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Sample records for petroleum skin carcinogens

  1. Experimental evaluation of skin carcinogenicity associated with chronic exposure to synthetic petroleums

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, J. M.

    1980-01-01

    Most fossil liquids, whether natural or synthetic, possess some degree of skin carcinogenic activity if applied at high enough concentration for sufficient time to genetically responsive experimental animals. Whether a synthetic petroleum shown to be capable of eliciting skin cancer in the mouse will have similar capability in exposed humans depends upon the potency of the material, the dosage and the person's individual susceptibility. This presentation describes the approach being taken to quantitiate skin carcinogenic potency. In addition to potency estimation, exposure conditions that could have an important bearing upon extrapolation of experimental animal data are investigated. These factors include the capacity of the material to induce skin irritation, and physical-chemical characteristics that influence skin localization and persistence of potentially carcinogenic components.

  2. Carcinogenic potential of hydrotreated petroleum aromatic extracts.

    PubMed

    Doak, S M; Hend, R W; van der Wiel, A; Hunt, P F

    1985-06-01

    Five experimental petroleum extracts were produced from luboil distillates derived from Middle East paraffinic crude by solvent extraction and severe hydrotreatment. The polycyclic aromatic content (PCA) of the extracts was determined by dimethyl sulphoxide extraction and ranged from 3.7-9.2% w/w. The five extracts were evaluated for their potential to induce cutaneous and systemic neoplasia in female mice derived from Carworth Farm No 1 strain (CF1). The test substances were applied undiluted (0.2 ml per application) to the shorn dorsal skin twice weekly for up to 78 weeks, with 48 mice in each treatment group and 96 in the untreated control group; two further groups, each of 48 mice, were similarly treated either with a non-hydrotreated commercial aromatic extract (PCA content, 19.7% w/v) or with a low dose of benzo(a)pyrene (12.5 micrograms/ml acetone). The mice were housed individually in polypropylene cages in specified pathogen free conditions. The incidence of cutaneous and systemic tumours was determined from histological analysis of haematoxylin and eosin stained tissue sections. The results were correlated with the PCA content of the extracts and compared with those from female mice exposed to a non-hydrotreated commercial aromatic extract. Four of the hydrotreated extracts were carcinogenic for murine skin; the two products with the lower PCA contents were less carcinogenic than the products with the higher PCA contents and all were less carcinogenic than the commercial extract. One extract with the lowest PCA content was non-carcinogenic. Thus refining by severe hydrotreatment was an effective method of reducing the carcinogenic potential of petroleum aromatic extracts. Although other physicochemical properties may influence the biological activity of oil products, the PCA content determined by dimethyl sulphoxide extraction may be a useful indicator of the potential of oil products to induce cutaneous tumours in experimental animals. There was no

  3. Dermal carcinogenic activity of petroleum-derived middle distillate fuels.

    PubMed

    Biles, R W; McKee, R H; Lewis, S C; Scala, R A; DePass, L R

    1988-12-30

    In general, the carcinogenic potential of petroleum-derived materials is related to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content. Thus it has been assumed that liquids which boil below the PAH distillation range (i.e., below approx. 370 degrees C (700 degrees F) would not be carcinogenic. Several early studies supported this conclusion but were of relatively short duration. Several recent and more rigorous studies have shown that repeated application of certain petroleum-derived materials boiling between approximately 177-370 degrees C (350-700 degrees F) (i.e., middle distillate fuels) can produce tumors in mouse skin. The current studies assessed the tumorigenic potential of a series of middle distillates which varied with respect to boiling range, composition, and source of blending stocks. All of the samples produced evidence of weak tumorigenic activity which was characterized by low tumor yields and long median latencies. However, the majority of the tumor yields were significantly different from the control. There were no apparent differences in response among the samples. Thus the various parameters examined did not substantially influence tumor outcome. In particular, there was no association of tumorigenic activity with aromatic carbon content; this finding, coupled with evidence that PAH levels were low, suggested that the tumorigenic responses were not PAH-dependent. In addition to the tumors, there was evidence of non-neoplastic dermal changes including hyperplasia. These may have contributed to the tumorigenic responses; however, the actual mechanism of tumor induction is unknown. PMID:3212789

  4. Simple analytical test and a formula to predict the potential for dermal carcinogenicity from petroleum oils

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, J.M.; Dimeler, G.R.; Basil, E.W.; Wilkins, G.W.; Nutter, J.S.

    1987-11-01

    A correlation for predicting dermal carcinogenicity of petroleum oils in laboratory animals has been developed using two simple analytical tests. The tests are the Food and Drug Administration test (FDA) commonly used to measure white oil purity, and a viscosity test. In the correlation, FDA is a measure of aromaticity, and viscosity is used to account for molecular weight. The FDA test alone appears to be comparable to other predictors now in use, but incorporating viscosity significantly increases the accuracy of predicting dermal carcinogenicity. A formula is proposed, using both the FDA test results and viscosity, that predicts the percentage of mice which will develop neoplastic skin tumors.

  5. Induction of active melanocytes in mouse skin by carcinogens: a new method for detection of skin carcinogens.

    PubMed

    Iwata, K; Inui, N; Takeuchi, T

    1981-01-01

    Application of potent skin carcinogens, such as 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene, 3-methylcholanthrene, benzo[a]pyrene and 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide, induced numerous dihydroxyphenylalanine (dopa)-positive cells in the interfollicular epidermis of C57BL/6 mice in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. Chrysene, a weak skin carcinogen, and croton oil, a tumor promoter, also induced 3--4 times more dopa-positive cells than acetone. Liver carcinogens, such as 3'-methyl-4-dimethylaminoazobenzene and N-2-acetylaminofluorene, and non-carcinogenic aromatic hydrocarbons, such as anthracene, fluoranthene, fluorene and pyrene, did not induce increase in these cells. These results indicate that increase in the number of dopa-positive cells after application of chemicals is well correlated with the abilities of these compounds to induce skin carcinogenesis and suppress sebaceous glands. PMID:7273337

  6. Induction of skin carcinogenicity by alcohol and ultraviolet light.

    PubMed

    Saladi, R N; Nektalova, T; Fox, J L

    2010-01-01

    In western societies, casual consumption of alcohol during such outdoor activities as barbecuing and sunbathing is common. The current literature shows that alcohol drinkers have increased episodes of sunburn and a higher prevalence of skin cancer. Moreover, recent evidence suggests that the combination of subcarcinogenic (minimal) ultraviolet (UV) exposure with other behavioural, environmental and xenobiotic factors has resulted in increased incidents of skin-related health problems that also result in skin-cancer formation. We hypothesize that the combination of alcohol consumption with UV radiation can potentiate the skin carcinogenic effects through the intermediate biproducts or metabolites of alcohol, which serve as the photosensitizers, consequently enhancing the cellular damage. We have proposed a mechanism that explains the combined alcohol-UV radiation carcinogenicity and its potential involvement in enhancing skin damage in the multistep skin carcinogenesis process. Previous literature has explored this mutual effect but no studies have definitively ascribed the reasons for increased skin cancer prevalence among alcohol drinkers. Nevertheless, the preceding epidemiological data and clinical studies recognize this matter, making the further testing of this hypothesis necessary. PMID:19778305

  7. Exposure to carcinogens for defined job categories in Norway's offshore petroleum industry, 1970 to 2005

    PubMed Central

    Steinsvåg, Kjersti; Bråtveit, Magne; Moen, Bente E

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To identify and describe the exposure to selected known and suspected carcinogenic agents, mixtures and exposure circumstances for defined job categories in Norway's offshore petroleum industry from 1970 to 2005, in order to provide exposure information for a planned cohort study on cancer. Methods Background information on possible exposure was obtained through company visits, including interviewing key personnel (n = 83) and collecting monitoring reports (n = 118) and other relevant documents (n = 329). On the basis of a previous questionnaire administered to present and former offshore employees in 1998, 27 job categories were defined. Results This study indicated possible exposure to 18 known and suspected carcinogenic agents, mixtures or exposure circumstances. Monitoring reports were obtained on seven agents (benzene, mineral oil mist and vapour, respirable and total dust, asbestos fibres, refractory ceramic fibres, formaldehyde and tetrachloroethylene). The mean exposure level of 367 personal samples of benzene was 0.037 ppm (range: less than the limit of detection to 2.6 ppm). Asbestos fibres were detected (0.03 fibres/cm3) when asbestos‐containing brake bands were used in drilling draw work in 1988. Personal samples of formaldehyde in the process area ranged from 0.06 to 0.29 mg/m3. Descriptions of products containing known and suspected carcinogens, exposure sources and processes were extracted from the collected documentation and the interviews of key personnel. Conclusions This study described exposure to 18 known and suspected carcinogenic agents, mixtures and exposure circumstances for 27 job categories in Norway's offshore petroleum industry. For a planned cohort study on cancer, quantitative estimates of exposure to benzene, and mineral oil mist and vapour might be developed. For the other agents, information in the present study can be used for further assessment of exposure, for instance, by expert judgement. More

  8. Inter‐rater agreement in the assessment of exposure to carcinogens in the offshore petroleum industry

    PubMed Central

    Steinsvåg, Kjersti; Bråtveit, Magne; Moen, Bente E; Kromhout, Hans

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the reliability of an expert team assessing exposure to carcinogens in the offshore petroleum industry and to study how the information provided influenced the agreement among raters. Methods Eight experts individually assessed the likelihood of exposure for combinations of 17 carcinogens, 27 job categories and four time periods (1970–1979, 1980–1989, 1990–1999 and 2000–2005). Each rater assessed 1836 combinations based on summary documents on carcinogenic agents, which included descriptions of sources of exposure and products, descriptions of work processes carried out within the different job categories, and monitoring data. Inter‐rater agreement was calculated using Cohen's kappa index and single and average score intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) (ICC(2,1) and ICC(2,8), respectively). Differences in inter‐rater agreement for time periods, raters, International Agency for Research on Cancer groups and the amount of information provided were consequently studied. Results Overall, 18% of the combinations were denoted as possible exposure, and 14% scored probable exposure. Stratified by the 17 carcinogenic agents, the probable exposure prevalence ranged from 3.8% for refractory ceramic fibres to 30% for crude oil. Overall mean kappa was 0.42 (ICC(2,1) = 0.62 and ICC(2,8) = 0.93). Providing limited quantitative measurement data was associated with less agreement than for equally well described carcinogens without sampling data. Conclusion The overall κ and single‐score ICC indicate that the raters agree on exposure estimates well above the chance level. The levels of inter‐rater agreement were higher than in other comparable studies. The average score ICC indicates reliable mean estimates and implies that sufficient raters were involved. The raters seemed to have enough documentation on which to base their estimates, but provision of limited monitoring data leads to more incongruence among raters. Having real

  9. Estimation of the dermal carcinogenic activity of petroleum fractions using a modified Ames assay.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, G R; Deitch, R A; Schreiner, C A; Mehlman, M A; Mackerer, C R

    1984-10-01

    The Ames Salmonella/microsomal activation mutagenesis assay has been adapted to improve sensitivity to complex hydrocarbon mixtures produced by the refining of petroleum. Extraction of oil samples with dimethyl sulfoxide produces aqueous-compatible solutions that more easily interact with the tester bacteria. These extracts, therefore, produce higher revertant values than do equivalent volumes of oil delivered neat or dissolved in organic solvent. Parallel increases in the liver microsomal S-9 concentration further improve the sensitivity of the assay, allowing detection of mutagenicity in otherwise inactive samples. The effect of increased microsomal fraction from rodent liver is apparently attributable to the higher levels of activating enzymes rather than to the concomitant increase in the overall hydrophobicity of the test system. The modified assay has been used to rank thirteen petroleum-derived oils and a corn oil control for relative mutagenic activity. This ranking closely correlates (r = 0.97) with potency rankings of the same samples previously determined from dermal carcinogenicity bioassays. PMID:6401126

  10. Chronic Dermal Toxicity of Epoxy Resins I. Skin Carcinogenic Potency and General Toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, J.M.

    2001-01-16

    Epoxy resins are a diverse class of chemicals that differ in structure, physical properties, and, presumably, biological activity. The purpose of these experiments was to compare the chronic dermal toxicity and carcinogenicity of selected commercial epoxy resins and to determine the potential for positive synergistic carcinogenic interactions between different resins. This work is an extension and continuation of a Department of Energy sponsored program to evaluate epoxy resins for potential occupational health risks. The materials examined were chosen on the basis of their interest to the U.S. government. They are representative of the manufacturer's production at the time, and therefore the data are completely valid only for the specific production period. Results of the experimental exposures will be reported in two parts. This report describes the test materials, their chemical and physical characteristics and the experimental design. General (systemic) toxicity will be evaluated and the skin carcinogenicity of the materials compared. A subsequent report will provide morphological descriptions of skin and significant internal pathology induced by the various treatments.

  11. Prevention of carcinogen-induced mouse skin papilloma by whole fruit aqueous extract of Momordica charantia.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, C; De, S; Das, S

    2000-08-01

    The anticarcinogenic effect of aqueous extract of fruit of Momordica charantia (bitter gourd), which is widely used as a vegetable in India, was studied in a two-step skin carcinogenesis model in mice. The possible mode of action was also investigated. Oral administration of the fruit extract was found to have an adverse effect on the general health and lifespan of the animals when used at a high concentration. But when this dose was reduced by half, the test extract afforded protection from the development of skin tumour and increased life expectancy. Carcinogen-induced lipid peroxidation in liver and DNA damage in lymphocytes were found to be reduced following treatment with Momordica. The fruit extract was found to significantly activate the liver enzymes glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase (P < 0.001), which showed a depression following exposure to the carcinogen. The results suggest a preventive role of water-soluble constituents of M. charantia fruit during carcinogenesis, which is mediated possibly by their modulatory effect on enzymes of the biotransformation and detoxification system of the host. PMID:10958332

  12. Tumorigenesis in athymic nude mouse skin by chemical carcinogens and ultraviolet light

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, L.M.; Rice, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    A variety of established skin tumorigenesis protocols were tested for efficacy on athymic nu/nu mice (BALB/c background) and compared on euthymic nu/+ counterparts. Chemical carcinogens and UV light were applied to the ears of 10 mice of each sex and genotype for each group. Treatments were: 0.5 mg 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene ((DMBA) CAS: 57-97-6) to each ear; 0.125 mg DMBA to each ear, followed by 0.1 microgram 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate ((TPA) CAS: 16561-29-8) twice weekly for 56 weeks; 0.2 mg N-nitroso-N-methylurea ((NMU) CAS: 684-93-5; 1% in acetone, 20 microliter) to each ear; 0.1 mg NMU to each ear weekly for 30 weeks; 0.2 mg NMU to each ear, followed by TPA twice weekly for 56 weeks; two ip doses of N-nitroso-N-ethylurea ((NEU) CAS: 759-73-9; 25 mg/kg each), followed by TPA twice weekly topically for 56 weeks; and exposure to sunlamps (250- to 400-nm emission) two or three times per week for 20 weeks, for a total dose of 3.7 X 10(5) J/m2. The chemical treatments caused mainly squamous papillomas and carcinomas, sebaceous adenomas and adenocarcinomas, and basal cell tumors, which appeared both on the skin of the ears and elsewhere. UV light caused squamous tumors, basal cell tumors, and sarcomas. Ear skin of the nu/nu mice developed significantly more squamous tumors than those of nu/+ mice after DMBA-TPA, NMU-TPA, NEU-TPA, repeated NMU, or UV light. Similar results were obtained for the skin of the heads and bodies. Even a single dose of NMU caused a few tumors on the nude, but not the euthymic, mice. A single dose of DMBA caused primarily sebaceous adenomas, distributed at random over the entire bodies. These results show that, contrary to previous reports, nude mice are sensitive to skin tumorigenesis, more so than euthymic nu/+ mice similarly exposed to diverse types of carcinogen and treatment protocols.

  13. Evaluation of the contribution of chronic skin irritation and selected compositional parameters to the tumorigenicity of petroleum middle distillates in mouse skin.

    PubMed

    Freeman, J J; Federici, T M; McKee, R H

    1993-07-28

    Two-year skin carcinogenicity studies were conducted in C3H mice to assess the effects of irritation and selected compositional parameters on the carcinogenic potential of four petroleum liquids. Three samples (lightly refined paraffinic oil, LRPO; lightly hydrodesulfurized specialty oil, LHSO; jet fuel, JF) can be generically classified as middle distillates, i.e. distillation occurs between 350 and 700 degrees F (175-370 degrees C). The fourth sample was a Steam Cracked Gas Oil (SCGO) that distilled within the same range. In studies that assess the effects of irritation on tumorigenicity, LRPO was tested undiluted or was diluted to 50% and 25% in either mineral oil (which eliminated irritation of the skin) or toluene (which did not). Undiluted LRPO elicited tumors in 8% of the mice. Both dilution procedures eliminated tumorigenic potential. Thus, it was possible to maintain a visible level of skin irritation equivalent to that elicited by undiluted LRPO without inducing tumors. SCGO elicited a chronic irritant state grossly equivalent to LRPO but was not tumorigenic. Jet Fuel A (JF) was tested undiluted using both a standard skin painting protocol and an intermittent dosing schedule in which treatment was suspended periodically to allow skin irritation to resolve. The standard treatment protocol of JF resulted in both marked skin irritation and tumors in 44% of the mice. However, using the intermittent schedule, the tumor yield was reduced to 2%. Collectively these data demonstrate that tumor formation is not a necessary sequelae to chronic skin irritation. Conversely, prevention of a marked chronic irritant state was accompanied by decreased tumor yield. These data suggest that the chronic irritant state may be a necessary but not sufficient condition for tumor formation. In studies to assess the effects of compositional parameters, a lightly hydrodesulfurized specialty oil (LHSO) similar to LRPO but refined to have negligible levels of sulfur compounds (3 ppm

  14. Chronic and Initiation/Promotion Skin Bioassays of Petroleum Refinery Streams.

    PubMed Central

    Skisak, C; Furedi-Machacek, EM; Schmitt, SS; Swanson, MS; Vernot, EH

    1994-01-01

    Nine refinery streams were tested in both chronic and initiation/promotion (I/P) skin bioassays. In the chronic bioassay, groups of 50 C3H/HeJ mice received twice weekly applications of 50 microl of test article for at least 2 years. In the initiation phase of the I/P bioassay, groups of CD-1 mice received an initiating dose of 50 microl of test article for 5 consecutive days, followed by promotion with 50 microl of phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (0.01% w/v in acetone) for 25 weeks. In the promotion phase of the I/P bioassay, CD-1 mice were initiated with 50 microl of 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene (0.1% w/v in acetone) or acetone, followed by promotion with 50 microl of test article twice weekly for 25 weeks. The most volatile of the streams, sweetened naphtha, and the least volatile, vacuum residuum, were noncarcinogenic in both assays. Middle distillates, with a boiling range of 150 degrees-370 degreesC, demonstrated carcinogenic activity in the chronic bioassay and acted as promoters but not initiators in the I/P bioassay. Untreated mineral oil streams displayed initiating activity and were carcinogenic in the chronic bioassay, presumably due to the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons of requisite size and structure. A highly solvent-refined mineral oil stream lacked initiating activity. These results indicate that the I/P bioassay, which takes 6 months to complete, may be a good qualitative predictor of the results of a chronic bioassay, at least for petroleum streams. Furthermore, the I/P bioassay can provide insight into possible mechanisms of tumor development. Images p82-a PMID:9719673

  15. A comprehensive evaluation of the mechanism of skin tumorigenesis by straight-run and cracked petroleum middle distillates.

    PubMed

    Nessel, C S; Priston, R A; McKee, R H; Cruzan, G; Riley, A J; Hagemann, R; Plutnick, R T; Simpson, B J

    1998-07-01

    The role of skin irritation and other factors on the tumorigenic activity of petroleum middle distillates (PMDs) in mice was examined in a comprehensive research program. The program culminated in a 2-year dermal carcinogenicity study which compared the effects of equal weekly doses of irritating and nonirritating PMDs. Modified Ames mutagenicity studies and three- to seven-ring polycyclic aromatic compound (PAC) analyses indicated that the mutagenic activity of PMDs was correlated to PAC content. In subchronic and subacute studies, PMDs produced marked skin irritation which was ameliorated if the test samples were diluted in mineral oil. The reduction in irritation level was not a result of reduced dermal absorption. Straight-run kerosine (SRK), straight-run gas oil (SRGO), and catalytically cracked light cycle oil (LCO) were evaluated in the dermal carcinogenicity study. Test materials were applied either undiluted (2x/week) or as 28.5% (7x/week) or 50% (4x/week) concentrations in mineral oil for a total weekly dose of 100 microliters PMD per animal. All three materials produced moderate to marked skin irritation and increased tumor frequency when applied undiluted. When diluted, the irritant effects of SRK and SRGO, which contain low levels of PACs, were ameliorated, and there were no significant increases in tumors relative to controls. LCO, containing 8.7% three- to seven-ring PACs, increased tumor frequency when diluted, even when skin irritation was limited. These data indicate that the tumorigenic activity of straight-run MDs is likely a consequence of a nongenotoxic process, associated with frequent cell damage and repair. PMDs which contain low levels of three- to seven-ring PACs are unlikely to cause tumors in the absence of prolonged skin irritation. In addition, genotoxic mechanisms may also contribute to tumor formation for other PMDs containing higher levels of PACs, e.g., products blended with cracked stocks. PMID:9720137

  16. Chemomodulation of carcinogen metabolising enzymes, antioxidant profiles and skin and forestomach papillomagenesis by Spirulina platensis.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, T; Banejee, S; Yadav, P K; Rao, A R

    2001-10-01

    Numerous reports have revealed an inverse association between consumption of some selective natural products and risk of developing cancer. In the present study the effect of 250 and 500 mg/kg body wt. of Spirulina was examined on drug metabolising phase I and phase II enzymes, antioxidant enzymes, glutathione content, lactate dehydrogenase and lipid peroxidation in the liver of 7-week-old Swiss albino mice. The implications of these biochemical alterations have been further evaluated adopting the protocol of benzo(a)pyrene induced forestomach and 7,12 dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) initiated and croton oil promoted skin papillomagenesis. Our primary findings reveal the 'Monofunctional' nature of Spirulina as deduced from its potential to induce only the phase II enzyme activities associated mainly with carcinogen detoxification. The glutathione S-transferase and DT-diaphorase specific activities were induced in hepatic and all the extrahepatic organs examined (lung, kidney and forestomach) by Spirulina pretreatment (significance level being from p < 0.05 to p < 0.005) except for the low dose treatment in forestomach. With reference to antioxidant enzymes viz., superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase and reduced glutathione were increased significantly by both the chosen doses of Spirulina from p < 0.01 to p < 0.005. Chemopreventive response was quantitated by the average number of papillomas per effective mouse (tumor burden) as well as percentage of tumor bearing animals. There was a significant inhibition of tumor burden as well as tumor incidence in both the tumor model systems studied. In the skin tumor studies tumor burden was reduced from 4.86 to 1.20 and 1.15 by the low and high dose treatment respectively. In stomach tumor studies tumor burden was 2.05 and 1.73 by the low and high doses of Spirulina treatment against 3.73 that of control. PMID:11768236

  17. A 90-day toxicity study of the effects of petroleum middle distillates on the skin of C3H mice.

    PubMed

    Freeman, J J; McKee, R H; Phillips, R D; Plutnick, R T; Scala, R A; Ackerman, L J

    1990-01-01

    Petroleum middle distillates (PMDs) elicit skin tumors in mouse epidermal carcinogenesis studies. The response is characterized by a long latency with only a small percentage of animals developing tumors. Although the carcinogenic activity of certain other petroleum hydrocarbons largely depends upon the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), many PMDs contain relatively low concentrations of PAHs. PMDs are also irritating to mouse skin, and chronic irritation may be involved in the development of skin tumors. This study was conducted to investigate the patterns of cutaneous irritation elicited by topical application of PMDs having compositional differences. The three PMDs selected for study were a steam cracked gas oil (SCGO), a lightly refined paraffinic oil (LRPO), and a jet fuel (JF). Male C3H/HeNCr1BR mice (25/group) were treated topically (37.5 microliters 2x/week for 13 weeks) with 10%, 50% or 100% (undiluted) concentrations of each PMD. Catalytically cracked clarified oil (CCCO, 10%), a potent carcinogen to mouse skin, was also tested. The vehicle was a noncarcinogenic mineral oil with a viscosity of 90 SUS. Cutaneous changes were evaluated by gross observations and light microscopy. Cutaneous irritation was the only significant toxic response in this study. Neither the vehicle nor any of the 10% PMD concentrations produced significant cutaneous irritation. The 10% CCCO and 50% PMD treatments all elicited slight to moderate proliferative and inflammatory changes in mouse skin. Ulcers were also observed microscopically in mice treated with 10% CCCO and 50% SCGO. The 100% SCGO treatment produced evidence of necrosis on Days 1-7 but not later in the study despite continued treatment. In contrast, the irritating effects of 100% LRPO were not evident until 2-3 weeks of study, and at study completion were characterized by moderately severe inflammatory and proliferative changes. The effects of 100% JF were qualitatively similar to 100% LRPO but less

  18. CORRELATION OF CARCINOGENIC POTENCY WITH MOUSE SKIN 32P-POSTLABELING AND LAC Z-MUTATION DATE FOR DMBA AN ITS K-REGION SULPHUR ISOSTERE: COMPARISON WITH ACTIVITIES OBSERVED IN STANDARD GENOTOXICITY ASSAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    6,11-Dimethylbenzo(b]naphtho[2,3-d]thiophene (S-DMBA) is one of several carcinogenic analogs of the reference mouse skin carcinogen 7,12-dimethylbenz[alanthracene (OMBA)Demonstration of the weak carcinogenicity of S-DMBA by Tilak in 1946 established at that early stage the inadeq...

  19. Alternative Toxicity Testing: Analyses on Skin Sensitization, ToxCast Phases I and II, and Carcinogenicity Provide Indications on How to Model Mechanisms Linked to Adverse Outcome Pathways.

    PubMed

    Benigni, Romualdo; Battistelli, Chiara Laura; Bossa, Cecilia; Giuliani, Alessandro; Tcheremenskaia, Olga

    2015-01-01

    This article studies alternative toxicological approaches, with new (skin sensitization, ToxCast) and previous (carcinogenicity) analyses. Quantitative modeling of rate-limiting steps in skin sensitization and carcinogenicity predicts the majority of toxicants. Similarly, successful (Quantitative) Structure-Activity Relationships models exploit the quantification of only one, or few rate-limiting steps. High-throughput assays within ToxCast point to promising associations with endocrine disruption, whereas markers for pathways intermediate events have limited correlation with most endpoints. Since the pathways may be very different (often not simple linear chains of events), quantitative analysis is necessary to identify the type of mechanism and build the appropriate model. PMID:26398111

  20. Sex differences and pathology status correlated to the toxicity of some common carcinogens in experimental skin carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Dehelean, Cristina A; Soica, Codruta; Pinzaru, Iulia; Coricovac, Dorina; Danciu, Corina; Pavel, Ioana; Borcan, Florin; Spandidos, Demetrios A; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M; Baderca, Flavia

    2016-09-01

    The increased susceptibility of men as compared to women to develop different types of cancer, including skin cancer, is well known; however, the mechanisms involved in this process are still a matter of debate. This study aimed to obtain animal models of photo-chemically-induced skin carcinogenesis by exposure to ultraviolet radiation B (UVB) coupled with topical applications of a tumor initiator (7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene, DMBA) and a tumor promoter (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, TPA) in order to characterize the gender disparities regarding the skin lesions developed by the female and male SKH-1 hairless mice included in this study. Histopathological analysis confirmed the presence of malignant lesions in both cases, in female and male mice, following chronic exposure (24 weeks) to the noxious effects of the carcinogens applied, whereas the tumors in male mice had a more severe histological grade. In addition, tumor incidence, size and multiplicity were higher in male mice than in female mice. PMID:27417450

  1. Senescent Fibroblasts Enhance Early Skin Carcinogenic Events via a Paracrine MMP-PAR-1 Axis

    PubMed Central

    Malaquin, Nicolas; Vercamer, Chantal; Bouali, Fatima; Martien, Sébastien; Deruy, Emeric; Wernert, Nicolas; Chwastyniak, Maggy; Pinet, Florence; Abbadie, Corinne; Pourtier, Albin

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of carcinoma increases greatly with aging, but the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying this correlation are only partly known. It is established that senescent fibroblasts promote the malignant progression of already-transformed cells through secretion of inflammatory mediators. We investigated here whether the senescent fibroblast secretome might have an impact on the very first stages of carcinogenesis. We chose the cultured normal primary human epidermal keratinocyte model, because after these cells reach the senescence plateau, cells with transformed and tumorigenic properties systematically and spontaneously emerge from the plateau. In the presence of medium conditioned by autologous senescent dermal fibroblasts, a higher frequency of post-senescence emergence was observed and the post-senescence emergent cells showed enhanced migratory properties and a more marked epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Using pharmacological inhibitors, siRNAs, and blocking antibodies, we demonstrated that the MMP-1 and MMP-2 matrix metalloproteinases, known to participate in late stages of cancer invasion and metastasis, are responsible for this enhancement of early migratory capacity. We present evidence that MMPs act by activating the protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR-1), whose expression is specifically increased in post-senescence emergent keratinocytes. The physiopathological relevance of these results was tested by analyzing MMP activity and PAR-1 expression in skin sections. Both were higher in skin sections from aged subjects than in ones from young subjects. Altogether, our results suggest that during aging, the dermal and epidermal skin compartments might be activated coordinately for initiation of skin carcinoma, via a paracrine axis in which MMPs secreted by senescent fibroblasts promote very early epithelial-mesenchymal transition of keratinocytes undergoing transformation and oversynthesizing the MMP-activatable receptor PAR-1. PMID:23675494

  2. North American Magazine Coverage of Skin Cancer and Recreational Tanning Before and After the WHO/IARC 2009 Classification of Indoor Tanning Devices as Carcinogenic.

    PubMed

    McWhirter, Jennifer E; Hoffman-Goetz, Laurie

    2015-09-01

    The mass media is an influential source of skin cancer information for the public. In 2009, the World Health Organization's International Agency for Research on Cancer classified UV radiation from tanning devices as carcinogenic. Our objective was to determine if media coverage of skin cancer and recreational tanning increased in volume or changed in nature after this classification. We conducted a directed content analysis on 29 North American popular magazines (2007-2012) to investigate the overall volume of articles on skin cancer and recreational tanning and, more specifically, the presence of skin cancer risk factors, UV behaviors, and early detection information in article text (n = 410) and images (n = 714). The volume of coverage on skin cancer and recreational tanning did not increase significantly after the 2009 classification of tanning beds as carcinogenic. Key-related messages, including that UV exposure is a risk factor for skin cancer and that indoor tanning should be avoided, were not reported more frequently after the classification, but the promotion of the tanned look as attractive was conveyed more often in images afterwards (p < .01). Content promoting high-SPF sunscreen use increased after the classification (p < .01), but there were no significant positive changes in the frequency of coverage of skin cancer risk factors, other UV behaviors, or early detection information over time. The classification of indoor tanning beds as carcinogenic had no significant impact on the volume or nature of skin cancer and recreational tanning coverage in magazines. PMID:25189799

  3. Chemoprotective influence of Zanthoxylum sps. on hepatic carcinogen metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes and skin papillomagenesis in murine model.

    PubMed

    Rajamani, Paulraj; Banerjeet, Sanjeev; Rao, A Ramesha

    2011-11-01

    In the present study, the putative potential of pericarp of dried fruit of Zanthoxylum (Rutaceae Family), a common spice additive in India's west coast cuisines, in protecting against carcinogenesis has been reported. Extract from dried fruit of Zanthoxylum was orally administered to mice at two dose levels: 100 and 200 mg/kg body wt. for 14 days. Results reveal bifunctional nature of Zanthoxylum species as deduced from its potential to induce phase-I and phase-II enzyme activities associated with carcinogen activation and detoxification in the liver of mice. Hepatic glutathione S-transferase and DT-diaphorase were found significantly elevated by the treatment. Zanthoxylum was also effective in augmenting the antioxidant enzyme activities of glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase albeit significantly by high dose of the extract (P < 0.05; P < 0.01). Reduced glutathione was also significantly elevated in the liver of treated animals (P < 0.05). The present study also investigated peri-initiation application of acetone extract of Zanthoxylum on initiated mouse skin. Results showed a significant reduction in tumor incidence from 68% to 36% (P < 0.05); as well as, a reduction in tumor burden per effective mouse from 3.87 to 0.72 (P < 0.01). Cumulatively, the findings strongly suggest cancer chemopreventive potential of Zanthoxylum sps. PMID:22126017

  4. Seasonal Variation in Exposure Level of Types A and B Ultraviolet Radiation: An Environmental Skin Carcinogen

    PubMed Central

    Rafieepour, A; Ghamari, F; Mohammadbeigi, A; Asghari, M

    2015-01-01

    Background: The main source of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is the sun, affecting organs such as the skin, eyes, and immune system. According to American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienist (ACGIH) reports, the amount of UVR reaching the Earth's surface is increasing yearly and is responsible for an increase in solar radiation-related diseases. Aims: To investigate the amount of UVR reaching the Earth's surface and understand the risk of UVR on disease among outdoor laborers in one of the central provinces of Iran. Materials and Methods: Arak city was divided into two geographic areas, and the weekly measurement of UVR was done in three locations) asphalt, grass and rooftop). To measure UVR, Hanger UV spectrometer, standard deviation (SD8-A), and SD8-B detectors were used. Amounts of UVR for a consecutive year and varying weather conditions were measured. Finally, values obtained were compared to ACGIH standards. Results: The minimum and maximum levels of UV type A radiation occurred in April 1.27 (0.724) W/m2 and September 7.147 (4.128) W/m2, these figures for UV type B were in March–April 0.005 (0.003) and September 0.083 (0.077). The maximum UVR is received between 11 and 15 o’clock. Conclusions: In the central cities of Iran, the minimum and maximum UV type A and B is received in March–April and in September, respectively. Based on the results, the angular position of the sun in the sky, cloud cover, and height from ground level affected the amount of UVR received, but the geographic locations studied did not. PMID:25861533

  5. Petroleum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McManus, T. R.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    This review of petroleum covers: crude oil; fuels, gaseous and liquid; lubricants, oils, and greases; asphalts, bitumens, tars, and pitches; hydrocarbons; physical properties; metals in oil; nonmetallic elements and heterocompounds; and analytical methods and apparatus. (MVL)

  6. The role of dermal irritation in the skin tumor promoting activity of petroleum middle distillates.

    PubMed

    Nessel, C S; Freeman, J J; Forgash, R C; McKee, R H

    1999-05-01

    Petroleum middle distillates (PMDs), a class of hydrocarbons which boil between 350-700 degrees F, are tumor promoters in mouse skin. The promotional activity is produced under conditions that also result in local changes, including chronic irritation and epidermal hyperplasia. The present study was conducted by comparing equal weekly doses of irritating and minimally or nonirritating test materials, to assess whether tumor promotion was a secondary response to these effects. Four PMDs, C10-C14 normal paraffins (NP), lightly refined paraffinic oil (LRPO), Jet Fuel A (JF), and steam-cracked gas oil (SCGO), were evaluated. Test materials were applied undiluted (2x/week) or as 28.6% (7x/week) or 50% (4x/week) concentrations in mineral oil for 52 weeks following initiation with dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA). When applied undiluted, all materials produced moderate irritation and significant increase in tumor incidence. When NP, LRPO, or JF were applied in mineral oil diluent, skin irritation was generally ameliorated and few, if any, tumors were produced. SCGO was irritating and produced a significant increase in tumor frequency when administered in mineral-oil diluent. These data indicate that the promotional activity of straight-run PMDs is likely related to chronic irritation at the application site and not to dose. Thus, when used appropriately in the absence of prolonged irritation, these materials should not present a tumorigenic hazard to humans. PMID:10367341

  7. Increased frequency of resistance to terminal differentiation in C3H mouse cells produced by genotoxic but not nongenotoxic carcinogens.

    PubMed

    Przygoda, R T; Freeman, J J; Katz, S; McKee, R H

    1994-08-01

    Certain cells present in mouse skin are resistant to calcium-induced terminal differentiation. It is believed that these calcium-resistant cells (CRCs) represent an early stage in the carcinogenic process, in part, because frequency increases after treatment with mutagens. The frequency of CRCs in C3H mouse skin was measured before and after treatment with certain petroleum-derived materials. One objective was to determine whether this assay could differentiate between genotoxic and nongenotoxic mouse skin carcinogens. An additional objective was to determine whether CRCs are an important factor in the tumorigenicity of petroleum middle distillates (PMDs), a class of apparently nongenotoxic mateials. Three petroleum-derived materials were tested: mineral oil (MO), a noncarcinogenic product used as the negative control; catalytically cracked clarified oil (CCCO), a highly carcinogenic and mutagenic material; and a lightly paraffinic (LRPO), a PMD which has produced tumors when repeatedly applied, but is not mutagenic and does not initiate most skin tumors. The CRC frequency was not increased by LRPO treatment; however, a statistically significant and dose-related increase was produced by CCCO. These results are consistent with observations that genotoxic, petroleum-derived liquids are capable of tumor initiation in mouse skin, whereas PMDs which are not genotoxic do not initiate skin tumors. The number of CRCs in untreated and MO-treated mice was approximately twice the tumor frequency measured in bioassays of PMDs. Thus, tumor production associated with these products could be due to promotion of preexisting, spontaneously initiated cells. PMID:7982534

  8. PROPOSED CARCINOGENIC MECHANISMS FOR ARSENIC

    EPA Science Inventory

    PROPOSED CARCINOGENIC MECHANISMS FOR ARSENIC.

    Arsenic is a human carcinogen in skin, lung, liver, urinary bladder and kidney. In contrast,
    there is no accepted experimental animal model of inorganic arsenic carcinogenesis.
    Proposed mechanisms/modes of action for a...

  9. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as skin carcinogens: Comparison of benzo[a]pyrene, dibenzo[def,p]chrysene and three environmental mixtures in the FVB/N mouse

    PubMed Central

    Siddens, Lisbeth K.; Larkin, Andrew; Krueger, Sharon K.; Bradfield, Christopher A.; Waters, Katrina M.; Tilton, Susan C.; Pereira, Cliff B.; Löhr, Christiane V.; Arlt, Volker M.; Phillips, David H.; Williams, David E.; Baird, William M.

    2012-01-01

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), was compared to dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC) and combinations of three environmental PAH mixtures (coal tar, diesel particulate and cigarette smoke condensate) using a two stage, FVB/N mouse skin tumor model. DBC (4 nmol) was most potent, reaching 100% tumor incidence with a shorter latency to tumor formation, less than 20 weeks of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) promotion compared to all other treatments. Multiplicity was 4 times greater than BaP (400 nmol). Both PAHs produced primarily papillomas followed by squamous cell carcinoma and carcinoma in situ. Diesel particulate extract (1 mg SRM 1650b; mix 1) did not differ from toluene controls and failed to elicit a carcinogenic response. Addition of coal tar extract (1 mg SRM 1597a; mix 2) produced a response similar to BaP. Further addition of 2 mg of cigarette smoke condensate (mix 3) did not alter the response with mix 2. PAH-DNA adducts measured in epidermis 12 h post initiation and analyzed by 32P post- labeling, did not correlate with tumor incidence. PAH- dependent alteration in transcriptome of skin 12 h post initiation was assessed by microarray. Principal component analysis (sum of all treatments) of the 922 significantly altered genes (p<0.05), showed DBC and BaP to cluster distinct from PAH mixtures and each other. BaP and mixtures up-regulated phase 1 and 2 metabolizing enzymes while DBC did not. The carcinogenicity with DBC and two of the mixtures was much greater than would be predicted based on published Relative Potency Factors (RPFs). PMID:22935520

  10. In vivo suppression of HSP27 and HSP70 accelerates DMBA-induced skin carcinogenesis by inducing antigenic unresponsiveness to the initiating carcinogenic chemical

    PubMed Central

    Yusuf, Nabiha; Nasti, Tahseen H.; Ahmad, Israr; Chowdhury, Sanim; Mohiuddin, Hasan; Xu, Hui; Athar, Mohammad; Timares, Laura; Elmets, Craig A.

    2015-01-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are constitutively expressed in murine skin. HSP27 is present in the epidermis and HSP70 can be found in both the epidermis and dermis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of these proteins in cutaneous chemical carcinogenesis and to determine if their effects on cell-mediated immune function were a contributing factor. In vivo inhibition of HSP27 and HSP70 produced a reduction in the T-cell mediated immune response to 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and benzo(a)pyrene B(a)P in C3H/HeN mice and resulted in a state of antigen specific tolerance. When mice were pre-treated with anti-HSP27 and anti-HSP70 antibodies in vivo prior to subjecting them to a standard two-stage DMBA/12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) cutaneous carcinogenesis protocol, the percentage of mice with tumors was much greater (p<0.05) in anti-HSP27 and HSP70 pre-treated animals compared to mice pre-treated with control antibody. Similar results were obtained when the data were evaluated as the cumulative number of tumors per group. Mice pre-treated with HSP27 and HSP70 antibodies developed more H-ras mutations and fewer DMBA specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes. These findings indicate that in mice HSP27 and HSP70 play a key role in the induction of cell-mediated immunity to carcinogenic polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Bolstering the immune response to carcinogenic polyaromatic hydrocarbons may be an effective method for prevention of the tumors that they produce. PMID:25840912

  11. The carcinogenic initiating and promoting properties of a lightly refined paraffinic oil.

    PubMed

    McKee, R H; Plutnick, R T; Przygoda, R T

    1989-05-01

    The dermal carcinogenic potential of some petroleum-derived liquids is related to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content. However, repeated application of middle distillates (MDs), e.g., kerosene, diesel fuel, and heating oil, produced tumors in mouse skin. This result was unexpected since the MDs typically contain very low levels of biologically active PAHs. The present study examined the tumorigenic mechanism of a lightly refined paraffinic oil (LRPO), an MD shown to be active in mouse skin. The LRPO was separated into saturated and aromatic fractions. Whole LRPO and various fractions were tested for mutagenic activity in the Salmonella assay and for carcinogenic initiating and promoting activity. There was no evidence that any of the samples examined were mutagenic in bacteria or carcinogenic initiating agents in mouse skin. Thus no support was provided for the hypothesis that the complete tumorigenic activity of LRPO was in any way related to the presence of low levels of PAHs or to an interaction between initiating and promoting constituents. There was evidence that LRPO was a weak promoter of dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA)-initiated mouse skin. It was also found that repeated application of LRPO produced chronic irritation and hyperplasia, and this may have been responsible for the promotional effects. Based on these data, it seemed likely that the complete carcinogenic activity of this class of products is also the result of an epigenetic process related to skin irritation. PMID:2663578

  12. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as skin carcinogens: Comparison of benzo[a]pyrene, dibenzo[def,p]chrysene and three environmental mixtures in the FVB/N mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Siddens, Lisbeth K.; Larkin, Andrew; Krueger, Sharon K.; Bradfield, Christopher A.; Waters, Katrina M.; Tilton, Susan C.; Pereira, Cliff B.; Löhr, Christiane V.; Arlt, Volker M.; Phillips, David H.; Williams, David E.; and others

    2012-11-01

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), was compared to dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC) and combinations of three environmental PAH mixtures (coal tar, diesel particulate and cigarette smoke condensate) using a two stage, FVB/N mouse skin tumor model. DBC (4 nmol) was most potent, reaching 100% tumor incidence with a shorter latency to tumor formation, less than 20 weeks of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) promotion compared to all other treatments. Multiplicity was 4 times greater than BaP (400 nmol). Both PAHs produced primarily papillomas followed by squamous cell carcinoma and carcinoma in situ. Diesel particulate extract (1 mg SRM 1650b; mix 1) did not differ from toluene controls and failed to elicit a carcinogenic response. Addition of coal tar extract (1 mg SRM 1597a; mix 2) produced a response similar to BaP. Further addition of 2 mg of cigarette smoke condensate (mix 3) did not alter the response with mix 2. PAH-DNA adducts measured in epidermis 12 h post initiation and analyzed by {sup 32}P post‐labeling, did not correlate with tumor incidence. PAH‐dependent alteration in transcriptome of skin 12 h post initiation was assessed by microarray. Principal component analysis (sum of all treatments) of the 922 significantly altered genes (p < 0.05), showed DBC and BaP to cluster distinct from PAH mixtures and each other. BaP and mixtures up-regulated phase 1 and phase 2 metabolizing enzymes while DBC did not. The carcinogenicity with DBC and two of the mixtures was much greater than would be predicted based on published Relative Potency Factors (RPFs). -- Highlights: ► Dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC), 3 PAH mixtures, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) were compared. ► DBC and 2 PAH mixtures were more potent than Relative Potency Factor estimates. ► Transcriptome profiles 12 hours post initiation were analyzed by microarray. ► Principle components analysis of alterations revealed treatment-based clustering. ► DBC gave a unique

  13. Chemomodulatory effect of Moringa oleifera, Lam, on hepatic carcinogen metabolising enzymes, antioxidant parameters and skin papillomagenesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Bharali, Rupjyoti; Tabassum, Jawahira; Azad, Mohammed Rekibul Haque

    2003-01-01

    The modulatory effects of a hydro-alcoholic extract of drumsticks of Moringa oliefera Lam at doses of 125 mg/kg bodyweight and 250 mg/ kg body weight for 7 and 14 days, respectively, were investigated with reference to drug metabolising Phase I (Cytochrome b(5) and Cytochrome p(450) ) and Phase II (Glutathione-S- transferase) enzymes, anti-oxidant enzymes, glutathione content and lipid peroxidation in the liver of 6-8 week old female Swiss albino mice. Further, the chemopreventive efficacy of the extract was evaluated in a two stage model of 7,12 - dimethylbenz(a)anthracene induced skin papillomagenesis. Significant increase (p<0.05 to p<0.01) in the activities of hepatic cytochrome b(5), cytochrome p(450), catalase, glutathione peroxidase ( GPx ), glutathione reductase (GR), acid soluble sulfhydryl content (-SH ) and a significant decrease ( p<0.01 ) in the hepatic MDA level were observed at both dose levels of treatment when compared with the control values. Glutathione-S- transferase ( GST )activity was found to be significantly increased (p<0.01 ) only at the higher dose level. Butylated hydroxyanisol (BHA ) fed at a dose of 0.75% in the diet for 7 and 14 days (positive control ) caused a significant increase (p<0.05 to p<0.01) in the levels of hepatic phase I and phase II enzymes, anti- oxidant enzymes, glutathione content and a decrease in lipid peroxidation. The skin papillomagenesis studies demonstrated a significant decrease (p<0.05 ) in the percentage of mice with papillomas, average number of papillomas per mouse and papillomas per papilloma bearing mouse when the animals received a topical application of the extract at a dose of 5mg/ kg body weight in the peri-initiation phase 7 days before and 7 days after DMBA application, Group II ), promotional phase (from the day of croton oil application and continued till the end of the experiment, Group III ) and both peri and post initiation stages (from 7 days prior to DMBA application and continued till the

  14. Carcinogen File.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environment, 1978

    1978-01-01

    First in a series of bulletins designed to provide information about the problem of carcinogens in the environment is on benzo(a)pyrine. Benzo(a)pyrine is a proven cancer-causing substance that has been known for over ten years to occur in broiled sausages, gas-broiled fish and beef steak, and charcoal-broiled meat. (Author/BB)

  15. Carcinogenicity of hair dye components.

    PubMed

    Van Duuren, B L

    1980-03-01

    The available animal carcinogenicity data on hair dye components was reviewed. From this review it became clear that certain hair dye components, some of which are still in hair dye formulations now on the market, are animal carcinogens. The compounds of concern that are still in use are: 3-amino-4-methoxyaniline, 2-nitro-4-aminoaniline and 3-nitro-4-hydroxyaniline. Certain azo dyes formerly used, and related compounds still in use, contain the benzidine moiety. Two of these compounds, Direct Blue 6 and Direct Black 38, have been shown to be metabolized in animals to the human carcinogen benzidine. Furthermore, skin absorption studies carried out with radiolabeled hair dye components applied to animal or human skin have conclusively shown that these compounds are systemically absorbed and excreted. Known cocarcinogens such as catechol and pyrogallol, which enhance benzo(a)pyrene carcinogenicity on mouse skin, are used as hair dye components. It is not known whether such compounds will enhance the carcinogenicity of substituted aniline hair dye chemicals. The available epidemiologic data are not sufficient to link hair dye use with an increased incidence in human cancer. PMID:6993608

  16. The carcinogenicity of arsenic.

    PubMed Central

    Pershagen, G

    1981-01-01

    A carcinogenic role of inorganic arsenic has been suspected for nearly a century. Exposure to inorganic arsenic compounds occurs in some occupational groups, e.g., among smelter workers and workers engaged in the production and use of arsenic containing pesticides. Substantial exposure can also result from drinking water in certain areas and the use of some drugs. Tobacco and wine have had high As concentrations due to the use of arsenic containing pesticides. Inorganic arsenic compounds interfere with DNA repair mechanisms and an increased frequency of chromosomal aberrations have been observed among exposed workers and patients. Epidemiological data show that inorganic arsenic exposure can cause cancer of the lung and skin. The evidence of an etiologic role of arsenic for angiosarcoma of the liver is highly suggestive; however, the association between arsenic and cancer of other sites needs further investigation. No epidemiological data are available on exposure to organic arsenic compounds and cancer. Animal carcinogenicity studies involving exposure to various inorganic and organic arsenic compounds by different routes have been negative, with the possible exception of some preliminary data regarding lung cancer and leukemia. Some studies have indicated an increased mortality from lung cancer in populations living near point emission sources of arsenic into the air. The role of arsenic cannot be evaluated due to lack of exposure data. Epidemiological data suggest that the present WHO standard for drinking water (50 micrograms As/l.) provides only a small safety margin with regard to skin cancer. PMID:7023936

  17. Test of carcinogenicity in mouse skin: Methylenedianiline,. gamma. glycidyloxytrimethyloxysilane,. gamma. aminopropyltriethoxysilane and a mixture of m-phenylenediamine, methylenedianiline, and diglycidylether of bisphenol-A

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, J.M.; Smith, L.H.; Frome, E.; Whitaker, M.J.; Gipson, L.C.; Fry, R.J.M.

