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Sample records for pf shell model

  1. Gamow-Teller Strength Distributions for pf-shell Nuclei and its Implications in Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, M.-U.; Nabi, J.-U.

    2009-08-01

    The {pf}-shell nuclei are present in abundance in the pre-supernova and supernova phases and these nuclei are considered to play an important role in the dynamics of core collapse supernovae. The B(GT) values are calculated for the {pf}-shell nuclei 55Co and 57Zn using the pn-QRPA theory. The calculated B(GT) strengths have differences with earlier reported shell model calculations, however, the results are in good agreement with the experimental data. These B(GT) strengths are used in the calculations of weak decay rates which play a decisive role in the core-collapse supernovae dynamics and nucleosynthesis. Unlike previous calculations the so-called Brink's hypothesis is not assumed in the present calculation which leads to a more realistic estimate of weak decay rates. The electron capture rates are calculated over wide grid of temperature ({0.01} × 109 - 30 × 109 K) and density (10-1011 g-cm-3). Our rates are enhanced compared to the reported shell model rates. This enhancement is attributed partly to the liberty of selecting a huge model space, allowing consideration of many more excited states in the present electron capture rates calculations.

  2. New effective interaction for 0({Dirac_h}/2{pi}){omega} shell-model calculations in the sd-pf valence space

    SciTech Connect

    Nowacki, F.; Poves, A.

    2009-01-15

    The neutron-rich isotopes with Z{<=}20, in particular those with neutron numbers around N=28, have been the focus of a lot experimental and theoretical scrutiny during the past few years. Shell-model calculations using the effective interaction SDPF-NR were able to predict or to explain most of the properties featured by these nuclei. Prominent among them is the disappearance of the N=28 shell closure for Z{<=}16. We have incorporated into SDPF-NR some modifications, either on purely theoretical grounds or guided by new experimental information. The proposed interaction SDPF-U offers enhanced reliability with respect to the earlier version.

  3. Pseudo-Symmetry and Majorana Operators in pf-Shell

    SciTech Connect

    Valencia, J. P.; Wu, H. C.

    2007-10-26

    The Majorana operator of the pseudo ds-shell preserves the SU-tilde(4) symmetry, and in a unified manner it reproduces reasonably well the ground state energies of the nine nuclei in this shell. The study of {beta} decay in the same shell provides further support for the SU-tilde(4) symmetry.

  4. New extrapolation method for low-lying states of nuclei in the sd and the pf shells

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, J. J.; Zhao, Y. M.; Arima, A.; Yoshinaga, N.

    2011-04-15

    We study extrapolation approaches to evaluate energies of low-lying states for nuclei in the sd and pf shells, by sorting the diagonal matrix elements of the nuclear shell-model Hamiltonian. We introduce an extrapolation method with perturbation and apply our new method to predict both low-lying state energies and E2 transition rates between low-lying states. Our predicted results arrive at an accuracy of the root-mean-squared deviations {approx}40-60 keV for low-lying states of these nuclei.

  5. Gamow-Teller Transitions in Stable and Unstable pf-shell Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, Y.; Rubio, B.; Gelletly, W.

    2008-11-11

    Gamow-Teller (GT) transitions starting from stable as well as unstable pf-shell nuclei are of interest not only in nuclear physics, but also in astrophysics, e.g. in violent neutrino-induced reactions at the core-collapse stage of type II supernovae. In the {beta}-decay study of these pf-shell nuclei, half-lives can be measured rather accurately. On the other hand, in high-resolution ({sup 3}He,t) charge-exchange reactions at 0 deg., individual GT transitions up to high excitations can be studied. Assuming the isospin symmetry for the strengths of T{sub z} = {+-}1{yields}0 analogous GT transitions, we present a unique 'merged analysis' for the determination of absolute B(GT) values. This method can be applied not only to T = 1 systems, but also to higher T systems.

  6. TRAC-PF1 choked-flow model

    SciTech Connect

    Sahota, M.S.; Lime, J.F.

    1983-01-01

    The two-phase, two-component choked-flow model implemented in the latest version of the Transient Reactor analysis Code (TRAC-PF1) was developed from first principles using the characteristic analysis approach. The subcooled choked-flow model in TRAC-PF1 is a modified form of the Burnell model. This paper discusses these choked-flow models and their implementation in TRAC-PF1. comparisons using the TRAC-PF1 choked-flow models are made with the Burnell model for subcooled flow and with the homogeneous-equilibrium model (HEM) for two-phae flow. These comparisons agree well under homogeneous conditions. Generally good agreements have been obtained between the TRAC-PF1 results from models using the choking criteria and those using a fine mesh (natural choking). Code-data comparisons between the separate-effects tests of the Marviken facility and the Edwards' blowdown experiment also are favorable. 10 figures.

  7. Shell model Monte Carlo methods

    SciTech Connect

    Koonin, S.E.; Dean, D.J.

    1996-10-01

    We review quantum Monte Carlo methods for dealing with large shell model problems. These methods reduce the imaginary-time many-body evolution operator to a coherent superposition of one-body evolutions in fluctuating one-body fields; resultant path integral is evaluated stochastically. We first discuss the motivation, formalism, and implementation of such Shell Model Monte Carlo methods. There then follows a sampler of results and insights obtained from a number of applications. These include the ground state and thermal properties of pf-shell nuclei, thermal behavior of {gamma}-soft nuclei, and calculation of double beta-decay matrix elements. Finally, prospects for further progress in such calculations are discussed. 87 refs.

  8. Gamow-Teller Transitions in Proton Rich Exotic pf-shell Nuclei Deduced from Mirror Transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, Y.; Adachi, T.; Fujita, H.; Blank, B.; Brentano, P. von; Zell, K. O.; Berg, G. P. A.; Fujita, K.; Hatanaka, K.; Nakanishi, K.; Shimizu, Y.; Tameshige, Y.; Tamii, A.; Yosoi, M.; Negret, A.; Popescu, L.; Rubio, B.; Shimbara, Y.

    2010-08-12

    The rp-process nucleosynthesis proceeds through nuclei near the proton drip-line, in which Gamow-Teller (GT) transitions starting from unstable pf-shell nuclei play important roles. In the {beta}-decay study of these nuclei, half-lives can be measured rather accurately. On the other hand, in the high-resolution ({sup 3}He, t) charge-exchange reactions on mirror nuclei, individual GT transitions can be studied up to high excitations. For the accurate study of the GT transition strengths in the A = 52, T = 2, system, we compare and combine the {beta}-decay study of the proton-rich nucleus {sup 52}Ni and the {sup 52}Cr({sup 3}He, t) measurement assuming the isospin symmetry of the T{sub z} = {+-}2{yields}{+-}1 transitions.

  9. Neutron Skins and Halo Orbits in the sd and pf Shells.

    PubMed

    Bonnard, J; Lenzi, S M; Zuker, A P

    2016-05-27

    The strong dependence of Coulomb energies on nuclear radii makes it possible to extract the latter from calculations of the former. The resulting estimates of neutron skins indicate that two mechanisms are involved. The first one-isovector monopole polarizability-amounts to noting that when a particle is added to a system it drives the radii of neutrons and protons in different directions, tending to equalize the radii of both fluids independently of the neutron excess. This mechanism is well understood and the Duflo-Zuker (small) neutron skin values derived 14 years ago are consistent with recent measures and estimates. The alternative mechanism involves halo orbits whose huge sizes tend to make the neutron skins larger and have a subtle influence on the radial behavior of sd and pf shell nuclei. In particular, they account for the sudden rise in the isotope shifts of nuclei beyond N=28 and the near constancy of radii in the A=40-56 region. This mechanism, detected here for the first time, is not well understood and may well go beyond the Efimov physics usually associated with halo orbits. PMID:27284653

  10. Shell-model study for neutron-rich sd-shell nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Kaneko, Kazunari; Sun Yang; Mizusaki, Takahiro; Hasegawa, Munetake

    2011-01-15

    The microscopic structure of neutron-rich sd-shell nuclei is investigated by using the spherical-shell model in the sd-pf valence space with the extended pairing plus quadrupole-quadrupole forces accompanied by the monopole interaction (EPQQM). The calculation reproduces systematically the known energy levels for even-even and odd-mass nuclei including the recent data for {sup 43}S, {sup 46}S, and {sup 47}Ar. In particular, the erosion of the N=28 shell closure in {sup 42}Si can be explained. Our EPQQM results are compared with other shell-model calculations with the SDPF-NR and SDPF-U effective interactions.

  11. Gamow-Teller Transitions in Proton-Rich pf-shell Nuclei-relevance to supernovae explosions-

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, Y.; Rubio, B.; Gelletly, W.

    2008-05-21

    Gamow-Teller (GT) transitions starting from unstable pf-shell nuclei play important roles in neutrino-induced reactions that happen under the extremely high temperature conditions in core-collapse (type II) supernovae. In the {beta} decay, it is difficult to obtain GT strengths B(GT) to higher excited states, but accurate half-lives can be measured. On the other hand, high-resolution ({sup 3}He,t) charge-exchange reactions at 0 deg. and at 420 MeV yield cross-sections, that are proportional to B(GT) values, for individual transitions up to high excitation. Assuming isospin symmetry, we performed a unique analysis to determine absolute B(GT) values for the T{sub z} {+-}1{yields}0 analogous GT transitions. Further {beta}-decay studies for unstable pf-shell nuclei to obtain accurate half-lives and feeding ratios are in progress.

  12. Effective Interactions from No Core Shell Model

    SciTech Connect

    Dikmen, E.; Lisetskiy, A. F.; Barrett, B. R.; Navratil, P.; Vary, J. P.

    2008-11-11

    We construct the many-body effective Hamiltonian for pf-shell by carrying out 2({Dirac_h}/2{pi}){omega}. NCSM calculations at the 2-body cluster level. We demonstrate how the effective Hamiltonian derived from realistic nucleon-nucleon (NN) potentials for the 2({Dirac_h}/2{pi}){omega} NCSM space should be modified to properly account for the many-body correlations produced by truncating to the major pf-shell. We obtain two-body effective interactions for the pf-shell by using direct projection and use them to reproduce the results of large scale NCSM for other light Ca isotopes.

  13. Gamow-Teller Transitions and beta-decay Half-life in Proton Rich pf-shell Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, Y.; Adachi, T.; Fujita, H.; Shimbara, Y.; Blank, B.; Brentano, P. von; Zell, K. O.; Berg, G. P. A.; Fujita, K.; Hatanaka, K.; Nakanishi, K.; Shimizu, Y.; Tameshige, Y.; Tamii, A.; Yosoi, M.; Negret, A.; Popescu, L.; Rubio, B.

    2010-06-01

    In violent neutrino-induced reactions at the core-collapse stage of type II supernovae, Gamow-Teller (GT) transitions starting from stable as well as unstable pf-shell nuclei play important roles. In the beta-decay study of these unstable pf-shell nuclei, half-lives can be measured rather accurately. On the other hand, in high-resolution ({sup 3}He,t) charge-exchange reactions at 0 deg., individual GT transitions up to high excitations can be studied. Assuming the isospin symmetry for the strengths of T{sub z} = +-2->+-1 analogous GT transitions, we present a 'merged analysis' for the determination of GT transition strengths starting from proton-rich T{sub z} = -2 nuclei. We applied this analysis to the A = 52, T = 2 system, and it was found that the GT transitions and the properties of the {sup 52}Nibeta decay can be understood better by combining the mirror GT strength distribution obtained from the {sup 52}Cr({sup 3}He,t) reaction.

  14. New Perspective on PF_n (n=1--5) from the Recoupled Pair Bonding Model: a Quantum Chemical Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woon, D. E.; Dunning, T. H., Jr.

    2010-06-01

    Structures of the PF_n family (n=1--5) were characterized with high level RCCSD(T) coupled cluster theory calculations using triple and quadruple zeta quality correlation consistent basis sets. In addition to accounting for the well-known ground states of PF through PF_5, insight from the recoupled pair bonding model also led to locating a previously unknown ^3B_1 state of PF_3, which lies about 90 kcal/mol above PF_3(^1A_1) but is still bound with respect to PF_2(^2B_1)+F(^2P) by about 40 kcal/mol. We also revisited the less-studied C3v local minimum on the PF_4 doublet surface and characterized the transition state for interconversion to the C2v global minimum. The energetics suggest that both PF_3(^3B_1) and C3v PF_4(^2A_1) are potentially observable in the laboratory. The trends in the bond dissociation energies and relative energy differences of the PF_n family are very consistent with predictions from the recoupled pair bonding model.

  15. Absolute oscillator strengths for the valence and inner (P 2p,2s) shell photoabsorption, photoionization, and ionic photofragmentation of PF 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Au, Jennifer W.; Brion, C. E.

    1997-08-01

    Absolute oscillator strengths (cross-sections) for the photoabsorption of phosphorus pentafluoride (PF 5) have been measured for the first time in the valence and phosphorus 2p discrete regions using high-resolution (0.0-0.1 eV fwhm), dipole ( e, e) spectroscopy. Long-range data (10-300 eV) have also been obtained at lower resolution (1 eV fwhm), from which the absolute oscillator strength scale has been determined using the valence-shell Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum-rule. The accuracy of the present measurement has been tested using the S(-2) sum rule normalization. Evaluation of the S(-2) sum using the presently reported absolute photoabsorption oscillator strength data gives a dipole polarizabilit for PF 5 in good agreement with the experimental value. The photoionization efficiencies, photoion branching ratios, and absolute partial oscillator strengths for molecular and dissociative photoionization have also been determined for PF 5 by dipole ( e, e+ion) coincidence spectroscopy from the first ionization threshold up to and above the phosphorus 2p edge.

  16. Tryout of the vacuum impregnation procedure for the ITER PF1 coil on the VPI mold made of plastic shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoriev, S.; Rodin, I.; Tanchuk, V.; Korban, S.; Bursikov, A.; Mednikov, A.; Pugachev, A.

    2014-05-01

    The PF1 Coil as part of the ITER superconducting magnet system is intended for positioning and shaping of the magnetic poloidal field. The technical specification for the PF1 coil requires a full-scale simulation of the basic technological processes including vacuum pressure impregnation (VPI). Usually, a VPI mold is made of massive stainless steel walls to get the required quality of the monolithic structure of the pancake insulation by hot-curing compound. As a result, we obtain a high-cost furnace with a considerable amount of steel inside to be heated up to the specified temperature; excessive energy consumption for the furnace heating system; problems with the vacuum tightness of the VPI mold. The impregnation procedure using a VPI "plastic" mold was proposed so as to avoid the above mentioned shortcomings associated with the use of the furnace made of stainless steel.

  17. Isothermal Circumstellar Dust Shell Model for Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, G.; Towers, I. N.; Jovanoski, Z.

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a model of radiative transfer in circumstellar dust shells. By assuming that the shell is both isothermal and its thickness is small compared to its radius, the model is simple enough for students to grasp and yet still provides a quantitative description of the relevant physical features. The isothermal model can be used in a…

  18. Layzer type models for pressure driven shells

    SciTech Connect

    Hurricane, O A

    2004-09-16

    Models for the nonlinear instability of finite thickness shells driven by pressure are constructed in the style of Layzer. Equations for both Cartesian and cylindrically convergent/divergent geometries are derived. The resulting equations are appropriate for incompressible shells with unity Atwood number. Predictions from the equations compare well with two-dimensional simulations.

  19. Shell Model Depiction of Isospin Mixing in sd Shell

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, Yi Hua; Smirnova, Nadya A.; Caurier, Etienne

    2011-11-30

    We constructed a new empirical isospin-symmetry breaking (ISB) Hamiltonian in the sd(1s{sub 1/2}, 0d{sub 5/2} and 0d{sub 3/2}) shell-model space. In this contribution, we present its application to two important case studies: (i){beta}-delayed proton emission from {sup 22}Al and (ii) isospin-mixing correction to superallowed 0{sup +}{yields}0{sup +}{beta}-decay ft-values.

  20. Differential response of oyster shell powder on enzyme profile and nutritional value of oyster mushroom Pleurotus florida PF05.

    PubMed

    Naraian, Ram; Narayan, Om Prakash; Srivastava, Jatin

    2014-01-01

    Oyster mushroom Pleurotus florida was cultivated on different combinations of wheat straw (WS) as basal substrate and oyster shell powder (OSP) supplement. The OSP supplementation considerably responded to different cultivation phases. The mycelium grew fast and showed rapid growth rate (8.91 mmd(-1)) in WS + OSP (97 + 3) combination while WS + OSP (92 + 8) showed maximum laccase (3.133 U/g) and Mn peroxidase (MnP) activities (0.091 U/g). The climax level of laccase (5.433 U/g) and MnP (0.097 U/g) was recorded during fruit body initiation in WS + OSP (97 + 3) and WS + OSP (98 + 2) combinations, respectively. The WS + OSP (97 + 3) combination represented the best condition for mushroom cultivation and produced the highest biological efficiency (147%). In addition, protein and lipid contents in fruit bodies were slightly improved in response to OSP. The carbohydrate was significantly increased by raising concentration of OSP. The highest values of protein, carbohydrate, and lipid noted were 31.3 μg/g, 0.0639 (g/g), and 0.373 (g/g) correspondingly. Conclusively it was evident that lower concentrations of OSP acted positively and relatively to higher concentrations and improved nutritional content which may suitably be used to enhance both yield and nutritional values of mushroom. PMID:25054140

  1. Differential Response of Oyster Shell Powder on Enzyme Profile and Nutritional Value of Oyster Mushroom Pleurotus florida PF05

    PubMed Central

    Naraian, Ram; Narayan, Om Prakash; Srivastava, Jatin

    2014-01-01

    Oyster mushroom Pleurotus florida was cultivated on different combinations of wheat straw (WS) as basal substrate and oyster shell powder (OSP) supplement. The OSP supplementation considerably responded to different cultivation phases. The mycelium grew fast and showed rapid growth rate (8.91 mmd−1) in WS + OSP (97 + 3) combination while WS + OSP (92 + 8) showed maximum laccase (3.133 U/g) and Mn peroxidase (MnP) activities (0.091 U/g). The climax level of laccase (5.433 U/g) and MnP (0.097 U/g) was recorded during fruit body initiation in WS + OSP (97 + 3) and WS + OSP (98 + 2) combinations, respectively. The WS + OSP (97 + 3) combination represented the best condition for mushroom cultivation and produced the highest biological efficiency (147%). In addition, protein and lipid contents in fruit bodies were slightly improved in response to OSP. The carbohydrate was significantly increased by raising concentration of OSP. The highest values of protein, carbohydrate, and lipid noted were 31.3 μg/g, 0.0639 (g/g), and 0.373 (g/g) correspondingly. Conclusively it was evident that lower concentrations of OSP acted positively and relatively to higher concentrations and improved nutritional content which may suitably be used to enhance both yield and nutritional values of mushroom. PMID:25054140

  2. Molecular interaction of selected phytochemicals under the charged environment of Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (PfCRT) model.

    PubMed

    Patel, Saumya K; Khedkar, Vijay M; Jha, Prakash C; Jasrai, Yogesh T; Pandya, Himanshu A; George, Linz-Buoy; Highland, Hyacinth N; Skelton, Adam A

    2016-01-01

    Phytochemicals of Catharanthus roseus Linn. and Tylophora indica have been known for their inhibition of malarial parasite, Plasmodium falciparum in cell culture. Resistance to chloroquine (CQ), a widely used antimalarial drug, is due to the CQ resistance transporter (CRT) system. The present study deals with computational modeling of Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (PfCRT) protein and development of charged environment to mimic a condition of resistance. The model of PfCRT was developed using Protein homology/analogy engine (PHYRE ver 0.2) and was validated based on the results obtained using PSI-PRED. Subsequently, molecular interactions of selected phytochemicals extracted from C. roseus Linn. and T. indica were studied using multiple-iterated genetic algorithm-based docking protocol in order to investigate the translocation of these legends across the PfCRT protein. Further, molecular dynamics studies exhibiting interaction energy estimates of these compounds within the active site of the protein showed that compounds are more selective toward PfCRT. Clusters of conformations with the free energy of binding were estimated which clearly demonstrated the potential channel and by this means the translocation across the PfCRT is anticipated. PMID:25783783

  3. Structure of unstable nuclei around N = 28 described by a shell model with the monopole-based universal interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Utsuno, Yutaka; Otsuka, Takaharu; Brown, B. Alex; Honma, Michio; Mizusaki, Takahiro

    2011-05-06

    The structure of exotic nuclei around N = 28 is investigated in the sd-pf shell-model space using a new effective interaction. The cross-shell part of the interaction is provided by the monopole-based universal interaction which has been successful in accounting for single-particle evolution in several mass regions. Focusing on the nuclear structure that is sensitive to the shell evolution, we show successful results for the proton-hole states in K isotopes and large deformation in {sup 42}Si. The results demonstrate that the present scheme may be a promising way for constructing an effective interaction for other mass regions.

  4. New developments of the nuclear shell model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poves, Alfredo

    2002-04-01

    More than fifty years ago, the independent particle model of the nucleus was proposed by M. Goeppert-Mayer and H. Jensen. The label "shell model" has since changed meaning and nowadays it applies mainly to the description of the nucleus that results of the mixing of many Slater determinants by an effective "in medium" interaction, usually limited to one and two-body terms. The advent of efficient new algorithms to solve the secular problem, together with the increase in speed and storage capacity of modern computers, has brought into the reach of large scale shell model calculations entire regions of nuclei and of nuclear phenomena traditionally considered to be out of the shell model realm. This enormous extension of its field of practical applications has occurred simultaneously with a regain of experimental interest in the nuclear spectroscopy, in particular in very neutron rich and N=Z nuclei. The shell model work in large model spaces demands a very complete understanding of the effective nuclear interaction, a basic goal of the nuclear theory. Besides, the huge increase of dimensionality that occurs when many valence orbits and valence particles are involved, is a formidable challenge for both the direct diagonalization shell model codes and for the many different approximations, based most often in physically guided truncations of the full shell model basis. In this talk I aim to transmit the effervescence of the field by highlighting the most important recent advances and applications.

  5. The kinetics of antibody binding to Plasmodium falciparum VAR2CSA PfEMP1 antigen and modelling of PfEMP1 antigen packing on the membrane knobs

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Infected humans make protective antibody responses to the PfEMP1 adhesion antigens exported by Plasmodium falciparum parasites to the erythrocyte membrane, but little is known about the kinetics of this antibody-receptor binding reaction or how the topology of PfEMP1 on the parasitized erythrocyte membrane influences antibody association with, and dissociation from, its antigenic target. Methods A Quartz Crystal Microbalance biosensor was used to measure the association and dissociation kinetics of VAR2CSA PfEMP1 binding to human monoclonal antibodies. Immuno-fluorescence microscopy was used to visualize antibody-mediated adhesion between the surfaces of live infected erythrocytes and atomic force microscopy was used to obtain higher resolution images of the membrane knobs on the infected erythrocyte to estimate knob surface areas and model VAR2CSA packing density on the knob. Results Kinetic analysis indicates that antibody dissociation from the VAR2CSA PfEMP1 antigen is extremely slow when there is a high avidity interaction. High avidity binding to PfEMP1 antigens on the surface of P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes in turn requires bivalent cross-linking of epitopes positioned within the distance that can be bridged by antibody. Calculations of the surface area of the knobs and the possible densities of PfEMP1 packing on the knobs indicate that high-avidity cross-linking antibody reactions are constrained by the architecture of the knobs and the large size of PfEMP1 molecules. Conclusions High avidity is required to achieve the strongest binding to VAR2CSA PfEMP1, but the structures that display PfEMP1 also tend to inhibit cross-linking between PfEMP1 antigens, by holding many binding epitopes at distances beyond the 15-18 nm sweep radius of an antibody. The large size of PfEMP1 will also constrain intra-knob cross-linking interactions. This analysis indicates that effective vaccines targeting the parasite's vulnerable adhesion receptors should

  6. PF-04886847 (an inhibitor of plasma kallikrein) attenuates inflammatory mediators and activation of blood coagulation in rat model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) - induced sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Kolte, D; Bryant, JW; Gibson, GW; Wang, J; Shariat-Madar, Z

    2016-01-01

    The plasma kallikrein-mediated proteolysis regulates both thrombosis and inflammation. Previous study has shown that PF-04886847 is a potent and competitive inhibitor of kallikrein, suggesting that it might be useful for the treatment of kallikrein-kinin mediated inflammatory and thrombotic disorders. In the rat model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) -induced sepsis used in this study, pretreatment of rats with PF-04886847 (1 mg/kg) prior to LPS (10 mg/kg) prevented endotoxin-induced increase in granulocyte count in the systemic circulation. PF-04886847 significantly reduced the elevated plasma 6-keto PGF1α levels in LPS treated rats, suggesting that PF-04886847 could be useful in preventing hypotensive shock during sepsis. PF-04886847 did not inhibit LPS-induced increase in plasma TNF-α level. Pretreatment of rats with PF-04886847 prior to LPS did not attenuate endotoxin-induced decrease in platelet count and plasma fibrinogen levels as well as increase in plasma D-dimer levels. PF-04886847 did not protect the animals against LPS-mediated acute hepatic and renal injury and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Since prekallikrein (the zymogen form of plasma kallikrein) deficient patients have prolonged aPPT without having any bleeding disorder, the anti-thrombotic property and mechanism of action of PF-04886847 was assessed. In a rabbit balloon injury model designed to mimic clinical conditions of acute thrombotic events, PF-04886847 reduced thrombus mass dose-dependently. PF-04886847 (1 mg/kg) prolonged both activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and prothrombin time (PT) in a dose-dependent manner. Although the findings of this study indicate that PF-04886847 possesses limited anti-thrombotic and anti-inflammatory effects, PF-04886847 may have therapeutic potential in other kallikrein-kinin mediated diseases. PMID:22352684

  7. Singular Shell Embedded into a Cosmological Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grøn, Øyvind; Rippis, Peter D.

    2003-12-01

    We generalize Israel's formalism to cover singular shells embedded in a non-vacuum Universe. That is, we deduce the relativistic equation of motion for a thin shell embedded in a Schwarzschild/Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker spacetime. Also, we review the embedding of a Schwarzschild mass into a cosmological model using ``curvature'' coordinates and give solutions with (Sch/FLRW) and without the embedded mass (FLRW).

  8. Uncertainties in modelling and scaling of critical flows and pump model in TRAC-PF1/MOD1

    SciTech Connect

    Rohatgi, U.S.; Yu, Wen-Shi

    1987-01-01

    The USNRC has established a Code Scalability, Applicability and Uncertainty (CSAU) evaluation methodology to quantify the uncertainty in the prediction of safety parameters by the best estimate codes. These codes can then be applied to evaluate the Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS). The TRAC-PF1/MOD1 version was selected as the first code to undergo the CSAU analysis for LBLOCA applications. It was established through this methodology that break flow and pump models are among the top ranked models in the code affecting the peak clad temperature (PCT) prediction for LBLOCA. The break flow model bias or discrepancy and the uncertainty were determined by modelling the test section near the break for 12 Marviken tests. It was observed that the TRAC-PF1/MOD1 code consistently underpredicts the break flow rate and that the prediction improved with increasing pipe length (larger L/D). This is true for both subcooled and two-phase critical flows. A pump model was developed from Westinghouse (1/3 scale) data. The data represent the largest available test pump relevant to Westinghouse PWRs. It was then shown through the analysis of CE and CREARE pump data that larger pumps degrade less and also that pumps degrade less at higher pressures. Since the model developed here is based on the 1/3 scale pump and on low pressure data, it is conservative and will overpredict the degradation when applied to PWRs.

  9. Continuous representation for shell models of turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mailybaev, Alexei A.

    2015-07-01

    In this work we construct and analyze continuous hydrodynamic models in one space dimension, which are induced by shell models of turbulence. After Fourier transformation, such continuous models split into an infinite number of uncoupled subsystems, which are all identical to the same shell model. The two shell models, which allow such a construction, are considered: the dyadic (Desnyansky-Novikov) model with the intershell ratio λ = 23/2 and the Sabra model of turbulence with λ = \\sqrt{2+\\sqrt{5}} ≈ 2.058 . The continuous models allow for understanding of various properties of shell model solutions and provide their interpretation in physical space. We show that the asymptotic solutions of the dyadic model with Kolmogorov scaling correspond to the shocks (discontinuities) for the induced continuous solutions in physical space, and the finite-time blowup together with its viscous regularization follow the scenario similar to the Burgers equation. For the Sabra model, we provide the physical space representation for blowup solutions and intermittent turbulent dynamics.

  10. Modeling of microencapsulated polymer shell solidification

    SciTech Connect

    Boone, T.; Cheung, L.; Nelson, D.; Soane, D.; Wilemski, G.; Cook, R.

    1995-03-08

    A finite element transport model has been developed and implemented to complement experimental efforts to improve the quality of ICF target shells produced via controlled-mass microencapsulation. The model provides an efficient means to explore the effect of processing variables on the dynamics of shell dimensions, concentricity, and phase behavior. Comparisons with experiments showed that the model successfully predicts the evolution of wall thinning and core/wall density differences. The model was used to efficiently explore and identify initial wall compositions and processing temperatures which resulted in concentricity improvements from 65 to 99%. The evolution of trace amounts of water entering into the shell wall was also tracked in the simulations. Comparisons with phase envelope estimations from modified UNIFAP calculations suggest that the water content trajectory approaches the two-phase region where vacuole formation via microphase separation may occur.

  11. Shell model for buoyancy-driven turbulence.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Abhishek; Verma, Mahendra K

    2015-04-01

    In this paper we present a unified shell model for stably stratified and convective turbulence. Numerical simulation of this model for stably stratified flow shows Bolgiano-Obukhbov scaling in which the kinetic energy spectrum varies as k(-11/5). The shell model of convective turbulence yields Kolmogorov's spectrum. These results are consistent with the energy flux and energy feed due to buoyancy, and are in good agreement with direct numerical simulations of Kumar et al. [Phys. Rev. E 90, 023016 (2014)]. PMID:25974587

  12. Shape coexistence: the shell model view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poves, A.

    2016-02-01

    We shall discuss the meaning of the ‘nuclear shape’ in the laboratory frame proper to the spherical shell model. A brief historical promenade will bring us from Elliott’s SU3 breakthrough to today’s large scale shell model calculations. A section is devoted to the algebraic model which extends drastically the field of applicability of Elliot’s SU3, providing a precious heuristic guidance for the exploration of collectivity in the nuclear chart. Shape coexistence and shape mixing will be shown to occur as the result of the competition between the main actors in the nuclear dynamics; the spherical mean field, and the pairing and quadrupole-quadrupole interactions. These ideas will be illustrated with examples in magic nuclei (40Ca and 68Ni); neutron rich semi-magic (32Mg, and 64Cr); and in proton rich N = Z (72Kr).

  13. Nuclear level density: Shell-model approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen'kov, Roman; Zelevinsky, Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    Knowledge of the nuclear level density is necessary for understanding various reactions, including those in the stellar environment. Usually the combinatorics of a Fermi gas plus pairing is used for finding the level density. Recently a practical algorithm avoiding diagonalization of huge matrices was developed for calculating the density of many-body nuclear energy levels with certain quantum numbers for a full shell-model Hamiltonian. The underlying physics is that of quantum chaos and intrinsic thermalization in a closed system of interacting particles. We briefly explain this algorithm and, when possible, demonstrate the agreement of the results with those derived from exact diagonalization. The resulting level density is much smoother than that coming from conventional mean-field combinatorics. We study the role of various components of residual interactions in the process of thermalization, stressing the influence of incoherent collision-like processes. The shell-model results for the traditionally used parameters are also compared with standard phenomenological approaches.

  14. Shell Model Description of the Decay Out of the Superdeformed Band of {sup 36}Ar

    SciTech Connect

    Caurier, E.; Nowacki, F.

