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Sample records for pharmaceutical sector perceptions

  1. Transparency in Nigeria's public pharmaceutical sector: perceptions from policy makers

    PubMed Central

    Garuba, Habibat A; Kohler, Jillian C; Huisman, Anna M

    2009-01-01

    Background Pharmaceuticals are an integral component of health care systems worldwide, thus, regulatory weaknesses in governance of the pharmaceutical system negatively impact health outcomes especially in developing countries [1]. Nigeria is one of a number of countries whose pharmaceutical system has been impacted by corruption and has struggled to curtail the production and trafficking of substandard drugs. In 2001, the National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC) underwent an organizational restructuring resulting in reforms to reduce counterfeit drugs and better regulate pharmaceuticals [2]. Despite these changes, there is still room for improvement. This study assessed the perceived level of transparency and potential vulnerability to corruption that exists in four essential areas of Nigeria's pharmaceutical sector: registration, procurement, inspection (divided into inspection of ports and of establishments), and distribution. Methods Standardized questionnaires were adapted from the World Health Organization assessment tool and used in semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders in the public and private pharmaceutical system. The responses to the questions were tallied and converted to scores on a numerical scale where lower scores suggested greater vulnerability to corruption and higher scores suggested lower vulnerability. Results The overall score for Nigeria's pharmaceutical system was 7.4 out of 10, indicating a system that is marginally vulnerable to corruption. The weakest links were the areas of drug registration and inspection of ports. Analysis of the qualitative results revealed that the perceived level of corruption did not always match the qualitative evidence. Conclusion Despite the many reported reforms instituted by NAFDAC, the study findings suggest that facets of the pharmaceutical system in Nigeria remain fairly vulnerable to corruption. The most glaring deficiency seems to be the absence of conflict of

  2. Practicing Research Ethics: Private-Sector Physicians & Pharmaceutical Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on constructions of research ethics by primary care physicians in the USA as they engage in contract research for the pharmaceutical industry. Drawing first upon historical studies of physicians as investigators and then upon 12 months of qualitative fieldwork in the South Western US, this paper analyzes the shifting, contextualized ethics that shape physicians’ relationships with patients/subjects and pharmaceutical companies. Just as physicians followed professional codes of ethics prior to the codification of acceptable research conduct in the 1980s, physicians today continue to develop tacit systems of research ethics. This paper argues that private-sector physicians primarily conceptualize their ethical conduct in relation to the pharmaceutical companies hiring them, not to human subjects they enroll in clinical trials. This is not to say that these physicians do not follow the formal U.S. regulation to protect human subjects, but rather that their financial relationships with the pharmaceutical industry have a greater influence on their identities as researchers and on their constructions of their ethical responsibilities. PMID:18353515

  3. Corporate social responsibility in countries with mature and emerging pharmaceutical sectors

    PubMed Central

    Volodina, Anna; Sax, Sylvia; Anderson, Stuart

    2009-01-01

    In recent decades the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has been adopted by many business sectors, including the pharmaceutical industry. However, in this and other sectors its application remains variable, particularly between mature and developing economies. Its stakeholders include pharmacy and medical students, their attitude to the involvement of companies in socially responsible activities will be important determinants of public response to the industry. Objective: To investigate the knowledge, attitudes and practices of senior medical and pharmacy students towards the CSR concept in the pharmaceutical sector in mature (Germany) and developing (Russia) markets. Methods: A questionnaire survey was carried out among senior pharmacy and medical students during the summer semester 2008 in two Russian and one German university. In each country 120 questionnaires were distributed. The response rate was 95% in Russia and 93% in Germany. Results: Although the relevance of CSR was widely acknowledged by the students, very few were aware of CSR practices currently performed by companies. The reputation of the pharmaceutical industry was generally poor: less than 15% of respondents gave credence to the information provided in advertisements and fully supported pricing strategies as well as policies towards the developing countries. When choosing an employer more than 90% of respondents consider the policies affecting an employee directly as pivotal. However, for a high proportion of students (59% in Russia and 64% in Germany) socially irresponsible behavior by companies has a significant negative impact. Conclusions: This paper identifies practices which students believe should be a part of the CSR programmes for the pharmaceutical industry, and also some that should be abandoned. It recommends that corporate communication on CSR should be expanded. Key differences are seen in perceptions of students in Germany and Russia towards the extent of

  4. Public perceptions of health care professionals' participation in pharmaceutical marketing.

    PubMed

    Crigger, Nancy J; Courter, Laura; Hayes, Kristen; Shepherd, K

    2009-09-01

    Trust in the nurse-patient relationship is maintained not by how professionals perceive their actions but rather by how the public perceives them. However, little is known about the public's view of nurses and other health care professionals who participate in pharmaceutical marketing. Our study describes public perceptions of health care providers' role in pharmaceutical marketing and compares their responses with those of a random sample of licensed family nurse practitioners. The family nurse practitioners perceived their participation in marketing activities as significantly more ethically appropriate than did the public responders. Further research is warranted before conclusions can be drawn, but these early findings suggest that nurse practitioners should consider a conservative approach to participating in pharmaceutical marketing. PMID:19671650

  5. Marketing norm perception among medical representatives in Indian pharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed

    Nagashekhara, Molugulu; Agil, Syed Omar Syed; Ramasamy, Ravindran

    2012-03-01

    Study of marketing norm perception among medical representatives is an under-portrayed component that deserves further perusal in the pharmaceutical industry. The purpose of this study is to find out the perception of marketing norms among medical representatives. The research design is quantitative and cross sectional study with medical representatives as unit of analysis. Data is collected from medical representatives (n=300) using a simple random and cluster sampling using a structured questionnaire. Results indicate that there is no difference in the perception of marketing norms among male and female medical representatives. But there is a difference in opinion among domestic and multinational company's medical representatives. Educational back ground of medical representatives also shows the difference in opinion among medical representatives. Degree holders and multinational company medical representatives have high perception of marketing norms compare to their counterparts. The researchers strongly believe that mandatory training on marketing norms is beneficial in decision making process during the dilemmas in the sales field. PMID:24826035

  6. Marketing Norm Perception Among Medical Representatives in Indian Pharmaceutical Industry

    PubMed Central

    Nagashekhara, Molugulu; Agil, Syed Omar Syed; Ramasamy, Ravindran

    2012-01-01

    Study of marketing norm perception among medical representatives is an under-portrayed component that deserves further perusal in the pharmaceutical industry. The purpose of this study is to find out the perception of marketing norms among medical representatives. The research design is quantitative and cross sectional study with medical representatives as unit of analysis. Data is collected from medical representatives (n=300) using a simple random and cluster sampling using a structured questionnaire. Results indicate that there is no difference in the perception of marketing norms among male and female medical representatives. But there is a difference in opinion among domestic and multinational company’s medical representatives. Educational back ground of medical representatives also shows the difference in opinion among medical representatives. Degree holders and multinational company medical representatives have high perception of marketing norms compare to their counterparts. The researchers strongly believe that mandatory training on marketing norms is beneficial in decision making process during the dilemmas in the sales field. PMID:24826035

  7. Value of services provided by pharmaceutical companies: perceptions of physicians and pharmaceutical sales representatives.

    PubMed

    Gaedeke, R M; Tootelian, D H; Sanders, E E

    1999-01-01

    Pharmaceutical sales representatives (PSRs) are a key component of pharmaceutical companies' marketing strategies in that they are the link between the pharmaceutical company and the physician. PSRs provide various services in order to increase the physician's prescribing activity of their companies' products. Given the high cost of recruiting, training, and supporting a PSR, it is important for PSRs to understand the relative significance physicians ascribe to services provided. This study examined whether there is a gap in the perceptions of physicians and PSRs regarding the value of specific services provided by PSRs. Physicians and PSRs who attended medical meetings were surveyed. Results of the study indicated that there were significant differences in the perceived value between PSRs and physicians. Services which were perceived to be less important to physicians than to PSRs were new product detailing, old product detailing, providing product studies and research findings, PSRs serving as expert consultants, and recruiting physicians to participate in FDA approval drug studies. Services for which there were no significant differences of perceived value between the groups included free product samples and promotional luncheons and dinners. PMID:11066720

  8. Pharmacists' Perceptions of the Economic Value of Compounded Pharmaceuticals: A Comparison of Compounded and Commercial Pharmaceuticals in Select Disease States.

    PubMed

    Lobb, William B; Wilkin, Noel E; Holmes, Erin R

    2015-01-01

    Studies have been conducted to assess patient satisfaction with compounded pharmaceuticals and to directly compare compounded pharmaceuticals with their comparable commercial pharmaceuticals. Yet, the economic value of or potential for economic value derived from compounded pharmaceuticals relative to commercial pharmaceuticals is still not known. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess and compare compounding and non-compounding pharmacists' perceptions of the economic value of compounded preparations relative to commercial products. In-depth interviews with 10 compounding pharmacists and physicians who prescribe compounded prescription pharmaceutical preparations were conducted to help develop a self-administered questionnaire distributed to 50 compounding and 50 non-compounding pharmacists. Compounding and non-compounding pharmacists' perceptions differed most often in the context of compounded pharmaceuticals for pediatric patients. However, both groups responded with moderate agreement that compounded prescription treatments are more profitable for the pharmacy than commercial prescription treatments in most therapeutic areas. This research sought to understand the perception of pharmacists of areas for potential direct and indirect economic cost savings as a result of compounding. For all items whereby compounding and non-compounding pharmacists' ratings were significantly different, compounding pharmacists more strongly believed that compounding pharmaceuticals offered benefit and vice versa. The differences in ratings that were most common were those that directly compared the economic value of compounding and commercial pharmaceuticals, with compounding pharmacists more strongly agreeing with the potential cost savings associated with compounded pharmaceuticals. Based on these findings, prescription compounds are believed to have a benefit to the health system by those who provide them. Future research should proactively explore the economic

  9. Consumer out-of-pocket spending for pharmaceuticals in Kazakhstan: implications for sectoral reform.

    PubMed

    Sari, N; Langenbrunner, J C

    2001-12-01

    What do consumers pay for pharmaceuticals in a transition economy, and who is hit hardest? Kazakhstan is in the midst of emerging from a Soviet Union state to a market economy. It has seen a significant dip in Gross Domestic Product and available revenues for health as a result. New sources of revenues, such as out-of-pocket payments, both formal and informal, have become widespread. In this paper we use the results of a 1996 Living Standards survey jointly sponsored by the World Bank and the Kazakhstan Government to examine patterns of prescribed pharmaceutical spending. We use a two-part regression model that is utilized to adjust for the skewness of non-spenders and heavy utilizers. Results suggest that upper-income groups spend more in absolute terms, but low-income groups pay a higher share of their income for pharmaceuticals. Pharmaceutical expenditure is positively related to poor health status, chronic illness and rural area residence. Our estimates suggest that on average people in rural areas spend 16% more than people in urban areas. The analysis shows that certain types of illnesses impose significant out-of-pocket burden for consumers - gynaecologic as well as intestinal and cardiac. The findings can be used for developing and designing a new 10-year World Bank-financed programme for restructuring the health sector. They also suggest the need for prioritizing rural care, as well as covering pharmaceuticals for specific types of care interventions and certain demographic groups. PMID:11739368

  10. Pharmaceutical sector in transition--a cross sectional study in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Falkenberg, T; Nguyen, T B; Larsson, M; Nguyen, T D; Tomson, G

    2000-09-01

    Increasing efforts are being made to improve pharmaceutical sector performance in low- and middle-income countries. An essential tool for such work is an objective and standard method of assessment which can be used to promote evidenced based National Drug Policy development and implementation. The average drug expenditure per capita has steadily increased in Vietnam and at the time of this study a National Drug Policy was being developed. This study assessed the Vietnamese pharmaceutical sector 1991-1994, focusing on the standard of the drug quality control system, availability of drugs and rational use of essential drugs in the private and public sectors by means of standardised indicators. The results from this study show that the quality control system is impaired and does not have capacity to quality control all drugs on the market. The availability of essential drugs is good whereas essential drugs are poorly prescribed, injections common and there is a high average number of drugs per prescription, both in the public and private sectors. Violations are common and enforcement of regulations weak. On top of this there is an active commercial advertising and marketing of drugs. These findings identify priorities for action to improve the present situation where the development and implementation of the Vietnamese National Drug Policy will be of major importance. PMID:11289028

  11. Technology policy and planning in the Third World pharmaceutical sector: the Cuban and Caribbean community approaches.

    PubMed

    Thrupp, L A

    1984-01-01

    There has been growing international concern over many aspects of the use and flow of medicines in developing countries. This article briefly reviews factors which have contributed to problems in this area including marketing and promotional practices of the pharmaceutical companies, rising drug import costs, and the unsuitability or poor quality of available drugs. This analysis is primarily concerned with policies that have emerged from efforts to alleviate such problems, to increase control over multinational drug companies, and to bring about changes in the technology transaction processes and in the pharmaceutical sector. It focuses on two cases: the regional cooperation scheme of the Caribbean countries (CARICOM) and the national-level policy of Cuba. It is shown that the CARICOM strategy has significant limitations, primarily due to its voluntary nature and lack of enforcement mechanisms for member countries. On the other hand, the Cuban approach has brought about positive effects and progressive changes, made through political commitment to achieve social benefits, and in conjunction with integrated broad reforms of the entire health system within a socialist framework. Thus, the problems and promises of such strategies are viewed in a context which emphasizes the prevailing forces of the global political economy. The lessons from this study, applicable to other developing countries, not only reveal important measures for the pharmaceutical sector, but also stress the ultimate need for strong commitment to enforce policies at the national level and for major structural changes, in order to adequately meet the health and medical needs of the people. PMID:6735538

  12. Participants’ perception of pharmaceutical clinical research: a cross-sectional controlled study

    PubMed Central

    González-Saldivar, Gerardo; Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, René; Viramontes-Madrid, José Luis; Salcido-Montenegro, Alejandro; Carlos-Reyna, Kevin Erick Gabriel; Treviño-Alvarez, Andrés Marcelo; Álvarez-Villalobos, Neri Alejandro; González-González, José Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    Background There is scarce scientific information assessing participants’ perception of pharmaceutical research in developed and developing countries concerning the risks, safety, and purpose of clinical trials. Methods To assess the perception that 604 trial participants (cases) and 604 nonparticipants (controls) of pharmaceutical clinical trials have about pharmaceutical clinical research, we surveyed participants with one of four chronic diseases from 12 research sites throughout Mexico. Results Participation in clinical trials positively influences the perception of pharmaceutical clinical research. More cases (65.4%) than controls (50.7%) perceived that the main purpose of pharmaceutical research is to cure more diseases and to do so more effectively. In addition, more cases considered that there are significant benefits when participating in a research study, such as excellent medical care and extra free services, with this being the most important motivation to participate for both groups (cases 52%, controls 54.5%). We also found a sense of trust in their physicians to deal with adverse events, and the perception that clinical research is a benefit to their health, rather than a risk. More controls believed that clinical trial participants’ health is put at risk (57% vs 33.3%). More cases (99.2%) than controls (77.5%) would recommend participating in a clinical trial, and 90% of cases would enroll in a clinical trial again. Conclusion Participation in clinical trials positively influences the perception that participants have about pharmaceutical clinical research when compared to nonparticipants. This information needs to be conveyed to clinicians, public health authorities, and general population to overcome misconceptions. PMID:27199549

  13. Do perceptions of direct-to-consumer pharmaceutical advertising vary based on urban versus rural living?

    PubMed

    Spake, Deborah F; Joseph, Mathew; Megehee, Carol M

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the connection between perceptions of direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertising based on where people live and shop. Urban consumers were found to be more skeptical of DTC advertising, but more likely to believe that physicians select pharmaceuticals based on the efficacy of the product. Those living in rural areas were more motivated to visit a doctor and more likely to feel an equal doctor-patient relationship after exposure to DTC advertising. Interaction effects among gender, income, and education were detected, as well as an interaction effects between location and income on views of DTC advertising. PMID:24617721

  14. Perceptions and Attitudes of Egyptian Health Professionals and Policy-Makers towards Pharmaceutical Sales Representatives and Other Promotional Activities

    PubMed Central

    Kamal, Susan; Holmberg, Christine; Russell, Jean; Bochenek, Tomasz; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Fischer, Christiane; Tinnemann, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background Pharmaceutical promotion activities in low and middle-income countries are often neither regulated nor monitored. While Egypt has the highest population and per capita use of medicines in the Arab world, we know very little about pharmaceutical companies promotional activities in the country. Aim To explore and analyze the perceptions of physicians towards promotional and marketing activities of pharmaceutical companies among physicians and pharmacists in Egypt. Methodology Perspectives of different healthcare system stakeholders were explored through semi-structured, in-depth interviews conducted in 2014 in Cairo, Egypt. Interviewees were chosen via purposive sampling and snowball technique. Each interview was recorded and transcribed. Then qualitative, thematic analysis was conducted with the help of NVIVO software. Findings The majority of physicians and pharmacists acknowledged exposure to pharmaceutical promotion. It was commonly believed that interaction with the pharmaceutical industry is necessary and both associated risks and benefits were acknowledged. The interviewed physicians considered themselves competent enough to minimize risks and maximize benefits to their prescribing habits. Views diverged on the extent and magnitude of the risks and benefits of pharmaceutical promotion, especially in regard to the influence on patients’ health. Conclusions Pharmaceutical promotion in Egypt is intensely directed at prescribers and dispensers. Physicians, pharmacists and policymakers expressed little skepticism to the influence of promotion towards their individual prescribing. Raising awareness of the pitfalls of pharmaceutical promotion is necessary, especially among the less experienced physicians. PMID:26473484

  15. Potential commercial use of the International Space Station by the biotechnology/pharmaceutical/biomedical sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgenthaler, George W.; Stodieck, Louis

    1999-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is the linch-pin of NASA's future space plans. It emphasizes scientific research by providing a world-class scientific laboratory in which to perform long-term basic science experiments in the space environment of microgravity, radiation, vacuum, vantage-point, etc. It will serve as a test-bed for determining human system response to long-term space flight and for developing the life support equipment necessary for NASA's Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) enterprise. The ISS will also provide facilities (up to 30% of the U.S. module) for testing material, agricultural, cellular, human, aquatic, and plant/animal systems to reveal phenomena heretofore shrouded by the veil of 1-g. These insights will improve life on Earth and will provide a commercial basis for new products and services. In fact, some products, e.g., rare metal-alloys, semiconductor chips, or protein crystals that cannot now be produced on Earth may be found to be sufficiently valuable to be manufactured on-orbit. Biotechnology, pharmaceutical and biomedical experiments have been regularly flown on 10-16 day Space Shuttle flights and on three-month Mir flights for basic science knowledge and for life support system and commercial product development. Since 1985, NASA has created several Commercial Space Centers (CSCs) for the express purpose of bringing university, government and industrial researchers together to utilize space flight and space technology to develop new industrial products and processes. BioServe Space Technologies at the University of Colorado at Boulder and Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas, is such a NASA sponsored CSC that has worked with over 65 companies and institutions in the Biotech Sector in the past 11 years and has successfully discovered and transferred new product and process information to its industry partners. While tests in the space environment have been limited to about two weeks on Shuttle or a few

  16. Trust and transparency: patient perceptions of physicians' financial relationships with pharmaceutical companies.

    PubMed

    Perry, Joshua E; Cox, Dena; Cox, Anthony D

    2014-01-01

    Financial ties between physicians and pharmaceutical companies are pervasive and controversial. However, little is known about how patients perceive such ties. This paper describes an experiment examining how a national sample of U.S. adults perceived a variety of financial relationships between physicians and drug companies. Each respondent read a single scenario about a hypothetical physician and his financial ties to the pharmaceutical industry; scenarios varied in terms of payment type of (e.g., payment for meals vs. consulting fees) and amount. Respondents then evaluated the physician on several dimensions (e.g., expertise, trustworthiness, knowledge of new treatments, moral character, focus on patients' interests). Findings revealed that perceptions of the physician were more strongly influenced by payment type than by payment amount. Specifically, respondents were quite critical of doctors who owned drug company stock or received industry payments for meals and lodging, but were more forgiving of physicians who received free drug samples (which were perceived as benefiting patients) or consulting fees (which were seen as signaling physician expertise). Interestingly, physicians who received no payments, while seen as honest, were also viewed by some respondents as inexperienced or uninformed about new treatments. Implications for public policy and future research are discussed. PMID:25565614

  17. Organizational Perceptions of Telecommuting in the Private Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galusha, Repps J.

    2011-01-01

    The Internet has provided more organizations the opportunity to adopt telecommuting as a means to recruit and retain employees, boost productivity, and trim facility costs. This study expands on the work of a previous study by Hoang, Nickerson, Beckman, and Eng, in 2008 which found that private organizations, due to perceptions of organizational…

  18. Pharmacists’ Perceptions of the Influence of Interactions with the Pharmaceutical Industry on Clinical Decision-Making

    PubMed Central

    Tejani, Aaron M; Loewen, Peter; Bachand, Richard; Harder, Curtis K

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is a paucity of literature examining the perceptions of Canadian pharmacists toward drug promotion by the pharmaceutical industry and pharmacist–industry interactions. Objectives: To determine whether hospital pharmacists perceive their interactions with the pharmaceutical industry as influencing their clinical decision-making or that of their colleagues and whether hospital pharmacists perceive that interactions with the pharmaceutical industry create a conflict of interest. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of the complete sample of hospital pharmacists practising in 3 large health authorities in a single Canadian province was conducted from February to April 2010. Results: A total of 224 responses were received from the approximately 480 pharmacists in the target health authorities (response rate approximately 47%). Fifty-eight percent of respondents (127/218) did not believe that information received at industry-sponsored events influenced their clinical decision-making. Most (142/163 [87%]) disagreed that small gifts influenced their clinical decision-making, whereas responses were divided for large gifts. Respondents were also divided on the issue of whether their interactions created conflicts of interest, with most of those who had received gifts agreeing that large gifts would create a conflict of interest (134/163 [82%]) whereas small gifts would not (100/163 [61%]). There were positive correlations between respondents’ beliefs about their own susceptibility to influence from sponsored events or receipt of small or large gifts and the susceptibility of others, but 22% of respondents (28/127) expressed a different perception about sponsored events, all believing themselves to be less influenced than their colleagues. Only 6% (4/64) of those who received large gifts and 4% (5/142) of those who received small gifts and felt they were not influenced by these gifts reported that it was likely others would be influenced by the receipt of

  19. How might the Trans-Pacific Partnership impact on the pharmaceutical sector in Vietnam?

    PubMed

    Binh, Nguyen Hoa; Anh, Pham Ngoc Kieu; Phuong, Nguyen Minh

    2016-07-01

    Ratification of the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) will attract a large number of foreign drug companies in the coming years to Vietnam. It is anticipated to bring investment to Vietnam's pharmaceutical industries, lead to increased infrastructure and enable the use of more sophisticated technologies for the discovery, development and manufacture of drugs. However, with respect to pharmaceutical companies, which are producing generic drugs primarily, the availability of biologic will be reduced. Thus, the consequence is, an increase in drug cost resulting in difficulties for patients wishing to procure these drugs. This will be particularly detrimental for developing countries, such as Vietnam and Malaysia. PMID:27346326

  20. Perceptions and practices of pharmaceutical wholesalers surrounding counterfeit medicines in a developing country: a baseline survey

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent investigations by the Ministry of Health of Cambodia suggest that counterfeit medicines have been introduced into the pharmaceutical market in tampered packaging. To further explore this possibility, an interview survey was conducted at the wholesaler level to investigate the medicinal supply chain in Cambodia. Methods Managing executives of 62 (83.8%) registered wholesalers of modern medicines in Cambodia were interviewed in 2009 on their knowledge of, perception on, and practices related to counterfeiting issues through a semi-structured questionnaire. Results According to our findings, 12.9% of the wholesalers had encountered counterfeit medicine. However, they demonstrated a variety of perceptions regarding this issue. A majority (59.7%) defined counterfeit medicines as medicines without registration, while other definitions included medicines that were fraudulently manufactured, medicines without a batch/lot number, those containing harmful ingredients or a reduced amount of active ingredients, and expired medicines. Additionally, 8.1% responded that they did not know what counterfeit medicines were. During procurement, 66.1% of the wholesalers consider whether the product is registered in Cambodia, while 64.5% consider the credibility and quality of the products and 61.3% consider the reputation of the manufacturers. When receiving a consignment, 80.6% of wholesalers check the intactness of medicines, 72.6% check the specification and amount of medicines, 71% check Cambodian registration, 56.5% check that the packaging is intact, 54.8% check batch and lot numbers, 48.4% check the dates of manufacture and expiration, and 9.7% check analytical certificates. Out of 62 wholesalers, 14.5% had received medicines that arrived without packages or were separated from their packaging and had to be repacked before distribution. Significant statistical association was found between wholesalers who received medicines separately from their packs

  1. Public perceptions of non-pharmaceutical interventions for reducing transmission of respiratory infection: systematic review and synthesis of qualitative studies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Non-pharmaceutical public health interventions may provide simple, low-cost, effective ways of minimising the transmission and impact of acute respiratory infections in pandemic and non-pandemic contexts. Understanding what influences the uptake of non-pharmaceutical interventions such as hand and respiratory hygiene, mask wearing and social distancing could help to inform the development of effective public health advice messages. The aim of this synthesis was to explore public perceptions of non-pharmaceutical interventions that aim to reduce the transmission of acute respiratory infections. Methods Five online databases (MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, EMBASE and Web of Science) were systematically searched. Reference lists of articles were also examined. We selected papers that used a qualitative research design to explore perceptions and beliefs about non-pharmaceutical interventions to reduce transmission of acute respiratory infections. We excluded papers that only explored how health professionals or children viewed non-pharmaceutical respiratory infection control. Three authors performed data extraction and assessment of study quality. Thematic analysis and components of meta-ethnography were adopted to synthesise findings. Results Seventeen articles from 16 studies in 9 countries were identified and reviewed. Seven key themes were identified: perceived benefits of non-pharmaceutical interventions, perceived disadvantages of non-pharmaceutical interventions, personal and cultural beliefs about infection transmission, diagnostic uncertainty in emerging respiratory infections, perceived vulnerability to infection, anxiety about emerging respiratory infections and communications about emerging respiratory infections. The synthesis showed that some aspects of non-pharmaceutical respiratory infection control (particularly hand and respiratory hygiene) were viewed as familiar and socially responsible actions to take. There was ambivalence about adopting

  2. Incorporating online teaching in an introductory pharmaceutical practice course: a study of student perceptions within an Australian University

    PubMed Central

    Benino, Diana; Girardi, Antonia; Czarniak, Petra

    Objective To examine student perceptions regarding online lectures and quizzes undertaken during a pharmaceutical practice course for first year undergraduate students enrolled in the Bachelor of Pharmacy course at an Australian University. Methods The University uses a standard instrument to collect feedback from students regarding unit satisfaction. Data were collected for three different teaching modalities: traditional face-to-face, online and partially online. Results Descriptive statistics support that, from a student's perspective, partial online delivery is the preferred teaching methodology for an introductory pharmaceutical practice unit. Conclusions This study has served to highlight that while there are a few points of significant difference between traditional and online teaching and learning, a combination of the two provides a reasonable avenue for teaching exploration. This result has implications for teaching practice generally, and within the pharmacy discipline, specifically. PMID:24198864

  3. Community awareness and perceptions of health sector preparedness and response to Cyclone Nargis.

    PubMed

    Myint, N W; Kaewkungwal, J; Singhasivanon, P; Chaisiri, K; Ponpet, P; Siriwan, P; Mallik, A K; Thet, K W

    2011-07-01

    Community awareness, preparedness and response to public health emergencies are essential for a successful response to public health emergencies. This study was carried out to determine community awareness and perceptions regarding health sector preparedness and response to Cyclone Nargis in Myanmar. Six focus group discussions were carried out in 3 villages severely affected by Cyclone Nargis. Thematic content analysis was carried out to determine community perceptions. Focus group participants, consisting of community members, community leaders and government personnel, were aware of the cyclone, but were unaware of its intensity and where it would make landfall. There was inadequate knowledge on how to prepare for a cyclone. There was some training on cyclone preparation but coverage was not wide enough. Participants received service and relief from health sector; they had a positive attitude toward health services provided to them. However, 5 out of 6 focus groups stated most villagers were not interested in health education. Only a few participants had some knowledge on how to prepare for a cyclone. Based on these results, there are evident weaknesses on how to prepare for cyclones. Community preparedness is essential to prevent disasters with cyclones, such as with Cyclone Nargis. PMID:22299485

  4. Case studies on heat stress related perceptions in different industrial sectors in southern India.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Ramalingam, Ayyappan; Dasu, Venkatesan; Stephen, Jeremiah Chinnadurai; Sivaperumal, Mohan Raj; Kumarasamy, Deepan; Mukhopadhyay, Krishnendu; Ghosh, Santu; Sambandam, Sankar

    2010-01-01

    Linkages between thermal loads and its physiological consequences have been widely studied in non-tropical developed country settings. In many developing countries like India, despite the widespread recognition of the problem, limited attempts have been made to estimate health impacts related to occupational heat stress and fewer yet to link heat stress with potential productivity losses. This is reflected in the ubiquity of workplaces with limited or no controls to reduce exposures. As a prelude to understanding the feasibility of alternative interventions in different industrial sectors, we present case studies from 10 different industrial units in Tamil Nadu, Chennai, which describe perceptions of occupational heat stress among the workers and supervisors/management.Units were selected from among those who had previously requested an assessment of workplace heat stress exposure at select locations as part of routine industrial hygiene services provided by the investigators. Since the earlier measurements were performed in response to a management request, all units were revisited to generate a simple job and process profile using checklists in order to understand the overall heat exposure situation in the concerned unit. This was followed by a simple questionnaire administration to a small subsample of employees to evaluate the perceptions of workers and supervisors/management. Finally, we retrieved available quantitative data from previous measurements of heat stress at these units to correlate prevalence of exposures with respective perceptions.Results indicate that the existing level of controls may not be sufficient for managing work-related heat stress in any of the sectors studied, with wide variations in perceived risks. There was a noticeable disconnect between worker's perceptions and their ability to secure workplace improvements related to heat stress from the management. Wider availability of engineering and administrative controls in the industries

  5. Case studies on heat stress related perceptions in different industrial sectors in southern India

    PubMed Central

    Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Ramalingam, Ayyappan; Dasu, Venkatesan; Stephen, Jeremiah Chinnadurai; Sivaperumal, Mohan Raj; Kumarasamy, Deepan; Mukhopadhyay, Krishnendu; Ghosh, Santu; Sambandam, Sankar

    2010-01-01

    Linkages between thermal loads and its physiological consequences have been widely studied in non-tropical developed country settings. In many developing countries like India, despite the widespread recognition of the problem, limited attempts have been made to estimate health impacts related to occupational heat stress and fewer yet to link heat stress with potential productivity losses. This is reflected in the ubiquity of workplaces with limited or no controls to reduce exposures. As a prelude to understanding the feasibility of alternative interventions in different industrial sectors, we present case studies from 10 different industrial units in Tamil Nadu, Chennai, which describe perceptions of occupational heat stress among the workers and supervisors/management. Units were selected from among those who had previously requested an assessment of workplace heat stress exposure at select locations as part of routine industrial hygiene services provided by the investigators. Since the earlier measurements were performed in response to a management request, all units were revisited to generate a simple job and process profile using checklists in order to understand the overall heat exposure situation in the concerned unit. This was followed by a simple questionnaire administration to a small subsample of employees to evaluate the perceptions of workers and supervisors/management. Finally, we retrieved available quantitative data from previous measurements of heat stress at these units to correlate prevalence of exposures with respective perceptions. Results indicate that the existing level of controls may not be sufficient for managing work-related heat stress in any of the sectors studied, with wide variations in perceived risks. There was a noticeable disconnect between worker's perceptions and their ability to secure workplace improvements related to heat stress from the management. Wider availability of engineering and administrative controls in the

  6. Physicians' perceptions and uses of commercial drug information sources: an examination of pharmaceutical marketing to physicians.

    PubMed

    Spiller, L D; Wymer, W W

    2001-01-01

    Data were collected from physicians attending a medical conference. This exploratory study was primarily interested in two areas. First, the investigators were interested in better understanding physicians' responses to different promotional tactics typically used by the pharmaceutical industry. Pharmaceutical representatives were most useful, followed by drug samples and infomercials in medical journals. Direct mail, promotional faxes, and promotional products were used less by physicians. Second, the investigators were interested in learning what information sources influenced physicians' drug choices. Physicians were primarily influenced by their prior experience with a drug, then by drug compendiums, and journal articles. Physicians were also influenced by information provided by the industry and other factors, like the drug's price and their patients' financial situations. Managerial implications for marketing to physicians and ideas for future research are discussed. PMID:11727295

  7. General public knowledge, perceptions and practice towards pharmaceutical drug advertisements in the Western region of KSA.

    PubMed

    Al-Haddad, Mahmoud S; Hamam, Fayez; Al-Shakhshir, Sami M

    2014-04-01

    This study aims to examine general public knowledge and behavior toward pharmaceutical advertisements in the Western part of KSA. A cross sectional convenience sampling technique was used in this study. A total of 1445 valid questionnaires were received and analyzed using SPSS version 16 at alpha value of 0.05. Majority of respondents were aware of different types of drugs to be advertised and drug advertisements should seek approval from the health authorities. Television and Internet showed the highest effect on consumers. Almost half of the participants preferred an advertised drug over non-advertised one. Most of the respondents indicated that the quality of frequently advertised drugs is not better than those prescribed by the doctors. Majority of participants had positive beliefs toward advertised drugs concerning their role in education and spreading of awareness among the public. Pharmaceutical advertisements harm the doctor-patient relationship as evidenced by one-third of the investigated sample. Moreover, majority of the participants mentioned that they would consult another doctor or even change the current doctor if he/she refused to prescribe an advertised medication. Results of this study could be used to develop awareness programs for the general public and try to enforce the regulations and policies to protect the general public and patients from the business oriented pharmaceutical companies and drug suppliers. PMID:24648823

  8. Squaring Their Roots: Leadership Perceptions and Practices of Some U.S.-Trained African Professionals in the Public Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dant, William Patrick

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study looks at the leadership perceptions and practices of career professionals in the public sector across three countries of sub-Saharan Africa (Ethiopia, Ghana and Madagascar). All participants were alumni of the Humphrey Fellowship program, a year-long mid-career fellowship in the United States for professional development and…

  9. The Impact of Sexuality in Contemporary Culture: An Interpretive Study of Perceptions and Choices in Private Sector Dance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risner, Doug; Godfrey, Heidi; Simmons, Linda C.

    2004-01-01

    The ways in which seven private sector dance professionals in the United States perceive the impact of sexuality in contemporary culture and the choices that they make for their own schools of dance because of these perceptions are explored. This study was conducted through in-depth interviews and a survey instrument. The participants' narratives…

  10. “I’m not afraid of those ones just 'cause they’ve been prescribed”: Perceptions of risk among illicit users of pharmaceutical opioids

    PubMed Central

    Daniulaityte, Raminta; Falck, Russel; Carlson, Robert G.

    2012-01-01

    Background There has been a rise in the illicit use of pharmaceutical opioids (”pain pills”) in the United States. Conducted with young adult non-medical users of pharmaceutical opioids, this study uses qualitative methods and cultural consensus analysis to describe risk perceptions associated with pharmaceutical opioids and to determine patterns of cultural sharing and intra-cultural variation of these views. Methods The qualitative sub-sample (n=47) was selected from a larger sample of 396 young adults (18–23 years old), who were participating in a natural history study of illicit pharmaceutical opioid use. Qualitative life history interviews, drug ranking task, and cultural consensus analysis were used to elicit participant views about risks and harms associated with pain pills and other drugs, as well as alcohol and tobacco. Results Cultural consensus analysis revealed that the participants shared a single cultural model of drug risks, but the level of agreement decreased with the increasing range of drugs ever used. Further, those with more extensive drug use histories differed from less “experienced” users in their views about OxyContin and some other drugs. Overall, pain pills were viewed as addicting and potentially deadly substances, but these properties were linked to the patterns and methods of use, as well as characteristics of an individual user. Further, risks associated with pharmaceutical opioids were further curtailed because they “came from the doctor,” and thus had a legitimate aspect to their use. Conclusions This study highlights potential problems with universal approaches to substance use prevention and intervention among young people since such approaches ignore the fact that substance use education messages may be experienced differently depending on an individual’s drug use history and his/her perceptions of drug risks. Findings reported here may be useful in the development of prevention and intervention programs aimed at

  11. Perceptions of per diems in the health sector: evidence and implications.

    PubMed

    Vian, Taryn; Miller, Candace; Themba, Zione; Bukuluki, Paul

    2013-05-01

    Per diems are used to pay work-related expenses and motivate employees, yet they also can distort incentives and may be abused. This study was designed to explore perceptions of per diems among 41 high-, mid- and low-level government officers and non-governmental organization (NGO) officials in Malawi and Uganda. Interviews explored attitudes about per diems, benefits and problems for organizations and individuals, and risks and patterns of abuse. The study found that per diems provide benefits such as encouraging training, increasing staff motivation and supplementing salary. Despite these advantages, respondents voiced many discontents about per diems, stating that they create conflict, contribute to a negative organizational culture where people expect to be paid for all activities, and lead to negative changes in work time allocation. Work practices are also manipulated in order to maximize financial gain by slowing work, scheduling unnecessary trainings, or exaggerating time needed for tasks. Officials may appropriate per diems meant for others or engage in various forms of fraud for personal financial gain. Abuse seemed more common in the government sector due to low pay and weaker controls. A striking finding was the distrust that lower-level workers felt toward their superiors: allowances were perceived to provide unfair financial advantages to already better-off and well-connected staff. To curb abuse of per diems, initiatives must reduce pressures and incentives to abuse, while controlling discretion and increasing transparency in policy implementation. Donors can play a role in reform by supporting development of policy analysis tools, design of control mechanisms and evaluation of reform strategies. PMID:22684639

  12. A study on determining the perception of learning organisation applications by health sector workers.

    PubMed

    Somunoğlu, Sinem; Erdem, Erhan; Erdem, Ummühan

    2012-12-01

    It is stated that in this century not only the societies, but also the communities have to confront with a reconstruction process due to the rapid developments and reformations. It is believed that it is only possible for the organisations to achieve their goals as long as they adapt to the changes, and they continue the learning process. Based on these ideas, this study aims to determine the perceptions of a learning organisation's applications by the workers at Health Centre in Denizli. In order to achieve this goal, a questionnaire method was used and in the questionnaire, questions inquiring about the examples from learning organisation processes as well as the questions representing socio-demographic characteristics of the workers were included. When the obtained results were analyzed, the health sector workers stated that there were some applications in their organisations intended for knowing, understanding and thinking organisation models which were among the learning organisation phases. The workers also stated that they thought their organisation implemented some applications such as "Each individual in my organisation has an equal chance to learn (33.3 %)", "Knowledge reaches every part of the organisation quickly and effectively (31.3 %)", "Our organisation provides the necessary environment for learning (37.5 %)" etc. Besides, they thought that the process of being a learning organisation was not totally completed. The workers pointed out the main obstacles to be a learning organisation and to organisational learning process as communication problems (46.9 %), factors originating from managers (37.5 %), learning obstacles originating from the individual himself (32.3 %) etc. PMID:22695990

  13. Perceptions of per diems in the health sector: evidence and implications

    PubMed Central

    Vian, Taryn; Miller, Candace; Themba, Zione; Bukuluki, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Per diems are used to pay work-related expenses and motivate employees, yet they also can distort incentives and may be abused. This study was designed to explore perceptions of per diems among 41 high-, mid- and low-level government officers and non-governmental organization (NGO) officials in Malawi and Uganda. Interviews explored attitudes about per diems, benefits and problems for organizations and individuals, and risks and patterns of abuse. The study found that per diems provide benefits such as encouraging training, increasing staff motivation and supplementing salary. Despite these advantages, respondents voiced many discontents about per diems, stating that they create conflict, contribute to a negative organizational culture where people expect to be paid for all activities, and lead to negative changes in work time allocation. Work practices are also manipulated in order to maximize financial gain by slowing work, scheduling unnecessary trainings, or exaggerating time needed for tasks. Officials may appropriate per diems meant for others or engage in various forms of fraud for personal financial gain. Abuse seemed more common in the government sector due to low pay and weaker controls. A striking finding was the distrust that lower-level workers felt toward their superiors: allowances were perceived to provide unfair financial advantages to already better-off and well-connected staff. To curb abuse of per diems, initiatives must reduce pressures and incentives to abuse, while controlling discretion and increasing transparency in policy implementation. Donors can play a role in reform by supporting development of policy analysis tools, design of control mechanisms and evaluation of reform strategies. PMID:22684639

  14. Clients’ perceptions of the quality of care in Mexico City’s public-sector legal abortion program

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Davida; Díaz-Olavarrieta, Claudia; Juárez, Clara; García, Sandra G.; Sanhueza, Patricio; Harper, Cynthia C.

    2014-01-01

    Context In 2007 the Mexico City legislature made the groundbreaking decision to legalize first trimester abortion. Limited research has been conducted to understand clients’ perceptions of the abortion services available in public sector facilities. Methods We measured clients’ perceptions of quality of care at three public sector sites in Mexico City in 2009 (n=402). We assessed six domains of quality of care (client-staff interaction, information provision, technical competence, post-abortion contraceptive services, accessibility, and the facility environment), and conducted ordinal logistic regression analysis to identify which domains were important to women for their overall evaluation of care. We measured the association of overall service evaluation with socio-demographic factors and abortion-visit characteristics, in addition to specific quality of care domains. Results Clients reported a high quality of care for abortion services with an overall mean rating of 8.8 out of 10. Multivariable analysis showed that important domains for high evaluation included client perception of doctor as technically skilled (p<0.05), comfort with doctor (p<0.001), perception of confidentiality (p<.01), perception that receptionist was respectful (p<.05) and counseling on self-care at home following the abortion and post-abortion emotions (p<0.05 and p<0.01). Other relevant domains for high evaluation were convenient site hours (p<0.01), waiting time (p<0.001) and clean facility (p<0.05). Nulliparous women rated their care less favorably than parous women (p<0.05). Conclusions Our findings highlight important domains of service quality to women’s overall evaluations of abortion care in Mexico City. Strategies to improve clients’ service experiences should focus on improving counseling, service accessibility and waiting time. PMID:22227626

  15. Gender Differences and Public Sector Managers: Women's Perceptions of Equality in State Government.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitcraft, Carol; Williams, M. Lee

    A study assessed the equality of women managers in 11 of the largest state agencies in Texas. It also investigated the perceptions of men and women managers concerning a variety of work related issues in Texas state government. A stratified random sample of 25 percent of all managers was drawn, and 1,844 responses, representing a 55.5% response…

  16. Stepping into Higher Education from the Vocational Education Sector in Australia: Student Perceptions and Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Shea, Sarah; Lysaght, Pauline; Tanner, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    It is not unusual to hear study in the vocational education sector referred to as a "stepping stone" into further studies in the higher education environment. What this pathway entails for those who choose it is not immediately clear however. This article reports on research conducted with a small cohort of students who arrived at an Australian…

  17. Engaging the Online Learner: Perceptions of Public and Private Sector Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alagaraja, Meera; Dooley, Larry M.

    2005-01-01

    Engaging the online learner is a prominent issue that is certain to affect the future success of online learning. A critical step in progressing on this issue is to understand how public and private sector educators' adopt distinctive approaches to meet the diverse needs of their environments and their learners. The paper uses a thematic approach…

  18. Perceptions of Craftsmen and Apprentices Regarding Self-Employment Skill Acquisition in the Kenyan Informal Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Robert E.; K'Aol, George O.

    1997-01-01

    Interviews with 52 craft workers and 52 apprentices in Kenya found that apprentices had more formal education and 76.9% of craft workers acquired technical skills informally. Both groups felt self-employment skills were not well taught in the informal sector, despite the need for business planning, bookkeeping, marketing, and other skills. (SK)

  19. Does labour epidural slow the progress of labour and lead to complications? Obstetricians’ perception working in private and public sector teaching hospitals in a developing country

    PubMed Central

    Sohaib, Muhammad; Ismail, Samina

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: Obstetricians play a major role in the decision making for provision of analgesia for the woman in labour. As epidural analgesia (EA) is the most preferred technique, it is important to know obstetricians' perception regarding its effect on progress of labour and associated complications. Methods: The 6 months cross-sectional study included 114 obstetricians from teaching hospitals. After informed consent, obstetricians were asked to fill a predesigned questionnaire containing 13 close ended questions regarding their perception on the effect of EA on progress of labour, EA complications and whether they would recommend EA to their patients or not. Other variables included age, gender, training in EA, practice type and hospital settings (private or public sector). Results: Majority of the obstetricians had the perception of EA prolonging the first stage (89.5%) and second stage (98.2%) of labour, increasing the rate of caesarean section (87.7%), instrumental delivery (58.8%) and increasing the incidence of backache (85.5%). None of the obstetricians received any formal training in EA. Majority (84.2%) were not sure if they would recommend EA to their patients. When these responses were compared between public and private sector, a statistically higher percentage (P < 0.001) of public sector obstetricians had negative perception of EA. Conclusion: Perception of obstetrician regarding EA is contrary to the current evidence. There is a need to introduce formal curriculum on EA in obstetric training program and conduct regular refresher courses. PMID:26903670

  20. Domestic waste disposal practice and perceptions of private sector waste management in urban Accra

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Waste poses a threat to public health and the environment if it is not stored, collected, and disposed of properly. The perception of waste as an unwanted material with no intrinsic value has dominated attitudes towards disposal. This study investigates the domestic waste practices, waste disposal, and perceptions about waste and health in an urban community. Methods The study utilised a mixed-method approach. A cross-sectional survey questionnaire and in-depth interview were used to collect data. A total of 364 household heads were interviewed in the survey and six key informants were interviewed with the in-depth interviews. Results The results of the study revealed that 93.1% of households disposed of food debris as waste and 77.8% disposed of plastic materials as waste. The study also showed that 61.0% of the households disposed of their waste at community bins or had waste picked up at their homes by private contractors. The remaining 39.0% disposed of their waste in gutters, streets, holes and nearby bushes. Of those who paid for the services of private contractors, 62.9% were not satisfied with the services because of their cost and irregular collection. About 83% of the respondents were aware that improper waste management contributes to disease causation; most of the respondents thought that improper waste management could lead to malaria and diarrhoea. There was a general perception that children should be responsible for transporting waste from the households to dumping sites. Conclusion Proper education of the public, the provision of more communal trash bins, and the collection of waste by private contractors could help prevent exposing the public in municipalities to diseases. PMID:25005728

  1. FDA pharmaceutical quality oversight.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lawrence X; Woodcock, Janet

    2015-08-01

    The launch of the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER) Office of Pharmaceutical Quality (OPQ) is a milestone in FDA's efforts to assure that quality medicines are available to the American public. As a new super-office within CDER, OPQ is strategically organized to streamline regulatory processes, advance regulatory standards, align areas of expertise, and originate surveillance of drug quality. Supporting these objectives will be an innovative and systematic approach to product quality knowledge management and informatics. Concerted strategies will bring parity to the oversight of innovator and generic drugs as well as domestic and international facilities. OPQ will promote and encourage the adoption of emerging pharmaceutical technology to enhance pharmaceutical quality and potentially reinvigorate the pharmaceutical manufacturing sector in the United States. With a motto of "One Quality Voice," OPQ embodies the closer integration of review, inspection, surveillance, policy, and research for the purpose of strengthening pharmaceutical quality on a global scale. PMID:26027494

  2. Nurses’ Perceptions of Spirituality and Spiritual Care Giving: A Comparison Study Among All Health Care Sectors in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Melhem, Ghaith Ahmad Bani; Zeilani, Ruqayya S; Zaqqout, Ossama Abed.; Aljwad, Ashraf Ismail; Shawagfeh, Mohammed Qasim; Al- Rahim, Maysoon Abd

    2016-01-01

    Aims: This study aimed to describe nurses’ perceptions of spirituality and spiritual care in Jordan, and to investigate the relationship between their perceptions and their demographic variables. Methods: The study used a cross-sectional descriptive design and recruited a convenience sample of 408 Jordanian registered nurses to complete the spiritual care giving scale. Results: The findings of the study demonstrated that most of the participating nurses had a high level of spirituality and spiritual care perception. Significant differences were found between male and female nurses’ perceptions of spirituality and spiritual care (P < 0.05); previous attendance of courses on spiritual care also made a significant difference to perceptions (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The research findings suggest that, Jordanian nurses’ gender made a difference in their perceptions of spirituality and spiritual care. They had satisfactory levels of perception of spirituality and spiritual care. Moreover, spiritual care courses appeared to have a positive impact on their perception of spirituality and spiritual care. Enhancing nursing care by integrating standardized spiritual care into the current nursing care, training, and education should also be emphasized. PMID:26962280

  3. 21 CFR 26.17 - Role and composition of the Joint Sectoral Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE... EUROPEAN COMMUNITY Specific Sector Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.17...

  4. Staff Involvement in Leadership Decision Making in the UK Further Education Sector: Perceptions of Quality and Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maringe, Felix

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to explore the quality of leadership decision making at various leadership levels in the further education (FE) sector. Using Hoffberg and Korver's model for integrated decision making, the paper aims to examine how staff in five UK FE colleges perceive the quality of their involvement in decision-making teams…

  5. Pharmaceutical laws and regulations in Iran: An overview.

    PubMed

    Zaboli, Pardis; Hashemi-Meshkini, Amir; Varmaghani, Mehdi; Gholami, Hadi; Vazirian, Iman; Zekri, Hedieh-Sadat; Eslamitabar, Shahriar; Kebriaeezadeh, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    The pharmaceutical legal framework is a very important infrastructure in achieving predefined goals in pharmaceutical sector: Accessibility, quality, and rational use of medicine. This study aims to review the current pharmaceutical sector-related legal provisions in Iran where the Food and Drug Organization (FDO) is in charge of regulating all issues related to the pharmaceutical sector. The main laws and regulations enacted by parliament and cabinet and even internal regulations enacted by the Ministry of Health or Iran FDO are reviewed. Different laws and regulations are categorized according to the main goals of Iran national drug policy. PMID:27512704

  6. Pharmaceutical laws and regulations in Iran: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Zaboli, Pardis; Hashemi-Meshkini, Amir; Varmaghani, Mehdi; Gholami, Hadi; Vazirian, Iman; Zekri, Hedieh-Sadat; Eslamitabar, Shahriar; Kebriaeezadeh, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    The pharmaceutical legal framework is a very important infrastructure in achieving predefined goals in pharmaceutical sector: Accessibility, quality, and rational use of medicine. This study aims to review the current pharmaceutical sector-related legal provisions in Iran where the Food and Drug Organization (FDO) is in charge of regulating all issues related to the pharmaceutical sector. The main laws and regulations enacted by parliament and cabinet and even internal regulations enacted by the Ministry of Health or Iran FDO are reviewed. Different laws and regulations are categorized according to the main goals of Iran national drug policy. PMID:27512704

  7. Specialty pharmaceuticals: developing a management plan.

    PubMed

    Willcutts, Dave

    2002-01-01

    This is the first in a series of articles that address the complex issues associated with specialty pharmaceuticals in the development of a successful specialty pharmaceutical program, a critical component of managing this high-cost and highly fragmented sector. This article focuses on how to define specialty pharmaceuticals. Other articles in this series will explore such topics as the mechanics of developing and managing a specialty pharmaceutical program, how and when to establish clinical protocols and authorizations, the importance of data management, and the benefits from automated processes. PMID:12561391

  8. Farmers' perceptions and attitudes towards the development of the sheep and goat sector in the Greek region of Evros.

    PubMed

    Aggelopoulos, Stamatis; Karelakis, Christos; Tsantopoulos, Georgios; Pavloudi, Alexandra; Seitanis, Paschalis

    2016-01-01

    The present study endeavors to investigate the attitudes, opinions and perceptions of livestock farmers regarding the main problems they face and confine the development of livestock in the Greek region of Evros. Primary data were collected through a quantitative survey (structured questionnaire) with livestock farmers in the region. The analysis of the survey data was carried out with the use of descriptive statistics, Friedman's test and factor analysis. The results indicate that strategies for livestock development in the region should take into account the great dissatisfaction that exists towards public authorities and the level of satisfaction as regards the non-governmental bodies. Furthermore, the economic objectives are of primary importance for livestock farmers, whereas they stress their interest in training and know-how. Particularly on issues pertaining to dairy livestock management, improving sanitation conditions and enhancing the quality, digestibility and production of animal feed. PMID:27478751

  9. Bovine dermatophilosis: Awareness, perceptions and attitudes in the small-holder sector of north-west Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Ndhlovu, Daud N; Masika, Patrick J

    2016-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess cattle owners' awareness, perceptions, attitudes and drug-usage practices with regard to bovine dermatophilosis. Knowledge of these farmers' attributes is important for animal health policy makers in their endeavours to provide optimum disease control strategies that are acceptable to the communities. Data on cattle owner awareness of bovine dermatophilosis, causes, treatment practices, perceptions about its importance and potential dangers to humans were collected using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. A total of 185 stockowners and cattle herds were involved in the study, with bovine dermatophilosis determined clinically by veterinarians. The results showed that 45.4% of the herds were clinically positive for dermatophilosis, and most farmers (79.5%) were generally aware that dermatophilosis was a cattle disease. In the event of a dermatophilosis outbreak in a herd, 74.1% of the farmers treated their cattle using antibiotics; the proportion of farmers treating cattle did not differ (p > 0.05) across the diptanks. Fifty-two farmers (52/63) indicated that drugs had to be administered four to seven times before an animal recovered from infection. Tetracyclines were the antibiotics used by most farmers (79.3%) to treat dermatophilosis, with 19.1% using penicillins. Concerns were raised by farmers about the effectiveness of these drugs against bovine dermatophilosis. Across the study sites, 48.6% and 27.6% of the farmers perceived bovine dermatophilosis to be an important disease at the herd and area level, respectively. A small proportion (12.4%) of the farmers regarded bovine dermatophilosis as a potentially zoonotic disease. The high level of stockowners' general awareness, with regards to bovine dermatophilosis, sets ideal conditions for the mobilisation of farmers by animal health authorities in the control of the disease. However, further research needs to be undertaken to investigate effective antibiotic

  10. Community Pharmacists' Perceptions about Pharmaceutical Care of Traditional Medicine Products: A Questionnaire-Based Cross-Sectional Study in Guangzhou, China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xi; Ung, Carolina Oi Lam; Hu, Hao; Liu, Xiaodan; Zhao, Jing; Hu, Yuanjia; Li, Peng; Yang, Qing

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate community pharmacists' perceived responsibility, practice behaviors, knowledge, perceived barriers, and improvement measures towards provision of pharmaceutical care in relation to traditional medicine (TM) products in Guangzhou, China. A self-completion questionnaire was used to survey licensed pharmacists working at community pharmacies. This study found that the community pharmacists in Guangzhou, China, were involved in the provision of TM products during their daily practice but only provided pharmaceutical care in this area with a passive attitude. Extrinsic barriers such as lack of scientific evidence for the safety and efficacy of TM products and unclear definition of their roles and responsibilities were highlighted while intrinsic factors such as insufficient TM knowledge were identified. PMID:27066101

  11. Community Pharmacists' Perceptions about Pharmaceutical Care of Traditional Medicine Products: A Questionnaire-Based Cross-Sectional Study in Guangzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Ung, Carolina Oi Lam; Hu, Hao; Liu, Xiaodan; Zhao, Jing; Hu, Yuanjia; Li, Peng; Yang, Qing

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate community pharmacists' perceived responsibility, practice behaviors, knowledge, perceived barriers, and improvement measures towards provision of pharmaceutical care in relation to traditional medicine (TM) products in Guangzhou, China. A self-completion questionnaire was used to survey licensed pharmacists working at community pharmacies. This study found that the community pharmacists in Guangzhou, China, were involved in the provision of TM products during their daily practice but only provided pharmaceutical care in this area with a passive attitude. Extrinsic barriers such as lack of scientific evidence for the safety and efficacy of TM products and unclear definition of their roles and responsibilities were highlighted while intrinsic factors such as insufficient TM knowledge were identified. PMID:27066101

  12. Patients' Perception of Clinicians Use of ICT During Patient Consultation in the Different Sectors of Danish Healthcare.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Lone Stub; Bertelsen, Pernille

    2016-01-01

    In Denmark ICT is a central part of almost all healthcare professionals' daily practices, and patients are increasingly encouraged to take and active interest in own health data. Therefore, ICT is an important part of what happens at consultations between the patients and the healthcare professionals. We explore the impact of ICT based on a survey of citizens'/patients' experience of interaction with healthcare professionals. How often and for what ICT was used in communication with the patients in different sectors of the Danish healthcare. The results show that ICT is used in communication with citizens and during interaction with patient, however the use of ICT is mostly for the healthcare professionals own benefit and only about 15%-39% of the reported instances ICT was used to communication and interact with the patient. Through the concept of boundary objects we proposes a model that split the object of the technology mediated information into three setting for communication between patients and healthcare professionals. We propose further studies into how ICT can be used to explore the possibilities for more interactive and involving care processes as a key element in further development of eHealth. PMID:27577471

  13. Reprivatizing pharmaceutical supplies in Africa.

    PubMed

    Turshen, M

    2001-01-01

    Perhaps no part of the health system is as imperiled by neoliberal economic reforms as the public drug sector. The national bill for pharmaceuticals can claim one-third of a developing country's annual health budget. This article describes the essential drugs program created by WHO in the 1980s to protect financially reduced ministries of health from the high prices charged by multinational pharmaceutical companies. It describes the backlash from the World Bank and UNICEF, which launched the Bamako Initiative and other community financing schemes and revolving drug plans in which individuals, families or community groups buy drugs above the wholesale purchase price; clinics use the proceeds to maintain drug supplies and subsidize other health services. When this plan failed, the Bank proposed outright privatization of drug purchase and supply, returning power to the multinational suppliers. The article ends with a consideration of patents and the new intellectual property rights as they pertain to pharmaceutical production in Africa. PMID:11469153

  14. Essential drugs and registration of pharmaceuticals: the Sri Lankan experience.

    PubMed Central

    Weerasuriya, K.

    1993-01-01

    Many factors influence the regulation of pharmaceuticals in a country. The essential drugs concept, formulated by the World Health Organization to assist developing countries in selecting appropriate drugs, also provides a basis for regulation. Sri Lanka has long regulated pharmaceuticals as part of its health policy. Over 70% of 3436 pharmaceutical product registrations were found to be drugs (or alternatives) named in the country's essential drugs list. This is despite the fact that product registrations are mainly for the private health care sector, and the list is for the state sector. The essential drugs concept therefore appears to have influenced the pharmaceuticals registered in Sri Lanka. PMID:8490987

  15. Pharmaceutical Analysis as a Branch of Pharmaceutics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, Kenneth A.