    1987-06-01

    Application of graded concentrations of four test substances in acetone to the skin of C3H mice five times a week resulted in the following: ..gamma..aminopropyltriethoxysilane at concentration of 100 and 50 wt/vol % was a severe and mild skin irritant in female C3Hf/Bd respectively and in males a mild skin irritant. Methylenedianiline at a concentration of 10 wt/vol % in methanol killed 4/9 females and 1/9 males. When acetone was the solvent 3/10 females and 3/10 males died within 2 weeks. No mortality or skin damage occurred with ..gamma..glycidyloxytrimethyloxysilane or the mixture of m-phenylenediamine, methylenedianiline and diglycidylether of bisphenol A (MDA). A study of the effects of a two-year, three times a week, topical application of the four test materials revealed no significant increase in skin tumors. The incidence of liver tumors appeared to be increased by exposure to methylenedianiline and with the mixture (MDA). Significant and dose-dependent increases in mortality were found in male mice with MDA and increased mortality at the highest dose (10.8 mg/week) in females. In the case of methylenedianiline excess mortality was found in both sexes. The precise cause of excess mortality from dermal absorption of the materials applied over a two-year period was not established. 5 refs., 12 figs., 12 tabs.

  18. CARCINOGENIC EFFECTS OF ACRYLAMIDE IN SENCAR AND A/J MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acrylamide structurally resembles vinyl carbamate, a proposed proximate carcinogenic form of ethyl carbamate. To test the hypothesis that acrylamide should possess carcinogenic properties, it was tested in the Salmonella-microsome assay for point mutation, as a skin tumor initiat...

  19. Comparative Carcinogenicity for Mouse-Skin of Smoke Condensates Prepared from Cigarettes Made from the Same Tobacco Cured by Two Processes

    PubMed Central

    Roe, F. J. C.; Clack, J. C.; Bishop, D.; Peto, R.

    1970-01-01

    Bright tobacco grown in Mexico was either flue-cured and redried (FC) or air-cured and bulk-fermented (AC). Both FC and AC were made into cigarettes standardized for draw resistance. FC and AC cigarettes were smoked under similar conditions in a smoking machine (one 2-second 25 ml. puff per minute down to a 20 mm. butt length). Condensates were kept at 0-4° C. until applied to the skin of mice. Three groups of 400 female Swiss mice were treated as follows: Group 1— thrice weekly application of 60 mg. FC in 0.25 ml. acetone to the clipped dorsal skin: Group 2— similar treatment with AC; Group 3—thrice weekly application of 0.25 ml. acetone only. Chemical analysis of the 2 tobaccos and 2 condensates revealed only small differences in composition and it is noteworthy that the concentration of reducing sugars was almost as high as in the AC tobacco as in the FC tobacco. The risk of development of skin tumours, particularly malignant skin tumours, was higher in FC-treated mice than in AC-treated mice (p < 0.01), but the difference may have been due to the use of equal weights of condensates rather than the use of extracts from equal numbers of cigarettes, since the AC cigarettes produced more condensate. The rates of detection of pulmonary tumours also varied between groups (p < 0.01) but this does not necessarily imply that the incidence rates of pulmonary tumours varied. There was no evidence that the detection or incidence rates of any other neoplasms, including malignant lymphoma, were affected by treatment with either of the condensates. PMID:5428608

  20. 29 CFR 1910.1003 - 13 Carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... representatives, and the Assistant Secretary in accordance with 29 CFR 1910.1020 (a) through (e) and (g) through... impervious to the passage of the material and would prevent the entry of the carcinogen addressed by this... Carcinogens: (A) 4-Nitrobiphenyl: Cancer. (B) alpha-Naphthylamine: Cancer; skin irritation; and acute...

  1. Listing Occupational Carcinogens

    PubMed Central

    Siemiatycki, Jack; Richardson, Lesley; Straif, Kurt; Latreille, Benoit; Lakhani, Ramzan; Campbell, Sally; Rousseau, Marie-Claude; Boffetta, Paolo

    2004-01-01

    The occupational environment has been a most fruitful one for investigating the etiology of human cancer. Many recognized human carcinogens are occupational carcinogens. There is a large volume of epidemiologic and experimental data concerning cancer risks in different work environments. It is important to synthesize this information for both scientific and public health purposes. Various organizations and individuals have published lists of occupational carcinogens. However, such lists have been limited by unclear criteria for which recognized carcinogens should be considered occupational carcinogens, and by inconsistent and incomplete information on the occupations and industries in which the carcinogenic substances may be found and on their target sites of cancer. Based largely on the evaluations published by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, and augmented with additional information, the present article represents an attempt to summarize, in tabular form, current knowledge on occupational carcinogens, the occupations and industries in which they are found, and their target organs. We have considered 28 agents as definite occupational carcinogens, 27 agents as probable occupational carcinogens, and 113 agents as possible occupational carcinogens. These tables should be useful for regulatory or preventive purposes and for scientific purposes in research priority setting and in understanding carcinogenesis. PMID:15531427

  2. The Influence of Carcinogenic Dosage and of Sex on the Induction of Epitheliomas and Sarcomas in the Dorsal Skin of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Cherry, Cora P.; Glucksmann, A.

    1971-01-01

    The effect of varying the numbers (4, 5, 10, 20 and 40) of weekly applications of DMBA to the dorsal skin of intact and castrate male and female rats on the induction of basal and squamous celled epitheliomas and of sarcomas has been investigated. Basal celled tumours originate mainly in hair follicles and squamous celled neoplasms in the interfollicular regions of the epidermis and differ in their progression to malignancy. Penetration of the panniculus carnosus is neither a sufficient nor necessary criterion of malignancy since growing hair follicles pass through the muscle layer and carcinomas and sarcomas which are still confined to the dermis, spread along the perineural lymphatics and metastasise to the lungs. Sex and castration do not affect carcinogenesis of epitheliomas in the dorsal skin at any dose level. Significantly more sarcomas result from 20 weekly paintings in male than in female or castrate rats. The induction period for all tumour types is shortened in sensitive individuals only by an increase from 5 to 10 weekly applications. For less sensitive animals the rate of oncogenesis is accelerated with number of administrations up to 20, but slowed down from this level by 40 paintings. The optimal dose for speed of induction of all tumour types, for maximal yield of basal celled epitheliomas and for that of sarcomas in male rats is 20 weekly applications. The progression to malignancy varies with tumour type: it is fast for sarcomas and slow for basal celled neoplasms. Of the 336 rats at risk only 1% have fibromas or other precursor lesions, while 40% have sarcomas; animals with squamous celled papillomas account for 12%, but those with carcinomas for 66%; there are, however, 64% of rats with basal celled papillomas and only 9% with carcinomas. The optimal dose phenomenon in carcinogenesis is discussed. ImagesFigs. 4-6Figs. 1-3 PMID:5144527

  3. Chronic dermal studies of petroleum streams in mice.

    PubMed

    Broddle, W D; Dennis, M W; Kitchen, D N; Vernot, E H

    1996-03-01

    During petroleum refining, a large number of products are generated which have varying chemical and physical properties. These are known in the industry as petroleum streams. In order to characterize their carcinogenic activity, a number of these commercially produced streams were administered to C3H/HeJ mice in chronic dermal bioassays. The bioassays were conducted using one of two study designs: the first set of test materials was applied for a lifetime and the second set for 24 months. In the lifetime study, the last mice in the test groups survived for periods of 31 to 32 months. Middle distillates, boiling in the range 115-390 degrees C, were found to decrease the lifespan of exposed mice compared to controls or streams of higher and lower boiling ranges. These middle distillate streams included straight run kerosine, hydrodesulfurized middle distillate, straight run middle distillate, light catalytic cracked distillate, and 90/10% and 70/30% mixtures of the last two. The middle distillate streams also proved to be active as carcinogens, with tumor incidence ranging from 16 to 67%. Light alkylate naphtha, heavy catalytic reformed naphtha, vacuum residuum, and unleaded gasoline did not demonstrate significant carcinogenic potency. Heavy thermal cracked naphtha, heavy catalytic cracked naphtha, and hydrotreated light naphthenic distillate were dermal carcinogens of low potency in this study. Administration of light catalytic cracked naphtha led to a low incidence of very late developing tumors with a mean latency of 118 weeks. Application of the 0.1% solution of catalytic cracked clarified oil in toluene did not result in a significant incidence of tumors, but the 10% solution caused almost 100% mortality and 100% tumor incidence in 12 months. There was no correlation between carcinogenic potency and the indices of irritation, alopecia, erythema, and scabbing. Only two of the streams tested, hydrotreated light naphthenic distillate and 10% catalytic cracked

  4. 29 CFR 1910.1003 - 13 Carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... representatives, and the Assistant Secretary in accordance with 29 CFR 1910.1020 (a) through (e) and (g) through... Carcinogens: (A) 4-Nitrobiphenyl: Cancer. (B) alpha-Naphthylamine: Cancer; skin irritation; and acute toxicity effects. (C) Methyl chloromethyl ether: Cancer; skin, eye and respiratory effects; acute toxicity...

  5. Carcinogenicity and toxicity of methoxychlor.

    PubMed Central

    Reuber, M D

    1980-01-01

    Methoxychlor is carcinogenic for the liver of C3H and BALB/c mice and Osborne-Mendel rats, and possibly for the liver of dogs. Methoxychlor is also carcinogenic for the testis of BALB/c male mice, bone of B6C3F1 female mice, and the ovary of Osborne-Mendel female rats. The incidences of carcinomas of the liver were increased in C3H male mice and BALB/c male and female mice fed methoxychlor. There also was an increase in malignant neoplasms at all sites in BALB/c male and female mice. C3H and BALB/c male mice were more susceptible to the carcinogenic effects of methoxychlor than were female mice. BALB/c mice were more susceptible than C3H mice. Osborne-Mendel male and female rats developed significant incidences of carcinomas of the liver. The incidence of sarcomas of the spleen and abdomen, mostly hemangiosarcomas, was increased in male rats. Neoplasms of the pituitary, adrenals, and mammary gland were also increased in methoxychlor-treated female rats. Miniature swine given methoxychlor developed chronic renal disease in relatively short periods of time. There also was hyperplasia of the mammary gland and uterus, suggesting an estrogen-like effect on those organs. Methoxychlor applied to the skin of rabbits caused a dose-related atrophy of the testes, as well as chronic renal disease. Atrophy of the testes and chronic renal disease could not be evaluated in mice and rats because of insufficient data. PMID:7000513

  6. Carcinogenicity of inhaled nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Roller, Markus

    2009-07-01

    Large epidemiological studies in the United States have shown a statistical association between air concentration of the fine dust fraction PM(2.5) in the general environment and increased risk of lung cancer. A quantitative risk assessment for lung cancer based on these studies corresponds to risk estimates based on studies at workplaces with exposure to diesel engine emissions; its magnitude cannot be explained by the known carcinogenicity of organic substances or metals adsorbed to the insoluble particle core. Carcinogenic effects of diesel particles were observed after inhalation in rats independently in several studies. The surprisingly strong effect of diesel particles was partially attributed to their small size. This hypothesis was corroborated by inhalation studies with synthetic nanoparticles virtually free of organic compounds. IARC found sufficient evidence for the carcinogenicity of carbon black and of titanium dioxide in experimental animals. Long-term studies by the method of intratracheal instillation confirmed the carcinogenic effects in rats for an even broader spectrum of synthetic nanoparticles. Non-positive studies with hamsters are not valid because hamsters did not develop lung tumors after inhalation of some known human carcinogens. In recent years, the number of publications reporting in vitro genotoxicity of TiO(2) and of carbon black nanomaterials has increased. Overall, there is clear positive evidence for carcinogenicity in rats, together with supporting evidence from human data of structurally related substances. Therefore, the European Union (EU) criteria for category 2 of carcinogenic substances appear to be fulfilled for bio-durable nanoparticles consisting of matter without known significant specific toxicity. PMID:19558247

  7. Dietary Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ames, Bruce N.

    1983-01-01

    Describes 16 mutagens/carcinogens found in plant food and coffee as well as several anticarcinogens also found in such food. Speculates on relevant biochemical mechanisms, particularly the role of oxygen radicals and their inhibitors in the fat/cancer relationship, promotion, anticarcinogenesis, and aging. (JN)

  8. CPDB: Carcinogenic Potency Database.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Roberta Bronson

    2008-01-01

    The Carcinogenic Potency Database reports analyses of animal cancer tests on 1,547 chemicals. These tests are used in support of cancer risk assessments for humans. Results are searchable and are made available via the National Library of Medicine's (NLM) TOXNET system. This column will provide background information on the database, as well as present search basics. PMID:19042710

  9. Are genotoxic carcinogens more potent than nongenotoxic carcinogens?

    PubMed Central

    Parodi, S; Malacarne, D; Romano, P; Taningher, M

    1991-01-01

    In this report we have raised the question whether genotoxic carcinogens are more potent than nongenotoxic carcinogens when studied in long-term carcinogenicity assays in rodents. To build a large database of compounds for which both carcinogenicity and genotoxicity had been investigated, we have used a database produced by Gold and co-workers for carcinogenic potency data (975 chemicals) and a database produced by Würgler for genotoxicity data (2834 chemicals). Considering compounds positive or negative in at least three short-term tests and in at least 75% of available tests, we could define 67 genotoxic carcinogens and 46 nongenotoxic carcinogens. Carcinogenic potency of genotoxic carcinogens was about 50 times higher than carcinogenic potency of nongenotoxic carcinogens. Our results are different from the results of Tennant et al.; their database (24 genotoxic carcinogens and 12 nongenotoxic carcinogens compatible with our definition) seems to suggest that there is practically no difference in potency between genotoxic and nongenotoxic carcinogens. The two databases have only four compounds in common and are also different in terms of number of elements for different chemical classes. Nitrosocompounds, nitrogen mustards, hydrazine derivatives, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are not represented in the database of Tennant. The overall impression from our analysis is that the usefulness of short-term tests of genotoxicity could be significantly better than what has been suggested by the previous work of Tennant et al. because these tests tend to detect, at least for many important chemical classes, the most potent carcinogens. This consideration may not be valid for certain classes of chemicals. PMID:1821372

  10. Carcinogen risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Hazelwoold, R.N.

    1987-01-01

    This article describes the methods by which risk factors for carcinogenic hazards are determined and the limitations inherent in the process. From statistical and epidemiological studies, the major identifiable factors related to cancer in the United States were determined to be cigarette smoking, diet, reproductive and sexual behavior, infections, ultraviolet and ionizing radiation, and alcohol consumption. The incidence of lung cancer due to air pollutants was estimated to be less than 2%. Research needs were discussed.

  11. Toxicologic responses to a complex coal conversion by-product: mammalian cell mutagenicity and dermal carcinogenicity

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, M.L.; Haugen, D.A.; Kirchner, F.R.; Reilly, C.A. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    In the present study, we measured mutagenicity and cytotoxicity in hamster and human cells in vitro and tumorigenicity in mouse skin in vivo. The Chinese hamster ovary cell/hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (CHO/HGPRT) assay has proven useful in estimating the mutagenic activity of pure compounds but has been used only to a limited extent with complex mixtures. The human teratocarcinoma cell line, designated P/sub 3/, used in these studies has recently been adapted for use in mutagenesis assays of individual compounds but has not previously been used to evaluate mutagenesis by complex mixtures. In this report, we compare the responses of the hamster and human cell lines and the mouse skin to chemical class fractions of a complex organic by-product condensate (tar) of coal gasification. The composition of this complex tar is chemically similar to that of petroleum-derived tars and products of fossil fuel combustion. By testing basic, acidic, and neutral chemical class fractions of the complex tar, we demonstrated that the predominant genotoxic components were present in the neutral fraction as measured both in the CHO/HGPRT and dermal carcinogenicity assays. The human P/sub 3/ cells were less sensitive for mutagenesis and cytotoxicity than were the rodent cells. Furthermore, fractionation and bioassay provided evidence for interactive effects that indicate the importance of combining chemical characterization and toxicologic evaluation of complex mixtures. 25 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  12. Petroleum mineral oil refining and evaluation of cancer hazard.

    PubMed

    Mackerer, Carl R; Griffis, Larry C; Grabowski Jr, John S; Reitman, Fred A

    2003-11-01

    Petroleum base oils (petroleum mineral oils) are manufactured from crude oils by vacuum distillation to produce several distillates and a residual oil that are then further refined. Aromatics including alkylated polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC) are undesirable constituents of base oils because they are deleterious to product performance and are potentially carcinogenic. In modern base oil refining, aromatics are reduced by solvent extraction, catalytic hydrotreating, or hydrocracking. Chronic exposure to poorly refined base oils has the potential to cause skin cancer. A chronic mouse dermal bioassay has been the standard test for estimating carcinogenic potential of mineral oils. The level of alkylated 3-7-ring PAC in raw streams from the vacuum tower must be greatly reduced to render the base oil noncarcinogenic. The processes that can reduce PAC levels are known, but the operating conditions for the processing units (e.g., temperature, pressure, catalyst type, residence time in the unit, unit engineering design, etc.) needed to achieve adequate PAC reduction are refinery specific. Chronic dermal bioassays provide information about whether conditions applied can make a noncarcinogenic oil, but cannot be used to monitor current production for quality control or for conducting research or developing new processes since this test takes at least 78 weeks to conduct. Three short-term, non-animal assays all involving extraction of oil with dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) have been validated for predicting potential carcinogenic activity of petroleum base oils: a modified Ames assay of a DMSO extract, a gravimetric assay (IP 346) for wt. percent of oil extracted into DMSO, and a GC-FID assay measuring 3-7-ring PAC content in a DMSO extract of oil, expressed as percent of the oil. Extraction with DMSO concentrates PAC in a manner that mimics the extraction method used in the solvent refining of noncarcinogenic oils. The three assays are described, data demonstrating the

  13. Arsenic Is A Genotoxic Carcinogen

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic is a recognized human carcinogen; however, there is controversy over whether or not it should be considered a genotoxic carcinogen. Many possible modes of action have been proposed on how arsenic induces cancer, including inhibiting DNA repair, altering methylation patter...

  14. Low-Dose Carcinogenicity Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the major deficiencies of cancer risk assessments is the lack of low-dose carcinogenicity data. Most assessments require extrapolation from high to low doses, which is subject to various uncertainties. Only 4 low-dose carcinogenicity studies and 5 low-dose biomarker/pre-n...

  15. Carcinogen Control in the Chemical Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, James S.

    1981-01-01

    Presents general and specific guidelines for handling carcinogens. Additional topics include: definition of potential occupational carcinogens; classification of carcinogens; inventory requirements; signs and labels for materials and laboratories; decontamination and disposal procedures; medical surveillance for employees working with controlled…

  16. CARCINOGENICITY AND PESTICIDES: BIOLOGICAL ISSUES IN EXTRAPOLATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Approximately 41% (26/63) of the pesticides evaluated in the chronic toxicity and carcinogen lofty studies of the National Toxicology Program (NTP) showed varying degrees of carcinogenicity. Since those chemicals nominated to the NTP for carcinogenicity studies usually represent ...

  17. Contact dermatitis and related dermatoses associated with petroleum recovery and use

    SciTech Connect

    Birmingham, D.J.

    1988-07-01

    The author reviews the skin's structural and functional protections, and causal factors and clinical patterns of occupational skin disease. He then examines the literature concerning petroleum industry operations and petroleum-derived product use as they relate to skin disease. The chapter concludes with commentary on prevention and treatment of related skin disease. 22 references.

  18. Oxidative Stress in the Carcinogenicity of Chemical Carcinogens

    PubMed Central

    Kakehashi, Anna; Wei, Min; Fukushima, Shoji; Wanibuchi, Hideki

    2013-01-01

    This review highlights several in vivo studies utilizing non-genotoxic and genotoxic chemical carcinogens, and the mechanisms of their high and low dose carcinogenicities with respect to formation of oxidative stress. Here, we survey the examples and discuss possible mechanisms of hormetic effects with cytochrome P450 inducers, such as phenobarbital, α-benzene hexachloride and 1,1-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane. Epigenetic processes differentially can be affected by agents that impinge on oxidative DNA damage, repair, apoptosis, cell proliferation, intracellular communication and cell signaling. Non-genotoxic carcinogens may target nuclear receptors and induce post-translational modifications at the protein level, thereby impacting on the stability or activity of key regulatory proteins, including oncoproteins and tumor suppressor proteins. We further discuss role of oxidative stress focusing on the low dose carcinogenicities of several genotoxic carcinogens such as a hepatocarcinogen contained in seared fish and meat, 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline, arsenic and its metabolites, and the kidney carcinogen potassium bromate. PMID:24202448

  19. Differential carcinogenic effects of intraperitoneal initiation with 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene or urethane and topical promotion with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate in skin and internal tissues of female SENCAR and BALB/c mice

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, J.M.; Rehm, S.; Devor, D.; Hennings, H.; Wenk, M.L.

    1986-09-01

    Groups of female SENCAR or BALB/c mice were initiated once intraperitoneally with 300 ..mu..g/mouse of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a) anthracene (DMBA) or 20 mg/mouse of urethane at 7 weeks of age. Beginning one week later, mice received topically applied acetone or 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), once weekly, at 2.5 ..mu..g/mouse for weeks 1 through 6 and 1.25 ..mu..g/mouse for weeks 7 through 52. The skin lesions were evaluated clinically. A complete necropsy was performed on all mice at week 52. SENCAR mice exposed to DMBA/TPA and urethane/TPA had more skin tumors than SENCAR mice exposed to DMBA or urethane alone and more than BALB/c mice in any treatment group. Of all skin carcinomas diagnosed histologically in DMBA/TPA-exposed mice, less than one-third had been identified clinically while the mice were alive. Most of the carcinomas arose within papillomas. BALB/c mice developed more vascular and uterine tumors than did SENCAR mice injected with DMBA and more lung and vascular tumors than did SENCAR mice injected with urethane. TPA exposure after treatment with either initiator had no significant effect on internal tumor development in either SENCAR or BALB/c mice.

  20. Carcinogenicity of methyl-tertiary butyl ether in gasoline.

    PubMed

    Mehlman, Myron A

    2002-12-01

    Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) was added to gasoline on a nationwide scale in 1992 without prior testing of adverse, toxic, or carcinogenic effects. Since that time, numerous reports have appeared describing adverse health effects of individuals exposed to MTBE, both from inhalation of fumes in the workplace and while pumping gasoline. Leakage of MTBE, a highly water-soluble compound, from underground storage tanks has led to contamination of the water supply in many areas of the United States. Legislation has been passed by many states to prohibit the addition of MTBE to gasoline. The addition of MTBE to gasoline has not accomplished its stated goal of decreasing air pollution, and it has posed serious health risks to a large portion of the population, particularly the elderly and those with respiratory problems, asthma, and skin sensitivity. Reports of animal studies of carcinogenicity of MTBE began to appear in the 1990s, prior to the widespread introduction of MTBE into gasoline. These reports were largely ignored. In ensuing years, further studies have shown that MTBE causes various types of malignant tumors in mice and rats. The National Toxicology Program (NTP) Board of Scientific Counselors' Report on Carcinogens Subcommittee met in December 1998 to consider listing MTBE as "reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen." In spite of recommendations from Dr. Bailer, the primary reviewer, and other scientists on the committee, the motion to list MTBE in the report was defeated by a six to five vote, with one abstention. On the basis of animal studies, it is widely accepted that if a chemical is carcinogenic in appropriate laboratory animal test systems, it must be treated as though it were carcinogenic in humans. In the face of compelling evidence, NTP Committee members who voted not to list MTBE as "reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen" did a disservice to the general public; this action may cause needless exposure of many to health risks

  1. N-Methyl-N-nitrosourea as a mammary carcinogenic agent.

    PubMed

    Faustino-Rocha, Ana I; Ferreira, Rita; Oliveira, Paula A; Gama, Adelina; Ginja, Mário

    2015-12-01

    The administration of chemical carcinogens is one of the most commonly used methods to induce tumors in several organs in laboratory animals in order to study oncologic diseases of humans. The carcinogen agent N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) is the oldest member of the nitroso compounds that has the ability to alkylate DNA. MNU is classified as a complete, potent, and direct alkylating compound. Depending on the animals' species and strain, dose, route, and age at the administration, MNU may induce tumors' development in several organs. The aim of this manuscript was to review MNU as a carcinogenic agent, taking into account that this carcinogen agent has been frequently used in experimental protocols to study the carcinogenesis in several tissues, namely breast, ovary, uterus, prostate, liver, spleen, kidney, stomach, small intestine, colon, hematopoietic system, lung, skin, retina, and urinary bladder. In this paper, we also reviewed the experimental conditions to the chemical induction of tumors in different organs with this carcinogen agent, with a special emphasis in the mammary carcinogenesis. PMID:26386719

  2. Development of a carcinogenic potency index for dermal exposure to viscous oil products.

    PubMed

    Brandt, H C; Booth, E D; de Groot, P C; Watson, W P

    1999-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) present in oil streams and formulated products are important determinants of possible carcinogenicity. Following dermal exposures the transport of the PACs from oil (the carrier) into the skin is a factor that may affect macromolecular (DNA) adduct formation and thus determine carcinogenicity. We have developed a mathematical model, which describes the flux into the skin for a representative carcinogenic PAC, benzo(a)pyrene. The model is based on measurements of the amount of benzo(a)pyrene bound to skin DNA or blood observed in mouse skin painting studies. The degree of adduct formation from a particular oil product, which we term the Bioavailability Index (BI), was shown to be a function of both the viscosity of the oil product, which affected the transport of the PAC through the carrier, and the aromaticity, which affected the partition of PAC between the carrier and the skin. Literature data were analysed from mouse skin painting studies with mineral oils of known carcinogenicity. A linear relationship was shown between the amount of DNA adduct formation, expressed as alkylation frequency, and the arithmetic product of the total (3-6) ring PAC content and the BI, which we have termed the Carcinogenic Potency Index (CPI). Comparison of literature data on DNA alkylation frequencies for oil products and their carcinogenicity indicated that oils giving rise to an alkylation frequency below a certain threshold (ca. 1 adduct in 10(8) nucleotides) are non-carcinogenic to mouse skin. This threshold level can be translated into a value for the CPI, below which the genotoxic carcinogenic risk arising from skin contact with the oil product is considered to be negligible. The CPI for bitumens is well below this value, being both due to the low BI from bitumen, but more so, due to their low PAC content. For some bitumens diluted with solvents, i.e. cutback-bitumens, the CPI may exceed this value, indicating a possible carcinogenic risk

  3. Skin turgor

    MedlinePlus

    Doughy skin; Poor skin turgor; Good skin turgor; Decreased skin turgor ... Call your health care provider if: Poor skin turgor occurs with vomiting, diarrhea, or fever. The skin is very slow to return to normal, or the skin "tents" up ...

  4. Summary of carcinogenic potency and positivity for 492 rodent carcinogens in the carcinogenic potency database.

    PubMed Central

    Gold, L S; Slone, T H; Bernstein, L

    1989-01-01

    A tabulation of carcinogenic potency (TD50) by species for 492 chemicals that induce tumors in rats or mice is presented. With the use of the Carcinogenic Potency Database, experimental results are summarized by indicating in which sex-species groups the chemical was tested and the respective evaluations of carcinogenicity. A comparison of three summary measures of TD50 for chemicals with more than one positive experiment per species shows that the most potent TD50 value is similar to measures that average values or functions of values. This tabulation can be used to investigate associations between rodent potency and other factors such as mutagenicity, teratogenicity, chemical structure, and human exposure. PMID:2707207

  5. Predictive testing of environmental carcinogens

    SciTech Connect

    Dickson, J.G.

    1982-01-01

    Two research approaches are presented which address different aspects of predictive testing for environmental carcinogens. In Part I, a well-known microbial assay is used to determine the presence of carcinogens in an environmental sample of suspected hazard. In Part II, a single chemical carcinogen is chosen to demonstrate the utility of three-phase microcosms for prediction of transport and transformations pathways in a reservoir ecosystem. The Ames/Salmonella mutagenicity assay was used to screen processed oil shale extracts for potentially carcinogenic chemicals. Positive mutagenic activity was detected in organic solvent extracts of all four spent shales tested. Problems which might limit application of the Ames assay were explored. The results of assays of one-to-one mixtures of two mutagens which exhibited different dose response curves when assayed separately indicated the response to the mixture was nonadditive. Furthermore, the response to the mixture was determined to be statistically indistinguishable (chi-square analysis) from the dose response curve of one of the mutagens in the majority of cases. This masking effect was found to persist for one strong mutagen (benzo(a)pyrene) even when it composed only 10% of the mixture. The effect of various non-toxic solvents on the mutagenic response of certain mutagens was also determined. Three-phase microcosms were used to study the aquatic fate and effect of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), benz(a)antracene.

  6. Health effects of coal mining and combustion: carcinogens and cofactors.

    PubMed Central

    Falk, H L; Jurgelski, W

    1979-01-01

    Some polynuclear aromatics (PNA) have been found to be potent carcinogens for all tissues and organs of experimental animals that have been exposed to them, but different dose levels are needed for these effects. They have been known for decades to cause cancer at the site of application but also at certain sites distant from the area of contact. Although some hydrocarbons are potent and complete carcinogens, the majority of related hydrocarbons was originally found to be inactive. Since they generally appear together, it was important to know more about their interaction, particularly whether they would synergize, or antagonize. The polycyclic hydrocarbons have been studied by subcutaneous injection, where they prove very potent carcinogens. They are also very active on the skin of mice where they produce cancer on prolonged application. Inhalation studies, require larger doses yielded negative results until particulate matter was introduced which facilitated the development of lung tumors. Although iron oxide dust was used initially, other dusts were also capable of enhancing the response of the tissue to benzo(a)pyrene carcinogenesis. This point is of importance, particularly since the inhalation of PNA in situations of air pollution or coal mining involves particulates, although of a different type. Soot is not a homogenous substance and several factors determine its properties. Soots will lose some of the absorbed chemicals during their residence in air, but they retain their PNAs for long periods of time when they reach the soil. The carcinogenicity of PNAs in the adsorbed state may be completely absent, depending on particle size of the soot and availability of eluting capability of the tissues or cells in contact with the soot. Whenever the carcinogenic polynuclear aromatics can be eluted they will be active in producing cancer if their residence is adequate. There seems to be no reason to assume that a large increase in coal combustion in the future will

  7. EVALUATION OF THE POTENTIAL CARCINOGENICITY OF CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cyclophosphamide is a probable human carcinogen, classified as weight-of-evidence Group B1 under the EPA Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1986a).Evidence on potential carcinogenicity from animal studies is "Sufficient," and the evidence from human studies is "...

  8. EVALUATION OF THE CARCINOGENICITY OF UNLEADED GASOLINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the document the likelihood that unleaded gasoline vapors are carcinogenic to humans is evaluated. From carcinogenicity data in animals, an estimate is made of the magnitude of cancer risk a person would experience, under the assumption that gasoline vapors are carcinogenic. A...

  9. EVALUATION OF THE POTENTIAL CARCINOGENICITY OF DAUNOMYCIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Daunomycin is a probable human carcinogen, classified as weight-of-evidence Group B2 under the EPA Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1986a). vidence on potential carcinogenicity from animal studies is "Sufficient," and the evidence from human studies is "No Dat...

  10. EVALUATION OF THE POTENTIAL CARCINOGENICITY OF HYDRAZINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrazine is a probable human carcinogen, classified as weight-of-evidence Group B2 under the EPA Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1986a). vidence on potential carcinogenicity from animal studies is "sufficient," and the evidence from human studies is "Inadequ...

  11. Asphalt fume dermal carcinogenicity potential: I. dermal carcinogenicity evaluation of asphalt (bitumen) fume condensates.

    PubMed

    Clark, Charles R; Burnett, Donald M; Parker, Craig M; Arp, Earl W; Swanson, Mark S; Minsavage, Gary D; Kriech, Anthony J; Osborn, Linda V; Freeman, James J; Barter, Robert A; Newton, Paul E; Beazley, Shelley L; Stewart, Christopher W

    2011-10-01

    Asphalt (bitumen) fume condensates collected from the headspace above paving and Type III built up roofing asphalt (BURA) tanks were evaluated in two-year dermal carcinogenicity assays in male C3H/HeNCrl mice. A third sample was generated from the BURA using a NIOSH laboratory generation method. Similar to earlier NIOSH studies, the BURA fume condensates were applied dermally in mineral oil twice per week; the paving sample was applied 7 days/week for a total weekly dose of 50 mg/wk in both studies. A single benign papilloma was observed in a group of 80 mice exposed to paving fume condensate at the end of the two-year study and only mild skin irritation was observed. The lab generated BURA fume condensate resulted in statistically significant (P<0.0001) increases in squamous cell carcinomas (35 animals or 55% of animals at risk). The field-matched BURA condensate showed a weaker but significant (P=0.0063) increase (8 carcinomas or 13% of animals) and a longer average latency (90 weeks vs. 76 for the lab fume). Significant irritation was observed in both BURA condensates. It is concluded that the paving fume condensate was not carcinogenic under the test conditions and that the field-matched BURA fume condensate produced a weak tumor response compared to the lab generated sample. PMID:21524677

  12. The mammalian toxicological hazards of petroleum-derived substances: an overview of the petroleum industry response to the high production volume challenge program.

    PubMed

    McKee, Richard H; White, Russell

    2014-01-01

    Petroleum-derived substances are complex and composed of aliphatic (normal-, iso-, and cycloparaffins), olefinic, and/or aromatic constituents. Approximately 400 of these complex substances were evaluated as part of the US Environmental Protection Agency voluntary High Production Volume (HPV) Challenge program. The substances were separated into 13 groups (categories), and all available data were assessed. Toxicology testing was conducted as necessary to fully address the end points encompassed by the HPV initiative. In a broad sense, volatile hydrocarbons may cause acute central nervous system effects, and those that are liquids at room temperature pose aspiration hazards if taken into the lungs as liquids and may also cause skin irritation. Higher boiling substances may contain polycyclic aromatic constituents (PACs) that can be mutagenic and carcinogenic and may also cause developmental effects. Substances containing PACs can also cause target organ and developmental effects. The effects of aliphatic constituents include liver enlargement and/or renal effects in male rats via an α-2u-globulin-mediated process and, in some cases, small but statistically significant reductions in hematological parameters. Crude oils may contain other constituents, particularly sulfur- and nitrogen-containing compounds, which are removed during refining. Aside from these more generic considerations, some specific petroleum substances may contain unusually toxic constituents including benzene, 1,3-butadiene, and/or n-hexane, which should also be taken into account if present at toxicologically relevant levels. PMID:24351873

  13. BINDING OF CHEMICAL CARCINOGENS AND MUTAGENS TO RAT HEMOGLOBIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The alkylation of hemoglobin is a proposed dose monitor for chemical carcinogens and mutagens. The binding of fifteen chemical carcinogens and mutagens to rat hemoglobin was determined. Direct acting carcinogens and indirect acting carcinogens including aromatic amines, halogenat...

  14. Skin Dictionary

    MedlinePlus

    ... your skin, hair, and nails Skin dictionary Camp Discovery Good Skin Knowledge lesson plans and activities Video library Find a ... your skin, hair, and nails Skin dictionary Camp Discovery Good Skin Knowledge lesson plans and activities Video library Find a ...

  15. Skin graft

    MedlinePlus

    Skin transplant; Skin autografting; FTSG; STSG; Split thickness skin graft; Full thickness skin graft ... site. Most people who are having a skin graft have a split-thickness skin graft. This takes ...

  16. MOUSE SKIN TUMORS AND HUMAN LUNG CANCER: RELATIONSHIPS WITH COMPLEX ENVIRONMENTAL EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Historically, mouse skin tumorigenesis has been used to evaluate the tumorigenic effects of complex mixtures including human respiratory carcinogens. his study examines the quantitative relationships between tumor induction in SENCAR mouse skin and the induction of respiratory ca...

  17. Prebiotic Petroleum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Mekki-Berrada

    2014-12-01

    This short communication summarizes a global and continuous reflection on the origins of life. "Prebiotic Petroleum" assumes that " the class of most complex molecules of life that may have geochemical and abiotic origin is the class of fatty acids with long aliphatic chains" and proposes a physical process for the formation of liposomes. Developments following the workshop start from the idea that the liposomes also acquire ion exchange channels physically during their forming process.

  18. Prebiotic petroleum.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mekki-Berrada

    2014-12-01

    This short communication summarizes a global and continuous reflection on the origins of life. "Prebiotic Petroleum" assumes that "the class of most complex molecules of life that may have geochemical and abiotic origin is the class of fatty acids with long aliphatic chains" and proposes a physical process for the formation of liposomes. Developments following the workshop start from the idea that the liposomes also acquire ion exchange channels physically during their forming process. PMID:25743765

  19. Thresholds of carcinogenicity of flavors.

    PubMed

    Waddell, William J

    2002-08-01

    Fifteen compounds approved by the FEMA (Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association) expert panel as GRAS (Generally Recognized As Safe) and structurally related compounds have been reported to be carcinogenic in rodent studies. The dose response of the 15 compounds in these studies was scrutinized by attempting to plot the percentage of animals with tumors against the dose of the compound on a logarithmic scale in molecules of compound per kg per day (the Rozman scale). Four compounds had either no or an inverse dose response: benzaldehyde, furfural, 3,4-dihydroxycoumarin, and gamma-buterolactone. Three had a response at one dose only: anethole, estragole (2 studies), and isophorone. Obviously, a dose-response curve could not be generated for these 7 compounds. Four compounds had an increasing response at two doses (benzyl acetate, cinnamyl anthranilate, ethyl acrylate, and estragole); three compounds had increasing responses at three doses (citral, 2,4-hexadienal, and pyridine); one compound had increasing responses at four doses (methyl eugenol). The three compounds with three doses fit a linear plot with a correlation coefficient of at least 0.9; the four doses in male rats of methyl eugenol fit a linear plot with a correlation coefficient of 0.999983. The intercept at zero percentage tumors of these linear fits was at least several orders of magnitude greater than the estimated daily dose of these flavoring agents to individuals in the United States. This is interpreted to indicate that these flavoring agents have a clear threshold for carcinogenicity in animals that is well above the levels currently approved for use in foods; consequently, these animal studies should not be a cause for concern for carcinogenicity of these compounds in humans. Rather, the animal studies should be viewed as providing evidence for the safety of these compounds at current levels of human exposure. PMID:12151622

  20. Sagging Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... Non-ablative Laser Rejuvenation Non-invasive Body Contouring Treatments Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Information Free Skin Cancer Screenings Skin ... Non-ablative Laser Rejuvenation Non-invasive Body Contouring Treatments Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Information Free Skin Cancer Screenings Skin ...

  1. The carcinogenicity of chrysotile asbestos

    SciTech Connect

    Harington, J.S. )

    1991-12-31

    In in vitro test systems, chrysotile is markedly toxic, causes chromosomal aberrations, and is capable of inducing morphological and preneoplastic transformation. In carefully designed animal experiments, chrysotile produces lung cancer and mesothelioma as effectively as do the amphiboles tested. Human population studies do not refute these experimental results. Chrysotile asbestos is carcinogenic to humans, especially for the induction of lung cancer and mesothelioma in exposed populations. For cancers of other sites, with the exception of laryngeal and possibly gastrointestinal cancer, the evidence for association with exposure to all forms of asbestos, including chrysotile, is not yet adequate for evaluation.48 references.

  2. Skin Diseases: Skin Health and Skin Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... the sun. Photo: PhotoDisc Care for conditions from acne to wrinkles Did you know that your skin ... other skin conditions. Many skin problems, such as acne, also affect your appearance. Your skin can also ...

  3. Inter-species comparisons of carcinogenicity.

    PubMed Central

    Purchase, I. F.

    1980-01-01

    The carcinogenicity of 250 chemicals in 2 species, usually the rat and the mouse, was obtained from the published literature through 3 independent sources. Of the 250 compounds listed, 38% were non-carcinogenic in both rats and mice, and 44% were carcinogenic in both species. A total of 43 compounds had different results in the two species, 21 (8%) being carcinogenic in mice only, 17 (7%) in rats only and 5 (2%) having differing results from other species. A comparison of the major target organs affected by chemicals carcinogenic in both species revealed that 64% of the chemicals studied produced cancer at the same site. This comparison of carcinogenic activity in 2 species suggests that extrapolation from results in a single-animal study to man may be subject to substantial errors. PMID:7387835

  4. 31 CFR 576.308 - Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 576.308 Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products. The term Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products means any petroleum, petroleum products, or natural gas originating in...

  5. 31 CFR 576.308 - Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 576.308 Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products. The term Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products means any petroleum, petroleum products, or natural gas originating in...

  6. 31 CFR 576.308 - Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 576.308 Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products. The term Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products means any petroleum, petroleum products, or natural gas originating in...

  7. 31 CFR 576.308 - Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 576.308 Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products. The term Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products means any petroleum, petroleum products, or natural gas originating in...

  8. Prediction of rodent carcinogenicity for 30 chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Ashby, J.

    1996-10-01

    Predictions of carcinogenic activity are made for 30 chemicals currently being assessed for rodent carcinogenicity by the U.S. National Toxicology Program. The predictions are based upon the chemical structure, the anticipated or reported mutagenicity, and the reported sub-chronic toxicity of each chemical. It is predicted that 13 chemicals will be noncarcinogenic to rodents, that 7 will be genotoxic carcinogens, and that 10 may show some evidence of presumed nongenotoxic rodent carcinogenesis. 3 refs., 1 fig.

  9. Trichloroethylene. I. Carcinogenicity of trichloroethylene.

    PubMed

    Motohashi, N; Nagashima, H; Molnár, J

    1999-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) as an industrial pollutant may damage human health and can be considered as carcinogen. TCE has been detected in the environment and in various human organs, e.g., liver, kidney and brain etc. There are histological alterations such as depletion of glycogen and hydropic degeneration in the liver, however, other signs of TCE effects can be found in various organs as well. TCE and its metabolites, e.g., trichlorethanol, trichloro-acetic acid and epoxides were recently identified as strong mutagens in Ames mutagenicity test inducing frameshift and base-substitution mutations. TCE induced predominantly hepatocellular carcinoma after long term administration in mice. In these animals, kidneys and liver were supposed to be primary target organs with low epoxy-hydrolase activity. A high level of mitotic gene conversion (or gene rearrangement) was indicated by the metabolism of TCE after repeated administration. Purified TCE by was a weak mutagen in the presence of S9 microsomal fraction of rats and as a consequence, the carcinogenic activity was low in the kidney of rats. However, a dose related increase of Leydig cell tumors was found in male rats. PMID:10459493

  10. Comparative results of 327 chemical carcinogenicity studies.

    PubMed Central

    Haseman, J K; Huff, J E; Zeiger, E; McConnell, E E

    1987-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the National Toxicology Program (NTP) have carried out a number of laboratory animal carcinogenicity studies and presented the results of these experiments in a series of Technical Reports. This paper tabulates the results of the 327 NCI/NTP studies carried out to date on 308 distinct chemicals, and discusses certain issues relevant to the evaluation of carcinogenicity in these experiments. This compilation of results from NCI/NTP carcinogenicity experiments provides a large database that can be used to study structure-activity correlations, interspecies concordance, and associations between laboratory animal carcinogenicity and other toxicological effects. PMID:3691430

  11. Petroleum catalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lerner, B.

    1996-10-01

    Catalysis reaches almost every major industrial chemical process in place today and spans production of fine chemicals and pharmaceuticals to commodity plastics and gasoline. The catalytic upgrading of crude oil for example renders chemicals, fuels, lubricants, and even coke for steel production. The initial conversion point for all these end products is the petroleum refinery. While there are a variety of catalytic schemes in the modern refinery, four key processes make up the mainstay of refinery operations: Catalytic Cracking, Alkylation, Reforming, and Isomerization. A brief history and outline of the processes will be given followed by a more detailed discussion of the catalysis. It is intended that a knowledge of both the catalytic chemistry and catalytic materials useful in these reactions may be garnered along with a broader view of the importance of catalysis in modern industrial chemistry.

  12. Carcinogenic effects of polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Faroon, O M; Keith, S; Jones, D; De Rosa, C

    2001-03-01

    As part of its mandate, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) prepares toxicological profiles on hazardous chemicals found at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) National Priorities List (NPL) sites that have the greatest public health impact. These profiles comprehensively summarize toxicological and environmental information. This article constitutes the release of an important section of the Toxicological profile for polychlorinated biphenyls [ATSDR. 2000: Toxicological profile for polychlorinated biphenyls. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry.] into the scientific literature. This article focuses on the carcinogenic effects of this group of synthetic organic chemicals (polychlorinated biphenyls) in humans and animals. Information on other health effects, toxicokinetics, mechanisms of toxicity, biomarkers, interactions, chemical and physical properties, potential for human exposure, and regulations and advisories is detailed in the profile. PMID:12117297

  13. Markers of exposure to carcinogens.

    PubMed Central

    Wogan, G N

    1989-01-01

    Methods have been developed for the detection of exposure to carcinogens and other DNA damaging agents in experimental animals and man through the detection of carcinogens or their metabolic derivatives in body fluids, or through adducts bound covalently to DNA or hemoglobin. The successful use of urinary markers of genotoxic exposures has been reported with respect to nitrosoproline as an indicator of exposure to N-nitroso compounds. The same approach has been used to detect AFB1 and AFB1-N7-Gua as markers of exposure to aflatoxin B1; of 3-methyladenine produced as a result of exposure to methylating agents; and thymine glycol as an indicator of exposure to agents causing oxidative damage to DNA. Detection of adducts formed between genotoxic agents and hemoglobin has been reported in studies of populations occupationally exposed to ethylene oxide, in which 3-hydroxyhistidine and 3-hydroxyvaline have been measured, and in smokers, whose hemoglobin has been found to contain levels of 4-aminobiphenyl and 3-hydroxyvaline that were correlated with the frequency of cigarette smoking. Detection of DNA adducts of genotoxic agents in the cells and tissues of exposed individuals has also been accomplished through the use of several types of analytical methods. Immunoassays and physicochemical methods have been applied to detect adducts formed through the major intermediate in the activation of benzo(a)pyrene, the 7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE). This adduct has been found in the DNA of peripheral leukocytes of workers in foundries, aluminum manufacturing plants, roofers, and coke oven plants, and also in cigarette smokers.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2667991

  14. TOPICAL REVIEW: MUTAGENICITY AND CARCINOGENICITY OF AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although both outdoor and indoor airs provide exposure to mutagens and carcinogens, this review shows that the level of hazard is highly variable. Outdoor air was first shown to be carcinogenic in 1942 and mutagenic in 1975; and studies examining the genotoxicity of indoor air so...

  15. PROPOSED GUIDELINES FOR CARCINOGEN RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Proposed Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment were published in the Federal Register on April 23, 1996 (Federal Register: 17960-18011) for a 120-day public review and comment period. The Proposed Guidelines are a revision of EPA's 1986 Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Ass...

  16. Risk assessment of carcinogens in food

    SciTech Connect

    Barlow, Susan

    2010-03-01

    Approaches for the risk assessment of carcinogens in food have evolved as scientific knowledge has advanced. Early methods allowed little more than hazard identification and an indication of carcinogenic potency. Evaluation of the modes of action of carcinogens and their broad division into genotoxic and epigenetic (non-genotoxic, non-DNA reactive) carcinogens have played an increasing role in determining the approach followed and provide possibilities for more detailed risk characterisation, including provision of quantitative estimates of risk. Reliance on experimental animal data for the majority of risk assessments and the fact that human exposures to dietary carcinogens are often orders of magnitude below doses used in experimental studies has provided a fertile ground for discussion and diverging views on the most appropriate way to offer risk assessment advice. Approaches used by national and international bodies differ, with some offering numerical estimates of potential risks to human health, while others express considerable reservations about the validity of quantitative approaches requiring extrapolation of dose-response data below the observed range and instead offer qualitative advice. Recognising that qualitative advice alone does not provide risk managers with information on which to prioritise the need for risk management actions, a 'margin of exposure' approach for substances that are both genotoxic and carcinogenic has been developed, which is now being used by the World Health Organization and the European Food Safety Authority. This review describes the evolution of risk assessment advice on carcinogens and discusses examples of ways in which carcinogens in food have been assessed in Europe.