    2005-07-22

    Large scale shell model calculations in the valence space spanned by two major oscillator shells (sd and pf) describe simultaneously the superdeformed excited band of {sup 36}Ar and its spherical ground state. We explain the appearance of this superdeformed band at low excitation energy as a consequence of the very large quadrupole correlation energy of the configurations with many particles and many holes (np-nh) relative to the normal filling of the spherical mean field orbits (0p-0h). We study the mechanism of mixing between the different configurations to understand why the superdeformed band survives and how it finally decays into the low-lying spherical states via the indirect mixing of the 0p-0h and 4p-4h configurations.

  15. The Shell-Model Code NuShellX@MSU

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, B.A.; Rae, W.D.M.

    2014-06-15

    Use of the code NuShellX@MSU is outlined. It connects to the ENSDF data files for automatic comparisons to energy level data. Operator overlaps provide predictions for spectroscopic factors, two-nucleon transfer amplitudes, nuclear moments, gamma decay and beta decay.

  16. Symmetries and deformations in the spherical shell model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Isacker, P.; Pittel, S.

    2016-02-01

    We discuss symmetries of the spherical shell model that make contact with the geometric collective model of Bohr and Mottelson. The most celebrated symmetry of this kind is SU(3), which is the basis of Elliott’s model of rotation. It corresponds to a deformed mean field induced by a quadrupole interaction in a single major oscillator shell N and can be generalized to include several major shells. As such, Elliott’s SU(3) model establishes the link between the spherical shell model and the (quadrupole component of the) geometric collective model. We introduce the analogue symmetry induced by an octupole interaction in two major oscillator shells N-1 and N, leading to an octupole-deformed solution of the spherical shell model. We show that in the limit of large oscillator shells, N\\to ∞ , the algebraic octupole interaction tends to that of the geometric collective model.

  17. Improved Shell models for screened Coulomb balls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonitz, M.; Kaehlert, H.; Henning, C.; Baumgartner, H.; Filinov, A.

    2006-10-01

    Spherical Coulomb crystals in dusty plasmas [1] are well described by an isotropic Yukawa-type pair interaction and an external parabolic confinement as was shown by extensive molecular dynamics simulations [2]. A much simpler description is possible with analytical shell models which have been derived for Yukawas plasmas in [3,4]. Here we analyze improved Yukawa shell models which include correlations along the lines proposed for Coulomb crystals in [5]. The shell configurations are efficiently evaluated using a Monte Carlo procedure. [1] O. Arp, A. Piel and A. Melzer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 165004 (2004). [2] M. Bonitz, D. Block, O. Arp, V. Golunychiy, H. Baumgartner, P. Ludwig, A. Piel and A. Filinov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 075001 (2006). [3] H. Totsuji, C. Totsuji, T. Ogawa, and K. Tsuruta, Phys. Rev. E 71, 045401 (2005). [4] C. Henning, M. Bonitz, A. Piel, P. Ludwig, H. Baumgartner, V. Golubnichiy, and D. Block, submitted to Phys. Rev. E [5] W.D. Kraeft and M. Bonitz, J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 35, 94 (2006).

  18. Shell model for warm rotating nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuo, M.; Yoshida, K.; Dossing, T.

    1996-12-31

    Utilizing a shell model which combines the cranked Nilsson mean-field and the residual surface and volume delta two-body forces, the authors discuss the onset of rotational damping in normal- and super-deformed nuclei. Calculation for a typical normal deformed nucleus {sup 168}Yb indicates that the rotational damping sets in at around 0.8 MeV above the yrast line, and about 30 rotational bands of various length exists at a given rotational frequency, in overall agreement with experimental findings. It is predicted that the onset of rotational damping changes significantly in different superdeformed nuclei due to the variety of the shell gaps and single-particle orbits associated with the superdeformed mean-field.

  19. No-Core Shell Model and Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Navratil, Petr; Ormand, W. Erich; Caurier, Etienne; Bertulani, Carlos

    2005-10-14

    There has been a significant progress in ab initio approaches to the structure of light nuclei. Starting from realistic two- and three-nucleon interactions the ab initio no-core shell model (NCSM) can predict low-lying levels in p-shell nuclei. It is a challenging task to extend ab initio methods to describe nuclear reactions. In this contribution, we present a brief overview of the NCSM with examples of recent applications as well as the first steps taken toward nuclear reaction applications. In particular, we discuss cross section calculations of p+6Li and 6He+p scattering as well as a calculation of the astrophysically important 7Be(p,{gamma})8B S-factor.

  20. No-Core Shell Model and Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Navratil, P; Ormand, W E; Caurier, E; Bertulani, C

    2005-04-29

    There has been a significant progress in ab initio approaches to the structure of light nuclei. Starting from realistic two- and three-nucleon interactions the ab initio no-core shell model (NCSM) can predict low-lying levels in p-shell nuclei. It is a challenging task to extend ab initio methods to describe nuclear reactions. In this contribution, we present a brief overview of the NCSM with examples of recent applications as well as the first steps taken toward nuclear reaction applications. In particular, we discuss cross section calculations of p+{sup 6}Li and {sup 6}He+p scattering as well as a calculation of the astrophysically important {sup 7}Be(p, {gamma}){sup 8}B S-factor.

  1. A model of layered prismatic shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaiani, George

    2016-05-01

    The present paper is devoted to a model for elastic layered prismatic shells which is constructed by means of a suggested in the paper approach which essentially differs from the known approaches for constructing models of laminated structures. Using Vekua's dimension reduction method after appropriate modifications, hierarchical models for elastic layered prismatic shells are constructed. We get coupled governing systems for the whole structure in the projection of the structure. The advantage of this model consists in the fact that we solve boundary value problems separately for each ply. In addition, beginning with the second ply, we use a solution of a boundary value problem of the preceding ply. We indicate ways of investigating boundary value problems for the governing systems. For the sake of simplicity, we consider the case of two plies, in the zeroth approximation. However, we also make remarks concerning the cases when either the number of plies is more than two or higher-order approximations (hierarchical models) should be applied. As an example, we consider a special case of deformation and solve the corresponding boundary value problem in the explicit form.

  2. An investigation of ab initio shell-model interactions derived by no-core shell model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, XiaoBao; Dong, GuoXiang; Li, QingFeng; Shen, CaiWan; Yu, ShaoYing

    2016-09-01

    The microscopic shell-model effective interactions are mainly based on the many-body perturbation theory (MBPT), the first work of which can be traced to Brown and Kuo's first attempt in 1966, derived from the Hamada-Johnston nucleon-nucleon potential. However, the convergence of the MBPT is still unclear. On the other hand, ab initio theories, such as Green's function Monte Carlo (GFMC), no-core shell model (NCSM), and coupled-cluster theory with single and double excitations (CCSD), have made many progress in recent years. However, due to the increasing demanding of computing resources, these ab initio applications are usually limited to nuclei with mass up to A = 16. Recently, people have realized the ab initio construction of valence-space effective interactions, which is obtained through a second-time renormalization, or to be more exactly, projecting the full-manybody Hamiltonian into core, one-body, and two-body cluster parts. In this paper, we present the investigation of such ab initio shell-model interactions, by the recent derived sd-shell effective interactions based on effective J-matrix Inverse Scattering Potential (JISP) and chiral effective-field theory (EFT) through NCSM. In this work, we have seen the similarity between the ab initio shellmodel interactions and the interactions obtained by MBPT or by empirical fitting. Without the inclusion of three-body (3-bd) force, the ab initio shell-model interactions still share similar defects with the microscopic interactions by MBPT, i.e., T = 1 channel is more attractive while T = 0 channel is more repulsive than empirical interactions. The progress to include more many-body correlations and 3-bd force is still badly needed, to see whether such efforts of ab initio shell-model interactions can reach similar precision as the interactions fitted to experimental data.

  3. Coexistence of spherical states with deformed and superdeformed bands in doubly magic {sup 40}Ca: A shell-model challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Caurier, E.; Nowacki, F.

    2007-05-15

    Large-scale shell-model calculations, with dimensions reaching 10{sup 9}, are carried out to describe the recently observed deformed (ND) and superdeformed (SD) bands based on the first and second excited 0{sup +} states of {sup 40}Ca at 3.35 and 5.21 MeV, respectively. A valence space comprising two major oscillator shells, sd and pf, can accommodate most of the relevant degrees of freedom of this problem. The ND band is dominated by configurations with four particles promoted to the pf shell (4p-4h in short). The SD band by 8p-8h configurations. The ground state of {sup 40}Ca is strongly correlated, but the closed shell still amounts to 65%. The energies of the bands are very well reproduced by the calculations. The out-band transitions connecting the SD band with other states are very small and depend on the details of the mixing among the different np-nh configurations; in spite of that, the calculation describes them reasonably. For the in-band transition probabilities along the SD band, we predict a fairly constant transition quadrupole moment Q{sub 0}(t){approx}170 e fm{sup 2} up to J=10 that decreases toward the higher spins. We submit also that the J=8 states of the deformed and superdeformed bands are maximally mixed.

  4. A shell model for turbulent dynamos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nigro, G.; Perrone, D.; Veltri, P.

    2011-06-01

    A self-consistent nonlinear dynamo model is presented. The nonlinear behavior of the plasma at small scale is described by using a MHD shell model for fields fluctuations; this allow us to study the dynamo problem in a large parameter regime which characterizes the dynamo phenomenon in many natural systems and which is beyond the power of supercomputers at today. The model is able to reproduce dynamical situations in which the system can undergo transactions to different dynamo regimes. In one of these the large-scale magnetic field jumps between two states reproducing the magnetic polarity reversals. From the analysis of long time series of reversals we infer results about the statistics of persistence times, revealing the presence of hidden long-time correlations in the chaotic dynamo process.

  5. Molecular modeling, in silico screening and molecular dynamics of PfPRL-PTP of P. falciparum for identification of potential anti-malarials.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sachin; Joshi, Deepti; Soni, Rani; Sharma, Drista; Bhatt, Tarun Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Millions of deaths occur every year due to malaria. Growing resistance against existing drugs for treatment of malaria has exaggerated the problem further. There is an intense demand of identifying drug targets in malaria parasite. PfPRL-PTP protein is PRL group of phosphatase, and one of the interesting drug targets being involved in three important pathways of malaria parasite (secretion, phosphorylation, and prenylation). Therefore, in this study, we have modeled three-dimensional structure of PfPRL-PTP followed by validation of 3D structure using RAMPAGE, verify3D, and other structure validation tools. We could identify 12 potential inhibitory compounds using in silico screening of NCI library against PfPRL-PTP with Glide. The molecular dynamics simulation was also performed using GROMACS on PfPRL-PTP model alone and PfPRL-PTP-inhibitor complex. This study of identifying potential drug-like molecules would add up to the process of drug discovery against malaria parasite. PMID:26313238

  6. Modeling of human M1 aminopeptidases for in silico screening of potential Plasmodium falciparum alanine aminopeptidase (PfA-M1) specific inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Sahi, Shakti; Rai, Sneha; Chaudhary, Meenakshi; Nain, Vikrant

    2014-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum alanine M1-aminopeptidase (PfA-M1) is a validated target for anti-malarial drug development. Presence of significant similarity between PfA-M1 and human M1-aminopeptidases, particularly within regions of enzyme active site leads to problem of non-specificity and off-target binding for known aminopeptidase inhibitors. Molecular docking based in silico screening approach for off-target binding has high potential but requires 3D-structure of all human M1-aminopeptidaes. Therefore, in the present study 3D structural models of seven human M1-aminopeptidases were developed. The robustness of docking parameters and quality of predicted human M1-aminopeptidases structural models was evaluated by stereochemical analysis and docking of their respective known inhibitors. The docking scores were in agreement with the inhibitory concentrations elucidated in enzyme assays of respective inhibitor enzyme combinations (r2≈0.70). Further docking analysis of fifteen potential PfA-M1 inhibitors (virtual screening identified) showed that three compounds had less docking affinity for human M1-aminopeptidases as compared to PfA-M1. These three identified potential lead compounds can be validated with enzyme assays and used as a scaffold for designing of new compounds with increased specificity towards PfA-M1. PMID:25258488

  7. Low Dimensional Models of Shell Vibrations. Parametrically Excited Vibrations of Cylinder Shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, A. A.; Thompson, J. M. T.; McRobie, F. A.

    1998-01-01

    Vibrations of cylindrical shells parametrically excited by axial forcing are considered. The governing system of two coupled non-linear partial differential equations is discretized by using Lagrange equations. The computation is simplified significantly by the application of computer algebra and as a result low dimensional models of shell vibrations are readily obtained. After applying numerical continuation techniques and ideas from dynamical systems theory, complete bifurcation diagrams are constructed. The principal aim is to investigate the interaction between different modes of shell vibration. Results for system models with two of the lowest modes are discussed.

  8. Modelling apical constriction in epithelia using elastic shell theory.

    PubMed

    Jones, Gareth Wyn; Chapman, S Jonathan

    2010-06-01

    Apical constriction is one of the fundamental mechanisms by which embryonic tissue is deformed, giving rise to the shape and form of the fully-developed organism. The mechanism involves a contraction of fibres embedded in the apical side of epithelial tissues, leading to an invagination or folding of the cell sheet. In this article the phenomenon is modelled mechanically by describing the epithelial sheet as an elastic shell, which contains a surface representing the continuous mesh formed from the embedded fibres. Allowing this mesh to contract, an enhanced shell theory is developed in which the stiffness and bending tensors of the shell are modified to include the fibres' stiffness, and in which the active effects of the contraction appear as body forces in the shell equilibrium equations. Numerical examples are presented at the end, including the bending of a plate and a cylindrical shell (modelling neurulation) and the invagination of a spherical shell (modelling simple gastrulation). PMID:19859751

  9. Shell model study of the neutron-rich nuclei around N=28

    SciTech Connect

    Retamosa, J.; Caurier, E.; Poves, A.

    1997-03-01

    We describe the properties of the neutron-rich nuclei around N=28 in the shell mode framework. The valence space includes the sd shell for protons and the pf shell for neutrons without any restriction. Good agreement is found with the available experimental data. The N=28 shell closure persists, even if eroded by the large neutron excess. The calculations predict that {sup 40}S and {sup 42}S are deformed with {beta}=0.29 and {beta}=0.32 respectively. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  10. Removal of Arsenic in Drinking Water Kinetico Inc. and Alcan Chemicals Para-Flo™ PF60 Model AA08AS with Actiguard AAFS50

    EPA Science Inventory

    Testing of the Kinetico Inc. and Alean Chemicals Para-FloTM PF60 Model AA08AS with Actiguard AAFS50 arsenic adsorption media filter system was conducted at the Orchard Hills Mobile Home Park (MHP) Water Treatment Plant (WTP) in Carroll Township, Pennsylvania. The source water,...

  11. Modelling of the collision of two viscoelastic spherical shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossikhin, Yury A.; Shitikova, Marina V.; Manh, Duong Tuan

    2016-03-01

    In the present paper, the collision of two viscoelastic spherical shells is investigated using the wave theory of impact. The model developed here suggests that after the moment of impact quasi-longitudinal and quasi-transverse shock waves are generated, which then propagate along the spherical shells. The solution behind the wave fronts is constructed with the help of the theory of discontinuities. Since the local bearing of the materials of the colliding viscoelastic shells is taken into account, the solution in the contact domain is found via the modified Hertz contact theory involving the operator representation of viscoelastic analogs of Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio. The collision of two elastic spherical shells is considered first, and then using Volterra correspondence principle, according to which the elastic constants in the governing equations should be replaced by the corresponding viscoelastic operators, the solution obtained for elastic shells is extended over the case of viscoelastic shells.

  12. Ab Initio No-Core Shell Model

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, B R; Navratil, P; Vary, J P

    2011-04-11

    A long-standing goal of nuclear theory is to determine the properties of atomic nuclei based on the fundamental interactions among the protons and neutrons (i.e., nucleons). By adopting nucleon-nucleon (NN), three-nucleon (NNN) and higher-nucleon interactions determined from either meson-exchange theory or QCD, with couplings fixed by few-body systems, we preserve the predictive power of nuclear theory. This foundation enables tests of nature's fundamental symmetries and offers new vistas for the full range of complex nuclear phenomena. Basic questions that drive our quest for a microscopic predictive theory of nuclear phenomena include: (1) What controls nuclear saturation; (2) How the nuclear shell model emerges from the underlying theory; (3) What are the properties of nuclei with extreme neutron/proton ratios; (4) Can we predict useful cross sections that cannot be measured; (5) Can nuclei provide precision tests of the fundamental laws of nature; and (6) Under what conditions do we need QCD to describe nuclear structure, among others. Along with other ab initio nuclear theory groups, we have pursued these questions with meson-theoretical NN interactions, such as CD-Bonn and Argonne V18, that were tuned to provide high-quality descriptions of the NN scattering phase shifts and deuteron properties. We then add meson-theoretic NNN interactions such as the Tucson-Melbourne or Urbana IX interactions. More recently, we have adopted realistic NN and NNN interactions with ties to QCD. Chiral perturbation theory within effective field theory ({chi}EFT) provides us with a promising bridge between QCD and hadronic systems. In this approach one works consistently with systems of increasing nucleon number and makes use of the explicit and spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry to expand the strong interaction in terms of a dimensionless constant, the ratio of a generic small momentum divided by the chiral symmetry breaking scale taken to be about 1 GeV/c. The resulting NN

  13. Compressive behavior of a turtle's shell: experiment, modeling, and simulation.

    PubMed

    Damiens, R; Rhee, H; Hwang, Y; Park, S J; Hammi, Y; Lim, H; Horstemeyer, M F

    2012-02-01

    The turtle's shell acts as a protective armor for the animal. By analyzing a turtle shell via finite element analysis, one can obtain the strength and stiffness attributes to help design man-made armor. As such, finite element analysis was performed on a Terrapene carolina box turtle shell. Experimental data from compression tests were generated to provide insight into the scute through-thickness behavior of the turtle shell. Three regimes can be classified in terms of constitutive modeling: linear elastic, perfectly inelastic, and densification regions, where hardening occurs. For each regime, we developed a model that comprises elasticity and densification theory for porous materials and obtained all the material parameters by correlating the model with experimental data. The different constitutive responses arise as the deformation proceeded through three distinctive layers of the turtle shell carapace. Overall, the phenomenological stress-strain behavior is similar to that of metallic foams. PMID:22301179

  14. SU(3) in shell-model calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Millener, D.J.

    1991-10-01

    The essential steps in the formalism for performing multi-shell calculations in an SU(3) basis are outlined and examples of applications in which the SU(3) classification aids in the physical interpretation of structure calculation are given.

  15. Energy transfers in shell models for magnetohydrodynamics turbulence.

    PubMed

    Lessinnes, Thomas; Carati, Daniele; Verma, Mahendra K

    2009-06-01

    A systematic procedure to derive shell models for magnetohydrodynamic turbulence is proposed. It takes into account the conservation of ideal quadratic invariants such as the total energy, the cross helicity, and the magnetic helicity, as well as the conservation of the magnetic energy by the advection term in the induction equation. This approach also leads to simple expressions for the energy exchanges as well as to unambiguous definitions for the energy fluxes. When applied to the existing shell models with nonlinear interactions limited to the nearest-neighbor shells, this procedure reproduces well-known models but suggests a reinterpretation of the energy fluxes. PMID:19658594

  16. Deriving the nuclear shell model from first principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, Bruce R.; Dikmen, Erdal; Vary, James P.; Maris, Pieter; Shirokov, Andrey M.; Lisetskiy, Alexander F.

    2014-09-01

    The results of an 18-nucleon No Core Shell Model calculation, performed in a large basis space using a bare, soft NN interaction, can be projected into the 0 ℏω space, i.e., the sd -shell. Because the 16 nucleons in the 16O core are frozen in the 0 ℏω space, all the correlations of the 18-nucleon system are captured by the two valence, sd -shell nucleons. By the projection, we obtain microscopically the sd -shell 2-body effective interactions, the core energy and the sd -shell s.p. energies. Thus, the input for standard shell-model calculations can be determined microscopically by this approach. If the same procedure is then applied to 19-nucleon systems, the sd -shell 3-body effective interactions can also be obtained, indicating the importance of these 3-body effective interactions relative to the 2-body effective interactions. Applications to A = 19 and heavier nuclei with different intrinsic NN interactions will be presented and discussed. The results of an 18-nucleon No Core Shell Model calculation, performed in a large basis space using a bare, soft NN interaction, can be projected into the 0 ℏω space, i.e., the sd -shell. Because the 16 nucleons in the 16O core are frozen in the 0 ℏω space, all the correlations of the 18-nucleon system are captured by the two valence, sd -shell nucleons. By the projection, we obtain microscopically the sd -shell 2-body effective interactions, the core energy and the sd -shell s.p. energies. Thus, the input for standard shell-model calculations can be determined microscopically by this approach. If the same procedure is then applied to 19-nucleon systems, the sd -shell 3-body effective interactions can also be obtained, indicating the importance of these 3-body effective interactions relative to the 2-body effective interactions. Applications to A = 19 and heavier nuclei with different intrinsic NN interactions will be presented and discussed. Supported by the US NSF under Grant No. 0854912, the US DOE under

  17. Spherical shell model description of rotational motion

    SciTech Connect

    Zuker, A.P.; Retamosa, J.; Poves, A.; Caurier, E.

    1995-10-01

    Exact diagonalizations with a realistic interaction show that configurations with four neutrons in a major shell and four protons in another---or the same---major shell, behave systematically as backbending rotors. The dominance of the {ital q}{center_dot}{ital q} component of the interaction is related to an approximate ``quasi-SU3`` symmetry. It is suggested that the onset of rotational motion in the rare earth nuclei is due to the promotion of the eight particle blocks to the major shells above the ones currently filling. Assuming a ``pseudo-SU3`` coupling for the particles in the lower orbits, it is possible to account remarkably well for the observed {ital B}({ital E}2) rates at the beginning of the region.

  18. Thin Shell Model for NIF capsule stagnation studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, J. H.; Buchoff, M.; Brandon, S.; Field, J. E.; Gaffney, J.; Kritcher, A.; Nora, R. C.; Peterson, J. L.; Spears, B.; Springer, P. T.

    2015-11-01

    We adapt the thin shell model of Ott et al. to asymmetric ICF capsule implosions on NIF. Through much of an implosion, the shell aspect ratio is large so the thin shell approximation is well satisfied. Asymmetric pressure drive is applied using an analytic form for ablation pressure as a function of the x-ray flux, as well as time-dependent 3D drive asymmetry from hohlraum calculations. Since deviations from a sphere are small through peak velocity, we linearize the equations, decompose them by spherical harmonics and solve ODE's for the coefficients. The model gives the shell position, velocity and areal mass variations at the time of peak velocity, near 250 microns radius. The variables are used to initialize 3D rad-hydro calculations with the HYDRA and ARES codes. At link time the cold fuel shell and ablator are each characterized by a density, adiabat and mass. The thickness, position and velocity of each point are taken from the thin shell model. The interior of the shell is filled with a uniform gas density and temperature consistent with the 3/2PV energy found from 1D rad-hydro calculations. 3D linked simulations compare favorably with integrated simulations of the entire implosion. Through generating synthetic diagnostic data, the model offers a method for quickly testing hypothetical sources of asymmetry and comparing with experiment. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  19. Deriving the nuclear shell model from first principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, B. R.; Dikmen, E.; Lisetskiy, A. F.; Maris, P.; Shirokov, A. M.; Vary, J. P.

    2015-02-01

    A procedure for calculating microscopically the input for standard shell-model calculations, i.e., the core and single-particle energies plus the two-body effective model-space interactions, is presented and applied to nuclei at the start of the sd-shell. Calculations with the JISP16 and Idaho χEFT N3LO nucleon-nucleon interactions are performed and yield consistent results, which also are similar to phenomenological results in the sd-shell as well as with other theoretical calculations, utilizing other techniques. All results show only a weak A-dependence.

  20. Atomic-level models of the bacterial carboxysome shell

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, S.; Kerfeld, C.A.; Sawaya, M.R.; Cai, F.; Heinhorst, S.; Cannon, G.C.; Yeates, T.O.

    2008-06-03

    The carboxysome is a bacterial microcompartment that functions as a simple organelle by sequestering enzymes involved in carbon fixation. The carboxysome shell is roughly 800 to 1400 angstroms in diameter and is assembled from several thousand protein subunits. Previous studies have revealed the three-dimensional structures of hexameric carboxysome shell proteins, which self-assemble into molecular layers that most likely constitute the facets of the polyhedral shell. Here, we report the three-dimensional structures of two proteins of previously unknown function, CcmL and OrfA (or CsoS4A), from the two known classes of carboxysomes, at resolutions of 2.4 and 2.15 angstroms. Both proteins assemble to form pentameric structures whose size and shape are compatible with formation of vertices in an icosahedral shell. Combining these pentamers with the hexamers previously elucidated gives two plausible, preliminary atomic models for the carboxysome shell.

  1. Galactic Center Shells and a Recurrent Starburst Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofue, Yoshiaki

    2003-04-01

    By applying filtering techniques to remove straight filaments in the 20-cm VLA radio image of the Galactic Center Arc region, we have shown that numerous concentric radio shells of radii 5 to 20pc are surrounding the Pistol and Sickle region, which we call Galactic Center Shells (GCS).Each shell has thermal energy of the order of1049-50erg.Several CO-line shells are associated, whose kinetic energies are of the order of 1049-50erg. Summing up the energies of recognized GCSs, the total energy amounts to ˜ 1051erg.The GCSs show an excellent correlation with the FIR shells observed at 16-26μm with the MSX.We propose a model in which GCSs were produced by recurrent and/or intermittent starbursts in the Pistol area during the last million years.The most recent burst occurred some 105 years ago, producing an inner round-shaped shell (GCS I);earlier ones a million years ago produced outer shells (GCS II and III), which a re more deformed by interactions with the surrounding ISM and Sgr A halo.We argue that recurrent starbursts had also occurred in the past, which produced larger scale hyper-shell structures as well.A burst some million years ago produced the Galactic Center Lobe, and a much stronger one 15 million years ago produced the North Polar Spur.

  2. TOPICAL REVIEW: Ab initio symplectic no-core shell model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dytrych, T.; Sviratcheva, K. D.; Draayer, J. P.; Bahri, C.; Vary, J. P.

    2008-12-01

    The no-core shell model (NCSM) is a prominent ab initio method that yields a good description of the low-lying states in few-nucleon systems as well as in more complex p-shell nuclei. Nevertheless, its applicability is limited by the rapid growth of the many-body basis with larger model spaces and increasing number of nucleons. The symplectic no-core shell model (Sp-NCSM) aspires to extend the scope of the NCSM beyond the p-shell region by augmenting the conventional spherical harmonic oscillator basis with the physically relevant symplectic \\SpR{3} symmetry-adapted configurations of the symplectic shell model that describe naturally the monopole-quadrupole vibrational and rotational modes, and also partially incorporate α-cluster correlations. In this review, the models underpinning the Sp-NCSM approach, namely, the NCSM, the Elliott SU(3) model and the symplectic shell model, are discussed. Following this, a prescription for constructing translationally invariant symplectic configurations in the spherical harmonic oscillator basis is given. This prescription is utilized to unveil the extent to which symplectic configurations enter into low-lying states in 12C and 16O nuclei calculated within the framework of the NCSM with the JISP16 realistic nucleon-nucleon interaction. The outcomes of this proof-of-principle study are presented in detail.

  3. Jacobi no-core shell model for p-shell nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebig, S.; Meißner, U.-G.; Nogga, A.

    2016-04-01

    We introduce an algorithm to obtain coefficients of fractional parentage for light p-shell nuclei. The coefficients enable one to use Jacobi coordinates in no-core shell model calculations separating off the center-of-mass motion. Fully antisymmetrized basis states are given together with recoupling coefficients that allow one to apply two- and three-nucleon operators. As an example, we study the dependence on the harmonic oscillator frequency of 3H, 4He, 6He, 6Li and 7Li and extract their binding and excitation energies. The coefficients will be made openly accessible as HDF5 data files.

  4. A predictive model of shell morphology in CdSe/CdS core/shell quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Ke; Kelley, David F.

    2014-11-01

    Lattice mismatch in core/shell nanoparticles occurs when the core and shell materials have different lattice parameters. When there is a significant lattice mismatch, a coherent core-shell interface results in substantial lattice strain energy, which can affect the shell morphology. The shell can be of uniform thickness or can be rough, having thin and thick regions. A smooth shell minimizes the surface energy at the expense of increased lattice strain energy and a rough shell does the opposite. A quantitative treatment of the lattice strain energy in determining the shell morphology of CdSe/CdS core/shell nanoparticles is presented here. We use the inhomogeneity in hole tunneling rates through the shell to adsorbed hole acceptors to quantify the extent of shell thickness inhomogeneity. The results can be understood in terms of a model based on elastic continuum calculations, which indicate that the lattice strain energy depends on both core size and shell thickness. The model assumes thermodynamic equilibrium, i.e., that the shell morphology corresponds to a minimum total (lattice strain plus surface) energy. Comparison with the experimental results indicates that CdSe/CdS nanoparticles undergo an abrupt transition from smooth to rough shells when the total lattice strain energy exceeds about 27 eV or the strain energy density exceeds 0.59 eV/nm2. We also find that the predictions of this model are not followed for CdSe/CdS nanoparticles when the shell is deposited at very low temperature and therefore equilibrium is not established.

  5. A predictive model of shell morphology in CdSe/CdS core/shell quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, Ke; Kelley, David F.

    2014-11-21

    Lattice mismatch in core/shell nanoparticles occurs when the core and shell materials have different lattice parameters. When there is a significant lattice mismatch, a coherent core-shell interface results in substantial lattice strain energy, which can affect the shell morphology. The shell can be of uniform thickness or can be rough, having thin and thick regions. A smooth shell minimizes the surface energy at the expense of increased lattice strain energy and a rough shell does the opposite. A quantitative treatment of the lattice strain energy in determining the shell morphology of CdSe/CdS core/shell nanoparticles is presented here. We use the inhomogeneity in hole tunneling rates through the shell to adsorbed hole acceptors to quantify the extent of shell thickness inhomogeneity. The results can be understood in terms of a model based on elastic continuum calculations, which indicate that the lattice strain energy depends on both core size and shell thickness. The model assumes thermodynamic equilibrium, i.e., that the shell morphology corresponds to a minimum total (lattice strain plus surface) energy. Comparison with the experimental results indicates that CdSe/CdS nanoparticles undergo an abrupt transition from smooth to rough shells when the total lattice strain energy exceeds about 27 eV or the strain energy density exceeds 0.59 eV/nm{sup 2}. We also find that the predictions of this model are not followed for CdSe/CdS nanoparticles when the shell is deposited at very low temperature and therefore equilibrium is not established.

  6. Monte Carlo Shell Model for ab initio nuclear structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, T.; Maris, P.; Otsuka, T.; Shimizu, N.; Utsuno, Y.; Vary, J. P.

    2014-03-01

    We report on our recent application of the Monte Carlo Shell Model to no-core calculations. At the initial stage of the application, we have performed benchmark calculations in the p-shell region. Results are compared with those in the Full Configuration Interaction and No-Core Full Configuration methods. These are found to be consistent with each other within quoted uncertainties when they could be quantified. The preliminary results in Nshell = 5 reveal the onset of systematic convergence pattern.

  7. Shell-model predictions for Lambda Lambda hypernuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Gal, A.; Millener, D.

    2011-06-02

    It is shown how the recent shell-model determination of {Lambda}N spin-dependent interaction terms in {Lambda} hypernuclei allows for a reliable deduction of {Lambda}{Lambda} separation energies in {Lambda}{Lambda} hypernuclei across the nuclear p shell. Comparison is made with the available data, highlighting {sub {Lambda}{Lambda}}{sup 11}Be and {sub {Lambda}{Lambda}}{sup 12}Be which have been suggested as possible candidates for the KEK-E373 HIDA event.

