Science.gov

Sample records for petroleum fuel dependency

  1. Petroleum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McManus, T. R.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    This review of petroleum covers: crude oil; fuels, gaseous and liquid; lubricants, oils, and greases; asphalts, bitumens, tars, and pitches; hydrocarbons; physical properties; metals in oil; nonmetallic elements and heterocompounds; and analytical methods and apparatus. (MVL)

  2. 10 CFR 474.3 - Petroleum-equivalent fuel economy calculation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Petroleum-equivalent fuel economy calculation. 474.3..., DEVELOPMENT, AND DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM; PETROLEUM-EQUIVALENT FUEL ECONOMY CALCULATION § 474.3 Petroleum-equivalent fuel economy calculation. (a) The petroleum-equivalent fuel economy for an electric vehicle...

  3. 10 CFR 474.3 - Petroleum-equivalent fuel economy calculation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Petroleum-equivalent fuel economy calculation. 474.3..., DEVELOPMENT, AND DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM; PETROLEUM-EQUIVALENT FUEL ECONOMY CALCULATION § 474.3 Petroleum-equivalent fuel economy calculation. (a) The petroleum-equivalent fuel economy for an electric vehicle...

  4. 10 CFR 474.3 - Petroleum-equivalent fuel economy calculation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Petroleum-equivalent fuel economy calculation. 474.3..., DEVELOPMENT, AND DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM; PETROLEUM-EQUIVALENT FUEL ECONOMY CALCULATION § 474.3 Petroleum-equivalent fuel economy calculation. (a) The petroleum-equivalent fuel economy for an electric vehicle...

  5. 10 CFR 474.3 - Petroleum-equivalent fuel economy calculation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Petroleum-equivalent fuel economy calculation. 474.3..., DEVELOPMENT, AND DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM; PETROLEUM-EQUIVALENT FUEL ECONOMY CALCULATION § 474.3 Petroleum-equivalent fuel economy calculation. (a) The petroleum-equivalent fuel economy for an electric vehicle...

  6. Dermal carcinogenic activity of petroleum-derived middle distillate fuels.

    PubMed

    Biles, R W; McKee, R H; Lewis, S C; Scala, R A; DePass, L R

    1988-12-30

    In general, the carcinogenic potential of petroleum-derived materials is related to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content. Thus it has been assumed that liquids which boil below the PAH distillation range (i.e., below approx. 370 degrees C (700 degrees F) would not be carcinogenic. Several early studies supported this conclusion but were of relatively short duration. Several recent and more rigorous studies have shown that repeated application of certain petroleum-derived materials boiling between approximately 177-370 degrees C (350-700 degrees F) (i.e., middle distillate fuels) can produce tumors in mouse skin. The current studies assessed the tumorigenic potential of a series of middle distillates which varied with respect to boiling range, composition, and source of blending stocks. All of the samples produced evidence of weak tumorigenic activity which was characterized by low tumor yields and long median latencies. However, the majority of the tumor yields were significantly different from the control. There were no apparent differences in response among the samples. Thus the various parameters examined did not substantially influence tumor outcome. In particular, there was no association of tumorigenic activity with aromatic carbon content; this finding, coupled with evidence that PAH levels were low, suggested that the tumorigenic responses were not PAH-dependent. In addition to the tumors, there was evidence of non-neoplastic dermal changes including hyperplasia. These may have contributed to the tumorigenic responses; however, the actual mechanism of tumor induction is unknown. PMID:3212789

  7. Reforming petroleum-based fuels for fuel cell vehicles : composition-performance relationships.

    SciTech Connect

    Kopasz, J. P.; Miller, L. E.; Ahmed, S.; Devlin, P. R.; Pacheco, M.

    2001-12-04

    Onboard reforming of petroleum-based fuels, such as gasoline, may help ease the introduction of fuel cell vehicles to the marketplace. Although gasoline can be reformed, it is optimized to meet the demands of ICEs. This optimization includes blending to increase the octane number and addition of oxygenates and detergents to control emissions. The requirements for a fuel for onboard reforming to hydrogen are quite different than those for combustion. Factors such as octane number and flame speed are not important; however, factors such as hydrogen density, catalyst-fuel interactions, and possible catalyst poisoning become paramount. In order to identify what factors are important in a hydrocarbon fuel for reforming to hydrogen and what factors are detrimental, we have begun a program to test various components of gasoline and blends of components under autothermal reforming conditions. The results indicate that fuel composition can have a large effect on reforming behavior. Components which may be beneficial for ICEs for their octane enhancing value were detrimental to reforming. Fuels with high aromatic and naphthenic content were more difficult to reform. Aromatics were also found to have an impact on the kinetics for reforming of paraffins. The effects of sulfur impurities were dependent on the catalyst. Sulfur was detrimental for Ni, Co, and Ru catalysts. Sulfur was beneficial for reforming with Pt catalysts, however, the effect was dependent on the sulfur concentration.

  8. Interactions of Jet Fuels with Nitrile O-Rings: Petroleum-Derived versus Synthetic Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Gormley, Robert J.; Link, Dirk D.; Baltrus, John P.; Zandhuis, Paul H.

    2009-01-01

    A transition from petroleum-derived jet fuels to blends with Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) fuels, and ultimately fully synthetic hydro-isomerized F-T fuels has raised concern about the fate of plasticizers in nitrile-butadiene rubber a-rings that are contacted by the fuels as this transition occurs. The partitioning of plasticizers and fuel molecules between nitrile a-rings and petroleum-derived, synthetic, and additized-synthetic jet fuels has been measured. Thermal desorption of o-rings soaked in the various jet fuels followed by gas chromatographic analysis with a mass spectrometric detector showed many of the plasticizer and stabilizer compounds were removed from the o-rings regardless of the contact fuel. Fuel molecules were observed to migrate into the o-rings for the petroleum-derived fuel as did both the fuel and additive for a synthetic F-T jet fuel additized with benzyl alcohol, but less for the unadditized synthetic fuel. The specific compounds or classes of compounds involved in the partitioning were identified and a semiquantitative comparison of relative partitioning of the compounds of interest was made. The results provide another step forward in improving the confidence level of using additized, fully synthetic jet fuel in the place of petroleum-derived fuel.

  9. Interactions of Jet Fuels with Nitrile O-Rings: Petroleum-Derived versus Synthetic Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Gormley, R.J.; Link, D.D.; Baltrus, J.P.; Zandhuis, P.H.

    2008-01-01

    A transition from petroleum-derived jet fuels to blends with Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) fuels, and ultimately fully synthetic hydro-isomerized F-T fuels has raised concern about the fate of plasticizers in nitrile-butadiene rubber o-rings that are contacted by the fuels as this transition occurs. The partitioning of plasticizers and fuel molecules between nitrile o-rings and petroleum-derived, synthetic, and additized-synthetic jet fuels has been measured. Thermal desorption of o-rings soaked in the various jet fuels followed by gas chromatographic analysis with a mass spectrometric detector showed many of the plasticizer and stabilizer compounds were removed from the o-rings regardless of the contact fuel. Fuel molecules were observed to migrate into the o-rings for the petroleum-derived fuel as did both the fuel and additive for a synthetic F-T jet fuel additized with benzyl alcohol, but less for the unadditized synthetic fuel. The specific compounds or classes of compounds involved in the partitioning were identified and a semiquantitative comparison of relative partitioning of the compounds of interest was made. The results provide another step forward in improving the confidence level of using additized, fuIly synthetic jet fuel in the place of petroleum-derived fueL

  10. 10 CFR Appendix to Part 474 - Sample Petroleum-Equivalent Fuel Economy Calculations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sample Petroleum-Equivalent Fuel Economy Calculations..., DEVELOPMENT, AND DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM; PETROLEUM-EQUIVALENT FUEL ECONOMY CALCULATION Pt. 474, App. Appendix to Part 474—Sample Petroleum-Equivalent Fuel Economy Calculations Example 1: An electric vehicle...

  11. 10 CFR Appendix to Part 474 - Sample Petroleum-Equivalent Fuel Economy Calculations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sample Petroleum-Equivalent Fuel Economy Calculations..., DEVELOPMENT, AND DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM; PETROLEUM-EQUIVALENT FUEL ECONOMY CALCULATION Pt. 474, App. Appendix to Part 474—Sample Petroleum-Equivalent Fuel Economy Calculations Example 1: An electric vehicle...

  12. 10 CFR Appendix to Part 474 - Sample Petroleum-Equivalent Fuel Economy Calculations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sample Petroleum-Equivalent Fuel Economy Calculations..., DEVELOPMENT, AND DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM; PETROLEUM-EQUIVALENT FUEL ECONOMY CALCULATION Pt. 474, App. Appendix to Part 474—Sample Petroleum-Equivalent Fuel Economy Calculations Example 1: An electric vehicle...

  13. 10 CFR Appendix to Part 474 - Sample Petroleum-Equivalent Fuel Economy Calculations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sample Petroleum-Equivalent Fuel Economy Calculations..., DEVELOPMENT, AND DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM; PETROLEUM-EQUIVALENT FUEL ECONOMY CALCULATION Pt. 474, App. Appendix to Part 474—Sample Petroleum-Equivalent Fuel Economy Calculations Example 1: An electric vehicle...

  14. Petroleum Plantations for Fuel and Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvin, Melvin

    1979-01-01

    Several alternatives to long-range fuel production are given. The carbon dioxide problem resulting from the burning of coal is discussed. Emphasis is given to the topic of hydrocarbon producing plants, such as those in the genus Euphorbia, and the economics of oil production from them. (SA)

  15. Impact of petroleum, synthetic and cryogenic fuels on civil aviation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Blake, C.L.

    1982-06-01

    Partial contents of this report are: World and Long-Term Energy View; U.S. Aviation in the Fuel Market; U.S. Petroleum Forecasting; Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR); Petroleum Refining and Aviation Fuels; Natural Gas; Synthetic Fuels for Aviation; Cryogenic Fuels and Other; Aviation Propulsion; Alternative Ground Fuels and Energy Sources; Fuel Conservation in Aviation and Disruption of U.S. Crude Oil Imports.

  16. Workshop on the utilization of coal as an alternative to petroleum fuels in the Andean region. Volume 2. Contributed papers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-06-28

    Since the advent of the petroleum crisis in the mid-seventies, with its escalating fuel-oil prices, coal production has shown a substantial increase. Worldwide coal reserves are large, and the technology exists to exploit these reserves. Andean countries, especially Peru, are known to have significant underutilized coal reserves, which could prove socially and economically attractive for energy policy and planning and for long-term self-sufficiency. At present, many industrial operations and electric-generating facilities in Bolivia, Ecuador, and Peru are dependent on fuel-oil from diminishing domestic reserves or from imports. With current prices of coal generally about half those for residual petroleum fuels (based on energy content), the potential exists for exploitation of Andean coal as an alternative to petroleum fuels. Greater use of coal resources would help meet the demand for increased energy needed to improve living standards and for increased industrialization in the area.

  17. 77 FR 18718 - Petroleum Reduction and Alternative Fuel Consumption Requirements for Federal Fleets

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... petroleum consumption and increase in alternative fuel consumption for Federal fleets (77 FR 14,482 (Mar. 12...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 438 RIN 1904-AB98 Petroleum Reduction and Alternative Fuel Consumption... increase in alternative fuel consumption for Federal fleets. With this Request for Information (RFI),...

  18. Lead Isotope Characterization of Petroleum Fuels in Taipei, Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Pei-Hsuan; Shyu, Guey-Shin; Chang, Ying-Fang; Chou, Yu-Chen; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Chou, Chi-Su; Chang, Tsun-Kuo

    2015-01-01

    Leaded gasoline in Taiwan was gradually phased out from 1983 to 2000. However, it is unclear whether unleaded gasoline still contributes to atmospheric lead (Pb) exposure in urban areas. In this study, Pb isotopic compositions of unleaded gasolines, with octane numbers of 92, 95, 98, and diesel from two local suppliers in Taipei were determined by multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with a two-sigma uncertainty of ± 0.02 %. Lead isotopic ratios of vehicle exhaust (208Pb/207Pb: 2.427, 206Pb/207Pb: 1.148, as estimated from petroleum fuels) overlap with the reported aerosol data. This agreement indicates that local unleaded petroleum fuels, containing 10–45 ng·Pb·g−1, are merely one contributor among various sources to urban aerosol Pb. Additionally, the distinction between the products of the two companies is statistically significant in their individual 208Pb/206Pb ratios (p-value < 0.001, t test). Lead isotopic characterization appears to be applicable as a “fingerprinting” tool for tracing the sources of Pb pollution. PMID:25918913

  19. Lead isotope characterization of petroleum fuels in Taipei, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Yao, Pei-Hsuan; Shyu, Guey-Shin; Chang, Ying-Fang; Chou, Yu-Chen; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Chou, Chi-Su; Chang, Tsun-Kuo

    2015-05-01

    Leaded gasoline in Taiwan was gradually phased out from 1983 to 2000. However, it is unclear whether unleaded gasoline still contributes to atmospheric lead (Pb) exposure in urban areas. In this study, Pb isotopic compositions of unleaded gasolines, with octane numbers of 92, 95, 98, and diesel from two local suppliers in Taipei were determined by multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with a two-sigma uncertainty of ± 0.02 %. Lead isotopic ratios of vehicle exhaust (²⁰⁸Pb/²⁰⁷Pb: 2.427, ²⁰⁶Pb/²⁰⁷Pb: 1.148, as estimated from petroleum fuels) overlap with the reported aerosol data. This agreement indicates that local unleaded petroleum fuels, containing 10-45 ng·Pb·g⁻¹, are merely one contributor among various sources to urban aerosol Pb. Additionally, the distinction between the products of the two companies is statistically significant in their individual ²⁰⁸Pb/²⁰⁶Pb ratios (p-value < 0.001, t test). Lead isotopic characterization appears to be applicable as a "fingerprinting" tool for tracing the sources of Pb pollution. PMID:25918913

  20. 10 CFR Appendix to Part 474 - Sample Petroleum-Equivalent Fuel Economy Calculations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sample Petroleum-Equivalent Fuel Economy Calculations Appendix to Part 474 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ELECTRIC AND HYBRID VEHICLE RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT, AND DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM; PETROLEUM-EQUIVALENT FUEL ECONOMY CALCULATION Pt. 474, App....

  1. 10 CFR 474.3 - Petroleum-equivalent fuel economy calculation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Petroleum-equivalent fuel economy calculation. 474.3 Section 474.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ELECTRIC AND HYBRID VEHICLE RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT, AND DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM; PETROLEUM-EQUIVALENT FUEL ECONOMY CALCULATION § 474.3...

  2. Combustion characteristics of a turbocharged DI compression ignition engine fueled with petroleum diesel fuels and biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Canakci, Mustafa

    2007-04-01

    In this study, the combustion characteristics and emissions of two different petroleum diesel fuels (No. 1 and No. 2) and biodiesel from soybean oil were compared. The tests were performed at steady state conditions in a four-cylinder turbocharged DI diesel engine at full load at 1400-rpm engine speed. The experimental results compared with No. 2 diesel fuel showed that biodiesel provided significant reductions in PM, CO, and unburned HC, the NO(x) increased by 11.2%. Biodiesel had a 13.8% increase in brake-specific fuel consumption due to its lower heating value. However, using No. 1 diesel fuel gave better emission results, NO(x) and brake-specific fuel consumption reduced by 16.1% and 1.2%, respectively. The values of the principal combustion characteristics of the biodiesel were obtained between two petroleum diesel fuels. The results indicated that biodiesel may be blended with No. 1 diesel fuel to be used without any modification on the engine. PMID:16822672

  3. 41 CFR 101-26.602 - Fuels and packaged petroleum products obtained from or through the Defense Logistics Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... petroleum products obtained from or through the Defense Logistics Agency. 101-26.602 Section 101-26.602... Other Than GSA § 101-26.602 Fuels and packaged petroleum products obtained from or through the Defense... requirements for coal, natural gas from sources other than a public utility, petroleum fuels, and...

  4. 41 CFR 101-26.602 - Fuels and packaged petroleum products obtained from or through the Defense Logistics Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... petroleum products obtained from or through the Defense Logistics Agency. 101-26.602 Section 101-26.602... Other Than GSA § 101-26.602 Fuels and packaged petroleum products obtained from or through the Defense... requirements for coal, natural gas from sources other than a public utility, petroleum fuels, and...

  5. 41 CFR 101-26.602 - Fuels and packaged petroleum products obtained from or through the Defense Logistics Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... petroleum products obtained from or through the Defense Logistics Agency. 101-26.602 Section 101-26.602... Other Than GSA § 101-26.602 Fuels and packaged petroleum products obtained from or through the Defense... requirements for coal, natural gas from sources other than a public utility, petroleum fuels, and...

  6. 41 CFR 101-26.602 - Fuels and packaged petroleum products obtained from or through the Defense Logistics Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... petroleum products obtained from or through the Defense Logistics Agency. 101-26.602 Section 101-26.602... Other Than GSA § 101-26.602 Fuels and packaged petroleum products obtained from or through the Defense... requirements for coal, natural gas from sources other than a public utility, petroleum fuels, and...

  7. 40 CFR 1048.620 - What are the provisions for exempting large engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... large engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas? 1048.620 Section 1048.620 Protection of... exempting large engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas? (a) If an engine meets all the... natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas. (2) The engine must have maximum engine power at or above 250...

  8. 40 CFR 1048.620 - What are the provisions for exempting large engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... large engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas? 1048.620 Section 1048.620 Protection of... exempting large engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas? (a) If an engine meets all the... natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas. (2) The engine must have maximum engine power at or above 250...

  9. 40 CFR 1048.620 - What are the provisions for exempting large engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... large engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas? 1048.620 Section 1048.620 Protection of... exempting large engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas? (a) If an engine meets all the... natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas. (2) The engine must have maximum engine power at or above 250...

  10. 40 CFR 1048.620 - What are the provisions for exempting large engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... large engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas? 1048.620 Section 1048.620 Protection of... exempting large engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas? (a) If an engine meets all the... natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas. (2) The engine must have maximum engine power at or above 250...

  11. 40 CFR 1048.620 - What are the provisions for exempting large engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... large engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas? 1048.620 Section 1048.620 Protection of... exempting large engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas? (a) If an engine meets all the... natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas. (2) The engine must have maximum engine power at or above 250...

  12. Impact of non-petroleum vehicle fuel economy on GHG mitigation potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luk, Jason M.; Saville, Bradley A.; MacLean, Heather L.

    2016-04-01

    The fuel economy of gasoline vehicles will increase to meet 2025 corporate average fuel economy standards (CAFE). However, dedicated compressed natural gas (CNG) and battery electric vehicles (BEV) already exceed future CAFE fuel economy targets because only 15% of non-petroleum energy use is accounted for when determining compliance. This study aims to inform stakeholders about the potential impact of CAFE on life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, should non-petroleum fuel vehicles displace increasingly fuel efficient petroleum vehicles. The well-to-wheel GHG emissions of a set of hypothetical model year 2025 light-duty vehicles are estimated. A reference gasoline vehicle is designed to meet the 2025 fuel economy target within CAFE, and is compared to a set of dedicated CNG vehicles and BEVs with different fuel economy ratings, but all vehicles meet or exceed the fuel economy target due to the policy’s dedicated non-petroleum fuel vehicle incentives. Ownership costs and BEV driving ranges are estimated to provide context, as these can influence automaker and consumer decisions. The results show that CNG vehicles that have lower ownership costs than gasoline vehicles and BEVs with long distance driving ranges can exceed the 2025 CAFE fuel economy target. However, this could lead to lower efficiency CNG vehicles and heavier BEVs that have higher well-to-wheel GHG emissions than gasoline vehicles on a per km basis, even if the non-petroleum energy source is less carbon intensive on an energy equivalent basis. These changes could influence the effectiveness of low carbon fuel standards and are not precluded by the light-duty vehicle GHG emissions standards, which regulate tailpipe but not fuel production emissions.

  13. Advanced Petroleum-Based Fuels -- Diesel Emissions Control Project (APBF-DEC)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2003-03-01

    Annual progress report of the Advanced Petroleum-based fuels-Diesel Emissions Control Project. Contains information on 5 test projects to determine the best combinations of low-sulfur diesel fuels, lubricants, diesel engines, and emission control systems to meet projected emissions standards.

  14. Systemic molecular and cellular changes induced in rats upon inhalation of JP-8 petroleum fuel vapor.

    PubMed

    Hanas, Jay S; Bruce Briggs, G; Lerner, Megan R; Lightfoot, Stan A; Larabee, Jason L; Karsies, Todd J; Epstein, Robert B; Hanas, Rushie J; Brackett, Daniel J; Hocker, James R

    2010-05-01

    Limited information is available regarding systemic changes in mammals associated with exposures to petroleum/hydrocarbon fuels. In this study, systemic toxicity of JP-8 jet fuel was observed in a rat inhalation model at different JP-8 fuel vapor concentrations (250, 500, or 1000 mg/m(3), for 91 days). Gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry sequencing identified the alpha-2 microglobulin protein to be elevated in rat kidney in a JP-8 dose-dependent manner. Western blot analysis of kidney and lung tissue extracts revealed JP-8 dependent elevation of inducible heat shock protein 70 (HSP70). Tissue changes were observed histologically (hematoxylin and eosin staining) in liver, kidney, lung, bone marrow, and heart, and more prevalently at medium or high JP-8 vapor phase exposures (500-1000 mg/m(3)) than at low vapor phase exposure (250 mg/m(3)) or non-JP-8 controls. JP-8 fuel-induced liver alterations included dilated sinusoids, cytoplasmic clumping, and fat cell deposition. Changes to the kidneys included reduced numbers of nuclei, and cytoplasmic dumping in the lumen of proximal convoluted tubules. JP-8 dependent lung alterations were edema and dilated alveolar capillaries, which allowed clumping of red blood cells (RBCs). Changes in the bone marrow in response to JP-8 included reduction of fat cells and fat globules, and cellular proliferation (RBCs, white blood cells-WBCs, and megakaryocytes). Heart tissue from JP-8 exposed animals contained increased numbers of inflammatory and fibroblast cells, as well as myofibril scarring. cDNA array analysis of heart tissue revealed a JP-8 dependent increase in atrial natriuretic peptide precursor mRNA and a decrease in voltage-gated potassium (K+) ion channel mRNA. PMID:20233090

  15. 48 CFR 908.7109 - Fuels and packaged petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... offices shall be in accordance with FPMR 41 CFR 101-26.602. When contractors are authorized, consistent... CFR 101-26.602. ... petroleum products. 908.7109 Section 908.7109 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF...

  16. 48 CFR 908.7109 - Fuels and packaged petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... offices shall be in accordance with FPMR 41 CFR 101-26.602. When contractors are authorized, consistent... CFR 101-26.602. ... petroleum products. 908.7109 Section 908.7109 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF...

  17. 48 CFR 908.7109 - Fuels and packaged petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... offices shall be in accordance with FPMR 41 CFR 101-26.602. When contractors are authorized, consistent... CFR 101-26.602. ... petroleum products. 908.7109 Section 908.7109 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF...

  18. 48 CFR 908.7109 - Fuels and packaged petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... offices shall be in accordance with FPMR 41 CFR 101-26.602. When contractors are authorized, consistent... CFR 101-26.602. ... petroleum products. 908.7109 Section 908.7109 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF...

  19. 48 CFR 908.7109 - Fuels and packaged petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... offices shall be in accordance with FPMR 41 CFR 101-26.602. When contractors are authorized, consistent... CFR 101-26.602. ... petroleum products. 908.7109 Section 908.7109 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF...

  20. Advanced fuel hydrocarbon remediation national test location - biocell treatment of petroleum contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Heath, J.; Lory, E.

    1997-03-01

    Biocells are engineered systems that use naturally occurring microbes to degrade fuels and oils into simpler, nonhazardous, and nontoxic compounds. Biocells are able to treat soils contaminated with petroleum based fuels and lubricants, including diesel, jet fuel, and lubricating and hydraulic oils. The microbes use the contaminants as a food source and thus destroy them. By carefully monitoring and controlling air and moisture levels, degradation rates can be increased and total treatment time reduced over natural systems.

  1. Use of petroleum-based correlations and estimation methods for synthetic fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antoine, A. C.

    1980-01-01

    Correlations of hydrogen content with aromatics content, heat of combustion, and smoke point are derived for some synthetic fuels prepared from oil and coal syncrudes. Comparing the results of the aromatics content with correlations derived for petroleum fuels shows that the shale-derived fuels fit the petroleum-based correlations, but the coal-derived fuels do not. The correlations derived for heat of combustion and smoke point are comparable to some found for petroleum-based correlations. Calculated values of hydrogen content and of heat of combustion are obtained for the synthetic fuels by use of ASTM estimation methods. Comparisons of the measured and calculated values show biases in the equations that exceed the critical statistics values. Comparison of the measured hydrogen content by the standard ASTM combustion method with that by a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) method shows a decided bias. The comparison of the calculated and measured NMR hydrogen contents shows a difference similar to that found with petroleum fuels.

  2. Dry process dependency of dupic fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Kwangheon; Whang, Juho; Kim, Yun-goo; Kim, Heemoon

    1996-12-31

    During the Dry Process, volatile and semi-volatile elements are released from the fuel. The effects of these released radioactive nuclides on DUPIC fuel cycle are analyzed from the view-point of radiation hazard, decay beat, and hazard index. Radiation hazard of fresh and spent DUPIC fuel is sensitive to the method of Dry Process. Decay beat of the fuel is also affected. Hazard index turned out not to be dependent on Dry Process.

  3. Fuel Dependence of Benzene Pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, H; Eddings, E; Sarofim, A; Westbrook, C

    2008-07-14

    The relative importance of formation pathways for benzene, an important precursor to soot formation, was determined from the simulation of 22 premixed flames for a wide range of equivalence ratios (1.0 to 3.06), fuels (C{sub 1}-C{sub 12}), and pressures (20 to 760 torr). The maximum benzene concentrations in 15 out of these flames were well reproduced within 30% of the experimental data. Fuel structural properties were found to be critical for benzene production. Cyclohexanes and C{sub 3} and C{sub 4} fuels were found to be among the most productive in benzene formation; and long-chain normal paraffins produce the least amount of benzene. Other properties, such as equivalence ratio and combustion temperatures, were also found to be important in determining the amount of benzene produced in flames. Reaction pathways for benzene formation were examined critically in four premixed flames of structurally different fuels of acetylene, n-decane, butadiene, and cyclohexane. Reactions involving precursors, such as C{sub 3} and C{sub 4} species, were examined. Combination reactions of C{sub 3} species were identified to be the major benzene formation routes with the exception of the cyclohexane flame, in which benzene is formed exclusively from cascading fuel dehydrogenation via cyclohexene and cyclohexadiene intermediates. Acetylene addition makes a minor contribution to benzene formation, except in the butadiene flame where C{sub 4}H{sub 5} radicals are produced directly from the fuel, and in the n-decane flame where C{sub 4}H{sub 5} radicals are produced from large alkyl radical decomposition and H atom abstraction from the resulting large olefins.

  4. USAF toxicology research on petroleum and shale-derived aviation gas turbine fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Martone, J.A.

    1986-04-01

    As one of the nation's largest users of aircraft turbine fuels, the USAF has interest in assuring the safe use of these hydrocarbons by its military and civilian workers. This concern stimulated research to define potential adverse health effects and develop criteria for safe exposure limts for military aviation fuels. The first inhalation exposure to JP-4, the primary fuel used in USAF aircraft, was conducted in 1973. Since this initial subchronic study, the USAF has conducted numerous subchronic and one-year oncogenic inhalation studies to establish health criteria for aviation fuels. This paper summarizes the status of studies to define the toxicity of petroleum and shale-derived aircraft turbine engine fuels and discusses the preliminary findings of toxic nephropathy and primary renal tumors observed in male Fischer 344 rats.

  5. Bioremediation: Effective treatment of petroleum-fuel-contaminated soil, a common environmental problem at industrial and governmental agency sites

    SciTech Connect

    Jolley, R.L.; Donaldson, T.L.; Siegrist, R.L.; Walker, J.F.; MacNeill, J.J.; Ott, D.W.; Machanoff, R.A.; Adler, H.I.; Phelps, T.J.

    1992-07-01

    Bioremediation methods are receiving increased attention for degradation of petroleum-fuel-hydrocarbon contamination in soils. An in situ bioremediation demonstration is being conducted on petroleum-fuel-contaminated soil at Kwajalein Island, a remote Pacific site. Bioreaction parameters studied include water, air, nutrient, and microorganism culture addition. This paper presents planning and design aspects of the demonstration that is scheduled to be completed in 1993.

  6. Bioremediation: Effective treatment of petroleum-fuel-contaminated soil, a common environmental problem at industrial and governmental agency sites

    SciTech Connect

    Jolley, R.L.; Donaldson, T.L.; Siegrist, R.L.; Walker, J.F. ); MacNeill, J.J.; Ott, D.W. ); Machanoff, R.A. ); Adler, H.I. ); Phelps, T.J. )

    1992-01-01

    Bioremediation methods are receiving increased attention for degradation of petroleum-fuel-hydrocarbon contamination in soils. An in situ bioremediation demonstration is being conducted on petroleum-fuel-contaminated soil at Kwajalein Island, a remote Pacific site. Bioreaction parameters studied include water, air, nutrient, and microorganism culture addition. This paper presents planning and design aspects of the demonstration that is scheduled to be completed in 1993.

  7. Effect of alcohol addition on the movement of petroleum hydrocarbon fuels in soil.

    PubMed

    Adam, Gillian; Gamoh, Keiji; Morris, David G; Duncan, Harry

    2002-03-01

    Groundwater contamination by fuel spills from aboveground and underground storage tanks has been of growing concern in recent years. This problem has been magnified by the addition of oxygenates, such as ethanol and methyl-tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) to fuels to reduce vehicular emissions to the atmosphere. These additives, although beneficial in reducing atmospheric pollution, may, however, increase groundwater contamination due to the co-solvency of petroleum hydrocarbons and by the provision of a preferential substrate for microbial utilisation. With the introduction of ethanol to diesel fuel imminent and the move away from MTBE use in many states of the USA, the environmental implications associated with ethanol additive fuels must be thoroughly investigated. Diesel fuel movement was followed in a 1-m soil column and the effect of ethanol addition to diesel fuel on this movement determined. The addition of 5% ethanol to diesel fuel was found to enhance the downward migration of the diesel fuel components, thus increasing the risk of groundwater contamination. A novel method using soil packed HPLC columns allowed the influence of ethanol on individual aromatic hydrocarbon movement to be studied. The levels of ethanol addition investigated were at the current additive level (approx. 25%) for ethanol additive fuels in Brazil and values above (50%) and below (10%) this level. An aqueous ethanol concentration above 10% was required for any movement to occur. At 25% aqueous ethanol, the majority of hydrocarbons were mobilised and the retention behaviour of the soil column lessened. At 50% aqueous ethanol, all the hydrocarbons were found to move unimpeded through the columns. The retention behaviour of the soil was found to change significantly when both organic matter content and silt/clay content was reduced. Unexpectedly, sandy soil with low organic matter and low silt/clay was found to have a retentive behaviour similar to sandy subsoil with moderate silt

  8. Method of producing a colloidal fuel from coal and a heavy petroleum fraction

    DOEpatents

    Longanbach, James R.

    1983-08-09

    A method is provided for combining coal as a colloidal suspension within a heavy petroleum fraction. The coal is broken to a medium particle size and is formed into a slurry with a heavy petroleum fraction such as a decanted oil having a boiling point of about 300.degree.-550.degree. C. The slurry is heated to a temperature of 400.degree.-500.degree. C. for a limited time of only about 1-5 minutes before cooling to a temperature of less than 300.degree. C. During this limited contact time at elevated temperature the slurry can be contacted with hydrogen gas to promote conversion. The liquid phase containing dispersed coal solids is filtered from the residual solids and recovered for use as a fuel or feed stock for other processes. The residual solids containing some carbonaceous material are further processed to provide hydrogen gas and heat for use as required in this process.

  9. In situ thermally enhanced biodegradation of petroleum fuel hydrocarbons and halogenated organic solvents

    DOEpatents

    Taylor, Robert T.; Jackson, Kenneth J.; Duba, Alfred G.; Chen, Ching-I

    1998-01-01

    An in situ thermally enhanced microbial remediation strategy and a method for the biodegradation of toxic petroleum fuel hydrocarbon and halogenated organic solvent contaminants. The method utilizes nonpathogenic, thermophilic bacteria for the thermal biodegradation of toxic and carcinogenic contaminants, such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes, from fuel leaks and the chlorinated ethenes, such as trichloroethylene, chlorinated ethanes, such as 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and chlorinated methanes, such as chloroform, from past solvent cleaning practices. The method relies on and takes advantage of the pre-existing heated conditions and the array of delivery/recovery wells that are created and in place following primary subsurface contaminant volatilization efforts via thermal approaches, such as dynamic underground steam-electrical heating.

  10. In situ thermally enhanced biodegradation of petroleum fuel hydrocarbons and halogenated organic solvents

    DOEpatents

    Taylor, R.T.; Jackson, K.J.; Duba, A.G.; Chen, C.I.

    1998-05-19

    An in situ thermally enhanced microbial remediation strategy and a method for the biodegradation of toxic petroleum fuel hydrocarbon and halogenated organic solvent contaminants are described. The method utilizes nonpathogenic, thermophilic bacteria for the thermal biodegradation of toxic and carcinogenic contaminants, such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes, from fuel leaks and the chlorinated ethenes, such as trichloroethylene, chlorinated ethanes, such as 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and chlorinated methanes, such as chloroform, from past solvent cleaning practices. The method relies on and takes advantage of the pre-existing heated conditions and the array of delivery/recovery wells that are created and in place following primary subsurface contaminant volatilization efforts via thermal approaches, such as dynamic underground steam-electrical heating. 21 figs.

  11. OVERVIEW OF ADVANCED PETROLEUM-BASED FUELS-DIESEL EMISSIONS CONTROL PROGRAM (APBF-DEC)

    SciTech Connect

    Sverdrup, George M.

    2000-08-20

    The Advanced Petroleum-Based Fuels-Diesel Emissions Control Program (APBF-DEC) began in February 2000 and is supported by government agencies and industry. The purpose of the APBF-DEC program is to identify and evaluate the optimal combinations of fuels, lubricants, diesel engines, and emission control systems to meet the projected emission standards for the 2000 to 2010 time period. APBF-DEC is an outgrowth of the earlier Diesel Emission Control-Sulfur Effects Program (DECSE), whose objective is to determine the impact of the sulfur levels in fuel on emission control systems that could lower the emissions of NOx and particulate matter (PM) from diesel powered vehicles in the 2002 to 2004 period. Results from the DECSE studies of two emission control technologies-diesel particle filter (DPF) and NOx adsorber-will be used in the APBF-DEC program. These data are expected to provide initial information on emission control technology options and the effects of fuel properties (including additives) on the performance of emission control systems.

  12. Synthesis of customized petroleum-replica fuel molecules by targeted modification of free fatty acid pools in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Howard, Thomas P; Middelhaufe, Sabine; Moore, Karen; Edner, Christoph; Kolak, Dagmara M; Taylor, George N; Parker, David A; Lee, Rob; Smirnoff, Nicholas; Aves, Stephen J; Love, John

    2013-05-01

    Biofuels are the most immediate, practical solution for mitigating dependence on fossil hydrocarbons, but current biofuels (alcohols and biodiesels) require significant downstream processing and are not fully compatible with modern, mass-market internal combustion engines. Rather, the ideal biofuels are structurally and chemically identical to the fossil fuels they seek to replace (i.e., aliphatic n- and iso-alkanes and -alkenes of various chain lengths). Here we report on production of such petroleum-replica hydrocarbons in Escherichia coli. The activity of the fatty acid (FA) reductase complex from Photorhabdus luminescens was coupled with aldehyde decarbonylase from Nostoc punctiforme to use free FAs as substrates for alkane biosynthesis. This combination of genes enabled rational alterations to hydrocarbon chain length (Cn) and the production of branched alkanes through upstream genetic and exogenous manipulations of the FA pool. Genetic components for targeted manipulation of the FA pool included expression of a thioesterase from Cinnamomum camphora (camphor) to alter alkane Cn and expression of the branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase complex and β-keto acyl-acyl carrier protein synthase III from Bacillus subtilis to synthesize branched (iso-) alkanes. Rather than simply reconstituting existing metabolic routes to alkane production found in nature, these results demonstrate the ability to design and implement artificial molecular pathways for the production of renewable, industrially relevant fuel molecules. PMID:23610415

  13. Synthesis of customized petroleum-replica fuel molecules by targeted modification of free fatty acid pools in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Thomas P.; Middelhaufe, Sabine; Moore, Karen; Edner, Christoph; Kolak, Dagmara M.; Taylor, George N.; Parker, David A.; Lee, Rob; Smirnoff, Nicholas; Aves, Stephen J.; Love, John

    2013-01-01

    Biofuels are the most immediate, practical solution for mitigating dependence on fossil hydrocarbons, but current biofuels (alcohols and biodiesels) require significant downstream processing and are not fully compatible with modern, mass-market internal combustion engines. Rather, the ideal biofuels are structurally and chemically identical to the fossil fuels they seek to replace (i.e., aliphatic n- and iso-alkanes and -alkenes of various chain lengths). Here we report on production of such petroleum-replica hydrocarbons in Escherichia coli. The activity of the fatty acid (FA) reductase complex from Photorhabdus luminescens was coupled with aldehyde decarbonylase from Nostoc punctiforme to use free FAs as substrates for alkane biosynthesis. This combination of genes enabled rational alterations to hydrocarbon chain length (Cn) and the production of branched alkanes through upstream genetic and exogenous manipulations of the FA pool. Genetic components for targeted manipulation of the FA pool included expression of a thioesterase from Cinnamomum camphora (camphor) to alter alkane Cn and expression of the branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase complex and β-keto acyl-acyl carrier protein synthase III from Bacillus subtilis to synthesize branched (iso-) alkanes. Rather than simply reconstituting existing metabolic routes to alkane production found in nature, these results demonstrate the ability to design and implement artificial molecular pathways for the production of renewable, industrially relevant fuel molecules. PMID:23610415

  14. Advanced Petroleum-Based Fuels--Diesel Emissions Control Project (APBF-DEC): Lubricants Project, Phase 1 Summary, July 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-07-01

    The Advanced Petroleum Based Fuels-Diesel Emission Control project is a government/industry collaborative project to identify the optimal combinations of low-sulfur diesel fuels, lubricants, diesel engines, and emission control systems to meet projected emission standards for the 2004-2010 time period. This summary describes the results of the first phase of the lubricants study investigating the impact on lubricant formulation on engine-out emissions.

  15. 40 CFR 86.1309-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... test cycle. (Sampling systems capable of maintaining the static pressure to within ±1 inch of water (0...-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines. 86.1309-90 Section 86.1309-90 Protection of Environment... HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel...

  16. 40 CFR 86.1309-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines. 86.1309-90 Section 86.1309-90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES...

  17. 40 CFR 86.1309-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... test cycle. (Sampling systems capable of maintaining the static pressure to within ±1 inch of water (0...-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines. 86.1309-90 Section 86.1309-90 Protection of Environment... HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel...

  18. 40 CFR 86.1309-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... test cycle. (Sampling systems capable of maintaining the static pressure to within ±1 inch of water (0...-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines. 86.1309-90 Section 86.1309-90 Protection of Environment... HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel...

  19. Establishing a reliable source of fuel for Department of Defense requirements: Effective petroleum, oil, and lubricant financial managment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Scherer, T.F.

    1981-12-01

    The Defense Fuel Supply Center (DFSC) is the management and procurement agency for petroleum for the Department of Defense. Its mission is to procure refined petroleum products to meet military service requirements worldwide and federal requirements within the United States. The procurement options analyzed are divided into two categories -- direct and indirect methods of acquiring products. Through the analysis discussed, it will be shown that the only viable solution to DFSC's problem lies in purchasing the desired quantities using direct acquisition methods by reducing the cost incurred to a refiner for supplying military products.