  17. A comprehensive evaluation of the carcinogenic potential of middle distillate fuels.

    PubMed

    Nessel, C S

    1999-02-01

    Middle distillate fuels (MDFs), which include jet fuel, kerosene, and diesel fuel, are a class of hydrocarbons distilled from crude oil at approximately 350-700 degrees F (176-371 degrees C). Although MDFs generally do not contain appreciable levels of potentially carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs), they have produced weak tumorigenic responses in mouse skin characterized by low tumor yield and long latency. Recent studies demonstrated that the tumorigenic effects of these MDFs were dependent upon chronic dermal irritation. In the absence of skin irritation, tumors did not develop. Mechanistic studies suggest that straight-run MDFs containing low levels of PACs cause skin tumors through a nongenotoxic mechanism. MDFs cause chronic skin irritation and injury with repeated application to the skin. They have been found to have little or no activity in the modified Ames mutagenicity assay, lack tumor initiating activity, and are active skin tumor promoters. It has been hypothesized that the tumorigenic response to MDFs results from the promotion of preexisting, spontaneously initiated cells. Two recent studies, a one-year tumor promotion study and a two-year skin painting study, evaluated the role of skin irritation on the tumorigenic activity of MDFs in mice. MDFs were applied in pure and diluted forms to assess the effect of equal weekly doses of irritating and nonirritating test materials. The tumorigenicity of straight-run MDFs correlated to the level of skin irritation. No significant increase in tumor incidence occurred under conditions that resulted in minimal skin irritation and injury. These studies indicate that the tumorigenic activity of MDFs containing low levels of PACs is secondary to chronic skin irritation. These materials should not present a carcinogenic hazard in the absence of prolonged skin irritation. PMID:10189577

  18. POTENTIAL ATMOSPHERIC CARCINOGENS, PHASE 1. IDENTIFICATION AND CLASSIFICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A comprehensive literature search identified more than 125 high-volume chemicals having the potential of becoming airborne carcinogenic pollutants. Based on carcinogenicity and mutagenicity data, the pollutants were divided into three categories: probable carcinogens, possible ca...

  19. Human Skin Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylase

    PubMed Central

    Bickers, David R.; Kappas, Attallah

    1978-01-01

    Coal tar products, which are widely used in treating dermatologic disease, contain numerous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, including 3,4-benzo[a]pyrene (BP). BP is among the most potent environmental chemical carcinogens and is known to evoke tumors in the skin of experimental animals and perhaps also of man. In this study the effect of cutaneous application of coal tar solution (U. S. Pharmacopeia) on aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) activity in the skin of patients usually treated with this drug was investigated. AHH, a cytochrome P-450 dependent carcinogen-metabolizing enzyme appears to play an important role in the activation of polycyclic hydrocarbons into reactive moieties that can bind to DNA and that may directly induce cancer. Application of coal tar solution to human skin caused a two to five-fold induction of cutaneous AHH in nine subjects. In further studies, the incubation of human skin with coal tar solution in vitro also caused variable induction of cutaneous AHH. Maximum responses in both systems occurred after 24 h and enzyme activity in vitro was time- and tissue- and substrate-concentration dependent. Studies in experimental animals showed that topical application of coal tar solution caused induction of AHH in skin and, after percutaneous absorption, in liver as well. Assay of several defined constituents of coal tar for AHH induction showed that BP was the most potent inducer of AHH tested. These studies indicate that topical application of coal tar solution in doses ordinarily used in treating dermatologic disease causes induction of AHH in human skin and suggest that such induced enzymatic activity could relate to carcinogenic responses to this agent in skin or, after percutaneous absorption, in other tissues as well. PMID:711851

  20. Combining QSAR Modeling and Text-Mining Techniques to Link Chemical Structures and Carcinogenic Modes of Action.

    PubMed

    Papamokos, George; Silins, Ilona

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing need for new reliable non-animal based methods to predict and test toxicity of chemicals. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR), a computer-based method linking chemical structures with biological activities, is used in predictive toxicology. In this study, we tested the approach to combine QSAR data with literature profiles of carcinogenic modes of action automatically generated by a text-mining tool. The aim was to generate data patterns to identify associations between chemical structures and biological mechanisms related to carcinogenesis. Using these two methods, individually and combined, we evaluated 96 rat carcinogens of the hematopoietic system, liver, lung, and skin. We found that skin and lung rat carcinogens were mainly mutagenic, while the group of carcinogens affecting the hematopoietic system and the liver also included a large proportion of non-mutagens. The automatic literature analysis showed that mutagenicity was a frequently reported endpoint in the literature of these carcinogens, however, less common endpoints such as immunosuppression and hormonal receptor-mediated effects were also found in connection with some of the carcinogens, results of potential importance for certain target organs. The combined approach, using QSAR and text-mining techniques, could be useful for identifying more detailed information on biological mechanisms and the relation with chemical structures. The method can be particularly useful in increasing the understanding of structure and activity relationships for non-mutagens. PMID:27625608

  1. Combining QSAR Modeling and Text-Mining Techniques to Link Chemical Structures and Carcinogenic Modes of Action

    PubMed Central

    Papamokos, George; Silins, Ilona

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing need for new reliable non-animal based methods to predict and test toxicity of chemicals. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR), a computer-based method linking chemical structures with biological activities, is used in predictive toxicology. In this study, we tested the approach to combine QSAR data with literature profiles of carcinogenic modes of action automatically generated by a text-mining tool. The aim was to generate data patterns to identify associations between chemical structures and biological mechanisms related to carcinogenesis. Using these two methods, individually and combined, we evaluated 96 rat carcinogens of the hematopoietic system, liver, lung, and skin. We found that skin and lung rat carcinogens were mainly mutagenic, while the group of carcinogens affecting the hematopoietic system and the liver also included a large proportion of non-mutagens. The automatic literature analysis showed that mutagenicity was a frequently reported endpoint in the literature of these carcinogens, however, less common endpoints such as immunosuppression and hormonal receptor-mediated effects were also found in connection with some of the carcinogens, results of potential importance for certain target organs. The combined approach, using QSAR and text-mining techniques, could be useful for identifying more detailed information on biological mechanisms and the relation with chemical structures. The method can be particularly useful in increasing the understanding of structure and activity relationships for non-mutagens. PMID:27625608

  2. UV signaling pathways within the skin

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hongxiang; Weng, Qing Yu; Fisher, David E.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of UVR on the skin include tanning, carcinogenesis, immunomodulation, and synthesis of vitamin D, among others. Melanocortin 1 receptor polymorphisms correlate with skin pigmentation, UV sensitivity, and skin cancer risk. This article reviews pathways through which UVR induces cutaneous stress and the pigmentation response. Modulators of the UV tanning pathway include sunscreen agents, MC1R activators, adenylate cyclase activators, phosphodiesterase 4D3 inhibitors, T oligos, and MITF regulators such as histone deacetylase (HDAC)-inhibitors. UVR, as one of the most ubiquitous carcinogens, represents both a challenge and enormous opportunity in skin cancer prevention. PMID:24759085

  3. Skin cancer in the elderly

    SciTech Connect

    Pollack, S.V.

    1987-11-01

    Skin cancer is a major concern in geriatric populations. Cumulative exposure to carcinogens and age-related factors both contribute to the high prevalence of cutaneous malignancy in the elderly. Although mortality rates from skin cancer are relatively low, morbidity can be significant, particularly if lesions are neglected. Physicians can have a major impact on the course of basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and malignant melanoma by nurturing a high index of suspicion for malignancy when unexplained cutaneous lesions are encountered. 56 references.

  4. Petroleum Processing Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, D. A.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the petroleum processing wastes, covering publications of 1977. This review covers studies such as the use of activated carbon in petroleum and petrochemical waste treatment. A list of 15 references is also presented. (HM)

  5. Neoplastic transformation of human diploid fibroblast cells by chemical carcinogens

    PubMed Central

    Kakunaga, Takeo

    1978-01-01

    Cultured fibroblast cells derived from a skin biopsy sample taken from normal human adult were exposed to a potent carcinogen, 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide. Alterations of cell growth pattern such as higher density and piling up of cells were noticed in some fractions of cultures that were successively subcultured after nitroquinoline oxide treatment. Morphologically altered cells retained this growth pattern and became established lines of transformed cells without showing the limited life-span characteristic of normal cells in culture. The transformed cells showed a higher saturation density and the ability to grow in soft agar, properties that are usually correlated with neoplastic transformation of cells in culture. Selection of preexisting transformed human cells as a mechanism of this observed transformation seemed unlikely because clones of these normal cells could also be used to assess the transforming effect of nitroquinoline oxide. Preliminary results suggest that numerous cell divisions were required for the development of the transformation after nitroquinoline oxide treatment of these human cells. When the transformed cell lines were injected subcutaneously into nude (athymic) mice, solid tumors were produced at the site of inoculation. Treatment with N-methyl-N′-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine also induced cell transformation, in a manner similar to treatment with nitroquinoline oxide. However, transformation was not induced with (i) 4-aminoquinoline 1-oxide (a noncarcinogenic derivative of 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide), (ii) 3-methylcholanthrene (a carcinogen that cannot be metabolically activated by the target cells employed), or (iii) the solvent dimethyl sulfoxide. Images PMID:418410

  6. Carcinogenicity, allergenicity, and lupus-inducibility of arylamines.

    PubMed

    Chung, King-Thom

    2016-01-01

    Arylamines are widely used in food, drugs, and cosmetics as well as other industries. These chemicals are present ubiquitously in cigarette smoke, smoke emitted from cooking fume hoods as well as are generated by diverse industries. Arylamines can be generated by cleavage of azo dyes by intestinal and skin microbiota. Some arylamines are used as drugs while others are constituents of human metabolism. Many of the arylamines are mutagenic and carcinogenic. They are generally recognized as the major cause of human bladder cancer, but arylamines can induce cancers of other organs in humans and animals. Some arylamines are allergenic, causing lupus like syndrome, or other maladies. In view of their unbiquitious nature and the diseases they cause, arylamines are probably the most important chemicals causing health problems. PMID:26709643

  7. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... are specialized skin cells that produce pigment called melanin. The melanin pigment produced by melanocytes gives skin its color. ... absorbing and scattering the energy. People with more melanin have darker skin and better protection from UV ...

  8. Skin Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    Your skin is your body's largest organ. It covers and protects your body. Your skin Holds body fluids in, preventing dehydration Keeps harmful ... it Anything that irritates, clogs, or inflames your skin can cause symptoms such as redness, swelling, burning, ...

  9. Cryotherapy - skin

    MedlinePlus

    Cryosurgery - skin; Warts - freezing; Warts - cryotherapy ... Cryotherapy or cryosurgery may be used to: Remove warts Destroy precancerous skin lesions (actinic keratoses or solar keratoses) In rare cases, ...

  10. Petroleum marketing monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data.

  11. Enhanced recovery of petroleum

    SciTech Connect

    Buinicky, E.P.; Estes, J.H.

    1980-09-16

    An enhanced oil recovery method comprising injecting an aqueous ammonium bisulfite (NH/sub 4/HSO/sub 3/) solution into a petroleum-bearing earth formation, heating said injected aqueous solution to a temperature in the range of about 120*-300* F., or higher in the presence of said petroleum-bearing earth formation, flowing said aqueous solution through said petroleum bearing earth formation to drive petroleum to a recovery well, and producing increased amounts of petroleum from said earth formation through said recovery well.

  12. Comparative hepatotoxicity and clastogenicity of sodium arsenite and three petroleum products in experimental Swiss Albino Mice: the modulatory effects of Aloe vera gel.

    PubMed

    Gbadegesin, Michael A; Odunola, Oyeronke A; Akinwumi, Kazeem A; Osifeso, Olabode O

    2009-10-01

    Petroleum products (PPs) consist of complex chemical mixtures, mainly hydrocarbons. Their composition varies considerably with source and use. Inappropriate manual handling and use of PPs, in countries like Nigeria, results in excessive skin contact with the possibility of hazard to health. There has been inadequate evidence to classify diesel, kerosene and hydraulic oil as human carcinogens and there is limited evidence for their toxicity and carcinogenicity in experimental animals. We compared the hepatotoxicity and clastogenicity of diesel, petrol or hydraulic oil with that of sodium arsenite (Na(2)AsO(2)) in mice. Our findings showed that these PPs are capable of inducing gamma-glutamyl transferase (gammaGT) activity in the serum and liver to levels comparable with that induced by Na(2)AsO(2). Mice treated with individual PPs have elevated mean liver and serum gammaGT at levels that are significantly different from the values observed for the negative control group. Also, the individual PPs alone have micronuclei formation induction activity similar to Na(2)AsO(2). We found that treatment with Aloe vera gel before the PPs significantly reduced mean liver and serum gammaGT, and the mean number of micronuclei scored when compared with groups administered each of the PPs alone, supporting the presence of hepatoprotective components in Aloe vera. PMID:19583991

  13. The multitude and diversity of environmental carcinogens

    SciTech Connect

    Belpomme, D. Irigaray, P.; Hardell, L.; Clapp, R.; Montagnier, L.; Epstein, S.; Sasco, A.J.

    2007-11-15

    We have recently proposed that lifestyle-related factors, screening and aging cannot fully account for the present overall growing incidence of cancer. In order to propose the concept that in addition to lifestyle related factors, exogenous environmental factors may play a more important role in carcinogenesis than it is expected, and may therefore account for the growing incidence of cancer, we overview herein environmental factors, rated as certainly or potentially carcinogenic by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). We thus analyze the carcinogenic effect of microorganisms (including viruses), radiations (including radioactivity, UV and pulsed electromagnetic fields) and xenochemicals. Chemicals related to environmental pollution appear to be of critical importance, since they can induce occupational cancers as well as other cancers. Of major concerns are: outdoor air pollution by carbon particles associated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; indoor air pollution by environmental tobacco smoke, formaldehyde and volatile organic compounds such as benzene and 1,3 butadiene, which may particularly affect children, and food pollution by food additives and by carcinogenic contaminants such as nitrates, pesticides, dioxins and other organochlorines. In addition, carcinogenic metals and metalloids, pharmaceutical medicines and cosmetics may be involved. Although the risk fraction attributable to environmental factors is still unknown, this long list of carcinogenic and especially mutagenic factors supports our working hypothesis according to which numerous cancers may in fact be caused by the recent modification of our environment.

  14. Petroleum supply monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blends, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  15. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  16. Tumors of the skin and soft tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1991-10-01

    The majority of the body surface is covered by the skin. Many internal disorders are reflected in the condition of the skin. One of the major functions of the skin is protection of the other organ systems from a variety of environmental insults. In this role, the skin itself is exposed to factors that can ultimately cause chronic diseases and cancer. Since it is relatively easy to recognize skin abnormalities, most skin cancers are brought to professional attention sooner than other types of cancer. However, due to the close resemblance between many skin neoplasms and noncancerous dermatologic disorders, these neoplasms may be mistreated for months or even years. In veterinary oncology, as in human medicine, most cancers can be effectively treated or cured following an accurate diagnosis. Once diagnosed, skin neoplasms should be aggressively treated. If causal factors are known, exposure to these factors should be limited through removal of the agent (for chemical carcinogens) or limiting exposure to the agent (for other carcinogens such as sunlight). 10 tabs. (MHB)

  17. Contributions of Human Enzymes in Carcinogen Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Rendic, Slobodan; Guengerich, F. Peter

    2012-01-01

    Considerable support exists for roles of metabolism in modulating the carcinogenic properties of chemicals. In particular, many of these compounds are procarcinogens that require activation to electrophilic forms to exert genotoxic effects. We systematically analyzed the existing literature on metabolism of carcinogens by human enzymes, which has been developed largely in the past 25 years. The metabolism and especially bioactivation of carcinogens are dominated by cytochrome P450 enzymes (66% of bioactivations). Within this group, six P450s—1A1, 1A2, 1B1, 2A6, 2E1, and 3A4—accounted for 77% of the P450 activation reactions. The roles of these P450s can be compared with those estimated for drug metabolism and should be considered in issues involving enzyme induction, chemoprevention, molecular epidemiology, inter-individual variations, and risk assessment. PMID:22531028

  18. The ISS Carcinogens Data Bank (BDC).

    PubMed

    Binetti, Roberto; Ceccarelli, Federica; Costamagna, Francesca Marina; D'Angiolini, Antonella; Fabri, Alessandra; Ferri, Maurizio; Riva, Giovanni; Roazzi, Paolo; Trucchi, Daniela; Marcello, Ida

    2008-01-01

    The Data Bank on Carcinogens (Banca Dati Cancerogeni, BDC) is a factual data bank, available on the Istituto Superiore di Sanità website, aimed at supporting the risk management decision making of central and local administrators. It can also represent a valuable tool for industry. The available information on carcinogenicity evaluations/classifications produced by European Union and by other institutions (IARC, USEPA, NTP, CCTN) is presented in a concise form accompanied by bibliographic references enabling the users to consult the original sources and, in some cases, to be directly connected to the relevant website. The classifications carried out by each organization in accordance with its own criteria assign the examined agents to specific qualitative categories and do not include quantitative assessment. BDC intends to provide an easy tool for experts, researchers and risk managers dealing with carcinogenic agents. PMID:18469374

  19. Known occupational carcinogens and their significance.

    PubMed Central

    Ernst, P.; Thériault, G.

    1984-01-01

    Although rates of occupational cancer can be excessive in certain industries, less than 5% of all cancers seem attributable to exposure to carcinogens in the workplace. For example, workers in hard-rock mining and the woodworking industries are at increased risk; cigarette smoking has a synergistic effect. There is conclusive evidence of carcinogenicity for fewer than 20 substances, including asbestos, arsenic, chromium, nickel, cadmium, radon, several aromatic hydrocarbons and certain herbicides. Most of the hundreds of organic compounds known to be mutagenic in in-vitro tests have not been shown to be carcinogenic in epidemiologic studies. Both laboratory and epidemiologic approaches, however, can identify probable causes of cancer and permit the application of effective preventive measures. In addition, it is still possible for the alert individual clinician to make the initial discovery of an occupational hazard. PMID:6367918

  20. Carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic effects of arsenic.

    PubMed Central

    Bencko, V

    1977-01-01

    This review outlines briefly the history and present status of the problem of carcinogenic, teratogenic and mutagenic effects of arsenic. Discrepancies between clinical observations and positive results of epidemiological studies and the experimental induction of cancer by arsenic are discussed. The present knowledge of the mechanism of teratogenic and mutagenic effects of arsenic is analyzed. The growing importance of arsenic as an environmental pollutant is demonstrated. Continuation of throughly organized epidemiological studies in regions with excessive arsenic exposure of the population and standardization of an epidemiological approach to this problem on an international basis are recommended. New approaches in experimental studies of the carcinogenicity of arsenic in combination with other known or suspected carcinogens are recommended as well. PMID:908296

  1. Allergic contact sensitizing chemicals as environmental carcinogens.

    PubMed Central

    Albert, R E

    1997-01-01

    Chemicals that were bioassayed by the National Toxicology Program (NTP) and that also produce allergic dermatitis (ACD) in humans were evaluated for their tumorigenic characteristics. The impetus for the study was that most contact sensitizers, i.e., those that produce ACD, and genotoxic carcinogens are chemically similar in that they are electrophilic, thereby producing adducts on macromolecules including protein and DNA. This similarity in chemical behavior suggests that many contact sensitizers might be environmental carcinogens. All of the published NTP bioassays by early 1996 that had both genotoxicity and carcinogenicity studies were included in this analysis. The NTP chemicals had been chosen for bioassay without regard to their ability to produce ACD. Of the 209 chemicals that were bioassayed, there were 36 (17%) that were known to be human contact sensitizers; about half of these were positive on tumor bioassays. The contact sensitizers differed from the NTP sample as a whole by having a proportionately larger number of nongenotoxic chemicals by the Ames Salmonella assay, presumably because more of them were selected on the basis of widespread usage rather than structural resemblance to known carcinogens. Compared to the nongenotoxic chemicals, the genotoxics were stronger carcinogens in that they had a higher incidence of positive tumor bioassays, with twice the number of organs in which tumors were induced. The nongenotoxic chemicals had a preference for tumor induction in parenchymal tissues in contrast to epithelial tissues. The contact sensitizers showed essentially the same characteristics as the whole NTP sample when stratified according to genotoxicity. Judging by the chemicals that were chosen primarily for their widespread use rather than for their structural resemblance to carcinogens, the addition of a test for contact sensitization to the Ames test as a screening tool would increase the tumorigenic detection efficiency by about 40% because of

  2. Skin Biomes.

    PubMed

    Fyhrquist, N; Salava, A; Auvinen, P; Lauerma, A

    2016-05-01

    The cutaneous microbiome has been investigated broadly in recent years and some traditional perspectives are beginning to change. A diverse microbiome exists on human skin and has a potential to influence pathogenic microbes and modulate the course of skin disorders, e.g. atopic dermatitis. In addition to the known dysfunctions in barrier function of the skin and immunologic disturbances, evidence is rising that frequent skin disorders, e.g. atopic dermatitis, might be connected to a dysbiosis of the microbial community and changes in the skin microbiome. As a future perspective, examining the skin microbiome could be seen as a potential new diagnostic and therapeutic target in inflammatory skin disorders. PMID:27056560

  3. Skin cancer prevention and screening.

    PubMed

    Holm, Richard P

    2015-01-01

    Skin cancer is the most common and recognizable of all cancers. The human dermis can turn malignant due to excessive solar exposure and chronic injury, with the influence of genetic risk and inherited pigmentation. Basal cell carcinoma, the most common skin cancer in lighter pigmented individuals, spreads locally, and usually appears pearly and often ulcerative. Squamous cell carcinoma, the most common skin cancer in darker pigmented people, metastasizes to lymph nodes 2-5 percent of the time, appears often scaly, smooth, nodular, ulcerative, or even pigmented. Malignant melanoma accounts for 2 percent of skin cancers, but for the vast majority of skin cancer deaths. All three can mimic each other. Solar or ultraviolet (UV) light exposure is the most common carcinogen; however, any chronic irritant can increase the risk, and efforts to avoid such exposure is apropos. Though not yet absolutely proven, skin cancer research strongly supports the following statements: sunscreen is protective, tanning devices are causative, and the routine screening of high-risk individuals is preventative. Authorities strongly recommend avoiding excess sun and UV light, using sunscreen, and keeping a watchful eye for unusual skin lesions. PMID:25985614

  4. Petroleum marketing monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  5. Petroleum marketing monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PPM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o. b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  6. Petroleum marketing monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  7. Future petroleum geologist: discussion

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, G.D.

    1987-07-01

    Robert R. Berg's (1986) article, ''The Future Petroleum Geologist,'' summarizes the findings of the 13-member AAPG Select Committee on The Future Petroleum Geologist appointed by President William L. Fisher in July 1985. While this undertaking is laudable, particularly considering present circumstance in the petroleum industry, the committee has apparently overlooked a vital aspect concerning the future knowledge requirements of the petroleum geologist. Specifically, the Select Committee makes no mention of the need for computer literacy in its list of educational training categories. Obviously, AAPG is well aware of both the interest in computers by its membership and the increasing need for training and familiarity in this discipline. The Select Committee on The Future Petroleum Geologist, while undertaking a difficult and potentially controversial task, has omitted an important aspect of the background requirements for generations of future petroleum geologists; the committee should consider an amendment to their recommendations to reflect this increasingly important field study.

  8. CARCINOGENIC EFFECTS OF BENZENE: AN UPDATE (FINAL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The major issue addressed in this document involves the nature and magnitude of the risk of cancer to humans exposed to low levels of benzene. Occupational studies continue to provide the bulk of evidence of benzenes carcinogenicity. Workers are exposed at much higher levels than...

  9. CARCINOGEN RISK ASSESSMENT OF CHROMIUM COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hexavalent chromium has been identified as a human carcinogen. Evidence to support this contention derives from epidemiologic, animal, and genotoxicity studies. Although workers exposed to both trivalent and hexavalent chromium have been shown to be at an excess risk of respirato...

  10. Immunologic methods for monitoring carcinogen exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santella, Regina M.; Perera, Frederica P.; Zhang, Yu J.; Chen, Chen J.; Young, Tie L.

    1993-03-01

    Immunologic methods have been developed for monitoring human exposure to environmental and occupational carcinogens. These methods involve the development of monoclonal and polyclonal antisera which specifically recognize the carcinogens themselves or their DNA or protein adducts. Antisera recognizing the DNA adducts of several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon diol epoxides have been used in competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to monitor adducts in tissue or blood samples. Elevated levels of DNA adducts have been seen in mononuclear cells of smokers and in total white blood cells of foundry and coke oven workers. Environmental exposure to PAH has been measured in individuals living in a highly polluted region of Poland. Antisera recognizing PAH-DNA adducts have also been used in immunohistochemical studies to monitor adducts in specific cells of biopsy samples. The DNA adducts of aflatoxin B1 have been monitored in liver tissue of hepatocellular carcinoma patients in Taiwan. Detectable adducts were seen in 50 - 70% of the patients suggesting that dietary exposure to this carcinogen may be a risk factor for cancer induction. Thus, immunoassays for monitoring exposure to carcinogens are an important tool in epidemiologic studies.

  11. EVALUATION OF THE POTENTIAL CARCINOGENICITY OF DINITROTOLUENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Carcinogenicity data for mixed dinitrotoluenes are inadequate. ince the technical grade mixture consists of approximately 75% 2,4-dinitrotoluene and 19.5% 2,6-dinitrotoluene, hazard assessment for the mixture can be based on experimentation with the 2,4-isomer. Dinitrotoluene (mi...

  12. Iron in asbestos chemistry and carcinogenicity

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, J.A.; Aust, A.E.

    1995-01-01

    This article reviews the various aspects regarding the carcinogenicity of asbestos and associated reactions catalyzed by iron. Attention is focused on the following: structure of asbestos; physical properties of asbestos involved in carcinogenesis; reactions catalyzed by iron; reactions catalyzed by asbestos; fiber inactivation; physiological effects; and mutations and cancer. 183 refs.

  13. New public QSAR model for carcinogenicity

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background One of the main goals of the new chemical regulation REACH (Registration, Evaluation and Authorization of Chemicals) is to fulfill the gaps in data concerned with properties of chemicals affecting the human health. (Q)SAR models are accepted as a suitable source of information. The EU funded CAESAR project aimed to develop models for prediction of 5 endpoints for regulatory purposes. Carcinogenicity is one of the endpoints under consideration. Results Models for prediction of carcinogenic potency according to specific requirements of Chemical regulation were developed. The dataset of 805 non-congeneric chemicals extracted from Carcinogenic Potency Database (CPDBAS) was used. Counter Propagation Artificial Neural Network (CP ANN) algorithm was implemented. In the article two alternative models for prediction carcinogenicity are described. The first model employed eight MDL descriptors (model A) and the second one twelve Dragon descriptors (model B). CAESAR's models have been assessed according to the OECD principles for the validation of QSAR. For the model validity we used a wide series of statistical checks. Models A and B yielded accuracy of training set (644 compounds) equal to 91% and 89% correspondingly; the accuracy of the test set (161 compounds) was 73% and 69%, while the specificity was 69% and 61%, respectively. Sensitivity in both cases was equal to 75%. The accuracy of the leave 20% out cross validation for the training set of models A and B was equal to 66% and 62% respectively. To verify if the models perform correctly on new compounds the external validation was carried out. The external test set was composed of 738 compounds. We obtained accuracy of external validation equal to 61.4% and 60.0%, sensitivity 64.0% and 61.8% and specificity equal to 58.9% and 58.4% respectively for models A and B. Conclusion Carcinogenicity is a particularly important endpoint and it is expected that QSAR models will not replace the human experts opinions

  14. Folate in Skin Cancer Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Williams, J.D.; Jacobson, Elaine L.; Kim, H.; Kim, M.; Jacobson, M.K.

    2013-01-01

    Skin, the largest, most exposed organ of the body, provides a protective interface between humans and the environment. One of its primary roles is protection against exposure to sunlight, a major source of skin damage where the UV radiation (UVR) component functions as a complete carcinogen. Melanin pigmentation and the evolution of dark skin is an adaptive protective mechanism against high levels of UVR exposure. Recently, the hypothesis that skin pigmentation balances folate preservation and Vitamin D production has emerged. Both micronutrients are essential for reproductive success. Photodegradation of bioactive folates suggests a mechanism for the increased tendency of populations of low melanin pigmentation residing in areas of high UV exposure to develop skin cancers. Folate is proposed as a cancer prevention target for its role in providing precursors for DNA repair and replication, as well as its ability to promote genomic integrity through the generation of methyl groups needed for control of gene expression. The cancer prevention potential of folate has been demonstrated by large-scale epidemiological and nutritional studies indicating that decreased folate status increases the risk of developing certain cancers. While folate deficiency has been extensively documented by analysis of human plasma, folate status within skin has not been widely investigated. Nevertheless, inefficient delivery of micronutrients to skin and photolysis of folate argue that documented folate deficiencies will be present if not exacerbated in skin. Our studies indicate a critical role for folate in skin and the potential to protect sun exposed skin by effective topical delivery as a strategy for cancer prevention. PMID:22116700

  15. Carcinogens formed when Meat is Cooked

    SciTech Connect

    Felton, J S; Salmon, C P; Knize, M G

    2003-05-30

    Diet has been associated with varying cancer rates in human populations for many years, yet the causes of the observed variation in cancer patterns have not been adequately explained (Wynder et al. 1977). Along with the effect of diet on human cancer incidence is the strong evidence that mutations are the initiating events in the cancer process (Vogelstein et al. 1992). Foods, when heated, are a good source of genotoxic carcinogens that very likely are a cause for some of these events(Doll et al. 1981). These carcinogens fall into two chemical classes: heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAA) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). There is ample evidence that many of these compounds are complete carcinogens in rodents(El-Bayoumy et al. 1995; Ohgaki et al. 1991). Heterocyclic aromatic amines are among the most potent mutagenic substances ever tested in the Ames/Salmonella mutagenicity test (Wakabayashi et al. 1992). Both classes of carcinogen cause tumors in rodents at multiple sites, (El-Bayoumy et al. 1995; Ohgaki et al. 1991) many of which are common tumor sites in people on a Western diet. An HAA, PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine), and a PAH, B[a]P (benzo[a]pyrene), of comparable carcinogenic potency caused mammary gland tumors in a feeding study in female rats (El-Bayoumy et al. 1995). In addition, PhIP has recently been shown to cause carcinomas in the prostate of the male rat (Shirai et al. 1997). Complementing the rodent cancer studies are numerous human case-control and prospective studies suggesting a relationship between overheated beef, chicken, and lamb, and cancer of the colon, breast, prostate, and stomach (Sinha et al. 1999; Ward et al. 1997; Zheng et al. 1998).

  16. Prediction of the carcinogenicity of a second group of organic chemicals undergoing carcinogenicity testing

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y.P.; Sussman, N.; Macina, O.T.

    1996-10-01

    Twenty-four organic compounds currently undergoing testing within cancer bioassays under the aegis of the U.S. National Toxicology Program (NTP) were submitted to the computer automated structure evaluation (CASE) and multiple computer automated structure evaluation (MULTICASE) system for predictions of activity. Individual predictions resulting from the NTP combined rodent, NTP mouse, Carcinogenic Potency Database (CPDB) combined rodent, and CPDB mouse databases were combined using Bayes` theorem to yield an overall probability of rodent carcinogenicity. 17 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. Petroleum 1996: Issues and Trends

    EIA Publications

    1997-01-01

    Examines historical trends and focuses on major petroleum issues and the events they represent. It analyzes different dimensions of the petroleum industry and related markets in terms of how they relate to the volatility in petroleum markets.

  18. Petroleum: An Energy Profile 1999

    EIA Publications

    1999-01-01

    Explains in layman's terms the major components and operations of the U.S. petroleum industry that include: petroleum products, resources and reserves, drilling and exploration, refining, storage and transportation, imports, exports, and petroleum marketing.

  19. Skin Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out of ... person has smoked. Many products claim to revitalize aging skin or reduce wrinkles, but the Food and ...

  20. Skin Complications

    MedlinePlus

    ... drugs that can help clear up this condition. Day-to-Day Skin Care See our tips for daily skin ... Risk? Diagnosis Lower Your Risk Risk Test Alert Day Prediabetes My Health Advisor Tools to Know Your ...

  1. Skin lumps

    MedlinePlus

    ... and contains fluid or semisolid material Benign skin growths such as seborrheic keratoses or neurofibromas Boils , painful, red bumps usually involving an infected hair follicle Corn or callus, caused by skin thickening in response ...

  2. Skin Pigment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professional Version Pigment Disorders Overview of Skin Pigment Albinism Vitiligo Hyperpigmentation Melasma Melanin is the brown pigment ... dark-skinned people produce the most. People with albinism have little or no melanin and thus their ...

  3. EVALUATION OF THE POTENTIAL CARCINOGENICITY OF ARSENIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic and inorganic compounds a human carcinogens, classified as weight-of-evidence Group A under the EPA Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment. vidence on potential carcinogenicity from animal studies is "Inadequate," and the evidence from human studies is "Sufficient." rs...

  4. EVALUATION OF THE POTENTIAL CARCINOGENICITY OF N-NITROSODIETHANO-LAMINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    N-Nitrosodiethanolamine is a probable human carcinogen, classified as weight-of-evidence Group B2 under the EPA Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1986a). vidence on potential carcinogenicity from animal studies is "Sufficient," and the evidence from human studi...

  5. EVALUATION OF THE POTENTIAL CARCINOGENICITY OF COKE OVEN EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coke oven emissions are known human carcinogens, classified as weight-of-evidence Group A under the EPA Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1986a). vidence on potential carcinogenicity from animal studies is "Sufficient,". and the evidence rom human studies is "S...

  6. EVALUATION OF THE POTENTIAL CARCINOGENICITY OF 1,2-DIETHYLHYDRAZINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    1,2-Diethylhydrazine is a probable human carcinogen, classified as weight-of-evidence Group B2 under the EPA Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1986a). vidence on potential carcinogenicity from animal studies is "Sufficient", and the evidence from human studies ...

  7. Fundamentals of Petroleum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    Basic information on petroleum is presented in this book prepared for naval logistics officers. Petroleum in national defense is discussed in connection with consumption statistics, productive capacity, world's resources, and steps in logistics. Chemical and geological analyses are made in efforts to familiarize methods of refining, measuring,…

  8. Skin graft

    MedlinePlus

    ... caused a large amount of skin loss Burns Cosmetic reasons or reconstructive surgeries where there has been skin damage or skin ... anesthesia are: Reactions to medicines Problems with breathing Risks for this surgery are: Bleeding Chronic pain (rarely) Infection Loss of ...

  9. Skin Aging

    MedlinePlus

    Your skin changes as you age. You might notice wrinkles, age spots and dryness. Your skin also becomes thinner and loses fat, making it ... heal, too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out ...

  10. Petroleum supply monthly, April 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographical regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US.

  11. Phthalate esters as peroxisome proliferator carcinogens.

    PubMed Central

    Warren, J R; Lalwani, N D; Reddy, J K

    1982-01-01

    The phthalate ester di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate is both a peroxisome proliferator and a hepatic carcinogen. Peroxisome proliferators as a class are hepatocarcinogenic in rodent species. However, none of the peroxisome proliferators tested to date including the phthalate esters and related alcohol and acid analogs have demonstrated mutagenic or DNA-damaging activity in the in vitro Salmonella typhimurium/microsomal or the lymphocyte 3H-thymidine assays. A working hypothesis is proposed that peroxisome proliferation itself initiates neoplastic transformation of hepatic parenchymal cells by increasing intracellular rates of DNA-damaging reactive oxygen production. Evidence which supports such a hypothesis includes increased fatty acid beta-oxidation, elevated H2O2 levels, accumulation of peroxidized lipofuscin, disproportionately small increase in catalase, and elevated peroxisomal uricase activity which accompany peroxisome proliferation in hepatocytes. Direct testing of this hypothesis will provide insight into mechanisms of phthalate ester carcinogenicity and cytotoxicity. Images FIGURE 1. PMID:6754363

  12. Carcinogen risk assessment of chromium compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Gibb, H.J.; Chen, C.W.; Hiremath, C.B.

    1988-06-01

    Hexavalent chromium has been identified as a human carcinogen. Evidence to support this contention derives from epidemiologic, animal, and genotoxicity studies. Although workers exposed to both trivalent and hexavalent chromium have been shown to be at an excess risk of respiratory cancer, only hexavalent chromium has been shown to be carcinogenic in animals. Both hexavalent and trivalent chromium have been shown to be mutagenic, but the evidence for hexavalent chromium is somewhat stronger than that for trivalent chromium. The quantitative estimation of the cancer risk due to hexavalent chromium in the ambient air is calculated on the basis of lung-cancer mortality data for chromate production workers. The lifetime respiratory cancer risk due to 1 microgram/cu m) of hexavalent chromium in the ambient air is estimated to be 1.2 x .002 on the basis of Mancuso's data and 9.4 x .003 on the basis of the Braver et al. data.

  13. Mechanism-based classification of PAH mixtures to predict carcinogenic potential

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Tilton, Susan C.; Siddens, Lisbeth K.; Krueger, Sharon K.; Larkin, Andrew J.; Löhr, Christiane V.; Williams, David E.; Baird, William M.; Waters, Katrina M.

    2015-04-22

    We have previously shown that relative potency factors and DNA adduct measurements are inadequate for predicting carcinogenicity of certain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and PAH mixtures, particularly those that function through alternate pathways or exhibit greater promotional activity compared to benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). Therefore, we developed a pathway based approach for classification of tumor outcome after dermal exposure to PAH/mixtures. FVB/N mice were exposed to dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC), BaP or environmental PAH mixtures (Mix 1-3) following a two-stage initiation/promotion skin tumor protocol. Resulting tumor incidence could be categorized by carcinogenic potency as DBC>>BaP=Mix2=Mix3>Mix1=Control, based on statistical significance. Gene expression profiles measured inmore » skin of mice collected 12 h post-initiation were compared to tumor outcome for identification of short-term bioactivity profiles. A Bayesian integration model was utilized to identify biological pathways predictive of PAH carcinogenic potential during initiation. Integration of probability matrices from four enriched pathways (p<0.05) for DNA damage, apoptosis, response to chemical stimulus and interferon gamma signaling resulted in the highest classification accuracy with leave-one-out cross validation. This pathway-driven approach was successfully utilized to distinguish early regulatory events during initiation prognostic for tumor outcome and provides proof-of-concept for using short-term initiation studies to classify carcinogenic potential of environmental PAH mixtures. As a result, these data further provide a ‘source-to outcome’ model that could be used to predict PAH interactions during tumorigenesis and provide an example of how mode-of-action based risk assessment could be employed for environmental PAH mixtures.« less

  14. Mechanism-Based Classification of PAH Mixtures to Predict Carcinogenic Potential.

    PubMed

    Tilton, Susan C; Siddens, Lisbeth K; Krueger, Sharon K; Larkin, Andrew J; Löhr, Christiane V; Williams, David E; Baird, William M; Waters, Katrina M

    2015-07-01

    We have previously shown that relative potency factors and DNA adduct measurements are inadequate for predicting carcinogenicity of certain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and PAH mixtures, particularly those that function through alternate pathways or exhibit greater promotional activity compared to benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). Therefore, we developed a pathway-based approach for classification of tumor outcome after dermal exposure to PAH/mixtures. FVB/N mice were exposed to dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC), BaP, or environmental PAH mixtures (Mix 1-3) following a 2-stage initiation/promotion skin tumor protocol. Resulting tumor incidence could be categorized by carcinogenic potency as DBC > BaP = Mix2 = Mix3 > Mix1 = Control, based on statistical significance. Gene expression profiles measured in skin of mice collected 12 h post-initiation were compared with tumor outcome for identification of short-term bioactivity profiles. A Bayesian integration model was utilized to identify biological pathways predictive of PAH carcinogenic potential during initiation. Integration of probability matrices from four enriched pathways (P < .05) for DNA damage, apoptosis, response to chemical stimulus, and interferon gamma signaling resulted in the highest classification accuracy with leave-one-out cross validation. This pathway-driven approach was successfully utilized to distinguish early regulatory events during initiation prognostic for tumor outcome and provides proof-of-concept for using short-term initiation studies to classify carcinogenic potential of environmental PAH mixtures. These data further provide a 'source-to-outcome' model that could be used to predict PAH interactions during tumorigenesis and provide an example of how mode-of-action-based risk assessment could be employed for environmental PAH mixtures. PMID:25908611

  15. Mechanism-based classification of PAH mixtures to predict carcinogenic potential

    SciTech Connect

    Tilton, Susan C.; Siddens, Lisbeth K.; Krueger, Sharon K.; Larkin, Andrew J.; Löhr, Christiane V.; Williams, David E.; Baird, William M.; Waters, Katrina M.

    2015-04-22

    We have previously shown that relative potency factors and DNA adduct measurements are inadequate for predicting carcinogenicity of certain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and PAH mixtures, particularly those that function through alternate pathways or exhibit greater promotional activity compared to benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). Therefore, we developed a pathway based approach for classification of tumor outcome after dermal exposure to PAH/mixtures. FVB/N mice were exposed to dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC), BaP or environmental PAH mixtures (Mix 1-3) following a two-stage initiation/promotion skin tumor protocol. Resulting tumor incidence could be categorized by carcinogenic potency as DBC>>BaP=Mix2=Mix3>Mix1=Control, based on statistical significance. Gene expression profiles measured in skin of mice collected 12 h post-initiation were compared to tumor outcome for identification of short-term bioactivity profiles. A Bayesian integration model was utilized to identify biological pathways predictive of PAH carcinogenic potential during initiation. Integration of probability matrices from four enriched pathways (p<0.05) for DNA damage, apoptosis, response to chemical stimulus and interferon gamma signaling resulted in the highest classification accuracy with leave-one-out cross validation. This pathway-driven approach was successfully utilized to distinguish early regulatory events during initiation prognostic for tumor outcome and provides proof-of-concept for using short-term initiation studies to classify carcinogenic potential of environmental PAH mixtures. As a result, these data further provide a ‘source-to outcome’ model that could be used to predict PAH interactions during tumorigenesis and provide an example of how mode-of-action based risk assessment could be employed for environmental PAH mixtures.

  16. Mechanism-Based Classification of PAH Mixtures to Predict Carcinogenic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Tilton, Susan C.; Siddens, Lisbeth K.; Krueger, Sharon K.; Larkin, Andrew J.; Löhr, Christiane V.; Williams, David E.; Baird, William M.; Waters, Katrina M.

    2015-01-01

    We have previously shown that relative potency factors and DNA adduct measurements are inadequate for predicting carcinogenicity of certain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and PAH mixtures, particularly those that function through alternate pathways or exhibit greater promotional activity compared to benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). Therefore, we developed a pathway-based approach for classification of tumor outcome after dermal exposure to PAH/mixtures. FVB/N mice were exposed to dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC), BaP, or environmental PAH mixtures (Mix 1-3) following a 2-stage initiation/promotion skin tumor protocol. Resulting tumor incidence could be categorized by carcinogenic potency as DBC >> BaP = Mix2 = Mix3 > Mix1 = Control, based on statistical significance. Gene expression profiles measured in skin of mice collected 12 h post-initiation were compared with tumor outcome for identification of short-term bioactivity profiles. A Bayesian integration model was utilized to identify biological pathways predictive of PAH carcinogenic potential during initiation. Integration of probability matrices from four enriched pathways (P < .05) for DNA damage, apoptosis, response to chemical stimulus, and interferon gamma signaling resulted in the highest classification accuracy with leave-one-out cross validation. This pathway-driven approach was successfully utilized to distinguish early regulatory events during initiation prognostic for tumor outcome and provides proof-of-concept for using short-term initiation studies to classify carcinogenic potential of environmental PAH mixtures. These data further provide a ‘source-to-outcome’ model that could be used to predict PAH interactions during tumorigenesis and provide an example of how mode-of-action-based risk assessment could be employed for environmental PAH mixtures. PMID:25908611

  17. Sensitive skin.

    PubMed

    Misery, L; Loser, K; Ständer, S

    2016-02-01

    Sensitive skin is a clinical condition defined by the self-reported facial presence of different sensory perceptions, including tightness, stinging, burning, tingling, pain and pruritus. Sensitive skin may occur in individuals with normal skin, with skin barrier disturbance, or as a part of the symptoms associated with facial dermatoses such as rosacea, atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. Although experimental studies are still pending, the symptoms of sensitive skin suggest the involvement of cutaneous nerve fibres and neuronal, as well as epidermal, thermochannels. Many individuals with sensitive skin report worsening symptoms due to environmental factors. It is thought that this might be attributed to the thermochannel TRPV1, as it typically responds to exogenous, endogenous, physical and chemical stimuli. Barrier disruptions and immune mechanisms may also be involved. This review summarizes current knowledge on the epidemiology, potential mechanisms, clinics and therapy of sensitive skin. PMID:26805416

  18. Metabolism, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity of comfrey.

    PubMed

    Mei, Nan; Guo, Lei; Fu, Peter P; Fuscoe, James C; Luan, Yang; Chen, Tao

    2010-10-01

    Comfrey has been consumed by humans as a vegetable and a tea and used as an herbal medicine for more than 2000 years. Comfrey, however, produces hepatotoxicity in livestock and humans and carcinogenicity in experimental animals. Comfrey contains as many as 14 pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PA), including 7-acetylintermedine, 7-acetyllycopsamine, echimidine, intermedine, lasiocarpine, lycopsamine, myoscorpine, symlandine, symphytine, and symviridine. The mechanisms underlying comfrey-induced genotoxicity and carcinogenicity are still not fully understood. The available evidence suggests that the active metabolites of PA in comfrey interact with DNA in liver endothelial cells and hepatocytes, resulting in DNA damage, mutation induction, and cancer development. Genotoxicities attributed to comfrey and riddelliine (a representative genotoxic PA and a proven rodent mutagen and carcinogen) are discussed in this review. Both of these compounds induced similar profiles of 6,7-dihydro-7-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl-5H-pyrrolizine (DHP)-derived DNA adducts and similar mutation spectra. Further, the two agents share common mechanisms of drug metabolism and carcinogenesis. Overall, comfrey is mutagenic in liver, and PA contained in comfrey appear to be responsible for comfrey-induced toxicity and tumor induction. PMID:21170807

  19. Impact and compliance: OSHA Carcinogen Policy

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, A.F. Jr.; Crowder, C.; Wisniewski, S.; Russell, T.; Senn, K.

    1980-06-26

    This document provides an examination of various aspects of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)Carcinogen Policy. To satisfy the dimensions of the Policy's broad, general nature, a two-fold approach was taken. Throughout, the focus is on the possible effects of the Policy's implementation, but this is first approached as it generally will effect research and compliance activities across broad industry sectors, while specific impacts on DOE are addressed separately. To overview and integrate these approaches, and to provide a quick reference for further information, an outline of information is presented. General or industry-wide applications are addressed both in the Summary and Overview of the Policy (Chapters I and II) and in the discussion of the Model Standard (Chapter V). Also included is a copy of the Policy itself in the General Industry Standards and interpretations Change 10. Sections specifically addressed to the major concerns of DOE and its contractors are a discussion of implications for action regarding the synthetic fuels program, a comparison of the OSHA Model Regulations and the FE OSH Manual Standards for Carcinogens, and finally, a list of known carcinogens in coal gasification/liquefaction. Together, these elements illustrate the broad scope of the policy's impact, which economic and other constraining consequences begin to become visible. Measures to minimize these consequences are a common underlying theme to each of the sections.

  20. Oxymetholone: II. Evaluation in the Tg-AC transgenic mouse model for detection of carcinogens.

    PubMed

    Holden, H E; Stoll, R E; Blanchard, K T

    1999-01-01

    Several rodent models are under examination as possible alternatives to the classical 2-yr carcinogenicity bioassay. The Tg.AC transgenic mouse has been proposed as a shorter term model offering the possibility of detecting nongenotoxic and genotoxic carcinogenic agents. Retrospective studies of chemicals with established carcinogenic potential have revealed a close correlation between classical bioassay results and the production of skin tumors in the Tg.AC mouse model. Oxymetholone is a synthetic testosterone derivative that is a suspected carcinogen but has shown no evidence of genotoxic activity in a comprehensive battery of genetic toxicity assays. It currently is being tested by the National Toxicology Program (NTP) in a 2-yr rat carcinogenicity bioassay. Because of its nongenotoxicity and the ongoing chronic bioassay, oxymetholone was considered an ideal candidate for a prospective evaluation of the predictive validity of the Tg.AC dermal carcinogenicity model. Consequently, a 6-mo dermal study with oxymetholone in the Tg.AC mouse model was initiated and completed prior to disclosure of the NTP rat bioassay results. In this study, male and female hemizygous Tg.AC mice, 7-8 wk old, were housed individually in suspended plastic cages. An area of dorsal skin was shaved to accommodate dermal applications of 200-microl doses of vehicle control (acetone), drug (1.2, 6.0, or 12 mg oxymetholone in dimethylsulfoxide:acetone, 20:80), or positive control (1.25 microg 12-o-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate [TPA]) solutions. Mice received oxymetholone or acetone daily or TPA twice weekly for 20 wk followed by a 6-wk recovery period. The acetone control groups exhibited low spontaneous incidences of papillomas, whereas dermal application of oxymetholone produced dose-related increases in the numbers of papilloma-bearing mice and the numbers of papillomas per animal. Females showed a somewhat greater response to the androgen than did the males. TPA caused an unequivocal

  1. CSM petroleum Engineering Department

    SciTech Connect

    Van Kirk, C.