  8. TPX superconducting PF magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Calvin, H.; Christiansen, O.; Cizek, J.

    1995-12-31

    The Westinghouse team has extended the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory advanced conceptual design for the TPX PF magnets through preliminary design. This is the first time superconducting PF magnets have been designed for application in a tokamak. Particular challenges were encountered and solved in developing the coil insulation system, welding the helium stubs, and winding the coil. The authors fabricated a coil using copper stranded CIC conductor, to surface manufacturability issues and demonstrate the solutions.

  9. Hierarchic plate and shell models based on p-extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szabo, Barna A.; Sahrmann, Glenn J.

    1988-01-01

    Formulations of finite element models for beams, arches, plates and shells based on the principle of virtual work was studied. The focus is on computer implementation of hierarchic sequences of finite element models suitable for numerical solution of a large variety of practical problems which may concurrently contain thin and thick plates and shells, stiffeners, and regions where three dimensional representation is required. The approximate solutions corresponding to the hierarchic sequence of models converge to the exact solution of the fully three dimensional model. The stopping criterion is based on: (1) estimation of the relative error in energy norm; (2) equilibrium tests, and (3) observation of the convergence of quantities of interest.

  10. Effect of the sphingosine kinase 1 selective inhibitor, PF-543 on arterial and cardiac remodelling in a hypoxic model of pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    MacRitchie, Neil; Volpert, Giora; Al Washih, Mohammed; Watson, David G; Futerman, Anthony H; Kennedy, Simon; Pyne, Susan; Pyne, Nigel J

    2016-08-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that the expression of sphingosine kinase 1, the enzyme that catalyses formation of the bioactive lipid, sphingosine 1-phosphate, is increased in lungs from patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. In addition, Sk1(-/-) mice are protected from hypoxic-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension. Therefore, we assessed the effect of the sphingosine kinase 1 selective inhibitor, PF-543 and a sphingosine kinase 1/ceramide synthase inhibitor, RB-005 on pulmonary and cardiac remodelling in a mouse hypoxic model of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Administration of the potent sphingosine kinase 1 inhibitor, PF-543 in a mouse hypoxic model of pulmonary hypertension had no effect on vascular remodelling but reduced right ventricular hypertrophy. The latter was associated with a significant reduction in cardiomyocyte death. The protection involves a reduction in the expression of p53 (that promotes cardiomyocyte death) and an increase in the expression of anti-oxidant nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf-2). In contrast, RB-005 lacked effects on right ventricular hypertrophy, suggesting that sphingosine kinase 1 inhibition might be nullified by concurrent inhibition of ceramide synthase. Therefore, our findings with PF-543 suggest an important role for sphingosine kinase 1 in the development of hypertrophy in pulmonary arterial hypertension. PMID:27063355

  11. Statistical mechanics of shell models for two-dimensional turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aurell, E.; Boffetta, G.; Crisanti, A.; Frick, P.; Paladin, G.; Vulpiani, A.

    1994-12-01

    We study shell models that conserve the analogs of energy and enstrophy and hence are designed to mimic fluid turbulence in two-dimensions (2D). The main result is that the observed state is well described as a formal statistical equilibrium, closely analogous to the approach to two-dimensional ideal hydrodynamics of Onsager [Nuovo Cimento Suppl. 6, 279 (1949)], Hopf [J. Rat. Mech. Anal. 1, 87 (1952)], and Lee [Q. Appl. Math. 10, 69 (1952)]. In the presence of forcing and dissipation we observe a forward flux of enstrophy and a backward flux of energy. These fluxes can be understood as mean diffusive drifts from a source to two sinks in a system which is close to local equilibrium with Lagrange multipliers (``shell temperatures'') changing slowly with scale. This is clear evidence that the simplest shell models are not adequate to reproduce the main features of two-dimensional turbulence. The dimensional predictions on the power spectra from a supposed forward cascade of enstrophy and from one branch of the formal statistical equilibrium coincide in these shell models in contrast to the corresponding predictions for the Navier-Stokes and Euler equations in 2D. This coincidence has previously led to the mistaken conclusion that shell models exhibit a forward cascade of enstrophy. We also study the dynamical properties of the models and the growth of perturbations.

  12. Models for elastic shells with incompatible strains

    PubMed Central

    Lewicka, Marta; Mahadevan, L.; Pakzad, Mohammad Reza

    2014-01-01

    The three-dimensional shapes of thin lamina, such as leaves, flowers, feathers, wings, etc., are driven by the differential strain induced by the relative growth. The growth takes place through variations in the Riemannian metric given on the thin sheet as a function of location in the central plane and also across its thickness. The shape is then a consequence of elastic energy minimization on the frustrated geometrical object. Here, we provide a rigorous derivation of the asymptotic theories for shapes of residually strained thin lamina with non-trivial curvatures, i.e. growing elastic shells in both the weakly and strongly curved regimes, generalizing earlier results for the growth of nominally flat plates. The different theories are distinguished by the scaling of the mid-surface curvature relative to the inverse thickness and growth strain, and also allow us to generalize the classical Föppl–von Kármán energy to theories of prestrained shallow shells. PMID:24808750

  13. Biomechanical Evaluation of an Injectable and Biodegradable Copolymer P(PF-co-CL) in a Cadaveric Vertebral Body Defect Model

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Zhong; Giambini, Hugo; Zeng, Heng; Camp, Jon J.; Dadsetan, Mahrokh; Robb, Richard A.; An, Kai-Nan; Yaszemski, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    A novel biodegradable copolymer, poly(propylene fumarate-co-caprolactone) [P(PF-co-CL)], has been developed in our laboratory as an injectable scaffold for bone defect repair. In the current study, we evaluated the ability of P(PF-co-CL) to reconstitute the load-bearing capacity of vertebral bodies with lytic lesions. Forty vertebral bodies from four fresh-frozen cadaveric thoracolumbar spines were used for this study. They were randomly divided into four groups: intact vertebral body (intact control), simulated defect without treatment (negative control), defect treated with P(PF-co-CL) (copolymer group), and defect treated with poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA group). Simulated metastatic lytic defects were made by removing a central core of the trabecular bone in each vertebral body with an approximate volume of 25% through an access hole in the side of the vertebrae. Defects were then filled by injecting either P(PF-co-CL) or PMMA in situ crosslinkable formulations. After the spines were imaged with quantitative computerized tomography, single vertebral body segments were harvested for mechanical testing. Specimens were compressed until failure or to 25% reduction in body height and ultimate strength and elastic modulus of each specimen were then calculated from the force–displacement data. The average failure strength of the copolymer group was 1.83 times stronger than the untreated negative group and it closely matched the intact vertebral bodies (intact control). The PMMA-treated vertebrae, however, had a failure strength 1.64 times larger compared with the intact control. The elastic modulus followed the same trend. This modulus mismatch between PMMA-treated vertebrae and the host vertebrae could potentially induce a fracture cascade and degenerative changes in adjacent intervertebral discs. In contrast, P(PF-co-CL) restored the mechanical properties of the treated segments similar to the normal, intact, vertebrae. Therefore, P(PF-co-CL) may be a suitable

  14. Biomechanical evaluation of an injectable and biodegradable copolymer P(PF-co-CL) in a cadaveric vertebral body defect model.

    PubMed

    Fang, Zhong; Giambini, Hugo; Zeng, Heng; Camp, Jon J; Dadsetan, Mahrokh; Robb, Richard A; An, Kai-Nan; Yaszemski, Michael J; Lu, Lichun

    2014-03-01

    A novel biodegradable copolymer, poly(propylene fumarate-co-caprolactone) [P(PF-co-CL)], has been developed in our laboratory as an injectable scaffold for bone defect repair. In the current study, we evaluated the ability of P(PF-co-CL) to reconstitute the load-bearing capacity of vertebral bodies with lytic lesions. Forty vertebral bodies from four fresh-frozen cadaveric thoracolumbar spines were used for this study. They were randomly divided into four groups: intact vertebral body (intact control), simulated defect without treatment (negative control), defect treated with P(PF-co-CL) (copolymer group), and defect treated with poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA group). Simulated metastatic lytic defects were made by removing a central core of the trabecular bone in each vertebral body with an approximate volume of 25% through an access hole in the side of the vertebrae. Defects were then filled by injecting either P(PF-co-CL) or PMMA in situ crosslinkable formulations. After the spines were imaged with quantitative computerized tomography, single vertebral body segments were harvested for mechanical testing. Specimens were compressed until failure or to 25% reduction in body height and ultimate strength and elastic modulus of each specimen were then calculated from the force-displacement data. The average failure strength of the copolymer group was 1.83 times stronger than the untreated negative group and it closely matched the intact vertebral bodies (intact control). The PMMA-treated vertebrae, however, had a failure strength 1.64 times larger compared with the intact control. The elastic modulus followed the same trend. This modulus mismatch between PMMA-treated vertebrae and the host vertebrae could potentially induce a fracture cascade and degenerative changes in adjacent intervertebral discs. In contrast, P(PF-co-CL) restored the mechanical properties of the treated segments similar to the normal, intact, vertebrae. Therefore, P(PF-co-CL) may be a suitable

  15. A violin shell model: vibrational modes and acoustics.

    PubMed

    Gough, Colin E

    2015-03-01

    A generic physical model for the vibro-acoustic modes of the violin is described treating the body shell as a shallow, thin-walled, guitar-shaped, box structure with doubly arched top and back plates. comsol finite element, shell structure, software is used to identify and understand the vibrational modes of a simply modeled violin. This identifies the relationship between the freely supported plate modes when coupled together by the ribs and the modes of the assembled body shell. Such coupling results in a relatively small number of eigenmodes or component shell modes, of which a single volume-changing breathing mode is shown to be responsible for almost all the sound radiated in the monopole signature mode regime below ∼1 kHz for the violin, whether directly or by excitation of the Helmholtz f-hole resonance. The computations describe the influence on such modes of material properties, arching, plate thickness, elastic anisotropy, f-holes cut into the top plate, the bass-bar, coupling to internal air modes, the rigid neck-fingerboard assembly, and, most importantly, the soundpost. Because the shell modes are largely determined by the symmetry of the guitar-shaped body, the model is applicable to all instruments of the violin family. PMID:25786935

  16. E1 strength in Pb208 within the shell model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwengner, R.; Massarczyk, R.; Brown, B. A.; Beyer, R.; Dönau, F.; Erhard, M.; Grosse, E.; Junghans, A. R.; Kosev, K.; Nair, C.; Rusev, G.; Schilling, K. D.; Wagner, A.

    2010-05-01

    The dipole response of the doubly magic nuclide Pb208 was studied in photon-scattering experiments at the electron linear accelerator ELBE with bremsstrahlung produced at kinetic electron energies of 9.0 and 15.0 MeV. The present (γ,γ') data combined with (γ,n) data from the literature are compared with results of shell-model calculations and calculations using a quasiparticle random-phase approximation. The shell-model calculations including (2p-2h) excitations describe the experimental E1 strength well and reproduce the spreading of the giant dipole resonance by applying a small smearing width only.

  17. Meshless analysis of shear deformable shells: the linear model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Jorge C.; Tiago, Carlos M.; Pimenta, Paulo M.

    2013-10-01

    This work develops a kinematically linear shell model departing from a consistent nonlinear theory. The initial geometry is mapped from a flat reference configuration by a stress-free finite deformation, after which, the actual shell motion takes place. The model maintains the features of a complete stress-resultant theory with Reissner-Mindlin kinematics based on an inextensible director. A hybrid displacement variational formulation is presented, where the domain displacements and kinematic boundary reactions are independently approximated. The resort to a flat reference configuration allows the discretization using 2-D Multiple Fixed Least-Squares (MFLS) on the domain. The consistent definition of stress resultants and consequent plane stress assumption led to a neat formulation for the analysis of shells. The consistent linear approximation, combined with MFLS, made possible efficient computations with a desired continuity degree, leading to smooth results for the displacement, strain and stress fields, as shown by several numerical examples.

  18. Modeling the carbon isotope composition of bivalve shells (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanek, C.

    2010-12-01

    The stable carbon isotope composition of bivalve shells is a valuable archive of paleobiological and paleoenvironmental information. Previous work has shown that the carbon isotope composition of the shell is related to the carbon isotope composition of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in the ambient water in which a bivalve lives, as well as metabolic carbon derived from bivalve respiration. The contribution of metabolic carbon varies among organisms, but it is generally thought to be relatively low (e.g., <10%) in shells from aquatic organism and high (>90%) in the shells from terrestrial organisms. Because metabolic carbon contains significantly more C-12 than DIC, negative excursions from the expected environmental (DIC) signal are interpreted to reflect an increased contribution of metabolic carbon in the shell. This observation contrasts sharply with modeled carbon isotope compositions for shell layers deposited from the inner extrapallial fluid (EPF). Previous studies have shown that growth lines within the inner shell layer of bivalves are produced during periods of anaerobiosis when acidic metabolic byproducts (e.g., succinic acid) are neutralized (or buffered) by shell dissolution. This requires the pH of EPF to decrease below ambient levels (~7.5) until a state of undersaturation is achieved that promotes shell dissolution. This condition may occur when aquatic bivalves are subjected to external stressors originating from ecological (predation) or environmental (exposure to atm; low dissolved oxygen; contaminant release) pressures; normal physiological processes will restore the pH of EPF when the pressure is removed. As a consequence of this process, a temporal window should also exist in EPF at relatively low pH where shell carbonate is deposited at a reduced saturation state and precipitation rate. For example, EPF chemistry should remain slightly supersaturated with respect to aragonite given a drop of one pH unit (6.5), but under closed conditions

  19. Kinematic arguments against single relativistic shell models for GRBs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fenimore, Edward E.; Ramirez, E.; Sumner, M. C.

    1997-01-01

    Two main types of models have been suggested to explain the long durations and multiple peaks of Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs). In one, there is a very quick release of energy at a central site resulting in a single relativistic shell that produces peaks in the time history through its interactions with the ambient material. In the other, the central site sporadically releases energy over hundreds of seconds forming a peak with each burst of energy. The authors show that the average envelope of emission and the presence of gaps in GRBs are inconsistent with a single relativistic shell. They estimate that the maximum fraction of a single shell that can produce gamma-rays in a GRB with multiple peaks is 10(exp (minus)3), implying that single relativistic shells require 10(exp 3) times more energy than previously thought. They conclude that either the central site of a GRB must produce (approx)10(exp 51) erg/s(exp (minus)1) for hundreds of seconds, or the relativistic shell must have structure on a scales the order of (radical)(epsilon)(Gamma)(exp (minus)1), where (Gamma) is the bulk Lorentz factor ((approximately)10(exp 2) to 10(exp 3)) and (epsilon) is the efficiency.

  20. Ab-Initio Shell Model with a Core

    SciTech Connect

    Lisetskiy, A F; Barrett, B R; Kruse, M; Navratil, P; Stetcu, I; Vary, J P

    2008-06-04

    We construct effective 2- and 3-body Hamiltonians for the p-shell by performing 12{h_bar}{Omega} ab initio no-core shell model (NCSM) calculations for A=6 and 7 nuclei and explicitly projecting the many-body Hamiltonians onto the 0{h_bar}{Omega} space. We then separate these effective Hamiltonians into 0-, 1- and 2-body contributions (also 3-body for A=7) and analyze the systematic behavior of these different parts as a function of the mass number A and size of the NCSM basis space. The role of effective 3- and higher-body interactions for A > 6 is investigated and discussed.

  1. Testing refined shell-model interactions in the s d shell: Coulomb excitation of 26Na

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siebeck, B.; Seidlitz, M.; Blazhev, A.; Reiter, P.; Altenkirch, R.; Bauer, C.; Butler, P. A.; de Witte, H.; Elseviers, J.; Gaffney, L. P.; Hess, H.; Huyse, M.; Kröll, T.; Lutter, R.; Pakarinen, J.; Pietralla, N.; Radeck, F.; Scheck, M.; Schneiders, D.; Sotty, C.; van Duppen, P.; Vermeulen, M.; Voulot, D.; Warr, N.; Wenander, F.; Miniball Collaboration; Rex-Isolde Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Background: Shell-model calculations crucially depend on the residual interaction used to approximate the nucleon-nucleon interaction. Recent improvements to the empirical universal s d interaction (USD) describing nuclei within the s d shell yielded two new interactions—USDA and USDB—causing changes in the theoretical description of these nuclei. Purpose: Transition matrix elements between excited states provide an excellent probe to examine the underlying shell structure. These observables provide a stringent test for the newly derived interactions. The nucleus 26Na with 7 valence neutrons and 3 valence protons outside the doubly-magic 16O core is used as a test case. Method: A radioactive beam experiment with 26Na (T1 /2=1 ,07 s ) was performed at the REX-ISOLDE facility (CERN) using Coulomb excitation at safe energies below the Coulomb barrier. Scattered particles were detected with an annular Si detector in coincidence with γ rays observed by the segmented MINIBALL array. Coulomb excitation cross sections of the beam have been obtained by normalization to the well known Coulomb excitation cross sections of the 104Pd target. Results: The observation of three γ -ray transitions in 26Na together with available spectroscopic data allows us to determine E 2 - and M 1 -transitional matrix elements. Results are compared to theoretical predictions. Conclusion: The improved theoretical description of 26Na could be validated. Remaining discrepancies between experimental data and theoretical predictions indicate the need for future experiments and possibly further theoretical improvements.

  2. Final Report Fermionic Symmetries and Self consistent Shell Model

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Zamick

    2008-11-07

    In this final report in the field of theoretical nuclear physics we note important accomplishments.We were confronted with "anomoulous" magnetic moments by the experimetalists and were able to expain them. We found unexpected partial dynamical symmetries--completely unknown before, and were able to a large extent to expain them.The importance of a self consistent shell model was emphasized.

  3. Off-Shell Structure of the String Sigma Model

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Kostelecky, V.; Perry, Malcolm J.; Potting, Robertus

    2000-05-15

    The off-shell structure of the string sigma model is investigated. In the open bosonic string, nonperturbative effects appear to depend crucially on the regularization scheme. A scheme retaining the notion of string width reproduces the structure of Witten's string field theory. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  4. Numerical treatment of a geometrically nonlinear planar Cosserat shell model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sander, Oliver; Neff, Patrizio; Bîrsan, Mircea

    2016-05-01

    We present a new way to discretize a geometrically nonlinear elastic planar Cosserat shell. The kinematical model is similar to the general six-parameter resultant shell model with drilling rotations. The discretization uses geodesic finite elements (GFEs), which leads to an objective discrete model which naturally allows arbitrarily large rotations. GFEs of any approximation order can be constructed. The resulting algebraic problem is a minimization problem posed on a nonlinear finite-dimensional Riemannian manifold. We solve this problem using a Riemannian trust-region method, which is a generalization of Newton's method that converges globally without intermediate loading steps. We present the continuous model and the discretization, discuss the properties of the discrete model, and show several numerical examples, including wrinkling of thin elastic sheets in shear.

  5. Vibration Analysis of a Railway Carbody Using a Shell Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishiguri, Kotaro; Kobayashi, Yukinori; Tomioka, Takahiro; Hoshino, Yohei

    This paper models a railway carbody as a non-circular cylindrical shell with simply-supported ends, where the shell does not have end plates or other equipment attached. Transfer matrix method (TMM) was applied to the analysis of three-dimensional elastic vibration problems on this carbody. A 1/12 size carbody model was made for experimental studies to verify the validity of the numerical simulation. This model has end plates and was placed on soft sponge at both ends to simulate the freely-supported condition. Modal analysis was applied to the experimental model, and natural frequencies and mode shapes of vibration were measured. Comparing the results by TMM and experiments, the natural frequencies and mode shapes of vibration for lower modes show good agreement in spite of the differences in boundary conditions. The effect of stiffening members installed on the experimental model was also investigated.

  6. A common feature-based 3D-pharmacophore model generation and virtual screening: identification of potential PfDHFR inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Adane, Legesse; Bharatam, Prasad V; Sharma, Vikas

    2010-10-01

    A four-feature 3D-pharmacophore model was built from a set of 24 compounds whose activities were reported against the V1/S strain of the Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (PfDHFR) enzyme. This is an enzyme harboring Asn51Ile + Cys59Arg + Ser108Asn + Ile164Leu mutations. The HipHop module of the Catalyst program was used to generate the model. Selection of the best model among the 10 hypotheses generated by HipHop was carried out based on rank and best-fit values or alignments of the training set compounds onto a particular hypothesis. The best model (hypo1) consisted of two H-bond donors, one hydrophobic aromatic, and one hydrophobic aliphatic features. Hypo1 was used as a query to virtually screen Maybridge2004 and NCI2000 databases. The hits obtained from the search were subsequently subjected to FlexX and Glide docking studies. Based on the binding scores and interactions in the active site of quadruple-mutant PfDHFR, a set of nine hits were identified as potential inhibitors. PMID:19995305

  7. Connections between the dynamical symmetries in the microscopic shell model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgieva, A. I.; Drumev, K. P.

    2016-03-01

    The dynamical symmetries of the microscopic shell model appear as the limiting cases of a symmetry adapted Pairing-Plus-Quadrupole Model /PQM/, with a Hamiltonian containing isoscalar and isovector pairing and quadrupole interactions. We establish a correspondence between each of the three types of pairing bases and Elliott's SU(3) basis, that describes collective rotation of nuclear systems with quadrupole deformation. It is derived from their complementarity to the same LS coupling chain of the shell model number conserving algebra. The probability distribution of the S U(3) basis states within the pairing eigenstates is also obtained through a numerical diagonalization of the PQM Hamiltonian in each limit. We introduce control parameters, which define the phase diagram of the model and determine the role of each term of the Hamiltonian in the correct reproduction of the experimental data for the considered nuclei.

  8. K-shell spectroscopy uncertainty due to spectral models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagayama, Taisuke; Bailey, J. E.; Loisel, G.; Rochau, G. A.; Hansen, S. B.; Blancard, C.; Cosse, Ph.; Iglesias, C. A.; Colgan, J.; Fontes, C.; Kilcrease, D.; Macfarlane, J. J.; Golovkin, I.; Florido, R.; Mancini, R. C.

    2015-11-01

    In high energy density plasma physics, K-shell spectra from H-, He-, and Li-like ions are often used to diagnose plasma conditions. Line ratios and line broadening of the measured spectra are sensitive to the electron temperature and density of the source plasma, respectively. Thus, plasma electron temperature, Te, and electron density, ne, can be uniquely and precisely determined by reproducing the measured spectra with a spectral model. However, the different spectral models do not perfectly agree with each other and the diagnostic results depend on the selection of spectral models. Here, we investigate the level of disagreement in inferred Te and ne due to differences in spectral models. Models in the study are ABAKO, ATOMIC, FLYCHK, OPAL, OPAS, PrismSPECT, and SCRAM. As an example, we selected Mg K-shell spectroscopy used for Fe opacity experiments [Bailey et al, Nature 517, 56 (2015)] where Fe plasma conditions are inferred from K-shell spectra of a Mg dopant. The Te and ne diagnostics using different models agree within 5% and 30%. We discuss the main source of discrepancies. Sandia is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  9. Shell Model in a First Principles Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Navratil, P; Nogga, A; Lloyd, R; Vary, J P; Ormand, W E; Barrett, B R

    2004-01-08

    We develop and apply an ab-initio approach to nuclear structure. Starting with the NN interaction, that fits two-body scattering and bound state data, and adding a theoretical NNN potential, we evaluate nuclear properties in a no-core approach. For presently feasible no-core model spaces, we evaluate an effective Hamiltonian in a cluster approach which is guaranteed to provide exact answers for sufficiently large model spaces and/or sufficiently large clusters. A number of recent applications are surveyed including an initial application to exotic multiquark systems.

  10. Combined experimental/analytical modeling of shell/payload structures

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, D.R.; Miller, A.K.; Carne, T.G.

    1985-12-01

    This study evaluates the accuracy of computed modal frequencies obtained from a combined experimental/analytical model of a shell/payload structure. A component mode synthesis technique was used which incorporated free modes and residual effects. The total structure is physically divided into the two subsystems which are connected through stiff joints. The payload was tested to obtain its free-free modes, while a finite element model of the shell was analyzed to obtain its modal description. Both the translational and rotational components of the experimental mode shapes at the payload interface were used in the coupling. Sensitivity studies were also performed to determine the effect of neglecting the residual terms of the payload. Results from a previous study of a combined experimental/analytical model for a beam structure are also given. The beam structure was used to examine the basic procedures and difficulties in experimentally measuring, and analytically accounting for the rotational and residual quantities.

  11. Curved Thermopiezoelectric Shell Structures Modeled by Finite Element Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Ho-Jun

    2000-01-01

    "Smart" structures composed of piezoelectric materials may significantly improve the performance of aeropropulsion systems through a variety of vibration, noise, and shape-control applications. The development of analytical models for piezoelectric smart structures is an ongoing, in-house activity at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field focused toward the experimental characterization of these materials. Research efforts have been directed toward developing analytical models that account for the coupled mechanical, electrical, and thermal response of piezoelectric composite materials. Current work revolves around implementing thermal effects into a curvilinear-shell finite element code. This enhances capabilities to analyze curved structures and to account for coupling effects arising from thermal effects and the curved geometry. The current analytical model implements a unique mixed multi-field laminate theory to improve computational efficiency without sacrificing accuracy. The mechanics can model both the sensory and active behavior of piezoelectric composite shell structures. Finite element equations are being implemented for an eight-node curvilinear shell element, and numerical studies are being conducted to demonstrate capabilities to model the response of curved piezoelectric composite structures (see the figure).

  12. Shell model predictions for 124Sn double-β decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horoi, Mihai; Neacsu, Andrei

    2016-02-01

    Neutrinoless double-β (0 ν β β ) decay is a promising beyond standard model process. Two-neutrino double-β (2 ν β β ) decay is an associated process that is allowed by the standard model, and it was observed in about 10 isotopes, including decays to the excited states of the daughter. 124Sn was the first isotope whose double-β decay modes were investigated experimentally, and despite few other recent efforts, no signal has been seen so far. Shell model calculations were able to make reliable predictions for 2 ν β β decay half-lives. Here we use shell model calculations to predict the 2 ν β β decay half-life of 124Sn. Our results are quite different from the existing quasiparticle random-phase approximation results, and we envision that they will be useful for guiding future experiments. We also present shell model nuclear matrix elements for two potentially competing mechanisms to the 0 ν β β decay of 124Sn.

  13. Thermal conductivity modeling of core-shell and tubular nanowires.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ronggui; Chen, Gang; Dresselhaus, Mildred S

    2005-06-01

    The heteroepitaxial growth of crystalline core-shell nanostructures of a variety of materials has become possible in recent years, allowing the realization of various novel nanoscale electronic and optoelectronic devices. The increased surface or interface area will decrease the thermal conductivity of such nanostructures and impose challenges for the thermal management of such devices. In the meantime, the decreased thermal conductivity might benefit the thermoelectric conversion efficiency. In this paper, we present modeling results on the lattice thermal conductivity of core-shell and tubular nanowires along the wire axis direction using the phonon Boltzmann equation. We report the dependence of the thermal conductivity on the surface conditions and the core-shell geometry for silicon core-germanium shell and tubular silicon nanowires at room temperature. The results show that the effective thermal conductivity changes not only with the composition of the constituents but also with the radius of the nanowires and nanopores due to the nature of the ballistic phonon transport. The results in this work have implications for the design and operation of a variety of nanoelectronic devices, optoelectronic devices, and thermoelectric materials and devices. PMID:15943452

  14. Symmetry-guided large-scale shell-model theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Launey, Kristina D.; Dytrych, Tomas; Draayer, Jerry P.

    2016-07-01

    In this review, we present a symmetry-guided strategy that utilizes exact as well as partial symmetries for enabling a deeper understanding of and advancing ab initio studies for determining the microscopic structure of atomic nuclei. These symmetries expose physically relevant degrees of freedom that, for large-scale calculations with QCD-inspired interactions, allow the model space size to be reduced through a very structured selection of the basis states to physically relevant subspaces. This can guide explorations of simple patterns in nuclei and how they emerge from first principles, as well as extensions of the theory beyond current limitations toward heavier nuclei and larger model spaces. This is illustrated for the ab initio symmetry-adapted no-core shell model (SA-NCSM) and two significant underlying symmetries, the symplectic Sp(3 , R) group and its deformation-related SU(3) subgroup. We review the broad scope of nuclei, where these symmetries have been found to play a key role-from the light p-shell systems, such as 6Li, 8B, 8Be, 12C, and 16O, and sd-shell nuclei exemplified by 20Ne, based on first-principle explorations; through the Hoyle state in 12C and enhanced collectivity in intermediate-mass nuclei, within a no-core shell-model perspective; up to strongly deformed species of the rare-earth and actinide regions, as investigated in earlier studies. A complementary picture, driven by symmetries dual to Sp(3 , R) , is also discussed. We briefly review symmetry-guided techniques that prove useful in various nuclear-theory models, such as Elliott model, ab initio SA-NCSM, symplectic model, pseudo- SU(3) and pseudo-symplectic models, ab initio hyperspherical harmonics method, ab initio lattice effective field theory, exact pairing-plus-shell model approaches, and cluster models, including the resonating-group method. Important implications of these approaches that have deepened our understanding of emergent phenomena in nuclei, such as enhanced

  15. A shell model for tyre belt vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecomte, C.; Graham, W. R.; Dale, M.

    2010-05-01

    We present a new formulation for the prediction of tyre belt vibrations in the frequency range 0-500 Hz. Our representation includes the effects of belt width, curvature and anisotropy, and also explicitly models the tyre sidewalls. Many of the associated numerical parameters are fixed by physical considerations; the remainder require empirical input. A systematic and general approach to this problem is developed, and illustrated for the specific example of a Goodyear Wrangler tyre. The resulting predictions for the radial response to radial forcing show good correspondence with experiment up to 300 Hz, and satisfactory agreement up to 1 kHz.

  16. Importance-truncated large-scale shell model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stumpf, Christina; Braun, Jonas; Roth, Robert

    2016-02-01

    We propose an importance-truncation scheme for the large-scale nuclear shell model that extends its range of applicability to larger valence spaces and midshell nuclei. It is based on a perturbative measure for the importance of individual basis states that acts as an additional truncation for the many-body model space in which the eigenvalue problem of the Hamiltonian is solved numerically. Through a posteriori extrapolations of all observables to vanishing importance threshold, the full shell-model results can be recovered. In addition to simple threshold extrapolations, we explore extrapolations based on the energy variance. We apply the importance-truncated shell model for the study of 56Ni in the p f valence space and of 60Zn and 64Ge in the p f g9 /2 space. We demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the approach, which pave the way for future applications of valence-space interactions derived in ab initio approaches in larger valence spaces.

  17. Optimal thermalization in a shell model of homogeneous turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thalabard, Simon; Turkington, Bruce

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the turbulence-induced dissipation of the large scales in a statistically homogeneous flow using an ‘optimal closure,’ which one of us (BT) has recently exposed in the context of Hamiltonian dynamics. This statistical closure employs a Gaussian model for the turbulent scales, with corresponding vanishing third cumulant, and yet it captures an intrinsic damping. The key to this apparent paradox lies in a clear distinction between true ensemble averages and their proxies, most easily grasped when one works directly with the Liouville equation rather than the cumulant hierarchy. We focus on a simple problem for which the optimal closure can be fully and exactly worked out: the relaxation arbitrarily far-from-equilibrium of a single energy shell towards Gibbs equilibrium in an inviscid shell model of 3D turbulence. The predictions of the optimal closure are validated against DNS and contrasted with those derived from EDQNM closure.