    1977-01-01

    Pharmaceutical analysis is incorporated into the pharmaceutics component of the undergraduate curriculum at the University of Wisconsin. Many collaborative demonstrations, lectures, and laboratory experiments can illustrate the close relationship between analysis and modern pharmacy practice. (Author/LBH)

  16. [Foundation of pharmaceutical policy in the Federation of Bosnia-Herzegovina].

    PubMed

    Lucić, S; Nenadić, D

    1998-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals are inevitable domain of disease prevention, diagnostics and treatment. The basic objective of pharmaceutical sector reform is to meet the needs of the majority of the population with the essential pharmaceuticals, which are proven as effective, evaluated quality and affordable prices. That objective could be achieved by undertaking a range of measures within the national pharmaceutical policy as an integral part of the overall health, policy in the country. Key elements of that policy should be: pharmaceutical management at the level of the Federal Ministry of Health and cantonal ministrie of health, pharmaceutical legislative documents, rationalization of pharmaceutical therapy (choices of essential pharmaceuticals, choices of pharmaceuticals covered by the resources of health insurance funds, list of hospital pharmaceuticals, selections during pharmaceuticals registration, educational measures, surveillance of measures), spreading information on pharmaceuticals by the pharmaceutical information centre, pharmaceutical supply (local pharmaceutical production, pharmaceuticals import, humanitarian assistance), funding of pharmaceuticals costs (cantonal and hospital lists of pharmaceuticals,) other reform strategies (quality control of pharmaceuticals, surveillance of side-effects, role of pharmacists in health system, environment protection) and strengthening of inspector surveillance. PMID:9623088

  17. [Commercialization of results of intellectual activities in pharmaceutical industry].

    PubMed

    Posylkina, O V; Timaniuk, V N; Gladukh, E V

    2002-01-01

    An analysis has been done of those causes impending the development of innovative processes and commercialization of results of intellectual activities in the economics of Ukraine and its pharmaceutical sector. Possible ways for rectifying the prevailing situation are considered. A scheme is proposed of staged commercialization of developments involving creation of new pharmaceutical preparations. PMID:12669531

  18. Pharmaceutical marketing research and the prescribing physician.

    PubMed

    Greene, Jeremy A

    2007-05-15

    Surveillance of physicians' prescribing patterns and the accumulation and sale of these data for pharmaceutical marketing are currently the subjects of legislation in several states and action by state and national medical associations. Contrary to common perception, the growth of the health care information organization industry has not been limited to the past decade but has been building slowly over the past 50 years, beginning in the 1940s when growth in the prescription drug market fueled industry interest in understanding and influencing prescribing patterns. The development of this surveillance system was not simply imposed on the medical profession by the pharmaceutical industry but was developed through the interactions of pharmaceutical salesmen, pharmaceutical marketers, academic researchers, individual physicians, and physician organizations. Examination of the role of physicians and physician organizations in the development of prescriber profiling is directly relevant to the contemporary policy debate surrounding this issue. PMID:17502635

  19. Lessons from 60 years of pharmaceutical innovation.

    PubMed

    Munos, Bernard

    2009-12-01

    Despite unprecedented investment in pharmaceutical research and development (R&D), the number of new drugs approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) remains low. To help understand this conundrum, this article investigates the record of pharmaceutical innovation by analysing data on the companies that introduced the approximately 1,200 new drugs that have been approved by the FDA since 1950. This analysis shows that the new-drug output from pharmaceutical companies in this period has essentially been constant, and remains so despite the attempts to increase it. This suggests that, contrary to common perception, the new-drug output is not depressed, but may simply reflect the limitations of the current R&D model. The implications of these findings and options to achieve sustainability for the pharmaceutical industry are discussed. PMID:19949401

  20. Basic Education in the Workplace Exploratory Project. Canadian Manufacturers' Association. Perceptions of Workplace Literacy Skills in Manitoba's Manufacturing Sector. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKeag, Janis

    A project assessed perceptions of manufacturing employers regarding the workplace literacy skills of occupational groups in their industry in Manitoba. A mailed survey was sent to 125 members of the Canadian Manufacturers' Association; 41 completed it. The first part of the survey obtained information about the occupations in manufacturing and…

  1. Pharmaceutical expenditure in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Henriksson, F; Hjortsberg, C; Rehnberg, C

    1999-05-01

    Recently, the responsibility for prescribed pharmaceuticals in Sweden was transferred from national level to the regional health authorities (county councils). The purpose was that a closer integration and balance between pharmaceuticals and other factors of production in health care should produce better opportunities for a cost-effective use of the total health care resources. The purpose of this paper is to present a deeper analysis of pharmaceuticals as a production factor in Sweden, mainly during the 1990s, and to discuss the future development and future policy decisions in Sweden. Pharmaceuticals have increased their share of total health care expenditure in Sweden, from about 9% in 1990 to about 14% in 1995. The Swedish pharmaceutical market can be divided into sub-markets, where the prescription sub-market accounts for the greater part of pharmaceutical expenditure. Further, a few disease categories account for a larger fraction of the cost of prescribed pharmaceuticals. The importance of pharmaceuticals as a production factor also differs between different age groups. Several factors are expected to contribute to a future increase in Swedish pharmaceutical expenditure, for instance an ageing population and the rapid introduction of expensive new pharmaceuticals. PMID:10538288

  2. When Government Is No Longer Employer of Choice: What May the Sector Perceptions of Public Managers Be Like after the Economy Recovers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boardman, Craig; Ponomariov, Branco

    2012-01-01

    In today's economic climate, government is now considered by many to be the "employer of choice." However, employers at all levels of government may eventually lose their recent gains in the war for talent, as the economy improves. Accordingly, it is important to explain how public sector managers viewed the relative advantages and…

  3. Biological and Pharmaceutical Nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Challa S. S. R.

    2006-01-01

    This first comprehensive yet concise overview of all important classes of biological and pharmaceutical nanomaterials presents in one volume the different kinds of natural biological compounds that form nanomaterials or that may be used to purposefully create them. This unique single source of information brings together the many articles published in specialized journals, which often remain unseen by members of other, related disciplines. Covering pharmaceutical, nucleic acid, peptide and DNA-Chitosan nanoparticles, the book focuses on those innovative materials and technologies needed for the continued growth of medicine, healthcare, pharmaceuticals and human wellness. For chemists, biochemists, cell biologists, materials scientists, biologists, and those working in the pharmaceutical and chemical industries.

  4. Analysis of the World Bank's pharmaceutical lending.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Monguió, Rosa; Rovira, Joan; Seoane-Vázquez, Enrique

    2007-04-01

    This article analyzes the World Bank's lending activity on pharmaceuticals and medical products (PMP) during the fiscal years (FY) 1999-2001 by regions, borrower and supplier country, and procurement method. Data for the study derived from the World Bank Project and the Business Warehouse databases. The information included all Bank projects approved during the study period. Information for the PMP procurement contracts was extracted for the health sector components of all sector projects awarded. Contract dollar amount was aggregated by borrower and supplier countries. A total of 365 contracts of PMP for a value of US$ 364.5 million (2001 prices) were awarded. International competitive bidding was the most common procurement method used representing 46.0% of the total PMP contracts amount. Domestic providers supplied 52.5% of the PMP contracts managed by the borrower countries. Twenty-two countries accounted for 97.0% of the total PMP purchased during the period of analysis. Only a small fraction of the Bank activity was directed to the pharmaceutical sector. There is a need for more involvement of the World Bank to increase accessibility, affordability and rational use of pharmaceuticals and medical products. An evaluation of the different procurement methods and their implications on drug quality and prices should be performed. PMID:16824640

  5. Herbicide and pharmaceutical relationships

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For many years, virtually all pharmaceutical companies had an agrochemical division. This was partly to maximize the benefits of expensive chemical synthesis efforts by searching for many types of useful biological activities. Leads for pharmaceuticals and pesticides often overlap, in some cases l...

  6. Pharmaceutical Education in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furmanowa, Miroslawa; Borke, Mitchell L.

    1978-01-01

    The content and organization of Poland's system of pharmaceutical education is described. Tables are presented of the subjects of the basic studies curriculum and the following areas of specialization: applied pharmacy, pharmaceutical analysis, clinical analysis, drug technology, herbal pharmacy, and bioanalysis and environmental studies. (SW)

  7. Radiation treatment of pharmaceuticals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dám, A. M.; Gazsó, L. G.; Kaewpila, S.; Maschek, I.

    1996-03-01

    Product specific doses were calculated for pharmaceuticals to be radiation treated. Radio-pasteurization dose were determined for some heat sensitive pharmaceutical basic materials (pancreaton, neopancreatin, neopancreatin USP, duodenum extract). Using the new recommendation (ISO standards, Method 1) dose calculations were performed and radiation sterilization doses were determined for aprotinine and heparine Na.

  8. Tapping the rental sector network

    SciTech Connect

    Narum, D. )

    1991-07-01

    This article discusses the residential rental sector as a market for the energy conservation efforts of utilities. Topics include customer behavior, information dissemination and education, financial incentives, the perception and acceptance of energy conservation or efficiency technology, marketing techniques, and implications for conservation programs.

  9. Global risk of pharmaceutical contamination from highly populated developing countries.

    PubMed

    Rehman, Muhammad Saif Ur; Rashid, Naim; Ashfaq, Muhammad; Saif, Ameena; Ahmad, Nasir; Han, Jong-In

    2015-11-01

    Global pharmaceutical industry has relocated from the west to Asian countries to ensure competitive advantage. This industrial relocation has posed serious threats to the environment. The present study was carried out to assess the possible pharmaceutical contamination in the environment of emerging pharmaceutical manufacturing countries (Bangladesh, China, India and Pakistan). Although these countries have made tremendous progress in the pharmaceutical sector but most of their industrial units discharge wastewater into domestic sewage network without any treatment. The application of untreated wastewater (industrial and domestic) and biosolids (sewage sludge and manure) in agriculture causes the contamination of surface water, soil, groundwater, and the entire food web with pharmaceutical compounds (PCs), their metabolites and transformed products (TPs), and multidrug resistant microbes. This pharmaceutical contamination in Asian countries poses global risks via product export and international traveling. Several prospective research hypotheses including the development of new analytical methods to monitor these PCs/TPs and their metabolites, highly resistant microbial strains, and mixture toxicity as a consequence of pharmaceutical contamination in these emerging pharmaceutical exporters have also been proposed based on the available literature. PMID:23535471

  10. Inkjet printing for pharmaceutics - A review of research and manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Daly, Ronan; Harrington, Tomás S; Martin, Graham D; Hutchings, Ian M

    2015-10-30

    Global regulatory, manufacturing and consumer trends are driving a need for change in current pharmaceutical sector business models, with a specific focus on the inherently expensive research costs, high-risk capital-intensive scale-up and the traditional centralised batch manufacturing paradigm. New technologies, such as inkjet printing, are being explored to radically transform pharmaceutical production processing and the end-to-end supply chain. This review provides a brief summary of inkjet printing technologies and their current applications in manufacturing before examining the business context driving the exploration of inkjet printing in the pharmaceutical sector. We then examine the trends reported in the literature for pharmaceutical printing, followed by the scientific considerations and challenges facing the adoption of this technology. We demonstrate that research activities are highly diverse, targeting a broad range of pharmaceutical types and printing systems. To mitigate this complexity we show that by categorising findings in terms of targeted business models and Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) chemistry we have a more coherent approach to comparing research findings and can drive efficient translation of a chosen drug to inkjet manufacturing. PMID:25772419

  11. Structural changes in the German pharmaceutical market: price setting mechanisms based on the early benefit evaluation.

    PubMed

    Henschke, Cornelia; Sundmacher, Leonie; Busse, Reinhard

    2013-03-01

    In the past, free price setting mechanisms in Germany led to high prices of patented pharmaceuticals and to increasing expenditures in the pharmaceutical sector. In order to control patented pharmaceutical prices and to curb increasing pharmaceutical spending, the Act for Restructuring the Pharmaceutical Market in Statutory Health Insurance (AMNOG) came into effect on 1st January 2011. In a structured dossier, pharmaceutical manufacturers have to demonstrate the additional therapeutic benefit of the newly approved pharmaceutical compared to its appropriate comparator. According to the level of additional benefit, pharmaceuticals will be subject to price negotiations between the Federal Association of Statutory Health Insurance Funds and the pharmaceutical company concerned (or assigned to a reference price group in case of no additional benefit). Therefore, the health care reform is a first step to decision making based on "value for money". The process of price setting based on early benefit evaluation has an impact on the German as well as the European pharmaceutical markets. Therefore, these structural changes in Germany are of importance for pricing decisions in many European countries both from a political point of view and for strategic planning for pharmaceutical manufacturers, which may have an effect on insured patients' access to pharmaceuticals. PMID:23339876

  12. Impacts of international sanctions on Iranian pharmaceutical market.

    PubMed

    Cheraghali, Abdol Majid

    2013-01-01

    Iran in recent decade faced several regional and international sanctions in foreign trade, financial and banking services. Iran national pharmaceutical industry has always played a major role in providing medicines to the Iranian patients. However, following the sanctions it has faced profound difficulties for importing of both finished products and pharmaceutical raw materials. Although medicines are exempted from sanctions, due to restriction on money transaction and proper insurance Iranian pharmaceutical companies have to pay cash in advance for imports of medicines and raw materials or to secure offshore funds at very high risks. Current situation in Iran pharmaceutical market confirms that the sanctions against Iran are affecting ordinary citizens and national health sector which resulted to reduction of availability of lifesaving medicines in the local market and has caused increasing pain and suffering for Iranian patients. PMID:23902642

  13. Pharmaceutical policy and the pharmacy profession.

    PubMed

    Traulsen, Janine M; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna

    2005-10-01

    In this article, the authors look at the relationship between pharmaceutical policy and the pharmacy profession with focus on pharmacy practice and pharmacists in the health care sector. Pharmaceutical policy encompasses three major policy inputs: public health policy, health care policy and industrial policy. In order to analyse and understand pharmaceutical policy, it is important to know how policymakers view pharmacy and pharmacists. The authors look at the issues that arise when policy regulates pharmacy as a business, and what this means for the profession. The perspective of pharmacy as a health care profession, as well as what it means when we view pharmaceutical policy in the context of the health sector labour market, is discussed. The authors also discuss how factors external to the profession are affecting its purpose and realm of practice, including the current trend in managerialism, and how the division of labour with other health professionals such as physicians and pharmacy assistants is affecting the pharmacy profession's position in the labour market. Next the authors look at ways in which the pharmacy profession has affected policy. Pharmacists have been instrumental in developing new and expanding roles for the profession, sometimes inspired by external events, but often as a result of their own prerogative. The pharmacy profession is encouraged to take a leading role in forming and contributing to policy, in this way making visible its contribution to society in general and public health in particular. If not, the profession will forever be reacting to policy and will remain at the mercy of policymakers and other strong actors in society. PMID:16341741

  14. Genaissance pharmaceuticals, inc.

    PubMed

    Oestreicher, Paul

    2002-03-01

    Genaissance Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (Nasdaq: GNSC) is the world leader in the discovery and use of gene variation for the development of personalized medicines. In addition, the company has established partnerships with some of the world's top biopharmaceutical companies. The company has initiated the development of its own pipeline of products -- HAP Clozapine for schizophrenia and HAP Statin for cholesterol management -- utilizing its proprietary genetic markers. The company also markets its technology and clinical development skills to the pharmaceutical industry as a complete solution for improving the development, marketing and prescribing of drugs. PMID:11972448

  15. GW-1000. GW Pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Smith, Paul F

    2004-07-01

    GW Pharmaceuticals is developing GW-1000 (Sativex), a narrow ratio delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol:cannabidiol product for the potential treatment of multiple sclerosis, spinal cord injury, neurogenic pain and peripheral neuropathy. In March 2003, the company filed for approval for the treatment of MS with the UK Medicines Control Agency, and in May 2004, filed for new drug submission with Health Canada. PMID:15298072

  16. Free trade in pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Outterson, M Kevin

    2004-09-01

    Provisions in the Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement (AUSFTA) may threaten the Australian Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS), the "gold standard" of such programs worldwide. If Australia postpones passing of the US Free Trade Agreement Implementation Bill in the Senate, there will be opportunity for broader interests in both the United States and Australia to carefully study the agreement. The provisions of AUSFTA relating to the PBS are supposed to promote transparency, but the pharmaceutical manufacturers themselves (who are demanding transparency) do not reveal the content of their submissions to the Pharmaceutical Benefits Advisory Committee, or disclose all their financial relationships with researchers and policymakers. In AUSFTA, the "public health" language of affordable prescription drugs is missing and is replaced by language supporting "pharmaceutical innovation". Debate as to whether AUSFTA will force significant changes to the PBS, including higher drug prices, is currently under way in Australia. Perhaps the appropriate target of reforms should be the excessive US drug prices, and not the economically efficient Australian drug prices. PMID:15347274

  17. Exposing nursing students to the marketing methods of pharmaceutical companies.

    PubMed

    Civaner, Murat; Sarikaya, Ozlem; Alici, Sevim Ulupinar; Bozkurt, Gulcin

    2008-05-01

    There is a strong association between reliance on the promotional activities of pharmaceutical companies and a generally less appropriate use of prescription drugs. Pharmaceutical companies direct some of their promotion towards health workers who do not have the authority to prescribe medicines, such as nurses in certain countries. The aim of this study was to determine the impact that exposure to the marketing methods of pharmaceutical companies has on judgments made by nursing students about health worker-pharmaceutical company relationships. A cross-sectional survey was carried out with 442 nursing students in Istanbul, Turkey. The exposure of students to the marketing methods of pharmaceutical companies, whether it be indirectly through observation or directly by first-hand experience, increases the probability that students will adopt rationales that underlie affirmative judgments of health worker-pharmaceutical company relationships. Based on the pervasiveness and ability of drug promotion to influence the perceptions of students, it is imperative that attempts be made to reduce its negative impact. PMID:18388173

  18. EU pharmaceutical expenditure forecast

    PubMed Central

    Urbinati, Duccio; Rémuzat, Cécile; Kornfeld, Åsa; Vataire, Anne-Lise; Cetinsoy, Laurent; Aballéa, Samuel; Mzoughi, Olfa; Toumi, Mondher

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives With constant incentives for healthcare payers to contain their pharmaceutical budgets, forecasting has become critically important. Some countries have, for instance, developed pharmaceutical horizon scanning units. The objective of this project was to build a model to assess the net effect of the entrance of new patented medicinal products versus medicinal products going off-patent, with a defined forecast horizon, on selected European Union (EU) Member States’ pharmaceutical budgets. This model took into account population ageing, as well as current and future country-specific pricing, reimbursement, and market access policies (the project was performed for the European Commission; see http://ec.europa.eu/health/healthcare/key_documents/index_en.htm). Method In order to have a representative heterogeneity of EU Member States, the following countries were selected for the analysis: France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Poland, Portugal, and the United Kingdom. A forecasting period of 5 years (2012–2016) was chosen to assess the net pharmaceutical budget impact. A model for generics and biosimilars was developed for each country. The model estimated a separate and combined effect of the direct and indirect impacts of the patent cliff. A second model, estimating the sales development and the risk of development failure, was developed for new drugs. New drugs were reviewed individually to assess their clinical potential and translate it into commercial potential. The forecast was carried out according to three perspectives (healthcare public payer, society, and manufacturer), and several types of distribution chains (retail, hospital, and combined retail and hospital). Probabilistic and deterministic sensitivity analyses were carried out. Results According to the model, all countries experienced drug budget reductions except Poland (+€41 million). Savings were expected to be the highest in the United Kingdom (−€9,367 million), France

  19. Pharmaceutical Industry and Trade Liberalization Using Computable General Equilibrium Model

    PubMed Central

    Barouni, M; Ghaderi, H; Banouei, AA

    2012-01-01

    Background Computable general equilibrium models are known as a powerful instrument in economic analyses and widely have been used in order to evaluate trade liberalization effects. The purpose of this study was to provide the impacts of trade openness on pharmaceutical industry using CGE model. Methods: Using a computable general equilibrium model in this study, the effects of decrease in tariffs as a symbol of trade liberalization on key variables of Iranian pharmaceutical products were studied. Simulation was performed via two scenarios in this study. The first scenario was the effect of decrease in tariffs of pharmaceutical products as 10, 30, 50, and 100 on key drug variables, and the second was the effect of decrease in other sectors except pharmaceutical products on vital and economic variables of pharmaceutical products. The required data were obtained and the model parameters were calibrated according to the social accounting matrix of Iran in 2006. Results: The results associated with simulation demonstrated that the first scenario has increased import, export, drug supply to markets and household consumption, while import, export, supply of product to market, and household consumption of pharmaceutical products would averagely decrease in the second scenario. Ultimately, society welfare would improve in all scenarios. Conclusion: We presents and synthesizes the CGE model which could be used to analyze trade liberalization policy issue in developing countries (like Iran), and thus provides information that policymakers can use to improve the pharmacy economics. PMID:23641393

  20. Trade, TRIPS, and pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Smith, Richard D; Correa, Carlos; Oh, Cecilia

    2009-02-21

    The World Trade Organization's Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) set global minimum standards for the protection of intellectual property, substantially increasing and expanding intellectual-property rights, and generated clear gains for the pharmaceutical industry and the developed world. The question of whether TRIPS generates gains for developing countries, in the form of increased exports, is addressed in this paper through consideration of the importance of pharmaceuticals in health-care trade, outlining the essential requirements, implications, and issues related to TRIPS, and TRIPS-plus, in which increased restrictions are imposed as part of bilateral free-trade agreements. TRIPS has not generated substantial gains for developing countries, but has further increased pharmaceutical trade in developed countries. The unequal trade between developed and developing countries (ie, exporting and importing high-value patented drugs, respectively) raises the issue of access to medicines, which is exacerbated by TRIPS-plus provisions, although many countries have not even enacted provision for TRIPS flexibilities. Therefore this paper focuses on options that are available to the health community for negotiation to their advantage under TRIPS, and within the presence of TRIPS-plus. PMID:19167054

  1. Why Lunch Matters: Assessing Physicians' Perceptions about Industry Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fugh-Berman; Adriane J.; Scialli, Anthony R.; Bell, Alicia M.

    2010-01-01

    Many studies have shown that pharmaceutical marketing affects prescribing choices. Studies that have assessed the effects of educational interventions on perceptions of pharmaceutical promotion have found mixed results. This study assesses the short-term effects of an educational intervention about marketing tactics on the attitudes and fund of…

  2. Effects of Information on College Students' Perceptions of Antidepressant Medication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankenberger, Kristi A.; Frankenberger, William R.; Peden, Blaine F.; Hunt, Heather L.; Raschick, Christopher M.; Steller, Emily G.; Peterson, Jaclyn A.

    2004-01-01

    The authors examined the impact of pharmaceutical companies' advertisements on college students' perceptions of depression and concomitant treatment with antidepressants among 13 male and 31 female undergraduates from a midwestern university. The students were randomly assigned to groups that read either pharmaceutical company advertisements or…

  3. Tackling corruption in the pharmaceutical systems worldwide with courage and conviction.

    PubMed

    Cohen, J C; Mrazek, M; Hawkins, L

    2007-03-01

    Poor drug access continues to be one of the main global health problems. Global inequalities in access to pharmaceuticals are caused by a number of variables including poverty, high drug prices, poor health infrastructure, and fraud and corruption--the latter being the subject of this article. There is growing recognition among policy makers that corruption in the pharmaceutical system can waste valuable resources allocated to pharmaceutical products and services. This, in turn, denies those most in need from life-saving or life-enhancing medicines. As a result, international organizations, including the World Health Organization and the World Bank are beginning to address the issue of corruption in the health sector broadly and the pharmaceutical system specifically. This is encouraging news for improving drug access for the global poor who are most harmed by corruption as they tend to purchase less expensive drugs from unqualified or illegal drug sellers selling counterfeit or sub-standard drugs. In our paper, we illuminate what are the core issues that relate to corruption in the pharmaceutical sector. We argue that corruption in the pharmaceutical system can be detrimental to a country's ability to improve the health of its population. Moreover, unless policy makers deal with the issue of corruption, funding allocated to the pharmaceutical system to treat health conditions may simply be wasted and the inequality between rich and poor in access to health and pharmaceutical products will be aggravated. PMID:17251983

  4. Bolaamphiphiles: A Pharmaceutical Review

    PubMed Central

    Fariya, Mayur; Jain, Ankitkumar; Dhawan, Vivek; Shah, Sanket; Nagarsenker, Mangal S.

    2014-01-01

    The field of drug discovery is ever growing and excipients play a major role in it. A novel class of amphiphiles has been discussed in the review. The review focuses on natural as well as synthetic bolaamphiphiles, their chemical structures and importantly, their ability to self assemble rendering them of great use to pharmaceutical industry. Recent reports on their ability to be used in fabrication of suitable nanosized carriers for drug as well as genes to target site, has been discussed substantially to understand the potential of bolaamphiphiles in field of drug delivery. PMID:25671179

  5. The Pharmaceutical Commons

    PubMed Central

    Lezaun, Javier

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, the organization of pharmaceutical research on neglected tropical diseases has undergone transformative change. In a context of perceived “market failure,” the development of new medicines is increasingly handled by public-private partnerships. This shift toward hybrid organizational models depends on a particular form of exchange: the sharing of proprietary assets in general and of intellectual property rights in particular. This article explores the paradoxical role of private property in this new configuration of global health research and development. Rather than a tool to block potential competitors, proprietary assets function as a lever to attract others into risky collaborative ventures; instead of demarcating public and private domains, the sharing of property rights is used to increase the porosity of that boundary. This reimagination of the value of property is connected to the peculiar timescape of global health drug development, a promissory orientation to the future that takes its clearest form in the centrality of “virtual” business models and the proliferation of strategies of deferral. Drawing on the anthropological literature on inalienable possessions, we reconsider property’s traditional exclusionary role and discuss the possibility that the new pharmaceutical “commons” proclaimed by contemporary global health partnerships might be the precursor of future enclosures. PMID:25866425

  6. Mechanochemistry of ibuprofen pharmaceutical.

    PubMed

    Andini, Salvatore; Bolognese, Adele; Formisano, Domenico; Manfra, Michele; Montagnaro, Fabio; Santoro, Luciano

    2012-07-01

    In this paper mechanochemistry has been studied in view of possible application to detoxification of expired pharmaceuticals. The experiments have been carried out with a commercial medication containing ibuprofen ((RS)-2-(4-(2-methylpropyl)phenyl)propanoic acid) which has been submitted to prolonged milling up to 40h. When Al(OH)(3) is used as co-reagent, the first degradation step induced by the mechanochemical treatment is an acid-base reaction with the ibuprofen carboxylic acid group. The subsequent degradation follows a complex pathway leading to 1-(4-isobutylphenyl)ethanone, 1-isobutyl-4-vinylbenzene and 2-(4-(3-methylbutan-2-yl)phenyl)propan-1-ol after 10h milling and, in addition, 1-(4-acetylphenyl)-2-methylpropan-1-one, 1-(4-(1-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)phenyl)ethanone and 1-(4-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)phenyl)ethanone after 40h milling. The degradation reaction path and products have been identified by means of FT-IR spectroscopy, thin layer chromatography, NMR spectroscopy, mass spectroscopy and elemental analysis. The observed ibuprofen decarboxylation makes the drug simultaneously lose both its pharmaceutical activity and toxicity. PMID:22472100

  7. [Trends in pharmaceutical care for men].

    PubMed

    Glaeske, Gerd

    2016-08-01

    Over the past few years, perceptible changes - both fundamental and specific - have taken place in pharmaceutical care for men. While the most striking difference persists, namely that between somatic drug therapies for men and drugs for the treatment of psychological disorders and diseases, the large discrepancies that long existed between the quantities prescribed for men and women have meanwhile not only evened out, but men are even prescribed larger quantities than women if they undergo drug therapy. An analysis of the drugs prescribed particularly for men revealed that they are primarily prescribed for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases (hypertension and cardiac insufficiency) and metabolic disorders (diabetes, gout), especially in elderly patients. The evaluation also showed that the drugs prescribed most frequently for younger men also included psychostimulants and antidepressants, such as SSRIs, for diagnoses of ADHD and depression.Besides these prescribed medicaments, other drugs must also be taken into account that reflect men's gender-specific everyday needs. These include drugs for treating erectile dysfunction, hair growth products or drugs for male menopause or to build muscle. The sometimes serious undesired effects of these products are often given small attention because of the desired benefit of supporting the perceived male role. While hormones are widely used in anabolic steroids, the use of hormones in contraceptive pills for men is evidently still far away from the aforementioned trends in pharmaceutical care for men. PMID:27351435

  8. Is the United States Still Dominant in the Global Pharmaceutical Innovation Network?

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yuanjia; Scherngell, Thomas; Man, Si Nga; Wang, Yitao

    2013-01-01

    The dramatic growth of research and development activities in the pharmaceutical sector in emerging economies raises the question of whether the United States still keeps its dominant role in the global pharmaceutical innovation landscape. This paper focuses on investigating the role of the United States in global pharmaceutical innovation, and differs from previous studies by shifting attention to a network analytic perspective to track the global distribution of pharmaceutical inventions. Our sample is composed of key patents covering all new drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration between 1996 and 2010. The results show that the United States still dominates in the global pharmaceutical innovation network, especially when it comes to essential core inventions. However, the United States shows a slightly decreasing prominence in the networks of either total new drugs or New Molecular Entity (NME) drugs in the time period 2006–2010 as compared to previous time periods, revealed by subtle traces of network centralities. PMID:24223710

  9. Pharmaceutical considerations of nitroglycerin

    SciTech Connect

    Yacobi, A.; Amann, A.H.; Baaske, D.M.

    1983-04-01

    During the past few years, there have been rapid changes in the pharmaceutical uses of nitroglycerin. New dosage forms and new delivery systems have become available, which have resulted in potential confusion to all concerned with the proper use of these systems. The goal of this review is to prevent confusion and to bring all the relevant information together. The various analytical techniques available for quality control of the dosage forms and for the study of the pharmacokinetics are reviewed, with the intent of enabling the reader to identify pertinent references rapidly. The interaction of nitroglycerin with packaging and plastic delivery devices is also reviewed so that the reader can make informed choices. Finally, the clinical pharmacy and pharmacokinetics are reviewed so as to bring the reader up to date in that area. After reading this article, the areas of nitroglycerin research that still need to be explored should be apparent.

  10. Pharmaceutical study of Yashadabhasma

    PubMed Central

    Bhojashettar, Santhosh; Jadar, P. G.; Rao, V. Nageswara

    2012-01-01

    Background: Rasashastra is a branch which deals with the pharmaceutics of Rasaoushadhis. Bhasmas are one among such Rasaoushadhis which are known for their low doses and fast action. A verse from Rasaratnasamuchchaya says that the bhasma prepared by using Mercury as media is of best quality. Materials and Methods: Following this principle, Yashadabhasma (Zinc calx) was prepared by subjecting it to Samanya shodhana (general purification method for all metals), Vishesha shodhana (specific putification method for Zinc), Jarana (roasting) and Marana (incineration) with Parada(Mercury) as a media under Gajaputa (classical heating system with 1000 cowdung cakes). Results and Conclusion: Yellow colored Yashadabhasma which passed all the classical bhasmaparikshas (tests for properly prepared calx) was obtained after two putas. The bhasma did not pass Nishchandratva(free from shining particles) test after 1stputa but was passed after giving it 2ndputa. PMID:23284213

  11. The Future of Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Sciences

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The entire pharmaceutical sector is in an urgent need of both innovative technological solutions and fundamental scientific work, enabling the production of highly engineered drug products. Commercial‐scale manufacturing of complex drug delivery systems (DDSs) using the existing technologies is challenging. This review covers important elements of manufacturing sciences, beginning with risk management strategies and design of experiments (DoE) techniques. Experimental techniques should, where possible, be supported by computational approaches. With that regard, state‐of‐art mechanistic process modeling techniques are described in detail. Implementation of materials science tools paves the way to molecular‐based processing of future DDSs. A snapshot of some of the existing tools is presented. Additionally, general engineering principles are discussed covering process measurement and process control solutions. Last part of the review addresses future manufacturing solutions, covering continuous processing and, specifically, hot‐melt processing and printing‐based technologies. Finally, challenges related to implementing these technologies as a part of future health care systems are discussed. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 104:3612–3638, 2015 PMID:26280993

  12. Problematizing ‘drugs’: A cultural assessment of recreational pharmaceutical use among young adults in the US

    PubMed Central

    QUINTERO, GILBERT

    2013-01-01

    Recent trends in the recreational use of pharmaceuticals among young adults in the United States highlight a number of issues regarding the problematization of drugs. Two constructions of recreational pharmaceutical use are analyzed. On the one hand, categorical frameworks based upon epidemiological data are created by institutions and media and depict recreational pharmaceutical use as illicit in unqualified, absolute terms. This is done through discourses that equate nonmedical pharmaceutical use with culturally established forms of illicit drug use. On the other hand, users’ multi-dimensional constructions of recreational pharmaceutical use emphasise social context, personal experience, and individual risk perceptions. The problematization of recreational pharmaceutical use points to intergenerational conflicts, as well as to struggles over definitions of “drug abuse” and “hard drugs”, and highlights the impact of pharmaceuticalization on recreational drug use among young people. PMID:24431478

  13. 21 CFR 26.72 - Sectoral contact points.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sectoral contact points. 26.72 Section 26.72 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT...

  14. 21 CFR 26.72 - Sectoral contact points.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sectoral contact points. 26.72 Section 26.72 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT...

  15. Biricodar. Vertex Pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Dey, Saibal

    2002-05-01

    Vertex is developing biricodar as a chemosensitizing agent designed to restore the effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents in tumor multidrug resistance. By November 1998, phase II trials had commenced for biricodar, in combination with chemotherapy, for five common cancer indications: breast, ovarian, soft-tissue sarcomas, small cell lung cancer and prostate cancer. Phase II trials were ongoing in January 2002. By March 2000, Vertex was the sole developer of biricodar, as an agreement made in 1996 with BioChem Pharma (now Shire Pharmaceuticals), for the development and marketing of biricodar in Canada was terminated. Biricodar is the free base compound, which also has a citrate salt analog known as VX-710-3. Vertex has published three patents, WO-09615101, WO-09636630 and WO-09736869, disclosing derivatives of biricodar that are claimed for the treatment of multidrug resistant protein and P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistant tumors. In January 2002, a Banc of America analyst report forecast that biricodar had a 30% chance of reaching the market with a launch date in the second half of 2005, with peak sales estimated at $250 million. PMID:12090559

  16. Reducing pharmaceutical risk.

    PubMed

    Spilker, B

    1998-08-01

    This article describes several types of risk encountered in drug discovery, development and marketing, as well as the overall business risks in the pharmaceutical industry. Discovery risk refers to the risk companies face if they are partly or totally dependent on discovering new drugs; many avenues are presented for companies to pursue in order to decrease discovery risk. Development risk is defined as the risk that drug discoveries that enter development will not reach the market and become commercially viable drugs. To decrease development risk, it is possible to pursue one or more of the approaches presented. Significant marketing risks for a company include that the sales forecasts will not be met, the positioning of a drug may not be correct or optimal and the sales force is not performing adequately. At the corporate level there are numerous major risks involved in pursuing the specific mission, objectives, strategies and tactics of the overall company as well as those in the functional areas. Many aspects of the company's business can be adjusted or changed to decrease corporate risk. Selected issues concerning risk include venture capital funds, the appetite for risk within a company and the influence of senior and middle level managers' personalities on risk. PMID:15616620

  17. Recognizing misleading pharmaceutical marketing online.

    PubMed

    De Freitas, Julian; Falls, Brian A; Haque, Omar S; Bursztajn, Harold J

    2014-01-01

    In light of decision-making psychology, this article details how drug marketing operates across established and novel web domains and identifies some common misleading trends and influences on prescribing and patient-initiated medication requests. The Internet has allowed pharmaceutical marketing to become more salient than ever before. Although the Internet's growth has improved the dissemination of pharmaceutical information, it has also led to the increased influence of misleading pharmaceutical marketing. Such mismarketing is of concern, especially in psychiatry, since psychotropics generate considerable revenue for drug companies. In a climate of resource-limited drug regulation and time-strapped physicians, we recommend improving both independent monitoring and consumer awareness of Internet-enabled, potentially misleading, pharmaceutical marketing influences. PMID:24986349

  18. Prioritizing pharmaceuticals in municipal wastewater

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oral presentation at SETAC North America 32nd annual meeting, describing our prioritization of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), based on estimates of risks posed by API residues originating from municipal wastewater. Goals of this project include prioritization of APIs f...

  19. Pharmaceutical health care and Inuit language communications in Nunavut, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Romain, Sandra J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Pharmaceutical communication is an essential component of pharmaceutical health care, optimally ensuring patients understand the proper administration and side effects of their medications. Communication can often be complicated by language and culture, but with pharmaceuticals, misunderstandings can prove particularly harmful. In Nunavut, to ensure the preservation and revitalization of Inuit languages, the Inuit Language Protection Act and Official Languages Act were passed requiring that all public and private sector essential services offer verbal and written communication in Inuit languages (Inuktitut and Inuinnaqtun) by 2012. Methods While the legislation mandates compliance, policy implementation for pharmaceutical services is problematic. Not a single pharmacist in Nunavut is fluent in either of the Inuit languages. Pharmacists have indicated challenges in formally translating written documentation into Inuit languages based on concerns for patient safety. These challenges of negotiating the joint requirements of language legislation and patient safety have resulted in pharmacies using verbal on-site translation as a tenuous solution regardless of its many limitations. Results The complex issues of pharmaceutical health care and communication among the Inuit of Nunavut are best examined through multimethod research to encompass a wide range of perspectives. This methodology combines the richness of ethnographic data, the targeted depth of interviews with key informants and the breadth of cross-Canada policy and financial analyses. Conclusions The analysis of this information would provide valuable insights into the current relationships between health care providers, pharmacists and Inuit patients and suggest future directions for policy that will improve the efficacy of pharmaceuticals and health care spending for the Inuit in Canada. PMID:23984309

  20. Availability and Perceived Value of Masters of Business Administration Degree Programs in Pharmaceutical Marketing and Management

    PubMed Central

    Clauson, Kevin A.; Latif, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To examine pharmacist-targeted master of business administration (MBA) degree programs and investigate pharmacists’ perceptions regarding them. Methods. Specialized MBA programs in pharmaceutical marketing and management offered at US colleges and schools of pharmacy were identified in the literature and compared. Pharmacists’ perceptions of MBA programs were evaluated through a survey of clinical preceptors affiliated with a school of pharmacy. Results. Seven US universities that offer an MBA program in pharmaceutical marketing and management were identified. Thirty-three percent of the 57 pharmacist preceptors who responded to the survey reported plans to pursue an MBA degree program. Respondents preferred MBA programs related to healthcare or pharmacy (66%) over general MBA programs (33%). Conclusion. An MBA in pharmaceutical marketing and management could provide pharmacists with advanced knowledge of the operational and strategic business aspects of pharmacy practice and give pharmacy graduates an advantage in an increasingly competitive job market. PMID:22611273

  1. Marketing the use of the space environment for the processing of biological and pharmaceutical materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The perceptions of U.S. biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies concerning the potential use of the space environment for the processing of biological substances was examined. Physical phenomena that may be important in space-base processing of biological materials are identified and discussed in the context of past and current experiment programs. The capabilities of NASA to support future research and development, and to engage in cooperative risk sharing programs with industry are discussed. Meetings were held with several biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies to provide data for an analysis of the attitudes and perceptions of these industries toward the use of the space environment. Recommendations are made for actions that might be taken by NASA to facilitate the marketing of the use of the space environment, and in particular the Space Shuttle, to the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries.

  2. Aripiprazole (Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co).

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Vural; Fourie, Jeanne; Ozdener, Fatih

    2002-01-01

    Otsuka Pharmaceuticals in collaboration with Bristol-Myers Squibb is developing aripiprazole, a dual dopamine autoreceptor agonist and postsynaptic D2 receptor antagonist, for the potential treatment of psychoses including schizophrenia [281327], [340364]. A regulatory filing for schizophrenia in the US was submitted at the end of 2001 [340364]. The compound entered phase III trials in Japan in 1995 [192966]. Although presynaptic dopamine autoreceptor agonists may be efficacious in the treatment of schizophrenia, they may also potentially increase the risk for exacerbation of psychosis through stimulation of postsynaptic dopaminergic receptors [245791], [350478], [350479]. However, earlier neuropharmacology studies have shown that aripiprazole can act as a presynaptic D2 agonist while displaying an antagonistic effect at the postsynaptic D2 receptors [281327], [337126], [350479], [424587], [424588]. In animal models, aripiprazole inhibits the apomorphine-induced stereotypy, without causing catalepsy [281327], [337126]. Moreover, in contrast to classical antipsychotics that produce disabling movement disorders, aripiprazole does not cause an upregulation of D2 receptors or an increase in expression of the c-fos mRNA in the striatum, in agreement with the low risk for extrapyramidal side effects (EPS) during aripiprazole treatment [245781], [262096], [350481], [350483]. Collectively, aripiprazole is an important atypical antipsychotic candidate with a favorable safety profile. Moreover, the mechanism of action of aripiprazole differentiates it from both typical and atypical antipsychotics and hence, may provide important leads for pharmacotherapy of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. In January 2000, Lehman Brothers predicted peak sales of aripiprazole could reach US $500 million [357788]. In February 2001, Credit Suisse First Boston predicted sales of US $403 million in 2005 [399484]. PMID:12054061

  3. [AIDS and social justice: pharmaceutical industry and economics].

    PubMed

    López Guzmán, José

    2008-01-01

    This article takes a broad look at the complicated framework of relationships between the third world and pharmaceutical companies. In the first part of the work reference is made to the poverty of these countries, their lack of education in terms of health, the scarcity of basic hygiene, and their greatly limited access to medicines, especially those for treating AIDS. The article then proceeds to the issue of the pharmaceutical companies' degree of responsibility for the reduced availability of medicines in certain areas of the world. One of the factors that most limits access to medicines is their price, and many sectors of society propose taking action on the patents of drugs (rescinding or limiting them) in order to lower their price. However, the problem of patent exemption is more complicated than it seems at first glance, and comes with its own risks. If, for lack of funds or the uncertainty concerning a return on the capital invested, pharmaceutical companies discontinue research and development of new drugs, AIDS therapy would worsen. It is imperative and urgent to develop new drugs against the AIDS because of its resistance to the drugs currently available. The article concludes with the pharmaceutical industry's effort to look for possible forms of collaboration with developing countries. PMID:19166259

  4. Virtual pharmaceutical companies: collaborating flexibly in pharmaceutical development.

    PubMed

    Forster, Simon P; Stegmaier, Julia; Spycher, Rene; Seeger, Stefan

    2014-03-01

    Research and development (R&D) collaborations represent one approach chosen by the pharmaceutical industry to tackle current challenges posed by declining internal R&D success rates and fading of the blockbuster model. In recent years, a flexible concept to collaborate in R&D has emerged: virtual pharmaceutical companies (VPCs). These differ from other R&D companies, such as biotech start-ups, collaborating with big pharmaceutical companies, because they solely comprise experienced teams of managers. VPCs have only been described anecdotally in literature. Thus, we present here the characteristics of a VPC and suggest how big pharma can leverage the concept of VPCs by introducing five possible modes of collaboration. We find that one mode, investing, is particularly promising for big pharma. PMID:24291787

  5. Skills for a Competitive Future: A Survey for the Pharmaceutical Industry National Training Organisation. IES Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jagger, Nick; Aston, Jane

    This report focuses on a study that examined skills, recruitment, and training issues covering the whole pharmaceutical industry. It presents mailed survey material complemented and enhanced by a series of telephone interviews and focus groups. Chapter 1 is an introduction. Chapter 2 deals with the structure of the sector and reports background…

  6. No immediate pain relief for the pharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed

    Ahlborn, Heather; Henderson, Stuart; Davies, Nick

    2005-05-01

    Over many years, the pharmaceutical industry has developed a highly successful model for making new medicines. Currently, there are an estimated 13,000 prescription drugs on the market. However, the model that has served the sector so well for so long is now breaking down. Lack of productivity in the laboratory, the imminent expiry of patents for numerous best selling products, intense competition and a more demanding marketplace, are all signs of a need for a new approach to drug discovery. Consequently, some pharmaceutical executives may feel that they are managing a previously prestigous team, which now find themselves in the relegation zone, and cannot continue under the same model. This article suggests that radical transformation of the business at every level is the only key to long-term success. PMID:15892254

  7. Human rights responsibilities of pharmaceutical companies in relation to access to medicines.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joo-Young; Hunt, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Although access to medicines is a vital feature of the right to the highest attainable standard of health ("right to health"), almost two billion people lack access to essential medicines, leading to immense avoidable suffering. While the human rights responsibility to provide access to medicines lies mainly with States, pharmaceutical companies also have human rights responsibilities in relation to access to medicines. This article provides an introduction to these responsibilities. It briefly outlines the new UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights and places the human rights responsibilities of pharmaceutical companies in this context. The authors draw from the work of the first UN Special Rapporteur on the right to the highest attainable standard of health, in particular the Human Rights Guidelines for Pharmaceutical Companies in Relation to Access to Medicines that he presented to the UN General Assembly in 2008, and his UN report on GlaxoSmithKline (GSK). While the Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights are general human rights standards applicable to all business entities, the Human Rights Guidelines for Pharmaceutical Companies consider the specific human rights responsibilities of one sector (pharmaceutical companies) in relation to one area of activity (access to medicines). The article signals the human rights responsibilities of all pharmaceutical companies, with particular attention to patent-holding pharmaceutical companies. Adopting a right-to-health "lens," the article discusses GSK and accountability. The authors argue that human rights should shape pharmaceutical companies' policies, and provide standards in relation to which pharmaceutical companies could, and should, be held accountable. They conclude that it is now crucial to devise independent, accessible, transparent, and effective mechanisms to monitor pharmaceutical companies and hold them publicly accountable for their human rights responsibilities. PMID:22789042

  8. Chemistry in the Pharmaceutical Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poindexter, Graham S.; Pendri, Yadagiri; Snyder, Lawrence B.; Yevich, Joseph P.; Deshpande, Milind

    This chapter will discuss the role of chemistry within the pharmaceutical industry. Although the focus will be upon the industry within the United States, much of the discussion is equally relevant to pharmaceutical companies based in other first world nations such as Japan and those in Europe. The major objective of the pharmaceutical industry is the discovery, development, and marketing of efficacious and safe drugs for the treatment of human disease. Of course drug companies do not exist as altruistic, charitable organizations but like other share-holder owned corporations within our capitalistic society must achieve profits in order to remain viable and competitive. Thus, there exists a conundrum between the dual goals of enhancing the quality and duration of human life and that of increasing stock-holder equity. Much has been written and spoken in the lay media about the high prices of prescription drugs and the hardships this places upon the elderly and others of limited income.

  9. Code of ethics for the national pharmaceutical system: Codifying and compilation

    PubMed Central

    Salari, Pooneh; Namazi, Hamidreza; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Khansari, Fatemeh; Nikfar, Shekoufeh; Larijani, Bagher; Araminia, Behin

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacists as one of health-care providers face ethical issues in terms of pharmaceutical care, relationship with patients and cooperation with the health-care team. Other than pharmacy, there are pharmaceutical companies in various fields of manufacturing, importing or distributing that have their own ethical issues. Therefore, pharmacy practice is vulnerable to ethical challenges and needs special code of conducts. On feeling the need, based on a shared project between experts of the ethics from relevant research centers, all the needs were fully recognized and then specified code of conduct for each was written. The code of conduct was subject to comments of all experts involved in the pharmaceutical sector and thus criticized in several meetings. The prepared code of conduct is comprised of professional code of ethics for pharmacists, ethics guideline for pharmaceutical manufacturers, ethics guideline for pharmaceutical importers, ethics guideline for pharmaceutical distributors, and ethics guideline for policy makers. The document was compiled based on the principles of bioethics and professionalism. The compiling the code of ethics for the national pharmaceutical system is the first step in implementing ethics in pharmacy practice and further attempts into teaching the professionalism and the ethical code as the necessary and complementary effort are highly recommended. PMID:24174954

  10. Code of ethics for the national pharmaceutical system: Codifying and compilation.

    PubMed

    Salari, Pooneh; Namazi, Hamidreza; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Khansari, Fatemeh; Nikfar, Shekoufeh; Larijani, Bagher; Araminia, Behin

    2013-05-01

    Pharmacists as one of health-care providers face ethical issues in terms of pharmaceutical care, relationship with patients and cooperation with the health-care team. Other than pharmacy, there are pharmaceutical companies in various fields of manufacturing, importing or distributing that have their own ethical issues. Therefore, pharmacy practice is vulnerable to ethical challenges and needs special code of conducts. On feeling the need, based on a shared project between experts of the ethics from relevant research centers, all the needs were fully recognized and then specified code of conduct for each was written. The code of conduct was subject to comments of all experts involved in the pharmaceutical sector and thus criticized in several meetings. The prepared code of conduct is comprised of professional code of ethics for pharmacists, ethics guideline for pharmaceutical manufacturers, ethics guideline for pharmaceutical importers, ethics guideline for pharmaceutical distributors, and ethics guideline for policy makers. The document was compiled based on the principles of bioethics and professionalism. The compiling the code of ethics for the national pharmaceutical system is the first step in implementing ethics in pharmacy practice and further attempts into teaching the professionalism and the ethical code as the necessary and complementary effort are highly recommended. PMID:24174954

  11. Ownership of knowledge--the role of patents in pharmaceutical R&D.

    PubMed Central

    Correa, Carlos María

    2004-01-01

    Both the public and the private sectors contribute to research and development (R&D) in pharmaceuticals. The public sector originates many of the discoveries of new drugs. The private sector, which focuses on development, is heavily reliant on patents. Though patents are presumed to reward genuine inventions, lax rules on patentability and shortcomings in procedures permit protection to be obtained on a myriad of minor developments. These patents, though weak and possibly invalid in many cases, are used to restrain competition and delay the entry of generic competition. Developing countries should design and implement their patent laws so as to prevent strategic patenting and promote competition and access to medicines. PMID:15643801

  12. Endocrine-Active Pharmaceuticals: An Environmental Concern?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recently, there has been growing interest in pharmaceuticals that are specifically designed to have endocrine activity, such as the estrogens used in birth control pills, exerting unintended effects on fish and other aquatic organisms. These pharmaceuticals may not be persistent...

  13. Pharmaceutical care in smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Marín Armero, Alicia; Calleja Hernandez, Miguel A; Perez-Vicente, Sabina; Martinez-Martinez, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    As a determining factor in various diseases and the leading known cause of preventable mortality and morbidity, tobacco use is the number one public health problem in developed countries. Facing this health problem requires authorities and health professionals to promote, via specific programs, health campaigns that improve patients' access to smoking cessation services. Pharmaceutical care has a number of specific characteristics that enable the pharmacist, as a health professional, to play an active role in dealing with smoking and deliver positive smoking cessation interventions. The objectives of the study were to assess the efficacy of a smoking cessation campaign carried out at a pharmaceutical care center and to evaluate the effects of pharmaceutical care on patients who decide to try to stop smoking. The methodology was an open, analytical, pre-post intervention, quasi-experimental clinical study performed with one patient cohort. The results of the study were that the promotional campaign for the smoking cessation program increased the number of patients from one to 22, and after 12 months into the study, 43.48% of the total number of patients achieved total smoking cessation. We can conclude that advertising of a smoking cessation program in a pharmacy increases the number of patients who use the pharmacy's smoking cessation services, and pharmaceutical care is an effective means of achieving smoking cessation. PMID:25678779

  14. Electron microscopy of pharmaceutical systems.

    PubMed

    Klang, Victoria; Valenta, Claudia; Matsko, Nadejda B

    2013-01-01

    During the last decades, the focus of research in pharmaceutical technology has steadily shifted towards the development and optimisation of nano-scale drug delivery systems. As a result, electron microscopic methods are increasingly employed for the characterisation of pharmaceutical systems such as nanoparticles and microparticles, nanoemulsions, microemulsions, solid lipid nanoparticles, different types of vesicles, nanofibres and many more. Knowledge of the basic properties of these systems is essential for an adequate microscopic analysis. Classical transmission and scanning electron microscopic techniques frequently have to be adapted for an accurate analysis of formulation morphology, especially in case of hydrated colloidal systems. Specific techniques such as environmental scanning microscopy or cryo preparation are required for their investigation. Analytical electron microscopic techniques such as electron energy-loss spectroscopy or energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy are additional assets to determine the elemental composition of the systems, but are not yet standard tools in pharmaceutical research. This review provides an overview of pharmaceutical systems of interest in current research and strategies for their successful electron microscopic analysis. Advantages and limitations of the different methodological approaches are discussed and recent findings of interest are presented. PMID:22921788

  15. Pharmaceutical crystallization with nanocellulose organogels.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Palomero, Celia; Kennedy, Stuart R; Soriano, M Laura; Jones, Christopher D; Valcárcel, Miguel; Steed, Jonathan W

    2016-06-14

    Carboxylated nanocellulose forms organogels at 0.3 wt% in the presence of a cationic surfactant. The resulting gels can be used as novel crystallization media for pharmaceutical solid form control, resulting in isolation a new sulfapyridine solvate, morphology modification and crystallization of an octadecylammonium salt of sulfamethoxazole. PMID:27168091

  16. The Effect of Active Learning Methodologies on the Teaching of Pharmaceutical Care in a Brazilian Pharmacy Faculty

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background In recent years, pharmacists have been involved in expanded patient care responsibilities, for example patient counseling in self-medication, medication review and pharmaceutical care, which require graduates to develop the necessary competences. Consequently, reorientation of pharmacy education has become necessary. As such, active learning strategies have been introduced into classrooms to increase problem-solving and critical thinking skills of students. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance and perceptions of competency of students in a new pharmaceutical care course that uses active learning methodologies. Methods This pharmaceutical care course was conducted in the first semester of 2014, in the Federal University of Sergipe. In the pharmaceutical care course, active learning methods were used, consisting of dialogic classroom expository, simulation and case studies. Student learning was evaluated using classroom tests and instruments that evaluated the perception of competency in pharmaceutical care practice. Furthermore, students' satisfaction with the course was evaluated. Results Thirty-three students completed the four evaluations used in the course (i.e., a discursive written exam, seminars, OSCE, and virtual patient); 25 were female (75.75%), and the median age was 23.43 (SD 2.82) years. The overall mean of student scores, in all evaluation methods was 7.97 (SD 0.59) on a scale of 0 to 10 points, and student performance on the virtual patient method was statistically superior to other methods. With respect to the perception of competency in pharmaceutical care practice, a comparison of pre- and post-test scores revealed statistically significant improvement for all evaluated competences. At the end of the semester, the students presented positive opinions of the pharmaceutical care course. Conclusions The results suggest that an active learning course can enhance the learning of pharmaceutical care competences. In

  17. Consumer-perceived risks and choices about pharmaceuticals in the environment: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is increasing concern that pollution from pharmaceuticals used in human medicine and agriculture can be a threat to the environment. Little is known, however, if people are aware that pharmaceuticals may have a detrimental influence on the environment. The present study examines people’s risk perception and choices in regard to environmental risks of pharmaceuticals used in human medicine and for agricultural purposes. Methods A representative sample of the U.S. population (N = 640) was surveyed. Respondents completed a hypothetical choice task that involved tradeoffs between human and environmental health. In addition, it was examined how much people would support an environment policy related to drug regulation. Results For agricultural pharmaceuticals, respondents reported a high level of satisfaction for a policy requiring farms to limit their use of antibiotics. In the domain of pharmaceuticals used in human medicine, we found that people were willing to consider environmental consequences when choosing a drug, but only when choices were made about treatment options for a rather harmless disease. In contrast, when decisions were made about treatment options for a severe disease, the drug’s effectiveness was the most important criterion. Conclusions It can be concluded that the environmental impact of a drug will be hardly considered in decisions about pharmaceuticals for severe diseases like cancer, and this may be due to the fact that these decisions are predominantly affective in nature. However, for less severe health risks, people are willing to balance health and environmental considerations. PMID:23734758

  18. Changing Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallett, Susanne; Wren, Steve; Dawes, Mark; Blinco, Amy; Haines, Brett; Everton, Jenny; Morgan, Ellen; Barton, Craig; Breen, Debbie; Ellison, Geraldine; Burgess, Danny; Stavrou, Jim; Carre, Catherine; Watson, Fran; Cherry, David; Hawkins, Chris; Stapenhill-Hunt, Maria; Gilderdale, Charlie; Kiddle, Alison; Piggott, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    A group of teachers involved in embedding NRICH tasks (http://nrich.maths.org) into their everyday practice were keen to challenge common perceptions of mathematics, and of the teaching and learning of mathematics. In this article, the teachers share what they are doing to change these perceptions in their schools.

  19. Machine perception

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    The book is aimed at the level of a graduate student or the practising professional and discusses visual perception by computers. Topics covered include: pattern classification methods; polyhedra scenes; shape analysis and recognition; perception of brightness and colour; edge and curve detection; region segmentation; texture analysis; depth measurement analysis; knowledge-based systems and applications. A subject index is included.

  20. Biosafe Nanoscale Pharmaceutical Adjuvant Materials

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Shubin; Li, Shengliang; Wang, Chongxi; Liu, Juan; Yang, Xiaolong; Wang, Paul C.; Zhang, Xin; Liang, Xing-Jie

    2014-01-01

    Thanks to developments in the field of nanotechnology over the past decades, more and more biosafe nanoscale materials have become available for use as pharmaceutical adjuvants in medical research. Nanomaterials possess unique properties which could be employed to develop drug carriers with longer circulation time, higher loading capacity, better stability in physiological conditions, controlled drug release, and targeted drug delivery. In this review article, we will review recent progress in the application of representative organic, inorganic and hybrid biosafe nanoscale materials in pharmaceutical research, especially focusing on nanomaterial-based novel drug delivery systems. In addition, we briefly discuss the advantages and notable functions that make these nanomaterials suitable for the design of new medicines; the biosafety of each material discussed in this article is also highlighted to provide a comprehensive understanding of their adjuvant attributes. PMID:25429253

  1. Volatile hydrocarbons in pharmaceutical solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Kroneld, R. )

    1991-07-01

    Volatile pollutants such as hydrocarbons have, during many years, been analysed in small concentrations in air, water, food, pharmaceutical solutions, and human blood and tissues. It has also been shown that such substances have unexpected consequences for cell cultures and scientific experiments. These substances also accumulate in patients receiving haemodialysis and these patients are exposed to quite high concentrations. The knowledge of the toxicity of such compounds has led to the development of maximum limit concentrations with the aim to decrease the exposure of humans. This paper discusses the problems of human exposure in general and especially through pharmaceutical solutions, and the possibilities of eliminating such compounds with the aim of decreasing the exposure as a hygienic challenge.

