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Sample records for pharmacies face closure

  1. Independently owned pharmacy closures in rural America.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Kaitlin; Ullrich, Fred; Mueller, Keith

    2012-07-01

    The closure of rural independently owned pharmacies, including pharmacies that are the sole source of access to local pharmacy services, from 2003 through 2011 coincides with the implementation of two major policies related to payment for prescription medications: (1) Medicare prescription drug discount cards were introduced on January 1, 2004; and (2) the Medicare prescription drug benefit (Part D) began on January 1, 2006. In this brief, we focus on rural pharmacy closure because of the potential threat such closures present to access to any local pharmacy services in a community. Services include providing medications from local stock without delay or travel, overseeing administration of medications to nursing homes and hospitals, and patient consultation. PMID:22830100

  2. Issues Facing Pharmacy Leaders in 2015: Suggestions for Pharmacy Strategic Planning

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Issues facing pharmacy leaders in 2015 include practice model growth and the role of pharmacy students, clinical privileging of health-system pharmacists and provider status, medication error prevention, and specialty pharmacy services. The goal of this article is to provide practical approaches to 4 issues facing pharmacy leaders in 2015 to help them focus their department’s goals. This article will address (1) advances in the pharmacy practice model initiative and the role of pharmacy students, (2) the current thinking of pharmacists being granted clinical privileges in health systems, (3) updates on preventing harmful medication errors, and (4) the growth of specialty pharmacy services. The sample template of a strategic plan may be used by a pharmacy department in 2015 in an effort to continue developing patient-centered pharmacy services. PMID:25717212

  3. Trends in Community Pharmacy Counts and Closures before and after the Implementation of Medicare Part D

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klepser, Donald G.; Xu, Liyan; Ullrich, Fred; Mueller, Keith J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Medicare Part D provided 3.4 million American seniors with prescription drug insurance. It may also have had an unintended effect on pharmacy viability. This study compares trends in the number of pharmacies and rate of pharmacy closures before and after the implementation of Medicare Part D. Methods: This retrospective observational…

  4. The impact of face-to-face educational outreach on diarrhoea treatment in pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Ross-Degnan, D; Soumerai, S B; Goel, P K; Bates, J; Makhulo, J; Dondi, N; Sutoto; Adi, D; Ferraz-Tabor, L; Hogan, R

    1996-09-01

    Private pharmacies are an important source of health care in developing countries. A number of studies have documented deficiencies in treatment, but little has been done to improve practices. We conducted two controlled trials to determine the efficacy of face-to-face educational outreach in improving communication and product sales for cases of diarrhoea in children in 194 private pharmacies in two developing countries. A training guide was developed to enable a national diarrhoea control programme to identify problems and their causes in pharmacies, using quantitative and qualitative research methods. The guide also facilitates the design, implementation, and evaluation of an educational intervention, which includes brief one-on-one meetings between diarrhoea programme educators and pharmacists/owners, followed by one small group training session with all counter attendants working in the pharmacies. We evaluated the short-term impact of this intervention using a before-and-after comparison group design in Kenya, and a randomized controlled design in Indonesia, with the pharmacy as unit of analysis in both countries (n = 107 pharmacies in Kenya; n = 87 in Indonesia). Using trained surrogate patients posing as mothers of a child under five with diarrhoea, we measured sales of oral rehydration salts (ORS); sales of antidiarrhoeal agents; and history-taking and advice to continue fluids and food. We also measured knowledge about dehydration and drugs to treat diarrhoea among Kenyan pharmacy employees after training. Major discrepancies were found at baseline between reported and observed behaviour. For example, 66% of pharmacy attendants in Kenya, and 53% in Indonesia, reported selling ORS for the previous case of child diarrhoea, but in only 33% and 5% of surrogate patient visits was ORS actually sold for such cases. After training, there was a significant increase in knowledge about diarrhoea and its treatment among counter attendants in Kenya, where these

  5. The changing face of pharmacy practice and the need for a new model of pharmacy education

    PubMed Central

    Toklu, Hale Zerrin; Hussain, Azhar

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacy profession has evolved from its conventional and traditional drug focused basis to an advanced patient focused basis over the years. In the past century the pharmacists were more involved in compounding and manufacturing of medicines, but this role has significantly reduced over time. This advancement in the role of pharmacist calls for them to be the part of the broader health care team working for providing better health care for the patients, thus contributing in achieving the global millennium development goals. To match up, the role of today's pharmacists needs to be expanded to include pharmaceutical care concepts, making the pharmacist a health care professional rather than a drug seller in a commercial enterprise. Therefore, pharmacy schools should prepare a program that has competence with the changing role of the pharmacist. The education should provide ability for critical thinking, improve problem-solving skills and decision making during pharmacotherapy. The student should be trained to create, transmit, and apply new knowledge based on cutting-edge research in the pharmaceutical, social, and clinical sciences; collaborate with other health professionals and learn to enhance the quality of life through improved health for the people of local society and as well as the global community. PMID:24023452

  6. Causes and consequences of rural pharmacy closures: a multi-case study.

    PubMed

    Todd, Kelli; Westfall, Katie; Doucette, Bill; Ullrich, Fred; Mueller, Keith

    2013-08-01

    Local rural pharmacies provide essential pharmacy and clinical services to their communities. Pharmacists play a critical role in the continuum of care for rural residents, and the loss of a local pharmacy may impact access to prescription drugs and clinical care. This policy brief identifies factors that contributed to the closing of six pharmacies and describes how the affected communities adapted to losing locally based services. Key Findings. (1) Five out of the six pharmacies studied closed due to retirement and/or difficulties in recruiting a successor. (2) In five of the six communities, residents now either drive to the nearest pharmacy or use mail-order to receive their prescriptions and, in some instances, receive their prescriptions through a courier service from a pharmacy in a nearby town. (3) Access to pharmacy services in these communities is of most concern for individuals with limited mobility and those who lack a support system that can pick up and deliver their prescriptions (e.g., the elderly and people with acute conditions). PMID:25399462

  7. Safety culture assessment in community pharmacy: development, face validity, and feasibility of the Manchester Patient Safety Assessment Framework

    PubMed Central

    Ashcroft, D; Morecroft, C; Parker, D; Noyce, P

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To develop a framework that could be used by community pharmacies to self-assess their current level of safety culture maturity, which has high face validity and is both acceptable and feasible for use in this setting. Design: An iterative review process in which the framework was developed and evaluated through a series of 10 focus groups with a purposive sample of 67 community pharmacists and support staff in the UK. Main outcome measures: Development of the framework and qualitative process feedback on its acceptability, face validity, and feasibility for use in community pharmacies. Results: Using this process, a version of the Manchester Patient Safety Assessment Framework (MaPSAF) was developed that is suitable for application to community pharmacies. The participants were able to understand the concepts, recognised differences between the five stages of safety culture maturity, and concurred with the descriptions from personal experience. They also indicated that they would be willing to use the framework but recognised that staff would require protected time in order to complete the assessment. Conclusions: In practice the MaPSAF is likely to have a number of uses including raising awareness about patient safety and illustrating any differences in perception between staff, stimulating discussion about the strengths and weaknesses of patient safety culture within the pharmacy, identifying areas for improvement, and evaluating patient safety interventions and tracking changes over time. This will support the development of a mature safety culture in community pharmacies. PMID:16326787

  8. Toward Aerosol/Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) Closure during CRYSTAL-FACE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanReken, Timothy M.; Rissman, Tracey, A.; Roberts, Gregory C.; Varutbangkul, Varuntida; Jonsson, Haflidi H.; Flagan, Richard C.; Seinfeld, John H.

    2003-01-01

    During July 2002, measurements of cloud condensation nuclei were made in the vicinity of southwest Florida as part of the Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers-Florida Area Cirrus Experiment (CRYSTAL-FACE) field campaign. These observations, at supersaturations of 0.2 and 0.85%, are presented here. The performance of each of the two CCN counters was validated through laboratory calibration and an in situ intercomparison. The measurements indicate that the aerosol sampled during the campaign was predominantly marine in character: the median concentrations were 233 cm-3 (at S = 0.2%) and 371 cm(sup -3) (at S = 0.85%). Three flights during the experiment differed from this general trend; the aerosol sampled during the two flights on 18 July was more continental in character, and the observations on 28 July indicate high spatial variability and periods of very high aerosol concentrations. This study also includes a simplified aerosol/CCN closure analysis. Aerosol size distributions were measured simultaneously with the CCN observations, and these data are used to predict a CCN concentration using Kohler theory. For the purpose of this analysis, an idealized composition of pure ammonium sulfate was assumed. The analysis indicates that in this case, there was good general agreement between the predicted and observed CCN concentrations: at S = 0.2%, N(sub predicted)/N(sub observed)= 1.047 (R(sup 2)= 0.911)); at S = 0.85%, N(sub predicted)/N(sub observed)=1.201 (R(sup 2)= 0.835)). The impacts of the compositional assumption and of including in-cloud data in the analysis are addressed. The effect of removing the data from the 28 July flight is also examined; doing so improves the result of the closure analysis at S = 0.85%. When omitting that atypical flight, N(sub predicted)/N(sub observed) = 1.085 (R(sup 2) = 0.770) at S = 0.85%.

  9. Simulation of partial closure of a crack-like cavity with cohesion between the faces in an isotropic medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirsalimov, V. M.; Rustamov, B. E.

    2013-11-01

    A mathematical model for the closure of a crack-like cavity with cohesive end zones in an isotropic medium is constructed using methods of elastic theory. It is assumed that the interaction between the surfaces of the crack-like cavity under the action of body and surface forces can lead to the formation of contact zones on their surfaces. Determination of the unknown parameters characterizing the closure of the crack-like cavity reduces to a system of singular integrodifferential equations. The integral equations are converted to a system of nonlinear algebraic equations which is solved by the method of successive approximations. The contact stresses, the interaction forces between the faces of the crack-like cavity, and the size of the contact zone in which the faces of the crack-like cavities are closed are determined.

  10. Pharmacy Education in France

    PubMed Central

    Bourdon, Olivier; Ekeland, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    In France, to practice as a pharmacist, one needs a “diplome d'état de Docteur en Pharmacie” This degree is awarded after 6 or 9 years of pharmacy studies, depending on the option chosen by the student. The degree is offered only at universities and is recognized in France as well as throughout the European Union. Each university in France is divided into faculties called Unité de Formation et de Recherche (UFR). There are 24 faculties of pharmacy or UFRs de pharmacie. A national committee develops a pharmacy education program at the national level and each faculty adapts this program according to its specific features and means (eg, faculty, buildings). The number of students accepted in the second year is determined each year by a Government decree (numerus clausus). Successive placements, totalling 62 weeks, progressively familiarize the student with professional practice, and enable him/her to acquire the required competencies, such as drug monitoring and educating and counselling patients. Challenges facing community pharmacies in the next 10 years are patient education, home health care, and orthopaedics; in hospital pharmacies, empowering pharmacists to supervise and validate all prescriptions; and finally, research in pharmacy practice. PMID:19325952

  11. Pharmacy Technologist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of pharmacy technologist, lists technical competencies and competency builders for 16 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general as well as those specific to the occupation of pharmacy technologist. The following skill areas…

  12. Hospital pharmacy in Canada.

    PubMed

    Bachynsky, J A

    1980-04-01

    The status of Canadian hospital pharmacy and the impact of national hospital insurance on its development are discussed. The provision of health care services for Canadians is shared by the federal and provincial governments. The federal government enacts protective and regulatory legislation, compiles health statistics, promotes research, and provides direct health care for those citizens for whom it is directly responsible. Each province is responsible for hospitals, the education and training of health care professionals, public health, and the financing and administration of health insurance for all its citizens. Largely because of line-item budget allocations and a bureaucratic tendency to equalize services for the whole population, funds for existing pharmaceutical services have been assured but the introduction of upgraded or innovative programs has been difficult to achieve. The result has been an even quality of health care services, including pharmacy, throughout the country and a deficiency in clinical pharmacy programs and the trained personnel to run them. The last decade has brought advances, however, as allocation methods have changed and both hospital and insurance administrators have recognized the patient benefits and cost effectiveness of many of the newer pharmacy programs. The main challenges facing Canadian hospital pharmacy are to upgrade clinical services and education and to improve managerial and bureaucratic competence among department directors. PMID:7377213

  13. Pharmacy alternatives (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... common source for obtaining prescriptions is the local pharmacy. Usually the pharmacy is located in a drug or grocery store. ... some insurance companies have chosen is mail-order pharmacy. Once a pharmacy has been chosen it is ...

  14. Clinical Pharmacy Education in a Dental Pharmacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helling, Dennis K.; Walker, John A.

    1978-01-01

    A clinical pharmacy training program for undergraduate students developed at the University of Iowa provides conjoint training of pharmacy and dental students in the clinic areas and pharmacy at the College of Dentistry. (LBH)

  15. Pharmacy Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany.

    New York State education laws, rules, and regulations concerning the practice of pharmacy are presented. Provisions relating to the manufacture, sale, distribution, purity, potency, and labeling of drugs are included. State statutory provisions cover: licensing; duration and registration of a license; practice and regulation of the profession;…

  16. Pharmacy Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Cultural Education Center.

    New York State education law, rules, and regulations concerning the practice of pharmacy are presented. Provisions relating to the manufacture, sale, distribution, purity, potency, and labeling of drugs are included. State statutory provisions cover: licensing, duration and registration of a license, practice and regulation of the profession,…

  17. Significant Issues Raised by the Study Commission on Pharmacy Report--A View From the Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francke, Donald E.

    1976-01-01

    An opinion is offered of the Millis Commission report on pharmacy. Two major areas are considered: levels of pharmacy practice and roles for clinical pharmacy practice. It is concluded that the report failed to explore the issues facing pharmacy in the depth necessary to initiate meaningful change. (LBH)

  18. Entrustable Professional Activities for Pharmacy Practice

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Scott A.; Frail, Caitlin K.; Moon, Jean Y.; Undeberg, Megan R.; Orzoff, Jordan H.

    2016-01-01

    The profession of pharmacy is facing a shifting health system context that holds both opportunity and risk. If the profession of pharmacy is to advance, pharmacists must be recognized as a consistent member of the health care team in all clinical settings, contributing at the fullest extent of licensure and education. One part of achieving this broad goal is to implement a new way of defining and assessing pharmacy practice skills, such as entrustable professional activities (EPA). Assessment of professional tasks and practice activities with EPAs has been successfully implemented in medical education for assessing trainee preparation for practice. This EPA model is being applied to pharmacy education to develop an assessment framework across the advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) curriculum. The APPE course directors, practice faculty members, and the Office of Experiential Education collaboratively defined a set of universal EPAs critical for pharmacists in any practice setting and would be assessed in all practice experience types. PMID:27293224

  19. The need for redesigned pharmacy practice courses in Pakistan: the perspectives of senior pharmacy students

    PubMed Central

    Umair Khan, Muhammad; Ahmad, Akram; Hussain, Kazim; Salam, Aqsa; Hasnain, Zain-ul; Patel, Isha

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: In Pakistan, courses in pharmacy practice, which are an essential component of the PharmD curriculum, were launched with the aim of strengthening pharmacy practice overall and enabling pharmacy students to cope with the challenges involved in meeting real-world healthcare needs. Since very little research has assessed the efficacy of such courses, we aimed to evaluate students’ perceptions of pharmacy practice courses and their opinions about whether their current knowledge of the topics covered in pharmacy practice courses is adequate for future practice. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted over two months among the senior pharmacy students of two pharmacy colleges. A content- and face-validated questionnaire was used to collect data, which were then analysed using SPSS version 20. Descriptive analysis and logistic regression were performed. Results: Research in pharmacy practice (30.2%), applied drug information (34.4%), health policy (38.1%), public health and epidemiology (39.5%), pharmacovigilance (45.6%), and pharmacoeconomics (47.9%) were the major courses that were covered to the least extent in the PharmD curriculum. However, hospital pharmacy practice (94.4%), pharmacotherapeutics (88.8%), and community pharmacy practice (82.8%) were covered well. Although 94% of students considered these courses important, only 37.2% considered themselves to be competent in the corresponding topics. Of the participants, 87.9% agreed that the pharmacy courses in the present curriculum should be redesigned. Conclusion: Our results showed that the pharmacy practice courses in the current PharmD curriculum do not encompass some important core subjects. A nationwide study is warranted to further establish the necessity for remodelling pharmacy practice courses in Pakistan. PMID:26072905

  20. The Challenges of Pharmacy Education in Yemen

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacy education in Yemen has faced many challenges since its introduction in the 1980s. Most Yemeni pharmacy schools, especially private ones, are experiencing difficulties in providing the right quality and quantity of clinical educational experiences. Most of these challenges are imbedded in a teaching style and curricula that have failed to respond to the needs of the community and country. The slow shift from traditional drug-dispensing to a patient-centered or focused approach in pharmacy practice requires a fundamental change in the roles and responsibilities of both policymakers and educators. The purpose of this paper is twofold: (1) to discuss the challenges facing the pharmacy education in Yemen; (2) to provided recommendations to overcome challenges. PMID:25386011

  1. Characteristics of Rural Communities with a Sole, Independently Owned Pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Nattinger, Matthew; Ullrich, Fred; Mueller, Keith J

    2015-04-01

    Prior RUPRI Center policy briefs have described the role of rural pharmacies in providing many essential clinical services (in addition to prescription and nonprescription medications), such as blood pressure monitoring, immunizations, and diabetes counseling, and the adverse effects of Medicare Part D negotiated networks on the financial viability of rural pharmacies.1 Because rural pharmacies play such a broad role in health care delivery, pharmacy closures can sharply reduce access to essential health care services in rural and underserved communities. These closures are of particular concern in rural areas served by a sole, independently owned pharmacy (i.e., a pharmacy unaffiliated with a chain or franchise). This policy brief characterizes the population of rural areas served by a sole, independently owned pharmacy. Dependent on a sole pharmacy, these areas are at highest risk to lose access to many essential clinical services. Key Findings. (1) In 2014 over 2.7 million people lived in 663 rural communities served by a sole, independently owned pharmacy. (2) More than one-quarter of these residents (27.9 percent) were living below 150 percent of the federal poverty level. (3) Based on estimates from 2012, a substantial portion of the residents of these areas were dependent on public insurance (i.e., Medicare and/or Medicaid, 20.5 percent) or were uninsured (15.0 percent). (4) If the sole, independent retail pharmacy in these communities were to close, the next closest retail pharmacy would be over 10 miles away for a majority of rural communities (69.7 percent). PMID:26793812

  2. Improving pharmacy revenue integrity.

    PubMed

    Carmody, Jennifer J; Townsend, Kyle; Schwartz, Kathy

    2013-09-01

    Billings Clinic learned the following important lessons in implementing a pharmacy revenue integrity initiative: Integrate pharmacy data as fully as possible. Audit and review pharmacy data regularly to validate the data and identify key areas where education can be provided to support accuracy and compliance. Use technology to bridge gaps between pharmacy data, such as gaps in billable units and billed units. Establish data governance workflows. PMID:24050059

  3. [History of Polish pharmacy].

