development, with much of its R and D of a long-term nature. As the chemical industry is examined as a candidate for space investigations, it is readily apparent that research and development in the space environment may lead to attractive commercial opportunities. The advantages of low gravity manufacturing, with a particular emphasis on chemical catalysts, are presented herein specifically for the chemical industry. Research from the Skylab program and Apollo Soyuz test project is reviewed, including acoustic levitation, crystal growth, and container less melts. Space processing of composite materials, alloys, and coatings is also discussed.

  19. Survey of perfluorinated alkyl acids in Finnish effluents, storm water, landfill leachate and sludge.

    PubMed

    Perkola, Noora; Sainio, Pirjo

    2013-11-01

    The objective of the Control of Hazardous Substances in the Baltic Sea (COHIBA) project is to support the implementation of the HELCOM Baltic Sea Action Plan regarding hazardous substances by developing joint actions to achieve the goal of "a Baltic Sea with life undisturbed by hazardous substances". One aim in the project was to identify the most important sources of 11 hazardous substances of special concern in the Baltic Sea. Among them are perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). In this study, four perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs) were studied: PFOA, PFOS, perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA). The occurrence of PFAAs in municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plant effluents (MWWTP1-3, IWWTP1), target industry effluent, storm water, landfill leachate and sludge was studied. Effluents were analysed six times and storm water, leachate and sludge were analysed twice, once in the warm season and once in the cold, during a 1-year sampling campaign. PFOS prevailed in two municipal effluents (MWWTP1 and 3) and industrial effluent (IWWTP1; 7.8-14, 8.0-640 and 320-1,300 ng/l, respectively). However, in one municipal effluent (MWWTP2) PFOA was, in a majority of sampling occasions, the predominant PFAA (9-15 ng/l) followed by PFOS (3.8-20 ng/l). The highest PFAA loads of the municipal effluents were found in the MWWTP3 receiving the biggest portion of industrial wastewater. In storm water the highest concentration was found for PFHxA (17 ng/l). The highest concentration of PFOS and PFOA were 9.9 and 5.1 ng/l, respectively. PFOS, PFOA and PFHxA were detected in every effluent, storm water and landfill leachate sample, whereas PFDA was detected in most of the samples (77%). In the target industry, PFOS concentrations varied between 1,400 and 18,000 ?g/l. In addition, on one sampling occasion PFOA and PFHxA were found (0.027 and 0.009 ?g/l, respectively). For effluents, PFAA mass flows into the Baltic Sea were calculated. For municipal wastewater treatment plants average mass flows per day varied for PFOS between 1,073 and 38,880 mg/day, for PFOA 960 and 2,700 mg/day, for PFHxA 408 and 1,269 mg/day and for PFDA 84 and 270 mg/day. In IWWTP mass flows for PFOS, PFOA, PFHxA and PFDA were 495 mg/d, 28 mg/d, 23 mg/d and 0.6 mg/g, respectively. PMID:23512237

  20. Quarter century of industrial water use and a decade of discharge controls

    SciTech Connect

    David, E.L.

    1984-06-01

    This paper explores the trends in industrial water intake, discharge, recycling, and gross water use to see whether or not the 1972 Clean Water Act (CWA) has had an impact on industrial effluent discharge.

  1. REDUCTION OF TOXICITY TO AQUATIC ORGANISMS BY INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The specific goal of this research was to conduct 24-hour static acute bioassays with 'untreated' influent and 'treated' effluent using fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and water flea (Daphnia magna) to biologically evaluate the effectiveness of industrial wastewater facilit...

  2. Effluent treatment for nuclear thermal propulsion ground testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shipers, Larry R.

    1993-01-01

    The objectives are to define treatment functions, review concept options, discuss PIPET effluent treatment system (ETS), and outline future activities. The topics covered include the following: reactor exhaust; effluent treatment functions; effluent treatment categories; effluent treatment options; concept evaluation; PIPETS ETS envelope; PIPET effluent treatment concept; and future activities.

  3. Wastewater Recycle- A Sustainable Approach Towards Desalination 

    E-print Network

    Mittal, A.

    2013-01-01

    and optimizes energy usage in case of ZLD. ? Membrane Bioreactor (MBR) technology in combination with HEROTM can be an economical recycle treatment scheme for refinery and petrochemical wastewater applications. ? Zero Liquid discharge (ZLD) systems, though... ? Background ? Wastewater Recycle Drivers ? Technologies for Recycle ? Examples ? Cooling Tower Blowdown Recycle ? Refinery Treated Effluent Recycle ? Petrochemical Effluent Recycle ESL-IE-13-05-07 Proceedings of the Thrity-Fifth Industrial Energy...