  2. Pharmaceutical cocrystals: walking the talk.

    PubMed

    Bolla, Geetha; Nangia, Ashwini

    2016-06-28

    Pharmaceutical cocrystals belong to a sub-class of cocrystals wherein one of the components is a drug molecule (or an active pharmaceutical ingredient, API) and the second is a benign food or drug grade additive (generally regarded as safe, GRAS). The two components are hydrogen-bonded in a fixed stoichiometric ratio in the crystal lattice. In the past decade, pharmaceutical cocrystals have demonstrated significant promise in their ability to modify the physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties of drug substances, such as the solubility and dissolution rate, bioavailability, particle morphology and size, tableting and compaction, melting point, physical form, biochemical and hydration stability, and permeability. In this feature review, we highlight some prominent examples of drug cocrystals which exhibit variable hardness/softness and elasticity/plasticity depending on coformer selection, improvement of solubility and permeability in the same cocrystal, increase of the melting point for solid formulation, enhanced color performance, photostability and hydration stability, and a longer half-life. Cocrystals of flavanoids and polyphenols can make improved pharmaceuticals and also extend to the larger class of nutraceuticals. The application of crystal engineering to assemble ternary cocrystals expands this field to drug-drug cocrystals which may be useful in multi-drug resistance, mitigating side effects of drugs, or attenuating/enhancing drug action synergistically by rational selection. The advent of new techniques for structural characterization beyond the standard X-ray diffraction will provide a better understanding of drug phases which are at the borderline of crystalline-amorphous nature and even newer opportunities in the future. PMID:27278109

  3. Nanotechnology and pharmaceutical inhalation aerosols.

    PubMed

    Patel, A R; Vavia, P R

    2007-02-01

    Pharmaceutical inhalation aerosols have been playing a crucial role in the health and well being of millions of people throughout the world for many years. The technology's continual advancement, the ease of use and the more desirable pulmonary-rather-than-needle delivery for systemic drugs has increased the attraction for the pharmaceutical aerosol in recent years. But administration of drugs by the pulmonary route is technically challenging because oral deposition can be high, and variations in inhalation technique can affect the quantity of drug delivered to the lungs. Recent advances in nanotechnology, particularly drug delivery field have encouraged formulation scientists to expand their reach in solving tricky problems related to drug delivery. Moreover, application of nanotechnology to aerosol science has opened up a new category of pharmaceutical aerosols (collectively known as nanoenabled-aerosols) with added advantages and effectiveness. In this review, some of the latest approaches of nano-enabled aerosol drug delivery system (including nano-suspension, trojan particles, bioadhesive nanoparticles and smart particle aerosols) that can be employed successfully to overcome problems of conventional aerosol systems have been introduced. PMID:17375556

  4. Stability of Pharmaceuticals in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Y-Uyen

    2009-01-01

    Stability testing is a tool used to access shelf life and effects of storage conditions for pharmaceutical formulations. Early research from the International Space Station (ISS) revealed that some medications may have degraded while in space. This potential loss of medication efficacy would be very dangerous to Crew health. The aim of this research project, Stability of Pharmacotherapeutic Compounds, is to study how the stability of pharmaceutical compounds is affected by environmental conditions in space. Four identical pharmaceutical payload kits containing medications in different dosage forms (liquid for injection, tablet, capsule, ointment and suppository) were transported to the ISS aboard a Space Shuttle. One of the four kits was stored on that Shuttle and the other three were stored on the ISS for return to Earth at various time intervals aboard a pre-designated Shuttle flight. The Pharmacotherapeutics laboratory used stability test as defined by the United States Pharmacopeia (USP), to access the degree of degradation to the Payload kit medications that may have occurred during space flight. Once these medications returned, the results of stability test performed on them were compared to those from the matching ground controls stored on Earth. Analyses of the results obtained from physical and chemical stability assessments on these payload medications will provide researchers additional tools to promote safe and efficacious medications for space exploration.

  5. Pharmaceutical study of Lauha Bhasma

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Neetu; Reddy, K. R. C.

    2010-01-01

    In the present research paper, the work done on pharmaceutical study of Lauha Bhasma conducted in the Department of Rasa Shastra under the postgraduate research programme is being presented. The pharmaceutical processing of Lauha Bhasma was performed by following samanya shodhana, vishesha shodhana and marana of Lauha. Under the process of marana, three specific pharmaceutical techniques were followed, viz. bhanupaka, sthalipaka and putapaka. During the putapaka process, an electric muffle furnace (EMF) was used. The temperature of puta was studied in two batches, viz. in Batch I, a temperature of 800°C was maintained whereas in Batch II, a temperature of 600°C was maintained. The purpose behind selecting two temperatures was to validate the process of marana of Lauha and to determine an ideal temperature for the preparation of Lauha Bhasma in EMF. It is found that after 20 puta at a temperature of 600°C, the Lauha Bhasma was prepared properly. The entire characteristic of Lauha Bhasma, like “pakwa jambu phala varna,” varitar, etc. was attained at 600°. At a temperature of 800°C, the process could not be carried out smoothly. The pellets turned very hard and brassy yellow in color. The desired color was attained only after decreasing the temperature in further puta. PMID:22131745

  6. [E-commerce of pharmaceuticals].

    PubMed

    Shani, Segev

    2003-05-01

    The emergence of the Internet as a new communications and information technology caused major social and cultural changes. The dramatic increase in accessibility and availability of information empowered the consumer by closing the information gap between the consumer and different suppliers. The objective of this article is to review many new internet-supported applications related to the pharmaceutical market. E-commerce is divided into two major components: Business to Consumer (B to C), and Business to Business (B to B). The main applications in B to C are dissemination of medical and drug information, and the sale of drugs through the Internet. Medical information on the Internet is vast and very helpful for patients, however, its reliability is not guaranteed. Online pharmacies increase the accessibility and availability of drugs. Nevertheless, several obstacles such as security of the data provided (both financial and clinical) prevent the widespread use of online pharmacies. Another risk is the health authorities' inability to regulate Internet sites effectively. Therefore, unregulated sale of prescription drugs, fake or substandard, often occurs on the Internet. B to B relates to physicians, clinics, hospitals, HMO's and pharmaceutical companies. There is a vast number of applications ranging from clinical research, marketing and sales promotion, to drug distribution and logistics. In conclusion, the Internet is dynamic and has contributed to the development of numerous new applications in the field of pharmaceuticals. Regulatory authorities should be active in developing new policies that will deal with those new Internet-based applications. PMID:12803063

  7. Pharmaceutical study of Lauha Bhasma.

    PubMed

    Singh, Neetu; Reddy, K R C

    2010-07-01

    In the present research paper, the work done on pharmaceutical study of Lauha Bhasma conducted in the Department of Rasa Shastra under the postgraduate research programme is being presented. The pharmaceutical processing of Lauha Bhasma was performed by following samanya shodhana, vishesha shodhana and marana of Lauha. Under the process of marana, three specific pharmaceutical techniques were followed, viz. bhanupaka, sthalipaka and putapaka. During the putapaka process, an electric muffle furnace (EMF) was used. The temperature of puta was studied in two batches, viz. in Batch I, a temperature of 800°C was maintained whereas in Batch II, a temperature of 600°C was maintained. The purpose behind selecting two temperatures was to validate the process of marana of Lauha and to determine an ideal temperature for the preparation of Lauha Bhasma in EMF. It is found that after 20 puta at a temperature of 600°C, the Lauha Bhasma was prepared properly. The entire characteristic of Lauha Bhasma, like "pakwa jambu phala varna," varitar, etc. was attained at 600°. At a temperature of 800°C, the process could not be carried out smoothly. The pellets turned very hard and brassy yellow in color. The desired color was attained only after decreasing the temperature in further puta. PMID:22131745

  8. Examining pharmaceuticals using terahertz spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulovská, Kateřina; Křesálek, Vojtěch

    2015-10-01

    Pharmaceutical trafficking is common issue in countries where they are under stricter dispensing regime with monitoring of users. Most commonly smuggled pharmaceuticals include trade names Paralen Plus, Modafen, Clarinase repetabs, Aspirin complex, etc. These are transported mainly from Eastern Europe (e.g. Poland, Ukraine, Russia) to countries like Czech Republic, which is said to have one of the highest number of methamphetamine producers in Europe. The aim of this paper is to describe the possibility of terahertz spectroscopy utilization as an examining tool to distinguish between pharmaceuticals containing pseudoephedrine compounds and those without it. Selected medicaments for experimental part contain as an active ingredient pseudoephedrine hydrochloride or pseudoephedrine sulphate. Results show a possibility to find a pseudoephedrine compound spectra in samples according to previously computed and experimentally found ones, and point out that spectra of same brand names pills may vary according to their expiration date, batch, and amount of absorbed water vapours from ambience. Mislead spectrum also occurs during experimental work in a sample without chosen active ingredient, which shows persistent minor inconveniences of terahertz spectroscopy. All measurement were done on the TPS Spectra 3000 instrument.

  9. AMCP Guide to Pharmaceutical Payment Methods.

    PubMed

    2007-10-01

    and from each of these groups. Knowledge of the intricate distribution and payment systems for prescription drugs is essential in order to ensure that payment reform results in desired outcomes such as fair and equitable payment to providers while avoiding unintended consequences such as reduced access to drugs. The Academy of Managed Care Pharmacy (AMCP) recognized the need to help stakeholders and policymakers better understand, evaluate and navigate the profound changes occurring in payment for prescription drugs in the United States. This AMCP Guide to Pharmaceutical Payment Methods offers a comprehensive examination of the methodologies and price benchmarks that have been used in the public and private sector to pay for pharmaceuticals in the U.S., the changes that have occurred or are likely to occur in the future, and the forces that are behind these changes. AMCP has made every effort to make the Guide an unbiased presentation of information, issues, and implications. PMID:17970611

  10. In Silico Models for Ecotoxicity of Pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Roy, Kunal; Kar, Supratik

    2016-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals and their active metabolites are one of the significantly emerging environmental toxicants. The major routes of entry of pharmaceuticals into the environment are industries, hospitals, or direct disposal of unwanted or expired drugs made by the patient. The most important and distinct features of pharmaceuticals are that they are deliberately designed to have an explicit mode of action and designed to exert an effect on humans and other living systems. This distinctive feature makes pharmaceuticals and their metabolites different from other chemicals, and this necessitates the evaluation of the direct effects of pharmaceuticals in various environmental compartments as well as to living systems. In this background, the alarming situation of ecotoxicity of diverse pharmaceuticals have forced government and nongovernment regulatory authorities to recommend the application of in silico methods to provide quick information about the risk assessment and fate properties of pharmaceuticals as well as their ecological and indirect human health effects. This chapter aims to offer information regarding occurrence of pharmaceuticals in the environment, their persistence, environmental fate, and toxicity as well as application of in silico methods to provide information about the basic risk management and fate prediction of pharmaceuticals in the environment. Brief ideas about toxicity endpoints, available ecotoxicity databases, and expert systems employed for rapid toxicity predictions of ecotoxicity of pharmaceuticals are also discussed. PMID:27311470

  11. HEALTH SECTOR ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the USGCRP's First National Assessment effort, EPA's Global Change Research Program sponsored the Health Sector Assessment. The Health Sector Assessment was co-chaired by Dr. Jonathan A. Patz, Director of the Program on the Health Effects of Global Environmental Change...

  12. Pharmaceutical policy of the Andean sub-region.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    Senior policy makers and health officials from the Andean countries--Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela--have developed a common pharmaceutical policy. The government's role is to assure availability and equal access to effective, quality, and affordable drugs and to safeguard their proper use. The government cannot delegate this role. The availability and accessibility of drugs gauge quality of health services and are social indicators of justice and equity. The public sector must use drugs from the essential drug list. These drugs are also valuable for the private sector. Drugs must not be treated like other merchandise, because the drug market is susceptible to misuse since the consumer cannot select the drug. Commercial advertising strongly influences prescribing of drugs and their use. The 2 major policy points are that promotion of essential drugs is the best approach from a health viewpoint and promotion of generic drug use is the best commercial alternative. The policy calls for the individual countries to pass a comprehensive drug law that reflects commitment to equity and appropriate use and incorporates standardization mechanisms. Criteria for selecting which drugs are allowed on the market include safety, proven efficacy, risk/benefit ratio, and treating the most common health problems at the lowest possible price. The Andean group is working towards harmonization of national essential drugs lists. To assure quality, health authorities must develop the capacity to enforce regulations when situations arise that threaten individual and community health. Supply, marketing, and logistics activities need to be improved and coordinated between the commercial and public sectors. Drug prices are being distanced from administrative control mechanisms and are going to be determined by a dynamic and well-supplied market. Drug information centers and prescription training are needed to achieve rational use of drugs. A joint pharmaceutical market for

  13. Introduction: Institutional corruption and the pharmaceutical policy.

    PubMed

    Rodwin, Marc A

    2013-01-01

    Today, the goals of pharmaceutical policy and medical practice are often undermined due to institutional corruption - that is, widespread or systemic practices, usually legal, that undermine an institution's objectives or integrity. In this symposium, 16 articles investigate the corruption of pharmaceutical policy, each taking a different look at the sources of corruption, how it occurs, and what is corrupted. We will see that the pharmaceutical industry's own purposes are often undermined. Furthermore, pharmaceutical industry funding of election campaigns and lobbying skews the legislative process that sets pharmaceutical policy. Moreover, certain practices have corrupted medical research, the production of medical knowledge, the practice of medicine, drug safety, the Food and Drug Administration's oversight of the pharmaceutical market, and the trustworthiness of patient advocacy organizations. PMID:24088143

  14. Consumer Perceptions of Sponsors of Disease Awareness Advertising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Danika V.; Jones, Sandra C.; Iverson, Donald C.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: In many countries there is emerging concern regarding alliances between the pharmaceutical industry and health non-profit organizations (NPOs), and the increase of co-sponsored marketing activities such as disease awareness advertising. The current study aims to explore Australian women's perceptions of disease awareness advertising with…

  15. Evaluation of P-Listed Pharmaceutical Residues in Empty Pharmaceutical Containers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), some pharmaceuticals are considered acute hazardous wastes because their sole active pharmaceutical ingredients are P-listed commercial chemical products (40 CFR 261.33). Hospitals and other healthcare facilities have stru...

  16. New strategies for pharmaceutical design.

    PubMed

    Gillmor, S A; Cohen, F E

    1993-01-01

    Parallel synthesis and testing procedures are being investigated to shorten the drug design and discovery process. These procedures have focused on peptides and nucleotides, although these compounds are unlikely to be useful therapeutics because of their low bioavailability and sensitivity to enzymatic degradation. More recently, the use of other modular systems with distinct linking chemistries have been explored. Structural data combined with computational screens of compound databases provides an alternative method to identify novel nonpeptide pharmaceuticals. When structural information is not available, homology-based models have proved to be sufficient to identify nonpeptide inhibitors active at low micromolar concentrations against important enzymes in parasite life cycles. PMID:8167566

  17. Entrepreneurial patent management in pharmaceutical startups.

    PubMed

    Holgersson, Marcus; Phan, Tai; Hedner, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Startups fill an increasingly important role as innovators in the pharmaceutical industry, and patenting is typically central to their success. This article aims to explore patent management in pharmaceutical startups. The results show that startups need to deal with several challenges related to patenting and an 'entrepreneurial' approach to patent management is called for. Resource constraints, venture capital provision, exits and other conditions and events must be readily considered in the patent management process to build a successful pharmaceutical venture, something that could benefit the pharmaceutical industry as a whole. PMID:26948802

  18. Relevance of variation in use of terminology to define generic pharmaceutical products.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Elize Massard da

    2015-02-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) promotes the use of generic drug policies to foster competition in the pharmaceutical sector, reduce drug prices, and increase access to therapeutic drugs. However, little is known about how countries implement these policies. This article describes different terminology adopted by national regulatory authorities to define generic versus proprietary drug products in developing countries, including those in Latin America, and challenges that arise in their application of WHO guidelines, such as labeling issues. The author concludes that variation in generics terminology in these countries is a result of institutional context (i.e., the public sector setting as well as the body of laws and regulations that exists in the country) and policy legacies, such as intellectual property regimes, and highlights the need for further analysis of pharmaceutical regulations to improve understanding of the barriers and political implications of generic drug policies. PMID:25915016

  19. Transitioning to a national health system in Cyprus: a stakeholder analysis of pharmaceutical policy reform

    PubMed Central

    Kanavos, Panos G

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To review the pharmaceutical sector in Cyprus in terms of the availability and affordability of medicines and to explore pharmaceutical policy options for the national health system finance reform expected to be introduced in 2016. Methods We conducted semi-structured interviews in April 2014 with senior representatives from seven key national organizations involved in pharmaceutical care. The captured data were coded and analysed using the predetermined themes of pricing, reimbursement, prescribing, dispensing and cost sharing. We also examined secondary data provided by the Cypriot Ministry of Health; these data included the prices and volumes of prescription medicines in 2013. Findings We identified several key issues, including high medicine prices, underuse of generic medicines and high out-of-pocket drug spending. Most stakeholders recommended that the national government review existing pricing policies to ensure medicines within the forthcoming national health system are affordable and available, introduce a national reimbursement system and incentivize the prescribing and dispensing of generic medicines. There were disagreements over how to (i) allocate responsibilities to governmental agencies in the national health system, (ii) reconcile differences in opinion between stakeholders and (iii) raise awareness among patients, physicians and pharmacists about the benefits of greater generic drug use. Conclusion In Cyprus, if the national health system is going to provide universal health coverage in a sustainable fashion, then the national government must address the current issues in the pharmaceutical sector. Importantly, the country will need to increase the market share of generic medicines to contain drug spending. PMID:26478624

  20. Exposure of medical students to pharmaceutical marketing in primary care settings: frequent and influential.

    PubMed

    Sarikaya, Ozlem; Civaner, Murat; Vatansever, Kevser

    2009-12-01

    It is known that interaction between pharmaceutical companies and medical professionals may lead to corruption of professional values, irrational use of medicine, and negative effects on the patient-physician relationship. Medical students frequently interact with pharmaceutical company representatives and increasingly accept their gifts. Considering the move toward early clinical encounters and community-based education, which expose students early to pharmaceutical representatives, the influence of those gifts is becoming a matter of concern. This study examines the frequency and influence of student exposure to drug marketing in primary care settings, as well as student perceptions of physician-pharmaceutical company relationships. This was a two-phase study consisting of qualitative research followed by a cross-sectional survey. Clinical experience logbooks of 280 second-year students in one school were analysed, and the themes that emerged were used to develop a survey that was administered to 308 third-year students from two medical schools. Survey results showed a 91.2% exposure to any type of marketing, and 56.8% of students were exposed to all classes of marketing methods studied. Deliberate targeting of students by pharmaceutical representatives, in particular, was correlated with being less sensitive to the negative effects of and having positive opinions about interactions with pharmaceutical companies. The vast majority of students are exposed to drug marketing in primary care settings, and may become more vulnerable to that strategy. Considering that medical students are vulnerable and are targeted deliberately by pharmaceutical companies, interventions aimed at developing skills in the rational use of medicines and in strategies for coping with drug marketing should be devised. PMID:19184498

  1. Three Dimensional Sector Design with Optimal Number of Sectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xue, Min

    2010-01-01

    In the national airspace system, sectors get overloaded due to high traffic demand and inefficient airspace designs. Overloads can be eliminated in some cases by redesigning sector boundaries. This paper extends the Voronoi-based sector design method by automatically selecting the number of sectors, allowing three-dimensional partitions, and enforcing traffic pattern conformance. The method was used to design sectors at Fort-Worth and Indianapolis centers for current traffic scenarios. Results show that new designs can eliminate overloaded sectors, although not in all cases, reduce the number of necessary sectors, and conform to major traffic patterns. Overall, the new methodology produces enhanced and efficient sector designs.

  2. The Italian energy sector

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    The energy sector in Italy, as in Europe and in many other areas of the world, is undergoing rapid and profound changes. The 1986 ratification of the European Single Act was intended to create a European internal market, where circulation of people, capital, goods, and services would reach the highest possible liberalization. In 1988, in the document The Energy Internal Market, the European Union (EU) commission stressed the need for creation of an internal energy market--free of obstacles--to increase security of supply, to reduce costs, and to strengthen the competitiveness of the European economic system. In 1990, the Community Council adopted directives to implement the EU energy sector. This article describes Italy`s role as part of the EU energy sector. It covers the following topics: the Italian energy sector; electricity vs gas transportation; project finance; recent developments advance Italian power industry; specifying powerplant components -- Italian stype; buyers` guide to Italian equipment, services.

  3. Buildings Sector Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hostick, Donna J.; Nicholls, Andrew K.; McDonald, Sean C.; Hollomon, Jonathan B.

    2005-08-01

    A joint NREL, ORNL, and PNNL team conducted market analysis to help inform DOE/EERE's Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program planning and management decisions. This chapter presents the results of the market analysis for the Buildings sector.

  4. Are Students Customers? Perceptions of Academic Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lomas, Laurie

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the notion of the student as a customer in a university, focusing on the perceptions of academic staff. Changes in the higher education sector in recent years have significantly reduced the differences between universities and other types of organisations and it has been argued that students have become "consumers" of higher…

  5. Risk-based prioritization of pharmaceuticals in the natural environment in Iraq.

    PubMed

    Al-Khazrajy, Omar S A; Boxall, Alistair B A

    2016-08-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated the occurrence of pharmaceuticals in the natural environment, raising concerns about their impact on non-target organisms or human health. One region where little is known about the exposure and effects of pharmaceuticals in the environment is Iraq. Due to the high number of pharmaceuticals used by the public health sector in Iraq (hospitals and care centres) and distributed over the counter, there is a need for a systematic approach for identifying substances that should be monitored in the environment in Iraq and assessed in terms of environmental risk. In this study, a risk-based prioritization approach was applied to 99 of the most dispensed pharmaceuticals in three Iraqi cities, Baghdad, Mosul and Basrah. Initially, information on the amounts of pharmaceuticals used in Iraq was obtained. The top used medicines were found to be paracetamol, amoxicillin and metformin with total annual consumption exceeding 1000 tonnes per year. Predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) and predicted no-effect concentrations (PNECs), derived from ecotoxicological end-points and effects related to the therapeutic mode of action, were then used to rank the pharmaceuticals in terms of risks to different environmental compartments. Active pharmaceutical ingredients used as antibiotics, antidepressants and analgesics were identified as the highest priority in surface water, sediment and the terrestrial environment. Antibiotics were also prioritized according to their susceptibility to kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria or to accelerate the evolution and dissemination of antibiotic-resistant genes in water. Future work will focus on understanding the occurrence, fate and effects of some of highly prioritized substances in the environment. PMID:27137195

  6. Synthetic biology advances for pharmaceutical production

    PubMed Central

    Breitling, Rainer; Takano, Eriko

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic biology enables a new generation of microbial engineering for the biotechnological production of pharmaceuticals and other high-value chemicals. This review presents an overview of recent advances in the field, describing new computational and experimental tools for the discovery, optimization and production of bioactive molecules, and outlining progress towards the application of these tools to pharmaceutical production systems. PMID:25744872

  7. The Impact of Biotechnology on Pharmaceutics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Lawrence H.

    1990-01-01

    The emergence of bioactive peptides and proteins as new drug species poses formidable problems for the pharmaceutical scientist. Implications for revision or change in undergraduate and graduate pharmaceutics curricula derive from the biopharmaceutical, pharmacokinetic, and physiochemical aspects of the new drug species, which differ from…

  8. Pharmaceutical experiment aboard STS-67 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Astronaut William G. Gregory, pilot, works with a pharmaceutical experiment on the middeck of the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Endeavour during the STS-67 mission. Commercial Materials Dispersion Apparatus Instruments Technology Associates Experiments (CMIX-03) includes not only pharmaceutical, but also biotechnology, cell biology, fluids, and crystal growth investigation

  9. Biotech pharmaceuticals and biotherapy: an overview.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, F M; Raso, J

    1998-01-01

    Broadly, the history of pharmaceutical biotechnology includes Alexander Fleming"s discovery of penicillin in a common mold, in 1928, and the subsequent development-prompted by World War II injuries-of large-scale manufacturing methods to grow the organism in tanks of broth. Pharmaceutical biotechnology has since changed enormously. Two breakthroughs of the late 1970s became the basis of the modern biotech industry: the interspecies transplantation of genetic material, and the fusion of tumor cells and certain leukocytes. The cells resulting from such fusion-hybridomas-replicate endlessly and can be geared to produce specific antibodies in bulk. Modern pharmaceutical biotechnology encompasses gene cloning and recombinant DNA technology. Gene cloning comprises isolating a DNA-molecule segment that corresponds to a single gene and synthesizing ("copying") the segment. Recombinant DNA technology, or gene splicing, comprises altering genetic material outside an organism-for example, by inserting into a DNA molecule a segment from a very different DNA molecule-and making the altered material (recombinant DNA) function in living things. Recombinant DNA technology enables modifying microorganisms, animals, and plants so that they yield medically useful substances, particularly scarce human proteins (by giving animals human genes, for example). This review, however, focuses not on pharmaceutical biotechnology"s methods but on its products, notably recombinant pharmaceuticals. It describes various types of biotech pharmaceuticals, their safety and effectiveness relative to the safety and effectiveness of conventionally produced pharmaceuticals, and the regulation of biotech pharmaceuticals. PMID:10945918

  10. Solar Sector Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, Hugh S.; Svalgaard, Leif; Hannah, Iain G.

    2014-12-01

    The interplanetary magnetic field near 1 AU has a characteristic "sector" structure that reflects its polarity relative to the solar direction. Typically we observe large-scale coherence in these directions, with two or four "away" or "towards" sectors per solar rotation, from any platform in deep space and near the ecliptic plane. In a simple picture, this morphology simply reflects the idea that the sources of the interplanetary field lie mainly in or near the Sun, and that the solar-wind flow enforces a radial component in this field. The sector boundaries are sharply defined in the interplanetary field near one AU, but have more complicated sources within the Sun itself. Recent evidence confirms that the origins of this pattern also appear statistically at the level of the photosphere, with signatures found in the highly concentrated fields of sunspots and even solar flares. This complements the associations already known between the interplanetary sectors and large-scale coronal structures (i.e., the streamers). This association with small-scale fields strengthens at the Hale sector boundary, defining the Hale boundary as the one for which the polarity switch matches that of the leading-to-following polarity alternation in the sunspots of a given hemisphere. Surface features that appear 4.5 days prior to the sector crossings observed at 1 AU correlate with this sense of polarity reversal.

  11. The changing environment for US pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Meyer, P R

    1994-01-01

    Health reform is currently the predominant health policy issue in the US. It carries profound implications for the pharmaceutical field, including the possibility of price controls that could stifle pharmaceutical research. While policy makers are contemplating alternative approaches to reform, the marketplace for pharmaceuticals has changed dramatically. For example, price increases have lessened, price discounting has increased, and new drugs are typically launched at prices lower than those of the leading product in the therapeutic class. These changes are driven in part by the growth of managed care. Further evidence of change in the industry is the number of job reductions announced and the decline in market valuation of pharmaceutical companies. Policy makers need to take the changed marketplace into consideration as they proceed with health reform, to avoid layering additional policy impediments on top of an increasingly harsh and unforgiving market. Such an approach could seriously compromise incentives for pharmaceutical research. PMID:10155590

  12. Pharmaceutical counterfeiting and the RFID technology intervention.

    PubMed

    Coustasse, Alberto; Arvidson, Cody; Rutsohn, Phil

    2010-07-01

    Both nationally and internationally, pharmaceutical counterfeiting has become a problem that is threatening economic stability and public health. The purpose of the present research study review was to analyze the scope and severity of pharmaceutical counterfeiting and to establish if the implantation of the Radio Frequency Identification Device (RFID) model can more efficiently be used within the pharmaceutical supply chain to reduce the problem counterfeit drugs impose on public health and international economic stability. Results indicated that implementing the RFID model for tracking drugs at the item level in the pharmaceutical supply chain has potential to alleviate the scope of the counterfeit drug problem. Recommendations for how the pharmaceutical industry may sooner adopt the RFID model are made. PMID:20582850

  13. Developing a pharmaceutical purchasing strategy.

    PubMed

    Hynniman, C E

    1992-09-01

    The process commonly used by group purchasing organizations to contract for multisource pharmaceuticals and a strategic approach for the director of pharmacy in working with the purchasing group and the P & T Committee is described. The pharmacist should be knowledgeable concerning the group's contract commitment requirements, product specifications, terms and conditions and procedures for vendor selection, product award, contract implementation, and performance monitoring. To ensure results that meet the needs of the medical staff, it is important that the P & T Committee actively participate. The P & T Committee should understand the reasons for selecting a particular purchasing group, understand the necessary steps in obtaining the most favorable economic advantage, review products with potential brand interchange concerns, recommend product specifications, and reaffirm formulary procedures regarding the principle of current consent. PMID:10171225

  14. An examination of pharmaceutical systems in severely disrupted countries

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This research assesses informal markets that dominate pharmaceutical systems in severely disrupted countries and identifies areas for further investigation. Findings are based on recent academic papers, policy and grey literature, and field studies in Somalia, Afghanistan, the Democratic Republic of Congo and Haiti. The public sector in the studied countries is characterized in part by weak Ministries of Health and low donor coordination. Informal markets, where medicines are regularly sold in market stalls and unregulated pharmacies, often accompanied by unqualified medical advice, have proliferated. Counterfeit and sub-standard medicines trade networks have also developed. To help increase medicine availability for citizens, informal markets should be integrated into existing access to medicines initiatives. PMID:23217184

  15. The shaping of pharmaceutical governance: the Israeli case

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on governance of the pharmaceutical sector in Israel. It traces the relationships between the state, industry, and sick funds from before the establishment of National Health Insurance (NHI) in 1995 to the beginning of this decade, in particular as they have grappled with the challenge of making national formulary decisions in a rational manner. Subsequent to the introduction of NHI there have been shifts in the modes and mix of governance. This research shows empirically that a relatively complex mix of hierarchical and network modes of governance can be successfully established over an extended period of time when flexibility is maintained through the implementation process. The system for defining and updating a standard basket of health services has coped well with the challenge of managing a range of difficult and potentially volatile stakeholder relationships in the pharmaceutical sector and of distancing ministers from controversies of funding and listing decisions. Government has succeeded in containing drug costs whilst still maintaining a basket of reimbursable drugs that, from an international perspective, is comprehensive and technologically advanced. On the other hand, network arrangements appear to have delayed the introduction of suitable accountability relationships and hindered their development. The state has traditionally played an intermediary role between unavoidable corporate interests of industry and sick funds, with little transparency and to the detriment of more pluralistic access to decision making. Governance arrangements in Israel appear to limit the potential and incentive of the state and the sick funds to realize their potential countervailing powers in subsidy and pricing decisions. PMID:24914409

  16. The shaping of pharmaceutical governance: the Israeli case.

    PubMed

    Sax, Philip

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on governance of the pharmaceutical sector in Israel. It traces the relationships between the state, industry, and sick funds from before the establishment of National Health Insurance (NHI) in 1995 to the beginning of this decade, in particular as they have grappled with the challenge of making national formulary decisions in a rational manner. Subsequent to the introduction of NHI there have been shifts in the modes and mix of governance. This research shows empirically that a relatively complex mix of hierarchical and network modes of governance can be successfully established over an extended period of time when flexibility is maintained through the implementation process. The system for defining and updating a standard basket of health services has coped well with the challenge of managing a range of difficult and potentially volatile stakeholder relationships in the pharmaceutical sector and of distancing ministers from controversies of funding and listing decisions. Government has succeeded in containing drug costs whilst still maintaining a basket of reimbursable drugs that, from an international perspective, is comprehensive and technologically advanced. On the other hand, network arrangements appear to have delayed the introduction of suitable accountability relationships and hindered their development. The state has traditionally played an intermediary role between unavoidable corporate interests of industry and sick funds, with little transparency and to the detriment of more pluralistic access to decision making. Governance arrangements in Israel appear to limit the potential and incentive of the state and the sick funds to realize their potential countervailing powers in subsidy and pricing decisions. PMID:24914409

  17. Proposed best practice for statisticians in the reporting and publication of pharmaceutical industry-sponsored clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Matcham, James; Julious, Steven; Pyke, Stephen; O'Kelly, Michael; Todd, Susan; Seldrup, Jorgen; Day, Simon

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we set out what we consider to be a set of best practices for statisticians in the reporting of pharmaceutical industry-sponsored clinical trials. We make eight recommendations covering: author responsibilities and recognition; publication timing; conflicts of interest; freedom to act; full author access to data; trial registration and independent review. These recommendations are made in the context of the prominent role played by statisticians in the design, conduct, analysis and reporting of pharmaceutical sponsored trials and the perception of the reporting of these trials in the wider community. PMID:20187020

  18. Categorical perception.

    PubMed

    Goldstone, Robert L; Hendrickson, Andrew T

    2010-01-01

    Categorical perception (CP) is the phenomenon by which the categories possessed by an observer influences the observers' perception. Experimentally, CP is revealed when an observer's ability to make perceptual discriminations between things is better when those things belong to different categories rather than the same category, controlling for the physical difference between the things. We consider several core questions related to CP: Is it caused by innate and/or learned categories, how early in the information processing stream do categories influence perception, and what is the relation between ongoing linguistic processing and CP? CP for both speech and visual entities are surveyed, as are computational and mathematical models of CP. CP is an important phenomenon in cognitive science because it represents an essential adaptation of perception to support categorizations that an organism needs to make. Sensory signals that could be linearly related to physical qualities are warped in a nonlinear manner, transforming analog inputs into quasi-digital, quasi-symbolic encodings. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26272840

  19. [An analysis of the pharmaceuticals market in Vietnam].

    PubMed

    Simonet, D

    2001-01-01

    pharmaceutical researchers. A strong decentralisation process characterises the pharmaceutical sector, with pharmacies in the provinces and districts while wholesalers remain located in Hanoi and Saigon. The presence of many middlemen has contributed to an increase in prices. Today, a concentration of pharmacies is still noted in inner cities while the suburbs and the villages still have difficulties supplying drugs for inhabitants. Solutions have been implemented such as the opening of new pharmacies and additional professional training for pharmacists. Prices were lowered while the quality of the supply chain was improved. Local production is encouraged as hospitals are prompted to prescribe Vietnamese products. The modernisation of the Vietnamese pharmaceutical industry is also visible through the importation of medical materials and an increase in the number of private hospitals financed with both the help of local and foreign investors, mainly through joint-ventures, most often in Saigon and Hanoi. The renovation of local hospitals was also possible with the help of France and Japan. Columbia Gia Dinh International, located in Saigon, is one of the very few US/Vietnamese medical institutions created with a local partner, the Gia Dinh hospital. The recovery of the economy will accelerate the creation of new projects designed to improve local medical infrastructures. Other private companies, some of which are based in Singapore, have been specifically designed to deliver care to expatriates working in Vietnam. Insurance coverage has been provided in Vietnam since in 1992. Other improvements concern the implementation of "Good Manufacturing Practices" (GMP) and "Good Laboratory Practices" and "Good Storage Practices". Most norms were implemented at the end of the 90s in joint companies linking foreign investors and local partners or in independent foreign drug manufacturers based in Vietnam. Special areas were created to receive high tech investments in the medical and

  20. Vulnerabilities to misinformation in online pharmaceutical marketing

    PubMed Central

    De Freitas, Julian; Falls, Brian A; Haque, Omar S; Bursztajn, Harold J

    2013-01-01

    Given the large percentage of Internet users who search for health information online, pharmaceutical companies have invested significantly in online marketing of their products. Although online pharmaceutical marketing can potentially benefit both physicians and patients, it can also harm these groups by misleading them. Indeed, some pharmaceutical companies have been guilty of undue influence, which has threatened public health and trust. We conducted a review of the available literature on online pharmaceutical marketing, undue influence and the psychology of decision-making, in order to identify factors that contribute to Internet users’ vulnerability to online pharmaceutical misinformation. We find five converging factors: Internet dependence, excessive trust in the veracity of online information, unawareness of pharmaceutical company influence, social isolation and detail fixation. As the Internet continues to change, it is important that regulators keep in mind not only misinformation that surrounds new web technologies and their contents, but also the factors that make Internet users vulnerable to misinformation in the first place. Psychological components are a critical, although often neglected, risk factor for Internet users becoming misinformed upon exposure to online pharmaceutical marketing. Awareness of these psychological factors may help Internet users attentively and safely navigate an evolving web terrain. PMID:23761527

  1. Vulnerabilities to misinformation in online pharmaceutical marketing.

    PubMed

    De Freitas, Julian; Falls, Brian A; Haque, Omar S; Bursztajn, Harold J

    2013-05-01

    Given the large percentage of Internet users who search for health information online, pharmaceutical companies have invested significantly in online marketing of their products. Although online pharmaceutical marketing can potentially benefit both physicians and patients, it can also harm these groups by misleading them. Indeed, some pharmaceutical companies have been guilty of undue influence, which has threatened public health and trust. We conducted a review of the available literature on online pharmaceutical marketing, undue influence and the psychology of decision-making, in order to identify factors that contribute to Internet users' vulnerability to online pharmaceutical misinformation. We find five converging factors: Internet dependence, excessive trust in the veracity of online information, unawareness of pharmaceutical company influence, social isolation and detail fixation. As the Internet continues to change, it is important that regulators keep in mind not only misinformation that surrounds new web technologies and their contents, but also the factors that make Internet users vulnerable to misinformation in the first place. Psychological components are a critical, although often neglected, risk factor for Internet users becoming misinformed upon exposure to online pharmaceutical marketing. Awareness of these psychological factors may help Internet users attentively and safely navigate an evolving web terrain. PMID:23761527

  2. Evolution of Plant-Made Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, David R.; Penney, Claire A.; Majumder, Amrita; Walmsley, Amanda M.

    2011-01-01

    The science and policy of pharmaceuticals produced and/or delivered by plants has evolved over the past twenty-one years from a backyard remedy to regulated, purified products. After seemingly frozen at Phase I human clinical trials with six orally delivered plant-made vaccines not progressing past this stage over seven years, plant-made pharmaceuticals have made a breakthrough with several purified plant-based products advancing to Phase II trials and beyond. Though fraught with the usual difficulties of pharmaceutical development, pharmaceuticals made by plants have achieved pertinent milestones albeit slowly compared to other pharmaceutical production systems and are now at the cusp of reaching the consumer. Though the current economic climate begs for cautious investment as opposed to trail blazing, it is perhaps a good time to look to the future of plant-made pharmaceutical technology to assist in planning for future developments in order not to slow this technology’s momentum. To encourage continued progress, we highlight the advances made so far by this technology, particularly the change in paradigms, comparing developmental timelines, and summarizing the current status and future possibilities of plant-made pharmaceuticals. PMID:21686181

  3. Another development in pharmaceuticals: an introduction.

    PubMed

    Streky, G

    1985-01-01

    The provision of appropriate medicines of the right kind, quality and quantity, and at reasonable prices is a central concern for any government. Simultaneously, there is increasing recognition of the serious problems inherent in the existing systems of pharmaceutical development, promotion, marketing, distribution and use in all countries and particularly in the 3rd World. The vast majority of people in most 3rd World countries have little or no access to effective and safe medicines. The Dag Hammarskjold Foundation organized a consultation on Another Development in Pharmaceuticals in June 1985. It was based on some papers commissioned for that occasion with a view to developing new approaches to fundamental problems in this field and involving both national and international actors and institutions. The basic concern of these papers was to place the debate on pharmaceuticals in its proper historical, contemporary and future context. The 5 major areas discussed were: 1) man and medicines: a historical perspective; 2) towards a healthy use of pharmaceuticals; 3) towards a healthy pharmaceutical industry by the year 2000; 4) 1st principles for the prescription, promotion and use of pharmaceuticals: towards a code of conduct; and 5) monitoring Another Development in Pharmaceuticals. 90% of the world's production of pharmaceuticals originates in the industrialized countries, which also accounts for 80% of the consumption. 3rd World countries have been supplied with a very inappropriate assortment of products by the pharmaceutical industry. There is a growing demand for improved practices that are conducive to health development. An international harmonization of regulatory standards is needed. PMID:12341048

  4. Sector-scanning echocardiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, W. L.; Griffith, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    The mechanical sector scanner is described in detail, and its clinical application is discussed. Cross sectional images of the heart are obtained in real time using this system. The sector scanner has three major components: (a) hand held scanner, (b) video display, and (c) video recorder. The system provides diagnostic information in a wide spectrum of cardiac diseases, and it quantitates the severity of mitral stenosis by measurement of the mitral valve orifice area in diagnosing infants, children and adults with cyanotic congenital heart disease.

  5. Managing the cost of specialty pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Kernich, Catherine A; Creighton, Frederick A

    2004-01-01

    The cost of specialty pharmaceuticals is a significant driver of increased costs in the delivery of ambulatory care. This expense is expected to increase disproportionately as an increased number of specialty pharmaceuticals available to treat rare, complex, or chronic diseases enter the market. Ambulatory practice managers must plan for these increased expenditures in a fiscally sound manner. The department of medicine at University Hospitals of Cleveland has developed a comprehensive system of checks and balances for managing specialty pharmaceuticals. This system includes working closely with providers and payers, underpinned with sound business planning techniques. PMID:15586478

  6. Proposing a redefinition of pharmaceutical care.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, David F; Yakiwchuk, Erin M; Jorgenson, Derek J; Mansell, Kerry D

    2012-03-01

    In many clinical practice settings, individual pharmaceutical care practitioners have thousands of patients who may receive their service. However, the pharmaceutical care approach provides virtually no guidance regarding how patients should be identified or prioritized by practicing pharmacists. We believe that pharmacists need to be "officially" accountable to specific patient groups at high risk for drug- or disease-induced morbidity within their practice. Consequently, the current definition of pharmaceutical care and its associated care processes need to be modified to ensure the activities of pharmacists are being focused on high-priority patients on a consistent basis. PMID:22395251

  7. Metrology in Pharmaceutical Industry - A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuvamoto, Priscila D.; Fermam, Ricardo K. S.; Nascimento, Elizabeth S.

    2016-07-01

    Metrology is recognized by improving production process, increasing the productivity, giving more reliability to the measurements and consequently, it impacts in the economy of a country. Pharmaceutical area developed GMP (Good Manufacture Practice) requeriments, with no introduction of metrological concepts. However, due to Nanomedicines, it is expected this approach and the consequent positive results. The aim of this work is to verify the level of metrology implementation in a Brazilian pharmaceutical industry, using a case study. The purpose is a better mutual comprehension by both areas, acting together and governmental support to robustness of Brazilian pharmaceutical area.

  8. Ethics of pharmaceutical company relationships with the nursing profession: no free lunch...and no more pens?

    PubMed

    Crock, Elizabeth

    2009-10-01

    In recent years, nurses have increasingly become recipients of pharmaceutical company gifts, funding and sponsorship. There has been little discussion in the nursing literature, however, of the ethical and professional implications of nurses' acceptance of such sponsorship. This article examines ethical issues related to the issue of nurses' accepting benefits from pharmaceutical companies (and other commercial enterprises). It aims to encourage nurses to look critically at the implications of accepting such gifts/sponsorship, or to enter any form of relationship with commercial companies within the health sector, and to stimulate further discussion of this issue within the profession. PMID:19929164

  9. Public Sector Impasse Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vadakin, James C.

    The subject of collective bargaining negotiation impasse procedures in the public sector, which includes public school systems, is a broad one. In this speech, the author introduces the various procedures, explains how they are used, and lists their advantages and disadvantages. Procedures discussed are mediation, fact-finding, arbitration,…

  10. Pharmaceutical standardization of Apamarga kshara

    PubMed Central

    Jadav, Hasmukh R.; Galib, R.; Prajapati, Pradeep Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Standardization of herbal drugs is essential to certify their quality and purity. Kshara (alkaline substance) of Apamarga (Achyranthes aspera Linn.) is an important constituent in many Ayurvedic formulations, but its standard manufacturing process (SMP) is not attempted till date. This study is aimed to establish SMP for Apamarga kshara. In pharmaceutical process; generally the sediments of ash obtained at the end of washes will be discarded. However, in the study, we attempted to wash the sediments repeatedly by adding water to extract more Kshara. Apamarga was collected from the local area and authenticated. Kshara was prepared by following standard methods and the preliminary physicochemical profile was developed. It is observed that the ash yields Kshara even in the consecutive washes. First wash yielded 21.23% w/w Kshara, while the second and third washes yielded 9.38% w/w and 4.76% w/w, respectively. Repeated washes yield more Kshara. Hence, it is advocated to wash the ashes repeatedly. As the findings are encouraging, similar experiments can be extended to all other Kshara preparations. PMID:26834430

  11. Pharmacogenetics and the pharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed

    Raaijmakers, Jan A M; Koster, Ellen S; Maitland-van der Zee, Anke-Hilse

    2010-01-01

    The detailed knowledge of the human genome has not fulfilled its promise as yet. It seems fair to say that we are far from treating existing diseases by therapeutic interventions developed on the basis of genetic knowledge. However, pharmacogenetics has shown to be useful in improving our understanding of pharmacotherapy. Industry is starting to embed this knowledge in the design of innovative drugs and there are three important areas of interest: safety, efficacy and target identification. Application of pharmacogenetics e.g. in patient selection are leading to the direction of more personalised medicine. The future will bring more of such applications. However, current knowledge also leads to a more integrated approach of pharmacogenetics as part of systems biology, providing an even more complete image of reality surrounding disease and therapy, including for example environmental factors and behaviour. In addition, collaborative efforts with academic partners are very much welcomed by the pharmaceutical industry and are expected to have a synergistic effect on progression in this field. PMID:20205665

  12. New insights in pharmaceutical analysis.

    PubMed

    Guillarme, Davy; Schappler, Julie; Boccard, Julien; Veuthey, Jean-Luc; Rudaz, Serge

    2012-01-01

    The research unit of pharmaceutical analytical chemistry (PAC) has been active in the field of separation sciences for many years. Liquid chromatography (LC) and its latest improvements such as ultra-high performance chromatography (UHPLC) and supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) are deeply and thoroughly studied, from a fundamental viewpoint to its various application capabilities. Electro-driven separations such as capillary electrophoresis (CE) are also a major field of interest, especially for macromolecules, and low cost. All these techniques are investigated with various detection modes including mass spectrometry (MS) for various applications where high sensitivity and selectivity is needed. Extracting the relevant information from the overwhelming amount of data generated by modern analytical platforms has become an important issue for knowledge discovery in various research fields. The appropriate treatment of such data is therefore of crucial importance to provide valuable information. Numerous works in our research group have demonstrated the usefulness of statistical and mathematical methodologies to improve quality of the results. Therefore, well-established chemometric approaches (e.g. design of experiments, multivariate data analysis, etc.) are implemented to optimize the analytical process from method development to data analysis. PMID:22867546

  13. Indigenous and multinational pharmaceutical companies.

    PubMed

    Lilja, J

    1983-01-01

    There is a set of complex relationships between governments and the pharmaceutical companies. These relationships can be analysed in many different ways. In the following article the drug system of each country will be the unit of analysis. The drug system includes all the decision processes, formal as well as informal, from the production or importation of drugs to the intake of the drug by the patient. The aim of this paper is to discuss how environmental factors, the strategies of the drug companies and the national policies, will effect the drug system of a country. Satisfying solutions to the economical and health goals of the country will be searched for. If we want a more rational discussion in this area, professionally and politically, we need more empirical knowledge about the multinational drug companies and their effects on society. This does not mean that we shall sit waiting for this new knowledge. We have to make decisions using todays knowledge. However, in the long run rational decision strategy must include ways to collect important empirical data about the phenomenom under investigation. The aim of this survey is to indicate areas where we already have quite good knowledge and indicate other areas where this data is missing. PMID:6623122

  14. Paying for On-Patent Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Goldfield, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    In this article we propose a new approach to pricing for patent-protected (on-patent) pharmaceuticals. We describe and define limit pricing as a method for drug companies to maximize revenue for their investment by offering budget-neutral pricing to encourage early adoption by payers. Under this approach, payers are incentivized to adopt innovative but expensive drugs more quickly if drug companies provide detailed analyses of the net impact of the new pharmaceutical upon total health budgets. For payers to adopt use of a new pharmaceutical, they would require objective third-party evaluation and pharmaceutical manufacturer accountability for projected outcomes efficacy of their treatments on population health. The pay for outcomes underpinning of this approach falls within the wider aspirations of health reform. PMID:26945298

  15. MULTIFUNCTIONAL AND STIMULI-SENSITIVE PHARMACEUTICAL NANOCARRIERS

    PubMed Central

    Torchilin, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    Currently used pharmaceutical nanocarriers, such as liposomes, micelles, and polymeric nanoparticles, demonstrate a broad variety of useful properties, such as longevity in the body; specific targeting to certain disease sites; enhanced intracellular penetration; contrast properties allowing for direct carrier visualization in vivo; stimili-sensitivity, and others. Some of those pharmaceutical carriers have already made their way into clinic, while others are still under preclinical development. In certain cases, the pharmaceutical nanocarriers combine several of the listed properties. Long-circulating immunoliposomes capable of prolonged residence in the blood and specific target recognition represent one of examples of this kind. The engineering of multifunctional pharmaceutical nanocarriers combining several useful properties in one particle can significantly enhance the efficacy of many therapeutic and diagnostic protocols. This paper considers the current status and possible future directions in the emerging area of multifunctional nanocarriers with primary attention on the combination of such properties as longevity, targetability, intracellular penetration, contrast loading, and stimuli sensitivity. PMID:18977297

  16. Information flow in the pharmaceutical supply chain.

    PubMed

    Yousefi, Nazila; Alibabaei, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Managing the supply chain plays an important role in creating competitive advantages for companies. Adequate information flow in supply chain is one of the most important issues in SCM. Therefore, using certain Information Systems can have a significant role in managing and integrating data and information within the supply chain. Pharmaceutical supply chain is more complex than many other supply chains, in the sense that it can affect social and political perspectives. On the other hand, managing the pharmaceutical supply chain is difficult because of its complexity and also government regulations in this field. Although, Iran has progressed a lot in pharmaceutical manufacturing, still there are many unsolved issues in managing the information flow in the pharmaceutical supply chain. In this study, we reviewed the benefits of using different levels of an integrated information system in the supply chain and the possible challenges ahead. PMID:26664401

  17. Assessing the assessments: Pharmaceuticals in the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Enick, O.V. Moore, M.M.

    2007-11-15

    The relatively new issue of pharmaceutical contamination of the environment offers the opportunity to explore the application of values to the construction, communication and management of risk. The still-developing regulatory policies regarding environmental contamination with pharmaceuticals provide fertile ground for the introduction of values into the definition and management of risk. In this report, we summarize the current knowledge regarding pharmaceutical contamination of the environment and discuss specific attributes of pharmaceuticals that require special consideration. We then present an analysis showing that if values are incorporated into assessing, characterizing and managing risk, the results of risk assessments will more accurately reflect the needs of various stakeholders. Originating from an acknowledgement of the inherent uncertainty and value-laden nature of risk assessment, the precautionary principle (and later, the multi-criteria, integrated risk assessment), provides a direction for further research and policy development.

  18. Information flow in the pharmaceutical supply chain

    PubMed Central

    Yousefi, Nazila; Alibabaei, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Managing the supply chain plays an important role in creating competitive advantages for companies. Adequate information flow in supply chain is one of the most important issues in SCM. Therefore, using certain Information Systems can have a significant role in managing and integrating data and information within the supply chain. Pharmaceutical supply chain is more complex than many other supply chains, in the sense that it can affect social and political perspectives. On the other hand, managing the pharmaceutical supply chain is difficult because of its complexity and also government regulations in this field. Although, Iran has progressed a lot in pharmaceutical manufacturing, still there are many unsolved issues in managing the information flow in the pharmaceutical supply chain. In this study, we reviewed the benefits of using different levels of an integrated information system in the supply chain and the possible challenges ahead. PMID:26664401

  19. GUIDES TO POLLUTION PREVENTION: THE PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pharmaceutical manufacturers generate a variety of wastes during manufacturing, maintenance, and housekeeping operations which can be reduced or minimized through source reductIon and recycling. he typical waste streams are spent fermentation broths, process liquors, solvents, eq...

  20. Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients and Aquatic Organisms

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presence of active pharmaceuticals ingredients (APIs) in aquatic systems in recent years has led to a burgeoning literature examining environmental occurrence, fate, effects, risk assessment, and treatability of these compounds. Although APIs have received much attention as ...

  1. ENVIRONMENTAL STEWARDSHIP OF PHARMACEUTICALS - THE GREEN PHARMACY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPS) as environmental pollutants is a multifaceted issue whose scope continues to become better delineated since the escalation of conceited attention beginning in the 1980s. PPCPs typically occur as trace environme...

  2. Agreements at the Pharmaceutical/University Interface.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ku, Katherine

    1987-01-01

    Specific agreements that arise at the interface between universities and pharmaceutical companies are described including sponsored research agreements, license agreements, clinical study agreements, material transfer agreements, and patient consent forms with respect to commercialization rights. (Author/MLW)

  3. Why the MDGs need good governance in pharmaceutical systems to promote global health

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Corruption in the health sector can hurt health outcomes. Improving good governance can in turn help prevent health-related corruption. We understand good governance as having the following characteristics: it is consensus-oriented, accountable, transparent, responsive, equitable and inclusive, effective and efficient, follows the rule of law, is participatory and should in theory be less vulnerable to corruption. By focusing on the pharmaceutical system, we explore some of the key lessons learned from existing initiatives in good governance. As the development community begins to identify post-2015 Millennium Development Goals targets, it is essential to evaluate programs in good governance in order to build on these results and establish sustainable strategies. This discussion on the pharmaceutical system illuminates why. Discussion Considering pharmaceutical governance initiatives such as those launched by the World Bank, World Health Organization, and the Global Fund, we argue that country ownership of good governance initiatives is essential but also any initiative must include the participation of impartial stakeholders. Understanding the political context of any initiative is also vital so that potential obstacles are identified and the design of any initiative is flexible enough to make adjustments in programming as needed. Finally, the inherent challenge which all initiatives face is adequately measuring outcomes from any effort. However in fairness, determining the precise relationship between good governance and health outcomes is rarely straightforward. Summary Challenges identified in pharmaceutical governance initiatives manifest in different forms depending on the nature and structure of the initiative, but their regular occurrence and impact on population-based health demonstrates growing importance of addressing pharmaceutical governance as a key component of the post-2015 Millennium Development Goals. Specifically, these challenges need

  4. THz spectroscopy: An emerging technology for pharmaceutical development and pharmaceutical Process Analytical Technology (PAT) applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Huiquan; Khan, Mansoor

    2012-08-01

    As an emerging technology, THz spectroscopy has gained increasing attention in the pharmaceutical area during the last decade. This attention is due to the fact that (1) it provides a promising alternative approach for in-depth understanding of both intermolecular interaction among pharmaceutical molecules and pharmaceutical product quality attributes; (2) it provides a promising alternative approach for enhanced process understanding of certain pharmaceutical manufacturing processes; and (3) the FDA pharmaceutical quality initiatives, most noticeably, the Process Analytical Technology (PAT) initiative. In this work, the current status and progress made so far on using THz spectroscopy for pharmaceutical development and pharmaceutical PAT applications are reviewed. In the spirit of demonstrating the utility of first principles modeling approach for addressing model validation challenge and reducing unnecessary model validation "burden" for facilitating THz pharmaceutical PAT applications, two scientific case studies based on published THz spectroscopy measurement results are created and discussed. Furthermore, other technical challenges and opportunities associated with adapting THz spectroscopy as a pharmaceutical PAT tool are highlighted.

  5. Pharmaceutical published literature databases: a survey.

    PubMed

    Hull, P

    1996-01-01

    Pharmaceutical companies often maintain a bibliographic database of published articles on their products. Although such databases share the common purpose of providing the company with a centralized source of published information, the databases themselves vary in scope, uses, and technologies. In order to explore the current status of these databases, a survey was conducted in early 1995. This article provides an overview of pharmaceutical product literature databases and the results from that survey. PMID:10157847

  6. Environmental management practices in the Lebanese pharmaceutical industries: implementation strategies and challenges.