    1984-10-01

    The Petroleum Engineering (PE) Department at the Colorado School of Mines is the second oldest such engineering department in the world, having been founded in 1918, one year after the program at Penn State University was begun. The PE Department at CSM has enjoyed a strong worldwide reputation from its earliest beginnings to the present time. The discipline of petroleum engineering is taught in only a few universities, generally in American oil producing states and foreign countries having significant interests in petroleum. Approximately 25 US universities offer degrees in PE, while an equal number of universities in foreign countries do so. The operation of the Department is discussed.

  2. Skin aging and dry skin.

    PubMed

    Hashizume, Hideo

    2004-08-01

    Skin aging appears to be the result of both scheduled and continuous "wear and tear" processes that damage cellular DNA and proteins. Two types of aging, chronological skin aging and photoaging, have distinct clinical and histological features. Chronological skin aging is a universal and inevitable process characterized primarily by physiologic alterations in skin function. In this case, keratinocytes are unable to properly terminally differentiate to form a functional stratum corneum, and the rate of formation of neutral lipids that contribute to the barrier function slows, causing dry, pale skin with fine wrinkles. In contrast, photoaging results from the UVR of sunlight and the damage thus becomes apparent in sun-exposed skin. Characteristics of this aging type are dry and sallow skin displaying fine wrinkles as well as deep furrows, resulting from the disorganization of epidermal and dermal components associated with elastosis and heliodermatitis. Understanding of the functions of the skin and the basic principles of moisturizer use and application is important for the prevention of skin aging. Successful treatment of dry skin with appropriate skin care products gives the impression of eternal youth. PMID:15492432

  3. Petroleum supply monthly, February 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly presents data describing the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders; operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. Data are divided into two sections: Summary statistics and Detailed statistics.

  4. Petroleum supply monthly, January 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    Data presented describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  5. Long-term skin damage due to chemical weapon exposure.

    PubMed

    Firooz, Alireza; Sadr, Bardia; Davoudi, Seyed M; Nassiri-Kashani, Mansour; Panahi, Yunes; Dowlati, Yahya

    2011-03-01

    Sulfur mustard (2,2-dichlorodiethyl sulfide: SM), the protagonist of vesicant chemical weapons, was first used in July 1917. Despite prohibition of its production and use by international conventions, it has been used in several conflicts. More than 100,000 soldiers and civilians were injured due to SM exposure during Iran-Iraq war (1980-1988). The acute skin lesions consist of erythema, edema, and blisters. Skin xerosis and pruritus, pigmentation disorders, scars, and cherry angiomas are among the most common long-term skin lesions after contact with SM. Although SM is a well-known carcinogenic substance, skin cancers are rarely reported. PMID:21047269

  6. Petroleum supply monthly, August 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    This publication the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report, (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. Data presented are divided into Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  7. Petroleum marketing annual 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA) contains statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the free-on-board (f.o.b.) and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. For this publication, all estimates have been recalculated since their earlier publication in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM). These calculations made use of additional data and corrections that were received after the PMM publication dates.

  8. Carbonate petroleum reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Roehl, P.O.; Choquette, P.W.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents papers on the geology of petroleum deposits. Topics considered include diagenesis, porosity, dolomite reservoirs, deposition, reservoir rock, reefs, morphology, fracture-controlled production, Cenozoic reservoirs, Mesozoic reservoirs, and Paleozoic reservoirs.

  9. Carcinogenic Aspects of Protein Phosphatase 1 and 2A Inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiki, Hirota; Suganuma, Masami

    Okadaic acid is functionally a potent tumor promoter working through inhibition of protein phosphatases 1 and 2A (PP1 and PP2A), resulting in sustained phosphorylation of proteins in cells. The mechanism of tumor promotion with oka-daic acid is thus completely different from that of the classic tumor promoter phorbol ester. Other potent inhibitors of PP1 and PP2A - such as dinophysistoxin-1, calyculins A-H, microcystin-LR and its derivatives, and nodularin - were isolated from marine organisms, and their structural features including the crystal structure of the PP1-inhibitor complex, tumor promoting activities, and biochemical and biological effects, are here reviewed. The compounds induced tumor promoting activity in three different organs, including mouse skin, rat glandular stomach and rat liver, initiated with three different carcinogens. The results indicate that inhibition of PP1 and PP2A is a general mechanism of tumor promotion applicable to various organs. This study supports the concept of endogenous tumor promoters in human cancer development.

  10. Skin optics

    SciTech Connect

    van Gemert, M.J.; Jacques, S.L.; Sterenborg, H.J.; Star, W.M.

    1989-12-01

    Quantitative dosimetry in the treatment of skin disorders with (laser) light requires information on propagation of light in the skin related to the optical properties of the individual skin layers. This involves the solution of the integro-differential equation of radiative transfer in a model representing skin geometry, as well as experimental methods to determine the optical properties of each skin layer. These activities are unified under the name skin optics. This paper first reviews the current status of tissue optics, distinguishing between the cases of: dominant absorption, dominant scattering, and scattering about equal to absorption. Then, previously published data as well as some current unpublished data on (human) stratum corneum, epidermis and dermis, have been collected and/or (re)analyzed in terms of absorption coefficient, scattering coefficient, and anisotropy factor of scattering. The results are that the individual skin layers show strongly forward scattering (anisotropy factors between 0.7 and 0.9). The absorption and scattering data show that for all wavelengths considered scattering is much more important than absorption. Under such circumstances, solutions to the transport equation for a multilayer skin model and finite beam laser irradiation are currently not yet available. Hence, any quantitative dosimetry for skin treated with (laser) light is currently lacking.

  11. Romania's petroleum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Stefanescu, M.O. ); Popescu, B.M. )

    1993-09-01

    In Romania, nine onshore petroleum systems and one offshore petroleum system have recently been identified. Of the onshore systems, three are related to the compressional folded basins: Teleajen-Sita (early Middle Cretaceous marine source rocks), and Puciossa-Fusaru and Alunis-Kliwa (Oligocene-early Miocene marine source rocks). In the same category, we have included the recently discovered Deleni petroleum system with source rocks of not yet identified origin but whose reservoirs certainly belong to a folded basin. In the foreland platform basins, two systems can be distinguished: Rimesti-Fauresti (Middle Jurassic marine source rocks) and Infra-Anhydrite (with presumed Middle Jurassic or middle Miocene marine source rocks). The areas corresponding to the posttectonic basins include three onshore petroleum systems and one offshore system: the Pannonian (Badenian marine and Sarmatian brackish water source rocks), the Valea Caselor-Borsa (oligocene marine source rocks) and the Transylvanian (Badenian marine shales source and Sarmatian brackish water source rocks). Offshore, there is only one petroleum system consisting of Oligocene-Miocene marine source rock and Cretaceous or Eocene reservoirs. The majority of the mentioned petroleum systems reservoirs are Paleozoic to Pliocene clastics, but in the platform areas, carbonate reservoirs are found in the Paleozoic and Mesozoic. In all the petroleum systems, despite the different ages of the source rocks, most of the hydrocarbons have been expelled relatively recently during the Late Sarmatian-Pliocene interval. This face is substantiated by examples from two petroleum systems: the Rimesti-Fauresti (duration time 173 m.y., preservation 2 m.y.) and the Alunis-Kliwa (duration time 29-30 m.y., preservation 4 m.y.). The hydrocarbons were first expelled and migrated into described systems reservoirs after Late Styrian and Moldavian overthrusting, i.e. not earlier than 12-14 m.y.

  12. Petroleum basin studies

    SciTech Connect

    Shannon, P.M. ); Naylor, D. )

    1989-01-01

    This book reviews the tectonic setting, basin development and history of exploration of a number of selected petroleum provinces located in a variety of settings in the Middle East, North Sea, Nigeria, the Rocky Mountains, Gabon and China. This book illustrates how ideas and models developed in one area may be applied to other regions. Regional reviews and the reassessment of petroleum provinces are presented.

  13. Grenz ray-induced nonmelanoma skin cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Frentz, G.

    1989-09-01

    In 28 patients, nonmelanoma skin cancers developed in areas previously exposed to grenz rays. In 17 patients who did not have psoriasis, no other relevant carcinogenic exposure could be incriminated. Women were more often affected than men. Most of the tumors were basal cell cancers, and most of the patients had multiple tumors. No threshold dose could be established. The distribution of the latency time among patients without psoriasis was strictly normal (median 18 years). These observations suggest that usual therapeutic doses of grenz rays, as a single agent, are capable of causing skin cancer, but only in those persons who are abnormally sensitive to x-rays. 9 references.

  14. Carcinogenicity of 1,3-butadiene.

    PubMed Central

    Melnick, R L; Shackelford, C C; Huff, J

    1993-01-01

    1,3-Butadiene, a high-production volume chemical used largely in the manufacture of synthetic rubber, is a multiple organ carcinogen in rats and mice. In inhalation studies conducted in mice by the National Toxicology Program, high rates of early lethal lymphomas occurring at exposure levels of 625 ppm or higher reduced the development and expression of later developing tumors at other sites. Use of survival-adjusted tumor rates to account for competing risk factors provided a clearer indication of the dose responses for 1,3-butadiene-induced neoplasms. An increase in lung tumors in female mice was observed at exposure concentrations as low as 6.25 ppm, the lowest concentration ever used in a long-term carcinogenicity study of this gas. Human exposures to 1,3-butadiene by workers employed at facilities that produce this chemical and at facilities that produce styrene-butadiene rubber have been measured at levels higher than those that cause cancer in animals. Furthermore, epidemiology studies have consistently revealed associations between occupational exposure to 1,3-butadiene and excess mortality due to lymphatic and hematopoietic cancers. In response to the carcinogenicity findings for 1,3-butadiene in animals and in humans, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration has proposed lowering the occupational exposure standard for this chemical from 1000 ppm to 2 ppm. Future work is needed to understand the mechanisms of tumor induction by 1,3-butadiene; however, the pursuit of this research should not delay the reduction of human exposure to this chemical. PMID:8354171

  15. Report on carcinogens monograph on cumene.

    PubMed

    2013-09-01

    The National Toxicology Program conducted a cancer evaluation on cumene for possible listing in the Report on Carcinogens (RoC). The cancer evaluation is captured in the RoC monograph, which was peer reviewed in a public forum. The monograph consists of two components: (Part 1) the cancer evaluation, which reviews the relevant scientific information, assesses its quality, applies the RoC listing criteria to the scientific information, and provides the NTP recommendation for listing status for cumene in the RoC, and (Part 2) the substance profile proposed for the RoC, containing the NTP's listing status recommendation, a summary of the scientific evidence considered key to reaching that decision, and data on properties, use, production, exposure, and Federal regulations and guidelines to reduce exposure to cumene. This monograph provides an assessment of the available scientific information on cumene, including human exposure and properties, disposition and toxicokinetics, cancer studies in experimental animals, and studies of mechanisms and other related effects, including relevant toxicological effects, genetic toxicology, and mechanisms of carcinogenicity. From this assessment, the NTP recommended that cumene be listed as reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen in the RoC based on sufficient evidence from studies in experimental animals, which found that cumene exposure caused lung tumors in male and female mice and liver tumors in female mice. Several proposed mechanisms of carcinogenesis support the relevance to humans of the lung and liver tumors observed in experimental animals. Specifically, there is evidence that humans and experimental animals metabolize cumene through similar metabolic pathways. In addition, mutations of the K-ras oncogene and p53 tumor-suppressor gene observed in cumene-induced lung tumors in mice, along with altered expression of many other genes, resemble molecular alterations found in human lung and other cancers. PMID

  16. Phillips Petroleum`s Seastar Project

    SciTech Connect

    Upchurch, J.L.; Money, R.P.

    1997-02-01

    On May 1, 1995 Phillips Petroleum`s Seastar Project began production as the first cluster-type subsea development in the Gulf of Mexico. Seastar production reached approximately 60 million cubic feet of gas per day (mmscfd) in November 1995 with the completion of a second {open_quotes}sales{close_quotes} line (a pipeline that transports the petroleum to shore) at the Vermilion Block 386-B host platform. Currently, the field is producing 40 to 50 mmscfd and plans are on schedule for the addition of a third producing well during the first quarter of 1997. All of the subsea equipment was installed using a drilling vessel and onboard ROV support. The Seastar project began in 1987 when Phillips and its partners leased Garden Banks Blocks 70 and 71, located 110 miles south of Cameron Louisiana. The partnership drilled two wells in 1990 that discovered noncommercial hydrocarbon reserves. Following a reevaluation of the seismic data, Phillips assumed 100 percent ownership in the leases and drilled Garden Banks 71 No. 2, which discovered 350 feet of {open_quotes}pay{close_quotes} sand (oil resource) in March 1993. The initial phase of the project consisted of two satellite subsea trees tied back to a four-slot retrievable subsea manifold in 760 feet of water. Commingled gas production is delivered via dual subsea pipelines to a host platform processing facility in 300 feet of water 13 miles away in Vermilion Block 386-B, thence via sales lines to shore.

  17. Selection of an in vitro carcinogenicity test for derivatives of the carcinogen hexamethylphosphoramide.

    PubMed Central

    Ashby, J.; Styles, J. A.; Anderson, D.

    1977-01-01

    The demonstration that hexamethylphosphoramide (HMPA) possesses potent carcinogenic properties has raised doubts about the safety of exposure to other phosphoric amides. In order to define a suitable short-term test with which to evaluate such analogues, the response of the Salmonella typhimurium mutation assay of Ames and cell transformation assay of Styles to HMPA and 3 selected analogues has been studied. These analogues were the related leukaemogen phosphoramide, the putative non-carcinogen, phosphoric trianilide and N.N'N''-trimethylphosphorothioic triamide, a compound of unknown and hitherto unpredictable properties. While both tests found the trianilide negative, the Ames test failed to detect phosphoramide as positive and gave an erratic and predominantly negative response to HMPA. In contrast, the transformation assay found both phosphoramide and HMPA positive. This test response profile indicates that the transformation assay is the preferred test with which to evaluate analogues of HMPA for potential carcinogenicity. Some structural requirements for potential carcinogenicity within this class of compounds are tentatively deduced. PMID:337998

  18. Toxicity and carcinogenicity of potassium bromate--a new renal carcinogen

    SciTech Connect

    Kurokawa, Y.; Maekawa, A.; Takahashi, M.; Hayashi, Y. )

    1990-07-01

    Potassium bromate (KBrO3) is an oxidizing agent that has been used as a food additive, mainly in the bread-making process. Although adverse effects are not evident in animals fed bread-based diets made from flour treated with KBrO3, the agent is carcinogenic in rats and nephrotoxic in both man and experimental animals when given orally. It has been demonstrated that KBrO3 induces renal cell tumors, mesotheliomas of the peritoneum, and follicular cell tumors of the thyroid. In addition, experiments aimed at elucidating the mode of carcinogenic action have revealed that KBrO3 is a complete carcinogen, possessing both initiating and promoting activities for rat renal tumorigenesis. However, the potential seems to be weak in mice and hamsters. In contrast to its weak mutagenic activity in microbial assays, KBrO3 showed relatively strong potential inducing chromosome aberrations both in vitro and in vivo. Glutathione and cysteine degrade KBrO3 in vitro; in turn, the KBrO3 has inhibitory effects on inducing lipid peroxidation in the rat kidney. Active oxygen radicals generated from KBrO3 were implicated in its toxic and carcinogenic effects, especially because KBrO3 produced 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine in the rat kidney. A wide range of data from applications of various analytical methods are now available for risk assessment purposes.111 references.

  19. Multistage skin tumor promotion: involvement of a protein kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Mamrack, M.; Slaga, T. J.

    1980-01-01

    Current information suggests that chemical carcinogenesis is a multistep process with one of the best studied models in this regard being the two-stage carcinogenesis system using mouse skin. The effects of several carcinogens and tumor promoters in various sequences of application were studied to examine the nature of the process. The actions of several tumor inhibitors were compared. (ACR)

  20. Skin Substitutes

    PubMed Central

    Howe, Nicole; Cohen, George

    2014-01-01

    In a relatively short timespan, a wealth of new skin substitutes made of synthetic and biologically derived materials have arisen for the purpose of wound healing of various etiologies. This review article focuses on providing an overview of skin substitutes including their indications, contraindications, benefits, and limitations. The result of this overview was an appreciation of the vast array of options available for clinicians, many of which did not exist a short time ago. Yet, despite the rapid expansion this field has undergone, no ideal skin substitute is currently available. More research in the field of skin substitutes and wound healing is required not only for the development of new products made of increasingly complex biomolecular material, but also to compare the existing skin substitutes. PMID:25371771

  1. 31 CFR 542.314 - Petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian origin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Petroleum or petroleum products of... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 542.314 Petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian origin. The term petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian origin means petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian...

  2. Carcinogenic PAH in waterpipe charcoal products

    PubMed Central

    Sepetdjian, Elizabeth; Saliba, Najat; Shihadeh, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Because narghile waterpipe (shisha, hooka) smoking normally involves the use of burning charcoal, smoke inhaled by the user contains constituents originating from the charcoal in addition to those from the tobacco. We have previously found that charcoal accounts for most of the polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and carbon monoxide in the smoke of the waterpipe, both of which are present in alarming quantities. Because charcoal manufacturing conditions favor formation of PAH, it is reasonable to assume that charcoal sold off the shelf may be contaminated by PAH residues. These residues may constitute a significant fraction of the PAH inhaled by the waterpipe user and those in her/his vicinity. We measured PAH residues on three kinds of raw waterpipe charcoal sampled from Beirut stores and cafés. We found that PAH residues in raw charcoal can account for more than half of the total PAH emitted in the mainstream and sidestream smoke, and about one sixth of the carcinogenic 5- and 6-ring PAH compounds. Total PAH content of the three charcoal types varied systematically by a factor of six from the charcoal with the least to the greatest PAH residue. These findings indicate the possibility of regulating charcoal carcinogen content. PMID:20807559

  3. Carcinogenic PAH in waterpipe charcoal products.

    PubMed

    Sepetdjian, Elizabeth; Saliba, Najat; Shihadeh, Alan

    2010-11-01

    Because narghile waterpipe (shisha, hooka) smoking normally involves the use of burning charcoal, smoke inhaled by the user contains constituents originating from the charcoal in addition to those from the tobacco. We have previously found that charcoal accounts for most of the polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and carbon monoxide in the smoke of the waterpipe, both of which are present in alarming quantities. Because charcoal manufacturing conditions favor formation of PAH, it is reasonable to assume that charcoal sold off the shelf may be contaminated by PAH residues. These residues may constitute a significant fraction of the PAH inhaled by the waterpipe user and those in her/his vicinity. We measured PAH residues on three kinds of raw waterpipe charcoal sampled from Beirut stores and cafés. We found that PAH residues in raw charcoal can account for more than half of the total PAH emitted in the mainstream and sidestream smoke, and about one sixth of the carcinogenic 5- and 6-ring PAH compounds. Total PAH content of the three charcoal types varied systematically by a factor of six from the charcoal with the least to the greatest PAH residue. These findings indicate the possibility of regulating charcoal carcinogen content. PMID:20807559

  4. Use of a surrogate aerosol in a preliminary screening for the potential carcinogenicity of coal coated with No. 6 fuel oil.

    PubMed

    Dalbey, W E; Blackburn, G R; Roy, T A; Sasaki, J; Krueger, A J; Mackerer, C R

    1998-02-01

    Coal, which contains significant amounts of water, can be ground and dried to produce an efficient fuel for electric power plants; however, spontaneous combustion can occur in the dried coal. Liquid petroleum hydrocarbons inhibit this combustion, but not all petroleum streams are effective. No. 6 fuel oil, a readily available and inexpensive stream, provides an effective coating, but the carcinogenic potential of coal particles treated with No. 6 fuel oil, which contains polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PNAs), was undefined. As part of the assessment process, a series of studies was conducted to compare this treated coal with similar particles (petroleum coke) that had been tested by chronic inhalation in monkeys and rats. The amounts of PNAs in petroleum coke and treated coal were compared in extraction studies; the treated coal had only two-thirds of the organics extractable with benzene compared with coke and only 7% as much of the 3-7 ring PNAs, the likely tumorigenic compounds. In addition, the analytical profile of 3-7 ring PNAs was of lower molecular weights in the coal treated with fuel oil. The mutagenicity of extracts from treated coal was much less than with petroleum coke and markedly less than that of No. 6 fuel oil itself. The percutaneous absorption of 3H-benzo(a)pyrene from both particles and from their benzene extracts, as measured in vitro, was approximately eight times greater with petroleum coke than with treated coal. Based on these preliminary results, there is no evidence suggesting that the treated coal would pose any greater carcinogenic risk than petroleum coke. PMID:9487662

  5. Target organs in chronic bioassays of 533 chemical carcinogens

    SciTech Connect

    Gold, L.S.; Slone, T.H.; Manley, N.B. ); Bernstein, L. )

    1991-06-01

    A compendium of carcinogenesis bioassay results organized by target organ is presented for 533 chemicals that are carcinogenic in at least one species. This compendium is based primarily on experiments in rats or mice; results in hamsters, nonhuman primates, and dogs are also reported. The compendium can be used to identify chemicals that induce tumors at particular sites, and to determine whether target sites are the same for chemicals positive in more than one species. The Carcinogenic Potency Database (CPDB), which includes results of 3969 experiments, is used in the analysis. The published CPDB includes details on each test, and literature references. Chemical carcinogens are reported for 35 different target organs in rats or mice. More than 80% of the carcinogens in each of these species are positive in at least one of the 8 most frequent target sites; liver, lung, mammary gland, stomach, vascular system, kidney, hematopoietic system, and urinary bladder. An analysis is presented of how well one can predict the carcinogenic response in mice from results in rats, or vice versa. Among chemicals tested in both species, 76% of rat carcinogens are positive in mice, and 71% of mouse carcinogens are positive in rats. Prediction is less accurate to the same target site: 52% of rat carcinogens are positive in the same site in mice, and 48% of mouse carcinogens are positive in the same site in rats. The liver is the most frequent site in common between rats and mice.

  6. Data quality in predictive toxicology: reproducibility of rodent carcinogenicity experiments.

    PubMed Central

    Gottmann, E; Kramer, S; Pfahringer, B; Helma, C

    2001-01-01

    We compared 121 replicate rodent carcinogenicity assays from the two parts (National Cancer Institute/National Toxicology Program and literature) of the Carcinogenic Potency Database (CPDB) to estimate the reliability of these experiments. We estimated a concordance of 57% between the overall rodent carcinogenicity classifications from both sources. This value did not improve substantially when additional biologic information (species, sex, strain, target organs) was considered. These results indicate that rodent carcinogenicity assays are much less reproducible than previously expected, an effect that should be considered in the development of structure-activity relationship models and the risk assessment process. PMID:11401763

  7. Target organs in chronic bioassays of 533 chemical carcinogens.

    PubMed Central

    Gold, L S; Slone, T H; Manley, N B; Bernstein, L

    1991-01-01

    A compendium of carcinogenesis bioassay results organized by target organ is presented for 533 chemicals that are carcinogenic in at least one species. This compendium is based primarily on experiments in rats or mice; results in hamsters, nonhuman primates, and dogs are also reported. The compendium can be used to identify chemicals that induce tumors at particular sites, and to determine whether target sites are the same for chemicals positive in more than one species. The Carcinogenic Potency Database (CPDB), which includes results of 3969 experiments, is used in the analysis. The published CPDB includes details on each test, and literature references. Chemical carcinogens are reported for 35 different target organs in rats or mice. More than 80% of the carcinogens in each of these species are positive in at least one of the 8 most frequent target sites: liver, lung, mammary gland, stomach, vascular system, kidney, hematopoietic system, and urinary bladder. An analysis is presented of how well one can predict the carcinogenic response in mice from results in rats, or vice versa. Among chemicals tested in both species, 76% of rat carcinogens are positive in mice, and 71% of mouse carcinogens are positive in rats. Prediction is less accurate to the same target site: 52% of rat carcinogens are positive in the same site in mice, and 48% of mouse carcinogens are positive in the same site in rats. The liver is the most frequent site in common between rats and mice. PMID:1773795

  8. Molecular fingerprints of environmental carcinogens in human cancer.

    PubMed

    Ceccaroli, C; Pulliero, A; Geretto, M; Izzotti, A

    2015-01-01

    Identification of specific molecular changes (fingerprints) is important to identify cancer etiology. Exploitable biomarkers are related to DNA, epigenetics, and proteins. DNA adducts are the turning point between environmental exposures and biological damage. DNA mutational fingerprints are induced by carcinogens in tumor suppressor and oncogenes. In an epigenetic domain, methylation changes occurs in specific genes for arsenic, benzene, chromium, and cigarette smoke. Alteration of specific microRNA has been reported for environmental carcinogens. Benzo(a)pyrene, cadmium, coal, and wood dust hits specific heat-shock proteins and metalloproteases. The multiple analysis of these biomarkers provides information on the carcinogenic mechanisms activated by exposure to environmental carcinogens. PMID:26023758

  9. Evaluation of the potential carcinogenicity of daunomycin. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-06-01

    Daunomycin is a probable human carcinogen, classified as weight-of-evidence Group B2 under the EPA Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment. Evidence on potential carcinogenicity from animal studies is Sufficient, and the evidence from human studies is No Data. Data available are inadequate for calculating a potency factor (F) and no quantitative inferences can be made. Daunomycin is, therefore, assigned to the median potency factor range and placed in potency group 2 according to the CAG's methodology for evaluating potential carcinogens. Combining the weight-of-evidence group and the potency group, daunomycin is assigned a MEDIUM hazard ranking for the purposes of RQ adjustment.

  10. Hepatic metabolism of carcinogenic β-asarone.

    PubMed

    Cartus, Alexander T; Stegmüller, Simone; Simson, Nadine; Wahl, Andrea; Neef, Sylvia; Kelm, Harald; Schrenk, Dieter

    2015-09-21

    β-Asarone (1) belongs to the group of naturally occurring phenylpropenes like eugenol or anethole. Compound 1 is found in several plants, e.g., Acorus calamus or Asarum europaeum. Compound 1-containing plant materials and essential oils thereof are used to flavor foods and alcoholic beverages and as ingredients of many drugs in traditional phytomedicines. Although 1 has been claimed to have several positive pharmacological effects, it was found to be genotoxic and carcinogenic in rodents (liver and small intestine). The mechanism of action of carcinogenic allylic phenylpropenes consists of the metabolic activation via cytochrome P450 enzymes and sulfotransferases. In vivo experiments suggested that this pathway does not play a major role in the carcinogenicity of the propenylic compound 1 as is the case for other propenylic compounds, e.g., anethole. Since the metabolic pathways of 1 have not been investigated and its carcinogenic mode of action is unknown, we investigated the metabolism of 1 in liver microsomes of rats, bovines, porcines, and humans using (1)H NMR, HPLC-DAD, and LC-ESI-MS/MS techniques. We synthesized the majority of identified metabolites which were used as reference compounds for the quantification and final verification of metabolites. Microsomal epoxidation of the side chain of 1 presumably yielded (Z)-asarone-1',2'-epoxide (8a) which instantly was hydrolyzed to the corresponding erythro- and threo-configurated diols (9b, 9a) and the ketone 2,4,5-trimethoxyphenylacetone (13). This was the main metabolic pathway in the metabolism of 1 in all investigated liver microsomes. Hydroxylation of the side chain of 1 led to the formation of three alcohols at total yields of less than 30%: 1'-hydroxyasarone (2), (E)- and (Z)-3'-hydroxyasarone (4 and 6), with 6 being the mainly formed alcohol and 2 being detectable only in liver microsomes of Aroclor 1254-pretreated rats. Small amounts of 4 and 6 were further oxidized to the corresponding carbonyl

  11. Dangerous properties of petroleum-refining products: carcinogenicity of motor fuels (gasoline).

    PubMed

    Mehlman, M A

    1990-01-01

    Gasoline contains large numbers of dangerous and cancer-causing chemicals such as benzene, butadiene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, trimethyl pentane, methyltertbutylether (MTBE) and many others. For the U.S. alone approximately 140 billion gallons of gasoline were consumed in 1989. An increase in only ten cents per gallon in price of gasoline generates 14 billion dollars in extra profit per year for oil industry cartel. Laboratory animals exposed to gasoline developed cancers in different tissues and organs. A number of epidemiological studies in humans provide evidence of increased cancer risk of leukemia, kidney, liver, brain, lymphosarcoma, lymphatic tissue pancreas and other tissues and organs. PMID:1981951

  12. Petroleum marketing monthly, May 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-26

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  13. ASSESSMENT OF GENOTOXIC ACTIVITY OF PETROLEUM HYDROCARBON-BIOREMEDIATED SOIL

    SciTech Connect

    BRIGMON, ROBIN

    2004-10-20

    The relationship between toxicity and soil contamination must be understood to develop reliable indicators of environmental restoration for bioremediation. Two bacterial rapid bioassays: SOS chromotest and umu-test with and without metabolic activation (S-9 mixture) were used to evaluate genotoxicity of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil following bioremediation treatment. The soil was taken from an engineered biopile at the Czor Polish oil refinery. The bioremediation process in the biopile lasted 4 years, and the toxicity measurements were done after this treatment. Carcinogens detected in the soil, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), were reduced to low concentrations (2 mg/kg dry wt) by the bioremediation process. Genotoxicity was not observed for soils tested with and without metabolic activation by a liver homogenate (S-9 mixture). However, umu-test was more sensitive than SOS-chromotest in the analysis of petroleum hydrocarbon-bioremediated soil. Analytical results of soil used in the bioassays confirmed that the bioremediation process reduced 81 percent of the petroleum hydrocarbons including PAHs. We conclude that the combined test systems employed in this study are useful tools for the genotoxic examination of remediated petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil.

  14. Treatment with topical khellin in combination with ultraviolet A or solar-simulated radiation is carcinogenic to lightly pigmented hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Bech-Thomsen, N; Wulf, H C

    1996-01-01

    Khellin is used together with either UVA irradiation or sun exposure in the treatment of vitiligo. The purpose of this study was to investigate the carcinogenic effect of topically applied khellin together with UVA or solar simulated radiation (SSR) in lightly pigmented C3H/Tif mice. For comparison purposes a 0.1% 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) cream was also tested in combination with SSR. Fifty microliters of a 5% khellin cream, a 0.1% 8-MOP cream, or a cream without active substances were spread uniformly on the back of the mice 30 minutes before UVA or SSR irradiation. All mice were irradiated 3 times a week until age or skin tumor development necessitated killing. Treatment with topical khellin and UVA irradiation was carcinogenic to lightly pigmented hairless mice, time to 50% of the mice had developed one tumor (t50) was 507 days. This indicates that the combination of topical khellin and UVA radiation, formerly expected to be rather innocuous, is carcinogenic to mice. Also the combination of khellin and SSR (t50 = 268 days) enhanced skin tumor development significantly compared with control cream and SSR (t50 = 330 days), P < 0.05. In addition, the combination of khellin and SSR was found to have the same carcinogenic effect as treatment with 0.1% 8-MOP and SSR (t50 = 262 days). This study shows that topically applied khellin increases the carcinogenic effect of both UVA and sunlight. PMID:8738715

  15. Skin Cancer in Skin of Color

    PubMed Central

    Bradford, Porcia T.

    2009-01-01

    Skin cancers in skin of color often present atypically or with advanced stage in comparison to Caucasian patients. Health care providers must maintain a high index of suspicion when examining skin lesions in skin of color. PMID:19691228

  16. Immunogenicity of guinea pig cells transformed in culture by chemical carcinogens

    SciTech Connect

    Ohanian, S.H.; McCabe, R.P.; Evans, C.H.

    1981-12-01

    The immunogenicity of inbred strain 2/N guinea pig fibroblasts transformed to the malignant state in vitro by chemical carcinogens was evaluated with the use of a variety of in vivo and in vitro methods including delayed-type hypersensitivity skin and tumor transplantation tests and analysis of antibody production by immunofluorescence, complement fixation, and staphylococcal protein A binding tests. Neoplastic transformation was induced by direct treatment of cells in culture with benzo(a)pyrene, 3-methylcholanthrene, or N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) or by the host-mediated method by which fetuses were exposed to diethylnitrosamine or MNNG in vivo prior to cell culture. Rabbits and syngeneic guinea pigs were inoculated with unirradiated and X-irradiated clonally derived cells. Delayed hypersensitivity skin reactions to immunizing or other cells were equivalent in immunized or control guinea pigs, and no protection to tumor outgrowth from a challenge inoculum of immunizing cells was observed. Antibody activity induced in the sera of immunized guinea pigs was cross-reactive and removed by absorption with nontumorigenic cells. Rabbit antisera after absorption with fetal guinea pig cells were nonreactive with the specific immunizing or other culture cells. Chemical carcinogen-induced neoplastic transformation of guinea pig cells can, therefore, occur without formation of detectable, individually distinct cell surface tumor-specific neoantigens.

  17. Immunogenicity of guinea pig cells transformed in culture by chemical carcinogens

    SciTech Connect

    Ohanian, S.H.; McCabe, R.P.; Evans, C.H.

    1981-12-01

    The immunogenicity of inbred strain 2/N guinea pig fibroblasts transformed to the malignant state in vitro by chemical carcinogens was evaluated with the use of a variety of in vivo and in vitro methods including delayed-type hypersensitivity skin and tumor transplantation tests and analysis of antibody production by immunofluorescence, complement fixation, and staphylococcal protein A binding tests. Neoplastic transformation was induced by direct treatment of cells in culture with benzo(a)pyrene, 3-methylcholanthrene, or N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) or by the host-mediated method by which fetuses were exposed to diethylnitrosamine or MNNG in vivo prior to cell culture. Rabbits and syngeneic guinea pigs were inoculated with unirradiated and X-irradiated clonally derived cells. Delayed hypersensitivity skin reactions to immunizing or other cells were equivalent in immunized or control guinea pigs, and no protection to tumor outgrowth from a challenge inoculum of immunizing cells was observed. Antibody activity induced in the sera of immunized guinea pigs was cross-reactive and removed by absorption with nontumorigenic cells. Rabbit anitsera after absorption with fetal guinea pig cells were nonreactive with the specific immunizing or other cultured cells. Chemical carcinogen-induced neoplastic transformation of guinea pig cells can, therefore, occur without formation of detectable, individually distinct cell surface tumor-specific neoantigens.

  18. Hyperelastic skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... is most often seen in people who have Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. People with this disorder have very elastic skin. ... any member of your family been diagnosed with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome? What other symptoms are present?

  19. Your Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... Butterflies? Read This Chloe & Nurb Meet The Brain (Movie) Quiz: Do You Need a Flu Shot? Got ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Movie: Skin Acne Myths Blisters, Calluses, and Corns Fungal ...

  20. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Review. 17 Wu S, Han J, Laden F, Qureshi AA. Long-term ultraviolet flux, other potential risk factors, ... MR, Shive ML, Chren MM, Han J, Qureshi AA, Linos E. Indoor tanning and non-melanoma skin ...

  1. Skin Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... nearby What to Do Teach kids not to pop, pick at, or scratch pimples, pus-filled infections, ... Your Skin Abscess Impetigo Ringworm Cellulitis Should I Pop My Pimple? Tips for Taking Care of Your ...

  2. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... exposure to ultraviolet light, which is found in sunlight and in lights used in tanning salons. What ... the safe-sun guidelines. 1. Avoid the sun. Sunlight damages your skin. The sun is strongest during ...

  3. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... early. If not treated, some types of skin cancer cells can spread to other tissues and organs. Treatments ... and a type of laser light to kill cancer cells. Biologic therapy boosts your body's own ability to ...

  4. Hyperelastic skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... is most often seen in people who have Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. People with this disorder have very elastic skin. ... any member of your family been diagnosed with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome? What other symptoms are present? Alternative Names India ...

  5. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... States. The two most common types are basal cell cancer and squamous cell cancer. They usually form on the head, face, ... If not treated, some types of skin cancer cells can spread to other tissues and organs. Treatments ...

  6. Petroleum marketing annual, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    This publication contains statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the free-on-board (f.o.b.) and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  7. Petroleum Marketing Annual, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-18

    This report contains statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for us by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the free-on-board (f.o.b.) and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. 13 figs., 51 tabs.

  8. Petroleum supply monthly, August 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-26

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  9. Petroleum marketing monthly, June 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in five sections: Summary Statistics; Crude Oil Prices; Prices of Petroleum Products; Volumes of Petroleum Products; and Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Petroleum Products for Local Consumption. The feature article is entitled ``The Second Oxygenated Gasoline Season.`` 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  10. Petroleum marketing monthly, July 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in five sections: summary statistics; crude oil prices; prices of petroleum products; volumes of petroleum products; and prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  11. Petroleum supply monthly, July 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-29

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: Petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  12. Senescent Skin

    PubMed Central

    Kushniruk, William

    1974-01-01

    The cutaneous surface is continually influenced by aging and environmental factors. A longer life span is accompanied by an increase in the frequency of problems associated with aging skin. Although most of these changes and lesions are not life threatening, the premalignant lesions must be recognized and treated. The common aging and actinic skin changes are discussed and appropriate management is described. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:20469067

  13. Carcinogenicity of beryllium hydroxide and alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Groth, D.H.; Kommineni, C.; Mackay, G.R.

    1980-02-01

    Animal experiments are presented which show that Be metal, BeAl alloy, passivated Be metal, and beryllium hydroxide are pulmonary carcinogens in rats. These findings are supported by successful transplantation experiments. In addition, other alloys of Be, VBe/sub 12/, TiBe/sub 12/, TaBe/sub 12/, NbBe/sub 12/, Be/sub 2/B, and Be/sub 4/B were found to produce pulmonary metaplasia, frequently a preneoplastic lesion in rats. Old rats are shown to be more susceptible to the induction of pulmonary metaplasia than young adult rats. These results indicate that a lower dose of Be would be required to produce cancer in old animals compared to young adult animals. A discussion on the lung cancer incidence in beryllium production workers is presented.

  14. Delineation of a Carcinogenic Helicobacter pylori Proteome*

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Aime T.; Friedman, David B.; Nagy, Toni A.; Romero-Gallo, Judith; Krishna, Uma; Kendall, Amy; Israel, Dawn A.; Tegtmeyer, Nicole; Washington, M. Kay; Peek, Richard M.

    2009-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is the strongest known risk factor for gastric adenocarcinoma, yet only a fraction of infected persons ever develop cancer. The extensive genetic diversity inherent to this pathogen has precluded comprehensive analyses of constituents that mediate carcinogenesis. We previously reported that in vivo adaptation of a non-carcinogenic H. pylori strain endowed the output derivative with the ability to induce adenocarcinoma, providing a unique opportunity to identify proteins selectively expressed by an oncogenic H. pylori strain. Using a global proteomics DIGE/MS approach, a novel missense mutation of the flagellar protein FlaA was identified that affects structure and function of this virulence-related organelle. Among 25 additional differentially abundant proteins, this approach also identified new proteins previously unassociated with gastric cancer, generating a profile of H. pylori proteins to use in vaccine development and for screening persons infected with strains most likely to induce severe disease. PMID:19470446

  15. Carcinogenic potential of PAHs in oil-contaminated soils from the main oil fields across China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Cao, Xiaofeng; Liao, Jingqiu; Huang, Yi; Tang, Xiaoyan

    2015-07-01

    The concentrations, composition profiles, and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed in 55 surface soil samples collected from four oil fields across China (Daqing, DQ; Shengli, SL; Xinjiang, XJ; and Huabei, HB). The total 16 priority PAHs concentrations of DQ, SL, XJ, and HB ranged from 857 to 27,816; 480 to 20,625; 497 to 43,210; and 12,112 to 45,325 ng/g, respectively, with means of 9160; 6394; 13,569; and 22,954 ng/g and the seven possible carcinogenic PAHs accounted for 8-25.7 % of the total PAHs. Almost all the samples were heavily contaminated, and phenanthrene, chrysene, and pyrene were the most dominant components. The PAH isomeric ratios indicated that PAHs in oil fields mainly originated from petroleum. The toxic assessment illustrated that people living and working in oil fields would suffer low carcinogenic risk, which was somehow coincided with the results of epidemiological survey on cancer incidence. It seems essential to pay more attention to the chronic human health effects of exposure to oil fields and to focus new studies on the public health field that involves a large number of people all over the world. PMID:25772862

  16. 29 CFR 1910.1003 - 13 Carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 13 Carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.). 1910.1003 Section 1910.1003 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS (CONTINUED) Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1910.1003 13 Carcinogens...

  17. Carcinogens in the Workplace: A Scientific, Political and Social Problem

    PubMed Central

    Atherley, Gordon; Whiting, Robert

    1982-01-01

    Investigation, assessment, and management of carcinogenic risks are not only scientific but also political responsibilities. In Canada, this becomes cumbersome, since local, provincial and federal policies are involved. The process also involves workers and management. This article outlines Canadian legislative experience, the principles involved, the methods of risk assessment, and the classification of carcinogens in the workplace. PMID:21286078

  18. Workshop on problem areas associated with developing carcinogen guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-06-01

    A workshop was conducted to discuss problem areas associated with developing carcinogen guidelines. Session topics included (1) definition of a carcinogen for regulatory purposes; (2) potency; (3) risk assessment; (4) uncertainties; (5) de minimis quantity; and (6) legal and regulatory issues. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual papers. (ACR)

  19. [The carcinogenic and anticarcinogenic properties of neozon D].

    PubMed

    Pliss, G B; Vlasov, N N; Zabezhinskiĭ, M A

    1991-01-01

    Continuous administration of neozone D to dogs and rats failed to reveal its carcinogenicity. Nor did the agent potentiate the carcinogenic effect of 2-naphthylamine and benzidine in rats. Conversely, neozone D was found to inhibit benzidine-induced carcinogenesis in female rats. PMID:2014680

  20. Method for converting asbestos to non-carcinogenic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Selby, Thomas W.

    1996-01-01

    Hazardous and carcinogenic asbestos waste characterized by a crystalline fibrous structure is transformed into non-carcinogenic, relatively nonhazardous, and non-crystalline solid compounds and gaseous compounds which have commercial utilization. The asbestos waste is so transformed by the complete fluorination of the crystalline fibrous silicate mineral defining the asbestos.

  1. Method for converting asbestos to non-carcinogenic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Selby, T.W.

    1996-08-06

    Hazardous and carcinogenic asbestos waste characterized by a crystalline fibrous structure is transformed into non-carcinogenic, relatively nonhazardous, and non-crystalline solid compounds and gaseous compounds which have commercial utilization. The asbestos waste is so transformed by the complete fluorination of the crystalline fibrous silicate mineral defining the asbestos. 7 figs.

  2. Genotoxicity of Swimming Pool Water and Carcinogenicity of Drinking Water**

    EPA Science Inventory

    Among the 11 disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water that are regulated by the U.S. EPA, (a) 2 DBPs (chloroaceticacid and chlorite) are not carcinogenic-in either of2 species; (b) chlorite is not carcinogenic in 3 rodent assays and has never been tested for genotoxicity...

  3. Genotoxicity of Swimming Pool Water and Carcinogenicity of Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Among the 11 disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water that are regulated by the U.S. EPA, (a) 2 DBPs (chloroaceticacid and chlorite) are not carcinogenic-in either of2 species; (b) chlorite is not carcinogenic in 3 rodent assays and has never been tested for genotoxicity...

  4. Multicomponent criteria for predicting carcinogenicity: dataset of 30 NTP chemicals.

    PubMed Central

    Huff, J; Weisburger, E; Fung, V A

    1996-01-01

    This article is in response to the challenge issued to the scientific community by the National Toxicology Program to predict the carcinogenicity potential of 30 chemicals previously selected for long-term carcinogenicity testing. Utilizing the available toxicologic, genetic, and structural information on 30 chemicals previously selected for long-term carcinogenicity testing, we predict that 16 chemicals (53%) would induce some indication of carcinogenic activity in rodents; we further predict that 10 chemicals (33%) would be associated with weak or equivocal carcinogenic responses, and another 4 (13%) would give no indication of carcinogenicity. Our level of certainty is indicated for many of these predictions. Nonetheless, we believe that most instances of guessing whether a chemical would eventually induce cancer in experimental animals and hence represent a carcinogenic hazard to humans are fraught with considerable uncertainty: uncertainty that can only be relieved by long-term testing for carcinogenicity in animals or by conducting an epidemiologic investigation of exposed individuals or groups. We further believe that the day may come when our predictive acumen will be upgraded to such an extent that we might eventually obviate cancer testing. Until then, and in the best interests of public health, however, we urge long term testing of chemicals in animals be continued, at increased pace. PMID:8933061

  5. LABORATORY EVALUATION OF MARINE FISHES AS CARCINOGEN ASSAY SUBJECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the National Cancer Inst. (NCI) have major responsibilities for determining the fate and risks of carcinogenic agents in the natural environment. Under the auspices of EPA/NCI, the Carcinogen Research Team at the USEPA Lab, Gulf ...

  6. GENE-TOX CARCINOGEN DATA BASE: CONSTRUCTION, DESCRIPTION, AND ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Gene-Tox Carcinogen Data Base is an evaluated source of cancer data on 506 chemicals selected in part for their previous assessment in genetic toxicology bioassays. Chemicals in the data base have been assessed for species-specific carcinogenic effects, and these results indi...

  7. Neuromodulators for Aging Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... Non-ablative Laser Rejuvenation Non-invasive Body Contouring Treatments Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Information Free Skin Cancer Screenings Skin ... Non-ablative Laser Rejuvenation Non-invasive Body Contouring Treatments Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Information Free Skin Cancer Screenings Skin ...

  8. Chemical Principles Revisited: Petroleum Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, Doris; Kolb, Kenneth E.

    1979-01-01

    Presents an historical review of the role of petroleum in world history and information on the chemistry of petroleum. It is suggested that petroleum chemistry be discussed since within the next two decades oil and gas will provide the major portion of U.S. energy. (Author/SA)

  9. Petroleum supply monthly, April 1990

    SciTech Connect

    1990-06-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly describe (PSM) the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply.'' Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics.

  10. Carcinogenic risk of copper gluconate evaluated by a rat medium-term liver carcinogenicity bioassay protocol.

    PubMed

    Abe, Masayoshi; Usuda, Koji; Hayashi, Seigo; Ogawa, Izumi; Furukawa, Satoshi; Igarashi, Maki; Nakae, Dai

    2008-08-01

    Carcinogenic risk and molecular mechanisms underlying the liver tumor-promoting activity of copper gluconate, an additive of functional foods, were investigated using a rat medium-term liver carcinogenicity bioassay protocol (Ito test) and a 2-week short-term administration experiment. In the medium-term liver bioassay, Fischer 344 male rats were given a single i.p. injection of N-nitrosodiethylamine at a dose of 200 mg/kg b.w. as a carcinogenic initiator. Starting 2 weeks thereafter, rats received 0, 10, 300 or 6,000 ppm of copper gluconate in diet for 6 weeks. All rats underwent 2/3 partial hepatectomy at the end of week 3, and all surviving rats were killed at the end of week 8. In the short-term experiment, rats were given 0, 10, 300 or 6,000 ppm of copper gluconate for 2 weeks. Numbers of glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P) positive lesions, single GST-P-positive hepatocytes and 8-oxoguanine-positive hepatocytes, and levels of cell proliferation and apoptosis in the liver were significantly increased by 6,000 ppm of copper gluconate in the medium-term liver bioassay. Furthermore, hepatic mRNA expression of genes relating to the metal metabolism, inflammation and apoptosis were elevated by 6,000 ppm of copper gluconate both in the medium-term liver bioassay and the short-term experiments. These results indicate that copper gluconate possesses carcinogenic risk toward the liver at the high dose level, and that oxidative stress and inflammatory and pro-apoptotic signaling statuses may participate in its underlying mechanisms. PMID:18350280

  11. Toxicity and carcinogenicity of potassium bromate--a new renal carcinogen.

    PubMed Central

    Kurokawa, Y; Maekawa, A; Takahashi, M; Hayashi, Y

    1990-01-01

    Potassium bromate (KBrO3) is an oxidizing agent that has been used as a food additive, mainly in the bread-making process. Although adverse effects are not evident in animals fed bread-based diets made from flour treated with KBrO3, the agent is carcinogenic in rats and nephrotoxic in both man and experimental animals when given orally. It has been demonstrated that KBrO3 induces renal cell tumors, mesotheliomas of the peritoneum, and follicular cell tumors of the thyroid. In addition, experiments aimed at elucidating the mode of carcinogenic action have revealed that KBrO3 is a complete carcinogen, possessing both initiating and promoting activities for rat renal tumorigenesis. However, the potential seems to be weak in mice and hamsters. In contrast to its weak mutagenic activity in microbial assays, KBrO3 showed relatively strong potential inducing chromosome aberrations both in vitro and in vivo. Glutathione and cysteine degrade KBrO3 in vitro; in turn, the KBrO3 has inhibitory effects on inducing lipid peroxidation in the rat kidney. Active oxygen radicals generated from KBrO3 were implicated in its toxic and carcinogenic effects, especially because KBrO3 produced 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine in the rat kidney. A wide range of data from applications of various analytical methods are now available for risk assessment purposes. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. FIGURE 9. FIGURE 10. FIGURE 11. FIGURE 12. PMID:2269236

  12. Skin care and incontinence

    MedlinePlus

    Incontinence - skin care ... in a wheelchair, regular chair, or bed TAKING CARE OF THE SKIN Using diapers and other products ... skin. Over time, the skin breaks down. Special care must be taken to keep the skin clean ...