  18. Projected shell model study of band structure of 90Nb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Amit; Singh, Dhanvir; Gupta, Anuradha; Singh, Suram; Bharti, Arun

    2016-05-01

    A systematic study of two-quasiparticle bands of the odd-odd 90Nb nucleus is performed using the projected shell model approach. Yrast band with some other bands have been obtained and back-bending in moment of inertia has also been calculated and compared with the available experimental. On comparing the available experimental data, it is found that the treatment with PSM provides a satisfactory explanation of the available data.

  19. Properties of Shell-Model Wavefunctions at High Excitation Energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazier, Njema Jioni

    Within the framework of the nuclear shell model with a realistic residual hamiltonian one can obtain the exact solution of the many-body problem. This makes it possible to study the interrelation between regular and chaotic features of dynamics in a generic many-body system with strong interaction. As an important application, we analyse the fragmentation of simple configurations as a function of excitation energy and interaction strength and examine the transition strengths induced by simple operators as a function of excitation energy. The analysis is performed for two systems; that of 12 valence particles in the sd-shell, or 28Si, and that of 8 valence particles in the sd-shell, or 24Mg. For the system of 12 valence particles in the sd-shell, we examine the fragmentation of shell-model basis states. For the system of 8 valence nucleons in the sd-shell, we examine the fragmentation associated with single-nucleon transfer and Gamow-Teller transitions. For the fragmentation of basis states, we use our statistics to establish the generic shape of the strength function distribution in the region of strong mixing. For the realistic interaction, the strength function distribution is close to Gaussian in the central part of the energy spectra. The width of the distribution is larger than predicted by Fermi's golden rule (4). We then take this one step further and examine the strength distributions associated with the one-nucleon transfer operator, aλ†, and the Gamow-Teller (GT) operator, Σλλ'(σμ τ±) λλ'aλ†a λ'. The spectroscopic factor, which is proportional to the square of the matrix element for the aλ† operator, is the simplest quantity used in predicting experimental observables. In our discussion of Gamow-Teller transitions, we examine both the GT strength function distribution and the values of total strength B(GT). For all the cases we examine, we take advantage of the reliability of our model for low-lying levels and our statistics to explore

  20. Nonlinear probabilistic finite element models of laminated composite shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engelstad, S. P.; Reddy, J. N.

    1993-01-01

    A probabilistic finite element analysis procedure for laminated composite shells has been developed. A total Lagrangian finite element formulation, employing a degenerated 3-D laminated composite shell with the full Green-Lagrange strains and first-order shear deformable kinematics, forms the modeling foundation. The first-order second-moment technique for probabilistic finite element analysis of random fields is employed and results are presented in the form of mean and variance of the structural response. The effects of material nonlinearity are included through the use of a rate-independent anisotropic plasticity formulation with the macroscopic point of view. Both ply-level and micromechanics-level random variables can be selected, the latter by means of the Aboudi micromechanics model. A number of sample problems are solved to verify the accuracy of the procedures developed and to quantify the variability of certain material type/structure combinations. Experimental data is compared in many cases, and the Monte Carlo simulation method is used to check the probabilistic results. In general, the procedure is quite effective in modeling the mean and variance response of the linear and nonlinear behavior of laminated composite shells.

  1. The shell model as a unified view of nuclear structure

    SciTech Connect

    Caurier, E.; Martinez-Pinedo, G.; Nowacki, F.; Poves, A.; Zuker, A.P.

    2005-04-01

    The last decade has witnessed both quantitative and qualitative progress in shell-model studies, which have resulted in remarkable gains in our understanding of the structure of the nucleus. Indeed, it is now possible to diagonalize matrices in determinantal spaces of dimensionality up to 10{sup 9} using the Lanczos tridiagonal construction, whose formal and numerical aspects are analyzed in this review. In addition, many new approximation methods have been developed in order to overcome the dimensionality limitations. New effective nucleon-nucleon interactions have been constructed that contain both two- and three-body contributions. The former are derived from realistic potentials (i.e., potentials consistent with two-nucleon data). The latter incorporate the pure monopole terms necessary to correct the bad saturation and shell-formation properties of the realistic two-body forces. This combination appears to solve a number of hitherto puzzling problems. The present review concentrates on those results which illustrate the global features of the approach: the universality of the effective interaction and the capacity of the shell model to describe simultaneously all the manifestations of the nuclear dynamics, either single-particle or collective in nature. The review also treats in some detail the problems associated with rotational motion, the origin of quenching of the Gamow-Teller transitions, double-{beta} decays, the effect of isospin nonconserving nuclear forces, and the specificities of neutron-rich nuclei. Many other calculations--which appear to have 'merely' spectroscopic interest--are touched upon briefly, although the authors are fully aware that much of the credibility of the shell model rests on them.

  2. The shell model as a unified view of nuclear structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caurier, E.; Martínez-Pinedo, G.; Nowacki, F.; Poves, A.; Zuker, A. P.

    2005-04-01

    The last decade has witnessed both quantitative and qualitative progress in shell-model studies, which have resulted in remarkable gains in our understanding of the structure of the nucleus. Indeed, it is now possible to diagonalize matrices in determinantal spaces of dimensionality up to 109 using the Lanczos tridiagonal construction, whose formal and numerical aspects are analyzed in this review. In addition, many new approximation methods have been developed in order to overcome the dimensionality limitations. New effective nucleon-nucleon interactions have been constructed that contain both two- and three-body contributions. The former are derived from realistic potentials (i.e., potentials consistent with two-nucleon data). The latter incorporate the pure monopole terms necessary to correct the bad saturation and shell-formation properties of the realistic two-body forces. This combination appears to solve a number of hitherto puzzling problems. The present review concentrates on those results which illustrate the global features of the approach: the universality of the effective interaction and the capacity of the shell model to describe simultaneously all the manifestations of the nuclear dynamics, either single-particle or collective in nature. The review also treats in some detail the problems associated with rotational motion, the origin of quenching of the Gamow-Teller transitions, double- β decays, the effect of isospin nonconserving nuclear forces, and the specificities of neutron-rich nuclei. Many other calculations—which appear to have “merely” spectroscopic interest—are touched upon briefly, although the authors are fully aware that much of the credibility of the shell model rests on them.

  3. Comparison between the Gamow shell model and the cluster-orbital shell model for weakly bound systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masui, H.; Katō, K.; Ikeda, K.

    2007-03-01

    We study contributions of poles and continua of the single-particle states to the wave function obtained by the cluster-orbital shell model (COSM). The COSM wave function is described in terms of a linear combination of nonorthogonal Gaussian basis sets. We study oxygen and helium isotopes as examples of normal and weakly bound nuclei. In the investigation of the contribution of the single-particle states, we expand the COSM wave function by using an extended completeness relation, which is constructed by the solution of the single-particle Hamiltonian. We use the complex scaling method to obtain the bound, resonant, and continuum states of the Hamiltonian and construct the extended completeness relation. The results are compared with those obtained by the Gamow shell model calculation.

  4. Microscopic Shell Model Calculations for the Fluorine Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, Bruce R.; Dikmen, Erdal; Maris, Pieter; Vary, James P.; Shirokov, Andrey M.

    2015-10-01

    Using a formalism based on the No Core Shell Model (NCSM), we have determined miscroscopically the core and single-particle energies and the effective two-body interactions that are the input to standard shell model (SSM) calculations. The basic idea is to perform a succession of a Okubo-Lee-Suzuki (OLS) transformation, a NCSM calculation, and a second OLS transformation to a further reduced space, such as the sd-shell, which allows the separation of the many-body matrix elements into an ``inert'' core part plus a few valence-nucleons calculation. In the present investigation we use this technique to calculate the properties of the nuclides in the Fluorine isotopic chain, using the JISP16 nucleon-nucleon interaction. The obtained SSM input, along with the results of the SSM calculations for the Fluorine isotopes, will be presented. This work supported in part by TUBITAK-BIDEB, the US DOE, the US NSF, NERSC, and the Russian Ministry of Education and Science.

  5. Phases and phase transitions in the algebraic microscopic shell model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgieva, A. I.; Drumev, K. P.

    2016-01-01

    We explore the dynamical symmetries of the shell model number conserving algebra, which define three types of pairing and quadrupole phases, with the aim to obtain the prevailing phase or phase transition for the real nuclear systems in a single shell. This is achieved by establishing a correspondence between each of the pairing bases with the Elliott's SU(3) basis that describes collective rotation of nuclear systems. This allows for a complete classification of the basis states of different number of particles in all the limiting cases. The probability distribution of the SU(3) basis states within theirs corresponding pairing states is also obtained. The relative strengths of dynamically symmetric quadrupole-quadrupole interaction in respect to the isoscalar, isovector and total pairing interactions define a control parameter, which estimates the importance of each term of the Hamiltonian in the correct reproduction of the experimental data for the considered nuclei.

  6. Analgesic Effects of GpTx-1, PF-04856264 and CNV1014802 in a Mouse Model of NaV1.7-Mediated Pain.

    PubMed

    Deuis, Jennifer R; Wingerd, Joshua S; Winter, Zoltan; Durek, Thomas; Dekan, Zoltan; Sousa, Silmara R; Zimmermann, Katharina; Hoffmann, Tali; Weidner, Christian; Nassar, Mohammed A; Alewood, Paul F; Lewis, Richard J; Vetter, Irina

    2016-03-01

    Loss-of-function mutations of Na(V)1.7 lead to congenital insensitivity to pain, a rare condition resulting in individuals who are otherwise normal except for the inability to sense pain, making pharmacological inhibition of Na(V)1.7 a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of pain. We characterized a novel mouse model of Na(V)1.7-mediated pain based on intraplantar injection of the scorpion toxin OD1, which is suitable for rapid in vivo profiling of Na(V)1.7 inhibitors. Intraplantar injection of OD1 caused spontaneous pain behaviors, which were reversed by co-injection with Na(V)1.7 inhibitors and significantly reduced in Na(V)1.7(-/-) mice. To validate the use of the model for profiling Na(V)1.7 inhibitors, we determined the Na(V) selectivity and tested the efficacy of the reported Na(V)1.7 inhibitors GpTx-1, PF-04856264 and CNV1014802 (raxatrigine). GpTx-1 selectively inhibited Na(V)1.7 and was effective when co-administered with OD1, but lacked efficacy when delivered systemically. PF-04856264 state-dependently and selectively inhibited Na(V)1.7 and significantly reduced OD1-induced spontaneous pain when delivered locally and systemically. CNV1014802 state-dependently, but non-selectively, inhibited Na(V) channels and was only effective in the OD1 model when delivered systemically. Our novel model of Na(V)1.7-mediated pain based on intraplantar injection of OD1 is thus suitable for the rapid in vivo characterization of the analgesic efficacy of Na(V)1.7 inhibitors. PMID:26999206

  7. Analgesic Effects of GpTx-1, PF-04856264 and CNV1014802 in a Mouse Model of NaV1.7-Mediated Pain

    PubMed Central

    Deuis, Jennifer R.; Wingerd, Joshua S.; Winter, Zoltan; Durek, Thomas; Dekan, Zoltan; Sousa, Silmara R.; Zimmermann, Katharina; Hoffmann, Tali; Weidner, Christian; Nassar, Mohammed A.; Alewood, Paul F.; Lewis, Richard J.; Vetter, Irina

    2016-01-01

    Loss-of-function mutations of NaV1.7 lead to congenital insensitivity to pain, a rare condition resulting in individuals who are otherwise normal except for the inability to sense pain, making pharmacological inhibition of NaV1.7 a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of pain. We characterized a novel mouse model of NaV1.7-mediated pain based on intraplantar injection of the scorpion toxin OD1, which is suitable for rapid in vivo profiling of NaV1.7 inhibitors. Intraplantar injection of OD1 caused spontaneous pain behaviors, which were reversed by co-injection with NaV1.7 inhibitors and significantly reduced in NaV1.7−/− mice. To validate the use of the model for profiling NaV1.7 inhibitors, we determined the NaV selectivity and tested the efficacy of the reported NaV1.7 inhibitors GpTx-1, PF-04856264 and CNV1014802 (raxatrigine). GpTx-1 selectively inhibited NaV1.7 and was effective when co-administered with OD1, but lacked efficacy when delivered systemically. PF-04856264 state-dependently and selectively inhibited NaV1.7 and significantly reduced OD1-induced spontaneous pain when delivered locally and systemically. CNV1014802 state-dependently, but non-selectively, inhibited NaV channels and was only effective in the OD1 model when delivered systemically. Our novel model of NaV1.7-mediated pain based on intraplantar injection of OD1 is thus suitable for the rapid in vivo characterization of the analgesic efficacy of NaV1.7 inhibitors. PMID:26999206

  8. Breakdown of model aircraft radome dielectric shell in artificial charged aerosol clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temnikov, A. G.; Chernenskii, L. L.; Orlov, A. V.; Antonenko, S. S.

    2011-10-01

    The breakdown of a model aircraft radome dielectric shell in artificial charged aqueous aerosol clouds has been experimentally studied. It is established that, in most cases, electric breakdown of a model shell takes place without explicit discharge development between a charged aqueous aerosol cloud and a model antenna arranged under the radome shell. The probabilities of the dielectric shell breakdown have been determined for various radome models. A possible mechanism of the shell breakdown in hollow dielectric radomes interacting with charged aqueous aerosol clouds and electric discharges in these clouds is proposed that takes into account the accumulation of charges of opposite signs on the internal and external surface of the radome.

  9. PF-06463922, an ALK/ROS1 inhibitor, overcomes resistance to 1st and 2nd generation ALK inhibitors in pre-clinical models

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Helen Y.; Friboulet, Luc; Kodack, David P.; Engstrom, Lars D.; Li, Qiuhua; West, Melissa; Tang, Ruth W.; Wang, Hui; Tsaparikos, Konstantinos; Wang, Jinwei; Timofeevski, Sergei; Katayama, Ryohei; Dinh, Dac M.; Lam, Hieu; Lam, Justine L.; Yamazaki, Shinji; Hu, Wenyue; Patel, Bhushankumar; Bezwada, Divya; Frias, Rosa L.; Lifshits, Eugene; Mahmood, Sidra; Gainor, Justin F.; Affolter, Timothy; Lappin, Patrick B.; Gukasyan, Hovhannes; Lee, Nathan; Deng, Shibing; Jain, Rakesh K; Johnson, Ted W.; Shaw, Alice T.; Fantin, Valeria R.; Smeal, Tod

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY We report the preclinical evaluation of PF-06463922, a potent and brain penetrant ALK/ROS1 inhibitor. Compared to other clinically available ALK inhibitors, PF-06463922 displayed superior potency against all known clinically acquired ALK mutations, including the highly resistant G1202R mutant. Furthermore, PF-06463922 treatment led to regression of EML4-ALK driven brain metastases, leading to prolonged mouse survival, in a superior manner. Finally, PF-06463922 demonstrated high selectivity and safety margins in a variety of preclinical studies. These results suggest that PF-06463922 will be highly effective for the treatment of patients with ALK-driven lung cancers, including those who relapsed on clinically available ALK inhibitors due to secondary ALK kinase domain mutations and/or due to the failed control of brain metastases. PMID:26144315

  10. Morphing the Shell Model into an Effective Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Haxton, W. C.; Song, C.-L.

    2000-06-12

    We describe a strategy for attacking the canonical nuclear structure problem--bound-state properties of a system of point nucleons interacting via a two-body potential--which involves an expansion in the number of particles scattering at high momenta, but is otherwise exact. The required self-consistent solutions of the Bloch-Horowitz equation for effective interactions and operators are obtained by an efficient Green's function method based on the Lanczos algorithm. We carry out this program for the simplest nuclei, d and {sup 3}He , in order to explore the consequences of reformulating the shell model as a controlled effective theory. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  11. The nuclear shell model toward the drip lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poves, A.; Caurier, E.; Nowacki, F.; Sieja, K.

    2012-10-01

    We describe the 'islands of inversion' that occur when approaching the neutron drip line around the magic numbers N=20, N=28 and N=40 in the framework of the interacting shell model in very large valence spaces. We explain these configuration inversions (and the associated shape transitions) as the result of the competition between the spherical mean field (monopole) that favors magicity and the correlations (multipole) that favor deformed intruder states. We also show that the N=20 and N=28 islands are in reality a single one, which for the magnesium isotopes is limited by N=18 and N=32.

  12. Holographic shell model: Stack data structure inside black holes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Aharon

    2014-03-01

    Rather than tiling the black hole horizon by Planck area patches, we suggest that bits of information inhabit, universally and holographically, the entire black core interior, a bit per a light sheet unit interval of order Planck area difference. The number of distinguishable (tagged by a binary code) configurations, counted within the context of a discrete holographic shell model, is given by the Catalan series. The area entropy formula is recovered, including Cardy's universal logarithmic correction, and the equipartition of mass per degree of freedom is proven. The black hole information storage resembles, in the count procedure, the so-called stack data structure.

  13. Magnetic reversals in a modified shell model for magnetohydrodynamics turbulence.

    PubMed

    Nigro, Giuseppina; Carbone, Vincenzo

    2010-07-01

    The aim of the paper is the study of dynamo action using a simple nonlinear model in the framework of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. The nonlinear behavior of the system is described by using a shell model for velocity field and magnetic field fluctuations, modified for the magnetic field at the largest scale by a term describing a supercritical pitchfork bifurcation. Turbulent fluctuations generate a dynamical situation where the large-scale magnetic field jumps between two states which represent the opposite polarities of the magnetic field. Despite its simplicity, the model has the capability to describe a long time series of reversals from which we infer results about the statistics of persistence times and scaling laws of cancellations between opposite polarities for different magnetic diffusivity coefficients. These properties of the model are compared with real paleomagnetic data, thus revealing the origin of long-range correlations in the process. PMID:20866731

  14. Magnetic reversals in a modified shell model for magnetohydrodynamics turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nigro, Giuseppina; Carbone, Vincenzo

    2010-07-01

    The aim of the paper is the study of dynamo action using a simple nonlinear model in the framework of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. The nonlinear behavior of the system is described by using a shell model for velocity field and magnetic field fluctuations, modified for the magnetic field at the largest scale by a term describing a supercritical pitchfork bifurcation. Turbulent fluctuations generate a dynamical situation where the large-scale magnetic field jumps between two states which represent the opposite polarities of the magnetic field. Despite its simplicity, the model has the capability to describe a long time series of reversals from which we infer results about the statistics of persistence times and scaling laws of cancellations between opposite polarities for different magnetic diffusivity coefficients. These properties of the model are compared with real paleomagnetic data, thus revealing the origin of long-range correlations in the process.

  15. Shell model of optimal passive-scalar mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, Christopher; Doering, Charles

    2015-11-01

    Optimal mixing is significant to process engineering within industries such as food, chemical, pharmaceutical, and petrochemical. An important question in this field is ``How should one stir to create a homogeneous mixture while being energetically efficient?'' To answer this question, we consider an initially unmixed scalar field representing some concentration within a fluid on a periodic domain. This passive-scalar field is advected by the velocity field, our control variable, constrained by a physical quantity such as energy or enstrophy. We consider two objectives: local-in-time (LIT) optimization (what will maximize the mixing rate now?) and global-in-time (GIT) optimization (what will maximize mixing at the end time?). Throughout this work we use the H-1 mix-norm to measure mixing. To gain a better understanding, we provide a simplified mixing model by using a shell model of passive-scalar advection. LIT optimization in this shell model gives perfect mixing in finite time for the energy-constrained case and exponential decay to the perfect-mixed state for the enstrophy-constrained case. Although we only enforce that the time-average energy (or enstrophy) equals a chosen value in GIT optimization, interestingly, the optimal control keeps this value constant over time.

  16. Alpha Decay in the Complex-Energy Shell Model

    SciTech Connect

    Betan, R. Id

    2012-01-01

    Background: Alpha emission from a nucleus is a fundamental decay process in which the alpha particle formed inside the nucleus tunnels out through the potential barrier. Purpose: We describe alpha decay of 212Po and 104Te by means of the configuration interaction approach. Method: To compute the preformation factor and penetrability, we use the complex-energy shell model with a separable T = 1 interaction. The single-particle space is expanded in a Woods-Saxon basis that consists of bound and unbound resonant states. Special attention is paid to the treatment of the norm kernel appearing in the definition of the formation amplitude that guarantees the normalization of the channel function. Results: Without explicitly considering the alpha-cluster component in the wave function of the parent nucleus, we reproduce the experimental alpha-decay width of 212Po and predict an upper limit of T1/2 = 5.5 10 7 sec for the half-life of 104Te. Conclusions: The complex-energy shell model in a large valence configuration space is capable of providing a microscopic description of the alpha decay of heavy nuclei having two valence protons and two valence neutrons outside the doubly magic core. The inclusion of proton-neutron interaction between the valence nucleons is likely to shorten the predicted half-live of 104Te.

  17. A shell finite element model of the pelvic floor muscles.

    PubMed

    d'Aulignac, D; Martins, J A C; Pires, E B; Mascarenhas, T; Jorge, R M Natal

    2005-10-01

    The pelvic floor gives support to the organs in the abdominal cavity. Using the dataset made public in (Janda et al. J. Biomech. (2003) 36(6), pp. 749-757), we have reconstructed the geometry of one of the most important parts of the pelvic floor, the levator ani, using NURB surfaces. Once the surface is triangulated, the corresponding mesh is used in a finite element analysis with shell elements. Based on the 3D behavior of the muscle we have constructed a shell that takes into account the direction of the muscle fibers and the incompressibility of the tissue. The constitutive model for the isotropic strain energy and the passive strain energy stored in the fibers is adapted from Humphrey's model for cardiac muscles. To this the active behavior of the skeletal muscle is added. We present preliminary results of a simulation of the levator ani muscle under pressure and with active contraction. This research aims at helping simulate the damages to the pelvic floor that can occur after childbirth. PMID:16298856

  18. Shell model level structure of {sup 216}Fr

    SciTech Connect

    Sheline, R.K.; Liang, C.F.; Paris, P.; Gizon, A.

    1997-03-01

    Sources of {sup 220}Ac in secular equilibrium with {sup 221}Pa were produced using the reaction {sup 209}Bi({sup 18}O,3n){sup 224}Pa. The alpha decay of {sup 220}Ac and coincident gamma and electron spectra were used to study the level structure of {sup 216}Fr. The levels in {sup 216}Fr can be interpreted in terms of the {pi}(h{sub 9/2}){sub 9/2}{sup 5}{nu}(g{sub 9/2}){sub 9/2}{sup 3}, {pi}(h{sub 9/2}){sub 0}{sup 4}(f{sub 7/2}){sub 7/2}{nu}(g{sub 9/2}){sub 9/2}{sup 3}, and {pi}(h{sub 9/2}){sub 9/2}{sup 5}{nu}(g{sub 9/2}){sub 0}{sup 2}(i{sub 11/2}){sub 11/2} shell model configurations. The alpha decay hindrance factors of the ground state to ground state transitions in the sequence {sup 224}Pa{r_arrow}{sup 220}Ac{r_arrow}{sup 216}Fr{r_arrow}{sup 212}At suggest the collapse of quadrupole-octupole Nilsson orbitals into the more degenerate shell model orbitals. The sequence of hindrance factors in this odd chain are mirrored in the corresponding odd proton and odd neutron sequences beginning with {sup 223}Pa and {sup 223}Th, respectively. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  19. Development of the Delta Shell as an integrated modeling environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donchyts, Gennadii; Baart, Fedor; Jagers, Bert

    2010-05-01

    Many engineering problem require the use of multiple numerical models from multiple disciplines. For example the use of river model for flow calculation coupled with groundwater model and rainfall-runoff model. These models need to be setup, coupled, run, results need to be visualized, input and output data need to be stored. For some of these steps a software or standards already exist, but there is a need for an environment allowing to perform all these steps.The goal of the present work is to create a modeling environment where models from different domains can perform all the sixe steps: setup, couple, run, visualize, store. This presentation deals with the different problems which arise when setting up a modelling framework, such as terminology, numerical aspects as well as the software development issues which arise. In order to solve these issues we use Domain Driven Design methods, available open standards and open source components. While creating an integrated modeling environment we have identified that a separation of the following domains is essential: a framework allowing to link and exchange data between models; a framework allowing to integrate different components of the environment; graphical user interface; GIS; hybrid relational and multi-dimensional data store; discipline-specific libraries: river hydrology, morphology, water quality, statistics; model-specific components Delta Shell environment which is the basis for several products such as HABITAT, SOBEK and the future Delft3D interface. It implements and integrates components covering the above mentioned domains by making use of open standards and open source components. Different components have been developed to fill in gaps. For exchaning data with the GUI an object oriented scientific framework in .NET was developed within Delta Shell somewhat similar to the JSR-275. For the GIS domain several OGC standards were used such as SFS, WCS and WFS. For storage the CF standard together with

  20. The shell model approach: Key to hadron structure

    SciTech Connect

    Lipkin, H.J. . Dept. of Nuclear Physics)

    1989-08-14

    A shell model approach leads to a simple constituent quark model for hadron structure in which mesons and baryons consist only of constituent quarks. Hadron masses are the sums of the constituent quark effective masses and a hyperfine interaction inversely proportional to the product of these same masses. Hadron masses and magnetic moments are related by the assumption that the same effective mass parameter appears in the additive mass term, the hyperfine interaction, and the quark magnetic moment, both in mesons and baryons. The analysis pinpoints the physical assumptions needed for each relation and gives two new mass relations. Application to weak decays and recent polarized EMC data confirms conclusions previously obtained that the current quark contribution to the spin structure of the proton vanishes, but without need for the questionable assumption of SU(3) symmetry relating hyperon decays and proton structure. SU(3) symmetry breaking is clarified. 24 refs.

  1. Shell-model phenomenology of low-momentum interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Schwenk, Achim; Zuker, Andres P.

    2006-12-15

    The first detailed comparison of the low-momentum interaction V{sub lowk} with G matrices is presented. We use overlaps to measure quantitatively the similarity of shell-model matrix elements for different cutoffs and oscillator frequencies. Over a wide range, all sets of V{sub lowk} matrix elements can be approximately obtained from a universal set by a simple scaling. In an oscillator mean-field approach, V{sub lowk} reproduces satisfactorily many features of the single-particle and single-hole spectra on closed-shell nuclei, in particular through remarkably good splittings between spin-orbit partners on top of harmonic oscillator closures. The main deficiencies of pure two-nucleon interactions are associated with binding energies and with the failure to ensure magicity for the extruder-intruder closures. Here, calculations including three-nucleon interactions are most needed. V{sub lowk} makes it possible to define directly a meaningful unperturbed monopole Hamiltonian, for which the inclusion of three-nucleon forces is tractable.

  2. Quantum phase transitional patterns in the SD-pair shell model

    SciTech Connect

    Luo Yanan; Meng Xiangfei; Zhang Yu; Pan Feng; Draayer, Jerry P.

    2009-07-15

    Patterns of shape-phase transition in the proton-neutron coupled systems are studied within the SD-pair shell model. The results show that some transitional patterns in the SD-pair shell model are similar to the U(5)-SU(3) and U(5)-SO(6) transitions with signatures of the critical point symmetry of the interacting boson model.

  3. Multizone shell model for turbulent wall bounded flows.

    PubMed

    L'vov, Victor S; Pomyalov, Anna; Tiberkevich, Vasil

    2003-10-01

    We suggested a multizone shell (MZS) model for wall-bounded flows accounting for the space inhomogeneity in a piecewise approximation, in which the cross-sectional area of the flow, S, is subdivided into j zones. The area of the first zone, responsible for the core of the flow, S1 approximately S/2, and the areas of the next j zones, S(j), decrease toward the wall like S(j) proportional, variant 2(-j). In each j zone the statistics of turbulence is assumed to be space homogeneous and is described by the set of shell velocities u(nj)(t) for turbulent fluctuations of the scale proportional to 2(-n). The MZS model includes a set of complex variables V(j)(t), j=1,2, em leader, infinity, describing the amplitudes of the near-wall coherent structures of the scale s(j) approximately 2(-j) and responsible for the mean velocity profile. The suggested MZS equations of motion for u(nj)(t) and V(j)(t) preserve the actual conservation laws (energy, mechanical, and angular momenta), respect the existing symmetries (including Galilean and scale invariance), and account for the type of nonlinearity in the Navier-Stokes equation, dimensional reasoning, etc. The MZS model qualitatively describes important characteristics of the wall-bounded turbulence, e.g., evolution of the mean velocity profile with increasing Reynolds number Re from the laminar profile toward the universal logarithmic profile near the flat-plane boundary layer as Re--> infinity. PMID:14683045

  4. Dynamic analysis of rotor flex-structure based on nonlinear anisotropic shell models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauchau, Olivier A.; Chiang, Wuying

    1991-05-01

    In this paper an anisotropic shallow shell model is developed that accommodates transverse shearing deformations and arbitrarily large displacements and rotations, but strains are assumed to remain small. Two kinematic models are developed, the first using two DOF to locate the direction of the normal to the shell's midplane, the second using three. The latter model allows for an automatic compatibility of the shell model with beam models. The shell model is validated by comparing its predictions with several benchmark problems. In actual helicopter rotor blade problems, the shell model of the flex structure is shown to give very different results shown compared to beam models. The lead-lag and torsion modes in particular are strongly affected, whereas flapping modes seem to be less affected.

  5. Shell model level structure in [sup 215]At

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, C.F.; Paris, P. ); Sheline, R.K. )

    1993-04-01

    Mass separated sources of [sup 223]Ac with [sup 219]Fr in secular equilibrium were used to study the level structure of [sup 215]At following alpha decay of [sup 219]Fr. The levels in [sup 215]At can be interpreted in terms of the [pi]([ital h][sub 9/2])[sup 3][nu]([ital g][sub 9/2])[sup 4], [pi]([ital h][sub 9/2])[sup 2][ital f][sub 7/2][nu]([ital g][sub 9/2])[sup 4], and [pi]([ital h][sub 9/2])[sup 2][ital i][sub 13/2][nu]([ital g][sub 9/2])[sup 4] shell model configurations. No evidence for reflection asymmetry is found.

  6. Modeling complicated rheological behaviors in encapsulating shells of lipid-coated microbubbles accounting for nonlinear changes of both shell viscosity and elasticity.

    PubMed

    Li, Qian; Matula, Thomas J; Tu, Juan; Guo, Xiasheng; Zhang, Dong

    2013-02-21

    It has been accepted that the dynamic responses of ultrasound contrast agent (UCA) microbubbles will be significantly affected by the encapsulating shell properties (e.g., shell elasticity and viscosity). In this work, a new model is proposed to describe the complicated rheological behaviors in an encapsulating shell of UCA microbubbles by applying the nonlinear 'Cross law' to the shell viscous term in the Marmottant model. The proposed new model was verified by fitting the dynamic responses of UCAs measured with either a high-speed optical imaging system or a light scattering system. The comparison results between the measured radius-time curves and the numerical simulations demonstrate that the 'compression-only' behavior of UCAs can be successfully simulated with the new model. Then, the shell elastic and viscous coefficients of SonoVue microbubbles were evaluated based on the new model simulations, and compared to the results obtained from some existing UCA models. The results confirm the capability of the current model for reducing the dependence of bubble shell parameters on the initial bubble radius, which indicates that the current model might be more comprehensive to describe the complex rheological nature (e.g., 'shear-thinning' and 'strain-softening') in encapsulating shells of UCA microbubbles by taking into account the nonlinear changes of both shell elasticity and shell viscosity. PMID:23339902

  7. Association of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition phenotype with responsiveness to the p21-activated kinase inhibitor, PF-3758309, in colon cancer models

    PubMed Central

    Pitts, Todd M.; Kulikowski, Gillian N.; Tan, Aik-Choon; Murray, Brion W.; Arcaroli, John J.; Tentler, John J.; Spreafico, Anna; Selby, Heather M.; Kachaeva, Maria I.; McPhillips, Kelly L.; Britt, Blair C.; Bradshaw-Pierce, Erica L.; Messersmith, Wells A.; Varella-Garcia, Marileila; Eckhardt, S. Gail

    2013-01-01

    The p21-activated kinase (PAK) family of serine/threonine kinases, which are overexpressed in several cancer types, are critical mediators of cell survival, motility, mitosis, transcription, and translation. In the study presented here, we utilized a panel of colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines to identify potential biomarkers of sensitivity or resistance that may be used to individualize therapy to the PAK inhibitor PF-03758309. We observed a wide range of proliferative responses in the CRC cell lines exposed to PF-03758309, this response was recapitulated in other phenotypic assays such as anchorage-independent growth, three-dimensional (3D) tumor spheroid formation, and migration. Interestingly, we observed that cells most sensitive to PF-03758309 exhibited up-regulation of genes associated with a mesenchymal phenotype (CALD1, VIM, ZEB1) and cells more resistant had an up-regulation of genes associated with an epithelial phenotype (CLDN2, CDH1, CLDN3, CDH17) allowing us to derive an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) gene signature for this agent. We assessed the functional role of EMT-associated genes in mediating responsiveness to PF-3758309, by targeting known genes and transcriptional regulators of EMT. We observed that suppression of genes associated with the mesenchymal phenotype conferred resistance to PF-3758309, in vitro and in vivo. These results indicate that PAK inhibition is associated with a unique response phenotype in CRC and that further studies should be conducted to facilitate both patient selection and rational combination strategies with these agents. PMID:23543898

  8. High explosive simulations of supernovae and the supernova shell fragmentation model of solar system formation

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, W.K.