  20. Recycling used palm oil and used engine oil to produce white bio oil, bio petroleum diesel and heavy fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-abbas, Mustafa Hamid; Ibrahim, Wan Aini Wan; Sanagi, Mohd. Marsin

    2012-09-01

    Recycling waste materials produced in our daily life is considered as an additional resource of a wide range of materials and it conserves the environment. Used engine oil and used cooking oil are two oils disposed off in large quantities as a by-product of our daily life. This study aims at providing white bio oil, bio petroleum diesel and heavy fuel from the disposed oils. Toxic organic materials suspected to be present in the used engine oil were separated using vacuum column chromatography to reduce the time needed for the separation process and to avoid solvent usage. The compounds separated were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and found to contain toxic aromatic carboxylic acids. Used cooking oils (thermally cracked from usage) were collected and separated by vacuum column chromatography. White bio oil produced was examined by GC-MS. The white bio oil consists of non-toxic hydrocarbons and is found to be a good alternative to white mineral oil which is significantly used in food industry, cosmetics and drugs with the risk of containing polycyclic aromatic compounds which are carcinogenic and toxic. Different portions of the used cooking oil and used engine were mixed to produce several blends for use as heavy oil fuels. White bio oil was used to produce bio petroleum diesel by blending it with petroleum diesel and kerosene. The bio petroleum diesel produced passed the PETRONAS flash point and viscosity specification test. The heat of combustion of the two blends of heavy fuel produced was measured and one of the blends was burned to demonstrate its burning ability. Higher heat of combustion was obtained from the blend containing greater proportion of used engine oil. This study has provided a successful recycled alternative for white bio oil, bio petroleum fuel and diesel which can be an energy source.

  1. Generation and characterization of diesel engine combustion emissions from petroleum diesel and soybean biodiesel fuels and application for inhalation exposure studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biodiesel made from the transesterification of plant- and anmal-derived oils is an important alternative fuel source for diesel engines. Although numerous studies have reported health effects associated with petroleum diesel emissions, information on biodiesel emissions are more ...

  2. Well-to-Wheels Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Canadian Oil Sands Products: Implications for U.S. Petroleum Fuels.

    PubMed

    Cai, Hao; Brandt, Adam R; Yeh, Sonia; Englander, Jacob G; Han, Jeongwoo; Elgowainy, Amgad; Wang, Michael Q

    2015-07-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) regulations affecting U.S. transportation fuels require holistic examination of the life-cycle emissions of U.S. petroleum feedstocks. With an expanded system boundary that included land disturbance-induced GHG emissions, we estimated well-to-wheels (WTW) GHG emissions of U.S. production of gasoline and diesel sourced from Canadian oil sands. Our analysis was based on detailed characterization of the energy intensities of 27 oil sands projects, representing industrial practices and technological advances since 2008. Four major oil sands production pathways were examined, including bitumen and synthetic crude oil (SCO) from both surface mining and in situ projects. Pathway-average GHG emissions from oil sands extraction, separation, and upgrading ranged from ∼6.1 to ∼27.3 g CO2 equivalents per megajoule (in lower heating value, CO2e/MJ). This range can be compared to ∼4.4 g CO2e/MJ for U.S. conventional crude oil recovery. Depending on the extraction technology and product type output of oil sands projects, the WTW GHG emissions for gasoline and diesel produced from bitumen and SCO in U.S. refineries were in the range of 100-115 and 99-117 g CO2e/MJ, respectively, representing, on average, about 18% and 21% higher emissions than those derived from U.S. conventional crudes. WTW GHG emissions of gasoline and diesel derived from diluted bitumen ranged from 97 to 103 and 96 to 104 g CO2e/MJ, respectively, showing the effect of diluent use on fuel emissions. PMID:26054375

  3. Horizontal arrangement of anodes of microbial fuel cells enhances remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yueyong; Wang, Xin; Li, Xiaojing; Cheng, Lijuan; Wan, Lili; Zhou, Qixing

    2015-02-01

    With the aim of in situ bioremediation of soil contaminated by hydrocarbons, anodes arranged with two different ways (horizontal or vertical) were compared in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Charge outputs as high as 833 and 762C were achieved in reactors with anodes horizontally arranged (HA) and vertically arranged (VA). Up to 12.5 % of the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) was removed in HA after 135 days, which was 50.6 % higher than that in VA (8.3 %) and 95.3 % higher than that in the disconnected control (6.4 %). Hydrocarbon fingerprint analysis showed that the degradation rates of both alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in HA were higher than those in VA. Lower mass transport resistance in the HA than that of the VA seems to result in more power and more TPH degradation. Soil pH was increased from 8.26 to 9.12 in HA and from 8.26 to 8.64 in VA, whereas the conductivity was decreased from 1.99 to 1.54 mS/cm in HA and from 1.99 to 1.46 mS/cm in VA accompanied with the removal of TPH. Considering both enhanced biodegradation of hydrocarbon and generation of charge in HA, the MFC with anodes horizontally arranged is a promising configuration for future applications. PMID:25189807

  4. Guide for Identifying and Converting High-Potential Petroleum Brownfield Sites to Alternative Fuel Stations

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.; Hettinger, D.; Mosey, G.

    2011-05-01

    Former gasoline stations that are now classified as brownfields can be good sites to sell alternative fuels because they are in locations that are convenient to vehicles and they may be seeking a new source of income. However, their success as alternative fueling stations is highly dependent on location-specific criteria. First, this report outlines what these criteria are, how to prioritize them, and then applies that assessment framework to five of the most popular alternative fuels--electricity, natural gas, hydrogen, ethanol, and biodiesel. The second part of this report delves into the criteria and tools used to assess an alternative fuel retail site at the local level. It does this through two case studies of converting former gasoline stations in the Seattle-Eugene area into electric charge stations. The third part of this report addresses steps to be taken after the specific site has been selected. This includes choosing and installing the recharging equipment, which includes steps to take in the permitting process and key players to include.

  5. Chemical analysis and ozone formation potential of exhaust from dual-fuel (liquefied petroleum gas/gasoline) light duty vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, T. W.; Astorga, C.; Clairotte, M.; Duane, M.; Elsasser, M.; Krasenbrink, A.; Larsen, B. R.; Manfredi, U.; Martini, G.; Montero, L.; Sklorz, M.; Zimmermann, R.; Perujo, A.

    2011-06-01

    Measures must be undertaken to lower the transport sector's contribution to anthropogenic emissions. Vehicles powered by liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) are an option due to their reduced emissions of air pollutants compared to engines with conventional fuels. In the present study, ten different dual-fuel LPG/gasoline light duty vehicles were tested, which all complied with European emission level legislation EURO-4. Tests with LPG and gasoline were performed on a chassis dynamometer by applying the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) and emission factors and ozone formation potentials of both kinds of fuels were compared. The components investigated comprised regulated compounds, CO 2, volatile hydrocarbons and carbonyls. On-line analysis of aromatic species was carried out by resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (REMPI-TOFMS). We demonstrate that utilization of LPG can entail some environmental benefits by reducing emissions. However, for dual-fuel LPG/gasoline vehicles running on LPG the benefits are less than expected. The main reason is that dual-fuel vehicles usually start the engine up on gasoline even when LPG is selected as fuel. This cold-start phase is crucial for the quality of the emissions. Moreover, we demonstrate an influence on the chemical composition of emissions of vehicle performance, fuel and the evaporative emission system of the vehicles.

  6. Simultaneous determination of hydrocarbon renewable diesel, biodiesel and petroleum diesel contents in diesel fuel blends using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Alves, Julio Cesar Laurentino; Poppi, Ronei Jesus

    2013-11-01

    Highly polluting fuels based on non-renewable resources such as fossil fuels need to be replaced with potentially less polluting renewable fuels derived from vegetable or animal biomass, these so-called biofuels, are a reality nowadays and many countries have started the challenge of increasing the use of different types of biofuels, such as ethanol and biodiesel (fatty acid alkyl esters), often mixed with petroleum derivatives, such as gasoline and diesel, respectively. The quantitative determination of these fuel blends using simple, fast and low cost methods based on near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy combined with chemometric methods has been reported. However, advanced biofuels based on a mixture of hydrocarbons or a single hydrocarbon molecule, such as farnesane (2,6,10-trimethyldodecane), a hydrocarbon renewable diesel, can also be used in mixtures with biodiesel and petroleum diesel fuel and the use of NIR spectroscopy for the quantitative determination of a ternary fuel blend of these two hydrocarbon-based fuels and biodiesel can be a useful tool for quality control. This work presents a development of an analytical method for the quantitative determination of hydrocarbon renewable diesel (farnesane), biodiesel and petroleum diesel fuel blends using NIR spectroscopy combined with chemometric methods, such as partial least squares (PLS) and support vector machines (SVM). This development leads to a more accurate, simpler, faster and cheaper method when compared to the standard reference method ASTM D6866 and with the main advantage of providing the individual quantification of two different biofuels in a mixture with petroleum diesel fuel. Using the developed PLS model the three fuel blend components were determined simultaneously with values of root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 0.25%, 0.19% and 0.38% for hydrocarbon renewable diesel, biodiesel and petroleum diesel, respectively, the values obtained were in agreement with those suggested by

  7. Navy mobility fuels forecasting system report: World petroleum trade forecasts for the year 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Das, S.

    1991-12-01

    The Middle East will continue to play the dominant role of a petroleum supplier in the world oil market in the year 2000, according to business-as-usual forecasts published by the US Department of Energy. However, interesting trade patterns will emerge as a result of the democratization in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. US petroleum imports will increase from 46% in 1989 to 49% in 2000. A significantly higher level of US petroleum imports (principally products) will be coming from Japan, the Soviet Union, and Eastern Europe. Several regions, the Far East, Japan, Latin American, and Africa will import more petroleum. Much uncertainty remains about of the level future Soviet crude oil production. USSR net petroleum exports will decrease; however, the United States and Canada will receive some of their imports from the Soviet Union due to changes in the world trade patterns. The Soviet Union can avoid becoming a net petroleum importer as long as it (1) maintains enough crude oil production to meet its own consumption and (2) maintains its existing refining capacities. Eastern Europe will import approximately 50% of its crude oil from the Middle East.

  8. Petroleum and Health Care: Evaluating and Managing Health Care's Vulnerability to Petroleum Supply Shifts

    PubMed Central

    Bednarz, Daniel; Bae, Jaeyong; Pierce, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    Petroleum is used widely in health care—primarily as a transport fuel and feedstock for pharmaceuticals, plastics, and medical supplies—and few substitutes for it are available. This dependence theoretically makes health care vulnerable to petroleum supply shifts, but this vulnerability has not been empirically assessed. We quantify key aspects of petroleum use in health care and explore historical associations between petroleum supply shocks and health care prices. These analyses confirm that petroleum products are intrinsic to modern health care and that petroleum supply shifts can affect health care prices. In anticipation of future supply contractions lasting longer than previous shifts and potentially disrupting health care delivery, we propose an adaptive management approach and outline its application to the example of emergency medical services. PMID:21778473

  9. Further investigation of the impact of the co-combustion of tire-derived fuel and petroleum coke on the petrology and chemistry of coal combustion products

    SciTech Connect

    Hower, J.C.; Robertson, J.D.; Elswick, E.R.; Roberts, J.M.; Brandsteder, K.; Trimble, A.S.; Mardon, S.M.

    2007-07-01

    A Kentucky cyclone-fired unit burns coal and tire-derived fuel, sometimes in combination with petroleum coke. A parallel pulverized combustion (pc) unit at the same plant burns the same coal, without the added fuels. The petrology, chemistry, and sulfur isotope distribution in the fuel and resulting combustion products was investigated for several configurations of the fuel blend. Zinc and Cd in the combustion products are primarily contributed from the tire-derived fuel, the V and Ni are primarily from the petroleum coke, and the As and Hg are probably largely from the coal. The sulfur isotope distribution in the cyclone unit is complicated due to the varying fuel sources. The electrostatic precipitator (ESP) array in the pc unit shows a subtle trend towards heavier S isotopic ratios in the cooler end of the ESP.

  10. 10 CFR 503.38 - Permanent exemption for certain fuel mixtures containing natural gas or petroleum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... alternate power supply exists, as required under § 503.8 of these regulations. (b) Evidence required in... these regulations. (c) Solar mixtures. OFE will grant a permanent mixtures exemption for the use of a mixture of solar energy (including wind, tide, and other intermittent sources) and petroleum or...

  11. 10 CFR 503.38 - Permanent exemption for certain fuel mixtures containing natural gas or petroleum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... alternate power supply exists, as required under § 503.8 of these regulations. (b) Evidence required in... these regulations. (c) Solar mixtures. OFE will grant a permanent mixtures exemption for the use of a mixture of solar energy (including wind, tide, and other intermittent sources) and petroleum or...

  12. 10 CFR 503.38 - Permanent exemption for certain fuel mixtures containing natural gas or petroleum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... alternate power supply exists, as required under § 503.8 of these regulations. (b) Evidence required in... these regulations. (c) Solar mixtures. OFE will grant a permanent mixtures exemption for the use of a mixture of solar energy (including wind, tide, and other intermittent sources) and petroleum or...

  13. 10 CFR 503.38 - Permanent exemption for certain fuel mixtures containing natural gas or petroleum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... alternate power supply exists, as required under § 503.8 of these regulations. (b) Evidence required in... these regulations. (c) Solar mixtures. OFE will grant a permanent mixtures exemption for the use of a mixture of solar energy (including wind, tide, and other intermittent sources) and petroleum or...

  14. 10 CFR 503.38 - Permanent exemption for certain fuel mixtures containing natural gas or petroleum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... alternate power supply exists, as required under § 503.8 of these regulations. (b) Evidence required in... these regulations. (c) Solar mixtures. OFE will grant a permanent mixtures exemption for the use of a mixture of solar energy (including wind, tide, and other intermittent sources) and petroleum or...

  15. CHARACTERISTICS OF SPILLED OILS, FUELS, AND PETROLEUM PRODUCTS: 1. COMPOSITION AND PROPERTIES OF SELECTED OILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multicomponent composition and corresponding physical properties data of crude oils and petroleum products are needed as input to environmental fate simulations. Complete sets of such data, however, are not available in the literature due to the complexity and expense of making t...

  16. Characterization of real-world activity, fuel use, and emissions for selected motor graders fueled with petroleum diesel and B20 biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Frey, H Christopher; Kim, Kangwook; Pang, Shih-Hao; Rasdorf, William J; Lewis, Phil

    2008-10-01

    Motor graders are a common type of nonroad vehicle used in many road construction and maintenance applications. In-use activity, fuel use, and emissions were measured for six selected motor graders using a portable emission measurement system. Each motor grader was tested with petroleum diesel and B20 biodiesel. Duty cycles were quantified in terms of the empirical cumulative distribution function of manifold absolute pressure (MAP), which is an indicator of engine load. The motor graders were operated under normal duty cycles for road maintenance and repair at various locations in Wake and Nash Counties in North Carolina. Approximately 3 hr of quality-assured, second-by-second data were obtained during each test. An empirical modal-based model of vehicle fuel use and emissions was developed, based on stratifying the data with respect to ranges of normalized MAP, to enable comparisons between duty cycles, motor graders, and fuels. Time-based emission factors were found to increase monotonically with MAP. Fuel-based emission factors were mainly sensitive to differences between idle and non-idle engine operation. Cycle average emission factors were estimated for road "resurfacing," "roading," and "shouldering" activities. On average, the use of B20 instead of petroleum diesel leads to a negligible decrease of 1.6% in nitric oxide emission rate, and decreases of 19-22% in emission rates of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and particulate matter. Emission rates decrease significantly when comparing newer engine tier vehicles to older ones. Significant reductions in tailpipe emissions accrue especially from the use of B20 and adoption of newer vehicles. PMID:18939774

  17. AIR EMISSIONS FROM THE TREATMENT OF SOILS CONTAMINATED WITH PETROLEUM FUELS AND OTHER SUBSTANCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report updates a 1992 report that summarizes available information on air emissions from the treatment of soils contaminated with fuels. Soils contaminated by leaks or spills of fuel products, such as gasoline or jet fuel, are a nationwide concern. Air emissions during remedi...

  18. Development of Enhanced Remedial Techniques for Petroleum Fuel and Related Contaminants in Soil and Groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Fallgren

    2009-02-10

    Western Research Institute (WRI) in conjunction with Earth Tech and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) was to identify proper sites with soils and/or groundwater contaminated by petroleum constituents and MTBE. Biodegradation rates would have been quantitatively assessed in both laboratory and field tests to achieve the optimal destruction of contaminants of concern. WRI and Earth Tech identified a site contaminated with high concentrations of methanol associated with petroleum hydrocarbons. The site was assessed and a remediation project plan was prepared; however, the site was soon acquired by a new company. An agreement between Earth Tech, WRI, and the new site owners could not be reached; therefore, a work was performed to identify a new project site. Task 33 was terminated and the available funding was redeployed to other Tasks after receiving approval from the U.S. DOE task manager.

  19. Petroleum marketing monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data.

  20. Evaluation of soil-washing technology: Results of bench-scale experiments on petroleum-fuels contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Loden, M.E.

    1991-06-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency through its Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory's Releases Control Branch has undertaken research and development efforts to address the problem of leaking underground storage tanks (USTs). Under this effort, EPA is currently evaluating soil washing technology for cleaning up soil contaminated by the release of petroleum products from leaking underground storage tanks. Soil washing is a dynamic physical process which remediates contaminated soil via two mechanisms--particle separation and dissolution of the contaminants into the washwater. As a result of the washing process, a significant fraction of the contaminated soil is cleaned and can be returned into the original excavation or used as cleaned secondary fill or aggregate material. Since the contaminants are more concentrated in the fine soil fractions, their separation and removal from the bulk soil increases the overall effectiveness of the process. Subsequent treatment will be required for the spent washwaters and the fine soil fractions. The soil washing program evaluated the effectiveness of soil washing technology in removing petroleum products (unleaded gasoline, diesel/home heating fuel, and waste crankcase oil) from an EPA-developed Synthetic Soil Matrix (SSM) and from actual site soils. Operating parameters such as contact time, washwater volume, rinsewater volume, washwater temperature, and effectiveness of additives were investigated.

  1. FROM FIELD TO FUEL TANK: EXPLORING THE IMPLEMENTATION OF BIODIESEL AS A SUSTAINABLE ALTERNATIVE TO PETROLEUM DIESEL IN OREGON'S WILLAMETTE VALLEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The technical challenge is to demonstrate the feasibility of the production and use of a renewable bio-based diesel fuel as an alternative to petroleum-based diesel. The innovative objectives of the project are to:

    • Demonstrate the engineering and economic feasib...

  2. Study concerning the utilization of the ocean spreading center environment for the conversion of biomass to a liquid fuel. (Includes Appendix A: hydrothermal petroleum genesis). [Supercritical water

    SciTech Connect

    Steverson, M.; Stormberg, G.

    1985-01-01

    This document contains a report on the feasibility of utilizing energy obtained from ocean spreading centers as process heat for the conversion of municipal solid wastes to liquid fuels. The appendix contains a paper describing hydrothermal petroleum genesis. Both have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (DMC)

  3. The potential for low petroleum gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Hadder, G.R.; Webb, G.M.; Clauson, M.

    1996-06-01

    The Energy Policy Act requires the Secretary of Energy to determine the feasibility of producing sufficient replacement fuels to replace at least 30 percent of the projected consumption of motor fuels by light duty vehicles in the year 2010. The Act also requires the Secretary to determine the greenhouse gas implications of the use of replacement fuels. A replacement fuel is a non-petroleum portion of gasoline, including certain alcohols, ethers, and other components. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Refinery Yield Model has been used to study the cost and refinery impacts for production of {open_quotes}low petroleum{close_quotes} gasolines, which contain replacement fuels. The analysis suggests that high oxygenation is the key to meeting the replacement fuel target, and a major contributor to cost increase is investment in processes to produce and etherify light olefins. High oxygenation can also increase the costs of control of vapor pressure, distillation properties, and pollutant emissions of gasolines. Year-round low petroleum gasoline with near-30 percent non-petroleum components might be produced with cost increases of 23 to 37 cents per gallon of gasoline, and with greenhouse gas emissions changes between a 3 percent increase and a 16 percent decrease. Crude oil reduction, with decreased dependence on foreign sources, is a major objective of the low petroleum gasoline program. For year-round gasoline with near-30 percent non-petroleum components, crude oil use is reduced by 10 to 12 percent, at a cost $48 to $89 per barrel. Depending upon resolution of uncertainties about extrapolation of the Environmental Protection Agency Complex Model for pollutant emissions, availability of raw materials and other issues, costs could be lower or higher.

  4. The burnup dependence of light water reactor spent fuel oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, B.D.

    1998-07-01

    Over the temperature range of interest for dry storage or for placement of spent fuel in a permanent repository under the conditions now being considered, UO{sub 2} is thermodynamically unstable with respect to oxidation to higher oxides. The multiple valence states of uranium allow for the accommodation of interstitial oxygen atoms in the fuel matrix. A variety of stoichiometric and nonstoichiometric phases is therefore possible as the fuel oxidizers from UO{sub 2} to higher oxides. The oxidation of UO{sub 2} has been studied extensively for over 40 years. It has been shown that spent fuel and unirradiated UO{sub 2} oxidize via different mechanisms and at different rates. The oxidation of LWR spent fuel from UO{sub 2} to UO{sub 2.4} was studied previously and is reasonably well understood. The study presented here was initiated to determine the mechanism and rate of oxidation from UO{sub 2.4} to higher oxides. During the early stages of this work, a large variability in the oxidation behavior of samples oxidized under nearly identical conditions was found. Based on previous work on the effect of dopants on UO{sub 2} oxidation and this initial variability, it was hypothesized that the substitution of fission product and actinide impurities for uranium atoms in the spent fuel matrix was the cause of the variable oxidation behavior. Since the impurity concentration is roughly proportional to the burnup of a specimen, the oxidation behavior of spent fuel was expected to be a function of both temperature and burnup. This report (1) summarizes the previous oxidation work for both unirradiated UO{sub 2} and spent fuel (Section 2.2) and presents the theoretical basis for the burnup (i.e., impurity concentration) dependence of the rate of oxidation (Sections 2.3, 2.4, and 2.5), (2) describes the experimental approach (Section 3) and results (Section 4) for the current oxidation tests on spent fuel, and (3) establishes a simple model to determine the activation energies

  5. Petroleum supply monthly, August 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    This publication the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report, (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. Data presented are divided into Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  6. The effect of salinity, redox mediators and temperature on anaerobic biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Adelaja, Oluwaseun; Keshavarz, Tajalli; Kyazze, Godfrey

    2015-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) need to be robust if they are to be applied in the field for bioremediation. This study investigated the effect of temperature (20-50°C), salinity (0.5-2.5% (w/v) as sodium chloride), the use of redox mediators (riboflavin and anthraquinone-2-sulphonate, AQS) and prolonged fed-batch operation (60 days) on biodegradation of a petroleum hydrocarbon mix (i.e. phenanthrene and benzene) in MFCs. The performance criteria were degradation efficiency, % COD removal and electrochemical performance. Good electrochemical and degradation performance were maintained up to a salinity of 1.5% (w/v) but deteriorated by 35-fold and 4-fold respectively as salinity was raised to 2.5%w/v. Degradation rates and maximum power density were both improved by approximately 2-fold at 40°C compared to MFC performance at 30°C but decreased sharply by 4-fold when operating temperature was raised to 50°C. The optimum reactor performance obtained at 40°C was 1.15 mW/m(2) maximum power density, 89.1% COD removal and a degradation efficiency of 97.10%; at moderately saline (1% w/v) conditions the maximum power density was 1.06 mW/m(2), 79.1% COD removal and 91.6% degradation efficiency. This work suggests the possible application of MFC technology in the effective treatment of petroleum hydrocarbons contaminated site and refinery effluents. PMID:25279757

  7. Petroleum supply monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blends, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  8. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  9. Sensitivity of hazardous air pollutant emissions to the combustion of blends of petroleum diesel and biodiesel fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magara-Gomez, Kento T.; Olson, Michael R.; Okuda, Tomoaki; Walz, Kenneth A.; Schauer, James J.

    2012-04-01

    Emission rates and composition of known hazardous air pollutants in the exhaust gas from a commercial agriculture tractor, burning a range of biodiesel blends operating at two different load conditions were investigated to better understand the emission characteristics of biodiesel fuel. Ultra-Low Sulfur Petroleum Diesel (ULSD) fuel was blended with soybean oil and beef tallow based biodiesel to examine fuels containing 0% (B0), 50% (B50) and 100% (B100) soybean oil based biodiesel, and 50% (B50T) and 100% (B100T) beef tallow biodiesel. Samples were collected using a dilution source sampler to simulate atmospheric dilution. Particulate matter and exhaust gases were analyzed for carbonyls, Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) to determine their respective emission rates. This analysis is focused on the emissions of organic compounds classified by the US EPA as air toxics and include 2,2,4 trimethylpentane, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m-, p- and o-xylene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and methylethyl ketone. Emission rates of 2,2,4 trimethylpentane, toluene, ethylbenzene, m-, p- and o-xylene decreased more than 90% for B50, B100 and B100T blends; decreases in emission rates of benzene, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were more modest, producing values between 23 and 67%, and methyl ethyl ketone showed decreases not exceeding 7% for the studied biodiesel blends. PAHs emission rates were reduced by 66% for B50, 84% for B100, and by 89% for B100T. The overall emissions of toxic organic compounds were calculated and expressed as benzene equivalents. The largest contributors of toxic risk were found to be formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. Reductions in formaldehyde emissions were 23% for B50 and 42% for B100 soybean, and 40% for B100T beef tallow compared to B0. Similarly, acetaldehyde reductions were 34% for B50 and 53% for B100 soybean biodiesel and 42% for B100T beef tallow biodiesel.

  10. REDUCTION OF USE OF PETROLEUM ENERGY RESOURCES BY CONVERSION OF WASTE COOKING OILS INTO DIESEL FUEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project has a dual objective of providing hands-on experience to undergraduate engineering students and producing biodiesel fuel from a used cooking oil feedstock. The project consists of three phases: Phase I - process development and construction of a pilot plant; Phase...

  11. 77 FR 14482 - Petroleum Reduction and Alternative Fuel Consumption Requirements for Federal Fleets

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-12

    ..., including but not limited to hybrid electric vehicles, LSEVs, electric vehicles, and plug-in hybrid electric... fuel economy through the acquisition of smaller-sized vehicles ] and/or hybrid, electric, or other..., ``Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management,'' 72 FR 3919 (Jan. 26, 2007), and...

  12. Impact of petroleum, synthetic and cryogenic fuels on civil aviation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Blake, C.L.

    1982-06-01

    Various concerns with regard to aviation fuels are discussed, including price, the effects of supply and demand, the various sources and forms of supply, alternatives, and conservation measures which reduce demand. The likelihood, the nature, and the effects of disruption in foreign crude oil deliveries to the United States are discussed.

  13. Novel Catalysts and Processing Technologies for Production of Aerospace Fuels from Non-Petroleum Raw Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepp, Aloysius F.; Kulis, Michael J.; Psarras, Peter C.; Ball, David W.; Timko, Michael T.; Wong, Hsi-Wu; Peck, Jay; Chianelli, Russell R.

    2014-01-01

    Transportation fuels production (including aerospace propellants) from non-traditional sources (gases, waste materials, and biomass) has been an active area of research and development for decades. Reducing terrestrial waste streams simultaneous with energy conversion, plentiful biomass, new low-cost methane sources, and/or extra-terrestrial resource harvesting and utilization present significant technological and business opportunities being realized by a new generation of visionary entrepreneurs. We examine several new approaches to catalyst fabrication and new processing technologies to enable utilization of these nontraditional raw materials. Two basic processing architectures are considered: a single-stage pyrolysis approach that seeks to basically re-cycle hydrocarbons with minimal net chemistry or a two-step paradigm that involves production of supply or synthesis gas (mainly carbon oxides and H2) followed by production of fuel(s) via Sabatier or methanation reactions and/or Fischer-Tröpsch synthesis. Optimizing the fraction of product stream relevant to targeted aerospace (and other transportation) fuels via modeling, catalyst fabrication and novel reactor design are described. Energy utilization is a concern for production of fuels for either terrestrial or space operations; renewable sources based on solar energy and/or energy efficient processes may be mission enabling. Another important issue is minimizing impurities in the product stream(s), especially those potentially posing risks to personnel or operations through (catalyst) poisoning or (equipment) damage. Technologies being developed to remove (and/or recycle) heteroatom impurities are briefly discussed as well as the development of chemically robust catalysts whose activities are not diminished during operation. The potential impacts on future missions by such new approaches as well as balance of system issues are addressed.

  14. Novel Catalysts and Processing Technologies for Production of Aerospace Fuels from Non-Petroleum Raw Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepp, A. F.; Kulis, M. J.; Psarras, P. C.; Ball, D. W.; Timko, M. T.; Wong, H.-W.; Peck, J.; Chianelli, R. R.

    2014-01-01

    Transportation fuels production (including aerospace propellants) from non-traditional sources (gases, waste materials, and biomass) has been an active area of research and development for decades. Reducing terrestrial waste streams simultaneous with energy conversion, plentiful biomass, new low-cost methane sources, and/or extra-terrestrial resource harvesting and utilization present significant technological and business opportunities being realized by a new generation of visionary entrepreneurs. We examine several new approaches to catalyst fabrication and new processing technologies to enable utilization of these non-traditional raw materials. Two basic processing architectures are considered: a single-stage pyrolysis approach that seeks to basically re-cycle hydrocarbons with minimal net chemistry or a two-step paradigm that involves production of supply or synthesis gas (mainly carbon oxides and hydrogen) followed by production of fuel(s) via Sabatier or methanation reactions and/or Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. Optimizing the fraction of product stream relevant to targeted aerospace (and other transportation) fuels via modeling, catalyst fabrication and novel reactor design are described. Energy utilization is a concern for production of fuels for either terrestrial or space operations; renewable sources based on solar energy and/or energy efficient processes may be mission enabling. Another important issue is minimizing impurities in the product stream(s), especially those potentially posing risks to personnel or operations through (catalyst) poisoning or (equipment) damage. Technologies being developed to remove (and/or recycle) heteroatom impurities are briefly discussed as well as the development of chemically robust catalysts whose activity are not diminished during operation. The potential impacts on future missions by such new approaches as well as balance of system issues are addressed.

  15. Petroleum marketing monthly, May 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-26

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  16. SOURCE SIGNATURES OF FINE PARTICULATE MATTER FROM PETROLEUM REFINING AND FUEL USE

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald P. Huffman; Frank E. Huggins; Naresh Shah; Artur Braun; Yuanzhi Chen; J. David Robertson; Joseph Kyger; Adel F. Sarofim; Ronald J. Pugmire; Henk L.C. Meuzelaar; JoAnn Lighty

    2003-07-31

    The molecular structure and microstructure of a suite of fine particulate matter (PM) samples produced by the combustion of residual fuel oil and diesel fuel were investigated by an array of analytical techniques. Some of the more important results are summarized below. Diesel PM (DPM): A small diesel engine test facility was used to generate a suite of diesel PM samples from different fuels under engine load and idle conditions. C XANES, {sup 13}C NMR, XRD, and TGA were in accord that the samples produced under engine load conditions contained more graphitic material than those produced under idle conditions, which contained a larger amount of unburned diesel fuel and lubricating oil. The difference was enhanced by the addition of 5% of oxygenated compounds to the reference fuel. Scanning transmission x-ray micro-spectroscopy (STXM) was able to distinguish particulate regions rich in C=C bonds from regions rich in C-H bonds with a resolution of {approx}50 nm. The former are representative of more graphitic regions and the latter of regions rich in unburned fuel and oil. The dominant microstructure observed by SEM and TEM consisted of complex chain-like structures of PM globules {approx}20-100 nm in mean diameter, with a high fractal dimension. High resolution TEM revealed that the graphitic part of the diesel soot consisted of onion-like structures made up of graphene layers. Typically 3-10 graphene layers make up the ''onion rings'', with the layer spacing decreasing as the number of layers increases. ROFA PM: Residual oil fly ash (ROFA) PM has been analyzed by a new approach that combines XAFS spectroscopy with selective leaching procedures. ROFA PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 2.5+} produced in combustion facilities at the U.S. EPA National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRML) were analyzed by XAFS before and after leaching with water, acid (1N HCl), and pentane. Both water and acid leaching removed most of the metal sulfates, which were the dominant phase present

  17. Evaluation of concepts for controlling exhaust emissions from minimally processed petroleum and synthetic fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, P. L.; Beal, G. W.; Sederquist, R. A.; Shultz, D.

    1981-01-01

    Rich-lean combustor concepts designed to enhance rich combustion chemistry and increase combustor flexibility for NO(x) reduction with minimally processed fuels are examined. Processes such as rich product recirculation in the rich chamber, rich-lean annihilation, and graduated air addition or staged rich combustion to release bound nitrogen in steps of reduced equivalence ratio are discussed. Variations to the baseline rapid quench section are considered, and the effect of residence time in the rich zone is investigated. The feasibility of using uncooled non-metallic materials for the rich zone combustion construction is also addressed. The preliminary results indicate that rich primary zone staged combustion provides environmentally acceptable operation with residual and/or synthetic coal-derived liquid fuels

  18. Synergistic routes to liquid fuel for a petroleum-deprived future

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, R.; Singh, N.R.

    2009-07-15

    When compared with biomass gasification/Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, hydropyrolysis/hydrodeoxygenation (HDO)-based processes have a potential to achieve high biomass carbon conversion to liquid fuel with much lower amounts of supplementary H{sub 2}. On the basis of this observation, we suggest a Hydrogen Bio-oil (H{sub 2}Bioil) process using fast hydropyrolysis/HDO that has a potential to produce nearly double the amount of liquid fuel when compared with the existing biofuel processes while requiring only modest quantities of supplementary H{sub 2}. The optimal operating mode for the H{sub 2}Bioil process is suggested to be in an entrained bed mode in presence of H{sub 2} with gas phase HDO of hydropyrolyzed vapors. A remarkable result due to reduced need for the supplementary H{sub 2} is that it provides synergistic integration of the H(2)Bioil process with a coal gasification power plant or a small scale steam natural gas (NG) reformer leading to a dramatic increase in the liquid fuel production from biomass and coal or NG. Here, hot synthesis gas (T>500{sup o}C) from a coal gasifier or methane reformer supplies H{sub 2}/CO for hydropyrolysis and deoxygenation as well as heat for the process. This result is exciting, because it presents us with an option to build integrated H{sub 2}Bioil processes sooner rather than later when the cost effective H{sub 2}, becomes available from a carbon-free energy source such as solar or nuclear. The H{sub 2}Bioil process and its integrated version with a small scale NG reformer have strong potential to be attractive on a small scale while being more efficient than any current biomass to liquid fuel process in operation.

  19. Potential hazards associated with combustion of bio-derived versus petroleum-derived diesel fuel

    PubMed Central

    Bünger, Jürgen; Krahl, Jürgen; Schröder, Olaf; Schmidt, Lasse; Westphal, Götz A.

    2012-01-01

    Fuels from renewable resources have gained worldwide interest due to limited fossil oil sources and the possible reduction of atmospheric greenhouse gas. One of these fuels is so called biodiesel produced from vegetable oil by transesterification into fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). To get a first insight into changes of health hazards from diesel engine emissions (DEE) by use of biodiesel scientific studies were reviewed which compared the combustion of FAME with common diesel fuel (DF) for legally regulated and non-regulated emissions as well as for toxic effects. A total number of 62 publications on chemical analyses of DEE and 18 toxicological in vitro studies were identified meeting the criteria. In addition, a very small number of human studies and animal experiments were available. In most studies, combustion of biodiesel reduces legally regulated emissions of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and particulate matter. Nitrogen oxides are regularly increased. Among the non-regulated emissions aldehydes are increased, while polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are lowered. Most biological in vitro assays show a stronger cytotoxicity of biodiesel exhaust and the animal experiments reveal stronger irritant effects. Both findings are possibly caused by the higher content of nitrogen oxides and aldehydes in biodiesel exhaust. The lower content of PAH is reflected by a weaker mutagenicity compared to DF exhaust. However, recent studies show a very low mutagenicity of DF exhaust as well, probably caused by elimination of sulfur in present DF qualities and the use of new technology diesel engines. Combustion of vegetable oil (VO) in common diesel engines causes a strongly enhanced mutagenicity of the exhaust despite nearly unchanged regulated emissions. The newly developed fuel “hydrotreated vegetable oil” (HVO) seems to be promising. HVO has physical and chemical advantages compared to FAME. Preliminary results show lower regulated and non-regulated emissions and a

  20. Petroleum marketing monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  1. Petroleum marketing monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PPM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o. b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  2. Petroleum marketing monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  3. 31 CFR 561.319 - Petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Petroleum products. 561.319 Section... Definitions § 561.319 Petroleum products. The term petroleum products includes unfinished oils, liquefied petroleum gases, pentanes plus, aviation gasoline, motor gasoline, naphtha-type jet fuel, kerosene-type...

  4. 31 CFR 561.319 - Petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Petroleum products. 561.319 Section... Definitions § 561.319 Petroleum products. The term petroleum products includes unfinished oils, liquefied petroleum gases, pentanes plus, aviation gasoline, motor gasoline, naphtha-type jet fuel, kerosene-type...

  5. 31 CFR 561.319 - Petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Petroleum products. 561.319 Section... Definitions § 561.319 Petroleum products. The term petroleum products includes unfinished oils, liquefied petroleum gases, pentanes plus, aviation gasoline, motor gasoline, naphtha-type jet fuel, kerosene-type...

  6. Generation and characterization of diesel engine combustion emissions from petroleum diesel and soybean biodiesel fuels and application for inhalation exposure studies.

    PubMed

    Mutlu, Esra; Nash, David G; King, Charly; Krantz, Todd Q; Preston, William T; Kooter, Ingeborg M; Higuchi, Mark; DeMarini, David; Linak, William P; Gilmour, M Ian

    2015-01-01

    Biodiesel made from the transesterification of plant- and animal-derived oils is an important alternative fuel source for diesel engines. Although numerous studies have reported health effects associated with petroleum diesel emissions, information on biodiesel emissions are more limited. To this end, a program at the U.S. EPA assessed health effects of biodiesel emissions in rodent inhalation models. Commercially obtained soybean biodiesel (B100) and a 20% blend with petroleum diesel (B20) were compared to pure petroleum diesel (B0). Rats and mice were exposed independently for 4 h/day, 5 days/week for up to 6 weeks. Exposures were controlled by dilution air to obtain low (50 µg/m(3)), medium (150 µg/m(3)) and high (500 µg/m(3)) diesel particulate mass (PM) concentrations, and compared to filtered air. This article provides details on facilities, fuels, operating conditions, emission factors and physico-chemical characteristics of the emissions used for inhalation exposures and in vitro studies. Initial engine exhaust PM concentrations for the B100 fuel (19.7 ± 0.7 mg/m(3)) were 30% lower than those of the B0 fuel (28.0 ± 1.5 mg/m(3)). When emissions were diluted with air to control equivalent PM mass concentrations, B0 exposures had higher CO and slightly lower NO concentrations than B100. Organic/elemental carbon ratios and oxygenated methyl esters and organic acids were higher for the B100 than B0. Both the B0 and B100 fuels produced unimodal-accumulation mode particle-size distributions, with B0 producing lower concentrations of slightly larger particles. Subsequent papers in this series will describe the effects of these atmospheres on cardiopulmonary responses and in vitro genotoxicity studies. PMID:26514780

  7. 41 CFR 101-26.602 - Fuels and packaged petroleum products obtained from or through the Defense Logistics Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... petroleum products obtained from or through the Defense Logistics Agency. 101-26.602 Section 101-26.602... Logistics Agency. (a) Agencies shall be governed by the provisions of this § 101-26.602 in satisfying... petroleum products from or through the Defense Logistics Agency. (b) The Defense Logistics Agency has...