  4. A REVIEW OF RESEARCH NEEDS FOR DAIRY SHED EFFLUENT MANAGEMENT, STATE OF VICTORIA, AUSTRALIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This technical report provides a brief review of current activities in dairy effluent management in the Victorian (Australia) dairy industry, and recommendations for future research priorities to be potentially supported by the Division of Agricultural Development in the Department of Primary Indust...

  5. High Speed/ Low Effluent Process for Ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    M. Clark Dale

    2006-10-30

    n this project, BPI demonstrated a new ethanol fermentation technology, termed the High Speed/ Low Effluent (HS/LE) process on both lab and large pilot scale as it would apply to wet mill and/or dry mill corn ethanol production. The HS/LE process allows very rapid fermentations, with 18 to 22% sugar syrups converted to 9 to 11% ethanol ‘beers’ in 6 to 12 hours using either a ‘consecutive batch’ or ‘continuous cascade’ implementation. This represents a 5 to 8X increase in fermentation speeds over conventional 72 hour batch fermentations which are the norm in the fuel ethanol industry today. The ‘consecutive batch’ technology was demonstrated on a large pilot scale (4,800 L) in a dry mill corn ethanol plant near Cedar Rapids, IA (Xethanol Biofuels). The pilot demonstrated that 12 hour fermentations can be accomplished on an industrial scale in a non-sterile industrial environment. Other objectives met in this project included development of a Low Energy (LE) Distillation process which reduces the energy requirements for distillation from about 14,000 BTU/gal steam ($0.126/gal with natural gas @ $9.00 MCF) to as low as 0.40 KW/gal electrical requirements ($0.022/gal with electricity @ $0.055/KWH). BPI also worked on the development of processes that would allow application of the HS/LE fermentation process to dry mill ethanol plants. A High-Value Corn ethanol plant concept was developed to produce 1) corn germ/oil, 2) corn bran, 3) ethanol, 4) zein protein, and 5) nutritional protein, giving multiple higher value products from the incoming corn stream.

  6. Treatment of petrochemical wastewater by microaerobic hydrolysis and anoxic/oxic processes and analysis of bacterial diversity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qi; Xiong, Panpan; Ding, Pengyuan; Chu, Libing; Wang, Jianlong

    2015-11-01

    Microaerobic hydrolysis-acidification (MHA)-anoxic-oxic (A/O) processes were developed to treat actual petrochemical wastewater. The results showed that the overall COD removal efficiency was 72-79% at HRT=20h, and MHA accounted for 33-42% of COD removal, exhibiting good efficiency of acidogenic fermentation. Ammonium removal was more than 94%. The main pollutants in the influent were identified to be benzene, ketone, alcohols, amine, nitrile and phenols by GC-MS, and the majority of pollutants could be removed by MHA-A/O treatment. Proteobacteria was the most dominant bacteria in the system, accounting for more than 55% of the reads. The predominant genera in MHA, anoxic and oxic reactors were Anaerolineaceae and Sulfuritalea, Lactococcus and Blastocatella, and Saprospiraceae uncultured and Nitrosomonadaceae, respectively. This treatment system exhibited good performance in degrading the complex compounds in the petrochemical wastewater. PMID:26233329

  7. Micropollutants produced by disinfection of wastewater effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Jolley, R.L.; Cumming, R.B.; Lee, N.E.; Thompson, J.E.; Lewis, L.R.

    1981-01-01

    Recent research conducted with the objective of determining some of the chemical mutagenic characteristics of nonvolatile micropollutants in treated wastewater effluents is summarized. The effluents from nine wastewater plants were examined relative to the chemical effects of the disinfectants chlorine, ozone, and uv light on nonvolatile organic constituents and the formation of mutagenic constituents during disinfection. Results indicate that disinfection by chlorine or ozone can lead to an increase in the number of mutagenic materials in the effluents. (JGB)

  8. Project OPTEX: Field study at a petrochemical facility to assess optical remote sensing and dispersion modeling techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Paien, R.J.; Zwicker, J.O.; Feldman, H.