    PubMed

    Massoud, May A; Makarem, N; Ramadan, W; Nakkash, R

    2015-03-01

    This research attempts to provide an understanding of the Lebanese pharmaceutical industries' environmental management strategies, priorities, and perceptions as well as drivers, barriers, and incentives regarding the implementation of the voluntary ISO 14001 Environmental Management System. Accordingly, a semistructured in-depth interview was conducted with the pharmaceutical industries. The findings revealed a significant lack of knowledge about the standard among the industries. The main perceived drivers for adopting the ISO 14001 are improving the companies' image and overcoming international trade. The main perceived barriers for acquiring the standard are the lack of government support and the fact that ISO 14001 is not being legally required or enforced by the government. Moreover, results revealed that adopting the ISO 14001 standard is not perceived as a priority for the Lebanese pharmaceutical industries. Although the cost of certification was not considered as a barrier for the implementation of ISO 14001, the majority of the pharmaceutical industries are neither interested nor willing to adopt the Standard if they are not exposed to any regulatory pressure or external demand. They are more concerned with quality and safety issues with the most adopted international standard among the industries being the ISO 9001 quality management system. This study highlights the aspect that financial barriers are not always the hurdles for implementing environmental management strategies in developing countries and underscores the need for regulatory frameworks and enforcement. PMID:25673269

  7. Rejection of pharmaceuticals by forward osmosis membranes.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xue; Shan, Junhong; Wang, Can; Wei, Jing; Tang, Chuyang Y

    2012-08-15

    Rejection of four pharmaceutical compounds, carbamazepine, diclofenac, ibuprofen and naproxen, by forward osmosis (FO) membranes was investigated in this study. For the first time, the rejection efficiency of the pharmaceutical compounds was compared between commercial cellulose triacetate (CTA) based membranes and thin film composite (TFC) polyamide based membranes. The rejection behavior was related to membrane interfacial properties, physicochemical characteristics of the pharmaceutical molecules and feed solution pH. TFC polyamide membranes exhibited excellent overall performance, with high water flux, excellent pH stability and great rejection of all pharmaceuticals investigated (>94%). For commercial CTA based FO membranes, hydrophobic interaction between the compounds and membranes exhibited strong influence on their rejection under acidic conditions. The pharmaceuticals rejection was well correlated to their hydrophobicity (log D). Under alkaline conditions, both electrostatic repulsion and size exclusion contributed to the removal of deprotonated molecules. The pharmaceuticals rejection by CTA-HW membrane at pH 8 followed the order: diclofenac (99%)>carbamazepine (95%)>ibuprofen (93%) ≈ naproxen (93%). These results can be important for FO membrane synthesis, modification and their application in water purification. PMID:22640821

  8. Bromination of selected pharmaceuticals in water matrices.

    PubMed

    Benitez, F Javier; Acero, Juan L; Real, Francisco J; Roldan, Gloria; Casas, Francisco

    2011-11-01

    The bromination of five selected pharmaceuticals (metoprolol, naproxen, amoxicillin, phenacetin, and hydrochlorothiazide) was studied with these compounds individually dissolved in ultra-pure water. The apparent rate constants for the bromination reaction were determined as a function of the pH, obtaining the sequence amoxicillin>naproxen>hydrochlorothiazide≈phenacetin≈metoprolol. A kinetic mechanism specifying the dissociation reactions and the species formed for each compound according to its pK(a) value and the pH allowed the intrinsic rate constants to be determined for each elementary reaction. There was fairly good agreement between the experimental and calculated values of the apparent rate constants, confirming the goodness of the proposed reaction mechanism. In a second stage, the bromination of the selected pharmaceuticals simultaneously dissolved in three water matrices (a groundwater, a surface water from a public reservoir, and a secondary effluent from a WWTP) was investigated. The pharmaceutical elimination trend agreed with the previously determined rate constants. The influence of the main operating conditions (pH, initial bromine dose, and characteristics of the water matrix) on the degradation of the pharmaceuticals was established. An elimination concentration profile for each pharmaceutical in the water matrices was proposed based on the use of the previously evaluated apparent rate constants, and the theoretical results agreed satisfactorily with experiment. Finally, chlorination experiments performed in the presence of bromide showed that low bromide concentrations slightly accelerate the oxidation of the selected pharmaceuticals during chlorine disinfection. PMID:21906777

  9. Water and stability of pharmaceutical solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shalaev, Evgenyi

    2007-03-01

    Solid pharmaceuticals are multi-component systems consisting of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and inactive ingredients (excipients). Excipients may include inorganic salts (e.g., NaCl), carbohydrates (e.g., lactose), and polymers, to name a few, whereas APIs range from relatively simple molecules (e.g., aspirin) to proteins and olygonucleotides. Pharmaceutical solids could exist either as single-phase or heterophase systems. They also may have different extent of order, such as highly ordered crystalline phases, amorphous solids that are thermodynamically unstable but might be kinetically stable under the time frame of observation, and crystalline mesophases including liquid crystals. With all this diversity, there are common features for such systems, and two of them will be discussed in the presentation. (i) Requirements for chemical stability of pharmaceuticals are very strict. A very limited (e.g., less than 0.1%) extent of conversion is allowed in these materials over the shelf life, i.e., during several years of storage at ambient and (sometimes) not fully controlled (e.g., a medicine cabinet in one's bathroom) conditions. (ii) All pharmaceutical solids contain some water, although its amount and physical state are highly variable and may change during manufacturing and shelf life. There are many challenging questions and issues associated with the ``Water and stability of pharmaceutical solids'' subject; some of them will be considered in the presentation: (i) What are the features of chemical reactivity of crystalline vs disordered systems? (ii) What is the role of water in solid state chemical reactivity of amorphous solids, e.g., water as plasticizer vs reactant vs reaction media? (iii) How homogeneous are pharmaceutical amorphous solid solutions, e.g., carbohydrate-water systems? (iv) What is the optimal water content? With water being the most common destabilizing factor, is ``the drier - the better'' always the case?

  10. The UK pharmaceutical market. An overview.

    PubMed

    Towse, A

    1996-01-01

    The National Health Service (NHS) accounts for more than 98% of the UK prescription medicines market, which is the sixth largest pharmaceutical market in the world. Most of this market is driven by the UK's approximately 35,000 general practitioners (GPs). It is an open market, with most leading foreign pharmaceutical companies having a strong presence. While the growth rate of this market has been decelerating, it remains one of the fastest growing components of NHS expenditure. The NHS does not operate any kind of national reimbursement list, but the UK government has adopted several means to keep medicines expenditure under control. These include cash incentives and constraints for GPs relating to expenditure on medicines, individual quarterly updates on GP prescribing, the publication of a list of medicines that cannot be prescribed by GPs, the switching of some prescription-only medicines to over-the-counter medicines, and a co-payment system. The main form of economic regulation in the UK, however, remains the Pharmaceutical Price Regulation Scheme (PPRS). This limits the rate-of-return on capital attributable to medicines sales to the NHS, with the intended rate-of-return being equal to that of UK industry overall. The pharmaceutical industry has generally performed relatively well in the UK market, managing to preserve incentives to innovation. This reflects the fact that UK GPs have been able to maintain their clinical freedom, as well as government recognition of the economic contribution made by the pharmaceutical industry. Current issues of interest in the UK pharmaceutical market context include the future of the PPRS, the debates over the imposition of a national formulary and generic substitution, and over parallel trade, the potential impact of managed-care protocols and computer-based prescribing on pharmaceutical expenditures, and possible political changes. PMID:10163432

  11. AN INFORMATIC APPROACH TO ESTIMATING ECOLOGICAL RISKS POSED BY PHARMACEUTICAL USE: HUMAN PRESCRIPTION PHARMACEUTICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pharmaceuticals are often excreted from patients as the parent compound or as active metabolites. Some of these compounds have been found in the environment. However, the environmental concentrations of the majority of pharmaceuticals and their metabolites are not known. The re...

  12. Employment in the Public Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    This report synthesizes the findings from several areas of work undertaken to assess what impact public sector employment has had on both the level and structure of employment. It also examines the impact of the public sector as employer on the labor market from two viewpoints: the level and share of public sector employment and the structure of…

  13. Stereoscopic Perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clapp, Robert E.

    1987-06-01

    There is only one real world, We "see" that world as extending into three dimensions because we look at it with two eyes. We are not presented with two "pictures" of the real world, but with two separate views. Views not pictures. The analog of the eye as a camera has done violence to the development of concepts of human vision. The eye is a dynamic sensing apparatus that supplies the brain with inputs from which the brain constructs the scene we "see", and so is responsible for our perceptual structuring of the real world. These visual perceptions are dependent upon our other sensory inputs as well. Indeed, our body senses control and direct, to some degree, where out eyes look and what we "see". This process of conceptualization is thoroughly egocentric. This paper addresses the processes by which our mind/eye/senses interact to form our perception (and concepts) of the world (real or illusionary) and the advantages (and problems) of our egocentric reduction of the data inputs.

  14. Selected aspects of europeization of pharmaceutical law.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Agnieszka; Wengler, Lubomira; Pawłowski, Leszek

    2010-01-01

    As one of its aspects, the process of European integration has an influence on the legal orders of the Member States, which is often referred to in the literature as the europeization of law. Upon Poland's accession to the structures of the European Union, there have also been radical changes to the Polish legal system. According to the concept of the sources of law in the Polish Constitution and to the judicial decisions of the European Court of Justice, Community law now takes priority over national law, even over acts of parliament. Pharmaceutical law represents one of the areas where the harmonization process has been taking place. It shapes the principles and the manner according to which medicinal products are approved for marketing, the conditions of clinical trials, as well as the conditions of drug manufacture and advertisement. It also determines the rules of trading in medicinal products, the running of pharmaceutical wholesalers and pharmacies, as well as the duties and rights of the Pharmaceutical Inspectorate. This paper provides a summary of research on the impact of Community law on Polish pharmaceutical law, i.e. on the europeization process, and on the consequences of this process for the Polish pharmaceutical market and for research and development. PMID:20369799

  15. Pharmaceutical supply chain risks: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Supply of medicine as a strategic product in any health system is a top priority. Pharmaceutical companies, a major player of the drug supply chain, are subject to many risks. These risks disrupt the supply of medicine in many ways such as their quantity and quality and their delivery to the right place and customers and at the right time. Therefore risk identification in the supply process of pharmaceutical companies and mitigate them is highly recommended. Objective In this study it is attempted to investigate pharmaceutical supply chain risks with perspective of manufacturing companies. Methods Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science bibliographic databases and Google scholar scientific search engines were searched for pharmaceutical supply chain risk management studies with 6 different groups of keywords. All results found by keywords were reviewed and none-relevant articles were excluded by outcome of interests and researcher boundaries of study within 4 steps and through a systematic method. Results Nine articles were included in the systematic review and totally 50 main risks based on study outcome of interest extracted which classified in 7 categories. Most of reported risks were related to supply and supplier issues. Organization and strategy issues, financial, logistic, political, market and regulatory issues were in next level of importance. Conclusion It was shown that the majority of risks in pharmaceutical supply chain were internal risks due to processes, people and functions mismanagement which could be managed by suitable mitigation strategies. PMID:24355166

  16. 'Linkage' pharmaceutical evergreening in Canada and Australia.

    PubMed

    Faunce, Thomas A; Lexchin, Joel

    2007-01-01

    'Evergreening' is not a formal concept of patent law. It is best understood as a social idea used to refer to the myriad ways in which pharmaceutical patent owners utilise the law and related regulatory processes to extend their high rent-earning intellectual monopoly privileges, particularly over highly profitable (either in total sales volume or price per unit) 'blockbuster' drugs. Thus, while the courts are an instrument frequently used by pharmaceutical brand name manufacturers to prolong their patent royalties, 'evergreening' is rarely mentioned explicitly by judges in patent protection cases. The term usually refers to threats made to competitors about a brand-name manufacturer's tactical use of pharmaceutical patents (including over uses, delivery systems and even packaging), not to extension of any particular patent over an active product ingredient. This article focuses in particular on the 'evergreening' potential of so-called 'linkage' provisions, imposed on the regulatory (safety, quality and efficacy) approval systems for generic pharmaceuticals of Canada and Australia, by specific articles in trade agreements with the US. These 'linkage' provisions have also recently appeared in the Korea-US Free Trade Agreement (KORUSFTA). They require such drug regulators to facilitate notification of, or even prevent, any potential patent infringement by a generic pharmaceutical manufacturer. This article explores the regulatory lessons to be learnt from Canada's and Australia's shared experience in terms of minimizing potential adverse impacts of such 'linkage evergreening' provisions on drug costs and thereby potentially on citizen's access to affordable, essential medicines. PMID:17543113

  17. Cure for empire: the 'Conquer-Russia-Pill', pharmaceutical manufacturers, and the making of patriotic Japanese, 1904-45.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hoi-Eun

    2013-04-01

    Seirogan, a popular anti-diarrhoeal pill, is arguably one of the most successful pharmaceutical products of modern Japan. What is less known is that the Japanese army initially developed Seirogan during the Russo-Japanese War as the ‘Conquer-Russia-Pill’, which was later marketed to the public by private manufacturers. Previous scholars have emphasised the top–down governmental method of mobilising private sectors to manipulate public opinion for the cause of external imperialist expansion and domestic stability during wartime Japan. But the matrix that the Conquer-Russia-Pill allows us to glimpse is an inverted power relation among the state, commercial sectors, and imperial citizens. While the Japanese government remained indifferent if not hostile to jingoistic pharmaceutical manufacturers who could easily disrupt international relations, pharmaceutical companies quickly recognised and exploited the opportunities that the Conquer-Russia-Pill and its symbolism provided under the banner of the empire. In turn, Japanese consumers reacted to commercial sermons carefully anchored in patriotic and militaristic discourses and images by opening their wallets. In other words, the popularity of the Conquer-Russia-Pill was a culmination of the convergence of a governmental initiative to enhance military capabilities, the commercial ingenuity of pharmaceutical manufacturers, and a consumer response to patriotic exhortations. PMID:24070348

  18. The Hale solar sector boundary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Svalgaard, L.; Wilcox, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    A Hale solar-sector boundary is defined as that half (northern hemisphere or southern hemisphere) of a sector boundary in which the change of sector-magnetic-field polarity is the same as the change of polarity from a preceding spot to a following spot. Above a Hale sector boundary the green corona has maximum brightness, while above a non-Hale boundary the green corona has a minimum brightness. The Hale portion of a photospheric sector boundary tends to have maximum magnetic-field strength, while the non-Hale portion has minimum field strength.

  19. The Hale solar sector boundary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Svalgaard, L.; Wilcox, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    A Hale solar sector boundary is defined as the half (Northern Hemisphere or Southern Hemisphere) of a sector boundary in which the change of sector magnetic field polarity is the same as the change of polarity from a preceding spot to a following spot. Above a Hale sector boundary the green corona has maximum brightness, while above a non-Hale boundary the green corona has a minimum brightness. The Hale portion of a photospheric sector boundary tends to have maximum magnetic field strength, while the non-Hale portion has minimum field strength.

  20. Physicians’ perceptions of medical representative visits in Yemen: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The pharmaceutical industry invests heavily in promotion, and it uses a variety of promotional strategies to influence physicians’ prescribing decisions. Within this context, medical representatives (MRs) are the key personnel employed in promoting their products. One significant consequence of the interactions between physicians and medical representatives is a conflict of interests which may contribute to the over prescribing of medications and thus negative effects on patients’ health and economics. There is limited detailed information published on the reasons why physicians interact with pharmaceutical representatives. This study aims to qualitatively explore physicians’ attitudes about interactions with medical representatives and their reasons for accepting the medical representatives’ visits. Methods In-depth interviews were used to gain a better understanding of physicians’ perceptions of medical representative visits. A total of 32 physicians from both private and public hospitals were interviewed. The recordings of the interviews were transcribed verbatim and subject to thematic analysis using a framework analysis approach. Results The present qualitative study found that the majority of the physicians had positive interactions with medical representatives. The physicians’ main reasons stated for allowing medical representatives’ visits are the social contacts and mutual benefits they will gain from these representatives. They also emphasized that the meeting with representatives provides educational and scientific benefits. A few physicians stated that the main reasons behind refusing the meeting with medical representatives were lack of conviction about the product and obligation to prescribe medicine from the representative company. Most of the physicians believed that they were under marketing pressure to prescribe certain medicines. Conclusions Although physicians are aware that the medical representatives could influence

  1. [Pharmaceutical applications of sulfobuthylether-beta-cyclodextrin].

    PubMed

    Sebestyén, Zita; Szepesi, Katalin; Szabó, Barnabás

    2013-01-01

    Sulfobuthylether-beta-cyclodextrin (SBECD) is a substituted derivative of a cyclic oligosaccharide containing seven glucopyranose units, which bear pH-independent negative charges because of sulfonate groups. This derivative has better solubility and toxicological characteristics than the unsubstituted beta-cyclodextrin, and the presence of sulfobuthyl groups opens new dimensions in the interactions acting the part of the complex formation. These create opportunities for the pharmaceutical applications of this compound. Currently six pharmaceutical preparations circulate--moiety of these circulates in Hungary also--which have a composition containing SBECD as pharmaceutical excipient. Out of the main effects of the complex-forming agent the solubility enhancement is utilized in these compositions to achieve the solution of a therapeutic dose in the case of intravascular administration. Available experimental evidences and published patents are indicative of broadening the circle of the applications in point of both technological advantages and dosage forms. PMID:23926650

  2. Pharmaceutical strategy and innovation: an academics perspective.

    PubMed

    Baxendale, Ian R; Hayward, John J; Ley, Steven V; Tranmer, Geoffrey K

    2007-06-01

    The pharmaceutical industry is under increasing pressure on many fronts, from investors requiring larger returns to consumer groups and health authorities demanding cheaper and safer drugs. It is also feeling additional pressure from the infringement upon its profit margins by generic drug producers. Many companies are aggressively pursuing outsourcing contracts in an attempt to counter many of the financial pressures and streamline their operations. At the same time, the productivity of the pharmaceutical industry at its science base is being questioned in terms of the number of products and the timeframes required for each company to deliver them to market. This has generated uncertainties regarding the current corporate strategies that have been adopted and the levels of innovation being demonstrated. In this essay we discuss these topics in the context of the global pharmaceutical market, investigating the basis for many of these issues and highlighting the hurdles the industry needs to overcome, especially as they relate to the chemical sciences. PMID:17458911

  3. The economics of pharmaceutical supply in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Yudkin, J S

    1980-01-01

    This paper analyzes the patterns of purchasing, distribution, and utilization of pharmaceuticals currently found in Tanzania, an underdeveloped country in Africa. Like other nations in the Third World, Tanzania offers the prospect of a rapidly expanding market for the multinational pharmaceutical industry. However, this market has been to a large extent developed by the intense promotional activities of the drug companies themselves. In addition to normal marketing methods, these companies indulge in techniques which would be neither acceptable nor legal in developed countries. As a result, expensive proprietary drugs are overpurchased and overprescribed, mainly in the large urban hospitals, with consequent deprivation of other health care facilities, particularly those for the rural peasants who form the majority of the population. The activities of the multinational pharmaceutical companies in the Third World are therefore an important component in the continuing underdevelopment of health in these nations. PMID:7419314

  4. Thermal properties of food and pharmaceutical powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abiad, Mohamad Ghassan

    Foods and pharmaceuticals are complex systems usually exposed to various environmental conditions during processing and thus storage, stability, functionality and quality are key attributes that deserve careful attention. The quality and stability of foods and pharmaceuticals are mainly affected by environmental conditions such as temperature, humidity, time, and processing conditions (e.g. shear, pressure) under which they may undergo physical and/or chemical transformations. Glass transition as well as other thermal properties is a key to understand how external conditions affect physical changes of such materials. Development of new materials and understanding the physico-chemical behavior of existing ones require a scientific foundation that translates into safe and high quality foods, improved quality of pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals with lower risk to patients and functional efficacy of polymers used in food and medicinal products. This research provides an overview of the glass transition and other thermal properties and introduces novel methods developed to characterize such properties.

  5. WHO Expert Committee on specifications for pharmaceutical preparations.

    PubMed

    2010-01-01

    The Expert Committee on Specifications for Pharmaceutical Preparations works towards clear, independent and practical standards and guidelines for the quality assurance of medicines. Standards are developed by the Committee through worldwide consultation and an international consensus-building process. The following new guidelines were adopted and recommended for use: good practices for pharmaceutical quality control laboratories; supplementary guidelines for active pharmaceutical ingredients; good manufacturing practices for pharmaceutical products containing hazardous substances; good manufacturing practices for sterile pharmaceutical products; good distribution practices for pharmaceutical products; guidelines on the requalification of prequalified dossiers: and guidelines for the preparation of a contract research organization master file. PMID:20560300

  6. Sulfite-containing Canadian pharmaceutical products available in 1991.

    PubMed Central

    Miyata, M; Schuster, B; Schellenberg, R

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compile an inclusive list of Canadian pharmaceutical products available in 1991 that contained sulfites. DATA SOURCES: Written and oral responses from 94 pharmaceutical companies selected from the 1989 Compendium of Pharmaceuticals and Specialties. RESULTS: A list of sulfite-containing pharmaceutical products was compiled from data supplied by the 90 responding companies. Companies whose products contained no sulfites were separately identified. CONCLUSIONS: Sulfites are present in many pharmaceutical products and are one of many excipients and additives that have been reported to cause severe adverse reactions. The provided list should be a useful aid for health care practitioners when prescribing pharmaceutical products for sulfite-sensitive patients. PMID:1483237

  7. Pharmacist, the pharmaceutical industry and pharmacy education in Saudi Arabia: A questionnaire-based study

    PubMed Central

    Bin Saleh, Ghada; Rezk, Naser L.; Laika, Laila; Ali, Anna; El-Metwally, Ashraf

    2015-01-01

    Background: In Saudi Arabia there is an estimated need of more than 100,000 pharmacy graduates to cover all present sectors. The shortage of pharmacists has affected many of these sectors especially the pharmaceutical industry. The contribution of Saudi pharmacists to local pharmaceuticals industry would be extremely beneficial and important for shaping the future of the drug industry within the Kingdom. It is not clear whether future Saudi pharmacists are willing to contribute to local pharmaco-industrial fields. Methods: A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based survey was conducted on all final-year pharmacy students in King Saud University (KSU), Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Results: Out of a total of 130 students registered in the final-year of the pharmacy program in KSU, 122 (93.8%) were able to complete the questionnaire. The results showed that the majority (83%) of Saudi pharmacy students indicated that they had not received practical training in the pharmaceutical companies, while only 17.2% of the students felt that they had the knowledge and the skills to work in the pharmaceutical industry after graduation. The majority of the students (66.7%) chose clinical pharmacy as their future career field while only 10.9% indicated willingness to work in a pharmaceutical industry career. Only 8.2% selected working in the pharmaceutical industry. The significant predictor of possibly choosing a career in the local drug industry is a student with a bachelor’s degree (compared to Pharm D degree) in pharmacy (OR = 2.7 [95% CI 1.1–6.3]). Conclusion: Pharmacy students who are enrolled in the capital city of Riyadh are not properly trained to play an influential role in local drug companies. As a result, their level of willingness to have a career in such important business is not promising (more among Pharm D program). Future research in other pharmacy colleges within Saudi Arabia is needed to confirm such results. PMID:26594125

  8. Terahertz study on porosity and mass fraction of active pharmaceutical ingredient of pharmaceutical tablets.

    PubMed

    Bawuah, Prince; Tan, Nicholas; Tweneboah, Samuel Nana A; Ervasti, Tuomas; Axel Zeitler, J; Ketolainen, Jarkko; Peiponen, Kai-Erik

    2016-08-01

    In this study, terahertz time-domain spectroscopic (THz-TDS) technique has been used to ascertain the change in the optical properties, as a function of changing porosity and mass fraction of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), of training sets of pharmaceutical tablets. Four training sets of pharmaceutical tablets were compressed with microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) excipient and indomethacin API by varying either the porosity, height, and API mass fraction or all three tablet parameters. It was observed, as far as we know, for the first time, that the THz time-domain and frequency-domain effective refractive index, as well as, the frequency-domain effective absorption coefficient both show linear correlations with the porosity and API mass fraction for training sets of real pharmaceutical tablets. We suggest that, the observed linear correlations can be useful in basic research and quality inspection of pharmaceutical tablets. Additionally, we propose a novel optical strain parameter, based on THz measurement, which yields information on the conventional strain parameter of a tablet as well as on the change of fill fraction of solid material during compression of porous pharmaceutical tablets. We suggest that the THz measurement and proposed method of data analysis, in addition to providing an efficient tool for basic research of porous media, can serve as one of the novel quality by design (QbD) implementation techniques to predict critical quality attributes (CQA) such as porosity, API mass fraction and strain of flat-faced pharmaceutical tablets before production. PMID:27288937

  9. Pharmaceutical patent law: the Canadian perspective.

    PubMed

    Aumand, Livia; Norman, John

    2016-07-01

    This article provides an overview of the patent regime in Canada, with a focus on issues most relevant to the pharmaceutical industry. The process of applying for a patent is discussed, as well as enforcement and litigation. Recent developments in the case law dealing with patentability requirements - novelty, obviousness, utility and sufficiency - are reviewed. Finally, the impact of recently negotiated trade agreements on Canadian patent law is addressed. In this article, we aim to provide an overview of the patent regime in Canada, with a focus on issues that are particularly relevant to the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:27346187

  10. Pharmaceutical regulation in the single European market.

    PubMed

    Matthews, D; Wilson, C

    1998-01-01

    This paper assesses the impact of new EU-wide drug authorisation procedures. The paper examines various attempts to introduce harmonised market authorisation routes for pharmaceuticals including the establishment of the multi-state, concentration, decentralised and centralised procedures. The paper considers the current role of the European Medicines Evaluation Agency and the likelihood that its powers will be increased in the future. Finally, the paper assesses whether EU regulation has created beneficial market conditions for pharmaceutical companies operating in the single European market. PMID:9922630

  11. [Major milestones for European pharmaceutical policy].

    PubMed

    Sauer, Fernand

    2014-01-01

    Under the 1985 White Paper on the completion of the single market, several pharmaceutical harmonisation measures were unanimously adopted, in favor of biotech products and on pricing transparency, legal status of prescription, wholesale distribution and advertising. The European pharmaceutical harmonisation was extended to Norway and Iceland, to new accession member states and through major international conferences with the US and Japan (ICH). Starting in 1995, the European medicines agency has produced an efficient marketing authorisation system for new human and veterinary medicines. The system was extended to pediatric medicines and advanced therapies. The monitoring of drug adverse effects (pharmacovigilance) has been gradually strengthened. PMID:25668913

  12. The view of the pharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed

    Roche, G; Helenport, J P

    1994-06-01

    Rhône-Poulenc Rorer has committed itself to the development of artemether because we believe the drug will be of considerable benefit to sufferers from severe falciparum malaria, and because it is a stable, effective and economical compound that can be given by intramuscular injection. The quality of the pharmaceutical product meets international regulatory standards. Artemether is unlikely to yield big profits, but we believe that major pharmaceutical companies have a responsibility to develop such much-needed products. To develop this project further, we will need the assistance of academic institutions, research organizations and international bodies. PMID:8053031

  13. Were medicine quality and pharmaceutical management contributing factors in diminishing artemisinin efficacy in Guyana and Suriname?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent studies in Guyana and Suriname unveiled diminished efficacy of artemisinin derivatives based on day-3 parasitaemia. The migrant characteristics of the population at risk and the potential development of resistance pose a serious health threat in the region. Assessment of factors that may have contributed to this situation is warranted, and analysis of the data generated in those countries on quality and pharmaceutical managements of anti-malarials may contribute to a better understanding of this occurrence. Methods Data on malaria medicine quality and pharmaceutical management, generated in the context of the Amazon Malaria Initiative (AMI), was reviewed and discussed. Results Numerous substandard artemisinin-containing malaria medicines were identified in both countries, particularly in Guyana, where a larger number and variety of anti-malarials were sampled. Poor quality was more frequent in the private and informal sector than in the public sector, posing a greater threat to the populations at risk, which are mostly located in hard to reach areas with scarce public facilities. Stock-outs identified in the public sector in Guyana could enhance the need to access those alternative sectors, exacerbating the risk of utilizing poor quality medicines. The availability of monotherapies and other non-recommended therapies for Plasmodium falciparum malaria, could also have contributed to the diminished efficacy. The type of quality deficiencies identified -reduced content of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and/or poor dissolution- and the irrational use of non-recommended treatments could result in non-sustained or lower levels of API in blood, favouring survival of more resistant mutants by exposing parasites to sub-lethal doses of the active ingredient. Conclusions The quality of malaria medicines and the availability and use of non-recommended treatments could have played a role in the diminished efficacy of artemisinin derivatives described

  14. Stakeholder Perception Comparison Through the Use of Mental Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tillotson, K.; Grecu, N.

    2012-12-01

    The WSC-Category 1 Sustainability Dynamics for Water Resources in a Rapidly Urbanizing and Climatically Sensitive Region grant seeks to develop an understanding of water planning and use for urbanization in the Spokane, Washington-Coeur d'Alene, Idaho Corridor. One way of achieving this understanding is through the use of mental mapping. A mental map is an internalized representation of a system or process that represents a real system, but does is not completely accurate (Doyle and Ford, 1997). Mental maps and models have potential application in risk assessment and perception comparison within or between interest groups, here referred to as sectors. Similarities and differences between the development sector and "expert" mental models, based on interviews from the development sector and from "experts" in water management and use, were examined in order to assess where gaps in knowledge lie or where the perceived risks are different between the two sectors. Assessing these differences can help target future communication between those that manage water and those that are impacted by water management practices. I will present briefly present the iterative steps of building the expert and development sector mental maps as well as the final mental map that combines expert and development perceptions. Discussion of the differences between the two sector maps and the implications of those differences will be included. Understanding these different perceptions is important in this region where water quantity and quality are highly regulated and development is rapid.

  15. 99M-technetium labeled macroaggregated human serum albumin pharmaceutical

    DOEpatents

    Winchell, Harry S.; Barak, Morton; Van Fleet, III, Parmer

    1977-05-17

    A reagent comprising macroaggregated human serum albumin having dispersed therein particles of stannous tin and a method for instantly making a labeled pharmaceutical therefrom, are disclosed. The labeled pharmaceutical is utilized in organ imaging.

  16. NON-TRADITIONAL RESPONSES TO PHARMACEUTICALS IN AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Quantitation of human and veterinary pharmaceuticals in environmental matrices has resulted in pharmaceuticals in the environment receiving unprecedented attention from the scientific community. Aquatic hazard assessments often use quantitative structure activity relationships an...

  17. Risks to aquatic organisms posed by human pharmaceutical use

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to help prioritize future research efforts within the US, risks associated with exposure to human prescription pharmaceutical residues in wastewater were estimated from marketing and pharmacological data. Masses of 371 active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) dispensed ...

  18. Predicting variability of aquatic concentrations of human pharmaceuticals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Potential exposure to active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in the aquatic environment is a subject of ongoing concern. We recently estimated maximum likely potency-normalized exposure rates at the national level for several hundred commonly used human prescription pharmaceut...

  19. Student Perceptions of the Benefits of a Learner-Based Writing Assignment in Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ablin, Lois

    2008-01-01

    A writing assignment to increase student understanding of and interest in practical applications of organic chemistry is described. Students were required to study a pharmaceutical or other organic compound and perform a qualitative risk assessment on the chemical. Student perceptions of the benefits of the paper were generally positive. (Contains…

  20. An Innovative Pharmaceutical Care Practical Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulatova, N. R.; Aburuz, S.; Yousef, A. M.

    2007-01-01

    The innovative practical course was developed to improve the students' ability to acquire pharmaceutical care skills. The primary components of the course were in-school training using small group discussions and hospital experience including identification, analysis, prevention and resolution of drug-therapy problems, patient counseling on their…

  1. Pharmaceutical Applications of Ion-Exchange Resins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elder, David

    2005-01-01

    The historical uses of ion-exchanged resins and a summary of the basic chemical principles involved in the ion-exchanged process are discussed. Specific applications of ion-exchange are provided that include drug stabilization, pharmaceutical excipients, taste-masking agents, oral sustained-release products, topical products for local application…

  2. Pharmaceutical knowledge governance: a human rights perspective.

    PubMed

    Lemmens, Trudo

    2013-01-01

    Industry control over the production and distribution of pharmaceutical safety and efficacy data has become a serious public health and health care funding concern. Various recent scandals, several involving the use of flawed representations of scientific data in the most influential medical journals, highlight the urgency of enhancing pharmaceutical knowledge governance. This paper analyzes why this is a human rights concern and what difference a human rights analysis can make. The paper first identifies the challenges associated with the current knowledge deficit. It then discusses, based on an analysis of case law, how various human rights associated interests can be invoked to support the claim that states have an obligation to actively contribute to independent knowledge governance, for example through ensuring clinical trials transparency. The paper further discusses a conceptual use of human rights, as a methodology which requires a comprehensive analysis of the different interwoven historical, economic, cultural, and social factors that contribute to the problem. Such an analysis reveals that historically grown drug regulations have, in fact, contributed directly to industry control over pharmaceutical knowledge production. This type of finding should inform needed reforms of drug regulation. The paper ends with a recommendation for a comprehensive global response to the problem of pharmaceutical knowledge governance. PMID:23581664

  3. Opportunities and responsibilities in pharmaceutical care.

    PubMed

    Hepler, C D; Strand, L M

    1990-03-01

    Pharmacy's opportunity to mature as a profession by accepting its social responsibility to reduce preventable drug-related morbidity and mortality is explored. Pharmacy has shed the apothecary role but has not yet been restored to its erst-while importance in medical care. It is not enough to dispense the correct drug or to provide sophisticated pharmaceutical services; nor will it be sufficient to devise new technical functions. Pharmacists and their institutions must stop looking inward and start redirecting their energies to the greater social good. Some 12,000 deaths and 15,000 hospitalizations due to adverse drug reactions (ADRs) were reported to the FDA in 1987, and many went unreported. Drug-related morbidity and mortality are often preventable, and pharmaceutical services can reduce the number of ADRs, the length of hospital stays, and the cost of care. Pharmacists must abandon factionalism and adopt patient-centered pharmaceutical care as their philosophy of practice. Changing the focus of practice from products and biological systems to ensuring the best drug therapy and patient safety will raise pharmacy's level of responsibility and require philosophical, organizational, and functional changes. It will be necessary to set new practice standards, establish cooperative relationships with other health-care professions, and determine strategies for marketing pharmaceutical care. Pharmacy's reprofessionalization will be completed only when all pharmacists accept their social mandate to ensure the safe and effective drug therapy of the individual patient. PMID:2316538

  4. New pharmaceuticals in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Łodyga, Michał; Eder, Piotr; Bartnik, Witold; Gonciarz, Maciej; Kłopocka, Maria; Linke, Krzysztof; Małecka-Panas, Ewa; Radwan, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    This paper complements the previously published Guidelines of the Working Group of the Polish Society of Gastroenterology and former National Consultant in Gastroenterology regarding the management of patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Attention was focused on the new pharmaceutical recently registered for inflammatory bowel disease treatment. PMID:26557934

  5. An Interdisciplinary Course in Pharmaceutical Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grieshaber, Larry D.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    A course in pharmaceutical product merchandising offered at the St. Louis College of Pharmacy incorporated as its three major components the development of a one-page print advertisement, a recorded radio commercial, and a videotape commercial series. Student evaluations were based on performance rather than effort. (MSE)

  6. Pharmaceuticals and Hormones in the Environment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Some of the earliest initial reports from Europe and the United States demonstrated that a variety of pharmaceuticals and hormones could be found in surface waters, source waters, drinking water, and influents and effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). It is unknown...

  7. [Archeology of the radio pharmaceutical advertisement].

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, Thierry

    2002-01-01

    After Second World War, a debate sets in France the partisans and the detractors of the radio advertisement, in particular pharmaceutical advertisement. In this article, the author revises campaigns led, during the thirties, by Robert Desnos for Armand Salacrou. PMID:12731488

  8. Pharmaceutical drugs chatter on Online Social Networks.

    PubMed

    Wiley, Matthew T; Jin, Canghong; Hristidis, Vagelis; Esterling, Kevin M

    2014-06-01

    The ubiquity of Online Social Networks (OSNs) is creating new sources for healthcare information, particularly in the context of pharmaceutical drugs. We aimed to examine the impact of a given OSN's characteristics on the content of pharmaceutical drug discussions from that OSN. We compared the effect of four distinguishing characteristics from ten different OSNs on the content of their pharmaceutical drug discussions: (1) General versus Health OSN; (2) OSN moderation; (3) OSN registration requirements; and (4) OSNs with a question and answer format. The effects of these characteristics were measured both quantitatively and qualitatively. Our results show that an OSN's characteristics indeed affect the content of its discussions. Based on their information needs, healthcare providers may use our findings to pick the right OSNs or to advise patients regarding their needs. Our results may also guide the creation of new and more effective domain-specific health OSNs. Further, future researchers of online healthcare content in OSNs may find our results informative while choosing OSNs as data sources. We reported several findings about the impact of OSN characteristics on the content of pharmaceutical drug discussion, and synthesized these findings into actionable items for both healthcare providers and future researchers of healthcare discussions on OSNs. Future research on the impact of OSN characteristics could include user demographics, quality and safety of information, and efficacy of OSN usage. PMID:24637141

  9. Deep pharma: psychiatry, anthropology, and pharmaceutical detox.

    PubMed

    Oldani, Michael

    2014-06-01

    Psychiatric medication, or psychotropics, are increasingly prescribed for people of all ages by both psychiatry and primary care doctors for a multitude of mental health and/or behavioral disorders, creating a sharp rise in polypharmacy (i.e., multiple medications). This paper explores the clinical reality of modern psychotropy at the level of the prescribing doctor and clinical exchanges with patients. Part I, Geographies of High Prescribing, documents the types of factors (pharmaceutical-promotional, historical, cultural, etc.) that can shape specific psychotropic landscapes. Ethnographic attention is focused on high prescribing in Japan in the 1990s and more recently in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, in the US. These examples help to identify factors that have converged over time to produce specific kinds of branded psychotropic profiles in specific locales. Part II, Pharmaceutical Detox, explores a new kind of clinical work being carried out by pharmaceutically conscious doctors, which reduces the number of medications being prescribed to patients while re-diagnosing their mental illnesses. A high-prescribing psychiatrist in southeast Wisconsin is highlighted to illustrate a kind of med-checking taking place at the level of individual patients. These various examples and cases call for a renewed emphasis by anthropology to critically examine the "total efficacies" of modern pharmaceuticals and to continue to disaggregate mental illness categories in the Boasian tradition. This type of detox will require a holistic approach, incorporating emergent fields such as neuroanthropology and other kinds of creative collaborations. PMID:24700144

  10. Developing Closer Ties with the Pharmaceutical Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Gregor; Hoddinott, Susan

    1991-01-01

    The need for research administrators to understand and appreciate the pharmaceutical industry's research and development environment is discussed, using examples from Canada. The research administrator's role in the technology transfer process and implications for faculty are examined. Ways to build closer school-industry ties are discussed. (MSE)

  11. Drug Information Residency Rotation with Pharmaceutical Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramer, Richard L.

    1986-01-01

    Program objectives of a drug information rotation at the Upjohn Company include improving communication between the pharmaceutical industry and hospital pharmacy/academia, exposing the resident to the challenges the industry encounters, improving proficiency in drug information practice, and providing insight into the working relationships of…

  12. The Pharmaceutical Care Movement: Opportunities for Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple, Thomas R.

    1996-01-01

    Areas in which pharmacy educators and practitioners can collaborate to hasten pharmacy curriculum development are outlined, including: state and regional centers for operationalizing the pharmaceutical care concept; training, formal resource programs for pharmacists; research advisory boards; public education; links with medical community;…

  13. Energy Sector Market Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Arent, D.; Benioff, R.; Mosey, G.; Bird, L.; Brown, J.; Brown, E.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Aabakken, J.; Parks, K.; Lapsa, M.; Davis, S.; Olszewski, M.; Cox, D.; McElhaney, K.; Hadley, S.; Hostick, D.; Nicholls, A.; McDonald, S.; Holloman, B.

    2006-10-01

    This paper presents the results of energy market analysis sponsored by the Department of Energy's (DOE) Weatherization and International Program (WIP) within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). The analysis was conducted by a team of DOE laboratory experts from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), with additional input from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The analysis was structured to identify those markets and niches where government can create the biggest impact by informing management decisions in the private and public sectors. The analysis identifies those markets and niches where opportunities exist for increasing energy efficiency and renewable energy use.

  14. Exploring Oman's Energy Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Saqlawi, Juman; Madani, Kaveh; Mac Dowell, Niall

    2016-04-01

    Located in a region where over 40% of the world's oil and gas reserves lie and in a trend similar to that of its neighbors, Oman's economy has been reliant on crude oil export since the 1970's. Being aware of the dangers of this reliance along with the discovery of Natural Gas since the 1980s, the Omani government's policy of diversifying its economy has shifted its reliance on Oil to another fossil fuel, namely Natural Gas. Given that energy is the lifeline of Oman's economy, effective and efficient forward planning and policy development is essential for the country's current and future economic development. This presentation explores the current status of the energy sector in Oman from home production and import to eventual final uses. The presentation highlights the major issues with Oman's current energy policies and suggests various strategies that could be adopted by Oman for a more efficient and sustainable future.

  15. Negotiating Pharmaceutical Prices: A Change in Chinese Health Policy.

    PubMed

    Costello, Michael M

    2016-01-01

    Like many other nations, China believed the key to restricting national health expenditures for pharmaceuticals was the use of governmentally imposed price caps. Given the recent growth in pharmaceutical expenditures, China is moving away from price caps to a new process that includes locally negotiated prices in the hope that such price competition will lower national pharmaceutical pricing. The success of this policy endeavour will depend significantly on managing other aspects of pharmaceutical purchasing. PMID:27358014

  16. Pharmaceuticals as Groundwater Tracers - Applications and Limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheytt, T. J.; Mersmann, P.; Heberer, T.

    2003-12-01

    Pharmaceutically active substances and metabolites are found at concentrations up to the microgram/L-level in groundwater samples from the Berlin (Germany) area and from several other places world wide. Among the compounds detected in groundwater are clofibric acid, propyphenazone, diclofenac, ibuprofen, and carbamazepine. Clofibric acid, the active metabolite of clofibrate and etofibrate (blood lipid regulators) is detected in groundwater at maximum concentrations of 7300 ng/L. Among the most important input paths of drugs are excretion and disposal into the sewage system. Groundwater contamination is likely to be due to leaky sewage systems, influent streams, bank filtration, and irrigation with effluent water from sewage treatment plants. There are no known natural sources of the above mentioned pharmaceuticals. The use of pharmaceuticals as tracers may include: (a) Quantification of infiltration from underground septic tanks (b) Detection of leaky sewage systems / leaky sewage pipes (c) Estimation of the effectiveness of sewage treatment plants (d) Identification of transport pathways of other organic compounds (e) Quantification of surface water / groundwater interaction (f) Characterization of the biodegradation potential. The use of pharmaceuticals as tracers is limited by variations in input. These variations depend on the amount of drugs prescribed and used in the study area, the social structure of the community, the amount of hospital discharge, and temporal concentration variations. Furthermore, the analysis of trace amounts of pharmaceuticals is sophisticated and expensive and may therefore limit the applicability of pharmaceuticals as tracers. Finally, the transport and degradation behavior of pharmaceuticals is not fully understood. Preliminary experiments in the laboratory were conducted using sediment material and groundwater from the Berlin area to evaluate the transport and sorption behavior of selected drugs. Results of the column experiments

  17. The sun's magnetic sector structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Svalgaard, L.; Wilcox, J. M.; Scherrer, P. H.; Howard, R.

    1975-01-01

    The synoptic appearance of solar magnetic sectors is studied using 454 sector boundaries observed at earth during 1959-1973. The sectors are clearly visible in the photospheric magnetic field. Sector boundaries can be clearly identified as north-south running demarcation lines between regions of persistent magnetic polarity imbalances. These regions extend up to about 35 deg of latitude on both sides of the equator. They generally do not extend into the polar caps. The polar cap boundary can be identified as an east-west demarcation line marking the poleward limit of the sectors. The typical flux imbalance for a magnetic sector is about 4 x 10 to the 21st power Maxwells.

  18. Informed consent: Enforcing pharmaceutical companies' obligations abroad.

    PubMed

    Lee, Stacey B

    2010-01-01

    The past several years have seen an evolution in the obligations of pharmaceutical companies conducting clinical trials abroad. Key players, such as international human rights organizations, multinational pharmaceutical companies, the United States government and courts, and the media, have played a significant role in defining these obligations. This article examines how such obligations have developed through the lens of past, present, and future recommendations for informed consent protections. In doing so, this article suggests that, no matter how robust obligations appear, they will continue to fall short of providing meaningful protection until they are accompanied by a substantive enforcement mechanism that holds multinational pharmaceutical companies accountable for their conduct. Issues of national sovereignty, particularly in the United States, will continue to prevent meaningful enforcement by an international tribunal or through one universally adopted code of ethics. This article argues that, rather than continuing to pursue an untenable international approach, the Alien Torts Statute (ATS) offers a viable enforcement mechanism, at least for US-based pharmaceutical companies. Recent federal appellate court precedent interpreting the ATS provides the mechanism for granting victims redress and enforcing accountability of sponsors (usually pharmaceutical companies and research and academic institutions) for informed consent misconduct. Substantive human rights protections are vital in order to ensure that every person can realize the "right to health." This article concludes that by building on the federal appellate court's ATS analysis, which grants foreign trial participants the right to pursue claims of human rights violations in US courts, a mechanism can be created for enforcing not only substantive informed consent, but also human rights protections. PMID:20930251

  19. Effective executive management in the pharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed

    Tran, Hoang; Kleiner, Brian H

    2005-01-01

    Along with the boom in information technology and vast development in genomic and proteomic discoveries, the pharmaceutical and biotech industries have been provided the means and tools to create a new page in medicinal history. They are now able to alter the classic ways to cure complex diseases thanks to the completion of the human genome project. To be able to compete in this industry, pharmaceutical management has to be effective not only internally but also externally in socially acceptable conduct. The first department that requires focus is marketing and sales. As the main driving force to increase revenues and profits, marketing and sales employees should be highly motivated by compensation. Also, customer relationships should be maintained for long-term gain. As important as marketing, research and development requires the financial support as well as the critical decision making to further expand the product pipeline. Similarly, finance and technologies should be adequately monitored and invested to provide support as well as prepare for future expansion. On top of that, manufacturing processes and operations are operated per quality systems and FDA guidelines to ensure high quality. Human Resources, on the other hand, should carry the managing and motivation from upper management through systematic recruitment, adequate training, and fair compensation. Moreover, effective management in a pharmaceutical would also require the social welfare and charity to help patients who cannot afford the treatment as well as improving the organization's image. Last but not least, the management should also prepare for the globalization of the industry. Inevitably, large pharmaceutical companies are merging with each other or acquiring smaller companies to enhance the competitive advantages as well as expand their product mix. For effectiveness in a pharmaceutical industry, management should focus more than just the daily routine tasks and short-term goals. Rather, they

  20. Is the pharmaceutical market in Bulgaria innovative?

    PubMed

    Stoimenova, A; Stankova, M; Samev, K; Petrova, G

    2003-09-01

    After the turn to market oriented economy a lot of drugs were authorized for sale in the East European countries. Because of the limited resources of these countries, mainly generic or brand generic products were licensed. The number of the patented drugs on the market could be used as measure of the market attractiveness to the R&D producers. The study shows the analysis of the innovativeness of the Bulgarian drug market comparing the registration and the patient activity of the producers. The number of the authorized products for five years period (1990-2000) and share of the patented products were investigated. During the observed period the number of newly authorized pharmaceuticals increased almost seven times from 800 (650 INN) to 6000 (2000 INN) dosage forms. The prevailing part of the newly registered drugs was found to be brand generics and possess only trade name protection. The share of drugs that are patented is less than five percent of all newly registered medicines, and among the fifty most commonly prescribed and sold medicines between 1996-2000, only 0.5 percent of drugs were patented. Obviously the Bulgarian pharmaceutical market is very competitive but not that attractive for most of the R&D producers. In general the registration of the patent protected products is increasing during the years and especially after harmonization of the related legislation with the EU requirements. The patent activity of the pharmaceutical companies regarding newly authorized drugs is influenced by the structure of morbidity and population. During the last two years the patent activity is increasing and is oriented mainly towards the protection of newly authorized drugs or pharmaceutical forms and obligatory registration of trademarks for the privatized Bulgarian pharmaceutical manufacturers. PMID:14677267

  1. Bacterial mutagenicity screening in the pharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed

    Escobar, P A; Kemper, R A; Tarca, J; Nicolette, J; Kenyon, M; Glowienke, S; Sawant, S G; Christensen, J; Johnson, T E; McKnight, C; Ward, G; Galloway, S M; Custer, L; Gocke, E; O'Donovan, M R; Braun, K; Snyder, R D; Mahadevan, B

    2013-01-01

    Genetic toxicity testing is used as an early surrogate for carcinogenicity testing. Genetic toxicity testing is also required by regulatory agencies to be conducted prior to initiation of first in human clinical trials and subsequent marketing for most small molecule pharmaceutical compounds. To reduce the chances of advancing mutagenic pharmaceutical candidates through the drug discovery and development processes, companies have focused on developing testing strategies to maximize hazard identification while minimizing resource expenditure due to late stage attrition. With a large number of testing options, consensus has not been reached on the best mutagenicity platform to use or on the best time to use a specific test to aid in the selection of drug candidates for development. Most companies use a process in which compounds are initially screened for mutagenicity early in drug development using tests that require only a few milligrams of compound and then follow those studies up with a more robust mutagenicity test prior to selecting a compound for full development. This review summarizes the current applications of bacterial mutagenicity assays utilized by pharmaceutical companies in early and late discovery programs. The initial impetus for this review was derived from a workshop on bacterial mutagenicity screening in the pharmaceutical industry presented at the 40th Annual Environmental Mutagen Society Meeting held in St. Louis, MO in October, 2009. However, included in this review are succinct summaries of use and interpretation of genetic toxicity assays, several mutagenicity assays that were not presented at the meeting, and updates to testing strategies resulting in current state-of the art description of best practices. In addition, here we discuss the advantages and liabilities of many broadly used mutagenicity screening platforms and strategies used by pharmaceutical companies. The sensitivity and specificity of these early mutagenicity screening

  2. Cloud computing in pharmaceutical R&D: business risks and mitigations.

    PubMed

    Geiger, Karl

    2010-05-01

    Cloud computing provides information processing power and business services, delivering these services over the Internet from centrally hosted locations. Major technology corporations aim to supply these services to every sector of the economy. Deploying business processes 'in the cloud' requires special attention to the regulatory and business risks assumed when running on both hardware and software that are outside the direct control of a company. The identification of risks at the correct service level allows a good mitigation strategy to be selected. The pharmaceutical industry can take advantage of existing risk management strategies that have already been tested in the finance and electronic commerce sectors. In this review, the business risks associated with the use of cloud computing are discussed, and mitigations achieved through knowledge from securing services for electronic commerce and from good IT practice are highlighted. PMID:20443161

  3. Are pharmaceuticals potent environmental pollutants? Part I: environmental risk assessments of selected active pharmaceutical ingredients.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Carina; Johansson, Anna-Karin; Alvan, Gunnar; Bergman, Kerstin; Kühler, Thomas

    2006-07-01

    As part of achieving national environmental goals, the Swedish Government commissioned an official report from the Swedish Medical Products Agency on environmental effects of pharmaceuticals. Considering half-lives/biodegradability, environmental occurrence, and Swedish sales statistics, 27 active pharmaceutical ingredients were selected for environmental hazard and risk assessments. Although there were large data gaps for many of the compounds, nine ingredients were identified as dangerous for the aquatic environment. Only the sex hormones oestradiol and ethinyloestradiol were considered to be associated with possible aquatic environmental risks. We conclude that risk for acute toxic effects in the environment with the current use of active pharmaceutical ingredients is unlikely. Chronic environmental toxic effects, however, cannot be excluded due to lack of chronic ecotoxicity data. Measures to reduce potential environmental impact posed by pharmaceutical products must be based on knowledge on chronic ecotoxic effects of both active pharmaceutical ingredients as well as excipients. We believe that the impact pharmaceuticals have on the environment should be further studied and be given greater attention such that informed assessments of hazards as well as risks can be done. PMID:16257037

  4. A pharmaceutical care challenge: recruiting, training, and retaining pharmaceutical care practitioners.

    PubMed

    Hatwig, C A; Crane, V S; Hayman, J N

    1993-10-01

    We do not claim to have all the answers when it comes to implementing an ideal pharmaceutical care model. We are not even sure what all the characteristics of such a model should be. We have recognized, based on our interpretation of the model, that meeting the demands of pharmaceutical care will require changes and advanced skills in our staff. We continue to work in creating an environment where the concept of pharmaceutical care can flourish. Our department has focused on defining and then providing pharmaceutical care through individual practitioners and patient care teams. More employee empowerment with less management control was the key to facilitating initial phases in our pharmaceutical care model. A successful orientation process has further enhanced our abilities to hire new graduates and/or experienced practitioners for our open positions. We believe we have taken some significant first steps toward recruiting, training, and developing our staff to become competent and satisfied with their newly developing role as pharmaceutical care practitioners. PMID:10129979

  5. Behavior of selected pharmaceuticals in topsoil of Greyic Phaeozem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodesova, Radka; Klement, Ales; Kocarek, Martin; Fer, Miroslav; Golovko, Oksana; Grabic, Roman; Jaksik, Ondrej

    2014-05-01

    It has been documented in several studies that soil may be contaminated by human or veterinary pharmaceuticals. Some of pharmaceutical ingredient may be retained in soils. The rest can be transported to the surface and groundwater through surface runoff and infiltration. Mobility of contaminants in soils is dependent on many soil and pharmaceutical properties (e.g. pharmaceutical adsorption on soil particles and pharmaceutical degradation). The goals of this study were: (1) to measure adsorption isotherms of selected pharmaceuticals in one soil; (2) to evaluate degradation of selected pharmaceuticals in this soil, and (3) to evaluate impact of applied pharmaceuticals on biological activity in soil, which influences pharmaceutical decomposition. Batch sorption tests were performed for 7 selected pharmaceuticals (beta blockers Atenolol and Metoprolol, anticonvulsant Carbamazepin, and antibiotics Clarithromycin, Clindamycin, Trimetoprim and Sulfamethoxazol) and one soil (topsoil of Greyic Phaeozem from Čáslav). The same concentrations (0.5, 1, 2.5, 5 and 10 mg/l) were used for almost all pharmaceuticals except Clarithromycin (0.033, 0.08, 0.165, 0.25, 0.33 mg/l). The Freundlich equations were used to describe adsorption isotherms. Degradation of all 7 pharmaceuticals was also studied. Solutes of different pharmaceuticals (concentration of 8.3 mg/l) were added into the plastic bottles (one pharmaceutical per bottle) with soil. Concentrations of pharmaceuticals remaining in soil 1, 2, 5, 12, 23, 40 and 61 days after the pharmaceutical application were analyzed. Colony forming unites were evaluated to describe microbial activity in time affected by different pharmaceuticals. Adsorption of studied pharmaceuticals on soil particles decreasing as follows: Clarithromycin, Trimetoprim, Metoprolol, Clindamycin, Atenolol, Carbamazepin, Sulfamethoxazol. Degradation rates in some degree reflected adsorption of studied pharmaceuticals on soil particles and increased with

  6. Jordanian pharmaceutical companies: are their marketing efforts paying off?

    PubMed

    Al-Shaikh, Mustafa S; Torres, Ivonne M; Zuniga, Miguel A; Ghunaim, Ayman

    2011-04-01

    The pharmaceuticals industry is one of the main industries in Jordan. Jordanian pharmaceuticals rank third in the export industry of this country. This study aims to examine the strengths that Jordanian pharmaceutical companies have, which, in turn, form their competitiveness base. In addition, this study aims to identify their weaknesses and the effects of marketing their products in the local market. What is the relationship between Jordanian pharmaceutical product quality, price and value, and the competitiveness of pharmaceutical companies in the local market? Our study aims to answer this and other questions. Our results and practical implications are discussed. PMID:21590563

  7. Pharmaceutical policy regarding generic drugs in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Simoens, Steven; De Bruyn, Kristien; Bogaert, Marc; Laekeman, Gert

    2005-01-01

    Pressure to control pharmaceutical expenditure and price competition among pharmaceutical companies are fuelling the development of generic drug markets in EU countries. However, in Belgium, the market for generic drugs is underdeveloped compared with other countries. To promote the use of generic drugs, the government introduced a reference pricing (RP) scheme in 2001. The aim of this paper is to discuss Belgian pharmaceutical policy regarding generic drugs and to analyse how the Belgian drug market has evolved following initiation of the RP scheme. The market share held by generic drugs increased following implementation of the RP scheme. Focusing on volume, average market share (by semester) for generic drugs amounted to 2.05% of the total pharmaceutical market from January 1998 to June 2001, compared with 6.11% from July 2001 to December 2003. As new generic drugs are introduced, their market share tends to increase in the first couple of months, after which it levels off. Faced with increasing generic competition, some manufacturers have launched new variants of their original drug, thereby effectively extending the period of patent protection. Strategies consisting of price reductions in return for the abolition of prescribing conditions and the launch of new dosages or formulations appear to have been successful in maintaining the market share of original drugs. Nevertheless, the introduction of the RP scheme was associated with savings amounting to 1.8% of pharmaceutical expenditure by the third-party payer in 2001 and 2.1% in 2002. The findings of this paper indicate that the RP scheme has stimulated the Belgian generic drug market. However, existing policy has largely failed to take into account the role that physicians and pharmacists can play in stimulating generic drug use. Therefore, further development of the Belgian generic drug market seems to hinge on the creation of appropriate incentives for physicians to prescribe, and for pharmacists to

  8. Staff Perceptions of Higher Education Science and Engineering Learning Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Alison; Kunnemeyer, Rainer; Prinsep, Michele R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents staff perceptions of higher education science and engineering learning communities derived from a cross-case analysis of four case studies across the New Zealand university and polytechnic sectors. First we report staff expectations and experiences in terms of infrastructure and resources, and their own careers. Staff…

  9. Attitude toward Democracy in Pakistan: Secondary School Teachers' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarwar, Muhammad; Yousuf, Muhammad Imran; Hussain, Shafqat

    2010-01-01

    The study aimed at exploring the public sector secondary school teachers' perceptions for development of democratic values and strategies to improve the democratic system and attitudes toward democracy. Sixty secondary school teachers were selected as a sample. The qualitative data in the form of interview responses were collected to explore…

  10. Qualification Users' Perceptions and Experiences of Assessment Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamberlain, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a study designed to explore qualification users' perceptions and experiences of reliability in the context of national assessment outcomes in England. The study consisted of 17 focus groups conducted across six sectors of qualification users: students, teachers, trainee teachers, job-seekers, employers and…

  11. Partnership in Sector Wide Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolley, Hilary

    2011-01-01

    Within the context of bilateral support to the education sector in Tonga and the Solomon Islands, this paper will explore how the discourse of "partnership" has been interpreted and activated within the Sector wide approach (SWAp). In concentrating particularly on the relationship between the respective Ministries of Education and New Zealand's…

  12. Patent indicators: a window to pharmaceutical market success.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yang; Hu, Yuanjia; Zheng, Mingli; Wang, Yitao

    2013-07-01

    Pharmaceutical success in the market is the best reward for pharmaceutical investors undergoing the lengthy, costly and risky process of pharmaceutical Research and Development (R&D). Drugs with high market revenues trigger fierce competition between pharmaceutical enterprises, as is demonstrated by the increasing Mergers & Acquisitions (M&A) cases focusing on seizing the best-selling products. On the other hand, patents, as the best shield for innovative drugs against generic drugs, become a powerful weapon for pharmaceutical enterprises to win the substantial returns generated by market exclusivity. Patents seem to be directly responsible for the commercial success of new medicines. In this context, it is of great significance to find out the empirical associations between pharmaceutical commercial success and patents. By comprehensively analysing 127 drugs marketed in the USA and their 621 American patents, this article identifies the evidence to link various patent indicators with pharmaceutical sales in actual market. PMID:23611022

  13. Public Service Motivation as a Predictor of Attraction to the Public Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Jacqueline; Doverspike, Dennis; Miguel, Rosanna F.