  8. Petroleum marketing monthly, June 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in five sections: Summary Statistics; Crude Oil Prices; Prices of Petroleum Products; Volumes of Petroleum Products; and Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Petroleum Products for Local Consumption. The feature article is entitled ``The Second Oxygenated Gasoline Season.`` 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  9. Petroleum marketing monthly, July 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in five sections: summary statistics; crude oil prices; prices of petroleum products; volumes of petroleum products; and prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  10. Source Signatures of Fine Particulate Matter from Petroleum Refining and Fuel Use

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald P. Huffman; Frank E. Huggins; Naresh Shah; Robert Huggins

    1999-12-31

    Combustion experiments were carried out on four different residual fuel oils in a 732 kW boiler. Particulate matter (PM) emission samples were separated aerodynamically by a cyclone into fractions that were nominally less than and greater than 2.5 microns in diameter. However, examination of several of the samples by computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy (CCSEM) revealed that part of the <2.5 micron fraction (PM{sub 2.5}) in fact consists of carbonaceous cenospheres and vesicular particles that range up to 10 microns in diameter. X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy data were obtained at the S, V, Ni, Fe, Cu, Zn, and As Kedges, and at the Pb L-edge. Deconvolution of the x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) region of the S spectra established that the dominant molecular forms of S present were sulfate (26-84% of total S) and thiophene (13-39% of total S). Sulfate was greater in the PM{sub 2.5} samples than in the >2.5 micron samples (PM{sub 2.5+}). Inorganic sulfides and elemental sulfur were present in lower percentages. The Ni XANES spectra from all of the samples agree fairly well with that of NiSO4, while most of the V spectra closely resemble that of vanadyl sulfate (VO{center_dot}SO{sub 4}{center_dot}xH{sub 2}O). The other metals investigated (Fe, Cu, Zn, and Pb) were also present predominantly as sulfates. Arsenic is present as an arsenate (As{sup +5}). X-ray diffraction patterns of the PM{sub 2.5} fraction exhibit sharp lines due to sulfate compounds (Zn, V, Ni, Ca, etc.) superimposed on broad peaks due to amorphous carbons. All of the samples contain a significant organic component, with the LOI ranging from 64 to 87 % for the PM{sub 2.5} fraction and from 88 to 97% for the PM{sub 2.5+} fraction. {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis indicates that the carbon is predominantly condensed in graphitic structures. Aliphatic structure was detected in only one of seven samples examined.

  11. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Petroleum Products Supply Module

    EIA Publications

    2013-01-01

    The Petroleum Products Supply Module of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model provides forecasts of petroleum refinery inputs (crude oil, unfinished oils, pentanes plus, liquefied petroleum gas, motor gasoline blending components, and aviation gasoline blending components) and refinery outputs (motor gasoline, jet fuel, distillate fuel, residual fuel, liquefied petroleum gas, and other petroleum products).

  12. Areal extent of petroleum-related compounds from a gasoline and diesel-fuel leak in ground water at a site in Yakima, Washington, 1984-89

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    A gasoline and diesel-fuel leak was discovered in the early 1980's at a service station in Yakima, Washington, and an attempt to recover the flee-floating petroleum product was unsuccessful. From 1984 through 1989, data were collected from observation wells drilled near the site of the leak and from nearby domestic wells during three separate studies. Between February 1985 and November 1986, benzene, toluene, xylenes, and other soluble compounds of petroleum origin were found at concentrations that exceeded standards for drinking water in all samples from observation wells within 300 feet of the service station. These compounds also were found in smaller concentrations in some samples from domestic wells as far as 1,500 feet downgradient of the service station. Concentrations of these soluble compounds in ground-water samples collected in March 1989 had decreased, and areal distribution of the compounds was smaller than when monitoring began in 1984.

  13. Method of producing a colloidal fuel from coal and a heavy petroleum fraction. [partial liquefaction of coal in slurry, filtration and gasification of residue

    DOEpatents

    Longanbach, J.R.

    1981-11-13

    A method is provided for combining coal as a colloidal suspension within a heavy petroleum fraction. The coal is broken to a medium particle size and is formed into a slurry with a heavy petroleum fraction such as a decanted oil having a boiling point of about 300 to 550/sup 0/C. The slurry is heated to a temperature of 400 to 500/sup 0/C for a limited time of only about 1 to 5 minutes before cooling to a temperature of less than 300/sup 0/C. During this limited contact time at elevated temperature the slurry can be contacted with hydrogen gas to promote conversion. The liquid phase containing dispersed coal solids is filtered from the residual solids and recovered for use as a fuel or feed stock for other processes. The residual solids containing some carbonaceous material are further processed to provide hydrogen gas and heat for use as required in this process.

  14. Petroleum catalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lerner, B.

    1996-10-01

    Catalysis reaches almost every major industrial chemical process in place today and spans production of fine chemicals and pharmaceuticals to commodity plastics and gasoline. The catalytic upgrading of crude oil for example renders chemicals, fuels, lubricants, and even coke for steel production. The initial conversion point for all these end products is the petroleum refinery. While there are a variety of catalytic schemes in the modern refinery, four key processes make up the mainstay of refinery operations: Catalytic Cracking, Alkylation, Reforming, and Isomerization. A brief history and outline of the processes will be given followed by a more detailed discussion of the catalysis. It is intended that a knowledge of both the catalytic chemistry and catalytic materials useful in these reactions may be garnered along with a broader view of the importance of catalysis in modern industrial chemistry.

  15. Alternate fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, T.W.; Worthen, R.P.

    1981-02-01

    The escalating oil prices and shortages of petroleum based fuels for transportation have made research work on various fuel alternatives, especially for transportation engines, a priority of both the private and public sectors. This book contains 18 papers on this subject. The range of options from the development of completely non-petroleum-based fuels and engines to the use of various non-petroleum gasoline and diesel fuel extenders and improvers are discussed.

  16. Petroleum marketing monthly, December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-05

    This publication provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. It presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include domestic first purchase price, f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude, and refiners` acquisition cost of crude. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane.

  17. Determination of octane numbers and Reid vapor pressure of commercial petroleum fuels using FT-Raman spectroscopy and partial least-squares regression analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J.B.; Wise, K.L.; Groves, J.; Welch, W.T.

    1995-11-15

    A Fourier transform Raman spectrometer was used to collect the Raman spectra of 208 commercial petroleum fuels. The individual motor and research octane numbers (MON and RON, respectively) were determined experimentally using the industry standard ASTM knock engine method. Partial least-squares regression analysis was used to build regression models which correlate the Raman spectra of 175 of the fuels with the experimentally determined values for MON, RON, and pump octane number (the average of MON and RON) of the fuels. Each of the models was validated using leave-one-out validation. The standard errors of validation are 0.415, 0.535, and 0.410 octane units for MON, RON, and pump octane number, respectively. It is evident that the accuracy of the Raman determined values is limited by the accuracy of the training set used in creating the models. The Raman regression models were used to predict the octane numbers for the fuels which were not used to build the models. The results compare favorably with the leave-one-out validation. Also, it is demonstrated that the experimentally determined Reid vapor pressures are highly correlated with the Raman spectra of the fuel samples and can be predicted with a standard error of 0.568 psi. 11 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. 49 CFR 393.69 - Liquefied petroleum gas systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas systems. 393.69 Section... ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Fuel Systems § 393.69 Liquefied petroleum gas systems. (a) A fuel system that uses liquefied petroleum gas as a fuel for the operation of a motor vehicle or for...

  19. 49 CFR 393.69 - Liquefied petroleum gas systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas systems. 393.69 Section... ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Fuel Systems § 393.69 Liquefied petroleum gas systems. (a) A fuel system that uses liquefied petroleum gas as a fuel for the operation of a motor vehicle or for...

  20. 49 CFR 393.69 - Liquefied petroleum gas systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas systems. 393.69 Section... ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Fuel Systems § 393.69 Liquefied petroleum gas systems. (a) A fuel system that uses liquefied petroleum gas as a fuel for the operation of a motor vehicle or for...

  1. 49 CFR 393.69 - Liquefied petroleum gas systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas systems. 393.69 Section... ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Fuel Systems § 393.69 Liquefied petroleum gas systems. (a) A fuel system that uses liquefied petroleum gas as a fuel for the operation of a motor vehicle or for...

  2. 49 CFR 393.69 - Liquefied petroleum gas systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas systems. 393.69 Section... ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Fuel Systems § 393.69 Liquefied petroleum gas systems. (a) A fuel system that uses liquefied petroleum gas as a fuel for the operation of a motor vehicle or for...

  3. Petroleum marketing annual 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA) contains statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the free-on-board (f.o.b.) and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. For this publication, all estimates have been recalculated since their earlier publication in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM). These calculations made use of additional data and corrections that were received after the PMM publication dates.

  4. Clean fuels prices dependent on regional air quality standards

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, R.G.; Singleton, F.D.

    1983-12-01

    With continuing high real oil prices, society's demands for regional air quality in terms of sulfur oxide emissions will be the primary determinant of the marginal values of clean fuels and the marginal costs of electricity. Increases in electricity costs may be dampened significantly by using economic instruments, rather than uniform technology controls, to work toward a clean environment and a transition in boiler fuels. However, the level of this dampening effect will be significantly affected by whether or not licenses continue to be granted for new nuclear power plants. Legislated environmental policies to prevent significant deterioration of regional air quality (PSD Standards) will significantly increase the economic incentives (shadow prices) for investments in new clean fuels technologies. With the increasing shadow prices resulting from stringent PSD standards, only modest tax breaks will be necessary at oil prices of $30 per barrel (in 1982 dollars) to stimulate the economic development of the synthetic fossil fuels industry in the United States.

  5. Petroleum supply monthly, June 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-28

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  6. Petroleum supply monthly, May 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-27

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum supply annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  7. Petroleum supply monthly, July 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  8. Petroleum supply monthly, October 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  9. Petroleum supply monthly, January 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-15

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  10. The influence of petroleum products on the methane fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Choromański, Paweł; Karwowska, Ewa; Łebkowska, Maria

    2016-01-15

    In this study the influence of the petroleum products: diesel fuel and spent engine oil on the sewage sludge digestion process and biogas production efficiency was investigated. Microbiological, chemical and enzymatic analyses were applied in the survey. It was revealed that the influence of the petroleum derivatives on the effectiveness of the methane fermentation of sewage sludge depends on the type of the petroleum product. Diesel fuel did not limit the biogas production and the methane concentration in the biogas, while spent engine oil significantly reduced the process efficacy. The changes in physical-chemical parameters, excluding COD, did not reflect the effect of the tested substances. The negative influence of petroleum products on individual bacterial groups was observed after 7 days of the process, while after 14 days probably some adaptive mechanisms appeared. The dehydrogenase activity assessment was the most relevant parameter to evaluate the effect of petroleum products contamination. Diesel fuel was probably used as a source of carbon and energy in the process, while the toxic influence was observed in case of spent engine oil. PMID:26378365

  11. Petroleum marketing monthly, September 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum product sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  12. Petroleum marketing monthly, August 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-15

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product Sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  13. Opportunity fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Lutwen, R.C.

    1994-12-31

    Opportunity fuels - fuels that can be converted to other forms of energy at lower cost than standard fossil fuels - are discussed in outline form. The type and source of fuels, types of fuels, combustability, methods of combustion, refinery wastes, petroleum coke, garbage fuels, wood wastes, tires, and economics are discussed.

  14. Development of burnup dependent fuel rod model in COBRA-TF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilmaz, Mine Ozdemir

    The purpose of this research was to develop a burnup dependent fuel thermal conductivity model within Pennsylvania State University, Reactor Dynamics and Fuel Management Group (RDFMG) version of the subchannel thermal-hydraulics code COBRA-TF (CTF). The model takes into account first, the degradation of fuel thermal conductivity with high burnup; and second, the fuel thermal conductivity dependence on the Gadolinium content for both UO2 and MOX fuel rods. The modified Nuclear Fuel Industries (NFI) model for UO2 fuel rods and Duriez/Modified NFI Model for MOX fuel rods were incorporated into CTF and fuel centerline predictions were compared against Halden experimental test data and FRAPCON-3.4 predictions to validate the burnup dependent fuel thermal conductivity model in CTF. Experimental test cases from Halden reactor fuel rods for UO2 fuel rods at Beginning of Life (BOL), through lifetime without Gd2O3 and through lifetime with Gd 2O3 and a MOX fuel rod were simulated with CTF. Since test fuel rod and FRAPCON-3.4 results were based on single rod measurements, CTF was run for a single fuel rod surrounded with a single channel configuration. Input decks for CTF were developed for one fuel rod located at the center of a subchannel (rod-centered subchannel approach). Fuel centerline temperatures predicted by CTF were compared against the measurements from Halden experimental test data and the predictions from FRAPCON-3.4. After implementing the new fuel thermal conductivity model in CTF and validating the model with experimental data, CTF model was applied to steady state and transient calculations. 4x4 PWR fuel bundle configuration from Purdue MOX benchmark was used to apply the new model for steady state and transient calculations. First, one of each high burnup UO2 and MOX fuel rods from 4x4 matrix were selected to carry out single fuel rod calculations and fuel centerline temperatures predicted by CTF/TORT-TD were compared against CTF /TORT-TD /FRAPTRAN

  15. Evaluation of the 90-day inhalation toxicity of petroleum and oil shale JP-5 jet fuel. Technical report, July 1977-July 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Gaworski, C.L.; MacEwen, J.D.; Vernot, E.H.; Haun, C.C.; Leahy, H.F.

    1985-04-01

    Subchronic 90-day inhalation studies were conducted to compare the toxicity of Petroleum and Oil Shale derived JP-5 jet fuel. Beagle dogs, Fischer 344 rats, and C57BL/6 mice were continuously exposed to JP-5 at concentrations of 150 mg/m cum and 750 mg/cum 3. Unexposed control groups were also maintained. All dogs and a portion of each rodent group were sacrificed and examined at exposure termination. Remaining rodents were held for observation up to 21 months postexposure. The most significant exposure related effect occurred in male rats, where JP-5 produced nephropathy characterized by hyaline droplets, necrosis, and intratubular casts. Accentuated tubular degeneration and medullary mineralization were noted in exposed rats held for long-term postexposure observation. Female rats were free of significant JP-5 related renal damage. Consistent with the pathologic changes in male rats exposed to 750 mg/cu m 3 were increased kidney weight and increased serum creatinine and BUN levels. Reduced body weight gains also occurred in male rats exposed to JP-5. No pathologic lesions were observed in dogs exposed to JP-5. Hepatocellular vacuolization and fatty change occurred in mice exposed to JP-5 from either source and in rats exposed to Shale JP-5. The results of this study suggest that there are no substantial differences between Petroleum and Shale JP-5.

  16. Use of non-petroleum fuels to reduce military energy vulnerabilities: self-sufficient bases and new weapon propulsion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Freiwald, D.A.

    1980-01-01

    The US fossil synfuels program may not have significant impact on domestic fuel supplies until near the year 2000, resulting in a continuing mobility fuels vulnerability for the US military until then. But there are other mobility fuel options for both propulsion systems and stationary base-energy sources, for which the base technology is commercially available or at least demonstrated. For example, for surface propulsion systems, hydrogen-fuel-cell/battery-electric hybrids may be considered; for weapons systems these may offer some new flexibilities, standardization possibilities, and multiple military-controlled fuel-supply options. Hydrogen-fueled aircraft may provide interesting longer-term possibilities in terms of military energy self-sufficiency and multiple supply options, as well as performance specifications. These scenarios will be discussed, along with possibilities for demonstrations in the MX-system ground vehicles.

  17. Wavelength and energy dependent absorption of unconventional fuel mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, N.; Saleem, Z.; Mirza, A. A.

    2005-11-01

    Economic considerations of laser induced ignition over the normal electrical ignition of direct injected Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) engines has motivated automobile industry to go for extensive research on basic characteristics of leaner unconventional fuel mixtures to evaluate practical possibility of switching over to the emerging technologies. This paper briefly reviews the ongoing research activities on minimum ignition energy and power requirements of natural gas fuels and reports results of present laser air/CNG mixture absorption coefficient study. This study was arranged to determine the thermo-optical characteristics of high air/fuel ratio mixtures using laser techniques. We measured the absorption coefficient using four lasers of multiple wavelengths over a wide range of temperatures and pressures. The absorption coefficient of mixture was found to vary significantly over change of mixture temperature and probe laser wavelengths. The absorption coefficients of air/CNG mixtures were measured using 20 watts CW/pulsed CO2 laser at 10.6μm, Pulsed Nd:Yag laser at 1.06μm, 532 nm (2nd harmonic) and 4 mW CW HeNe laser at 645 nm and 580 nm for temperatures varying from 290 to 1000K using optical transmission loss technique.

  18. Petroleum marketing annual, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    This publication contains statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the free-on-board (f.o.b.) and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  19. Petroleum Marketing Annual, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-18

    This report contains statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for us by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the free-on-board (f.o.b.) and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. 13 figs., 51 tabs.

  20. Soil- and groundwater-quality data for petroleum hydrocarbon compounds within Fuels Area C, Ellsworth Air Force Base, South Dakota, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bender, David A.; Rowe, Barbara L.

    2015-01-01

    Ellsworth Air Force Base is an Air Combat Command located approximately 10 miles northeast of Rapid City, South Dakota. Ellsworth Air Force Base occupies about 6,000 acres within Meade and Pennington Counties, and includes runways, airfield operations, industrial areas, housing, and recreational facilities. Fuels Area C within Ellsworth Air Force Base is a fuels storage area that is used to support the mission of the base. In fall of 2013, the U.S. Geological Survey began a study in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force, Ellsworth Air Force Base, to estimate groundwater-flow direction, select locations for permanent monitoring wells, and install and sample monitoring wells for petroleum hydrocarbon compounds within Fuels Area C. Nine monitoring wells were installed for the study within Fuels Area C during November 4–7, 2014. Soil core samples were collected during installation of eight of the monitoring wells and analyzed for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, total xylenes, naphthalene,m- and p-xylene, o-xylene, and gasoline- and diesel-range organic compounds. Groundwater samples were collected from seven of the nine wells (two of the monitoring wells did not contain enough water to sample or were dry) during November 19–21, 2014, and analyzed for select physical properties, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, total xylenes, naphthalene, m- and p-xylene, o-xylene, and gasoline- and diesel-range organic compounds. This report describes the nine monitoring well locations and presents the soil- and groundwater-quality data collected in 2014 for this study.

  1. Petroleum marketing monthly, March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-10

    This report for March 1995, provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly. A glossary is included.

  2. Dependence of the pour point of diesel fuels on the properties of the initial components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostashov, V. M.; Bobrovskiy, S. A.

    1979-01-01

    An analytical expression is obtained for the dependence of the pour point of diesel fuels on the pour point and weight relationship of the initial components. For determining the pour point of a multicomponent fuel mixture, it is assumed that the mixture of two components has the pour point of a separate equivalent component, then calculating the pour point of this equivalent component mixed with a third component, etc.

  3. Petroleum marketing monthly, November 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-09

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed costs of imported crude oil, and the refiner`s acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  4. Petroleum marketing monthly, March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-22

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, education institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiner`s acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  5. Petroleum marketing monthly, January 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  6. Petroleum marketing monthly, February 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-25

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiner`s acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  7. Petroleum marketing monthly, August 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-10

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  8. Petroleum marketing monthly, April 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-12

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  9. Petroleum marketing monthly, July 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-15

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  10. Petroleum marketing monthly, August 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-07

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. 12 figs., 49 tabs.

  11. Petroleum marketing monthly, June 1995 with data for March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-16

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: Summary Statistics Crude Oil Prices; Prices of Petroleum Products; Volumes of Petroleum Products; and Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Petroleum Products for Local Consumption.

  12. Petroleum marketing monthly with data for April 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-05

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data on the Petroleum Marketing Monthly. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: Summary statistics; crude oil prices; prices of petroleum products; volumes of petroleum products; and prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption.

  13. Vegetable oils as a petroleum replacement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The current dependence of the world economy on petroleum cannot be sustained in the long run. Petroleum is expected to be depleted in the foreseeable future. In addition, the use of petroleum causes carbon dioxide emissions leading to global warming. Renewable sources need to be explored. One of the...

  14. Workshop on the utilization of coal as an alternative to petroleum fuels in the Andean Region. Volume 1. Summary report. Held in Lima, Peru on June 24-28, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    1985-12-31

    The Workshop on the Utilization of Coal as an Alternative to Petroleum Fuels in the Andean Region was one regional effort to examine issues involved in developing coal as a major energy source. Held in Lima, Peru, June 24-28, 1985, and funded by the Government of Peru and the U.S. Agency for International Development (AID), the workshop examined technological measures and economic policy initiatives needed to promote coal development, particularly in Peru, Bolivia, and Ecuador.

  15. Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Commercial Lawn Equipment (Spanish version); Clean Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Erik

    2015-06-01

    Powering commercial lawn equipment with alternative fuels or advanced engine technology is an effective way to reduce U.S. dependence on petroleum, reduce harmful emissions, and lessen the environmental impacts of commercial lawn mowing. Numerous alternative fuel and fuel-efficient advanced technology mowers are available. Owners turn to these mowers because they may save on fuel and maintenance costs, extend mower life, reduce fuel spillage and fuel theft, and demonstrate their commitment to sustainability.

  16. Annual book of ASTM Standards 2005. Section Five. Petroleum products, lubricants, and fossil fuels. Volume 05.06. Gaseous fuels; coal and coke

    SciTech Connect

    2005-09-15

    The first part covers standards for gaseous fuels. The standard part covers standards on coal and coke including the classification of coals, determination of major elements in coal ash and trace elements in coal, metallurgical properties of coal and coke, methods of analysis of coal and coke, petrographic analysis of coal and coke, physical characteristics of coal, quality assurance and sampling.

  17. Annual book of ASTM Standards 2008. Section Five. Petroleum products, lubricants, and fossil fuels. Volume 05.06. Gaseous fuels; coal and coke

    SciTech Connect

    2008-09-15

    The first part covers standards for gaseous fuels. The second part covers standards on coal and coke including the classification of coals, determination of major elements in coal ash and trace elements in coal, metallurgical properties of coal and coke, methods of analysis of coal and coke, petrogrpahic analysis of coal and coke, physical characteristics of coal, quality assurance and sampling.

  18. Future fuels and engines for railroad locomotives. Volume 1: Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liddle, S. G.; Bonzo, B. B.; Purohit, G. P.; Stallkamp, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    The potential for reducing the dependence of railroads on petroleum fuel, particularly Diesel No. 2 was investigated. Two approaches are studied: (1) to determine how the use of Diesel No. 2 can be reduced through increased efficiency and conservation, and (2) to use fuels other than Diesel No. 2 both in Diesel and other types of engines. Because synthetic hydrocarbon fuels are particularly suited to medium speed diesel engines, the first commercial application of these fuels may be by the railroad industry.

  19. A review of analytical methods for the identification and quantification of hydrocarbons found in jet propellant 8 and related petroleum based fuels.

    PubMed

    Gregg, Shonetta D; Fisher, Jeffrey W; Bartlett, Michael G

    2006-01-01

    Jet propellant 8 (JP-8) is a complex mixture of compounds that varies from batch to batch. Quantification of various compound classes of JP-8, including BTEX, PAHs and VOCs, has been accomplished. Very few papers have tackled total JP-8 quantification because of its complexity. The components in JP-8 tend to co-elute and present at low concentrations, often nondetectable. JP-8 is the major source of chemical exposure for Department of Defense personnel and a potential hazard for civilians and marine animals. Some components of JP-8 have been identified as possible human carcinogens and have been studied extensively. Development of analytical methods to analyze the components of this fuel are essential to measure the extent of exposure, as well as the short-term and long-term exposure in rodents, humans and marine life. To date, JP-8 has been examined in urine, blood, contaminated water and fish tissue. This paper reviews methods currently utilized in the literature for the analysis of JP-8 and its components. This paper also discusses extraction methods and detectors commonly used in JP-8 and hydrocarbon analysis in general. Finally, the effects of exposure and the future of JP-8 and petroleum analysis with respect to human health are discussed. PMID:16779790

  20. 2-D Time-Dependent Fuel Element, Thermal Analysis Code System.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2001-09-24

    Version 00 WREM-TOODEE2 is a two dimensional, time-dependent, fuel-element thermal analysis program. Its primary purpose is to evaluate fuel-element thermal response during post-LOCA refill and reflood in a pressurized water reactor (PWR). TOODEE2 calculations are carried out in a two-dimensional mesh region defined in slab or cylindrical geometry by orthogonal grid lines. Coordinates which form order pairs are labeled x-y in slab geometry, and those in cylindrical geometry are labeled r-z for the axisymmetric casemore » and r-theta for the polar case. Conduction and radiation are the only heat transfer mechanisms assumed within the boundaries of the mesh region. Convective and boiling heat transfer mechanisms are assumed at the boundaries. The program numerically solves the two-dimensional, time-dependent, heat conduction equation within the mesh region. KEYWORDS: FUEL MANAGEMENT; HEAT TRANSFER; LOCA; PWR« less

  1. Vegetable oil-based diesel fuels: Overview and current trends

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since the energy crises of the 1970's and early 1980's, feedstocks and fuels with the potential to reduce dependence on petroleum-based energy and fuels have found increasing interest. Materials with triacylglycerols (triglycerides; esters of glycerol with fatty acids) as major components, such as ...

  2. A methodology for assessing the market benefits of alternative motor fuels: The Alternative Fuels Trade Model

    SciTech Connect

    Leiby, P.N.

    1993-09-01

    This report describes a modeling methodology for examining the prospective economic benefits of displacing motor gasoline use by alternative fuels. The approach is based on the Alternative Fuels Trade Model (AFTM). AFTM development was undertaken by the US Department of Energy (DOE) as part of a longer term study of alternative fuels issues. The AFTM is intended to assist with evaluating how alternative fuels may be promoted effectively, and what the consequences of substantial alternative fuels use might be. Such an evaluation of policies and consequences of an alternative fuels program is being undertaken by DOE as required by Section 502(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Interest in alternative fuels is based on the prospective economic, environmental and energy security benefits from the substitution of these fuels for conventional transportation fuels. The transportation sector is heavily dependent on oil. Increased oil use implies increased petroleum imports, with much of the increase coming from OPEC countries. Conversely, displacement of gasoline has the potential to reduce US petroleum imports, thereby reducing reliance on OPEC oil and possibly weakening OPEC`s ability to extract monopoly profits. The magnitude of US petroleum import reduction, the attendant fuel price changes, and the resulting US benefits, depend upon the nature of oil-gas substitution and the supply and demand behavior of other world regions. The methodology applies an integrated model of fuel market interactions to characterize these effects.

  3. REDUCING POWER PRODUCTION COSTS BY UTILIZING PETROLEUM COKE

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin C. Galbreath; Donald L. Toman; Christopher J. Zygarlicke

    1999-09-01

    Petroleum coke, a byproduct of the petroleum-refining process, is an attractive primary or supplemental fuel for power production primarily because of a progressive and predictable increase in the production volumes of petroleum coke (1, 2). Petroleum coke is most commonly blended with coal in proportions suitable to meet sulfur emission compliance. Petroleum coke is generally less reactive than coal; therefore, the cofiring of petroleum coke with coal typically improves ignition, flame stability, and carbon loss relative to the combustion of petroleum coke alone. Although petroleum coke is a desirable fuel for producing relatively inexpensive electrical power, concerns about the effects of petroleum coke blending on combustion and pollution control processes exist in the coal-fired utility industry (3). The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) completed a 2-year technical assessment of petroleum coke as a supplemental fuel. A survey questionnaire was sent to seven electric utility companies that are currently cofiring coal and petroleum coke in an effort to solicit specific suggestions on research needs and fuel selections. An example of the letter and survey questionnaire is presented in Appendix A. Interest was expressed by most utilities in evaluating the effects of petroleum coke blending on grindability, combustion reactivity, fouling, slagging, and fly ash emissions control. Unexpectedly, concern over corrosion was not expressed by the utilities contacted. Although all seven utilities responded to the question, only two utilities, Northern States Power Company (NSP) and Ameren, sent fuels to the EERC for evaluation. Both utilities sent subbituminous coals from the Power River Basin and petroleum shot coke samples. Petroleum shot coke is produced unintentionally during operational upsets in the petroleum refining process. This report evaluates the effects of petroleum shot coke blending on grindability, fuel reactivity, fouling/slagging, and

  4. BIOMASS AND NATURAL GAS AS CO-FEEDSTOCKS FOR PRODUCTION OF FUEL FOR FUEL-CELL VEHICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The article gives results of an examination of prospects for utilizing renewable energy crops as a source of liquid fuel to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions from mobile sources and reduce dependence on imported petroleum. Fuel cells would provide an optimum vehicle technology fo...

  5. Dimethyl ether (DME) as an alternative fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semelsberger, Troy A.; Borup, Rodney L.; Greene, Howard L.

    With ever growing concerns on environmental pollution, energy security, and future oil supplies, the global community is seeking non-petroleum based alternative fuels, along with more advanced energy technologies (e.g., fuel cells) to increase the efficiency of energy use. The most promising alternative fuel will be the fuel that has the greatest impact on society. The major impact areas include well-to-wheel greenhouse gas emissions, non-petroleum feed stocks, well-to-wheel efficiencies, fuel versatility, infrastructure, availability, economics, and safety. Compared to some of the other leading alternative fuel candidates (i.e., methane, methanol, ethanol, and Fischer-Tropsch fuels), dimethyl ether appears to have the largest potential impact on society, and should be considered as the fuel of choice for eliminating the dependency on petroleum. DME can be used as a clean high-efficiency compression ignition fuel with reduced NO x, SO x, and particulate matter, it can be efficiently reformed to hydrogen at low temperatures, and does not have large issues with toxicity, production, infrastructure, and transportation as do various other fuels. The literature relevant to DME use is reviewed and summarized to demonstrate the viability of DME as an alternative fuel.

  6. Life-Cycle Analysis of Alternative Aviation Fuels in GREET

    SciTech Connect

    Elgowainy, A.; Han, J.; Wang, M.; Carter, N.; Stratton, R.; Hileman, J.; Malwitz, A.; Balasubramanian, S.

    2012-06-01

    The Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model, developed at Argonne National Laboratory, has been expanded to include well-to-wake (WTWa) analysis of aviation fuels and aircraft. This report documents the key WTWa stages and assumptions for fuels that represent alternatives to petroleum jet fuel. The aviation module in GREET consists of three spreadsheets that present detailed characterizations of well-to-pump and pump-to-wake parameters and WTWa results. By using the expanded GREET version (GREET1_2011), we estimate WTWa results for energy use (total, fossil, and petroleum energy) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide) for (1) each unit of energy (lower heating value) consumed by the aircraft or(2) each unit of distance traveled/ payload carried by the aircraft. The fuel pathways considered in this analysis include petroleum-based jet fuel from conventional and unconventional sources (i.e., oil sands); Fisher-Tropsch (FT) jet fuel from natural gas, coal, and biomass; bio-jet fuel from fast pyrolysis of cellulosic biomass; and bio-jet fuel from vegetable and algal oils, which falls under the American Society for Testing and Materials category of hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids. For aircraft operation, we considered six passenger aircraft classes and four freight aircraft classes in this analysis. Our analysis revealed that, depending on the feedstock source, the fuel conversion technology, and the allocation or displacement credit methodology applied to co-products, alternative bio-jet fuel pathways have the potential to reduce life-cycle GHG emissions by 55–85 percent compared with conventional (petroleum-based) jet fuel. Although producing FT jet fuel from fossil feedstock sources — such as natural gas and coal — could greatly reduce dependence on crude oil, production from such sources (especially coal) produces greater WTWa GHG emissions compared with petroleum jet

  7. Life-cycle analysis of alternative aviation fuels in GREET

    SciTech Connect

    Elgowainy, A.; Han, J.; Wang, M.; Carter, N.; Stratton, R.; Hileman, J.; Malwitz, A.; Balasubramanian, S.

    2012-07-23

    The Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model, developed at Argonne National Laboratory, has been expanded to include well-to-wake (WTWa) analysis of aviation fuels and aircraft. This report documents the key WTWa stages and assumptions for fuels that represent alternatives to petroleum jet fuel. The aviation module in GREET consists of three spreadsheets that present detailed characterizations of well-to-pump and pump-to-wake parameters and WTWa results. By using the expanded GREET version (GREET1{_}2011), we estimate WTWa results for energy use (total, fossil, and petroleum energy) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide) for (1) each unit of energy (lower heating value) consumed by the aircraft or (2) each unit of distance traveled/ payload carried by the aircraft. The fuel pathways considered in this analysis include petroleum-based jet fuel from conventional and unconventional sources (i.e., oil sands); Fisher-Tropsch (FT) jet fuel from natural gas, coal, and biomass; bio-jet fuel from fast pyrolysis of cellulosic biomass; and bio-jet fuel from vegetable and algal oils, which falls under the American Society for Testing and Materials category of hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids. For aircraft operation, we considered six passenger aircraft classes and four freight aircraft classes in this analysis. Our analysis revealed that, depending on the feedstock source, the fuel conversion technology, and the allocation or displacement credit methodology applied to co-products, alternative bio-jet fuel pathways have the potential to reduce life-cycle GHG emissions by 55-85 percent compared with conventional (petroleum-based) jet fuel. Although producing FT jet fuel from fossil feedstock sources - such as natural gas and coal - could greatly reduce dependence on crude oil, production from such sources (especially coal) produces greater WTWa GHG emissions compared with petroleum jet

  8. A dynamic, dependent type system for nuclear fuel cycle code generation

    SciTech Connect

    Scopatz, A.

    2013-07-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle may be interpreted as a network or graph, thus allowing methods from formal graph theory to be used. Nodes are often idealized as nuclear fuel cycle facilities (reactors, enrichment cascades, deep geologic repositories). With the advent of modern object-oriented programming languages - and fuel cycle simulators implemented in these languages - it is natural to define a class hierarchy of facility types. Bright is a quasi-static simulator, meaning that the number of material passes through a facility is tracked rather than natural time. Bright is implemented as a C++ library that models many canonical components such as reactors, storage facilities, and more. Cyclus is a discrete time simulator, meaning that natural time is tracked through out the simulation. Therefore a robust, dependent type system was developed to enable inter-operability between Bright and Cyclus. This system is capable of representing any fuel cycle facility. Types declared in this system can then be used to automatically generate code which binds a facility implementation to a simulator front end. Facility model wrappers may be used either internally to a fuel cycle simulator or as a mechanism for inter-operating multiple simulators. While such a tool has many potential use cases it has two main purposes: enabling easy performance of code-to-code comparisons and the verification and the validation of user input.

  9. The Yeast Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Routes Carbon Fluxes to Fuel Cell Cycle Progression.

    PubMed

    Ewald, Jennifer C; Kuehne, Andreas; Zamboni, Nicola; Skotheim, Jan M

    2016-05-19

    Cell division entails a sequence of processes whose specific demands for biosynthetic precursors and energy place dynamic requirements on metabolism. However, little is known about how metabolic fluxes are coordinated with the cell division cycle. Here, we examine budding yeast to show that more than half of all measured metabolites change significantly through the cell division cycle. Cell cycle-dependent changes in central carbon metabolism are controlled by the cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk1), a major cell cycle regulator, and the metabolic regulator protein kinase A. At the G1/S transition, Cdk1 phosphorylates and activates the enzyme Nth1, which funnels the storage carbohydrate trehalose into central carbon metabolism. Trehalose utilization fuels anabolic processes required to reliably complete cell division. Thus, the cell cycle entrains carbon metabolism to fuel biosynthesis. Because the oscillation of Cdk activity is a conserved feature of the eukaryotic cell cycle, we anticipate its frequent use in dynamically regulating metabolism for efficient proliferation. PMID:27203178

  10. Comparative study regarding the association of alpha 2U globulin with the nephrotoxic mechanism of certain petroleum-based air force fuels. Final report, 1 July 1990-31 August 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Eurell, T.E.

    1993-08-31

    Adult male rats have a strain, dose, and time-dependent renal proximal tubular degeneration induced by certain hydrocarbon compounds. We used rat strain variation (Fisher 344 and NCI Black Reiter) and different hydrocarbon compounds (JP-4, JP-8, decalin and trimethylpentane) to investigate the hydrocarbon-induced nephrotoxic response. Histochemical and morphometric evaluation of NCI-Black Reiter rats exposed to decalin and JP-8 indicated that this strain undergoes an intermediate form of the hydrocarbon-induced nephrotoxicity when compared to the albino Fisher 344 strain. The intermediate nephrotoxic response of the NCI-Black Reiter rat was characterized by approximately a two-fold increase in the number of acid phosphatase reactive lysosomes in renal tubular cells. The NBR rats did not demonstrate an increase in the size of the individual lysosomes, however, a characteristic lysosomal aggregation pattern occurred in renal tubular cells following hydrocarbon exposure. Light and electron microscopic immunohistochemistry revealed increased levels of A2U reactive sites in the renal tubular cell of F344 male rats exposed to decalin, trimethylpentane, JP-4 and JP-8. The nephrotoxic effect of decalin, trimethylpentane, JP-4 and JP-8 appeared to be equivalent as judged by renal tubular lysosomal alterations and increased A2U immunoreactive sites. Most lysosomal proteins in either control or treated animals were not reactive with specific antibodies against A2U. The relative number of A2U reactive sites per unit area did riot increase as lysosomes enlarged or became angular in response to hydrocarbon exposure. Alpha 2U globulin, Hyaline droplet nephropathy, Rats, Petroleum fuels, JP-4, JP-8, Cytoskeleton, Immunohistochemistry.

  11. Introduction to selected references on fossil fuels of the central and southern Appalachian basin: Chapter H.1 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruppert, Leslie F.; Lentz, Erika E.; Tewalt, Susan J.; Román Colón, Yomayra A.

    2014-01-01

    The Appalachian basin contains abundant coal and petroleum resources that have been studied and extracted for at least 150 years. In this volume, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists describe the geologic framework and geochemical character of the fossil-fuel resources of the central and southern Appalachian basin. Separate subchapters (some previously published) contain geologic cross sections; seismic profiles; burial history models; assessments of Carboniferous coalbed methane and Devonian shale gas; distribution information for oil, gas, and coal fields; data on the geochemistry of natural gas and oil; and the fossil-fuel production history of the basin. Although each chapter and subchapter includes references cited, many historical or other important references on Appalachian basin and global fossil-fuel science were omitted because they were not directly applicable to the chapters.

  12. Annual petroleum review. Volume 1. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-07-01

    Each year the California Energy Commission prepares the Annual Petroleum Review for the Governor and the Legislature for the purpose of conveying information about the current status of the supply and demand of petroleum products in California. The document is submitted under the provisions of the Petroleum Industry Information Reporting Act of 1980 (PIIRA), which directs the Commission to collect relevant information from petroleum companies operating in California and from other sources. This year the report has been divided into three separate documents: (1) the Executive Summary, (2) Volume 1, the Annual Petroleum Review report, and (3) Volume 2, the 1982 Annual Petroleum Review data section. Volume 1 contains background papers on: Outer Continental Shelf development, crude oil and gasoline pricing and industry supply and demand projections for 1983, natural gas policy and fuel switching, thermally enhanced oil recovery, and crude oil severance tax. 20 figures, 39 tables.