    1987-09-01

    Comparison of photographs of explosive experiments to the Casseopeia A supernova remnant reveals a striking similarity. The similarity could indicate the presence of a relatively cool, underlying shell in the Casseopeia A remnant. As this shell expands and fragments, the observable features are produced by hot gases squirting through the cracks - as in explosive experiments. The existence of such underlying shells in supernova remnants supports the author's model of solar system formation.

  9. A New Model for the Mechanochemical Corrosion of a Thin Spherical Shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedova, O.; Pronina, Y.

    2016-02-01

    A pressurized thin-walled spherical shell under the conditions of double-sided uniform corrosion is considered. The rates of corrosion are supposed to dependent linearly on the effective stress. Previous solutions for thin shells obtained by other authors reflect only the effect of differential pressure (i.e., the difference between internal and external pressure). The model proposed here allows to include also the effect of hydrostatic pressure on the durability of the shell under the corrosion conditions.

  10. Van der Waals coefficients beyond the classical shell model

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, Jianmin; Fang, Yuan; Hao, Pan; Scuseria, G. E.; Ruzsinszky, Adrienn; Perdew, John P.

    2015-01-14

    Van der Waals (vdW) coefficients can be accurately generated and understood by modelling the dynamic multipole polarizability of each interacting object. Accurate static polarizabilities are the key to accurate dynamic polarizabilities and vdW coefficients. In this work, we present and study in detail a hollow-sphere model for the dynamic multipole polarizability proposed recently by two of the present authors (JT and JPP) to simulate the vdW coefficients for inhomogeneous systems that allow for a cavity. The inputs to this model are the accurate static multipole polarizabilities and the electron density. A simplification of the full hollow-sphere model, the single-frequency approximation (SFA), circumvents the need for a detailed electron density and for a double numerical integration over space. We find that the hollow-sphere model in SFA is not only accurate for nanoclusters and cage molecules (e.g., fullerenes) but also yields vdW coefficients among atoms, fullerenes, and small clusters in good agreement with expensive time-dependent density functional calculations. However, the classical shell model (CSM), which inputs the static dipole polarizabilities and estimates the static higher-order multipole polarizabilities therefrom, is accurate for the higher-order vdW coefficients only when the interacting objects are large. For the lowest-order vdW coefficient C{sub 6}, SFA and CSM are exactly the same. The higher-order (C{sub 8} and C{sub 10}) terms of the vdW expansion can be almost as important as the C{sub 6} term in molecular crystals. Application to a variety of clusters shows that there is strong non-additivity of the long-range vdW interactions between nanoclusters.

  11. Tests of a protective shell passive release mechanism for hypersonic wind-tunnel models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Puster, R. L.; Dunn, J. E.

    1979-01-01

    A protective shell mechanism for wind tunnel models was developed and tested. The mechanism is passive in operation, reliable, and imposes no new structural design changes for wind tunnel models. Methods of predicting the release time and the measured loads associated with the release of the shell are given. The mechanism was tested in a series of wind tunnel tests to validate the removal process and measure the pressure loads on the model. The protective shell can be used for wind tunnel models that require a step input of heating and loading such as a thin skin heat transfer model. The mechanism may have other potential applications.

  12. Recent Developments in No-Core Shell-Model Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Navratil, P; Quaglioni, S; Stetcu, I; Barrett, B R

    2009-03-20

    We present an overview of recent results and developments of the no-core shell model (NCSM), an ab initio approach to the nuclear many-body problem for light nuclei. In this aproach, we start from realistic two-nucleon or two- plus three-nucleon interactions. Many-body calculations are performed using a finite harmonic-oscillator (HO) basis. To facilitate convergence for realistic inter-nucleon interactions that generate strong short-range correlations, we derive effective interactions by unitary transformations that are tailored to the HO basis truncation. For soft realistic interactions this might not be necessary. If that is the case, the NCSM calculations are variational. In either case, the ab initio NCSM preserves translational invariance of the nuclear many-body problem. In this review, we, in particular, highlight results obtained with the chiral two- plus three-nucleon interactions. We discuss efforts to extend the applicability of the NCSM to heavier nuclei and larger model spaces using importance-truncation schemes and/or use of effective interactions with a core. We outline an extension of the ab initio NCSM to the description of nuclear reactions by the resonating group method technique. A future direction of the approach, the ab initio NCSM with continuum, which will provide a complete description of nuclei as open systems with coupling of bound and continuum states is given in the concluding part of the review.

  13. Off-shell suppressions and two body radiative processes in a vector dominance model

    SciTech Connect

    Lahiri, A.; Bagchi, B.; Gautam, V.P.; Nandy, A.

    1980-08-01

    The radiative decays of rho,K*, omega and phi are studied in a one-parameter vector dominance model by introducing corrections for the off-shell vector meson-photon coupling constants. It is found that off-shell values rho and omega are suppressed by 1/1.5 while off-shell phi is suppressed by 1/1.9 compared with their on-shell values. In addition, we have also considered P ..-->.. ..gamma.. ..gamma.. decays and sigma/sub tot/ (VP), and found generally good agreement with the available data.

  14. A Novel Acidic Matrix Protein, PfN44, Stabilizes Magnesium Calcite to Inhibit the Crystallization of Aragonite*

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Cong; Fang, Dong; Xu, Guangrui; Liang, Jian; Zhang, Guiyou; Wang, Hongzhong; Xie, Liping; Zhang, Rongqing

    2014-01-01

    Magnesium is widely used to control calcium carbonate deposition in the shell of pearl oysters. Matrix proteins in the shell are responsible for nucleation and growth of calcium carbonate crystals. However, there is no direct evidence supporting a connection between matrix proteins and magnesium. Here, we identified a novel acidic matrix protein named PfN44 that affected aragonite formation in the shell of the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata. Using immunogold labeling assays, we found PfN44 in both the nacreous and prismatic layers. In shell repair, PfN44 was repressed, whereas other matrix proteins were up-regulated. Disturbing the function of PfN44 by RNAi led to the deposition of porous nacreous tablets with overgrowth of crystals in the nacreous layer. By in vitro circular dichroism spectra and fluorescence quenching, we found that PfN44 bound to both calcium and magnesium with a stronger affinity for magnesium. During in vitro calcium carbonate crystallization and calcification of amorphous calcium carbonate, PfN44 regulated the magnesium content of crystalline carbonate polymorphs and stabilized magnesium calcite to inhibit aragonite deposition. Taken together, our results suggested that by stabilizing magnesium calcite to inhibit aragonite deposition, PfN44 participated in P. fucata shell formation. These observations extend our understanding of the connections between matrix proteins and magnesium. PMID:24302723

  15. Spherical and spheroidal shells as models in magnetic detection

    SciTech Connect

    Frumkis, L.; Kaplan, B.Z.

    1999-09-01

    Magnetic detection is a widespread technique utilizing the Earth's magnetic field anomaly measurements in geophysics, in submarine detection, in environmental cleanup, and in detection of other hidden objects. The expressions for the scalar potentials of prolate and oblate spheroidal shells immersed in a dc uniform magnetic field are obtained. The expressions for the induced dipole moment of the shells are also evaluated. The problem is solved by finding solutions for the Laplace equation that satisfy boundary conditions at the shell surfaces. The shell thickness effect on the induced dipole moment and on its orientation are evaluated. The results appear to be useful for the analysis and for the prediction of magnetic signatures of hidden ferromagnetic objects belonging to a relatively large family.

  16. Preparation of hollow shell ICF targets using a depolymerizing model

    SciTech Connect

    Letts, S.A.; Fearon, E.M.; Buckley, S.R.

    1994-11-01

    A new technique for producing hollow shell laser fusion capsules was developed that starts with a depolymerizable mandrel. In this technique we use poly(alpha-methylstyrene) (PAMS) beads or shells as mandrels which are overcoated with plasma polymer. The PAMS mandrel is thermally depolymerized to gas phase monomer, which diffuses through the permeable and thermally more stable plasma polymer coating, leaving a hollow shell. We have developed methods for controlling the size of the PAMS mandrel by either grinding to make smaller sizes or melt sintering to form larger mandrels. Sphericity and surface finish are improved by heating the PAMS mandrels in hot water using a surfactant to prevent aggregation. Using this technique we have made shells from 200 {mu}m to 5 mm diameter with 15 to 100 {mu}m wall thickness having sphericity better than 2 {mu}m and surface finish better than 10 nm RMS.

  17. PF-4 actinide disposition strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Margevicius, Robert W

    2010-05-28

    The dwindling amount of Security Category I processing and storage space across the DOE Complex has driven the need for more effective storage of nuclear materials at LANL's Plutonium Facility's (PF-4's) vault. An effort was begun in 2009 to create a strategy, a roadmap, to identify all accountable nuclear material and determine their disposition paths, the PF-4 Actinide Disposition Strategy (PADS). Approximately seventy bins of nuclear materials with similar characteristics - in terms of isotope, chemical form, impurities, disposition location, etc. - were established in a database. The ultimate disposition paths include the material to remain at LANL, disposition to other DOE sites, and disposition to waste. If all the actions described in the document were taken, over half of the containers currently in the PF-4 vault would been eliminated. The actual amount of projected vault space will depend on budget and competing mission requirements, however, clearly a significant portion of the current LANL inventory can be either dispositioned or consolidated.

  18. Nucleon-pair approximation to the nuclear shell model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y. M.; Arima, A.

    2014-12-01

    Atomic nuclei are complex systems of nucleons-protons and neutrons. Nucleons interact with each other via an attractive and short-range force. This feature of the interaction leads to a pattern of dominantly monopole and quadrupole correlations between like particles (i.e., proton-proton and neutron-neutron correlations) in low-lying states of atomic nuclei. As a consequence, among dozens or even hundreds of possible types of nucleon pairs, very few nucleon pairs such as proton and neutron pairs with spin zero, two (in some cases spin four), and occasionally isoscalar spin-aligned proton-neutron pairs, play important roles in low-energy nuclear structure. The nucleon-pair approximation therefore provides us with an efficient truncation scheme of the full shell model configurations which are otherwise too large to handle for medium and heavy nuclei in foreseeable future. Furthermore, the nucleon-pair approximation leads to simple pictures in physics, as the dimension of nucleon-pair subspace is always small. The present paper aims at a sound review of its history, formulation, validity, applications, as well as its link to previous approaches, with the focus on the new developments in the last two decades. The applicability of the nucleon-pair approximation and numerical calculations of low-lying states for realistic atomic nuclei are demonstrated with examples. Applications of pair approximations to other problems are also discussed.

  19. Remembrances of Maria Goeppert Mayer and the Nuclear Shell Model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranger, Elizabeth

    2013-04-01

    Maria Goeppert Mayer received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1963 for her work on the nuclear shell model. I knew her in my teens as a close ``friend of the family.'' The Mayers lived a few blocks away in Leonia, New Jersey from 1939 to 1945, across the street in Chicago from 1945 to 1958 and about one mile away in La Jolla, CA from 1960 till her death. Maria held primarily ``vol'' (voluntary) positions during this period, although in Chicago she was half time at Argonne National Laboratory as a Senior Physicist. She joined the University of California at San Diego as a professor in 1960, her first full-time academic position. I will discuss her positive impact on a teenager seriously considering becoming a physicist. I will also discuss briefly the impact of her work on our understanding of the structure of nuclei. Maria Mayer was creative, well educated, with a supportive father and husband, but she was foreign , received her Ph D at the time of the Great Depression, and was one of the few women trained in physics. Her unusual career and her great success is due to her love of physics and her ability as a theoretical physicist.

  20. Parameterized Finite Element Modeling and Buckling Analysis of Six Typical Composite Grid Cylindrical Shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Changliang; Wang, Junbiao; Liu, Chuang

    2014-10-01

    Six typical composite grid cylindrical shells are constructed by superimposing three basic types of ribs. Then buckling behavior and structural efficiency of these shells are analyzed under axial compression, pure bending, torsion and transverse bending by finite element (FE) models. The FE models are created by a parametrical FE modeling approach that defines FE models with original natural twisted geometry and orients cross-sections of beam elements exactly. And the approach is parameterized and coded by Patran Command Language (PCL). The demonstrations of FE modeling indicate the program enables efficient generation of FE models and facilitates parametric studies and design of grid shells. Using the program, the effects of helical angles on the buckling behavior of six typical grid cylindrical shells are determined. The results of these studies indicate that the triangle grid and rotated triangle grid cylindrical shell are more efficient than others under axial compression and pure bending, whereas under torsion and transverse bending, the hexagon grid cylindrical shell is most efficient. Additionally, buckling mode shapes are compared and provide an understanding of composite grid cylindrical shells that is useful in preliminary design of such structures.

  1. Symmetry-dictated trucation: Solutions of the spherical shell model for heavy nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Guidry, M.W. |

    1992-12-31

    Principles of dynamical symmetry are used to simplify the spherical shell model. The resulting symmetry-dictated truncation leads to dynamical symmetry solutions that are often in quantitative agreement with a variety of observables. Numerical calculations, including terms that break the dynamical symmetries, are shown that correspond to shell model calculations for heavy deformed nuclei. The effective residual interaction is simple, well-behaved, and can be determined from basic observables. With this approach, we intend to apply the shell model in systematic fashion to all nuclei. The implications for nuclear structure far from stability and for nuclear masses and other quantities of interest in astrophysics are discussed.

  2. Resource Letter NSM-1: New insights into the nuclear shell model

    SciTech Connect

    Dean, David Jarvis; Hamilton, J. H.

    2011-01-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on the spherical shell model as applied to nuclei. The nuclear shell model describes the structure of nuclei starting with a nuclear core developed by the classical neutron and proton magic numbers N,Z=2,8,20,28,50,82, 126, where gaps occur in the single-particle energies as a shell is filled, and the interactions of valence nucleons that reside beyond that core. Various modern extensions of this model for spherical nuclei are likewise described. Significant extensions of the nuclear shell model include new magic numbers for spherical nuclei and now for deformed nuclei as well. When both protons and neutrons have shell gaps at the same spherical or deformed shapes, they can reinforce each other to give added stability to that shape and lead to new magic numbers. The vanishings of the classical spherical shell model energy gaps and magic numbers in new neutron-rich nuclei are described. Spherical and deformed shell gaps are seen to be critical for the existence of elements with Z > 100.

  3. Experimental analysis and numerical modeling of mollusk shells as a three dimensional integrated volume.

    PubMed

    Faghih Shojaei, M; Mohammadi, V; Rajabi, H; Darvizeh, A

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, a new numerical technique is presented to accurately model the geometrical and mechanical features of mollusk shells as a three dimensional (3D) integrated volume. For this purpose, the Newton method is used to solve the nonlinear equations of shell surfaces. The points of intersection on the shell surface are identified and the extra interior parts are removed. Meshing process is accomplished with respect to the coordinate of each point of intersection. The final 3D generated mesh models perfectly describe the spatial configuration of the mollusk shells. Moreover, the computational model perfectly matches with the actual interior geometry of the shells as well as their exterior architecture. The direct generation technique is employed to generate a 3D finite element (FE) model in ANSYS 11. X-ray images are taken to show the close similarity of the interior geometry of the models and the actual samples. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) is used to provide information on the microstructure of the shells. In addition, a set of compression tests were performed on gastropod shell specimens to obtain their ultimate compressive strength. A close agreement between experimental data and the relevant numerical results is demonstrated. PMID:23137621

  4. Drift shells and aurora computed using the O8 magnetic field model for Neptune

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paranicas, C.; Cheng, A. F.

    1994-01-01

    Charged particle drift shells are calculated using the O8 magnetic field model for Neptune. Inner drift shell morphologies differ significantly from dipolar drift shells for the parts of drift shells inward of r = 2 R(sub N). Outer drift shells (L approx. greater than 10), when traced down to Neptune's surface following magnetic field lines, are simple closed loops around magnetic poles. Inner drift shells (L approx. less than 4), on the other hand, when traced to the surface, are also single loops but stretched in a previously unknown way: sometimes with a cusp and sometimes into two joined loops. Inner drift shell footprints on R = 1 provide the basis for identifying precipitation L shells, interpreting observed aurora, and predicting additional emissions on that part of Neptune's surface unobserved by the Ultraviolet Spectrometer (UVS). Precipitation in a global magnetic anomaly, `ordinary' auroral precipitation near the south magnetic pole, and precipitation from field lines with no magnetic field minimum above Neptune's exobase collectively appear to account for all of the observed auroral emission regions at Neptune. To the extent that aurora can be understood in this model, it is suggested O8 may be reasonably accurate.

  5. Mesoscale modeling of functional properties in core-shell nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangeri, John; Heinonen, Olle; Karpeev, Dmitry; Nakhmanson, Serge

    2015-03-01

    Core-shell nanoparticle systems of Zn-ZnO and ZnO-TiO2 are studied computationally using the highly scalable MOOSE finite-element framework, developed at Idaho National Lab. The elastic anisotropic mismatch of the core and shell create an imprinting effect within the shell that produces a wide variation of strains. Due to this diversity of strains, the sharp band gap edges of the bulk semiconductor are observed to be ``thinned-out'' much like amorphous silicon. We show that a variety of factors, such as particle size, core-to-shell volume ratio, applied hydrostatic pressure, shell microstructure, as well as the effect of surface elasticity, can influence the distribution of optical band-gap values within the particle, which may prove useful within the field of photovoltaics. Part of the work by O.H. was supported by Award 70NANB14H012 from U.S. Department of Commerce, National Institute of Standards and Technology as part of the Center for Hierarchical Material Design.

  6. Gamow shell model description of proton scattering on Ne18

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaganathen, Y.; Michel, N.; Płoszajczak, M.

    2014-03-01

    Background: The structure of weakly bound/unbound nuclei close to particle drip lines is different from that around the valley of beta stability. A comprehensive description of these systems goes beyond the standard shell model (SM) and demands an open quantum system description of the nuclear many-body system. Purpose: For that purpose, we are using the Gamow shell model (GSM), which provides a fully microscopic description of bound and unbound nuclear states, nuclear decays, and reactions. We formulate the GSM in coupled-channel (GSM-CC) representation to describe low-energy elastic and inelastic scattering of protons on Ne18. Method: The GSM-CC formalism is applied to a translationally invariant Hamiltonian with an effective finite-range two-body interaction. We discuss in detail the GSM-CC formalism in coordinate space and give the description of the novel equivalent potential method for solving the GSM-CC system of integrodifferential equations. This method is then applied for the description of (p,p') reaction cross-sections. The reactions channels are built by GSM wave functions for the ground state 0+ and the first excited 2+ of Ne18 and a proton wave function expanded in different partial waves. The completeness of this basis is verified by comparing GSM and GSM-CC energies of low-energy resonant states in Na19. The differences between the two calculations provide a measure of the missing configurations in the GSM-CC calculation of low-energy states of Na19 due to the restriction on the number of excited states of Ne18. Results: We present the first application of the GSM-CC formalism for the calculation of excited states of Ne18 and Na19, the excitation function, and the elastic/inelastic differential cross-sections in the Ne18(p,p') reaction at different energies. This is the first unified description of the spectra and reaction cross-sections in the GSM formalism. The method is shown to be both feasible and accurate. The approximate equivalence of GSM

  7. Ab initio no-core shell model with continuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navratil, Petr

    2008-04-01

    The ab initio no-core shell model (NCSM) is a many-body approach to nuclear structure of light nuclei. The NCSM adopts an effective interaction theory to transform fundamental inter-nucleon interactions into effective interactions for a specified nucleus in a selected harmonic oscillator basis space [1]. The method is capable of predicting nuclear structure from inter-nucleon forces derived from quantum chromodynamics by means of chiral effective field theory [2]. NCSM extensions to the microscopic description of nuclear reactions are now under development. In my talk, I will first discuss our recent calculations of the ^4He total photo-absorption cross section using two- and three-nucleon interactions from chiral effective field theory [3]. I will then outline our effort to augment the NCSM by the resonating group method (RGM) technique to develop a new method capable of describing simultaneously both bound states and nuclear reactions on light nuclei [4]. This approach, which preserves translational symmetry and the Pauli principle, will allow us to calculate cross sections of reactions important for astrophysics and describe weakly-bound systems from first principles. I will present our first phase shift results for neutron scattering off ^3H, ^4He and ^7Li and proton scattering off ^3He, ^4He and ^7Be using realistic nucleon-nucleon potentials. 3mm [1] P. Navr'atil, J. P. Vary and B. R. Barrett, Phys. Rev. C 62, 054311 (2000). [2] P. Navr'atil and V. G. Gueorguiev and J. P. Vary, W. E. Ormand and A. Nogga, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 042501 (2007). [3] S. Quaglioni and P. Navr'atil, Phys. Lett. B 652, 370 (2007). [4] S. Quaglioni and P. Navr'atil, arXiv:0712.0855.

  8. Collectivity in the light xenon isotopes: A shell model study

    SciTech Connect

    Caurier, E.; Nowacki, F.; Sieja, K.; Poves, A.

    2010-12-15

    The lightest xenon isotopes are studied in the shell model framework, within a valence space that comprises all the orbits lying between the magic closures N=Z=50 and N=Z=82. The calculations produce collective deformed structures of triaxial nature that encompass nicely the known experimental data. Predictions are made for the (still unknown) N=Z nucleus {sup 108}Xe. The results are interpreted in terms of the competition between the quadrupole correlations enhanced by the pseudo-SU(3) structure of the positive parity orbits and the pairing correlations brought in by the 0h{sub 11/2} orbit. We also have studied the effect of the excitations from the {sup 100}Sn core on our predictions. We show that the backbending in this region is due to the alignment of two particles in the 0h{sub 11/2} orbit. In the N=Z case, one neutron and one proton align to J=11 and T=0. In {sup 110,112}Xe the alignment begins in the J=10, T=1 channel and it is dominantly of neutron-neutron type. Approaching the band termination the alignment of a neutron-proton pair to J=11 and T=0 takes over. In a more academic mood, we have studied the role of the isovector and isoscalar pairing correlations on the structure on the yrast bands of {sup 108,110}Xe and examined the possible existence of isovector and isoscalar pairing condensates in these N{approx}{approx}Z nuclei.

  9. Statistical model for the prediction of elastic wave scattering from finite complicated shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Hua

    This thesis develops a simple statistical model to estimate bistatic elastic scattering from finite complicated shells in the mid-frequency range, 3 < ka/ < 10. The model has three parts: (1) sound power injection into the shell; (2) coupling among the elastic waves in the shell and wave power equipartition (3) sound radiation from the shell. Within 30o of beam aspect, sound power injection into the shell is mainly caused by acoustic trace matching, and is estimated by using an infinitely long shell model. Once trace matched, the compressional and shear waves can couple to each other and to the subsonic flexural waves at shell discontinuities such as bulkheads and endcaps. Under extensive wave conversion, wave power, defined as energy density multiplied by axial group speed, is hypothesized to be equipartitioned among the elastic wave types. Numerical calculations are conducted and the results show that the wave power equipartition hypothesis is plausible for a finite endcapped shell with four heavy deep rings. Using the wave power equipartition hypothesis, the shell motion is then converted to sound pressure in the surrounding fluid using Green's theorem. The sound radiation is further extended to the time domain, using random phase realizations and a decay rate model, which considers various dissipation mechanisms in the shells. The predicted target strength is compared with measured data for the ringed shell and the internalled shell, with the internal structures resiliently mounted to the rings. In terms of the mean target strength over the frequency region 3 < ka/ < 10 and the observation region within 30o of beam aspect, the prediction differs from the measured data by less than 2.5 dB for the second and third roundtrip of the trace matched wave in the shells, as well as for a time integrated case. The ring influence on elastic wave speeds is also studied. Inclusion of the influence in the model does not generally yield a better agreement with the

  10. Eversion of bistable shells under magnetic actuation: a model of nonlinear shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seffen, Keith A.; Vidoli, Stefano

    2016-06-01

    We model in closed form a proven bistable shell made from a magnetic rubber composite material. In particular, we incorporate a non-axisymmetrical displacement field, and we capture the nonlinear coupling between the actuated shape and the magnetic flux distribution around the shell. We are able to verify the bistable nature of the shell and we explore its eversion during magnetic actuation. We show that axisymmetrical eversion is natural for a perfect shell but that non-axisymmetrical eversion rapidly emerges under very small initial imperfections, as observed in experiments and in a computational analysis. We confirm the non-uniform shapes of shell and we study the stability of eversion by considering how the landscape of total potential and magnetic energies of the system changes during actuation.

  11. An immersed-shell method for modelling fluid-structure interactions.

    PubMed

    Viré, A; Xiang, J; Pain, C C

    2015-02-28

    The paper presents a novel method for numerically modelling fluid-structure interactions. The method consists of solving the fluid-dynamics equations on an extended domain, where the computational mesh covers both fluid and solid structures. The fluid and solid velocities are relaxed to one another through a penalty force. The latter acts on a thin shell surrounding the solid structures. Additionally, the shell is represented on the extended domain by a non-zero shell-concentration field, which is obtained by conservatively mapping the shell mesh onto the extended mesh. The paper outlines the theory underpinning this novel method, referred to as the immersed-shell approach. It also shows how the coupling between a fluid- and a structural-dynamics solver is achieved. At this stage, results are shown for cases of fundamental interest. PMID:25583857

  12. An immersed-shell method for modelling fluid–structure interactions

    PubMed Central

    Viré, A.; Xiang, J.; Pain, C. C.

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents a novel method for numerically modelling fluid–structure interactions. The method consists of solving the fluid-dynamics equations on an extended domain, where the computational mesh covers both fluid and solid structures. The fluid and solid velocities are relaxed to one another through a penalty force. The latter acts on a thin shell surrounding the solid structures. Additionally, the shell is represented on the extended domain by a non-zero shell-concentration field, which is obtained by conservatively mapping the shell mesh onto the extended mesh. The paper outlines the theory underpinning this novel method, referred to as the immersed-shell approach. It also shows how the coupling between a fluid- and a structural-dynamics solver is achieved. At this stage, results are shown for cases of fundamental interest. PMID:25583857

  13. Shell-model representations of the proton-neutron symplectic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganev, H. G.

    2015-07-01

    The representation theory of the recently introduced proton-neutron symplectic model in the many-particle Hilbert space is considered. The relation of the Sp(12, R) irreducible representations (irreps) with the shell-model classification of the basis states is considered by extending of the state space to the direct product space of SU p (3) ⊗ SU n (3) irreps, generalizing in this way the Elliott's SU(3) model for the case of two-component system. The Sp(12, R) model appears then as a natural multi-major-shell extension of the generalized proton-neutron SU(3) scheme, which takes into account the core collective excitations of monopole and quadrupole, as well as dipole type associated with the giant resonance vibrational degrees of freedom. Each Sp(12, R) irreducible representation is determined by a symplectic bandhead or an intrinsic U(6) space which can be fixed by the underlying proton-neutron shell-model structure, so the theory becomes completely compatible with the Pauli principle. It is shown that this intrinsic U(6) structure is of vital importance for the appearance of the low-lying collective bands without involving a mixing of different symplectic irreps. The full range of low-lying collective states can then be described by the microscopically based intrinsic U(6) structure, renormalized by coupling to the giant resonance vibrations.

  14. Study of weakly bound nuclei with an extended cluster-orbital shell model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masui, H.; Katō, K.; Ikdea, K.

    2007-06-01

    We develop an approach for a unified description of bound and unbound states in the framework of the cluster-orbital shell model (COSM). In order to see the reliability of this approach, we study 16O+XN systems.

  15. Stochastic estimation of level density in nuclear shell-model calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Noritaka; Utsuno, Yutaka; Futamura, Yasunori; Sakurai, Tetsuya; Mizusaki, Takahiro; Otsuka, Takaharu

    2016-06-01

    An estimation method of the nuclear level density stochastically based on nuclear shell-model calculations is introduced. In order to count the number of the eigen-values of the shell-model Hamiltonian matrix, we perform the contour integral of the matrix element of a resolvent. The shifted block Krylov subspace method enables us its efficient computation. Utilizing this method, the contamination of center-of-mass motion is clearly removed.

  16. Shell model nuclear matrix elements for competing mechanisms contributing to double beta decay

    SciTech Connect

    Horoi, Mihai

    2013-12-30

    Recent progress in the shell model approach to the nuclear matrix elements for the double beta decay process are presented. This includes nuclear matrix elements for competing mechanisms to neutrionless double beta decay, a comparison between closure and non-closure approximation for {sup 48}Ca, and an updated shell model analysis of nuclear matrix elements for the double beta decay of {sup 136}Xe.

  17. Lyman-α Spectra from Multiphase Outflows, and their Connection to Shell Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gronke, M.; Dijkstra, M.

    2016-07-01

    We perform Lyman-α (Lyα) Monte-Carlo radiative transfer calculations on a suite of 2500 models of multiphase, outflowing media, which are characterized by 14 parameters. We focus on the Lyα spectra emerging from these media and investigate which properties are dominant in shaping the emerging Lyα profile. Multiphase models give rise to a wide variety of emerging spectra, including single-, double-, and triple-peaked spectra. We find that the dominant parameters in shaping the spectra include (i) the cloud covering factor, f c , which is in agreement with earlier studies, and (ii) the temperature and number density of residual H i in the hot ionized medium. We attempt to reproduce spectra emerging from multiphase models with “shell models” which are commonly used to fit observed Lyα spectra, and investigate the connection between shell-model parameters and the physical parameters of the clumpy media. In shell models, the neutral hydrogen content of the shell is one of the key parameters controlling Lyα radiative transfer. Because Lyα spectra emerging from multiphase media depend much less on the neutral hydrogen content of the clumps, the shell-model parameters such as H i column density (but also shell velocity and dust content) are generally not well matched to the associated physical parameters of the clumpy media.

  18. A Shell/3D Modeling Technique for the Analysis of Delaminated Composite Laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, Ronald; OBrien, T. Kevin

    2000-01-01

    A shell/3D modeling technique was developed for which a local solid finite element model is used only in the immediate vicinity of the delamination front. The goal was to combine the accuracy of the full three-dimensional solution with the computational efficiency of a shell finite element model. Multi-point constraints provided a kinematically compatible interface between the local 3D model and the global structural model which has been meshed with shell finite elements. Double Cantilever Beam, End Notched Flexure, and Single Leg Bending specimens were analyzed first using full 3D finite element models to obtain reference solutions. Mixed mode strain energy release rate distributions were computed using the virtual crack closure technique. The analyses were repeated using the shell/3D technique to study the feasibility for pure mode I, mode II and mixed mode I/II cases. Specimens with a unidirectional layup and with a multidirectional layup were simulated. For a local 3D model, extending to a minimum of about three specimen thicknesses on either side of the delamination front, the results were in good agreement with mixed mode strain energy release rates obtained from computations where the entire specimen had been modeled with solid elements. For large built-up composite structures the shell/3D modeling technique offers a great potential for reducing the model size, since only a relatively small section in the vicinity of the delamination front needs to be modeled with solid elements.