    2012-01-01

    According to public service motivation theory, individuals with a strong public service orientation are attracted to government jobs. This proposition was investigated in three studies by measuring public sector motivation at a pre-entry level as an individual difference variable affecting perceptions of fit and organizational attraction. Results…

  14. The Demand for Facilities in the Post-Secondary Sector, 1975 to 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froomkin, Joseph; And Others

    This report addresses a central issue in postsecondary education: how much space is likely to be needed to accommodate the enrollments between 1975 and 1990 in both the nonprofit and proprietary educational sectors. Emphasis is placed on projections of postsecondary enrollments, size distribution of institutions and campuses, current perception of…

  15. Confocal Raman Microscopy in Pharmaceutical Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haefele, Thomas F.; Paulus, Kurt

    There is a wide range of applications of confocal Raman microscopy in pharmaceutical development. It is a powerful tool to probe the distribution of components within a formulation, to characterize homogeneity of pharmaceutical samples, to determine solid state of drug substances and excipients and to characterize contaminations and foreign particulates. The information obtained by confocal Raman microscopy is extremely useful, sometimes even crucial, for drug substance design, for the development of solid and liquid formulations, as a tool for process analytics and for patent infringements and counterfeit analysis. In this chapter, those aspects and applications will be presented, focusing on solid drug formulations. This chapter will also reveal the advantages and demonstrate the synergies of Raman mapping as compared to similar imaging methods such as SEM/EDX, NIR and MIR imaging.

  16. External referencing and pharmaceutical price negotiation.

    PubMed

    Garcia Mariñoso, Begoña; Jelovac, Izabela; Olivella, Pau

    2011-06-01

    External referencing (ER) imposes a price cap for pharmaceuticals, based on prices of identical or comparable products in foreign countries. Suppose a foreign country (F) negotiates prices with a pharmaceutical firm, whereas a home country (H) can either negotiate prices independently or implement ER, based on the foreign price. We show that country H prefers ER if copayments in H are relatively high. This preference is reinforced when H's population is small. Irrespective of relative country sizes, ER by country H harms country F. Our model is inspired by the wide European experience with this cost-containment policy. Namely, in Europe, drug authorization and price negotiations are carried out by separate agencies. We confirm our main results in two extensions. The first one allows for therapeutic competition between drugs. In the second one, drug authorization and price negotiation take place in a single agency. PMID:20577969

  17. Rosmarinic Acid--Pharmaceutical and Clinical Aspects.

    PubMed

    Amoah, Solomon K S; Sandjo, Louis P; Kratz, Jadel M; Biavatti, Maique W

    2016-03-01

    The biosynthesis and biotechnological production of Rosmarinic acid, a phenolic ester that is widespread in the plant kingdom, has been widely investigated. This compound has shown many remarkable biological and pharmacological activities, which have led to its pharmaceutical and analytical development, as well as clinical studies, which are summarized and analyzed here for the first time. This review compiles data from the Pubmed, Scopus, Scifinder, Web Of Science, and Science Direct databases published between 1990 and 2015, restricting the search to works with the keywords "Rosmarinic acid" in the title. The initial search identified more than 800 articles; after an initial screening and removal of duplicate works, the search was further refined, resulting in approximately 300 articles that were scrutinized and comprise this review. The articles were organized to describe extraction and isolation, analytical methods, pharmaceutical development, and biological and pharmacological activities [divided into nonclinical (in vitro, in vivo) and clinical studies], pharmacokinetic studies, and stability studies. PMID:26845712

  18. [Alternatives to pharmaceutical distribution and reimbursement].

    PubMed

    Meneu, R

    2002-01-01

    In Spain pharmaceutical distribution is carried out mainly thorugh the 20,000 independent pharmacies located throughout the country. This situation contrasts with that in other countries where other health care providers play a major role in drug dispensation or where pharmacies form part of industrial conglomerates or commercial chains. We describe the pharmaceutical distribution chain in Spain wholesale and through the pharmacies and place particular emphasis on five aspects of relevance when considering alternatives: ownership of the pharmacy and norms of professional service, criteria for setting up a pharmacy, monopoly on dispensing, automatic ageement with the Spanish national health system and reimbursement system. Several alternatives found in comparable countries are described: mail order and on-line distribution, sale of over-the counter pharmaceutical products in establishments other than pharmacies, the estabilishment of pharmaceutical chains, dispensing by providers, the repercussions of electronic prescribing and the possibilities of the still-emerging Pharmacuetical Care. The characteristics of pharmacy reimbursement systems are also reviewed. We recommend modification of limitations on ownership of pharmacies, the establishment of optional agreements between pharmacies and the Spanish national health system and the authorization of alternative or complementary channels of distribution for some products. We propose a mixed model of reimbursement that would include: a) a ficed price for dispensing; b) almost total return of the cost of the product; c) reimbursement for services explicity defined by the financer, and d) the possibility of a selective fixed payment for certain situations depending on the agreed services or a guaranteed minimum income. PMID:11958754

  19. Cubanes: Super explosives and potential pharmaceutical intermediates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bashir-Hashemi, A.

    1994-01-01

    The cubane molecule, in which eight carbon atoms are locked in a cubic framework, shows great potential for both military and pharmaceutical applications. Octanitrocubane, with a predicted density of 2.1 g/cc and strain energy of more than 165 kcal/mol, is considered to be the 'super-explosive', while cubane derivatives submitted to the National Institutes of Health for preliminary biological activity screening have displayed promising anti-cancer and anti-HIV activity.

  20. The Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme 2003-2004.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Ken J

    2005-01-12

    The Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) grew by 8% in 2003-04; a slower rate than the 12.0% pa average growth over the last decade. Nevertheless, the sustainability of the Scheme remained an ongoing concern given an aging population and the continued introduction of useful (but increasingly expensive) new medicines. There was also concern that the Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement could place further pressure on the Scheme. In 2003, as in 2002, the government proposed a 27% increase in PBS patient co-payments and safety-net thresholds in order to transfer more of the cost of the PBS from the government to consumers. While this measure was initially blocked by the Senate, the forthcoming election resulted in the Labor Party eventually supporting this policy. Recommendations of the Pharmaceutical Benefits Advisory Committee to list, not list or defer a decision to list a medicine on the PBS were made publicly available for the first time and the full cost of PBS medicines appeared on medicine labels if the price was greater than the co-payment. Pharmaceutical reform in Victorian public hospitals designed to minimise PBS cost-shifting was evaluated and extended to other States and Territories. Programs promoting the quality use of medicines were further developed coordinated by the National Prescribing Service, Australian Divisions of General Practice and the Pharmacy Guild of Australia. The extensive uptake of computerised prescribing software by GPs produced benefits but also problems. The latter included pharmaceutical promotion occurring at the time of prescribing, failure to incorporate key sources of objective therapeutic information in the software and gross variation in the ability of various programs to detect important drug-drug interactions. These issues remain to be tackled. PMID:15679896

  1. A review of pharmaceutical policies in response to economic crises and sanctions

    PubMed Central

    Kheirandish, Mehrnaz; Rashidian, Arash; Kebriaeezade, Abbas; Cheraghali, Abdol Majid; Soleymani, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    An economic crisis has been defined as a situation in which the scale of a country's economy becomes smaller in a period of time. Economic crises happen for various reasons, including economic sanctions. Economic crises in a country may affect national priorities for investment and expenditure and reduce available resources, and hence may affect the health care sector including access to medicines. We reviewed the pharmaceutical policies that the countries adopted in order to mitigate the potential negative effects on access to medicines. We reviewed published reports and articles after conducting a comprehensive search of the PubMed and the Google Scholar. After extracting relevant data from the identified articles, we used the World Health Organization (WHO) access to medicines framework as a guide for the categorization of the policies. We identified a total of 40 studies, of which 10 reported the national pharmaceutical policies adopted to reduce the negative impacts of economic crises on access to medicines in high-income and middle-income countries. We identified 89 policies adopted in the 11 countries and categorized them into 12 distinct policy directions. Most of the policies focused on financial aspects of the pharmaceutical sector. In some cases, countries adopted policies that potentially had negative effects on access to medicines. Only Italy had adopted policies encompassing all four accesses to medicine factors recommended by the WHO. While the countries have adopted many seemingly effective policies, little evidence exists on the effectiveness of these policies to improve access to medicines at a time of an economic crisis. PMID:26312250

  2. A review of pharmaceutical policies in response to economic crises and sanctions.

    PubMed

    Kheirandish, Mehrnaz; Rashidian, Arash; Kebriaeezade, Abbas; Cheraghali, Abdol Majid; Soleymani, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    An economic crisis has been defined as a situation in which the scale of a country's economy becomes smaller in a period of time. Economic crises happen for various reasons, including economic sanctions. Economic crises in a country may affect national priorities for investment and expenditure and reduce available resources, and hence may affect the health care sector including access to medicines. We reviewed the pharmaceutical policies that the countries adopted in order to mitigate the potential negative effects on access to medicines. We reviewed published reports and articles after conducting a comprehensive search of the PubMed and the Google Scholar. After extracting relevant data from the identified articles, we used the World Health Organization (WHO) access to medicines framework as a guide for the categorization of the policies. We identified a total of 40 studies, of which 10 reported the national pharmaceutical policies adopted to reduce the negative impacts of economic crises on access to medicines in high-income and middle-income countries. We identified 89 policies adopted in the 11 countries and categorized them into 12 distinct policy directions. Most of the policies focused on financial aspects of the pharmaceutical sector. In some cases, countries adopted policies that potentially had negative effects on access to medicines. Only Italy had adopted policies encompassing all four accesses to medicine factors recommended by the WHO. While the countries have adopted many seemingly effective policies, little evidence exists on the effectiveness of these policies to improve access to medicines at a time of an economic crisis. PMID:26312250

  3. Soft condensed matter in pharmaceutical design.

    PubMed

    Paradossi, Gaio; Cavalieri, Francesca; Chiessi, Ester

    2006-01-01

    In recent years pharmaceutical design has been facing the needs expressed by new therapeutic methodologies such as gene therapy, targeted delivery and closely related diagnostic fields as contrast enhancing agents for ultrasonic investigations. In this context pharmaceutical research has diversified the efforts toward a more integrated approach where the efficacy of an active molecule is enhanced and assisted by the surrounding carrier. Usually this drug platform is a hydrogel matrix, a multicomponent system constituted by an aqueous solution and a polymeric moiety imparting different functions to the matrix, as responsiveness to external stimuli, affinity to receptors, controlled drug release. Such devices represent one of the leading topics of the soft condensed matter recent research, a domain where physics, chemistry and bioengineering cross each other with the aim to achieve an integrated description of these materials. In this respect modern drug design will make use more and more of concepts proper of soft condensed polymer and colloidal sciences. In this review we will describe the state-of-art in the field of the matrices used in innovative drug formulations with a particular emphasis on the implications to pharmaceutical design along with the experimental and theoretical investigation tools worked out in the last decade. PMID:16611124

  4. Prioritizing environmental risk of prescription pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zhao; Senn, David B; Moran, Rebecca E; Shine, James P

    2013-02-01

    Low levels of pharmaceutical compounds have been detected in aquatic environments worldwide, but their human and ecological health risks associated with low dose environmental exposure is largely unknown due to the large number of these compounds and a lack of information. Therefore prioritization and ranking methods are needed for screening target compounds for research and risk assessment. Previous efforts to rank pharmaceutical compounds have often focused on occurrence data and have paid less attention to removal mechanisms such as human metabolism. This study proposes a simple prioritization approach based on number of prescriptions and toxicity information, accounting for metabolism and wastewater treatment removal, and can be applied to unmeasured compounds. The approach was performed on the 200 most-prescribed drugs in the US in 2009. Our results showed that under-studied compounds such as levothyroxine and montelukast sodium received the highest scores, suggesting the importance of removal mechanisms in influencing the ranking, and the need for future environmental research to include other less-studied but potentially harmful pharmaceutical compounds. PMID:22813724

  5. Comparative effectiveness regulations and pharmaceutical innovation.

    PubMed

    Vernon, John A; Golec, Joseph H; Stevens, J Stedman

    2010-01-01

    As healthcare reform evolves and takes shape, comparative effectiveness research (CER) appears to be one of the central topics on the national healthcare agenda. Over the past couple of years, comparative effectiveness has been explicitly incorporated in more than ten bills. For example, the passage of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 authorized $US1.1 billion for CER. Comparative effectiveness, when costs are formally considered, offers the hope of efficient resource allocation within US healthcare markets. However, the future operationalization and implementation of comparative effectiveness is uncertain, and there exist potentially negative, and unintended, consequences under certain scenarios. One example, and the focus of this article, is pharmaceutical innovation. Incentives for pharmaceutical R&D could be affected if drug development costs increase as a result of firms having to bear, directly or indirectly, the costs of running larger, randomized, head-to-head comparative effectiveness trials. While this may or may not be the case with current and future comparative effectiveness legislation and its subsequent implementation, the potential consequences for pharmaceutical innovation warrant recognition. This is the purpose of the article. To achieve this goal, we develop several models of clinical trial design, drug development costs and R&D investment. By example, we shed light on the causal links between the models and the ways in which industry R&D investment can be affected. PMID:20831295

  6. Prioritizing Environmental Risk of Prescription Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Zhao; Senn, David B.; Moran, Rebecca E.

    2015-01-01

    Low levels of pharmaceutical compounds have been detected in aquatic environments worldwide, but their human and ecological health risks associated with low dose environmental exposure is largely unknown due to the large number of these compounds and a lack of information. Therefore prioritization and ranking methods are needed for screening target compounds for research and risk assessment. Previous efforts to rank pharmaceutical compounds have often focused on occurrence data and have paid less attention to removal mechanisms such as human metabolism. This study proposes a simple prioritization approach based on number of prescriptions and toxicity information, accounting for metabolism and wastewater treatment removal, and can be applied to unmeasured compounds. The approach was performed on the 200 most-prescribed drugs in the U.S. in 2009. Our results showed that under-studied compounds such as levothyroxine and montelukast sodium received the highest scores, suggesting the importance of removal mechanisms in influencing the ranking, and the need for future environmental research to include other less-studied but potentially harmful pharmaceutical compounds. PMID:22813724

  7. Pharmaceuticals that contain polycyclic hydrocarbon scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Stockdale, Tegan P; Williams, Craig M

    2015-11-01

    Numerous variations on structural motifs exist within pharmaceutical compounds that have entered the clinic. These variations have amounted over many decades based on years of drug development associated with screening natural products and de novo synthetic systems. Caged (or bridged) bicyclic structural elements offer a variety of diverse features, encompassing three-dimensional shape, and assorted pharmacokinetic properties. This review highlights approximately 20 all carbon cage containing pharmaceuticals, ranging in structure from bicyclo[2.2.1] through to adamantane, including some in the top-selling pharmaceutical bracket. Although, a wide variety of human diseases, illnesses and conditions are treated with drugs containing the bicyclic motif, a common feature is that many of these lipophilic systems display CNS and/or neurological activity. In addition, to an extensive overview of the history and biology associated with each drug, a survey of synthetic methods used to construct these entities is presented. An analysis section compares natural products to synthetics in drug discovery, and entertains the classical caged hydrocarbon systems potentially missing from the clinic. Lastly, this unprecedented review is highly pertinent at a time when big pharma is desperately trying to escape flatland drugs. PMID:26171466

  8. New Medium for Pharmaceutical Grade Arthrospira

    PubMed Central

    Amara, Amro A.; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to produce a pharmaceutical grade single cell product of Arthrospira from a mixed culture. We have designed a medium derived from a combination between George's and Zarrouk's media. Our new medium has the ability to inhibit different forms of cyanobacterium and microalgae except the Chlorella. The medium and the cultivation conditions have been investigated to map the points where only Arthrospira could survive. For that, a mixed culture of pure Chlorella and Arthrospira (~90 : 10) has been used to develop the best medium composition that can lead to the enrichment of the Arthrospira growth and the inhibition of the Chlorella growth. To enable better control and to study its growth, an 80 l photobioreactor has been used. We have used high saline (2xA-St) medium which has been followed by in fermentor reducing its concentration to 1.5x. The investigation proves that Chlorella has completely disappeared. A method and a new saline medium have been established using a photobioreactor for in fermentor production of single cell Arthrospira. Such method enables the production of pure pharmaceutical grade Arthrospira for medicinal and pharmaceutical applications or as a single cell protein. PMID:26904724

  9. Pharmaceutical applications of supercritical carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, C S; Römpp, H; Schmidt, P C

    2001-12-01

    The appearance of a supercritical state was already observed at the beginning of the 19th century. Nevertheless, the industrial extraction of plant and other natural materials started about twenty years ago with the decaffeination of coffee. Today carbon dioxide is the most common gas for supercritical fluid extraction in food and pharmaceutical industry. Since pure supercritical carbon dioxide is a lipophilic solvent, mixtures with organic solvents, especially alcohols, are used to increase the polarity of the extraction fluid; more polar compounds can be extracted in this way. The main fields of interest are the extraction of vegetable oils from plant material in analytical and preparative scale, the preparation of essential oils for food and cosmetic industry and the isolation of substances of pharmaceutical relevance. Progress in research was made by the precise measurement of phase equilibria data by means of different methods. Apart from extraction, supercritical fluid chromatography was introduced in the field of analytics, as well as micro- and nanoparticle formation using supercritical fluids as solvent or antisolvent. This review presents pharmaceutical relevant literature of the last twenty years with special emphasis on extraction of natural materials. PMID:11802652

  10. Systems Medicine in Pharmaceutical Research and Development.

    PubMed

    Kuepfer, Lars; Schuppert, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The development of new drug therapies requires substantial and ever increasing investments from the pharmaceutical company. Ten years ago, the average time from early target identification and optimization until initial market authorization of a new drug compound took more than 10 years and involved costs in the order of one billion US dollars. Recent studies indicate even a significant growth of costs in the meanwhile, mainly driven by the increasing complexity of diseases addressed by pharmaceutical research.Modeling and simulation are proven approaches to handle highly complex systems; hence, systems medicine is expected to control the spiral of complexity of diseases and increasing costs. Today, the main focus of systems medicine applications in industry is on mechanistic modeling. Biological mechanisms are represented by explicit equations enabling insight into the cooperation of all relevant mechanisms. Mechanistic modeling is widely accepted in pharmacokinetics, but prediction from cell behavior to patients is rarely possible due to lacks in our understanding of the controlling mechanisms. Data-driven modeling aims to compensate these lacks by the use of advanced statistical and machine learning methods. Future progress in pharmaceutical research and development will require integrated hybrid modeling technologies allowing realization of the benefits of both mechanistic and data-driven modeling. In this chapter, we sketch typical industrial application areas for both modeling techniques and derive the requirements for future technology development. PMID:26677181

  11. Classification of dermal sensitizers in pharmaceutical manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Gian C; Perino, Christopher; Araya, Selene H; Bechter, Rudolf; Kuster, Martin; Lovsin Barle, Ester

    2015-08-01

    Workers in development and manufacturing of pharmaceuticals are at risk for occupational contact dermatitis (OCD) of irritative (ICD) or allergic (ACD) origin, due to contacts with reactive intermediates (IM) and drug substances (DS). We examined, if alternative methods could replace presently used animal tests for identification of ACD in pharmaceutical development and manufacturing, without apparent loss of worker health, in line with regulations. The status of alternative methods for regulatory toxicology for consumer products has recently been reviewed by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and the European Commission's Joint Research Center (JRC) for the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA). They concluded that prediction of skin sensitization potential, extent and quality by in vitro methods, for regulatory assessments, will depend on the regulatory purpose and level of confidence required. Some alternative methods are currently in validation. Current Globally Harmonized System (GHS) regulations on classification, labeling and packaging of substances and mixtures depend on human and animal data, whereas alternative methods may provide supportive evidence. Since the levels of workplace skin exposure to DS and IM in manufacturing of pharmaceuticals are usually not known, it is not possible to conduct quantitative risk assessments based on threshold calculations for contact sensitizers. PMID:26028366

  12. Defining Patient Centric Pharmaceutical Drug Product Design.

    PubMed

    Stegemann, Sven; Ternik, Robert L; Onder, Graziano; Khan, Mansoor A; van Riet-Nales, Diana A

    2016-09-01

    The term "patient centered," "patient centric," or "patient centricity" is increasingly used in the scientific literature in a wide variety of contexts. Generally, patient centric medicines are recognized as an essential contributor to healthy aging and the overall patient's quality of life and life expectancy. Besides the selection of the appropriate type of drug substance and strength for a particular indication in a particular patient, due attention must be paid that the pharmaceutical drug product design is also adequately addressing the particular patient's needs, i.e., assuring adequate patient adherence and the anticipate drug safety and effectiveness. Relevant pharmaceutical design aspects may e.g., involve the selection of the route of administration, the tablet size and shape, the ease of opening the package, the ability to read the user instruction, or the ability to follow the recommended (in-use) storage conditions. Currently, a harmonized definition on patient centric drug development/design has not yet been established. To stimulate scientific research and discussions and the consistent interpretation of test results, it is essential that such a definition is established. We have developed a first draft definition through various rounds of discussions within an interdisciplinary AAPS focus group of experts. This publication summarizes the outcomes and is intended to stimulate further discussions with all stakeholders towards a common definition of patient centric pharmaceutical drug product design that is useable across all disciplines involved. PMID:27317470

  13. Light chiral dark sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harigaya, Keisuke; Nomura, Yasunori

    2016-08-01

    An interesting possibility for dark matter is a scalar particle of mass of order 10 MeV-1 GeV, interacting with a U (1 ) gauge boson (dark photon) which mixes with the photon. We present a simple and natural model realizing this possibility. The dark matter arises as a composite pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson (dark pion) in a non-Abelian gauge sector, which also gives a mass to the dark photon. For a fixed non-Abelian gauge group, S U (N ) , and a U (1 ) charge of the constituent dark quarks, the model has only three free parameters: the dynamical scale of the non-Abelian gauge theory, the gauge coupling of the dark photon, and the mixing parameter between the dark and standard model photons. In particular, the gauge symmetry of the model does not allow any mass term for the dark quarks, and the stability of the dark pion is understood as a result of an accidental global symmetry. The model has a significant parameter space in which thermal relic dark pions comprise all of the dark matter, consistently with all experimental and cosmological constraints. In a corner of the parameter space, the discrepancy of the muon g -2 between experiments and the standard model prediction can also be ameliorated due to a loop contribution of the dark photon. Smoking-gun signatures of the model include a monophoton signal from the e+e- collision into a photon and a "dark rho meson." Observation of two processes in e+e- collision—the mode into the dark photon and that into the dark rho meson—would provide strong evidence for the model.

  14. Trust and the regulation of pharmaceuticals: South Asia in a globalised world

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Building appropriate levels of trust in pharmaceuticals is a painstaking and challenging task, involving participants from different spheres of life, including producers, distributors, retailers, prescribers, patients and the mass media. Increasingly, however, trust is not just a national matter, but involves cross-border flows of knowledge, threats and promises. Methods Data for this paper comes from the project 'Tracing Pharmaceuticals in South Asia', which used ethnographic fieldwork and qualitative interviews to compared the trajectories of three pharmaceuticals (Rifampicin, Oxytocin and Fluoxetine) from producer to patient in three sites (north India, West Bengal and Nepal) between 2005-08. Results We argue that issues of trust are crucial in reducing the likelihood of appropriate use of medicines. Unlike earlier discussions of trust, we suggest that trust contexts beyond the patient-practitioner relationship are important. We illustrate these arguments through three case studies: (i) a conflict over ethics in Nepal, involving a suggested revised ethical code for retailers, medical representatives, producers and prescribers; (ii) disputes over counterfeit, fake, substandard and spurious medicines, and quality standards in Indian generic companies, looking particularly at the role played by the US FDA; and (iii) the implications of lack of trust in the DOTS programmes in India and Nepal for the relationships among patients, government and the private sector. Conclusions We conclude that the building of trust is a necessary but always vulnerable and contingent process. While it might be desirable to outline steps that can be taken to build trust, the range of conflicting interests in the pharmaceutical field make feasible solutions hard to implement. PMID:21529358

  15. [The Korean Pharmaceutical Industry and the Expansion of the General Pharmaceuticals Market in the 1950-1960s].

    PubMed

    Sihn, Kyu-Hwan

    2015-12-01

    After the Liberation, the Korean economy was dependent on relief supplies and aid after the ruin of the colonial regime and war. The pharmaceutical business also searched for their share in the delivery of military supplies and the distribution of relief supplies. The supply-side pharmaceutical policy made the pharmaceutical market a wholesale business. The gravity of the situation led to an increased importation of medical supplies, and wholesalers took the lead in establishing the distribution structure, whereas consumers and pharmaceutical business were relatively intimidated. The aid provided by the International Cooperation Administration (ICA) marked a turning point in the Korean pharmaceutical industry after the middle of the 1950s. ICA supplied raw materials and equipment funds, while the pharmaceutical business imported advanced technology and capital. The government invited the local production of medical substances, whereas pharmaceutical businesses replaced imported medical substances with locally produced antibiotics. After the 1960s, the production of antibiotics reached saturation. Pharmaceutical businesses needed new markets to break through the stalemate, so they turned their attention to vitamins and health tonics as general pharmaceuticals, as these were suitable for mass production and mass consumption. The modernized patent medicine market after the Opening of Korea was transformed into the contemporized general pharmaceuticals market equipped with the up-to-date facilities and technology in 1960s. Pharmaceutical businesses had to advertise these new products extensively and reform the distribution structure to achieve high profits. With the introduction of TV broadcasting, these businesses invested in TV advertising and generated sizable sales figures. They also established retail pharmacy and chain stores to reform the distribution structure. The end result was a dramatic expansion of the general pharmaceuticals market. The market for

  16. Three Dimensional Sector Design with Optimal Number of Sectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xue, Min

    2009-01-01

    The concept of dynamic sector design suggests a strategic approach to ease air traffic congestion, which is predicted to become a serious problem in the national airspace system by 2025. Considerable research has been conducted to address the sectorization problem. In previous work, an approach that combines the Voronoi diagrams, Genetic Algorithms (GA), and the iterative deepening algorithm was proposed. However, as originally formulated, the number of sectors used was predefined and only two-dimensional partitions were allowed, which constrained the method's ability to achieve good designs. The current work extends the earlier Voronoi-based method by treating the number of sectors as an additional decision variable, allowing 3D partitions, and developing more comprehensive costs.

  17. Novel methodology for pharmaceutical expenditure forecast

    PubMed Central

    Vataire, Anne-Lise; Cetinsoy, Laurent; Aballéa, Samuel; Rémuzat, Cécile; Urbinati, Duccio; Kornfeld, Åsa; Mzoughi, Olfa; Toumi, Mondher

    2014-01-01

    Background and objective The value appreciation of new drugs across countries today features a disruption that is making the historical data that are used for forecasting pharmaceutical expenditure poorly reliable. Forecasting methods rarely addressed uncertainty. The objective of this project was to propose a methodology to perform pharmaceutical expenditure forecasting that integrates expected policy changes and uncertainty (developed for the European Commission as the ‘EU Pharmaceutical expenditure forecast’; see http://ec.europa.eu/health/healthcare/key_documents/index_en.htm). Methods 1) Identification of all pharmaceuticals going off-patent and new branded medicinal products over a 5-year forecasting period in seven European Union (EU) Member States. 2) Development of a model to estimate direct and indirect impacts (based on health policies and clinical experts) on savings of generics and biosimilars. Inputs were originator sales value, patent expiry date, time to launch after marketing authorization, price discount, penetration rate, time to peak sales, and impact on brand price. 3) Development of a model for new drugs, which estimated sales progression in a competitive environment. Clinical expected benefits as well as commercial potential were assessed for each product by clinical experts. Inputs were development phase, marketing authorization dates, orphan condition, market size, and competitors. 4) Separate analysis of the budget impact of products going off-patent and new drugs according to several perspectives, distribution chains, and outcomes. 5) Addressing uncertainty surrounding estimations via deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analysis. Results This methodology has proven to be effective by 1) identifying the main parameters impacting the variations in pharmaceutical expenditure forecasting across countries: generics discounts and penetration, brand price after patent loss, reimbursement rate, the penetration of biosimilars and

  18. Making progress and gaining momentum in global 3Rs efforts: how the European pharmaceutical industry is contributing.

    PubMed

    Fleetwood, Gill; Chlebus, Magda; Coenen, Joachim; Dudoignon, Nicolas; Lecerf, Catherine; Maisonneuve, Catherine; Robinson, Sally

    2015-03-01

    Animal research together with other investigational methods (computer modeling, in vitro tests, etc) remains an indispensable part of the pharmaceutical research and development process. The European pharmaceutical industry recognizes the responsibilities inherent in animal research and is committed to applying and enhancing 3Rs principles. New nonsentient, ex vivo, and in vitro methods are developed every day and contribute to reducing and, in some instances, replacing in vivo studies. Their utility is however limited by the extent of our current knowledge and understanding of complex biological systems. Until validated alternative ways to model these complex interactions become available, animals remain indispensable in research and safety testing. In the interim, scientists continue to look for ways to reduce the number of animals needed to obtain valid results, refine experimental techniques to enhance animal welfare, and replace animals with other research methods whenever feasible. As research goals foster increasing cross-sector and international collaboration, momentum is growing to enhance and coordinate scientific innovation globally-beyond a single company, stakeholder group, sector, region, or country. The implementation of 3Rs strategies can be viewed as an integral part of this continuously evolving science, demonstrating the link between science and welfare, benefiting both the development of new medicines and animal welfare. This goal is one of the key objectives of the Research and Animal Welfare working group of the European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries and Associations. PMID:25836966

  19. Making Progress and Gaining Momentum in Global 3Rs Efforts: How the European Pharmaceutical Industry Is Contributing

    PubMed Central

    Fleetwood, Gill; Chlebus, Magda; Coenen, Joachim; Dudoignon, Nicolas; Lecerf, Catherine; Maisonneuve, Catherine; Robinson, Sally

    2015-01-01

    Animal research together with other investigational methods (computer modeling, in vitro tests, etc) remains an indispensable part of the pharmaceutical research and development process. The European pharmaceutical industry recognizes the responsibilities inherent in animal research and is committed to applying and enhancing 3Rs principles. New nonsentient, ex vivo, and in vitro methods are developed every day and contribute to reducing and, in some instances, replacing in vivo studies. Their utility is however limited by the extent of our current knowledge and understanding of complex biological systems. Until validated alternative ways to model these complex interactions become available, animals remain indispensable in research and safety testing. In the interim, scientists continue to look for ways to reduce the number of animals needed to obtain valid results, refine experimental techniques to enhance animal welfare, and replace animals with other research methods whenever feasible. As research goals foster increasing cross-sector and international collaboration, momentum is growing to enhance and coordinate scientific innovation globally—beyond a single company, stakeholder group, sector, region, or country. The implementation of 3Rs strategies can be viewed as an integral part of this continuously evolving science, demonstrating the link between science and welfare, benefiting both the development of new medicines and animal welfare. This goal is one of the key objectives of the Research and Animal Welfare working group of the European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries and Associations. PMID:25836966

  20. Impact assessment of emission management strategies of the pharmaceuticals Metformin and Metoprolol to the aquatic environment using Bayesian networks.

    PubMed

    Brandmayr, Caterina; Kerber, Heide; Winker, Martina; Schramm, Engelbert

    2015-11-01

    The issue of pharmaceuticals in the environment has caused increasing concern in the recent years and various strategies have been proposed to tackle this problem. This work describes a Bayesian network (BN)-based socio-ecological impact assessment of a set of measures aimed at reducing the entry of pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment. The measures investigated were selected across three sectors: public health market, environmental politics and drug design innovation. The BN model was developed for two drugs, Metformin and Metoprolol, and it models the distribution of the Predicted Environmental Concentration (PEC) values as a function of different measures. Results show that the sensitivity of the PEC for the two drugs to the measures investigated reflects the distinct drug characteristics, suggesting that in order to ensure the successful reduction of a broad range of substances, a spectrum of measures targeting the entire lifecycle of a pharmaceutical should be implemented. Furthermore, evaluation of two scenarios reflecting different emission management strategies highlights that the integrated implementation of a comprehensive set of measures across the three sectors results in a more extensive reduction of the contamination. Finally, the BN provides an initial forecasting tool to model the PEC of a drug as a function of a combination of measures in a context-specific manner and possible adaptations of the model are proposed. PMID:26115339

  1. Pharmaceuticals--strategic considerations in health reforms in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Nishtar, Sania

    2006-12-01

    Pharmaceuticals are critical to the functioning of healthcare systems which require a sustainable supply of quality, efficacious, and safe essential medicines. With this as a context, the Gateway Paper in its capacity as a suggested roadmap for health reforms within Pakistan stressed on the need for a pharmaceutical policy to be directed towards improving people's access to medicines; within this framework a number of issues have been highlighted. Weaknesses in the current legislation on drugs, in particular gaps, which have emerged contemporaneously with reference to the post WTO situation and the technology boom, have been discussed and the incongruity between the drug policies and policies in the other sectors addressed. The Gateway Paper makes a strong case to establish a statutory semi-autonomous drug regulatory authority in order to ensure stricter implementation of the Drug Law, which needs to be amended to bridge the current gaps. The paper lays emphasis on a formal quality assurance mechanism and the need to build capacity to implement regulation in this regard. Lack of clarity in the current pricing formula has been flagged as a key issue and the need highlighted to develop a pricing formula that is predictable, transparent and acceptable to the stakeholders, yet one that does not create access and affordability issues for the poor and disadvantaged. The paper addresses gaps in the process of drug registration in Pakistan and stresses on the need to redefine its scope and ensure its stricter enforcement. Unethical market practices and irrational use of drugs have been discussed and the need for transparently implementing standard operating procedures for drug selecting, procurement, storage, dispensing and rational prescribing and the introduction of appropriate evidence based education, managerial and regulatory interventions in this regard, highlighted. The myriad of reasons which lead to the shortage of drugs and to the mushrooming of spurious

  2. [Impact Reimbursement Act on the pharmaceutical market in Poland].

    PubMed

    Giermaziak, Wojciech

    2014-04-01

    According to 12 may 2011 Reimbursement Act, the new regulations were introduced related to changes in so far in force rules on refunds of official prices and margins for drugs, foodstuffs of special purpose and medical products. After year of functioning of this regulation, in evaluation of the government, law gave measurable financial effects for public payer, sometimes through drastic actions, connected the of reduction of existing profits of manufacturers sector and importers drugs, as well wholesale and retail, both in treatment open and closed. Parallel to research and analysis of effects introduction in life act refund, conducted by government, to target current regulation possible negative phenomena can to be after-effects to regulation, systematically there are conducted analogous study to reputable companies specialized in evaluation and updating market Polish pharmaceutical, such as IMS Health Polska, Pharma Expert, Kamsoft, WHO and European a law firm. In their opinion to reimbursement act is the most serious regulation control system to introduced into Polish order legal, and first time for many years on such a large scale. Thoroughly changed policy of drugs State have important influence for all participants Polish pharmaceutical market, both those directly related to the drug trade, as the functioning doctors and health condition and financial Polish patient. Change in the way prices of drugs is determined as flexible to price formation mechanism, combining drugs similar profile pharmacological in so group limits and dependence of the level of refunds from application drug accordingly characteristics medicinal product, adaptation solutions to new law refund to the existing law about health services, gave measurable financial effect for the public payer. Rationalization expenses to NFZ, as main premise introduction refund act, created to broader than so far possibility to use new molecules of drugs, and the latest medical technology, even if in the

  3. Roundtable discussion: what is the future role of the private sector in health?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The role for the private sector in health remains subject to much debate, especially within the context of achieving universal health coverage. This roundtable discussion offers diverse perspectives from a range of stakeholders – a health funder, a representative from an implementing organization, a national-level policy-maker, and an expert working in a large multi-national company – on what the future may hold for the private sector in health. Discussion The first perspective comes from a health funder, who argues that the discussion about the future role of the private sector has been bogged down in language. He argues for a ‘both/and’ approach rather than an ‘either/or’ when it comes to talking about health service provision in low- and middle-income countries. The second perspective is offered by an implementer of health insurance in sub-Saharan Africa. The piece examines the comparative roles of public sector actors, private sector actors and funding agencies, suggesting that they must work together to mobilize domestic resources to fund and deliver health services in the longer term. Thirdly, a special advisor working in the federal government of Nigeria considers the situation in that country. He notes that the private sector plays a significant role in funding and delivering health services there, and that the government must engage the private sector or forever be left behind. Finally, a representative from a multi-national pharmaceutical corporation gives an overview of global shifts that are creating opportunities for the private sector in health markets. Summary Overall, the roundtable discussants agree that the private sector will play an important role in future health systems. But we must agree a common language, work together, and identify key issues and gaps that might be more effectively filled by the private sector. PMID:24961806

  4. Globalization, pharmaceutical pricing, and South African health policy: managing confrontation with U.S. firms and politicians.

    PubMed

    Bond, P

    1999-01-01

    Brewing since the advent of South African democracy in 1994 and promises of health sector transformation, an extraordinary drug war between President Nelson Mandela's African National Congress government and U.S. pharmaceutical manufacturers took on global proportions in 1998-1999. Within months of the passage of South African legislation aimed at lowering drug prices, the U.S. government quickly applied powerful pressure points to repeal a clause allowing potential importation of generic substitutes and imposition of compulsory licensing. At stake were not only local interpretations of patent law and World Trade Organization rules on Trade in Intellectual Property, but international power relations between developing countries and the pharmaceutical industry. In reviewing the ongoing debate, this article considers post-apartheid public health policy, U.S. government pressure to change the law, and pharmaceutical industry interests and links to the U.S. government, and evaluates various kinds of resistance to U.S. corporate and government behavior. The case thus raises--not for the first time--concerns about contemporary imperialism ("globalization"), the role of the profit motive as an incentive in vital pharmaceutical products, and indeed the depth of "democracy" in a country where high-bidding international drug firms have sufficient clout to embarrass Vice President Al Gore by pitting him against the life-and-death interests of millions of consumers of essential drugs in South Africa and other developing countries. PMID:10615573

  5. Feeding and Bleeding: The Institutional Banalization of Risk to Healthy Volunteers in Phase I Pharmaceutical Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Jill A.

    2015-01-01

    Phase I clinical trials are the first stage of testing new pharmaceuticals in humans. The majority of these studies are conducted under controlled, inpatient conditions using healthy volunteers who are paid for their participation. This article draws on an ethnographic study of six phase I clinics in the United States, including 268 semistructured interviews with research staff and healthy volunteers. In it, I argue that an institutional banalization of risk structures the perceptions of research staff and healthy volunteers participating in the studies. For research staff, there are three mechanisms by which risk becomes banal: a perceived homogeneity of studies, Fordist work regimes, and data-centric discourse. For healthy volunteers, repeat study participation contributes to the institutional banalization of risk both through the process of desensitization to risk and the formation of trust in the clinics. I argue that the institutional banalization of risk also renders invisible ethical concerns about exploitation of underprivileged groups in pharmaceutical research. PMID:25914430

  6. Financial Aspects and the Future of the Pharmaceutical Industry in the United States of America

    PubMed Central

    Karamehic, Jasenko; Ridic, Ognjen; Ridic, Goran; Jukic, Tomislav; Coric, Jozo; Subasic, Djemo; Panjeta, Mirsad; Saban, Aida; Zunic, Lejla; Masic, Izet

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The U.S. pharmaceutical industry is defined by the U.S. Census Bureau as “companies engaged in researching, developing, manufacturing and marketing of medicines and biological for human or veterinary use”. Besides its main role in improving human health, the US pharmaceutical industry represents one of the most critical, key decision makers’ lobbying prone and competitive sectors in the economy. The cost in the environment of very limited government price regulation remains one of the major problems fuelling aggregate health care cost inflation. Pharmaceuticals have created huge benefits for public health and economic productivity by the means of saving lives, increasing life expectancy, reducing illness related suffering, preventing surgeries and decreasing hospital stays. Purpose: The goal of this review paper is to show the present conditions and future trends of the pharmaceutical industry in the U.S. Methodology: This paper represents a thorough literature review of the multifaceted sources including: studies, books, peer reviewed journals, U.S. government sources (i.e. U.S. Census Bureau, U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, etc.). Discussion: In the thirty years pharmaceutical companies have consistently developed and launched new medicines, bringing hope to sick or – at risk patients. They also usually provide above the average financial returns for its shareholders. U.S. pharmaceutical companies had as their goal to discover blockbuster drugs. Blockbuster drugs are generally defined as drugs that solve medical problems common to hundreds of millions of people and, at the same time generate large sales increases and profits for the pharmaceutical companies. The main approach of these companies includes huge investments in research and development (R&D), innovation, marketing and sales. The trend analysis shows that for the most part the era of blockbuster drugs is nearing an end. Conclusion: Numerous blockbuster drugs will be coming off

  7. Temperature compensation for miniaturized magnetic sector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinha, Mahadeva P. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Temperature compensation for a magnetic sector used in mass spectrometry. A high temperature dependant magnetic sector is used. This magnetic sector is compensated by a magnetic shunt that has opposite temperature characteristics to those of the magnet.

  8. 50 CFR 648.87 - Sector allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... permit sanctions pursuant to 15 CFR part 904. If an ACE allocated to a sector is not exceeded in a given... CFR part 904, each sector, permit/vessel owner, and vessel operator participating in the sector may...

  9. Trends in Public Sector Arbitration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Harry; Wallace, Virginia

    1982-01-01

    Presents developments in grievance arbitration in government employment by examining all public sector arbitration cases from 1971 through 1979. Predicts that issues of employee discipline and discharge will comprise the largest number of cases proceeding to arbitration. (Author/MLF)

  10. Risk Communication and the Pharmaceutical Industry: what is the reality?

    PubMed

    Edwards, Brian; Chakraborty, Sweta

    2012-11-01

    Risk communication is central to the risk management strategy of a pharmaceutical company. Pharmaceutical companies primarily communicate risk through labelling tools such as the Summary of Product Characteristics (SmPC), package insert, patient information leaflet (PIL) and the carton, which are currently regulated based on templates such as those of the EU. Recent research raises concern about how effective the SmPC is alone in communicating risk. There is some evidence that carton design can influence risk comprehension. Processes to check new trade names cannot be confused with existing names is a simple measure to mitigate one form of risk. Given the central role and the vast amount of resource that is consumed, it is surprising there has not been extensive original research to see whether product information such as the SmPC is a good tool for communicating risk. Recently, EU agencies have assessed the communication value of the PIL and revised the template and guidelines. However, no evaluation of user testing has been conducted at European level since the introduction of these new requirements. As regards 'Dear Healthcare Professional Communications', there is inconsistent evidence about their ability to change patient and physician behaviour. There is a dearth of evidence about what sort of communications materials are the most effective under which circumstances. The use of templates restricts the flexibility of companies to adapt their risk messages to their targets. Effective communication requires understanding how different audiences perceive the message and what the fundamental drivers are for altering patient and prescriber behaviour to be safer. This requires careful consideration of the relationship between risk communication, perception and management. However, the focus of a company's risk communication plan is normally on the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) regions and their regulations. Although the same regulatory tools are

  11. Pharmaceutical industry exposure in our hospitals: the final frontier.

    PubMed

    Dean, Jessica; Loh, Erwin; Coleman, Justin J

    2016-01-18

    Despite recent changes in attitudes, most hospitals continue to experience pharmaceutical industry presence. Pharmaceutical industry presence may be necessary and beneficial in the context of sponsorship of clinical trials with appropriate governance. Doctors continue to hold positive attitudes towards market-oriented activities of the pharmaceutical and medical device industries. Despite evidence to the contrary, doctors believe they are able to effectively manage pharmaceutical sales representative interactions such that their own prescribing is not adversely impacted. Doctors also share a belief that small gifts and benefits are harmless. There may be significant financial burden associated with divestment of such sponsorship by hospitals. Change requires education and effective policies to manage pharmaceutical industry relationships and conflicts of interest. We discuss case studies involving students and public hospital doctors to show that divestment is possible without significant financial detriment. Health services need to be proactive in transitioning financial and cultural reliance on pharmaceutical industry sponsorship to other potentially less harmful sources. PMID:26763810

  12. A new e-beam application in the pharmaceutical industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadat, Theo; Malcolm, Fiona

    2005-10-01

    The paper presents a new electron beam application in the pharmaceutical industry: an in-line self-shielded atropic transfer system using electron beam for surface decontamination of products entering a pharmaceutical filling line. The unit was developed by Linac Technologies in response to the specifications of a multi-national pharmaceutical company, to solve the risk of microbial contamination entering a filling line housed inside an isolator. In order to fit the sterilization unit inside the pharmaceutical plant, a "miniature" low-energy (200 keV) electron beam accelerator and e-beam tunnel were designed, all conforming to the pharmaceutical good manufacturing practice (GMP) regulations. Process validation using biological indicators is described, with reference to the regulations governing the pharmaceutical industry. Other industrial applications of a small-sized self-shielded electron beam sterilization unit are mentioned.

  13. Vendor qualification for pharmaceutical excipients--GMP requirements and approach.

    PubMed

    Patel, K T; Chotal, N P

    2010-11-01

    Excipients are, in the large majority of cases, not made specifically for pharmaceutical use. Most pharmaceutical excipient manufacturers supply less than 10% of the total production of that particular material for pharmaceutical use. Excipient product portfolio consists of hundreds of products differing in chemistry, origin and functionality and they are used in many different applications. The days of treating excipients like commodities and buying them without fully qualifying the source and the entire distribution chain have gone by as GMP regulations demands to ensure quality of other materials used in the manufacturing process. The paradigm that exists in some pharmaceutical companies today where excipients are sourced from distributors without knowing the actual manufacturer, manufacturing site and full distribution lifecycle chain to be changed. The present contribution gives an overview about the current moves on GMP requirements for pharmaceutical excipient and approach for qualification of pharmaceutical excipient manufacturers. PMID:21155382

  14. Why lunch matters: assessing physicians' perceptions about industry relationships.

    PubMed

    Fugh-Berman, Adriane J; Scialli, Anthony R; Bell, Alicia M

    2010-01-01

    Many studies have shown that pharmaceutical marketing affects prescribing choices. Studies that have assessed the effects of educational interventions on perceptions of pharmaceutical promotion have found mixed results. This study assesses the short-term effects of an educational intervention about marketing tactics on the attitudes and fund of knowledge of residents, medical students, and attending physicians. A 1-hour slide show that covered detailing, prescription tracking, drug samples, medical meetings, and journals was developed by PharmedOut and presented at a total of 14 grand rounds and seminars at departments of family medicine, internal medicine, pediatrics, psychiatry, cardiology, and neurology. Pre- and posttests included attitudinal and fact questions addressing the influence of drug reps, gifts, pharmaceutical advertising and drug samples on prescribing behavior. The posttest asked whether attendees intended to change their prescribing behavior. The Mann-Whitney U test was used for Likert-scale questions and the Fisher exact test was used to compare the number of pre- and posttest correct answers for the multiple choice and true/false questions. Three hundred seventy-three participants completed pre- and posttests. Significant attitudinal shifts were seen overall, particularly in questions addressing influence of salespeople on physicians in general and on the respondent individually. Some participants commented that they intended to stop seeing drug reps or stop attending industry-funded meals. A new educational presentation can substantially shift attitudes toward perceived susceptibility to pharmaceutical marketing activities. Further research is needed to see if attitude change persists. PMID:20872775

  15. Impact of antibiotic restrictions: the pharmaceutical perspective.

    PubMed

    Power, E

    2006-08-01

    The development of new antibiotics is dependent on their performance in economic models that favour products with large markets, high levels of potential sales and low development risks. There is a trend toward more severe and more widespread market restrictions for the use of antibiotics, ostensibly to control resistance, though they may be enacted through the control of drug budgets. The restrictions reduce the potential earnings of new antibiotics. In addition, more stringent regulatory procedures increase development costs and risk. As a consequence, compared with drugs for other diseases, particularly chronic diseases, antibiotics perform poorly in economic decision models and are therefore less likely to be selected by pharmaceutical companies for continued development. Overall, this creates a conflict between the twin objectives of controlling resistance through antibiotic restriction and addressing resistance clinically through the introduction of new agents. Ultimately, this may lead to the accelerated loss of efficacy for currently available agents, as we become more dependent on them. Moreover, the new agents that we need to maintain our current levels of health will be lacking in pharmaceutical pipelines. Antibiotic resistance is inevitable; the development of new antibiotics is, however, under threat. Unless the market conditions can be economically rebalanced to encourage innovation and investment, or new models of pharmaceutical development can be applied to this area, the number of companies with active antibiotic research programmes will continue to fall. Just as we should not be complacent regarding the development of resistance, we should not be complacent in assuming that the antibiotics of tomorrow will be there when we need them. PMID:16827822

  16. Production of pharmaceutical proteins by transgenic animals.

    PubMed

    Houdebine, Louis-Marie

    2009-03-01

    Proteins started being used as pharmaceuticals in the 1920s with insulin extracted from pig pancreas. In the early 1980s, human insulin was prepared in recombinant bacteria and it is now used by all patients suffering from diabetes. Several other proteins and particularly human growth hormone are also prepared from bacteria. This success was limited by the fact that bacteria cannot synthesize complex proteins such as monoclonal antibodies or coagulation blood factors which must be matured by post-translational modifications to be active or stable in vivo. These modifications include mainly folding, cleavage, subunit association, gamma-carboxylation and glycosylation. They can be fully achieved only in mammalian cells which can be cultured in fermentors at an industrial scale or used in living animals. Several transgenic animal species can produce recombinant proteins but presently two systems started being implemented. The first is milk from farm transgenic mammals which has been studied for 20 years and which allowed a protein, human antithrombin III, to receive the agreement from EMEA (European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products) to be put on the market in 2006. The second system is chicken egg white which recently became more attractive after essential improvement of the methods used to generate transgenic birds. Two monoclonal antibodies and human interferon-beta 1a could be recovered from chicken egg white. A broad variety of recombinant proteins were produced experimentally by these systems and a few others. This includes monoclonal antibodies, vaccines, blood factors, hormones, growth factors, cytokines, enzymes, milk proteins, collagen, fibrinogen and others. Although these tools have not yet been optimized and are still being improved, a new era in the production of recombinant pharmaceutical proteins was initiated in 1987 and became a reality in 2006. In the present review, the efficiency of the different animal systems to produce

  17. Academic psychiatry and the pharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed

    Ban, Thomas A

    2006-05-01

    In the second half of the 19th century new drugs introduced by the pharmaceutical industry helped lead to the establishment of academic departments in psychiatry. Causal treatment of cerebral pellagra by nicotinic acid and cerebral syphilis by penicillin in the first half of the 20th century led to major changes in the diagnostic distribution of psychiatric patients. In the second half of the 20th century with the introduction of a rapidly growing number of psychotropic drugs, pharmacotherapy became the primary form of treatment in mental illness. Psychiatrists today perceive neuropharmacology as one of the basic sciences of psychiatry and psychopharmacology as the bridge between the mode of action and the clinical indications of psychotropic drugs. Pharmacotherapy with psychotropic drugs focused attention on the differential responsiveness to the same drug within the same diagnostic category. Yet, instead of re-evaluating psychiatric nosology and conducting research in psychopathology, a statistical methodology was adopted for the demonstration of therapeutic effectiveness in pharmacologically heterogeneous populations. Employment of consensus-based classifications and psychiatric rating scales in the clinical development of psychotropic drugs led to semi-finished products, which are prescribed indiscriminately. Replacement of single-center clinical trials by multi-center centrally coordinated clinical investigations led to the control of education in pharmacotherapy by the pharmaceutical industry. To separate education from marketing, the identification of the treatment-responsive forms of illness and the delineation of the therapeutic profile of psychotropic drugs are proposed with the employment of a new methodology, the "Composite Diagnostic Evaluation System." It is postulated that development of a pharmacologically valid psychiatric nosology with the employment of a "nosologic matrix" would provide the pharmaceutical industry with the necessary feedback to

  18. Spectrofluorimetric determination of fluoroquinolones in pharmaceutical preparations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulu, Sevgi Tatar

    2009-02-01

    Simple, rapid and highly sensitive spectrofluorimetric method is presented for the determination of four fluoroquinolone (FQ) drugs, ciprofloxacin, enoxacin, norfloxacin and moxifloxacin in pharmaceutical preparations. Proposed method is based on the derivatization of FQ with 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan (NBD-Cl) in borate buffer of pH 9.0 to yield a yellow product. The optimum experimental conditions have been studied carefully. Beer's law is obeyed over the concentration range of 23.5-500 ng mL -1 for ciprofloxacin, 28.5-700 ng mL -1 for enoxacin, 29.5-800 ng mL -1 for norfloxacin and 33.5-1000 ng mL -1 for moxifloxacin using NBD-Cl reagent, respectively. The detection limits were found to be 7.0 ng mL -1 for ciprofloxacin, 8.5 ng mL -1 for enoxacin, 9.2 ng mL -1 for norfloxacin and 9.98 ng mL -1 for moxifloxacin, respectively. Intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviation and relative mean error values at three different concentrations were determined. The low relative standard deviation values indicate good precision and high recovery values indicate accuracy of the proposed methods. The method is highly sensitive and specific. The results obtained are in good agreement with those obtained by the official and reference method. The results presented in this report show that the applied spectrofluorimetric method is acceptable for the determination of the four FQ in the pharmaceutical preparations. Common excipients used as additives in pharmaceutical preparations do not interfere with the proposed method.

  19. Salt forms of the pharmaceutical amide dihydrocarbamazepine.

    PubMed

    Buist, Amanda R; Kennedy, Alan R

    2016-02-01

    Carbamazepine (CBZ) is well known as a model active pharmaceutical ingredient used in the study of polymorphism and the generation and comparison of cocrystal forms. The pharmaceutical amide dihydrocarbamazepine (DCBZ) is a less well known material and is largely of interest here as a structural congener of CBZ. Reaction of DCBZ with strong acids results in protonation of the amide functionality at the O atom and gives the salt forms dihydrocarbamazepine hydrochloride {systematic name: [(10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[b,f]azepin-5-yl)(hydroxy)methylidene]azanium chloride, C15H15N2O(+)·Cl(-)}, dihydrocarbamazepine hydrochloride monohydrate {systematic name: [(10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[b,f]azepin-5-yl)(hydroxy)methylidene]azanium chloride monohydrate, C15H15N2O(+)·Cl(-)·H2O} and dihydrocarbamazepine hydrobromide monohydrate {systematic name: [(10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[b,f]azepin-5-yl)(hydroxy)methylidene]azanium bromide monohydrate, C15H15N2O(+)·Br(-)·H2O}. The anhydrous hydrochloride has a structure with two crystallographically independent ion pairs (Z' = 2), wherein both cations adopt syn conformations, whilst the two hydrated species are mutually isostructural and have cations with anti conformations. Compared to neutral dihydrocarbamazepine structures, protonation of the amide group is shown to cause changes to both the molecular (C=O bond lengthening and C-N bond shortening) and the supramolecular structures. The amide-to-amide and dimeric hydrogen-bonding motifs seen for neutral polymorphs and cocrystalline species are replaced here by one-dimensional polymeric constructs with no direct amide-to-amide bonds. The structures are also compared with, and shown to be closely related to, those of the salt forms of the structurally similar pharmaceutical carbamazepine. PMID:26846502

  20. Risk perception as a driver for risk management policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmona, María; Mañez, María

    2016-04-01

    Risk is generally defined as the "combination of the probability of the occurrence of an event and its negative consequences" ( UNISDR, 2009). However, the perception of a risk differs among cultures regarding different features such as the context,causes, benefits or damage. Risk perception is the subjective valuation of the probability of an event happening and how concerned individuals or groups are with the consequences (Sjöberg, 2004). Our study is based on an existing framework for risk perception (Rehn and Rohrmann, 2000). We analyse the characteristics of the risk perception regarding extreme events (e.g.droughts) and how the perception of the group drives the action to manage the risk. We do this to achieve an overview of the conditions that let stakeholders join each other to improve risk management especially when governments are not reacting properly. For our research, attention is paid on risk perception of Multi-Sector Partnerships not taking into account the individual level of risk perception. We focus on those factors that make risk management effective and increase resilience. Multi-Sector Partnerships, considered as significant governance structures for risk management, might contribute to reduce vulnerability in prone areas to natural hazards and disasters. The Multi-Sector Partnerships used for our research are existing partnerships identified in the cases studies of the European project ENHANCE. We implement a survey to analyse the perception of risk in the case studies. That survey is based on the Cultural Theory (Douglas and Wildavsky, 1982)and the Protection Motivation Theory (Rogers, 1975). We analyse the results using the Qualitative-Comparative Analysis proposed by Ragin in 1987. The results show the main characteristics of a risk culture that are beneficial to manage a risk. Those characteristics are shaped by the perception of risk of the people involved in the partnership, which in turn shapes their risk management. Nevertheless, we

  1. In silico toxicology for the pharmaceutical sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Valerio, Luis G.

    2009-12-15

    The applied use of in silico technologies (a.k.a. computational toxicology, in silico toxicology, computer-assisted tox, e-tox, i-drug discovery, predictive ADME, etc.) for predicting preclinical toxicological endpoints, clinical adverse effects, and metabolism of pharmaceutical substances has become of high interest to the scientific community and the public. The increased accessibility of these technologies for scientists and recent regulations permitting their use for chemical risk assessment supports this notion. The scientific community is interested in the appropriate use of such technologies as a tool to enhance product development and safety of pharmaceuticals and other xenobiotics, while ensuring the reliability and accuracy of in silico approaches for the toxicological and pharmacological sciences. For pharmaceutical substances, this means active and impurity chemicals in the drug product may be screened using specialized software and databases designed to cover these substances through a chemical structure-based screening process and algorithm specific to a given software program. A major goal for use of these software programs is to enable industry scientists not only to enhance the discovery process but also to ensure the judicious use of in silico tools to support risk assessments of drug-induced toxicities and in safety evaluations. However, a great amount of applied research is still needed, and there are many limitations with these approaches which are described in this review. Currently, there is a wide range of endpoints available from predictive quantitative structure-activity relationship models driven by many different computational software programs and data sources, and this is only expected to grow. For example, there are models based on non-proprietary and/or proprietary information specific to assessing potential rodent carcinogenicity, in silico screens for ICH genetic toxicity assays, reproductive and developmental toxicity, theoretical

  2. [Drug patents and other ways to protect pharmaceutical research].