  13. Skin characteristics in newborns

    MedlinePlus

    Newborn skin characteristics; Infant skin characteristics ... the first few weeks of the baby's life. Newborn skin will vary, depending on the length of the pregnancy. Premature infants have thin, transparent skin. The skin of a ...

  14. Mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and human cancer risk from indoor exposure to coal and wood combustion in xuan wei, china

    SciTech Connect

    Mumford, J.L.; Chapman, R.S.; Nesnow, S.; Helmes, C.T.; Li, X.

    1990-01-01

    The residents in Xuan Wei County, China, have been exposed to high levels of combustion emissions from smoky and smokeless coal and wood combustion under unvented conditions in homes. An unusually high lung cancer mortality rate that can not be attributed to tobacco smoke or occupational exposure was found. The communes using smoky coal, which emits more organics than smokeless coal, generally have a higher lung cancer rate than the communes using smokeless coal or wood. The mutagenicity and carcinogenicity of organic extracts of indoor air particles collected from Xuan Wei homes during cooking were investigated. The objectives of the study were (1) to investigate the characteristics of lung cancer mortality in Xuan Wei, (2) to determine the genotoxicity and chemical and physical properties of the combustion emissions, and (3) to link bioassay results to human lung cancer data. The organic extracts of these emission particles were tested for mutagenicity in the Ames Salmonella and the L5178Y TK+/- mouse lymphoma assays and for skin tumor-initiating activity and complete carcinogenicity in SENCAR mice. The two coal samples showed higher activity in both mutagenicity and tumor initiation. When the emission rate of organics was taken into consideration, the smoky coal emission showed the highest potency of the three fuels. The smoky coal sample was also a more potent complete carcinogen than the wood sample. Higher mutagenicity and carcinogenicity of the smoky coal emission compared to wood or smokeless coal emissions are in agreement with the epidemiological data.

  15. Petroleum Vapor - Field Technical

    EPA Science Inventory

    The screening approach being developed by EPA OUST to evaluate petroleum vapor intrusion (PVI) requires information that has not be routinely collected in the past at vapor intrusion sites. What is the best way to collect this data? What are the relevant data quality issues and ...

  16. Toxico-Cheminformatics and QSPR Modeling of the Carcinogenic Potency Database

    EPA Science Inventory

    Report on the development of a tiered, confirmatory scheme for prediction of chemical carcinogenicity based on QSAR studies of compounds with available mutagenic and carcinogenic data. For 693 such compounds from the Carcinogenic Potency Database characterized molecular topologic...

  17. PREDICTING RODENT CARCINOGENICITY OF HALOGENATED HYDROCARBON BY IN VIVO BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Forty halogenated hydrocarbons of known rodent carcinogenicity (24 carcinogens, 16 noncarcinogens), including many promoters of carcinogenesis, nongenotoxic carcinogens and hepatocarcinogens were selected for study. he effects of these 40 chemicals on four biochemical assays (hep...

  18. Synthetic crude oils carcinogenicity screening tests. Final report, October 16, 1978-August 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Calkins, W.H.; Deye, J.F.; Hartgrove, R.W.; King, C.F.; Krahn, D.F.

    1980-01-01

    Eight crude oils (Southern Louisiana Petroleum, H Coal Syncrude, H Coal Fuel Oil, SRC II, Exxon Donor Solvent Liquid, Occidental in situ Shale Oil, Paraho Shale Oil and Geokinetics in situ Shale Oil) were distilled into, or have been received, as four fractions for analysis and screening for biological (mutagenicity and tumor initiating) activity. Results of selected analytical tests have been obtained on the undistilled crude oils and the fractions. Salmonella typhimurium mutation assay and an accelerated tumor initiation-promotion test have been run on the undistilled crude oils and the fractions. Low boiling (naphtha) fractions of all eight materials showed little or no mutagenicity or skin tumor initiating activity by the two tests used. The higher boiling fractions (gas oils and residues) and the crude oils themselves were mutagenic and exhibited tumor initiation activity. The coal derived fractions were more active by both tests than the shale oil samples, the latter were similar to the petroleum controls. Few differences were apparent in biological activity between coal derived samples of equivalent boiling range among the various coal liquefaction processes, except that the SRC II naphtha sample showed a degree of acute toxicity through skin absorption not exhibited by the other samples. Generally the results agreed closely for the various samples between the salmonella mutation assay with activation and the skin tumor initiation test.

  19. Petroleum Supply Monthly, August 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-30

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) district movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics.

  20. Petroleum supply monthly, June 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-28

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  1. Petroleum supply monthly, May 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-27

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum supply annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  2. Petroleum supply monthly, September 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-30

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administrations for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics. 65 tabs.

  3. Petroleum supply monthly, July 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  4. Petroleum supply monthly, October 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  5. Petroleum supply monthly, January 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-15

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  6. Strategic Petroleum Reserve quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-15

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve was created pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of December 22, 1975 (Public Law 94-163). Its purposes are to reduce the impact of disruptions in supplies of petroleum products and to carry out obligations of the United States under the Agreement on an International Energy Program. Section 165(a) of the Act requires the submission of Annual Reports and Section 165(b)(1) requires the submission of Quarterly Reports. This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the third quarter of calendar year 1995, including: inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve; current storage capacity and ullage available; current status of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve storage facilities, major projects and the acquisition of petroleum products; funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated.

  7. Petroleum Supply Monthly, July 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-28

    Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  8. 29 CFR 1990.131 - Priority lists for regulating potential occupational carcinogens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... occupational carcinogens. One list should include approximately ten (10) candidates for rulemaking as Category I Potential Carcinogens; the other approximately ten (10) candidates for rulemaking as Category...

  9. Study of Chemical Carcinogens by Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pivtsaev, A. A.; Razov, V. I.; Karasev, A. O.

    2013-11-01

    We have used positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy to study the carcinogens C21H20BrN3, C4H7Cl2O4P, CCl4, CHCl3, AlF3, C8H12N4O, C6H4Cl2 and the non-carcinogens H2O, AlCl3, CH2Cl2, C2H6OS. We have established a correlation between the annihilation characteristics of the studied compounds and their degree of carcinogenicity.

  10. Toxicity and Carcinogenicity of Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT)

    PubMed Central

    Harada, Takanori; Takeda, Makio; Kojima, Sayuri; Tomiyama, Naruto

    2016-01-01

    Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) is still used in certain areas of tropics and subtropics to control malaria and other insect-transmitted diseases. DDT and its metabolites have been extensively studied for their toxicity and carcinogenicity in animals and humans and shown to have an endocrine disrupting potential affecting reproductive system although the effects may vary among animal species in correlation with exposure levels. Epidemiologic studies revealed either positive or negative associations between exposure to DDT and tumor development, but there has been no clear evidence that DDT causes cancer in humans. In experimental animals, tumor induction by DDT has been shown in the liver, lung, and adrenals. The mechanisms of hepatic tumor development by DDT have been studied in rats and mice. DDT is known as a non-genotoxic hepatocarcinogen and has been shown to induce microsomal enzymes through activation of constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and to inhibit gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) in the rodent liver. The results from our previously conducted 4-week and 2-year feeding studies of p,p′-DDT in F344 rats indicate that DDT may induce hepatocellular eosinophilic foci as a result of oxidative DNA damage and leads them to hepatic neoplasia in combination with its mitogenic activity and inhibitory effect on GJIC. Oxidative stress could be a key factor in hepatocarcinogenesis by DDT. PMID:26977256

  11. Comparative carcinogenic potencies of particulates from diesel engine exhausts, coke oven emissions, roofing tar aerosols and cigarette smoke.

    PubMed Central

    Albert, R E

    1983-01-01

    Mammalian cell mutagenesis, transformation and skin tumorigenesis assays show similar results in comparing the potencies of diesel, coke oven, roofing tar and cigarette smoke particulates. These assay results are reasonably consistent with the comparative carcinogenic potencies of coke oven and roofing tar emissions as determined by epidemiological studies. The bacterial mutagenesis assay tends to show disproportionately high potencies, particularly with diesel particulates. Results to date encourage the approach to the assessment for carcinogenic risks from diesel emissions based on the use of epidemiological data on cancer induced by coke oven emissions, roofing tar particulates and cigarette smoke with the comparative potencies of these materials determined by in vivo and in vitro bioassays. PMID:6186481

  12. Skin cancer and photoaging in ethnic skin.

    PubMed

    Halder, Rebat M; Ara, Collette J

    2003-10-01

    Skin cancer prevalence in ethnic skin is low. Squamous cell carcinoma, hypopigmented mycosis fungoides, and acral lentiginous melanoma are the most serious types of skin cancer noted in the darker-skinned population. Photoaging occurs less frequently and is less severe in ethnic skin. PMID:14717413

  13. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve program was set into motion by the 1975 Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA). By 1990, 590 million barrels of oil had been placed in storage. Salt domes along the Gulf Coast offered ideal storage. Both sweet'' and sour'' crude oil have been acquired using various purchase options. Drawdown, sale, and distribution of the oil would proceed according to guidelines set by EPCA in the event of a severe energy supply disruption. (SM)

  14. Cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase systems in aquatic species: Carcinogen metabolism and biomarkers for carcinogen and pollutant exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Stegeman, J.J. ); Lech, J.J. )

    1991-01-01

    High levels of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) carcinogens commonly occur in aquatic systems where neoplasms arise in fish and other animals. Enzymes that transform PAHs can act in initiating these diseases and can indicate the contamination of fish by carcinogens and other pollutants. Cytochrome P-450 has similar roles in activating PAH carcinogens in fish and mammalian species. PAHs and many chlorinated hydrocarbons, e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) induce a form of cytochrome P-450 in fish that is the primary catalyst of PAH metabolism. The induction of this P-450 in fish can accelerate the disposition of hydrocarbons but can also enhance the formation of carcinogenic derivatives of PAHs. Invertebrates have lower rates of PAH metabolism than fish. The induction of P-450 forms can indicate the exposure of fish to PAHs, PCBs, and other toxic compounds. This is not restricted to carcinogens. Environmental induction has been detected in fish from contaminated areas by use of catalytic assay, antibodies to fish P-450, and cDNA probes that hybridize with P-450 messenger RNA. Application of these methods can provide sensitive biological monitoring tools that can detect environmental contamination of fish by some carcinogens and tumor promoters. The potential for using P-450 induction to detect direct-acting carcinogens and tumor promoters that are noninducers is limited, although such compounds can be expected to co-occur with pollutants that are inducers.

  15. Norwegian petroleum guide

    SciTech Connect

    Christie, H.B.

    1984-01-01

    This is about the comprehensive guide to Norwegian oil and gas activities, very useful to anyone in the industry. Material includes political guidelines, control institutions, work possibilities and licenses, working environment law, employer and employee organizations, national insurance, taxes, communication, rescue operations and standby. Contents: Oil and the economy; Petroleum technology research; Responsibilities of different authorities; The Labour Inspection Directorate; The Health Directorate Offshore Office; The Coastal Directorate; Helicopter traffic; The Norwegian Petroleum Directorate; The Maritime Directorate; Det norske Veritas; The Norwegian Waterways and Electricity Board; The State Institute for Radiation Hygiene; The State Explosive Inspection; Work possibilities in the North Sea; Working environment legislation on the Continental Shelf; Collective bargaining agreements, labor conflicts and the right to organize; Taxation Rules; National health insurance and the petroleum activity; Occupational injuries on the Norwegian Continental Shelf; Company insurances; The private pension scheme; Other types of insuracne common among oil companies; The rescue service in Norway; Oganizations within the oil industry offshore and onshore; and Law of aliens admission to the Kindgom.

  16. Vinyl carbamate epoxide, a major strong electrophilic, mutagenic and carcinogenic metabolite of vinyl carbamate and ethyl carbamate (urethane).

    PubMed

    Park, K K; Liem, A; Stewart, B C; Miller, J A

    1993-03-01

    Vinyl carbamate epoxide (VCO) was found to possess strong electrophilic, mutagenic and carcinogenic activities. It reacted with water at 37 degrees C and pH 7.4 (phosphate buffer) to form glycolaldehyde and several related reducing compounds; none of these products were mutagenic for Salmonella typhimurium TA1535. Under these conditions VCO had a half-life (determined chemically and mutagenically) of approximately 10.5 min. This half-life was progressively lowered by increasing concentrations of chloride ion (liver, serum and isotonic levels). This ion reacted with VCO to form chloroacetaldehyde. VCO also reacted with other nucleophiles such as glutathione, DNA and its constituent guanine and adenine bases. The purine adducts formed by VCO in DNA in vitro and in vivo were released by weak acid treatment and consisted of 7-(2'-oxoethyl)guanine and N2,3-ethenoguanine as major products with 1,N6-ethenoadenine as a minor product. VCO was a strong direct mutagen in Salmonella typhimurium TA1535 and TA100 but was only weakly active in the TA98 mutant. VCO was a stronger initiator of carcinogenesis in the skin of CD-1 mice and in the liver of infant male B6C3F1 mice than its metabolic precursors vinyl carbamate (VC) and ethyl carbamate (EC). Unlike VC and EC, VCO was a strong complete carcinogen in the skin of CD-1 mice and induced papillomas and carcinomas following repetitive administration of sub-ulcerogenic doses. VCO also exhibited some carcinogenic activity in the lungs of mice and in the s.c. and mammary tissue of female Sprague-Dawley rats. These data and those from other recent studies support the conclusion that VCO is a major strong electrophilic, mutagenic and carcinogenic metabolite of EC and VC in the mouse. PMID:8453720

  17. Congenital Fibrosarcoma and History of Prenatal Exposure to Petroleum Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Soldin, Offie P.; López-Hernández, Fernando A.; Trasande, Leonardo; Ferrís-Tortajada, Josep

    2012-01-01

    Congenital fibrosarcoma (CFS) is a rare fibrous tissue malignancy that usually presents in the first few years of life. It is unique among human sarcomas in that it has an excellent prognosis. We describe a temporal clustering of a number of cases of CFS and investigate the possible associated prenatal risk factors. The Pediatric Environmental History, a questionnaire developed in our clinic that is instrumental in determining environmental risk factors for tumor-related disease, was essential in documenting the presence or absence of risk factors considered as human carcinogens. We found a history of exposure to petroleum products in four cases of CFS that occurred at a greater than expected rate in a short time frame–an apparent cancer cluster. We call attention to the possibility that exposure to petroleum products raises the risk of developing CFS. While future studies should focus on systematic investigation of CFS and its underlying mechanisms, this report suggests the need for proactive measures to avoid exposure to solvents and petroleum products during pregnancy. PMID:22945410

  18. How to Check Your Skin for Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Cancer Types Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Patient Skin Cancer Treatment Melanoma Treatment Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treatment Skin Cancer Prevention Skin Cancer Screening Health Professional Skin Cancer Treatment Melanoma Treatment Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treatment Skin Cancer ...

  19. The Effect of Cigarette Smoking on Bladder Carcinogens in Man

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, W. K.; Barkin, M.; Levers, P. E.; Woo, S. K.-C.; Menczyk, Z.

    1965-01-01

    In the metabolism of the amino acid, tryptophan, certain products with the orthoaminophenol configuration are believed to act as topical carcinogens in the urinary bladder. In addition, a statistical relationship between cigarette smoking and bladder cancer has been established in recent years. Thirty metabolic studies are reported on six healthy male subjects when smoking and not smoking. Results revealed a consistent rise in carcinogenic metabolites of tryptophan when smoking (+ 50%), with a reciprocal fall in the end product, N'-methylnicotinamide (- 34%). Carcinogens fell and N'-methylnicotinamide rose when subjects stopped smoking. These metabolic studies confirm the statistical relationship between smoking and bladder cancer, and suggest that cigarette smoking blocks the normal metabolism of tryptophan, leading to the accumulation of carcinogenic metabolites. PMID:14306113

  20. Carcinogenicity tests of certain environmental and industrial chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Weisburger, E.K.; Ulland, B.M.; Nam, J.; Gart, J.J.; Weisburger, J.H.

    1981-07-01

    Fourteen chemicals of varied uses were tested for carcinogenicity by oral administration in male and female Charles River CD rats. Under the conditions of the tests, propane sultone, propylene imine, and ethylenethiourea, in addition to the positive control N-2-fluorenylacetamide, were carcinogenic. Avadex, bis(2-chloroethyl) ether, the potassium salt of bis(2-hydroxyethyl) dithiocarbamic acid, ethylene carbonate, and semicarbazide hydrochloride were not carcinogenic under the test conditions. Dithiooxamide, glycerol alpha-monochlorohydrin, and thiosemicarbazide gave somewhat ambiguous results, though administered at high enough dose levels to be toxic. An inadequate number of animals survived treatments with sodium azide, sodium bisulfide, and vinylene carbonate, or the animals may not have received sufficiently high doses of the test chemicals to provide maximum test sensitivity. However, there were no indications that these three chemicals were carcinogenic under the test conditions.

  1. CACODYLIC ACID (DMAV): METABOLISM AND CARCINOGENIC MODE OF ACTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The cacodylic acid (DMAV) issue paper discusses the metabolism and pharmacokinetics of the various arsenical chemicals; evaluates the appropriate dataset to quantify the potential cancer risk to the organic arsenical herbicides; provides an evaluation of the mode of carcinogenic...

  2. Development of toxicity criteria for petroleum hydrocarbon fractions in the Petroleum Hydrocarbon Criteria Working Group approach for risk-based management of total petroleum hydrocarbons in soil.

    PubMed

    Twerdok, L E

    1999-02-01

    The Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon Criteria Working Croup (TPHCWG) was formed in 1993 based on the observation that widely different clean-up requirements were being used by states at sites that were contaminated with hydrocarbon materials such as fuels, lubricating oils, and crude oils. These requirements were usually presented as concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH), and ranged from 10 to over 10,000 mg TPH/kg soil. Members of this multi-disciplinary group, consisting of representatives from industry, government and academia, jointly recognized that the numerical standard was not based on a scientific assessment of human health risk and established the following goal for the effort: To develop scientifically defensible information for establishing soil cleanup levels that are protective of human health at hydrocarbon contaminated sites. The approach developed by the TPHCWG for TPH hazard assessment consisted of dividing the petroleum hydrocarbon material into multichemical-containing fractions with similar fate and transport characteristics. These fractions were then assigned fate and transport properties (volatilization factor, soil leaching factor, etc.) and toxicity values (RfDs/RfCs) representative of the fraction. The actual site specific hazard assessment and derivation of cleanup levels is accomplished by analyzing sites to determine which fraction(s) is present and applying the appropriate fate, transport and toxicity factors. The method used by this group to determine TPH Faction specific toxicity criteria is a surrogate approach intended to supplement the indicator approach. Indicators are single, carcinogenic hydrocarbon compounds which are evaluated/regulated individually at either the federal or state level. The TPHCWG surrogate approach utilized all appropriate fraction specific toxicity data (single compound and mixture/product), minus the carcinogenic indicator compounds, to derive the fraction specific RfDs and RfCs. This hazard

  3. Petroleum marketing monthly, September 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum product sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  4. Petroleum marketing monthly, August 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-15

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product Sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  5. Critical analysis of carcinogenicity study outcomes. Relationship with pharmacological properties.

    PubMed

    van der Laan, Jan Willem; Kasper, Peter; Silva Lima, Beatriz; Jones, David R; Pasanen, Markku

    2016-08-01

    Predicting the outcome of life-time carcinogenicity studies in rats based on chronic (6-month) toxicity studies in this species is possible in some instances. This should reduce the number of such studies and hence have a significant impact on the total number of animals used in safety assessment of new medicines. From a regulatory perspective, this should be sufficient to grant a waiver for a carcinogenicity study in those cases where there is confidence in the outcome of the prediction. Pharmacological properties are a frequent key factor for the carcinogenic mode of action of some pharmaceuticals, but data-analysis on a large dataset has never been formally conducted. We have conducted an analysis of a dataset based on the perspective of the pharmacology of 255 compounds from industrial and regulatory sources. It is proposed that a pharmacological, class-specific, model may consist of an overall causal relationship between the pharmacological class and the histopathology findings in rats after 6 months treatment, leading to carcinogenicity outcome after 2 years. Knowledge of the intended drug target and pathway pharmacology should enhance the prediction of either positive or negative outcomes of rat carcinogenicity studies. The goal of this analysis is to review the pharmacological properties of compounds together with the histopathology findings from the chronic toxicity study in rodents in order to introduce an integrated approach to estimate the risk of human carcinogenicity of pharmaceuticals. This approach would allow scientists to define conditions under which 2-year rat carcinogenicity studies will or will not add value to such an assessment. We have demonstrated the possibility of a regulatory waiver for a carcinogenicity study in rats, as currently discussed in the International Council for Harmonization (ICH) - formerly known as the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH), by applying the proposed prediction approach in a number of case studies

  6. Identification of carcinogens in cooking oil fumes.

    PubMed

    Chiang, T A; Wu, P F; Ko, Y C

    1999-07-01

    According to earlier studies, fumes from cooking oils were found to be genotoxic in several short-term tests such as the Ames test, sister chromatid exchange, and SOS chromotest. Fume samples from six different commercial cooking oils (safflower, olive, coconut, mustard, vegetable, and corn) frequently used in Taiwan were collected. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were extracted from the air samples and identified by high-performance liquid chromatography and confirmed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Extracts of fumes from safflower oil, vegetable oil, and corn oil contained benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), dibenz[a,h]anthracene (DBahA), benzo[b]fluoranthene (BbFA), and benzo[a]anthracene (BaA). Concentrations of BaP, DbahA, BbFA, and BaA were 2.1, 2.8, 1.8, and 2.5 microg/m3 in fumes from safflower oil; 2.7, 3.2, 2.6, and 2.1 microg/m3 in vegetable oil; and 2.6, 2.4, 2.0, and 1.9 microg/m3 in corn oil, respectively. The authors constructed models to study the efficacy of table-edged fume extractors used commonly by Taiwanese restaurants. Concentrations of BaP were significantly decreased when the fume extractor was working (P<0.05) and the average reduction in percentage was 75%. The other identified PAHs were undetected. These results indicated that exposure to cooking oil fumes could possibly increase exposure to PAHs, which may be linked to an increased risk of lung cancer. The potential carcinogenic exposure could be reduced by placing table-edged fume extractors near cooking pots. PMID:10361022

  7. Environmental carcinogens and mutational pathways in atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Pulliero, A; Godschalk, R; Andreassi, M G; Curfs, D; Van Schooten, F J; Izzotti, A

    2015-05-01

    Atherosclerosis is associated with DNA damage in both circulating and vessel-wall cells and DNA adducts derived from exposure to environmental mutagens are abundant in atherosclerotic vessels. Environmental chemical carcinogens identified as risk factor for atherosclerosis include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (benzo(a)pyrene, dimethylbenz(a)anthracene, beta-naphthoflavone, pyrene, 3-methylcolanthrene), arsenic, cadmium, 1,3-butadiene, cigarette smoke. Accordingly, polymorphisms of genes encoding for phase I/II metabolic reaction and DNA repair are risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, although their role is negligible as compared to other risk factors. The pathogenic relevance of mutation-related molecular damage in atherosclerosis has been demonstrated in experimental animal models involving the exposure to chemical mutagens. The relevance of mutation-related events in worsening atherosclerosis prognosis has been demonstrated in human clinical studies mainly as referred to mitochondrial DNA damage. Atherosclerosis is characterized by the occurrence of high level of oxidative damage in blood vessel resulting from both endogenous and exogenous sources. Mitochondrial damage is a main endogenous source of oxidative stress whose accumulation causes activation of intrinsic apoptosis through BIRC2 inhibition and cell loss contributing to plaque development and instability. Environmental physical mutagens, including ionizing radiation, are a risk factor for atherosclerosis even at the low exposure dose occurring in case of occupational exposure or the high exposure doses occurring during radiotherapy. Conversely, the role of exciting UV radiation in atherosclerosis is still uncertain. This review summarizes the experimental and clinical evidence supporting the pathogenic role of mutation-related pathway in atherosclerosis examining the underlying molecular mechanisms. PMID:25704189

  8. Dangerous and cancer-causing properties of products and chemicals in the oil refining and petrochemical industry. VIII. Health effects of motor fuels: Carcinogenicity of gasoline--scientific update

    SciTech Connect

    Mehlman, M.A. )

    1992-10-01

    Significant increases in tumors of kidney, liver, and other tissues and organs following exposure to gasoline provide sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity. Benzene, a significant component of gasoline, has been established without question as a human carcinogen by IARC, EPA, and WHO. 1,3-Butadiene, a component of gasoline, is a powerful carcinogen in both animals and humans. Sufficient evidence for the carcinogenicity of alkyl benzenes, very significant components of gasoline, has also been established. Human epidemiologic studies show important increases in cancers of the kidney, stomach, brain, pancreas, prostate, lung, and skin as well as hematopoietic and lymphatic leukemias as a result of exposure to gasoline, its components, and its vapors. Stage 2 controls are being implemented to reduce exposure of the human population to gasoline vapors. 59 refs.

  9. 32P-postlabeling test for covalent DNA binding of chemicals in vivo: application to a variety of aromatic carcinogens and methylating agents.

    PubMed

    Reddy, M V; Gupta, R C; Randerath, E; Randerath, K

    1984-02-01

    Carcinogen--DNA adducts were detected and determined by 32P-postlabeling assay after exposure of mouse or rat tissues in vivo to a total of 28 compounds comprising 7 arylamines and derivatives, 3 azo compounds, 2 nitroaromatics, 12 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and 4 methylating agents. DNA was isolated from mouse skin, mouse liver, and rat liver after treatment with the individual carcinogens, then digested enzymatically to deoxyribonucleoside 3'-monophosphates, which were converted to 5'-32P-labeled deoxyribonucleoside 3',5'-bisphosphates by T4 polynucleotide kinase-catalyzed [32P]phosphate transfer from [gamma-32P]ATP. The nucleotides were resolved by anion-exchange t.l.c. on polyethyleneimine-cellulose and detected by autoradiography. The determination of low levels of DNA binding of the aromatic carcinogens entailed the removal of normal nucleotides prior to the resolution of adduct nucleotides. For this purpose, an alternative procedure employing reversed-phase t.l.c. was devised which offered advantages for the detection of quantitatively minor adducts. The procedures described enabled the detection of 1 aromatic DNA adduct in approximately 10(8) normal nucleotides, while the limit of detection of methylated adducts was 1 adduct in approximately 6 X 10(5) nucleotides. The results show that a great number of carcinogen-DNA adducts of diverse structure are substrates for 32P-labeling by polynucleotide kinase-catalyzed phosphorylation. Because covalent DNA adduct formation in vivo appears to be an essential property of the majority of chemical carcinogens, 32P-postlabeling analysis of carcinogen--DNA adducts in mammalian tissues may serve as a test for the screening of chemicals for potential carcinogenicity. PMID:6697441

  10. Petroleum marketing monthly, December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-05

    This publication provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. It presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include domestic first purchase price, f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude, and refiners` acquisition cost of crude. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane.

  11. Strategic Petroleum Reserve quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-08-15

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve Quarterly Report is submitted in accordance with section 165(b) of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, as amended, which requires that the Secretary of Energy submit quarterly reports to Congress on Activities undertaken with respect to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. This August 15, 1990, Strategic Petroleum Reserve Quarterly Report describes activities related to the site development, oil acquisition, budget and cost of the Reserve during the period April 1, 1990, through June 30, 1990. 3 tabs.

  12. CAREX Canada: an enhanced model for assessing occupational carcinogen exposure

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Cheryl E; Ge, Calvin B; Hall, Amy L; Davies, Hugh W; Demers, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the numbers of workers exposed to known and suspected occupational carcinogens in Canada, building on the methods of CARcinogen EXposure (CAREX) projects in the European Union (EU). Methods CAREX Canada consists of estimates of the prevalence and level of exposure to occupational carcinogens. CAREX Canada includes occupational agents evaluated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as known, probable or possible human carcinogens that were present and feasible to assess in Canadian workplaces. A Canadian Workplace Exposure Database was established to identify the potential for exposure in particular industries and occupations, and to create exposure level estimates among priority agents, where possible. CAREX EU data were reviewed for relevance to the Canadian context and the proportion of workers likely to be exposed by industry and occupation in Canada was assigned using expert assessment and agreement by a minimum of two occupational hygienists. These proportions were used to generate prevalence estimates by linkage with the Census of Population for 2006, and these estimates are available by industry, occupation, sex and province. Results CAREX Canada estimated the number of workers exposed to 44 known, probable and suspected carcinogens. Estimates of levels of exposure were further developed for 18 priority agents. Common exposures included night shift work (1.9 million exposed), solar ultraviolet radiation exposure (1.5 million exposed) and diesel engine exhaust (781 000 exposed). Conclusions A substantial proportion of Canadian workers are exposed to known and suspected carcinogens at work. PMID:24969047

  13. Does the term carcinogen send the wrong message?

    PubMed

    Flamm, W G; Hughes, D

    1997-08-19

    The term carcinogen has been used by scientists and health regulatory officials for decades. During the last 20 years there have been attempts to redefine the term to make it more rigorous. But, as predicted two decades ago by a benchmark-setting subcommittee of the National Cancer Advisory Board, advances in scientific understanding have brought about dramatic changes in the way we are able to view the term carcinogen. These changes, their scientific bases and their effect on defining the term carcinogen are described. An alternative to the use of the term carcinogen is suggested by the recently proposed US Environmental Agency's guidelines for cancer risk assessment which appear to be in accord with current scientific understanding and the importance of considering the factors affecting the term carcinogen. The guidelines set forth four questions, the answers to which could, in our judgment, replace the need to define or use the term carcinogen which, in light of new scientific knowledge, has become more misleading than useful. PMID:9377546

  14. Trichloroethylene: Mechanistic, Epidemiologic and Other Supporting Evidence of Carcinogenic Hazard

    PubMed Central

    Rusyn, Ivan; Chiu, Weihsueh A.; Lash, Lawrence H.; Kromhout, Hans; Hansen, Johnni; Guyton, Kathryn Z.

    2013-01-01

    The chlorinated solvent trichloroethylene (TCE) is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant. The carcinogenic hazard of TCE was the subject of a 2012 evaluation by a Working Group of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Information on exposures, relevant data from epidemiologic studies, bioassays in experimental animals, and toxicity and mechanism of action studies was used to conclude that TCE is carcinogenic to humans (Group 1). This article summarizes the key evidence forming the scientific bases for the IARC classification. Exposure to TCE from environmental sources (including from hazardous waste sites and contaminated water) is common throughout the world. While workplace use of TCE has been declining, occupational exposures remain of concern, especially in developing countries. Strongest human evidence is from studies of occupational TCE exposure and kidney cancer. Positive, although less consistent, associations were reported for liver cancer and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. TCE is carcinogenic at multiple sites in multiple species and strains of experimental animals. The mechanistic evidence includes extensive data on the toxicokinetics and genotoxicity of TCE and its metabolites. Together, available evidence provided a cohesive database supporting the human cancer hazard of TCE, particularly in the kidney. For other target sites of carcinogenicity, mechanistic and other data were found to be more limited. Important sources of susceptibility to TCE toxicity and carcinogenicity were also reviewed by the Working Group. In all, consideration of the multiple evidence streams presented herein informed the IARC conclusions regarding the carcinogenicity of TCE. PMID:23973663

  15. PPD skin test

    MedlinePlus

    Purified protein derivative standard; TB skin test; Tuberculin skin test; Mantoux test ... Berger BJ. Mantoux skin test (PPD test, purified protein derivative test, Tb test, tuberculin skin test, TST, ...

  16. Skin Pigmentation Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Pigmentation means coloring. Skin pigmentation disorders affect the color of your skin. Your skin gets its color from a pigment called melanin. Special cells in the skin make melanin. When these cells become damaged or ...

  17. Allergy testing - skin

    MedlinePlus

    Patch tests - allergy; Scratch tests - allergy; Skin tests - allergy; RAST test ... There are three common methods of allergy skin testing. The skin prick test involves: Placing a small amount of substances that may be causing your symptoms on the skin, ...

  18. Petroleum supply monthly: December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    Data are presented which describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States. Data are presented in two sections: Summary Statistics, presenting a time series of selected petroleum data on a U.S. level, and Detailed Statistics, presenting statistics for the most current month available as well as year to date.

  19. 19 CFR 151.47 - Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products. 151.47 Section 151.47 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF... Petroleum and Petroleum Products § 151.47 Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum...

  20. 31 CFR 542.412 - Transactions relating to Syrian petroleum or petroleum products from third countries...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... petroleum or petroleum products from third countries; transshipments. 542.412 Section 542.412 Money and... Syrian petroleum or petroleum products from third countries; transshipments. (a) Transactions relating to goods containing petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian origin are not prohibited by § 542.208...

  1. 19 CFR 151.47 - Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products. 151.47 Section 151.47 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF... Petroleum and Petroleum Products § 151.47 Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum...

  2. 19 CFR 151.47 - Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products. 151.47 Section 151.47 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF... Petroleum and Petroleum Products § 151.47 Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum...

  3. 19 CFR 151.47 - Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products. 151.47 Section 151.47 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF... Petroleum and Petroleum Products § 151.47 Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum...

  4. 19 CFR 151.47 - Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products. 151.47 Section 151.47 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF... Petroleum and Petroleum Products § 151.47 Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum...

  5. Skin cancer and solar UV radiation.

    PubMed

    de Gruijl, F R

    1999-12-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation in sunlight is the most prominent and ubiquitous physical carcinogen in our natural environment. It is highly genotoxic but does not penetrate the body any deeper than the skin. Like all organisms regularly exposed to sunlight, the human skin is extremely well adapted to continuous UV stress. Well-pigmented skin is clearly better protected than white Caucasian skin. The sun-seeking habits of white Caucasians in developed countries are likely to have contributed strongly to the increase in skin cancer observed over the last century. Skin cancer is by far the most common type of cancer in the U.S.A. and Australia, which appears to be the result of an 'unnatural displacement' of people with sun-sensitive skin to sub-tropical regions. Although campaigns have been successful in informing people about the risks of sun exposure, general attitudes and behaviour do not yet appear to have changed to the extent that trends in skin cancer morbidity and the corresponding burden on public healthcare will be reversed. The relationship between skin cancer and regular sun exposure was suspected by physicians in the late 19th century, and subsequently substantiated in animal experiments in the early part of the 20th century. UV radiation was found to be highly genotoxic, and DNA repair proved to be crucial in fending off detrimental effects such as mutagenesis and cell death. In fact, around 1940 it was shown that the wavelength dependence of mutagenicity paralleled the UV absorption by DNA. In the 1970s research on UV carcinogenesis received a new impetus from the arising concern about a possible future depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer: the resulting increases in ambient UV loads were expected to raise skin cancer incidences. Epidemiological studies in the last decades of the 20th century have greatly refined our knowledge on the aetiology of skin cancers. Analyses of gene mutations in skin carcinomas have identified UV radiation as the cause

  6. The causes of skin cancer: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Saladi, Rao N; Persaud, Andrea N

    2005-01-01

    Skin cancer is the most common type of cancer in fair-skinned populations around the world. The incidence and mortality rates of skin cancers are dramatically increasing and thus pose a threat to public health. Understanding the etiology and pathogenesis of skin cancer remains a goal for healthcare systems. A clearer understanding of causative factors is an essential step in the prevention of skin cancer. This article comprehensively reviews the causative agents which play a role in the development of skin cancer. Ultraviolet radiation (UV) from sun exposure is the most important cause of skin cancer. Sunburns and excessive exposures cause cumulative damage which induces immunosuppression and skin cancers. Ozone depletion, the level of UV light, elevation, latitude, altitude and weather conditions influence the emission of UV radiation reaching the earth's surface. Organ transplant recipients and AIDS patients have an increased incidence of skin cancers. Some treatment modalities, including radiation therapy, phototherapy and psoralen and long-wave ultraviolet radiation (PUVA) can also predispose to skin cancers. Viral infections such as the human papilloma virus can cause squamous cell carcinomas. Individuals with familial genetic syndromes are susceptible to specific types of skin cancers. Ionizing radiation, environmental pollutants, chemical carcinogens and work-related exposures have been associated with skin cancers. Exposure to artificial UV radiation (tanning beds and lamps), aging, skin color, diet and smoking are attributable risks. Skin cancers have been found in dermatoses and various types of keratoses, chronically injured or nonhealing wounds, and scars. This article provides a comprehensive and thorough overview of skin cancer, with an emphasis on understanding its epidemiology, incidence, etiology and related risk factors. PMID:15753968

  7. Exploring the Molecular Mechanisms of Nickel-Induced Genotoxicity and Carcinogenicity: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Keyuna S.; Buchner, Virginia; Tchounwou, Paul B.

    2011-01-01

    Nickel, a naturally occurring element that exists in various mineral forms, is mainly found in soil and sediment, and its mobilization is influenced by the physicochemical properties of the soil. Industrial sources of nickel include metallurgical processes such as electroplating, alloy production, stainless steel, and nickel-cadmium batteries. Nickel industries, oil- and coal-burning power plants, and trash incinerators have been implicated in its release into the environment. In humans, nickel toxicity is influenced by the route of exposure, dose, and solubility of the nickel compound. Lung inhalation is the major route of exposure for nickel-induced toxicity. Nickel may also be ingested or absorbed through the skin. The primary target organs are the kidneys and lungs. Other organs such as the liver, spleen, heart and testes may also be affected to a lesser extent. Although the most common health effect is an allergic reaction, research has also demonstrated that nickel is carcinogenic to humans. The focus of the present review is on recent research concerning the molecular mechanisms of nickel-induced genotoxicity and carcinogenicity. We first present a background on the occurrence of nickel in the environment, human exposure, and human health effects. PMID:21905451

  8. Cutaneous skin tag

    MedlinePlus

    Skin tag; Acrochordon; Fibroepithelial polyp ... have diabetes. They are thought to occur from skin rubbing against skin. ... The tag sticks out of the skin and may have a short, narrow stalk connecting it to the surface of the skin. Some skin tags are as long as ...

  9. Two azole fungicides (carcinogenic triadimefon and non-carcinogenic myclobutanil) exhibit different hepatic cytochrome P450 activities in medaka fish.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chun-Hung; Chou, Pei-Hsin; Chen, Pei-Jen

    2014-07-30

    Conazoles are a class of imidazole- or triazole-containing drugs commonly used as fungicides in agriculture and medicine. The broad application of azole drugs has led to the contamination of surface aquifers receiving the effluent of municipal or hospital wastewater or agricultural runoff. Several triazoles are rodent carcinogens; azole pollution is a concern to environmental safety and human health. However, the carcinogenic mechanisms associated with cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) of conazoles remain unclear. We exposed adult medaka fish (Oryzias latipes) to continuous aqueous solutions of carcinogenic triadimefon and non-carcinogenic myclobutanil for 7 to 20 days at sub-lethal or environmentally relevant concentrations and assessed hepatic CYP activity and gene expression associated with CYP-mediated toxicity. Both triadimefon and myclobutanil induced hepatic CYP3A activity, but only triadimefon enhanced CYP1A activity. The gene expression of cyp3a38, cyp3a40, pregnane x receptor (pxr), cyp26b, retinoid acid receptor γ1 (rarγ1) and p53 was higher with triadimefon than myclobutanil. As well, yeast-based reporter gene assay revealed that 4 tested conazoles were weak agonists of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). We reveal differential CYP gene expression with carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic conazoles in a lower vertebrate, medaka fish. Liver CYP-enzyme induction may be a key event in conazole-induced tumorigenesis. This information is essential to evaluate the potential threat of conazoles to human health and fish populations in the aquatic environment. PMID:24962053

  10. Naval Petroleum Reserve-1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    In March 1987, GAO reported on data inaccuracies at the Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 in California, stating that these inaccuracies probably result in incorrect computations of the maximum efficient production rates and could result in the government getting less than its share of remaining recoverable reserves should NPR-1 be sold. The Department of Energy's actions in response to the report's recommendations improved the accuracy of production data; other actions still underway, when completed, could largely correct the inaccuracies. DOE also established improved internal controls over review and evaluation.

  11. National strategic petroleum reserve.

    PubMed

    Davis, R M

    1981-08-01

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve is intended to reduce the vulnerability of the United States to interruptions in the oil supply from foreign sources. Storage for 248 million barrels of crude oil in salt caverns and mines, with equipment for pumping and distribution, was constructed and operationally tested in a 4-year period. Its present inventory is the largest known crude oil reserve in the world. Facilities for expanding the reserve's capacity by another 290 million barrels are being developed by solution-mining in salt domes. PMID:17847458

  12. The petroleum exponential (again)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    The U.S. production and reserves of liquid and gaseous petroleum have declined since 1960, at least in the lower 48 states. This decline stems from decreased discovery rates, as predicted by M. King Hubbert in the mid-1950's. Hubbert's once unpopular views were based on statistical analysis of the production history of the petroleum industry, and now, even with inclusion of the statistical perturbation caused by the Prudhoe Bay-North Alaskan Slope discovery (the largest oil field ever found in the United States), it seems clear again that production is following the exponential curve to depletion of the resource—to the end of the ultimate yield of petroleum from wells in the United States.In a recent report, C. Hall and C. Cleveland of Cornell University show that large atypical discoveries, such as the Prudhoe Bay find, are but minor influences on what now appears to be the crucial intersection of two exponentials [Science, 211, 576-579, 1981]: the production-per-drilled-foot curve of Hubbert, which crosses zero production no later than the year 2005; the other, a curve that plots the energy cost of drilling and extraction with time; that is, the cost-time rate of how much oil is used to drill and extract oil from the ground. The intersection, if no other discoveries the size of the Prudhoe Bay field are made, could be as early as 1990, the end of the present decade. The inclusion of each Prudhoe-Bay-size find extends the year of intersection by only about 6 years. Beyond that point, more than one barrel of petroleum would be expended for each barrel extracted from the ground. The oil exploration-extraction and refining industry is currently the second most energy-intensive industry in the U.S., and the message seems clear. Either more efficient drilling and production techniques are discovered, or domestic production will cease well before the end of this century if the Hubbert analysis modified by Hall and Cleveland is correct.

  13. World petroleum outlook. [Monograph

    SciTech Connect

    Cosso, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    Mr. Cosso projects the following: (1) petroleum consumption growth will decline during the 1980s, with the US recording the largest decline, while supplies will be adequate and price increases moderate; (2) fuel substitution and conservation will account for most of the drop in demand, but some will shift to developing countries; (3) excess refinery capacity will increase because of reduced demand, which will also moderate prices; and (4) energy projects will demand a large share of investment capital during the decade because of exploration and alternative energy sources. These forecasts are based on market statistics, world reserve estimates, refining capacity, and an analysis of the OPEC pricing plan. 8 tables. (DCK)

  14. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international oil data. This report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world, in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries.

  15. Petroleum formation and occurrence

    SciTech Connect

    Tissot, B.P.; Welte, D.H.

    1984-01-01

    This edition (second edition) has been expanded by 160 pages over the first edition. The book is divided into five parts: (1) the production and accumulation of organic matter: a geological perspective; (2) the fate of organic matter in sedimentary basins: generation of oil and gas; (3) the migration and accumulation of oil and gas; (4) the composition and classification of crude oils and the influence of geological factors; and (5) oil and gas exploration: application of the principles of petroleum generation and migration.

  16. Petroleum supply monthly, March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-30

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. Most time series include preliminary estimates for one month based on the Weekly Petroleum Supply Reporting System; statistics based on the most recent data from the Monthly Petroleum Supply Reporting System (MPSRS); and statistics published in prior issues of the PSM and PSA. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. In most cases, the statistics are presented for several geographic areas -- the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia), five PAD Districts, and 12 Refining Districts. At the US and PAD District level, the total volume and the daily rate of activities are presented. The statistics are developed from monthly survey forms submitted by respondents to the EIA and from data provided from other sources.

  17. Petroleum supply monthly, June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-28

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures ih the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. Most time series include preliminary estimates for one month based on the Weekly Petroleum Supply Reporting System; statistics based on the most recent data from the Monthly Petroleum Supply Reporting System (MPSRS); and statistics published in prior issues of the PSM and PSA. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. In most cases, the statistics are presented for several geographic areas - - the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia), five PAD Districts, and 12 Refining Districts. At the US and PAD District level, the total volume and the daily rate of activities are presented. The statistics are developed from monthly survey forms submitted by respondents to the EIA and from data provided firom other sources.

  18. Studies on the local and systemic carcinogenicity of topically applied smoke condensate from a substitute smoking material.

    PubMed Central

    Clapp, M. J.; Conning, D. M.; Wilson, J.

    1977-01-01

    The topical carcinogenicity to mouse skin of smoke condensates obtained from a tobacco substitute (NSM), alone or in combination with tobacco, has been compared with condensate from tobacco and with acetone, the solvent used. Sixteen different types of cigarette were used to make the condensates, and the age-standardized results have been analysed according to the Weibull distribution model. The results show that NSM condensate has less than 25% of the potency of tobacco condensate (37% at 95% upper confidence limit), and that condensates from blends of NSM and tobacco are similarly reduced in activity. General pathology analysis failed to reveal abnormalities due to NSM. PMID:851510

  19. Carcinogenicity of azo dyes: Acid Black 52 and Yellow 3 in hamsters and rats. Volume 2. Technical report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Plankenhorn, L.J.

    1983-09-30

    This document is an appendix to a study concerning the carcinogenicity of the azo dyes acid-black-52 and yellow-3 in male and female hamsters and rats and contains individual histopathology studies of both dyes. Histopathological features were reported in tabular form for the skin, mammary gland, muscle, salivary gland, mandibular lymph node, sciatic nerve, thymus, larynx, thyroid, parathyroid, trachea, bronchus, esophagus, adrenal, stomach, duodenum, jejunem, ileum, cecum, colon, rectum, mesenteric lymph node, lung, liver, gallbladder, spleen, pancreas, kidney, heart, urinary bladder, seminal vesicle, prostate, testis, cerebrum, cerebellum, pituitary, sternabrae, femur, bone marrow, and nasal cavity.

  20. Carcinogenic effect of sequential artificial sunlight and UV-A irradiation in hairless mice. Consequences for solarium 'therapy'.

    PubMed

    Staberg, B; Wulf, H C; Poulsen, T; Klemp, P; Brodthagen, H

    1983-08-01

    The carcinogenic effect of artificial UV sunlight followed by UV-A irradiation in human solaria doses has been studied with the use of the hairless mouse as an animal model. Artificial sunlight exposure alone induced only a moderate skin tumor incidence (animals with at least one tumor) of 0.15 after one year, and UV-A irradiation alone induced no tumor formation. However, the combination of artificial sunlight exposure and subsequent UV-A irradiation significantly increased the tumor incidence to 0.72. We conclude that, in humans, tanning with UV-A for cosmetic purposes may not be an innocuous procedure. PMID:6870317

  1. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international oil data. This report is published for the use of Members of Congress, Federal agencies, State agencies, industry, and the general public. Publication of this report is in keeping with responsibilities given the Energy Information Administration in Public Law 95-91. The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1995; and OECD trade from 1985 through 1995.

  2. Indigenous Precambrian petroleum revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, G.E.; Kaczor, M.J.; McArthur, R.E.

    1980-10-01

    Irrefutable evidence of fossil remains from Precambrian sediments and proved petroleum reserves in upper Proterozoic (Riphean-Vendian) strata of the Irkutsk basin, USSR, suggest that unmetamorphosed Precambrian sedimentary rocks should be a focus for hydrocarbon exploration. Since 1965, a dramatic increase in publications which document worldwide occurrences of Precambrian life forms discloses that, by the end of the Proterozoic, organic evolution had produced diversified assemblages of relatively highly developed macroorganisms and microorganisms. Some of these organisms have generated crude oil in the Nonesuch Shale of northern Michigan and kerogen in stromatolitic carbonate rocks in Africa Kerogen has been extracted from approx. 2300-m.y. old Transvaal (Africa) stromatolitic limestone containing coccoid and complex filamentous cyanophytes. Also, aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons have been obtained from the approx. 2800-m.y. old Bulawayan stromatolitic limestone of Rhodesia. Additional evidence indicates that commercial reserves of petroleum from Precambrian strata are possible. An oil discovery in Lower Cambrian rocks in 1962, at Markovo in the Irkutsk basin of the Siberian platform area, led to four noncommercial and eight commercial fields producing from Lower Cambrian and Upper Proterozoic strata.