  19. 16 PF Research Bibliography: 1971-1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussong, Mary Ann, Comp.; And Others

    This bibliography contains a comprehensive listing of research studies and dissertations related to the Sixteen Personality Factor (16 PF). It is the third part in the series of reference works begun by the 16 PF Handbook (1970) and supplemented by the 16 PF Manual (1972). The collection spans primarily the years 1971-1976. Several references to…

  20. Double-step truncation procedure for large-scale shell-model calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coraggio, L.; Gargano, A.; Itaco, N.

    2016-06-01

    We present a procedure that is helpful to reduce the computational complexity of large-scale shell-model calculations, by preserving as much as possible the role of the rejected degrees of freedom in an effective approach. Our truncation is driven first by the analysis of the effective single-particle energies of the original large-scale shell-model Hamiltonian, in order to locate the relevant degrees of freedom to describe a class of isotopes or isotones, namely the single-particle orbitals that will constitute a new truncated model space. The second step is to perform a unitary transformation of the original Hamiltonian from its model space into the truncated one. This transformation generates a new shell-model Hamiltonian, defined in a smaller model space, that retains effectively the role of the excluded single-particle orbitals. As an application of this procedure, we have chosen a realistic shell-model Hamiltonian defined in a large model space, set up by seven proton and five neutron single-particle orbitals outside 88Sr. We study the dependence of shell-model results upon different truncations of the original model space for the Zr, Mo, Ru, Pd, Cd, and Sn isotopic chains, showing the reliability of this truncation procedure.

  1. An automated shell for management of parametric dispersion/deposition modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Paddock, R.A.; Absil, M.J.G.; Peerenboom, J.P.; Newsom, D.E.; North, M.J.; Coskey, R.J. Jr.

    1994-03-01

    In 1993, the US Army tasked Argonne National Laboratory to perform a study of chemical agent dispersion and deposition for the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program using an existing Army computer model. The study explored a wide range of situations in terms of six parameters: agent type, quantity released, liquid droplet size, release height, wind speed, and atmospheric stability. A number of discrete values of interest were chosen for each parameter resulting in a total of 18,144 possible different combinations of parameter values. Therefore, the need arose for a systematic method to assemble the large number of input streams for the model, filter out unrealistic combinations of parameter values, run the model, and extract the results of interest from the extensive model output. To meet these needs, we designed an automated shell for the computer model. The shell processed the inputs, ran the model, and reported the results of interest. By doing so, the shell compressed the time needed to perform the study and freed the researchers to focus on the evaluation and interpretation of the model predictions. The results of the study are still under review by the Army and other agencies; therefore, it would be premature to discuss the results in this paper. However, the design of the shell could be applied to other hazards for which multiple-parameter modeling is performed. This paper describes the design and operation of the shell as an example for other hazards and models.

  2. An explicit model of expanding cylindrical shells subjected to high explosive detonations

    SciTech Connect

    Martineau, R.L.; Prime, M.B.; Anderson, C.A.; Smith, F.W.

    1999-04-01

    A viscoplastic constitutive model was formulated to model the high strain-rate expansion of thin cylindrical shells subjected to internal explosive detonations. This model provides insight into the development of plastic instabilities, which occur on the surface of the shells prior to failure. The effects of shock heating and damage in the form of microvoid nucleation, growth, and coalescence were incorporated using the Johnson-Cook strength model with the Mie-Grueneisen equation of state and a modified Gurson yield surface. This model was implemented into ABAQUS/Explicit as a user material subroutine. A cylindrical copper shell was modeled using both axisymmetric and plane strain elements. The high explosive material inside of the cylinder was simulated using the high explosive burn model in ABAQUS/Explicit. Two experiments were conducted involving explosive-filled, copper cylinders and good agreement was obtained between the numerical results and experimental data.

  3. On the Modeling of Shells in Multibody Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauchau, Olivier A.; Choi, Jou-Young; Bottasso, Carlo L.

    2000-01-01

    Energy preserving/decaying schemes are presented for the simulation of the nonlinear multibody systems involving shell components. The proposed schemes are designed to meet four specific requirements: unconditional nonlinear stability of the scheme, a rigorous treatment of both geometric and material nonlinearities, exact satisfaction of the constraints, and the presence of high frequency numerical dissipation. The kinematic nonlinearities associated with arbitrarily large displacements and rotations of shells are treated in a rigorous manner, and the material nonlinearities can be handled when the, constitutive laws stem from the existence of a strain energy density function. The efficiency and robustness of the proposed approach is illustrated with specific numerical examples that also demonstrate the need for integration schemes possessing high frequency numerical dissipation.

  4. A viscoplastic model of expanding cylindrical shells subjected to internal explosive detonations

    SciTech Connect

    Martineau, R.L.

    1998-04-01

    Magnetic flux compression generators rely on the expansion of thin ductile shells to generate magnetic fields. These thin shells are filled with high explosives, which when detonated, cause the shell to expand to over 200% strain at strain-rates on the order of 10{sup 4} s{sup {minus}1}. Experimental data indicate the development and growth of multiple plastic instabilities which appear in a quasi-periodic pattern on the surfaces of the shells. These quasi-periodic instabilities are connected by localized zones of intense shear that are oriented approximately 45{degree} from the outward radial direction. The quasi-periodic instabilities continue to develop and eventually become through-cracks, causing the shell to fragment. A viscoplastic constitutive model is formulated to model the high strain-rate expansion and provide insight into the development of plastic instabilities. The formulation of the viscoplastic constitutive model includes the effects of shock heating and damage in the form of microvoid nucleation, growth, and coalescence in the expanding shell. This model uses the Johnson-Cook strength model with the Mie-Grueneisen equation of state and a modified Gurson yield surface. The constitutive model includes the modifications proposed by Tvergaard and the plastic strain controlled nucleation introduced by Neeleman. The constitutive model is implemented as a user material subroutine into ABAQUS/Explicit, which is a commercially available nonlinear explicit dynamic finite element program. A cylindrical shell is modeled using both axisymmetric and plane strain elements. Two experiments were conducted involving plane wave detonated, explosively filled, copper cylinders. Instability, displacement, and velocity data were recorded using a fast framing camera and a Fabry-Perot interferometer. Good agreement is shown between the numerical results and experimental data. An additional explosively bulged cylinder experiment was also performed and a photomicrograph of

  5. Structure of exotic nuclei by large-scale shell model calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Utsuno, Yutaka; Otsuka, Takaharu; Mizusaki, Takahiro; Honma, Michio

    2006-11-02

    An extensive large-scale shell-model study is conducted for unstable nuclei around N = 20 and N = 28, aiming to investigate how the shell structure evolves from stable to unstable nuclei and affects the nuclear structure. The structure around N = 20 including the disappearance of the magic number is reproduced systematically, exemplified in the systematics of the electromagnetic moments in the Na isotope chain. As a key ingredient dominating the structure/shell evolution in the exotic nuclei from a general viewpoint, we pay attention to the tensor force. Including a proper strength of the tensor force in the effective interaction, we successfully reproduce the proton shell evolution ranging from N = 20 to 28 without any arbitrary modifications in the interaction and predict the ground state of 42Si to contain a large deformed component.

  6. Large-scale shell-model calculations on the spectroscopy of N <126 Pb isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Chong; Jia, L. Y.; Fu, G. J.

    2016-07-01

    Large-scale shell-model calculations are carried out in the model space including neutron-hole orbitals 2 p1 /2 ,1 f5 /2 ,2 p3 /2 ,0 i13 /2 ,1 f7 /2 , and 0 h9 /2 to study the structure and electromagnetic properties of neutron-deficient Pb isotopes. An optimized effective interaction is used. Good agreement between full shell-model calculations and experimental data is obtained for the spherical states in isotopes Pb-206194. The lighter isotopes are calculated with an importance-truncation approach constructed based on the monopole Hamiltonian. The full shell-model results also agree well with our generalized seniority and nucleon-pair-approximation truncation calculations. The deviations between theory and experiment concerning the excitation energies and electromagnetic properties of low-lying 0+ and 2+ excited states and isomeric states may provide a constraint on our understanding of nuclear deformation and intruder configuration in this region.

  7. Ab Initio Study of 40Ca with an Importance Truncated No-Core Shell Model

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, R; Navratil, P

    2007-05-22

    We propose an importance truncation scheme for the no-core shell model, which enables converged calculations for nuclei well beyond the p-shell. It is based on an a priori measure for the importance of individual basis states constructed by means of many-body perturbation theory. Only the physically relevant states of the no-core model space are considered, which leads to a dramatic reduction of the basis dimension. We analyze the validity and efficiency of this truncation scheme using different realistic nucleon-nucleon interactions and compare to conventional no-core shell model calculations for {sup 4}He and {sup 16}O. Then, we present the first converged calculations for the ground state of {sup 40}Ca within no-core model spaces including up to 16{h_bar}{Omega}-excitations using realistic low-momentum interactions. The scheme is universal and can be easily applied to other quantum many-body problems.

  8. Radiative Transfer Modeling of the Extended Dust Shell of AFGL 618

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tartar, J.; Speck, A.; Meixner, M.; Nenkova, M.; Elitzur, M.

    2005-12-01

    AFGL 618 is a carbon-rich post AGB star/protoplanetary nebula (PPN), and is surrounded by extremely large circumstellar dust shells, containing the fossil record of its AGB mass loss. This dust shell ahs been observed at 120μ m and 180μ m by ISOPHT. We present results of radiative-transfer (RT) modeling of these dust shells, using the 1-d RT code DUSTY. While AFGL 618 is clearly axisymmetric close to the central star, this axisymmetry is contained well within the PSF of the ISO FIR observation. Our models are intended to determine several parameters AFGL 618 which are not currently wll constrained; among tehse being distance, gross dust distribution, stellar temperature, inner dust shell radius, dust grain size distribution, and dust grain composition. While there is some degeneracy within the models providing good fits to the data, some general results have emerged. We found that the optical depth of the dust shell in the mid-IR (τ 9.7μ m) is between 3 and 7. Furthermore, we have found that in order for the modeled brightnesses to match the observational data at both wavelengths (for the central region), it is necessary to include a considerable amount of crystalline dust (graphite and SiC) into the circumstellar shell in addition to amorphous carbon. Finally we show that the radial density distributions needed to match the observations are indicative of either constant mass-loss rate throughout the histor of the shell, or increasing mass-loss rates for the last few hundred years of the AGB. This increasing mass loss is interpreted as the superwind phase.

  9. Symplectic Symmetry and the Ab Initio No-Core Shell Model

    SciTech Connect

    Draayer, Jerry P.; Dytrych, Tomas; Sviratcheva, Kristina D.; Bahri, Chairul; Vary, James P.; /Iowa State U. /LLNL, Livermore /SLAC

    2007-03-14

    The symplectic symmetry of eigenstates for the 0{sub gs}{sup +} in {sup 16}O and the 0{sub gs}{sup +} and lowest 2{sup +} and 4{sup +} configurations of {sup 12}C that are well-converged within the framework of the no-core shell model with the JISP16 realistic interaction is examined. These states are found to project at the 85-90% level onto very few symplectic representations including the most deformed configuration, which confirms the importance of a symplectic no-core shell model and reaffirms the relevance of the Elliott SU(3) model upon which the symplectic scheme is built.

  10. Shear-flexible finite-element models of laminated composite plates and shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, A. K.; Mathers, M. D.

    1975-01-01

    Several finite-element models are applied to the linear static, stability, and vibration analysis of laminated composite plates and shells. The study is based on linear shallow-shell theory, with the effects of shear deformation, anisotropic material behavior, and bending-extensional coupling included. Both stiffness (displacement) and mixed finite-element models are considered. Discussion is focused on the effects of shear deformation and anisotropic material behavior on the accuracy and convergence of different finite-element models. Numerical studies are presented which show the effects of increasing the order of the approximating polynomials, adding internal degrees of freedom, and using derivatives of generalized displacements as nodal parameters.

  11. DOUBLE-DETONATION SUB-CHANDRASEKHAR SUPERNOVAE: SYNTHETIC OBSERVABLES FOR MINIMUM HELIUM SHELL MASS MODELS

    SciTech Connect

    Kromer, M.; Sim, S. A.; Fink, M.; Roepke, F. K.; Seitenzahl, I. R.; Hillebrandt, W.

    2010-08-20

    In the double-detonation scenario for Type Ia supernovae, it is suggested that a detonation initiates in a shell of helium-rich material accreted from a companion star by a sub-Chandrasekhar-mass white dwarf. This shell detonation drives a shock front into the carbon-oxygen white dwarf that triggers a secondary detonation in the core. The core detonation results in a complete disruption of the white dwarf. Earlier studies concluded that this scenario has difficulties in accounting for the observed properties of Type Ia supernovae since the explosion ejecta are surrounded by the products of explosive helium burning in the shell. Recently, however, it was proposed that detonations might be possible for much less massive helium shells than previously assumed (Bildsten et al.). Moreover, it was shown that even detonations of these minimum helium shell masses robustly trigger detonations of the carbon-oxygen core (Fink et al.). Therefore, it is possible that the impact of the helium layer on observables is less than previously thought. Here, we present time-dependent multi-wavelength radiative transfer calculations for models with minimum helium shell mass and derive synthetic observables for both the optical and {gamma}-ray spectral regions. These differ strongly from those found in earlier simulations of sub-Chandrasekhar-mass explosions in which more massive helium shells were considered. Our models predict light curves that cover both the range of brightnesses and the rise and decline times of observed Type Ia supernovae. However, their colors and spectra do not match the observations. In particular, their B - V colors are generally too red. We show that this discrepancy is mainly due to the composition of the burning products of the helium shell of the Fink et al. models which contain significant amounts of titanium and chromium. Using a toy model, we also show that the burning products of the helium shell depend crucially on its initial composition. This leads us

  12. Evaluation of the Agonist PET Radioligand [11C]GR103545 to Image Kappa Opioid Receptor in Humans: Kinetic Model Selection, Test-Retest Reproducibility and Receptor Occupancy by the Antagonist PF-04455242

    PubMed Central

    Naganawa, Mika; Jacobsen, Leslie K.; Zheng, Ming-Qiang; Lin, Shu-Fei; Banerjee, Anindita; Byon, Wonkyung; Weinzimmer, David; Tomasi, Giampaolo; Nabulsi, Nabeel; Grimwood, Sarah; Badura, Lori L.; Carson, Richard E.; McCarthy, Timothy J.; Huang, Yiyun

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Kappa opioid receptors (KOR) are implicated in several brain disorders. In this report, a first-in-human Positron Emission Tomography (PET) study was conducted with the potent and selective KOR agonist tracer, [11C]GR103545, to determine an appropriate kinetic model for analysis of PET imaging data and assess the test-retest reproducibility of model-derived binding parameters. The non-displaceable distribution volume (VND) was estimated from a blocking study with naltrexone. In addition, KOR occupancy of PF-04455242, a selective KOR antagonist that is active in preclinical models of depression, was also investigated. Methods For determination of a kinetic model and evaluation of test-retest reproducibility, 11 subjects were scanned twice with [11C]GR103545. Seven subjects were scanned before and 75 min after oral administration of naltrexone (150 mg). For the KOR occupancy study, six subjects were scanned at baseline and 1.5 h and 8 h after an oral dose of PF-04455242 (15 mg, n = 1 and 30 mg, n = 5). Metabolite-corrected arterial input functions were measured and all scans were 150 min in duration. Regional time-activity curves (TACs) were analyzed with 1- and 2-tissue compartment models (1TC and 2TC) and the multilinear analysis (MA1) method to derive regional volume of distribution (VT). Relative test-retest variability (TRV), absolute test-retest variability (aTRV) and intra-class coefficient (ICC) were calculated to assess test-retest reproducibility of regional VT. Occupancy plots were computed for blocking studies to estimate occupancy and VND. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of PF-04455242 was determined from occupancies and drug concentrations in plasma. [11C]GR103545 in vivo KD was also estimated. Results Regional TACs were well described by the 2TC model and MA1. However, 2TC VT was sometimes estimated with high standard error. Thus MA1 was the model of choice. Test-retest variability was ~15%, depending on the outcome

  13. Mass measurements demonstrate a strong N=28 shell gap in argon.

    PubMed

    Meisel, Z; George, S; Ahn, S; Browne, J; Bazin, D; Brown, B A; Carpino, J F; Chung, H; Cyburt, R H; Estradé, A; Famiano, M; Gade, A; Langer, C; Matoš, M; Mittig, W; Montes, F; Morrissey, D J; Pereira, J; Schatz, H; Schatz, J; Scott, M; Shapira, D; Smith, K; Stevens, J; Tan, W; Tarasov, O; Towers, S; Wimmer, K; Winkelbauer, J R; Yurkon, J; Zegers, R G T

    2015-01-16

    We present results from recent time-of-flight nuclear mass measurements at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory at Michigan State University. We report the first mass measurements of ^{48}Ar and ^{49}Ar and find atomic mass excesses of -22.28(31)  MeV and -17.8(1.1)  MeV, respectively. These masses provide strong evidence for the closed shell nature of neutron number N=28 in argon, which is therefore the lowest even-Z element exhibiting the N=28 closed shell. The resulting trend in binding-energy differences, which probes the strength of the N=28 shell, compares favorably with shell-model calculations in the sd-pf shell using SDPF-U and SDPF-MU Hamiltonians. PMID:25635542

  14. Small oscillations of a pressurized, elastic, spherical shell: Model and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, K. A.; Hunt, H. E. M.; Lister, John R.

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents a model for the small oscillations of a pressurized, elastic, spherical shell subject to internal and external fluid effects. The shell has three features: a pressure difference across the skin; a thin, tensioned shell; and a double curved interfacial surface. An analytical solution for the natural frequencies and mode shapes, incorporating the inertia both of the shell and the surrounding fluids, is derived. Two key parameters that quantify the effect of pre-stress and fluid inertia on the shell's behaviour are identified. When the skin tension is set to zero and the inertial effects of the fluid are removed, the results converge to the analytical solution for an elastic spherical shell, and when the skin elasticity is neglected, the results converge to the constant-tension solution of a bubble. The analytical solution is used to predict the natural frequencies of a small balloon, based on a value for the elastic modulus that is determined using inflation measurements. These predictions are compared to experimental measurements of balloon vibrations using impact-hammer testing, and good agreement is seen.

  15. A Universal model for electron impact ionization of K, L and M-shells.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bary Malik, Fazley; Haque, A. K. F.; Uddin, M. A.; Basak, A. K.; Saha, B. C.; Karim, K. R.

    2007-06-01

    A modified version of the original Kolbenstvedt model, which has its roots in quantum electrodynamical description of electron-electron scattering, will be presented. This modified model describes reasonably well cross sections of K-shell ionization of H, He, Li, C, N, O, Mg, Si, P and S, L-shell ionization of Ag, Sn, Ba, Ho, Ta, Au, Pb, Bi and U, M-shell ionization of Pb, Bi and U, from threshold to a few GeV incident energy. The same model with slight modification to account for the ionic charge is also applicable to ionic targets such as Ne^8+, Mo^41+, U^82+ from threshold to a few MeV incident energy. Experimentally observed increase of the cross section at high energies seems to be a consequence of the Møller interaction between two interacting electrons.

  16. Influence of an asymmetric ring on the modeling of an orthogonally stiffened cylindrical shell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rastogi, Naveen; Johnson, Eric R.

    1994-01-01

    Structural models are examined for the influence of a ring with an asymmetrical cross section on the linear elastic response of an orthogonally stiffened cylindrical shell subjected to internal pressure. The first structural model employs classical theory for the shell and stiffeners. The second model employs transverse shear deformation theories for the shell and stringer and classical theory for the ring. Closed-end pressure vessel effects are included. Interacting line load intensities are computed in the stiffener-to-skin joints for an example problem having the dimensions of the fuselage of a large transport aircraft. Classical structural theory is found to exaggerate the asymmetric response compared to the transverse shear deformation theory.

  17. Level densities of heavy nuclei in the shell model Monte Carlo approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhassid, Y.; Bertsch, G. F.; Gilbreth, C. N.; Nakada, H.; Özen, C.

    2016-06-01

    Nuclear level densities are necessary input to the Hauser-Feshbach theory of compound nuclear reactions. However, the microscopic calculation of level densities in the presence of correlations is a challenging many-body problem. The configurationinteraction shell model provides a suitable framework for the inclusion of correlations and shell effects, but the large dimensionality of the many-particle model space has limited its application in heavy nuclei. The shell model Monte Carlo method enables calculations in spaces that are many orders of magnitude larger than spaces that can be treated by conventional diagonalization methods and has proven to be a powerful tool in the microscopic calculation of level densities. We discuss recent applications of the method in heavy nuclei.

  18. Stability of core-shell nanowires in selected model solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalska-Szostko, B.; Wykowska, U.; Basa, A.; Zambrzycka, E.

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents the studies of stability of magnetic core-shell nanowires prepared by electrochemical deposition from an acidic solution containing iron in the core and modified surface layer. The obtained nanowires were tested according to their durability in distilled water, 0.01 M citric acid, 0.9% NaCl, and commercial white wine (12% alcohol). The proposed solutions were chosen in such a way as to mimic food related environment due to a possible application of nanowires as additives to, for example, packages. After 1, 2 and 3 weeks wetting in the solutions, nanoparticles were tested by Infrared Spectroscopy, Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy and X-ray diffraction methods.

  19. Refined hierarchical kinematics quasi-3D Ritz models for free vibration analysis of doubly curved FGM shells and sandwich shells with FGM core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazzolari, Fiorenzo A.; Carrera, Erasmo

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, the Ritz minimum energy method, based on the use of the Principle of Virtual Displacements (PVD), is combined with refined Equivalent Single Layer (ESL) and Zig Zag (ZZ) shell models hierarchically generated by exploiting the use of Carrera's Unified Formulation (CUF), in order to engender the Hierarchical Trigonometric Ritz Formulation (HTRF). The HTRF is then employed to carry out the free vibration analysis of doubly curved shallow and deep functionally graded material (FGM) shells. The PVD is further used in conjunction with the Gauss theorem to derive the governing differential equations and related natural boundary conditions. Donnell-Mushtari's shallow shell-type equations are given as a particular case. Doubly curved FGM shells and doubly curved sandwich shells made up of isotropic face sheets and FGM core are investigated. The proposed shell models are widely assessed by comparison with the literature results. Two benchmarks are provided and the effects of significant parameters such as stacking sequence, boundary conditions, length-to-thickness ratio, radius-to-length ratio and volume fraction index on the circular frequency parameters and modal displacements are discussed.

  20. A Comment on the New Formulation of a Many-Level Shell Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasumoto, S.; Shimizu, Y. R.

    2003-11-01

    In order to construct a set of orthonormalized basis vectors in a many-level shell model space, we introduced a new type of CFP in a previous paper [K. Takada, M. Sato and S. Yasumoto, Prog. Theor. Phys. 104 (2000), 173]. There, we also presented one of its analytic representations. In this paper, we improve that representation by making it much simpler and applicable to the case of the five-level. Using this improved representation, it is possible to develop a general-use computer program for the shell-model calculation.

  1. Application of the hybrid-Trefftz finite element model to thin shell analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voros, Gabor

    The paper presents the results of a preliminary study on thin shallow shell element based on the hybrid-Trefftz (HT) model. This model adopts an assumed nonconforming displacement field which satisfies a priori the governing differential equations. The interelement continuity and the boundary conditions are enforced by frame fields defined in terms of the conventional nodal freedoms. In the p-extension, the frame functions involve an optional number of hierarchic displacement modes. Numerical results present the capability of the new shell element which can be implemented in existing finite element codes.

  2. Gamow states and continua in the cluster-orbital shell model approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masui, H.; Kato, K.; Ikeda, K.

    2008-05-01

    Importance of the unbound states in loosely bound systems by comparing to the stable nuclei is investigated. We use the cluster-orbital shell model (COSM) approach and expand the wave function using the complete set of the single-particle states. The completeness relation is constructed by the Berggren metrics, which includes bound, resonant and anti-bound states, and continua. We precisely investigated such the contributions of the resonant states (Gamow states) and continua in the helium isotopes and compare them those obtained by the Gamow shell model.

  3. Shell Tectonics: A Mechanical Model for Strike-slip Displacement on Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhoden, Alyssa Rose; Wurman, Gilead; Huff, Eric M.; Manga, Michael; Hurford, Terry A.

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a new mechanical model for producing tidally-driven strike-slip displacement along preexisting faults on Europa, which we call shell tectonics. This model differs from previous models of strike-slip on icy satellites by incorporating a Coulomb failure criterion, approximating a viscoelastic rheology, determining the slip direction based on the gradient of the tidal shear stress rather than its sign, and quantitatively determining the net offset over many orbits. This model allows us to predict the direction of net displacement along faults and determine relative accumulation rate of displacement. To test the shell tectonics model, we generate global predictions of slip direction and compare them with the observed global pattern of strike-slip displacement on Europa in which left-lateral faults dominate far north of the equator, right-lateral faults dominate in the far south, and near-equatorial regions display a mixture of both types of faults. The shell tectonics model reproduces this global pattern. Incorporating a small obliquity into calculations of tidal stresses, which are used as inputs to the shell tectonics model, can also explain regional differences in strike-slip fault populations. We also discuss implications for fault azimuths, fault depth, and Europa's tectonic history.

  4. Shell-model study of spin modes in nuclei and nuclear forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Toshio; Otsuka, Takaharu; Honma, Michio; Tsunoda, Naofumi

    2015-02-01

    Spin-dependent modes in nuclei are studied by shell-model method with the use of new shell-model Hamiltonians which properly take into account important roles of tensor interactions. New Hamiltonians can describe spin degrees of freedom in nuclei remarkably well. Nuclear weak processes at stellar environments are investigated based on these successes. New neutrino-nucleus reaction cross sections on 12C are applied to light-element synthesis in supernova explosions. The production rate for 11B/7Li is pointed out to be useful to determine v-oscillation parameters, in particular, v-mass hierarchy. New e-capture rates in Ni isotopes are obtained and implications for element synthesis are discussed. The monopole-based universal interaction is applied to study structure of p-sd shell nuclei and 40Ar as well as v-induced reactions on 40Ar. Repulsive corrections in the isospin T=1 monopoles are shown to be important for proper shell evolutions in neutron-rich carbon isotopes. The repulsive correction is pointed out to be due to three-body forces, in particular, the Fujita-Miyazawa force. Roles of the three-body forces on the shell evolution of neutron-rich calcium isotopes, the closed- shell nature of 48 Ca and M1 transition in 48 Ca are studied on top of the two-body G-matrix obtained by including core-polarization effects in larger spaces (<=24hslashω). Effects of the inclusion of g9/2-shell are also discussed.

  5. Further insights into the anti-PF4/heparin IgM immune response.

    PubMed

    Krauel, Krystin; Schulze, Annika; Jouni, Rabie; Hackbarth, Christine; Hietkamp, Bernhard; Selleng, Sixten; Koster, Andreas; Jensch, Inga; van der Linde, Julia; Schwertz, Hansjörg; Bakchoul, Tamam; Hundt, Matthias; Greinacher, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Anti-platelet factor 4 (PF4)/heparin antibodies are not only the cause of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia but might also play a role in the antibacterial host defence. Recently, marginal zone (MZ) B cells were identified to be crucial for anti-PF4/heparin IgG antibody production in mice. Combining human studies and a murine model of polymicrobial sepsis we further characterised the far less investigated anti-PF4/heparin IgM immune response. We detected anti-PF4/heparin IgM antibodies in the sera of paediatric patients < 6 months of age after cardiac surgery and in sera of splenectomised mice subjected to polymicrobial sepsis. In addition, PF4/heparin-specific IgM B cells were not only found in murine spleen, but also in peritoneum and bone marrow upon in vitro stimulation. Together, this indicates involvement of additional B cell populations, as MZ B cells are not fully developed in humans until the second year of life and are restricted to the spleen in mice. Moreover, PF4/heparin-specific B cells were detected in human cord blood upon in vitro stimulation and PF4-/- mice produced anti-PF4/heparin IgM antibodies after polymicrobial sepsis. In conclusion, the anti-PF4/heparin IgM response is a potential innate immune reaction driven by a B cell population distinct from MZ B cells. PMID:26467272

  6. Multi-shell model of ion-induced nucleic acid condensation.

    PubMed

    Tolokh, Igor S; Drozdetski, Aleksander V; Pollack, Lois; Baker, Nathan A; Onufriev, Alexey V

    2016-04-21

    We present a semi-quantitative model of condensation of short nucleic acid (NA) duplexes induced by trivalent cobalt(iii) hexammine (CoHex) ions. The model is based on partitioning of bound counterion distribution around single NA duplex into "external" and "internal" ion binding shells distinguished by the proximity to duplex helical axis. In the aggregated phase the shells overlap, which leads to significantly increased attraction of CoHex ions in these overlaps with the neighboring duplexes. The duplex aggregationfree energy is decomposed into attractive and repulsive components in such a way that they can be represented by simple analytical expressions with parameters derived from molecular dynamic simulations and numerical solutions of Poisson equation. The attractive term depends on the fractions of bound ions in the overlapping shells and affinity of CoHex to the "external" shell of nearly neutralized duplex. The repulsive components of the free energy are duplex configurational entropy loss upon the aggregation and the electrostatic repulsion of the duplexes that remains after neutralization by bound CoHex ions. The estimates of the aggregationfree energy are consistent with the experimental range of NA duplex condensation propensities, including the unusually poor condensation of RNA structures and subtle sequence effects upon DNAcondensation. The model predicts that, in contrast to DNA, RNA duplexes may condense into tighter packed aggregates with a higher degree of duplex neutralization. An appreciable CoHex mediated RNA-RNA attraction requires closer inter-duplex separation to engage CoHex ions (bound mostly in the "internal" shell of RNA) into short-range attractive interactions. The model also predicts that longer NA fragments will condense more readily than shorter ones. The ability of this model to explain experimentally observed trends in NAcondensation lends support to proposed NAcondensation picture based on the multivalent "ion binding shells

  7. Multi-shell model of ion-induced nucleic acid condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolokh, Igor S.; Drozdetski, Aleksander V.; Pollack, Lois; Baker, Nathan A.; Onufriev, Alexey V.