  13. World petroleum outlook. [Monograph

    SciTech Connect

    Cosso, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    Mr. Cosso projects the following: (1) petroleum consumption growth will decline during the 1980s, with the US recording the largest decline, while supplies will be adequate and price increases moderate; (2) fuel substitution and conservation will account for most of the drop in demand, but some will shift to developing countries; (3) excess refinery capacity will increase because of reduced demand, which will also moderate prices; and (4) energy projects will demand a large share of investment capital during the decade because of exploration and alternative energy sources. These forecasts are based on market statistics, world reserve estimates, refining capacity, and an analysis of the OPEC pricing plan. 8 tables. (DCK)

  14. Prebiotic Petroleum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Mekki-Berrada

    2014-12-01

    This short communication summarizes a global and continuous reflection on the origins of life. "Prebiotic Petroleum" assumes that " the class of most complex molecules of life that may have geochemical and abiotic origin is the class of fatty acids with long aliphatic chains" and proposes a physical process for the formation of liposomes. Developments following the workshop start from the idea that the liposomes also acquire ion exchange channels physically during their forming process.

  15. Prebiotic petroleum.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mekki-Berrada

    2014-12-01

    This short communication summarizes a global and continuous reflection on the origins of life. "Prebiotic Petroleum" assumes that "the class of most complex molecules of life that may have geochemical and abiotic origin is the class of fatty acids with long aliphatic chains" and proposes a physical process for the formation of liposomes. Developments following the workshop start from the idea that the liposomes also acquire ion exchange channels physically during their forming process. PMID:25743765

  16. Petroleum marketing monthly, July 1999, with data for April 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-07-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: initial estimates; summary statistics; crude oil prices; prices of petroleum products; volumes of petroleum products; and prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 70 tabs.

  17. Petroleum marketing monthly, October 1998, with data for July 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: Summary statistics; Crude oil prices; Prices of petroleum products; Volumes of petroleum products; and Prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  18. Petroleum marketing monthly, March 1999 with data for December 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1999-03-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: summary statistics; crude oil prices; prices of petroleum products; volumes of petroleum products; and prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  19. Petroleum marketing monthly, January 1999 with data for October 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1999-01-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: summary statistics; crude oil prices; prices of petroleum products; volumes of petroleum products; and prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  20. Petroleum marketing monthly, December 1998 with data for September 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: summary statistics; crude oil prices; prices of petroleum products; volumes of petroleum products; and prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  1. Petroleum marketing monthly, June 1999, with data for March 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-06-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: Initial Estimates; Summary Statistics; Crude Oil Prices; Prices of Petroleum Products; Volumes of Petroleum Products; and Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Petroleum Products for Local Consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  2. Petroleum marketing monthly, February 1999 with data for November 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in six sections: Initial Estimates; Summary Statistics; Crude Oil Prices; Prices of Petroleum Products; Volumes of Petroleum Products; and Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Petroleum Products for Local Consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  3. Petroleum marketing monthly, May 1998, with data for February 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides Information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: summary statistics; crude oil prices; prices of petroleum products; volumes of petroleum products; prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  4. Petroleum marketing monthly, September 1998, with data for June 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: summary statistics; crude oil prices; prices of petroleum products; volumes of petroleum products; prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  5. Petroleum marketing monthly, May 1999, with data for February 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-05-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: Initial Estimates; Summary Statistics; Crude Oil Prices; Prices of Petroleum Products; Volumes of Petroleum Products; and Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Petroleum Products for Local Consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  6. Petroleum marketing monthly, November 1998, with data for August 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: Summary statistics; Crude oil prices; Prices of petroleum products; Volumes of petroleum products; and Prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  7. Petroleum marketing monthly, June 1998, with data from March 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: summary statistics; crude oil prices; prices of petroleum products; volumes of petroleum products and prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  8. Petroleum marketing monthly: August 1998, with data for May 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-08-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: Summary Statistics; Crude Oil Prices; Prices of Petroleum Products; Volumes of Petroleum Products; and Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Petroleum Products for Local Consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  9. Petroleum marketing monthly, July 1998 with data for April 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: summary statistics; crude oil prices; prices of petroleum products; volumes of petroleum products; and prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  10. Dependence of the radiative forcing of the climate system on fossil fuel type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunez, L. I.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change mitigation strategies are greatly directed towards the reduction of CO2 emissions and other greenhouse gases from fossil fuel combustion to limit warming to 2º C in this century. For example, the Clean Power Plan aims to reduce CO2 emissions from the power sector by 32% of 2005 levels by 2030 by increasing power plant efficiency but also by switching from coal-fired power plants to natural gas-fired power plants. It is important to understand the impact of such fuel switching on climate change. While all fossil fuels emit CO2, they also emit other pollutants with varying effects on climate, health and agriculture. First, The emission of CO2 per joule of energy produced varies significantly between coal, oil and natural gas. Second, the complexity that the co-emitted pollutants add to the perturbations in the climate system necessitates the detangling of radiative forcing for each type of fossil fuel. The historical (1850-2011) net radiative forcing of climate as a function of fuel type (coal, oil, natural gas and biofuel) is reconstructed. The results reveal the significant dependence of the CO2 and the non-CO2 forcing on fuel type. The CO2 forcing per joule of energy is largest for coal. Radiative forcing from the co-emitted pollutants (black carbon, methane, nitrogen oxides, organic carbon, sulfate aerosols) changes the global mean CO2 forcing attributed to coal and oil significantly. For natural gas, the CO2-only radiative forcing from gas is increased by about 60% when the co-emitted pollutants are included.

  11. 41 CFR 101-26.602-2 - Procurement of packaged petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... petroleum products. 101-26.602-2 Section 101-26.602-2 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... petroleum products. (a) Packaged petroleum products listed in Federal Supply Catalog for Civil Agencies.... Requisitions for packaged petroleum items not in this catalog and not otherwise included in Defense Fuel...

  12. 41 CFR 101-26.602-2 - Procurement of packaged petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... petroleum products. 101-26.602-2 Section 101-26.602-2 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... petroleum products. (a) Packaged petroleum products listed in Federal Supply Catalog for Civil Agencies.... Requisitions for packaged petroleum items not in this catalog and not otherwise included in Defense Fuel...

  13. 41 CFR 101-26.602-2 - Procurement of packaged petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... petroleum products. 101-26.602-2 Section 101-26.602-2 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... petroleum products. (a) Packaged petroleum products listed in Federal Supply Catalog for Civil Agencies.... Requisitions for packaged petroleum items not in this catalog and not otherwise included in Defense Fuel...

  14. 29 CFR 779.360 - Classification of liquefied-petroleum-gas sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Classification of liquefied-petroleum-gas sales. 779.360... Establishments Liquefied-Petroleum-Gas and Fuel Oil Dealers § 779.360 Classification of liquefied-petroleum-gas... ultimate consumer of liquefied-petroleum-gas, whether delivered in portable cylinders or in bulk to...

  15. 29 CFR 779.360 - Classification of liquefied-petroleum-gas sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Classification of liquefied-petroleum-gas sales. 779.360... Establishments Liquefied-Petroleum-Gas and Fuel Oil Dealers § 779.360 Classification of liquefied-petroleum-gas... ultimate consumer of liquefied-petroleum-gas, whether delivered in portable cylinders or in bulk to...

  16. 41 CFR 101-26.602-2 - Procurement of packaged petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... petroleum products. 101-26.602-2 Section 101-26.602-2 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... petroleum products. (a) Packaged petroleum products listed in Federal Supply Catalog for Civil Agencies.... Requisitions for packaged petroleum items not in this catalog and not otherwise included in Defense Fuel...

  17. 29 CFR 779.360 - Classification of liquefied-petroleum-gas sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Classification of liquefied-petroleum-gas sales. 779.360... Establishments Liquefied-Petroleum-Gas and Fuel Oil Dealers § 779.360 Classification of liquefied-petroleum-gas... ultimate consumer of liquefied-petroleum-gas, whether delivered in portable cylinders or in bulk to...

  18. 41 CFR 101-26.602-2 - Procurement of packaged petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... petroleum products. 101-26.602-2 Section 101-26.602-2 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... petroleum products. (a) Packaged petroleum products listed in Federal Supply Catalog for Civil Agencies.... Requisitions for packaged petroleum items not in this catalog and not otherwise included in Defense Fuel...

  19. Petroleum marketing monthly, September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-14

    This document designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and for the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  20. Petroleum marketing monthly, June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-10

    This publication is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  1. Petroleum marketing monthly, October 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-12-31

    This report gives information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides crude oil cost statistics and refined petroleum products sales statistics for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  2. Grain and burnup dependence of spent fuel oxidation: geological repository impact

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, B. D.; Kansa, E. J.; Stoot, R.B.

    1998-10-15

    Further refinements to the oxidation model of Stout et al. have been made. The present model incorporates the burnup dependence of the oxidation rate in addition to an allowance for a distribution of grain sizes. The model was tested by comparing the model results with the oxidation histories of spent fuel samples oxidized in Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) or Oven Dry-Bath (ODB) experiments. The comparison between the experimental and model results are remarkably close and confirm the assumption that grain-size distributions and activation energies are the important parameters to predicting oxidation behavior. The burnup dependence of the activation energy was shown to have a greater effect than decreasing the effective grain size in suppressing the rate of the reaction U{sub 4}O{sub 9}(rightwards arrow)U{sub 3} O{sub 4}. Model results predict that U{sub 3}O{sub 8} formation of spent fuels exposed to oxygen will be suppressed even for high burnup fuels that have undergone restructuring in the rim region, provided the repository temperature is kept sufficient.

  3. Future fuels from Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Buchsbaum, L.

    2006-04-15

    To make America less dependent on foreign oil, Montana Governor Brain Schweitzer pushes for investment in synfuel technology. He advocates coal as the 'new fuel' for cars and believes synfuels from coal can bridge the gap between the petroleum economy of the past and the hydrogen economy of the future. He is pushing for a 'Future Fuels' project to form a public-private partnership to build 20 coal conversion, synfuel manufacturing plants. This could contribute to making the USA energy self-sufficient, more quickly than the FutureGen project, he believes.

  4. 10 CFR 490.804 - Eligible reductions in petroleum consumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 490.804 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Compliance § 490.804 Eligible reductions in petroleum consumption. (a) Motor vehicles... person are applicable towards the petroleum fuel reduction required in § 490.803(a) of this subpart....

  5. 10 CFR 490.804 - Eligible reductions in petroleum consumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Section 490.804 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Compliance § 490.804 Eligible reductions in petroleum consumption. (a) Motor vehicles... person are applicable towards the petroleum fuel reduction required in § 490.803(a) of this subpart....

  6. 10 CFR 490.804 - Eligible reductions in petroleum consumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Section 490.804 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Compliance § 490.804 Eligible reductions in petroleum consumption. (a) Motor vehicles... person are applicable towards the petroleum fuel reduction required in § 490.803(a) of this subpart....

  7. Comparative analysis of the production costs and life-cycle GHG emissions of FT liquid fuels from coal and natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    Paulina Jaramillo; W. Michael Griffin; H. Scott Matthews

    2008-10-15

    Liquid transportation fuels derived from coal and natural gas could help the United States reduce its dependence on petroleum. The fuels could be produced domestically or imported from fossil fuel-rich countries. The goal of this paper is to determine the life-cycle GHG emissions of coal- and natural gas-based Fischer-Tropsch (FT) liquids, as well as to compare production costs. The results show that the use of coal- or natural gas-based FT liquids will likely lead to significant increases in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions compared to petroleum-based fuels. In a best-case scenario, coal- or natural gas-based FT-liquids have emissions only comparable to petroleum-based fuels. In addition, the economic advantages of gas-to-liquid (GTL) fuels are not obvious: there is a narrow range of petroleum and natural gas prices at which GTL fuels would be competitive with petroleum-based fuels. CTL fuels are generally cheaper than petroleum-based fuels. However, recent reports suggest there is uncertainty about the availability of economically viable coal resources in the United States. If the U.S. has a goal of increasing its energy security, and at the same time significantly reducing its GHG emissions, neither CTL nor GTL consumption seem a reasonable path to follow. 28 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Engineering organisms for industrial fuel production.

    PubMed

    Berry, David A

    2010-01-01

    Volatile fuel costs, the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and fuel security concerns are driving efforts to produce sustainable renewable fuels and chemicals. Petroleum comes from sunlight, CO(2) and water converted via a biological intermediate into fuel over a several million year timescale. It stands to reason that using biology to short-circuit this time cycle offers an attractive alternative--but only with relevant products at or below market prices. The state of the art of biological engineering over the past five years has progressed to allow for market needs to drive innovation rather than trying to adapt existing approaches to the market. This report describes two innovations using synthetic biology to dis-intermediate fuel production. LS9 is developing a means to convert biological intermediates such as cellulosic hydrolysates into drop-in hydrocarbon product replacements such as diesel. Joule Unlimited is pioneering approaches to eliminate feedstock dependency by efficiently capturing sunlight, CO(2) and water to produce fuels and chemicals. The innovations behind these companies are built with the market in mind, focused on low cost biosynthesis of existing products of the petroleum industry. Through successful deployment of technologies such as those behind LS9 and Joule Unlimited, alternative sources of petroleum products will mitigate many of the issues faced with our petroleum-based economy. PMID:21326829

  9. 31 CFR 576.308 - Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 576.308 Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products. The term Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products means any petroleum, petroleum products, or natural gas originating in...

  10. 31 CFR 576.308 - Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 576.308 Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products. The term Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products means any petroleum, petroleum products, or natural gas originating in...

  11. 31 CFR 576.308 - Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 576.308 Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products. The term Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products means any petroleum, petroleum products, or natural gas originating in...

  12. 31 CFR 576.308 - Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 576.308 Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products. The term Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products means any petroleum, petroleum products, or natural gas originating in...

  13. Low-temperature Flow Properties of Biodiesel/Jet Fuel (BioJet) Blends

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel is a renewable fuel that is made from transesterification of vegetable oil, animal fat or other lipid feedstocks with a simple alcohol such as methanol. Biodiesel may be blended with jet fuel (JP-8) to reduce dependence on petroleum imports and improve ground-level emissions. Biodiesel i...

  14. Synthetic fuels, carbon dioxide and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapre, Alex R.; Hummel, John R.; Reck, Ruth A.

    1982-05-01

    The observed increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) has been attributed to the use of fossil fuels. There is concern that the generation and use of synthetic fuels derived from oil shale and coal will accelerate the increase of CO2. Depending on the source, 39 or 72 percent more CO2 would be produced per unit of energy if synthetic fuels were used instead of petroleum. The use of synthetic fuels derivved from biomass would make no net addition to atmospheric CO2 provided no fossil fuels are used in biomass production and/or conversion. Assuming that synthetic liquid fuels would gradually replace petroleum and that they would supply all of the worldwide liquid fuel demand by the year 2060, we calculated that the atmospheric CO2 concentration would increase from the current 335 parts per million on a volume basis (ppmv) to 778 ppmv in 2060. However, even if the liquid fuel demand were met by petroleum alone, the CO2 level would be 715 ppmv in that year. Furthermore, we estimated that as a result of these increases in the CO2 level, the globally averaged earth's surface temperature in the year 2060 will have risen by 2.6 K with the use of synthetic liquids and 2.2 K without their use.

  15. Benefits of VTOL aircraft in offshore petroleum logistics support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, D. E.; Shovlin, M. D.

    1975-01-01

    The mission suitability and potential economic benefits of advanced VTOL aircraft were investigated for logistics support of petroleum operations in the North Sea and the Gulf of Mexico. Concepts such as the tilt rotor and lift/cruise fan are promising for future operations beyond 150 miles offshore, where their high cruise efficiency provides savings in trip time, fuel consumption, and capital investment. Depending upon mission requirements, the aircraft operating costs are reduced by as much as 20 percent to 50 percent from those of current helicopters.

  16. Petroleum Marketing Monthly, January 1991. [Contains Glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-09

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. 12 figs., 55 tabs.

  17. Petroleum marketing monthly, November 1991. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-07

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. 12 figs., 53 tabs.

  18. Detecting and discriminating petroleum and petroleum products from water on terrestrial backgrounds with hyperspectral remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, C. Scott

    Petroleum and petroleum product spills are frequent and as both Hurricane Katrina and the Deepwater Horizon accident demonstrated, they can be catastrophic. A prominent portion of the response is mapping the extent to which oil has reached both shoreline and inland areas. Yet, petroleum and water--when present on common substrates such as sand, concrete, and vegetation--are often difficult to distinguish in panchromatic and multispectral imagery. This research demonstrates how hyperspectral remote sensing, also known as imaging spectroscopy, provides petroleum detection and discrimination from water on terrestrial backgrounds. Utilizing spectral libraries, it also performs material identification and successfully discriminates some petroleum products from one another as a means of further classification and mapping spill extent. To achieve these goals, this effort collected spectral signatures of four crude oils and five refined petroleum products on ten common terrestrial substrates and compared them to water on the same backgrounds over a period of 1-90 days, depending on liquid volatility. The result is the first publicly available spectral library for petroleum and petroleum products on terrestrial substrates in the reflective portion of the electromagnetic spectrum (400-2500 nm) for use in petroleum spill detection and response. It also establishes a baseline for the use of imaging spectroscopy as a technique for confident, accurate petroleum detection in the terrestrial environment. Using common material identification algorithms, the spectra were successfully applied to airborne hyperspectral data from the Hurricane Katrina disaster in 2005 as a proof-of-concept for discriminating petroleum from water.

  19. Temperature dependence of an abiotic glucose/air alkaline fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orton, Dane; Scott, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    The temperature dependence of a previously developed glucose fuel cell is explored. This cell uses a small molecule dye mediator to transport oxidizable electrons from glucose to a carbon felt anode. This reaction is driven by an air breathing MnO2 cathode. This research investigates how the temperature of the system affects the power production of the fuel cell. Cell performance is observed using either methyl viologen, indigo carmine, trypan blue, or hydroquinone as a mediator at temperatures of 15, 19, 27, 32, 37, 42, and 49 °C. Cyclic voltammetry of the cell anode at the given temperatures with the individual dyes is also presented. The highest power production amongst all of the cells occurs at 32 °C. This occurs with the mediator indigo carmine or with the mediator methyl viologen. These sustained powers are 2.31 mW cm-2 and 2.39 mW cm-2, respectively. This is approximately a 350% increase for these cells compared to their power produced at room temperature. This dramatic increase is likely due to increased solubility of the mediator dye at higher temperatures.

  20. R&D on fuel cells in Japan and possible contributions of fuel cells to the Global Reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Takenaka, Hiroyasu

    1993-12-31

    Fuel cells can generate electricity equivalent to 40-60% of the energy contained In the fuel consumed, and an overall efficiency as high as 80% is not impossible to achieve through utilization of the exhaust heat. In addition, emissions of pollutants such as NOx and SOx from fuel cells are low. Since various reformed gases derived from natural gas, methanol and coal can be used as fuel for fuel cells, the wide range of applications for fuel cells is expected to contribute to the reduction of petroleum dependence in Japan.

  1. Three-dimensional and time-dependent simulation of a planar solid oxide fuel cell stack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achenbach, E.

    1994-04-01

    The mathematical simulation of a planar solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is presented. The model accounts for three-dimensional and time-dependent effects. Internal methane-steam reforming and recycling of the anode gas are also considered. The effects of different flow manifolding, i.e., cross-, co-, or counter-flow are discussed. After a short description of the mathematical procedure, computational results are presented. In particular the distribution of the gases, of the current density and of the solid structure temperature across the cell are shown. Furthermore the effects of different flow manifolding, of radiation from the outer stack surface to the surroundings and of anode gas recycling on the operating conditions of the stack are considered. The response of the cell voltage to a load change is also discussed.

  2. Determination of petroleum hydrocarbon toxicity with Microtox reg sign

    SciTech Connect

    Eisman, M.P.; Landon-Arnold, S.; Swindoll, C.M. )

    1991-12-01

    The goal of this toxicity investigation was to determine the toxicity of petroleum fuels and fuel components which are likely to contaminate the subsurface environment. Various fuels and individual components, water soluble fractions of fuels, and soil leachates were tested for toxicity using the Microtox{reg sign}. The fuels used included diesel, unleaded gas, and the aviation fuels JP4 and JP5. Individual components were chosen from the following chemical groups: alkanes, cycloalkanes, alkenes, alkylbenzenes, and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons.

  3. Petroleum supply annual 1996: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1996 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Capacity; each with final annual data. The summary statistics section show 16 years of data depicting the balance between supply, disposition and ending stocks for various commodities including crude oil, motor gasoline, distillate fuel oil, residual fuel oil, jet fuel propane/propylene, and liquefied petroleum gases. The detailed statistics section provide 1996 detailed statistics on supply and disposition, refinery operations, imports and exports, stocks, and transportation of crude oil and petroleum products. The refinery capacity contain listings of refineries and associated crude oil distillation and downstream capacities by State, as of January 1, 1997, as well as summaries of corporate refinery capacities and refinery storage capacities. In addition, refinery receipts of crude oil by method of transportation for 1996 are provided. Also included are fuels consumed at refineries, and lists of shutdowns, sales, reactivations, and mergers during 1995 and 1996. 16 figs., 59 tabs.

  4. Petroleum supply monthly, March 1999, with data for January 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-03-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four petroleum supply publications produced by the Petroleum Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  5. Synthetic fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Sammons, V.O.

    1980-01-01

    This guide is designed for those who wish to learn more about the science and technology of synthetic fuels by reviewing materials in the collections of the Library of Congress. This is not a comprehensive bibliography, it is designed to put the reader on target. Subject headings used by the Library of Congress under which books on synthetic fuels can be located are: oil-shale industry; oil-shales; shale oils; synthetic fuels; synthetic fuels industry; coal gasification; coal liquefaction; fossil fuels; hydrogen as fuel; oil sands; petroleum, synthesis gas; biomass energy; pyrolysis; and thermal oil recovery. Basic texts, handbooks, government publications, journals, etc. were included. (DP)

  6. Opportunity fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Lutwen, R.C.

    1996-12-31

    The paper consists of viewgraphs from a conference presentation. A comparison is made of opportunity fuels, defined as fuels that can be converted to other forms of energy at lower cost than standard fossil fuels. Types of fuels for which some limited technical data is provided include petroleum coke, garbage, wood waste, and tires. Power plant economics and pollution concerns are listed for each fuel, and compared to coal and natural gas power plant costs. A detailed cost breakdown for different plant types is provided for use in base fuel pricing.

  7. Computer model for refinery operations with emphasis on jet fuel production. Volume 1: Program description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunbar, D. N.; Tunnah, B. G.

    1978-01-01

    A FORTRAN computer program is described for predicting the flow streams and material, energy, and economic balances of a typical petroleum refinery, with particular emphasis on production of aviation turbine fuel of varying end point and hydrogen content specifications. The program has provision for shale oil and coal oil in addition to petroleum crudes. A case study feature permits dependent cases to be run for parametric or optimization studies by input of only the variables which are changed from the base case.

  8. Petroleum marketing monthly with data for January 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    This publication provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. Statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales are presented. Data on crude oil include the domestic purchase price, the free on board and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oils and sales of petroleum products are presented in five sections: (1) summary statistics, (2) crude oil prices, (3) prices of petroleum products, (4) volumes of petroleum products, and (5) prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 50 tabs.

  9. Latest techniques and equipment for the conversion of motor vehicles to LPG/petroleum use

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, R.

    1980-01-01

    Liquified petroleum gases (LPG) has been used for transportation in Europe, the United States, Japan and to a much lesser extent in Australia for many years. In most cases, the vehicles have been powered by engines designed for petrol operation and subsequently converted to use LPG. The application of LPG as an automotive fuel in different countries depends heavily on the availability of the fuel and the tax policy of the government. The demand for dual fuel equipment is increasing. Some of the problems facing Australia to convert vehicles to LPG use emphasize the institutional and hardware obstacles. Before LPG can be considered to be a safe, viable alternative fuel to petrol, improvements will have to be made in safety standards, in reduced exhaust emissions, in increased fuel efficiency, and in the involvement of car manufacturers. (SAC)

  10. Updated estimation of energy efficiencies of U.S. petroleum refineries.

    SciTech Connect

    Palou-Rivera, I.; Wang, M. Q.

    2010-12-08

    Evaluation of life-cycle (or well-to-wheels, WTW) energy and emission impacts of vehicle/fuel systems requires energy use (or energy efficiencies) of energy processing or conversion activities. In most such studies, petroleum fuels are included. Thus, determination of energy efficiencies of petroleum refineries becomes a necessary step for life-cycle analyses of vehicle/fuel systems. Petroleum refinery energy efficiencies can then be used to determine the total amount of process energy use for refinery operation. Furthermore, since refineries produce multiple products, allocation of energy use and emissions associated with petroleum refineries to various petroleum products is needed for WTW analysis of individual fuels such as gasoline and diesel. In particular, GREET, the life-cycle model developed at Argonne National Laboratory with DOE sponsorship, compares energy use and emissions of various transportation fuels including gasoline and diesel. Energy use in petroleum refineries is key components of well-to-pump (WTP) energy use and emissions of gasoline and diesel. In GREET, petroleum refinery overall energy efficiencies are used to determine petroleum product specific energy efficiencies. Argonne has developed petroleum refining efficiencies from LP simulations of petroleum refineries and EIA survey data of petroleum refineries up to 2006 (see Wang, 2008). This memo documents Argonne's most recent update of petroleum refining efficiencies.

  11. Future fuels and engines for railroad locomotives. Volume 2: Technical document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liddle, S. G.

    1981-01-01

    The potential for reducing the dependence of railroads on petroleum fuel, particularly Diesel No. 2 was studied. The study takes two approaches: to determine the use of Diesel No. 2 can be reduced through increased efficiency and conservation, and to use fuels other than Diesel No. 2 both in Diesel and other types of engines. Synthetic hydrocarbon fuels, probably derived from oil shale, will be needed if present diesel-electric locomotives continue to be used.

  12. 10 CFR 504.8 - Prohibitions against excessive use of petroleum or natural gas in mixtures-certifying powerplants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) ALTERNATE FUELS EXISTING POWERPLANTS § 504.8 Prohibitions against excessive use of petroleum or natural gas... use of petroleum or natural gas in such powerplant in amounts exceeding the minimum amount necessary... feasible for the unit to use a mixture of petroleum or natural gas and coal or another alternate fuel as...

  13. 10 CFR 504.8 - Prohibitions against excessive use of petroleum or natural gas in mixtures-certifying powerplants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) ALTERNATE FUELS EXISTING POWERPLANTS § 504.8 Prohibitions against excessive use of petroleum or natural gas... use of petroleum or natural gas in such powerplant in amounts exceeding the minimum amount necessary... feasible for the unit to use a mixture of petroleum or natural gas and coal or another alternate fuel as...

  14. 10 CFR 504.8 - Prohibitions against excessive use of petroleum or natural gas in mixtures-certifying powerplants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) ALTERNATE FUELS EXISTING POWERPLANTS § 504.8 Prohibitions against excessive use of petroleum or natural gas... use of petroleum or natural gas in such powerplant in amounts exceeding the minimum amount necessary... feasible for the unit to use a mixture of petroleum or natural gas and coal or another alternate fuel as...

  15. 10 CFR 504.8 - Prohibitions against excessive use of petroleum or natural gas in mixtures-certifying powerplants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) ALTERNATE FUELS EXISTING POWERPLANTS § 504.8 Prohibitions against excessive use of petroleum or natural gas... use of petroleum or natural gas in such powerplant in amounts exceeding the minimum amount necessary... feasible for the unit to use a mixture of petroleum or natural gas and coal or another alternate fuel as...

  16. 10 CFR 504.8 - Prohibitions against excessive use of petroleum or natural gas in mixtures-certifying powerplants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) ALTERNATE FUELS EXISTING POWERPLANTS § 504.8 Prohibitions against excessive use of petroleum or natural gas... use of petroleum or natural gas in such powerplant in amounts exceeding the minimum amount necessary... feasible for the unit to use a mixture of petroleum or natural gas and coal or another alternate fuel as...

  17. Petroleum Processing Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, D. A.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the petroleum processing wastes, covering publications of 1977. This review covers studies such as the use of activated carbon in petroleum and petrochemical waste treatment. A list of 15 references is also presented. (HM)

  18. Petroleum marketing monthly with data for October 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    This publication presents statistical data on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales. Data on petroleum include the domestic first purchase price, landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiner`s acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane.

  19. Metagenomic Approach for Understanding Microbial Population from Petroleum Muck

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, M. N.; Dhebar, S. V.; Dhebar, S. V.; Bhargava, P.; Pandit, A. S.; Patel, R. P.; Saxena, A. K.

    2014-01-01

    Petroleum products play a major role in fueling the economy of the world but the pollution they create has become a critical issue. Understanding the diversity present in pipeline muck will help with the exploration of new microbial strains with better hydrocarbon degrading capacities for bioremediation of polluted sites. This study provides an analysis of petroleum muck using next generation sequencing. PMID:24874664

  20. Metagenomic approach for understanding microbial population from petroleum muck.

    PubMed

    Joshi, M N; Dhebar, S V; Dhebar, S V; Bhargava, P; Pandit, A S; Patel, R P; Saxena, A K; Bagatharia, S B

    2014-01-01

    Petroleum products play a major role in fueling the economy of the world but the pollution they create has become a critical issue. Understanding the diversity present in pipeline muck will help with the exploration of new microbial strains with better hydrocarbon degrading capacities for bioremediation of polluted sites. This study provides an analysis of petroleum muck using next generation sequencing. PMID:24874664

  1. 10 CFR 490.804 - Eligible reductions in petroleum consumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Eligible reductions in petroleum consumption. 490.804 Section 490.804 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Compliance § 490.804 Eligible reductions in petroleum consumption. (a) Motor...

  2. 10 CFR 490.804 - Eligible reductions in petroleum consumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Eligible reductions in petroleum consumption. 490.804 Section 490.804 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Compliance § 490.804 Eligible reductions in petroleum consumption. (a) Motor...

  3. An assessment of electric vehicles: technology, infrastructure requirements, greenhouse-gas emissions, petroleum use, material use, lifetime cost, consumer acceptance and policy initiatives.

    PubMed

    Delucchi, M A; Yang, C; Burke, A F; Ogden, J M; Kurani, K; Kessler, J; Sperling, D

    2014-01-13

    Concerns about climate change, urban air pollution and dependence on unstable and expensive supplies of foreign oil have led policy-makers and researchers to investigate alternatives to conventional petroleum-fuelled internal-combustion-engine vehicles in transportation. Because vehicles that get some or all of their power from an electric drivetrain can have low or even zero emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and urban air pollutants, and can consume little or no petroleum, there is considerable interest in developing and evaluating advanced electric vehicles (EVs), including pure battery-electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and hydrogen fuel-cell electric vehicles. To help researchers and policy-makers assess the potential of EVs to mitigate climate change and reduce petroleum use, this paper discusses the technology of EVs, the infrastructure needed for their development, impacts on emissions of GHGs, petroleum use, materials use, lifetime costs, consumer acceptance and policy considerations. PMID:24298079

  4. Petroleum supply monthly with data from April 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  5. Petroleum supply monthly, May 1995 with data for March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-25

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  6. Petroleum supply monthly, July 1995 with data for May 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-27

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  7. Petroleum supply monthly, June 1995 with data for April 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-28

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  8. Petroleum Supply Monthly, September 1998, with data for July 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-28

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the suppiy and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics

  9. Petroleum Supply Monthly, March 1996 (with data for January 1996)

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-04

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  10. Petroleum supply monthly, September 1995 with data for July 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-27

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  11. Petroleum supply monthly - with data for May 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. This document contains a glossary.

  12. Petroleum supply monthly, with data for August 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  13. Petroleum supply monthly, with data for September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  14. Fuel cell power plants for transportation applications

    SciTech Connect

    Huff, J.R.

    1991-12-31

    Over the past 35 years, the transportation sector has accounted fr approximately 25% of the total gross energy consumption in the United States. As the largest energy user in the United States, transportation accounts for approximately 66% of the country`s current petroleum consumption. Fuel cell power plants using nonpetroleum fuels such as methanol could significantly reduce US dependency on petroleum resources. They offer the additional advantage of minimal air pollution thereby addressing another issue of major concern in the US fuel cell power plant use in city buses and other vehicles is being explored in a number of US Department of Energy and industrial programs that will be described in this paper. 5 refs.

  15. Enhanced recovery of petroleum

    SciTech Connect

    Buinicky, E.P.; Estes, J.H.

    1980-09-16

    An enhanced oil recovery method comprising injecting an aqueous ammonium bisulfite (NH/sub 4/HSO/sub 3/) solution into a petroleum-bearing earth formation, heating said injected aqueous solution to a temperature in the range of about 120*-300* F., or higher in the presence of said petroleum-bearing earth formation, flowing said aqueous solution through said petroleum bearing earth formation to drive petroleum to a recovery well, and producing increased amounts of petroleum from said earth formation through said recovery well.

  16. Petroleum marketing monthly, April 1996 with data for January 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-02

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane.

  17. Petroleum marketing monthly, October 1997 with data for July 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  18. Petroleum marketing monthly, March 1996 with data for December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-08

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane.

  19. Petroleum marketing monthly, January 1998 with data for October 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  20. Petroleum marketing monthly, January 1996 with data for October 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-04

    The Petroleum Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane.

  1. Petroleum marketing monthly, April 1997 with data for January 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  2. Petroleum marketing monthly, February 1997 with data for November 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  3. Petroleum marketing monthly, September 1997 with data for June 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  4. Petroleum marketing monthly, March 1998, with data for December 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  5. Petroleum marketing monthly, June 1997 with data for March 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  6. Petroleum marketing monthly, May 1997 with data for February 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  7. Petroleum marketing monthly, November 1997 with data for August 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  8. U.S. Virgin Islands Transportation Petroleum Reduction Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.

    2011-09-01

    This NREL technical report determines a way for USVI to meet its petroleum reduction goal in the transportation sector. It does so first by estimating current petroleum use and key statistics and characteristics of USVI transportation. It then breaks the goal down into subordinate goals and estimates the petroleum impacts of these goals with a wedge analysis. These goals focus on reducing vehicle miles, improving fuel economy, improving traffic flow, using electric vehicles, using biodiesel and renewable diesel, and using 10% ethanol in gasoline. The final section of the report suggests specific projects to achieve the goals, and ranks the projects according to cost, petroleum reduction, time frame, and popularity.

  9. The lead susceptibility of fuels and its dependence on the chemical composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Widmaier, O

    1940-01-01

    The fact that by the use of tetraethyl lead a number of otherwise unsuitable fuels could be made to meet engine requirements was not sufficiently appreciated. While use of tetraethyl lead is limited, the addition of special leaded fuels that increase the octane number is a requirement for many fuels. In this connection, the extent to which the action of tetraethyl lead through the addition of knock-resistant hydrocarbons to the base gasoline is influenced, is quite important. To the elucidation of this problem and of the storage stability of leaded fuels, the present report is dedicated.

  10. An Approach for Developing Site-Specific Lateral and Vertical Inclusion Zones within which Structures Should be Evaluated for Petroleum Vapor Intrusion due to Releases of Motor Fuel from Underground Storage Tanks

    EPA Science Inventory

    Buildings may be at risk from Petroleum Vapor Intrusion (PVI) when they overlie petroleum hydrocarbon contamination in the unsaturated zone or dissolved in groundwater. The U.S. EPA Office of Underground Storage Tanks (OUST) is preparing Guidance for Addressing Petroleum Vapor I...

  11. Computer model for refinery operations with emphasis on jet fuel production. Volume 3: Detailed systems and programming documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunbar, D. N.; Tunnah, B. G.

    1978-01-01

    The FORTRAN computing program predicts flow streams and material, energy, and economic balances of a typical petroleum refinery, with particular emphasis on production of aviation turbine fuels of varying end point and hydrogen content specifications. The program has a provision for shale oil and coal oil in addition to petroleum crudes. A case study feature permits dependent cases to be run for parametric or optimization studies by input of only the variables which are changed from the base case.

  12. Petroleum marketing monthly, September 1995 with data for June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-31

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the fob and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  13. Petroleum marketing monthly, April 1999, with data for January 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly. 56 tabs.

  14. Petroleum marketing monthly, May 1996 with data for February 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-02

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  15. Petroleum marketing monthly, October 1995 with data for July 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-03

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost Of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  16. Petroleum marketing monthly with data for September 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures and accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  17. Petroleum marketing monthly, May 1995 with data for February 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-09

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  18. Petroleum marketing monthly with data for May 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  19. Phototoxicity of individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and petroleum to marine invertebrate larvae and juveniles

    SciTech Connect

    Pelletier, M.C.; Burgess, R.M.; Ho, K.T.; Kuhn, A.; McKinney, R.A.; Ryba, S.A.

    1997-10-01

    Phototoxicity resulting from photoactivated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been reported in the literature for a variety of freshwater organisms. The magnitude of increase in PAH toxicity often exceeds a factor of 100. In the marine environment phototoxicity to marine organisms has not been reported for individual or complex mixtures of PAHs. In this study, larvae and juveniles of the bivalve, Mulinia lateralis, and juveniles of the mysid shrimp, Mysidopsis bahia, were exposed to individual known phototoxic PAHs (anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene), as well as the water-accommodated fractions of several petroleum products (Fuel Oil {number_sign}2, Arabian Light Crude, Prudhoe Bay Crude, Fuel Oil {number_sign}6) containing PAHs. Phototoxicity of individual PAHs was 12 to >50,000 times that of conventional toxicity. Three of the petroleum products demonstrated phototoxicity while the lightest product, Fuel Oil {number_sign}2, was not phototoxic at the concentrations tested. The phototoxicity of petroleum products appears to be dependent on the composition and concentrations of phototoxic PAHs present: lighter oils have fewer multiple aromatic ring, phototoxic compounds while heavier oils have higher levels of these types of molecules. This study shows that phototoxicity can occur in marine waters to marine species. Further, the occurrence of oil in marine waters presents the additional risk of phototoxicity not routinely assessed for during oil spills.

  20. Issues in International Energy Consumption Analysis: Chinese Transportation Fuel Demand

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1990s, China has experienced tremendous growth in its transportation sector. By the end of 2010, China's road infrastructure had emerged as the second-largest transportation system in the world after the United States. Passenger vehicle sales are dramatically increasing from a little more than half a million in 2000, to 3.7 million in 2005, to 13.8 million in 2010. This represents a twenty-fold increase from 2000 to 2010. The unprecedented motorization development in China led to a significant increase in oil demand, which requires China to import progressively more petroleum from other countries, with its share of petroleum imports exceeding 50% of total petroleum demand since 2009. In response to growing oil import dependency, the Chinese government is adopting a broad range of policies, including promotion of fuel-efficient vehicles, fuel conservation, increasing investments in oil resources around the world, and many others.

  1. Natural attenuation of fuel hydrocarbon contaminants: Hydraulic conductivity dependency of biodegradation rates in a field case study

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Guoping; Zheng, Chunmiao

    2003-07-15

    Two biodegradation models are developed to represent natural attenuation of fuel-hydrocarbon contaminants as observed in a comprehensive natural-gradient tracer test in a heterogeneous aquifer on the Columbus Air Force Base in Mississippi. The first, a first-order mass loss model, describes the irreversible losses of BTEX and its individual components, i.e., benzene (B), toluene (T), ethyl benzene (E), and xylene (X). The second, a reactive pathway model, describes sequential degradation pathways for BTEX utilizing multiple electron acceptors, including oxygen, nitrate, iron and sulfate, and via methanogenesis. The heterogeneous aquifer is represented by multiple hydraulic conductivity (K) zones delineated on the basis of numerous flowmeter K measurements. A direct propagation artificial neural network (DPN) is used as an inverse modeling tool to estimate the biodegradation rate constants associated with each of the K zones. In both the mass loss model and the reactive pathway model, the biodegradation rate constants show an increasing trend with the hydraulic conductivity. The finding of correlation between biodegradation kinetics and hydraulic conductivity distributions is of general interest and relevance to characterization and modeling of natural attenuation of hydrocarbons in other petroleum-product contaminated sites.