  3. Petroleum industry assists hurricane relief

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-14

    This paper reports that the petroleum industry is aiding victims of last month's Hurricane Andrew with cash, clothing, food, water, and other supplies. Cash contributions announced as of last week totaled more than $2.7 million for distribution in South Florida and South Louisiana. Petroleum industry employees were collecting relief items such as bottled water and diapers for distribution in those areas.

  4. Fractionation process for petroleum wax

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.L.; Mitchael, M.R.; Krenowicz, R.A.; Southard, W.M.

    1991-07-16

    This patent describes a process which comprises separating a petroleum wax into a lower boiling wax fraction of a narrow melting range and a higher boiling wax fraction of wider melting range by subjecting the petroleum wax to distillation in a wiped film evaporator.

  5. Petroleum: An energy profile, 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-07-01

    This report prepared by the Energy Information Administration covers the following topics: petroleum production and end-use sectors; resources and reserves; exploration and production; LPG sources and processing; motor gasoline octane enhancement; constructing pipelines; the strategic petroleum reserve; imports and exports; marketing; district descriptions and maps; and refinery processes and facilities. 33 figs., 7 tabs.

  6. Petroleum occurrences and plate tectonics

    SciTech Connect

    Olenin, V.B.; Sokolov, B.A.

    1983-01-01

    This paper analyzes the mechanisms of petroleum formation and petroleum accumulation proposed in recent years by some Russian and foreign investigators from the viewpoint of the new global or plate tectonics. On the basis of discussion and the facts, the authors conclude that the mechanisms proposed are in contradiction to reality and their use in practical application is at least premature.

  7. Job Prospects for Petroleum Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basta, Nicholas

    1988-01-01

    Describes petroleum engineering as one area in industry where job opportunities are few but where the worst of the declines has been seen. Discusses the causes of the decline. Lists several areas where petroleum engineers have found alternatives including environmental projects, water supply projects, and computer applications. (CW)

  8. Strategic petroleum reserve. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-15

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve serves as one of our most important investments in reducing the Nation`s vulnerability to oil supply disruptions. Its existence provides an effective response mechanism should a disruption occur and a formidable deterrent to the use of oil as a political instrument. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve was created pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of December 22, 1975, (Public Law 94-163) as amended, to reduce the impact of disruptions in supplies of petroleum products and to carry out obligations of the United States under the Agreement on an International Energy Program. Section 165(a) of the Act requires the submission of Annual Reports and Section 165(b)(1) requires the submission of Quarterly Reports. This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the first quarter of calendar year 1994, including: (1) inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve, under contract and in transit at the end of the calendar quarter; (2) fill rate for the current quarter and projected fill rate for the next calendar quarter; (3) average price of the petroleum products acquired during the calendar quarter; (4) current and projected storage capacity; (5) analysis of existing or anticipated problems with the acquisition and storage of petroleum products, and future expansion of storage capacity; (6) funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and (7) major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated.

  9. Petroleum marketing monthly, March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-10

    This report for March 1995, provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly. A glossary is included.

  10. Strategic Petroleum Reserve quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-15

    This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the second quarter of calendar year 1993, including: inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve, under contract and in transit at the end of the calendar quarter; fill rate for the current quarter and projected fill rate for the next calendar quarter; average price of the petroleum products acquired during the calendar quarter; current and projected storage capacity and plans to accelerate the acquisition or construction of such capacity; analysis of existing or anticipated problems with the acquisition and storage of petroleum products, and future expansion of storage capacity; funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated.

  11. The benefits of Fischer-Tropsch waxes in synthetic petroleum jelly.

    PubMed

    Bekker, M; Louw, N R; Jansen Van Rensburg, V J; Potgieter, J

    2013-02-01

    This article is an introduction and general discussion regarding the use of Fisher-Tropsch wax in petroleum jelly applications. Traditionally, petroleum jelly is prepared from a blend of microwax, paraffin wax and mineral oil that are all derived from crude oil. Sasol Wax has successfully prepared a petroleum jelly based on predominantly to fully synthetic Fisher-Tropsch wax. Sasol Wax was awarded a patent P53898ZP00-29 November 11 for a predominantly to fully synthetic petroleum jelly based on Fisher-Tropsch wax blends. The benefits of Fisher-Tropsch wax discussed in this article include the absence of aromatic compounds and polycyclic aromatic compounds in Fisher-Tropsch wax as well as the sustainable production that is possible with Fisher-Tropsch wax, as opposed to paraffin wax that may be affected by the closure of group I Base Oil plants. This article will be the first in a series of articles from the same authors, and follow-up articles will include solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance and crystallization studies to determine the influence of predominantly synthetic waxes on petroleum jelly network structures compared with more traditional mineral oil-derived petroleum jellies, final product performance and stability of synthetic petroleum jelly used in, for example, personal care lotions or creams. The influence of oxygenated compounds and product safety and rheological properties (including primary skin feel upon application and secondary skin feel after application) of synthetic petroleum jellies compared with traditional mineral oil-derived petroleum jellies are discussed. PMID:23050609

  12. Skin Keratins

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fengrong; Zieman, Abigail; Coulombe, Pierre A.

    2016-01-01

    Keratins comprise the type I and type II intermediate filament-forming proteins and occur primarily in epithelial cells. They are encoded by 54 evolutionarily conserved genes (28 type I, 26 type II) and regulated in a pairwise and tissue type-, differentiation-, and context-dependent manner. Keratins serve multiple homeostatic and stress-enhanced mechanical and nonmechanical functions in epithelia, including the maintenance of cellular integrity, regulation of cell growth and migration, and protection from apoptosis. These functions are tightly regulated by posttranslational modifications as well as keratin-associated proteins. Genetically determined alterations in keratin-coding sequences underlie highly penetrant and rare disorders whose pathophysiology reflects cell fragility and/or altered tissue homeostasis. Moreover, keratin mutation or misregulation represents risk factors or genetic modifiers for several acute and chronic diseases. This chapter focuses on keratins that are expressed in skin epithelia, and details a number of basic protocols and assays that have proven useful for analyses being carried out in skin. PMID:26795476

  13. Reducing the use of carcinogens: the Massachusetts experience.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Molly M; Massey, Rachel I; Tenney, Heather; Harriman, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Toxics use reduction (TUR) is one part of a comprehensive cancer prevention strategy. TUR emphasizes reducing the use of cancer-causing chemicals by improving manufacturing processes and identifying and adopting safer alternatives. This analysis draws on 20 years of data collected from industries reporting to the Massachusetts Toxics Use Reduction Act (TURA) program to assess trends in the use and release of chemicals associated with cancer. We used a master list of known and suspected carcinogens developed from authoritative sources and a list of carcinogens grouped by their association with 11 cancer sites to analyze trends in use and release of chemicals by industrial facilities reporting to the TURA program from 1990 to 2010. The trend analysis shows that reported use and releases of carcinogens by these Massachusetts companies have decreased dramatically over time. Reported use declined 32% from 1990 to 2010, and reported releases declined 93% from 1991 to 2010 (1991 is when additional industrial sectors, including electric utilities, were phased into the program). Particularly large reductions were achieved in the use of trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene and cadmium and cadmium compounds. The analysis of groups of chemicals associated with specific cancer sites shows similar trends. Important opportunities for further reductions in many carcinogens, including formaldehyde, hexavalent chromium, and a variety of halogenated compounds are identified. Continued work to minimize the use of carcinogens can help to reduce the burden of cancer in Massachusetts and elsewhere. PMID:25423668

  14. 4,4'-Methylenebis (2-chloroaniline): an unregulated carcinogen

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, E.; Smith, A.B.; Halperin, W.

    1987-01-01

    4,4'-Methylenebis (2-chloroaniline) (MBOCA) is a confirmed animal carcinogen. It is used commercially as a curing agent for polymers containing isocyanate. There are no adequate studies documenting a carcinogenic risk for MBOCA in humans; however, studies in rats and dogs have shown that MBOCA is a carcinogen. Also, MBOCA is structurally similar to aromatic amines, which cause bladder cancer in workers with occupational exposure. Manufacture of MBOCA in the United States ceased in 1979. However, estimates of the number of workers potentially exposed range from 1,400 to 33,000 in the manufacture of MBOCA-cured products. Presently, there are no federal regulations limiting occupational exposure to MBOCA. An occupational standard for MBOCA proposed by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration was remanded by the Third Circuit Court of Appeals on procedural grounds in 1974. NIOSH recommended in 1978 that MBOCA be treated as a potential human carcinogen and that worker exposure be controlled so that it does not exceed 3 micrograms/m3 of air determined as a time-weighted average concentration for up to a 10-hour workshift (the lowest level that can be reliably measured). In this paper, we will review the literature in regard to MBOCA's carcinogenicity, describe industrial use and extent of worker exposure, and review MBOCA's status in relation to occupational regulations in the United States and abroad. 51 references.

  15. Comparative toxicity and carcinogenicity of soluble and insoluble cobalt compounds.

    PubMed

    Behl, Mamta; Stout, Matthew D; Herbert, Ronald A; Dill, Jeffrey A; Baker, Gregory L; Hayden, Barry K; Roycroft, Joseph H; Bucher, John R; Hooth, Michelle J

    2015-07-01

    Occupational exposure to cobalt is of widespread concern due to its use in a variety of industrial processes and the occurrence of occupational disease. Due to the lack of toxicity and carcinogenicity data following exposure to cobalt, and questions regarding bioavailability following exposure to different forms of cobalt, the NTP conducted two chronic inhalation exposure studies in rats and mice, one on soluble cobalt sulfate heptahydrate, and a more recent study on insoluble cobalt metal. Herein, we compare and contrast the toxicity profiles following whole-body inhalation exposures to these two forms of cobalt. In general, both forms were genotoxic in the Salmonella T98 strain in the absence of effects on micronuclei. The major sites of toxicity and carcinogenicity in both chronic inhalation studies were the respiratory tract in rats and mice, and the adrenal gland in rats. In addition, there were distinct sites of toxicity and carcinogenicity noted following exposure to cobalt metal. In rats, carcinogenicity was observed in the blood, and pancreas, and toxicity was observed in the testes of rats and mice. Taken together, these findings suggest that both forms of cobalt, soluble and insoluble, appear to be multi-site rodent carcinogens following inhalation exposure. PMID:25896363

  16. Relating rheological measurements to primary and secondary skin feeling when mineral-based and Fischer-Tropsch wax-based cosmetic emulsions and jellies are applied to the skin.

    PubMed

    Bekker, M; Webber, G V; Louw, N R

    2013-08-01

    Rheology measurements were correlated to skin sensations occurring when cream and petroleum jelly cosmetic products containing different amounts of synthetic Fischer-Tropsch wax were applied to the skin. A panel of 15 people with a background in cosmetic product development were asked to rate skin feelings when a range of petroleum jelly and cream samples are applied to the skin. Primary skin feel, or the spreadability of a cosmetic product, was correlated to the product's flow onset and maximum viscosity as measured by a Anton Paar rheometer, whereas secondary skin feel or the sensation occurring at the end of application when the product was completely rubbed into the skin was correlated to the product's viscosity measured at high shear rates. The cream samples prepared with a petroleum jelly containing 10% and 20% Fischer-Tropsch wax fell within the boundary of good primary skin feeling of cream products. Predominantly, synthetic petroleum jellies were given the best assessments in terms of primary skin feeling and were used with mineral-based petroleum jellies to determine the boundary of good primary skin feeling for petroleum jelly products. The further away a product falls from this rheological boundary the poorer the skin feeling assessment appears to be by the panel. Products containing Fischer-Tropsch waxes were given the best assessment by the panel for secondary skin feeling. Comments from the panel include that these products feel silky and light on the skin. The higher the Fischer-Tropsch wax content, the lower viscosity was at high shear rate (ϒ = 500 s(-1) ) and the higher the assessment by the panel. Rheological measurements can be used to objectively determine skin sensation when products are applied to the skin; this may shorten research and development times. A rheology boundary of certain product viscosity and shear stress applied is associated with good primary skin feeling for lotions, creams and petroleum jellies. Lower product viscosity

  17. Chemically induced skin carcinogenesis: Updates in experimental models (Review).

    PubMed

    Neagu, Monica; Caruntu, Constantin; Constantin, Carolina; Boda, Daniel; Zurac, Sabina; Spandidos, Demetrios A; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M

    2016-05-01

    Skin cancer is one of the most common malignancies affecting humans worldwide, and its incidence is rapidly increasing. The study of skin carcinogenesis is of major interest for both scientific research and clinical practice and the use of in vivo systems may facilitate the investigation of early alterations in the skin and of the mechanisms involved, and may also lead to the development of novel therapeutic strategies for skin cancer. This review outlines several aspects regarding the skin toxicity testing domain in mouse models of chemically induced skin carcinogenesis. There are important strain differences in view of the histological type, development and clinical evolution of the skin tumor, differences reported decades ago and confirmed by our hands‑on experience. Using mouse models in preclinical testing is important due to the fact that, at the molecular level, common mechanisms with human cutaneous tumorigenesis are depicted. These animal models resemble human skin cancer development, in that genetic changes caused by carcinogens and pro‑inflammatory cytokines, and simultaneous inflammation sustained by pro‑inflammatory cytokines and chemokines favor tumor progression. Drugs and environmental conditions can be tested using these animal models. keeping in mind the differences between human and rodent skin physiology. PMID:26986013

  18. Chemically induced skin carcinogenesis: Updates in experimental models (Review)

    PubMed Central

    NEAGU, MONICA; CARUNTU, CONSTANTIN; CONSTANTIN, CAROLINA; BODA, DANIEL; ZURAC, SABINA; SPANDIDOS, DEMETRIOS A.; TSATSAKIS, ARISTIDIS M.

    2016-01-01

    Skin cancer is one of the most common malignancies affecting humans worldwide, and its incidence is rapidly increasing. The study of skin carcinogenesis is of major interest for both scientific research and clinical practice and the use of in vivo systems may facilitate the investigation of early alterations in the skin and of the mechanisms involved, and may also lead to the development of novel therapeutic strategies for skin cancer. This review outlines several aspects regarding the skin toxicity testing domain in mouse models of chemically induced skin carcinogenesis. There are important strain differences in view of the histological type, development and clinical evolution of the skin tumor, differences reported decades ago and confirmed by our hands-on experience. Using mouse models in preclinical testing is important due to the fact that, at the molecular level, common mechanisms with human cutaneous tumorigenesis are depicted. These animal models resemble human skin cancer development, in that genetic changes caused by carcinogens and pro-inflammatory cytokines, and simultaneous inflammation sustained by pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines favor tumor progression. Drugs and environmental conditions can be tested using these animal models. keeping in mind the differences between human and rodent skin physiology. PMID:26986013

  19. Increased risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma among upstream petroleum workers

    PubMed Central

    Kirkeleit, Jorunn; Riise, Trond; Bjørge, Tone; Moen, Bente E; Bråtveit, Magne; Christiani, David C

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate cancer risk, particularly oesophageal cancer, among male upstream petroleum workers offshore potentially exposed to various carcinogenic agents. Methods Using the Norwegian Registry of Employers and Employees, 24 765 male offshore workers registered from 1981 to 2003 was compared with 283 002 male referents from the general working population matched by age and community of residence. The historical cohort was linked to the Cancer Registry of Norway and the Norwegian Cause of Death Registry. Results Male offshore workers had excess risk of oesophageal cancer (RR 2.6, 95% CI 1.4 to 4.8) compared with the reference population. Only the adenocarcinoma type had a significantly increased risk (RR 2.7, 95% CI 1.0 to 7.0), mainly because of an increased risk among upstream operators (RR 4.3, 95% CI 1.3 to 14.5). Upstream operators did not have significant excess of respiratory system or colon cancer or mortality from any other lifestyle-related diseases investigated. Conclusion We found a fourfold excess risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma among male workers assumed to have had the most extensive contact with crude oil. Due to the small number of cases, and a lack of detailed data on occupational exposure and lifestyle factors associated with oesophageal adenocarcinoma, the results must be interpreted with caution. Nevertheless, given the low risk of lifestyle-related cancers and causes of death in this working group, the results add to the observations in other low-powered studies on oesophageal cancer, further suggesting that factors related to the petroleum stream or carcinogenic agents used in the production process might be associated with risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma. PMID:19858535

  20. Biomonitoring exposure to metal compounds with carcinogenic properties.

    PubMed Central

    Léonard, A; Bernard, A

    1993-01-01

    Several metals such as arsenic, beryllium, chromium and nickel are carcinogenic to man when they occur in certain well-defined physicochemical forms. The carcinogenic potential of these metals is linked to their mutagenic properties. The determination of the metal or possibly of its metabolites in biological media and the cytogenetic examination of somatic cells are two methods that can currently be used to monitor exposure of populations at risk. Due to the use of inappropriate methodology, the value of the positive cytogenetic results published so far appears questionable. By contrast, the concentrations of metals in blood, urine, or other biological materials can be determined with accurate and precise methods. Although it does not permit a direct assessment of the carcinogenic risk, this approach is currently the most suitable for monitoring exposed populations. PMID:8143604

  1. CARCINOGENIC ACTIVITY OF ACRYLAMIDE IN THE SKIN AND LUNG OF SWISS-ICR MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Doses of acrylamide ranging from 12.5 to 50 mg/kg were administered orally to female ICR-Swiss mice over a M, W & F for two weeks (total doses of 75, 150 and 300 mg/kg). Two weeks later some of the animals were begun on a promotion schedule involving the application of 2.5 microg...

  2. Effects of carcinogenic versus non-carcinogenic AHR-active PAHs and their mixtures: lessons from ecological relevance.

    PubMed

    Martins, Marta; Santos, José M; Diniz, Mário S; Ferreira, Ana M; Costa, Maria H; Costa, Pedro M

    2015-04-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are priority environmental mutagens and carcinogens that occur in the aquatic environment as mixtures rather than the individual compounds for which guidelines are issued. The present work aimed at understanding the interaction effects between carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic PAHs in a model marine fish (Dicentrarchus labrax) in realistic scenarios. Laboratory assays under ecologically-relevant parameters were conducted for 28 days with sediments spiked with low-moderate concentrations (250-800ngg(-1)) of two model PAHs, phenanthrene (non-carcinogenic) and benzo[b]fluoranthene (carcinogenic to experimental animals). Both PAHs induced hepatic histopathological changes that indicate metabolic failure and inflammation, especially in animals exposed to mixtures. Phenanthrene elicited biochemical changes better related to oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation, glutathione and glutathione S-transferase activity) and CYP function, whereas B[b]F disrupted metabolic responses and defences to toxicological challenge. Conversely, mixed PAHs yielded lesions and responses that, altogether, are compatible with the AHR dependent pathway (the basis of PAH mutagenicity), potentially generating supra-additive effects. Nonetheless, the low, ecologically-relevant, concentrations of PAHs diluted dose and time-response relations. Overall, although seemingly predicting the risk of individual PAHs, environmental guidelines may not apply to mixtures by underestimating adverse effects, which calls for a redefinition of standards when determining the true risk of toxicants under realistic circumstances. PMID:25704830

  3. The role of transgenic mouse models in carcinogen identification.

    PubMed Central

    Pritchard, John B; French, John E; Davis, Barbara J; Haseman, Joseph K

    2003-01-01

    In this article, we examine existing data on the use of transgenic mouse models for identification of human carcinogens. We focus on the three most extensively studied of these mice, Trp53+/-, Tg/AC, and RasH2, and compare their performance with the traditional 2-year rodent bioassay. Data on 99 chemicals were evaluated. Using the International Agency for Research on Cancer/Report on Carcinogens determinations for the carcinogenicity of these chemicals to humans as the standard for comparison, we evaluated a variety of potential testing strategies ranging from individual transgenic models to combinations of these three models with each other and with traditional rodent assays. The individual transgenic models made the "correct" determinations (positive for carcinogens; negative for noncarcinogens) for 74-81% of the chemicals, with an increase to as much as 83% using combined strategies (e.g., Trp53+/- for genotoxic chemicals and RasH2 for all chemicals). For comparison, identical analysis of chemicals in this data set that were tested in the 2-year, two-species rodent bioassay yielded correct determinations for 69% of the chemicals. However, although the transgenic models had a high percentage of correct determinations, they did miss a number of known or probable human carcinogens, whereas the bioassay missed none of these chemicals. Therefore, we also evaluated mixed strategies using transgenic models and the rat bioassay. These strategies yielded approximately 85% correct determinations, missed no carcinogens, and cut the number of positive determinations for human noncarcinogens in half. Overall, the transgenic models performed well, but important issues of validation and standardization need further attention to permit their regulatory acceptance and use in human risk assessment. PMID:12676597

  4. Strategic Petroleum Reserve quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-15

    This August 15, 1991, Strategic Petroleum Reserve Quarterly Report describes activities related to the site development, oil acquisition, budget and cost of the Reserve during the period April 1, 1991, through June 30, 1991. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve storage facilities development program is proceeding on schedule. The Reserve's capacity is currently 726 million barrels. A total of 5.5 million barrels of new gross cavern volume was developed at Big Hill and Bayou Choctaw during the quarter. There were no crude oil deliveries to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve during the calendar quarter ending June 30, 1991. Acquisition of crude oil for the Reserve has been suspended since August 2, 1990, following the invasion of Kuwait by Iraq. As of June 30, 1991, the Strategic Petroleum Reserve inventory was 568.5 million barrels. The reorganization of the Office of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve became effective June 28, 1991. Under the new organization, the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Project Management Office in Louisiana will report to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Program Office in Washington rather than the Oak Ridge Field Office in Tennessee. 2 tabs.

  5. Strategic petroleum reserve. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-15

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve reduces the Nation`s vulnerability to oil supply disruptions. Its existence provides a formidable deterrent to the use of oil as a political instrument and an effective response mechanism should a disruption occur. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve was created pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of December 22, 1975 (Public Law 94-163). Its purposes are to reduce the impact of disruptions in supplies of petroleum products and to carry out obligations of the United States under the Agreement on an International Energy Program. Section 165(a) of the Act requires the submission of Annual Reports and Section 165(b)(1) requires the submission of Quarterly Reports. This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the second quarter of calendar year 1995, including: inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve; current and projected storage capacity, analysis of existing or anticipated problems with the acquisition and storage of petroleum products, and future expansion of storage capacity; funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated.

  6. Mutagenicity and carcinogenicity of car exhausts and coal combustion emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Holmberg, B.; Ahlbourg, U.

    1983-01-01

    Car exhausts and coal combustion emissions may cause a spectrum of health effects, varying from annoyance reactions, to bronchitis, to cancer in the respiratory organs and possibly also other organs. Deaths in cardiovascular diseases in particularly sensitive individuals have furthermore, under certain circumstances, been associated with ambient air pollution. The objective of the meeting was to examine the relevance of short-term and long-term biological tests for mutagenicity and carcinogenicity to the assessment of human carcinogenic risk that may arise from exposure to air pollution from motor vehicle exhausts and coal combustion products. (135 refs.)

  7. A call to expand regulation to all carcinogenic fibrous minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, F.; Steele, I.; Ambrosi, J.; Carbone, M.

    2013-05-01

    The regulatory term "asbestos" groups only the six fibrous minerals that were commercially used among approximately 400. The carcinogenicity of these six regulated minerals has been largely demonstrated and is related to fiber structure, fiber length/diameter ratio, and bio-persistence. From a public perception, the generic term "asbestos" refers to the fibrous minerals that cause asbestosis, mesothelioma and other cancers. However, other non-regulated fibrous minerals are potentially as dangerous as the regulatory asbestos because they share similar physical and chemical properties, epidemiological studies have demonstrated their relationship with asbestos-related diseases, and both in vitro and in vivo experiments have established the toxicity of these minerals. For example, the non-regulated asbestiform winchite and richterite minerals that contaminated the vermiculite mined from Libby, Montana, (USA) were associated with mesothelioma, lung cancer and asbestosis observed among the area's residents and miners. Many other examples of non-regulated carcinogenic fibrous minerals include, but are not limited to, antigorite, arfvedsonite, balangeroite, carlosturanite, erionite, fluoro-edenite, hornblende, mordenite, palygorskite, and sepiolite. To propose a regulatory definition that would provide protection from all carcinogenic fibers, we have conducted an interdisciplinary literature review to compare the characteristics of "asbestos" and of non-regulated mineral fibers that relate to carcinogenicity. We specifically studied two non-regulated fibrous minerals that are associated with asbestos-related diseases: the serpentine antigorite and the zeolite erionite. Both examples underscore the problem of regulation based on commercial, rather than scientific principles: 1) the occurrence of fibrous antigorite in materials used to pave roads has been correlated with high mesothelioma rates in New Caledonia. Antigorite was also the cause of asbestosis in Poland, and in

  8. The carcinogenic danger of nitrite pollution of the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Rubenchik, B.L.; Osinkovskaya, N.D.; Mikhailenko, V.M.; Furman, M.A.; Boim, T.M. )

    1990-11-01

    Presented are the literature data as well as the results of our own investigations on the genotoxic and carcinogenic effects of sodium nitrite (SN). The carcinogenicity of SN detected in animal experiments appears to be related to the formation of nitroso compounds from endogenous nitrosable precursors. Sodium nitrite possesses transforming and promoting effects in cell cultures, as well as mutagenic effects in the bacterial systems, where the predominant effect of SN was compared to that of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA). Prolonged pretreatment with SN amplifies the liver DNA damage in rats in case of NDMA endogenous synthesis.

  9. Induction of hepatocellular carcinoma in nonhuman primates by chemical carcinogens

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, R.H. )

    1989-01-01

    Several compounds were evaluated in nonhuman primates for their potential to induce neoplasms, especially hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The compounds can be classified into three groups: food contaminants, model rodent carcinogens, and nitrosamines. All three compounds in the food contaminants group, namely, aflatoxin B1, sterigmatocystin, and methylazoxymethanol acetate, induced HCC. None of the model rodent carcinogens tested consistently induced HCC in rhesus and cynomolgus monkeys. Three of four nitrosamines evaluated induced HCC in rhesus and cynomolgus monkeys. One nitrosamine, diethylnitrosamine, is a predictable and potent inducer of HCC and is useful for establishment of a nonhuman primate model for numerous oncologic studies.

  10. Petroleum fingerprinting: Effective identification of petroleum products at contaminated sites

    SciTech Connect

    Uhler, A.D.

    1997-07-01

    A critical issue in many environmental liability cases is the successful identification of the parties responsible for petroleum products that contaminate sites or properties. Identification of these parties is critical for owners of petroleum contaminated sites who are seeking to spread liability by identifying previous owners or operators of nearby properties who may be the source of, and thus be responsible for, the petroleum contamination at these sites. This issue is also critical for these potential defendants who will seek to demonstrate that the petroleum products associated with their activities could not be the source of the contamination in question. Finally, the issue is critical in situations where multiple responsible parties seek to equitably allocate among themselves shares of contamination and associated clean-up costs.

  11. Petroleum marketing monthly, November 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-09

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed costs of imported crude oil, and the refiner`s acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  12. Petroleum marketing monthly, March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-22

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, education institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiner`s acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  13. Petroleum marketing monthly, January 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  14. Petroleum marketing monthly, February 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-25

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiner`s acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  15. Petroleum marketing monthly, August 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-10

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  16. Petroleum marketing monthly, April 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-12

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  17. Petroleum marketing monthly, July 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-15

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  18. Petroleum marketing monthly, August 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-07

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. 12 figs., 49 tabs.

  19. 21 CFR 178.3710 - Petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Petroleum wax. 178.3710 Section 178.3710 Food and... and Production Aids § 178.3710 Petroleum wax. Petroleum wax may be safely used as a component of nonfood articles in contact with food, in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Petroleum wax is...

  20. 21 CFR 178.3710 - Petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Petroleum wax. 178.3710 Section 178.3710 Food and... and Production Aids § 178.3710 Petroleum wax. Petroleum wax may be safely used as a component of nonfood articles in contact with food, in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Petroleum wax is...

  1. 21 CFR 178.3710 - Petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Petroleum wax. 178.3710 Section 178.3710 Food and... and Production Aids § 178.3710 Petroleum wax. Petroleum wax may be safely used as a component of nonfood articles in contact with food, in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Petroleum wax is...

  2. 21 CFR 178.3710 - Petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Petroleum wax. 178.3710 Section 178.3710 Food and... Petroleum wax. Petroleum wax may be safely used as a component of nonfood articles in contact with food, in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Petroleum wax is a mixture of solid hydrocarbons, paraffinic...

  3. 21 CFR 178.3710 - Petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Petroleum wax. 178.3710 Section 178.3710 Food and... and Production Aids § 178.3710 Petroleum wax. Petroleum wax may be safely used as a component of nonfood articles in contact with food, in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Petroleum wax is...

  4. 31 CFR 561.319 - Petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Petroleum products. 561.319 Section... Definitions § 561.319 Petroleum products. The term petroleum products includes unfinished oils, liquefied petroleum gases, pentanes plus, aviation gasoline, motor gasoline, naphtha-type jet fuel, kerosene-type...

  5. 31 CFR 561.319 - Petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Petroleum products. 561.319 Section... Definitions § 561.319 Petroleum products. The term petroleum products includes unfinished oils, liquefied petroleum gases, pentanes plus, aviation gasoline, motor gasoline, naphtha-type jet fuel, kerosene-type...

  6. 31 CFR 561.319 - Petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Petroleum products. 561.319 Section... Definitions § 561.319 Petroleum products. The term petroleum products includes unfinished oils, liquefied petroleum gases, pentanes plus, aviation gasoline, motor gasoline, naphtha-type jet fuel, kerosene-type...

  7. Human Skin Cells Are More Sensitive than Human Lung Cells to the Cytotoxic and Cell Cycle Arresting Impacts of Particulate and Soluble Hexavalent Chromium.

    PubMed

    Xie, Hong; Holmes, Amie L; Wise, Sandra S; Young, Jamie L; Wise, James T F; Wise, John Pierce

    2015-07-01

    Hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) is a known human lung carcinogen, with solubility playing an important role in its carcinogenic potency. Dermal exposure to Cr(VI) is common and has been associated with skin damage; however, no link between chromate exposure and skin cancer has been found. In this study, we compared the cytotoxic and clastogenic effects of Cr(VI) and its impacts on cell cycle progression in human lung and skin fibroblasts. We found human skin cells arrested earlier in their cell cycle and exhibit more cytotoxicity than human lung cells, despite taking up similar amounts of Cr. These outcomes are consistent with a hypothesis that different cellular and molecular responses underlie the differences in carcinogenic outcome in these two tissues. PMID:25805272

  8. Skin (Pressure) Sores

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topic Skin dryness Next Topic Sleep problems Skin (pressure) sores A skin or pressure sore develops when the blood supply to an ... is bedridden or always in a wheelchair puts pressure on the same places much of the time. ...

  9. Layers of the Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... produce the skin coloring or pigment known as melanin, which gives skin its tan or brown color ... Sun exposure causes melanocytes to increase production of melanin in order to protect the skin from damaging ...

  10. Learning about Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... have red or blond hair and blue or light-colored eyes - although anyone can get skin cancer. Skin cancer is related to lifetime exposure to UV radiation, therefore most skin cancers appear after age ...

  11. Scalded skin syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Ritter disease; Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSS) ... Scalded skin syndrome (SSS) is caused by infection with certain strains of Staphylococcus bacteria. The bacteria produce a toxin that causes the skin ...

  12. Basal cell skin cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... occur on skin that is regularly exposed to sunlight or other ultraviolet radiation. This type of skin ... skin cancer is to reduce your exposure to sunlight . Always use sunscreen: Apply sunscreen with sun protection ...

  13. Dry Skin (Xerosis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... skin, which may bleed if severe. Chapped or cracked lips. When dry skin cracks, germs can get ... cause the skin to become dry, raw, and cracked. Swimming : Some pools have high levels of chlorine, ...

  14. Skin Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Skin Cancer Skin color and being exposed to sunlight can increase the risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer ... carcinoma include the following: Being exposed to natural sunlight or artificial sunlight (such as from tanning beds) ...

  15. Stages of Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Skin Cancer Skin color and being exposed to sunlight can increase the risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer ... carcinoma include the following: Being exposed to natural sunlight or artificial sunlight (such as from tanning beds) ...

  16. Exposure risk to carcinogenic PAHs in indoor-air during biomass combustion whilst cooking in rural India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhargava, Anuj; Khanna, R. N.; Bhargava, S. K.; Kumar, Sushil

    In India, a vast majority of rural household burns unprocessed biomass, as an energy source, to cook food. The biomass is burnt indoors in conventionally homemade clay-stoves, called 'Chulha', which results in the generation of a variety of airborne products along with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in an uncontrolled manner. We report here the concentrations and profile of carcinogenic PAHs, co-sampled with respirable suspended particulate matter, in rural indoors during burning of biomass vis-à-vis liquified petroleum gas as the energy source. There is a limited data on the subject in the literature. The seasonal variation has also been studied. Sampling was done in breathing zone and in surrounding areas concurrent with cooking on chulha. PAHs were extracted in methylene chloride and analyzed over HPLC after column clean up on silica gel. Our study revealed that the concentrations of carcinogenic PAHs were fairly high in breathing zone and in surrounding areas while cooking over chulha in rural India. PAHs concentrations increased substantially during biomass combustion. Concentrations were high during CDC combustion and low during LPG combustion or the non-cooking period. This trend was conserved in both the seasons. Concentrations of total PAHs were greater in winter as compared to summer and greatest in the breathing zone. Di-benz( a,h)anthracene, benzo( k)-fluoranthene and chrysene contributed maximum. Benzo( a)pyrene contributed moderately. Maximum concentrations of indoor air benzo( a)pyrene (>1.5 μg/m 3) were found in breathing zone in winter. The daily exposure to high concentrations of carcinogenic PAHs in indoor air environment while cooking food could be impacting for chronic pulmonary illnesses in rural Indian women.

  17. INTEGRATED PETROLEUM ENVIRONMENTAL CONSORTIUM (IPEC)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA GRANT NUMBER: R827015
    Title: Integrated Petroleum Environmental Consortium (IPEC)
    Investigator: Kerry L. Sublette
    Institution: University of Tulsa
    EPA Project Officer: S. Bala Krishnan
    Project Period: October 1, 19...

  18. Diterpenoid tetracyclic hydrocarbons of petroleum

    SciTech Connect

    Vorob'eva, N.S.; Zemskova, Z.K.; Pekh, T.I.; Petrov, A.A.

    1987-08-01

    Diterpenoid hydrocarbons are fairly widespread in various caustobioliths. However, if petroleums contain mainly acyclic diterpenoids (phytane, pristane and norpristane), cyclic diterpaenes such as fichtelite, pimarane, iosene (kaurane) and hibbane are often found in hydrocarbons isolated from coal and shale. Recent advances in the chemistry of diterpenoids isolated from caustobioliths, are described in a separate paper. Much less is known about petroleum polycyclic diterpenoid hydrocarbons, particularly those with four saturated rings. A series of tetracyclic hydrocarbons C/sub 19/H/sub 32/ (molar mass 260), found in a number of light petroleums and gas condensates from the Jura deposits of Central Kara-Kum (Turkmen S.S.R.), are examined here. These hydrocarbons are present in petroleums and condensates from the Davaly, Erden, Ortakak, Southern Beuideshik deposits, they are always identical and occur in the same ratios. The composition of the tretracyclanes isolated from the Ortakak gas condensates (well 17) will be examined in detail.

  19. Microbial Degradation of Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminants: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Das, Nilanjana; Chandran, Preethy

    2011-01-01

    One of the major environmental problems today is hydrocarbon contamination resulting from the activities related to the petrochemical industry. Accidental releases of petroleum products are of particular concern in the environment. Hydrocarbon components have been known to belong to the family of carcinogens and neurotoxic organic pollutants. Currently accepted disposal methods of incineration or burial insecure landfills can become prohibitively expensive when amounts of contaminants are large. Mechanical and chemical methods generally used to remove hydrocarbons from contaminated sites have limited effectiveness and can be expensive. Bioremediation is the promising technology for the treatment of these contaminated sites since it is cost-effective and will lead to complete mineralization. Bioremediation functions basically on biodegradation, which may refer to complete mineralization of organic contaminants into carbon dioxide, water, inorganic compounds, and cell protein or transformation of complex organic contaminants to other simpler organic compounds by biological agents like microorganisms. Many indigenous microorganisms in water and soil are capable of degrading hydrocarbon contaminants. This paper presents an updated overview of petroleum hydrocarbon degradation by microorganisms under different ecosystems. PMID:21350672

  20. Shikonin Suppresses Skin Carcinogenesis via Inhibiting Cell Proliferation.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenjuan; Zhang, Chunjing; Ren, Amy; Li, Teena; Jin, Rong; Li, Guohong; Gu, Xin; Shi, Runhua; Zhao, Yunfeng

    2015-01-01

    The M2 isoform of pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) has been shown to be up-regulated in human skin cancers. To test whether PKM2 may be a target for chemoprevention, shikonin, a natural product from the root of Lithospermum erythrorhizon and a specific inhibitor of PKM2, was used in a chemically-induced mouse skin carcinogenesis study. The results revealed that shikonin treatment suppressed skin tumor formation. Morphological examinations and immunohistochemical staining of the skin epidermal tissues suggested that shikonin inhibited cell proliferation without inducing apoptosis. Although shikonin alone suppressed PKM2 activity, it did not suppress tumor promoter-induced PKM2 activation in the skin epidermal tissues at the end of the skin carcinogenesis study. To reveal the potential chemopreventive mechanism of shikonin, an antibody microarray analysis was performed, and the results showed that the transcription factor ATF2 and its downstream target Cdk4 were up-regulated by chemical carcinogen treatment; whereas these up-regulations were suppressed by shikonin. In a promotable skin cell model, the nuclear levels of ATF2 were increased during tumor promotion, whereas this increase was inhibited by shikonin. Furthermore, knockdown of ATF2 decreased the expression levels of Cdk4 and Fra-1 (a key subunit of the activator protein 1. In summary, these results suggest that shikonin, rather than inhibiting PKM2 in vivo, suppresses the ATF2 pathway in skin carcinogenesis. PMID:25961580

  1. 29 CFR 1910.1003 - 13 Carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... employees, designated representatives, and the Assistant Secretary in accordance with 29 CFR 1910.1020 (a... impervious to the passage of the material and would prevent the entry of the carcinogen addressed by this... regulated areas shall be posted with signs bearing the legend: CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT AUTHORIZED...

  2. 29 CFR 1910.1003 - 13 Carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... employees, designated representatives, and the Assistant Secretary in accordance with 29 CFR 1910.1020 (a... impervious to the passage of the material and would prevent the entry of the carcinogen addressed by this... regulated areas shall be posted with signs bearing the legend: CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT AUTHORIZED...

  3. 29 CFR 1915.1003 - 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.). 1915.1003 Section 1915.1003 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Toxic...

  4. DETECTION OF CARCINOGENICITY BASED ON MUTAGENICITY IN ARABIDOPSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thirty-seven synthetic chemicals plus two mycotoxins were tested for mutagenicity in an Arabidopsis embryo system. The results of this test, prokaryotic repair tests, bacterial mutation assays, eukaryotic cell systems, and in vivo tests were compared to the carcinogenicity classi...

  5. CARCINOGENIC POTENTIAL OF ROTENONE. PHASE I: DIETARY ADMINISTRATION TO HAMSTERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies were performed to evaluate the potential carcinogenicity rotenone in the Syrian Golden hamster. Several ancillary range-finding studies were carried out including 14-day feeding trials and a reproduction experiment. The latter experiment indicated that rotenone at a level...

  6. An Alternative to Formaldehyde. Avoiding the Carcinogenic Risks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ealy, Julie B.

    1991-01-01

    Demonstrations in which glyoxal may be substituted for formaldehyde, a known carcinogen, are presented. An acid-base clock reaction and a copper mirror on the inside of a test tube are described. Directions for the demonstrations and safety precautions are included. (KR)

  7. Dichlorvos carcinogenicity: an assessment of the weight of experimental evidence.

    PubMed

    Mennear, J H

    1994-12-01

    After 30 years of experience with human exposure to dichlorvos (DDVP) in the home, workplace, and sickroom, the U.S. EPA has published its intent to revoke the food additive registration of this cholinesterase-inhibiting insecticide. The basis for the Agency action is the result of the National Toxicology Program (NTP) toxicology and carcinogenesis study of DDVP in rats and mice (NTP Technical Report No. 342, September 1989). In those experiments the NTP considered the result in the female mouse portion of the study to afford unequivocal evidence of carcinogenicity. The NTP considered the interpretations of the male and female rat and the male mouse studies to be less than clear. Despite the NTP interpretation, the EPA considers the male rat data (increased incidence of mononuclear cell leukemia) to be sufficient to warrant the regulatory change. The purpose of this report is to summarize a review of the interpretation of the NTP data and to assess the predictive validity of the results relative to potential human health impact. Critical review of experimental data indicates that the evidence for a carcinogenic effect of DDVP in animals is equivocal. Further, DDVP possess no in vivo mutagenic activity in mammalian assay systems and it bears no significant structural similarity to known carcinogens. Therefore, a weight-of-the-evidence analysis leads to the conclusion that DDVP poses neither mutagenic nor carcinogenic risks to humans exposed under normal conditions of use of foreseeable conditions of misuse. PMID:7724838

  8. IS INHALED ARSENIC CARCINOGENIC FOR SITES OTHER THAN THE LUNG?

    EPA Science Inventory

    The carcinogenic risk from inhaled arsenic for sites other an the lung is discussed. Data from persons ingesting arsenic as well as from persons inhaling arsenic are considered in arriving at the conclusions. n the past, lung cancer has generally been assumed to be the only cance...

  9. Lifetime carcinogenicity study of 1- and 2-naphthylamine in dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Purchase, I. F.; Kalinowski, A. E.; Ishmael, J.; Wilson, J.; Gore, C. W.; Chart, I. S.

    1981-01-01

    Groups of male and female beagle dogs were given daily doses of 400 mg of various mixtures of naphthylamines for up to 109 months. Survivors were killed at 128 months. A variety of pathological conditions was diagnosed, but the only effect related to treatment was the induction of bladder neoplasms. All dogs which received pure 2-naphthylamine developed transitional-cell carcinomas of the bladder within 34 months. Two of 8 dogs receiving 6% 2-naphthylamine in 1-naphthylamine developed early carcinoma and 2/8 dogs receiving 0.5% 2-naphthylamine in 1-naphthylamine developed haemangioma of the bladder. Some of the dogs receiving 1-naphthylamine (total dose 950 g) and the controls had focal cystitis or hyperplasia, but no neoplasia of the bladder. These results confirm the carcinogenicity of 2-naphthylamine to dogs. No carcinogenic effect of 1-naphthylamine was observed, indicating that it is at least 200 times less potent as a carcinogen than 2-naphthylamine. The incidence of bladder cancer in dogs fed mixtures of both naphthylamines explains why previous experimental and epidemiological studies of impure 1-naphthylamine have revealed carcinogenicity. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:7326199

  10. FACT SHEET: EPA'S GUIDELINES FOR CARCINOGEN RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    March 29, 2005

    FACT SHEET: EPA's GUIDELINES FOR CARCINOGEN RISK ASSE...

  11. INSIGHTS INTO THE CARCINOGENIC MODE OF ACTION OF ARSENIC

    EPA Science Inventory

    That arsenic can induce cancer in humans has been known since the late 17th century, yet how arsenic induces cancer has been the subject of numerous scientific publications. Various modes of action (MOA) have been proposed for arsenic's carcinogenicity. In this paper we review o...

  12. Safety in School Science: Possible Carcinogenic Hazards in School Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Science, 1979

    1979-01-01

    This is the fourth in a series of articles concerned with safety in school science. This article presents some facts about eight types of carcinogenic chemicals and suggests precautions in their use in British schools. A safety bibliography is also included. (HM)

  13. Carcinogenicity of Disinfection By-products and Research Needs

    EPA Science Inventory

    A review by S.D. Richardson et al. (Mutat. Res. 636:178, 2007) presents the first analysis of the 30-year literature on the genotoxicity, carcinogenicity, and occurrence of 87 disinfection by-products (DBPs) identified in drinking water. Of these, 11 are regulated by the U.S. EP...

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF A CARCINOGEN ASSAY SYSTEM UTILIZING ESTUARINE FISHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this project was the development of systems to assay the effects of chemical carcinogens on marine teleosts. It was determined that the LC-50 for benzidine with respect to Cyprinodon variegatus was ca. 64 ppm. Weekly contaminations of 1 ppm benzidine caused some ...

  15. Is There a Safe Level of Exposure to a Carcinogen?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hrudey, Steve E.; Krewski, Daniel

    1995-01-01

    Presents an approach to estimating the "safe" levels of low-dose exposure to carcinogens that involves working upward from the smallest conceivable chronic dose instead of extrapolating downward from high exposures. Discusses expert and public opinion and other issues related to quantitative cancer risk assessment. (LZ)

  16. DETECTION OF MUTAGENIC/CARCINOGENIC ALTERATION IN FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The feasibility of using fish as bioassay organisms to detect mutagenic/carcinogenic substances in the aquatic environment was tested. The data in fish were compared to those in higher vertebrates including humans. Microsomal fractions from livers of channel catfish, fathead minn...

  17. HEMOGLOBIN BINDING AS A DOSE MONITOR FOR CHEMICAL CARCINOGENS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The covalent binding of chemical carcinogens and mutagens to hemoglobin has been proposed as a dose monitor for environmental exposure. The binding of chloroform and bromoform to hemoglobin in rats was demonstrated to result from the formation of adducts to amino acids in the glo...

  18. COMPLEMENTARITY OF GENOTOXIC AND NONGENOTOXIC PREDICTORS OF RODENT CARCINOGENICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Twenty-one chemicals known to be carcinogenic in rodent bioassays were selected for study. he chemicals were administered by gavage in two dose levels to female Sprague-Dawley rats. he effects of these 21 chemicals on four biochemical assays (hepatic DNA damage by alkaline elutio...

  19. Proposal to reduce the carcinogenic character of electromagnetic radiation (EMR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundquist, Marjorie

    2011-03-01

    Non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation (NIEMR) interacts with matter in 3 ways: it can transfer energy, linear momentum, and angular momentum to matter. At high frequencies (e.g., microwaves), evidence exists of a carcinogenic effect on living creatures irradiated with NIEMR. Which effect is carcinogenic? NIEMR heats matter by transfer of energy; this effect is used to kill established cancers. Transfer of linear momentum to matter merely alters the local pressure; cancer has never been associated with pressure changes. So the transfer of non-zero angular momentum to matter is the interaction most likely to be carcinogenic. EMR polarization can be circular, elliptical, or plane. Only plane-polarized EMR possesses zero angular momentum and therefore cannot transfer any angular momentum to matter. Everything that is true of NIEMR is also true of ionizing EMR, so it seems likely that the carcinogenic potential of all EMR (whether ionizing or non-ionizing) will be minimized by filtering it or taking other steps to make it plane-polarized before using it to irradiate a person or animal. Obvious applications are medical/dental X-rays and the full body scanners used on travelers at airports. M. Lundquist, BAPS 51(1):518 (2006).