    2016-04-01

    We present a semi-quantitative model of condensation of short nucleic acid (NA) duplexes induced by trivalent cobalt(iii) hexammine (CoHex) ions. The model is based on partitioning of bound counterion distribution around single NA duplex into "external" and "internal" ion binding shells distinguished by the proximity to duplex helical axis. In the aggregated phase the shells overlap, which leads to significantly increased attraction of CoHex ions in these overlaps with the neighboring duplexes. The duplex aggregation free energy is decomposed into attractive and repulsive components in such a way that they can be represented by simple analytical expressions with parameters derived from molecular dynamic simulations and numerical solutions of Poisson equation. The attractive term depends on the fractions of bound ions in the overlapping shells and affinity of CoHex to the "external" shell of nearly neutralized duplex. The repulsive components of the free energy are duplex configurational entropy loss upon the aggregation and the electrostatic repulsion of the duplexes that remains after neutralization by bound CoHex ions. The estimates of the aggregation free energy are consistent with the experimental range of NA duplex condensation propensities, including the unusually poor condensation of RNA structures and subtle sequence effects upon DNA condensation. The model predicts that, in contrast to DNA, RNA duplexes may condense into tighter packed aggregates with a higher degree of duplex neutralization. An appreciable CoHex mediated RNA-RNA attraction requires closer inter-duplex separation to engage CoHex ions (bound mostly in the "internal" shell of RNA) into short-range attractive interactions. The model also predicts that longer NA fragments will condense more readily than shorter ones. The ability of this model to explain experimentally observed trends in NA condensation lends support to proposed NA condensation picture based on the multivalent "ion binding

  8. A Shell/3D Modeling Technique for Delaminations in Composite Laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, Ronald

    1999-01-01

    A shell/3D modeling technique was developed for which a local solid finite element model is used only in the immediate vicinity of the delamination front. The goal was to combine the accuracy of the full three-dimensional solution with the computational efficiency of a plate or shell finite element model. Multi-point constraints provide a kinematically compatible interface between the local 3D model and the global structural model which has been meshed with plate or shell finite elements. For simple double cantilever beam (DCB), end notched flexure (ENF), and single leg bending (SLB) specimens, mixed mode energy release rate distributions were computed across the width from nonlinear finite element analyses using the virtual crack closure technique. The analyses served to test the accuracy of the shell/3D technique for the pure mode I case (DCB), mode II case (ENF) and a mixed mode I/II case (SLB). Specimens with a unidirectional layup where the delamination is located between two 0 plies, as well as a multidirectional layup where the delamination is located between two non-zero degree plies, were simulated. For a local 3D model extending to a minimum of about three specimen thicknesses in front of and behind the delamination front, the results were in good agreement with mixed mode strain energy release rates obtained from computations where the entire specimen had been modeled with solid elements. For large built-up composite structures modeled with plate elements, the shell/3D modeling technique offers a great potential, since only a relatively small section in the vicinity of the delamination front needs to be modeled with solid elements.

  9. Symmetry-Adapted No-Core Shell Model for Light Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Launey, K. D.; Dytrych, T.; Draayer, J. P.; Tobin, G. K.; Ferriss, M. C.; Langr, D.; Dreyfuss, A. C.; Maris, P.; Vary, J. P.; Bahri, C.

    2014-09-01

    We present results for p-shell nuclei based on the ab initio symmetry-adapted no-core shell model that utilizes an SU(3) coupling scheme. Details given for 12C are reflective of similar results found for 6Li, 8B, 8Be, and 16O, all of which exhibit a strong preference for large quadrupole deformations and a narrow set of intrinsic spin values. The outcome suggests that a small subspace of symmetry-adapted configurations can very closely approximate the exact solutions. The symmetry patterns unveiled in these results are, in turn, employed to explore ultra-large model spaces for 12C, in particular to study the elusive Hoyle state, as well as for 8Be and sd-shell nuclei including Ne and Mg.

  10. Off-shell superconformal nonlinear sigma-models in three dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzenko, Sergei M.; Park, Jeong-Hyuck; Tartaglino-Mazzucchelli, Gabriele; von Unge, Rikard

    2011-01-01

    We develop superspace techniques to construct general off-shell mathcal{N} ≤ 4 super-conformal sigma-models in three space-time dimensions. The most general mathcal{N} = 3 and mathcal{N} = 4 superconformal sigma-models are constructed in terms of mathcal{N} = 2 chiral superfields. Several superspace proofs of the folklore statement that mathcal{N} = 3 supersymmetry implies mathcal{N} = 4 are presented both in the on-shell and off-shell settings. We also elaborate on (super)twistor realisations for (super)manifolds on which the three-dimensional mathcal{N} -extended superconformal groups act transitively and which include Minkowski space as a subspace.

  11. Model uncertainties of local-thermodynamic-equilibrium K-shell spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagayama, T.; Bailey, J. E.; Mancini, R. C.; Iglesias, C. A.; Hansen, S. B.; Blancard, C.; Chung, H. K.; Colgan, J.; Cosse, Ph.; Faussurier, G.; Florido, R.; Fontes, C. J.; Gilleron, F.; Golovkin, I. E.; Kilcrease, D. P.; Loisel, G.; MacFarlane, J. J.; Pain, J.-C.; Rochau, G. A.; Sherrill, M. E.; Lee, R. W.

    2016-09-01

    Local-thermodynamic-equilibrium (LTE) K-shell spectroscopy is a common tool to diagnose electron density, ne, and electron temperature, Te, of high-energy-density (HED) plasmas. Knowing the accuracy of such diagnostics is important to provide quantitative conclusions of many HED-plasma research efforts. For example, Fe opacities were recently measured at multiple conditions at the Sandia National Laboratories Z machine (Bailey et al., 2015), showing significant disagreement with modeled opacities. Since the plasma conditions were measured using K-shell spectroscopy of tracer Mg (Nagayama et al., 2014), one concern is the accuracy of the inferred Fe conditions. In this article, we investigate the K-shell spectroscopy model uncertainties by analyzing the Mg spectra computed with 11 different models at the same conditions. We find that the inferred conditions differ by ±20-30% in ne and ±2-4% in Te depending on the choice of spectral model. Also, we find that half of the Te uncertainty comes from ne uncertainty. To refine the accuracy of the K-shell spectroscopy, it is important to scrutinize and experimentally validate line-shape theory. We investigate the impact of the inferred ne and Te model uncertainty on the Fe opacity measurements. Its impact is small and does not explain the reported discrepancies.

  12. Finite-Element Modeling of Solid State Convection within Europa's Ice Shell: Implications for Astrobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barr, A. C.; Pappalardo, R.

    2001-12-01

    Solid state convection within Europa's ice shell has important implications for astrobiology because it drives relatively swift, large scale vertical motion over geologically short time scales. On Europa, convection may occur within the lower portion of the floating ice shell. The strong dependence of the viscosity of ice on temperature leads to the formation of a stagnant lid at Europa's surface where convective motion ceases. Beneath the stagnant lid, convective motions facilitate cycling of nutrients through the ice shell. In upwelling areas, relatively nutrient-poor, but possibly microbe-containing and biochemically-modified ice is pushed toward the surface. Downwellings push near-surface ice modified by surface radiation down to the ocean. Dissipation of tidal heat within the ice shell is dependent on the viscosity of the ice: warm, low-viscosity ice will dissipate more energy than cold, brittle ice. This positive feedback between tidal heating and viscosity can result in isolated pockets of melting within Europa's ice shell [Wang & Stevenson, 2000]. These pockets of melt could potentially harbor isolated microbial communities for a finite amount of time. We are in the process of modifying a 3 dimensional finite-element code originally constructed to model Earth's mantle (Citcom) [Zhong, 1998] to apply to icy systems. This model will take into account tidal heating within the ice shell, and the presence of salts and partial melt within the ice. Results of our preliminary 2 dimensional modeling confirm that the convecting sub-layer of Europa's ice shell is recycled in 105 years, and confirm that isolated pockets of melt can be generated within Europa's ice shell by tidal heating. Our model can be used to calculate the mass of ice deposited beneath the stagnant lid as a function of position on Europa. These mass flux estimates coupled with models of the formation of surface features which involve breaching the stagnant lid will help identify the locations on

  13. Analytical and computational models of shells; Proceedings of the Symposium, ASME Winter Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA, Dec. 10-15, 1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K. (Editor); Belytschko, Ted (Editor); Simo, Juan C. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    Topics presented include asymptotic analysis and computation for shells, the edge effects in the Reissner-Mindlin plate theory, nonlinear problems of geometrically exact shell theories, and developments in variational methods for high performance plate and shell elements. Also presented are an assumed strain solid element model for geometrically nonlinear shell analysis, shell finite elements with six degrees of freedom per node, hierarchic plate and shell models based on p-extension, and a simple shell element formulation for large-scale elastoplastic analysis. Also discussed are the assessment of computational models for multilayered composite cylinders, shell models for impact analysis, analysis of shell structures subjected to contact-impacts, and the application of shell theory to cardiac mechanics.

  14. A model for high frequency guided wave inspection of curved shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, R.; Pardini, A.; Diaz, A.

    2002-05-01

    Modeling work is reported in support of the development of an ultrasonic measurement to detect stress corrosion cracking in the shell of a nuclear waste storage tank, where transducer access is restricted to distances of several feet from the suspected flaw location. The measurement uses a 3.5 MHz 70 degree shear wave that propagates from the transducer to flaw site through a series of multiple reflections between the outer and inner walls of the shell. Results are shown which explain experimentally observed complexities in the received signals.

  15. Shell model calculation for Te and Sn isotopes in the vicinity of {sup 100}Sn

    SciTech Connect

    Yakhelef, A.; Bouldjedri, A.

    2012-06-27

    New Shell Model calculations for even-even isotopes {sup 104-108}Sn and {sup 106,108}Te, in the vicinity of {sup 100}Sn have been performed. The calculations have been carried out using the windows version of NuShell-MSU. The two body matrix elements TBMEs of the effective interaction between valence nucleons are obtained from the renormalized two body effective interaction based on G-matrix derived from the CD-bonn nucleon-nucleon potential. The single particle energies of the proton and neutron valence spaces orbitals are defined from the available spectra of lightest odd isotopes of Sb and Sn respectively.

  16. Line Spring Model and Its Applications to Part-Through Crack Problems in Plates and Shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erdogan, F.; Aksel, B.

    1986-01-01

    The line spring model is described and extended to cover the problem of interaction of multiple internal and surface cracks in plates and shells. The shape functions for various related crack geometries obtained from the plane strain solution and the results of some multiple crack problems are presented. The problems considered include coplanar surface cracks on the same or opposite sides of a plate, nonsymmetrically located coplanar internal elliptic cracks, and in a very limited way the surface and corner cracks in a plate of finite width and a surface crack in a cylindrical shell with fixed end.

  17. Line spring model and its applications to part-through crack problems in plates and shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erdogan, Fazil; Aksel, Bulent

    1988-01-01

    The line spring model is described and extended to cover the problem of interaction of multiple internal and surface cracks in plates and shells. The shape functions for various related crack geometries obtained from the plane strain solution and the results of some multiple crack problems are presented. The problems considered include coplanar surface cracks on the same or opposite sides of a plate, nonsymmetrically located coplanar internal elliptic cracks, and in a very limited way the surface and corner cracks in a plate of finite width and a surface crack in a cylindrical shell with fixed end.

  18. No-Core Shell Model Calculations in Light Nuclei with Three-Nucleon Forces

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, B R; Vary, J P; Nogga, A; Navratil, P; Ormand, W E

    2004-01-08

    The ab initio No-Core Shell Model (NCSM) has recently been expanded to include nucleon-nucleon (NN) and three-nucleon (3N) interactions at the three-body cluster level. Here it is used to predict binding energies and spectra of p-shell nuclei based on realistic NN and 3N interactions. It is shown that 3N force (3NF) properties can be studied in these nuclear systems. First results show that interactions based on chiral perturbation theory lead to a realistic description of {sup 6}Li.

  19. Reply to "Comment on `α decay in the complex-energy shell model'"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Id Betan, R.; Nazarewicz, W.

    2016-06-01

    We reply to the Comment by Lovas, which concerns the shell model calculations of the α -decay width of 212Po. In the Comment, the author claims that the α -formation amplitudes obtained in our work "look unusual." Here we reaffirm the results and conclusions of our original article.

  20. Ab Initio No-Core Shell Model Calculations Using Realistic Two- and Three-Body Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Navratil, P; Ormand, W E; Forssen, C; Caurier, E

    2004-11-30

    There has been significant progress in the ab initio approaches to the structure of light nuclei. One such method is the ab initio no-core shell model (NCSM). Starting from realistic two- and three-nucleon interactions this method can predict low-lying levels in p-shell nuclei. In this contribution, we present a brief overview of the NCSM with examples of recent applications. We highlight our study of the parity inversion in {sup 11}Be, for which calculations were performed in basis spaces up to 9{Dirac_h}{Omega} (dimensions reaching 7 x 10{sup 8}). We also present our latest results for the p-shell nuclei using the Tucson-Melbourne TM three-nucleon interaction with several proposed parameter sets.

  1. Laboratory Measurement and Theoretical Modeling of K-shell X-ray Lines from Inner-shell Excited and Ionized Ions of Oxygen

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, M; Schmidt, M; Beiersdorfer, P; Chen, H; Thorn, D B; Tr?bert, E; Behar, E; Kahn, S M

    2005-02-05

    We present high resolution laboratory spectra of K-shell X-ray lines from inner-shell excited and ionized ions of oxygen, obtained with a reflection grating spectrometer on the electron beam ion trap (EBIT-I) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Only with a multi-ion model including all major atomic collisional and radiative processes, are we able to identify the observed K-shell transitions of oxygen ions from O III to O VI. The wavelengths and associated errors for some of the strongest transitions are given, taking into account both the experimental and modeling uncertainties. The present data should be useful in identifying the absorption features present in astrophysical sources, such as active galactic nuclei and X-ray binaries. They are also useful in providing benchmarks for the testing of theoretical atomic structure calculations.

  2. Revisiting the monopole components of effective interactions for the shell model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X. B.; Dong, G. X.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we revisit the monopole components of effective interactions for the shell model. Without going through specific nuclei or shell gaps, universal roles of central, tensor, and spin-orbit forces can be proved, reflecting the intrinsic features of shell model effective interactions. For monopole matrix elements, even and odd channels of central force often have a canceling effect. However, for the contributions to the shell evolution, its even and odd channels could have both positive or negative contributions, enhancing the role of central force on the shell structure. Tensor force is generally weaker than central force. However, for the effect on shell evolutions, tensor force can dominate or play a competitive role. A different systematics has been discovered between T = 1 and 0 channels. For example, tensor force, well established in the T = 0 channel, becomes uncertain in the T = 1 channel. We calculate the properties of neutron-rich oxygen and calcium isotopes in order to study T = 1 channel interactions further. It is learned that the main improvements of empirical interactions are traced to the central force. For non-central forces, antisymmetric spin-orbit (ALS) force, originated from many-body perturbations or three-body force, could also play an explicit role. T = 1 tensor forces are less constrained so their effect can differ in different empirical interactions. The influence of tensor force may sometimes be canceled by many-body effects. For T = 0 channels of effective interactions, which is the main source of neutron-proton correlations, central and tensor forces are the leading components. For T = 1 channels, which can act between like-particles, the request for many-body correlations could be more demanding, so that the monopole anomaly of the T = 1 channel might be more serious.

  3. Proceedings of a symposium on the occasion of the 40th anniversary of the nuclear shell model

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, T.S.H.; Wiringa, R.B.

    1990-03-01

    This report contains papers on the following topics: excitation of 1p-1h stretched states with the (p,n) reaction as a test of shell-model calculations; on Z=64 shell closure and some high spin states of {sup 149}Gd and {sup 159}Ho; saturating interactions in {sup 4}He with density dependence; are short-range correlations visible in very large-basis shell-model calculations ; recent and future applications of the shell model in the continuum; shell model truncation schemes for rotational nuclei; the particle-hole interaction and high-spin states near A-16; magnetic moment of doubly closed shell +1 nucleon nucleus {sup 41}Sc(I{sup {pi}}=7/2{sup {minus}}); the new magic nucleus {sup 96}Zr; comparing several boson mappings with the shell model; high spin band structures in {sup 165}Lu; optical potential with two-nucleon correlations; generalized valley approximation applied to a schematic model of the monopole excitation; pair approximation in the nuclear shell model; and many-particle, many-hole deformed states.

  4. The AP-1 transcription factor homolog Pf-AP-1 activates transcription of multiple biomineral proteins and potentially participates in Pinctada fucata biomineralization

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xiangnan; Cheng, Minzhang; Xiang, Liang; Liang, Jian; Xie, Liping; Zhang, Rongqing

    2015-01-01

    Activator protein-1 (AP-1) is an important bZIP transcription factor that regulates a series of physiological processes by specifically activating transcription of several genes, and one of its well-chartered functions in mammals is participating in bone mineralization. We isolated and cloned the complete cDNA of a Jun/AP-1 homolog from Pinctada fucata and called it Pf-AP-1. Pf-AP-1 had a highly conserved bZIP region and phosphorylation sites compared with those from mammals. A tissue distribution analysis showed that Pf-AP-1 was ubiquitously expressed in P. fucata and the mRNA level of Pf-AP-1 is extremely high in mantle. Pf-AP-1 expression was positively associated with multiple biomineral proteins in the mantle. The luciferase reporter assay in a mammalian cell line showed that Pf-AP-1 significantly up-regulates the transcriptional activity of the promoters of KRMP, Pearlin, and Prisilkin39. Inhibiting the activity of Pf-AP-1 depressed the expression of multiple matrix proteins. Pf-AP-1 showed a unique expression pattern during shell regeneration and pearl sac development, which was similar to the pattern observed for biomineral proteins. These results suggest that the Pf-AP-1 AP-1 homolog is an important transcription factor that regulates transcription of several biomineral proteins simultaneously and plays a role in P. fucata biomineralization, particularly during pearl and shell formation. PMID:26404494

  5. Constraining Enceladus’s ice shell thickness using tidally driven Coulomb failure models of the tiger stripe fractures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olgin, J. G.; Smith-Konter, B. R.; Pappalardo, R. T.

    2009-12-01

    The thickness of Enceladus’s ice shell, and subsequently the depth of its underlying ocean, plays an important role in determining the magnitude and orientation of tidal stresses on the surface of the satellite. The objective of this study is to attempt to constrain Enceladus’s ice shell thickness through assessment of tidally driven Coulomb failure of the tiger stripe fractures, probable sources of tectonic activity that reside along Enceladus’s south polar region. Using the SatStress computational model and assuming a global ocean and uniform ice shell thickness, we compare tidal stresses resulting from a suite of models of variable ice shell thickness (6 km, 24 km, 30 km, 40 km, 50 km, 75 km, and 90 km). Evaluation of the Love numbers for each model (l2, h2 and k2) suggest that ice shell thicknesses greater than a few 10s of km are not capable of generating stress conditions conducive to fault failure on Enceladus. We further investigate the feasibility of tiger stripe failure by applying a Coulomb failure model to the resulting tidal stresses. Based on previous work, we have shown that a 24 km thick ice shell model is capable of generating stress conditions that promote Coulomb failure and strike-slip displacements of ~0.4 m along some portions of the tiger stripe system, assuming a coefficient of friction of 0.2. We compare this reference model to the 6 km, 30 km, 40 km, 50 km, 75 km, and 90 km ice shell models and find that thin to moderate ice shell models do indeed support fault failure, while thick ice shell models do not. Models based on a 6 km ice shell thickness can yield strike-slip displacements on the order of 1 m along all segments of the tiger stripe system. Models based on a 30 km ice shell thickness can also generate strike-slip displacements (~0.1 m), however only on isolated fault segments. Finally, models based on a 40 km ice shell thickness or greater cannot generate stresses capable of Coulomb failure along any of the tiger stripe

  6. Electrical susceptibilities of KNbO3 by molecular dynamics simulations using a shell model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, T.; Moriwake, H.

    2016-03-01

    We performed molecular dynamics simulations of KNbO3 using an isotropic shell model by Sepliarsky et al. The anisotropies and the temperature dependence of the experimental susceptibilities of KNbO3 were found to be reproduced qualitatively in this model. The densities of probabilities of the local polarizations are more widely distributed around their average values compared to those for the previous shell model result of BaTiO3. This leads to larger fluctuations of the total dipole moments of the MD cell and to larger susceptibilities than the previous results. The dynamical Nb-O chain structures for the cubic phase as well as for the tetragonal phase in the ab plane and for the orthorhombic phase in the c direction were predicted also by this model.

  7. Evidence for Symplectic Symmetry in Ab Initio No-Core Shell Model Results for Light Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Dytrych, Tomas; Sviratcheva, Kristina D.; Bahri, Chairul; Draayer, Jerry P.; Vary, James P.; /Iowa State U. /LLNL, Livermore /SLAC

    2007-04-24

    Clear evidence for symplectic symmetry in low-lying states of {sup 12}C and {sup 16}O is reported. Eigenstates of {sup 12}C and {sup 16}O, determined within the framework of the no-core shell model using the JISP16 NN realistic interaction, typically project at the 85-90% level onto a few of the most deformed symplectic basis states that span only a small fraction of the full model space. The results are nearly independent of whether the bare or renormalized effective interactions are used in the analysis. The outcome confirms Elliott's SU(3) model which underpins the symplectic scheme, and above all, points to the relevance of a symplectic no-core shell model that can reproduce experimental B(E2) values without effective charges as well as deformed spatial modes associated with clustering phenomena in nuclei.

  8. Interplay between the pairing and quadrupole interactions in the algebraic realization of the microscopic shell model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drumev, Kalin; Georgieva, Ana

    2015-04-01

    We explore the algebraic realization of the Pairing-Plus-Quadrupole Model/PQM/ in the framework of the Elliott‘s SU(3) Model with the aim to obtain the complementary and competing features of the two interactions through the relation between the pairing and the SU(3) bases. First, we establish a correspondence between the SO(8) pairing basis and the Elliott's SU(3) basis. It is derived from their complementarity to the same LST coupling chain of the shell-model number-conserving algebra. The probability distribution of the SU(3) basis states within the SO(8) pairing states is also obtained and allows the investigation of the interplay between the pairing and quadrupole interactions in the Hamiltonian of the PQM, containing both of them as limiting cases. The description of some realistic N∼Z nuclear systems is investigated in a SU(3)-symmetry-adapted basis within a model space of one and two oscillator shells.

  9. Structure-Function-Immunogenicity Studies of PfEMP1 Domain DBL2βPF11_0521, a Malaria Parasite Ligand for ICAM-1

    PubMed Central

    Gullingsrud, Justin; Saveria, Tracy; Amos, Emily; Duffy, Patrick E.; Oleinikov, Andrew V.

    2013-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum virulence has been ascribed to its ability to sequester in deep vascular beds, mediated by the variant surface antigen family PfEMP1 binding endothelial receptors like ICAM-1. We previously observed that naturally-acquired antibodies that block a PfEMP1 domain, DBL2β of PF11_0521 allele, from binding to the human ICAM1 receptor, reduce the risk of malaria hospitalization in children. Here, we find that DBL2βPF11_0521 binds ICAM-1 in the low nM range and relate the structure of this domain with its function and immunogenicity. We demonstrate that the interaction with ICAM-1 is not impaired by point mutations in the N-terminal subdomain or in the flexible Loop 4 of DBL2βPF11_0521, although both substructures were previously implicated in binding ICAM-1. These data will help to refine the existing model of DBLβ::ICAM-1 interactions. Antibodies raised against full-length DBL2βPF11_0521, but not truncated forms lacking the N terminal fragment, block its interaction with ICAM-1. Our data suggest that full length domain is optimal for displaying functional epitopes and has a broad surface of interaction with ICAM-1 that is not disrupted by individual amino acid substitutions at putative key residues. This information might be important for the future design of anti-malarial vaccines based on PfEMP1 antigens. PMID:23593462

  10. Multi-dimensional models of circumstellar shells around evolved massive stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Marle, A. J.; Keppens, R.

    2012-11-01

    Context. Massive stars shape their surrounding medium through the force of their stellar winds, which collide with the circumstellar medium. Because the characteristics of these stellar winds vary over the course of the evolution of the star, the circumstellar matter becomes a reflection of the stellar evolution and can be used to determine the characteristics of the progenitor star. In particular, whenever a fast wind phase follows a slow wind phase, the fast wind sweeps up its predecessor in a shell, which is observed as a circumstellar nebula. Aims: We make 2D and 3D numerical simulations of fast stellar winds sweeping up their slow predecessors to investigate whether numerical models of these shells have to be 3D, or whether 2D models are sufficient to reproduce the shells correctly. Methods: We use the MPI-AMRVAC code, using hydrodynamics with optically thin radiative losses included, to make numerical models of circumstellar shells around massive stars in 2D and 3D and compare the results. We focus on those situations where a fast Wolf-Rayet star wind sweeps up the slower wind emitted by its predecessor, being either a red supergiant or a luminous blue variable. Results: As the fast Wolf-Rayet wind expands, it creates a dense shell of swept up material that expands outward, driven by the high pressure of the shocked Wolf-Rayet wind. These shells are subject to a fair variety of hydrodynamic-radiative instabilities. If the Wolf-Rayet wind is expanding into the wind of a luminous blue variable phase, the instabilities will tend to form a fairly small-scale, regular filamentary lattice with thin filaments connecting knotty features. If the Wolf-Rayet wind is sweeping up a red supergiant wind, the instabilities will form larger interconnected structures with less regularity. The numerical resolution must be high enough to resolve the compressed, swept-up shell and the evolving instabilities, which otherwise may not even form. Conclusions: Our results show that 3D

  11. Heat transfer models for predicting Salmonella enteritidis in shell eggs through supply chain distribution.

    PubMed

    Almonacid, S; Simpson, R; Teixeira, A

    2007-11-01

    Egg and egg preparations are important vehicles for Salmonella enteritidis infections. The influence of time-temperature becomes important when the presence of this organism is found in commercial shell eggs. A computer-aided mathematical model was validated to estimate surface and interior temperature of shell eggs under variable ambient and refrigerated storage temperature. A risk assessment of S. enteritidis based on the use of this model, coupled with S. enteritidis kinetics, has already been reported in a companion paper published earlier in JFS. The model considered the actual geometry and composition of shell eggs and was solved by numerical techniques (finite differences and finite elements). Parameters of interest such as local (h) and global (U) heat transfer coefficient, thermal conductivity, and apparent volumetric specific heat were estimated by an inverse procedure from experimental temperature measurement. In order to assess the error in predicting microbial population growth, theoretical and experimental temperatures were applied to a S. enteritidis growth model taken from the literature. Errors between values of microbial population growth calculated from model predicted compared with experimentally measured temperatures were satisfactorily low: 1.1% and 0.8% for the finite difference and finite element model, respectively. PMID:18034720

  12. Model reduction for parametric instability analysis in shells conveying fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochupillai, Jayaraj; Ganesan, N.; Padmanabhan, Chandramouli

    2003-05-01

    Flexible pipes conveying fluid are often subjected to parametric excitation due to time-periodic flow fluctuations. Such systems are known to exhibit complex instability phenomena such as divergence and coupled-mode flutter. Investigators have typically used weighted residual techniques, to reduce the continuous system model into a discrete model, based on approximation functions with global support, for carrying out stability analysis. While this approach is useful for straight pipes, modelling based on FEM is needed for the study of complicated piping systems, where the approximation functions used are local in support. However, the size of the problem is now significantly larger and for computationally efficient stability analysis, model reduction is necessary. In this paper, model reduction techniques are developed for the analysis of parametric instability in flexible pipes conveying fluids under a mean pressure. It is shown that only those linear transformations which leave the original eigenvalues of the linear time invariant system unchanged are admissible. The numerical technique developed by Friedmann and Hammond (Int. J. Numer. Methods Eng. Efficient 11 (1997) 1117) is used for the stability analysis. One of the key research issues is to establish criteria for deciding the basis vectors essential for an accurate stability analysis. This paper examines this issue in detail and proposes new guidelines for their selection.

  13. Shell model calculations in the lead region: /sup 205/Hg, /sup 205/Tl, /sup 211/Po, and /sup 211/Bi

    SciTech Connect

    Silvestre-Brac, B.; Boisson, J.P.

    1981-08-01

    Exact shell model calculations for nuclei consisting of three nonidentical particles outside the /sup 208/Pb closed shell core have been performed using a basis that contains correlated pairs. Two kinds of effective interactions are tested and the results are compared with the experiment. The possibility of high spin isomeric states is suggested for nuclei studied.

  14. Theoretical shell-model signatures in heavy-ion, coherent pion production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maung, Khin M.; Deutchman, P. A.; Buvel, R. L.

    1992-01-01

    A comprehensive summary of a many-body, microscopic, particle-hole formalism is presented that describes coherent, subthreshold, pion production in peripheral, heavy-ion collisions. The formalism uses a new separable model transition interaction that produces Delta-hole states in either the projectile or target nucleus. Shell-model states described by harmonic oscillator functions are used in the calculation of Delta formation and decay and Lorentz-contraction effects of the nucleus not at rest are included. An analytical expression to lowest multipole order for the differential cross section is examined. The sensitivity of the theoretical results to the shell-model states is determined with preliminary shape results compared with data. The effects of higher multipoles are examined with attention paid to the second-order multipole value.

  15. Acoustic scattering from a water-filled cylindrical shell: measurements, modeling, and interpretation.

    PubMed

    España, Aubrey L; Williams, Kevin L; Plotnick, Daniel S; Marston, Philip L

    2014-07-01

    Understanding the physics governing the interaction of sound with targets in an underwater environment is essential to improving existing target detection and classification algorithms. To illustrate techniques for identifying the key physics, an examination is made of the acoustic scattering from a water-filled cylindrical shell. Experiments were conducted that measured the acoustic scattering from a water-filled cylindrical shell in the free field, as well as proud on a sand-water interface. Two modeling techniques are employed to examine these acoustic scattering measurements. The first is a hybrid 2-D/3-D finite element (FE) model, whereby the scattering in close proximity to the target is handled via a 2-D axisymmetric FE model, and the subsequent 3-D propagation to the far field is determined via a Helmholtz integral. This model is characterized by the decomposition of the fluid pressure and its derivative in a series of azimuthal Fourier modes. The second is an analytical solution for an infinitely long cylindrical shell, coupled with a simple approximation that converts the results to an analogous finite length form function. Examining these model results on a mode-by-mode basis offers easy visualization of the mode dynamics and helps distinguish the different physics driving the target response. PMID:24993199

  16. IR photometry and dust-shell models for two carbon stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdanov, M. B.; Taranova, O. G.

    2012-02-01

    We present JHKLM photometry of the carbon stars ST And and T Lyn acquired in 2000-2010. Along with brightness variations due to pulsations, changes on timescales of 2000-3000 days are also observed. Our combined light curves can be satisfactorily represented with light elements derived from visual observations, but the maxima are delayed relative to the calculated times. A color-index analysis demonstrates that the dust shell of ST And is fairly weak, and is manifest only episodically, while the presence of hot dust was always detected for T Lyn. These results confirm models of spherically symmetric stellar dust shells based on mean-flux data, supplemented with observations in the intermediate IR from the IRAS and AKARI satellites. The visual optical depth of the relatively cool dust shell of ST And assuming a dust temperature at the inner edge of T 1 = 510 K is very low: τ V = 0.047. The dust shell of T Lyn is considerably hotter ( T 1 = 940 K), with τ V = 0.95. We estimate the mass-loss rate to be 1.8 × 10-7 M ⊙/year for ST And and 3.7 × 10-7 M ⊙/year for T Lyn.

  17. Promoting action of cashew nut shell oil in DMBA-initiated mouse skin tumour model system.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, S; Rao, A R

    1992-02-29

    The commercially available oil derived from the shell of cashew nut (Anacardium occidentale) was tested for its potency in promoting the DMBA-initiated cells into papillomas in a murine two-stage skin tumorigenesis model system. Male Swiss albino mice (9-10-weeks-old) were assorted into different groups and treated topically with single sub-carcinogenic doses of DMBA (50 micrograms in 0.1 ml acetone) followed by application of 1% and 2% shell oil in acetone three times a week. Animals were sacrificed after 20 weeks from the commencement of the experiment. The results imply a weak tumour promoting effect of cashew nut shell oil as the mean tumour incidences were found to be 1.1 and 2.5 in 1% and 2% oil treatment groups, respectively, while the corresponding figure vas 6.6 in the positive control group (DMBA and 1% croton oil in acetone). Few speculative mechanisms for the observed effect of cashew nut shell oil on initiated skin are discussed. PMID:1540942

  18. Modeling heterogeneous polymer-grafted nanoparticle networks having biomimetic core-shell structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mbanga, Badel L.; Yashin, Victor V.; Holten-Andersen, Niels; Balazs, Anna C.