  2. Fully Coupled Modeling of Burnup-Dependent (U1- y , Pu y )O2- x Mixed Oxide Fast Reactor Fuel Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Rong; Zhou, Wenzhong; Zhou, Wei

    2016-03-01

    During the fast reactor nuclear fuel fission reaction, fission gases accumulate and form pores with the increase of fuel burnup, which decreases the fuel thermal conductivity, leading to overheating of the fuel element. The diffusion of plutonium and oxygen with high temperature gradient is also one of the important fuel performance concerns as it will affect the fuel material properties, power distribution, and overall performance of the fuel pin. In order to investigate these important issues, the (U1- y Pu y )O2- x fuel pellet is studied by fully coupling thermal transport, deformation, oxygen diffusion, fission gas release and swelling, and plutonium redistribution to evaluate the effects on each other with burnup-dependent models, accounting for the evolution of fuel porosity. The approach was developed using self-defined multiphysics models based on the framework of COMSOL Multiphysics to manage the nonlinearities associated with fast reactor mixed oxide fuel performance analysis. The modeling results showed a consistent fuel performance comparable with the previous results. Burnup degrades the fuel thermal conductivity, resulting in a significant fuel temperature increase. The fission gas release increased rapidly first and then steadily with the burnup increase. The fuel porosity increased dramatically at the beginning of the burnup and then kept constant as the fission gas released to the fuel free volume, causing the fuel temperature to increase. Another important finding is that the deviation from stoichiometry of oxygen affects greatly not only the fuel properties, for example, thermal conductivity, but also the fuel performance, for example, temperature distribution, porosity evolution, grain size growth, fission gas release, deformation, and plutonium redistribution. Special attention needs to be paid to the deviation from stoichiometry of oxygen in fuel fabrication. Plutonium content will also affect the fuel material properties and performance

  3. Fuel issues for fuel cell vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Borroni-Bird, C.E.

    1995-12-31

    In the near-term, infrastructure and energy density concerns dictate that the most appropriate fuel for a light-duty fuel cell vehicle is probably not hydrogen; there are also several concerns with using methanol, the generally accepted most convenient fuel. In order to accelerate fuel cell commercialization it may be necessary to use petroleum-based fuels and on-board fuel processors. In the near-term, this approach may reduce fuel cell system efficiency to a level comparable with advanced diesel engines but in the long-term fuel cells powered by hydrogen should be the most efficient and cleanest of all automotive powertrains.

  4. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Petroleum Product Prices Module

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    The petroleum products price module of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model is designed to provide U.S. average wholesale and retail price forecasts for motor gasoline, diesel fuel, heating oil, and jet fuel.

  5. Future petroleum geologist: discussion

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, G.D.

    1987-07-01

    Robert R. Berg's (1986) article, ''The Future Petroleum Geologist,'' summarizes the findings of the 13-member AAPG Select Committee on The Future Petroleum Geologist appointed by President William L. Fisher in July 1985. While this undertaking is laudable, particularly considering present circumstance in the petroleum industry, the committee has apparently overlooked a vital aspect concerning the future knowledge requirements of the petroleum geologist. Specifically, the Select Committee makes no mention of the need for computer literacy in its list of educational training categories. Obviously, AAPG is well aware of both the interest in computers by its membership and the increasing need for training and familiarity in this discipline. The Select Committee on The Future Petroleum Geologist, while undertaking a difficult and potentially controversial task, has omitted an important aspect of the background requirements for generations of future petroleum geologists; the committee should consider an amendment to their recommendations to reflect this increasingly important field study.

  6. Checklist for transition to new highway fuel(s).

    SciTech Connect

    Risch, C.; Santini, D.J.

    2011-12-15

    Transportation is vital to the U.S. economy and society. As such, U.S. Presidents have repeatedly stated that the nation needs to reduce dependence on petroleum, especially for the highway transportation sector. Throughout history, highway transportation fuel transitions have been completed successfully both in United States and abroad. Other attempts have failed, as described in Appendix A: Historical Highway Fuel Transitions. Planning for a transition is critical because the changes can affect our nation's ability to compete in the world market. A transition will take many years to complete. While it is tempting to make quick decisions about the new fuel(s) of choice, it is preferable and necessary to analyze all the pertinent criteria to ensure that correct decisions are made. Doing so will reduce the number of changes in highway fuel(s). Obviously, changes may become necessary because of occurrences such as significant technology breakthroughs or major world events. With any and all of the possible transitions to new fuel(s), the total replacement of gasoline and diesel fuels is not expected. These conventional fuels are envisioned to coexist with the new fuel(s) for decades, while the revised fuel and vehicle infrastructures are implemented. The transition process must analyze the needs of the primary 'players,' which consist of the customers, the government, the fuel industry, and the automotive industry. To maximize the probability of future successes, the prime considerations of these groups must be addressed. Section 2 presents a succinct outline of the Checklist. Section 3 provides a brief discussion about the groupings on the Checklist.

  7. Spent fuel waste form characteristics: Grain and fragment size statistical dependence for dissolution response

    SciTech Connect

    Stout, R.B.; Leider, H.; Weed, H.; Nguyen, S.; McKenzie, W.; Prussin, S.; Wilson, C.N.; Gray, W.J.

    1991-04-01

    The Yucca Mountain Project of the US Department of Energy is investigating the suitability of the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, NV, for a high-level nuclear waste repository. All of the nuclear waste will be enclosed in a container package. Most of the nuclear waste will be in the form of fractured UO{sub 2} spent fuel pellets in Zircaloy-clad rods from electric power reactors. If failure of both the container and its enclosed clad rods occurs, then the fragments of the fractured UO{sub 2} spent fuel will be exposed to their surroundings. Even though the surroundings are an unsaturated zone, a possibility of water transport exists, and consequently, UO{sub 2} spent fuel dissolution may occur. A repository requirement imposes a limit on the nuclide release per year during a 10,000 year period; thus the short term dissolution response from fragmented fuel pellet surfaces in any given year must be understood. This requirement necessitates that both experimental and analytical activities be directed toward predicting the relatively short term dissolution response of UO{sub 2} spent fuel. The short term dissolution response involves gap nuclides, grain boundary nuclides, and grain volume nuclides. Analytical expressions are developed that describe the combined geometrical influences of grain boundary nuclides and grain volume nuclides on the dissolution rate of spent fuel. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  8. Petroleum marketing monthly, October 1991. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-10

    This report is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiner's acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. 12 figs., 55 tabs.

  9. Petroleum marketing monthly, September 1990. [Contains Glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-11

    This report is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, education institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. 12 figs., 55 tabs.

  10. Advanced fuel chemistry for advanced engines.

    SciTech Connect

    Taatjes, Craig A.; Jusinski, Leonard E.; Zador, Judit; Fernandes, Ravi X.; Miller, James A.

    2009-09-01

    Autoignition chemistry is central to predictive modeling of many advanced engine designs that combine high efficiency and low inherent pollutant emissions. This chemistry, and especially its pressure dependence, is poorly known for fuels derived from heavy petroleum and for biofuels, both of which are becoming increasingly prominent in the nation's fuel stream. We have investigated the pressure dependence of key ignition reactions for a series of molecules representative of non-traditional and alternative fuels. These investigations combined experimental characterization of hydroxyl radical production in well-controlled photolytically initiated oxidation and a hybrid modeling strategy that linked detailed quantum chemistry and computational kinetics of critical reactions with rate-equation models of the global chemical system. Comprehensive mechanisms for autoignition generally ignore the pressure dependence of branching fractions in the important alkyl + O{sub 2} reaction systems; however we have demonstrated that pressure-dependent 'formally direct' pathways persist at in-cylinder pressures.

  11. Petroleum 1996: Issues and Trends

    EIA Publications

    1997-01-01

    Examines historical trends and focuses on major petroleum issues and the events they represent. It analyzes different dimensions of the petroleum industry and related markets in terms of how they relate to the volatility in petroleum markets.

  12. Petroleum: An Energy Profile 1999

    EIA Publications

    1999-01-01

    Explains in layman's terms the major components and operations of the U.S. petroleum industry that include: petroleum products, resources and reserves, drilling and exploration, refining, storage and transportation, imports, exports, and petroleum marketing.

  13. Fuel cycle comparison of distributed power generation technologies.

    SciTech Connect

    Elgowainy, A.; Wang, M. Q.; Energy Systems

    2008-12-08

    The fuel-cycle energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with the application of fuel cells to distributed power generation were evaluated and compared with the combustion technologies of microturbines and internal combustion engines, as well as the various technologies associated with grid-electricity generation in the United States and California. The results were primarily impacted by the net electrical efficiency of the power generation technologies and the type of employed fuels. The energy use and GHG emissions associated with the electric power generation represented the majority of the total energy use of the fuel cycle and emissions for all generation pathways. Fuel cell technologies exhibited lower GHG emissions than those associated with the U.S. grid electricity and other combustion technologies. The higher-efficiency fuel cells, such as the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC), exhibited lower energy requirements than those for combustion generators. The dependence of all natural-gas-based technologies on petroleum oil was lower than that of internal combustion engines using petroleum fuels. Most fuel cell technologies approaching or exceeding the DOE target efficiency of 40% offered significant reduction in energy use and GHG emissions.

  14. Pollutant emissions from gasoline combustion. 1. Dependence on fuel structural functionalities.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongzhi R; Eddings, Eric G; Sarofim, Adel F

    2008-08-01

    To study the formation of air pollutants and soot precursors (e.g., acetylene, 1,3-butadiene, benzene, and higher aromatics) from aliphatic and aromatic fractions of gasoline fuels, the Utah Surrogate Mechanisms is extended to include submechanisms of gasoline surrogate compounds using a set of mechanism generation techniques. The mechanism yields very good predictions of species concentrations in premixed flames of n-heptane, isooctane, benzene, cyclohexane, olefins, oxygenates, and gasoline using a 23-component surrogate formulation. The 1,3-butadiene emission comes mainly from minor fuel fractions of olefins and cyclohexane. The benzene formation potential of gasoline components shows the following trends as functions of (i) chemical class: n-paraffins < isoparaffins < olefins < naphthalenes < alkylbenzenes < cycloparaffins < toluene; (ii) carbon number: n-butane < n-pentane < n-hexane; and (iii) branching: n-hexane < isohexane < 2,2,4-trimethylpentane < 2,2,3,3-tetramethylbutane. In contrast, fuel structure is not the main factor in determining acetylene formation. Therefore, matching the benzene formation potential of the surrogate fuel to that produced by the real fuel should have priority when selecting candidate surrogate components for combustion simulations. PMID:18754484

  15. Optimally Controlled Flexible Fuel Powertrain System

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan Sheppard; Bruce Woodrow; Paul Kilmurray; Simon Thwaite

    2011-06-30

    ) developed the Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS) under the Energy Policy Act of 2005. The RFS specifies targets for the amount of renewable fuel to be blended into petroleum based transportation fuels. The goal is to blend 36 billion gallons of renewable fuels into transportation fuels by 2022 (9 billion gallons were blended in 2008). The RFS also requires that the renewable fuels emit fewer greenhouse gasses than the petroleum fuels replaced. Thus the goal of the EPA is to have a more fuel efficient national fleet, less dependent on petroleum based fuels. The limit to the implementation of certain technologies employed was the requirement to run the developed powertrain on gasoline with minimal performance degradation. The addition of ethanol to gasoline fuels improves the fuels octane rating and increases the fuels evaporative cooling. Both of these fuel property enhancements make gasoline / ethanol blends more suitable than straight gasoline for use in downsized engines or engines with increased compression ratio. The use of engine downsizing and high compression ratios as well as direct injection (DI), dual independent cam phasing, external EGR, and downspeeding were fundamental to the fuel economy improvements targeted in this project. The developed powertrain specification utilized the MAHLE DI3 gasoline downsizing research engine. It was a turbocharged, intercooled, DI engine with dual independent cam phasing utilizing a compression ratio of 11.25 : 1 and a 15% reduction in final drive ratio. When compared to a gasoline fuelled 2.2L Ecotec engine in a Chevrolet HHR, vehicle drive cycle predictions indicate that the optimized powertrain operating on E85 would result in a reduced volume based drive cycle fuel economy penalty of 6% compared to an approximately 30% penalty for current technology engines.

  16. Stereochemistry-Dependent Proton Conduction in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells.

    PubMed

    Thimmappa, Ravikumar; Devendrachari, Mruthyunjayachari Chattanahalli; Kottaichamy, Alagar Raja; Tiwari, Omshanker; Gaikwad, Pramod; Paswan, Bhuneshwar; Thotiyl, Musthafa Ottakam

    2016-01-12

    Graphene oxide (GO) is impermeable to H2 and O2 fuels while permitting H(+) shuttling, making it a potential candidate for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC), albeit with a large anisotropy in their proton transport having a dominant in plane (σIP) contribution over the through plane (σTP). If GO-based membranes are ever to succeed in PEMFC, it inevitably should have a dominant through-plane proton shuttling capability (σTP), as it is the direction in which proton gets transported in a real fuel-cell configuration. Here we show that anisotropy in proton conduction in GO-based fuel cell membranes can be brought down by selectively tuning the geometric arrangement of functional groups around the dopant molecules. The results show that cis isomer causes a selective amplification of through-plane proton transport, σTP, pointing to a very strong geometry angle in ionic conduction. Intercalation of cis isomer causes significant expansion of GO (001) planes involved in σTP transport due to their mutual H-bonding interaction and efficient bridging of individual GO planes, bringing down the activation energy required for σTP, suggesting the dominance of a Grotthuss-type mechanism. This isomer-governed amplification of through-plane proton shuttling resulted in the overall boosting of fuel-cell performance, and it underlines that geometrical factors should be given prime consideration while selecting dopant molecules for bringing down the anisotropy in proton conduction and enhancing the fuel-cell performance in GO-based PEMFC. PMID:26652316

  17. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    SciTech Connect

    2013-06-01

    Fact sheet describes the Alternative Fuels Data Center, which provides information, data, and tools to help fleets and other transportation decision makers find ways to reduce petroleum consumption through the use of alternative and renewable fuels, advanced vehicles, and other fuel-saving measures.

  18. Report to Congress on the feasibility of establishing a heating oil component to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    In the Autumn of 1996, consumers and Members of Congress from the Northeast expressed concern about high prices for heating oil and historically low levels of inventories. Some Members of Congress advocated building a Federal inventory of heating oil as part of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). Regional reserves are authorized as part of the SPR for import dependent regions by the Energy Policy and Conservation Act. In response, the Department of Energy (DOE) proposed a series of studies related to heating fuels, including a study of the desirability, feasibility, and cost of creating a Federal reserve containing distillate fuel. This report documents that study.

  19. Fundamentals of Petroleum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    Basic information on petroleum is presented in this book prepared for naval logistics officers. Petroleum in national defense is discussed in connection with consumption statistics, productive capacity, world's resources, and steps in logistics. Chemical and geological analyses are made in efforts to familiarize methods of refining, measuring,…

  20. Petroleum supply monthly, April 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographical regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US.

  1. Investigation of Sooting in Microgravity Droplet Combustion: Fuel-Dependent Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzello, Samuel L.; Hua, Ming; Choi, Mun Young

    1999-01-01

    Kumagai and coworkers first performed microgravity droplet combustion experiments [Kumagai, 1957]. The primary goal of these early experiments were to validate simple 'd(sup 2)-law models [Spalding, 1954, Godsave, 1954] Inherent in the 'd(sup 2) -law' formulation and in the scope of the experimental observation is the neglect of sooting behavior. In fact, the influence of sooting has not received much attention until more recent works [Choi et al., 1990; Jackson et al., 1991; Jackson and Avedisian, 1994; Choi and Lee, 1996; Jackson and Avedisian, 1996; Lee et al., 1998]:. Choi and Lee measured soot volume fraction for microgravity droplet flames using full-field light extinction and subsequent tomographic inversion [Choi and Lee, 1996]. In this investigation, soot concentrations were measured for heptane droplets and it was reported that soot concentrations were considerably higher in microgravity compared to the normal gravity flame. It was reasoned that the absence of buoyancy and the effects of thermophoresis resulted in the higher soot concentrations. Lee et al. [1998] performed soot measurement experiments by varying the initial droplet diameter and found marked influence of sooting on the droplet burning behavior. There is growing sentiment that sooting in droplet combustion must no longer be neglected and that "perhaps one of the most important outstanding contributions of (micro)g droplet combustion is the observation that in the absence of asymmetrical forced and natural convection, a soot shell is formed between the droplet surface and the flame, exerting an influence on the droplet combustion response far greater than previously recognized." [Law and Faeth, 1994]. One of the methods that we are exploring to control the degree of sooting in microgravity is to use different fuels. The effect of fuel structure on sooting propensity has been investigated for over-ventilated concentric coflowing buoyant diffusion flames. (Glassman, 1996]. In these

  2. Economics and regulation of petroleum futures markets

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    Because the futures market in petroleum products is a relatively recent phenomenon, the implications of public policies formulated for that market have not yet been fully explored. To provide the Office of Competition of the Department of Energy (DOE) with sufficient information to assess policy alternatives, Resource Planning Associates, Inc. (RPA) was asked to analyze the development of the futures market in No. 2 oil, assess the potential for futures markets in other petroleum products, and identify policy alternatives available to DOE. To perform this analysis, the criteria for a viable futures market was established first. Then, the experience to date with the 18-month-old futures market in No. 2 oil was examined, and the potential for viable futures markets in No. 6 oil, gasoline, jet fuel, and crude oil was assessed. Finally, how existing DOE regulations and prospective actions might affect petroleum futures market development was investigated.

  3. Test-fuel power-coupling dependence on TREAT control-rod positions

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, L.J.; Klotzkin, G.; Hart, P.R.; Swanson, R.W.

    1983-01-01

    The Transient Reactor Test (TREAT) is a graphite moderated, UO/sub 2/ fueled test reactor located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and operated by Argonne National Laboratory. Test fuel is placed in containment vessels in the center of the reactor and subjected to computer-controlled transient irradiations which can result in experimental fuel melting or even vaporizing. The reactor was designed to have a strong negative temperature coefficient and to operate adiabatically. Consequently large reactivity insertions, up to 6.2% ..delta..k/k, may be required during a transient as the core temperature increases as much as 570/sup 0/C. This reactivity insertion is accomplished typically over 10 to 20 seconds by hydraulically actuated transient control rods. Evaluation of empirical data has indicated that control-rod-position changes cause power-coupling changes during a transient and usually are the primary factor in determining the ratio of the transient-averaged to steady-state test-fuel power coupling.

  4. Investigation of black and brown carbon multiple-wavelength-dependent light absorption from biomass and fossil fuel combustion source emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, Michael R.; Victoria Garcia, Mercedes; Robinson, Michael A.; Van Rooy, Paul; Dietenberger, Mark A.; Bergin, Michael; Schauer, James Jay

    2015-07-01

    Quantification of the black carbon (BC) and brown carbon (BrC) components of source emissions is critical to understanding the impact combustion aerosols have on atmospheric light absorption. Multiple-wavelength absorption was measured from fuels including wood, agricultural biomass, coals, plant matter, and petroleum distillates in controlled combustion settings. Filter-based absorption measurements were corrected and compared to photoacoustic absorption results. BC absorption was segregated from the total light extinction to estimate the BrC absorption from individual sources. Results were compared to elemental carbon (EC)/organic carbon (OC) concentrations to determine composition's impact on light absorption. Multiple-wavelength absorption coefficients, Angstrom exponent (6.9 to <1.0), mass absorption cross section (MAC), and Delta C (97 µg m-3 to ~0 µg m-3) were highly variable. Sources such as incense and peat emissions showed ultraviolet wavelength (370 nm) BrC absorption over 175 and 80 times (respectively) the BC absorption but only 21 and 11 times (respectively) at 520 nm wavelength. The bulk EC MACEC, λ (average at 520 nm = 9.0 ± 3.7 m2 g-1; with OC fraction <0.85 = ~7.5 m2 g-1) and the BrC OC mass absorption cross sections (MACBrC,OC,λ) were calculated; at 370 nm ultraviolet wavelengths; the MACBrC,OC,λ ranged from 0.8 m2 g-1 to 2.29 m2 g-1 (lowest peat, highest kerosene), while at 520 nm wavelength MACBrC,OC,λ ranged from 0.07 m2 g-1 to 0.37 m2 g-1 (lowest peat, highest kerosene/incense mixture). These MAC results show that OC content can be an important contributor to light absorption when present in significant quantities (>0.9 OC/TC), source emissions have variable absorption spectra, and nonbiomass combustion sources can be significant contributors to BrC.

  5. Variant 22: Spatially-Dependent: Transient Processes in MOX Fueled Core

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlovichev, A.M.

    2001-09-28

    This work is a part of Joint U.S./Russian Project with Weapons-Grade Plutonium Disposition in VVER Reactors and presents the results of spatial kinetics calculational benchmarks. The examinations were carried out with the following purposes: to verify one of spatial neutronic kinetics model elaborated in KI, to understand sensibility of the model to neutronics difference of UOX and MOX cores, and to compare in future point and spatial kinetics models (on the base of a set of selected accidents) in view of eventual creation of RELAP option with 3D kinetics. The document contains input data and results of model operation of three emergency dynamic processes in the VVER-1000 core: (1) Central control rod ejection by pressure drop caused by destroying of the moving mechanism cover. (2) Overcooling of the reactor core caused by steam line rupture and non-closure of steam generator stop valve. (3) The boron dilution of coolant in part of the VVER-1000 core caused by penetration of the distillate slug into the core at start up of non-working loop. These accidents have been applied to: (1) Uranium reference core that is the so-called Advanced VVER-1000 core with Zirconium fuel pins claddings and guide tubes. A number of assemblies contained 18 boron BPRs while first year operating. (2) MOX core with about 30% MOX fuel. At a solving it was supposed that MOX-fuel thermophysical characteristics are identical to uranium fuel ones. The calculations were carried out with the help of the program NOSTRA/1/, simulating VVER dynamics that is briefly described in Chapter 1. Chapter 3 contains the description of reference Uranium and MOX cores that are used in calculations. The neutronics calculations of MOX core with about 30% MOX fuel are named ''Variant 2 1''. Chapters 4-6 contain the calculational results of three above mentioned benchmark accidents that compose in a whole the ''Variant 22''.

  6. Petroleum supply monthly, July 1999, with data for May 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-07-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four petroleum supply publications produced by the Petroleum Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The Detail Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. In most cases, the statistics are presented for several geographic areas--the US (50 States and the District of Columbia), five PAD Districts, and 12 Refining Districts. At the US and PAD District level, the total volume and the daily rate of activities are presented. The statistics are developed from monthly survey forms submitted by respondents to the EIA and from data provided from other sources.

  7. Contribution of offshore petroleum deposits to marine food chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, S.

    2009-12-01

    Petroleum production out of offshore petroleum deposits often coincides with abundant fisheries in the world. Superposition of marine microorganism concentration distribution and offshore petroleum field distribution from various data in the literature provides to prove this coincidence. Sakhalin Island coastal regions, North Sea, Gulf of Mexico, etc. are chosen for the superpositions. Significant conformity is observed between the plankton concentration distribution and the offshore petroleum deposit distribution in all those regions. Also, most studies on the consequence of oil spills to marine eco-systems have focused mainly on hazardous marine pollution caused by spilled petroleum at high concentration in marine environment. However, some of those data clearly indicate stimulation of plankton population in properly low concentration levels of dissolved hydrocarbons and dissolved petroleum compositions. Further, increase of hydrocarbon concentration leads to its inhibition from its stimulation conditions upon crossing over a critical concentration level—a plankton stimulation/inhibition threshold concentration (SITC) of hydrocarbons. The SITC varies depending on hydrocarbon compounds, petroleum compositions, and microorganisms such as planktons. Further, petroleum composition diffusing through subterranean layers from petroleum deposits reacts with dissolved oxygen to be consumed at the ocean floor to precipitate the agglomerate suspension of hydrocarbons, leaving the sea water in a condition of oxygen depletion on the ocean floor. Such incidents are also briefly discussed.Plankton stimulation/inhibition threshold concentration of petroleum fractions

  8. Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Advanced Transportation Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    PItz, W J; Westbrook, C K; Herbinet, O

    2009-01-20

    Development of detailed chemical kinetic models for advanced petroleum-based and nonpetroleum based fuels is a difficult challenge because of the hundreds to thousands of different components in these fuels and because some of these fuels contain components that have not been considered in the past. It is important to develop detailed chemical kinetic models for these fuels since the models can be put into engine simulation codes used for optimizing engine design for maximum efficiency and minimal pollutant emissions. For example, these chemistry-enabled engine codes can be used to optimize combustion chamber shape and fuel injection timing. They also allow insight into how the composition of advanced petroleum-based and non-petroleum based fuels affect engine performance characteristics. Additionally, chemical kinetic models can be used separately to interpret important in-cylinder experimental data and gain insight into advanced engine combustion processes such as HCCI and lean burn engines. The objectives are: (1) Develop detailed chemical kinetic reaction models for components of advanced petroleum-based and non-petroleum based fuels. These fuels models include components from vegetable-oil-derived biodiesel, oil-sand derived fuel, alcohol fuels and other advanced bio-based and alternative fuels. (2) Develop detailed chemical kinetic reaction models for mixtures of non-petroleum and petroleum-based components to represent real fuels and lead to efficient reduced combustion models needed for engine modeling codes. (3) Characterize the role of fuel composition on efficiency and pollutant emissions from practical automotive engines.

  9. 40 CFR 86.113-94 - Fuel specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fuel specifications. 86.113-94 Section... Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.113-94 Fuel specifications. (a) (b) Petroleum diesel test fuel. (1) The petroleum fuels employed for testing diesel vehicles shall be clean and bright, with pour...

  10. Petroleum geology of western Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Kingston, J. )

    1990-05-01

    Antarctica's geology is mostly obscured by thick, moving ice that covers 95% of the land and continental shelf. Reconnaissance investigations of outcrops, shallow boreholes, and geophysical surveys are limited and peripheral owing to ice coverage. However, it is possible to outline substantial elements of the regional geology. Further insight is gained by comparison to analogous sedimentary provinces, especially provinces once adjoined within the framework of the Gondwana supercontinent until middle Cretaceous. The petroleum potential of Antarctica, as in the case of the other related high-standing Gondwana continental fragments, is in Early Cretaceous rifts associated with the Gondwana breakup and with the Pacific convergence in the west Antarctica back arc. The Pacific-facing western Antarctica includes two structural provinces: (1) the Cretaceous and younger interior rift system on the east side of the Weddell and Ross Sea embayment, which contain aulacogens that form the boundary with East Antarctica and (2) the back-arc and fore-arc basins adjoining the Antarctica Peninsula and extending into Marie Byrd Land and the Bellingshausen Sea which are associated with the eastward convergence of the Pacific plate. The petroleum potential of the rifts may be assessed by analogies with related rifts of Australia, India, and South Africa; assessment of the convergent basins of western Antarctica depends upon analogy with similar basins of South America, New Zealand, and Indonesia. An estimate of the petroleum potential of western Antarctica generally is comparable with oil and gas occurrences (both in overall quantity and in field sizes) in the other Gondwana continental fragments. However, in view of the thict moving ice cover, the remote locale, and severe climate, petroleum production is largely beyond technology at this time and probably is economically unfeasible.

  11. PADD 5 Transportation Fuels Markets

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    This study examines supply, demand, and distribution of transportation fuels in Petroleum Administration for Defense District (PADD) 5, a region that includes the western states of California, Arizona, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, Alaska, and Hawaii. For this study, transportation fuels include gasoline, diesel fuel, and jet fuel.

  12. CSM petroleum Engineering Department

    SciTech Connect

    Van Kirk, C.

    1984-10-01

    The Petroleum Engineering (PE) Department at the Colorado School of Mines is the second oldest such engineering department in the world, having been founded in 1918, one year after the program at Penn State University was begun. The PE Department at CSM has enjoyed a strong worldwide reputation from its earliest beginnings to the present time. The discipline of petroleum engineering is taught in only a few universities, generally in American oil producing states and foreign countries having significant interests in petroleum. Approximately 25 US universities offer degrees in PE, while an equal number of universities in foreign countries do so. The operation of the Department is discussed.

  13. Microbial deterioration of marine diesel fuel from oil shale. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    May M.E.; Neihof, R.A.

    1981-04-09

    Recurring problems with conventional ship fuels caused by microorganisms have prompted an evaluation of the susceptibility of a recently produced synthetic diesel fuel from oil shale to microbial contamination. The growth of typical microbial contaminants of hydrocarbon fuels has been determined over a four month period in two-phase systems consisting of fresh and sea water media overlaid with fuel. Anaerobic, sulfate-reducing bacteria and a yeast (Candida sp.) grew as well in the synthetic fuel as in fuel derived from petroleum. Growth of certain strains of the fungus, Cladosporium resinae, was initially delayed in the synthetic diesel fuel but after 8-13 weeks the growth was generally comparable to that in petroleum-derived fuel. This finding indicated that C. resinae may require time for adaptation to constituents in the oil shale fuel. Ultimately, however, it appears that the synthetic diesel fuel is likely to be as susceptible to microbial contamination as conventional diesel fuel has been. Experience acquired with available synthetic fuels shows that their ability to support growth of microbial contaminants varies widely depending on both the source of crude oil and the refining processes used.

  14. Clean Cities Tools: Tools to Help You Drive Smarter, Use Less Petroleum, and Reduce Emissions (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-06-01

    Clean Cities' Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (AFDC) features a wide range of Web-based tools to help vehicle fleets and individual consumers reduce their petroleum use. This brochure lists and describes Clean Cities online tools related to vehicles, alternative fueling stations, electric vehicle charging stations, fuel conservation, emissions reduction, fuel economy, and more.

  15. Clean Cities Tools: Tools to Help You Save Money, Use Less Petroleum, and Reduce Emissions (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-01-01

    Clean Cities Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (AFDC) features a wide range of Web-based tools to help vehicle fleets and individual consumers reduce their petroleum use. This brochure lists and describes Clean Cities online tools related to vehicles, alternative fueling stations, electric vehicle charging stations, fuel conservation, emissions reduction, fuel economy, and more.

  16. Petroleum supply monthly, February 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly presents data describing the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders; operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. Data are divided into two sections: Summary statistics and Detailed statistics.

  17. Petroleum supply monthly, January 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    Data presented describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  18. Petroleum marketing monthly with data for April 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    This publication provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the free on board price and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The data provided are compiled from six Energy Information Administration survey forms. 50 tabs.

  19. Clean Cities Strategic Planning White Paper: Light Duty Vehicle Fuel Economy

    SciTech Connect

    Saulsbury, Bo; Hopson, Dr Janet L; Greene, David; Gibson, Robert

    2015-04-01

    Increasing the energy efficiency of motor vehicles is critical to achieving national energy goals of reduced petroleum dependence, protecting the global climate, and promoting continued economic prosperity. Even with fuel economy and greenhouse gas emissions standards and various economic incentives for clean and efficient vehicles, providing reliable and accurate fuel economy information to the public is important to achieving these goals. This white paper reviews the current status of light-duty vehicle fuel economy in the United States and the role of the Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Cities Program in disseminating fuel economy information to the public.

  20. Petroleum marketing monthly, December 1996 with data for September 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    This report provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  1. Petroleum-degrading enzymes: bioremediation and new prospects.

    PubMed

    Peixoto, R S; Vermelho, A B; Rosado, A S

    2011-01-01

    Anthropogenic forces, such as petroleum spills and the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, have caused an accumulation of petroleum hydrocarbons in the environment. The accumulation of petroleum and its derivatives now constitutes an important environmental problem. Biocatalysis introduces new ways to improve the development of bioremediation strategies. The recent application of molecular tools to biocatalysis may improve bioprospecting research, enzyme yield recovery, and enzyme specificity, thus increasing cost-benefit ratios. Enzymatic remediation is a valuable alternative as it can be easier to work with than whole organisms, especially in extreme environments. Furthermore, the use of free enzymes avoids the release of exotic or genetically modified organisms (GMO) in the environment. PMID:21811673

  2. Petroleum-Degrading Enzymes: Bioremediation and New Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Peixoto, R. S.; Vermelho, A. B.; Rosado, A. S.

    2011-01-01

    Anthropogenic forces, such as petroleum spills and the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, have caused an accumulation of petroleum hydrocarbons in the environment. The accumulation of petroleum and its derivatives now constitutes an important environmental problem. Biocatalysis introduces new ways to improve the development of bioremediation strategies. The recent application of molecular tools to biocatalysis may improve bioprospecting research, enzyme yield recovery, and enzyme specificity, thus increasing cost-benefit ratios. Enzymatic remediation is a valuable alternative as it can be easier to work with than whole organisms, especially in extreme environments. Furthermore, the use of free enzymes avoids the release of exotic or genetically modified organisms (GMO) in the environment. PMID:21811673

  3. Zeolites Remove Sulfur From Fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voecks, Gerald E.; Sharma, Pramod K.

    1991-01-01

    Zeolites remove substantial amounts of sulfur compounds from diesel fuel under relatively mild conditions - atmospheric pressure below 300 degrees C. Extracts up to 60 percent of sulfur content of high-sulfur fuel. Applicable to petroleum refineries, natural-gas processors, electric powerplants, and chemical-processing plants. Method simpler and uses considerably lower pressure than current industrial method, hydro-desulfurization. Yields cleaner emissions from combustion of petroleum fuels, and protects catalysts from poisoning by sulfur.

  4. Combined application of normal and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography to determining the group composition of aromatic hydrocarbons in petroleum products

    SciTech Connect

    Belous, E.F.; Lanin, S.N.; Nikitin, Yu.S.

    1995-01-01

    The quality and working characteristics of motor fuels essentially depend on the concentration of aromatic hydrocarbons (AHs). Therefore, the development of procedures for the group determination of aromatic hydrocarbons is an important and topical problem in the processing and quality control of petroleum products. The aim of this work was to improve the group separation and quantitative determination of monocyclic and bicyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (MAH and BAH) in light-end products.

  5. Carbonate petroleum reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Roehl, P.O.; Choquette, P.W.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents papers on the geology of petroleum deposits. Topics considered include diagenesis, porosity, dolomite reservoirs, deposition, reservoir rock, reefs, morphology, fracture-controlled production, Cenozoic reservoirs, Mesozoic reservoirs, and Paleozoic reservoirs.

  6. Romania's petroleum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Stefanescu, M.O. ); Popescu, B.M. )

    1993-09-01

    In Romania, nine onshore petroleum systems and one offshore petroleum system have recently been identified. Of the onshore systems, three are related to the compressional folded basins: Teleajen-Sita (early Middle Cretaceous marine source rocks), and Puciossa-Fusaru and Alunis-Kliwa (Oligocene-early Miocene marine source rocks). In the same category, we have included the recently discovered Deleni petroleum system with source rocks of not yet identified origin but whose reservoirs certainly belong to a folded basin. In the foreland platform basins, two systems can be distinguished: Rimesti-Fauresti (Middle Jurassic marine source rocks) and Infra-Anhydrite (with presumed Middle Jurassic or middle Miocene marine source rocks). The areas corresponding to the posttectonic basins include three onshore petroleum systems and one offshore system: the Pannonian (Badenian marine and Sarmatian brackish water source rocks), the Valea Caselor-Borsa (oligocene marine source rocks) and the Transylvanian (Badenian marine shales source and Sarmatian brackish water source rocks). Offshore, there is only one petroleum system consisting of Oligocene-Miocene marine source rock and Cretaceous or Eocene reservoirs. The majority of the mentioned petroleum systems reservoirs are Paleozoic to Pliocene clastics, but in the platform areas, carbonate reservoirs are found in the Paleozoic and Mesozoic. In all the petroleum systems, despite the different ages of the source rocks, most of the hydrocarbons have been expelled relatively recently during the Late Sarmatian-Pliocene interval. This face is substantiated by examples from two petroleum systems: the Rimesti-Fauresti (duration time 173 m.y., preservation 2 m.y.) and the Alunis-Kliwa (duration time 29-30 m.y., preservation 4 m.y.). The hydrocarbons were first expelled and migrated into described systems reservoirs after Late Styrian and Moldavian overthrusting, i.e. not earlier than 12-14 m.y.

  7. Petroleum basin studies

    SciTech Connect

    Shannon, P.M. ); Naylor, D. )

    1989-01-01

    This book reviews the tectonic setting, basin development and history of exploration of a number of selected petroleum provinces located in a variety of settings in the Middle East, North Sea, Nigeria, the Rocky Mountains, Gabon and China. This book illustrates how ideas and models developed in one area may be applied to other regions. Regional reviews and the reassessment of petroleum provinces are presented.

  8. Mixotrophic operation of photo-bioelectrocatalytic fuel cell under anoxygenic microenvironment enhances the light dependent bioelectrogenic activity.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Rashmi; Venkata Subhash, G; Venkata Mohan, S

    2012-04-01

    Electrogenic activity of photo-bioelectrocatalytic /photo-biological fuel cell (PhFC) was evaluated in a mixotrophic mode under anoxygenic microenvironment using photosynthetic consortia as biocatalyst. An acetate rich wastewater was used as anolyte for harnessing energy along with additional treatment. Mixotrophic operation facilitated good electrogenic activity and wastewater treatment associated with biomass growth. PhFC operation documented feasible microenvironment for the growth of photosynthetic bacteria compared to algae which was supported by pigment (total chlorophyll and bacteriochlorophyll) and diversity analysis. Pigment data also illustrated the association between bacterial and algal species. The synergistic interaction between anoxygenic and oxygenic photosynthesis was found to be suitable for PhFC operation. Light dependent deposition of electrons at electrode was relatively higher compared to dark dependent electron deposition under anoxygenic condition. PhFC documented for good volatile fatty acids removal by utilizing them as electron donor. Bioelectrochemical behavior of PhFC was evaluated by voltammetric and chronoamperometry analysis. PMID:22297047

  9. Dependence of high-temperature PEM fuel cell performance on Nafion ® content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Ying; Xu, Hui; Wei, Yu; Kunz, H. Russell; Bonville, Leonard J.; Fenton, James M.

    Operating a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell at elevated temperatures (above 100 °C) has significant advantages, such as reduced CO poisoning, increased reaction rates, faster heat rejection, easier and more efficient water management and more useful waste heat. Catalyst materials and membrane electrode assembly (MEA) structure must be considered to improve PEM fuel cell performance. As one of the most important electrode design parameters, Nafion ® content was optimized in the high-temperature electrodes in order to achieve high performance. The effect of Nafion ® content on the electrode performance in H 2/air or H 2/O 2 operation was studied under three different operation conditions (cell temperature (°C)/anode (%RH)/cathode (%RH)): 80/100/75, 100/70/70 and 120/35/35, all at atmospheric pressure. Different Nafion ® contents in the cathode catalyst layers, 15-40 wt%, were evaluated. For electrodes with 0.5 mg cm -2 Pt loading, cell voltages of 0.70, 0.68 and 0.60 V at a current density of 400 mA cm -2 were obtained at 35 wt% Nafion ® ionomer loading, when the cells were operated at the three test conditions, respectively. Cyclic voltammetry was conducted to evaluate the electrochemical surface area. The experimental polarization curves were analyzed by Tafel slope, catalyst activity and diffusion capability to determine the influence of the Nafion ® loading, mainly associated with the cathode.

  10. Amplification of Reynolds number dependent processes by wave distortion. [liquid fuel combustor stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ventrice, M.

    1979-01-01

    The amplification of a Reynolds number dependent process by wave distortion and the possibility of applying the results to other similar Reynolds number dependent processes were investigated. The process investigated was that associated with the operation of a constant-temperature hot-wire anemometer. The application of vaporization limited combustion, the type of combustion typically associated with liquid propellant rocket engines, was studied. A series of experiments were carried out to determine the effect of wave distortion on a Reynolds number dependent process and to establish the analogy between the anemometer process and the combustion process. Parametric trends, behavior common to different chamber geometries, and stability boundaries were identified. The results indicate a high degree of similarity between the two processes and the possibility of using the anemometer system to investigate combustion instability. The nonlinear aspects of a Reynolds number dependent process appear to be the dominant mechanisms controlling instability.