    PubMed

    Ohana, Patrick; Tardieu, Sophie; Blin, Olivier; Tassy, Sébastien; Sambuc, Roland

    2004-01-01

    Pharmaceutical research constitutes a significant cost for pharmaceutical companies. Because of the importance of the financial investment in research projects, companies must protect their discoveries. There are multiple ways to do this. First, the legal avenue can be divided into three parts: a pharmaceutical company can protect a new drug by a patent, then an additional patent or a secondary patent; moreover, since 1992 in Europe, the pharmaceutical industry has been able to extend a patent by the "Supplementary Protection Certificate" (le Certificat Complémentaire de Protection [CCP]). The nonjuridical way is to use the chiral "switch", which can extend patents close to expiring, thus enhancing profitability. PMID:15359623

  3. RFID in the pharmaceutical industry: addressing counterfeits with technology.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Douglas

    2014-11-01

    The use of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) in the pharmaceutical industry has grown in recent years. The technology has matured from its specialized tracking and retail uses to a systemic part of supply chain management in international pharmaceutical production and distribution. Counterfeit drugs, however, remain a significant challenge for governments, pharmaceutical companies, clinicians, and patients and the use of RFID to track these compounds represents an opportunity for development. This paper discusses the medical, technological, and economic factors that support widespread adoption of RFID technology in the pharmaceutical industry in an effort to prevent counterfeit medicines from harming patients and brand equity. PMID:25308613

  4. Indexing of Patents of Pharmaceutical Composition in Online Databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Online searching of patents of pharmaceutical composition is generally considered to be very difficult. It is due to the fact that the patent databases include extensive technical information as well as legal information so that they are not likely to have index proper to the pharmaceutical composition or even if they have such index, the scope and coverage of indexing is ambiguous. This paper discusses how patents of pharmaceutical composition are indexed in online databases such as WPl, CA, CLAIMS, USP and PATOLIS. Online searching of patents of pharmaceutical composition are also discussed in some detail.

  5. Pharmaceuticals Exposed to the Space Environment: Problems and Prospects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaworske, Donald A.; Myers, Jerry G.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Human Research Program (HRP) Health Countermeasures Element maintains ongoing efforts to inform detailed risks, gaps, and further questions associated with the use of pharmaceuticals in space. Most recently, the Pharmacology Risk Report, released in 2010, illustrates the problems associated with maintaining pharmaceutical efficacy. Since the report, one key publication includes evaluation of pharmaceutical products stored on the International Space Station (ISS). This study shows that selected pharmaceuticals on ISS have a shorter shelf-life in space than corresponding terrestrial controls. The HRP Human Research Roadmap for planetary exploration identifies the risk of ineffective or toxic medications due to long-term storage during missions to Mars. The roadmap also identifies the need to understand and predict how pharmaceuticals will behave when exposed to radiation for long durations. Terrestrial studies of returned samples offer a start for predictive modeling. This paper shows that pharmaceuticals returned to Earth for post-flight analyses are amenable to a Weibull distribution analysis in order to support probabilistic risk assessment modeling. The paper also considers the prospect of passive payloads of key pharmaceuticals on sample return missions outside of Earth's magnetic field to gather additional statistics. Ongoing work in radiation chemistry suggests possible mitigation strategies where future work could be done at cryogenic temperatures to explore methods for preserving the strength of pharmaceuticals in the space radiation environment, perhaps one day leading to an architecture where pharmaceuticals are cached on the Martian surface and preserved cryogenically.

  6. Internet pharmaceutical sales: attributes, concerns, and future forecast.

    PubMed

    Bruckel, Katy; Capozzoli, Ernest A

    2003-01-01

    Internet pharmaceutical sales continue to skyrocket as healthcare providers and consumers are increasingly relying on the efficiencies and convenience that is available via such transactions. Managed care companies, increasing demands to reduce healthcare inefficiencies while maximizing the quality of patient care is a significant contributing factor to the expanding utilization and success of online pharmaceutical sales. However, with the expansion of Internet pharmaceutical sales, healthcare providers, pharmacy benefit management and insurance companies, and consumers realize new opportunities and risks. This paper will review the attributes and concerns associated with online pharmaceutical sales, discussing current and pending legislation intended to more effectively manage these parameters. PMID:15683019

  7. Basic principles of pharmaceutical science in Ayurvĕda.

    PubMed

    Subhose, Varanasi; Srinivas, Pitta; Narayana, Ala

    2005-01-01

    Pharmaceutical is one of the allied branches of science, which is closely associated with Medical science. Today pharmaceutical chemistry and pharmacognosy are playing important role in treatment for a disease and its prevention. Herbal medicines are being used by about 80% of the world population mostly in the developing countries in the primary health care. There has been an upsurge in demand for the Phyto-pharmaceutical products of Ayurvĕda in western nations, because of the fact that the synthetic drugs are considered to be unsafe. Due to this many national and multinational pharmaceutical companies are now concentrating on manufacturing of Ayurvĕdic Phyto-pharmaceutical products. Ayurvĕda is the Indian traditional system of medicine, which also deals about pharmaceutical science. The Ayurvĕdic knowledge of the pharmaceutical science is scattered in Ayurvĕdic classical texts. Săranghadhara Samhita, which is written by Săranghadhara, explain systematically about the information of the Ayurvĕdic pharmaceutical science and also updated it. Industrialized manufacturing of Ayurvĕdic dosage forms has brought in new challenges like deviation from basic concepts of medicine preparation. Săranghadhara Samrhită the devout text on pharmaceutics in Ayurvĕda comes handy to solve such problems, as the methods described are very lucid and easy to follow. PMID:17333665

  8. Medications at School: Disposing of Pharmaceutical Waste

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taras, Howard; Haste, Nina M.; Berry, Angela T.; Tran, Jennifer; Singh, Renu F.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This project quantified and categorized medications left unclaimed by students at the end of the school year. It determined the feasibility of a model medication disposal program and assessed school nurses' perceptions of environmentally responsible medication disposal. Methods: At a large urban school district all unclaimed…

  9. Patients Perception of Community Pharmacist in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    PubMed Central

    Catic, Tarik; Jusufovic, Fatima Insanic; Tabakovic, Vedad

    2013-01-01

    Community pharmacists play a significant role in patient/disease management and perception by patients is increasingly important. A self-administered questionnaire was developed consisted of sociodemographic part and 15 questions. Patients have a positive overall perception of community pharmacists that is comparable to most studies in Europe. Community pharmacists’ beyond dispensing drugs play a significant role in patient and disease management. This role of the pharmacist is performed through pharmaceutical care. Patient’s opinion is increasingly considered to be a useful component in the determination of care outcomes and consumer satisfaction is an integral component of the quality of primary health care. For the purpose of this study we developed self-administered questionnaire consisted of sociodemographic part, and 15 questions. Survey has been conducted in 10 pharmacies. Results are presented in tables and figures and descriptive statistics has been used. We found that patients in Bosnia and Herzegovina have a positive overall perception of community pharmacists and of the services offered from community pharmacies that is comparable to most studies in Europe, but there is still room for improvement of relationships and pharmaceutical services. PMID:24167438

  10. Patients perception of community pharmacist in bosnia and herzegovina.

    PubMed

    Catic, Tarik; Jusufovic, Fatima Insanic; Tabakovic, Vedad

    2013-01-01

    Community pharmacists play a significant role in patient/disease management and perception by patients is increasingly important. A self-administered questionnaire was developed consisted of sociodemographic part and 15 questions. Patients have a positive overall perception of community pharmacists that is comparable to most studies in Europe. Community pharmacists' beyond dispensing drugs play a significant role in patient and disease management. This role of the pharmacist is performed through pharmaceutical care. Patient's opinion is increasingly considered to be a useful component in the determination of care outcomes and consumer satisfaction is an integral component of the quality of primary health care. For the purpose of this study we developed self-administered questionnaire consisted of sociodemographic part, and 15 questions. Survey has been conducted in 10 pharmacies. Results are presented in tables and figures and descriptive statistics has been used. We found that patients in Bosnia and Herzegovina have a positive overall perception of community pharmacists and of the services offered from community pharmacies that is comparable to most studies in Europe, but there is still room for improvement of relationships and pharmaceutical services. PMID:24167438

  11. The biotech equipment and supplies sector in Europe-is it European?

    PubMed

    Reiss, Thomas; Woerner, Stefan

    2002-09-11

    Socio-economic research on biotechnology is dealing mainly with the sectors of biopharmaceuticals, agro-food or environmental technologies. In contrast, the equipment and supplies sector seems to be largely ignored. This is surprising because this sector provides important input in terms of technology and material for the development of biotechnology in general. Our comparative analysis of the sector in eight countries indicates that there exists no specific science base for the sector and that it is largely neglected by public research funding. Commercial activities are concentrated in countries with a large general science base in biotechnology and strong multinational pharmaceutical or chemical companies. There is a rather broad diversity in the way the sector has developed in the eight countries. Our data support the notion that national peculiarities seem dominant for explaining this picture. We anticipate growing business opportunities for European firms to step into large markets of equipment and supplies for functional genomics and protein analyses where Europe maintains a strong science base. PMID:12126804

  12. Short Summary European Reports on Retail Sector, Motor Vehicle Repair and Sales Sector, Food and Beverages Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, Berlin (Germany).

    This document is composed of European synthesis reports on retail trade, the agro-food sector, and the motor vehicle sales and repair sector. They are based on the most important findings of the European report and the 12 national reports for each sector. Section 1, "Retail Sector," deals in part 1 with the structure of retailing in the different…

  13. Old Yet New--Pharmaceuticals from Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houghton, Peter J.

    2001-02-01

    Plants or their crude extracts have been used since prehistory to treat human ailments. Plants are still used in this way in many parts of the world, but Western scientific medicine has tended to isolate active compounds, or make derivatives of them, for use as drugs. Compounds produced by the plant have been important pharmaceuticals since the isolation of morphine almost two hundred years ago and new naturally occurring compounds such as paclitaxel are continually being introduced commercially. Bioactive molecules may also be produced from chemicals found in plants by chemical modification using synthetic chemistry or microorganisms (as in the production of steroids). A third major contribution of plant chemicals to drugs is their utilization as templates for the design of new compounds made by synthesis (e.g. the discovery of aspirin and related compounds from substances in willow bark). New pharmaceuticals from plants are being discovered by examining traditional medicines and by large-scale bioassay screening processes. In addition, the chemical survival systems of plants that exist in hostile environments are receiving increasing attention as leads to discover active compounds. The knowledge of botanical relationships helps find new sources of known compounds of interest and novel compounds with similar structures from related species. Future prospects for the discovery of new compounds from plants are broadened by the new technologies of gene manipulation, tissue culture, and combinatorial chemistry, so it is very likely that natural products from plants will continue to play an important role in the fight against disease.

  14. Applications of terahertz spectroscopy to pharmaceutical sciences.

    PubMed

    Taday, Philip F

    2004-02-15

    The application of terahertz pulsed spectroscopy within the US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) recent process analytical technology (PAT) initiative is considered. As a case study the potency levels in paracetamol (4-acetamidophenol) and aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) test tablets have been recovered from the terahertz absorption spectra using a multivariate partial-least-squares (PLS) calibration model. Root-mean-square errors of cross-validation (RMSECVs) of 2.85% and 3.90% were obtained for paracetamol and aspirin, respectively. Information about other excipients can also be obtained; for example, using the strong lactose absorption lines in the tablets, RMSECVs of 3.65% and 4.30% could be recovered from the paracetamol and aspirin samples, respectively. As active ingredients may also change their solid-state form during formulation processing or storage and as this can adversely affect the final dosage performance, monitoring of pharmaceutical ingredients is essential for a 'right-first-time' philosophy within the industry. Terahertz pulse spectroscopy is a high-throughput technique with many areas of potential exploitation in the pharmaceutical industry; these issues are discussed in this paper. PMID:15306525

  15. Pharmaceutical price controls and patient welfare.

    PubMed

    Calfee, J E

    2001-06-01

    Price controls could have a substantial negative effect on pharmaceutical research and development. Extensive research is required before the development costs of a new drug or its benefits are known; most new drug development projects fail, sometimes after substantial financial and time costs. These conditions pose intractable practical problems for the operation of price controls, which cannot rest on objective, predictable standards such as the benefits or costs of individual drugs. In the absence of objective standards, pressure from health care providers and others would create powerful incentives for price regulators to decrease drug prices toward marginal costs of production and distribution, well below levels sufficient to reward innovative research. This downwardly biased price-setting mechanism would apply with particular force to the few successful projects that yield innovative drugs, whose prices would not be set by regulatory authorities until after research expenditures have been incurred and the new drugs are ready to enter the market. Manufacturers will expect price controls to reduce the potential payoffs from breakthrough drugs. This expectation would substantially reduce the incentives to pursue innovative research, as is evident in advanced economies in which price controls are now in force. Once established, price controls for pharmaceuticals, like those for medical services in the Medicare system, would also tend toward complexity and entrenchment of vested interests and could easily become permanent regardless of the harm they cause to patients. PMID:11388819

  16. Metaphors and myths in pharmaceutical advertising.

    PubMed

    Delbaere, Marjorie

    2013-04-01

    It should come as no surprise that the ancient Greek word for drug, pharmakon, meant remedy. But this same word also meant poison as well as magical charm. We speak of heart attacks and of a long road to recovery. These meanings and phrases are reflective of how society conceives of illness and medical therapies. Metaphors and myths of magic, sports and journey are prevalent in medical terminology and they permeate pharmaceutical advertising. This research investigates the conceptual metaphors that are present in advertisements for pharmaceuticals, both those directed to consumers as well as those directed to physicians, for a broad range of drugs and medical conditions. This research employed a content analysis of advertisements appearing in popular consumer magazines as well as in physician journals and an analysis of online consumer drug reviews. The research concludes with a discussion of the similarities and differences among the conceptual metaphors in consumer versus physician ads, across different medical conditions, and the impact of specific metaphors on consumers' understanding of illness and drug therapies. PMID:23453313

  17. Occupational contact dermatitis in the pharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed

    Goossens, An; Hulst, Kim Vander

    2011-01-01

    Occupation-induced skin reactions are not infrequently observed in the pharmaceutical industry. Workers may come in contact with irritant substances and also with chemically reactive intermediates or drugs that may be potential sensitizers. The skin lesions can be located at the site of contact, usually the hands, although airborne reactions on exposed and even nonexposed areas (eg, by particles trapped under clothing) are not uncommon. Generalized reactions may occur due to inhalation or transcutaneous absorption. An accidental exposure to a highly allergenic compound may cause a chemical burn, followed by primary sensitization and allergic contact dermatitis. The pharmaceutical contact allergens belong to many different pharmacologic classes. If several cases of contact dermatitis occur in multiple individuals in the same company, then the working conditions are implicated and should be changed to prevent their recurrence. Measures to be taken include dust control, installation of closed filter equipment, and keeping the workers informed about the potential risks associated with the manipulation of the chemicals. PMID:22014988

  18. Towards a healthy use of pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Laporte, J R

    1985-01-01

    This paper examines 4 factors which determine the kind and the quantity of medicines used in a community: drug promotion, the disease pattern, the pharmaceutical supply, and the structure and priorities of the health system. The use of drugs is a method whereby manufacturers exert pressure to ensure a constant expansion of the market, rather than trying to fulfill a real need. Drug promotion is an obvious determinant of irrational and unhealthy use of drugs. The pharmaceutical industry spends between 15 and 25% of its total budget on promotional activities, and this proportion is even higher in 3rd World countries. The general assumption that the prescription of a medicine has some relationship with the disease the patient is suffering from is unsupported by the evidence. It has never been proven that an infinite number of drugs provides any greater benefits for public heaath than a more limited number of products. The existence of a large number of drugs may result in confusion at all levels of the therapeutic chain, and represent a waste of manpower and money. The economic and human resources allocated to health systems are the main determinants of drug consumption. Drug utilization, as defined by the WHO, involves 3 elements: the drug supply; the use of the drug in the health system; and the use of the drug beyond the health system. PMID:12341047

  19. Pharmaceutical Applications of Ion-Exchange Resins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elder, David P.

    2005-04-01

    The historical uses of ion-exchange resins and a summary of the basic chemical principles involved in the ion-exchange process are discussed. Specific applications of ion-exchange resins are provided. The utility of these agents to stabilize drugs are evaluated. Commonly occurring chemical and physical incompatibilities are reviewed. Ion-exchange resins have found applicability as inactive pharmaceutical constituents, particularly as disintegrants (inactive tablet ingredient whose function is to rapidly disrupt the tablet matrix on contact with gastric fluid). One of the more elegant approaches to improving palatability of ionizable drugs is the use of ion-exchange resins as taste-masking agents. The selection, optimization of drug:resin ratio and particle size, together with a review of scaleup of typical manufacturing processes for taste-masked products are provided. Ion-exchange resins have been extensively utilized in oral sustained-release products. The selection, optimization of drug:resin ratio and particle size, together with a summary of commonly occurring commercial sustained-release products are discussed. Ion-exchange resins have also been used in topical products for local application to the skin, including those where drug flux is controlled by a differential electrical current (ionotophoretic delivery). General applicability of ion-exchange resins, including ophthalmic delivery, nasal delivery, use as drugs in their own right (e.g., colestyramine, formerly referred to as cholestyramine), as well as measuring gastrointestinal transit times, are discussed. Finally, pharmaceutical monographs for ion-exchange resins are reviewed.

  20. Psychobiology and Food Perception

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neilson, A.

    1985-01-01

    Psychobiology is a scientific discipline which encompasses the phenomena known to be important as regards nutrition and food consumption in space. Specifically, it includes those areas of biology which are clearly related to behavior, human subjective experience and problems of coping and adapting to stress. Taste and odor perception; perception (knowledge gaps); perception (needs); food preference and menu selection; and choosing of acceptable diets are discussed.

  1. Social Work-Business Sector Collaboration in Pursuit of Economic Justice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wonhyung

    2016-07-01

    This article examines social workers' perceptions, experiences, and prospects regarding working in the business sector after participating in an MSW field practicum with a local microlending program. Social workers' insights suggest that cross-sector collaboration leads to vast opportunities not only for the populations served by the collaborative efforts, but also for social work as a profession. However, several challenges are evealed, including social workers' unfamiliarity with business operations, the business sector's narrow understanding of social workers' roles, and divisions between participants in interprofessional collaboration. This article calls for enhancing the role of social work to maximize its impact on economic development through further research and tangible cross-sector projects. PMID:27501638

  2. Public and private sector responses to essential drugs policies: a multilevel analysis of drug prescription and selling practices in Mali.

    PubMed

    Maïga, Fatoumata Ina; Haddad, Slim; Fournier, Pierre; Gauvin, Lise

    2003-09-01

    Many African countries have introduced cost recovery mechanisms based on the sale of drugs and measures aimed at improving drug supply. This study compares prescribing and selling practices in Mali, in 3 cities where the public sector contributes differentially to the supply of drugs on the market. Multilevel models are used to analyse the content and cost of 700 medication transactions observed in 14 private and public legal points of sale. Results show that the objective of improving access to drugs seems to have been achieved in the sites studied. Costs of prescriptions were lower where public health services had been revitalized. Affordable generic drugs were accessible and widely used, even in the private sector. However, measures intended to rationalize the prescription and delivery of drugs did not always have the desired effect. While agents in the public sector tended to prescribe fewer antibiotics, injectables, or brand-name drugs, the data confirm the virtual absence of advice concerning the use or the side effects of the drugs in both public and private sectors. In addition, data supported the notion that the public and private sectors are closely intertwined. Notably, availability of drugs in the public sector contributed to diminishing the prices charged in the private sector. Similarly, the use that agents in the public sector made of the opportunities afforded by the presence of the private pharmaceutical sector provided another illustration of interrelatedness. Finally, the data showed that the presence of a private sector, which has not been affected by measures aimed at rationalizing prescription and sales practices, limits the effects of measures implemented in the public sector. More assertive policies, based on strategies encompassing actors in the private sector, are needed to increase the safety and effectiveness of prescription and sales practices. PMID:12850118

  3. Analyzing cross-sector interdependencies.

    SciTech Connect

    Peerenboom, J. P.; Fisher, R. E.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses cross-sector infrastructure interdependencies and key risk considerations, analysis approaches, research and development needs, and the range of interdisciplinary skills required for comprehensive cross-sector analysis. Traditional analysis of interdependencies involves characterization of infrastructure-to-infrastructure linkages to identify the key infrastructure components that, if lost or degraded, could adversely affect the performance of other infrastructures. Such analysis is motivated by the recognition that a series of incidents could interact (cascade) across critical infrastructures to degrade the service upon which all depend. From a risk perspective, cross-sector analysis also must involve identifying and characterizing a wide range of threats (natural and accidental, systems related, and intentional), vulnerabilities (physical and cyber), and consequences of loss (e.g., health and safety, economic, national security, environmental, sociopolitical). Such information provides a foundation for making defensible, cost-effective infrastructure protection and operation decisions to ensure the security and reliability of our interdependent systems.

  4. Early Introduction to Professional and Ethical Dilemmas in a Pharmaceutical Care Laboratory Course

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To study the effects of an early professional development series in a pharmaceutical care laboratory (PCL) course on first-year pharmacy students’ perceptions of the importance of professional attitudes and action. Design. Three hundred thirty-four first-year students enrolled in a PCL course participated in a new required learning activity centered on development of professional attitudes and behaviors. Students discussed situational dilemmas in pharmacy practice in small groups, highlighting application of the Oath of a Pharmacist and the Pharmacists’ Code of Ethics. Assessment. Students completed an optional questionnaire at the beginning and end of the semester to assess change in their attitudes and behaviors related to professionalism in pharmacy practice. Conclusion. While students entered their training with a strong appreciation for professionalism, they felt more confident in applying the Oath of a Pharmacist and the Pharmacists Code of Ethics to dilemmas in practice following the new learning activity. PMID:26889068

  5. Economic Indicators of the Farm Sector. Farm Sector Review, 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economic Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This report contains 44 tables and 23 figures, along with narrative summaries, that provide an overall view of the farm sector in the United States in 1986. Some of the findings highlighted in the report are the following: (1) farmers spent less to produce their crops and livestock in 1986; (2) government payments to farmers increased, but prices…

  6. Pharmaceutical Concern and Prioritization Framework for Aquatic Life Effects

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human pharmaceuticals and veterinary drugs are being developed and used at an increasing rate world-wide. This, and increasingly sensitive analytical techniques, have lead to recurrent detection of pharmaceuticals as environmental pollutants. The goal of the present work was to d...

  7. Introductory Level Problems Illustrating Concepts in Pharmaceutical Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIver, Keith; Whitaker, Kathryn; De Delva, Vladimir; Farrell, Stephanie; Savelski, Mariano J.; Slater, C. Stewart

    2012-01-01

    Textbook style problems including detailed solutions introducing pharmaceutical topics at the level of an introductory chemical engineering course have been created. The problems illustrate and teach subjects which students would learn if they were to pursue a career in pharmaceutical engineering, including the unique terminology of the field,…

  8. Ways of Learning in the Pharmaceutical Sales Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Carrie Patricia

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to document the ways pharmaceutical representatives learn for work and report attributes of (in)formality and other characteristics of ways of learning perceived as effective and frequently used. Design/methodology/approach: A total of agents 20 from 11 pharmaceutical manufacturers across Canada participated…

  9. The Third Wave in Pharmaceutical Education: The Clinical Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hepler, Charles D.

    1987-01-01

    Pharmaceutical education and pharmaceutical practice began to diverge in the early twentieth century for socioeconomic reasons and have since grown along separate paths. The movement toward clinical pharmacy, emerging about 1970, may reunite the two but it first faces new challenges. (MSE)

  10. Pharmaceutical Sociology: Issues in Research, Education and Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svarstad, Bonnie L.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses need for social scientific research, clinical social scientists in pharmacy, and specialists in pharmaceutical sociology and the other social sciences. To illustrate, patient noncompliance with drug regimens and the use of sociology to analyze the problem are examined. Includes a sample program in pharmaceutical sociology, course…

  11. 75 FR 16157 - Pharmaceutical Supply Chain; Public Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Pharmaceutical Supply Chain; Public Workshop AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of public workshop. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing a public workshop entitled ``2010 PDA/FDA Pharmaceutical Supply Chain...

  12. 42 CFR 482.25 - Condition of participation: Pharmaceutical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... pharmaceutical services that meet the needs of the patients. The institution must have a pharmacy directed by a... the hospital's organized pharmaceutical service. (a) Standard: Pharmacy management and administration. The pharmacy or drug storage area must be administered in accordance with accepted...

  13. Astronaut William Gregory works with pharmaceutical experiments on middeck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Astronaut William G. Gregory, STS-67 pilot, works with a pharmaceutical experiment on the middeck of the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Endeavour. Commercial Materials Dispersion Apparatus Instruments Technology Associates Experiments (CMIX-03) includes not only pharmaceutical but also biotechnology, cell biology, fluids and crystal growth investigations.

  14. Pharmaceutical company funding and its consequences: a qualitative systematic review.

    PubMed

    Sismondo, Sergio

    2008-03-01

    This article systematically reviews published studies of the association of pharmaceutical industry funding and clinical trial results, as well a few closely related studies. It reviews two earlier results, and surveys the recent literature. Results are clear: Pharmaceutical company sponsorship is strongly associated with results that favor the sponsors' interests. PMID:17919992

  15. 42 CFR 482.25 - Condition of participation: Pharmaceutical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... pharmaceutical services that meet the needs of the patients. The institution must have a pharmacy directed by a... the hospital's organized pharmaceutical service. (a) Standard: Pharmacy management and administration. The pharmacy or drug storage area must be administered in accordance with accepted...

  16. Pharmaceutical Sales--An Experiential Learning Elective Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scribner, William; And Others

    1979-01-01

    To provide an opportunity for pharmacy students to acquire a better understanding of the medical service representative's functions as a member of the pharmaceutical industries' marketing force, a practice experience elective course in pharmaceutical sales was developed at the University of Cincinnati. Course planning and implementation are…

  17. 77 FR 16264 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Registration; Halo Pharmaceutical Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-20

    ... FR 77850, Halo Pharmaceutical Inc., 30 North Jefferson Road, Whippany, New Jersey 07981, made... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Registration; Halo Pharmaceutical... determined that the registration of Halo Pharmaceutical Inc. to manufacture the listed basic classes...

  18. 75 FR 54627 - Best Management Practices for Unused Pharmaceuticals at Health Care Facilities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ... AGENCY Best Management Practices for Unused Pharmaceuticals at Health Care Facilities AGENCY... guidance document entitled, Best Management Practices for Unused Pharmaceuticals at Health Care Facilities... been studying unused pharmaceutical disposal practices at health care facilities, prompted by...

  19. 78 FR 46371 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Meda Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-31

    ... FR 12101, Meda Pharmaceuticals, Inc., 705 Eldorado Street, Decatur, Illinois 62523, made application... Enforcement Administration Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Meda Pharmaceuticals... 952(a), and determined that the registration of Meda Pharmaceuticals Inc., to import the basic...

  20. Occurrence and treatment efficiency of pharmaceuticals in landfill leachates.

    PubMed

    Lu, Mu-Chen; Chen, Yao Yin; Chiou, Mei-Rung; Chen, Men Yu; Fan, Huan-Jung

    2016-09-01

    Landfill leachates might contain pharmaceuticals due to the expired or unwanted drugs were disposed of at landfills. These pharmaceuticals might pose a threat to soil and groundwater. Therefore, this study investigated the distributions of pharmaceutical residues and toxicities among four typical municipal landfill leachates. Twenty six pharmaceuticals were investigated in this study and fifteen of them were found in all samples from four leachates. In addition, ampicillin and methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) were detected in urban landfills (A1 and A2) but were not in rural and suburb landfills (B and C). On the other hand, some compounds were much more abundant in suburb/rural landfill leachates than those in urban landfills including diclofenac, gemfibrozil and amphetamine. Landfill leachate treatment plants could not remove most of the pharmaceuticals effectively. Landfill leachates without proper treatments would have significant adverse health impacts on human and aquatic life. PMID:27026494

  1. General principles of pharmaceutical solid polymorphism: a supramolecular perspective.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Spong, Barbara; Price, Christopher P; Jayasankar, Adivaraha; Matzger, Adam J; Rodríguez-Hornedo, Naír

    2004-02-23

    The diversity of solid-state forms that an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) may attain relies on the repertoire of non-covalent interactions and molecular assemblies, the range of order, and the balance between entropy and enthalpy that defines the free energy landscape. It is recognized that crystallization is associated with molecular recognition events that lead to self-assembly, and that pharmaceutical function and thermodynamic stability can be altered with a slight change in the interacting molecules or their molecular network motifs. Our current understanding of pharmaceutical solids in terms of molecular recognition and complementarity provides new insights into the design and function of single and fully miscible, multiple-component solids with varying degrees of order, from amorphous to crystalline states, and in this way is leading the path to supramolecular pharmaceutics. This review describes pharmaceutical solids in terms of supramolecular chemistry and crystal engineering concepts, and discusses the events that control crystallization and solid phase transformations. PMID:14962581

  2. Membrane Bioprocesses for Pharmaceutical Micropollutant Removal from Waters

    PubMed Central

    de Cazes, Matthias; Abejón, Ricardo; Belleville, Marie-Pierre; Sanchez-Marcano, José

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this review work is to give an overview of the research reported on bioprocesses for the treatment of domestic or industrial wastewaters (WW) containing pharmaceuticals. Conventional WW treatment technologies are not efficient enough to completely remove all pharmaceuticals from water. Indeed, these compounds are becoming an actual public health problem, because they are more and more present in underground and even in potable waters. Different types of bioprocesses are described in this work: from classical activated sludge systems, which allow the depletion of pharmaceuticals by bio-degradation and adsorption, to enzymatic reactions, which are more focused on the treatment of WW containing a relatively high content of pharmaceuticals and less organic carbon pollution than classical WW. Different aspects concerning the advantages of membrane bioreactors for pharmaceuticals removal are discussed, as well as the more recent studies on enzymatic membrane reactors to the depletion of these recalcitrant compounds. PMID:25295629

  3. Extraction characterization and evaluation of selected mucilage as pharmaceutical excipient.

    PubMed

    Malviya, Rishabha

    2011-01-01

    Natural polymers have been used in different pharmaceutical formulations. They are easily available, non-toxic, biodegradable and cost effective to be used as pharmaceutical excipient. In present investigation mucilage was extracted from fruit of Hibiscus esculentus and further characterized to be used as pharmaceutical excipient. Tablets were prepared using four different concentrations (6.6%, 13.3%, 20%, 26.66%) of Hibiscus esculentus mucilage and potato starch to evaluate binding properties of mucilage. Results obtained from the micromeritic characterization and flow behavior showed that Hibiscus esculentus mucilage is a good candidate to be used as pharmaceutical excipient. Tablets prepared using mucilage showed relatively lesser friability than prepared with starch. It was found that release of drug from tablets prepared with mucilage was less as compared to prepared with starch. Findings of the different results easily predict the fact that mucilage obtained from Hibiscus esculentus has characteristics to be used as pharmaceutical excipient. PMID:22046826

  4. Membrane bioprocesses for pharmaceutical micropollutant removal from waters.

    PubMed

    de Cazes, Matthias; Abejón, Ricardo; Belleville, Marie-Pierre; Sanchez-Marcano, José

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this review work is to give an overview of the research reported on bioprocesses for the treatment of domestic or industrial wastewaters (WW) containing pharmaceuticals. Conventional WW treatment technologies are not efficient enough to completely remove all pharmaceuticals from water. Indeed, these compounds are becoming an actual public health problem, because they are more and more present in underground and even in potable waters. Different types of bioprocesses are described in this work: from classical activated sludge systems, which allow the depletion of pharmaceuticals by bio-degradation and adsorption, to enzymatic reactions, which are more focused on the treatment of WW containing a relatively high content of pharmaceuticals and less organic carbon pollution than classical WW. Different aspects concerning the advantages of membrane bioreactors for pharmaceuticals removal are discussed, as well as the more recent studies on enzymatic membrane reactors to the depletion of these recalcitrant compounds. PMID:25295629

  5. Prioritizing veterinary pharmaceuticals for aquatic environment in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Younghee; Jung, Jinyong; Kim, Myunghyun; Park, Jeongim; Boxall, Alistair B A; Choi, Kyungho

    2008-09-01

    Pharmaceutical residues may have serious impacts on nontarget biological organisms in aquatic ecosystems, and have therefore precipitated numerous investigations worldwide. Many pharmaceutical compounds available on the market need to be prioritized based on their potential ecological and human health risks in order to develop sound management decisions. We prioritized veterinary pharmaceuticals in Korea by their usage, potential to enter the environment, and toxicological hazard. Twenty compounds were identified in the top priority class, most of which were antibiotics. Among these compounds, 8 were identified as deserving more immediate attention: amoxicillin, enramycin, fenbendazole, florfenicol, ivermectin, oxytetracycline, tylosin, and virginiamycin. A limitation of this study is that we initially screened veterinary pharmaceuticals by sales tonnage for veterinary use only. However, this is the first attempt to prioritize veterinary pharmaceuticals in Korea, and it provides important concepts for developing environmental risk management plans for such contaminants in aquatic systems. PMID:21783906

  6. Pharmaceutical patent challenges--time for reassessment?

    PubMed

    Glass, Gregory

    2004-12-01

    For nearly 15 years after the passage of the Hatch-Waxman Act in 1984, generics drug companies took little advantage of its provisions, which provided financial incentives to them for challenging the patents of branded pharmaceutical products. However, during the past 3-5 years, generics manufacturers have dramatically increased the number of patent challenges. Although these challenges can certainly benefit consumers and payers, the number of challenges puts many innovator companies at risk, which they argue is detrimental to future R&D spending. If many of the challenges are successful, then the increase in challenges could in turn be detrimental to generics, and the system itself might therefore be due for a re-balance. PMID:15573104

  7. Pharmaceutical Advertising and Medicare Part D

    PubMed Central

    Lakdawalla, Darius; Sood, Neeraj; Gu, Qian

    2013-01-01

    We explore how and to what extent prescription drug insurance expansions affects incentives for pharmaceutical advertising. When insurance expansions make markets more profitable, firms respond by boosting advertising. Theory suggests this effect will be magnified in the least competitive drug classes, where firms internalize a larger share of the benefits from advertising. Empirically, we find that the implementation of Part D coincides with a 14% to 19% increase in total advertising expenditures. This effect is indeed concentrated in the least competitive drug classes. The additional advertising raised utilization among non-elderly patients outside the Part D program by about 3.6%. This is roughly half of the direct utilization effect of Part D on elderly beneficiaries. The results suggest the presence of considerable spillover effects from publicly subsidized prescription drug insurance on the utilization and welfare of consumers outside the program. PMID:24308884

  8. Quantitative risk modelling for new pharmaceutical compounds.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhengru; Taylor, Mark J; Lisboa, Paulo; Dyas, Mark

    2005-11-15

    The process of discovering and developing new drugs is long, costly and risk-laden. Faced with a wealth of newly discovered compounds, industrial scientists need to target resources carefully to discern the key attributes of a drug candidate and to make informed decisions. Here, we describe a quantitative approach to modelling the risk associated with drug development as a tool for scenario analysis concerning the probability of success of a compound as a potential pharmaceutical agent. We bring together the three strands of manufacture, clinical effectiveness and financial returns. This approach involves the application of a Bayesian Network. A simulation model is demonstrated with an implementation in MS Excel using the modelling engine Crystal Ball. PMID:16257374

  9. Prospects for Anti-Biofilm Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Philip S.

    2015-01-01

    This commentary highlights several avenues currently being pursued in research labs to the development of new anti-biofilm pharmaceuticals. There is a real need for alternative therapeutic modalities for treating the persistent infections that sometimes form on implanted medical devices or compromised niches within the body. Strategies being researched include discovering new antimicrobial agents that kill microorganisms in biofilms more effectively than do existing antibiotics, designing drugs that block microbial adhesion or interfere with intercellular communication, developing chemistries to disperse biofilms, and combining agents with different mechanisms of action. Though the need is great, the pathway to commercialization of new drugs is steep. One possible streamlined approach to navigating the regulatory approval process is to repurpose old drugs, a strategy that a few groups have shown can yield agents with anti-biofilm properties. PMID:26343685

  10. Spectrophotometric determination of azathioprine in pharmaceutical formulations.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi, C S; Reddy, M N

    1998-12-01

    Four simple and sensitive visible spectrophotometric methods (A-D) have been described for the assay of azathioprine (ATP) either in pure form or in pharmaceutical formulations. Methods A and B are based on the oxidation of ATP with excess N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) or chloramine-T (CAT) and determining the consumed NBS or CAT with a decrease in colour intensity of celestine blue (CB) (method A) or gallocyanine (GC) (method B), respectively. Methods C and D are based on the diazotisation of reduced azathioprine (RATP) with excess nitrous acid and estimating either the consumed nitrous acid (HNO(2)) with cresyl fast violet acetate (CFVA) (method C) or by coupling reaction of the diazonium salt formed with N-1-naphthyl ethylene diamine dihydrochloride (NED) (method D). All of the variables have been optimized and the reactions presented. The concentration measurements are reproducible within a relative standard deviation of 1.0%. Recoveries are 99.2-100.3%. PMID:18967434

  11. The pharmaceutical death-ride of dihydroartemisinin

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    In the 2010 second edition of WHO's guidelines for the treatment of malaria, the relatively new fixed dose combination dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine is included as one of the recommended artemisinin combination therapies. However, experimental testing demonstrates that, due to its intrinsic chemical instability, dihydroartemisinin is not suitable to be used in pharmaceutical formulations. In addition, data show that the currently available dihydroartemisinin preparations fail to meet the internationally accepted stability requirements. At a time when many efforts aim to ban counterfeit and substandard drugs from the malaria market, the obvious question rises how WHO and public-private partnerships, such as Medicine for Malaria venture (MMV), can support the production and marketing of anti-malarial drugs that do not even meet the International Pharmacopoeia requirements? PMID:20649950

  12. Palladium coupling catalysts for pharmaceutical applications.

    PubMed

    Doucet, Henri; Hierso, Jean-Cyrille

    2007-11-01

    This review discusses recent advances made in the area of palladium-catalyzed coupling reactions and describes a selection of the catalytic systems that are useful in the preparation of valuable compounds for the pharmaceutical industry. Most of these types of syntheses have used either simple palladium salts or palladium precursors associated with electron-rich mono- or bidentate phosphine ligands as catalysts. For some reactions, ligands such as triphenyl phosphine, 1,1'-bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene, a carbene or a bipyridine have also been employed. Several new procedures for the Suzuki cross-coupling reaction, the activation of aryl chlorides, the functionalization of aromatics and the synthesis of heteroaromatics are discussed. The C-H activation/ functionalization reactions of aryl and heteroaryl derivatives have emerged as powerful tools for the preparation of biaryl compounds, and the recent procedures and catalysts employed in this promising field are also highlighted herein. PMID:17987520

  13. New pharmaceutical applications for macromolecular binders.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, Nicolas; Gauthier, Marc A; Bouvet, Céline; Moreau, Pierre; Petitjean, Anne; Leroux, Jean-Christophe; Leblond, Jeanne

    2011-10-30

    Macromolecular binders consist of polymers, dendrimers, and oligomers with binding properties for endogenous or exogenous substrates. This field, at the frontier of host/guest chemistry and pharmacology, has met a renewed interest in the past decade due to the clinical success of several sequestrants, like sevelamer hydrochloride (Renagel®) or sugammadex (Bridion®). In many instances, multivalent binding by the macromolecular drugs can modify the properties of the substrate, and may prevent it from reaching its site of action and/or trigger a biological response. From small (e.g., ions) to larger substrates (e.g., bacteria and cells), this review presents the state-of-the-art of macromolecular binders and provides detailed illustrative examples of recent developments bearing much promise for future pharmaceutical applications. PMID:21571017

  14. Pharmaceutical Particle Engineering via Spray Drying

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    This review covers recent developments in the area of particle engineering via spray drying. The last decade has seen a shift from empirical formulation efforts to an engineering approach based on a better understanding of particle formation in the spray drying process. Microparticles with nanoscale substructures can now be designed and their functionality has contributed significantly to stability and efficacy of the particulate dosage form. The review provides concepts and a theoretical framework for particle design calculations. It reviews experimental research into parameters that influence particle formation. A classification based on dimensionless numbers is presented that can be used to estimate how excipient properties in combination with process parameters influence the morphology of the engineered particles. A wide range of pharmaceutical application examples—low density particles, composite particles, microencapsulation, and glass stabilization—is discussed, with specific emphasis on the underlying particle formation mechanisms and design concepts. PMID:18040761

  15. [Pharmaceutical applications of supercritical carbon dioxide].

    PubMed

    Delattre, L

    2007-01-01

    The supercritical state of a fluid is intermediate between that of gases and liquids. Supercritical fluids exhibit some solvent power which is tunable in function of pressure and temperature. In the pharmaceutical field, supercritical carbon dioxide is by far the most commonly used fluid; of course, the first applications of supercritical fluids were the replacement of organic solvents in extraction processes; other applications appeared during the last twenty years: supercritical fluids are also used as eluents in chromatography, as solvents in organic synthesis or for the processing of solid dosage forms by drug micronization, by the production of nanospheres, of solid dispersions, of porous polymeric matrices containing different active substances. Supercritical carbon dioxide has been proposed for encapsulating both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drug substances into liposomes as well as for including different active substances into cyclodextrins. There are also future prospects for the use of pressurized carbon dioxide as a sterilizing agent. PMID:17299352

  16. The ethics and economics of pharmaceutical pricing.

    PubMed

    Parker-Lue, Sara; Santoro, Michael; Koski, Greg

    2015-01-01

    The cost of drugs is a major and rapidly rising component of health-care expenditures. We survey recent literature on the ethics and economics of skyrocketing pharmaceutical prices and find that advances in economic research have increased the sharpness and focus of the ethically based calls to increase access by modifying patent protection and reducing prices. In some cases, research supports ethical arguments for broader access. Other research suggests that efforts to broaden access result in unintended consequences for innovation and the medical needs of patients. Both ethicists and economists need to be more cognizant of the real clinical settings in which physicians practice medicine with real patients. Greater cross-disciplinary interaction among economists, ethicists, and physicians can help reduce the disjunction between innovation and access and improve access and patient care. This dialogue will impact private industry and may spur new multistakeholder paradigms for drug discovery, development, and pricing. PMID:25149920

  17. Pharmaceutical excipients - quality, regulatory and biopharmaceutical considerations.

    PubMed

    Elder, David P; Kuentz, Martin; Holm, René

    2016-05-25

    Practically all medications contain excipients, which are added for the purpose of production enhancement, patient acceptability, improving stability, controlling release etc. Typically excipients are the major components of a drug product, with the active molecule only present in relatively small amounts. Historically, excipients were termed inactive components. However, as highlighted in the present paper; excipients can have an impact on the absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination (ADME) processes of the co-administered drug, which is important information when selecting excipients for any new formulation. Further, this review also provides a description of the regulatory processes to get new excipients approved in different regions and a discussion of the recent regulatory initiatives, e.g. excipients for paediatric formulations, thereby providing points to consider for the pharmaceutical scientist when selecting excipients for a new drug formulation. PMID:26699228

  18. Discovery pharmaceutics--challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xue-Qing; Antman, Melissa D; Gesenberg, Christoph; Gudmundsson, Olafur S

    2006-01-01

    Most pharmaceutical companies are now evaluating compounds for druglike properties early in the discovery process. The data generated at these early stages allow upfront identification of potential development challenges and thus selection of the best candidates for lead nomination. Most often, lead nomination candidates are selected based on pharmacological and toxicological data. However, many drugs in development suffer from poor biopharmaceutical properties due to suboptimal physiochemical parameters. The poor biopharmaceutical properties often lead to extended timelines and a higher cost of developing the compounds. To avoid these problems and choose the best compounds from a biopharmaceutical perspective, physicochemical parameters such as solubility, lipophilicity, and stability need to be evaluated as early as possible. Furthermore, the preformulation approaches used to evaluate the compounds for their pharmacokinetic and toxicological properties need to be optimized. This minireview summarizes some of the parameters and approaches that can be used to evaluate compounds in the early stages of drug discovery. PMID:16796392

  19. Are pharmaceutical patents protected by human rights?

    PubMed

    Millum, J

    2008-11-01

    The International Bill of Rights enshrines a right to health, which includes a right to access essential medicines. This right frequently appears to conflict with the intellectual property regime that governs pharmaceutical patents. However, there is also a human right that protects creative works, including scientific productions. Does this right support intellectual property protections, even when they may negatively affect health? This article examines the recent attempt by the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights to resolve this issue and argues that it fails. This is problematic because it means defenders of the present patent regime can continue using human rights documents to support their position. I offer a new framework for resolving the problem by examining the values that underlie human rights. PMID:18974405

  20. The pharmaceutical industry as a medicines provider.

    PubMed

    Henry, David; Lexchin, Joel

    2002-11-16

    Rising prices of medicines are putting them beyond the reach of many people, even in rich countries. In less-developed countries, millions of individuals do not have access to essential drugs. Drug development is failing to address the major health needs of these countries. The prices of patented medicines usually far exceed the marginal costs of their production; the industry maintains that high prices and patent protection are necessary to compensate for high development costs of innovative products. There is controversy over these claims. Concerns about the harmful effects of the international system of intellectual property rights have led the World Trade Organization to relax the demands placed on least developed countries, and to advocate differential pricing of essential drugs. How these actions will help countries that lack domestic production capacity is unclear. Better access to essential drugs may be achieved through voluntary licensing arrangements between international pharmaceutical companies and manufacturers in developing countries. PMID:12443614

  1. Are Pharmaceutical Patents Protected By Human Rights?

    PubMed Central

    Millum, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    The International Bill of Rights enshrines a right to health, which includes a right to access essential medicines. This right frequently appears to conflict with the intellectual property regime that governs pharmaceutical patents. However, there is also a human right that protects creative works, including scientific productions. Does this right support intellectual property protections, even when they may negatively affect health? This article examines the recent attempt by the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights to resolve this issue and argues that it fails. This is problematic because it means defenders of the present patent regime can continue using human rights documents to support their position. I offer a new framework for resolving the problem by examining the values that underlie human rights. PMID:18974405

  2. Marine Polysaccharides in Pharmaceutical Applications: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Laurienzo, Paola

    2010-01-01

    The enormous variety of polysaccharides that can be extracted from marine plants and animal organisms or produced by marine bacteria means that the field of marine polysaccharides is constantly evolving. Recent advances in biological techniques allow high levels of polysaccharides of interest to be produced in vitro. Biotechnology is a powerful tool to obtain polysaccharides from a variety of micro-organisms, by controlling the growth conditions in a bioreactor while tailoring the production of biologically active compounds. Following an overview of the current knowledge on marine polysaccharides, with special attention to potential pharmaceutical applications and to more recent progress on the discovering of new polysaccharides with biological appealing characteristics, this review will focus on possible strategies for chemical or physical modification aimed to tailor the final properties of interest. PMID:20948899

  3. Principals' Perceptions of Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tooms, Autumn K.; Kretovics, Mark A.; Smialek, Charles A.

    2007-01-01

    This study is an effort to examine principals' perceptions of workplace politics and its influence on their productivity and efficacy. A survey was used to explore the perceptions of current school administrators with regard to workplace politics. The instrument was disseminated to principals serving public schools in one Midwestern state in the…

  4. Studying Sensory Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerly, Spafford C.

    2001-01-01

    Explains the vestibular organ's role in balancing the body and stabilizing the visual world using the example of a hunter. Describes the relationship between sensory perception and learning. Recommends using optical illusions to illustrate the distinctions between external realities and internal perceptions. (Contains 13 references.) (YDS)

  5. Community Perception Survey, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Patricia; Silverman, Barbara

    This document is a report on the 2001 Community Perception Survey administered by Mt. San Antonio College (SAC) (California). The survey gathered public perception data of SAC services and programs. The survey was mailed to 773 service area community leaders; 160 (21%) responded. Survey results showed that: (1) 70% had knowledge of SAC programs…

  6. Immunization and private sector participation.

    PubMed

    1998-10-01

    Representatives from Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama met August 19-20 in Honduras to discuss promoting and strengthening the participation of the private medical sector in immunization and surveillance programs for vaccine-preventable diseases. Participants met to analyze countries' experiences in incorporating the private medical sector into immunization and surveillance activities for vaccine-preventable diseases; to review regional and global goals for vaccine-preventable diseases, cold chain requirements, and issues related to introducing new vaccines into routine immunization schedules; and to sign agreements to facilitate the incorporation of the private medical sector into immunization and surveillance activities in the region. Country experiences are outlined. The Ministries of Health and the Societies/Associations of Pediatrics established specific objectives designed to develop and/or strengthen private medical sector participation in immunization. Agreements reached on epidemiological surveillance, a basic vaccination schedule, quality vaccines, the cold chain, national committees on immunization practices, annual work plans, technical cooperation, monitoring, and information, education, and promotion are described. PMID:12321836

  7. What is the Service Sector?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ottinger, Cecilia

    1992-01-01

    This research brief reviews the literature concerning recent trends in the service-producing sector of the economy and to speculate on the implications for higher education. An opening section offers highlights noting key facts and statistics and a general profile of service-producing industries. The first of three sections describes some of the…

  8. Public Sector Employee Assistance Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemp, Donna R.; Verlinde, Beverly

    This document discusses employee assistance programs (EAPs), programs which have been developed to help employees deal with personal problems that seriously affect job performance. It reviews literature which specifically addresses EAPs in the public sector, noting that there are no exact figures on how many public entities have EAPs. Previous…

  9. Selected Bibliographies for Pharmaceutical Supply Systems. Volume 5: Pharmaceutical Supply Systems Bibliographies. International Health Planning Reference Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaumann, Leif

    Intended as a companion piece to volume 7 in the Method Series, Pharmaceutical Supply System Planning (CE 024 234), this fifth of six volumes in the International Health Planning Reference Series is a combined literature review and annotated bibliography dealing with alternative methodologies for planning and analyzing pharmaceutical supply…

  10. [On teaching the chemistry of pharmaceutical auxiliary substances within the framework of pharmaceutical education in the Czech and Slovak Republics].

    PubMed

    Jan, Subert

    2011-02-01

    The paper emphasizes the need of the introduction of the subject Chemistry of Pharmaceutical Auxiliaries into the Pharmacy study programme at more colleges in the Czech and Slovak Republics. It also introduces and discusses some topics for possible extension of the content of the courses of the subject (the presented examples are taken form the field of analytical chemistry of pharmaceutical auxiliaries). PMID:21650013

  11. Technology evaluation: PRO-542, Progenics Pharmaceuticals inc.

    PubMed

    Mukhtar, M; Parveen, Z; Pomerantz, R J

    2000-12-01

    Progenics's rCD4-IgG2 (PRO-542) is a recombinant fusion protein, which has been developed using the company's Universal Antiviral Binding (UnAB) technology, and is in phase I/II clinical trials for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) infection [273391]. At the beginning of 1997, Progenics received a Phase II Small Business Innovation Research Program (SBIR) grant from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious diseases (NIAID) to fund the development of PRO-542 [236048]. A further grant of $2.7 million was awarded in August 1998 for the clinical evaluation of PRO-542 and other anti-HIV therapies [294200]. Progenics is collaborating with the Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center (ADARC) in New York and the Center for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta [178410]. In February 2000, Progenics and Genzyme Transgenics Corp signed an agreement to continue the development of a transgenic source of PRO-542. Genzyme will develop transgenic goats that produce PRO-542 in their milk in exchange for undisclosed fees and milestone payments. Genzyme will supply PRO-542 to Progenics for clinical trials with a possibility for eventual commercial supply [357291]. Following on from this, in October 2000, Progenics received an SBIR grant to fund a two-year project with Genzyme Transgenics into the development of cost-effective methods for the manufacture of PRO-542, by optimization of the production of the drug in the milk of transgenic dairy animals [385982]. In August 2000, Punk, Ziegel & Company predicted that Progenics Pharmaceuticals will become sustainably profitable in 2003 following the launch of PRO-542 and GMK (Progenics Pharmaceuticals) in 2002 [390063]. PMID:11249748

  12. A vision of the pharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed

    Muñio, S

    1998-01-01

    As the financial resources available for looking after the health of an aging population are limited, generic drugs (drugs that are no longer covered by a patent and marketed at a lower price) have come to be used in western countries as a means for meeting growing demand while leaving resources in the health budget for new drugs. In Spain, a law on product patents was introduced in 1992, which is much later than in other countries, and created difficulties in the definition and procedure for gaining approval for generic drugs. Circular 3/97 from the Ministry of Health finally resolved these issues. In this circular, generic pharmaceutical products (GPPs) are clearly defined and identified with a positive commitment towards guaranteeing the ability to interchange original drugs for other cheaper generic products and towards clarifying the Spanish vade mecum. The position of the pharmaceutical industry on generic drugs varies widely and consequently, it is impossible to make a general statement on the view of the industry. However, the commitment of Novartis, given the issues described above and in line with the company's global strategy, is to offer innovation and services to society. This is perfectly compatible with offering health professionals both innovative drugs and generic drugs of a high quality at a lower price, given that registering genetics requires less investment in research and development. In any case, GPPs face an uncertain future in Spain and market forecasts also differ widely, ranging from 15 billion to 80 billion pesetas in the year 2000. It will be necessary to get doctors and pharmacists positively involved, to set up fast structural measures, and to avoid rejection by patients through successful information and marketing. PMID:9800720

  13. Corruption, inequality and population perception of healthcare quality in Europe

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Evaluating the quality of healthcare and patient safety using general population questionnaires is important from research and policy perspective. Using a special wave of the Eurobarometer survey, we analysed the general population’s perception of health care quality and patient safety in a cross-country setting. Methods We used ordered probit, ordinary least squares and probit analysis to estimate the determinants of health care quality, and ordered logit analysis to analyse the likelihood of being harmed by a specific medical procedure. The models used population weights as well as country-clustered standard errors. Results We found robust evidence for the impact of socio-demographic variables on the perception of quality of health care. More specifically, we found a non-linear impact of age on the perception of quality of health care and patient safety, as well as a negative impact of poverty on both perception of quality and patient safety. We also found robust evidence that countries with higher corruption levels were associated with worse perceptions of quality of health care. Finally, we found evidence that income inequality affects patients’ perception vis-à-vis safety, thus feeding into the poverty/health care quality nexus. Conclusions Socio-demographic factors and two macro variables (corruption and income inequality) explain the perception of quality of health care and likelihood of being harmed by adverse events. The results carry significant policy weight and could explain why targeting only the health care sector (without an overall reform of the public sector) could potentially be challenging. PMID:24215401

  14. Influenza pandemic intervention planning using InfluSim: pharmaceutical and non- pharmaceutical interventions

    PubMed Central

    Duerr, Hans P; Brockmann, Stefan O; Piechotowski, Isolde; Schwehm, Markus; Eichner, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Background Influenza pandemic preparedness plans are currently developed and refined on national and international levels. Much attention has been given to the administration of antiviral drugs, but contact reduction can also be an effective part of mitigation strategies and has the advantage to be not limited per se. The effectiveness of these interventions depends on various factors which must be explored by sensitivity analyses, based on mathematical models. Methods We use the freely available planning tool InfluSim to investigate how pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical interventions can mitigate an influenza pandemic. In particular, we examine how intervention schedules, restricted stockpiles and contact reduction (social distancing measures and isolation of cases) determine the course of a pandemic wave and the success of interventions. Results A timely application of antiviral drugs combined with a quick implementation of contact reduction measures is required to substantially protract the peak of the epidemic and reduce its height. Delays in the initiation of antiviral treatment (e.g. because of parsimonious use of a limited stockpile) result in much more pessimistic outcomes and can even lead to the paradoxical effect that the stockpile is depleted earlier compared to early distribution of antiviral drugs. Conclusion Pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical measures should not be used exclusively. The protraction of the pandemic wave is essential to win time while waiting for vaccine development and production. However, it is the height of the peak of an epidemic which can easily overtax general practitioners, hospitals or even whole public health systems, causing bottlenecks in basic and emergency medical care. PMID:17629919

  15. Risk ranking by perception

    SciTech Connect

    Osei, E.K.; Amoh, G.E.A.; Schandorf, C.

    1997-02-01

    The study of people`s perception and acceptability of risk is important in understanding the public reaction to technology and its environmental and health impact. The perception of risk depends on several factors, including early experiences, education, controllability of the risk, the type of consequence, and the type of person(s) who makes the judgment. This paper reviews some of the main factors influencing people`s perception and acceptability of risk. Knowledge about which factors influence the perception of risk may enhance the understanding of different points of view brought into risk controversies, improve risk communication, and facilitate policy making. Results from a risk ranking by perception survey Conducted in Ghana are also presented. 18 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  16. 78 FR 46373 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Johnson Matthey Pharmaceutical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-31

    ..., 2013, 78 FR 19017, Johnson Matthey Pharmaceutical Materials, Inc., Pharmaceutical Services, 25 Patton...: Drug Schedule Amphetamine (1100) II Methylphenidate (1724) II Nabilone (7379) II Hydrocodone (9193)...

  17. 77 FR 16264 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Registration; Johnson Matthey Pharmaceutical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-20

    ... November 28, 2011, 76 FR 72974, Johnson Matthey Pharmaceutical Materials Inc., Pharmaceutical Service, 25... substances: Drug Schedule Amphetamine (1100) II Methylphenidate (1724) II Nabilone (7379) II...

  18. Impacts of climate extremes on activity sectors stakeholders' perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundzewicz, Z. W.; Giannakopoulos, C.; Schwarb, M.; Stjernquist, I.; Schlyter, P.; Szwed, M.; Palutikof, J.

    2008-06-01

    Significant changes in the climatic system have been observed, which may be attributed to human-enhanced greenhouse effect. Even stronger changes are projected for the future, impacting in an increasing way on human activity sectors. The present contribution, prepared in the framework of the MICE (Modelling the Impact of Climate Extremes) Project of the European Union, reviews how climate change may impact on winter tourism in the Alpine region, intense precipitation and flood potential in central Europe, forest damage in Scandinavia and beach holidays in the Mediterranean coast. Impacts are likely to be serious and largely adverse. Due to a lack of adequate information and lack of broadly accepted and reliable mathematical models describing the impact of changes in climate extremes on these activity sectors, it has been found useful to use expert judgement based impact assessment. Accordingly, regional mini-workshops were organized serving as platforms for communication between scientists and stakeholders, vehicles for dissemination of the state-of-the-art of the scientific understanding and for learning stakeholders’ view on extreme events, their impacts and the preparedness system. Stakeholders had the opportunity to react to the scientific results and to reflect on their perception of the likely impacts of projected changes in extremes on relevant activity sectors and the potential to adapt and avert adverse consequences. The results reported in this paper present the stakeholders’ suggestions for essential information on different extreme event impacts and their needs from science.