    Inspired by the remarkable mechanical properties of such biological structures as mussel adhesive fibers, we use 3D computational modeling to study the behavior of heterogeneous polymer-grafted nanoparticle (PGN) networks under tensile deformation. The building block of a PGN network is a nanoparticle with grafted polymer chains whose free ends' reactive groups can form both permanent and labile bonds with the end chains on the nearby particles. The tunable behavior of cross-linked PGN networks makes them excellent candidates for designing novel materials with enhanced mechanical properties. Here, we consider the PGN networks having the core-shell structures, in which the type and strength of the inter-particle bonds in the outer shell differ from those in the core. Using the computer simulations, we obtain and compare the ultimate tensile properties (strength, toughness, ductility) and the strain recovery properties for the uniform samples and various core-shell structures. We demonstrate that the core-shell structures could be designed to obtain highly resilient self-healing materials

  19. Stochastic shell models driven by a multiplicative fractional Brownian-motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bessaih, Hakima; Garrido-Atienza, María J.; Schmalfuss, Björn

    2016-04-01

    We prove existence and uniqueness of the solution of a stochastic shell-model. The equation is driven by an infinite dimensional fractional Brownian-motion with Hurst-parameter H ∈(1 / 2 , 1) , and contains a non-trivial coefficient in front of the noise which satisfies special regularity conditions. The appearing stochastic integrals are defined in a fractional sense. First, we prove the existence and uniqueness of variational solutions to approximating equations driven by piecewise linear continuous noise, for which we are able to derive important uniform estimates in some functional spaces. Then, thanks to a compactness argument and these estimates, we prove that these variational solutions converge to a limit solution, which turns out to be the unique pathwise mild solution associated to the shell-model with fractional noise as driving process.

  20. Generalized Kolbenstvedt model for electron impact ionization of the K-, L- and M-shell ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haque, A. K. F.; Shahjahan, M.; Uddin, M. A.; Patoary, M. A. R.; Basak, A. K.; Saha, B. C.; Malik, F. B.

    2010-04-01

    The recently proposed generalized Kolbenstvedt model (GKLV) of Haque et al (2007 Eur. Phys. J. D 42 203), for the electron impact ionization (EII) of atoms, was applied to a wide range of K-, L- and M-shell electrons of ionic targets from threshold to 1 MeV incident energy. The set of species-independent parameters, two for each of the ionized orbits, is the same as that for neutral targets, and provides an excellent account of the EII cross-sectional data for 36 ions, including those belonging to Li, Be, B, C, N, O and Ne electronic sequences as well as those having 3s-, 3p- and 3d-configurations of the M-shell in a consistent manner. The performance of GKLV is found to be better than that of the modified version of the BELL model (Haque et al 2006 Phys. Rev. A 73 052703, Haque et al 2006 Phys. Scr. 74 377).

  1. Dynamo onset as a first-order transition: lessons from a shell model for magnetohydrodynamics.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Ganapati; Mitra, Dhrubaditya; Pandit, Rahul

    2010-03-01

    We carry out systematic and high-resolution studies of dynamo action in a shell model for magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence over wide ranges of the magnetic Prandtl number PrM and the magnetic Reynolds number ReM. Our study suggests that it is natural to think of dynamo onset as a nonequilibrium first-order phase transition between two different turbulent, but statistically steady, states. The ratio of the magnetic and kinetic energies is a convenient order parameter for this transition. By using this order parameter, we obtain the stability diagram (or nonequilibrium phase diagram) for dynamo formation in our MHD shell model in the (PrM-1,ReM) plane. The dynamo boundary, which separates dynamo and no-dynamo regions, appears to have a fractal character. We obtain a hysteretic behavior of the order parameter across this boundary and suggestions of nucleation-type phenomena. PMID:20365864

  2. The modeling of piezoceramic patch interactions with shells, plates and beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, H. T.; Smith, R. C.

    1992-01-01

    General models describing the interactions between a pair of piezoceramic patches and elastic substructures consisting of a cylindrical shell, plate and beam are presented. In each case, the manner in which the patch loads enter both the strong and weak forms of the time-dependent structural equations of motion is described. Through force and moment balancing, these loads are then determined in terms of material properties of the patch and substructure (thickness, elastic properties, Poisson ratios), the geometry of the patch placement, and the voltages into the patches. In the case of the shell, the coupling between banding and inplane deformations, which is due to the curvature, is retained. These models are sufficiently general to allow for potentially different patch voltages which implies that they can be suitably employed when using piezoceramic patches for controlling system dynamics when both extensional and bending vibrations are present.

  3. Knockout reactions from p-shell nuclei : tests of ab initio structure models.

    SciTech Connect

    Grinyer, G. F.; Bazin, D.; Gade, A.; Tostevin, J. A.; Adrich, P.; Bowen, M. D.; Brown, B. A.; Campbell, C. M.; Cook, J. M.; Glasmacher, T.; McDaniel, S.; Navratil, P.; Obertelli, A.; Quaglioni, S.; Siwek, K.; Terry, J. R.; Weisshaar, D.; Wiringa, R. B.

    2011-04-22

    Absolute cross sections have been determined following single neutron knockout reactions from {sup 10}Be and {sup 10}C at intermediate energy. Nucleon density distributions and bound-state wave function overlaps obtained from both variational Monte Carlo (VMC) and no core shell model (NCSM) ab initio calculations have been incorporated into the theoretical description of knockout reactions. Comparison to experimental cross sections demonstrates that the VMC approach, with the inclusion of 3-body forces, provides the best overall agreement while the NCSM and conventional shell-model calculations both overpredict the cross sections by 20% to 30% for {sup 10}Be and by 40% to 50% for {sup 10}C, respectively. This study gains new insight into the importance of 3-body forces and continuum effects in light nuclei and provides a sensitive technique to assess the accuracy of ab initio calculations for describing these effects.

  4. Knockout Reactions from p-Shell Nuclei: Tests of Ab Initio Structure Models

    SciTech Connect

    Grinyer, G. F.; Bazin, D.; Adrich, P.; Obertelli, A.; Weisshaar, D.; Gade, A.; Bowen, M. D.; Brown, B. A.; Campbell, C. M.; Cook, J. M.; Glasmacher, T.; McDaniel, S.; Siwek, K.; Terry, J. R.; Tostevin, J. A.; Navratil, P.; Quaglioni, S.; Wiringa, R. B.

    2011-04-22

    Absolute cross sections have been determined following single neutron knockout reactions from {sup 10}Be and {sup 10}C at intermediate energy. Nucleon density distributions and bound-state wave function overlaps obtained from both variational Monte Carlo (VMC) and no core shell model (NCSM) ab initio calculations have been incorporated into the theoretical description of knockout reactions. Comparison to experimental cross sections demonstrates that the VMC approach, with the inclusion of 3-body forces, provides the best overall agreement while the NCSM and conventional shell-model calculations both overpredict the cross sections by 20% to 30% for {sup 10}Be and by 40% to 50% for {sup 10}C, respectively. This study gains new insight into the importance of 3-body forces and continuum effects in light nuclei and provides a sensitive technique to assess the accuracy of ab initio calculations for describing these effects.

  5. Modeling of thin structures in eddy current testing with shell elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ospina, A.; Santandrea, L.; Le Bihan, Y.; Marchand, C.

    2010-11-01

    The modeling and design of eddy currents sensors for non-destructive testing applications, generally, requires numerical methods. Among these methods, the finite element method is one of the most used. Indeed, it presents a great capability to treat a large variety of configurations. However, in the study of eddy current testing problems, the existence of structures that have a geometrical dimension smaller than the others (thin air gaps, coatings...) will lead to difficulties related to the meshing process. The introduction of particular elements such as shell elements allows to simplify the modeling of these problems. In this paper, the shell elements are used in two different 2D axisymmetric formulations, the electric formulation a* and the magnetic formulation t-ϕ in order to simulate the behaviour of the electromagnetic fields. The results obtained with the two formulations are compared with analytical solutions.

  6. Large-scale shell-model calculations of nuclei around mass 210

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teruya, E.; Higashiyama, K.; Yoshinaga, N.

    2016-06-01

    Large-scale shell-model calculations are performed for even-even, odd-mass, and doubly odd nuclei of Pb, Bi, Po, At, Rn, and Fr isotopes in the neutron deficit region (Z ≥82 ,N ≤126 ) assuming 208Pb as a doubly magic core. All the six single-particle orbitals between the magic numbers 82 and 126, namely, 0 h9 /2,1 f7 /2,0 i13 /2,2 p3 /2,1 f5 /2 , and 2 p1 /2 , are considered. For a phenomenological effective two-body interaction, one set of the monopole pairing and quadrupole-quadrupole interactions including the multipole-pairing interactions is adopted for all the nuclei considered. The calculated energies and electromagnetic properties are compared with the experimental data. Furthermore, many isomeric states are analyzed in terms of the shell-model configurations.

  7. Projected shell model for Gamow-Teller transitions in heavy, deformed nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Long-Jun; Sun, Yang; Gao, Zao-Chun; Kiran Ghorui, Surja

    2016-02-01

    Calculations of Gamow-Teller (GT) transition rates for heavy, deformed nuclei, which are useful input for nuclear astrophysics studies, are usually done with the quasiparticle random-phase approximation. We propose a shell-model method by applying the Projected Shell Model (PSM) based on deformed bases. With this method, it is possible to perform a state-by-state calculation for nuclear matrix elements for β-decay and electron-capture in heavy nuclei. Taking β- decay from 168Dy to 168Ho as an example, we show that the known experimental B(GT) from the ground state of the mother nucleus to the low-lying states of the daughter nucleus could be well described. Moreover, strong transitions to high-lying states are predicted to occur, which may considerably enhance the total decay rates once these nuclei are exposed to hot stellar environments.

  8. Study of oxygen isotopes and N=8 isotones with an extended cluster-orbital shell model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masui, H.; Katō, K.; Ikeda, K.

    2006-03-01

    We attempt to obtain a unified description of the bound and unbound states of multivalence nucleons of a core system in the framework of the cluster-orbital shell model (COSM). In this framework, the interaction between the core and a valence nucleon (the core-N interaction) is treated microscopically, and the changes in both the core structure and the core-N interaction are discussed on the same basis. Furthermore, the center-of-mass motion of every nucleon is completely eliminated, and higher shell configurations, including unbound continuum components, are appropriately taken into account by applying a stochastic variational approach. To examine the reliability of this approach and to discuss how the dynamics of the core reflects to the total system, we study oxygen isotopes and N=8 isotones, which are described by O16 + Xn and O16 + Xp models, respectively.

  9. Modeling of Sound Transmission through Shell Structures with Turbulent Boundary Layer Excitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Yvette Y.; Silcox, Richard J.; Robinson, Jay H.

    1996-01-01

    The turbulent boundary layer (TBL) pressure field is an important source of cabin noise during cruise of high subsonic and supersonic commercial aircraft. The broadband character of this excitation field results in an interior noise spectrum that dominates the overall sound pressure level (SPL) and speech interference metrics in the forward and midcabins of many aircraft. In the authors' previous study, sound transmission through an aircraft fuselage, modeled by two concentric cylindrical sandwich shells and excited by a TBL statistical model was investigated analytically. An assessment of point and global structural vibration levels and resulting interior noise levels was obtained for different TBL models, flight conditions and fuselage structural designs. However, due to the complication of the shell structure, the important noise transmission mechanisms were difficult to discern. Previous experience has demonstrated that a fundamental understanding of the range of modes (or wavenumbers) generated by the TBL source both in the structure and the acoustic cavity is key to the development of both active and passive control technologies. In an initial effort to provide this insight, the objective of this paper is to develop an analytical model of sound transmission through a simple unstiffened cylindrical aluminum shell excited by a TBL pressure field. The description of the turbulent pressure field is based on the Corcos formulation for the cross-spectral density (CSD) of the pressure fluctuations. The coupled shell and interior and exterior acoustic equations are solved for the structural displacement and the interior acoustic response using a Galerkin approach to obtain analytical solutions. Specifically, this study compares the real part of the normalized CSD of the TBL excitation field, the structural displacement and the interior acoustic field. Further the modal compositions of the structural and cavity response are examined and some inference of the dominant

  10. The shell model Monte Carlo approach to level densities: Recent developments and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhassid, Y.

    2015-12-01

    We review recent advances in the shell model Monte Carlo approach for the microscopic calculation of statistical and collective properties of nuclei. We discuss applications to the calculation of i) level densities in nickel isotopes, implementing a recent method to circumvent the odd-particle sign problem; ii) state densities in heavy nuclei; iii) spin distributions of nuclear levels; and iv) finite-temperature quadrupole distributions.

  11. A constrained-path quantum Monte-Carlo approach for the nuclear shell model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnard, Jérémy; Juillet, Olivier

    2016-06-01

    A new QMC approach for the shell model yielding nearly exact spectroscopy of nuclei is presented. The originality of the formalism lies in the use of a variational symmetry-restored wave function to ‘steer’ the Brownian motion, and to control the sign/phase problem that generally makes the traditional QMC samplings totally ineffective by causing a prohibitive growth of the statistical errors. Tests of convergence and proof-of-principle results are reported.

  12. SD-pair shell model study for {sup 126}Xe and {sup 128}Ba

    SciTech Connect

    Meng Xiangfei; Luo Yanan; Wang, Fu-rong; Pan Feng; Draayer, Jerry P.

    2008-04-15

    The SD-pair shell model is employed to study {sup 126}Xe and {sup 128}Ba. The results show that the spectra and electromagnetic transition strengths can be nicely described in terms of a three-parameter Hamiltonian. In our previous paper, we got a conclusion that the SD-pair approximation improves with the number of SD pairs N. This work shows that this conclusion can be extrapolated to the case with N=5.

  13. Shell model estimate of electric dipole moment in medium and heavy nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshinaga, Naotaka; Higashiyama, Koji

    2011-05-06

    The nuclear electric dipole moment (EDM) and the nuclear Schiff moment for the lowest 1/2{sup +} state of {sup 129}Xe are investigated in terms of the nuclear shell model. We estimate the upper limit for the EDM of neutral {sup 129}Xe atom using the Schiff moment. We also estimate the upper limit of the nuclear EDM, which may be directly measured through ionic atoms.

  14. Study of neutron-rich nuclei with an m -scheme cluster-orbital shell model approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masui, H.; Katō, K.; Ikeda, K.

    2009-12-01

    We propose an m -scheme approach of the cluster-orbital shell model (COSM) formalism. In order to take into account the contribution of the unbound states, the radial wave function is treated as the super position of the Gaussian functions with different width parameters. We apply the m -scheme COSM to oxygen isotopes. Energies and r.m.s. radii of oxygen isotopes are studied.

  15. A new analytical model for vibration of a cylindrical shell and cardboard liner with focus on interfacial distributed damping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plattenburg, Joseph; Dreyer, Jason T.; Singh, Rajendra

    2016-06-01

    This paper proposes a new analytical model for a thin cylindrical shell that utilizes a homogeneous cardboard liner to increase modal damping. Such cardboard liners are frequently used as noise and vibration control devices for cylindrical shell-like structures in automotive drive shafts. However, most prior studies on such lined structures have only investigated the associated damping mechanisms in an empirical manner. Only finite element models and experimental methods have been previously used for characterization, whereas no analytical studies have addressed sliding friction interaction at the shell-liner interface. The proposed theory, as an extension of a prior experimental study, uses the Rayleigh-Ritz method and incorporates material structural damping along with frequency-dependent viscous and Coulomb interfacial damping formulations for the shell-liner interaction. Experimental validation of the proposed model, using a thin cylindrical shell with three different cardboard liner thicknesses, is provided to validate the new model, and to characterize the damping parameters. Finally, the model is used to investigate the effect of the liner and the damping parameters on the modal attenuation of the shell vibration, in particular for the higher-order coupled shell modes.

  16. Modeling of K-Shell Al and Mg and L-Shell Mo Radiation from Compact Cylindrical Wire Array Plasmas Produced on the 1 MA UNR Zebra Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Yilmaz, M. F.; Safronova, A. S.; Esaulov, A. A.; Kantsyrev, V. L.; Quart, N. D.; Williamson, K. M.; Shrestha, I.

    2009-01-21

    K-shell radiation of Al and Mg and L-shell radiation of Mo from implosions of compact cylindrical wire arrays (CCWA) on the 1 MA UNR Zebra generator was studied. Specifically, radiation from implosions of 3 and 6 mm CCWA with (16-24) Al-5052 (95% Al and 5% Mg) and Al-5052 (97.5% Al and 2.5% Mg) and Mo wires was analyzed using the full set of diagnostics: PCD and current signals, and X-ray pinhole images and spectra. Previously developed non-LTE models were applied to model spatially resolved time integrated as well as time-gated spatially integrated spectra from Al, Mg, and Mo plasmas. Derived electron temperature and density spatial gradients as well as percentage of radiating mass were studied and compared. In addition, the novel Wire Dynamics Model (WDM) was used to analyze the implosion dynamics of compact wire array loads.

  17. No-Core Shell Model for A = 47 and A = 49

    SciTech Connect

    Vary, J P; Negoita, A G; Stoica, S

    2006-11-13

    We apply the no-core shell model to the nuclear structure of odd-mass nuclei straddling {sup 48}Ca. Starting with the NN interaction, that fits two-body scattering and bound state data, we evaluate the nuclear properties of A = 47 and A = 49 nuclei while preserving all the underlying symmetries. Due to model space limitations and the absence of three-body interactions, we incorporate phenomenological interaction terms determined by fits to A = 48 nuclei in a previous effort. Our modified Hamiltonian produces reasonable spectra for these odd-mass nuclei. In addition to the differences in single-particle basis states, the absence of a single-particle Hamiltonian in our no-core approach complicates comparisons with valence effective NN interactions. We focus on purely off-diagonal two-body matrix elements since they are not affected by ambiguities in the different roles for one-body potentials and we compare selected sets of fp-shell matrix elements of our initial and modified Hamiltonians in the harmonic oscillator basis with those of a recent model fp-shell interaction, the GXPF1 interaction of Honma et al. While some significant differences emerge from these comparisons, there is an overall reasonably good correlation between our off-diagonal matrix elements and those of GXPF1.

  18. Computational Atomistic Modeling of Bi-Magnetic Core-Shell Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahay, Rahul; Peralta, Juan; Caruntu, Gabriel

    Since its discovery, there has been an increasing interest in the modeling of magnetic phenomena found in materials that present exchange bias. In particular, ferro-antiferromagnetic core-shell nanoparticles are an interesting case in which the magnetic properties of the nanostructure can be altered by adjusting their size, shape, and composition. Here we present a computational scheme that efficiently models the magnetic behavior of bi-magnetic core-shell nanostructures. Using a Heisenberg-Dirac-van Vleck Hamiltonian in combination with a continuous spin model, we simulate a wide range of hysteresis diagrams displaying exchange bias. Furthermore, we will demonstrate our efforts towards improving the efficiency of the simulation algorithms, aiming to afford magnetic atomistic simulations of large nanostructures by using a method based on a tessellated unit sphere to account for spin orientations. Our results allow for further semi-quantitative comparisons with existing experimental data and provide a means to discover new phenomena associated with these core-shell nanoparticles and other nanostructures. NSF DMR-1206920.

  19. D Models Comparison of Complex Shell in Underwater and Dry Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troisi, S.; Del Pizzo, S.; Gaglione, S.; Miccio, A.; Testa, R. L.

    2015-04-01

    In marine biology the shape, morphology, texture and dimensions of the shells and organisms like sponges and gorgonians are very important parameters. For example, a particular type of gorgonian grows every year only few millimeters; this estimation was conducted without any measurement instrument but it has been provided after successive observational studies, because this organism is very fragile: the contact could compromise its structure and outliving. Non-contact measurement system has to be used to preserve such organisms: the photogrammetry is a method capable to assure high accuracy without contact. Nevertheless, the achievement of a 3D photogrammetric model of complex object (as gorgonians or particular shells) is a challenge in normal environments, either with metric camera or with consumer camera. Indeed, the successful of automatic target-less image orientation and the image matching algorithms is strictly correlated to the object texture properties and of camera calibration quality as well. In the underwater scenario, the environment conditions strongly influence the results quality; in particular, water's turbidity, the presence of suspension, flare and other optical aberrations decrease the image quality reducing the accuracy and increasing the noise on the 3D model. Furthermore, seawater density variability influences its refraction index and consequently the interior orientation camera parameters. For this reason, the camera calibration has to be performed in the same survey conditions. In this paper, a comparison between the 3D models of a Charonia Tritonis shell are carried out through surveys conducted both in dry and underwater environments.

  20. Reduced-order models for nonlinear vibrations of cylindrical shells via the proper orthogonal decomposition method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amabili, M.; Sarkar, A.; Païdoussis, M. P.

    2003-09-01

    The nonlinear (large-amplitude) response of perfect and imperfect, simply supported circular cylindrical shells to harmonic excitation in the spectral neighbourhood of some of their lowest natural frequencies is investigated. The shell is assumed to be completely filled with an incompressible and inviscid fluid at rest. Donnell's nonlinear shallow-shell theory is used, and the solution is obtained by the Galerkin method. The proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) method is used to extract proper orthogonal modes that describe the system behaviour from time-series response data. These time series have been obtained via the conventional Galerkin approach (using normal modes as a projection basis) with an accurate model involving 16 degrees of freedom, validated in previous studies. The POD method, in conjunction with the Galerkin approach, permits a lower-dimensional model as compared to those obtainable via the conventional Galerkin approach. Different proper orthogonal modes computed from time series at different excitation frequencies are used and solutions are compared. Some of these sets of modes are capable of describing the system behaviour over the whole frequency range around the fundamental resonance with good accuracy and with only 3 degrees of freedom. They allow a drastic reduction in the computational effort, as compared to using the 16 degree-of-freedom model necessary when the conventional Galerkin approach is used.

  1. Finite-element modeling of an acoustic cloak for three-dimensional flexible shells with structural excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramadan, M.; Akl, W.; Elnady, T.; Elsabbagh, A.

    2011-06-01

    A finite-element model for three-dimensional acoustic cloaks in both cylindrical and spherical coordinates is presented. The model is developed through time-harmonic analysis to study pressure and velocity field distributions as well as the cloak's performance. The model developed accounts for the fluid-structure interaction of thin fluid-loaded shells. A plane strain model is used for the thin shell. Mechanical harmonic excitation is applied to the fluid-loaded shell to investigate the effect of mechanical oscillation of the shell on the performance of the acoustic cloak. In developing this model, a deeper insight into the acoustic cloak phenomena presented by Cummer and Shurig in 2007 is presented. Different nonlinear coordinate transformations are presented to study their effect on the acoustic cloak performance.

  2. Application of the Shell/3D Modeling Technique for the Analysis of Skin-Stiffener Debond Specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, Ronald; O'Brien, T. Kevin; Minguet, Pierre J.

    2002-01-01

    The application of a shell/3D modeling technique for the simulation of skin/stringer debond in a specimen subjected to three-point bending is demonstrated. The global structure was modeled with shell elements. A local three-dimensional model, extending to about three specimen thicknesses on either side of the delamination front was used to capture the details of the damaged section. Computed total strain energy release rates and mixed-mode ratios obtained from shell/13D simulations were in good agreement with results obtained from full solid models. The good correlations of the results demonstrated the effectiveness of the shell/3D modeling technique for the investigation of skin/stiffener separation due to delamination in the adherents.

  3. Identification of Immunodominant Responses to the Plasmodium falciparum Antigens PfUIS3, PfLSA1 and PfLSAP2 in Multiple Strains of Mice

    PubMed Central

    Longley, Rhea J.; Halbroth, Benedict R.; Ewer, Katie J.; Hill, Adrian V. S.; Spencer, Alexandra J.

    2015-01-01

    Malaria, caused by the Plasmodium parasite, remains a serious global public health concern. A vaccine could have a substantial impact on eliminating this disease, alongside other preventative measures. We recently described the development of three novel, viral vectored vaccines expressing either of the antigens PfUIS3, PfLSA1 and PfLSAP2. Each vaccination regimen provided high levels of protection against chimeric parasite challenge in a mouse model, largely dependent on CD8+ T cells. In this study we aimed to further characterize the induced cellular immune response to these vaccines. We utilized both the IFNγ enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay and intracellular cytokine staining to achieve this aim. We identified immunodominant peptide responses for CD4+ and CD8+ T cells for each of the antigens in BALB/c, C57BL/6 and HLA-A2 transgenic mice, creating a useful tool for researchers for subsequent study of these antigens. We also compared these immunodominant peptides with those generated from epitope prediction software, and found that only a small proportion of the large number of epitopes predicted by the software were identifiable experimentally. Furthermore, we characterized the polyfunctionality of the induced CD8+ T cell responses. These findings contribute to our understanding of the immunological mechanisms underlying these protective vaccines, and provide a useful basis for the assessment of these and related vaccines as clinical constructs. PMID:26659715

  4. Rate theory of solvent exchange and kinetics of Li(+) - BF4 (-)/PF6 (-) ion pairs in acetonitrile.

    PubMed

    Dang, Liem X; Chang, Tsun-Mei

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we describe our efforts to apply rate theories in studies of solvent exchange around Li(+) and the kinetics of ion pairings in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). We report one of the first computer simulations of the exchange dynamics around solvated Li(+) in acetonitrile (ACN), which is a common solvent used in LIBs. We also provide details of the ion-pairing kinetics of Li(+)-[BF4] and Li(+)-[PF6] in ACN. Using our polarizable force-field models and employing classical rate theories of chemical reactions, we examine the ACN exchange process between the first and second solvation shells around Li(+). We calculate exchange rates using transition state theory and weighted them with the transmission coefficients determined by the reactive flux, Impey, Madden, and McDonald approaches, and Grote-Hynes theory. We found the relaxation times changed from 180 ps to 4600 ps and from 30 ps to 280 ps for Li(+)-[BF4] and Li(+)-[PF6] ion pairs, respectively. These results confirm that the solvent response to the kinetics of ion pairing is significant. Our results also show that, in addition to affecting the free energy of solvation into ACN, the anion type also should significantly influence the kinetics of ion pairing. These results will increase our understanding of the thermodynamic and kinetic properties of LIB systems. PMID:27608999

  5. Current status of the no-core Monte Carlo shell model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Takashi; Maris, Pieter; Otsuka, Takaharu; Shimizu, Noritaka; Utsuno, Yutaka; Vary, James

    2014-09-01

    One of the major challenges in nuclear physics is to describe nuclear structure and reactions from first principles. Such ab initio calculations have recently become feasible for nuclear many-body systems beyond A = 4 due to the development of quantum many-body methods along with the rapid evolution of computational technologies. The No-Core Shell Model (NCSM) is one of the relevant ab initio methods and is now available for the study of nuclear structure and reactions in the p-shell nuclei. As the NCSM treats all the nucleons on an equal footing, computational demands for the calculations explode exponentially as the number of nucleons increases. In order to access heavier nuclei, many efforts have been devoted to the NCSM calculations. Among them, the no-core Monte Carlo shell model (MCSM) is one of the promising candidates to go beyond the Full Configuration Interaction method. Here, we report recent developments of the MCSM and its application to the no-core calculations. No-Core Full Configuration results are also presented as full ab initio solutions extrapolated to the infinite basis limit. We compare the NCFC results with the MCSM results extrapolated to the infinite basis space.

  6. The KATE shell: An implementation of model-based control, monitor and diagnosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornell, Matthew

    1987-01-01

    The conventional control and monitor software currently used by the Space Center for Space Shuttle processing has many limitations such as high maintenance costs, limited diagnostic capabilities and simulation support. These limitations have caused the development of a knowledge based (or model based) shell to generically control and monitor electro-mechanical systems. The knowledge base describes the system's structure and function and is used by a software shell to do real time constraints checking, low level control of components, diagnosis of detected faults, sensor validation, automatic generation of schematic diagrams and automatic recovery from failures. This approach is more versatile and more powerful than the conventional hard coded approach and offers many advantages over it, although, for systems which require high speed reaction times or aren't well understood, knowledge based control and monitor systems may not be appropriate.

  7. β-decay half-life of V50 calculated by the shell model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haaranen, M.; Srivastava, P. C.; Suhonen, J.; Zuber, K.

    2014-10-01

    In this work we survey the detectability of the β- channel of 2350V leading to the first excited 2+ state in 2450Cr. The electron-capture (EC) half-life corresponding to the transition of 2350V to the first excited 2+ state in 2250Ti had been measured earlier. Both of the mentioned transitions are 4th-forbidden non-unique. We have performed calculations of all the involved wave functions by using the nuclear shell model with the GXPF1A interaction in the full f-p shell. The computed half-life of the EC branch is in good agreement with the measured one. The predicted half-life for the β- branch is in the range ≈2×1019 yr whereas the present experimental lower limit is 1.5×1018 yr. We discuss also the experimental lay-out needed to detect the β--branch decay.

  8. Interrelations between the pairing and quadrupole interactions in the microscopic Shell Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drumev, K. P.; Georgieva, A. I.

    2016-01-01

    We explore the dynamical symmetries of the shell model number conserving algebra, which define three types of pairing and quadrupole phases, with the aim to obtain the prevailing phase or phase transition for the real nuclear systems in a single shell. This is achieved by establishing a correspondence between each of the pairing bases with the Elliott's SU(3) basis that describes collective rotation of nuclear systems. This allows for a complete classification of the basis states of different number of particles in all the limiting cases. The probability distribution of the SU(3) basis states within theirs corresponding pairing states is also obtained. The relative strengths of dynamically symmetric quadrupole-quadrupole interaction in respect to the isoscalar, isovector and total pairing interactions define a control parameter, which estimates the importance of each term of the Hamiltonian in the correct reproduction of the experimental data for the considered nuclei.

  9. Structure models: From shell model to ab initio methods. A brief introduction to microscopic theories for exotic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacca, Sonia

    2016-04-01

    A brief review of models to describe nuclear structure and reactions properties is presented, starting from the historical shell model picture and encompassing modern ab initio approaches. A selection of recent theoretical results on observables for exotic light and medium-mass nuclei is shown. Emphasis is given to the comparison with experiment and to what can be learned about three-body forces and continuum properties.

  10. HR Del REMNANT ANATOMY USING TWO-DIMENSIONAL SPECTRAL DATA AND THREE-DIMENSIONAL PHOTOIONIZATION SHELL MODELS

    SciTech Connect

    Moraes, Manoel; Diaz, Marcos E-mail: marcos@astro.iag.usp.br

    2009-12-15

    The HR Del nova remnant was observed with the IFU-GMOS at Gemini North. The spatially resolved spectral data cube was used in the kinematic, morphological, and abundance analysis of the ejecta. The line maps show a very clumpy shell with two main symmetric structures. The first one is the outer part of the shell seen in H{alpha}, which forms two rings projected in the sky plane. These ring structures correspond to a closed hourglass shape, first proposed by Harman and O'Brien. The equatorial emission enhancement is caused by the superimposed hourglass structures in the line of sight. The second structure seen only in the [O III] and [N II] maps is located along the polar directions inside the hourglass structure. Abundance gradients between the polar caps and equatorial region were not found. However, the outer part of the shell seems to be less abundant in oxygen and nitrogen than the inner regions. Detailed 2.5-dimensional photoionization modeling of the three-dimensional shell was performed using the mass distribution inferred from the observations and the presence of mass clumps. The resulting model grids are used to constrain the physical properties of the shell as well as the central ionizing source. A sequence of three-dimensional clumpy models including a disk-shaped ionization source is able to reproduce the ionization gradients between polar and equatorial regions of the shell. Differences between shell axial ratios in different lines can also be explained by aspherical illumination. A total shell mass of 9 x 10{sup -4} M {sub sun} is derived from these models. We estimate that 50%-70% of the shell mass is contained in neutral clumps with density contrast up to a factor of 30.