    1997-12-31

    The American Petroleum Inst. has conducted a field study at a petrochemical facility for the purpose of (1) testing the ability of optical remote sensing (ORS) techniques to characterize fugitive emissions, and (2) assembling ambient and tracer sampler data for evaluating air dispersion models. The study, referred to as the OPTEX (Operational Petrochemical Tracer Experiment) Project, took place during October 1996 at a Texas petrochemical facility. This paper reports on the design of the field study and summarizes the measurements that were obtained in the field. Several aspects of the field study are described in the paper: the types and locations of the emission releases and tracer gases that were used, the deployment of tracer samplers at various downwind distances, the use of open-path FTIR (OP-FTIR) equipment at the site to quantify tracer gas emissions, special short-term tracer gas emissions designed to test the ability of the ORS systems to detect accidental releases, and the use of a Doppler sodar to evaluate vertical profiles of wind and turbulence upwind and downwind of the facility. The data base for this study, as well as that from an earlier field study that took place at the Duke Forest green field site in North Carolina, will be used for evaluating air dispersion model performance and the ability of ORS measurements to quantify fugitive emissions.

  9. Treatment of textile dye plant effluent by nanofiltration membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Y.; Lebrun, R.E.; Gallo, P.J.; Blond, P.

    1999-09-01

    The study was concerned primarily with characterization of the NF45 membrane. Its pure water permeability, the mass transfer coefficient of NaCl, and the mean radius of the membrane pores were determined. Experiments run with five pure dye solutions and an industrial dye pulp solution confirmed the potential of nanofiltration membrane separation for the treatment of textile dye plant effluent. The effects of such significant parameters as initial solution concentration, transmembrane pressure, and type of dye on two fundamental characteristics of nanofiltration (flux and separation factor) were studied.

  10. Process for treating effluent from a supercritical water oxidation reactor

    DOEpatents

    Barnes, C.M.; Shapiro, C.

    1997-11-25

    A method for treating a gaseous effluent from a supercritical water oxidation reactor containing entrained solids is provided comprising the steps of expanding the gas/solids effluent from a first to a second lower pressure at a temperature at which no liquid condenses; separating the solids from the gas effluent; neutralizing the effluent to remove any acid gases; condensing the effluent; and retaining the purified effluent to the supercritical water oxidation reactor. 6 figs.

  11. Process for treating effluent from a supercritical water oxidation reactor

    DOEpatents

    Barnes, Charles M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Shapiro, Carolyn (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1997-01-01

    A method for treating a gaseous effluent from a supercritical water oxidation reactor containing entrained solids is provided comprising the steps of expanding the gas/solids effluent from a first to a second lower pressure at a temperature at which no liquid condenses; separating the solids from the gas effluent; neutralizing the effluent to remove any acid gases; condensing the effluent; and retaining the purified effluent to the supercritical water oxidation reactor.

  12. Improving hydrolysis acidification by limited aeration in the pretreatment of petrochemical wastewater.

    PubMed

    Wu, Changyong; Zhou, Yuexi; Wang, Peichao; Guo, Shujun

    2015-10-01

    Petrochemical wastewater was pretreated by hydrolysis acidification to improve the biodegradation and treatability on limited aeration conditions. The results showed limited aeration with DO from 0.2 to 0.3mg/L (average ORP was -210 mV) was the best condition. The BOD5/COD of influent was 0.23, and it increased to 0.43 on this condition. Limited aeration can obviously reduce the reduction of SO4(2-), reducing the generation of toxic gas H2S, and almost no H2S can be detected in the off-gas. The sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) diversity and abundance on limited aeration condition was obviously inhibited. Limited aeration condition was benefit for the removal of benzene ring organics, such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX), improving the toxicity and treatability of the wastewater. Based on the experiment results, an anaerobic hydrolysis acidification tank (100,000 m(3)) has been transformed into limited aeration hydrolysis acidification tank and it runs well. PMID:26210137

  13. Pyrolysis and oxy-fuel combustion characteristics and kinetics of petrochemical wastewater sludge using thermogravimetric analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianbiao; Mu, Lin; Cai, Jingcheng; Yao, Pikai; Song, Xigeng; Yin, Hongchao; Li, Aimin