  19. MSc degree in color technology for the automotive sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Verdu, F.; Perales, E.; Chorro, E.; Viqueira, V.; Gilabert, E.

    2014-07-01

    Nowadays, the measurement and management of color quality of the gonio-apparent materials is complex, but highly demanded in many industrial sectors, as automotive, cosmetics, plastics for consumer electronics, printing inks, architectural coatings, etc. It is necessary to control complex instrumentation and to do visual assessments of texture and color differences to get, for instance, a visual harmony in car bodies; and a profound knowledge of physics and chemistry of special-effect pigments for their optical formulation to obtain attractive visual effects in coatings, plastics, etc, combining among them and with solid pigments. From University of Alicante, for the academic year 2013-14, we are organizing the first MSc degree in Color Technology for the Automotive Sector, with a design of contents embracing CIE colorimetry and visual perception, included the AUDI2000 color difference formula, instrumentation and color management software, fundamentals of coatings and plastics in the automotive sector, and, optical formulation of pigments. The MSc syllabus, with 60 ECTS, is designed to be taught in two semesters: from September to February with on classroom theoretical and practical activities, and, from March to June at virtual level, with internships of training in some companies. Therefore, the MSc Thesis would be the performance report during the internship in companies or research institutions. Some multinational companies, both as car makers and coatings and plastics providers, from European and non-European countries have already shown their support and interest in welcoming students for specific training, even some job offers when the first MSc edition finishes.

  20. Hidden drivers of low-dose pharmaceutical pollutant mixtures revealed by the novel GSA-QHTS screening method.

    PubMed

    Rodea-Palomares, Ismael; Gonzalez-Pleiter, Miguel; Gonzalo, Soledad; Rosal, Roberto; Leganes, Francisco; Sabater, Sergi; Casellas, Maria; Muñoz-Carpena, Rafael; Fernández-Piñas, Francisca

    2016-09-01

    The ecological impacts of emerging pollutants such as pharmaceuticals are not well understood. The lack of experimental approaches for the identification of pollutant effects in realistic settings (that is, low doses, complex mixtures, and variable environmental conditions) supports the widespread perception that these effects are often unpredictable. To address this, we developed a novel screening method (GSA-QHTS) that couples the computational power of global sensitivity analysis (GSA) with the experimental efficiency of quantitative high-throughput screening (QHTS). We present a case study where GSA-QHTS allowed for the identification of the main pharmaceutical pollutants (and their interactions), driving biological effects of low-dose complex mixtures at the microbial population level. The QHTS experiments involved the integrated analysis of nearly 2700 observations from an array of 180 unique low-dose mixtures, representing the most complex and data-rich experimental mixture effect assessment of main pharmaceutical pollutants to date. An ecological scaling-up experiment confirmed that this subset of pollutants also affects typical freshwater microbial community assemblages. Contrary to our expectations and challenging established scientific opinion, the bioactivity of the mixtures was not predicted by the null mixture models, and the main drivers that were identified by GSA-QHTS were overlooked by the current effect assessment scheme. Our results suggest that current chemical effect assessment methods overlook a substantial number of ecologically dangerous chemical pollutants and introduce a new operational framework for their systematic identification. PMID:27617294

  1. Hidden drivers of low-dose pharmaceutical pollutant mixtures revealed by the novel GSA-QHTS screening method

    PubMed Central

    Rodea-Palomares, Ismael; Gonzalez-Pleiter, Miguel; Gonzalo, Soledad; Rosal, Roberto; Leganes, Francisco; Sabater, Sergi; Casellas, Maria; Muñoz-Carpena, Rafael; Fernández-Piñas, Francisca

    2016-01-01

    The ecological impacts of emerging pollutants such as pharmaceuticals are not well understood. The lack of experimental approaches for the identification of pollutant effects in realistic settings (that is, low doses, complex mixtures, and variable environmental conditions) supports the widespread perception that these effects are often unpredictable. To address this, we developed a novel screening method (GSA-QHTS) that couples the computational power of global sensitivity analysis (GSA) with the experimental efficiency of quantitative high-throughput screening (QHTS). We present a case study where GSA-QHTS allowed for the identification of the main pharmaceutical pollutants (and their interactions), driving biological effects of low-dose complex mixtures at the microbial population level. The QHTS experiments involved the integrated analysis of nearly 2700 observations from an array of 180 unique low-dose mixtures, representing the most complex and data-rich experimental mixture effect assessment of main pharmaceutical pollutants to date. An ecological scaling-up experiment confirmed that this subset of pollutants also affects typical freshwater microbial community assemblages. Contrary to our expectations and challenging established scientific opinion, the bioactivity of the mixtures was not predicted by the null mixture models, and the main drivers that were identified by GSA-QHTS were overlooked by the current effect assessment scheme. Our results suggest that current chemical effect assessment methods overlook a substantial number of ecologically dangerous chemical pollutants and introduce a new operational framework for their systematic identification. PMID:27617294

  2. Public perceptions and information gaps in solar energy in Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Varun; Beck, Ariane L.

    2015-07-01

    Studying the behavioral aspects of the individual decision-making process is important in identifying and addressing barriers in the adoption of residential solar photovoltaic (PV). However, there is little systematic research focusing on these aspects of residential PV in Texas, an important, large, populous state, with a range of challenges in the electricity sector including increasing demand, shrinking reserve margins, constrained water supply, and challenging emissions reduction targets under proposed federal regulations. This paper aims to address this gap through an empirical investigation of a new survey-based dataset collected in Texas on solar energy perceptions and behavior. The results of this analysis offer insights into the perceptions and motivations influencing intentions and behavior toward solar energy in a relatively untapped market and help identify information gaps that could be targeted to alleviate key barriers to adopting solar, thereby enabling significant emissions reductions in the residential sector in Texas.

  3. Reflections on science and the communication sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raes, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Reflections on science and the communication sector. In this contribution I will reflect about successes and failures in communicating climate change and air pollution sciences to the general public. These communication efforts included writing popular articles, giving public presentations, working with people from the social scientists and artists. Giving the fact that communication is a very important (economic) sector on its own, the question is to what extent scientists should enter that sector, whether scientists are at all accepted in that sector, whether they should use the expertise in that sector, or whether they should merely provide the knowledge to be used by that sector.

  4. The creation of the health consumer: challenges on health sector regulation after managed care era

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background We utilized our previous studies analyzing the reforms affecting the health sector developed in the 1990s by financial groups to frame the strategies implemented by the pharmaceutical industry to regain market positions and to understand the challenges that regulatory agencies are confronting. Methods We followed an analytical approach for analyzing the process generated by the disputes between the financial groups and the pharmaceutical corporations and the challenges created to governmental regulation. We analyzed primary and secondary sources using situational and discourse analyses. We introduced the concepts of biomedicalization and biopedagogy, which allowed us to analyze how medicalization was radicalized. Results In the 1990s, structural adjustment policies facilitated health reforms that allowed the entrance of multinational financial capital into publicly-financed and employer-based insurance. This model operated in contraposition to the interests of the medical industrial complex, which since the middle of the 1990s had developed silent reforms to regain authority in defining the health-ill-care model. These silent reforms radicalized the medicalization. Some reforms took place through deregulatory processes, such as allowing direct-to-consumer advertisements of prescription drugs in the United States. In other countries different strategies were facilitated by the lack of regulation of other media such as the internet. The pharmaceutical industry also has had a role in changing disease definitions, rebranding others, creating new ones, and pressuring for approval of treatments to be paid by public, employer, and private plans. In recent years in Brazil there has been a substantial increase in the number of judicial claims demanding that public administrations pay for new treatments. Conclusions We found that the dispute for the hegemony of the health sector between financial and pharmaceutical companies has deeply transformed the sector

  5. The institutionalization of pharmaceutical administration after the korean liberation: focusing on regulating the pharmaceutical affairs law(yaksabeop) in 1953.

    PubMed

    Sihn, Kyu-Hwan

    2013-12-01

    The pharmaceutical administration under U.S Military Government in Korea and government of the Republic of Korea aimed at cleaning up the vestiges of Japanese imperialism which the pharmaceutical administration attached police administration and preparing with legal and systemic basis after the Korean liberation. The pharmaceutical bureau under U.S Military Government in Korea was reorganized as the independent division. The pharmaceutical bureau focused on preserving order, narcotics control and the distribution of relief drug. U.S Military Government proceeded supply side pharmaceutical policy for the distribution of relief drug without constructing human and material infrastructure. After the Korean War, Korean society asked the construction of system for nation building. Korean national assembly regulated National Medical Law(Gukmin uiryobeop) for promotion of public health in 1951. The Pharmaceutical Affairs Law(Yaksabeop) was regulated in 1953, and it prescribed the job requirement of pharmacist, apothecary, and drug maker and seller, and presented the frame of managing medical supplies. The Pharmaceutical Law originally planned the ideal pharmaceutical administration, but it rather secured the status of traditional apothecary, and drug maker and seller. On the contrary, though the Pharmaceutical Law guaranteed the traditional druggists, it did not materialize reproduction system such as educational and license system. It means that the traditional druggists would be degenerated in the near future. After the armistice agreement in 1953, Korean was in medical difficulties. Korean government was suffered from the deficiency of medical resources. Because of destruction of pharmaceutical facilities, Korean had to depend on United States and international aid. The Pharmaceutical Affairs Law did not cleaned up the vestiges of Japanese imperialism, and compromised with reality lacked human and material infrastructure. As a result, the law became the origin of

  6. Polymers in life sciences: Pharmaceutical and biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barba, Anna Angela; Dalmoro, Annalisa; d'Amore, Matteo; Lamberti, Gaetano; Cascone, Sara; Titomanlio, Giuseppe

    2015-12-01

    This paper deals with the work done by prof. Titomanlio and his group in the fields of pharmaceutical and biomedical applications of polymers. In particular, the main topics covered are: i) controlled drug release from pharmaceuticals based on hydrogel for oral delivery of drugs; ii) production and characterization of micro and nanoparticles based on stimuli-responsive polymers; iii) use of polymers for coronary stent gel-paving; iv) design and realization of novel methods (in-vitro and in-silico) to test polymer-based pharmaceuticals.

  7. Health plans' strategies for managing outpatient specialty pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Mullins, C Daniel; Lavallee, Danielle Chauncey; Pradel, Françoise G; DeVries, Andrea R; Caputo, Nadine

    2006-01-01

    Balancing increased spending for specialty pharmaceuticals while providing affordable and equitable coverage for consumers is a key issue for public and private payers. Health plans rely on an array of strategies, including both medical management and those used for more traditional pharmaceuticals. To explore specific management strategies for outpatient specialty pharmaceuticals, a survey was administered to thirty-eight Blue Cross and Blue Shield plans, focused on identifying core strategies. Prior authorization was the most commonly used strategy, implemented by 83.3 percent of respondents. Other frequently implemented management strategies included claims review (82.8 percent), formulary management (76.7 percent), and utilization review (70 percent). PMID:16966730

  8. Patents or patients? Global access to pharmaceuticals and social justice.

    PubMed

    de Wildt, Gilles; Khoon, Chan Chee

    2008-01-01

    Innovation, vaccine development, and world-wide equitable access to necessary pharmaceuticals are hindered by current patenting arrangements and the orientation of pharmaceutical research. Plausible alternatives exist, including instituting the right of national or international agencies to act in the public interest and to buy patents selectively with a view to innovation and equitable access. Alternatives could partly or wholly finance themselves and lower pharmaceutical prices globally. Countries, individuals or groups of patients could help promote alternatives by calling into question the current emphasis on commercialization and profit, and by demanding globally equitable arrangements when sharing data that are important for research or when individuals or communities volunteer as research participants. PMID:18771195

  9. FLARING SOLAR HALE SECTOR BOUNDARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Svalgaard, L.; Hannah, I. G.; Hudson, H. S.

    2011-05-20

    The sector structure that organizes the magnetic field of the solar wind into large-scale domains has a clear pattern in the photospheric magnetic field as well. The rotation rate, 27-28.5 days, implies an effectively rigid rotation originating deeper in the solar interior than the sunspots. The photospheric magnetic field is known to be concentrated near that portion (the Hale boundary) in each solar hemisphere, where the change in magnetic sector polarity matches that between the leading and following sunspot polarities in active regions in the respective hemispheres. We report here that flares and microflares also concentrate at the Hale boundaries, implying that flux emergence and the creation of free magnetic energy in the corona also have a direct cause in the deep interior.

  10. Printed sectoral horn power combiner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boccia, Luigi; Emanuele, Antonio; Shamsafar, Alireza; Arnieri, Emilio; Amendola, Giandomenico

    2015-02-01

    In this work, it is presented a new configuration of planar power combiner/divider based on an H-plane sectoral horn antenna. This component is proposed to realise the basic building blocks of printed power-combining amplifiers. It will be shown how the sectoral horn elements can be implemented on substrate integrated waveguide and multilayer printed circuit board technologies, thus obtaining a high integration level. In the following, the design procedure will be described reporting an example of an 11-stage power divider/combiner in C-band. A prototype has been fabricated, and the measured results compared with the numerical model. Experimental results are in good agreement with theoretical expectations showing a single-stage efficiency of about 90% and a bandwidth of 40%.

  11. Global gene mining and the pharmaceutical industry

    SciTech Connect

    Knudsen, Lisbeth E.

    2005-09-01

    Worldwide efforts are ongoing in optimizing medical treatment by searching for the right medicine at the right dose for the individual. Metabolism is regulated by polymorphisms, which may be tested by relatively simple SNP analysis, however requiring DNA from the test individuals. Target genes for the efficiency of a given medicine or predisposition of a given disease are also subject to population studies, e.g., in Iceland, Estonia, Sweden, etc. For hypothesis testing and generation, several bio-banks with samples from patients and healthy persons within the pharmaceutical industry have been established during the past 10 years. Thus, more than 100,000 samples are stored in the freezers of either the pharmaceutical companies or their contractual partners at universities and test institutions. Ethical issues related to data protection of the individuals providing samples to bio-banks are several: nature and extent of information prior to consent, coverage of the consent given by the study person, labeling and storage of the sample and data (coded or anonymized). In general, genetic test data, once obtained, are permanent and cannot be changed. The test data may imply information that is not beneficial to the patient and his/her family (e.g., employment opportunities, insurance, etc.). Furthermore, there may be a long latency between the analysis of the genetic test and the clinical expression of the disease and wide differences in the disease patterns. Consequently, information about some genetic test data may stigmatize patients leading to poor quality of life. This has raised the issue of 'genetic exceptionalism' justifying specific regulation of use of genetic information. Discussions on how to handle sampling and data are ongoing within the industry and the regulatory sphere, the European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products (EMEA) having issued a position paper, the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS) having a working

  12. Sectoral shifts and aggregate unemployment

    SciTech Connect

    Loungani, P.

    1986-01-01

    Some recent research has taken the view that sectoral or industry-specific shocks significantly affect aggregate unemployment by increasing the amount of inter-industry labor reallocation required. The empirical evidence for this view rests on the finding that during the 1950s - and again during the 1970s - there was a positive correlation between aggregate unemployment and the dispersion of employment growth rates. This thesis demonstrates that this correlation arises largely because oil price shocks affect both unemployment and the dispersion of employment growth. Once the dispersion due to oil shocks is accounted for, the residual dispersion in employment has very low explanatory power for unemployment. Since the dispersion index does not measure pure sectoral shifts, an alternate measure of dispersion is developed that serves as a better proxy for the amount of inter-industry labor reallocation required each period. Estimates using this measure suggest that, during the 1950s, temporary increases in the relative price of oil were responsible for generating the observed correlation. On the other hand, sectoral shifts were important during the 1970s; in particular, the 1973 oil price increase has had significant reallocative effects on the economy. This contention is subjected to further tests by looking at the time-series behavior of employment in durable-goods industries and also by following the inter-industry movements of workers over time through the use of panel data.

  13. Biomass Resources for the Federal Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2005-08-01

    Biomass Resources for the Federal Sector is a fact sheet that explains how biomass resources can be incorporated into the federal sector, and also how they can provide opportunities to meet federal renewable energy goals.

  14. Biomass Resources for the Federal Sector

    SciTech Connect

    R. Robichaud; A. Crawley; and L. Poole: NREL

    2005-09-09

    Biomass Resources for the Federal Sector is a fact sheet that explains how biomass resources can be incorporated into the federal sector, and also how they can provide opportunities to meet federal renewable energy goals.

  15. Delivery of pharmaceutical services at ward level in a teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Schellack, N; Martins, V; Botha, N; Meyer, J C

    2009-03-01

    Poor management of pharmaceuticals could lead to wastage of financial resources and poor services in the public sector. The main aim of the study was to investigate the quality of pharmaceutical services at ward level in a teaching hospital. The design of the study was descriptive. Three data collection instruments were designed and pilot-tested prior to the actual data collection. Two structured questionnaires were used to interview the sister-in-charge of each ward and the stock and drug controller at the pharmacy. A checklist for the management of pharmaceuticals was completed for each ward. Descriptive statistics were used to describe and summarise the data. Sisters-in-charge of 30 wards and the stock and drug controller at the pharmacy participated in the study. The relationship with the pharmacy was perceived to be average by 54% (n = 30) of the sisters-in-charge of the wards. Communication with the pharmacy was mainly by telephone and 57% of the sisters-in-charge mentioned that they experienced difficulties in conveying messages to the pharmacy. Ten of the wards received regular ward visits by a pharmacist. Expiry dates were checked by all wards but at different intervals. The majority of the wards (90%) used patient cards, which refer to prescription charts, for stock control and ordering from the pharmacy. Fridge temperatures were checked and charted on a daily basis by 30% of the wards. Written standard operating procedures (SOPs) were used by the pharmacy for issuing ward stock. Although 83% of the wards indicated that they used SOPs, evidence of written SOPs was not available. The results indicated that the management of pharmaceutical services at ward level could be improved. Implementation of appropriate communication systems will enhance cooperation between the pharmacy and the wards. A uniform ward stock control system, either by computer or stock cards, should be introduced. Regular ward visits by a pharmacist to oversee ward stock management are

  16. Energy Sector Impacts and Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newmark, R. L.; Macknick, J.; Martinez, A.; Hallett, K. C.

    2011-12-01

    The power sector is the largest user of freshwater in the U.S. The dominant use of water in power plants is for steam cycle cooling. The current portfolio of electricity generating technologies in the U.S. has highly regionalized and technology-specific requirements for water. Certain areas employ once-through cooling technologies with high withdrawals and low consumptive uses, whereas other areas employ recirculating cooling technologies with relatively low withdrawals but high consumptive uses. As water availability differs widely throughout the nation, assessments of water withdrawal and consumption impacts from the power sector must have a high geographic resolution and consider regional differences. The U.S. electricity portfolio is likely to evolve in coming years, shaped by various energy policies and economic drivers on both the national and regional level, which will impact power sector water demands. It is likely that the U.S. will continue to decarbonize its electricity industry, leading to more low-carbon technologies. However, many low-carbon technologies, such as coal with carbon capture and storage, nuclear, and concentrated solar power, can use more water than the current electricity portfolio average. National- and state-level water policies have been proposed (and enacted) that affect cooling system choices for power plants, with resulting implications for water use as well as power plant installed and operating costs and reliability. Energy policy analyses that do not consider power plant cooling system impacts may miss an important component power plant siting decisions. Similarly, water policies that do not take into consideration potential impacts on power plant operations or comprehensive regional water budget impacts may have deleterious effects on the energy industry. Analysis of future energy scenarios that incorporate technology options and constraints as well as different policies can provide useful insights about likely changes to both

  17. Pharmaceutical drug marketing strategies and tactics: a comparative analysis of attitudes held by pharmaceutical representatives and physicians.

    PubMed

    Parker, R Stephen; Pettijohn, Charles E

    2005-01-01

    A variety of promotional strategies have been used to stimulate sales of pharmaceutical drugs. Traditionally, push techniques have been the predominant means used to encourage physicians to prescribe drugs and thus increase sales. Recently, the traditional push strategy has been supplemented by a pull strategy. Direct-to-consumer advertising is increasingly used to encourage consumers to request advertised drugs from their physicians. This research compares the attitudes of two of the most affected participants in the prescriptive sales processes; physicians and pharmaceutical sales representatives. The findings indicate differences between physicians and pharmaceutical sales representatives regarding the efficacy and ethical considerations of various promotional strategies. PMID:16597582

  18. Radiation decontamination of pharmaceutical raw materials as an integral part of the good pharmaceutical manufacturing practice (GPMP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ražem, D.; Katušin-Ražem, B.; Starčević, M.; Galeković, B.

    The microbiological quality of many raw materials used in the manufacture of pharmaceutical and adjuvants often fails to meet the standards set by the pharmaceutical industry. Raw materials of biological provenience are particularly susceptible to contamination. This work describes the present situation regarding the microbial load of corn starch. Given the accepted microbiological criteria, irradiation treatment is proposed as integral to Good Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Practice (GPMP). The use of total viable count as a guide for specifying microbial limits for non-sterile materials is supported. Criteria for the choice of dose are discussed.

  19. Synthetic biology for pharmaceutical drug discovery

    PubMed Central

    Trosset, Jean-Yves; Carbonell, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic biology (SB) is an emerging discipline, which is slowly reorienting the field of drug discovery. For thousands of years, living organisms such as plants were the major source of human medicines. The difficulty in resynthesizing natural products, however, often turned pharmaceutical industries away from this rich source for human medicine. More recently, progress on transformation through genetic manipulation of biosynthetic units in microorganisms has opened the possibility of in-depth exploration of the large chemical space of natural products derivatives. Success of SB in drug synthesis culminated with the bioproduction of artemisinin by microorganisms, a tour de force in protein and metabolic engineering. Today, synthetic cells are not only used as biofactories but also used as cell-based screening platforms for both target-based and phenotypic-based approaches. Engineered genetic circuits in synthetic cells are also used to decipher disease mechanisms or drug mechanism of actions and to study cell–cell communication within bacteria consortia. This review presents latest developments of SB in the field of drug discovery, including some challenging issues such as drug resistance and drug toxicity. PMID:26673570

  20. Prospects of boswellic acids as potential pharmaceutics.

    PubMed

    Du, Zhiyong; Liu, Zhenli; Ning, Zhangchi; Liu, Yuanyan; Song, Zhiqian; Wang, Chun; Lu, Aiping

    2015-03-01

    Boswellic acids have long been considered the main bioactive components of frankincense, and many studies in vitro and in animals as well as several clinical studies have confirmed their various bioactivities. In particular, a large number of mechanistic studies have confirmed their anti-inflammatory and antitumor activities. However, not every boswellic acid exhibits a satisfactory pharmacological performance, which depends on the chemical structure and functional groups of the acid. To enhance the pharmacological values of boswellic acids, derivatization has been specifically applied with the aim of discovering more active derivatives of BAs. In addition, the preliminary pharmacokinetic studies of these compounds using various standard methods show their poor bioavailability in humans and rodents, which has led to questions of their pharmacological relevance and potentially limits their use in clinical practice and pharmaceutical development. To improve these effects, some approaches have shown some improvements in effectiveness, and the new formula compatibility approach is considered a very reasonable method for improving the bioavailability of boswellic acids. PMID:25714728

  1. What happens when pharmaceuticals meet colloids.

    PubMed

    Xing, Yingna; Chen, Xijuan; Zhuang, Jie; Chen, Xin

    2015-12-01

    Pharmaceuticals (PCs) have been widely detected in natural environment due to agricultural application of reclaimed water, sludge and animal wastes. Their potential risks to various ecosystems and even to human health have caused great concern; however, little was known about their environmental behaviors. Colloids (such as clays, metal oxides, and particulate organics) are kind of substances that are active and widespread in the environment. When PCs meet colloids, their interaction may influence the fate, transport, and toxicity of PCs. This review summarizes the progress of studies on the role of colloids in mediating the environmental behaviors of PCs. Synthesized results showed that colloids can adsorb PCs mainly through ion exchange, complexation and non-electrostatic interactions. During this process the structure of colloids and the stability of PCs may be changed. The adsorbed PCs may have higher risks to induce antibiotic resistance; besides, their transport may also be altered considering they have great chance to move with colloids. Solution conditions (such as pH, ionic strength, and cations) could influence these interactions between PCs and colloids, as they can change the forms of PCs and alter the primary forces between PCs and colloids in the solution. It could be concluded that PCs in natural soils could bind with colloids and then co-transport during the processes of irrigation, leaching, and erosion. Therefore, colloid-PC interactions need to be understood for risk assessment of PCs and the best management practices of various ecosystems (such as agricultural and wetland systems). PMID:26427370

  2. Pharmaceutical Point of View on Parenteral Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Stawny, M.; Olijarczyk, R.; Jaroszkiewicz, E.; Jelińska, A.

    2013-01-01

    Parenteral nutrition—a form of administering nutrients, electrolytes, trace elements, vitamins, and water—is a widely used mode of therapy applied in many diseases, in patients of different ages both at home and in hospital. The success of nutritional therapy depends chiefly on proper determination of the patient's energetic and electrolytic needs as well as preparation and administration of a safe nutritional mixture. As a parenterally administered drug, it is expected to be microbiologically and physicochemically stable, with all of the components compatible with each other. It is very difficult to obtain a stable nutritional mixture due to the fact that it is a complex, two-phase drug. Also, the risk of incompatibility between mixture components and packaging should be taken into consideration and possibly eliminated. Since parenteral nutrition is a part of therapy, simultaneous use of drugs may cause pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions as well as those with the pharmaceutical phase. The aim of this paper is to discuss such aspects of parenteral nutrition as mixture stability, methodology, and methods for determining the stability of nutritional mixtures and drugs added to them. PMID:24453847

  3. Iron-catalysed tritiation of pharmaceuticals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pony Yu, Renyuan; Hesk, David; Rivera, Nelo; Pelczer, István; Chirik, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    A thorough understanding of the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of a drug in animal models is a critical component of drug discovery and development. Such studies are performed in vivo and in vitro at various stages of the development process—ranging from preclinical absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) studies to late-stage human clinical trials—to elucidate a drug molecule’s metabolic profile and to assess its toxicity. Radiolabelled compounds, typically those that contain 14C or 3H isotopes, are one of the most powerful and widely deployed diagnostics for these studies. The introduction of radiolabels using synthetic chemistry enables the direct tracing of the drug molecule without substantially altering its structure or function. The ubiquity of C-H bonds in drugs and the relative ease and low cost associated with tritium (3H) make it an ideal radioisotope with which to conduct ADME studies early in the drug development process. Here we describe an iron-catalysed method for the direct 3H labelling of pharmaceuticals by hydrogen isotope exchange, using tritium gas as the source of the radioisotope. The site selectivity of the iron catalyst is orthogonal to currently used iridium catalysts and allows isotopic labelling of complementary positions in drug molecules, providing a new diagnostic tool in drug development.

  4. Pharmaceutical development of microbicide drug products.

    PubMed

    Friend, David R

    2010-12-01

    HIV infection rates in the developing world remain a serious problem. One potential approach to reduce infection rates is to use products known as microbicides, referred to herein as microbicide drug products (MDPs). These are drugs capable of, when administered topically to the vagina (or rectum), interfering with infection by one or more mechanisms. This review article covers the latest pharmaceutical developments in the area of microbicides dosage forms and delivery systems. These products are principally designed for use in the developing world and must therefore address cultural and societal issues generally unknown in the developed world. The first-generation microbicides evaluated clinically were principally polyanions. These drugs, administered intravaginally as gels, were found to be ineffective in preventing transmission of HIV from men to women. Second-generation drugs such as tenofovir, dapivirine, and UC781 are reverse transcriptase inhibitors developed as gels formulations and intravaginal rings (IVRs). Gels are considered coitally-related products while IVRs are coitally-independent systems designed to release the drug over a four-week period or possibly longer (up to 3 or 4 months). Other dosage forms under development include fast dissolving films, tablets/capsules, and possibly vaginal sponges. Dual protection systems are also under development. These systems include formulations capable of preventing HIV infection along with a second drug capable of preventing conception or other viral infections such as HSV. PMID:20017601

  5. Iron-catalysed tritiation of pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Yu, Renyuan Pony; Hesk, David; Rivera, Nelo; Pelczer, István; Chirik, Paul J

    2016-01-14

    A thorough understanding of the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of a drug in animal models is a critical component of drug discovery and development. Such studies are performed in vivo and in vitro at various stages of the development process--ranging from preclinical absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) studies to late-stage human clinical trials--to elucidate a drug molecule's metabolic profile and to assess its toxicity. Radiolabelled compounds, typically those that contain (14)C or (3)H isotopes, are one of the most powerful and widely deployed diagnostics for these studies. The introduction of radiolabels using synthetic chemistry enables the direct tracing of the drug molecule without substantially altering its structure or function. The ubiquity of C-H bonds in drugs and the relative ease and low cost associated with tritium ((3)H) make it an ideal radioisotope with which to conduct ADME studies early in the drug development process. Here we describe an iron-catalysed method for the direct (3)H labelling of pharmaceuticals by hydrogen isotope exchange, using tritium gas as the source of the radioisotope. The site selectivity of the iron catalyst is orthogonal to currently used iridium catalysts and allows isotopic labelling of complementary positions in drug molecules, providing a new diagnostic tool in drug development. PMID:26762456

  6. Transferring pharmaceuticals into the gas phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christen, Wolfgang; Krause, Tim; Rademann, Klaus

    2008-11-01

    The dissolution of molecules of biological interest in supercritical carbon dioxide is investigated using pulsed molecular beam mass spectrometry. Due to the mild processing temperatures of most supercritical fluids, their adiabatic expansion into vacuum permits to transfer even thermally very sensitive substances into the gas phase, which is particularly attractive for pharmaceutical and biomedical applications. In addition, supercritical CO2constitutes a chemically inert solvent that is compatible with hydrocarbon-free ultrahigh vacuum conditions. Here, we report on the dissolution and pulsed supersonic jet expansion of caffeine (C8H10N4O2), the provitamin menadione (C11H8O2), and the amino acid derivative l-phenylalanine tert-butyl ester hydrochloride (C6H5CH2CH(NH2)COOC(CH3)3[dot operator]HCl), into vacuum. An on-axis residual gas analyzer is used to monitor the relative amounts of solute and solvent in the molecular beam as a function of solvent densityE The excellent selectivity and sensitivity provided by mass spectrometry permits to probe even trace amounts of solutes. The strong density variation of CO2 close to the critical point results in a pronounced pressure dependence of the relative ion currents of solute and solvent molecules, reflecting a substantial change in solubility.

  7. Phytotoxicity of composted herbal pharmaceutical industry wastes.

    PubMed

    Suthar, Surindra; Singh, Deepika

    2011-08-01

    This work demonstrates the phytotoxicity screening of composted herbal pharmaceutical industry waste (HPIW) using seed bioassay method. The composted industrial waste should be tested at lab scale prior to recommendation for land application. HPIW was mixed with soil to produce four treatments: T(1) (1:1), T(2) (1:2), T(3) (1:3), and T(4) (1:0) for toxicity screening using Pisum sativum seeds. After 72 h relative seed germination (RSG), relative root growth (RRG) and germination index (GI) were recorded. Seedlings were observed for further plant growth and tissue biochemistry (chlorophyll, soluble sugar, starch, carotenoid, and protein) estimation. RSG, RRG, and GI values were better in T(1) and T(2) than others. GI was in the ranges of 36.62 % (T(4)) to 170.38 % (T(2)). The seedling growth and biochemical parameters were better in seedling obtained from potting media containing low proportion of HPIW (i.e., T(1) and T(2)). Results clearly suggested that composted HPIW may be utilized effectively for crop production after dilution under sustainable farming system program. PMID:22648349

  8. Analytical advances in pharmaceutical impurity profiling.

    PubMed

    Holm, René; Elder, David P

    2016-05-25

    Impurities will be present in all drug substances and drug products, i.e. nothing is 100% pure if one looks in enough depth. The current regulatory guidance on impurities accepts this, and for drug products with a dose of less than 2g/day identification of impurities is set at 0.1% levels and above (ICH Q3B(R2), 2006). For some impurities, this is a simple undertaking as generally available analytical techniques can address the prevailing analytical challenges; whereas, for others this may be much more challenging requiring more sophisticated analytical approaches. The present review provides an insight into current development of analytical techniques to investigate and quantify impurities in drug substances and drug products providing discussion of progress particular within the field of chromatography to ensure separation of and quantification of those related impurities. Further, a section is devoted to the identification of classical impurities, but in addition, inorganic (metal residues) and solid state impurities are also discussed. Risk control strategies for pharmaceutical impurities aligned with several of the ICH guidelines, are also discussed. PMID:26690047

  9. Dimensions of Aesthetic Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biaggio, Mary Kay; Supplee, Katherine A.

    1983-01-01

    Examines the validity of three dimensions of aesthetic perception: hedonic value, arousal, and uncertainty. Hedonic interest and arousal factors were found to differ from factors previously reported, while the uncertainty factor paralleled that previously reported. (Author/RH)

  10. Cross-Sector Review of Drivers and Available 3Rs Approaches for Acute Systemic Toxicity Testing

    PubMed Central

    Seidle, Troy; Robinson, Sally; Holmes, Tom; Creton, Stuart; Prieto, Pilar; Scheel, Julia; Chlebus, Magda

    2010-01-01

    Acute systemic toxicity studies are carried out in many sectors in which synthetic chemicals are manufactured or used and are among the most criticized of all toxicology tests on both scientific and ethical grounds. A review of the drivers for acute toxicity testing within the pharmaceutical industry led to a paradigm shift whereby in vivo acute toxicity data are no longer routinely required in advance of human clinical trials. Based on this experience, the following review was undertaken to identify (1) regulatory and scientific drivers for acute toxicity testing in other industrial sectors, (2) activities aimed at replacing, reducing, or refining the use of animals, and (3) recommendations for future work in this area. PMID:20484382

  11. Improving Schools through Private Sector Partnerships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Mary E.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the importance of the local school board's role in developing private sector involvement in public education. Gives examples of projects listed in the computerized databank of the President's Task Force on Private Sector Initiatives. Outlines the major issues in private sector involvement. (NJ)

  12. The Information Sector: Definition and Measurement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porat, Marc U.

    In the last 20 years the U.S. economy had changed as a result of the increase in production, processing, and distribution of information goods and services. Three information sectors--the primary sector producing information goods and services, the private bureaucracy, and the public bureaucracy--are part of a six-sector economy. Today,…

  13. PHARMACEUTICALS IN THE ENVIRONMENT: OVERVIEW OF SIGNIFICANCE, CONCERNS, AND SOLUTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) comprise large, diverse arrays of chemicals that can occur in the environment as unregulated pollutants. They originate largely from the combined activities and actions of multitudes of individuals as well as from veterinary and ...

  14. Attitudes of general practitioners in New Zealand to pharmaceutical representatives.

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, A N; Craig, B J; Barham, P M

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Pharmaceutical representatives are a vital component of the marketing of pharmaceutical products and an important source of prescribing information for general practitioners. AIM. A study was undertaken to explore the attitudes of New Zealand general practitioners to pharmaceutical representatives. METHOD. A questionnaire survey of 100 general practitioners was undertaken to which 67 general practitioners responded. RESULTS. The provision of practical prescribing advice by representatives and gifts relevant to medicine were seen as desirable activities by many respondents. However, gifts of value considerably greater than suggested acceptable in recent guidelines for general practitioners were also highly favoured by some practitioners. CONCLUSION. Current ethical guidelines setting out the relationship between pharmaceutical representatives and medical practitioners are inadequate and should be based on the need for the general practitioner to become an unbiased promoter of patient health. PMID:8204336

  15. Hydroxyalkyl phosphine compounds for use as diagnostic and therapeutic pharmaceuticals

    DOEpatents

    Katti, K.V.; Singh, P.R.; Reddy, V.S.; Katti, K.K.; Volkert, W.A.; Ketring, A.R.

    1999-03-02

    This research discloses a compound and method of making a compound for use as a diagnostic or therapeutic pharmaceutical comprises a functionalized hydroxyalkyl phosphine ligand and a metal combined with the ligand. 16 figs.

  16. Institutional mistrust in the organization of pharmaceutical clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    In this paper I explore the politics of trust in the clinical testing of pharmaceuticals in the US. Specifically, I analyze trust in terms of its institutional manifestations in the pharmaceutical clinical trials industry. In the process of testing new drugs, pharmaceutical companies must (1) protect their proprietary information from the clinicians who conduct their studies, and (2) find a way to ensure human subjects' compliance to study protocols. Concern with these two critical issues leads drug companies to approach clinicians and research subjects with an attitude of mistrust and the desire to exert control over their activities. This orientation results in an institutionalization of mistrust that structures the relationships and activities required for the clinical development of new pharmaceutical products. PMID:18633728

  17. Microcap pharmaceutical firms: linking drug pipelines to market value.

    PubMed

    Beach, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This article examines predictors of the future market value of microcap pharmaceutical companies. This is problematic since the large majority of these firms seldom report positive net income. Their value comes from the potential of a liquidity event such as occurs when a key drug is approved by the FDA. The typical scenario is one in which the company is either acquired by a larger pharmaceutical firm or enters into a joint venture with another pharmaceutical firm. Binary logistic regression is used to determine the impact of the firm's drug treatment pipeline and its investment in research and development on the firm's market cap. Using annual financial data from 2007 through 2010, this study finds that the status of the firm's drug treatment pipeline and its research and development expenses are significant predictors of the firm's future stock value relative to other microcap pharmaceutical firms. PMID:23971143

  18. PharmEcovigilance and the Environmental Footprint of Pharmaceuticals

    EPA Science Inventory

    The prescribing and usage of medications have ramifications extending far beyond conventional medical care. The healthcare industry has an environmental footprint because the active ingredients from pharmaceuticals enter the environment as pollutants by a variety of routes, prima...

  19. Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry--Bridging Disciplines and Interests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Robert V.

    1977-01-01

    Because of their interest and expertise in the analysis of drugs in biological fluids, analytical pharmaceutical chemists can contribute significantly to interdisciplinary research and teaching efforts. Suggestions for such efforts are described. (Author/LBH)

  20. The pharmaceutical industry: a further study in corporate power.

    PubMed

    McCraine, N; Murray, M J

    1978-01-01

    This article represents an updated version of previous research conducted on the United States pharmaceutical industry. The unstated purpose of this article is to present new findings which supplement the earlier research. This article describes three aspects of the United States pharmaceutical industry: its strategy and structure within the world market, its global expansion beyond the territorial boundaries of the United States, and its interlocking directorates with banking institutions. The thesis presented here is twofold: first, the United States pharmaceutical industry has become increasingly integrated into larger and more heterogeneous production units operating on the world market; and second, the United States pharmaceutical industry has become increasingly linked to large United States banking firms through interlocking directorates. PMID:730410

  1. INTEGRATIVE SAMPLING OF ANTIBIOTICS AND OTHER PHARMACEUTICALLY-RELATED COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pharmaceuticals from human and veterinary use continually enter the environment through municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), surface runoff from animal waste, and direct disposal of unused medications. The presence of these chemicals, albeit often at subtherapeutic trac...

  2. Scientific misconduct, the pharmaceutical industry, and the tragedy of institutions.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Kohler, Jillian Clare; Esmail, Laura C

    2007-09-01

    This paper examines how current legislative and regulatory models do not adequately govern the pharmaceutical industry towards ethical scientific conduct. In the context of a highly profit-driven industry, governments need to ensure ethical and legal standards are not only in place for companies but that they are enforceable. We demonstrate with examples from both industrialized and developing countries how without sufficient controls, there is a risk that corporate behaviour will transgress ethical boundaries. We submit that there is a critical need for urgent drug regulatory reform. There must be robust regulatory structures in place which enforce corporate governance mechanisms to ensure that pharmaceutical companies maintain ethical standards in drug research and development and the marketing of pharmaceuticals. What is also needed is for the pharmaceutical industry to adopt authentic "corporate social responsibility" policies as current policies and practices are insufficient. PMID:17970244

  3. PHARMACEUTICALS IN THE ENVIRONMENT: SOURCES AND THEIR MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    An issue that began to receive more attention by environmental scientists in the late 1990s was the conveyancy of pharmaceuticals in the environment by way of their use in human and veterinary medical practices and personal care

  4. Decomposition of persistent pharmaceuticals in wastewater by ionizing radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Atsushi; Osawa, Misako; Taguchi, Mitsumasa

    2012-09-01

    Pharmaceuticals in wastewater were treated by the combined method of activated sludge and ionizing radiation in laboratory scale. Oseltamivir, aspirin, and ibuprofen at 5 μmol dm-3 in wastewater were decomposed by the activated sludge at reaction time for 4 h. Carbamazepine, ketoprofen, mefenamic acid, clofibric acid, and diclofenac were not biodegraded completely, but were eliminated by γ-ray irradiation at 2 kGy. The rate constants of the reactions of these pharmaceuticals with hydroxyl radicals were estimated by the competition reaction method to be 4.0-10×109 mol-1 dm3 s-1. Decompositions of the pharmaceuticals in wastewater by ionizing radiation were simulated by use of the rate constants and the amount of total organic carbon as parameters. Simulation curves of concentrations of these pharmaceuticals as a function of dose described the experimental data, and the required dose for the elimination of them in wastewater by ionizing radiation can be estimated by this simulation.

  5. Boston Society's 11th Annual Applied Pharmaceutical Analysis conference.

    PubMed

    Lee, Violet; Liu, Ang; Groeber, Elizabeth; Moghaddam, Mehran; Schiller, James; Tweed, Joseph A; Walker, Gregory S

    2016-02-01

    Boston Society's 11th Annual Applied Pharmaceutical Analysis conference, Hyatt Regency Hotel, Cambridge, MA, USA, 14-16 September 2015 The Boston Society's 11th Annual Applied Pharmaceutical Analysis (APA) conference took place at the Hyatt Regency hotel in Cambridge, MA, on 14-16 September 2015. The 3-day conference affords pharmaceutical professionals, academic researchers and industry regulators the opportunity to collectively participate in meaningful and relevant discussions impacting the areas of pharmaceutical drug development. The APA conference was organized in three workshops encompassing the disciplines of regulated bioanalysis, discovery bioanalysis (encompassing new and emerging technologies) and biotransformation. The conference included a short course titled 'Bioanalytical considerations for the clinical development of antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs)', an engaging poster session, several panel and round table discussions and over 50 diverse talks from leading industry and academic scientists. PMID:26853375

  6. Recent trends and future of pharmaceutical packaging technology

    PubMed Central

    Zadbuke, Nityanand; Shahi, Sadhana; Gulecha, Bhushan; Padalkar, Abhay; Thube, Mahesh

    2013-01-01

    The pharmaceutical packaging market is constantly advancing and has experienced annual growth of at least five percent per annum in the past few years. The market is now reckoned to be worth over $20 billion a year. As with most other packaged goods, pharmaceuticals need reliable and speedy packaging solutions that deliver a combination of product protection, quality, tamper evidence, patient comfort and security needs. Constant innovations in the pharmaceuticals themselves such as, blow fill seal (BFS) vials, anti-counterfeit measures, plasma impulse chemical vapor deposition (PICVD) coating technology, snap off ampoules, unit dose vials, two-in-one prefilled vial design, prefilled syringes and child-resistant packs have a direct impact on the packaging. The review details several of the recent pharmaceutical packaging trends that are impacting packaging industry, and offers some predictions for the future. PMID:23833515

  7. WHO Expert Committee on Specifications for Pharmaceutical Preparations.

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    The Expert Committee on Specifications for Pharmaceutical Preparations works towards clear, independent and practical standards and guidelines for the quality assurance of medicines. Standards are developed by the Committee through worldwide consultation and an international consensus-building process. The following new guidelines were adopted and recommended for use, in addition to 20 monographs and general texts for inclusion in The International Pharmacopoeia and 11 new International Chemical Reference Substances. The International Pharmacopoeia--updating mechanism for the section on radiopharmaceuticals; WHO good manufacturing practices for pharmaceutical products: main principles; Model quality assurance system for procurement agencies; Assessment tool based on the model quality assurance system for procurement agencies: aide-memoire for inspection; Guidelines on submission of documentation for prequalification of finished pharmaceutical products approved by stringent regulatory authorities; and Guidelines on submission of documentation for a multisource (generic) finished pharmaceutical product: quality part. PMID:24964711

  8. PHARMACEUTICALS AND PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS (PPCPS) AS ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) as trace environmental pollutants is a multifaceted issue whose scope of concerns continues to expand. PPCPs comprise thousands of distinct chemicals from numerous therapeutic and consumer classes. They typical...

  9. PHARMACEUTICALS AND PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS: DIVERSE GALAXY OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) as trace environmental pollutants is a multifaceted issue whose scope of concerns continues to expand. PPCPs comprise thousands of distinct chemicals from numerous therapeutic and consumer classes. They typical...

  10. The extraterritoriality of US patents on the pharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyunseok

    2014-09-01

    As pharmaceutical industries have rapidly modernized and globalized, borders have been blurred and multiple entities in different countries are now involved with the manufacture, supply, distribution, dispensing and administration of even a single drug in the pharmaceutical industry. The cross jurisdictional nature of the modern pharmaceutical industry presents new challenges to limitations on the extraterritorial reach of US patents. The enforcement of US patents outside the jurisdictional boundaries of the USA has judicially evolved through cases such as Deep South, Microsoft, Bayer AG, Union Carbide, AT&T, Cardiac Pacemakers and others. This article explores the effects of recent cases on the extraterritorial enforcement of US pharmaceutical patents, particularly when different types of claims are involved. PMID:25374318

  11. Meeting the pharmaceutical needs of a developing country.

    PubMed

    Froese, E H

    1991-01-01

    Zimbabwe is making advances in the selection, procurement, distribution, storage, management and use of pharmaceutical products. The periodic updating of the country's essential drugs list is a vital part of this process. PMID:1859593

  12. [Risk and risk perception].

    PubMed

    de Vries, N K

    2002-06-01

    After having delineated the concept of risk and having described the type of risks that are relevant to dental practice, an overview of empirical and theoretical work on risk perception is given. The perception of risks is determined both by the actual magnitude and by perceptual bias, originating from either general perceptual phenomena such as (cognitive) availability or the ego-relevance of risks: persons in general underestimate risks for themselves as compared to the risks for others (unrealistic optimism). PMID:12092334

  13. Pharmaceutical expenditure forecast model to support health policy decision making

    PubMed Central

    Rémuzat, Cécile; Urbinati, Duccio; Kornfeld, Åsa; Vataire, Anne-Lise; Cetinsoy, Laurent; Aballéa, Samuel; Mzoughi, Olfa; Toumi, Mondher

    2014-01-01

    Background and objective With constant incentives for healthcare payers to contain their pharmaceutical budgets, modelling policy decision impact became critical. The objective of this project was to test the impact of various policy decisions on pharmaceutical budget (developed for the European Commission for the project ‘European Union (EU) Pharmaceutical expenditure forecast’ – http://ec.europa.eu/health/healthcare/key_documents/index_en.htm). Methods A model was built to assess policy scenarios’ impact on the pharmaceutical budgets of seven member states of the EU, namely France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Poland, Portugal, and the United Kingdom. The following scenarios were tested: expanding the UK policies to EU, changing time to market access, modifying generic price and penetration, shifting the distribution chain of biosimilars (retail/hospital). Results Applying the UK policy resulted in dramatic savings for Germany (10 times the base case forecast) and substantial additional savings for France and Portugal (2 and 4 times the base case forecast, respectively). Delaying time to market was found be to a very powerful tool to reduce pharmaceutical expenditure. Applying the EU transparency directive (6-month process for pricing and reimbursement) increased pharmaceutical expenditure for all countries (from 1.1 to 4 times the base case forecast), except in Germany (additional savings). Decreasing the price of generics and boosting the penetration rate, as well as shifting distribution of biosimilars through hospital chain were also key methods to reduce pharmaceutical expenditure. Change in the level of reimbursement rate to 100% in all countries led to an important increase in the pharmaceutical budget. Conclusions Forecasting pharmaceutical expenditure is a critical exercise to inform policy decision makers. The most important leverages identified by the model on pharmaceutical budget were driven by generic and biosimilar prices, penetration rate

  14. Chitin and Chitosan as Direct Compression Excipients in Pharmaceutical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Badwan, Adnan A.; Rashid, Iyad; Al Omari, Mahmoud M.H.; Darras, Fouad H.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the numerous uses of chitin and chitosan as new functional materials of high potential in various fields, they are still behind several directly compressible excipients already dominating pharmaceutical applications. There are, however, new attempts to exploit chitin and chitosan in co-processing techniques that provide a product with potential to act as a direct compression (DC) excipient. This review outlines the compression properties of chitin and chitosan in the context of DC pharmaceutical applications. PMID:25810109

  15. [The pharmaceutical cost of elderly people in private health insurance].

    PubMed

    Wild, F

    2009-12-01

    In this paper the author analyses the prescription of pharmaceuticals for elderly private insured persons. Data from eight firms form the basis of the survey. The main focus lies in the analysis of the expenditure per capita and the distribution of the pharmaceuticals costs. It will illustrate that costs for elderly private insured persons will have a great impact on the expenditure for the private health insurance companies in the coming years. PMID:20052826

  16. LC packing materials for pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis.

    PubMed

    Haginaka, Jun

    2002-11-01

    The author has prepared novel liquid chromatography (LC) packing materials for pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis. Those include LC packing materials for direct serum injection assays of drugs and their metabolites, LC packing materials for resolution of enantiomeric drugs, and uniformly sized molecularly imprinted polymers for drugs and their metabolites. This review article deals with the preparation of these materials and the pharmaceutical and biomedical applications of them in recognition of The Society of Chromatographic Sciences Award. PMID:12682997

  17. Can computed crystal energy landscapes help understand pharmaceutical solids?

    PubMed

    Price, Sarah L; Braun, Doris E; Reutzel-Edens, Susan M

    2016-06-01

    Computational crystal structure prediction (CSP) methods can now be applied to the smaller pharmaceutical molecules currently in drug development. We review the recent uses of computed crystal energy landscapes for pharmaceuticals, concentrating on examples where they have been used in collaboration with industrial-style experimental solid form screening. There is a strong complementarity in aiding experiment to find and characterise practically important solid forms and understanding the nature of the solid form landscape. PMID:27067116

  18. Pharmaceuticals' sorptions relative to properties of thirteen different soils.

    PubMed

    Kodešová, Radka; Grabic, Roman; Kočárek, Martin; Klement, Aleš; Golovko, Oksana; Fér, Miroslav; Nikodem, Antonín; Jakšík, Ondřej

    2015-04-01

    Transport of human and veterinary pharmaceuticals in soils and consequent ground-water contamination are influenced by many factors, including compound sorption on soil particles. Here we evaluate the sorption isotherms for 7 pharmaceuticals on 13 soils, described by Freundlich equations, and assess the impact of soil properties on various pharmaceuticals' sorption on soils. Sorption of ionizable pharmaceuticals was, in many cases, highly affected by soil pH. The sorption coefficient of sulfamethoxazole was negatively correlated to soil pH, and thus positively related to hydrolytic acidity and exchangeable acidity. Sorption coefficients for clindamycin and clarithromycin were positively related to soil pH and thus negatively related to hydrolytic acidity and exchangeable acidity, and positively related to base cation saturation. The sorption coefficients for the remaining pharmaceuticals (trimethoprim, metoprolol, atenolol, and carbamazepine) were also positively correlated with the base cation saturation and cation exchange capacity. Positive correlations between sorption coefficients and clay content were found for clindamycin, clarithromycin, atenolol, and metoprolol. Positive correlations between sorption coefficients and organic carbon content were obtained for trimethoprim and carbamazepine. Pedotransfer rules for predicting sorption coefficients of various pharmaceuticals included hydrolytic acidity (sulfamethoxazole), organic carbon content (trimethoprimand carbamazepine), base cation saturation (atenolol and metoprolol), exchangeable acidity and clay content (clindamycin), and soil active pH and clay content (clarithromycin). Pedotransfer rules, predicting the Freundlich sorption coefficients, could be applied for prediction of pharmaceutical mobility in soils with similar soil properties. Predicted sorption coefficients together with pharmaceutical half-lives and other imputes (e.g., soil-hydraulic, geological, hydro-geological, climatic) may be used for

  19. Uptake of human pharmaceuticals by plants grown under hydroponic conditions.

    PubMed

    Herklotz, Patrick A; Gurung, Prakash; Vanden Heuvel, Brian; Kinney, Chad A

    2010-03-01

    Cabbage (Brassica rapa var. pekinensis) and Wisconsin Fast Plants (Brassica rapa) were chosen for a proof of concept study to determine the potential uptake and accumulation of human pharmaceuticals by plants. These plants were grown hydroponically under high-pressure sodium lamps in one of two groups including a control and test group exposed to pharmaceuticals. The control plants were irrigated with a recirculating Hoagland's nutrient solution while the test plants were irrigated with a Hoagland's nutrient solution fortified with the pharmaceuticals carbamazepine, salbutamol, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim at 232.5 microg L(-1). When plants reached maturity, nine entire plants of each species were separated into components such as roots, leaves, stems, and seedpods where applicable. An analytical method for quantifying pharmaceuticals and personal care products was developed using pressurized liquid extraction and liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC/ESI/MS) in positive and negative ion modes using single ion monitoring. The method detection limits ranged from 3.13 ng g(-1) to 29.78 ng g(-1) with recoveries ranging from 66.83% to 113.62% from plant matrices. All four of the pharmaceuticals were detected in the roots and leaves of the cabbage. The maximum wet weight concentrations of the pharmaceuticals were detected in the root structure of the cabbage plants at 98.87 ng g(-1) carbamazepine, 114.72 ng g(-1) salbutamol, 138.26 ng g(-1) sulfamethoxazole, and 91.33 ng g(-1) trimethoprim. Carbamazepine and salbutamol were detected in the seedpods of the Wisconsin Fast Plants while all four of the pharmaceuticals were detected in the leaf/stem/root of the Wisconsin Fast Plants. Phloroglucinol staining of root cross-sections was used to verify the existence of an intact endodermis, suggesting that pharmaceuticals found in the leaf and seedpods of the plants were transported symplastically. PMID:20096438

  20. Buddhism and neuroethics: the ethics of pharmaceutical cognitive enhancement.

    PubMed

    Fenton, Andrew

    2009-08-01

    This paper integrates some Buddhist moral values, attitudes and self-cultivation techniques into a discussion of the ethics of cognitive enhancement technologies - in particular, pharmaceutical enhancements. Many Buddhists utilize meditation techniques that are both integral to their practice and are believed to enhance the cognitive and affective states of experienced practitioners. Additionally, Mahāyāna Buddhism's teaching on skillful means permits a liberal use of methods or techniques in Buddhist practice that yield insight into our selfnature or aid in alleviating or eliminating duhkha (i.e. dissatisfaction). These features of many, if not most, Buddhist traditions will inform much of the Buddhist assessment of pharmaceutical enhancements offered in this paper. Some Buddhist concerns about the effects and context of the use of pharmaceutical enhancements will be canvassed in the discussion. Also, the author will consider Buddhist views of the possible harms that may befall human and nonhuman research subjects, interference with a recipient's karma, the artificiality of pharmaceutical enhancements, and the possible motivations or intentions of healthy individuals pursuing pharmacological enhancement. Perhaps surprisingly, none of these concerns will adequately ground a reflective Buddhist opposition to the further development and continued use of pharmaceutical enhancements, either in principle or in practice. The author argues that Buddhists, from at least certain traditions - particularly Mahāyāna Buddhist traditions - should advocate the development or use of pharmaceutical enhancements if a consequence of their use is further insight into our self-nature or the reduction or alleviation of duhkha. PMID:18312602

  1. Strengthening Pharmaceutical Care Education in Ethiopia Through Instructional Collaboration

    PubMed Central

    Tadeg, Hailu; Downing, Don; Suleman, Sultan; Bedada, Worku; Paulos, Getahun; Mekonnen, Hailemeskel; Negussu, Mekonnen; Bartlein, Rebecca; Stergachis, Andy

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To describe the development, implementation, and initial outcomes of a pharmaceutical care training-of-trainers course developed to assist Ethiopian pharmacy faculty members and graduate students in the development of curriculum and provision of pharmaceutical care services of relevance to this low-income country. Design. In this collaboration, US and Ethiopian faculty members worked together in a week-long seminar and in hospital ward rounds to develop and offer a course to facilitate faculty members, curricular, and service development in pharmaceutical care in Ethiopia. Assessment. Assessments were conducted during the seminar, immediately post-seminar, at 3 months post-seminar, and at 1 year post-seminar. An examination was administered at the conclusion of the course to assess immediate learning outcomes for the graduate students. Post-course assessments of short-term (3-month) and longer-term (12-month) impact were conducted to identify pharmaceutical care services that had been implemented to assess knowledge and skill gained during the seminar. Correspondence between seminar participants and the US faculty members as well as graduate student thesis projects provided further evidence of changes at 3 and 12 months post-course. Conclusion. Pharmaceutical care training was developed for Ethiopian faculty members through a seminar and hospital ward rounds. Enhancements have been added to curricula for bachelor in pharmacy students and select pharmaceutical care services have been implemented through master's thesis projects. PMID:21969720

  2. Dissipative hidden sector dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foot, R.; Vagnozzi, S.

    2015-01-01

    A simple way of explaining dark matter without modifying known Standard Model physics is to require the existence of a hidden (dark) sector, which interacts with the visible one predominantly via gravity. We consider a hidden sector containing two stable particles charged under an unbroken U (1 )' gauge symmetry, hence featuring dissipative interactions. The massless gauge field associated with this symmetry, the dark photon, can interact via kinetic mixing with the ordinary photon. In fact, such an interaction of strength ε ˜10-9 appears to be necessary in order to explain galactic structure. We calculate the effect of this new physics on big bang nucleosynthesis and its contribution to the relativistic energy density at hydrogen recombination. We then examine the process of dark recombination, during which neutral dark states are formed, which is important for large-scale structure formation. Galactic structure is considered next, focusing on spiral and irregular galaxies. For these galaxies we modeled the dark matter halo (at the current epoch) as a dissipative plasma of dark matter particles, where the energy lost due to dissipation is compensated by the energy produced from ordinary supernovae (the core-collapse energy is transferred to the hidden sector via kinetic mixing induced processes in the supernova core). We find that such a dynamical halo model can reproduce several observed features of disk galaxies, including the cored density profile and the Tully-Fisher relation. We also discuss how elliptical and dwarf spheroidal galaxies could fit into this picture. Finally, these analyses are combined to set bounds on the parameter space of our model, which can serve as a guideline for future experimental searches.

  3. Empirical analysis of farmers' drought risk perception: objective factors, personal circumstances, and social influence.