  11. Phillips Petroleum`s Seastar Project

    SciTech Connect

    Upchurch, J.L.; Money, R.P.

    1997-02-01

    On May 1, 1995 Phillips Petroleum`s Seastar Project began production as the first cluster-type subsea development in the Gulf of Mexico. Seastar production reached approximately 60 million cubic feet of gas per day (mmscfd) in November 1995 with the completion of a second {open_quotes}sales{close_quotes} line (a pipeline that transports the petroleum to shore) at the Vermilion Block 386-B host platform. Currently, the field is producing 40 to 50 mmscfd and plans are on schedule for the addition of a third producing well during the first quarter of 1997. All of the subsea equipment was installed using a drilling vessel and onboard ROV support. The Seastar project began in 1987 when Phillips and its partners leased Garden Banks Blocks 70 and 71, located 110 miles south of Cameron Louisiana. The partnership drilled two wells in 1990 that discovered noncommercial hydrocarbon reserves. Following a reevaluation of the seismic data, Phillips assumed 100 percent ownership in the leases and drilled Garden Banks 71 No. 2, which discovered 350 feet of {open_quotes}pay{close_quotes} sand (oil resource) in March 1993. The initial phase of the project consisted of two satellite subsea trees tied back to a four-slot retrievable subsea manifold in 760 feet of water. Commingled gas production is delivered via dual subsea pipelines to a host platform processing facility in 300 feet of water 13 miles away in Vermilion Block 386-B, thence via sales lines to shore.

  12. pH-dependent ammonia removal pathways in microbial fuel cell system.

    PubMed

    Kim, Taeyoung; An, Junyeong; Lee, Hyeryeong; Jang, Jae Kyung; Chang, In Seop

    2016-09-01

    In this work, ammonia removal paths in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) under different initial pH conditions (pH 7.0, 8.0, and 8.6) were investigated. At a neutral pH condition (pH 7.0), MFC used an electrical energy of 27.4% and removed 23.3% of total ammonia by electrochemical pathway for 192h. At the identical pH condition, 36.1% of the total ammonia was also removed by the biological path suspected to be biological ammonia oxidation process (e.g., Anammox). With the initial pH increased, the electrochemical removal efficiency decreased to less than 5.0%, while the biological removal efficiency highly increased to 61.8%. In this study, a neutral pH should be maintained in the anode to utilize MFCs for ammonia recovery via electrochemical pathways from wastewater stream. PMID:27090407

  13. Phylogenetic and metagenomic analyses of substrate-dependent bacterial temporal dynamics in microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Husen; Chen, Xi; Braithwaite, Daniel; He, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the microbial community structure and genetic potential of anode biofilms is key to improve extracellular electron transfers in microbial fuel cells. We investigated effect of substrate and temporal dynamics of anodic biofilm communities using phylogenetic and metagenomic approaches in parallel with electrochemical characterizations. The startup non-steady state anodic bacterial structures were compared for a simple substrate, acetate, and for a complex substrate, landfill leachate, using a single-chamber air-cathode microbial fuel cell. Principal coordinate analysis showed that distinct community structures were formed with each substrate type. The bacterial diversity measured as Shannon index decreased with time in acetate cycles, and was restored with the introduction of leachate. The change of diversity was accompanied by an opposite trend in the relative abundance of Geobacter-affiliated phylotypes, which were acclimated to over 40% of total Bacteria at the end of acetate-fed conditions then declined in the leachate cycles. The transition from acetate to leachate caused a decrease in output power density from 243±13 mW/m2 to 140±11 mW/m2, accompanied by a decrease in Coulombic electron recovery from 18±3% to 9±3%. The leachate cycles selected protein-degrading phylotypes within phylum Synergistetes. Metagenomic shotgun sequencing showed that leachate-fed communities had higher cell motility genes including bacterial chemotaxis and flagellar assembly, and increased gene abundance related to metal resistance, antibiotic resistance, and quorum sensing. These differentially represented genes suggested an altered anodic biofilm community in response to additional substrates and stress from the complex landfill leachate. PMID:25202990

  14. Phloem-Specific Methionine Recycling Fuels Polyamine Biosynthesis in a Sulfur-Dependent Manner and Promotes Flower and Seed Development.

    PubMed

    Zierer, Wolfgang; Hajirezaei, Mohammad R; Eggert, Kai; Sauer, Norbert; von Wirén, Nicolaus; Pommerrenig, Benjamin

    2016-02-01

    The Yang or Met Cycle is a series of reactions catalyzing the recycling of the sulfur (S) compound 5'-methylthioadenosine (MTA) to Met. MTA is produced as a by-product in ethylene, nicotianamine, and polyamine biosynthesis. Whether the Met Cycle preferentially fuels one of these pathways in a S-dependent manner remained unclear so far. We analyzed Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants with defects in the Met Cycle enzymes 5-METHYLTHIORIBOSE-1-PHOSPHATE-ISOMERASE1 (MTI1) and DEHYDRATASE-ENOLASE-PHOSPHATASE-COMPLEX1 (DEP1) under different S conditions and assayed the contribution of the Met Cycle to the regeneration of S for these pathways. Neither mti1 nor dep1 mutants could recycle MTA but showed S-dependent reproductive failure, which was accompanied by reduced levels of the polyamines putrescine, spermidine, and spermine in mutant inflorescences. Complementation experiments with external application of these three polyamines showed that only the triamine spermine could specifically rescue the S-dependent reproductive defects of the mutant plants. Furthermore, expressing gene-reporter fusions in Arabidopsis showed that MTI1 and DEP1 were mainly expressed in the vasculature of all plant parts. Phloem-specific reconstitution of Met Cycle activity in mti1 and dep1 mutant plants was sufficient to rescue their S-dependent mutant phenotypes. We conclude from these analyses that phloem-specific S recycling during periods of S starvation is essential for the biosynthesis of polyamines required for flowering and seed development. PMID:26662272

  15. E-Alerts: Energy (fuels). E-mail newsletter

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-01

    Production, performance, properties, storage, prices, and transportation of all types of solid, liquid, and gaseous fuels; chemical composition of fuels; fuel compatibility; hydrogen production; refuse derived fuels; fuel desulfurization; oil shale retorting; petroleum refining; fuel additives; growing plants for fuels; bioconversion and biomass plantations.

  16. Rapeseed and safflower oils as diesel fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, C.L.; Haines, H.; Chase, C.

    1993-12-31

    During the past decade the US has become increasingly dependent upon imported oil to meet our energy demands. Nearly 50 percent of our US consumption of petroleum is imported. Research has shown that agricultural crops can be used to reduce this dependence. Vegetable oil as an alternative fuel has been under study at the Univ. of Idaho since 1979. Since then the Idaho research team has pioneered the use of rapeseed oil as a diesel fuel substitute. Idaho`s interdisciplinary team includes plant breeding, plant modification, process development and scale-up, engine testing, and economics. Researchers in Montana have studied safflower oil as a potential diesel fuel replacement since 1983. This project, aimed for use of safflower oil in railroad engines, involves genetics, agronomics, economics and contract engine testing.

  17. 31 CFR 542.314 - Petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian origin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Petroleum or petroleum products of... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 542.314 Petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian origin. The term petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian origin means petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian...

  18. Trends of jet fuel demand and properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, R.

    1984-01-01

    Petroleum industry forecasts predict an increasing demand for jet fuels, a decrease in the gasoline-to-distillate (heavier fuel) demand ratio, and a greater influx of poorer quality petroleum in the next two to three decades. These projections are important for refinery product analyses. The forecasts have not been accurate, however, in predicting the recent, short term fluctuations in jet fuel and competing product demand. Changes in petroleum quality can be assessed, in part, by a review of jet fuel property inspections. Surveys covering the last 10 years show that average jet fuel freezing points, aromatic contents, and smoke points have trends toward their specification limits.

  19. Hydrogen: Fueling the Future

    SciTech Connect

    Leisch, Jennifer

    2007-02-27

    As our dependence on foreign oil increases and concerns about global climate change rise, the need to develop sustainable energy technologies is becoming increasingly significant. Worldwide energy consumption is expected to double by the year 2050, as will carbon emissions along with it. This increase in emissions is a product of an ever-increasing demand for energy, and a corresponding rise in the combustion of carbon containing fossil fuels such as coal, petroleum, and natural gas. Undisputable scientific evidence indicates significant changes in the global climate have occurred in recent years. Impacts of climate change and the resulting atmospheric warming are extensive, and know no political or geographic boundaries. These far-reaching effects will be manifested as environmental, economic, socioeconomic, and geopolitical issues. Offsetting the projected increase in fossil energy use with renewable energy production will require large increases in renewable energy systems, as well as the ability to store and transport clean domestic fuels. Storage and transport of electricity generated from intermittent resources such as wind and solar is central to the widespread use of renewable energy technologies. Hydrogen created from water electrolysis is an option for energy storage and transport, and represents a pollution-free source of fuel when generated using renewable electricity. The conversion of chemical to electrical energy using fuel cells provides a high efficiency, carbon-free power source. Hydrogen serves to blur the line between stationary and mobile power applications, as it can be used as both a transportation fuel and for stationary electricity generation, with the possibility of a distributed generation energy infrastructure. Hydrogen and fuel cell technologies will be presented as possible pollution-free solutions to present and future energy concerns. Recent hydrogen-related research at SLAC in hydrogen production, fuel cell catalysis, and hydrogen

  20. Petroleum Market Model of the National Energy Modeling System. Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-18

    The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the Petroleum Market Model (PMM), describe its basic approach, and provide detail on how it works. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public. The PMM models petroleum refining activities, the marketing of petroleum products to consumption regions, the production of natural gas liquids in gas processing plants, and domestic methanol production. The PMM projects petroleum product prices and sources of supply for meeting petroleum product demand. The sources of supply include crude oil, both domestic and imported; other inputs including alcohols and ethers; natural gas plant liquids production; petroleum product imports; and refinery processing gain. In addition, the PMM estimates domestic refinery capacity expansion and fuel consumption. Product prices are estimated at the Census division level and much of the refining activity information is at the Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District level.

  1. Substitution for petroleum products in Brasil: Urgent issues

    SciTech Connect

    de Araujo, J.L.; Ghirardi, A.

    1986-06-01

    Brazililan energy policy during the last decade has focused on the replacement of imported petroleum with domestic energy sources, combined with efforts at conservation. The substitution results, however, have been more spectacular by far. The strategy of replacement is based on two elements. first, to increase domestic petroleum exploration and production. Second, to promote non-petroleum fuels as alternatives to the industrial and transportation sectors, for the substitution of fuel oil and gasoline, respectively. A combination of the substitution strategy, the country's petroleum refining structure, and the composition of the substitution strategy, the country's petroleum refining structure, and the composition of demand, has resulted in large surpluses of both gasoline and fuel oil, while diesel has become the most used among petroleum products. The surpluses are not easily exportable because there is ample availability of fuel oil in the world market, and because the low octane number of the gasoline produced in Brasil is not compatible with the engines of cars elsewhere in the region and in the world. Furthermore, although gasoline might be upgraded, the question remains that prospects for the world market are not encouraging, and an export-based strategy does not seem justified in view of the growing surpluses. The objective of this analysis is to review the mechanisms of themajor petroleum-substitution programs currently in existence, identifying their past impact on the energy market and the possible consequences of changes in the goals and operating conditions of these programs, in the light of the new prospects for increased domestic oil production and self-sufficiency. 23 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Consumptive water use in the production of ethanonl and petroleum gasoline.

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, M.; Mintz, M.; Wang, M.; Arora, S.; Energy Systems

    2009-01-30

    The production of energy feedstocks and fuels requires substantial water input. Not only do biofuel feedstocks like corn, switchgrass, and agricultural residues need water for growth and conversion to ethanol, but petroleum feedstocks like crude oil and oil sands also require large volumes of water for drilling, extraction, and conversion into petroleum products. Moreover, in many cases, crude oil production is increasingly water dependent. Competing uses strain available water resources and raise the specter of resource depletion and environmental degradation. Water management has become a key feature of existing projects and a potential issue in new ones. This report examines the growing issue of water use in energy production by characterizing current consumptive water use in liquid fuel production. As used throughout this report, 'consumptive water use' is the sum total of water input less water output that is recycled and reused for the process. The estimate applies to surface and groundwater sources for irrigation but does not include precipitation. Water requirements are evaluated for five fuel pathways: bioethanol from corn, ethanol from cellulosic feedstocks, gasoline from Canadian oil sands, Saudi Arabian crude, and U.S. conventional crude from onshore wells. Regional variations and historic trends are noted, as are opportunities to reduce water use.

  3. Shape-Dependent Activity of Ceria for Hydrogen Electro-Oxidation in Reduced-Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells.

    PubMed

    Tong, Xiaofeng; Luo, Ting; Meng, Xie; Wu, Hao; Li, Junliang; Liu, Xuejiao; Ji, Xiaona; Wang, Jianqiang; Chen, Chusheng; Zhan, Zhongliang

    2015-11-01

    Single crystalline ceria nanooctahedra, nanocubes, and nanorods are hydrothermally synthesized, colloidally impregnated into the porous La0.9Sr0.1Ga0.8Mg0.2O3-δ (LSGM) scaffolds, and electrochemically evaluated as the anode catalysts for reduced temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Well-defined surface terminations are confirmed by the high-resolution transmission electron microscopy--(111) for nanooctahedra, (100) for nanocubes, and both (110) and (100) for nanorods. Temperature-programmed reduction in H2 shows the highest reducibility for nanorods, followed sequentially by nanocubes and nanooctahedra. Measurements of the anode polarization resistances and the fuel cell power densities reveal different orders of activity of ceria nanocrystals at high and low temperatures for hydrogen electro-oxidation, i.e., nanorods > nanocubes > nanooctahedra at T ≤ 450 °C and nanooctahedra > nanorods > nanocubes at T ≥ 500 °C. Such shape-dependent activities of these ceria nanocrystals have been correlated to their difference in the local structure distortions and thus in the reducibility. These findings will open up a new strategy for design of advanced catalysts for reduced-temperature SOFCs by elaborately engineering the shape of nanocrystals and thus selectively exposing the crystal facets. PMID:26307555

  4. Frequency dependence and fuel effect on optical properties of nano TiO2-based structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghasemifard, Mahdi; Ghamari, Misagh; Iziy, Meysam

    2016-06-01

    TiO2-(Ti0.5Si0.5)O2 nanopowders (TS-NPs) with average particle size around 90 nm were successfully synthesized by controlled auto-combustion method by using citric acid/nitric acid (AC:NA) and urea/metal cation (U:MC). The structure of powders was studied based on their X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns. The XRD of TS-NPs shows that rutile and anatase are the main phases of TS-NPs for AC:NA and U:MC, respectively. Particle size and histogram of nanopowders were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). Optical properties of TS-NPs were calculated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Kramers-Kroning (KK) relation. Plasma frequencies of TS-NPs obtained from energy loss functions depend on fuels as a result of changes in crystal structure, particle size distribution, and morphology.

  5. Motor vehicle fuel economy, the forgotten HC control stragegy?

    SciTech Connect

    Deluchi, M.; Wang, Quanlu; Greene, D.L.

    1992-06-01

    Emissions of hydrocarbons from motor vehicles are recognized as major contributors to ozone pollution in urban areas. Petroleum-based motor fuels contain volatile organic compounds (VOC) which, together with oxides of nitrogen, promote the formation of ozone in the troposphere via complex photochemical reactions. VOC emissions from the tailpipe and evaporation from the fuel and engine systems of highway vehicles are believed to account for about 40% of total VOC emissions in any region. But motor fuels also generate emissions throughout the fuel cycle, from crude oil production to refining, storage, transportation, and handling, that can make significant contributions to the total inventory of VOC emissions. Many of these sources of emissions are directly related to the quantity of fuel produced and handled throughout the fuel cycle. It is, therefore, reasonable to expect that a reduction in total fuel throughput might result in a reduction of VOC emissions. In particular, reducing vehicle fuel consumption by increasing vehicle fuel economy should reduce total fuel throughput, thereby cutting total emissions of VOCS. In this report we identify the sources of VOC emissions throughout the motor fuel cycle, quantify them to the extent possible, and describe their dependence on automobile and light truck fuel economy.

  6. Petroleum supply monthly, August 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-26

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  7. Petroleum supply monthly, July 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-29

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: Petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  8. [Petroleum substances--human health hazards. I. Classification of petroleum substances on the list of dangerous substances and assessment of existing hazards].

    PubMed

    Konieczko, Katarzyna

    2006-01-01

    Complex products derived from petroleum are widely used as fuels, greases, solvents, and intermediates in many branches of industry. Petroleum exposure-related human health hazards, observed in occupationally exposed people and in the general population, are a serious sanitary problem. Complex and variable composition of individual petroleum products makes the actual assessment of human health hazards difficult. Potential hazards, and resulting classification of individual petroleum substance groups, are discussed in the presented work. This should prove to be helpful to work safety and hygiene services as well as to supervising institutions, mainly the sanitary inspection, in a proper assessment of the hazards, and consequently in taking appropriate preventive actions. In Part I., general issues concerning the hazard assessment and legal aspects of petroleum substances classification are presented. In Part. II., individual groups of petroleum substances are discussed with respect to health hazards, resulting from both physicochemical properties and toxicity, and their classification based on this analysis is suggested. PMID:17133920

  9. 10 CFR 490.808 - Use of credits to offset petroleum reduction shortfall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Use of credits to offset petroleum reduction shortfall. 490.808 Section 490.808 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Compliance § 490.808 Use of credits to offset petroleum reduction...

  10. 29 CFR 779.360 - Classification of liquefied-petroleum-gas sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... STANDARDS ACT AS APPLIED TO RETAILERS OF GOODS OR SERVICES Exemptions for Certain Retail or Service Establishments Liquefied-Petroleum-Gas and Fuel Oil Dealers § 779.360 Classification of liquefied-petroleum-gas... establishment's sales are not for resale and are recognized as retail sales in the industry, sales to...

  11. 29 CFR 779.360 - Classification of liquefied-petroleum-gas sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... STANDARDS ACT AS APPLIED TO RETAILERS OF GOODS OR SERVICES Exemptions for Certain Retail or Service Establishments Liquefied-Petroleum-Gas and Fuel Oil Dealers § 779.360 Classification of liquefied-petroleum-gas... establishment's sales are not for resale and are recognized as retail sales in the industry, sales to...

  12. Petroleum Market Model of the National Energy Modeling System

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the Petroleum Market Model (PMM), describe its basic approach, and provide detail on how it works. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public. The PMM models petroleum refining activities, the marketing of petroleum products to consumption regions. The production of natural gas liquids in gas processing plants, and domestic methanol production. The PMM projects petroleum product prices and sources of supply for meeting petroleum product demand. The sources of supply include crude oil, both domestic and imported; other inputs including alcohols and ethers; natural gas plant liquids production; petroleum product imports; and refinery processing gain. In addition, the PMM estimates domestic refinery capacity expansion and fuel consumption. Product prices are estimated at the Census division level and much of the refining activity information is at the Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District level. This report is organized as follows: Chapter 2, Model Purpose; Chapter 3, Model Overview and Rationale; Chapter 4, Model Structure; Appendix A, Inventory of Input Data, Parameter Estimates, and Model Outputs; Appendix B, Detailed Mathematical Description of the Model; Appendix C, Bibliography; Appendix D, Model Abstract; Appendix E, Data Quality; Appendix F, Estimation methodologies; Appendix G, Matrix Generator documentation; Appendix H, Historical Data Processing; and Appendix I, Biofuels Supply Submodule.

  13. Global analysis and parametric dependencies for potential unintended hydrogen-fuel releases

    SciTech Connect

    Harstad, Kenneth; Bellan, Josette

    2006-01-01

    Global, simplified analyses of gaseous-hydrogen releases from a high-pressure vessel and liquid-hydrogen pools are conducted for two purposes: (1) establishing order-of-magnitude values of characteristic times and (2) determining parametric dependencies of these characteristic times on the physical properties of the configuration and on the thermophysical properties of hydrogen. According to the ratio of the characteristic release time to the characteristic mixing time, two limiting configurations are identified: (1) a rich cloud exists when this ratio is much smaller than unity, and (2) a jet exists when this ratio is much larger than unity. In all cases, it is found that the characteristic release time is proportional to the total released mass and inversely proportional to a characteristic area. The approximate size, convection velocity, and circulation time of unconfined burning-cloud releases scale with the cloud mass at powers 1/3, 1/6, and 1/6, respectively, multiplied by an appropriately dimensional constant; the influence of cross flow can only be important if its velocity exceeds that of internal convection. It is found that the fireball lifetime is approximately the maximum of the release time and thrice the convection-associated characteristic time. Transition from deflagration to detonation can occur only if the size of unconfined clouds exceeds by a factor of O(10) that of a characteristic detonation cell, which ranges from 0.015 m under stoichiometric conditions to approximately 1 m under extreme rich/lean conditions. For confined vapor pockets, transition occurs only for pocket sizes larger than the cell size. In jets, the release time is inversely proportional to the initial vessel pressure and has a square root dependence on the vessel temperature. Jet velocities are a factor of 10 larger than convective velocities in fireballs and combustion is possible only in the subsonic, downstream region where entrainment may occur.

  14. Potential applications of bioprocess technology in petroleum industry.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ajay; Singh, Brajesh; Ward, Owen

    2012-11-01

    Petroleum refining is traditionally based on the use of physicochemical processes such as distillation and chemical catalysis that operate under high temperatures and pressures conditions, which are energy intensive and costly. Biotechnology has become an important tool for providing new approaches in petroleum industry during oil production, refining and processing as well as managing environmentally safe pollutant remediation and disposal practices. Earlier biotechnology applications in the petroleum industry were limited to microbial enhanced oil recovery, applications of bioremediation to contaminated marine shorelines, soils and sludges. The potential role of bioprocess technology in this industry has now expanded further into the areas of biorefining and upgrading of fuels, production of fine chemicals, control of souring during production and air VOC biofiltration. In this paper we provide an overview of the major applications of bioprocesses and technology development in the petroleum industry both in upstream and downstream areas and highlight future challenges and opportunities. PMID:22829348

  15. Petroleum marketing monthly: September 1996, with data for June 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Detailed statistics for crude oil, including the price of imported crude oil by country of origin, by gravity, and by crude stream. To aid the reader in determining the market changes, the majority of the tables show data for the report month and previous months for the current year, and the report month for the previous year. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  16. Clean Cities Guide to Alternative Fuel Commercial Lawn Equipment (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    Guide explains the different types of alternative fuel commercial mowers and lists the makes and models of the ones available on the market. Turf grass is a fixture of the American landscape and the American economy. It is the nation's largest irrigated crop, covering more than 40 million acres. Legions of lawnmowers care for this expanse during the growing season-up to year-round in the warmest climates. The annual economic impact of the U.S. turf grass industry has been estimated at more than $62 billion. Lawn mowing also contributes to the nation's petroleum consumption and pollutant emissions. Mowers consume 1.2 billion gallons of gasoline annually, about 1% of U.S. motor gasoline consumption. Commercial mowing accounts for about 35% of this total and is the highest-intensity use. Large property owners and mowing companies cut lawns, sports fields, golf courses, parks, roadsides, and other grassy areas for 7 hours per day and consume 900 to 2,000 gallons of fuel annually depending on climate and length of the growing season. In addition to gasoline, commercial mowing consumes more than 100 million gallons of diesel annually. Alternative fuel mowers are one way to reduce the energy and environmental impacts of commercial lawn mowing. They can reduce petroleum use and emissions compared with gasoline- and diesel-fueled mowers. They may also save on fuel and maintenance costs, extend mower life, reduce fuel spillage and fuel theft, and promote a 'green' image. And on ozone alert days, alternative fuel mowers may not be subject to the operational restrictions that gasoline mowers must abide by. To help inform the commercial mowing industry about product options and potential benefits, Clean Cities produced this guide to alternative fuel commercial lawn equipment. Although the guide's focus is on original equipment manufacturer (OEM) mowers, some mowers can be converted to run on alternative fuels. For more information about propane conversions. This guide may be

  17. Chemical Principles Revisited: Petroleum Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, Doris; Kolb, Kenneth E.

    1979-01-01

    Presents an historical review of the role of petroleum in world history and information on the chemistry of petroleum. It is suggested that petroleum chemistry be discussed since within the next two decades oil and gas will provide the major portion of U.S. energy. (Author/SA)

  18. Petroleum supply monthly, April 1990

    SciTech Connect

    1990-06-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly describe (PSM) the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply.'' Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics.

  19. Petroleum Vapor - Field Technical

    EPA Science Inventory

    The screening approach being developed by EPA OUST to evaluate petroleum vapor intrusion (PVI) requires information that has not be routinely collected in the past at vapor intrusion sites. What is the best way to collect this data? What are the relevant data quality issues and ...

  20. Synthesis of Mesoporous Aluminophosphates as Potential Catalysts in the Upgrading Petroleum Feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Ingram, Conrad, PH.D.

    2002-03-20

    This project focuses on the synthesis of mesoporous aluminophosphate (AlPO) catalysts for application in the acid catalyzed conversion of large petroleum feedstock compounds to Useful middle distillates and naphtha transportation fuels.

  1. Fossil fuels -- future fuels

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    Fossil fuels -- coal, oil, and natural gas -- built America`s historic economic strength. Today, coal supplies more than 55% of the electricity, oil more than 97% of the transportation needs, and natural gas 24% of the primary energy used in the US. Even taking into account increased use of renewable fuels and vastly improved powerplant efficiencies, 90% of national energy needs will still be met by fossil fuels in 2020. If advanced technologies that boost efficiency and environmental performance can be successfully developed and deployed, the US can continue to depend upon its rich resources of fossil fuels.

  2. Environmental hazard and risk characterisation of petroleum substances: a guided "walking tour" of petroleum hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Bierkens, Johan; Geerts, Lieve

    2014-05-01

    Petroleum substances are used in large quantities, primarily as fuels. They are complex mixtures whose major constituents are hydrocarbons derived from crude oil by distillation and fractionation. Determining the complete molecular composition of petroleum and its refined products is not feasible with current analytical techniques because of the huge number of molecular components. This complex nature of petroleum products, with their varied number of constituents, all of them exhibiting different fate and effect characteristics, merits a dedicated hazard and risk assessment approach. From a regulatory perspective they pose a great challenge in a number of REACH processes, in particular in the context of dossier and substance evaluation but also for priority setting activities. In order to facilitate the performance of hazard and risk assessment for petroleum substances the European oil company association, CONCAWE, has developed the PETROTOX and PETRORISK spreadsheet models. Since the exact composition of many petroleum products is not known, an underlying assumption of the PETROTOX and PETRORISK tools is that the behaviour and fate of a total petroleum substance can be simulated based on the physical-chemical properties of representative structures mapped to hydrocarbon blocks (HBs) and on the relative share of each HB in the total mass of the product. To assess how differing chemical compositions affect the simulated chemical fate and toxicity of hydrocarbon mixtures, a series of model simulations were run using an artificial petroleum substance, containing 386 (PETROTOX) or 160 (PETRORISK) HBs belonging to different chemical classes and molecular weight ranges, but with equal mass assigned to each of them. To this artificial petroleum substance a guided series of subsequent modifications in mass allocation to a delineated number of HBs belonging to different chemical classes and carbon ranges was performed, in what we perceived as a guided "walking tour

  3. Petroleum Supply Monthly, August 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-30

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) district movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics.

  4. Petroleum supply monthly, September 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-30

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administrations for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics. 65 tabs.

  5. Strategic Petroleum Reserve quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-15

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve was created pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of December 22, 1975 (Public Law 94-163). Its purposes are to reduce the impact of disruptions in supplies of petroleum products and to carry out obligations of the United States under the Agreement on an International Energy Program. Section 165(a) of the Act requires the submission of Annual Reports and Section 165(b)(1) requires the submission of Quarterly Reports. This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the third quarter of calendar year 1995, including: inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve; current storage capacity and ullage available; current status of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve storage facilities, major projects and the acquisition of petroleum products; funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated.

  6. Petroleum Supply Monthly, July 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-28

    Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  7. Building Partnerships to Cut Petroleum Use in Transportation (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative advances the nation's economic, environmental, and energy security by supporting local actions to cut petroleum use in transportation. Clean Cities accomplishes this work through the activities of nearly 100 local coalitions. These coalitions provide resources and technical assistance in the deployment of alternative and renewable fuels, idle-reduction measures, fuel economy improvements, and new transportation technologies as they emerge.

  8. Building Partnerships to Cut Petroleum Use in Transportation

    SciTech Connect

    2014-02-26

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative advances the nation's economic, environmental, and energy security by supporting local actions to cut petroleum use in transportation. Clean Cities accomplishes this work through the activities of nearly 100 local coalitions. These coalitions provide resources and technical assistance in the deployment of alternative and renewable fuels, idle-reduction measures, fuel economy improvements, and new transportation technologies as they emerge.

  9. Comparison of BOD relationships for typical edible and petroleum oils

    SciTech Connect

    Groenewold, J.C.; Pico, R.F.; Watson, K.S.

    1982-04-01

    A laboratory program was undertaken to measure various wastewater parameters of selected edible oils and those of kerosene, 2 fuel oil, machine oil and mineral oil. Analysis was by direct measurement of oil-water emulsions. Experimental work demonstrated that edible oils are considerably more biodegradable than petroleum oils, making them easier to treat in industrial wastewater. (JMT)

  10. Best technical approach for the Petroleum Quality Analysis (PQA) system. Report for January-August 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Fodor, G.E.; Westbrook, S.R.

    1994-08-01

    Recent U.S. military operations have identified a need for improved methods of fuel and lubricant analysis in the field. This analysis capability should be highly mobile and built around modern, state-of-the-art analytical techniques. This report contains a critical review of current U.S. Army fuel testing requirements and the significance of each of the specified fuel properties. A trade-off analysis of each of the specified fuel properties was conducted. Based on the trade-off analysis, fuel property and analysis method recommendations are provided to help design a Petroleum Quality Analysis (PQA) system. The proposed PQA system is capable of timely evaluation of mobility fuels in the field using a restricted number of instruments housed on a mobile platform. Fuels, Transportable analytical equipment, Diesel fuel, Infrared spectroscopy, Instrumental analysis, Fuel properties, Petroleum analysis, Testing Mobile.

  11. Emission control cost-effectiveness of alternative-fuel vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Q.; Sperling, D.; Olmstead, J.

    1993-06-14

    Although various legislation and regulations have been adopted to promote the use of alternative-fuel vehicles for curbing urban air pollution problems, there is a lack of systematic comparisons of emission control cost-effectiveness among various alternative-fuel vehicle types. In this paper, life-cycle emission reductions and life-cycle costs were estimated for passenger cars fueled with methanol, ethanol, liquefied petroleum gas, compressed natural gas, and electricity. Vehicle emission estimates included both exhaust and evaporative emissions for air pollutants of hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and air-toxic pollutants of benzene, formaldehyde, 1,3-butadiene, and acetaldehyde. Vehicle life-cycle cost estimates accounted for vehicle purchase prices, vehicle life, fuel costs, and vehicle maintenance costs. Emission control cost-effectiveness presented in dollars per ton of emission reduction was calculated for each alternative-fuel vehicle types from the estimated vehicle life-cycle emission reductions and costs. Among various alternative-fuel vehicle types, compressed natural gas vehicles are the most cost-effective vehicle type in controlling vehicle emissions. Dedicated methanol vehicles are the next most cost-effective vehicle type. The cost-effectiveness of electric vehicles depends on improvements in electric vehicle battery technology. With low-cost, high-performance batteries, electric vehicles are more cost-effective than methanol, ethanol, and liquified petroleum gas vehicles.

  12. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve program was set into motion by the 1975 Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA). By 1990, 590 million barrels of oil had been placed in storage. Salt domes along the Gulf Coast offered ideal storage. Both sweet'' and sour'' crude oil have been acquired using various purchase options. Drawdown, sale, and distribution of the oil would proceed according to guidelines set by EPCA in the event of a severe energy supply disruption. (SM)

  13. Employing FAD-dependent glucose dehydrogenase within a glucose/oxygen enzymatic fuel cell operating in human serum.

    PubMed

    Milton, Ross D; Lim, Koun; Hickey, David P; Minteer, Shelley D

    2015-12-01

    Flavin adenine dinucleotide-dependent glucose dehydrogenase (FAD-GDH) is emerging as an oxygen-insensitive alternative to glucose oxidase (GOx) as the biocatalyst for bioelectrodes and bioanodes in glucose sensing and glucose enzymatic fuel cells (EFCs). Glucose EFCs, which utilize oxygen as the oxidant and final electron acceptor, have the added benefit of being able to be implanted within living hosts. These can then produce electrical energy from physiological glucose concentrations and power internal or external devices. EFCs were prepared with FAD-GDH and bilirubin oxidase (BOx) to evaluate the suitability of FAD-GDH within an implantable setting. Maximum current and power densities of 186.6±7.1 μA cm(-2) and 39.5±1.3 μW cm(-2) were observed when operating in human serum at 21 °C, which increased to 285.7±31.3 μA cm(-2) and 57.5±5.4 μW cm(-2) at 37 °C. Although good stability was observed with continual near-optimal operation of the EFCs in human serum at 21 °C for 24 h, device failure was observed between 13-14 h when continually operated at 37 °C. PMID:25890695

  14. Norwegian petroleum guide

    SciTech Connect

    Christie, H.B.

    1984-01-01

    This is about the comprehensive guide to Norwegian oil and gas activities, very useful to anyone in the industry. Material includes political guidelines, control institutions, work possibilities and licenses, working environment law, employer and employee organizations, national insurance, taxes, communication, rescue operations and standby. Contents: Oil and the economy; Petroleum technology research; Responsibilities of different authorities; The Labour Inspection Directorate; The Health Directorate Offshore Office; The Coastal Directorate; Helicopter traffic; The Norwegian Petroleum Directorate; The Maritime Directorate; Det norske Veritas; The Norwegian Waterways and Electricity Board; The State Institute for Radiation Hygiene; The State Explosive Inspection; Work possibilities in the North Sea; Working environment legislation on the Continental Shelf; Collective bargaining agreements, labor conflicts and the right to organize; Taxation Rules; National health insurance and the petroleum activity; Occupational injuries on the Norwegian Continental Shelf; Company insurances; The private pension scheme; Other types of insuracne common among oil companies; The rescue service in Norway; Oganizations within the oil industry offshore and onshore; and Law of aliens admission to the Kindgom.

  15. The United Nations Framework Classification for World Petroleum Resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ahlbrandt, T.S.; Blystad, P.; Young, E.D.; Slavov, S.; Heiberg, S.

    2003-01-01

    The United Nations has developed an international framework classification for solid fuels and minerals (UNFC). This is now being extended to petroleum by building on the joint classification of the Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE), the World Petroleum Congresses (WPC) and the American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG). The UNFC is a 3-dimansional classification. This: Is necessary in order to migrate accounts of resource quantities that are developed on one or two of the axes to the common basis; Provides for more precise reporting and analysis. This is particularly useful in analyses of contingent resources. The characteristics of the SPE/WPC/AAPG classification has been preserved and enhanced to facilitate improved international and national petroleum resource management, corporate business process management and financial reporting. A UN intergovernmental committee responsible for extending the UNFC to extractive energy resources (coal, petroleum and uranium) will meet in Geneva on October 30th and 31st to review experiences gained and comments received during 2003. A recommended classification will then be delivered for consideration to the United Nations through the Committee on Sustainable Energy of the Economic Commission for Europe (UN ECE).

  16. Solid phase bioremediation of petroleum contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, C.D.

    1992-11-01

    Solid phase bioremediation of petroleum contaminated soil involves aerobic biodegradation in an above grade treatment bed. This treatment technology is proposed for remediating soils contaminated by petroleum from leaking underground fuel storage tanks at various sites at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The treatment technology uses bacteria to degrade the petroleum hydrocarbons. The environmentally safe end products of the biodegradation process are carbon dioxide and water. A large, relatively level area is required to construct the perimeter berms, place the liner, and spread the contaminated soil in a 1 to 2 foot thick layer. A porous media is placed on top of the liner for protection and for proper drainage of leachate. Water, nutrients, and microorganisms are introduced into the soil in the treatment bed using conventional agricultural spraying techniques. Oxygen is supplied to the soil by periodic tilling on an ``as needed`` basis. To prevent soil erosion and to minimize leachate production during precipitation events, the treatment bed is completely covered by a plastic film. The treatment process is expected to require 3 to 8 months after construction is completed.

  17. Thickness Optimization for Petroleum Coke in Microwave Dehydrating Based on the Analysis of Dynamic Absorption Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Xiaobiao; Chen, Junruo; Peng, Jinhui; Chen, Hua; Zhang, Weifeng; Guo, Shenghui; Chen, Guo

    2015-07-01

    An analytical approach is proposed to optimize the thickness of petroleum coke for achieving maximum microwave power absorption in microwave heating based on analysis of reflection loss (RL). The microwave RL of the petroleum coke layer was studied over the moisture content range of 1%-5% at 20 °C and the petroleum coke (10% moisture content) in the temperature range of 20 to 100 °C at 2.45 GHz. The results show that RL depends sensitively on the thickness of the petroleum coke and the absorption peak shifts towards a larger thickness as the moisture content of the petroleum coke increases. There exists a matching thickness corresponding to the maximum microwave absorption, the maximum absorbing peak decreases when the thickness of petroleum coke exceeds the matching thickness. We also show that the absorption peak is found to move towards a smaller thickness region with increasing petroleum coke temperature.

  18. State of the petroleum industry: Hearing before the committee on energy and natural resources, United States Senate

    SciTech Connect

    1999-07-01

    This hearing was held to consider the plight of the oil industry. The domestic industry is being devastated. The potential long range impact of low prices on the country will be immense. Although, the current low petroleum prices have helped fuel a brisk national economic growth in all segments of the economy, the low prices are killing the domestic oil industry. These low prices are causing a loss of a petroleum infrastructure as more and more Americans in the oil industry are forced out of the business. Not only is this bad for producers, it is forcing the US to become dependent on unstable producing countries. Every drop of oil produced in the US means jobs and income for the states and the nation. Every barrel imported means increased dependence and loss of jobs. The committee heard from the following: US Senators from Indiana, New Mexico, Montana, North Dakota, Illinois, Texas, South Dakota, Louisiana, Arkansas, Mississippi, Alaska, Oklahoma, and Wyoming; and representatives from the petroleum industry, and the Energy Information Administration.

  19. Aviation Fueling: A Cleaner, Greener Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Bushnell, Dennis M.; Shouse, Dale T.

    2010-01-01

    Projected growth of aviation depends on fueling where specific needs must be met. Safety is paramount, and along with political, social, environmental and legacy transport systems requirements, alternate aviation fueling becomes an opportunity of enormous proportions. Biofuels sourced from halophytes, algae, cyanobacteria, and weeds using wastelands, waste water, and seawater have the capacity to be drop-in fuel replacements for petroleum fuels. Biojet fuels from such sources solves the aviation CO2 emissions issue and do not compete with food or freshwater needs. They are not detrimental to the social or environmental fabric and use the existing fuels infrastructure. Cost and sustainable supply remains the major impediments to alternate fuels. Halophytes are the near-term solution to biomass/biofuels capacity at reasonable costs; they simply involve more farming, at usual farming costs. Biofuels represent a win-win approach, proffering as they do at least the ones we are studying massive capacity, climate neutral-to-some sequestration, and ultimately, reasonable costs.