    PubMed

    Okuda, J; Okuda, R

    1993-01-01

    Doctoral thesis (in French) by Monika Debska-Donnet, entitled "History of pharmacy and pharmaceutical art collections in Poland" which was presented to Paris XI University (Faculty of Pharmaceutical and Biological Sciences) in 1991, was translated into Japanese and summarized. In this report, histories of pharmacy education, pharmacists, community pharmacies, pharmacopoeiae, pharmaceutical industries in Poland were described, and four representative Polish museums of history of pharmacy were also explained. PMID:11639718

  4. Clinical Nuclear Pharmacy Clerkship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunson, George L.; Christopherson, William J., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The School of Pharmacy, University of the Pacific, and the Pharmacy Service, Letterman Army Medical Center, initiated a 15-week clinical nuclear pharmacy clerkship in 1975. It includes basic nuclear medical science, technical competency, professional competency, and special interest emphasis. (LBH)

  5. A multistate trial of pharmacy syringe purchase.

    PubMed

    Compton, Wilson M; Horton, Joe C; Cottler, Linda B; Booth, Robert; Leukefeld, Carl G; Singer, Merrill; Cunningham-Williams, Renee; Reich, Wendy; Fortuin Corsi, Karen; Staton, Michele; Fink, Joseph L; Stopka, Thomas J; Spitznagel, Edward L

    2004-12-01

    Pharmacies are a potential site for access to sterile syringes as a means for preventing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), but the type and extent of their utility is uncertain. To examine pharmacy syringe purchase, we conducted a standardized, multistate study in urban and rural areas of four states in which attempts to purchase syringes were documented. Of 1,600 overall purchase attempts, 35% were refused. Colorado (25%) and Connecticut (28%) had significantly lower rates of refusal than Kentucky (41%) and Missouri (47%). Furthermore, urban settings had higher rates of refusal (40%) than rural settings (31%, P < .01). Race and gender did not have a consistent impact on rates of refusal. Despite potential advantages of pharmacies as sites for access to sterile syringes, pharmacy purchase of syringes faces significant obstacles in terms of the practices in different jurisdictions. PMID:15466847

  6. Women in pharmacy

    PubMed Central

    Janzen, Donica; Fitzpatrick, Kerry; Suveges, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Background: Women have historically been attracted to pharmacy because it is widely perceived as a profession that offers them an opportunity to combine a professional career with a family. Women now make up the majority of practising pharmacists in Canada, yet the literature demonstrates disparities such as gender segregation and underrepresentation of women in senior positions. This study was intended to identify the attitudes and beliefs of pharmacy students about women’s issues in pharmacy and raise awareness of these issues. Methods: First- and fourth-year University of Saskatchewan pharmacy students were invited to share their overall impressions of the status of female pharmacists and the impact of women on the pharmacy profession through an online questionnaire. Results: Of the 60 respondents, the majority disagreed that there is segregation of men and women in pharmacy. More fourth-year students than first-year students recognized the underrepresentation of women in pharmacy management. Many students believed the number of women in pharmacy would have no negative impact on the profession. Forty students (67.8%) agreed that it is important to maintain a significant proportion of men in pharmacy. Conclusion: Most pharmacy students in this study do not recognize gender disparities present in pharmacy or the impact the disproportionate number of women could have on the profession. Can Pharm J 2013;146:109-116. PMID:23795187

  7. Pharmacy Education in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Bedouch, Pierrick; Nguyen, Thi-Hoai; Nguyen, Thi-Lien-Huong; Hoang, Thi-Kim-Huyen; Calop, Jean; Allenet, Benoît

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacy education programs in Vietnam are complex and offer various career pathways. All include theory and laboratory modules in general, foundation, and pharmaceutical knowledge; placements in health facilities; and a final examination. The various pharmacy degree programs allow specialization in 1 or more of 5 main fields: (1) drug management and supply, (2) drug development and production, (3) pharmacology and clinical pharmacy, (4) traditional medicine and pharmacognosy, and (5) drug quality control, which are offered as main specialization options during the reformed undergraduate and postgraduate programs. However, pharmacy education in Vietnam in general remains product oriented and clinical pharmacy training has not received adequate attention. Only students who have obtained the bachelor of pharmacy degree, which requires a minimum of 5 years of study, are considered as fully qualified pharmacists. In contrast, an elementary diploma in pharmacy awarded after 1 year of pharmacy study permits entry into more junior pharmacy positions. Since the 2000s, there has been a surge in the number and types of schools offering pharmacy qualifications at various levels. PMID:23966717

  8. Strategic alliance as a competitive tactics for biological-pharmacy industry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chuanming; Wang, Ling; Qi, Ershi

    2005-01-01

    Biological-pharmacy industry refers to biotechnology companies and pharmacy makers. Because of the uncertainty and time-lag in the field of biological-pharmacy, the former is confronted with lacking of capital and the later is faced with improving technique-innovation and product-exploitation. This paper analyzes basic operation principle of strategic alliance, and related strategies are also put forward for biological-pharmacy enterprise to carry out. PMID:17282722

  9. Pharmacy benefits management and ambulatory pharmacy services.

    PubMed

    Strandberg, L R

    1996-01-01

    The business of pharmacy is changing dramatically as new components are added to our health care system and new terms developed to describe existing functions. For example, payment for pharmacy products and services are increasingly coming under control of Pharmacy Benefits Management (PBM) companies who are also racing to develop Disease State Management Programs. Additionally, health care purchasers have welcomed the development of HEDIS (Health Employer Data Information Set) as another tool to evaluate both the cost and quality of health care provided to their enrollees. All this means pharmacy will have to change its paradigm from dispensing to managing the medication consumption/compliance process in addition to traditional dispensing activities. PMID:10153841

  10. Navigating the waters of pharmacy regulations in hospice care. Facing a common scenario: why can it be so difficult to obtain emergency medications?

    PubMed

    Greene, Richard

    2005-05-01

    Imagine a common scenario that faces many hospice clinicians: It is 1 a.m., and the sister of your newest patient just called the on-call service to alert your hospice that the patient is in excruciating pain. In fact, the patient's pain is so bad that she is asking whether she should take her to the nearest hospital emergency room. You anticipated this pain, of course, but the patient did not have moderate or severe pain to this point, and the physician wouldn't agree to provide a small supply of morphine to have on hand. PMID:15966151

  11. Interior view of addition pharmacy showing dutch door and security ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of addition pharmacy showing dutch door and security ceiling grate, facing north. - Albrook Air Force Station, Dispensary, East side of Canfield Avenue, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  12. [Effects of pharmacy market deregulation regarding patient-centred drug care in Germany from a health economics perspecitve].

    PubMed

    Rumm, R; Böcking, W

    2013-03-01

    This article analyses the impact of a potential deregulation Germany's pharmacy market by allowing foreign ownership of pharmacies and removing the limit of the number pharmacies that can be owned by a pharmacist. Based on a mathematical model and empirical values of foreign countries, scenarios for the German market are calculated and the impact on all participants of the health care system analysed. The key outcomes are:- A deregulation would enables the creation of pharmacy chains- In all simulated scenarios the total number of pharmacies would drastically grow- The increased pharmacy density improves patient centred drug care- The competition among pharmacies increases and leads to the closure of many independently owned and operated pharmacies. PMID:23423941

  13. Partner for Promotion: An Innovative Advanced Community Pharmacy Practice Experience

    PubMed Central

    Legg, Julie E.; Casper, Kristin A.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To implement the Partner for Promotion (PFP) program which was designed to enhance the skills and confidence of students and community pharmacy preceptors to deliver and expand advanced patient care services in community pharmacies and also to assess the program's impact. Design A 10-month longitudinal community advanced pharmacy practice experience was implemented that included faculty mentoring of students and preceptors via formal orientation; face-to-face training sessions; online monthly meetings; feedback on service development materials; and a web site offering resources and a discussion board. Pre- and post-APPE surveys of students and preceptors were used to evaluate perceptions of knowledge and skills. Assessment The skills survey results for the first 2 years of the PFP program suggest positive changes occurring from pre- to post-APPE survey in most areas for both students and preceptors. Four of the 7 pharmacies in 2005-2006 and 8 of the 14 pharmacies in 2006-2007 were able to develop an advanced patient care service and begin seeing patients prior to the conclusion of the APPE. As a result of the PFP program from 2005-2007, 14 new experiential sites entered into affiliation agreements with The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy. Conclusion The PFP program offers an innovative method for community pharmacy faculty members to work with students and preceptors in community pharmacies in developing patient care services. PMID:19325954

  14. Pharmacy Technician Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maddox, Ray R.

    This Idaho state curriculum guide provides lists of tasks, performance objectives, and enabling objectives for instruction designed to prepare entry-level pharmacy technicians or help already employed pharmacy technicians retain their jobs or advance in their field. Following a list of tasks and an introduction, the bulk of the document consists…

  15. Pharmacy and freedom.

    PubMed

    Cowen, D L

    1984-03-01

    The development of pharmacy in Western civilization has been influenced by ideas of individual liberty; the impact of these ideas is traced. For a short time during the French Revolution, individuals without qualifications could practice pharmacy, but abuses prompted return of regulation; from 1803, pharmacy was closely regulated by the state. Liberal thinking in 19th-century Britain left control of pharmacy mainly within the profession; regulation was definitive rather than restrictive. With the influence of Jacksonian Democracy and freedom of trade in the United States, there were no effective pharmacy regulations until the late 19th century and few educational requirements for licensure until the 1920s. In Germany, the old system of concessions and privileges was upset after World War II when any qualified pharmacist was allowed to open a shop wherever desired in the American-occupied zone; the courts upheld this policy as the basis for establishment of pharmacies in West Germany. Liberty in dispensing drugs has been limited out of concern for the well-being of individuals and of society as a whole. In Great Britain and the U.S., restrictions on dispensing antedated laws establishing qualifications for pharmacists. The history of pharmacy demonstrates that there are moral and social barriers to realization of the ideals of liberty. History also suggests that if pharmacists assume responsibilities that use their specialized training, they can defend against inroads by nonpharmacists. PMID:6702848

  16. Pharmacy in medieval Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Antonova, J

    2007-06-01

    A survey of the state of pharmacy in medieval Bulgaria is done, analyzing written records of various origin and content. Written documents are reviewed separately in chronological order. They all seem to lend support to the conclusion that realism is a characteristic feature of pharmacy in medieval Bulgaria. Mysticism and superstition are relatively rarely resorted to, precedence is given to real treatment with suitable and not so suitable medical plants, minerals and animal products. Relatively weak is the impact of West-European medicine and pharmacy because of the different influence of the Eastern and the Western Orthodox religion, and partly because of the territorial remoteness. During the High Middle Ages Bulgarian pharmacy developed under the influence of Hellenic ancient culture. Later, after the 15 century, the influence of the Arabian culture and medicine is also felt as a result of the complex compilation between the Bulgarian and Ottoman culture during the 500-year Turkish yoke. PMID:17663197

  17. The Impact of Biotechnology upon Pharmacy Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speedie, Marilyn K.

    1990-01-01

    Biotechnology is defined, and its impact on pharmacy practice, the professional curriculum (clinical pharmacy, pharmacy administration, pharmacology, medicinal chemistry, pharmaceutics, basic sciences, and continuing education), research in pharmacy schools, and graduate education are discussed. Resulting faculty, library, and research resource…

  18. Pharmaceuticals: online pharmacies: year end report-2002.

    PubMed

    Kammer, Claire

    2002-12-31

    During the late 1990s, the Internet became a popular place to purchase merchandise, and states faced a new challenge in dealing with a type of business that is not the traditional "brick and mortar." As online pharmacies became part of the spectrum of stores on the Internet, states grappled with how to ensure the safety of their residents while balancing the convenience and potential cost saving from using the Internet to purchase prescription drugs. PMID:12856687

  19. Physician and Pharmacy Student Expectations of Pharmacy Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voris, John C.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The attitudes of family practice residents toward ambulatory pharmacy services were compared with pharmacy students' predictions on what the residents' attitudes would be. The residents' perceptions of pharmacist behaviors rated significantly higher than how the pharmacy students thought they would respond. (Author/MLW)

  20. Special Risks of Pharmacy Compounding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Consumer Updates RSS Feed The Special Risks of Pharmacy Compounding Get Consumer Updates by E-mail Consumer ... page: A Troubling Trend What You Can Do Pharmacy compounding is a practice in which a licensed ...

  1. Procedures for construction of anisotropic elastic plastic property closures for face-centered cubic polycrystals using first-order bounding relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proust, Gwénaëlle; Kalidindi, Surya R.

    2006-08-01

    Microstructure-sensitive design (MSD) is a novel mathematical framework that facilitates a rigorous consideration of the material microstructure as a continuous design variable in the engineering design enterprise [Adams, B.L., Henrie, A., Henrie, B., Lyon, M., Kalidindi, S.R., Garmestani, H., 2001. Microstructure-sensitive design of a compliant beam. J. Mech. Phys. Solids 49(8), 1639-1663; Adams, B.L., Lyon, M., Henrie, B., 2004. Microstructures by design: linear problems in elastic-plastic design. Int. J. Plasticity 20(8-9), 1577-1602; Kalidindi, S.R., Houskamp, J.R., Lyons, M., Adams, B.L., 2004. Microstructure sensitive design of an orthotropic plate subjected to tensile load. Int. J. Plasticity 20(8-9), 1561-1575]. MSD employs spectral representations of the local state distribution functions in describing the microstructure quantitatively, and these in turn enable development of invertible linkages between microstructure and effective properties using established homogenization (composite) theories. As a natural extension of the recent publications in MSD, we provide in this paper a detailed account of the methods that can be readily used by mechanical designers to construct first-order elastic-plastic property closures. The main focus in this paper is on the crystallographic texture (also called Orientation Distribution Function or ODF) as the main microstructural parameter controlling the elastic and yield properties of cubic (fcc and bcc) polycrystalline metals. The following specific advances are described in this paper: (i) derivation of rigorous first-order bounds for the off-diagonal terms of the effective elastic stiffness tensor and their incorporation in the MSD framework, (ii) delineation of the union of the property closures corresponding to both the upper and lower bound theories resulting in comprehensive first-order closures, (iii) development of generalized and readily usable expressions for effective anisotropic elastic-plastic properties

  2. Pharmacy Education and the Role of the Local Pharmacy at Gifu Pharmaceutical University Pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Teramachi, Hitomi

    2016-01-01

    Gifu Pharmaceutical University Pharmacy was established in front of Gifu University Hospital (GUH) as a pharmacy attached to the university, the first in Japan in 1998. When GUH moved in 2004, Gifu Pharmaceutical University Pharmacy was built in its current location. One of the priorities of the design of the new facility was easy access to those with disabilities. For example, ramps, wheelchair accessible restrooms, and handicap-friendly waiting-room chairs were installed. In cooperation with GUH, we introduced a two-dimensional bar code system for prescriptions. This promoted the efficiency of compounding medicines. In addition, starting in 2006, we introduced digital drug-history records at Gifu Pharmaceutical University Pharmacy. We also increased the staff of the affiliated pharmacy in 2006. We designed the system of the affiliated pharmacy for long-term pharmacy practice. Currently, we accept pharmacy students visiting pharmacy of early exposure and long-term pharmacy practice. Today, the pharmacy fills an average of 80 prescriptions a day, primarily from GUH. Our staff consists of six pharmacists, one full-time office manager, and three part-time office assistants. In keeping with our role as a community pharmacy, we hold regular lectures and an education forum for pharmacists. We also carry out clinical studies. PMID:27150929

  3. Beyond equivalence of care in prison pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Choudhry, Khurshid; Evans, Nicola

    2014-10-01

    Prison healthcare has undergone a significant transformation over recent times. The main aim of these changes was to ensure prisoners received the same level of care as patients in the community. Prisons are a unique environment to provide healthcare within. Both the environment and the patient group provide a challenge to healthcare delivery. One of the biggest challenges currently being faced by healthcare providers is the misuse and abuse of prescription medication. It seems that the changes that have been made in prison healthcare, to ensure that prisoners receive the same level of care as patients in the community over recent times, have led to an increase in this problem. Prison pharmacy is ideally placed to help reduce the misuse and abuse of prescription medication. This can be achieved by using the skills and knowledge of the pharmacy department to ensure appropriate prescribing of medication liable to misuse and abuse. PMID:24400788

  4. Motivating pharmacy employees.

    PubMed

    White, S J; Generali, J A

    1984-07-01

    Concepts from theories of motivation are used to suggest methods for improving the motivational environment of hospital pharmacy departments. Motivation--the state of being stimulated to take action to achieve a goal or to satisfy a need--comes from within individuals, but hospital pharmacy managers can facilitate motivation by structuring the work environment so that it satisfies employees' needs. Concepts from several theories of motivation are discussed, including McGregor's theory X and theory Y assumptions, Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory, Herzberg's motivation hygiene theory, and Massey's value system theory. Concepts from the Japanese style of management that can be used to facilitate motivation, such as quality circles, also are described. The autocratic, participative, and laissez faire styles of leadership are discussed in the context of the motivation theories, and suggested applications of theoretical concepts to practice are presented. PMID:6465152

  5. Pharmacy benefit management companies.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, R

    1995-09-01

    The principal services offered by pharmacy benefit management companies (PBMs) are described. A PBM contracts with employers, insurers, and others to provide accessible and cost-effective benefits to those groups' members. PBMs vary in their organization and services because they originate from different types of businesses. Many PBMs have been formed by publicly traded companies that have combined traditional ways of controlling cost and use, such as formularies, with new elements to form organizations whose primary function is managing the pharmacy benefit. Often, the PBM is paid a fixed amount for which it must provide all contracted services. PBMs may provide pharmacy services themselves (e.g., mail order prescription service is offered by Medco, one of the largest PBMs); more often, they subcontract with others to provide certain services. Full-service PBMs have the following functions: establishing networks of pharmacies for use by plan members; processing claims electronically at the time a prescription is filled and thus maintaining a database on drug use and cost; using these data to generate various reports; encouraging the use of generic products; managing existing formularies, helping to establish customized formularies, or providing a national formulary; providing information to support formulary guidelines (counter-detailing); offering programs in which prescriptions for maintenance medications are filled less frequently with larger amounts, often by mail order; negotiating volume-based rebates from manufacturers; performing drug-use review; developing disease management programs based on clinical practice guidelines and measurements of patient outcome; and evaluating outcomes by combining data on drug therapy with information about other parts of the patient's care.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8528857

  6. Pharmacy Education and Practice in 13 Middle Eastern Countries

    PubMed Central

    Kheir, Nadir; Zaidan, Manal; Younes, Husam; El Hajj, Maguy; Wilbur, Kerry

    2008-01-01

    The Arab world has influenced the art and science of pharmacy for centuries. Pharmacy education and practice is continuing to evolve in the Arabic-speaking traditional Middle East countries, although relatively little information has been published in the English press. Our goal was to provide a high-level synopsis of conditions in this region. We selected 13 countries for review. Information was obtained by reviewing the available published literature and individual university and program web sites, as well as contacting program or country representatives. Seventy-eight active pharmacy schools in 12 countries were identified. At least 14,000 students (over 75% from Egypt) are admitted into baccalaureate degree programs every year. The 5-year baccalaureate degree remains the first professional degree to practice. While changes in pharmacy education have been relatively rapid over the past decade, the advancement of pharmacy practice, particularly in the private sector, appears to be slower. Hospital pharmacists often possess an advanced degree and tend to have a higher level of practice compared to that of community pharmacists. Despite the adversities that face academics and practitioners alike, there is a strong desire to advance the science and practice of pharmacy in the Middle East. PMID:19325953

  7. Rural Health in Pharmacy Curricula

    PubMed Central

    Thrasher, Kim; O’Connor, Shanna K.