  20. Occupational exposure to carcinogens in the European Union

    PubMed Central

    Kauppinen, T.; Toikkanen, J.; Pedersen, D.; Young, R.; Ahrens, W.; Boffetta, P.; Hansen, J.; Kromhout, H.; Blasco, J. M.; Mirabelli, D.; de la Orden-River..., V.; Pannett, B.; Plato, N.; Savela, A.; Vincent, R.; Kogevinas, M.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To construct a computer assisted information system for the estimation of the numbers of workers exposed to established and suspected human carcinogens in the member states of the European Union (EU).
METHODS—A database called CAREX (carcinogen exposure) was designed to provide selected exposure data and documented estimates of the number of workers exposed to carcinogens by country, carcinogen, and industry. CAREX includes data on agents evaluated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) (all agents in groups 1 and 2A as of February 1995, and selected agents in group 2B) and on ionising radiation, displayed across the 55 industrial classes. The 1990-3 occupational exposure was estimated in two phases. Firstly, estimates were generated by the CAREX system on the basis of national labour force data and exposure prevalence estimates from two reference countries (Finland and the United States) which had the most comprehensive data available on exposures to these agents. For selected countries, these estimates were then refined by national experts in view of the perceived exposure patterns in their own countries compared with those of the reference countries.
RESULTS—About 32 million workers (23% of those employed) in the EU were exposed to agents covered by CAREX. At least 22 million workers were exposed to IARC group 1 carcinogens. The exposed workers had altogether 42 million exposures (1.3 mean exposures for each exposed worker). The most common exposures were solar radiation (9.1 million workers exposed at least 75% of working time), environmental tobacco smoke (7.5 million workers exposed at least 75% of working time), crystalline silica (3.2 million exposed), diesel exhaust (3.0 million), radon (2.7 million), and wood dust (2.6 million).
CONCLUSION—These preliminary estimates indicate that in the early 1990s, a substantial proportion of workers in the EU were exposed to carcinogens

  1. Risk-based indicators of Canadians’ exposures to environmental carcinogens

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tools for estimating population exposures to environmental carcinogens are required to support evidence-based policies to reduce chronic exposures and associated cancers. Our objective was to develop indicators of population exposure to selected environmental carcinogens that can be easily updated over time, and allow comparisons and prioritization between different carcinogens and exposure pathways. Methods We employed a risk assessment-based approach to produce screening-level estimates of lifetime excess cancer risk for selected substances listed as known carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Estimates of lifetime average daily intake were calculated using population characteristics combined with concentrations (circa 2006) in outdoor air, indoor air, dust, drinking water, and food and beverages from existing monitoring databases or comprehensive literature reviews. Intake estimates were then multiplied by cancer potency factors from Health Canada, the United States Environmental Protection Agency, and the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment to estimate lifetime excess cancer risks associated with each substance and exposure pathway. Lifetime excess cancer risks in excess of 1 per million people are identified as potential priorities for further attention. Results Based on data representing average conditions circa 2006, a total of 18 carcinogen-exposure pathways had potential lifetime excess cancer risks greater than 1 per million, based on varying data quality. Carcinogens with moderate to high data quality and lifetime excess cancer risk greater than 1 per million included benzene, 1,3-butadiene and radon in outdoor air; benzene and radon in indoor air; and arsenic and hexavalent chromium in drinking water. Important data gaps were identified for asbestos, hexavalent chromium and diesel exhaust in outdoor and indoor air, while little data were available to assess risk for substances in dust, food

  2. Carcinogenicity of glycidamide in B6C3F1 mice and F344/N rats from a two-year drinking water exposure.

    PubMed

    Beland, Frederick A; Olson, Greg R; Mendoza, Maria C B; Marques, M Matilde; Doerge, Daniel R

    2015-12-01

    Acrylamide is a contaminant in baked and fried starchy foods, roasted coffee, and cigarette smoke. Previously we reported that acrylamide is a multi-organ carcinogen in B6C3F1 mice and F344/N rats, and hypothesized that acrylamide is activated to an ultimate carcinogen through metabolism to the epoxide glycidamide. We have now examined the carcinogenic effects of glycidamide administered at 0, 0.0875, 0.175, 0.35 and 0.70 mM in drinking water to the same strains of rodents for two years. In male and female mice, there were significant increases in tumors of the Harderian gland, lung, forestomach, and skin. Female mice also had an increased incidence of tumors of the mammary gland and ovary. In male and female rats, there were significant increases in thyroid gland and oral cavity neoplasms and mononuclear cell leukemia. Male rats also had increases in tumors of the epididymis/testes and heart, while female rats demonstrated increases in tumors of the mammary gland, clitoral gland, and forestomach. A similar spectrum of tumors was obtained in mice and rats administered acrylamide. These data indicate that, under the conditions of these bioassays, acrylamide is efficiently metabolized to glycidamide and that the carcinogenic activity of acrylamide is due to its conversion into glycidamide. PMID:26429628

  3. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1995; and OECD trade from 1084 through 1994.

  4. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-27

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1994; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1994; and OECD trade from 1984 through 1994.

  5. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international data. The report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent 12 months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1996; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1996; and OECD trade from 1986 through 1996.

  6. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1994; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1994; and OECD trade from 1984 through 1994.

  7. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. Word oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1995; and OECD trade from 1985 through 1995.

  8. Carcinogenicity of the insulation wools: reassessment of the IARC evaluation.

    PubMed

    Brown, R C; Davis, J M; Douglas, D; Gruber, U F; Hoskins, J A; Ilgren, E B; Johnson, N F; Rossiter, C E; Wagner, J C

    1991-08-01

    In assessing the health evidence concerning man-made mineral fibers, the chemical composition, surface activity, durability, and size of fibers have to be taken into account. Special-purpose fine glass fibers need to be separated from the insulation wools (glass, rock, and slag wool). The epidemiological evidence is sufficient to conclude that there has been no mesothelioma risk to workers producing or using glass wool, rock wool, or slag wool. The epidemiological studies have been large and powerful, and they show no evidence of a cause-effect relationship between lung cancer and exposure to glass wool, rock wool, or slag wool fibers. There is some evidence of a small cancer hazard attached to the manufacturing process in slag wool plants 20 to 50 years ago, when asbestos was used in some products and other carcinogenic substances were present. However, this hazard is not associated with any index of exposure to slag wool itself. Animal inhalation studies of ordinary insulation wools also show that there is no evidence of hazard associated with exposure to these relatively coarse, soluble fibers. The evidence of carcinogenicity is limited to experiments with special-purpose fine durable glass fibers or experimental fibers, and only when these fibers are injected directly into the pleural or peritoneal cavity. Multiple chronic inhalation studies of these same special-purpose fine glass fibers have not produced evidence of carcinogenicity. It is suggested that the present IARC evaluation of the carcinogenic risk of insulation wools should be revised to Category 3: not classifiable as to carcinogenicity to humans. PMID:1947241

  9. USING PROTEOMICS TO MONITOR PROTEIN EXPRESSION IN HUMAN CELLS EXPOSED TO CARCINOGENS

    EPA Science Inventory

    People are continuously exposed exogenously to varying amounts of chemicals that have been shown to have carcinogenic properties in experimental systems. It has been estimated that exposure to environmental chemical carcinogens in the environment may contribute significantly to t...

  10. Theoretical and experimental approaches to possible thresholds of response in carcinogenicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    The determination and utilization of the actual low dose-response relationship for chemical carcinogens has long interested toxicologists, experimental pathologists, modelers and risk assessors. To date, no unequivocal examples of carcinogenic thresholds in humans are known. Ho...

  11. Petroleum biodegradation in marine environments.

    PubMed

    Harayama, S; Kishira, H; Kasai, Y; Shutsubo, K

    1999-08-01

    Petroleum-based products are the major source of energy for industry and daily life. Petroleum is also the raw material for many chemical products such as plastics, paints, and cosmetics. The transport of petroleum across the world is frequent, and the amounts of petroleum stocks in developed countries are enormous. Consequently, the potential for oil spills is significant, and research on the fate of petroleum in a marine environment is important to evaluate the environmental threat of oil spills, and to develop biotechnology to cope with them. Crude oil is constituted from thousands of components which are separated into saturates, aromatics, resins and asphaltenes. Upon discharge into the sea, crude oil is subjected to weathering, the process caused by the combined effects of physical, chemical and biological modification. Saturates, especially those of smaller molecular weight, are readily biodegraded in marine environments. Aromatics with one, two or three aromatic rings are also efficiently biodegraded; however, those with four or more aromatic ring are quite resistant to biodegradation. The asphaltene and resin fractions contain higher molecular weight compounds whose chemical structures have not yet been resolved. The biodegradability of these compounds is not yet known. It is known that the concentrations of available nitrogen and phosphorus in seawater limit the growth and activities of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms in a marine environment. In other words, the addition of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers to an oil-contaminated marine environment can stimulate the biodegradation of spilled oil. This notion was confirmed in the large-scale operation for bioremediation after the oil spill from the Exxon Valdez in Alaska. Many microorganisms capable of degrading petroleum components have been isolated. However, few of them seem to be important for petroleum biodegradation in natural environments. One group of bacteria belonging to the genus

  12. (32)P-ADDUCT ASSAY: PRINCIPLE AND APPLICATIONS TO CARCINOGEN-EXPOSED ANIMAL AND HUMAN DNA

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is growing evidence that carcinogens initiate the malignant process via specific alterations in DNA structure, i.e., the covalent binding of carcinogens to DNA bases. Thus, carcinogen-DNA adducts represent as markers for tumor initiation. Several new techniques have been re...

  13. EVALUATION OF THE POTENTIAL CARCINOGENICITY OF 1,2-DIMETHYL-HYDRAZINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    1,2-Dimethylhydrazine is a probable human carcinogen, classified as weight-of-evidence Group B2 under the EPA Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1986a). vidence on potential carcinogenicity from animal studies is sufficient," and the evidence from human studies ...

  14. EVALUATION OF THE POTENTIAL CARCINOGENICITY OF 1,1-DIMETHYL-HYDRAZINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    1,1-Dimethylhydrazine is a probable human carcinogen, classified as weight-of-evidence Group B2 under the EPA Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1986a). vidence on potential carcinogenicity from animal studies is sufficient,n and the evidence from human studies ...

  15. Skin lesion biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... This may include deep layers of skin and fat. The area is closed with stitches to place the skin back together. If a large area is biopsied, the surgeon may use a skin graft or flap to replace the skin that was ...

  16. Stiff skin syndrome.

    PubMed

    Geng, S; Lei, X; Toyohara, J P; Zhan, P; Wang, J; Tan, S

    2006-07-01

    Stiff skin syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by pronounced skin induration, mild hypertrichosis and limited joint mobility, predominantly on the buttocks and thighs. Many heterogeneous cases have been reported under the name of stiff skin syndrome. We present a case of stiff skin syndrome from China, the diagnosis based on the patient's typical clinical and histopathological features. PMID:16836505

  17. Determination of Trace Water Content in Petroleum and Petroleum Products.

    PubMed

    Frink, Lillian A; Armstrong, Daniel W

    2016-08-16

    Measurement of water in petroleum and petroleum-based products is of industrial and economic importance; however, the varied and complex matrixes make the analyses difficult. These samples tend to have low amounts of water and contain many compounds which react with iodine, causing Karl Fischer titration (KFT) to give inaccurate, typically higher, results. A simple, rapid, automated headspace gas chromatography (HSGC) method which requires modified instrumentation and ionic liquid stationary phases was developed. Measurement of water in 12 petroleum products along with 3 National Institute of Standards and Technology reference materials was performed with the developed method. The range of water found in these samples was ∼12-3300 ppm. This approach appeared to be unaffected by complicated matrixes. The solvent-free nature of the HSGC method also negates the solubility limitations which are common with KFT. PMID:27463946

  18. Skin cancer in skin of color.

    PubMed

    Bradford, Porcia T

    2009-01-01

    In general, skin cancer is uncommon in people of color when compared to Caucasians. When it does occur, it is often associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Differences in survival rates may be attributed to skin cancers being diagnosed at a more advanced stage, and socioeconomic factors such as lack of adequate insurance coverage and lack of transportation can function as barriers to timely diagnosis and early treatment. In addition to advanced stage at presentation, malignant skin lesions in skin of color often present in an atypical fashion. Because skin cancer prevention and screening practices historically have been lower among Hispanics, Blacks, and Asians, and given the changing demographics in the United States, interventions that are tailored to each of these groups will be needed. Public educational campaigns should be expanded to educate people of all skin types with emphasis on skin cancers occurring in areas not exposed to the sun (Byrd-Miles et al., 2007), since sunlight is not as important an etiologic factor in the pathogenesis of skin cancer in people of color. Dermatologists and primary care physicians should instruct their darker-skinned patients on how to perform routine skin self-examinations. Physicians should also encourage patients to ask their specialists such as their gynecologist, dentist, and ophthalmologist to look for abnormal pigmentation during routine exams. To reduce the burden of skin cancer, several prevention methods for all people have been strongly encouraged, including monthly self-examinations, daily use of SPF 30 or greater sunscreen, sunglasses with UV-absorbing lenses, and avoiding tanning booths (American Cancer Society, 2008) (see Table 7). In addition, recommendations for clinicians to promote the prevention of skin cancer in skin of color have also been made, including closely monitoring changing pigmented lesions on the palms and soles and hyperkeratotic or poorly healing ulcers in immunosuppressed patients

  19. Arsenite as the probable active species in the human carcinogenicity of arsenic: Mouse micronucleus assays on Na and K arsenite, orpiment, and Fowler's solution

    SciTech Connect

    Tinwell, H.; Ashby, J. ); Stephens, S.C. )

    1991-11-01

    Sodium arsenite, potassium arsenite, and Fowler's solution (arsenic trioxide dissolved in potassium bicarbonate) are equally active in the mouse bone marrow micronucleus assay ({approximately} 10 mg/kg by IP injection). The natural ore orpiment (principally As{sub 2}S{sub 3}) was inactive despite blood levels of arsenic of 300 to 900 mg/mL in treated mice at 24 hr. Sodium arsenite was active in three strains of mice. It is suggested that the human lung cancer observed among arsenic ore smelters and the skin cancer among people exposed therapeutically to Fowler's solution, have, as their common origin, the genotoxic arsenite ion AsO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}. The difficulty experienced when attempting to demonstrate rodent carcinogenicity for derivatives of arsenic suggests that the bone marrow micronucleus assay may act as a useful assay for potentially carcinogenic arsenic derivatives.

  20. Inhalation carcinogenicity of dichloromethane in rats and mice.

    PubMed

    Aiso, Shigetoshi; Take, Makoto; Kasai, Tatsuya; Senoh, Hideki; Umeda, Yumi; Matsumoto, Michiharu; Fukushima, Shoji

    2014-07-01

    The carcinogenicity of inhaled dichloromethane (DCM) was examined by exposing groups of 50 F344/DuCrj rats and 50 Crj: BDF1 mice of both sexes to 0, 1000, 2000, or 4000 ppm (w/w) DCM-containing aerosol for 2 years. Inhalation of DCM resulted in increased incidences of subcutis fibromas, mammary gland fibroadenoma, and peritoneum mesotheliomas in male rats; mammary gland fibroadenomas in female rats; and bronchiolar-alveolar adenomas and carcinomas in the lung and hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas in male and female mice. These results clearly indicate that inhaled DCM is carcinogenic in F344/DuCrj (SPF) rats and Crj: BDF1 (SPF) mice. PMID:24909451

  1. Biological Remediation of Petroleum Contaminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhad, Ramesh Chander; Gupta, Rishi

    Large volumes of hazardous wastes are generated in the form of oily sludges and contaminated soils during crude oil transportation and processing. Although many physical, chemical and biological treatment technologies are available for petroleum contaminants petroleum contaminants in soil, biological methods have been considered the most cost-effective. Practical biological remediation methods typically involve direct use of the microbes naturally occurring in the contaminated environment and/or cultured indigenous or modified microorganisms. Environmental and nutritional factors, including the properties of the soil, the chemical structure of the hydrocarbon(s), oxygen, water, nutrient availability, pH, temperature, and contaminant bioavailability, can significantly affect the rate and the extent of hydrocarbon biodegradation hydrocarbon biodegradation by microorganisms in contaminated soils. This chapter concisely discusses the major aspects of bioremediation of petroleum contaminants.

  2. Petroleum 1996 - issues and trends

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    Increasingly, users of the Energy Information Administration`s petroleum data and analytical reports have expressed an interest in a recurring report that takes a broad view of the petroleum sector. What is sought is some perspective on the complex interrelationships that comprise an industry and markets accounting for 40 percent of the energy consumed in the United States and ranging from the drilling rig in the oil field to the pump at the local gasoline station. This report comprehensively examines historical trends, and selectively focuses on major issues and the events they represent. It analyzes different dimensions of the industry and related markets in terms of how they relate to a common theme, in this case, the volatility in petroleum markets.

  3. Prevention of Carcinogen-Induced Oral Cancer by Sulforaphane.

    PubMed

    Bauman, Julie E; Zang, Yan; Sen, Malabika; Li, Changyou; Wang, Lin; Egner, Patricia A; Fahey, Jed W; Normolle, Daniel P; Grandis, Jennifer R; Kensler, Thomas W; Johnson, Daniel E

    2016-07-01

    Chronic exposure to carcinogens represents the major risk factor for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Beverages derived from broccoli sprout extracts (BSE) that are rich in glucoraphanin and its bioactive metabolite sulforaphane promote detoxication of airborne pollutants in humans. Herein, we investigated the potential chemopreventive activity of sulforaphane using in vitro models of normal and malignant mucosal epithelial cells and an in vivo model of murine oral cancer resulting from the carcinogen 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO). Sulforaphane treatment of Het-1A, a normal mucosal epithelial cell line, and 4 HNSCC cell lines led to dose- and time-dependent induction of NRF2 and the NRF2 target genes NQO1 and GCLC, known mediators of carcinogen detoxication. Sulforaphane also promoted NRF2-independent dephosphorylation/inactivation of pSTAT3, a key oncogenic factor in HNSCC. Compared with vehicle, sulforaphane significantly reduced the incidence and size of 4NQO-induced tongue tumors in mice. A pilot clinical trial in 10 healthy volunteers evaluated the bioavailability and pharmacodynamic activity of three different BSE regimens, based upon urinary sulforaphane metabolites and NQO1 transcripts in buccal scrapings, respectively. Ingestion of sulforaphane-rich BSE demonstrated the greatest, most consistent bioavailability. Mucosal bioactivity, defined as 2-fold or greater upregulation of NQO1 mRNA, was observed in 6 of 9 evaluable participants ingesting glucoraphanin-rich BSE; 3 of 6 ingesting sulforaphane-rich BSE; and 3 of 9 after topical-only exposure to sulforaphane-rich BSE. Together, our findings demonstrate preclinical chemopreventive activity of sulforaphane against carcinogen-induced oral cancer, and support further mechanistic and clinical investigation of sulforaphane as a chemopreventive agent against tobacco-related HNSCC. Cancer Prev Res; 9(7); 547-57. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27339168

  4. Magnetic susceptibility of petroleum fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivakhnenko, O. P.; Potter, D. K.

    2003-04-01

    Technological progress in petroleum exploration, production and processing requires a profound knowledge of the magnetic properties of the petroleum fluids. However, as far as we know there are not widely available constants of magnetic susceptibility for the majority of petroleum fluids. We have therefore measured the mass magnetic susceptibility (χ_m) of several petroleum fluids (such as crude oils, refined oil fractions, and formation waters) from local and worldwide sites. The magnetic features of natural reservoir petroleum fluids, together with fluids connected with the petroleum industry (such as drilling fluids etc.), fall into the following categories: diamagnetic solutions, paramagnetic suspensions and ferromagnetic "ferrofluid" suspensions. In the current investigations we have concentrated on the natural reservoir fluids, which are generally diamagnetic. There were distinct differences between the χ_m of the crude oils and the formation waters, with the oils having generally a more negative value of χ_m. The magnetic susceptibility of the oils appears to be related to their main physical and chemical properties, such as density, composition of group hydrocarbons, sulphur content and concentration of organometallic compounds. Low acidity and low sulphur oils have more negative values of χ_m. Light fractions of crude oil consisting mainly of paraffinic and naphtenic hydrocarbons are the most diamagnetic. The content of the less diamagnetic aromatics increases in the kerosene and gas oil fractions, and results in an increase in the magnetic susceptibility. Also, the magnetic susceptibility of the heavy oil fraction has a significantly higher χ_m than the light fractions, which appears to be connected with a higher concentration of paramagnetic components in the heavy fraction. The χ_m of the oil from various oil provinces were compared and found to be different. It seems that values of χ_m reflect specific features of the geological conditions for

  5. Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-15

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve serves as one of the most important investments in reducing the Nation`s vulnerability to oil supply disruptions. This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the third quarter of calendar year 1993, including: inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve, under contract and in transit at the end of the calendar quarter; fill rate for the quarter and projected fill rate for the next calendar quarter; average price of the petroleum products acquired during the calendar quarter; current and projected storage capacity and plans to accelerate the acquisition or construction of such capacity; analysis of existing or anticipated problems with the acquisition and storage of petroleum products and future expansion of storage capacity; funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated. Samples of the oil revealed two problems that, although readily correctable, have reduced the availability of some of the oil inventory for drawdown in the near-term. These problems are: (1) a higher-than-normal gas content in some of the crude oil, apparently from years of intrusion of methane form the surrounding salt formation; and (2) elevated temperatures of some of the crude oil, due to geothermal heating, that has increased the vapor pressure of the oil. Investigations are proceeding to determine the extent to which gas intrusion and geothermal heating are impacting the availability of oil for drawdown. Preliminary designs have been developed for systems to mitigate both problems.

  6. Binding of environmental carcinogens to asbestos and mineral fibres.

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, G; Pagé, M; Dumas, L

    1984-01-01

    A rapid method has been developed for measuring the binding capacity of asbestos and other mineral fibres for environmental carcinogens. Benzo(alpha)pyrene (B(alpha)P), nitrosonornicotine (NNN), and N-acetyl-2-aminofluorene (NAAF) were assayed in the presence of Canadian grade 4T30 chrysotile, chrysotile A, amosite, crocidolite, glass microfibres, glasswool, attapulgite, and titanium dioxide. Chrysotile binds significantly more carcinogens than the other mineral fibres. This binding assay is reproducible with coefficients of variation of less than 8% and 6% respectively for inter and intra assay. The influence of pH was also studied, and there is good correlation between the carcinogen binding and the charge of the tested mineral fibres. The in vitro cytotoxicity on macrophage like cell line P388D1 and the haemolytic activity of various mineral fibres were also measured; a good correlation was found between the binding capacity and the cytotoxicity of tested mineral fibres on P388D1 cells. These results give some explanations for the reported synergism between exposure to asbestos and the smoking habits of workers. PMID:6331497

  7. Workplace carcinogen and pesticide exposures in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Partanen, Timo; Chaves, Jorge; Wesseling, Catharina; Chaverri, Fabio; Monge, Patricia; Ruepert, Clemens; Aragón, Aurora; Kogevinas, Manolis; Hogstedt, Christer; Kauppinen, Timo

    2003-01-01

    The CAREX data system converts national workforce volumes and proportions of workers exposed to workplace carcinogens into numbers of exposed in 55 industrial categories. CAREX was adapted for Costa Rica for 27 carcinogens and seven groups of pesticides. Widespread workplace carcinogens in the 1.3 million workforce of Costa Rica are solar radiation (333,000 workers), diesel engine exhaust (278,000), environmental tobacco smoke (71,000), hexavalent chromium compounds (55,000), benzene (52,000), wood dust (32,000), silica dust (27,000), lead and inorganic lead compounds (19,000), and polycyclic aromatic compounds (17,000). The most ubiquitous pesticides were paraquat and diquat (175,000), mancozeb, maneb, and zineb (49,000), chlorothalonil (38,000), benomyl (19,000), and chlorophenoxy herbicides (11,000). Among women, formaldehyde, radon, and methylene chloride overrode pesticides, chromium, wood dust, and silica dust in numbers of exposed. High-risk sectors included agriculture, construction, personal and household services, land and water transport and allied services, pottery and similar industries, woodworks, mining, forestry and logging, fishing, manufacturing of electrical machinery, and bar and restaurant personnel. PMID:12848237

  8. Carcinogenicity testing of eliglustat in mice and rats.

    PubMed

    Dagher, Rafif; Watzinger, Malene; Chevalier, Guillaume; Thirion-Delalande, Catherine; Gervais, Frederic; Forster, Roy

    2015-10-01

    Eliglustat is a novel glucosylceramide synthase inhibitor for long-term oral treatment of type 1 Gaucher disease (GD1), an inherited metabolic disorder. The carcinogenic potential of this drug has been evaluated in lifetime carcinogenicity bioassays in mice and rats. Administration of eliglustat to Swiss CD-1 mice at 0, 10, 25 or 75 mg/kg/day for 104 weeks by dietary admixture did not influence survival or bodyweight evolution, or produce any clinical indication of poor condition. At histopathology, no increases in tumor incidence for any tumor type were attributed to treatment with eliglustat. Systemic exposure to eliglustat was confirmed by a reduction in circulating levels of glucosylceramide. Administration of eliglustat to Sprague-Dawley rats by oral gavage for 105 weeks at 0, 10, 25 or 75 mg/kg/day (males) or 103 weeks at 0, 5, 15 or 50 mg/kg/day (females) did not affect survival rates, but resulted in reduced bodyweight evolution in male rats (-18% at high dose), indicating that the MTD had been achieved. At histopathology, no increases in tumor incidence were attributed to treatment with eliglustat. Systemic exposure was confirmed by toxicokinetic analyses. In conclusion, eliglustat was not carcinogenic to mice or rats in standard lifetime bioassays. PMID:26232705

  9. Regulation of priority carcinogens and reproductive or developmental toxicants

    SciTech Connect

    Hooper, K.; LaDou, J.; Rosenbaum, J.S.; Book, S.A. )

    1992-01-01

    In California, 370 carcinogens and 112 reproductive/developmental toxicants have been identified as a result of the State's Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986. They include pesticides, solvents, metals, industrial intermediates, environmental mixtures, and reactive agents. Occupational, environmental, and consumer product exposures that involve these agents are regulated under the Act. At levels of concern, businesses must provide warnings for and limit discharges of those chemicals. The lists of chemicals were compiled following systematic review of published data, including technical reports from the U.S. Public Health Service--National Toxicology Program (NTP), and evaluation of recommendations from authoritative bodies such as the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Given the large number of chemicals that are carcinogens or reproductive/developmental toxicants, regulatory concerns should focus on those that have high potential for human exposure, e.g., widely distributed or easily absorbed solvents, metals, environmental mixtures, or reactive agents. In this paper, we present a list of 33 potential priority carcinogens and reproductive/developmental toxicants, including alcoholic beverages, asbestos, benzene, chlorinated solvents, formaldehyde, glycol ethers, lead, tobacco smoke, and toluene.

  10. Metabolism of the carcinogen alpha-asarone in liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Cartus, Alexander T; Schrenk, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Alpha-asarone (1) is a naturally occurring phenylpropene found in several plants, e.g. Acorus calamus. 1-containing plant materials and essential oils thereof are used for flavoring foods and in many phytopharmaceuticals. 1 has been claimed to have positive pharmacological effects, however, it is carcinogenic in male mice (liver) and probably genotoxic. Since the metabolic pathways of 1 have not been investigated and its carcinogenic mode of action is unknown, we investigated the metabolism of 1 in liver microsomes of rat, bovine, porcine, and human origin using HPLC-DAD and LC-ESI-MS/MS and derived kinetic data on the metabolite formation. The main metabolic pathway was the side-chain hydroxylation leading to (E)-3'-hydroxyasarone (2). Epoxidation of 1 presumably led to (E)-asarone-1',2'-epoxide (4) which instantly hydrolyzed to form erythro- and threo-configured diols (5b+5a). As a minor reaction O-demethylation of 1 was observed. The metabolite formation showed little species-specific differences with the exception of porcine liver microsomes for which the formation of diols 5b+5a exceeded the formation of alcohol 2. The kinetic parameters imply a dependence of the pattern of metabolite formation from substrate concentration. On the basis of our results and earlier findings we hypothesize the genotoxic epoxide 4 being the ultimate carcinogen metabolically formed from 1. PMID:26678343

  11. Genotoxicity and carcinogenicity of acrylamide: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Carere, Angelo

    2006-01-01

    In 2002, public health concerns were raised by Swedish studies showing that relatively high levels of acrylamide were formed during the frying, roasting, or baking of a variety of foods, including potatoes, cereal products and coffee at temperatures above 120 degrees C. Acrylamide possesses a range of hazardous properties, the key effects being carcinogenicity, genotoxicity, neurotoxicity and reproductive toxicity. Acrylamide is clearly carcinogenic in studies in animals, in which it causes increased tumour incidence at a variety of sites. Although the mechanisms for tumour induction in experimental animals have not yet fully elucidated, the in vivo genotoxicity at gene and chromosome level in somatic and germ cells in rodents cannot be discounted from contributing to it. At this time, there is no information to indicate any significant difference between rodents and humans in sensitivity to cancer formation from acrylamide. The present available epidemiological studies of human industrial and accidental exposures have to be considered not suitable for use in the cancer risk assessment of acrylamide in food, due to several limitations. In reviewing the genotoxicity and carcinogenicity of acrylamide, the author has taken into account also the evaluations made by the IARC in 1994, the FAO/WHO in 2002 by the European Commission Scientific Committee on Food (SCF) in 2002 and by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additive (JECFA) in 2005. PMID:17033134

  12. Artificial sweeteners--do they bear a carcinogenic risk?

    PubMed

    Weihrauch, M R; Diehl, V

    2004-10-01

    Artificial sweeteners are added to a wide variety of food, drinks, drugs and hygiene products. Since their introduction, the mass media have reported about potential cancer risks, which has contributed to undermine the public's sense of security. It can be assumed that every citizen of Western countries uses artificial sweeteners, knowingly or not. A cancer-inducing activity of one of these substances would mean a health risk to an entire population. We performed several PubMed searches of the National Library of Medicine for articles in English about artificial sweeteners. These articles included 'first generation' sweeteners such as saccharin, cyclamate and aspartame, as well as 'new generation' sweeteners such as acesulfame-K, sucralose, alitame and neotame. Epidemiological studies in humans did not find the bladder cancer-inducing effects of saccharin and cyclamate that had been reported from animal studies in rats. Despite some rather unscientific assumptions, there is no evidence that aspartame is carcinogenic. Case-control studies showed an elevated relative risk of 1.3 for heavy artificial sweetener use (no specific substances specified) of >1.7 g/day. For new generation sweeteners, it is too early to establish any epidemiological evidence about possible carcinogenic risks. As many artificial sweeteners are combined in today's products, the carcinogenic risk of a single substance is difficult to assess. However, according to the current literature, the possible risk of artificial sweeteners to induce cancer seems to be negligible. PMID:15367404

  13. Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    For several years, the administration has proposed selling the government's ownership interest in the Naval Petroleum Reserves, arguing that it would help reduce the federal budget deficit. The administration's latest proposal calls for the sale of reserves in fiscal year 1990. DOE estimates that if the reserves are sold in 1990, proceeds would amount to about $3.4 billion. The Naval Petroleum Reserve at Elk Hills, California, is the largest of the reserves. This report has reviewed and analyzed the new reserve data and found that DOE's reserve estimates for Elk Hills are still neither accurate nor up-to-date.

  14. Petroleum marketing monthly, September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-14

    This document designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and for the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  15. Petroleum marketing monthly, June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-10

    This publication is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  16. Petroleum marketing monthly, October 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-12-31

    This report gives information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides crude oil cost statistics and refined petroleum products sales statistics for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  17. Joint action of a chemical carcinogen and a neoplastic virus to induce cancer in rabbits; results of exposing epidermal cells to a carcinogenic hydrocarbon at time of infection with the Shope papilloma virus.

    PubMed

    ROGERS, S; ROUS, P

    1951-05-01

    Areas of rabbit skin previously rendered hyperplastic with turpentine were scarified, inoculated with the Shope papilloma virus, and covered with a dressing that contained 20-methylcholanthrene (MC) or 9:10-dimethyl-1:2-benzanthracene (9:10). The dressing was left on until healing had been well completed, a matter of 5 to 7 days. The papillomas which subsequently arose often appeared later, were fewer, and remained less vigorous than those due to the action of virus alone, but throughout several months they appeared to differ from these in no other ways. Then, more or less abruptly, the large majority became carcinomatous, frequently at several situations, whereas with few exceptions the control growths underwent no such alteration. The cancers were of the sorts ordinarily deriving, by secondary change, from epidermal cells infected with the virus. Collateral data have made plain that the hydrocarbons acted in their carcinogenic capacity to bring on the cancers. Indeed in control tests 9: 10 sometimes conferred latent neoplastic potentialities on uninoculated epidermis exposed to it while healing after scarification, a fact disclosed months later by painting these expanses with chloroform until hyperplasia occurred. Under the promoting influence of this agent papillomas formed which had the distinctive morphology of those induced by the chemical carcinogens. So strong and enduring were the effects of MC and 9:10 as to cause cancers to arise from many virus papillomas which were retrogressing after months of proliferation, that is to say under circumstances ordinarily unfavorable to malignant change. The facts justify the conclusion that the virus and the hydrocarbons acted jointly and in their carcinogenic capacities. PMID:14832395

  18. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 754 - Petroleum and Petroleum Products

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Petroleum and Petroleum Products No... (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS SHORT SUPPLY CONTROLS Pt. 754, Supp. 1 Supplement No. 1 to Part 754—Petroleum and Petroleum Products...

  19. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 754 - Petroleum and Petroleum Products

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Petroleum and Petroleum Products No... (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS SHORT SUPPLY CONTROLS Pt. 754, Supp. 1 Supplement No. 1 to Part 754—Petroleum and Petroleum Products...

  20. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 754 - Petroleum and Petroleum Products

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Petroleum and Petroleum Products No... (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS SHORT SUPPLY CONTROLS Pt. 754, Supp. 1 Supplement No. 1 to Part 754—Petroleum and Petroleum Products...

  1. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 754 - Petroleum and Petroleum Products

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Petroleum and Petroleum Products No... (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS SHORT SUPPLY CONTROLS Pt. 754, Supp. 1 Supplement No. 1 to Part 754—Petroleum and Petroleum Products...

  2. 46 CFR 148.04-15 - Petroleum coke, uncalcined; petroleum coke, uncalcined and calcined (mixture).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Petroleum coke, uncalcined; petroleum coke, uncalcined and calcined (mixture). 148.04-15 Section 148.04-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Requirements for Certain Material § 148.04-15 Petroleum coke, uncalcined; petroleum coke, uncalcined...

  3. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon removal from petroleum sludge cake using thermal treatment with additives.

    PubMed

    Pakpahan, Edward Nixon; Isa, Mohamed Hasnain; Kutty, Shamsul Rahman Mohamed; Chantara, Somporn; Wiriya, Wan

    2013-01-01

    Petroleum sludge is a hazardous waste that contains various organic compounds including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) which have carcinogenic-mutagenic and toxic characteristics. This study focuses on the thermal treatment (indirect heating) of petroleum sludge cake for PAH degradation at 250, 450, and 650 degrees C using Ca(OH)2 + NaHCO3 as an additive. The treatment was conducted in a rotary drum electric heater. All experiments were carried out in triplicate. Concentrations of the 16 priority PAHs in gas (absorbed on Amberlite XAD-4 adsorbent), particulate (on quartz filter) and residue phases were determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The samples were extracted with acetonitrile by ultra-sonication prior to GC-MS analysis. The use of additive was beneficial and a temperature of 450 degrees C was suitable for PAH degradation. Low levels of PAH emissions, particularly carcinogenic PAH and toxic equivalent concentration (sigma TEC), were observed in gas, particulate and residue phases after treatment. PMID:23530354

  4. The Second Colloquium on Petroleum Engineering Education

    SciTech Connect

    Willhite, G.P.; Forney, R.H.

    1993-11-30

    This paper describes findings from the Second Colloquium on Petroleum engineering Education. The purpose of this colloquium was to provide a forum for petroleum engineering educators and representatives from industry and government to explore critical issues facing petroleum engineering education as we move into the 21st Century. It was expected that the colloquium would identify areas where changes are needed in petroleum engineering education, to best prepare students for careers in the oil and gas industry or other, related industries.

  5. Petroleum supply annual 1995: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    The {ital Petroleum Supply Annual} contains information on supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. It reflects data collected from the petroleum industry during 1995 through monthly surveys, and it is divided into 2 volumes. This volume contains three sections: summary statistics, detailed statistics, and selected refinery statistics, each with final annual data. (The other volume contains final statistics for each month and replaces data previously published in the {ital Petroleum Supply Monthly}).

  6. Risk assessment of DNA-reactive carcinogens in food

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey, A.M. . E-mail: Alan_Jeffrey@nymc.edu; Williams, G.M.

    2005-09-01

    Risk assessment of DNA-reactive carcinogens in food requires knowledge of the extent of DNA damage in the target organ which results from the competition between DNA adduct formation and repair. Estimates of DNA adduct levels can be made by direct measurement or indirectly as a consequence of their presence, for example, by tumor formation in animal models or exposed populations epidemiologically. Food-borne DNA-reactive carcinogens are present from a variety of sources. They are generally not intrinsically DNA-reactive but require bioactivation to DNA-reactive metabolites a process which may be modulated by the compound itself or the presence of other xenobiotics. A single DNA reactant may form several distinct DNA adducts each undergoing different rates of repair. Some DNA reactants may be photochemically activated or produce reactive oxygen species and thus indirect oxidative DNA damage. The levels of DNA adducts arising from exposures influenced by variations in the doses, the frequency with which an individual is exposed, and rates of DNA repair for specific adducts. Each adduct has a characteristic efficiency with which it induces mutations. Based on experience with the well-studied DNA-reactive food carcinogen aflatoxin B{sub 1} (AFB{sub 1}), a limit of 20 ppb or {approx}30 {mu}g/day has been set and is considered a tolerable daily intake (TDI). Since AFB{sub 1} is considered a potent carcinogen, doses of <1.5 {mu}g of unknown compounds are considered TDIs. Most DNA-reactants, including acrylamide, heterocyclic amines, and {alpha},{beta}-unsaturated carbonyl are below this value. Above that value, measurement of actual DNA adducts levels in either experimental animals with a risk assessment, or, when this occurs, exposed humans are needed. A number of approaches to undertake this are described including immunological, mass spectrometric and {sup 32}P-postlabeling or the use of surrogates such as hemoglobin adducts, together with approaches to evaluate the

  7. Pulmonary carcinogenicity of inhaled particles and the maximum tolerated dose.

    PubMed Central

    Oberdörster, G

    1997-01-01

    Chronic inhalation bioassays in rodents are used to assess pulmonary carcinogenicity for purposes of hazard identification and potentially for risk characterization. The influence of high experimental doses on tumor development has been recognized for some time and has led to the concept of maximum tolerated dose (MTD) for dose selection, with the highest dose being at the MTD. Exposure at the MTD should ensure that the animals are sufficiently challenged while at the same time the animal's normal longevity is not altered from effects other than carcinogenicity. A characteristic of exposure-dose-response relationships for chronically inhaled particles is that lung tumors are significantly increased only at high exposure levels, and that lung tumors are seen in rats only but not in mice or hamsters. This lung tumor response in rats is thought to be secondary to persistent alveolar inflammation, indicating that the MTD may have been exceeded. Thus, mechanisms of toxicity and carcinogenicity may be dose dependent and may not operate at lower doses that humans normally experience. Despite awareness of this problem, carcinogenicity bioassays that evaluate particulate compounds in rodents have not always been designed with the MTD concept in mind. This is due to several problems associated with determining an appropriate MTD for particle inhalation studies. One requirement for the MTD is that some toxicity should be observed. However, it is difficult to define what degree of toxic response is indicative of the MTD. For particle inhalation studies, various noncancer end points in addition to mortality and body weight gain have been considered as indicators of the MTD, i.e., pulmonary inflammation, increased epithelial cell proliferation, increased lung weight, impairment of particle clearance function, and significant histopathological findings at the end of a subchronic study. However, there is no general agreement about quantification of these end points to define the

  8. Medium-term bioassays for carcinogenicity of chemical mixtures.

    PubMed Central

    Ito, N; Imaida, K; Hirose, M; Shirai, T

    1998-01-01

    Carcinogenic effects of chemical mixtures were examined with a medium-term liver bioassay for carcinogens or a multiorgan medium-term bioassay using male F344 rats. In the medium-term liver bioassay, rats were initially treated with diethylnitrosamine (DEN) at 200 mg/kg body weight, i.p.; after 2 weeks they received chemical mixtures such as 10 different heterocyclic amines at one-tenth or one-hundredth the dose levels used in carcinogenicity studies and the mixtures of 20 different pesticides, each at acceptable daily intake (ADI) levels or a mixture of 100 times ADI levels. All animals were subjected to two-thirds partial hepatectomy at week 3 and were sacrificed at week 8. The number and areas of glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P) positive foci (preneoplastic lesions in the liver) were compared between respective groups. When 10 heterocyclic amines were mixed in the diet at one-tenth dose level, clear synergism was observed, but no combined effects were evident with the one-hundredth dose levels. In the pesticide experiment, treatment of rats with the 20-pesticide mixture at the ADI dose level did not enhance GST-P-positive foci. In contrast, a mixture of 100 times the ADI significantly increased those values. In a multiorgan bioassay of 28 weeks, mixtures of 40 high-volume compounds and 20 pesticides (suspected carcinogens) added together at their respective ADI levels did not enhance carcinogenesis in any organs initiated by five different carcinogens (DEN, N-methylnitrosourea, dimethylhydrazine, N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine, and dihydroxy-di-n-propylnitrosamine) in combination. The combination effect of low dietary levels of five antioxidants, butylated hydroxyanisole, caffeic acid, sesamol, 4-methoxyphenol, and catechol, were also examined using the multiorgan bioassay. The incidence of forestomach papillomas was significantly increased only in the combination group and the results indicate that combination of the five antioxidants can

  9. Evidence for a receptor protein of activated carcinogen

    PubMed Central

    Mainigi, Kumar D.; Sorof, Sam

    1977-01-01

    During carcinogenesis in rat liver by 3′-methyl-4-dimethylaminoazobenzene, the two moieties of the principal liver carcinogen-protein complex have considerably different turnover rates. With continued ingestion of the azocarcinogen by rats, the bound azo dye in the complex has a half-life of 2.5 ± 0.25 (SD) days, while the protein moiety has a half-life of 8.7 ± 1.6 days (probability of identity <0.001). In addition, the interaction of the azocarcinogen with the principal target protein in vivo appears to extend the half-life of the protein itself from 3.3 ± 0.2 days in normal liver to 8.7 ± 1.6 days (P < 0.001). The slowing of the turnover of the protein by the carcinogen appears to be readily reversible, since soon after the cessation of azocarcinogen feeding, the half-life of the protein returns to that of the target protein in normal liver. The considerable difference in turnover rates of the two moieties of the complex and the reversible effects of the carcinogen in slowing the turnover of the protein moiety suggest that the two moieties of the native azoprotein are noncovalently linked and that they have different biological activities. The native complex appears to contain azo dye in an activated state that is capable of yielding a reactive electrophile, because after protein denaturation the bound azo dye was previously found to have properties that are indicative of covalent linkage to the protein. The retardation in the biological turnover rate of the protein moiety, apparently resulting from interaction with azocarcinogen, is in agreement with the known ligand-induced stabilization in vitro and reduced rate of proteolytic degradation in vivo of other proteins that result from conformational change to a more compact configuration. Our evidence is consistent with the hypothesis that the principal liver carcinogen-protein complex contains hydrophobically bound activated azocarcinogen, whose specificity of reaction with critical macromolecule(s) in

  10. Evaluation of carcinogenic potential of the herbicide glyphosate, drawing on tumor incidence data from fourteen chronic/carcinogenicity rodent studies.

    PubMed

    Greim, Helmut; Saltmiras, David; Mostert, Volker; Strupp, Christian

    2015-03-01

    Abstract Glyphosate, an herbicidal derivative of the amino acid glycine, was introduced to agriculture in the 1970s. Glyphosate targets and blocks a plant metabolic pathway not found in animals, the shikimate pathway, required for the synthesis of aromatic amino acids in plants. After almost forty years of commercial use, and multiple regulatory approvals including toxicology evaluations, literature reviews, and numerous human health risk assessments, the clear and consistent conclusions are that glyphosate is of low toxicological concern, and no concerns exist with respect to glyphosate use and cancer in humans. This manuscript discusses the basis for these conclusions. Most toxicological studies informing regulatory evaluations are of commercial interest and are proprietary in nature. Given the widespread attention to this molecule, the authors gained access to carcinogenicity data submitted to regulatory agencies and present overviews of each study, followed by a weight of evidence evaluation of tumor incidence data. Fourteen carcinogenicity studies (nine rat and five mouse) are evaluated for their individual reliability, and select neoplasms are identified for further evaluation across the data base. The original tumor incidence data from study reports are presented in the online data supplement. There was no evidence of a carcinogenic effect related to glyphosate treatment. The lack of a plausible mechanism, along with published epidemiology studies, which fail to demonstrate clear, statistically significant, unbiased and non-confounded associations between glyphosate and cancer of any single etiology, and a compelling weight of evidence, support the conclusion that glyphosate does not present concern with respect to carcinogenic potential in humans. PMID:25716480

  11. Evaluation of carcinogenic potential of the herbicide glyphosate, drawing on tumor incidence data from fourteen chronic/carcinogenicity rodent studies

    PubMed Central

    Greim, Helmut; Saltmiras, David; Mostert, Volker; Strupp, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Glyphosate, an herbicidal derivative of the amino acid glycine, was introduced to agriculture in the 1970s. Glyphosate targets and blocks a plant metabolic pathway not found in animals, the shikimate pathway, required for the synthesis of aromatic amino acids in plants. After almost forty years of commercial use, and multiple regulatory approvals including toxicology evaluations, literature reviews, and numerous human health risk assessments, the clear and consistent conclusions are that glyphosate is of low toxicological concern, and no concerns exist with respect to glyphosate use and cancer in humans. This manuscript discusses the basis for these conclusions. Most toxicological studies informing regulatory evaluations are of commercial interest and are proprietary in nature. Given the widespread attention to this molecule, the authors gained access to carcinogenicity data submitted to regulatory agencies and present overviews of each study, followed by a weight of evidence evaluation of tumor incidence data. Fourteen carcinogenicity studies (nine rat and five mouse) are evaluated for their individual reliability, and select neoplasms are identified for further evaluation across the data base. The original tumor incidence data from study reports are presented in the online data supplement. There was no evidence of a carcinogenic effect related to glyphosate treatment. The lack of a plausible mechanism, along with published epidemiology studies, which fail to demonstrate clear, statistically significant, unbiased and non-confounded associations between glyphosate and cancer of any single etiology, and a compelling weight of evidence, support the conclusion that glyphosate does not present concern with respect to carcinogenic potential in humans. PMID:25716480

  12. Formaldehyde and skin tumorigenesis in Sencar mice

    SciTech Connect

    Iversen, O.H.

    1988-01-01

    Previous experiments involving topical applications of formaldehyde on hairless mouse skin were repeated with SENCAR mice, which are bred for maximum sensitivity to chemical tumorigenesis. Most experimental groups consisted of 32 mice. Topical skin applications of either 100 ..mu..l acetone of about 200 ..mu..l 4% formaldehyde in water twice weekly, resulted in two tumor-bearing animals, each with one small, benign papilloma. A group of 96 mice, treated once with 51.2 ..mu..g DMBA in acetone, developed a total of 107 tumors in 40 tumor-bearing animals. Thus, DMBA is a strong, complete tumorigen also in SENCAR mice. Animals given 51.2 ..mu..g DMBA first and then treated twice weekly with 1% formaldehyde developed a total of 30 tumors in 8 tumor-bearing animals, whereas mice given 51.2 ..mu..g DMBA first, followed by twice weekly treatment with 4% formaldehyde, developed 51 tumors in 15 animals. When two widely accepted, statistical methods were used, there was no significant difference between the groups treated once with DMBA alone and that treated once with DMBA followed by 4% formaldehyde. The results in SENCAR mice confirm that formaldehyde has no skin tumorigenic or carcinogenic potency of its own. It seems doubtful whether it may act as a very weak enhancer of DMBA-induced tumorigenesis, but it has no significant influence on DMBA-induced carcinogenesis.

  13. Viral Skin Diseases.

    PubMed

    Ramdass, Priya; Mullick, Sahil; Farber, Harold F

    2015-12-01

    In the vast world of skin diseases, viral skin disorders account for a significant percentage. Most viral skin diseases present with an exanthem (skin rash) and, oftentimes, an accompanying enanthem (lesions involving the mucosal membrane). In this article, the various viral skin diseases are explored, including viral childhood exanthems (measles, rubella, erythema infectiosum, and roseola), herpes viruses (herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus, Kaposi sarcoma herpes virus, viral zoonotic infections [orf, monkeypox, ebola, smallpox]), and several other viral skin diseases, such as human papilloma virus, hand, foot, and mouth disease, molluscum contagiosum, and Gianotti-Crosti syndrome. PMID:26612372

  14. FRACTURED PETROLEUM RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Abbas Firoozabadi

    1999-06-11

    different from that of gas displacement processes. The work is of experimental nature and clarifies several misconceptions in the literature. Based on experimental results, it is established that the main reason for high efficiency of solution gas drive from heavy oil reservoirs is due to low gas mobility. Chapter III presents the concept of the alteration of porous media wettability from liquid-wetting to intermediate gas-wetting. The idea is novel and has not been introduced in the petroleum literature before. There are significant implications from such as proposal. The most direct application of intermediate gas wetting is wettability alteration around the wellbore. Such an alteration can significantly improve well deliverability in gas condensate reservoirs where gas well deliverability decreases below dewpoint pressure. Part I of Chapter III studies the effect of gravity, viscous forces, interfacial tension, and wettability on the critical condensate saturation and relative permeability of gas condensate systems. A simple phenomenological network model is used for this study, The theoretical results reveal that wettability significantly affects both the critical gas saturation and gas relative permeability. Gas relative permeability may increase ten times as contact angle is altered from 0{sup o} (strongly liquid wet) to 85{sup o} (intermediate gas-wetting). The results from the theoretical study motivated the experimental investigation described in Part II. In Part II we demonstrate that the wettability of porous media can be altered from liquid-wetting to gas-wetting. This part describes our attempt to find appropriate chemicals for wettability alteration of various substrates including rock matrix. Chapter IV provides a comprehensive treatment of molecular, pressure, and thermal diffusion and convection in porous media Basic theoretical analysis is presented using irreversible thermodynamics.