    2015-12-01

    The pyrolysis and oxy-fuel combustion characteristics of petrochemical wastewater sludge (PS) were studied in air (O2/N2) and oxy-fuel (O2/CO2) atmospheres using non-isothermal thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Pyrolysis experiments showed that the weight loss profiles were almost similar up to 1050K in both N2 and CO2 atmospheres, while further weight loss took place in CO2 atmosphere at higher temperatures due to char-CO2 gasification. Compared with 20%O2/80%N2, the drying and devolatilization stage of PS were delayed in 20%O2/80%CO2 due to the differences in properties of the diluting gases. In oxy-fuel combustion experiments, with O2 concentration increasing, characteristic temperatures decreased, while characteristic combustion rates and combustion performance indexes increased. Kinetic analysis of PS decomposition under various atmospheres was performed using Coats-Redfern approach. The results indicated that, with O2 concentration increasing, the activation energies of Step 1 almost kept constant, while the values of subsequent three steps increased. PMID:26386413

  14. Design issues of a reinforcement-based self-learning fuzzy controller for petrochemical process control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, John; Wang, Haojin; Daugherity, Walter C.

    1992-01-01

    Fuzzy logic controllers have some often-cited advantages over conventional techniques such as PID control, including easier implementation, accommodation to natural language, and the ability to cover a wider range of operating conditions. One major obstacle that hinders the broader application of fuzzy logic controllers is the lack of a systematic way to develop and modify their rules; as a result the creation and modification of fuzzy rules often depends on trial and error or pure experimentation. One of the proposed approaches to address this issue is a self-learning fuzzy logic controller (SFLC) that uses reinforcement learning techniques to learn the desirability of states and to adjust the consequent part of its fuzzy control rules accordingly. Due to the different dynamics of the controlled processes, the performance of a self-learning fuzzy controller is highly contingent on its design. The design issue has not received sufficient attention. The issues related to the design of a SFLC for application to a petrochemical process are discussed, and its performance is compared with that of a PID and a self-tuning fuzzy logic controller.

  15. 40 CFR 408.92 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.92 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  16. 40 CFR 408.107 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.107 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  17. 40 CFR 408.92 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.92 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  18. 40 CFR 408.102 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.102 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  19. 40 CFR 408.97 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.97 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  20. 40 CFR 408.102 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.102 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  1. 40 CFR 408.97 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.97 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  2. 40 CFR 408.102 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.102 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  3. 40 CFR 408.102 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.102 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  4. 40 CFR 408.102 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.102 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  5. 40 CFR 408.107 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.107 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  6. 40 CFR 408.92 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.92 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  7. 40 CFR 408.107 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.107 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  8. 40 CFR 408.107 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.107 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  9. 40 CFR 408.97 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.97 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  10. 40 CFR 408.97 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.97 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  11. 40 CFR 408.107 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.107 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  12. 40 CFR 408.92 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.92 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  13. 40 CFR 408.97 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.97 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  14. 40 CFR 408.92 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.92 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  15. 40 CFR 471.66 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Forming Subcategory § 471.66 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  16. 40 CFR 440.55 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Ore Subcategory § 440.55 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  17. 40 CFR 471.66 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Forming Subcategory § 471.66 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  18. 40 CFR 471.66 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Forming Subcategory § 471.66 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  19. 40 CFR 440.55 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Ore Subcategory § 440.55 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  20. 40 CFR 440.55 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Ore Subcategory § 440.55 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  1. 40 CFR 414.31 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Other Fibers § 414.31 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  2. 40 CFR 414.22 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Rayon Fibers § 414.22 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

  3. 40 CFR 471.66 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Forming Subcategory § 471.66 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  4. 40 CFR 471.66 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Forming Subcategory § 471.66 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  5. 40 CFR 440.55 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Ore Subcategory § 440.55 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  6. 40 CFR 440.55 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Ore Subcategory § 440.55 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  7. 40 CFR 427.33 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper (Starch Binder) Subcategory § 427.33 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  8. 40 CFR 427.33 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper (Starch Binder) Subcategory § 427.33 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  9. 40 CFR 427.32 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper (Starch Binder) Subcategory § 427.32 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  10. 40 CFR 427.32 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper (Starch Binder) Subcategory § 427.32 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  11. 40 CFR 440.112 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Platinum Ores Subcategory § 440.112 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  12. 40 CFR 440.115 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Platinum Ores Subcategory § 440.115 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  13. 40 CFR 440.112 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Platinum Ores Subcategory § 440.112 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  14. 40 CFR 440.112 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Platinum Ores Subcategory § 440.112 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  15. 40 CFR 440.115 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Platinum Ores Subcategory § 440.115 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  16. 40 CFR 440.115 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Platinum Ores Subcategory § 440.115 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  17. 40 CFR 440.115 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Platinum Ores Subcategory § 440.115 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  18. 40 CFR 440.112 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Platinum Ores Subcategory § 440.112 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  19. 40 CFR 440.115 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Platinum Ores Subcategory § 440.115 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  20. 40 CFR 440.112 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Platinum Ores Subcategory § 440.112 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  1. 40 CFR 420.52 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Vacuum Degassing Subcategory § 420.52 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