    2012-01-01

    The 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act proposes strategies to address the workforce shortages of primary care practitioners in rural America. This review addresses the question, “What specialized education and training are colleges and schools of pharmacy providing for graduates who wish to enter pharmacy practice in rural health?” All colleges and schools accredited by the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education or those in precandidate status as of December 2011 were included in an Internet-based review of Web sites. A wide scope of curricular offerings were found, ranging from no description of courses or experiences in a rural setting to formally developed programs in rural pharmacy. Although the number of pharmacy colleges and schools providing either elective or required courses in rural health is encouraging, more education and training with this focus are needed to help overcome the unmet need for quality pharmacy care for rural populations. PMID:23193344

  8. Types of pharmacy/pharmacists.

    PubMed

    Williams, LaVonn A

    2013-01-01

    There are many career opportunities for pharmacists, as well as many environments in which to practice pharmacy. Although pharmacy has changed throughout the years and will continue to change, one aspect of pharmacy remains constant and that constant is that compounding has been a part of pharmacy since the beginning of time and will remain an integral part of pharmacy. This article discusses some of the environments in which pharmacists can choose to practice their profession and discusses some of the types of pharmacists. If you searched vigorously for information about each of the different types of pharmacy/ pharmacists, you will find that very few of them are not in some respect involved in the compounding/ preparation of pharmaceuticals. It is not uncommon for pharmacists to specialize in specific aspects of drug therapy. PMID:24261144

  9. Succession Planning in US Pharmacy Schools

    PubMed Central

    Surratt, Christopher K.; Green, James S.; Gallucci, Randle M.; Colbert, James; Zatopek, Shara L.; Blouin, Robert A.

    2010-01-01

    The deans, associate and assistant deans, and department chairs of a college or school of pharmacy retain historic memories of the institution and share the responsibility for day-to-day operation, sustainability, and future planning. Between the anticipated retirement of baby boomers who are senior administrative faculty members and the steady increase in number of colleges and schools of pharmacy, the academy is facing a shortage of qualified successors. Succession planning involves planning for the effective transition of personnel in leadership positions within an organization. This paper describes the subject of succession planning at a sample population of AACP institutions by obtaining perspectives on the subject from the deans of these institutions via standardized interview instruments. The instruments were utilized with 15 deans; all interview data were blinded and analyzed using analyst triangulation. The majority of deans responded that some level of succession planning was desirable and even necessary; however, none claimed to have a formal succession planning structure in place at his or her home institution. Although widely accepted and well-recognized in the corporate and military sectors, succession planning within pharmacy schools and colleges is neither universally documented nor implemented. Differences exist within the administrative structure of these non-academic and academic institutions that may preclude a uniform succession planning format. While the evidence presented suggests that succession planning is needed within the academy, a concerted effort must be made towards implementing its practice. PMID:20798799

  10. Succession planning in US pharmacy schools.

    PubMed

    Van Amburgh, Jenny; Surratt, Christopher K; Green, James S; Gallucci, Randle M; Colbert, James; Zatopek, Shara L; Blouin, Robert A

    2010-06-15

    The deans, associate and assistant deans, and department chairs of a college or school of pharmacy retain historic memories of the institution and share the responsibility for day-to-day operation, sustainability, and future planning. Between the anticipated retirement of baby boomers who are senior administrative faculty members and the steady increase in number of colleges and schools of pharmacy, the academy is facing a shortage of qualified successors. Succession planning involves planning for the effective transition of personnel in leadership positions within an organization. This paper describes the subject of succession planning at a sample population of AACP institutions by obtaining perspectives on the subject from the deans of these institutions via standardized interview instruments. The instruments were utilized with 15 deans; all interview data were blinded and analyzed using analyst triangulation. The majority of deans responded that some level of succession planning was desirable and even necessary; however, none claimed to have a formal succession planning structure in place at his or her home institution. Although widely accepted and well-recognized in the corporate and military sectors, succession planning within pharmacy schools and colleges is neither universally documented nor implemented. Differences exist within the administrative structure of these non-academic and academic institutions that may preclude a uniform succession planning format. While the evidence presented suggests that succession planning is needed within the academy, a concerted effort must be made towards implementing its practice. PMID:20798799

  11. [Adverse drug effects in the community pharmacy].

    PubMed

    Arnet, Isabelle; Seidling, Hanna M; Hersberger, Kurt E

    2015-12-01

    Community pharmacists represent an important pillar for the identification and the reporting of adverse drug effects (ADE}. Thanks to their broad view on the pharmacotherapy, over-the-counter medication included, they contribute greatly to the improvement of drug safety. In principle, the community pharmacy will face three groups of ADE which require specific attention. This article deals with these specific ADE groups and presents some illustrative examples from daily practice. Furthermore, we suggest some solutions to identify potential relevant interactions - including herbal-drug interactions - and give tips for daily practice, along with some often overseen cutaneous ADE. PMID:26654812

  12. 21 CFR 1306.15 - Provision of prescription information between retail pharmacies and central fill pharmacies for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... retail pharmacies and central fill pharmacies for prescriptions of Schedule II controlled substances... between retail pharmacies and central fill pharmacies for prescriptions of Schedule II controlled substances. Prescription information may be provided to an authorized central fill pharmacy by a...

  13. Visual Closure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groffman, Sidney

    An experimental test of visual closure based on an information-theory concept of perception was devised to test the ability to discriminate visual stimuli with reduced cues. The test is to be administered in a timed individual situation in which the subject is presented with sets of incomplete drawings of simple objects that he is required to name…

  14. The Continuing Evolution of Pharmacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goyan, Jere E.; Day, Robert L.

    1984-01-01

    By the mid-1960s, the pharmacy profession had centered its role on the distribution of prescription and nonprescription drugs. Pharmacists yearned for greater involvement in health care but were inhibited by lack of training, ethics, laws, and perceived opportunity. Clinical pharmacy is described. (MLW)

  15. Pharmacy Program Review. Consultant's Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Robert D.; And Others

    Site visits were made by a team of consultants to Florida A&M University (FAMU) and the University of Florida (UF), the two institutions providing pharmacy education in Florida, to review programs and assess issues relating to entry-level degrees, manpower needs, and delivery systems. After a brief history of academic programs in pharmacy, the…

  16. [Evaluation of Brazilian online pharmacies].

    PubMed

    Gondim, Ana Paula Soares; Falcão, Cláudio Borges

    2007-04-01

    The growing number of Internet users brought forth an increase in the search for Brazilian online pharmacy services. Aiming at evaluating the validity of information disseminated in these websites, a descriptive study was carried out in 18 virtual pharmacies concerning legal aspects, accessibility, sources of information and drug advertising. It was found 15 pharmacies did not have authorization of the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency; the manager pharmaceutical officer's name could not be found in 17 of them; 17 pharmacies marketed drugs with no registration, especially herbal medicines, and did not show either information on adverse drug reactions or this agency's alerts and health recommendations. Since health control and drug commerce in Brazilian online pharmacies have not been yet regulated by proper government agencies, these gaps found in the sites can pose risk to the users' health. PMID:17384808

  17. Pharmacy Student Perception of Characteristics and Activities of Pharmacy Faculty; Basic Science Compared with Pharmacy Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doering, Paul L.; House, Michael L.

    1981-01-01

    Student attitudes toward pharmacy faculty were measured. Areas of inquiry included faculty characteristics such as age, sex, academic rank, education, licensure, experience, teaching, research, service and credibility. Analysis of data involved a comparision of student answers for pharmacy practice and basic science faculty. (Author/MLW)

  18. Work group design in pharmacy: the pharmacist-technician team.

    PubMed

    Kershaw, B P; Solomon, D K; Zarowitz, B J

    1987-05-01

    The contemporary pharmacy practice manager faces the challenge of designing pharmacy service programs that not only satisfy the needs of the patient, but at the same time satisfy and motivate the pharmacists and technicians who sustain the programs. This research examined the team design, which has been recommended but not fully described in the literature. This application did not explore the full potential of the team design in the hospital pharmacy setting. More study is needed in this area to assess the impact of work group design on the expansion of clinical programs, employee turnover rates, quality and quantity of work produced, and, most important, the impact on job satisfaction enjoyed by pharmacists and technicians. PMID:10314224

  19. Duct closure

    DOEpatents

    Vowell, Kennison L.

    1987-01-01

    A closure for an inclined duct having an open upper end and defining downwardly extending passageway. The closure includes a cap for sealing engagement with the open upper end of the duct. Associated with the cap are an array of vertically aligned plug members, each of which has a cross-sectional area substantially conforming to the cross-sectional area of the passageway at least adjacent the upper end of the passageway. The plug members are interconnected in a manner to provide for free movement only in the plane in which the duct is inclined. The uppermost plug member is attached to the cap means and the cap means is in turn connected to a hoist means which is located directly over the open end of the duct.

  20. 21 CFR 1304.05 - Records of authorized central fill pharmacies and retail pharmacies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Records of authorized central fill pharmacies and retail pharmacies. 1304.05 Section 1304.05 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... fill pharmacies and retail pharmacies. (a) Every retail pharmacy that utilizes the services of...

  1. 21 CFR 1304.05 - Records of authorized central fill pharmacies and retail pharmacies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Records of authorized central fill pharmacies and retail pharmacies. 1304.05 Section 1304.05 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... fill pharmacies and retail pharmacies. (a) Every retail pharmacy that utilizes the services of...

  2. 21 CFR 1304.05 - Records of authorized central fill pharmacies and retail pharmacies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Records of authorized central fill pharmacies and retail pharmacies. 1304.05 Section 1304.05 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... fill pharmacies and retail pharmacies. (a) Every retail pharmacy that utilizes the services of...

  3. 21 CFR 1311.200 - Pharmacy responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pharmacy responsibilities. 1311.200 Section 1311... ORDERS AND PRESCRIPTIONS Electronic Prescriptions § 1311.200 Pharmacy responsibilities. (a) Before initially using a pharmacy application to process controlled substance prescriptions, the pharmacy...

  4. 21 CFR 1311.200 - Pharmacy responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pharmacy responsibilities. 1311.200 Section 1311... ORDERS AND PRESCRIPTIONS Electronic Prescriptions § 1311.200 Pharmacy responsibilities. (a) Before initially using a pharmacy application to process controlled substance prescriptions, the pharmacy...

  5. Hospital pharmacy financial management: challenges of the 1980s.

    PubMed

    Nold, E G

    1984-08-01

    This paper concludes a series on financial management of hospital pharmacies. A decade of expansion of health-care services is ending. Changes in health care are predicted by examining changes that followed deregulation of the banking industry. Pharmacists' need for training in financial management is reiterated, and the need for computerized financial reports is emphasized. Pharmacy departments should prepare for constant changes in reimbursement methods and fluctuations in workload that require flexible staffing. Marketing of pharmaceutical services and increases in productivity will be necessary. Health-care cost reductions can be achieved using the available technology, although hospital closure, restructuring, and staff reductions may occur. Pharmacist-managers need financial skills to remain competitive. PMID:6475975

  6. Development and implementation of a multitiered health informatics curriculum in a college of pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Breeden, Elizabeth A; Clauson, Kevin A

    2016-07-01

    Standards requiring education in informatics in pharmacy curricula were introduced in the last 10 years by the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education. Mirroring difficulties faced by other health professions educators, implementation of these requirements remains fragmented and somewhat limited across colleges of pharmacy in the US. Clinical practice and workforce metrics underline a pronounced need for clinicians with varying competencies in health informatics. In response to these challenges, a multitiered health informatics curriculum was developed and implemented at a college of pharmacy in the Southeast. The multitiered approach is structured to ensure that graduating pharmacists possess core competencies in health informatics, while providing specialized and advanced training opportunities for pharmacy students, health professions students, and working professionals interested in a career path in informatics. The approach described herein offers institutions, administrators, faculty, residents, and students an adaptable model for selected or comprehensive adoption and integration of a multitiered health informatics curriculum. PMID:27121611

  7. Clinical Pharmacy Education in China

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Melody; Yang, Li; Nie, Xiao-Yan; Zhai, Suo-Di; Shi, Lu-Wen; Lubawy, William C.

    2008-01-01

    Pharmacy education in China focuses on pharmaceutical sciences, with the bachelor of science (BS) of pharmacy as the entry-level degree. Pharmacy practice curricula in these programs are centered on compounding, dispensing, pharmacy administration, and laboratory experiences, which are the traditional responsibilities for pharmacists. Additional graduate-level training is available at the master of science (MS) and the doctor of philosophy (PhD) levels, most of which concentrate on drug discovery and drug development research. Presently, the emphasis in practice is beginning to shift to clinical pharmacy. With this change, additional degree offerings are being developed to meet the growing demand for clinical pharmacists. There is also interest in developing more clinical skills in practicing pharmacists through additional non-degree training. The Ministry of Education is considering a proposal for an entry-level professional degree of master and/or doctor in clinical pharmacy similar to the doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) degree in the United States. PMID:19325949

  8. Pharmacy experience with facsimile prescriptions.

    PubMed

    Huntzinger, Paul E

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this mixed qualitative/quantitative study was to review the impact of a policy to accept facsimile (fax) prescriptions as standard operating procedure. Between February and April 2009 the pharmacy processed 4,792 new prescriptions of which 363 (7.6%) were received through fax. Of the fax prescriptions, 19 (5.2%) concerned clarification of information, which took approximately 30 minutes to resolve. The fax prescription process allowed the pharmacy to adjust the distribution of its workload, provided quicker service for new prescriptions, and allowed more time for medication consultation that resulted in a high level of customer satisfaction. It appeared the policy allowing fax prescriptions was a "win-win" situation for both the pharmacy and its customers. Military pharmacies should consider running trials of accepting fax prescriptions to see whether it improves their prescription filling process. PMID:21121504

  9. Plato's Pharmacy and Derrida's Drugstore.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mortensen, Chris

    2000-01-01

    In a long essay titled "Plato's Pharmacy, Jacques Derrida attacked Western metaphysics. This article undertakes to defend Western philosophy from Derrida's arguments. It is shown that Derrida's arguments are very unsatisfactory. (Author/VWL)

  10. Alarm sensor apparatus for closures

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, James A.; Stoddard, Lawrence M.

    1986-01-01

    An alarm sensor apparatus for closures such as doors and windows, and particularly for closures having loose tolerances such as overhead doors, garage doors or the like, the sensor apparatus comprising a pair of cooperating bracket members, one being attached to the door facing or frame work and the other to the door member, two magnetic sensor elements carried by said bracket members, the bracket members comprising a pair of cooperating orthogonal guide slots and plates and a stop member engageable with one of the sensors for aligning the sensors with respect to each other in all three orthogonal planes when the door is closed.

  11. Alarm sensor apparatus for closures

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, J.A.; Stoddard, L.M.

    1984-01-31

    An alarm sensor apparatus for closures such as doors and windows, and particularly for closures having loose tolerances such as overhead doors, garage doors or the like, the sensor apparatus comprising a pair of cooperating bracket members, one being attached to the door facing or framework and the other to the door member, two magnetic sensor elements carried by said bracket members, the bracket members comprising a pair of cooperating orthogonal guide slots and plates and a stop member engageable with one of the sensors for aligning the sensors with respect to each other in all three orthogonal planes when the door is closed.

  12. Rufus A. Lyman: Pharmacy's Lamplighter

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Rufus Ashley Lyman, a physician, was one of the most prominent leaders in US pharmacy education during the first half of the 20th century. He remains the only individual to be the founding dean at colleges of pharmacy at 2 state universities. His role in the creation and sustenance of the American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education provided a platform for a national community and a sounding board for faculty members and others interested in professional education. His efforts to increase pharmacy educational standards were instrumental in the abandonment of the 2-year graduate in pharmacy (PhG) degree and the universal acceptance of the 4-year bachelor of science (BS) degree. Lyman's simple approach and fierce championship of his beliefs led to his recognition as a lamplighter for the profession. Curt P. Wimmer, chair of the New York Branch of the American Pharmaceutical Association (now the American Pharmacists Association (APhA), introduced the 1947 Remington Honor Medalist, Rufus Ashley Lyman. Wimmer mentioned that Lyman worked as a lamplighter in Omaha, Nebraska, during medical school. Continuing the lamplighter analogy, Wimmer cited Lyman's work as a pharmacy educator and editor: “in the councils of your colleagues, your lamp became a torch emitting red hot sparks that often burnt and seared and scorched—but always made for progress.”1 This description provides an evocative image of one of the most prominent pharmacy educators and leaders of the first half of the 20th century. PMID:19777099

  13. 21 CFR 1306.09 - Prescription requirements for online pharmacies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... course of his professional practice and is acting on behalf of a pharmacy whose registration has been... pharmacy. (c) Any online pharmacy that participates in the transfer between pharmacies of...

  14. 21 CFR 1306.09 - Prescription requirements for online pharmacies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... course of his professional practice and is acting on behalf of a pharmacy whose registration has been... pharmacy. (c) Any online pharmacy that participates in the transfer between pharmacies of...

  15. CLOSURE DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Linzell, S.M.; Dorcy, D.J.

    1958-08-26

    A quick opening type of stuffing box employing two banks of rotatable shoes, each of which has a caraming action that forces a neoprene sealing surface against a pipe or rod where it passes through a wall is presented. A ring having a handle or wrench attached is placed eccentric to and between the two banks of shoes. Head bolts from the shoes fit into slots in this ring, which are so arranged that when the ring is rotated a quarter turn in one direction the shoes are thrust inwardly to cramp the neopnrene about the pipe, malting a tight seal. Moving the ring in the reverse direction moves the shoes outwardly and frees the pipe which then may be readily removed from the stuffing box. This device has particular application as a closure for the end of a coolant tube of a neutronic reactor.

  16. Automated decentralized pharmacy dispensing systems.

    PubMed

    1996-12-01

    Automated decentralized pharmacy dispensing systems (ADPDSs) are medication management systems that allow hospitals to store and dispense drugs near the point of use. These systems, which can be compared with the automated teller machines used by banks, provide nurses with ready access to medications while maintaining tight control of drug distribution. In this study, we evaluated three ADPDSs from two suppliers, focusing on whether these systems can store and dispense drugs in a safe, secure, and effective manner. When rating the systems, we considered their applicability to two different implementation schemes: The use of a system with a pharmacy profile interface. This feature broadens the capabilities of the system by allowing more information to be provided at the dispensing cabinet and by providing better integration of the information from this cabinet with the pharmacy's information system. Two of the evaluated systems have this feature and were rated Acceptable. The use of a system without a pharmacy profile interface. We rated all three of the evaluated systems Acceptable for such implementations. To decide which scheme is most appropriate for a particular hospital, the facility will need to determine both how it intends to use the ADPDS and what it hopes to achieve by implementing the system. By performing this type of analysis, the facility can then determine which ADPDS features and capabilities are needed to accomplish its goals. To help facilities make these decisions, we have provided an Equipment Management Guide, "Improving the Drug Distribution Process-Do You Need an Automated Decentralized Pharmacy Dispensing System?," which precedes this Evaluation. In addition, readers unfamiliar with the roles of both the pharmacy and the pharmacist within the hospital can refer to the Primer, "Functions of a Hospital Pharmacy," also published in this issue. PMID:8968721

  17. Potential risks of pharmacy compounding.

    PubMed

    Gudeman, Jennifer; Jozwiakowski, Michael; Chollet, John; Randell, Michael

    2013-03-01

    Pharmacy compounding involves the preparation of customized medications that are not commercially available for individual patients with specialized medical needs. Traditional pharmacy compounding is appropriate when done on a small scale by pharmacists who prepare the medication based on an individual prescription. However, the regulatory oversight of pharmacy compounding is significantly less rigorous than that required for Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs; as such, compounded drugs may pose additional risks to patients. FDA-approved drugs are made and tested in accordance with good manufacturing practice regulations (GMPs), which are federal statutes that govern the production and testing of pharmaceutical products. In contrast, compounded drugs are exempt from GMPs, and testing to assess product quality is inconsistent. Unlike FDA-approved drugs, pharmacy-compounded products are not clinically evaluated for safety or efficacy. In addition, compounded preparations do not have standard product labeling or prescribing information with instructions for safe use. Compounding pharmacies are not required to report adverse events to the FDA, which is mandatory for manufacturers of FDA-regulated medications. Some pharmacies engage in activities that extend beyond the boundaries of traditional pharmacy compounding, such as large-scale production of compounded medications without individual patient prescriptions, compounding drugs that have not been approved for use in the US, and creating copies of FDA-approved drugs. Compounding drugs in the absence of GMPs increases the potential for preparation errors. When compounding is performed on a large scale, such errors may adversely affect many patients. Published reports of independent testing by the FDA, state agencies, and others consistently show that compounded drugs fail to meet specifications at a considerably higher rate than FDA-approved drugs. Compounded sterile preparations pose the additional risk

  18. Branding a college of pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Rupp, Michael T

    2012-11-12

    In a possible future of supply-demand imbalance in pharmacy education, a brand that positively differentiates a college or school of pharmacy from its competitors may be the key to its survival. The nominal group technique, a structured group problem-solving and decision-making process, was used during a faculty retreat to identify and agree on the core qualities that define the brand image of Midwestern University's College of Pharmacy in Glendale, AZ. Results from the retreat were provided to the faculty and students, who then proposed 168 mottos that embodied these qualities. Mottos were voted on by faculty members and pharmacy students. The highest ranked 24 choices were submitted to the faculty, who then selected the top 10 finalists. A final vote by students was used to select the winning motto. The methods described here may be useful to other colleges and schools of pharmacy that want to better define their own brand image and strengthen their organizational culture. PMID:23193330

  19. An Evaluation of the Pharmacy College Admissions Test as a Tool for Pharmacy College Admissions Committees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Katherine A.; Secnik, Kristina; Boye, Mark E.