    PubMed

    Duinen, Rianne van; Filatova, Tatiana; Geurts, Peter; Veen, Anne van der

    2015-04-01

    Drought-induced water shortage and salinization are a global threat to agricultural production. With climate change, drought risk is expected to increase as drought events are assumed to occur more frequently and to become more severe. The agricultural sector's adaptive capacity largely depends on farmers' drought risk perceptions. Understanding the formation of farmers' drought risk perceptions is a prerequisite to designing effective and efficient public drought risk management strategies. Various strands of literature point at different factors shaping individual risk perceptions. Economic theory points at objective risk variables, whereas psychology and sociology identify subjective risk variables. This study investigates and compares the contribution of objective and subjective factors in explaining farmers' drought risk perception by means of survey data analysis. Data on risk perceptions, farm characteristics, and various other personality traits were collected from farmers located in the southwest Netherlands. From comparing the explanatory power of objective and subjective risk factors in separate models and a full model of risk perception, it can be concluded that farmers' risk perceptions are shaped by both rational and emotional factors. In a full risk perception model, being located in an area with external water supply, owning fields with salinization issues, cultivating drought-/salt-sensitive crops, farm revenue, drought risk experience, and perceived control are significant explanatory variables of farmers' drought risk perceptions. PMID:25514996

  4. [Innovation guidelines and strategies for pharmaceutical engineering of Chinese medicine and their industrial translation].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yi-Yu; Qu, Hai-Bin; Zhang, Bo-Li

    2013-01-01

    This paper briefly analyzes the bottlenecks and major technical requirements for pharmaceutical industry of Chinese medicine, providing current status of pharmaceutical engineering of Chinese medicine. The innovation directions and strategies of the pharmaceutical engineering for manufacturing Chinese medicine are proposed along with the framework of their core technology. As a consequence, the development of the third-generation pharmaceutical technology for Chinese medicine, featured as "precision, digital and intelligent", is recommended. The prospects of the pharmaceutical technology are also forecasted. PMID:23596865

  5. Dynamically Evolving Sectors for Convective Weather Impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drew, Michael C.

    2010-01-01

    A new strategy for altering existing sector boundaries in response to blocking convective weather is presented. This method seeks to improve the reduced capacity of sectors directly affected by weather by moving boundaries in a direction that offers the greatest capacity improvement. The boundary deformations are shared by neighboring sectors within the region in a manner that preserves their shapes and sizes as much as possible. This reduces the controller workload involved with learning new sector designs. The algorithm that produces the altered sectors is based on a force-deflection mesh model that needs only nominal traffic patterns and the shape of the blocking weather for input. It does not require weather-affected traffic patterns that would have to be predicted by simulation. When compared to an existing optimal sector design method, the sectors produced by the new algorithm are more similar to the original sector shapes, resulting in sectors that may be more suitable for operational use because the change is not as drastic. Also, preliminary results show that this method produces sectors that can equitably distribute the workload of rerouted weather-affected traffic throughout the region where inclement weather is present. This is demonstrated by sector aircraft count distributions of simulated traffic in weather-affected regions.

  6. Sectoral approaches to improve regional carbon budgets

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Pete; Nabuurs, Gert-Jan; Marland, Gregg

    2008-06-01

    Humans utilise about 40% of the earth s net primary production (NPP) but the products of this NPP are often managed by different sectors, with timber and forest products managed by the forestry sector and food and fibre products from croplands and grasslands managed by the agricultural sector. Other significant anthropogenic impacts on the global carbon cycle include human utilization of fossil fuels and impacts on less intensively managed systems such as peatlands, wetlands and permafrost. A great deal of knowledge, expertise and data is available within each sector. We describe the contribution of sectoral carbon budgets to our understanding of the global carbon cycle. Whilst many sectors exhibit similarities for carbon budgeting, some key differences arise due to differences in goods and services provided, ecology, management practices used, landmanagement personnel responsible, policies affecting land management, data types and availability, and the drivers of change. We review the methods and data sources available for assessing sectoral carbon budgets, and describe some of key data limitations and uncertainties for each sector in different regions of the world. We identify the main gaps in our knowledge/data, show that coverage is better for the developed world for most sectors, and suggest how sectoral carbon budgets could be improved in the future. Research priorities include the development of shared protocols through site networks, a move to full carbon accounting within sectors, and the assessment of full greenhouse gas budgets.

  7. Student Evaluation of Online Pharmaceutical Compounding Videos

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hanna L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To describe pharmacy students’ views on the effectiveness of an expansion of the compounding laboratory website at the UNC Eshelman School of Pharmacy. Methods. Originally, there were 39 videos and three animations available. In 2011, an additional 59 videos and two animations were added. Concurrently, all of the interactive questions were updated to fully integrate with the expanded video library. Students were surveyed about the expanded video library regarding accessibility, functionality, and usefulness, and how using the library impacted their learning of compounding. Surveys were analyzed with descriptive statistics. Means and SDs were calculated for the rating scale questions; independent t tests and Wilcoxon nonparametric tests were used to find differences between professional classes and campuses. Analytical results were evaluated with a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), z test, and a homogeneity of variance (Levene’s) test. Results. The response rate to the survey was 85%. Compounding videos were used by 386/391 students. Thirty-four percent of students used the videos an average of 30 minutes or less per week; 56% used the videos 1–2 hours per week. Approximately 80% of students were satisfied with the functionality and accessibility of the videos. All students, regardless of professional year or campus affiliation, put their confidence/competence at about 70% of the rating scale. Conclusions. As no standardized compounding curriculum was found in US schools of pharmacy and students reported being satisfied with the website, it could be an accessible, functional, and useful resource for pharmaceutical compounding in schools of pharmacy. PMID:27073283

  8. Student Evaluation of Online Pharmaceutical Compounding Videos.

    PubMed

    Park, Hanna L; Shrewsbury, Robert P

    2016-03-25

    Objective. To describe pharmacy students' views on the effectiveness of an expansion of the compounding laboratory website at the UNC Eshelman School of Pharmacy. Methods. Originally, there were 39 videos and three animations available. In 2011, an additional 59 videos and two animations were added. Concurrently, all of the interactive questions were updated to fully integrate with the expanded video library. Students were surveyed about the expanded video library regarding accessibility, functionality, and usefulness, and how using the library impacted their learning of compounding. Surveys were analyzed with descriptive statistics. Means and SDs were calculated for the rating scale questions; independent t tests and Wilcoxon nonparametric tests were used to find differences between professional classes and campuses. Analytical results were evaluated with a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), z test, and a homogeneity of variance (Levene's) test. Results. The response rate to the survey was 85%. Compounding videos were used by 386/391 students. Thirty-four percent of students used the videos an average of 30 minutes or less per week; 56% used the videos 1-2 hours per week. Approximately 80% of students were satisfied with the functionality and accessibility of the videos. All students, regardless of professional year or campus affiliation, put their confidence/competence at about 70% of the rating scale. Conclusions. As no standardized compounding curriculum was found in US schools of pharmacy and students reported being satisfied with the website, it could be an accessible, functional, and useful resource for pharmaceutical compounding in schools of pharmacy. PMID:27073283

  9. Size exclusion chromatography with evaporative light scattering detection as a method for speciation analysis of polydimethylsiloxanes. III. Identification and determination of dimeticone and simeticone in pharmaceutical formulations.

    PubMed

    Mojsiewicz-Pieńkowska, Krystyna

    2012-01-25

    The pharmaceutical industry is one of the more important sectors for the use of polydimethylsiloxanes (PDMS), which belong to the organosilicon polymers. In drugs for internal use, they are used as an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) called dimeticone or simeticone. Due to their specific chemical nature, PDMS can have different degrees of polymerization, which determine the molecular weight and viscosity. The Pharmacopoeial monographs for dimeticone and simeticone, only give the permitted polymerization and viscosity range. It is, however, essential to know also the degree of polymerization or the specific molecular weight of PDMS that are present in pharmaceutical formulations. In the literature there is information about the impact of particle size, and thus molecular weight, on the toxicity, absorption and migration in living organisms. This study focused on the use of a developed method - the exclusion chromatography with evaporative light scattering detector (SEC-ELSD) - for identification and determination of dimeticone and simeticone in various pharmaceutical formulations. The method had a high degree of specificity and was suitable for speciation analysis of these polymers. So far the developed method has not been used in the control of medicinal products containing dimeticone or simeticone. PMID:21962761

  10. Power, expertise and the limits of representative democracy: genetics as scientific progress or political legitimation in carcinogenic risk assessment of pharmaceuticals?

    PubMed

    Abraham, John; Ballinger, Rachel

    2012-04-01

    In modern 'representative' democratic states, the legitimacy of governments' actions rests on their publicly declared commitment to protect the interests of their citizens. Regarding the pharmaceutical sector in most democracies, new drug products are developed and marketed by a capitalist industry, whose member firms, via shareholders, have commercial interests in expanding product sales. In those democracies, states have established government agencies to regulate the pharmaceutical industry on behalf of citizens. State legislatures, such as the US Congress and European Parliaments, have charged government drug regulatory agencies with the legal responsibility to protect public health. Yet, this paper argues that government drug regulatory agencies in the EU, Japan, and USA have permitted the pharmaceutical industry to reshape the regulatory guidance for carcinogenic risk assessment of pharmaceuticals in ways that are not techno-scientifically defensible as bases for improved, or even equivalent, protection of public health, compared with the previous techno-regulatory standards. By adopting the industry's agenda of streamlining carcinogenicity testing in order to accelerate drug development and regulatory review, it is contended that these regulatory agencies have allowed the techno-regulatory standards for carcinogenic risk assessment to be loosened in ways that are presented as scientific progress resulting from new genetics, but for which there is little evidence of progress in public health protection. PMID:22109906

  11. Towards medicinal mechanochemistry: evolution of milling from pharmaceutical solid form screening to the synthesis of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs).

    PubMed

    Tan, Davin; Loots, Leigh; Friščić, Tomislav

    2016-06-14

    This overview highlights the emergent area of mechanochemical reactions for making active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), and covers the latest advances in the recently established area of mechanochemical screening and synthesis of pharmaceutical solid forms, specifically polymorphs, cocrystals, salts and salt cocrystals. We also provide an overview of the most recent developments in pharmaceutical uses of mechanochemistry, including real-time reaction monitoring, techniques for polymorph control and approaches for continuous manufacture using twin screw extrusion, and more. Most importantly, we show how the overlap of previously unrelated areas of mechanochemical screening for API solid forms, organic synthesis by milling, and mechanochemical screening for molecular recognition, enables the emergence of a new research discipline in which different aspects of pharmaceutical and medicinal chemistry are addressed through mechanochemistry rather than through conventional solution-based routes. The emergence of such medicinal mechanochemistry is likely to have a strong impact on future pharmaceutical and medicinal chemistry, as it offers not only access to materials and reactivity that are sometimes difficult or even impossible to access from solution, but can also provide a general answer to the demands of the pharmaceutical industry for cleaner, safer and efficient synthetic solutions. PMID:27185190

  12. IT Governance and the Public Sector: A Survey of Perceptions, Attitudes, and Knowledge of Federal Public Sector IT Employees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, David P.

    2013-01-01

    IT governance has become an important topic as both public and private organizations struggle to meet the challenge of aligning complex IT systems with operational needs. Without effective IT governance, organizations fail to gain strategic benefits that come by the proper strategic alignment of IT resources with the larger organizational mission.…

  13. Seismic risk perception test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crescimbene, Massimo; La Longa, Federica; Camassi, Romano; Pino, Nicola Alessandro

    2013-04-01

    The perception of risks involves the process of collecting, selecting and interpreting signals about uncertain impacts of events, activities or technologies. In the natural sciences the term risk seems to be clearly defined, it means the probability distribution of adverse effects, but the everyday use of risk has different connotations (Renn, 2008). The two terms, hazards and risks, are often used interchangeably by the public. Knowledge, experience, values, attitudes and feelings all influence the thinking and judgement of people about the seriousness and acceptability of risks. Within the social sciences however the terminology of 'risk perception' has become the conventional standard (Slovic, 1987). The mental models and other psychological mechanisms which people use to judge risks (such as cognitive heuristics and risk images) are internalized through social and cultural learning and constantly moderated (reinforced, modified, amplified or attenuated) by media reports, peer influences and other communication processes (Morgan et al., 2001). Yet, a theory of risk perception that offers an integrative, as well as empirically valid, approach to understanding and explaining risk perception is still missing". To understand the perception of risk is necessary to consider several areas: social, psychological, cultural, and their interactions. Among the various research in an international context on the perception of natural hazards, it seemed promising the approach with the method of semantic differential (Osgood, C.E., Suci, G., & Tannenbaum, P. 1957, The measurement of meaning. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press). The test on seismic risk perception has been constructed by the method of the semantic differential. To compare opposite adjectives or terms has been used a Likert's scale to seven point. The test consists of an informative part and six sections respectively dedicated to: hazard; vulnerability (home and workplace); exposed value (with reference to

  14. Perceptions of Older Veterans with Visual Impairments Regarding Computer Access Training and Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuBosque, Richard Stanborough

    2013-01-01

    The widespread integration of the computer into the mainstream of daily life presents a challenge to various sectors of society, and the incorporation of this technology into the realm of the older individual with visual impairments is a relatively uncharted field of study. This study was undertaken to acquire the perceptions of the impact of the…

  15. Perceptions of Professionalism: A Case Study of Community College Baccalaureate Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasse, Jeffrey Peter

    2013-01-01

    This case study analyzed the perceptions of professionalism among an emerging and distinct occupational sector of community college faculty: community college faculty who teach in baccalaureate programs. The research was designed to address three questions as to the experiences of Community College Baccalaureate (CCB) faculty. First, what are the…

  16. Perceptions as Hypotheses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregory, R. L.

    1980-07-01

    Perceptions may be compared with hypotheses in science. The methods of acquiring scientific knowledge provide a working paradigm for investigating processes of perception. Much as the information channels of instruments, such as radio telescopes, transmit signals which are processed according to various assumptions to give useful data, so neural signals are processed to give data for perception. To understand perception, the signal codes and the stored knowledge or assumptions used for deriving perceptual hypotheses must be discovered. Systematic perceptual errors are important clues for appreciating signal channel limitations, and for discovering hypothesis-generating procedures. Although this distinction between `physiological' and `cognitive' aspects of perception may be logically clear, it is in practice surprisingly difficult to establish which are responsible even for clearly established phenomena such as the classical distortion illusions. Experimental results are presented, aimed at distinguishing between and discovering what happens when there is mismatch with the neural signal channel, and when neural signals are processed inappropriately for the current situation. This leads us to make some distinctions between perceptual and scientific hypotheses, which raise in a new form the problem: What are `objects'?

  17. Tele-Perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quek, Francis; Jain, Ramesh; Mitchell, Brian

    1988-10-01

    The NASA Center for Autonomous and Man-Controlled Robotics and Sensing Systems, CAMRSS is developing a concept called teleperception which facilitates inspace activity and addresses the human factors related issues of information overload. A basic tenet of the concept is that the lines of distinction between computer perception and human perception need not be absolute. Teleperception is the technology of man-machine interaction which permits the augmentation of machine perception techniques with the con-siderable intangibilities of human cognition and which exploits the facility of machine perception to handle vast amounts of data to distill and enhance information for selective presentation to human agents. In this paper, we shall present both the concept of teleperception and the projects undertaken at the CAMRSS laboratories which embodies the concept. In the next section, tele-perception will be more rigorously defined as a conceptual framework. The ensuing sections will detail the merits of the concept; describe the environment being developed at our laboratories which instantiates the concept; and overview the teleperception research being carried out at CAMRSS.

  18. Use of Atypical Antipsychotics in Nursing Homes and Pharmaceutical Marketing

    PubMed Central

    Pimentel, Camilla B.; Donovan, Jennifer L.; Field, Terry S.; Gurwitz, Jerry H.; Harrold, Leslie R.; Kanaan, Abir O.; Lemay, Celeste A.; Mazor, Kathleen M.; Tjia, Jennifer; Briesacher, Becky A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Many nursing home (NH) residents are prescribed atypical antipsychotics despite US Food and Drug Administration warnings of increased risk of death in older adults with dementia. Aggressive pharmaceutical marketing has been cited as a potential cause, although data are scarce. The objectives of this study were to describe the current extent and type of pharmaceutical marketing in NHs in one state, and to provide preliminary evidence for the potential influence of pharmaceutical marketing on the use of atypical antipsychotics in NHs. DESIGN Nested mixed-methods, cross-sectional study of NHs in a cluster randomized trial. SETTING 41 NHs in Connecticut. PARTICIPANTS NH administrators, directors of nursing and medical directors (n = 93, response rate 75.6%). MEASUREMENTS Quantitative data, including prescription drug dispensing data (September 2009–August 2010) linked with Nursing Home Compare data (April 2011), were used to determine facility-level prevalence of atypical antipsychotic use, facility-level characteristics, NH staffing and NH quality. Qualitative data, including semi-structured interviews and surveys of NH leaders conducted in the first quarter of 2011, were used to determine encounters with pharmaceutical marketing. RESULTS Leadership at 46.3% of NHs (19/41) reported pharmaceutical marketing encounters, consisting of educational training, written/Internet-based materials and/or sponsored training. No association was detected between the level of atypical antipsychotic prescribing and reports of any pharmaceutical marketing by at least one NH leader. CONCLUSION NH leaders frequently encounter pharmaceutical marketing through a variety of ways, although the impact on atypical antipsychotic prescribing is unclear. PMID:25688605

  19. The role of marketing in pharmaceutical research and development.

    PubMed

    Calfee, John E

    2002-01-01

    Pharmaceutical marketing, which is primarily targeted at physicians, has been criticised because it may distort physician prescribing and thus potentially raise costs and/or worsen health. An alternative view, presented in this paper, is that successful marketing of pharmaceuticals can improve consumer welfare by increasing incentives for research and development (R&D) investment and by providing guidance to R&D to make it more consistent with consumer preferences. There are a number of arguments that support this view, despite impediments to pharmaceutical marketing such as the prohibited dissemination of off-label information in the US, difficulties in estimating potential pharmaceutical demand, and the long time lag between demand assessment and the introduction of new drugs. For example, physicians are often slow to modify their prescribing practices, even when new evidence-based practice guidelines are issued by prestigious organisations. Pharmaceutical promotion is likely to be particularly valuable because information plays a key role, is highly technical, and can change rapidly. Even consumer advertising can potentially improve health, for example, by improving patient compliance with drug therapy. In addition to disseminating information about the benefits of new therapies, an essential (and perhaps unique) role for pharmaceutical promotion is to encourage physicians and payers to pay closer attention to consumer needs (i.e. willingness to pay) for new medical technology. Moreover, successful marketing of pharmaceuticals increases the returns from R&D, thus increasing incentives to explore consumer demand and to contribute to basic research on the role of drug therapy. Consumer benefits from this process may be very large. PMID:12457428

  20. PBT assessment and prioritization of contaminants of emerging concern: Pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Sangion, Alessandro; Gramatica, Paola

    2016-05-01

    The strong and widespread use of pharmaceuticals, together with incorrect disposal procedures, has recently made these products contaminants of emerging concern (CEC). Unfortunately, little is known about pharmaceuticals' environmental behaviour and ecotoxicity, so that EMEA (European Medicines Agency) released guidelines for the pharmaceuticals' environmental risk assessment. In particular, there is a severe lack of information about persistence, bioaccumulation and toxicity (PBT) of the majority of the thousands of substances on the market. Computational tools, like QSAR (Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship) models, are the only way to screen large sets of chemicals in short time, with the aim of ranking, highlighting and prioritizing the most environmentally hazardous for focusing further experimental studies. In this work we propose a screening method to assess the potential persistence, bioaccumulation and toxicity of more than 1200 pharmaceutical ingredients, based on the application of two different QSAR models. We applied the Insubria-PBT Index, a MLR (Multiple Linear Regression) QSAR model based on four simple molecular descriptors, implemented in QSARINS software, and able to synthesize the PBT potential in a unique cumulative value and the US-EPA PBT Profiler that assesses the PBT behaviour evaluating separately P, B and T. Particular attention was given to the study of Applicability Domain in order to provide reliable predictions. An agreement of 86% was found between the two models and a priority list of 35 pharmaceuticals, highlighted as potential PBTs by consensus, was proposed for further experimental validation. Moreover, the results of this computational screening are in agreement with preliminary experimental data in the literature. This study shows how in silico models can be applied in the hazard assessment to perform preliminary screening and prioritization of chemicals, and how the identification of the structural features, mainly

  1. [Printed material distributed by pharmaceutical propaganda agents].

    PubMed

    Mejía, R; Avalos, A

    2001-01-01

    Pharmaceutical sales representatives (drug reps) frequently visit 70% to 90% of physicians during their daily clinical practice and many consider the promotional printed material to be a major source of clinical information. We evaluated samples of the promotional printed material distributed to physicians by drug reps in order to determine whether the data contained in the promotional material is correct and supported by references accessible in Argentina. A consecutive sample of all the promotional material distributed by drug reps in the general internal medicine program (Hospital de Clínicas) was collected between March 15 and April 15, 2000. Reprints and monographs were excluded. Clinical information was reviewed by two general internists and compared to information in a major pharmacology textbook and in an electronic medical information program. References cited were reviewed for correct listing and accessibility in any of the four major medical libraries in Buenos Aires. Of the sixty-four pieces of promotional material collected, thirty were randomly selected and evaluated. In twenty one (70%) the therapeutic effect promoted in advertisement appeared in Goodman & Gilman's 9th edition textbook of pharmacology, in the pharmacology section of the Up-to-Date version 8.1 or in both. Only eighteen (60%) of the thirty promotional printed material evaluated had statements supported by cited references. From a total of 131 references cited in promotional materials, sixty (46%) were incorrectly listed according to the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. These references were inaccessible. Of the 71 references correctly cited, 49 (69%) were not available in any of the four major medical libraries in Buenos Aires and 8 were available in only two of the libraries. Twenty-two references were reviewed, and in twelve of these (54%), the objective of the research study concurred with the statement of the promotional printed material. Adverse reactions

  2. Transzonular vitreous injection vs a single drop compounded topical pharmaceutical regimen after cataract surgery

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Bret L; Potvin, Rick

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To compare the relative effectiveness of a Tri-Moxi-Vanc intraocular solution injected transzonularly into the vitreous with the topical formulation of Pred-Moxi-Ketor (given for the first week postoperatively) followed by Pred-Ketor (given for weeks 2–4 after surgery). Patients and methods This was a single-site, single-surgeon, prospective, randomized, subject-masked contralateral eye study with an active comparator and was approved by an appropriate ethics committee. Twenty-five subjects with uncomplicated cataract who were scheduled for cataract surgery were enrolled. If surgery was uneventful, subjects received either an injection in that eye or followed a minimum drop postoperative pharmaceutical regimen. The second eye surgery was performed with the opposite treatment. Subjects were followed for 1 month. Measures of interest were the changes in intraocular pressure (IOP) from baseline and the changes in corneal and macular thickness. Subjects were also asked to evaluate pain perception, visual quality, and overall satisfaction with surgery. They were also asked which regimen they preferred. Results IOP was not statistically significantly different between the groups (P=0.81); there was also no statistically significant difference in IOP over time (P=0.74). There was no statistically significant difference in central macular thickness at 1 week and 1 month between the groups (P=0.18). The central corneal thickness was significantly greater 1 day postoperatively relative to baseline, but there was no statistically significant difference between the groups at any time point (P=0.92). The difference in reported pain was also not statistically significantly different between the groups (P=0.67). Satisfaction with surgery was similar for both groups, but significantly more subjects preferred the injection for overall experience (P<0.01). Conclusion Cataract surgery completed with the two pharmaceutical regimens was similar in outcome. Significantly more

  3. Stereoscopic distance perception

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foley, John M.

    1989-01-01

    Limited cue, open-loop tasks in which a human observer indicates distances or relations among distances are discussed. By open-loop tasks, it is meant tasks in which the observer gets no feedback as to the accuracy of the responses. What happens when cues are added and when the loop is closed are considered. The implications of this research for the effectiveness of visual displays is discussed. Errors in visual distance tasks do not necessarily mean that the percept is in error. The error could arise in transformations that intervene between the percept and the response. It is argued that the percept is in error. It is also argued that there exist post-perceptual transformations that may contribute to the error or be modified by feedback to correct for the error.

  4. Perception and Hierarchical Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Kiebel, Stefan J.; Daunizeau, Jean; Friston, Karl J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we suggest that perception could be modeled by assuming that sensory input is generated by a hierarchy of attractors in a dynamic system. We describe a mathematical model which exploits the temporal structure of rapid sensory dynamics to track the slower trajectories of their underlying causes. This model establishes a proof of concept that slowly changing neuronal states can encode the trajectories of faster sensory signals. We link this hierarchical account to recent developments in the perception of human action; in particular artificial speech recognition. We argue that these hierarchical models of dynamical systems are a plausible starting point to develop robust recognition schemes, because they capture critical temporal dependencies induced by deep hierarchical structure. We conclude by suggesting that a fruitful computational neuroscience approach may emerge from modeling perception as non-autonomous recognition dynamics enslaved by autonomous hierarchical dynamics in the sensorium. PMID:19649171

  5. Biophysics of food perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burbidge, Adam S.; Le Révérend, Benjamin J. D.

    2016-03-01

    In this article, we present food perception across a range of time and length scales as well as across the disciplines of physics, chemistry and biology. We achieve the objective of the article by presenting food from a material science angle as well as presenting the physiology of food perception that enables humans to probe materials in terms of aroma, taste and texture. We highlight that by using simple physical concepts, one can also decipher the mechanisms of transport that link food structure with perception physiology and define the regime in which physiology operates. Most importantly, we emphasise the notion that food/consumer interaction operates across the biological fluid interface grouped under the terminology of mucus, acting as a transfer fluid for taste, aroma and pressure between food and dedicated receptors.

  6. Experimenter bias and subliminal perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, Paul J.; Rushton, J. Philippe

    1975-01-01

    It has been suggested that subliminal perception phenomena may be in part due to experimenter bias effects. Two studies that obtained positive evidence of subliminal perception were therefore replicated with experimenters tested under blind and not blind conditions. (Editor)

  7. Students' Perceptions of Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isman, Aytekin; Gazi, Zehra Altinay; Aksal, Fahriye Altinay

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a study that examined students' perceptions toward online practice and their developing attitudes toward the online learning process. The results indicated that both cultural background and personal qualities affect students' perceptions.

  8. Pharmaceuticals as indictors of sewage-influenced groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Beate; Scheytt, Traugott; Asbrand, Martin; de Casas, Andrea Mross

    2012-09-01

    A set of human pharmaceuticals enables identification of groundwater that is influenced by sewage and provides information on the time of recharge. As the consumption rates of the investigated pharmaceuticals have changed over time, so too has the composition of the sewage. At the study area, south of Berlin (Germany), irrigation was performed as a method of wastewater clean-up at sewage irrigation farms until the early 1990s. Today, treated wastewater is discharged into the surface-water-stream Nuthegraben. Groundwater and surface-water samples were analyzed for the pharmaceutical substances clofibric acid, bezafibrate, diclofenac, carbamazepine and primidone, the main ions and organic carbon. The pharmaceutical substances were detected at concentrations up to microgram-per-liter level in groundwater and surface-water samples from the Nuthegraben Lowland area and from the former irrigation farms. Concentrations detected in groundwater are generally much lower than in surface water and there is significant variation in the distribution of pharmaceutical concentrations in groundwater. Groundwater influenced by the irrigation of sewage water shows higher primidone and clofibric-acid concentrations. Groundwater influenced by recent discharge of treated sewage water into the surface water shows high carbamazepine concentrations while concentrations of primidone and clofibric acid are low.

  9. [Practice of drug monitoring based on comprehensive pharmaceutical judgment].

    PubMed

    Katayama, Toshiya

    2015-01-01

    With the revisions to the pay for performance of pharmaceutical service of inpatients in April 2012, the ward permanent time of pharmacists grew longer than previously; however, there are as yet few reports on the pharmaceutical outcome of the new medical service. To improve the pharmaceutical service requires that pharmacists collect useful medical information and extract the problems of pharmaceutical care for inpatients. Since many cases of treatment with multidrug regimens are regularly performed, pharmacists cannot contribute to medical treatment only by knowledge of a single disease. Therefore quick and comprehensive judgment of pharmacists is necessary in addition to acquisition of pharmaceutical knowledge. We especially highlight medical emergencies such as severe cases of sepsis and infection to which physicians require rapid judgment. Pharmacists alike require appropriate knowledge of drug administration to avoid medical treatment failure. Moreover, it is necessary for pharmacists to apply advanced drug monitoring in difficult cases. On the other hand, integrated team medical treatment is now advancing, although pharmacists' roles in clinical decision making are increasing, and pharmacists have a greater burden of responsibility than before. PMID:25747207

  10. The ethics of the medical-pharmaceutical relationship.

    PubMed

    Vashi, Neelam A; Latkowski, Jo-Ann M

    2012-01-01

    Physician interaction with the pharmaceutical industry raises many ethical concerns. This relationship is complex, owing to a pluralism of beliefs held by physicians, patients, and third parties. As a result, determining whether physicians fulfill their responsibilities to both the professional and public communities is an arduous endeavor. In an effort to clarify the situation and provide transparency to this complex relationship, medical and pharmaceutical organizations have enacted their own respective codes and guidelines. Even with adherence to these guidelines, questions remain regarding the codependent relationship that interweaves the pharmaceutical industry with the medical community. Owing to the ever-changing landscape enmeshing product development, scientific advancement, corporate realities and patient care, the proper choice for physicians is rarely obvious; however, to operate to the highest standards, those in the medical community must be candid about relations with the pharmaceutical industry and transparent in their financial interests. Further undertakings should focus not on the eradication of physician-pharmaceutical interaction, but instead on the education of physicians about industry marketing strategies and the delineation of boundaries of these interactions to benefit not the individual physician, but our patients. PMID:22330662

  11. Pharmaceutical cocrystals: along the path to improved medicines.

    PubMed

    Duggirala, Naga K; Perry, Miranda L; Almarsson, Örn; Zaworotko, Michael J

    2016-01-14

    Cocrystals, a long known but understudied class of crystalline solids, have attracted interest from crystal engineers and pharmaceutical scientists in the past decade and are now an integral part of the preformulation stage of drug development. This is largely because cocrystals that contain a drug molecule, pharmaceutical cocrystals, can modify physicochemical properties without the need for covalent modification of the drug molecule. This review presents a brief history of cocrystals before addressing recent advances in design, discovery and development of pharmaceutical cocrystals that have occurred since an earlier review published in 2004. We address four aspects of cocrystals: nomenclature; design using hydrogen-bonded supramolecular synthons; methods of discovery and synthesis; development of pharmaceutical cocrystals as drug products. Cocrystals can be classified into molecular cocrystals (MCCs) that contain only neutral components (coformers) and ionic cocrystals (ICCs), which are comprised of at least one ionic coformer that is a salt. That cocrystals, especially ICCs, offer much greater diversity in terms of composition and properties than single component crystal forms and are amenable to design makes them of continuing interest. Seven recent case studies that illustrate how pharmaceutical cocrystals can improve physicochemical properties and clinical performance of drug substances, including a recently approved drug product based upon an ICC, are presented. PMID:26565650

  12. Detection of Nicotiana tabacum Leaf Contamination in Pharmaceutical Products.

    PubMed

    Tokumoto, Hiroko; Shimomura, Hiroko; Hakamatsuka, Takashi; Ozeki, Yoshihiro; Goda, Yukihiro

    2016-08-01

    Nicotiana tabacum (Solanaceae) is the only species whose leaves can be legally marketed as tobacco according to the Japanese Tobacco Business Act. Nicotine, a major alkaloid produced by N. tabacum leaves, is regulated in pharmaceuticals by the Japanese Pharmaceutical Affairs Law. However, the use of N. tabacum stems as an excipient in pharmaceuticals is permitted, because these contained only a small amount of nicotine. Recently, several reports showed that a substantial amount of nicotine was detected in an OTC pharmaceutical product, in which N. tabacum stems were used as an excipient. Therefore, products containing N. tabacum stems could be contaminated with the leaf material. In the present study, we established a method to detect contamination of N. tabacum stem materials with its leaves, using microscopy to obtain standard reference microphotographs for identification. Cultivated N. tabacum stems and leaves, commercial cigarette leaves, and N. tabacum tissue imported as excipient material were used for preparing the microphotographs. The characteristic N. tabacum leaf structures found in the powdered fragments included: epidermal cells with sinuous anticlinal cell walls, hairs, mesophyll parenchyma with crystalized calcium oxalate (calciphytoliths), and branching vascular bundles derived from reticulate net-veins. A comparison of the microscopic characteristics of an OTC powder with those from the standard reference microphotographs was an effective method for N. tabacum stem and leaf identification. Thus, we evaluated the powdered pharmaceutical product containing N. tabacum stem tissue and Hydrangea serrata (Hydrangeaceae) leaf tissue as excipients, and confirmed the presence of N. tabacum leaf material. PMID:27237788

  13. WHO expert committee on specifications for pharmaceutical preparations. Fortieth report.

    PubMed

    2006-01-01

    This report presents the recommendations of an international group of experts convened by the World Health Organization to consider matters concerning the quality assurance of pharmaceuticals and specifications for drug substances and dosage forms. The report is complemented by a number of annexes. These include: a list of available International Chemical Reference Substances and International Infrared Spectra; supplementary guidelines on good manufacturing practices for heating, ventilation and air-conditioning systems for non-sterile pharmaceutical dosage forms; updated supplementary guidelines on good manufacturing practices for the manufacture of herbal medicines; supplementary guidelines on good manufacturing practices for validation; good distribution practices for pharmaceutical products; a model quality assurance system for procurement agencies (recommendations for quality assurance systems focusing on prequalification of products and manufacturers, purchasing, storage and distribution of pharmaceutical products); multisource (generic) pharmaceutical products: guidelines on registration requirements to establish interchangeability; a proposal to waive in vivo bioequivalence requirements for WHO Model List of Essential Medicines immediate-release, solid oral dosage forms; and additional guidance for organizations performing in vivo bioequivalence studies. PMID:16836287

  14. Pharmaceutical "charge compression" under the Medicare outpatient prospective payment system.

    PubMed

    Braid, Mary Jo; Forbes, Kevin F; Moran, Donald W

    2004-01-01

    Analysis of the actual acquisition costs of a sample of pharmaceuticals demonstrates that payment rates for pharmaceutical therapies under the Medicare hospital outpatient prospective payment system (OPPS) are systematically biased against fully reimbursing high cost pharmaceutical therapies. Under the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services' (CMS') methodology, which assumes a constant markup, a bias in the cost estimate occurs when hospitals apply below average markups in establishing their charges for pharmaceutical products with above average costs. We developed a model of the relationship between product costs and charge markups. The logarithmic model shows that an increase in the acquisition cost per episode can be expected to lead to a reduction in the charge markup multiple. When markups for pharmaceuticals decline as acquisition cost increases, a rate-setting methodology that assumes a constant markup results in reimbursement for higher cost products that can be far below acquisition cost. The incentives in the payment system could affect site of care choices and beneficiary access. PMID:15151194

  15. Effects of Glycosylation on the Stability of Protein Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    SOLÁ, RICARDO J.; GRIEBENOW, KAI

    2008-01-01

    In recent decades, protein-based therapeutics have substantially expanded the field of molecular pharmacology due to their outstanding potential for the treatment of disease. Unfortunately, protein pharmaceuticals display a series of intrinsic physical and chemical instability problems during their production, purification, storage, and delivery that can adversely impact their final therapeutic efficacies. This has prompted an intense search for generalized strategies to engineer the long-term stability of proteins during their pharmaceutical employment. Due to the well known effect that glycans have in increasing the overall stability of glycoproteins, rational manipulation of the glycosylation parameters through glycoengineering could become a promising approach to improve both the in vitro and in vivo stability of protein pharmaceuticals. The intent of this review is therefore to further the field of protein glycoengineering by increasing the general understanding of the mechanisms by which glycosylation improves the molecular stability of protein pharmaceuticals. This is achieved by presenting a survey of the different instabilities displayed by protein pharmaceuticals, by addressing which of these instabilities can be improved by glycosylation, and by discussing the possible mechanisms by which glycans induce these stabilization effects. PMID:18661536

  16. The production and R&D structure of the Brazilian pharmaceutical industry: the role of public procurement and public drug production.

    PubMed

    Sorte Junior, Waldemiro Francisco

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the use of governmental purchasing power and public laboratories to stimulate domestic production and research and development (R&D) activities in the Brazilian pharmaceutical industry. Three main areas in which public laboratories can play an important role are identified: (1) large-scale production of essential medications; (2) production of strategic drugs to reduce the trade deficit in the health sector; and (3) in-house research efforts and stimulation of R&D in the private sector through public-private partnerships (PPPs). The analysis of the production and R&D structure of the Brazilian pharmaceutical industry tends to show that the Ministry of Health (MOH) purchasing power can be used to nurture the growth of public laboratories and generate positive externalities for the private sector. Nonetheless, fieldwork data reveal that the lack of alignment between health policies and public laboratories' production are resulting in idle production capacity. In order for the current governmental strategy to promote industrial growth, there should be a division of tasks among public laboratories within a long-term framework, based on a stable set of priorities from the MOH. PMID:22950510

  17. Commercial sector can improve access.

    PubMed

    Finger, W R

    1998-01-01

    This article discusses the improved accessibility to family planning (FP) services made possible by expanding services among private physicians and through social marketing in developing countries. Encouraging private sector (PS) FP is a way to ease the caseload of public FP facilities and creating the potential for attracting more lower-income clients. Few developing countries have a "viable commercial market" for contraceptives. Commercial success depends upon a secure supply of FP supplies, well-trained providers, and consumer demand. Consumers want affordable, high-quality, and convenient services. Governments must ensure that regulations do not hamper PS programs. Public and private programs should not compete in ways that are counterproductive. The commercial sector includes private physicians, clinics, pharmacies, or hospitals without public subsidies. Public funding might be used to encourage PS distribution, especially condoms and messages about HIV and sexually transmitted disease prevention. Messages may target specific audiences and promote an appealing logo and packaging. SOMARC in Turkey promotes a network of commercial health care facilities that offer high quality FP at affordable prices. The model includes provider training, quality of care monitoring, marketing, a hotline, posted prices, and prices set by consumer affordability surveys. This model is being tried in both Nepal and the Philippines. Commercial marketing has been successful in Latin America, North Africa, and the Middle East. Commercial expansion and survival is dependent upon the satisfaction of consumer preferences for convenience, greater access, better confidentiality, and quality. Examples from Zimbabwe and Romania are used to show strategies for training private providers. Private providers will become involved, for instance, by offering targeted training programs. PMID:12293234

  18. Arts Education and Student's Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nderu-Boddington, Eulalee

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates students' perceptions of their experience with arts education and their perceptions of its impact on their academic achievement and academic goals. Specifically, it relates to academic achievement, goals, cognition, and students' perceptions. Educational outcomes and policy issues are also reviewed as they related to the…

  19. Research Frontiers in Public Sector Performance Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhonghua, Cai; Ye, Wang

    In "New Public Management" era, performance measurement has been widely used in managerial practices of public sectors. From the content and features of performance measurement, this paper aims to explore inspirations on Chinese public sector performance measurement, which based on a review of prior literatures including influencial factors, methods and indicators of public sector performance evaluation. In the end, arguments are presented in this paper pointed out the direction of future researches in this field.

  20. [Access to drugs and the situation of the pharmaceutical market in Ecuador].

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Prado, Esteban; Galarza, Claudio; León, Fernando Cornejo; Ponce, Jorge

    2014-07-01

    In the area of public health, it is fundamental to understand the structure and dynamics of the Ecuadorian pharmaceutical market, its segmentation between the public and private sectors, and its relationship with supply and demand, both for generic and brand-name drugs. To achieve this, an observational descriptive study was conducted with information obtained from the available scientific, institutional, technical-administrative, and economic databases. Furthermore, the scientific information concerning the Ecuadorian and regional pharmaceutical market was reviewed through the PubMed and Ovid search engines. In Ecuador, 69.6% of dispensed drugs are brand-name and 30.4% are generics. Of all registered drugs in the country, 1,829 (13.6%) are considered over-the-counter and 11,622 (86.4%) are for sale under medical prescription. In terms of sales, 93.15% correspond to brand-name drugs and only 6.85% to generics. Ninety percent of the pharmacies are located in urban areas and only 10% in rural areas. In the last five years, prices have increased by 12.5% for brand-name drugs and 0.86% for generics. Brand-name drugs are dispensed and consumed 2.3 times more than generics. The majority of pharmacies are located in urban areas, showing that there is a relationship between purchasing power and access to drugs. Although the regulatory authority stipulates that 13% of drugs should be over-the-counter, approximately 60% of the population acquires drugs without a medical prescription. PMID:25211679

  1. Click Chemistry, a Powerful Tool for Pharmaceutical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Hein, Christopher D.; Liu, Xin-Ming; Wang, Dong

    2008-01-01

    Click chemistry refers to a group of reactions that are fast, simple to use, easy to purify, versatile, regiospecific, and give high product yields. While there are a number of reactions that fulfill the criteria, the Huisgen 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of azides and terminal alkynes has emerged as the frontrunner. It has found applications in a wide variety of research areas, including materials sciences, polymer chemistry, and pharmaceutical sciences. In this manuscript, important aspects of the Huisgen cycloaddition will be reviewed, along with some of its many pharmaceutical applications. Bioconjugation, nanoparticle surface modification, and pharmaceutical-related polymer chemistry will all be covered. Limitations of the reaction will also be discussed. PMID:18509602

  2. Acoustic spectroscopy: A powerful analytical method for the pharmaceutical field?

    PubMed

    Bonacucina, Giulia; Perinelli, Diego R; Cespi, Marco; Casettari, Luca; Cossi, Riccardo; Blasi, Paolo; Palmieri, Giovanni F

    2016-04-30

    Acoustics is one of the emerging technologies developed to minimize processing, maximize quality and ensure the safety of pharmaceutical, food and chemical products. The operating principle of acoustic spectroscopy is the measurement of the ultrasound pulse intensity and phase after its propagation through a sample. The main goal of this technique is to characterise concentrated colloidal dispersions without dilution, in such a way as to be able to analyse non-transparent and even highly structured systems. This review presents the state of the art of ultrasound-based techniques in pharmaceutical pre-formulation and formulation steps, showing their potential, applicability and limits. It reports in a simplified version the theory behind acoustic spectroscopy, describes the most common equipment on the market, and finally overviews different studies performed on systems and materials used in the pharmaceutical or related fields. PMID:26976503

  3. Five un-easy pieces of pharmaceutical policy reform.

    PubMed

    Rodwin, Marc A

    2013-01-01

    Improper dependencies slant policy over a drug's life span, biasing the development of new drugs, the testing and marketing approval for new drugs, and the monitoring of patient safety after drugs are marketed. This article examines five ways in which the public improperly depends on pharmaceutical firms that compromise the integrity of pharmaceutical policy. Today the public relies on pharmaceutical firms: (1) to set priorities on drug research and development; (2) to conduct clinical trials to test whether drugs are safe and effective; (3) to decide what clinical trial data to disclose to the public; (4) to monitor post marketing drug safety; (5) to supply product information to physicians and to finance continuing medical education and other professional activities. The article suggests options to overcome each of these dependencies. PMID:24088148

  4. [Increases in pharmaceutical expenditures of PHI by monoclonal antibodies].

    PubMed

    Wild, F

    2013-06-01

    The dynamics of one of the most innovative segments of health care and its impact on pharmaceutical expenditure of private health insurance (PHI) is examined on the basis of drug prescription data from private health insurance companies. The study shows that the increase in pharmaceutical expenditure can be explained partly by the new treatment possibilities available with monoclonal antibodies. The per capita expenditure on drugs with monoclonal antibodies increased by 255% from 2006 to 2010 in private health insurance, while the corresponding expenditure of all pharmaceuticals has risen by only 19% in the same period. In the coming years, growth on this scale will be a challenge for all payers in the health system. PMID:23926705

  5. Water adsorption kinetics and contact angles of pharmaceutical powders.

    PubMed

    Muster, Tim H; Prestidge, Clive A

    2005-04-01

    Water sorption kinetics and water contact angles have been characterized for a range of pharmaceutical powders: ambroxol hydrochloride, griseofulvin, N,n-octyl-D-gluconamide, paracetamol, sulfathiazole, and theophylline. The uptake of water by powder samples at saturated vapor pressure was modeled using a pseudo first-order kinetic relationship. Parameters from this model have been correlated with the concentration and reactivity of the active surface sites of the pharmaceutical powders and their contact angles. The study has shown that analysis of water adsorption kinetics can be a powerful technique for characterizing the surface chemistry and wettability of pharmaceutical powders, and is particularly sensitive to their surface modification through excipient adsorption: ethyl(hydroxyethyl)cellulose treatment of griseofulvin and butyryl chloride treatment of sulfathiazole are reported as case studies. PMID:15736196

  6. Discovery, innovation and the cyclical nature of the pharmaceutical business.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Esther F; Smith, Dennis A

    2002-05-15

    Unlike many recent articles, which paint the future of the pharmaceutical industry in gloomy colours, this article provides an optimistic outlook. It explores the foundations on which the pharmaceutical industry has based its outstanding successes. Case studies of important drug classes underpin the arguments made and provide the basis for the authors' argument that recent technological breakthroughs and the unravelling of the human genome will provide a new wave of high quality targets (substrate) on which the industry can build. The article suggests that in a conducive environment that understands the benefits that pharmaceuticals provide to healthcare, those players who can base their innovation on a sufficient scale and from a large capital base will reshape the industry. PMID:12047856

  7. Dangerous liaisons: doctors-in-training and the pharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed

    Pokorny, A M J; Gittins, C B

    2015-10-01

    Interaction between doctors and the pharmaceutical industry is long-standing and ingrained in modern practice. Doctors-in-training are at a vulnerable stage of their careers, both in requiring knowledge and forming lasting relationships. There is evidence that limiting contact between industry and junior doctors has a positive effect on subsequent clinical behaviour. Currently in Australia, there is no limitation on pharmaceutical representatives approaching doctors-in-training, and the majority of education sessions are sponsored by pharmaceutical companies. This purposefully creates a sense of reciprocity, which may have adverse long-term consequences on attitudes, behaviours and patient care. Several guidelines exist that may assist junior doctors in navigating these potential interactions, most notably the Royal Australasian College of Physicians' own Guidelines for Ethical Relationships between Physicians and Industry. Despite this, there is no reflection of its importance or necessity within subspecialty curricula. This should be rectified, to the benefit of both the profession and public. PMID:26429220

  8. Ethical pharmaceutical promotion and communications worldwide: codes and regulations.

    PubMed

    Francer, Jeffrey; Izquierdo, Jose Zamarriego; Music, Tamara; Narsai, Kirti; Nikidis, Chrisoula; Simmonds, Heather; Woods, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The international pharmaceutical industry has made significant efforts towards ensuring compliant and ethical communication and interaction with physicians and patients. This article presents the current status of the worldwide governance of communication practices by pharmaceutical companies, concentrating on prescription-only medicines. It analyzes legislative, regulatory, and code-based compliance control mechanisms and highlights significant developments, including the 2006 and 2012 revisions of the International Federation of Pharmaceutical Manufacturers and Associations (IFPMA) Code of Practice.Developments in international controls, largely built upon long-established rules relating to the quality of advertising material, have contributed to clarifying the scope of acceptable company interactions with healthcare professionals. This article aims to provide policy makers, particularly in developing countries, with an overview of the evolution of mechanisms governing the communication practices, such as the distribution of promotional or scientific material and interactions with healthcare stakeholders, relating to prescription-only medicines. PMID:24679064

  9. Fate of pharmaceuticals and pesticides in fly larvae composting.

    PubMed

    Lalander, C; Senecal, J; Gros Calvo, M; Ahrens, L; Josefsson, S; Wiberg, K; Vinnerås, B

    2016-09-15

    A novel and efficient organic waste management strategy currently gaining great attention is fly larvae composting. High resource recovery efficiency can be achieved in this closed-looped system, but pharmaceuticals and pesticides in waste could potentially accumulate in every loop of the treatment system and spread to the environment. This study evaluated the fate of three pharmaceuticals (carbamazepine, roxithromycin, trimethoprim) and two pesticides (azoxystrobin, propiconazole) in a fly larvae composting system and in a control treatment with no larvae. It was found that the half-life of all five substances was shorter in the fly larvae compost (<10% of control) and no bioaccumulation was detected in the larvae. Fly larvae composting could thus impede the spread of pharmaceuticals and pesticides into the environment. PMID:27177134

  10. Ethical pharmaceutical promotion and communications worldwide: codes and regulations

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The international pharmaceutical industry has made significant efforts towards ensuring compliant and ethical communication and interaction with physicians and patients. This article presents the current status of the worldwide governance of communication practices by pharmaceutical companies, concentrating on prescription-only medicines. It analyzes legislative, regulatory, and code-based compliance control mechanisms and highlights significant developments, including the 2006 and 2012 revisions of the International Federation of Pharmaceutical Manufacturers and Associations (IFPMA) Code of Practice. Developments in international controls, largely built upon long-established rules relating to the quality of advertising material, have contributed to clarifying the scope of acceptable company interactions with healthcare professionals. This article aims to provide policy makers, particularly in developing countries, with an overview of the evolution of mechanisms governing the communication practices, such as the distribution of promotional or scientific material and interactions with healthcare stakeholders, relating to prescription-only medicines. PMID:24679064

  11. The opportunity cost of capital: development of new pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Chit, Ayman; Chit, Ahmad; Papadimitropoulos, Manny; Krahn, Murray; Parker, Jayson; Grootendorst, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The opportunity cost of the capital invested in pharmaceutical research and development (R&D) to bring a new drug to market makes up as much as half the total cost. However, the literature on the cost of pharmaceutical R&D is mixed on how, exactly, one should calculate this "hidden" cost. Some authors attempt to adopt models from the field of finance, whereas other prominent authors dismiss this practice as biased, arguing that it artificially inflates the R&D cost to justify higher prices for pharmaceuticals. In this article, we examine the arguments made by both sides of the debate and then explain the cost of capital concept and describe in detail how this value is calculated. Given the significant contribution of the cost of capital to the overall cost of new drug R&D, a clear understanding of the concept is critical for policy makers, investors, and those involved directly in the R&D. PMID:25933615

  12. Occurrence of pharmaceuticals and cocaine in a Brazilian coastal zone.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Camilo D Seabra; Maranho, Luciane A; Cortez, Fernando S; Pusceddu, Fabio H; Santos, Aldo R; Ribeiro, Daniel A; Cesar, Augusto; Guimarães, Luciana L

    2016-04-01

    The present study determined environmental concentrations of pharmaceuticals, cocaine, and the main human metabolite of cocaine in seawater sampled from a subtropical coastal zone (Santos, Brazil). The Santos Bay is located in a metropolitan region and receives over 7367m(3) of wastewater per day. Five sample points under strong influence of the submarine sewage outfall were chosen. Through quantitative analysis by LC-MS/MS, 33 compounds were investigated. Seven pharmaceuticals (atenolol, acetaminophen, caffeine, losartan, valsartan, diclofenac, and ibuprofen), an illicit drug (cocaine), and its main human metabolite (benzoylecgonine) were detected at least once in seawater sampled from Santos Bay at concentrations that ranged from ng·L(-1) to μg·L(-1). In light of the possibility of bioaccumulation and harmful effects, the high concentrations of pharmaceuticals and cocaine found in this marine subtropical ecosystem are of environmental concern. PMID:26802343

  13. SELECTED ASPECTS OF TERAHERTZ SPECTROSCOPY IN PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Kacper; Pliński, Edward F; Karolewicz, Bożena; Jarząb, Przemysław P; Plińska, Stanisława; Fuglewicz, Bogusław; Walczakowski, Michał J; Augustyn, Łukasz; Sterczewsk, Łukasz A; Grzelczak, Michał P; Hruszowiec, Mariusz; Beziuk, Grzegorz; Mikulic, Martin; Pałka, Norbert; Szustakowskip, Mieczysław

    2015-01-01

    THz-TDS techniques are applied to investigate selected pharmaceutical samples. Investigations were performed on selected pharmaceutical samples with active pharmaceutical ingredients (API)--famotidine, ranitidine, fenofibrate, lovastatin, simvastatin, aspirin, ketoconazole, acyclovir (hydrated and non-hydrated), on excipients--lactose, glucose (hydrated and non-hydrated), Pluronic 127, and on mixtures of selected compounds. Pseudo-polymorphism effects are considered as well. Examples of the terahertz imaging technique are also given. APIs and excipients can be easily recognized in the terahertz band by their specific "fingerprints" as individual components and in mixtures. The hydration process as a variety of polymorphism can also be easily monitored using the THz technique. Moreover, terahertz light can be useful for the penetration of tablets, giving clear pictures of possible defects in tablet coatings. PMID:26665391

  14. Production of Pharmaceutical Proteins in Solanaceae Food Crops

    PubMed Central

    Rigano, Maria Manuela; De Guzman, Giorgio; Walmsley, Amanda M.; Frusciante, Luigi; Barone, Amalia

    2013-01-01

    The benefits of increased safety and cost-effectiveness make vegetable crops appropriate systems for the production and delivery of pharmaceutical proteins. In particular, Solanaceae edible crops could be inexpensive biofactories for oral vaccines and other pharmaceutical proteins that can be ingested as minimally processed extracts or as partially purified products. The field of crop plant biotechnology is advancing rapidly due to novel developments in genetic and genomic tools being made available today for the scientific community. In this review, we briefly summarize data now available regarding genomic resources for the Solanaceae family. In addition, we describe novel strategies developed for the expression of foreign proteins in vegetable crops and the utilization of these techniques to manufacture pharmaceutical proteins. PMID:23434646

  15. [Theoretical and methodological bases of pharmaceutical aid formation (review)].

    PubMed

    Chantauria, Z T; Chumburidze, T B; Eriashvili, B M

    2015-02-01

    Pharmacists are required to ensure the quality of services provided to each patient. Good Pharmacy Practice (GPP) is a tool of clarifying and fulfilling this commitment. The role of International Pharmaceutical Federation (FIP) is to guide the national pharmaceutical organizations, which, in turn, should initiate the establishment of national standards. A key element is the obligation imposed by the profession throughout the world - to promote different activities for the benefit of those we serve. GPP is recommended to be considered as a list of occupational tasks, the implementation of which would serve the interests of patients or customers in the pharmacy. Ultimately, the quality of pharmaceutical care system will help to ensure not only the commercial interests of the pharmacy, but also the security requirements as those services and products, as well as professionals and patients. PMID:25802456

  16. Uncertainty of quantitative microbiological methods of pharmaceutical analysis.

    PubMed

    Gunar, O V; Sakhno, N G

    2015-12-30

    The total uncertainty of quantitative microbiological methods, used in pharmaceutical analysis, consists of several components. The analysis of the most important sources of the quantitative microbiological methods variability demonstrated no effect of culture media and plate-count techniques in the estimation of microbial count while the highly significant effect of other factors (type of microorganism, pharmaceutical product and individual reading and interpreting errors) was established. The most appropriate method of statistical analysis of such data was ANOVA which enabled not only the effect of individual factors to be estimated but also their interactions. Considering all the elements of uncertainty and combining them mathematically the combined relative uncertainty of the test results was estimated both for method of quantitative examination of non-sterile pharmaceuticals and microbial count technique without any product. These data did not exceed 35%, appropriated for a traditional plate count methods. PMID:26456251

  17. Racing to define pharmaceutical R&D external innovation models.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liangsu; Plump, Andrew; Ringel, Michael

    2015-03-01

    The pharmaceutical industry continues to face fundamental challenges because of issues with research and development (R&D) productivity and rising customer expectations. To lower R&D costs, move beyond me-too therapies, and create more transformative portfolios, pharmaceutical companies are actively capitalizing on external innovation through precompetitive collaboration with academia, cultivation of biotech start-ups, and proactive licensing and acquisitions. Here, we review the varying innovation strategies used by pharmaceutical companies, compare and contrast these models, and identify the trends in external innovation. We also discuss factors that influence these external innovation models and propose a preliminary set of metrics that could be used as leading indicators of success. PMID:25448753

  18. Unhealthy marketing of pharmaceutical products: An international public health concern.

    PubMed

    Mulinari, Shai

    2016-05-01

    I consider the current state of pharmaceutical marketing vis-à-vis ethical and legal standards and advocate measures to improve it. There is abundant evidence of unethical or illicit marketing. It fuels growing concerns about undue corporate influence over pharmaceutical research, education, and consumption. The most extensive evidence of industry transgressions comes from the United States (US), where whistle-blowers are encouraged by financial rewards to help uncover illicit marketing and fraud. Outside the US increasing evidence of transgressions exists. Recently I have observed a range of new measures to align pharmaceutical marketing practices with ethical and legal standards. In the interest of public health, I highlight the need for additional and more profound reforms to ensure that information about medicines supports quality and resource-efficient care. PMID:26911654

  19. Towards improved therapies using nanopharmaceuticals: recent patents on pharmaceutical nanoformulations.

    PubMed

    Horstkotte, Elke; Odoerfer, Kathrin I

    2012-12-01

    Pharmaceutical formulations that contain nanosized drugs are perceived as "Nanopharmaceuticals" and offer significant benefit for the patient compared to the conventional formulated drugs. There are several advantages of nanoparticular drug formulations such as enhanced solubility and dissolution rate, enhanced oral bioavailability, improved dose proportionality, reduced food effects, suitability for administration by all routes and possibility of sterile filtration due to decreased particle size range. Several nanopharmaceuticals are successfully marketed. Different patented techniques are commercialized to prepare nanopharmaceuticals such as milling, homogenization and precipitation. The focus of the underlying review is to give an overview of those technologies for nanosizing active pharmaceutical ingredients and recently published patents in the field of nanosized pharmaceutics. PMID:23013408

  20. Legal considerations for social media marketing by pharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed

    Yang, Y Tony; Chen, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Social media marketing is the next frontier for direct-to-consumer advertising of pharmaceutical products, but represents an unchartered territory for regulatory action. With explosive growth in the use of social media, along with pharmaceutical companies' increasing adeptness at taking advantage of opportunities for social media marketing, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) faces an urgent need to develop its own capacities to monitor and engage with social media marketing. In response to potential FDA action, pharmaceutical companies' marketing, regulatory compliance and legal staffs must work closely to design initiatives that are sensitive to FDA concerns. This article will address the current status of FDA regulations on social media advertising, their historical origins, challenges to implementation, and their likely future direction. PMID:24772685