  20. Alternative aircraft fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longwell, J. P.; Grobman, J.

    1978-01-01

    In connection with the anticipated impossibility to provide on a long-term basis liquid fuels derived from petroleum, an investigation has been conducted with the objective to assess the suitability of jet fuels made from oil shale and coal and to develop a data base which will allow optimization of future fuel characteristics, taking energy efficiency of manufacture and the tradeoffs in aircraft and engine design into account. The properties of future aviation fuels are examined and proposed solutions to problems of alternative fuels are discussed. Attention is given to the refining of jet fuel to current specifications, the control of fuel thermal stability, and combustor technology for use of broad specification fuels. The first solution is to continue to develop the necessary technology at the refinery to produce specification jet fuels regardless of the crude source.

  1. Strategic Petroleum Reserve quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-08-15

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve Quarterly Report is submitted in accordance with section 165(b) of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, as amended, which requires that the Secretary of Energy submit quarterly reports to Congress on Activities undertaken with respect to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. This August 15, 1990, Strategic Petroleum Reserve Quarterly Report describes activities related to the site development, oil acquisition, budget and cost of the Reserve during the period April 1, 1990, through June 30, 1990. 3 tabs.

  2. Computer model for refinery operations with emphasis on jet fuel production. Volume 2: Data and technical bases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunbar, D. N.; Tunnah, B. G.

    1978-01-01

    The FORTRAN computing program predicts the flow streams and material, energy, and economic balances of a typical petroleum refinery, with particular emphasis on production of aviation turbine fuel of varying end point and hydrogen content specifications. The program has provision for shale oil and coal oil in addition to petroleum crudes. A case study feature permits dependent cases to be run for parametric or optimization studies by input of only the variables which are changed from the base case. The report has sufficient detail for the information of most readers.

  3. Clean Cities: Building Partnerships to Reduce Petroleum Use in Transportation (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-03-01

    This fact sheet provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program, which builds partnerships to reduce petroleum use in transportation in communities across the country. The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative advances the nation's economic, environmental, and energy security by supporting local actions to reduce petroleum consumption in transportation. Clean Cities accomplishes this work through the activities of nearly 100 local coalitions. These coalitions provide resources and technical assistance in the deployment of alternative and renewable fuels, idle-reduction measures, fuel economy improvements, and new transportation technologies, as they emerge. Clean Cities overarching goal is to reduce U.S. petroleum use by 2.5 billion gallons per year by 2020. To achieve this goal, Clean Cities employs three strategies: (1) Replace petroleum with alternative and renewable fuels, including natural gas, propane, electricity, ethanol, biodiesel, and hydrogen; (2) Reduce petroleum consumption through smarter driving practices and fuel economy improvements; and (3) Eliminate petroleum use through idle reduction and other fuel-saving technologies and practices.

  4. Petroleum supply monthly: December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    Data are presented which describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States. Data are presented in two sections: Summary Statistics, presenting a time series of selected petroleum data on a U.S. level, and Detailed Statistics, presenting statistics for the most current month available as well as year to date.

  5. Future petroleum energy resources of the world

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ahlbrandt, T.S.

    2002-01-01

    and gas endowment estimates. Whereas petroleum resources in the world appear to be significant, certain countries such as the United States may run into import deficits, particularly oil imports from Mexico and natural gas from both Canada and Mexico. The new assessment has been used as the reference supply case in energy supply models by the International Energy Agency and the Energy Information Agency of the Department of Energy. Climate energy modeling groups such as those at Stanford University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and others have also used USGS estimates in global climate models. Many of these models using the USGS estimates converge on potential oil shortfalls in 2036-2040. However, recent articles using the USGS (2000) estimates suggest peaking of oil in 2020-2035 and peaking of non-OPEC (Organization of Petroleum-Exporting Countries) oil in 2015-2020. Such a short time framework places greater emphasis on a transition to increased use of natural gas; i.e., a methane economy. Natural gas in turn may experience similar supply concerns in the 2050-2060 time frame according to some authors. Coal resources are considerable and provide significant petroleum potential either by extracting natural gas from them, by directly converting them into petroleum products, or by utilizing them to generate electricity, thereby reducing natural gas and oil requirements by fuel substitution. Non-conventional oil and gas are quite common in petroleum provinces of the world and represent a significant resources yet to be fully studied and developed. Seventeen non-conventional AU including coal-bed methane, basin-center gas, continuous oil, and gas hydrate occurrences have been preliminarily identified for future assessment. Initial efforts to assess heavy oil deposits and other non-conventional oil and gas deposits also are under way.

  6. 19 CFR 151.47 - Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products. 151.47 Section 151.47 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF... Petroleum and Petroleum Products § 151.47 Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum...

  7. 31 CFR 542.412 - Transactions relating to Syrian petroleum or petroleum products from third countries...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... petroleum or petroleum products from third countries; transshipments. 542.412 Section 542.412 Money and... Syrian petroleum or petroleum products from third countries; transshipments. (a) Transactions relating to goods containing petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian origin are not prohibited by § 542.208...

  8. 19 CFR 151.47 - Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products. 151.47 Section 151.47 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF... Petroleum and Petroleum Products § 151.47 Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum...

  9. 19 CFR 151.47 - Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products. 151.47 Section 151.47 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF... Petroleum and Petroleum Products § 151.47 Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum...

  10. 19 CFR 151.47 - Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products. 151.47 Section 151.47 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF... Petroleum and Petroleum Products § 151.47 Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum...

  11. 19 CFR 151.47 - Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products. 151.47 Section 151.47 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF... Petroleum and Petroleum Products § 151.47 Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum...

  12. Fuels characterization studies. [jet fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seng, G. T.; Antoine, A. C.; Flores, F. J.

    1980-01-01

    Current analytical techniques used in the characterization of broadened properties fuels are briefly described. Included are liquid chromatography, gas chromatography, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. High performance liquid chromatographic ground-type methods development is being approached from several directions, including aromatic fraction standards development and the elimination of standards through removal or partial removal of the alkene and aromatic fractions or through the use of whole fuel refractive index values. More sensitive methods for alkene determinations using an ultraviolet-visible detector are also being pursued. Some of the more successful gas chromatographic physical property determinations for petroleum derived fuels are the distillation curve (simulated distillation), heat of combustion, hydrogen content, API gravity, viscosity, flash point, and (to a lesser extent) freezing point.

  13. Environmental data, energy technology characterizations: petroleum

    SciTech Connect

    Serrajian, N.M.

    1980-04-01

    Environmental Data Energy Technology Characterizations are publications which are intended to provide policy analysts and technical analysts with basic environmental data associated with key energy technologies. The first publication, Summary, provides information in tabular form on the eight technology areas examined; subsequent publications provide more detailed information on the technologies. This publication provides documentation of petroleum. The transformation of the energy in petroleum into a more useful form is described in this document in terms of major activity areas in the petroleum cycle, that is, in terms of activities which produce either an energy product or a fuel leading to the production of an energy product in a different form. These activities represent both well-documented and less well-documented activity areas. The former activities are characterized in terms of actual operating data with allowance for future modification where appropriate. Emissions are assumed to conform to environmental standards. The less well-documented activity areas examined are those like oil storage in salt domes and exploration for which engineering studies were performed. The organization of the chapters in this volume is designed to support the tabular presentation in the Summary. Each chapter begins with a brief description of the activity under consideration. The standard characteristics, size, availability, mode of functioning, and place in the fuel cycle are presented. Next, major legislative and/or technological factors influencing the commercial operation of the activity are offered. Discussions of resources consumed, residuals produced, and economics follow. To aid in comparing and linking the different activity areas, data for each area are normalized to 10/sup 12/ Btu of energy output from the activity.

  14. Naval Petroleum Reserve-1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    In March 1987, GAO reported on data inaccuracies at the Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 in California, stating that these inaccuracies probably result in incorrect computations of the maximum efficient production rates and could result in the government getting less than its share of remaining recoverable reserves should NPR-1 be sold. The Department of Energy's actions in response to the report's recommendations improved the accuracy of production data; other actions still underway, when completed, could largely correct the inaccuracies. DOE also established improved internal controls over review and evaluation.

  15. National strategic petroleum reserve.

    PubMed

    Davis, R M

    1981-08-01

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve is intended to reduce the vulnerability of the United States to interruptions in the oil supply from foreign sources. Storage for 248 million barrels of crude oil in salt caverns and mines, with equipment for pumping and distribution, was constructed and operationally tested in a 4-year period. Its present inventory is the largest known crude oil reserve in the world. Facilities for expanding the reserve's capacity by another 290 million barrels are being developed by solution-mining in salt domes. PMID:17847458

  16. The petroleum exponential (again)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    The U.S. production and reserves of liquid and gaseous petroleum have declined since 1960, at least in the lower 48 states. This decline stems from decreased discovery rates, as predicted by M. King Hubbert in the mid-1950's. Hubbert's once unpopular views were based on statistical analysis of the production history of the petroleum industry, and now, even with inclusion of the statistical perturbation caused by the Prudhoe Bay-North Alaskan Slope discovery (the largest oil field ever found in the United States), it seems clear again that production is following the exponential curve to depletion of the resource—to the end of the ultimate yield of petroleum from wells in the United States.In a recent report, C. Hall and C. Cleveland of Cornell University show that large atypical discoveries, such as the Prudhoe Bay find, are but minor influences on what now appears to be the crucial intersection of two exponentials [Science, 211, 576-579, 1981]: the production-per-drilled-foot curve of Hubbert, which crosses zero production no later than the year 2005; the other, a curve that plots the energy cost of drilling and extraction with time; that is, the cost-time rate of how much oil is used to drill and extract oil from the ground. The intersection, if no other discoveries the size of the Prudhoe Bay field are made, could be as early as 1990, the end of the present decade. The inclusion of each Prudhoe-Bay-size find extends the year of intersection by only about 6 years. Beyond that point, more than one barrel of petroleum would be expended for each barrel extracted from the ground. The oil exploration-extraction and refining industry is currently the second most energy-intensive industry in the U.S., and the message seems clear. Either more efficient drilling and production techniques are discovered, or domestic production will cease well before the end of this century if the Hubbert analysis modified by Hall and Cleveland is correct.

  17. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international oil data. This report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world, in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries.

  18. Petroleum formation and occurrence

    SciTech Connect

    Tissot, B.P.; Welte, D.H.

    1984-01-01

    This edition (second edition) has been expanded by 160 pages over the first edition. The book is divided into five parts: (1) the production and accumulation of organic matter: a geological perspective; (2) the fate of organic matter in sedimentary basins: generation of oil and gas; (3) the migration and accumulation of oil and gas; (4) the composition and classification of crude oils and the influence of geological factors; and (5) oil and gas exploration: application of the principles of petroleum generation and migration.

  19. Designing the perfect plant feedstock for biofuel production: using the whole buffalo to diversify fuels and products.

    PubMed

    Joyce, B L; Stewart, C N

    2012-01-01

    Petroleum-derived liquid fuels and commodities play a part in nearly every aspect of modern daily life. However, dependence on this one natural resource to maintain modern amenities has caused negative environmental and geopolitical ramifications. In an effort to replace petroleum, technologies to synthesize liquid fuels and other commodities from renewable biomass are being developed. Current technologies, however, only use a portion of plant biomass feedstocks for fuel and useful products. "Using the whole feedstock buffalo" or optimally using all portions and biochemicals present in renewable biomass will enhance the economic and environmental feasibility of biofuels and coproducts. To accomplish this optimization, greater understanding of the relationship between liquid fuel and bioproduct properties and plant chemistries is needed. Liquid fuel properties and how they relate to biochemistry and petrochemistry are discussed. Enhanced biofuel yields and high-value commodities from biomass are needed to sustainably replace petroleum-based products. Several metabolic engineering strategies are discussed. We will describe paths of possible fuel and product diversification using dedicated lignocellulosic biomass (e.g., switchgrass). PMID:21856404

  20. Evaporation of petroleum products from contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, S.H.; Oulman, C.S.

    1996-05-01

    Bioremediation can remove petroleum products from soil that has been contaminated by leaking underground storage tanks, but abiotic processes such as evaporation can contribute significantly to the overall removal process. The mathematical model described in this paper was developed to predict the evaporation rate of volatile liquids from petroleum-contaminated sand. The model is based on simple concepts relating to molecular diffusion embodied in the theory underlying the estimation of binary diffusivities using measurements made with an Arnold diffusion cell. The model in its simplified form indicates that the rate of evaporation for a particular volatile liquid is proportional to the square root of the product of diffusivity and partial pressure divided by the molecular weight of the liquid. This in part explains why evaporative losses from sand are so much higher for gasoline than for diesel fuel. The model also shows that the time for evaporation is directly proportional to the square of the depth dried out and inversely proportional to the vapor pressure of the volatile liquid. The model was tested using gravimetric measurements of the evaporation of n-heptane, unleaded gasoline, and diesel fuel from sand under laboratory conditions.

  1. Potential displacement of petroleum imports by solar energy technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deleon, P.; Jackson, B. L.; McNown, R. F.; Mahrenholz, G. J.

    1980-05-01

    The United States currently imports close to half of its petroleum requirements. The economic, social, and political costs of a foreign oil dependency are discussed. Development of alternative, domestic energy sources, such as solar energy technologies, which can displace foreign petroleum is discussed. It is estimated that by the year 2000, solar energy technologies can displace 3.6 quads of petroleum. This figure includes solar energy applications in utilities, industrial and agricultural process heat, and transportation. The estimate can be treated as a lower bound; if the United States were to achieve the proposed goal of 20 quads by 2000, the amount of displaced oil probably would be greater. Although all the displaced oil would not be imported, the reduction in imported petroleum would relieve many of the conditions that increase the present cost of foreign oil to the American consumer.

  2. Petroleum supply monthly, March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-30

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. Most time series include preliminary estimates for one month based on the Weekly Petroleum Supply Reporting System; statistics based on the most recent data from the Monthly Petroleum Supply Reporting System (MPSRS); and statistics published in prior issues of the PSM and PSA. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. In most cases, the statistics are presented for several geographic areas -- the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia), five PAD Districts, and 12 Refining Districts. At the US and PAD District level, the total volume and the daily rate of activities are presented. The statistics are developed from monthly survey forms submitted by respondents to the EIA and from data provided from other sources.

  3. Petroleum supply monthly, June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-28

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures ih the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. Most time series include preliminary estimates for one month based on the Weekly Petroleum Supply Reporting System; statistics based on the most recent data from the Monthly Petroleum Supply Reporting System (MPSRS); and statistics published in prior issues of the PSM and PSA. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. In most cases, the statistics are presented for several geographic areas - - the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia), five PAD Districts, and 12 Refining Districts. At the US and PAD District level, the total volume and the daily rate of activities are presented. The statistics are developed from monthly survey forms submitted by respondents to the EIA and from data provided firom other sources.

  4. Choline as a fuel sweetener and sulfur antagonist

    SciTech Connect

    Roof, G.L.; Porlier, B.W.; Cravey, W.E.

    1986-06-10

    A method is described of sweetening petroleum hydrocarbon fuels and, at the same time, reducing the sulfur content thereof which comprises treating such fuels with a sweetening and sulfur-removing amount of choline.

  5. Alternative Fuel and Advanced Vehicle Tools (AFAVT), AFDC (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-01-01

    The Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Web site offers a collection of calculators, interactive maps, and informational tools to assist fleets, fuel providers, and others looking to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector.

  6. Alternative aircraft fuels technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J.

    1976-01-01

    NASA is studying the characteristics of future aircraft fuels produced from either petroleum or nonpetroleum sources such as oil shale or coal. These future hydrocarbon based fuels may have chemical and physical properties that are different from present aviation turbine fuels. This research is aimed at determining what those characteristics may be, how present aircraft and engine components and materials would be affected by fuel specification changes, and what changes in both aircraft and engine design would be required to utilize these future fuels without sacrificing performance, reliability, or safety. This fuels technology program was organized to include both in-house and contract research on the synthesis and characterization of fuels, component evaluations of combustors, turbines, and fuel systems, and, eventually, full-scale engine demonstrations. A review of the various elements of the program and significant results obtained so far are presented.

  7. Fuel quality combustion analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naegeli, D. W.; Moses, C. A.

    1979-01-01

    A high pressure research combustor operating over a wide range of burner inlet conditions was used to determine the effects of fuel molecular structure on soot formation. Six test fuels with equal hydrogen content (12.8%) were blended to stress different molecular components and final boiling points. The fuels containing high concentrations (20%) of polycyclic aromatics and partially saturated polycyclic structures such as tetralin, produced more soot than would be expected from a hydrogen content correlation for typical petroleum based fuels. Fuels containing naphthenes such as decalin agreed with the hydrogen content correlation. The contribution of polycyclic aromatics to soot formation was equivalent to a reduction in fuel hydrogen content of about one percent. The fuel sensitivity to soot formation due to the polycyclic aromatic contribution decreased as burner inlet pressure and fuel/air ratio increased.

  8. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international oil data. This report is published for the use of Members of Congress, Federal agencies, State agencies, industry, and the general public. Publication of this report is in keeping with responsibilities given the Energy Information Administration in Public Law 95-91. The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1995; and OECD trade from 1985 through 1995.

  9. Indigenous Precambrian petroleum revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, G.E.; Kaczor, M.J.; McArthur, R.E.

    1980-10-01

    Irrefutable evidence of fossil remains from Precambrian sediments and proved petroleum reserves in upper Proterozoic (Riphean-Vendian) strata of the Irkutsk basin, USSR, suggest that unmetamorphosed Precambrian sedimentary rocks should be a focus for hydrocarbon exploration. Since 1965, a dramatic increase in publications which document worldwide occurrences of Precambrian life forms discloses that, by the end of the Proterozoic, organic evolution had produced diversified assemblages of relatively highly developed macroorganisms and microorganisms. Some of these organisms have generated crude oil in the Nonesuch Shale of northern Michigan and kerogen in stromatolitic carbonate rocks in Africa Kerogen has been extracted from approx. 2300-m.y. old Transvaal (Africa) stromatolitic limestone containing coccoid and complex filamentous cyanophytes. Also, aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons have been obtained from the approx. 2800-m.y. old Bulawayan stromatolitic limestone of Rhodesia. Additional evidence indicates that commercial reserves of petroleum from Precambrian strata are possible. An oil discovery in Lower Cambrian rocks in 1962, at Markovo in the Irkutsk basin of the Siberian platform area, led to four noncommercial and eight commercial fields producing from Lower Cambrian and Upper Proterozoic strata.

  10. Petroleum industry assists hurricane relief

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-14

    This paper reports that the petroleum industry is aiding victims of last month's Hurricane Andrew with cash, clothing, food, water, and other supplies. Cash contributions announced as of last week totaled more than $2.7 million for distribution in South Florida and South Louisiana. Petroleum industry employees were collecting relief items such as bottled water and diapers for distribution in those areas.

  11. Fractionation process for petroleum wax

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.L.; Mitchael, M.R.; Krenowicz, R.A.; Southard, W.M.

    1991-07-16

    This patent describes a process which comprises separating a petroleum wax into a lower boiling wax fraction of a narrow melting range and a higher boiling wax fraction of wider melting range by subjecting the petroleum wax to distillation in a wiped film evaporator.

  12. Petroleum: An energy profile, 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-07-01

    This report prepared by the Energy Information Administration covers the following topics: petroleum production and end-use sectors; resources and reserves; exploration and production; LPG sources and processing; motor gasoline octane enhancement; constructing pipelines; the strategic petroleum reserve; imports and exports; marketing; district descriptions and maps; and refinery processes and facilities. 33 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. Petroleum occurrences and plate tectonics

    SciTech Connect

    Olenin, V.B.; Sokolov, B.A.

    1983-01-01

    This paper analyzes the mechanisms of petroleum formation and petroleum accumulation proposed in recent years by some Russian and foreign investigators from the viewpoint of the new global or plate tectonics. On the basis of discussion and the facts, the authors conclude that the mechanisms proposed are in contradiction to reality and their use in practical application is at least premature.

  14. Job Prospects for Petroleum Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basta, Nicholas

    1988-01-01

    Describes petroleum engineering as one area in industry where job opportunities are few but where the worst of the declines has been seen. Discusses the causes of the decline. Lists several areas where petroleum engineers have found alternatives including environmental projects, water supply projects, and computer applications. (CW)

  15. Strategic petroleum reserve. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-15

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve serves as one of our most important investments in reducing the Nation`s vulnerability to oil supply disruptions. Its existence provides an effective response mechanism should a disruption occur and a formidable deterrent to the use of oil as a political instrument. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve was created pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of December 22, 1975, (Public Law 94-163) as amended, to reduce the impact of disruptions in supplies of petroleum products and to carry out obligations of the United States under the Agreement on an International Energy Program. Section 165(a) of the Act requires the submission of Annual Reports and Section 165(b)(1) requires the submission of Quarterly Reports. This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the first quarter of calendar year 1994, including: (1) inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve, under contract and in transit at the end of the calendar quarter; (2) fill rate for the current quarter and projected fill rate for the next calendar quarter; (3) average price of the petroleum products acquired during the calendar quarter; (4) current and projected storage capacity; (5) analysis of existing or anticipated problems with the acquisition and storage of petroleum products, and future expansion of storage capacity; (6) funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and (7) major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated.

  16. Thermal acidization and recovery process for recovering viscous petroleum

    DOEpatents

    Poston, Robert S.

    1984-01-01

    A thermal acidization and recovery process for increasing production of heavy viscous petroleum crude oil and synthetic fuels from subterranean hydrocarbon formations containing clay particles creating adverse permeability effects is described. The method comprises injecting a thermal vapor stream through a well bore penetrating such formations to clean the formation face of hydrocarbonaceous materials which restrict the flow of fluids into the petroleum-bearing formation. Vaporized hydrogen chloride is then injected simultaneously to react with calcium and magnesium salts in the formation surrounding the bore hole to form water soluble chloride salts. Vaporized hydrogen fluoride is then injected simultaneously with its thermal vapor to dissolve water-sensitive clay particles thus increasing permeability. Thereafter, the thermal vapors are injected until the formation is sufficiently heated to permit increased recovery rates of the petroleum.

  17. 10 CFR 504.7 - Prohibition against excessive use of petroleum or natural gas in mixtures-electing powerplants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) ALTERNATE FUELS EXISTING POWERPLANTS § 504.7 Prohibition against excessive use of petroleum or natural gas... technically and financially feasible for a unit to use a mixture of petroleum or natural gas and an alternate... natural gas, or both, in amounts exceeding the minimum amount necessary to maintain reliability...

  18. 10 CFR 504.7 - Prohibition against excessive use of petroleum or natural gas in mixtures-electing powerplants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) ALTERNATE FUELS EXISTING POWERPLANTS § 504.7 Prohibition against excessive use of petroleum or natural gas... technically and financially feasible for a unit to use a mixture of petroleum or natural gas and an alternate... natural gas, or both, in amounts exceeding the minimum amount necessary to maintain reliability...

  19. 10 CFR 504.7 - Prohibition against excessive use of petroleum or natural gas in mixtures-electing powerplants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) ALTERNATE FUELS EXISTING POWERPLANTS § 504.7 Prohibition against excessive use of petroleum or natural gas... technically and financially feasible for a unit to use a mixture of petroleum or natural gas and an alternate... natural gas, or both, in amounts exceeding the minimum amount necessary to maintain reliability...

  20. 10 CFR 504.7 - Prohibition against excessive use of petroleum or natural gas in mixtures-electing powerplants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) ALTERNATE FUELS EXISTING POWERPLANTS § 504.7 Prohibition against excessive use of petroleum or natural gas... technically and financially feasible for a unit to use a mixture of petroleum or natural gas and an alternate... natural gas, or both, in amounts exceeding the minimum amount necessary to maintain reliability...

  1. 10 CFR 504.7 - Prohibition against excessive use of petroleum or natural gas in mixtures-electing powerplants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) ALTERNATE FUELS EXISTING POWERPLANTS § 504.7 Prohibition against excessive use of petroleum or natural gas... technically and financially feasible for a unit to use a mixture of petroleum or natural gas and an alternate... natural gas, or both, in amounts exceeding the minimum amount necessary to maintain reliability...

  2. Strategic Petroleum Reserve quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-15

    This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the second quarter of calendar year 1993, including: inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve, under contract and in transit at the end of the calendar quarter; fill rate for the current quarter and projected fill rate for the next calendar quarter; average price of the petroleum products acquired during the calendar quarter; current and projected storage capacity and plans to accelerate the acquisition or construction of such capacity; analysis of existing or anticipated problems with the acquisition and storage of petroleum products, and future expansion of storage capacity; funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated.

  3. Fuel cell chemistry and operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamrock, Steven J.; Herring, Andrew M.; Zawodzinski, Thomas A.

    The annual fall symposium on Fuel Cell Chemistry and Operation was held at the 232nd National Meeting of the American Chemical Society in San Francisco, CA on September 11-14, 2006. Similar symposia sponsored by the Fuel Division have been held every fall since 1999. Significantly, this symposium was part of an ACS Presidential Event on Hydrogen, and was sponsored by a number of other ACS divisions including, Polymer, Polymeric Materials: Science and Engineering, Petroleum, Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, and the Inorganic divisions. Additional support was provided by the Petroleum Research Fund and the 3M Fuel Cell Components Group.

  4. Motor vehicle fuel economy, the forgotten HC control stragegy. [Hydrocarbon (HC)

    SciTech Connect

    Deluchi, M.; Wang, Quanlu; Greene, D.L.

    1992-06-01

    Emissions of hydrocarbons from motor vehicles are recognized as major contributors to ozone pollution in urban areas. Petroleum-based motor fuels contain volatile organic compounds (VOC) which, together with oxides of nitrogen, promote the formation of ozone in the troposphere via complex photochemical reactions. VOC emissions from the tailpipe and evaporation from the fuel and engine systems of highway vehicles are believed to account for about 40% of total VOC emissions in any region. But motor fuels also generate emissions throughout the fuel cycle, from crude oil production to refining, storage, transportation, and handling, that can make significant contributions to the total inventory of VOC emissions. Many of these sources of emissions are directly related to the quantity of fuel produced and handled throughout the fuel cycle. It is, therefore, reasonable to expect that a reduction in total fuel throughput might result in a reduction of VOC emissions. In particular, reducing vehicle fuel consumption by increasing vehicle fuel economy should reduce total fuel throughput, thereby cutting total emissions of VOCS. In this report we identify the sources of VOC emissions throughout the motor fuel cycle, quantify them to the extent possible, and describe their dependence on automobile and light truck fuel economy.

  5. Clean Cities Tools: Tools to Help You Save Money, Use Less Petroleum, and Reduce Emissions (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-01-01

    Clean Cities offers a large collection of Web-based tools on the Alternative Fuels Data Center. These calculators, interactive maps, and data searches can assist fleets, fuels providers, and other transportation decision makers in their efforts to reduce petroleum use.

  6. Aviation turbine fuels: An assessment of alternatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The general outlook for aviation turbine fuels, the effect that broadening permissible aviation turbine fuel properties could have on the overall availability of such fuels, the fuel properties most likely to be affected by use of lower grade petroleum crudes, and the research and technology required to ensure that aviation turbine fuels and engines can function satisfactorily with fuels having a range of fuel properties differing from those of current specification fuel are assessed. Views of industry representatives on alternative aviation turbine fuels are presented.

  7. REDUCING POWER PRODUCTION COSTS BY UTILIZING PETROLEUM COKE

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    A Powder River Basin subbituminous coal from the North Antelope mine and a petroleum shot coke were received from Northern States Power Company (NSP) for testing the effects of parent fuel properties on coal-coke blend grindability and evaluating the utility of petroleum coke blending as a strategy for improving electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate collection efficiency. Petroleum cokes are generally harder than coals, as indicated by Hardgrove grindability tests. Therefore, the weaker coal component may concentrate in the finer size fractions during the pulverizing of coal-coke blends. The possibility of a coal-coke size fractionation effect is being investigated because it may adversely affect combustion performance. Although the blending of petroleum coke with coal may adversely affect combustion performance, it may enhance ESP particulate collection efficiency. Petroleum cokes contain much higher concentrations of V relative to coals. Consequently, coke blending can significantly increase the V content of fly ash resulting from coal-coke combustion. Pentavalent vanadium oxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) is a known catalyst for transforming gaseous sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}[g]) to gaseous sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}[g]). The presence of SO{sub 3}(g) strongly affects fly ash resistivity and, thus, ESP performance.

  8. Blends of Fischer-Tropsch crude: A lower cost route to diesel fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Suppes, G.J.; Terry, J.; Burkhart, M.; Cupps, M.P.

    1998-12-31

    Fischer-Tropsch conversion of gasification products to liquid hydrocarbon fuel typically includes Fischer-Tropsch synthesis followed by refining (hydrocracking and distillation) of the syncrude into mostly diesel or kerosene with some naphtha (a feedstock for gasoline production). Refining is assumed necessary, possibly overlooking the exceptional fuel qualities of syncrude for more direct utilization as a compression-ignition (CI) fuel. This paper evaluates cetane number, viscosity, cloud point, and pour point properties of syncrude and blends of syncrude with blend stocks such as ethanol and diethyl ether. The results show that blends comprised primarily of syncrude are potentially good CI fuels with pour-point temperature depression being the largest development obstacle. The resulting blends may provide an alternative CI fuel which costs less than petroleum based diesel, depending on the feedstock and feedstock preparation costs. Particularly good market opportunities exist with Energy Policy Act (EPACT) applications.

  9. U.S. Virgin Islands Petroleum Price-Spike Preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.

    2012-06-01

    This NREL technical report details a plan for the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) to minimize the economic damage caused by major petroleum price increases. The assumptions for this plan are that the USVI will have very little time and money to implement it and that the population will be highly motivated to follow it because of high fuel prices. The plan's success, therefore, is highly dependent on behavior change. This plan was derived largely from a review of the actions taken and behavior changes made by companies and commuters throughout the United States in response to the oil price spike of 2008. Many of these solutions were coordinated by or reported through the 88 local representatives of the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory provides technical and communications support for the Clean Cities program and therefore serves as a de facto repository of these solutions. This plan is the first publication that has tapped this repository.

  10. Real time monitoring of petroleum leakage detection using etched fiber Bragg grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shivananju, B. N.; Kiran, M.; Nithin, S. P.; Vidya, M. J.; Hegde, G. M.; Asokan, S.

    2013-06-01

    Detection of petroleum leakages in pipelines and storage tanks is a very important as it may lead to significant pollution of the environment, accidental hazards, and also it is a very important fuel resource. Petroleum leakage detection sensor based on fiber optics was fabricated by etching the fiber Bragg grating (FBG) to a region where the total internal reflection is affected. The experiment shows that the reflected Bragg's wavelength and intensity goes to zero when etched FBG is in air and recovers Bragg's wavelength and intensity when it is comes in contact with petroleum or any external fluid. This acts as high sensitive, fast response fluid optical switch in liquid level sensing, petroleum leakage detection etc. In this paper we present our results on using this technique in petroleum leakage detection.

  11. Strategic Petroleum Reserve quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-15

    This August 15, 1991, Strategic Petroleum Reserve Quarterly Report describes activities related to the site development, oil acquisition, budget and cost of the Reserve during the period April 1, 1991, through June 30, 1991. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve storage facilities development program is proceeding on schedule. The Reserve's capacity is currently 726 million barrels. A total of 5.5 million barrels of new gross cavern volume was developed at Big Hill and Bayou Choctaw during the quarter. There were no crude oil deliveries to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve during the calendar quarter ending June 30, 1991. Acquisition of crude oil for the Reserve has been suspended since August 2, 1990, following the invasion of Kuwait by Iraq. As of June 30, 1991, the Strategic Petroleum Reserve inventory was 568.5 million barrels. The reorganization of the Office of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve became effective June 28, 1991. Under the new organization, the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Project Management Office in Louisiana will report to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Program Office in Washington rather than the Oak Ridge Field Office in Tennessee. 2 tabs.

  12. Strategic petroleum reserve. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-15

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve reduces the Nation`s vulnerability to oil supply disruptions. Its existence provides a formidable deterrent to the use of oil as a political instrument and an effective response mechanism should a disruption occur. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve was created pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of December 22, 1975 (Public Law 94-163). Its purposes are to reduce the impact of disruptions in supplies of petroleum products and to carry out obligations of the United States under the Agreement on an International Energy Program. Section 165(a) of the Act requires the submission of Annual Reports and Section 165(b)(1) requires the submission of Quarterly Reports. This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the second quarter of calendar year 1995, including: inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve; current and projected storage capacity, analysis of existing or anticipated problems with the acquisition and storage of petroleum products, and future expansion of storage capacity; funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated.

  13. 40 CFR 86.1513 - Fuel specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Idle Test Procedures § 86.1513 Fuel specifications. The requirements of this section are set forth in 40 CFR part 1065, subpart H, for heavy-duty... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fuel specifications. 86.1513...

  14. Alternative Fuels Data Center (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-07-01

    Fact sheet describes the Alternative Fuels Data Center, which provides information, data, and tools to help fleets and other transportation decision makers find ways to reduce petroleum consumption through the use of alternative and renewable fuels, advanced vehicles, and other fuel-saving measures.

  15. Methanol: A Versatile Fuel for Immediate Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, T. B.; Lerner, R. M.

    1973-01-01

    Advocates the large-scale production and use of methanol as a substitute for the diminishing reserves of low-cost petroleum resources. Describes the manufacturing process and advantages of the versatile fuel. (JR)

  16. Petroleum geology of formation waters

    SciTech Connect

    Billo, S.M.

    1996-06-01

    Some researchers have argued that most petroleum traps are hydrostatic and the potentiometric surface is a level plane, whereas others have emphasized the importance of hydrodynamic traps and that the potentiometric surface slopes. The Salt Creek oil field, Wyoming is a prime example of the large, anticlinal traps that has produced over 500 million barrels of oil, and was located by a large oil seep over the trap. The structure has five producing zones, all sandstones in the Cretaceous and the Sundance sand (Jurassic). Each has a separate oil-water contact and a transition zone, indicating a lack of permeable interconnection. The multiple oil-water contacts dip northward in pact with the hydraulic gradient of the region. The slope of the potentiometric surface determines whether the water is in a state of static or dynamic equilibrium. A hydrodynamic condition is usually dependent on the topography of the surface and/or the geology of the region. Knowledge of subsurface waters can help in the discovery and seismic mapping of hydrocarbon reservoirs through valuation of possible changes imposed on the waters in the presence of hydrocarbons; by recognition of changes related to conducive development of traps; and eventually by defining condition of origin and migration of oil and gas.

  17. Petroleum fingerprinting: Effective identification of petroleum products at contaminated sites

    SciTech Connect

    Uhler, A.D.

    1997-07-01

    A critical issue in many environmental liability cases is the successful identification of the parties responsible for petroleum products that contaminate sites or properties. Identification of these parties is critical for owners of petroleum contaminated sites who are seeking to spread liability by identifying previous owners or operators of nearby properties who may be the source of, and thus be responsible for, the petroleum contamination at these sites. This issue is also critical for these potential defendants who will seek to demonstrate that the petroleum products associated with their activities could not be the source of the contamination in question. Finally, the issue is critical in situations where multiple responsible parties seek to equitably allocate among themselves shares of contamination and associated clean-up costs.

  18. 21 CFR 178.3710 - Petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Petroleum wax. 178.3710 Section 178.3710 Food and... and Production Aids § 178.3710 Petroleum wax. Petroleum wax may be safely used as a component of nonfood articles in contact with food, in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Petroleum wax is...

  19. 21 CFR 178.3710 - Petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Petroleum wax. 178.3710 Section 178.3710 Food and... and Production Aids § 178.3710 Petroleum wax. Petroleum wax may be safely used as a component of nonfood articles in contact with food, in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Petroleum wax is...

  20. 21 CFR 178.3710 - Petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Petroleum wax. 178.3710 Section 178.3710 Food and... and Production Aids § 178.3710 Petroleum wax. Petroleum wax may be safely used as a component of nonfood articles in contact with food, in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Petroleum wax is...

  1. 21 CFR 178.3710 - Petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Petroleum wax. 178.3710 Section 178.3710 Food and... Petroleum wax. Petroleum wax may be safely used as a component of nonfood articles in contact with food, in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Petroleum wax is a mixture of solid hydrocarbons, paraffinic...

  2. 21 CFR 178.3710 - Petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Petroleum wax. 178.3710 Section 178.3710 Food and... and Production Aids § 178.3710 Petroleum wax. Petroleum wax may be safely used as a component of nonfood articles in contact with food, in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Petroleum wax is...

  3. Renewable synthetic diesel fuel from triglycerides and organic waste materials

    SciTech Connect

    Hillard, J.C.; Strassburger, R.S.

    1986-03-01

    A renewable, synthetic diesel fuel has been developed that employs ethanol and organic waste materials. These organic materials, such as soybean oil or animal fats, are hydrolized to yield a mixture of solid soap like materials and glycerol. These soaps, now soluble in ethanol, are blended with ethanol; the glycerol is nitrated and added as well as castor oil when necessary. The synthetic fuel is tailored to match petroleum diesel fuel in viscosity, lubricity and cetane quality and, therefore, does not require any engine modifications. Testing in a laboratory engine and in a production Oldsmobile Cutlass has revealed that this synthetic fuel is superior to petroleum diesel fuel in vehicle efficiency, cetane quality, combustion noise, cold start characteristics, exhaust odor and emissions. Performance characteristics are indistinguishable from those of petroleum diesel fuel. These soaps are added to improve the calorific value, lubricity and cetane quality of the ethanol. The glycerol from the hydrolysis process is nitrated and added to the ethanol as an additional cetane quality improver. Caster oil is added to the fuel when necessary to match the viscosity and lubricity of petroleum diesel fuel as well as to act as a corrosion inhibitor, thereby, precluding any engine modifications. The cetane quality of the synthetic fuel is better than that of petroleum diesel as the fuel carries its own oxygen. The synthetic fuel is also completely miscible with petroleum diesel.

  4. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Projected Biomass Utilization for Fuels and Power in a Mature Market

    SciTech Connect

    Ruth, M.; Mai, T.; Newes, E.; Aden, A.; Warner, E.; Uriarte, C.; Inman, D.; Simpkins, T.; Argo, A.

    2013-03-01

    The viability of biomass as transportation fuel depends upon the allocation of limited resources for fuel, power, and products. By focusing on mature markets, this report identifies how biomass is projected to be most economically used in the long term and the implications for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and petroleum use. In order to better understand competition for biomass between these markets and the potential for biofuel as a market-scale alternative to petroleum-based fuels, this report presents results of a micro-economic analysis conducted using the Biomass Allocation and Supply Equilibrium (BASE) modeling tool. The findings indicate that biofuels can outcompete biopower for feedstocks in mature markets if research and development targets are met. The BASE tool was developed for this project to analyze the impact of multiple biomass demand areas on mature energy markets. The model includes domestic supply curves for lignocellulosic biomass resources, corn for ethanol and butanol production, soybeans for biodiesel, and algae for diesel. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  5. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Projected Biomass Utilization for Fuels and Power in a Mature Market

    SciTech Connect

    Ruth, M.; Mai, T.; Newes, E.; Aden, A.; Warner, E.; Uriarte, C.; Inman, D.; Simpkins, T.; Argo, A.

    2013-03-01

    The viability of biomass as transportation fuel depends upon the allocation of limited resources for fuel, power, and products. By focusing on mature markets, this report identifies how biomass is projected to be most economically used in the long term and the implications for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and petroleum use. In order to better understand competition for biomass between these markets and the potential for biofuel as a market-scale alternative to petroleum-based fuels, this report presents results of a micro-economic analysis conducted using the Biomass Allocation and Supply Equilibrium (BASE) modeling tool. The findings indicate that biofuels can outcompete biopower for feedstocks in mature markets if research and development targets are met. The BASE tool was developed for this project to analyze the impact of multiple biomass demand areas on mature energy markets. The model includes domestic supply curves for lignocellulosic biomass resources, corn for ethanol and butanol production, soybeans for biodiesel, and algae for diesel. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  6. Fuels Performance: Navigating the Intersection of Fuels and Combustion (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-12-01

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), the only national laboratory dedicated 100% to renewable energy and energy efficiency, recognize that engine and infrastructure compatibility can make or break the impact of even the most promising fuel. NREL and its industry partners navigate the intersection of fuel chemistry, ignition kinetics, combustion, and emissions, with innovative approaches to engines and fuels that meet drivers' expectations, while minimizing petroleum use and GHGs.