    2001-01-01

    Investigated the capacity of the Pharmacy College Admissions Test (PCAT) to predict success in pharmacy school. Found demographic differences in PCAT scores, and that the PCAT used in combination with pre-pharmacy grade point average is meaningful in assessing applicants to pharmacy school; applicants with PCAT composite percentile scores below 40…

  20. Disillusionment in Pharmacy Students: A Reconsideration with the Advent of Clinical Pharmacy Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCook, William M.; Speranza, Kenneth A., Sr.

    1976-01-01

    The results of a study with 168 students from three professional classes at the University of Connecticut's School of Pharmacy suggest that clinical pharmacy education may overcome the disillusionment toward pharmacy shown to develop in pharmacy students as they progress through a professional curriculum. (LBH)

  1. Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmocology: Friends or Foes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csaky, T. Z.

    1973-01-01

    Two recent trends in the field of health education-the declining emphasis on basic sciences in medical instruction and the heavy emphasis on pharmacology, therapeutics, and clinical pharmacy in colleges of pharmacy-are compared. (Editor)

  2. 21 CFR 1306.27 - Provision of prescription information between retail pharmacies and central fill pharmacies for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... retail pharmacies and central fill pharmacies for initial and refill prescriptions of Schedule III, IV... Provision of prescription information between retail pharmacies and central fill pharmacies for initial and... provided to an authorized central fill pharmacy by a retail pharmacy for dispensing purposes. The...

  3. 21 CFR 1306.27 - Provision of prescription information between retail pharmacies and central fill pharmacies for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... retail pharmacies and central fill pharmacies for initial and refill prescriptions of Schedule III, IV... Provision of prescription information between retail pharmacies and central fill pharmacies for initial and... provided to an authorized central fill pharmacy by a retail pharmacy for dispensing purposes. The...

  4. Application of Kanban System on a hospital pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Mitka, Eleftheria

    2015-01-01

    This is a brief overview of principles, views and methods, of the Kanban System for the pharmacy of a general hospital. The main goal is the reduction of stores managed by the pharmacy, as well as improvement of the mode of operation. Solutions to problems, such as inadequate storage space, the delay in serving patients or clinics and the expiration of various pharmaceutical formulations, stored for so long time, are provided. The philosophy behind the Kanban procurement System and specifically its applicability to a pharmacy underperforming in terms of efficiency, in Greece, are described. Based on the analysis of stock requirement, item stock prices and demand, it is concluded that a significant percentage of the stocked drugs can be procured using the Kanban System. Significant cost savings and operational advantages following the Kanban System will take place. The challenging endeavor is the analysis, design and application of a system that supports the proposed procurement method. Hospital pharmacies in Greece and in other countries that face an economic crisis may largely benefit after using the Kanban System. PMID:26665205

  5. Simulation and Introductory Pharmacy Practice Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Katherine; Wadelin, Jeffrey W.; Vlasses, Peter H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the various types of simulation and their incorporation into health professions curricula, describes how simulation training is recognized in other professions, and evaluates the feasibility of integrating simulation into experiential education programs of colleges and schools of pharmacy. The Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE) Board of Directors develop standards and guidelines on the use of simulation as part of introductory pharmacy practice experiences within the doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) curriculum. PMID:22345728

  6. An Innovative Approach to Pharmacy Law Education Utilizing a Mock Board of Pharmacy Meeting

    PubMed Central

    Bess, D. Todd; Taylor, Jade; Schwab, Carol A.; Wang, Junling; Carter, Jason A.

    2016-01-01

    A thorough understanding of pharmacy law by students is important in the molding of future pharmacy practitioners but a standardized template for the best way to educate students in this area has not been created. A mock Board of Pharmacy meeting was designed and incorporated into the Pharmacy Law course to meet the ACPE accreditation standards at the University of Tennessee College of Pharmacy. Students acted as Board of Pharmacy members and utilized technology to decide outcomes of cases and requests addressed in a typical 2 day Tennessee Board of Pharmacy meeting. The actual responses to those cases, as well as similar cases and requests addressed over a 5 year period, were revealed to students after they made motions on mock scenarios. Student participation in this interactive learning experience resulted in good understanding of the rules and regulations of pharmacy practice and the consequences associated with violating regulations. Such mock Board of Pharmacy meeting is recommended for future pharmacy law education. PMID:27347433

  7. 42 CFR 483.60 - Pharmacy services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pharmacy services. 483.60 Section 483.60 Public... Care Facilities § 483.60 Pharmacy services. The facility must provide routine and emergency drugs and... the provision of pharmacy services in the facility; (2) Establishes a system of records of receipt...

  8. 42 CFR 413.241 - Pharmacy arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pharmacy arrangements. 413.241 Section 413.241... Disease (ESRD) Services and Organ Procurement Costs § 413.241 Pharmacy arrangements. Effective January 1, 2011, an ESRD facility that enters into an arrangement with a pharmacy to furnish renal...

  9. Thinking About Ethical Dilemmas in Pharmacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowenthal, Werner; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Pharmacy students and pharmacists surveyed on ethical dilemmas in pharmacy practice indicated a high degree of concern over patient welfare. The major area of disagreements was on economic concerns. The ethical dilemmas in pharmacy practice survey is appended. (Author/MLW)

  10. 21 CFR 1311.200 - Pharmacy responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pharmacy responsibilities. 1311.200 Section 1311... ORDERS AND PRESCRIPTIONS (Eff. 6-1-10) Electronic Prescriptions § 1311.200 Pharmacy responsibilities. (a) Before initially using a pharmacy application to process controlled substance prescriptions, the...

  11. 42 CFR 413.241 - Pharmacy arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pharmacy arrangements. 413.241 Section 413.241... Disease (ESRD) Services and Organ Procurement Costs § 413.241 Pharmacy arrangements. Effective January 1, 2011, an ESRD facility that enters into an arrangement with a pharmacy to furnish renal...

  12. 42 CFR 483.60 - Pharmacy services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pharmacy services. 483.60 Section 483.60 Public... Care Facilities § 483.60 Pharmacy services. The facility must provide routine and emergency drugs and... the provision of pharmacy services in the facility; (2) Establishes a system of records of receipt...

  13. Directions in Pharmacy Education for the Future Practice of Pharmacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nappi, Jean M.

    1986-01-01

    Possible ways to influence the future practice of pharmacy include more shared responsibility with the pharmaceutical industry, increased attention to changes in disease patterns, attention to differential skills needed by different kinds of pharmacists, increased specialization, and emphasis on administrative and other business skills. (MSE)

  14. Decision-Making and Problem-Solving Approaches in Pharmacy Education.

    PubMed

    Martin, Lindsay C; Donohoe, Krista L; Holdford, David A

    2016-04-25

    Domain 3 of the Center for the Advancement of Pharmacy Education (CAPE) 2013 Educational Outcomes recommends that pharmacy school curricula prepare students to be better problem solvers, but are silent on the type of problems they should be prepared to solve. We identified five basic approaches to problem solving in the curriculum at a pharmacy school: clinical, ethical, managerial, economic, and legal. These approaches were compared to determine a generic process that could be applied to all pharmacy decisions. Although there were similarities in the approaches, generic problem solving processes may not work for all problems. Successful problem solving requires identification of the problems faced and application of the right approach to the situation. We also advocate that the CAPE Outcomes make explicit the importance of different approaches to problem solving. Future pharmacists will need multiple approaches to problem solving to adapt to the complexity of health care. PMID:27170823

  15. Decision-Making and Problem-Solving Approaches in Pharmacy Education

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Lindsay C.; Holdford, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Domain 3 of the Center for the Advancement of Pharmacy Education (CAPE) 2013 Educational Outcomes recommends that pharmacy school curricula prepare students to be better problem solvers, but are silent on the type of problems they should be prepared to solve. We identified five basic approaches to problem solving in the curriculum at a pharmacy school: clinical, ethical, managerial, economic, and legal. These approaches were compared to determine a generic process that could be applied to all pharmacy decisions. Although there were similarities in the approaches, generic problem solving processes may not work for all problems. Successful problem solving requires identification of the problems faced and application of the right approach to the situation. We also advocate that the CAPE Outcomes make explicit the importance of different approaches to problem solving. Future pharmacists will need multiple approaches to problem solving to adapt to the complexity of health care. PMID:27170823

  16. Organizing a Community Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience

    PubMed Central

    Koenigsfeld, Carrie Foust; Tice, Angela L

    2006-01-01

    Setting up a community advanced pharmacy practice experience can be an overwhelming task for many pharmacy preceptors. This article provides guidance to pharmacist preceptors in developing a complete and effective community advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE). When preparing for the APPE, initial discussions with the college or school of pharmacy are key. Benefits, training, and requirements should be addressed. Site preparation, including staff education, will assist in the development process. The preceptor should plan orientation day activities and determine appropriate evaluation and feedback methods. With thorough preparation, the APPE will be rewarding for both the student and the pharmacy site. PMID:17136163

  17. Working in Pharmacies. Student's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driever, Carl W.; McClaugherty, Larry

    This publication, one of a series of self-contained instructional materials for students enrolled in training within the allied health field, includes competencies that are associated with the performance of skills by students beginning the study of pharmacy assistance. It is intended to be used for individualized instruction under the supervision…

  18. Pharmacy Technician. Technical Committee Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho State Dept. of Education, Boise. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This report contains the task list for the pharmacy technician program in the state of Idaho. The task list reflects the current trends and skills necessary for an employee to obtain a job in this industry in Idaho, retain a job once hired, and advance in the occupational field. Technical information provided includes program area, program title,…

  19. Accountability in Action: A Comprehensive Guide to Charter School Closure. School Closure Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wechtenhiser, Kim, Ed.; Wade, Andrew, Ed.; Lin, Margaret, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Closing a failing charter school is difficult, but it can be done. In fact, it has been done hundreds of times across the country. However, if you are on the staff or the board of a charter school authorizing agency that is facing a closure decision, the fact that other authorizers have closed schools may be of small comfort. You are facing a…

  20. Modeling the Interactions Between Multiple Crack Closure Mechanisms at Threshold

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, John A.; Riddell, William T.; Piascik, Robert S.

    2003-01-01

    A fatigue crack closure model is developed that includes interactions between the three closure mechanisms most likely to occur at threshold; plasticity, roughness, and oxide. This model, herein referred to as the CROP model (for Closure, Roughness, Oxide, and Plasticity), also includes the effects of out-of plane cracking and multi-axial loading. These features make the CROP closure model uniquely suited for, but not limited to, threshold applications. Rough cracks are idealized here as two-dimensional sawtooths, whose geometry induces mixed-mode crack- tip stresses. Continuum mechanics and crack-tip dislocation concepts are combined to relate crack face displacements to crack-tip loads. Geometric criteria are used to determine closure loads from crack-face displacements. Finite element results, used to verify model predictions, provide critical information about the locations where crack closure occurs.

  1. Perception of community pharmacists towards the barriers to enhanced pharmacy services in the healthcare system of Dubai: a quantitative approach

    PubMed Central

    Rayes, Ibrahim K.; Hassali, Mohamed A.; Abduelkarem, Abduelmula R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In many developing countries, pharmacists are facing many challenges while they try to enhance the quality of services provided to patients approaching community pharmacies. Objective: To explore perception of community pharmacists in Dubai regarding the obstacles to enhanced pharmacy services using a part of the results from a nation-wide quantitative survey. Methods: A questionnaire was distributed to 281 full-time licensed community pharmacists in Dubai. The questionnaire had 5 inter-linked sections: demographic information, information about the pharmacy, interaction with physicians, pharmacists’ current professional role, and barriers to enhanced pharmacy services. Results: About half of the respondents (45.4%, n=90) agreed that pharmacy clients under-estimate them and 52.5% (n=104) felt the same by physicians. About 47.5% (n=94) of the respondents felt that they are legally unprotected against profession’s malpractice. Moreover, 64.7% (n=128) stated that pharmacy practice in Dubai turned to be business-focused. In addition, 76.8% (n=252) found that one of the major barriers to enhanced pharmacy services is the high business running cost. Pharmacists screened tried to prove that they are not one of the barriers to optimized pharmacy services as 62.7% (n=124) disagreed that they lack appropriate knowledge needed to serve community and 67.7% (n=134) gave the same response when asked whether pharmacy staff lack confidence when treating consumers or not. Conclusions: Although being well established within the community, pharmacists in Dubai negatively perceived their own professional role. They stated that there are number of barriers which hinder optimized delivery of pharmacy services like under-estimation by pharmacy clients and other healthcare professionals, pressure to make sales, and high running cost. PMID:26131039

  2. 32 CFR 199.21 - Pharmacy benefits program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... TRICARE mail-order pharmacy program, and TRICARE network providers. The panel will meet after each...) Obtaining pharmacy services under the retail network pharmacy benefits program—(1) Points of service. There... network pharmacies: Those are non-MTF pharmacies that are a part of the network established for...

  3. 21 CFR 1304.55 - Reports by online pharmacies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reports by online pharmacies. 1304.55 Section 1304... REGISTRANTS Online Pharmacies § 1304.55 Reports by online pharmacies. (a) Each online pharmacy shall report to... dosage units dispensed of all controlled substances combined. (b) Each online pharmacy shall report...

  4. 21 CFR 1304.55 - Reports by online pharmacies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reports by online pharmacies. 1304.55 Section 1304... REGISTRANTS Online Pharmacies § 1304.55 Reports by online pharmacies. (a) Each online pharmacy shall report to the Administrator the total quantity of each controlled substance that the pharmacy has dispensed...

  5. 40 CFR 264.113 - Closure; time allowed for closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Closure; time allowed for closure. 264... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Closure and Post-Closure § 264.113 Closure; time allowed for closure. (a) Within 90 days after...

  6. 40 CFR 265.113 - Closure; time allowed for closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Closure; time allowed for closure. 265... (CONTINUED) INTERIM STATUS STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Closure and Post-Closure § 265.113 Closure; time allowed for closure. (a) Within...

  7. Specialty pharmacy at a crossroad.

    PubMed

    Adams, Katherine T

    2005-10-01

    Consolidation of the specialty pharmacy business indicates a repositioning to buy new market channels, reduce costs, and compete in a burgeoning market. The challenge for SP is to prove its value to payers. Some companies are doing that on the basis of price or by offering care management services. Here's a look at a business in transition as it redefines itself for the biologics era. PMID:23424307

  8. Is pharmacy a knowledge-based profession?

    PubMed

    Waterfield, Jon

    2010-04-12

    An increasingly important question for the pharmacy educator is the relationship between pharmacy knowledge and professionalism. There is a substantial body of literature on the theory of knowledge and it is useful to apply this to the profession of pharmacy. This review examines the types of knowledge and skill used by the pharmacist, with particular reference to tacit knowledge which cannot be codified. This leads into a discussion of practice-based pharmacy knowledge and the link between pharmaceutical science and practice. The final section of the paper considers the challenge of making knowledge work in practice. This includes a discussion of the production of knowledge within the context of application. The theoretical question posed by this review, "Is pharmacy a knowledge-based profession?" highlights challenging areas of debate for the pharmacy educator. PMID:20498743

  9. Retail pharmacy market structure and performance.

    PubMed

    Brooks, John M; Doucette, William R; Wan, Shaowei; Klepser, Donald G

    2008-01-01

    Substantial variation has been observed in the use of prescription drugs from retail pharmacies, the level of services provided by retail pharmacies, and the prices paid for prescriptions from retail pharmacies. It is not clear whether local area retail pharmacy market structures affect these pharmacy outcomes. The goal of this paper is to discuss the potential research avenues to address these issues. The discussion provides. 1) background on the retail pharmacy and its place within the pharmaceutical supply chain; 2) a discussion of the data that are available to address these issues and the measures that can be developed from these data; and 3) a review of existing research findings and gaps in knowledge. PMID:18524293

  10. Quality indicators to compare accredited independent pharmacies and accredited chain pharmacies in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Arkaravichien, Wiwat; Wongpratat, Apichaya; Lertsinudom, Sunee

    2016-08-01

    Background Quality indicators determine the quality of actual practice in reference to standard criteria. The Community Pharmacy Association (Thailand), with technical support from the International Pharmaceutical Federation, developed a tool for quality assessment and quality improvement at community pharmacies. This tool has passed validity and reliability tests, but has not yet had feasibility testing. Objective (1) To test whether this quality tool could be used in routine settings. (2) To compare quality scores between accredited independent and accredited chain pharmacies. Setting Accredited independent pharmacies and accredited chain pharmacies in the north eastern region of Thailand. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted in 34 accredited independent pharmacies and accredited chain pharmacies. Quality scores were assessed by observation and by interviewing the responsible pharmacists. Data were collected and analyzed by independent t-test and Mann-Whitney U test as appropriate. Results were plotted by histogram and spider chart. Main outcome measure Domain's assessable scores, possible maximum scores, mean and median of measured scores. Results Domain's assessable scores were close to domain's possible maximum scores. This meant that most indicators could be assessed in most pharmacies. The spider chart revealed that measured scores in the personnel, drug inventory and stocking, and patient satisfaction and health promotion domains of chain pharmacies were significantly higher than those of independent pharmacies (p < 0.05). There was no statistical difference between independent pharmacies and chain pharmacies in the premise and facility or dispensing and patient care domains. Conclusion Quality indicators developed by the Community Pharmacy Association (Thailand) could be used to assess quality of practice in pharmacies in routine settings. It is revealed that the quality scores of chain pharmacies were higher than those of independent pharmacies

  11. Performance of retail pharmacies in low- and middle-income Asian settings: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Rosalind; Goodman, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    In low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) in Asia, pharmacies are often patients’ first point of contact with the health care system and their preferred channel for purchasing medicines. Unfortunately, pharmacy practice in these settings has been characterized by deficient knowledge and inappropriate treatment. This paper systematically reviews both the performance of all types of pharmacies and drug stores across Asia’s LMIC, and the determinants of poor practice, in order to reflect on how this could best be addressed. Poor pharmacy practice in Asia appears to have persisted over the past 30 years. We identify a set of inadequacies that occur at key moments throughout the pharmacy encounter, including: insufficient history taking; lack of referral of patients who require medical attention; illegal sale of a wide range of prescription only medicines without a prescription; sale of medicines that are either clinically inappropriate and/or in doses that are outside of the therapeutic range; sale of incomplete courses of antibiotics; and limited provision of information and counselling. In terms of determinants of poor practice, first knowledge was found to be necessary but not sufficient to ensure correct management of patients presenting at the pharmacy. This is evidenced by large discrepancies between stated and actual practice; little difference in the treatment behaviour of less and more qualified personnel and the failure of training programmes to improve practice to a satisfactory level. Second, we identified a number of profit maximizing strategies employed by pharmacy staff that can be linked to poor practices. Finally, whilst the research is relatively sparse, the regulatory environment appears to play an important role in shaping behaviour. Future efforts to improve the situation may yield more success than historical attempts, which have tended to concentrate on education, if they address the profit incentives faced by pharmacy personnel and the

  12. An Exploratory Study of Women in the Health Professions Schools: Volume VIII: Women in Pharmacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urban and Rural Systems Associates, San Francisco, CA.