  15. 76 FR 53889 - National Petroleum Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ... National Petroleum Council AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy. ACTION: Notice of Open Meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the National Petroleum Council. The Federal Advisory... National, Petroleum Council, Adjournment. Public Participation: The meeting is open to the public....

  16. 78 FR 40131 - National Petroleum Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-03

    ... National Petroleum Council AGENCY: Office of Fossil Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of Open Meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the National Petroleum Council. The Federal Advisory... Business Properly Brought Before the National Petroleum Council Adjournment Public Participation:...

  17. 31 CFR 561.318 - Petroleum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Petroleum. 561.318 Section 561.318 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... § 561.318 Petroleum. The term petroleum (also known as crude oil) means a mixture of hydrocarbons...

  18. 77 FR 42297 - National Petroleum Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-18

    ... National Petroleum Council AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. ] SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the National Petroleum Council. The Federal... Brought Before the National Petroleum Council Adjournment Public Participation: The meeting is open to...

  19. 31 CFR 561.318 - Petroleum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Petroleum. 561.318 Section 561.318 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... § 561.318 Petroleum. The term petroleum (also known as crude oil) means a mixture of hydrocarbons...

  20. Vegetable oils as a petroleum replacement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The current dependence of the world economy on petroleum cannot be sustained in the long run. Petroleum is expected to be depleted in the foreseeable future. In addition, the use of petroleum causes carbon dioxide emissions leading to global warming. Renewable sources need to be explored. One of the...

  1. Unit: Petroleum, Inspection Pack, National Trial Print.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Science Education Project, Toorak, Victoria.

    This is a National Trial Print of a unit on petroleum developed for the Australian Science Education Project. The package contains the teacher's edition of the written material and a script for a film entitled "The Extraordinary Experience of Nicholas Nodwell" emphasizing the uses of petroleum and petroleum products in daily life and designed to…

  2. Evaluation of carcinogenic responses in the Eker rat following short-term exposure to selected nephrotoxins and carcinogens.

    PubMed

    Morton, Laura Dill; Youssef, Ashraf F; Lloyd, Eric; Kiorpes, Anthony L; Goldsworthy, Thomas L; Fort, Farrel L

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the response of the Eker rat to nephrotoxic compounds and to genotoxic nonrenal carcinogens. Groups of male Eker rats received either no treatment; a vehicle treatment; treatment with a noncarcinogenic nephrotoxin (aluminum nitrilotriacetate, 2 mg/kg/day of aluminum, intraperitoneally, 3 days per week or cyclosporine A, 30 mg/kg/day, orally by gavage, 7 days/week); or treatment with a genotoxic nonrenal carcinogen (furan, 8 mg/kg/day, orally by gavage, 5 days/week or 2,4-diaminotoluene, 6.5 mg/kg/day, orally by gavage, 7 days/week or 2-nitropropane, 89 mg/kg/day, orally by gavage, 3 days/week). Duration of treatment was 4 and/or 6 months. Tissues from the Eker rats were evaluated microscopically and numbers of proliferative renal lesions were counted. Administration of nephrotoxic compounds (Al-NTA and cyclosporine) significantly increased the number of preneoplastic and neoplastic renal lesions in the Eker rat compared to concurrent vehicle controls. The genotoxic nonrenal carcinogens had no consistent effect on numbers of preneoplastic or neoplastic renal lesions and did not produce neoplasms in the expected target organ (liver). PMID:12371664

  3. DNA repair responses in human skin cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hanawalt, P.C.; Liu, S.C.; Parsons, C.S.

    1981-07-01

    Sunlight and some environmental chemical agents produce lesions in the DNA of human skin cells that if unrepaired may interfere with normal functioning of these cells. The most serious outcome of such interactions may be malignancy. It is therefore important to develop an understanding of mechanisms by which the lesions may be repaired or tolerated without deleterious consequences. Our models for the molecular processing of damaged DNA have been derived largely from the study of bacterial systems. Some similarities but significant differences are revealed when human cell responses are tested against these models. It is also of importance to learn DNA repair responses of epidermal keratinocytes for comparison with the more extensive studies that have been carried out with dermal fibroblasts. Our experimental results thus far indicate similarities for the excision-repair of ultraviolet-induced pyrimidine dimers in human keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Both the monoadducts and the interstrand crosslinks produced in DNA by photoactivated 8-methoxypsoralen (PUVA) can be repaired in normal human fibroblasts but not in those from xeroderma pigmentosum patients. The monoadducts, like pyrimidine dimers, are probably the more mutagenic/carcinogenic lesions while the crosslinks are less easily repaired and probably result in more effective blocking of DNA function. It is suggested that a split-dose protocol that maximizes the production of crosslinks while minimizing the yield of monoadducts may be more effective and potentially less carcinogenic than the single ultraviolet exposure regimen in PUVA therapy for psoriasis.

  4. Pannonian Basin Province, Central Europe (Province 4808) -Petroleum Geology, Total Petroleum Systems, and Petroleum Resource Assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dolton, Gordon L.

    2006-01-01

    This report deals with the Pannonian Basin Province of Central Europe and summarizes the petroleum geology, which was the basis for assessment, and presents results of that assessment. The Pannonian Basin Province consists of a large compound extensional basin of Neogene age overlying Paleogene basins and interior elements of the greater Alpine foldbelt. Within it, six total petroleum systems (TPS) are defined and six assessment units established for estimation of undiscovered oil and gas resources. Other speculative TPSs were identified but not included for quantitative assessment within this study.

  5. MOUSE SKIN TUMOR INITIATION-PROMOTION AND COMPLETE CARCINOGENESIS BIOASSAYS: MECHANISMS AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF EMISSION SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Extracts of soots obtained from various sources were applied to the skin of mice in an effort to identify carcinogens in these mixtures and to link these materials to the etiology of human cancer. Samples of coal chimney soot, coke oven materials, industrial carbon black, oil sha...

  6. A Computerized Petroleum Geology Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moser, Louise E.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a package of computer programs developed to implement an oil exploration game that gives undergraduate students practical experience in applying theoretical principles of petroleum geology. The programs facilitate management of the game by the instructor and enhance the learning experience. (Author/MBR)

  7. Elements of Australian petroleum geology

    SciTech Connect

    Masters, C.D.; Scott, E.W.

    1986-05-01

    The petroleum geology of Australia reflects the existence of a large cratonic block broken away from India and Antarctica in the early Mesozoic and early Tertiary that has resulted in a rifted passive-margin character on the northwestern, western, and southern boundaries of the continent. Pre-breakup paleozoic sediments are widely distributed but commonly not deeply buried nor particularly thick, and hence contribute minimally to petroleum resource occurrence. Like their Asian neighbors, much of Australian petroleum geology is nonmarine and associated with marginal rift basins. The small Gippsland basin on the southeastern coast, which is responsible for more than 90% of oil and 28% of the gas discovered in Australia, derives its petroleum from nonmarine Eocene to Cretaceous graben-fill sediments, sealed and buried by Oligocene marine shales. The most active play in Australia is in the Eromanga depression of the Great Artesian basin, where nonmarine oil is trapped stratigraphically in small fields in Jurassic and Cretaceous sandstones. These Mesozoic sediments are sag-fill deposits above the Permian-Triassic Cooper basin, and are responsible for some 12% of the gas reserves in Australia. Offshore of the western coast, graben basins filled with late Paleozoic to Mesozoic sediments are prolific and gas-prone - 55% of reserves - owing to coaly source rocks. North Sea-type, Upper Jurassic grabens off the northwestern coast of Australia contain Kimmeridgian hot shales, but developmental drilling, following the initial Jabiru discovery, has yet to demonstrate large reserves.

  8. Strategic petroleum reserve annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-15

    Section 165 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (Public Law 94- 163), as amended, requires the Secretary of Energy to submit annual reports to the President and the Congress on activities of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). This report describes activities for the year ending December 31, 1995.

  9. Coke from coal and petroleum

    DOEpatents

    Wynne, Jr., Francis E.; Lopez, Jaime; Zaborowsky, Edward J.

    1981-01-01

    A carbonaceous coke is manufactured by the delayed coking of a slurry mixture of from about 10 to about 30 weight percent of caking or non-caking coal and the remainder a petroleum resid blended at below 50.degree. C.

  10. PETROLEUM BIOREFINING FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION

    SciTech Connect

    John J. Kilbane II

    2002-03-01

    The objective of this project was to isolate and characterize thermophilic bacterial cultures that can be used for the selective removal of nitrogen, sulfur, and/or metals in the biorefining of petroleum. The project was completed on schedule and no major difficulties were encountered. Significant progress was made on multiple topics relevant to the development of a petroleum biorefining process capable of operating at thermophilic temperatures. New cultures capable of selectively cleaving C-N or C-S bonds in molecules relevant to petroleum were obtained, and the genes encoding the enzymes for these unique biochemical reactions were cloned and sequenced. Genetic tools were developed that enable the use of Thermus thermophilus as a host to express any gene of interest, and information was obtained regarding the optimum conditions for the growth of T. thermophilus. The development of a practical biorefining process still requires further research and the future research needs identified in this project include the development of new enzymes and pathways for the selective cleavage of C-N or C-S bonds that have higher specific activities, increased substrate range, and are capable of functioning at thermophilic temperatures. Additionally, there is a need for process engineering research to determine the maximum yield of biomass and cloned gene products that can be obtained in fed-batch cultures using T. thermophilus, and to determine the best configuration for a process employing biocatalysts to treat petroleum.

  11. Petroleum geology of marine evaporites

    SciTech Connect

    Billo, S.M. )

    1994-08-01

    The conditions necessary for evaporite deposition are also important with respect to genesis of source beds for petroleum. In a restricted basin marked by large-scale salt successions, it is presumed that the basin proper is separated from the open sea either by structural or physiographic barriers. These barriers may elevate the effective wave base so that much of the basin is in the stagnant zone or in reducing environment, where sediments rich in organic matter may be deposited. Such shallow barriers increase the conditions favorable for the generation of petroleum. Since marine evaporitic basins are not ideally closed systems, but are subject to influxes and perhaps refluxes of sea water or brine, much petroleum associated with evaporites is generated from dissolved and particulate organic matter swept from the normal marine into the evaporitic environments. Only carbonates precipitate in the mesosaline part (4-12% salinity) of such evaporitic environments. They are of great significance in source rock origin. The huge reserves of petroleum in the Mesozoic of the Middle East, and many other areas including the Michigan, Paradox, and Delaware basins, owe their origin to the thick sequences of carbonates and evaporites of the mesosaline environments. Repeated cycles of oil and gas formation in the stratigraphic record are related to tectonic, climatic, or eustatic events or both, and to increasing sedimentary overburden.

  12. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS: EPA'S GUIDELINES FOR CARCINOGEN RISK ASSESSMENT AND SUPPLEMENTAL GUIDANCE FROM ASSESSING SUSCEPTIBILITY FROM EARLY-LIFE EXPOSURE TO CARCINOGENS

    EPA Science Inventory

    March 29, 2005
    EPA's Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment
    And Supplemental Guidance from Assessing Susceptibility from Early-life
    Exposure to Carcinogens

    Questions and Answers

    The following questions ...

  13. Recent Advances in Petroleum Microbiology

    PubMed Central

    Van Hamme, Jonathan D.; Singh, Ajay; Ward, Owen P.

    2003-01-01

    Recent advances in molecular biology have extended our understanding of the metabolic processes related to microbial transformation of petroleum hydrocarbons. The physiological responses of microorganisms to the presence of hydrocarbons, including cell surface alterations and adaptive mechanisms for uptake and efflux of these substrates, have been characterized. New molecular techniques have enhanced our ability to investigate the dynamics of microbial communities in petroleum-impacted ecosystems. By establishing conditions which maximize rates and extents of microbial growth, hydrocarbon access, and transformation, highly accelerated and bioreactor-based petroleum waste degradation processes have been implemented. Biofilters capable of removing and biodegrading volatile petroleum contaminants in air streams with short substrate-microbe contact times (<60 s) are being used effectively. Microbes are being injected into partially spent petroleum reservoirs to enhance oil recovery. However, these microbial processes have not exhibited consistent and effective performance, primarily because of our inability to control conditions in the subsurface environment. Microbes may be exploited to break stable oilfield emulsions to produce pipeline quality oil. There is interest in replacing physical oil desulfurization processes with biodesulfurization methods through promotion of selective sulfur removal without degradation of associated carbon moieties. However, since microbes require an environment containing some water, a two-phase oil-water system must be established to optimize contact between the microbes and the hydrocarbon, and such an emulsion is not easily created with viscous crude oil. This challenge may be circumvented by application of the technology to more refined gasoline and diesel substrates, where aqueous-hydrocarbon emulsions are more easily generated. Molecular approaches are being used to broaden the substrate specificity and increase the rates and

  14. Suntan salons and the American skin

    SciTech Connect

    Epstein, J.H.

    1981-07-01

    Suntan salon franchises burst upon the economic scene in the United States in 1978 and proliferated rapidly. At present it is estimated that between 1,000 and 2,000 salons are active in the country. Of the two types in use, the more common uses a fluorescent UVB source which emits primarily the highly injurious sunburn rays between 290 and 320 nm. These are the rays that not only are responsible for the acute cellular injury and erythema called sunburn, but at least under experimental conditions are the most carcinogenic. The UVA units are found primarily in Europe. The hazards of their rays have not been clarified as yet, but they are known to be responsible for the vast majority of exogenously photosensitized reactions that occur in the skin, they do augment the acute injury produced by the UVB rays, they cause dermal blood vessel damage, and they can produce lenticular injury. In conclusion, tanning for cosmetic purposes is not innocuous.

  15. 31 CFR 576.206 - Protection granted to the Development Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum Products, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum Products, and the Central Bank of Iraq. 576.206 Section... Prohibitions § 576.206 Protection granted to the Development Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum... petroleum and petroleum products, and interests therein, but only until title passes to the...

  16. 31 CFR 542.529 - Policy on activities related to petroleum and petroleum products of Syrian origin for the benefit...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... petroleum and petroleum products of Syrian origin for the benefit of the National Coalition of Syrian... activities related to petroleum and petroleum products of Syrian origin for the benefit of the National... the purchase, trade, export, import, or production of petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian...

  17. 31 CFR 542.209 - Prohibited transactions or dealings in or related to petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... or related to petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian origin. 542.209 Section 542.209 Money and... dealings in or related to petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian origin. Except as otherwise authorized... petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian origin is prohibited....

  18. 31 CFR 576.206 - Protection granted to the Development Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum Products, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum Products, and the Central Bank of Iraq. 576.206 Section... Prohibitions § 576.206 Protection granted to the Development Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum... petroleum and petroleum products, and interests therein, but only until title passes to the...

  19. 31 CFR 576.206 - Protection granted to the Development Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum Products, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum Products, and the Central Bank of Iraq. 576.206 Section... Prohibitions § 576.206 Protection granted to the Development Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum... petroleum and petroleum products, and interests therein, but only until title passes to the...

  20. 31 CFR 576.206 - Protection granted to the Development Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum Products, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum Products, and the Central Bank of Iraq. 576.206 Section... Prohibitions § 576.206 Protection granted to the Development Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum... petroleum and petroleum products, and interests therein, but only until title passes to the...

  1. Examination of percutaneous application in a 26-week carcinogenicity test in CB6F1-TG rasH2 mice.

    PubMed

    Urano, Koji; Suzuki, Shuzo; Machida, Kazuhiko; Eguchi, Natsuko; Sawa, Nobuko; Kikuchi, Koji; Hattori, Yuji; Usui, Toshimi

    2007-10-01

    We examined the possibility of expanding applications of rasH2 mice, which are genetically manipulated mice for short-term carcinogenicity tests, to percutaneous application. A 26-week short-term carcinogenicity study was performed on a total of 300 mice including 75 male and female rasH2 mice each, and 75 male and female non-Tg mice each from the same litter as the rasH2 mice divided into untreated group, an ethanol group, a white Vaseline group, an acetone group, and a phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (TPA) group. Only shaving of dorsal skin was performed on the untreated mice. As a positive control, TPA was administered percutaneously at a dose of 2.5 microg/kg and 3 times/week for 26 weeks based on the protocol for Tg.AC mice in the ILSI/HESI international validation study. In the ethanol, white Vaseline, and acetone groups, no tumorous changes were observed on the skin at the administration site. In the TPA group, nodular changes at the administration site were observed from seven weeks after the start of administration in rasH2 mice, and the incidence in males and females was 50.0% (7/14) and 53.3% (8/15), respectively. In a pathological examination, nodules in 21.4% (3/14) of males and 46.7% (7/15) of females were diagnosed as skin papilloma or keratoacanthoma, and the rest as squamous cell hyperplasia. In the non-Tg mice, no nodules or tumorigenic changes were observed at the administration site. These findings show that percutaneous application in rasH2 mice is possible in 26-week carcinogenicity tests. PMID:17965551

  2. Carcinogen-induced mutations in the mouse c-Ha-ras gene provide evidence of multiple pathways for tumor progression

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.; Buchmann, A.; Balmain, A. )

    1990-01-01

    A number of mouse skin tumors initiated by the carcinogens N-methyl-N{prime}-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG), methylnitrosourea (MNU), 3-methylcholanthrene (MCA), and 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) have been shown to contain activated Ha-ras genes. In each case, the point mutations responsible for activation have been characterized. Results presented demonstrate the carcinogen-specific nature of these ras mutations. For each initiating agent, a distinct spectrum of mutations is observed. Most importantly, the distribution of ras gene mutations is found to differ between benign papillomas and carcinomas, suggesting that molecular events occurring at the time of initiation influence the probability with which papillomas progress to malignancy. This study provides molecular evidence in support of the existence of subsets of papillomas with differing progression frequencies. Thus, the alkylating agents MNNG and MNU induced exclusively G {yields} A transitions at codon 12, with this mutation being found predominantly in papillomas. MCA initiation produced both codon 13 G {yields} T and codon 61 A {yields} T transversions in papillomas; only the G {yields} T mutation, however, was found in carcinomas. These findings provide strong evidence that the mutational activation of Ha-ras occurs as a result of the initiation process and that the nature of the initiating event can affect the probability of progression to malignancy.

  3. Testing electromagnetic fields for potential carcinogenic activity: a critical review of animal models.

    PubMed Central

    McCann, J; Kavet, R; Rafferty, C N

    1997-01-01

    In order to assess the potential of electromagnetic fields (EMF) to influence the process of carcinogenesis, it will be necessary to supplement epidemiological studies with controlled laboratory studies in animals. There are now a number of suitable assays available that focus on different histopathological forms of cancer and on different stages of carcinogenesis--induction, promotion, progression. In this review we discuss eight major systems in the context of this generalized carcinogenesis paradigm. Our aim is to bring together what is currently known about the biology of carcinogenesis in these systems in order to provide a context for evaluating EMF results as they become available. We also critically discuss EMF test results that have so far been obtained in the animal models reviewed. Most of the 19 completed studies identified were negative. However, suggestive positive results were reported in three promotion assays (in rat mammary gland, in rat liver, and in mouse skin), and in one multigeneration study in mice. Results in the rat liver assay and in the multigeneration study have only been reported in abstract form and cannot be adequately evaluated. Positive results reported in both the rat mammary gland and the mouse skin systems are of weak statistical significance and have not been independently replicated. However, it may be of interest that effects in both systems appear primarily to involve the progression stage of carcinogenesis. We suggest that more definitive conclusions as to the carcinogenic potential of EMF may require expanded test protocols that reinforce traditional carcinogenesis end points with biochemical or other parameters reflective of biological processes known to be associated with carcinogenesis in the different systems. PMID:9114279

  4. Assessing the potential carcinogenic activity of magnetic fields using animal models.

    PubMed Central

    McCann, J; Kavet, R; Rafferty, C N

    2000-01-01

    We update our 1997 publication by reviewing 29 new reports of tests of magnetic fields (MFs) in six different in vivo animal models of carcinogenesis: 2-year, lifetime, or multigeneration exposure studies in rats or mice; and promotion/progression models (rat mammary carcinoma, rat liver focus, mouse skin, several models of human leukemia/lymphoma in rats and mice, and brain cancer in rats). Individual experiments are evaluated using a set of data quality criteria, and summary judgments are made across multiple experiments by applying a criterion of rough reproducibility. The potential for carcinogenicity of MFs is discussed in light of the significant body of carcinogenesis data from animal bioassays that now exists. Excluding abstracts, approximately 80% of the 41 completed studies identified in this and our previous review roughly satisfy data quality criteria. Among these studies, the criterion for independent reproducibility is not satisfied for any positive results but is satisfied for negative results in chronic bioassays in rats and mice and for negative results in both promotion and co-promotion assays using the SENCAR mouse skin model. Results of independent replication studies using the rat mammary carcinoma model were conflicting. We conclude that long-term exposure to continuous 50- or 60-Hz MFs in the range of 0.002-5 mT is unlikely to result in carcinogenesis in rats or mice. Though results of most promotion/progression assays are negative, a weak promoting effect of MFs under certain exposure conditions cannot be ruled out based on available data. PMID:10698725

  5. Scaly Skin (Ichthyosis Vulgaris)

    MedlinePlus

    ... should improve by restoring moisture (hydration) to the skin. Creams and ointments are better moisturizers than lotions, and ... Physician May Prescribe To treat the dry, scaly skin of ichthyosis ... cream or lotion containing the following: Prescription-strength alpha- ...

  6. Squamous cell skin cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... cell; NMSC - squamous cell; Squamous cell skin cancer; Squamous cell carcinoma of the skin ... squamous cell cancer is called Bowen disease (or squamous cell carcinoma in situ). This type does not spread to ...

  7. CSD skin test

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003385.htm CSD skin test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The cat scratch disease (CSD) skin test was once used to help ...

  8. Squamous cell skin cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... occur on skin that is regularly exposed to sunlight or other ultraviolet radiation. The earliest form of ... skin cancer is to reduce your exposure to sunlight . Always use sunscreen: Apply sunscreen with sun protection ...

  9. Skin Pigmentation Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... skin gets its color from a pigment called melanin. Special cells in the skin make melanin. When these cells become damaged or unhealthy, it affects melanin production. Some pigmentation disorders affect just patches of ...

  10. Fungal Skin Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fungal Skin Infections Overview of Fungal Skin Infections Candidiasis Overview of Dermatophytoses (Ringworm, Tinea) Athlete's Foot Jock ... are caused by yeasts (such as Candida —see Candidiasis ) or dermatophytes, such as Epidermophyton, Microsporum, and Trichophyton ( ...

  11. Skin color - patchy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Injury Exposure to radiation (such as from the sun) Exposure to heavy metals Changes in hormone levels Exposure ... example, lighter-skinned people are more sensitive to sun exposure and damage, which raises the risk of skin ...

  12. Components of skin

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... skin layers from the outside environment and contains cells that make keratin, a substance that waterproofs and strengthens the skin. The epidermis also has cells that contain melanin, the dark pigment that gives ...

  13. Method for enchanced recovery of petroleum

    SciTech Connect

    Buinicky, E.P.; Estes, J.H.

    1980-09-23

    An enhanced oil recovery method comprising injecting an aqueous solution of ammonium salts selected from the group consisting of ammonium sulfite, ammonium bisulfite, and mixtures thereof into a petroleum-bearing earth formation, heating said injected aqueous solution to a temperature in the range of about 120/sup 0/-300/sup 0/F., or higher in the presence of said petroleum-bearing earth formation, flowing said heated aqueous solution through said petroleum bearing earth formation to drive petroleum to a recovery well, and producing increased amounts of petroleum from said earth formation through said recovery well.

  14. Basic petroleum geology, 2nd ed. , revised

    SciTech Connect

    Link.

    1990-01-01

    This book contains revised and updated material, including approximately 200 additional illustrations and an extensive glossary of terms. A valuable reference for geology students and petroleum professionals, the text presents fundamental concepts of geology in terms of sedimentary deposition, petroleum occurrence, exploration, and recovery. This book contains information on geologic time, historical geology and stratigraphy; Minerals and rocks; Weathering erosion, and deposition; Marine erosion and deposition; Depositional basins; Lacustrine, desert and glacial environments; Subsurface water and diagenesis; Structural geology; petroleum traps; Petroleum and reservoirs; Geological considerations and engineering practices; Rocks, reservoirs, and recovery techniques; Exploration techniques for petroleum; Bibliography Glossary; Index.

  15. New clues on carcinogenicity-related substructures derived from mining two large datasets of chemical compounds.

    PubMed

    Golbamaki, Azadi; Benfenati, Emilio; Golbamaki, Nazanin; Manganaro, Alberto; Merdivan, Erinc; Roncaglioni, Alessandra; Gini, Giuseppina

    2016-04-01

    In this study, new molecular fragments associated with genotoxic and nongenotoxic carcinogens are introduced to estimate the carcinogenic potential of compounds. Two rule-based carcinogenesis models were developed with the aid of SARpy: model R (from rodents' experimental data) and model E (from human carcinogenicity data). Structural alert extraction method of SARpy uses a completely automated and unbiased manner with statistical significance. The carcinogenicity models developed in this study are collections of carcinogenic potential fragments that were extracted from two carcinogenicity databases: the ANTARES carcinogenicity dataset with information from bioassay on rats and the combination of ISSCAN and CGX datasets, which take into accounts human-based assessment. The performance of these two models was evaluated in terms of cross-validation and external validation using a 258 compound case study dataset. Combining R and H predictions and scoring a positive or negative result when both models are concordant on a prediction, increased accuracy to 72% and specificity to 79% on the external test set. The carcinogenic fragments present in the two models were compared and analyzed from the point of view of chemical class. The results of this study show that the developed rule sets will be a useful tool to identify some new structural alerts of carcinogenicity and provide effective information on the molecular structures of carcinogenic chemicals. PMID:26986491

  16. Mammary Carcinogen-Protein Binding Potentials: Novel and Biologically Relevant Structure-Activity Relationship Model Descriptors

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, A.R.; Qamar, S.; Carrasquer, C.A.; Holt, P.A.; Maguire, J.M.; Cunningham, S.L.; Trent, J.O.

    2010-01-01

    Previously, SAR models for carcinogenesis used descriptors that are essentially chemical descriptors. Herein we report the development of models with the cat-SAR expert system using biological descriptors (i.e., ligand-receptor interactions) rat mammary carcinogens. These new descriptors are derived from the virtual screening for ligand-receptor interactions of carcinogens, non-carcinogens, and mammary carcinogens to a set of 5494 target proteins. Leave-one-out validations of the ligand mammary carcinogen non-carcinogen model had a concordance between experimental and predicted results of 71% and the mammary carcinogen non-mammary carcinogen model was 72% concordant. The development of a hybrid fragment-ligand model improved the concordances to 85 and 83%, respectively. In a separate external validation exercise, hybrid fragment-ligand models had concordances of 81 and 76%. Analyses of example rat mammary carcinogens including the food mutagen and estrogenic compound PhIP, the herbicide atrazine, and the drug indomethacin, the ligand model identified a number of proteins associated with each compound that had previously been referenced in Medline in conjunction with the test chemical and separately with association to breast cancer. This new modelling approach can enhance model predictivity and help bridge the gap between chemical structure and carcinogenic activity by descriptors that are related to biological targets. PMID:20818582

  17. Species and gender differences in the carcinogenic activity of trimethylolpropane triacrylate in rats and mice

    PubMed Central

    Surh, Inok; Rao, Deepa B.; Cesta, Mark F.; Hébert, Charles D.; Mann, Jill F.; Cunny, Helen; Kissling, Grace E.; Malarkey, David; Chhabra, Rajendra S.

    2014-01-01

    Trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA) is a multifunctional monomer with industrial applications. To determine the carcinogenic potential, male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1/N mice were administered TMPTA (0, 0.3, 1.0, or 3.0 mg/kg) in acetone dermally for 2 years. There were no differences in the body weights and survival in the treated animals compared to controls. Nonneoplastic skin lesions at the site of application included epidermal hyperplasia and hyperkeratosis in both rats and mice. There were no incidences of tumors at the site of application in rats and mice. Rare malignant liver neoplasms were observed in female mice that included hepatoblastoma in the 0.3 and 3.0 mg/kg groups, and hepatocholangiocarcinoma in the 1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg groups. The incidences of uterine stromal polyp and stromal polyp or stromal sarcoma (combined) in female mice occurred with positive trends and the incidences were significantly increased in the 3.0 mg/kg group. A marginal increase in the incidences of malignant mesothelioma in male rats may have been related to TMPTA treatment. In conclusion, our studies show that TMPTA is a dermal irritant in both rats and mice of either sex. Increased incidences of tumor formation were observed in female mice and male rats. PMID:24503412

  18. Surveillance of nasal and bladder cancer to locate sources of exposure to occupational carcinogens.

    PubMed Central

    Teschke, K; Morgan, M S; Checkoway, H; Franklin, G; Spinelli, J J; van Belle, G; Weiss, N S

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To locate sources of occupational exposure to nasal and bladder carcinogens for surveillance follow up in British Columbia, Canada. METHODS: Incident cases of nasal cancer (n = 48), bladder cancer (n = 105), and population based controls (n = 159) matched for sex and age, were interviewed about their jobs, exposures, and smoking histories. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated for 57 occupational groups with stratified exact methods to control for age, sex, and smoking. RESULTS: Occupational groups at increased risk of nasal cancer included: textile workers (six cases, OR 7.6); miners, drillers, and blasters (six cases, OR 3.5); welders (two cases, OR 3.5); pulp and paper workers (three cases, OR 3.1); and plumbers and pipefitters (two cases, OR 3.0). Nasal cancer ORs were not increased in occupations exposed to wood dust, possibly due to low exposures in local wood industries. Strongly increased risks of bladder cancer were found for sheet metal workers (four cases, OR 5.3), miners (19 cases, OR 4.5), gardeners (six cases, OR 3.7), and hairdressers (three cases, OR 3.2). Among occupations originally considered at risk, the following had increased risks of bladder cancer: painters (four cases, OR 2.8); laundry workers (five cases, OR 2.3); chemical and petroleum workers (15 cases, OR 1.8); machinists (eight cases, OR 1.6); and textile workers (three cases, OR 1.5). CONCLUSIONS: Occupational groups with increased risks and three or more cases with similar duties were selected for surveillance follow up. For nasal cancer, these included textile workers (five were garment makers) and pulp and paper workers (three performed maintenance tasks likely to entail stainless steel welding). For bladder cancer, these included miners (12 worked underground), machinists (five worked in traditional machining), hairdressers (three had applied hair dyes), and laundry workers (three were drycleaners). PMID:9245952

  19. Comparative DNA damage and oxidative effects of carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic sediment-bound PAHs in the gills of a bivalve.

    PubMed

    Martins, Marta; Costa, Pedro M; Ferreira, Ana M; Costa, Maria H

    2013-10-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) regarded as carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic to humans are ubiquitous hydrophobic pollutants that tend to be trapped in aquatic sediments. As a consequence of their acknowledged toxicity and pro-mutagenic or even carcinogenic potential, PAHs are deemed prioritary in biomonitoring programmes. Still, the differences between the toxicity of carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic PAHs are poorly known especially, when aquatic organisms are exposed to ecologically-relevant concentrations of these compounds in sediments. Laboratory bioassays with sediments spiked with phenanthrene (Phe) and benzo[b]fluoranthene (B[b]F), non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic PAH, respectively, were conducted and the effects of exposure (related to DNA damage and oxidative stress) were analyzed in the gills of a burrowing clam, Ruditapes decussatus (Bivalvia, Veneridae). To ensure ecological relevance, two contaminant concentrations (termed "low" and "high") were selected in accordance with available PAH sediment quality guidelines. The results showed that, even in "low" concentrations, both compounds caused a likely genotoxic effect in the gills, which is in accordance with the link between PAHs in water. Glutathione S-transferase activity and glutathione biosynthesis appear to be associated with limited lipid peroxidation even though they were insufficient to prevent higher and faster genotoxicity induced by exposure to the carcinogenic B[b]F, comparative to Phe. Overall the findings indicate that low concentrations of sediment-bound PAHs, carcinogenic or not, may be rendered significantly bioavailable to benthic filter-feeders as to induce genotoxicity, revealing that even PAHs considered non-carcinogenic to humans detain a latent, albeit significant, pro-mutagenic hazard to bivalve molluscs. PMID:23969285

  20. Friction induced skin tags.

    PubMed

    Allegue, Francisco; Fachal, Carmen; Pérez-Pérez, Lidia

    2008-01-01

    Skin tags are common benign neoplasm located predominantly in intertriginous skin. Generally of cosmetic concern, they can be easily treated with cryotherapy, electrodessication or snip-excision. Despite their high incidence data about their etiopathogenesis are scarce in the medical literature. We describe a patient who developed multiple skin tags arranged in a linear fashion suggesting an etiopathogenic role for friction. PMID:18627719

  1. Skin self-exam

    MedlinePlus

    Skin cancer - self-exam; Melanoma - self-exam; Basal cell cancer - self-exam; Squamous cell - self-exam; Skin mole - self-exam ... do not agree on whether or not skin self-exams should be performed. So there is no ...

  2. Psychoneuroimmunology and the Skin.

    PubMed

    Honeyman, Juan F

    2016-08-23

    The nervous, immune, endocrine and integumentary systems are closely related and interact in a number of normal and pathological conditions. Nervous system mediators may bring about direct changes to the skin or may induce the release of immunological or hormonal mediators that cause pathological changes to the skin. This article reviews the psychological mechanisms involved in the development of skin diseases. PMID:27282344

  3. Ultrasound skin imaging.

    PubMed

    Alfageme Roldán, F

    2014-12-01

    The interaction of high-frequency ultrasound waves with the skin provides the basis for noninvasive, fast, and accessible diagnostic imaging. This tool is increasingly used in skin cancer and inflammatory conditions as well as in cosmetic dermatology. This article reviews the basic principles of skin ultrasound and its applications in the different areas of dermatology. PMID:24838227

  4. Biology of Skin Color.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcos, Alain

    1983-01-01

    Information from scientific journals on the biology of skin color is discussed. Major areas addressed include: (1) biology of melanin, melanocytes, and melanosomes; (2) melanosome and human diversity; (3) genetics of skin color; and (4) skin color, geography, and natural selection. (JN)

  5. Skin self-exam

    MedlinePlus

    Skin cancer - self-exam; Melanoma - self-exam; Basal cell cancer - self-exam; Squamous cell - self-exam; Skin mole - self-exam ... Experts do not agree on whether or not skin self-exams should be performed. So there is ...

  6. Petroleum supply monthly, October 1990. [Contains Glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-27

    Data presented in this report describes the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. 12 figs., 54 tabs.

  7. Petroleum Supply Monthly, September 1990. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Whited, D.; Jacobus, P.

    1990-11-28

    Data presented in this PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. 12 figs., 46 tabs.

  8. Petroleum supply monthly, October 1991. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-30

    Data presented in this report describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importer, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data are divided into two sections (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics 14 figs., 56 tabs.

  9. Assessment of the carcinogenicity of the nonnutritive sweetener cyclamate.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, F E; Thomas, D B

    1992-01-01

    The weight of the evidence from metabolic studies, short-term tests, animal bioassays, and epidemiological studies indicates that cyclamate (CHS) is not carcinogenic by itself; however, there is evidence from in vitro and in vivo studies in animals that implies it may have cancer-promoting or cocarcinogenic activity. Epidemiological studies indicate that the use of nonnutritive sweeteners (CHS and saccharin) has not resulted in a measurable overall increase in the risk of bladder cancer in individuals who have ever used these products. No epidemiological information exists on the possible associations of these sweeteners and cancers other than those of the urinary tract. It is recommended that (1) no further studies on the metabolism of CHS to evaluate its carcinogenicity are required since no potentially hazardous metabolites have been appreciably detected in humans; (2) no further animal bioassays to test for the carcinogenicity of CHS by itself are necessary; (3) the studies in rodents that suggest a promotional or cocarcinogenic effect of CHS should be repeated because they cannot be ruled out; (4) because the significance to human health of a positive outcome of such studies is uncertain, additional research aimed at understanding the predictive value for human health of such results and more generic studies to develop well-validated systems that can be relied on in the assessment of cancer-promoting agents are recommended; (5) in populations where CHS continues to be used, epidemiological monitoring should be continued to determine whether there is an increased risk of cancer in humans who are heavy or long-term users or for those observed long after first exposure. In such monitoring, other cancer sites--in addition to the bladder--should be considered. PMID:1510820

  10. A metabolomics investigation of non genotoxic carcinogenicity in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Ament, Zsuzsanna; Waterman, Claire L; West, James A; Waterfield, Catherine; Currie, Richard A; Wright, Jayne; Griffin, Julian L

    2014-01-01

    Non-genotoxic carcinogens (NGCs) promote tumour growth by altering gene expression which ultimately leads to cancer without directly causing a change in DNA sequence. As a result NGCs are not detected in mutagenesis assays. Whilst there are proposed biomarkers of carcinogenic potential, the definitive identification of non-genotoxic carcinogens still rests with the rat and mouse long term bioassay. Such assays are expensive, time consuming, require a large number of animals and their relevance to human health risk assessments is debatable. Metabolomics and lipidomics in combination with pathology and clinical chemistry were used to profile perturbations produced by 10 compounds which represented a range of rat non-genotoxic hepatocarcinogens (NGC), non-genotoxic non-hepatocarcinogens (non-NGC) and a genotoxic hepatocarcinogen. Each compound was administered at its maximum tolerated dose level for 7, 28 and 91 days to male Fisher 344 rats. Changes in liver metabolite concentration differentiated the treated groups across different time points. The most significant differences were driven by pharmacological mode of action, specifically by the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPAR-α) agonists. Despite these dominant effects, good predictions could be made when differentiating NGCs from non-NGCs. Predictive ability measured by leave one out cross validation was 87% and 77% after 28 days of dosing for NGCs and non-NGCs, respectively. Amongst the discriminatory metabolites we identified free fatty acids, phospholipids, triacylglycerols, as well as precursors of eicosanoid and the products of reactive oxygen species linked to processes of inflammation, proliferation and oxidative stress. Thus, metabolic profiling is able to identify changes due to the pharmacological mode of action of xenobiotics and contribute to early screening for non-genotoxic potential. PMID:24161236

  11. [Advances in non-carcinogenic toxicity of trichloroethylene].

    PubMed

    Huang, Peiwu; Li, Xuan; Liu, Wei; Liu, Jianjun

    2015-09-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a widely used organic solvent and an important industrial material. Due to mass production and use, and improper waste disposal, TCE has become a common environmental contaminant, so there is a wide range of occupationally and environmentally exposed population. Occupational and environmental exposure to TCE can produce toxic effects on multiple organs and systems. This paper is a review of the immunotoxicity, reproductive toxicity, neurotoxicity, teratogenic effect and other non-carcinogenic toxic effects of TCE from the aspects of epidemiological study, experimental evidence on animals and toxic mechanisms. PMID:26733146

  12. Carcinogenic HPV infection in the cervical squamo-columnar junction.

    PubMed

    Mirkovic, Jelena; Howitt, Brooke E; Roncarati, Patrick; Demoulin, Stephanie; Suarez-Carmona, Meggy; Hubert, Pascale; McKeon, Frank D; Xian, Wa; Li, Anita; Delvenne, Philippe; Crum, Christopher P; Herfs, Michael

    2015-07-01

    Recent studies have suggested the involvement of a unique population of cells at the cervical squamo-columnar junction (SCJ) in the pathogenesis of early (squamous intraepithelial lesion or SIL) and advanced (squamous cell and adeno-carcinomas) cervical neoplasia. However, there is little evidence to date showing that SCJ cells harbour carcinogenic HPV or are instrumental in the initial phases of neoplasia. This study was designed to (1) determine if normal-appearing SCJ cells contained evidence of carcinogenic HPV infection and (2) trace their transition to early SIL. Sections of cervix from high-risk reproductive age women were selected and SCJ cells were analysed by using several techniques which increasingly implicated HPV infection: HPV DNA (genotyping and in situ hybridization)/RNA (PCR), immunostaining for HPV16 E2 (an early marker of HPV infection), p16(ink4), Ki67, and HPV L1 protein. In 22 cases with a history of SIL and no evidence of preneoplastic lesion in the excision specimen, HPV DNA was isolated from eight of ten with visible SCJ cells, six of which were HPV16/18 DNA-positive. In five of these latter cases, the SCJ cells were positive for p16(ink4) and/or HPV E2. Transcriptionally active HPV infection (E6/E7 mRNAs) was also detected in microdissected SCJ cells. Early squamous atypia associated with the SCJ cells demonstrated in addition diffuse p16(ink4) immunoreactivity, elevated proliferative index, and rare L1 antigen positivity. We present for the first time direct evidence that normal-appearing SCJ cells can be infected by carcinogenic HPV. They initially express HPV E2 and their progression to SIL is heralded by an expanding metaplastic progeny with increased proliferation and p16(ink4) expression. Whether certain SCJs are more vulnerable than others to carcinogenic HPV genotypes and what variables determine transition to high-grade SIL remain unresolved, but the common event appears to be a vulnerable cell at the SCJ. PMID:25782708

  13. Urostomy - stoma and skin care

    MedlinePlus

    ... it well before you attach the pouch. Avoid skin care products that contain alcohol. These can make your ... the pouch to your skin. Use fewer special skin care products. This will make problems with your skin ...

  14. Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    No matter if your skin is light, dark, or somewhere in between, everyone is at risk for skin cancer. Learn what skin cancer looks like, how to find it early, and how to lower the chance of skin cancer.

  15. Alaskan North Slope petroleum systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Magoon, L.B.; Lillis, P.G.; Bird, K.J.; Lampe, C.; Peters, K.E.

    2003-01-01

    Six North Slope petroleum systems are identified, described, and mapped using oil-to-oil and oil-to-source rock correlations, pods of active source rock, and overburden rock packages. To map these systems, we assumed that: a) petroleum source rocks contain 3.2 wt. % organic carbon (TOC); b) immature oil-prone source rocks have hydrogen indices (HI) >300 (mg HC/gm TOC); c) the top and bottom of the petroleum (oil plus gas) window occur at vitrinite reflectance values of 0.6 and 1.0% Ro, respectively; and d) most hydrocarbons are expelled within the petroleum window. The six petroleum systems we have identified and mapped are: a) a southern system involving the Kuna-Lisburne source rock unit that was active during the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous; b) two western systems involving source rock in the Kingak-Blankenship, and GRZ-lower Torok source rock units that were active during the Albian; and c) three eastern systems involving the Shublik-Otuk, Hue Shale and Canning source rock units that were active during the Cenozoic. The GRZ-lower Torok in the west is correlative with the Hue Shale to the east. Four overburden rock packages controlled the time of expulsion and gross geometry of migration paths: a) a southern package of Early Cretaceous and older rocks structurally-thickened by early Brooks Range thrusting; b) a western package of Early Cretaceous rocks that filled the western part of the foreland basin; c) an eastern package of Late Cretaceous and Paleogene rocks that filled the eastern part of the foreland basin; and d) an offshore deltaic package of Neogene rocks deposited by the Colville, Canning, and Mackenzie rivers. This petroleum system poster is part of a series of Northern Alaska posters on modeling. The poster in this session by Saltus and Bird present gridded maps for the greater Northern Alaskan onshore and offshore that are used in the 3D modeling poster by Lampe and others. Posters on source rock units are by Keller and Bird as well as

  16. The history, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity of carbon-based fuels and their emissions. Part 2: solid fuels.

    PubMed

    Claxton, Larry D

    2014-01-01

    The combustion of solid fuels (like wood, animal dung, and coal) usually involves elevated temperatures and altered pressures and genotoxicants (e.g., PAHs) are likely to form. These substances are carcinogenic in experimental animals, and epidemiological studies implicate these fuels (especially their emissions) as carcinogens in man. Globally, ∼50% of all households and ∼90% of all rural households use solid fuels for cooking or heating and these fuels often are burnt in simple stoves with very incomplete combustion. Exposed women and children often exhibit low birth weight, increased infant and perinatal mortality, head and neck cancer, and lung cancer although few studies have measured exposure directly. Today, households that cannot meet the expense of fuels like kerosene, liquefied petroleum gas, and electricity resort to collecting wood, agricultural residue, and animal dung to use as household fuels. In the more developed countries, solid fuels are often used for electric power generation providing more than half of the electricity generated in the United States. The world's coal reserves, which equal approximately one exagram, equal ∼1 trillion barrels of crude oil (comparable to all the world's known oil reserves) and could last for 600 years. Studies show that the PAHs that are identified in solid fuel emissions react with NO2 to form direct-acting mutagens. In summary, many of the measured genotoxicants found in both the indoor and electricity-generating combustors are the same; therefore, the severity of the health effects vary with exposure and with the health status of the exposed population. PMID:25475420

  17. Long-term in vivo carcinogenicity test of potassium bromate, sodium hypochlorite, and sodium chlorite conducted in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Kurokawa, Y.; Takayama, S.; Konishi, Y.; Hiasa, Y.; Asahina, S.; Takahashi, M.; Maekawa, A.; Hayashi, Y.

    1986-11-01

    Long-term in vivo carcinogenicity tests of potassium bromate (KBrO/sub 3/), sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) and sodium chlorite (NaClO/sub 2/) have been conducted in Japan from 1977 to 1985. In these investigations, groups of approximately 50 male and 50 female F344 rats or B6C3F1 mice were given solutions of the compounds as their drinking water ad libitum at two dose levels determined on the basis of preliminary 13-weeks tests. The carcinogenic potential of KBrO/sub 3/ was tested by administering doses of 500 or 250 ppm to rats for 110 weeks. Significantly elevated incidences of renal cell tumors in males and females and mesotheliomas of the peritoneum in males as compared to controls were observed. When female mice were given KBrO/sub 3/ at doses of 1000 or 500 ppm for 78 weeks, no significant differences in tumor incidences between experimental and control groups were apparent. The incidences of tumors in NaClO-treated and control animals of both sexes were not significantly different in both rat and mouse studies. No statistically significant differences were observed in the incidences of tumor formation between NaClO/sub 2/-treated and control groups of rats male mice, the combined incidences of hyperplastic nodules and hepatocellular carcinomas of the liver in a low-dose group, and adenomas and adenocarcinomas of the lung in a high-dose group, were marginally increased compared to controls. The authors concluded that KBrO/sub 2/ was carcinogenic in rats of both sexes. NaClO was not carcinogenic in either rats and or mice under the conditions of the present studies. Although NaClO/sub 2/ was shown to be noncarcinogenic in rats, the results for mice were evaluated as inconclusive. Also the results of two-stage mouse skin carcinogenesis using KBrO/sub 3/, NaClO, and NaClO/sub 2/ are presented.

  18. Pursuing prosthetic electronic skin.

    PubMed

    Chortos, Alex; Liu, Jia; Bao, Zhenan

    2016-09-01

    Skin plays an important role in mediating our interactions with the world. Recreating the properties of skin using electronic devices could have profound implications for prosthetics and medicine. The pursuit of artificial skin has inspired innovations in materials to imitate skin's unique characteristics, including mechanical durability and stretchability, biodegradability, and the ability to measure a diversity of complex sensations over large areas. New materials and fabrication strategies are being developed to make mechanically compliant and multifunctional skin-like electronics, and improve brain/machine interfaces that enable transmission of the skin's signals into the body. This Review will cover materials and devices designed for mimicking the skin's ability to sense and generate biomimetic signals. PMID:27376685

  19. Skin Exposure and Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Redlich, Carrie A.

    2010-01-01

    Numerous occupational and environmental exposures that increase asthma risk have been identified. Research and prevention have focused primarily on the respiratory tract. However, recent studies suggest that the skin may also be an important route of exposure and site of sensitization that contributes to asthma development. Factors that impair skin barrier function, such as filaggrin gene mutations or skin trauma, may facilitate allergen entry and promote Th2-like sensitization and subsequent asthma. Animal studies demonstrate that skin exposure to chemical and protein allergens is highly effective at inducing sensitization, with subsequent inhalation challenge eliciting asthmatic responses. A similar role for human skin exposure to certain sensitizing agents, such as isocyanates, is likely. Skin exposure methodologies are being developed to incorporate skin exposure assessment into epidemiology studies investigating asthma risk factors. PMID:20427586

  20. Bolivian petroleum privatization taking shape

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-07

    Bolivia is boldly embracing a free market philosophy that extends to liberalization of the country`s petroleum sector. Although petroleum industry privatization is being considered by several South American countries, only Argentina has so far completely opened its oil sector and fully privatized its state oil company. The Bolivian government`s own version of privatization, capitalization, is a groundbreaking attempt to attract massive investment from the private sector without leaving the government open to accusations of stripping the country`s assets for short term electoral gain. The paper discusses the government`s strategy to sell the state owned company either as a single unit or to split it into upstream and downstream units. Questions still to be resolved, international interest in the move, bolivian potential, and the gas supply infrastructure are also discussed.