  2. 40 CFR 420.53 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Vacuum Degassing Subcategory § 420.53 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  3. 40 CFR 420.52 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Vacuum Degassing Subcategory § 420.52 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

  4. 40 CFR 417.112 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY SO3 Solvent and Vacuum Sulfonation Subcategory § 417.112 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  5. 40 CFR 417.112 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY SO3 Solvent and Vacuum Sulfonation Subcategory § 417.112 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  6. 40 CFR 417.113 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY SO3 Solvent and Vacuum Sulfonation Subcategory § 417.113 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  7. 40 CFR 420.53 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Vacuum Degassing Subcategory § 420.53 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  8. 40 CFR 417.112 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY SO3 Solvent and Vacuum Sulfonation Subcategory § 417.112 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  9. 40 CFR 417.113 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY SO3 Solvent and Vacuum Sulfonation Subcategory § 417.113 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  10. 40 CFR 420.52 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Vacuum Degassing Subcategory § 420.52 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

  11. 40 CFR 420.52 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Vacuum Degassing Subcategory § 420.52 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

  12. 40 CFR 417.112 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY SO3 Solvent and Vacuum Sulfonation Subcategory § 417.112 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  13. 40 CFR 420.53 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Vacuum Degassing Subcategory § 420.53 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  14. 40 CFR 420.53 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Vacuum Degassing Subcategory § 420.53 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  15. 40 CFR 417.113 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY SO3 Solvent and Vacuum Sulfonation Subcategory § 417.113 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  16. 40 CFR 420.53 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Vacuum Degassing Subcategory § 420.53 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  17. 40 CFR 420.52 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Vacuum Degassing Subcategory § 420.52 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

  18. 40 CFR 417.113 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY SO3 Solvent and Vacuum Sulfonation Subcategory § 417.113 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  19. 40 CFR 471.82 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...property Maximum for any 1 day Maximum for monthly...

  20. 40 CFR 421.73 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...property Maximum for any 1 day Maximum for monthly...

  1. 40 CFR 430.54 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...dischargers Maximum for any 1 day Monthly average...

  2. 40 CFR 421.132 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...property Maximum for any 1 day Maximum for monthly...

  3. 40 CFR 421.132 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...property Maximum for any 1 day Maximum for monthly...

  4. 40 CFR 430.42 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...not be subject to the maximum day and average of 30...

  5. 40 CFR 419.43 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations Maximum for any 1 day Average of daily values...

  6. 40 CFR 435.13 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...grease The maximum for any one day shall not exceed 42...

  7. 40 CFR 471.12 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...property Maximum for any 1 day Maximum for monthly...

  8. 40 CFR 471.71 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...operations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...property Maximum for any 1 day Maximum for monthly...

  9. 40 CFR 419.53 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...Limitations Maximum for any 1 day Average of daily values...

  10. 40 CFR 421.23 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...property Maximum for any 1 day Maximum for monthly...

  11. 40 CFR 430.52 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...dischargers Maximum for any 1 day Average of daily values...

  12. 40 CFR 471.12 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...property Maximum for any 1 day Maximum for monthly...

  13. 40 CFR 464.32 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...not be subject to the maximum day and maximum for monthly...

  14. 40 CFR 419.42 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations Maximum for any 1 day Average of daily values...

  15. 40 CFR 419.13 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations Maximum for any 1 day Average of daily values...

  16. 40 CFR 464.13 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...not be subject to the maximum day and maximum for monthly...

  17. 40 CFR 420.77 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations Maximum for any 1 day Average of daily values...

  18. 40 CFR 420.83 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations Maximum for any 1 day Average of daily values...

  19. 40 CFR 420.92 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations Maximum for any 1 day Average of daily values...

  20. 40 CFR 471.72 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...property Maximum for any 1 day Maximum for monthly...