    In an exploratory study conducted for the Women's Action Program of HEW, the aims were to identify and explore the barriers to success that women face as MODVOPPP (Medicine, Osteopathic medicine, Dentistry, Veterinary medicine, Optometry, Podiatry, Pharmacy, and Public health) school applicants and students and to describe the discrimination…

  13. Fostering career resilience amid a hospital closure.

    PubMed

    Lucey, Paula A

    2015-01-01

    Resilience involves fostering a positive response or outcome when one faces adverse circumstances. This article provides a personal account of the closure of a public hospital and the resilience the nursing staff and chief nurse found to go forward in their nursing careers. Three major aspects are explored: professional identity, confidence/courage, and a sense of caring or concern. PMID:25714954

  14. Academic Program Closures: A Legal Compendium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houpt, Corinne A., Ed.

    The materials in this compendium are intended to assist counsel and administrators at institutions of higher education faced with the need to consider and plan for program closures. Some materials also deal with the closely related issues of financial exigency, faculty reductions, and reductions in force. Section I offers the following papers:…

  15. Managing Minor Ailments; The Public’s Preferences for Attributes of Community Pharmacies. A Discrete Choice Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Mandy; Bond, Christine; Watson, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Background Demand for health services continues to rise. Greater use of community pharmacy services instead of medical services for minor ailments could help relieve pressure on healthcare providers in high-cost settings. Community pharmacies are recognised sources of treatment and advice for people wishing to manage these ailments. However, increasing the public’s use of pharmacy services may depend on attributes of pharmacies and their staff. This study aimed to determine the general public’s relative preferences for community pharmacy attributes using a discrete choice experiment (DCE). Method A UK-wide DCE survey of the general public was conducted using face-to-face computer-assisted personal interviews. Attributes and levels for the DCE were informed by a literature review and a cohort study of community pharmacy customers. The context for the experiment was a minor ailment scenario describing flu-like symptoms. The DCE choice sets described two hypothetical community pharmacy services; respondents were asked to choose which (if either) of the two pharmacies they would prefer to help them manage symptoms. Data from 1,049 interviews were analysed using an error components logit model. Willingness to pay (WTP), a monetary measure of benefit, was estimated for the different attribute levels. Results When seeking help or treatment for flu-like symptoms, respondents most valued a pharmacy service that would improve their understanding and management of symptoms (WTP = £6.28), provided by staff who are trained (WTP (pharmacist) = £2.63: WTP(trained assistant) = £3.22), friendly and approachable (WTP = £3.38). Waiting time, pharmacy location and availability of parking also contributed to respondents’ preferences. WTP for a service comprising the best possible combination of attributes and levels was calculated as £55.43. Conclusion Attributes of a community pharmacy and its staff may influence people’s decisions about which pharmacy they would visit to

  16. Pharmacy staff characteristics associated with support for pharmacy-based HIV-testing in pharmacies participating in the New York State Expanded Access Syringe Exchange Program

    PubMed Central

    Amesty, Silvia; Blaney, Shannon; Crawford, Natalie D.; Rivera, Alexis V.; Fuller, Crystal

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine support of in-pharmacy HIV-testing among pharmacy staff and the individual-level characteristics associated with in-pharmacy HIV testing support. Design Descriptive, nonexperimental, cross-sectional study. Setting New York City (NYC) during January 2008 to March 2009. Intervention 131 pharmacies registered in the Expanded Syringe Access Program (ESAP) completed a survey. Participants 480 pharmacy staff, including pharmacists, owners/managers, and technicians/clerks. Main outcome measures Support of in-pharmacy HIV testing. Results Support of in-pharmacy HIV testing is high among pharmacy staff (79.4%). Pharmacy staff that supported in-pharmacy vaccinations were significantly more likely to support in-pharmacy HIV testing. Pharmacy staff that think that selling syringes to IDUs causes the community to be littered with dirty syringes were significantly less likely to support in-pharmacy HIV testing. Conclusion Support for in-pharmacy HIV testing is high among our sample of ESAP pharmacy staff actively involved in non-prescription syringe sales. These findings suggest that active ESAP pharmacy staff may be amenable to providing HIV counseling and testing to injection drug users and warrants further investigation. PMID:22825227

  17. Mechanics of fatigue crack closure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, J. C., Jr. (Editor); Elber, Wolf (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    Papers are presented on plasticity induced crack closure, crack closure in fatigue crack growth, the dependence of crack closure on fatigue loading variables, and a procedure for standardizing crack closure levels. Also considered are a statistical approach to crack closure determination, the crack closure behavior of surface cracks under pure bending, closure measurements on short fatigue cracks, and crack closure under plane strain conditions. Other topics include fatigue crack closure behavior at high stress ratios, the use of acoustic waves for the characterization of closed fatigue cracks, and the influence of fatigue crack wake length and state of stress on crack closure.

  18. Practicing Your Compounding Skills Outside of Your Pharmacy's Walls.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Mark

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the personal experiences of a compounding pharmacist while on a mission trip to Port au Prince, Haiti. The author's purpose of this article is to provide one of the many examples of how the time, talents, and resources of compounding pharmacists and compounding pharmacies can change not only the lives of others but can be a wake-up call for those pharmacists who have become complacent in their profession. The article also provides tips on dealing with some of the challenges-a compounding pharmacist may face when working in the mission field. PMID:26714361

  19. Knowledge, Skills, and Resources for Pharmacy Informatics Education

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Brent I.; Flynn, Allen J.; Fortier, Christopher R.; Clauson, Kevin A.

    2011-01-01

    Pharmacy has an established history of technology use to support business processes. Pharmacy informatics education within doctor of pharmacy programs, however, is inconsistent, despite its inclusion as a requirement in the 2007 Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education Standards and Guidelines. This manuscript describes pharmacy informatics knowledge and skills that all graduating pharmacy students should possess, conceptualized within the framework of the medication use process. Additionally, we suggest core source materials and specific learning activities to support pharmacy informatics education. We conclude with a brief discussion of emerging changes in the practice model. These changes are facilitated by pharmacy informatics and will inevitably become commonplace in our graduates’ practice environment. PMID:21829267

  20. A Model for Continuing Pharmacy Education

    PubMed Central

    Newlon, Carey; Dickerhofe, Jeannine

    2009-01-01

    Objective To develop and implement a continuing pharmacy education (CPE) program at Kaiser Permanente Colorado (KPCO) Design To address the continuing education needs of its diverse pharmacy staff, an internal continuing pharmacy education (CPE) program was developed. The pharmacy department became an accredited provider by the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE). Live, interactive, and evidence-based CPE programs, presented by highly qualified internal staff members, utilized videoconferencing and a Web-based learning management system. Cross-accreditation of medical and pharmacy educational programs was offered to KPCO staff members. Assessment Annual needs assessments were conducted to ensure the provision of relevant educational topics and to assess learning needs. To demonstrate outcomes of the CPE programs, 2 methods were utilized: objective effectiveness assessment and knowledge acquisition assessment. This program met the objectives for CPE activities a large majority of the time (usually over 90%), demonstrated statistically significant (p < 0.05) improvement in knowledge from before to after the CPE activity in 11 of 13 questions asked, and minimized the cost to acquire CPE credit for both the pharmacy department and its staff members. Conclusion The KPCO continuing pharmacy education program has developed a high quality and cost-favorable system that has resulted in significant improvements in attendee knowledge. PMID:19777102

  1. Audiovisual Instruction in Pediatric Pharmacy Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mutchie, Kelly D.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    A pharmacy practice program added to the core baccalaureate curriculum at the University of Utah College of Pharmacy which includes a practice in pediatrics is described. An audiovisual program in pediatric diseases and drug therapy was developed. This program allows the presentation of more material without reducing clerkship time. (Author/MLW)

  2. Teaching about Confidentiality in Pharmacy Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Evelyn S.

    1989-01-01

    The recent shift in pharmacy practice from product to information orientation, patients' desires to know more about medications, computerized access to records, and increased third-party payments may result in serious ethical dilemmas for pharmacists. Pharmacy schools must provide background in the responsibilities of health care professionals to…

  3. Pharmacy Administration and Clinical Practice Research Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hepler, Charles D.

    1987-01-01

    Research needs for pharmacy administration and clinical pharmacy include study of the relationship of pharmacists and society, management methods for providing health care services, pharmacist training and socialization, competence evaluation, formative and summative research on drug use control, and organizational decision making. (MSE)

  4. JSC Pharmacy Services for Remote Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoner, Paul S.; Bayuse, Tina

    2005-01-01

    The Johnson Space Center Pharmacy began operating in March of 2003. The pharmacy serves in two main capacities: to directly provide medications and services in support of the medical clinics at the Johnson Space Center, physician travel kits for NASA flight surgeon staff, and remote operations, such as the clinics in Devon Island, Star City and Moscow; and indirectly provide medications and services for the International Space Station and Space Shuttle medical kits. Process changes that occurred and continued to evolve in the advent of the installation of the new JSC Pharmacy, and the process of stocking medications for each of these aforementioned areas will be discussed. Methods: The incorporation of pharmacy involvement to provide services for remote operations and supplying medical kits was evaluated. The first step was to review the current processes and work the JSC Pharmacy into the existing system. The second step was to provide medications to these areas. Considerations for the timeline of expiring medications for shipment are reviewed with each request. The third step was the development of a process to provide accountability for the medications. Results: The JSC Pharmacy utilizes a pharmacy management system to document all medications leaving the pharmacy. Challenges inherent to providing medications to remote areas were encountered. A process has been designed to incorporate usage into the electronic medical record upon return of the information from these remote areas. This is an evolving program and several areas have been identified for further improvement.

  5. Description of a Third World Pharmacy Rotation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirchain, William R.

    1990-01-01

    Creighton University (Nebraska) sends groups of pharmacy, medical, dental, nursing, and nonprofessional students to small Dominican Republic villages. They find pharmacy practice highly clinical in this situation. Participants consider the experience one of the most significant in their personal and professional lives. (Author/MSE)

  6. Online pharmacies: safety and regulatory considerations.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Isaac D; Jano, Elda

    2007-01-01

    Sales of consumer products over the Internet have grown rapidly, including sales of pharmaceutical products. Online pharmacies mimic mail order pharmacies. To operate legally online, pharmacies must be licensed in every state in which sales occur. Although online pharmacies provide benefits to consumers, when compared with traditional pharmacies patients' safety may be compromised. Purchasing prescription drugs online may pose a risk to consumers because they cannot tell whether the site is offering drugs of the same quality offered by a retail pharmacy. There is also a possibility that prescription drugs purchased online may be counterfeit, illegal, or unapproved. A U.S. General Accounting Office study conducted in June 2004 showed that most counterfeit and unapproved drugs sold online are from non-U.S. pharmacies. The Food and Drug Administration and other government agencies have worked to enforce laws on drug sales over the Internet. The biggest challenge in regulating non-U.S. pharmacies is due to their off-shore location. Unfortunately, given the widespread anonymous and ever-changing nature of the Internet, it is very difficult to close down illegal websites. PMID:17665724

  7. Pharmacy Students’ Perceptions of Natural Science and Mathematics Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Sarah Ellen; Wan, Kai-Wai

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To determine the level of importance pharmacy students placed on science and mathematics subjects for pursuing a career in pharmacy. Method. Two hundred fifty-four students completed a survey instrument developed to investigate students’ perceptions of the relevance of science and mathematics subjects to a career in pharmacy. Pharmacy students in all 4 years of a master of pharmacy (MPharm) degree program were invited to complete the survey instrument. Results. Students viewed chemistry-based and biology-based subjects as relevant to a pharmacy career, whereas mathematics subjects such as physics, logarithms, statistics, and algebra were not viewed important to a career in pharmacy. Conclusion. Students’ experience in pharmacy and year of study influenced their perceptions of subjects relevant to a pharmacy career. Pharmacy educators need to consider how they can help students recognize the importance of scientific knowledge earlier in the pharmacy curriculum. PMID:25147390

  8. Discounting of medicines in Australian community pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Thai, Loc P; Vitry, Agnes I; Moss, John R

    2014-11-01

    Objective There are many medicines listed on the Australian Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) in which point of sale price is less than the level of the general patient co-payment. In these circumstances, the patient covers the total cost of the medicine from their own pocket with no government subsidy. The aim of the present study was to compare the consumer prices of under general co-payment prescription medicines between banner group pharmacies with open discounting policies and community pharmacies without; and to assess the impact of the April 2012 PBS price disclosure policies on the discounts offered. Methods The consumer prices of 31 under co-payment medicines were collected from banner group pharmacy websites and individual pharmacies both before and after April 2012. PBS maximum prices were obtained from the PBS website. Absolute and relative price differences between PBS and pharmacy groups were calculated. Results Before April 2012, banner group pharmacies provided discounts to patients of around 40% per prescription, whereas other pharmacies provided discounts of around 15%. Total price savings were on average $9 per prescription at banner group pharmacies and $3.50 at other pharmacies. Percentage discounts did not change greatly after April 2012, when price decreases occurred on the PBS. Conclusions Banner group pharmacies with pricing strategies are able to provide greater discounts to patients compared with other pharmacies. Community pharmacies still have the ability to provide substantial discounts after the April 2012 price reductions. What is known about the topic? There is currently little known about the under co-payment medicines market in Australia and the price discounts available to patients. What does this paper add? This research shows that patients who purchase under co-payment medicines are able to save money if they purchase from pharmacies with openly advertised discounting policies. Price reductions related to the implementation

  9. The Determinants of Care Home Closure

    PubMed Central

    Allan, Stephen; Forder, Julien

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the causes of full closure of care homes in the English care home/nursing home market. We develop theoretical arguments about two causes for closure that are triggered by errors or external shocks: poor economic sustainability and regulatory action. Homes aiming to operate with lower quality in the market are argued for a number of reasons to be more susceptible to errors/shocks in setting quality, especially negative errors, leading to an empirical hypothesis that observed quality should negatively affect closure chance. In addition, given quality, homes facing relatively high levels of local competition should also have an increased chance of closure. We use a panel of care homes from 2008 and 2010 to examine factors affecting their closure status in subsequent years. We allow for the potential endogeneity of home quality and use multiple imputation to replace missing data. Results suggest that homes with comparatively higher quality and/or lower levels of competition have less chance of closure than other homes. We discuss that the results provide some support for the policy of regulators providing quality information to potential purchasers in the market. © 2015 The Authors. Health Economics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:25760588

  10. Incorporating Pharmacy Scholarship to Management Responsibilities

    PubMed Central

    Hertig, John B.; Weber, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Practice advancement demands innovation. Amidst professional change, pharmacy leaders have the opportunity to collaborate with colleagues to develop transformational ideas, implement these solutions, and share those successes with professionals around the state, country, and world. Scholarship, defined as contributing to the literature through publications, presentations, and other writings, is an ideal way to advance innovation within the profession. It is critical for pharmacy leaders to build scholarship into their professional workflow. Ensuring that successful projects are published or presented may translate into shared best practices. Many pharmacy leaders may find it difficult to participate in scholarship activities because of their busy schedules. This column serves to outline recommendations on how to effectively incorporate writing for publications, making presentations, and other scholarly work into the role of pharmacy leaders and managers. To reduce the barriers to scholarship, pharmacy leaders role can apply project management principles to their work and identify projects that otherwise would not be published and support their development. PMID:26823623

  11. Incorporating Pharmacy Scholarship to Management Responsibilities.

    PubMed

    Hertig, John B; Weber, Robert J

    2015-09-01

    Practice advancement demands innovation. Amidst professional change, pharmacy leaders have the opportunity to collaborate with colleagues to develop transformational ideas, implement these solutions, and share those successes with professionals around the state, country, and world. Scholarship, defined as contributing to the literature through publications, presentations, and other writings, is an ideal way to advance innovation within the profession. It is critical for pharmacy leaders to build scholarship into their professional workflow. Ensuring that successful projects are published or presented may translate into shared best practices. Many pharmacy leaders may find it difficult to participate in scholarship activities because of their busy schedules. This column serves to outline recommendations on how to effectively incorporate writing for publications, making presentations, and other scholarly work into the role of pharmacy leaders and managers. To reduce the barriers to scholarship, pharmacy leaders role can apply project management principles to their work and identify projects that otherwise would not be published and support their development. PMID:26823623

  12. Strategies for implementation of an effective pharmacogenomics program in pharmacy education.

    PubMed

    Rao, U Subrahmanyeswara; Mayhew, Susan L; Rao, Prema S

    2015-07-01

    Sequencing of the human genome and the evidence correlating specific genetic variations to diseases have opened up the potential of genomics to more effective and less harmful interventions of human diseases. A wealth of pharmacogenomics knowledge is in place for the practice of precision medicine. However, this knowledge is not fully realized in clinical practice. One reason for this impasse is the lack of in-depth understanding of the potential of pharmacogenomics among the healthcare professionals. Pharmacists are the point-of-care providers and are expected to advise clinicians on matters relating to the implementation of pharmacogenomics in patient care. However, current pharmacogenomics instruction in pharmacy schools fails to produce pharmacists with the required knowledge or practical training in this discipline. In this perspective, we provide several strategies to overcome limitations faced by pharmacy schools. Once implemented, pharmacy schools will produce precision medicine-ready pharmacists. PMID:26067487

  13. 45 CFR 162.1901 - Medicaid pharmacy subrogation transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Medicaid pharmacy subrogation transaction. 162... STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Medicaid Pharmacy Subrogation § 162.1901 Medicaid pharmacy subrogation transaction. The Medicaid pharmacy subrogation transaction is...

  14. 21 CFR 1301.19 - Special requirements for online pharmacies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Special requirements for online pharmacies. 1301... Special requirements for online pharmacies. (a) A pharmacy that has been issued a registration under § 1301.13 may request that the Administrator modify its registration to authorize the pharmacy...

  15. 21 CFR 1301.19 - Special requirements for online pharmacies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special requirements for online pharmacies. 1301... Special requirements for online pharmacies. (a) A pharmacy that has been issued a registration under... dispense controlled substances by means of the Internet as an online pharmacy. The Administrator may...

  16. 45 CFR 162.1901 - Medicaid pharmacy subrogation transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Medicaid pharmacy subrogation transaction. 162... STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Medicaid Pharmacy Subrogation § 162.1901 Medicaid pharmacy subrogation transaction. The Medicaid pharmacy subrogation transaction is...

  17. The Relationship between Student Engagement and Professionalism in Pharmacy Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flaherty, Anne Guerin

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between student engagement (as measured by the National Survey of Student Engagement benchmarks) and pharmacy student professionalism (as measured by the Pharmacy Professionalism Domain instrument) in first and third year pharmacy students at seven different schools of pharmacy. Engagement provides the…

  18. 45 CFR 162.1901 - Medicaid pharmacy subrogation transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Medicaid pharmacy subrogation transaction. 162... STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Medicaid Pharmacy Subrogation § 162.1901 Medicaid pharmacy subrogation transaction. The Medicaid pharmacy subrogation transaction is...