  7. INTEGRATED PETROLEUM ENVIRONMENTAL CONSORTIUM (IPEC)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA GRANT NUMBER: R827015
    Title: Integrated Petroleum Environmental Consortium (IPEC)
    Investigator: Kerry L. Sublette
    Institution: University of Tulsa
    EPA Project Officer: S. Bala Krishnan
    Project Period: October 1, 19...

  8. Diterpenoid tetracyclic hydrocarbons of petroleum

    SciTech Connect

    Vorob'eva, N.S.; Zemskova, Z.K.; Pekh, T.I.; Petrov, A.A.

    1987-08-01

    Diterpenoid hydrocarbons are fairly widespread in various caustobioliths. However, if petroleums contain mainly acyclic diterpenoids (phytane, pristane and norpristane), cyclic diterpaenes such as fichtelite, pimarane, iosene (kaurane) and hibbane are often found in hydrocarbons isolated from coal and shale. Recent advances in the chemistry of diterpenoids isolated from caustobioliths, are described in a separate paper. Much less is known about petroleum polycyclic diterpenoid hydrocarbons, particularly those with four saturated rings. A series of tetracyclic hydrocarbons C/sub 19/H/sub 32/ (molar mass 260), found in a number of light petroleums and gas condensates from the Jura deposits of Central Kara-Kum (Turkmen S.S.R.), are examined here. These hydrocarbons are present in petroleums and condensates from the Davaly, Erden, Ortakak, Southern Beuideshik deposits, they are always identical and occur in the same ratios. The composition of the tretracyclanes isolated from the Ortakak gas condensates (well 17) will be examined in detail.

  9. Enhancement of fuel cell performance with less-water dependent composite membranes having polyoxometalate anchored nanofibrous interlayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abouzari-lotf, Ebrahim; Jacob, Mohan V.; Ghassemi, Hossein; Ahmad, Arshad; Nasef, Mohamed Mahmoud; Zakeri, Masoumeh; Mehdipour-Ataei, Shahram

    2016-09-01

    Polyoxometalate immobilized nanofiber was used to fabricate low gas permeable layer for composite membranes designed for proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) operating at low relative humidity (RH). The composite membranes revealed enhanced proton conductivity in dry conditions compared with state-of-the-art pristine membrane (Nafion 112, N112). This was coupled with a low fuel crossover inheriting the composite membranes about 100 mV higher OCV than N112 when tested in PEMFC at 60 °C and 40% RH. A maximum power density of up to 930 mW cm-2 was also achieved which is substantially higher than the N112 under similar conditions (577 mW cm-2). Such remarkable performance enhancement along with undetectable leaching of immobilized polyoxometalate, high dimensional stability and low water uptake of the composite membranes suggest a strong potential for PEMFC under low RH operation.

  10. 10 CFR 503.32 - Lack of alternate fuel supply at a cost which does not substantially exceed the cost of using...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... substantially exceed the cost of using imported petroleum. 503.32 Section 503.32 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY... fuel supply at a cost which does not substantially exceed the cost of using imported petroleum. (a... alternate fuel supply at a cost which does not substantially exceed the cost of using imported petroleum....

  11. 10 CFR 503.32 - Lack of alternate fuel supply at a cost which does not substantially exceed the cost of using...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... substantially exceed the cost of using imported petroleum. 503.32 Section 503.32 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY... fuel supply at a cost which does not substantially exceed the cost of using imported petroleum. (a... alternate fuel supply at a cost which does not substantially exceed the cost of using imported petroleum....

  12. 10 CFR 503.32 - Lack of alternate fuel supply at a cost which does not substantially exceed the cost of using...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... substantially exceed the cost of using imported petroleum. 503.32 Section 503.32 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY... fuel supply at a cost which does not substantially exceed the cost of using imported petroleum. (a... alternate fuel supply at a cost which does not substantially exceed the cost of using imported petroleum....

  13. 10 CFR 503.32 - Lack of alternate fuel supply at a cost which does not substantially exceed the cost of using...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... substantially exceed the cost of using imported petroleum. 503.32 Section 503.32 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY... fuel supply at a cost which does not substantially exceed the cost of using imported petroleum. (a... alternate fuel supply at a cost which does not substantially exceed the cost of using imported petroleum....

  14. 10 CFR 503.32 - Lack of alternate fuel supply at a cost which does not substantially exceed the cost of using...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... substantially exceed the cost of using imported petroleum. 503.32 Section 503.32 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY... fuel supply at a cost which does not substantially exceed the cost of using imported petroleum. (a... alternate fuel supply at a cost which does not substantially exceed the cost of using imported petroleum....

  15. Test methods for evaluating reformulated fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Croudace, M.C.

    1994-12-31

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) introduced regulations in the 1989 Clean Air Act Amendment governing the reformulation of gasoline and diesel fuels to improve air quality. These statutes drove the need for a fast and accurate method for analyzing product composition, especially aromatic and oxygenate content. The current method, gas chromatography, is slow, expensive, non portable, and requires a trained chemist to perform the analysis. The new mid-infrared spectroscopic method uses light to identify and quantify the different components in fuels. Each individual fuel component absorbs a specific wavelength of light depending on the molecule`s unique chemical structure. The quantity of light absorbed is proportional to the concentration of that fuel component in the mixture. The mid-infrared instrument has significant advantages; it is easy to use, rugged, portable, fully automated and cost effective. It can be used to measure multiple oxygenate or aromatic components in unknown fuel mixtures. Regulatory agencies have begun using this method in field compliance testing; petroleum refiners and marketers use it to monitor compliance, product quality and blending accuracy.

  16. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1995; and OECD trade from 1084 through 1994.

  17. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-27

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1994; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1994; and OECD trade from 1984 through 1994.

  18. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international data. The report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent 12 months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1996; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1996; and OECD trade from 1986 through 1996.

  19. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1994; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1994; and OECD trade from 1984 through 1994.

  20. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. Word oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1995; and OECD trade from 1985 through 1995.

  1. Low NO(x) heavy fuel combustor program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lister, E.; Niedzwiecki, R. W.; Nichols, L.

    1979-01-01

    The 'low nitrogen oxides heavy fuel combustor' program is described. Main program objectives are to generate and demonstrate the technology required to develop durable gas turbine combustors for utility and industrial applications, which are capable of sustained, environmentally acceptable operation with minimally processed petroleum residual fuels. The program will focus on 'dry' reductions of oxides of nitrogen, improved combustor durability, and satisfactory combustion of minimally processed petroleum residual fuels. Other technology advancements sought include: fuel flexibility for operation with petroleum distillates, blends of petroleum distillates and residual fuels, and synfuels (fuel oils derived from coal or shale); acceptable exhaust emissions of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, sulfur oxides and smoke; and retrofit capability to existing engines.

  2. Low NO/x/ heavy fuel combustor program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lister, E.; Niedzwiecki, R. W.; Nichols, L.

    1980-01-01

    The paper deals with the 'Low NO/x/ Heavy Fuel Combustor Program'. Main program objectives are to generate and demonstrate the technology required to develop durable gas turbine combustors for utility and industrial applications, which are capable of sustained, environmentally acceptable operation with minimally processed petroleum residual fuels. The program will focus on 'dry' reductions of oxides of nitrogen (NO/x/), improved combustor durability and satisfactory combustion of minimally processed petroleum residual fuels. Other technology advancements sought include: fuel flexibility for operation with petroleum distillates, blends of petroleum distillates and residual fuels, and synfuels (fuel oils derived from coal or shale); acceptable exhaust emissions of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, sulfur oxides and smoke; and retrofit capability to existing engines.

  3. FY2013 Progress Report for Fuel & Lubricant Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2014-02-01

    Annual progress report for Fuel & Lubricant Technologies. The Fuel & Lubricant Technologies Program supports fuels and lubricants research and development (R&D) to provide vehicle manufacturers and users with cost-competitive options that enable high fuel economy with low emissions, and contribute to petroleum displacement.

  4. 78 FR 23832 - Labeling Requirements for Alternative Fuels and Alternative Fueled Vehicles

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ...-gasoline mixtures, natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, hydrogen, coal-derived liquid fuels, fuels derived... component (expressed as a percentage). \\3\\ 60 FR 26926 (May 19, 1995). \\4\\ The Rule requires manufacturers... comments in response.\\8\\ \\6\\ 76 FR 31513 (June 1, 2011) (ANPR on Alternative Fuels Rule). In 2011,...

  5. Catching the fossil fuel biodesulfurization wave

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, I.M. )

    1993-10-01

    Both coal and oil contain sulfur atoms covalently bound to the carbon skeleton of the fuel. This organic sulfur is located in more complex and more polycyclo-aromatic structures in coals than in petroleum and is modeled (albeit not perfectly) by the simple aromatic compound dibenzothiophene (DBT). Coals, but not petroleum, also contain inorganic forms of sulfur. These are various iron sulfides, most notably iron pyrites. Unlike organic sulfur, inorganic sulfur is not chemically bound to the carbon matrix of coal and can be removed, at least partially, by physical means that depend on differences in density and hydrophobicity between coal and pyrites. Throughout the 1970s and 1980s, DOE/PETC was active in promoting advanced physical methods of coal cleaning and had invested considerable money, effort, and prestige in their development. To address that other coal-sulfur problem--the organic sulfur component--DOE/PETC funded a range of chemistry-based options through the early 1990s. By the early 1980s, and in the wake of the coming of age of genetic engineering, microbially based processes were beginning to make an appearance on the industrial scene. Coal cleaning was no exception. The author discusses his perceptions of the DOE's foray into fossil fuel biodesulfurization.

  6. Aviation turbine fuels, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Shelton, E M

    1981-03-01

    Properties of some aviation turbine fuels marketed in the United States during 1980 are presented in this report. The samples represented are typical 1980 production and were analyzed in the laboratories of 17 manufacturers of aviation turbine (jet) fuels. The data were submitted for study, calculation, and compilation under a cooperative agreement between the Department of Energy (DOE), Bartlesville Energy Technology Center (BETC), Bartlesville, Oklahoma, and the American Petroleum Institute (API). Results for the properties of 98 samples of aviation turbine fuels are included in the report for military grades JP-4 and JP-5 and commercial type Jet A.

  7. Heat transfer correlations for kerosene fuels and mixtures and physical properties for Jet A fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackerman, G. H.; Faith, L. E.

    1972-01-01

    Heat transfer correlations are reported for conventional Jet A fuel for both laminar and turbulent flow in circular tubes. Correlations were developed for cooling in turbine engines, but have broader applications in petroleum and chemical processing, and other industrial applications.

  8. Petroleum biodegradation in marine environments.

    PubMed

    Harayama, S; Kishira, H; Kasai, Y; Shutsubo, K

    1999-08-01

    Petroleum-based products are the major source of energy for industry and daily life. Petroleum is also the raw material for many chemical products such as plastics, paints, and cosmetics. The transport of petroleum across the world is frequent, and the amounts of petroleum stocks in developed countries are enormous. Consequently, the potential for oil spills is significant, and research on the fate of petroleum in a marine environment is important to evaluate the environmental threat of oil spills, and to develop biotechnology to cope with them. Crude oil is constituted from thousands of components which are separated into saturates, aromatics, resins and asphaltenes. Upon discharge into the sea, crude oil is subjected to weathering, the process caused by the combined effects of physical, chemical and biological modification. Saturates, especially those of smaller molecular weight, are readily biodegraded in marine environments. Aromatics with one, two or three aromatic rings are also efficiently biodegraded; however, those with four or more aromatic ring are quite resistant to biodegradation. The asphaltene and resin fractions contain higher molecular weight compounds whose chemical structures have not yet been resolved. The biodegradability of these compounds is not yet known. It is known that the concentrations of available nitrogen and phosphorus in seawater limit the growth and activities of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms in a marine environment. In other words, the addition of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers to an oil-contaminated marine environment can stimulate the biodegradation of spilled oil. This notion was confirmed in the large-scale operation for bioremediation after the oil spill from the Exxon Valdez in Alaska. Many microorganisms capable of degrading petroleum components have been isolated. However, few of them seem to be important for petroleum biodegradation in natural environments. One group of bacteria belonging to the genus

  9. A life-cycle comparison of alternative automobile fuels.

    PubMed

    MacLean, H L; Lave, L B; Lankey, R; Joshi, S

    2000-10-01

    We examine the life cycles of gasoline, diesel, compressed natural gas (CNG), and ethanol (C2H5OH)-fueled internal combustion engine (ICE) automobiles. Port and direct injection and spark and compression ignition engines are examined. We investigate diesel fuel from both petroleum and biosources as well as C2H5OH from corn, herbaceous bio-mass, and woody biomass. The baseline vehicle is a gasoline-fueled 1998 Ford Taurus. We optimize the other fuel/powertrain combinations for each specific fuel as a part of making the vehicles comparable to the baseline in terms of range, emissions level, and vehicle lifetime. Life-cycle calculations are done using the economic input-output life-cycle analysis (EIO-LCA) software; fuel cycles and vehicle end-of-life stages are based on published model results. We find that recent advances in gasoline vehicles, the low petroleum price, and the extensive gasoline infrastructure make it difficult for any alternative fuel to become commercially viable. The most attractive alternative fuel is compressed natural gas because it is less expensive than gasoline, has lower regulated pollutant and toxics emissions, produces less greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and is available in North America in large quantities. However, the bulk and weight of gas storage cylinders required for the vehicle to attain a range comparable to that of gasoline vehicles necessitates a redesign of the engine and chassis. Additional natural gas transportation and distribution infrastructure is required for large-scale use of natural gas for transportation. Diesel engines are extremely attractive in terms of energy efficiency, but expert judgment is divided on whether these engines will be able to meet strict emissions standards, even with reformulated fuel. The attractiveness of direct injection engines depends on their being able to meet strict emissions standards without losing their greater efficiency. Biofuels offer lower GHG emissions, are sustainable, and

  10. Advanced Petroleum-Based Fuels - Diesel Emissions Project (APBF-DEC): 2,000-Hour Performance of a NOx Adsorber Catalyst and Diesel Particle Filter System for a Medium-Duty, Pick-Up Diesel Engine Platform; Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2007-03-01

    Presents the results of a 2,000-hour test of an emissions control system consisting of a nitrogen oxides adsorber catalyst in combination with a diesel particle filter, advanced fuels, and advanced engine controls in an SUV/pick-up truck vehicle platform.

  11. Assessment of costs and benefits of flexible and alternative fuel use in the US transportation sector

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    The DOE is conducting a comprehensive technical analysis of a flexible-fuel transportation system in the United States -- that is, a system that could easily switch between petroleum and another fuel, depending on price and availability. The DOE Alternative Fuels Assessment is aimed directly at questions of energy security and fuel availability, but covers a wide range of issues. This report examines environmental, health, and safety concerns associated with a switch to alternative- and flexible-fuel vehicles. Three potential alternatives to oil-based fuels in the transportation sector are considered: methanol, compressed natural gas (CNG), and electricity. The objective is to describe and discuss qualitatively potential environmental, health, and safety issues that would accompany widespread use of these three fuels. This report presents the results of exhaustive literature reviews; discussions with specialists in the vehicular and fuel-production industries and with Federal, State, and local officials; and recent information from in-use fleet tests. Each chapter deals with the end-use and process emissions of air pollutants, presenting an overview of the potential air pollution contribution of the fuel --relative to that of gasoline and diesel fuel -- in various applications. Carbon monoxide, particulate matter, ozone precursors, and carbon dioxide are emphasized. 67 refs., 6 figs. , 8 tabs.

  12. Determination of Trace Water Content in Petroleum and Petroleum Products.

    PubMed

    Frink, Lillian A; Armstrong, Daniel W

    2016-08-16

    Measurement of water in petroleum and petroleum-based products is of industrial and economic importance; however, the varied and complex matrixes make the analyses difficult. These samples tend to have low amounts of water and contain many compounds which react with iodine, causing Karl Fischer titration (KFT) to give inaccurate, typically higher, results. A simple, rapid, automated headspace gas chromatography (HSGC) method which requires modified instrumentation and ionic liquid stationary phases was developed. Measurement of water in 12 petroleum products along with 3 National Institute of Standards and Technology reference materials was performed with the developed method. The range of water found in these samples was ∼12-3300 ppm. This approach appeared to be unaffected by complicated matrixes. The solvent-free nature of the HSGC method also negates the solubility limitations which are common with KFT. PMID:27463946

  13. Synthetic fuels handbook: properties, process and performance

    SciTech Connect

    Speight, J.

    2008-07-01

    The handbook is a comprehensive guide to the benefits and trade-offs of numerous alternative fuels, presenting expert analyses of the different properties, processes, and performance characteristics of each fuel. It discusses the concept systems and technology involved in the production of fuels on both industrial and individual scales. Chapters 5 and 7 are of special interest to the coal industry. Contents: Chapter 1. Fuel Sources - Conventional and Non-conventional; Chapter 2. Natural Gas; Chapter 3. Fuels From Petroleum and Heavy Oil; Chapter 4. Fuels From Tar Sand Bitumen; Chapter 5. Fuels From Coal; Chapter 6. Fuels From Oil Shale; Chapter 7. Fuels From Synthesis Gas; Chapter 8. Fuels From Biomass; Chapter 9. Fuels From Crops; Chapter 10. Fuels From Wood; Chapter 11. Fuels From Domestic and Industrial Waste; Chapter 12. Landfill Gas. 3 apps.

  14. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Expansion: Costs, Resources, Production Capacity, and Retail Availability for Low-Carbon Scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Melaina, M. W.; Heath, G.; Sandor, D.; Steward, D.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Warner, E.; Webster, K. W.

    2013-04-01

    Achieving the Department of Energy target of an 80% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 depends on transportation-related strategies combining technology innovation, market adoption, and changes in consumer behavior. This study examines expanding low-carbon transportation fuel infrastructure to achieve deep GHG emissions reductions, with an emphasis on fuel production facilities and retail components serving light-duty vehicles. Three distinct low-carbon fuel supply scenarios are examined: Portfolio: Successful deployment of a range of advanced vehicle and fuel technologies; Combustion: Market dominance by hybridized internal combustion engine vehicles fueled by advanced biofuels and natural gas; Electrification: Market dominance by electric drive vehicles in the LDV sector, including battery electric, plug-in hybrid, and fuel cell vehicles, that are fueled by low-carbon electricity and hydrogen. A range of possible low-carbon fuel demand outcomes are explored in terms of the scale and scope of infrastructure expansion requirements and evaluated based on fuel costs, energy resource utilization, fuel production infrastructure expansion, and retail infrastructure expansion for LDVs. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored transportation-related strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence.

  15. Assessment of petroleum streams for thyroid toxicity.

    PubMed

    Fowles, Jeff R; Banton, Marcy I; Boogaard, Peter J; Ketelslegers, Hans B; Rohde, Arlean M

    2016-07-01

    The thyroid gland, and its associated endocrine hormones, is a growing area of interest in regulatory toxicology due to its important role in metabolism, growth and development. This report presents a review of the toxicology data on chemically complex petroleum streams for thyroid hormone effects. Toxicological summaries and studies from all available published and un-published sources were considered, drawing upon the European REACH regulatory submissions for 19 petroleum streams, with in depth review of 11 individual study reports and 31 published papers on related products or environmental settings. Findings relevant to thyroid pathology or thyroid hormone homeostasis were specifically sought, summarized, and discussed. A total of 349 studies of 28-days or longer duration were considered in the review, including data on mice, rats, rabbits, dogs, humans, and fish. The thyroid was almost invariably not a target organ in these studies. Three rodent studies did find thyroid effects; one on a jet fuel product (JP-8), and two studies on a heavy fuel oil product (F-179). The JP-8 product differs from other fuels due to the presence of additives, and the finding of reduced T4 levels in mice in the study occurred at a dose that is above that expected to occur in environmental settings (e.g. 2000mg/kg). The finding for F-179 involved thyroid inflammation at 10-55mg/kg that co-occurred with liver pathology in rats, indicating a possible secondary effect with questionable relevance to humans. In the few cases where findings did occur, the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content was higher than in related substances, and, in support of one possible adverse outcome pathway, one in-vitro study reported reduced thyroid peroxidase (TPO) activity with exposure to some PAH compounds (pyrene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, and benzo(e)pyrene). However, it could not be determined from the data available for this review, whether these specific PAH compounds were substantially higher

  16. Potential displacement of petroleum imports by solar energy technologies

    SciTech Connect

    DeLeon, P.; Jackson, B.L.; McNown, R.F.; Mahrenholz, G.J.

    1980-05-01

    The United States currently imports close to half of its petroleum requirements. This report delineates the economic, social, and political costs of such a foreign oil dependency. These costs are often intangible, but combined they clearly constitute a greater price for imported petroleum than the strictly economic cost. If we can assume that imported oil imposes significant socioeconomic costs upon the American economy and society, one way to reduce these costs is to develop alternative, domestic energy sources - such as solar energy technologies - which can displace foreign petroleum. The second half of this report estimates that by the year 2000, solar energy technologies can displace 3.6 quads of petroleum. This figure includes solar energy applications in utilities, industrial and agricultural process heat, and transportation. The estimate can be treated as a lower bound; if the United States were to achieve the proposed goal of 20 quads by 2000, the amount of displaced oil probably would be greater. Although all the displaced oil would not be imported, the reduction in imported petroleum would relieve many of the conditions that increase the present cost of foreign oil to the American consumer.

  17. Reducing power production costs by utilizing petroleum coke. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Galbreath, K.C.

    1998-07-01

    A Powder River Basin subbituminous coal from the North Antelope mine and a petroleum shot coke were received from Northern States Power Company (NSP) for testing the effects of parent fuel properties on coal-coke blend grindability and evaluating the utility of petroleum coke blending as a strategy for improving electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate collection efficiency. Petroleum cokes are generally harder than coals, as indicated by Hardgrove grindability tests. Therefore, the weaker coal component may concentrate in the finer size fractions during the pulverizing of coal-coke blends. The possibility of a coal-coke size fractionation effect is being investigated because it may adversely affect combustion performance, it may enhance ESP particulate collection efficiency. Petroleum cokes contain much higher concentrations of V relative to coals. Consequently, coke blending can significantly increase the V content of fly ash resulting from coal-coke combustion. Pentavalent vanadium oxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) is a known catalyst for transforming gaseous sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}[g]) to gaseous sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}[g]). The presence of SO{sub 3}(g) strongly affects fly ash resistivity and, thus, ESP performance.

  18. Greenhouse gas emissions from laboratory-scale fires in wildland fuels depend on fire spread mode and phase of combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surawski, N. C.; Sullivan, A. L.; Meyer, C. P.; Roxburgh, S. H.; Polglase, P. J.

    2014-09-01

    Experimental fires were conducted in a combustion wind tunnel facility to explore the role of fire spread mode on the resulting emissions profile from combustion of fine (< 6 mm) Eucalyptus litter fuels. Fires were burnt spreading with the wind (heading fire), perpendicular to the wind (flanking fire) and against the wind (backing fire). Greenhouse gas compounds (i.e. CO2, CH4 and N2O) and CO were quantified using off-axis integrated-cavity-output spectroscopy (off-axis ICOS). A dilution system was employed with the off-axis ICOS technique to prevent spectral broadening of the CO emissions peak and to enable simultaneous quantification of N2O and CO. The forward rate of spread was 20 times faster and the Byram fireline intensity was 20 times higher for heading fires compared to flanking and backing fires. Emissions factors calculated using a carbon mass balance technique (along with statistical testing) showed that most of the carbon was emitted as CO2, with heading fires emitting 17% more CO2 than flanking and 9.5% more CO2 than backing fires, and about twice as much CO. Heading fires had less than half as much carbon remaining in combustion residues. Statistically significant differences in CH4 and N2O emissions factors were not found with respect to fire spread mode. Emissions factors calculated per unit of dry fuel consumed showed that combustion phase (i.e. flaming or smouldering) had a statistically significant impact, with CO and N2O emissions increasing during smouldering combustion and CO2 emissions factors decreasing. Findings on the equivalence of different emissions factor reporting methods are discussed along with the impact of our results for emissions accounting. The primary implication of this study is that prescribed fire practices might be modified to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions from forested landscapes by the preferential application of flanking and backing fires over heading fires. Future research could involve wind tunnel testing with

  19. Measurement of the spatial dependence of temperature and gas and soot concentrations within large open hydrocarbon fuel fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, H. T.; Linley, L. J.; Mansfield, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    A series of large-scale JP-4 fuel pool fire tests was conducted to refine existing mathematical models of large fires. Seven tests were conducted to make chemical concentration and temperature measurements in 7.5 and 15 meter-diameter pool fires. Measurements were made at heights of 0.7, 1.4, 2.9, 5.7, 11.4, and 21.3 meters above the fires. Temperatures were measured at up to 50 locations each second during the fires. Chemistry samples were taken at up to 23 locations within the fires and analyzed for combustion chemistry and soot concentration. Temperature and combustion chemistry profiles obtained during two 7.5 meter-diameter and two 15 meter-diameter fires are included.

  20. Biological Remediation of Petroleum Contaminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhad, Ramesh Chander; Gupta, Rishi

    Large volumes of hazardous wastes are generated in the form of oily sludges and contaminated soils during crude oil transportation and processing. Although many physical, chemical and biological treatment technologies are available for petroleum contaminants petroleum contaminants in soil, biological methods have been considered the most cost-effective. Practical biological remediation methods typically involve direct use of the microbes naturally occurring in the contaminated environment and/or cultured indigenous or modified microorganisms. Environmental and nutritional factors, including the properties of the soil, the chemical structure of the hydrocarbon(s), oxygen, water, nutrient availability, pH, temperature, and contaminant bioavailability, can significantly affect the rate and the extent of hydrocarbon biodegradation hydrocarbon biodegradation by microorganisms in contaminated soils. This chapter concisely discusses the major aspects of bioremediation of petroleum contaminants.

  1. Petroleum 1996 - issues and trends

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    Increasingly, users of the Energy Information Administration`s petroleum data and analytical reports have expressed an interest in a recurring report that takes a broad view of the petroleum sector. What is sought is some perspective on the complex interrelationships that comprise an industry and markets accounting for 40 percent of the energy consumed in the United States and ranging from the drilling rig in the oil field to the pump at the local gasoline station. This report comprehensively examines historical trends, and selectively focuses on major issues and the events they represent. It analyzes different dimensions of the industry and related markets in terms of how they relate to a common theme, in this case, the volatility in petroleum markets.

  2. Greenhouse gas emissions from laboratory-scale fires in wildland fuels depend on fire spread mode and phase of combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surawski, N. C.; Sullivan, A. L.; Meyer, C. P.; Roxburgh, S. H.; Polglase, P. J.

    2015-05-01

    Free-burning experimental fires were conducted in a wind tunnel to explore the role of ignition type and thus fire spread mode on the resulting emissions profile from combustion of fine (< 6 mm in diameter) Eucalyptus litter fuels. Fires were burnt spreading with the wind (heading fire), perpendicular to the wind (flanking fire) and against the wind (backing fire). Greenhouse gas compounds (i.e. CO2, CH4 and N2O) and CO were quantified using off-axis integrated-cavity-output spectroscopy. Emissions factors calculated using a carbon mass balance technique (along with statistical testing) showed that most of the carbon was emitted as CO2, with heading fires emitting 17% more CO2 than flanking and 9.5% more CO2 than backing fires, and about twice as much CO as flanking and backing fires. Heading fires had less than half as much carbon remaining in combustion residues. Statistically significant differences in CH4 and N2O emissions factors were not found with respect to fire spread mode. Emissions factors calculated per unit of dry fuel consumed showed that combustion phase (i.e. flaming or smouldering) had a statistically significant impact, with CO and N2O emissions increasing during smouldering combustion and CO2 emissions decreasing. Findings on the equivalence of different emissions factor reporting methods are discussed along with the impact of our results for emissions accounting and potential sampling biases associated with our work. The primary implication of this study is that prescribed fire practices could be modified to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions from forests by judicial use of ignition methods to induce flanking and backing fires over heading fires.

  3. Biodegradation of petroleum constituents by indigenous bacteria isolated from petroleum reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Azadpour, A.

    1995-12-31

    The objectives of the work described in this paper were to isolate microorganisms indigenous to petroleum reservoirs, with special emphasis on anaerobic degradation of petroleum constituents and production of emulsifiers. Seven cores from reservoir depths of 805 to 14,492 feet were examined for microorganisms. Of a large number of pure culture isolates obtained, 37 were characterized for thir ability to use nitrogen (NO{sub 3} ions, NH{sub 4} ions, and urea) and carbon (crude oil, n-hexadecane, and acetate) sources. Experiments demonstrated that anaerobic microbial growth on crude oil was possible when a nitrogen source and a phosphorus source (mineral salt medium) were added. However, very little gas production was observed for the anaerobic cultures as compared to the aerobic tests. Chromatography fdata indicated that the more easily degraded compounds were attacked first, and that degradation also seemed to be dependent on the molecular weight and concentration of constituents rather than the crude type. The range of concentrations of emulsifier produced by the isolates is presented in the paper. The experiments indicated that all of the 37 culture isolates examined grew anaerobically and produced product such as emulsifiers which have the potential for bioremediation of petroleum contaminated aquifers.

  4. Magnetic susceptibility of petroleum fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivakhnenko, O. P.; Potter, D. K.

    2003-04-01

    Technological progress in petroleum exploration, production and processing requires a profound knowledge of the magnetic properties of the petroleum fluids. However, as far as we know there are not widely available constants of magnetic susceptibility for the majority of petroleum fluids. We have therefore measured the mass magnetic susceptibility (χ_m) of several petroleum fluids (such as crude oils, refined oil fractions, and formation waters) from local and worldwide sites. The magnetic features of natural reservoir petroleum fluids, together with fluids connected with the petroleum industry (such as drilling fluids etc.), fall into the following categories: diamagnetic solutions, paramagnetic suspensions and ferromagnetic "ferrofluid" suspensions. In the current investigations we have concentrated on the natural reservoir fluids, which are generally diamagnetic. There were distinct differences between the χ_m of the crude oils and the formation waters, with the oils having generally a more negative value of χ_m. The magnetic susceptibility of the oils appears to be related to their main physical and chemical properties, such as density, composition of group hydrocarbons, sulphur content and concentration of organometallic compounds. Low acidity and low sulphur oils have more negative values of χ_m. Light fractions of crude oil consisting mainly of paraffinic and naphtenic hydrocarbons are the most diamagnetic. The content of the less diamagnetic aromatics increases in the kerosene and gas oil fractions, and results in an increase in the magnetic susceptibility. Also, the magnetic susceptibility of the heavy oil fraction has a significantly higher χ_m than the light fractions, which appears to be connected with a higher concentration of paramagnetic components in the heavy fraction. The χ_m of the oil from various oil provinces were compared and found to be different. It seems that values of χ_m reflect specific features of the geological conditions for

  5. Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-15

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve serves as one of the most important investments in reducing the Nation`s vulnerability to oil supply disruptions. This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the third quarter of calendar year 1993, including: inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve, under contract and in transit at the end of the calendar quarter; fill rate for the quarter and projected fill rate for the next calendar quarter; average price of the petroleum products acquired during the calendar quarter; current and projected storage capacity and plans to accelerate the acquisition or construction of such capacity; analysis of existing or anticipated problems with the acquisition and storage of petroleum products and future expansion of storage capacity; funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated. Samples of the oil revealed two problems that, although readily correctable, have reduced the availability of some of the oil inventory for drawdown in the near-term. These problems are: (1) a higher-than-normal gas content in some of the crude oil, apparently from years of intrusion of methane form the surrounding salt formation; and (2) elevated temperatures of some of the crude oil, due to geothermal heating, that has increased the vapor pressure of the oil. Investigations are proceeding to determine the extent to which gas intrusion and geothermal heating are impacting the availability of oil for drawdown. Preliminary designs have been developed for systems to mitigate both problems.

  6. Phloem-Specific Methionine Recycling Fuels Polyamine Biosynthesis in a Sulfur-Dependent Manner and Promotes Flower and Seed Development1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Hajirezaei, Mohammad R.

    2016-01-01

    The Yang or Met Cycle is a series of reactions catalyzing the recycling of the sulfur (S) compound 5′-methylthioadenosine (MTA) to Met. MTA is produced as a by-product in ethylene, nicotianamine, and polyamine biosynthesis. Whether the Met Cycle preferentially fuels one of these pathways in a S-dependent manner remained unclear so far. We analyzed Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants with defects in the Met Cycle enzymes 5-METHYLTHIORIBOSE-1-PHOSPHATE-ISOMERASE1 (MTI1) and DEHYDRATASE-ENOLASE-PHOSPHATASE-COMPLEX1 (DEP1) under different S conditions and assayed the contribution of the Met Cycle to the regeneration of S for these pathways. Neither mti1 nor dep1 mutants could recycle MTA but showed S-dependent reproductive failure, which was accompanied by reduced levels of the polyamines putrescine, spermidine, and spermine in mutant inflorescences. Complementation experiments with external application of these three polyamines showed that only the triamine spermine could specifically rescue the S-dependent reproductive defects of the mutant plants. Furthermore, expressing gene-reporter fusions in Arabidopsis showed that MTI1 and DEP1 were mainly expressed in the vasculature of all plant parts. Phloem-specific reconstitution of Met Cycle activity in mti1 and dep1 mutant plants was sufficient to rescue their S-dependent mutant phenotypes. We conclude from these analyses that phloem-specific S recycling during periods of S starvation is essential for the biosynthesis of polyamines required for flowering and seed development. PMID:26662272

  7. Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    For several years, the administration has proposed selling the government's ownership interest in the Naval Petroleum Reserves, arguing that it would help reduce the federal budget deficit. The administration's latest proposal calls for the sale of reserves in fiscal year 1990. DOE estimates that if the reserves are sold in 1990, proceeds would amount to about $3.4 billion. The Naval Petroleum Reserve at Elk Hills, California, is the largest of the reserves. This report has reviewed and analyzed the new reserve data and found that DOE's reserve estimates for Elk Hills are still neither accurate nor up-to-date.

  8. Fuel Properties Database from the Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (AFDC)

    DOE Data Explorer

    This database contains information on advanced petroleum and non-petroleum based fuels, as well as key data on advanced compression ignition fuels. Included are data on physical, chemical, operational, environmental, safety, and health properties. These data result from tests conducted according to standard methods (mostly American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). The source and test methods for each fuel data set are provided with the information. The database can be searched in various ways and can output numbers or explanatory text. Heavy vehicle chassis emission data are also available for some fuels.

  9. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 754 - Petroleum and Petroleum Products

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Petroleum and Petroleum Products No... (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS SHORT SUPPLY CONTROLS Pt. 754, Supp. 1 Supplement No. 1 to Part 754—Petroleum and Petroleum Products...

  10. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 754 - Petroleum and Petroleum Products

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Petroleum and Petroleum Products No... (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS SHORT SUPPLY CONTROLS Pt. 754, Supp. 1 Supplement No. 1 to Part 754—Petroleum and Petroleum Products...

  11. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 754 - Petroleum and Petroleum Products

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Petroleum and Petroleum Products No... (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS SHORT SUPPLY CONTROLS Pt. 754, Supp. 1 Supplement No. 1 to Part 754—Petroleum and Petroleum Products...

  12. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 754 - Petroleum and Petroleum Products

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Petroleum and Petroleum Products No... (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS SHORT SUPPLY CONTROLS Pt. 754, Supp. 1 Supplement No. 1 to Part 754—Petroleum and Petroleum Products...

  13. 46 CFR 148.04-15 - Petroleum coke, uncalcined; petroleum coke, uncalcined and calcined (mixture).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Petroleum coke, uncalcined; petroleum coke, uncalcined and calcined (mixture). 148.04-15 Section 148.04-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Requirements for Certain Material § 148.04-15 Petroleum coke, uncalcined; petroleum coke, uncalcined...

  14. EIA model documentation: Petroleum market model of the national energy modeling system

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-28

    The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the Petroleum Market Model (PMM), describe its basic approach, and provide detail on how it works. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public. Documentation of the model is in accordance with EIA`s legal obligation to provide adequate documentation in support of its models. The PMM models petroleum refining activities, the marketing of petroleum products to consumption regions, the production of natural gas liquids in gas processing plants, and domestic methanol production. The PMM projects petroleum product prices and sources of supply for meeting petroleum product demand. The sources of supply include crude oil, both domestic and imported; other inputs including alcohols and ethers; natural gas plant liquids production; petroleum product imports; and refinery processing gain. In addition, the PMM estimates domestic refinery capacity expansion and fuel consumption. Product prices are estimated at the Census division level and much of the refining activity information is at the Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District level.

  15. Applying Thermodynamics to Fossil Fuels: Heats of Combustion from Elemental Compositions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, William G.; Davenport, Derek A.

    1980-01-01

    Discussed are the calculations of heats of combustions of some selected fossil fuel compounds such as some foreign shale oils and United States coals. Heating values for coal- and petroleum-derived fuel oils are also presented. (HM)

  16. The Second Colloquium on Petroleum Engineering Education

    SciTech Connect

    Willhite, G.P.; Forney, R.H.

    1993-11-30

    This paper describes findings from the Second Colloquium on Petroleum engineering Education. The purpose of this colloquium was to provide a forum for petroleum engineering educators and representatives from industry and government to explore critical issues facing petroleum engineering education as we move into the 21st Century. It was expected that the colloquium would identify areas where changes are needed in petroleum engineering education, to best prepare students for careers in the oil and gas industry or other, related industries.

  17. Petroleum supply annual 1995: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    The {ital Petroleum Supply Annual} contains information on supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. It reflects data collected from the petroleum industry during 1995 through monthly surveys, and it is divided into 2 volumes. This volume contains three sections: summary statistics, detailed statistics, and selected refinery statistics, each with final annual data. (The other volume contains final statistics for each month and replaces data previously published in the {ital Petroleum Supply Monthly}).

  18. 40 CFR 600.510-08 - Calculation of average fuel economy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Where: Ealt = × 10 6 = energy efficiency while operating on alternative fuel rounded to the nearest 0.01... alternative fuel as determined in § 600.113-08(a) and (b); FEpet is the fuel economy while operated on... value of the alternative fuel; NHVpet is the net (lower) heating value of the petroleum fuel; Dalt...

  19. 40 CFR 600.510-08 - Calculation of average fuel economy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Where: Ealt = × 10 6 = energy efficiency while operating on alternative fuel rounded to the nearest 0.01... alternative fuel as determined in § 600.113-08(a) and (b); FEpet is the fuel economy while operated on... value of the alternative fuel; NHVpet is the net (lower) heating value of the petroleum fuel; Dalt...

  20. Alcohol fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    Ethanol is an alcohol made from grain that can be blended with gasoline to extend petroleum supplies and to increase gasoline octane levels. Congressional proposals to encourage greater use of alternative fuels could increase the demand for ethanol. This report evaluates the growth potential of the ethanol industry to meet future demand increases and the impacts increased production would have on American agriculture and the federal budget. It is found that ethanol production could double or triple in the next eight years, and that American farmers could provide the corn for this production increase. While corn growers would benefit, other agricultural segments would not; soybean producers, for example could suffer for increased corn oil production (an ethanol byproduct) and cattle ranchers would be faced with higher feed costs because of higher corn prices. Poultry farmers might benefit from lower priced feed. Overall, net farm cash income should increase, and consumers would see slightly higher food prices. Federal budget impacts would include a reduction in federal farm program outlays by an annual average of between $930 million (for double current production of ethanol) to $1.421 billion (for triple production) during the eight-year growth period. However, due to an partial tax exemption for ethanol blended fuels, federal fuel tax revenues could decrease by between $442 million and $813 million.