  19. 21 CFR 1301.19 - Special requirements for online pharmacies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Special requirements for online pharmacies. 1301... Special requirements for online pharmacies. (a) A pharmacy that has been issued a registration under § 1301.13 may request that the Administrator modify its registration to authorize the pharmacy...

  20. Pharmaceutical Education and Pharmacy Practice in Pakistan and India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Martin I.

    1983-01-01

    Visits to colleges of pharmacy and to community and hospital pharmacies revealed that: pharmacy graduates seek employment in the pharmaceutical industry; pharmacy dispensers are PharmD graduates; physicians are the major drug dispensers to patients; little distinction is made between prescription and over-the-counter drugs; and drug laws are…

  1. The history of pharmacy studies in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Kujundzić, N; Inić, S

    2014-02-01

    The first study of pharmacy on Croatian territory was founded in the early 19th century (1806-1813). Vicencio Dandolo (1758-1819), a pharmacist from Venice who was Napoleon's governor of Dalmatia, established a lyceum in Zadar in 1806. It included education for pharmacists. The Lyceum (later the Central School) was closed in 1811. The founding of the modern University of Zagreb (1874) and its Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences (1876) created the conditions for the development of university education for pharmacists. The study of pharmacy was introduced at the University of Zagreb in 1882 through the efforts of the Croatian-Slavonian Pharmaceutical Association and the professors of the Faculty of Philosophy. The study went through a series of reforms. The most significant one came with the introduction of the four-year study of pharmacy and the establishment of the Pharmacy Department of the Faculty of Philosophy (1928). The independent Faculty of Pharmacy (today's Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry) was founded at the University of Zagreb in 1942. Since 1989, it has had two separate studies (Pharmacy and Medical Biochemistry). PMID:24640607

  2. Nailing Jell-O to a wall: regulating Internet pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Hochberg, Jeremy W

    2004-01-01

    The growth of the Internet pharmacy industry is challenging the ethical and regulatory systems that govern the sale and distribution of prescription drugs. New forms of regulation are necessary to prevent abuse and minimize mistakes by consumers, doctors, and pharmaceutical companies. Unfortunately, the mercurial nature of the Internet makes trying to regulate it "like trying to nail Jell-O to a wall." Effective regulation will require greater coordination among state, national, and international regulatory bodies. In addition, consumereducation programs are necessary to inform the public of the problems that are caused by the impersonal and commercial nature of marketing drugs over the Internet. At a minimum, the author suggests that states should uniformly adopt laws that prohibit a physician from prescribing drugs without any face-to-face communication between the physician and the patient, and the United States should work to make this a uniform international standard. PMID:15648537

  3. Equations and closure methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Basic differential equations governing compressible turbulent boundary layer flow are reviewed, including conservation of mass and energy, momentum equations derived from Navier-Stokes equations, and equations of state. Closure procedures were broken down into: (1) simple or zeroth-order methods, (2) first-order or mean field closure methods, and (3) second-order or mean turbulence field methods.

  4. A Survey of Pharmacy Education in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Low, Bee Yean; Wongpoowarak, Payom; Moolasarn, Summana; Anderson, Claire

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To explore the current status of pharmacy education in Thailand. Methods. The International Pharmaceutical Federation of the World Health Organization’s (FIP-WHO) Global Survey of Pharmacy Schools was used for this study. The survey instrument was distributed to the deans of the 19 faculties (colleges) of pharmacy in Thailand. Results. More than half the colleges have been in existence less than 20 years, and the government owns 80% of them. There were 2 paths of admission to study pharmacy: direct admission and central admission system. The doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) programs can be divided into 4 types. Approximately 60% of all teaching staff holds a doctoral degree. Regarding the work balance among teaching staff, around 60% focus on teaching activities, 20% focus on research, and less than 20% focus on patient care services concurrent with real practice teaching. The proportion of student time dedicated to theory, practice, and research in PharmD programs is 51.5%, 46.7%, and 1.8%, respectively. Sites owned by the colleges or by others were used for student training. Colleges followed the Office of the National Education Standards’ Internal Quality Assurance (IQA) and External Quality Assurance (EQA), and the Pharmacy Council’s Quality Assessment (ONESQA) . Conclusion. This study provides a picture of the current status of curriculum, teaching staff, and students in pharmacy education in Thailand. The curriculum was adapted from the US PharmD program with the aim of meeting the country’s needs and includes industrial pharmacy and public health tracks as well as clinical tracks. However, this transition in pharmacy education in Thailand needs to be monitored and evaluated. PMID:26056400

  5. Pharmaceutical policy and the pharmacy profession.

    PubMed

    Traulsen, Janine M; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna

    2005-10-01

    In this article, the authors look at the relationship between pharmaceutical policy and the pharmacy profession with focus on pharmacy practice and pharmacists in the health care sector. Pharmaceutical policy encompasses three major policy inputs: public health policy, health care policy and industrial policy. In order to analyse and understand pharmaceutical policy, it is important to know how policymakers view pharmacy and pharmacists. The authors look at the issues that arise when policy regulates pharmacy as a business, and what this means for the profession. The perspective of pharmacy as a health care profession, as well as what it means when we view pharmaceutical policy in the context of the health sector labour market, is discussed. The authors also discuss how factors external to the profession are affecting its purpose and realm of practice, including the current trend in managerialism, and how the division of labour with other health professionals such as physicians and pharmacy assistants is affecting the pharmacy profession's position in the labour market. Next the authors look at ways in which the pharmacy profession has affected policy. Pharmacists have been instrumental in developing new and expanding roles for the profession, sometimes inspired by external events, but often as a result of their own prerogative. The pharmacy profession is encouraged to take a leading role in forming and contributing to policy, in this way making visible its contribution to society in general and public health in particular. If not, the profession will forever be reacting to policy and will remain at the mercy of policymakers and other strong actors in society. PMID:16341741

  6. A Graduate Program in Institutional Pharmacy Management Leading to an MS in Hospital Pharmacy, MBA and Residency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Jan N.; Lipman, Arthur G.

    1981-01-01

    A combined program leading to the MS in Hospital Pharmacy, MBA, and Certificate of Residency in Hospital Pharmacy established at the University of Utah in 1978 is described. The program provides coursework in both hospital pharmacy and management plus practical experience in hospital pharmacy practice management. (Author/MLW)

  7. A Roadmap for Educational Research in Pharmacy

    PubMed Central

    Dean, Meredith J.; Mumper, Russell J.; Blouin, Robert A.; Roth, Mary T.

    2013-01-01

    Educational research must play a critical role in informing practice and policy within pharmacy education. Understanding the educational environment and its impact on students, faculty members, and other stakeholders is imperative for improving outcomes and preparing pharmacy students to meet the needs of 21st century health care. To aid in the design and implementation of meaningful educational research within colleges and schools of pharmacy, this roadmap addresses philosophy and educational language; guidelines for the conduct of educational research; research design, including 4 approaches to defining, collecting, and analyzing educational data; measurement issues; ethical considerations; resources and tools; and the value of educational research in guiding curricular transformation. PMID:24371342

  8. Parenteral nutrition in hospital pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Katoue, Maram Gamal; Al-Taweel, Dalal; Matar, Kamal Mohamed; Kombian, Samuel B

    2016-07-11

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to explore parenteral nutrition (PN) practices in hospital pharmacies of Kuwait and identify potential avenues for quality improvement in this service. Design/methodology/approach - A descriptive, qualitative study about PN practices was conducted from June 2012 to February 2013 in Kuwait. Data were collected via in-depth semi-structured interviews with the head total parenteral nutrition (TPN) pharmacists at seven hospitals using a developed questionnaire. The questionnaire obtained information about the PN service at each hospital including the existence of nutritional support teams (NSTs), PN preparation practices, quality controls and guidelines/protocols. The interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed for content. Findings - Seven hospitals in Kuwait provided PN preparation service through TPN units within hospital pharmacies. Functional NSTs did not exist in any of these hospitals. All TPN units used paper-based standard PN order forms for requesting PN. The content of PN order forms and PN formulas labeling information were inconsistent across hospitals. Most of the prepared PN formulas were tailor-made and packed in single compartment bags. Quality controls used included gravimetric analysis and visual inspection of PN formulations, and less consistently reported periodic evaluation of the aseptic techniques. Six TPN units independently developed PN guidelines/protocols. Originality/value - This study revealed variations in many aspects of PN practices among the hospitals in Kuwait and provided recommendations to improve this service. Standardization of PN practices would enhance the quality of care provided to patients receiving PN and facilitate national monitoring. This can be accomplished through the involvement of healthcare professionals with expertise in nutrition support working within proactive NSTs. PMID:27298063

  9. Factors influencing pharmacy students’ attitudes towards pharmacy practice research and strategies for promoting research interest in pharmacy practice

    PubMed Central

    Kritikos, Vicky S.; Saini, Bandana; Carter, Stephen; Moles, Rebekah J.; Krass, Ines

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To (1) investigate the relationships between students’ characteristics and their (a) perceptions of research in general and (b) attitudes towards pharmacy practice research; (2) identify strategies that could be used by pharmacy educators to promote research interest in pharmacy practice; and (3) identify perceived barriers to the pursuit or completion of a pharmacy practice research degree. Methods: A survey was administered to all students enrolled in each year of the four-year pharmacy undergraduate program, University of Sydney, Australia. Perceptions of research in general were measured using 4 items on a five-point semantic-differential scale and attitudes towards pharmacy practice research were measured using 16 items on a five-point Likert scale. Student characteristics were also collected as were responses to open-ended questions which were analysed using content analysis. Results: In total 853 students participated and completed the survey (83% response rate). Participants’ characteristics were associated with some but not all aspects of research and pharmacy practice research. It appeared that positive attitudes and perspectives were influenced strongly by exposure to the ‘research’ process through projects, friends or mentors, previous degrees or having future intentions to pursue a research degree. Results from both the quantitative and qualitative analyses suggest positive attitudes and perceptions of research can be nurtured through the formal inclusion in research processes, particularly the utility of practice research in clinical practice across the four years of study. Participants indicated there was a lack of awareness of the needs, benefits and career opportunities associated with pharmacy practice research and voiced clear impediments in their career path with respect to the choice of practice research-related careers. Conclusions: Future research should investigate changes in perceptions and attitudes in a single cohort

  10. Pharmacy in a New Frontier - The First Five Years at the Johnson Space Center Pharmacy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayuse, Tina

    2008-01-01

    A poster entitled "Space Medicine - A New Role for Clinical Pharmacists" was presented in December 2001 highlighting an up-and-coming role for pharmacists at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, Texas. Since that time, the operational need for the pharmacy profession has expanded with the administration s decision to open a pharmacy on site at JSC to complement the care provided by the Flight Medicine and Occupational Medicine Clinics. The JSC Pharmacy is a hybrid of traditional retail and hospital pharmacy and is compliant with the ambulatory care standards set forth by the Joint Commission. The primary charge for the pharmacy is to provide medication management for JSC. In addition to providing ambulatory care for both clinics, the pharmacists also practice space medicine. A pharmacist had been involved in the packing of both the Space Shuttle and International Space Station Medical Kits before the JSC Pharmacy was established; however, the role of the pharmacist in packing medical kits has grown. The pharmacists are now full members of the operations team providing consultation for new drug delivery systems, regulations, and patient safety issues. As the space crews become more international, so does the drug information provided by the pharmacists. This presentation will review the journey of the JSC Pharmacy as it celebrated its five year anniversary in April of 2008. The implementation of the pharmacy, challenges to the incorporation of the pharmacy into an existing health-care system, and the current responsibilities of a pharmacist at the Johnson Space Center will be discussed.

  11. Effect of crack surface geometry on fatigue crack closure

    SciTech Connect

    Drury, W.J.; Gokhale, A.M.; Antolovich, S.D.

    1995-10-01

    The geometry of crack faces often plays a critical role in reducing crack extension forces when crack closure occurs during fatigue crack growth. Most previous studies of fatigue crack closure are concerned with mechanical measure of closure as related to the crack growth rate; very little attention has been given to the geometry of the crack surfaces. The objective is to identify those aspects of crack surface geometry that are important in the closure process, to develop quantitative fractographic techniques to estimate such attributes in a statistically significant and robust manner, and to correlate them to the physical process of crack closure. For this purpose, fatigue crack propagation experiments were performed on a Ni-base superalloy and crack growth rates and crack closure loads were measured. Digital image profilometry and software-based analysis techniques were used for statistically reliable and detailed quantitative characterization of fatigue crack profiles. It is shown that the dimensionless, scale-independent attributes, such a height-to-width ratio of asperities, fractal dimensions, dimensionless roughness parameters, etc., do not represent the aspects of crack geometry that are of primary importance in the crack closure phenomena. Furthermore, it is shown that the scale-dependent characteristics, such as average asperity height, do represent the aspects of crack geometry that play an interactive role in the closure process. These observations have implications concerning the validity of geometry-dependent, closure-based models for fatigue crack growth.

  12. Effect of crack surface geometry on fatigue crack closure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drury, W. J.; Gokhale, Arun M.; Antolovich, S. D.

    1995-10-01

    The geometry of crack faces often plays a critical role in reducing crack extension forces when crack closure occurs during fatigue crack growth. Most previous studies of fatigue crack closure are concerned with mechanical measures of closure as related to the crack growth rate; very little attention has been given to the geometry of the crack surfaces. Our objective is to identify those aspects of crack surface geometry that are important in the closure process, to develop quantitative fractographic techniques to estimate such attributes in a statistically significant and robust manner, and to correlate them to the physical process of crack closure. For this purpose, fatigue crack propagation experiments were performed on a Ni-base superalloy and crack growth rates and crack closure loads were measured. Digital image profilometry and software-based analysis techniques were used for statistically reliable and detailed quantitative characterization of fatigue crack profiles. It is shown that the dimensionless, scale-independent attributes, such as height-to-width ratio of asperities, fractal dimensions, dimensionless roughness parameters, etc., do not represent the aspects of crack geometry that are of primary importance in the crack closure phenomena. Furthermore, it is shown that the scaledependent characteristics, such as average asperity height, do represent the aspects of crack geometry that play an interactive role in the closure process. These observations have implications concerning the validity of geometry-dependent, closure-based models for fatigue crack growth.

  13. Double face sealing device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weddendorf, Bruce C. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A double face sealing device for mounting between two surfaces to provide an airtight and fluid-tight seal between a closure member bearing one of the surfaces and a structure or housing bearing the other surface which extends around the opening or hatchway to be closed. The double face sealing device includes a plurality of sections or segments mounted to one of the surfaces, each having a main body portion, a pair of outwardly extending and diverging, cantilever, spring arms, and a pair of inwardly extending and diverging, cantilever, spring arms, an elastomeric cover on the distal, free, ends of the outwardly extending and diverging spring arms, and an elastomeric cover on the distal, free, ends of the inwardly extending and diverging spring arms. The double face sealing device has application or use in all environments requiring a seal, but is particularly useful to seal openings or hatchways between compartments of spacecraft or aircraft.

  14. A Conflict Management Scale for Pharmacy

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Paul A.; Martin, Craig

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To develop and establish the validity and reliability of a conflict management scale specific to pharmacy practice and education. Methods A multistage inventory-item development process was undertaken involving 93 pharmacists and using a previously described explanatory model for conflict in pharmacy practice. A 19-item inventory was developed, field tested, and validated. Results The conflict management scale (CMS) demonstrated an acceptable degree of reliability and validity for use in educational or practice settings to promote self-reflection and self-awareness regarding individuals' conflict management styles. Conclusions The CMS provides a unique, pharmacy-specific method for individuals to determine and reflect upon their own conflict management styles. As part of an educational program to facilitate self-reflection and heighten self-awareness, the CMS may be a useful tool to promote discussions related to an important part of pharmacy practice. PMID:19960081

  15. Communication Capacity Building through Pharmacy Practice Simulation.

    PubMed

    Fejzic, Jasmina; Barker, Michelle; Hills, Ruth; Priddle, Alannah

    2016-03-25

    Objective. To examine the effectiveness of simulated learning modules (SLMs) encompassing EXcellence in Cultural Experiential Learning and Leadership (EXCELL) core competencies in enhancing pharmacy students' professional communication skills. Methods. Students completed three hours of preparatory lectures and eight hours of workshops comprising six SLMs themed around pharmacy practice and pharmacy placements. Each SLM comprised role-plays with actors, facilitation using EXCELL Social Interaction Maps (SIMs), and debriefing. Evaluations of SLMs included quantitative and qualitative survey responses collected before, during and after workshops, and after placements. Facilitators reflected on SLMs as a pedagogic modality. Results. Student feedback was positive about SLMs as an effective learning tool. The majority indicated areas of new learning and found SLMs enhanced their professional skills and confidence. Facilitator feedback was positive, and suggested SLM optimization strategies. Conclusion. Student and teaching team recommendations will inform future curriculum development including the optimization of SLMs in pharmacy education. PMID:27073281

  16. Future methods in pharmacy practice research.

    PubMed

    Almarsdottir, A B; Babar, Z U D

    2016-06-01

    This article describes the current and future practice of pharmacy scenario underpinning and guiding this research and then suggests future directions and strategies for such research. First, it sets the scene by discussing the key drivers which could influence the change in pharmacy practice research. These are demographics, technology and professional standards. Second, deriving from this, it seeks to predict and forecast the future shifts in use of methodologies. Third, new research areas and availability of data impacting on future methods are discussed. These include the impact of aging information technology users on healthcare, understanding and responding to cultural and social disparities, implementing multidisciplinary initiatives to improve health care, medicines optimization and predictive risk analysis, and pharmacy as business and health care institution. Finally, implications of the trends for pharmacy practice research methods are discussed. PMID:27209486

  17. 42 CFR 413.241 - Pharmacy arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., 2011, an ESRD facility that enters into an arrangement with a pharmacy to furnish renal dialysis... renal dialysis service drugs and biologicals to patients in a timely manner. Effective Date Note: At...

  18. Communication Capacity Building through Pharmacy Practice Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Michelle; Hills, Ruth; Priddle, Alannah

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To examine the effectiveness of simulated learning modules (SLMs) encompassing EXcellence in Cultural Experiential Learning and Leadership (EXCELL) core competencies in enhancing pharmacy students’ professional communication skills. Methods. Students completed three hours of preparatory lectures and eight hours of workshops comprising six SLMs themed around pharmacy practice and pharmacy placements. Each SLM comprised role-plays with actors, facilitation using EXCELL Social Interaction Maps (SIMs), and debriefing. Evaluations of SLMs included quantitative and qualitative survey responses collected before, during and after workshops, and after placements. Facilitators reflected on SLMs as a pedagogic modality. Results. Student feedback was positive about SLMs as an effective learning tool. The majority indicated areas of new learning and found SLMs enhanced their professional skills and confidence. Facilitator feedback was positive, and suggested SLM optimization strategies. Conclusion. Student and teaching team recommendations will inform future curriculum development including the optimization of SLMs in pharmacy education. PMID:27073281

  19. The Need for an Aerospace Pharmacy Residency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayuse, T.; Schuyler, C.; Bayuse, Tina M.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph poster presentation reviews the rationale for a call for a new program in residency for aerospace pharmacy. Aerospace medicine provides a unique twist on traditional medicine, and a specialty has evolved to meet the training for physicians, and it is becoming important to develop such a program for training in pharmacy designed for aerospace. The reasons for this specialist training are outlined and the challenges of developing a program are reviewed.

  20. Big Data: Implications for Health System Pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Laura B; Rogers, Joseph W; Hertig, John B; Weber, Robert J

    2016-07-01

    Big Data refers to datasets that are so large and complex that traditional methods and hardware for collecting, sharing, and analyzing them are not possible. Big Data that is accurate leads to more confident decision making, improved operational efficiency, and reduced costs. The rapid growth of health care information results in Big Data around health services, treatments, and outcomes, and Big Data can be used to analyze the benefit of health system pharmacy services. The goal of this article is to provide a perspective on how Big Data can be applied to health system pharmacy. It will define Big Data, describe the impact of Big Data on population health, review specific implications of Big Data in health system pharmacy, and describe an approach for pharmacy leaders to effectively use Big Data. A few strategies involved in managing Big Data in health system pharmacy include identifying potential opportunities for Big Data, prioritizing those opportunities, protecting privacy concerns, promoting data transparency, and communicating outcomes. As health care information expands in its content and becomes more integrated, Big Data can enhance the development of patient-centered pharmacy services. PMID:27559194

  1. When procedures meet practice in community pharmacies: qualitative insights from pharmacists and pharmacy support staff

    PubMed Central

    Ashcroft, Darren M

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Our aim was to explore how members of community pharmacy staff perceive and experience the role of procedures within the workplace in community pharmacies. Setting Community pharmacies in England and Wales. Participants 24 community pharmacy staff including pharmacists and pharmacy support staff were interviewed regarding their view of procedures in community pharmacy. Transcripts were analysed using thematic analysis. Results 3 main themes were identified. According to the ‘dissemination and creation of standard operating procedures’ theme, community pharmacy staff were required to follow a large amount of procedures as part of their work. At times, complying with all procedures was not possible. According to the ‘complying with procedures’ theme, there are several factors that influenced compliance with procedures, including work demands, the high workload and the social norm within the pharmacy. Lack of staff, pressure to hit targets and poor communication also affected how able staff felt to follow procedures. The third theme ‘procedural compliance versus using professional judgement’ highlighted tensions between the standardisation of practice and the professional autonomy of pharmacists. Pharmacists feared being unsupported by their employer for working outside of procedures, even when acting for patient benefit. Some support staff believed that strictly following procedures would keep patients and themselves safe. Dispensers described following the guidance of the pharmacist which sometimes meant working outside of procedures, but occasionally felt unable to voice concerns about not working to rule. Conclusions Organisational resilience in community pharmacy was apparent and findings from this study should help to inform policymakers and practitioners regarding factors likely to influence the implementation of procedures in community pharmacy settings. Future research should focus on exploring community pharmacy employees' intentions

  2. Fracture mechanics analyses of partial crack closure in shell structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jun

    2007-12-01

    This thesis presents the theoretical and finite element analyses of crack-face closure behavior in shells and its effect on the stress intensity factor under a bending load condition. Various shell geometries, such as spherical shell, cylindrical shell containing an axial crack, cylindrical shell containing a circumferential crack and shell with double curvatures, are all studied. In addition, the influence of material orthotropy on the crack closure effect in shells is also considered. The theoretical formulation is developed based on the shallow shell theory of Delale and Erdogan, incorporating the effect of crack-face closure at the compressive edges. The line-contact assumption, simulating the crack-face closure at the compressive edges, is employed so that the contact force at the closure edges is introduced, which can be translated to the mid-plane of the shell, accompanied by an additional distributed bending moment. The unknown contact force is computed by solving a mixed-boundary value problem iteratively, that is, along the crack length, either the normal displacement of the crack face at the compressive edges is equal to zero or the contact pressure is equal to zero. It is found that due to the curvature effects crack closure may not always occur on the entire length of the crack, depending on the direction of the bending load and the geometry of the shell. The crack-face closure influences significantly the magnitude of the stress intensity factors; it increases the membrane component but decreases the bending component. The maximum stress intensity factor is reduced by the crack-face closure. The significant influence of geometry and material orthotropy on rack closure behavior in shells is also predicted based on the analytical solutions. Three-dimensional FEA is performed to validate the theoretical solutions. It demonstrates that the crack face closure occurs actually over an area, not on a line, but the theoretical solutions of the stress intensity

  3. The Economic, Social and Administrative Pharmacy (ESAP) Discipline in US Schools and Colleges of Pharmacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkhateeb, Fadi M.; Latif, David A.; Adkins, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Schools and colleges of pharmacy in the United States have struggled over the past several decades with identifying a consistent title for the broad body of knowledge related to the social, economic, behavioral, and administrative aspects of pharmacy. This paper examines the educational background and professional experience of those teaching…

  4. Interest of Pharmacy Practitioners in Earning a Doctor of Pharmacy Degree

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Maven J.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    As part of a feasibility study, the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy and Science sent questionnaires to baccalaureate graduates to determine their interests in obtaining a Doctor of Pharmacy degree, how many hours of instruction they would be willing to undertake, and interest in a full-time clinical experience. (SW)

  5. Social pharmacy as a field of study: the needs and challenges in global pharmacy education.

    PubMed

    Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Shafie, Asrul Akmal; Al-Haddad, Mahmoud Sa'di; Abduelkarem, Abduelmula Rajab; Ibrahim, Mohamed Izham; Palaian, Subish; Abrika, Omar Saad Saleh

    2011-12-01

    The practice of pharmacy and, consequently, pharmacy curricula have undergone significant changes over the past years in response to a rapidly changing economic, political, and social environment. Within this context, the pharmacist's role had expanded to include more direct interaction with the public in terms of the provision of health information and advice on the safe and rational use of medications. To carry out these roles effectively, pharmacists need to be well prepared on how to deal with patients' behavior and psychology. The understanding of patient sociobehavioral aspects in the medication use process is paramount to achieving optimal clinical and humanistic outcomes from therapy. The concept of behavioral sciences and health psychology are embedded as the fundamental concepts in the field of social pharmacy, and thus it is imperative that this should be taught and nurtured to future pharmacy practitioners. Based on the growing needs for future pharmacists to be exposed to issues in social pharmacy, many pharmacy schools around the world have adopted this subject to be part of their standard curriculum. In this commentary, a discussion of the needs of social pharmacy courses in pharmacy curriculum will be addressed in the context of both developed and developing countries. PMID:21272536

  6. Quick actuating closure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, III, Dorsey E. (Inventor); Updike, deceased, Benjamin T. (Inventor); Allred, Johnny W. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A quick actuating closure for a pressure vessel 80 in which a wedge ring 30 with a conical outer surface 31 is moved forward to force shear blocks 40, with conical inner surfaces 41, radially outward to lock an end closure plug 70 within an opening 81 in the pressure vessel 80. A seal ring 60 and a preload ramp 50 sit between the shear blocks 40 and the end closure plug 70 to provide a backup sealing capability. Conical surfaces 44 and 55 of the preload ramp 50 and the shear blocks 40 interact to force the seal ring 60 into shoulders 73 and 85 in the end closure plug 70 and opening 81 to form a tight seal. The end closure plug 70 is unlocked by moving the wedge ring 30 rearward, which causes T-bars 32 of the wedge ring 30 riding within T -slots 42 of the shear blocks 40 to force them radially inward. The end closure plug 70 is then removed, allowing access to the interior of the pressure vessel 80.

  7. Implementing clinical pharmacy within undergraduate teaching in Namibia.

    PubMed

    Rudall, Nicola; Kalemeera, Francis; Rennie, Timothy

    2015-06-01

    Clinical pharmacy is currently not practised in Namibia. To introduce the concept and skills pertinent to this area of practice, pharmacy undergraduates at Namibia's new School of Pharmacy are introduced to clinical pharmacy from their second year, and progress from theory to practical application on the wards. This approach has led to students having a greater understanding of clinical pharmacy and how it can be applied in practice. Introducing clinical pharmacy progressively at an undergraduate level may help to stimulate interest in the speciality for future career progression. PMID:25854309

  8. 21 CFR 1306.25 - Transfer between pharmacies of prescription information for Schedules III, IV, and V controlled...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... permitted by law and the prescriber's authorization. (b) Transfers are subject to the following requirements... pharmacist must do the following: (i) Write the word “VOID” on the face of the invalidated prescription; for... registration number of the pharmacy to which it was transferred and the name of the pharmacist receiving...

  9. 21 CFR 1306.25 - Transfer between pharmacies of prescription information for Schedules III, IV, and V controlled...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... permitted by law and the prescriber's authorization. (b) Transfers are subject to the following requirements... pharmacist must do the following: (i) Write the word “VOID” on the face of the invalidated prescription; for... registration number of the pharmacy to which it was transferred and the name of the pharmacist receiving...

  10. 21 CFR 1306.25 - Transfer between pharmacies of prescription information for Schedules III, IV, and V controlled...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... permitted by law and the prescriber's authorization. (b) Transfers are subject to the following requirements... pharmacist must do the following: (i) Write the word “VOID” on the face of the invalidated prescription; for... registration number of the pharmacy to which it was transferred and the name of the pharmacist receiving...

  11. [Ancient history of Indian pharmacy].

    PubMed

    Okuda, Jun; Natsume, Yohko

    2010-01-01

    The study of the ancient history of Indian medicine has recently been revived due to the publication of polyglot translations. However, little is known of ancient Indian pharmacy. Archaeological evidence suggests the Indus people lived a settled life approximately in 2500 B.C. Their cities were enjoying the cleanest and most hygienic daily life with elaborate civic sanitation systems. The whole conception shows a remarkable concern for health. Then, the early Aryans invaded India about 1500 B.C. and the Vedic age started. The Rgveda texts contain the hymns for Soma and those for herbs. The term Ayurveda (i.e., science of life) is found in some old versions of both Ramāyana and Mahābhārata and in the Atharvaveda. Suśruta had the credit of making a breakthrough in the field of surgery. The Ayurveda, a work on internal medicine, gives the following transmission of sages: Brahmā-->Daksa-->Prajāpati-->Aśivinau-->Indra-->Caraka. On the other hand, the Suśruta-samhitā, which deals mainly with surgical medicine, explains it as follows; Indra-->Dhanvantari-->Suśruta Both Caraka and Suśruta were medical doctors as well as pharmacists, so they studied more than 1000 herbs thoroughly. The Ayurveda had been used by his devotees for medical purposes. It eventually spread over Asia with the advanced evolution of Buddhism. PMID:21032887

  12. Influences on Malaysian Pharmacy Students' Career Preferences

    PubMed Central

    Kwai Chong, David Weng; Ahmadi, Keivan; Se, Wong Pei; Hassali, Mohammed Azmi; Hata, Ernieda Mohammed; Hadi, Muhammed Abdul; Sridhar, Sathvik Belagodu; Ahmed, Syed Imran; Yean, Low Bee; Efendie, Benny

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To identify and evaluate factors affecting the career preferences of fourth-year bachelor of pharmacy (BPharm) students in Malaysia in the presence of a 4-year period of mandatory government service. Methods A validated self-administered questionnaire was used in this cross-sectional study to collect data from final-year BPharm students enrolled at 3 government-funded universities and 1 private university in Malaysia. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used for data analysis. Results Three hundred fourteen students responded (213 from public universities and 101 from the private university). Approximately 32% of public university students and 37% of private university students ranked their own interest in pharmacy as the reason for undertaking pharmacy degree studies; 40.4% of public and 19.8% of private university respondents stated that they would enter a nonpharmacy-related career upon graduation if given the choice. Public university students ranked hospital pharmacy as their choice of first career setting (4.39, p = 0.001), while private students ranked community pharmacy first (4.1, p = 0.002). On a scale of 1 to 5, salary received the highest mean score (3.9 and 4.0, p = 0.854) as the extrinsic factor most influencing their career choice. Conclusions Final-year students at Malaysian public universities were most interested in hospital pharmacy practice as their first career step upon graduation, while private university students were most interested in community pharmacy. The top 3 extrinsic factors rated as significant in selecting a career destination were salary, benefits, and geographical location. PMID:21301600

  13. Face pain

    MedlinePlus

    Face pain may be dull and throbbing or an intense, stabbing discomfort in the face or forehead. It can occur in one or ... Pain that starts in the face may be caused by a nerve problem, injury, or infection. Face pain may also begin in other places in the body. ...

  14. Pharmacies as providers of expanded health services for people who inject drugs: a review of laws, policies, and barriers in six countries

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background People who inject drugs (PWID) are underserved by health providers but pharmacies may be their most accessible care settings. Methods Studies in the U.S., Russia, Vietnam, China, Canada and Mexico employed a three-level (macro-, meso-, and micro-) model to assess feasibility of expanded pharmacy services for PWID. Studies employed qualitative and quantitative interviews, review of legal and policy documents, and information on the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of key stakeholders. Results Studies produced a mixed assessment of feasibility. Provision of information and referrals by pharmacies is permissible in all study sites and sale and safe disposal of needles/syringes by pharmacies is legal in almost all sites, although needle/syringe sales face challenges related to attitudes and practices of pharmacists, police, and other actors. Pharmacy provision of HIV testing, hepatitis vaccination, opioid substitution treatment, provision of naloxone for drug overdose, and abscess treatment, face more serious legal and policy barriers. Discussion Challenges to expanded services for drug users in pharmacies exist at all three levels, especially the macro-level characterized by legal barriers and persistent stigmatization of PWID. Where deficiencies in laws, policies, and community attitudes block implementation, stakeholders should advocate for needed legal and policy changes and work to address community stigma and resistance. Laws and policies are only as good as their implementation, so attention is also needed to meso- and micro- levels. Policies, attitudes, and practices of police departments and pharmacy chains as well as knowledge, attitudes, and practices of individual PWID, individual pharmacies, and police officers should support rather than undermine positive laws and expanded services. Despite the challenges, pharmacies remain potentially important venues for delivering health services to PWID. PMID:24938376

  15. Novel application of polyelectrolyte multilayers as nanoscopic closures with hermetic sealing.

    PubMed

    Marcott, Stephanie A; Ada, Sena; Gibson, Phillip; Camesano, Terri A; Nagarajan, R

    2012-03-01

    Closure systems for personnel protection applications, such as protective clothing or respirator face seals, should provide effective permeation barrier to toxic gases. Currently available mechanical closure systems based on the hook and loop types (example, Velcro) do not provide adequate barrier to gas permeation. To achieve hermetic sealing, we propose a nonmechanical, nanoscopic molecular closure system based on complementary polyelectrolyte multilayers, one with a polycation outermost layer and the other with a polyanion outermost layer. The closure surfaces were prepared by depositing polyelectrolyte multilayers under a variety of deposition conditions, on conformable polymer substrates (thin films of polyethylene teraphthalate, PET or polyimide, PI). The hermetic sealing property of the closures was evaluated by measuring the air flow resistance using the dynamic moisture permeation cell (DMPC) at different humidity conditions. The DMPC measurements show that the polyelectrolyte multilayer closures provide significantly large resistance to air flow, approximately 20-800 times larger than that possible with conventional hook and loop type closure systems, at all humidity levels (from 5 to 95% relative humidity). Hence, from the point of view of providing a hermetic seal against toxic gas permeation, the polyelectrolyte multilayer closures are viable candidates for further engineering development. However, the adhesive strength of the multilayer closures measured by atomic force microscopy suggests that the magnitude of adhesion is much smaller than what is possible with mechanical closures. Therefore, we envisage the development of a composite closure system combining the mechanical closure to provide strong adhesion and the multilayer closure to provide hermetic sealing. PMID:22391415

  16. Development, test-retest reliability and validity of the Pharmacy Value-Added Services Questionnaire (PVASQ)

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Christine L.; Hassali, Mohamed A.; Saleem, Fahad; Shafie, Asrul A.; Aljadhey, Hisham; Gan, Vincent B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: (i) To develop the Pharmacy Value-Added Services Questionnaire (PVASQ) using emerging themes generated from interviews. (ii) To establish reliability and validity of questionnaire instrument. Methods: Using an extended Theory of Planned Behavior as the theoretical model, face-to-face interviews generated salient beliefs of pharmacy value-added services. The PVASQ was constructed initially in English incorporating important themes and later translated into the Malay language with forward and backward translation. Intention (INT) to adopt pharmacy value-added services is predicted by attitudes (ATT), subjective norms (SN), perceived behavioral control (PBC), knowledge and expectations. Using a 7-point Likert-type scale and a dichotomous scale, test-retest reliability (N=25) was assessed by administrating the questionnaire instrument twice at an interval of one week apart. Internal consistency was measured by Cronbach’s alpha and construct validity between two administrations was assessed using the kappa statistic and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Confirmatory Factor Analysis, CFA (N=410) was conducted to assess construct validity of the PVASQ. Results: The kappa coefficients indicate a moderate to almost perfect strength of agreement between test and retest. The ICC for all scales tested for intra-rater (test-retest) reliability was good. The overall Cronbach’ s alpha (N=25) is 0.912 and 0.908 for the two time points. The result of CFA (N=410) showed most items loaded strongly and correctly into corresponding factors. Only one item was eliminated. Conclusions: This study is the first to develop and establish the reliability and validity of the Pharmacy Value-Added Services Questionnaire instrument using the Theory of Planned Behavior as the theoretical model. The translated Malay language version of PVASQ is reliable and valid to predict Malaysian patients’ intention to adopt pharmacy value-added services to collect partial medicine

  17. Minimum qualifications for clinical pharmacy practice faculty.

    PubMed

    Engle, Janet P; Erstad, Brian L; Anderson, Douglas C; Bucklin, Mason H; Chan, Alexandre; Donaldson, Amy R; Hagemann, Tracy M; O'Connell, Mary Beth; Rodgers, Philip T; Tennant, Sarah; Thomas, Zachariah

    2014-05-01

    The American College of Clinical Pharmacy 2013 Educational Affairs Committee was charged with developing recommendations for the minimum qualifications required for clinical pharmacy practice faculty in United States colleges and schools of pharmacy with respect to education, postgraduate training, board certification, and other experiences. From a review of the literature, the committee recommends that clinical pharmacy practice faculty possess the following minimum qualifications, noting that, for some positions, additional qualifications may be necessary. Clinical pharmacy practice faculty should possess the Doctor of Pharmacy degree from an Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education–accredited institution. In addition, faculty should have completed a postgraduate year one (PGY1) residency or possess at least 3 years of direct patient care experience. Faculty who practice in identified areas of pharmacotherapy specialization, as identified by American Society of Health-System Pharmacists postgraduate year two (PGY2) residency guidelines, should have completed a PGY2 residency in that area of specialty practice. Alternatively, faculty should have completed a minimum of a PGY1 residency and 1 additional year of practice, with at least 50% of time spent in their area of specialization, which is documented in a portfolio, or 4 years of direct patient care in their area of specialization, which is documented in a portfolio. Fellowship training or a graduate degree (e.g., Ph.D.) should be required for research-intensive clinical faculty positions. All faculty should obtain structured teaching experience during or after postgraduate training, preferably through a formal teaching certificate program or through activities documented in a teaching portfolio. A baseline record of scholarship should be obtained before hire as clinical pharmacy practice faculty through exposure in postgraduate programs or previous employment. Faculty should be board certified before hire

  18. Pharmacy practice and injection use in community pharmacies in Pokhara city, Western Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Community pharmacies in Nepal serve as the first point of contact for the public with the health care system and provide many services, including administering injections. However, there is a general lack of documented information on pharmacy practice and injection use in these pharmacies. This study aims to provide information about pharmacy practice in terms of service and drug information sources, and injection use, including the disposal of used injection equipment. Methods A mixed method, cross-sectional study was conducted in 54 community pharmacies in Pokhara city. Data was collected using a pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire, and also by the direct observation of pharmacy premises. Interviews with pharmacy supervisors (proprietors) were also conducted to obtain additional information about certain points. Results Interviews were carried out with 54 pharmacy supervisors/proprietors (47 males and 7 females) with a mean age and experience of 35.54 and 11.73 years, respectively. Approximately a half of the studied premises were operated by legally recognized pharmaceutical personnel, while the remainder was run by people who did not have the legal authority to operate pharmacies independently. About a quarter of pharmacies were providing services such as the administration of injections, wound dressing, and laboratory and consultation services in addition to medicine dispensing and counseling services. The ‘Current Index of Medical Specialties’ was the most commonly used source for drug information. Almost two-thirds of patients visiting the pharmacies were dispensed medicines without a prescription. Tetanus Toxoid, Depot-Medroxy Progesterone Acetate, and Diclofenac were the most commonly-used/administered injections. Most of the generated waste (including sharps) was disposed of in a municipal dump without adhering to the proper procedures for the disposal of hazardous waste. Conclusions Community pharmacies in Pokhara offer a wide range

  19. Experience with a Drug Screening Program at a School of Pharmacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cates, Marshall E.; Hogue, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Substance use and abuse among pharmacy students is a concern of pharmacy schools, boards of pharmacy, and training sites alike. Pharmacy students must complete approximately 30% of their academic coursework in experiential settings such as community pharmacies, hospitals, and other health systems as part of any accredited pharmacy school's…

  20. Technicians and the future of pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Anderson, R W

    1987-07-01

    Ways in which pharmacists and pharmacy technicians can grow professionally to fulfill pharmacy's fundamental responsibility for appropriate drug use in patients are described. From the 1985 "Hilton Head Conference" on directions for clinical practice in pharmacy, the idea grew that pharmacists' traditional functions should be melded with a clinical orientation to provide pharmacy's maximum contribution to patient care. When the focus shifts from discrete activities of individual pharmacists to overall responsibilities of the department, each pharmacist and technician can see his or her contribution to the clinical endeavor; technicians assigned with a pharmacist to a specific group of patients are likely to take a more active interest in their jobs. Instead of ratios, patient outcome and job satisfaction should be the determinants of staffing patterns. Delineation of roles as judgmental or nonjudgmental should be replaced by clear job descriptions and procedures and an understanding of the complementary roles of pharmacists and technicians. Important elements in technician training include seminars presented by professional staff members and planned jointly by pharmacists and technicians, departmentwide seminars, policies that encourage technicians to join and participate in professional organizations, and liberal tuition-reimbursement policies. For career advancement, the pharmacy organizational structure might contain three levels: technician trainee, technician, and technician specialist. Pharmacists and technicians can overcome barriers between them by realizing the enormous growth potential and value of the services that both provide. PMID:3631089

  1. Measuring Achievement Goal Orientations of Pharmacy Students

    PubMed Central

    Muthart, Thomas; Khan, Ghous M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To measure the achievement goal orientations of pharmacy students attending a 3-year (accelerated) doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) program. Methods. A 16-item survey based on the Achievement Goal Questionnaire (AGQ) was administered to first-year (P1) and second-year (P2) pharmacy students at the Appalachian College of Pharmacy (ACP). Students were instructed to indicate to what degree each statement was true for them using a 7-point Likert scale (1=not true of me, 7=very true of me). Results. One hundred twenty of the 155 students (77%) completed the survey. Most students had mastery-approach, mastery-avoidance, performance-approach, and/or performance-avoidance goal orientations; few had work-avoidance goal orientations. Second-year students and male students had higher work-avoidance mean scores than did P1 students and female students (p<0.05). Conclusion. Pharmacy students were mastery- and performance-oriented learners, and most did not have work-avoidance goal orientations. Male students and P2 students had higher work-avoidance than did female students and P1 students, respectively. More longitudinal studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:24761015

  2. Orientating Nonpharmacist Faculty Members to Pharmacy Practice

    PubMed Central

    Calderon, Bianca; Sheridan, Leah; Sucher, Brandon

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To design, implement, and evaluate a faculty development program intended to orient nonpharmacist faculty members to pharmacy practice. Design. A multifaceted program was implemented in 2012 that included 4 shadowing experiences in which faculty members visited acute care, ambulatory care, hospital, and community pharmacy settings under the guidance of licensed preceptors. Itineraries for each visit were based on objective lists of anticipated practice experiences that define the role of the pharmacist in each setting. Assessment. The 4 shadowing experiences culminated with reflection and completion of a survey to assess the impact of the program. All of the faculty participants agreed that the experience improved their conceptual understanding of contemporary pharmacy practice and the role of the pharmacist in the healthcare setting. The experience also improved faculty comfort with creating practice-relevant classroom activities. Conclusions. A shadowing experience is an effective way of orienting nonpharmacist faculty members to the practice of pharmacy. This program inspired the creation of an experience to introduce pharmacy practice faculty to pharmaceutical science faculty research initiatives. PMID:24954946

  3. Using the Consumer Experience with Pharmacy Services Survey as a quality metric for ambulatory care pharmacies: older adults' perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Shiyanbola, Olayinka O; Mott, David A; Croes, Kenneth D

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To describe older adults' perceptions of evaluating and comparing pharmacies based on the Consumer Experience with Pharmacy Services Survey (CEPSS), describe older adults' perceived importance of the CEPSS and its specific domains, and explore older adults' perceptions of the influence of specific CEPSS domains in choosing/switching pharmacies. Design Focus group methodology was combined with the administration of a questionnaire. The focus groups explored participants' perceived importance of the CEPSS and their perception of using the CEPSS to choose and/or switch pharmacies. Then, using the questionnaire, participants rated their perceived importance of each CEPSS domain in evaluating a pharmacy, and the likelihood of using CEPSS to switch pharmacies if their current pharmacy had low ratings. Descriptive and thematic analyses were done. Setting 6 semistructured focus groups were conducted in a private meeting room in a Mid-Western state in the USA. Participants 60 English-speaking adults who were at least 65 years, and had filled a prescription at a retail pharmacy within 90 days. Results During the focus groups, the older adults perceived the CEPSS to have advantages and disadvantages in evaluating and comparing pharmacies. Older adults thought the CEPSS was important in choosing the best pharmacies and avoiding the worst pharmacies. The perceived influence of the CEPSS in switching pharmacies varied depending on the older adult's personal experience or trust of other consumers' experience. Questionnaire results showed that participants perceived health/medication-focused communication as very important or extremely important (n=47, 82.5%) in evaluating pharmacies and would be extremely likely (n=21, 36.8%) to switch pharmacies if their pharmacy had low ratings in this domain. Conclusions The older adults in this study are interested in using patient experiences as a quality metric for avoiding the worst pharmacies. Pharmacists' communication

  4. Designing a New Curriculum for Undergraduate Pharmacy in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Sowaygh, Ibrahim A.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The curriculum of the Riyadh College of Pharmacy was compared with the pharmacy curricula of selected universities in the U. S., England, Egypt, and Ghana. A new curriculum based on the findings is described. (LBH)

  5. The general pharmacy work explored in The Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Objective To determine the frequency and nature of general pharmacy work at three Dutch community pharmacies. Methods In a purposive and convenience sample of three Dutch community pharmacies the general work was investigated. Multi-dimensional work sampling (MDWS) was used. The study took six weeks: two weeks at each pharmacy. Main outcome measure The number of care related items emerging in the general work. Results Care related work represented 34% of all pharmacy activities. Conclusion Although care related work was present at all three studied pharmacies, this part of the work still needs serious attention of Dutch pharmacists in order to advance pharmaceutical care. It is suggested that an efficient pharmacy organization in combination with robotization, task specialization, and interior design can expand the care related work at the pharmacy. PMID:18205026

  6. A Postdoctoral Fellowship in Industrial Clinical Pharmacy Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barone, Joseph; And Others

    1985-01-01

    A postdoctoral pharmacy fellowship is described that provides training in industrial clinical pharmacy practice and related tasks associated with the development of new pharmaceuticals, through experience in industrial and hospital settings and in research projects. (MSE) PUBTYPE[141

  7. Perseverance Pays Off: Albert Bowie, Doctor of Pharmacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakshul, Barbra

    1997-01-01

    Describes the experiences of Albert Bowie of San Juan Pueblo, who became the first Native American to graduate from the University of New Mexico's Doctor of Pharmacy program. A sidebar discusses academic opportunities in the field of pharmacy. (TD)

  8. Nuclear pharmacy: An introduction to the clinical application of radiopharmaceuticals

    SciTech Connect

    Chilton, H.M.; Witcofski, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    This introductory text reviews fundamental concepts of nuclear pharmacy in a logical, stepwise manner. It presents those aspects of radioactivity basic to nuclear pharmacy including production of radioactivity and the types of instrumentation used to detect and measure radiation.

  9. Pharmacy discount card programs: catching up with the health markets.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Drew

    2002-09-01

    Pharmacy costs continue to rise, as does the number of senior citizens. One of the ways of containing costs may be the pharmacy discount drug card program, for both seniors and the general population. PMID:12219563

  10. Building a business case for an outpatient pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Burger, Gregory S; Jorgenson, James A; Stevenson, James G

    2015-06-01

    To be successful, an outpatient prescription pharmacy service built and operated by a hospital should be run as a competitive business, not in the manner of an inpatient operation. The outpatient pharmacy should not be a siloed entity that operates separately from the inpatient pharmacy. A hospital may miss a significant margin opportunity if it runs the pharmacy strictly as a safety net for uninsured or underinsured patients. PMID:26665338

  11. Creating a senior-friendly pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Kathleen; Morris, Anne

    2008-12-01

    This article describes components of a model senior-friendly pharmacy intended to provide information, expert advice, and products in an accessible environment that will allow older adults to remain as independent as possible. Creating a senior-friendly pharmacy is increasingly important because older adults have, and will continue to seek, more and better information and assistance concerning their prescription benefits and other products designed to help them "age in place." Many opportunities exist for pharmacists with an entrepreneurial spirit and a passion to serve a population in significant need of pharmacists' expertise. Collaboration with others in the aging network is a critical component of a successful senior-friendly pharmacy. PMID:19275465

  12. Leadership styles of hospital pharmacy directors.

    PubMed

    Parrett, E E; Hurd, P D; Northcraft, G; McGhan, W F; Bootman, J L

    1985-05-01

    The leadership styles of hospital pharmacy directors and the association between leadership style, participative management, and innovative pharmaceutical services were studied using a mail questionnaire. The questionnaire was sent to 570 randomly selected hospital pharmacy directors. Included were a validated instrument that measures task-oriented versus relationship-oriented leadership behavior and other questions about participation of staff members, innovative services, and respondents' personal characteristics. The response rate was 69%. The majority of respondents perceived their leadership as highly relationship-oriented as well as highly task-oriented. Respondents with the "high relationship-high task" leadership style had the highest scores for subordinate participation. There were no significant differences in scores for innovative services by leadership style. A positive correlation between scores for subordinate participation and scores for innovative services was demonstrated. Most hospital pharmacy directors used a management style in which relationships and staff participation were important. PMID:4003417

  13. The potential dual use of online pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Letkiewicz, Sławomir; Górski, Andrzej

    2010-03-01

    The technological advances of the 20th century resulted in the creation of the Internet and its introduction into everyday life on a global scale. The Internet provides access to information and the sale and purchase of goods. Medications are also subject to trade. Their sale is conducted by online pharmacies and their global turnover amounts to hundreds of billions of dollars. Medications ordered over the Internet are sent by mail all over the world. Considering the events of recent years, we cannot exclude the risk of a terrorist attack through online pharmacies. Terrorists can establish such companies, legally or illegally, or acquire ones already existing. Parcels, which are highly trusted by the customers of online pharmacies, can, for example, be contaminated with dangerous materials. The sale of online medications in the international system is potentially dangerous and requires international regulation. PMID:19319667

  14. Entrepreneurs: leading the way to pharmacy's future.

    PubMed

    Martin, Caren McHenry

    2011-12-01

    Entrepreneurship has always been central to the practice of pharmacy. Whether opening a new retail store, setting up a unique clinic practice, or researching a novel therapy, pharmacists are continually looking forward and following their visions of how pharmacy can be part of a new direction in health care. In 2011, the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists (ASCP) Foundation--itself the product of entrepreneurship--awarded grants to three entrepreneurs who are seeking to establish a fee-for-service component of their senior care pharmacy practices in the community. The grant recipients, while differing in their approaches, share the common goal of providing safe, effective, and cost-justified medication therapy and education to ambulatory older adults. PMID:22155573

  15. Achieving closure at Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Bradburne, John; Patton, Tisha C.

    2001-02-25

    When Fluor Fernald took over the management of the Fernald Environmental Management Project in 1992, the estimated closure date of the site was more than 25 years into the future. Fluor Fernald, in conjunction with DOE-Fernald, introduced the Accelerated Cleanup Plan, which was designed to substantially shorten that schedule and save taxpayers more than $3 billion. The management of Fluor Fernald believes there are three fundamental concerns that must be addressed by any contractor hoping to achieve closure of a site within the DOE complex. They are relationship management, resource management and contract management. Relationship management refers to the interaction between the site and local residents, regulators, union leadership, the workforce at large, the media, and any other interested stakeholder groups. Resource management is of course related to the effective administration of the site knowledge base and the skills of the workforce, the attraction and retention of qualified a nd competent technical personnel, and the best recognition and use of appropriate new technologies. Perhaps most importantly, resource management must also include a plan for survival in a flat-funding environment. Lastly, creative and disciplined contract management will be essential to effecting the closure of any DOE site. Fluor Fernald, together with DOE-Fernald, is breaking new ground in the closure arena, and ''business as usual'' has become a thing of the past. How Fluor Fernald has managed its work at the site over the last eight years, and how it will manage the new site closure contract in the future, will be an integral part of achieving successful closure at Fernald.

  16. 6. Launch closure, close up of closure motor, view towards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Launch closure, close up of closure motor, view towards north - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Facility, On County Road T512, south of Exit 116 off I-90, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  17. Regional Druggists: Pharmacy Schools Seek Rx for Shortage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Wendy

    2001-01-01

    Describes the responses of pharmacy schools in New England to the current shortage of pharmacists. The lengthened pharmacy program, recently expanded from 5 years to 6, is being accompanied by increased regional cooperation, with internships and some tuition breaks for pharmacy students. (SLD)

  18. Standards of Practice for the Profession of Pharmacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalman, Samuel H.; Schlegel, John F.

    1979-01-01

    New standards of practice that describe in generic terms what a pharmacist does in fulfilling the basic responsibilities of the profession are presented as part of the Continuing Competence in Pharmacy Project of the American Pharmacy Association and the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy. The four major areas of responsibilities for…

  19. 21 CFR 1306.09 - Prescription requirements for online pharmacies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Prescription requirements for online pharmacies... PRESCRIPTIONS General Information § 1306.09 Prescription requirements for online pharmacies. (a) No controlled... course of his professional practice and is acting on behalf of a pharmacy whose registration has...

  20. 21 CFR 1311.205 - Pharmacy application requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pharmacy application requirements. 1311.205 Section 1311.205 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE REQUIREMENTS FOR ELECTRONIC ORDERS AND PRESCRIPTIONS Electronic Prescriptions § 1311.205 Pharmacy application requirements. (a) The pharmacy may only use a...

  1. An Evaluation of the Education of Hospital Pharmacy Directors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakley, Robert S.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Hospital pharmacy directors ranked their academic needs as: personnel and financial management (greatest), computers, hospital organization, clinical pharmacy practice, traditional pharmacy practice, and statistics. Those with MBAs perceived themselves stronger in these areas than did those with other degrees. Only MBAs and MSs felt adequately…

  2. 21 CFR 1304.40 - Notification by online pharmacies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... pharmacy has made the notifications to the DEA Administrator required by 21 U.S.C. 831 and 21 CFR 1304.40... controlled substance for sale, delivery, distribution, or dispensing by means of the Internet, an online...) of this section: (1) The pharmacy's Internet Pharmacy Site Disclosure information required to...

  3. Clinical Pharmacy Education and Training Program: A Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy, Bethesda, MD.

    The purpose of the report is to give a state-of-the-art picture of clinical pharmacy education and training in the United States as represented by 4 prototype pharmacy school curricula chosen for documentation by the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy. Criteria for selection relate to the environment in which the various curricula are…

  4. Pharmaceutical Education and Pharmacy Practice in the Republic of Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Martin I.

    1983-01-01

    The 4-year Korean pharmacy curriculum does not contain components regarded in the United States as preparatory for clinical pharmacy. Community pharmacists routinely compound and dispense drugs without prescription, and physicians generally dispense medications themselves without pharmacy prescription. There is little interaction between…

  5. 21 CFR 1304.40 - Notification by online pharmacies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... pharmacy has made the notifications to the DEA Administrator required by 21 U.S.C. 831 and 21 CFR 1304.40... controlled substance for sale, delivery, distribution, or dispensing by means of the Internet, an online...) of this section: (1) The pharmacy's Internet Pharmacy Site Disclosure information required to...

  6. Statistical Background Needed to Read Professional Pharmacy Journals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Randy; And Others

    1978-01-01

    An examination of professional pharmacy literature was undertaken to determine types of statistical terminology and analyses presented and compare these with the results of a survey to determine the statistical backgrounds of graduates of schools that grant the Doctor of Pharmacy and/or Master of Science in Hospital Pharmacy. (JMD)

  7. 21 CFR 1301.19 - Special requirements for online pharmacies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Special requirements for online pharmacies. 1301.19 Section 1301.19 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE REGISTRATION... Special requirements for online pharmacies. (a) A pharmacy that has been issued a registration...

  8. 21 CFR 1301.19 - Special requirements for online pharmacies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Special requirements for online pharmacies. 1301.19 Section 1301.19 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE REGISTRATION... Special requirements for online pharmacies. (a) A pharmacy that has been issued a registration...

  9. Historical Perspective on Undergraduate Pharmacy Student Admissions: The PCAT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunny, Kelley A.; Perri, Matthew

    1990-01-01

    The history of the process of admission to pharmacy colleges in the United States since the early 1900s is chronicled. The origins, development, and use of the Pharmacy College Admissions Test are also outlined, and directions for the future of pharmacy college admissions are examined briefly. (MSE)

  10. Herbal Remedies: The Design of a New Course in Pharmacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouzi, Samir A.

    1996-01-01

    A new pharmacy course developed at Northeast Louisiana University School of Pharmacy trains pharmacy students in use of herbs as self-selected over-the-counter products. Emphases are on use of herbal preparations by the general public as alternative therapies, safety and efficacy of herbs and other phytomedicinals, and the pharmacist's role in…

  11. 40 CFR 264.258 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Closure and post-closure care. 264.258... Waste Piles § 264.258 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At closure, the owner or operator must remove... facility and perform post-closure care in accordance with the closure and post-closure care...

  12. 40 CFR 264.310 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Closure and post-closure care. 264.310... Landfills § 264.310 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At final closure of the landfill or upon closure of...) After final closure, the owner or operator must comply with all post-closure requirements contained...

  13. Tank closure reducing grout

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, T.B.

    1997-04-18

    A reducing grout has been developed for closing high level waste tanks at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. The grout has a low redox potential, which minimizes the mobility of Sr{sup 90}, the radionuclide with the highest dose potential after closure. The grout also has a high pH which reduces the solubility of the plutonium isotopes. The grout has a high compressive strength and low permeability, which enhances its ability to limit the migration of contaminants after closure. The grout was designed and tested by Construction Technology Laboratories, Inc. Placement methods were developed by the Savannah River Site personnel.

  14. Relevance of Physics to the Pharmacy Major

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Objective To offer a physics course that is relevant to pharmacy students, yet still contains many of the fundamental principles of physics. Design The course was modified over a period of several years to include activities and examples that were related to other courses in the curriculum. Assessment Course evaluations were given to assess student attitudes about the importance of physics in the pharmacy curriculum. Conclusion Students' attitudes have changed over time to appreciate the role that physics plays in their studies. Students gained confidence in their ability to learn in other courses. PMID:17786257

  15. Pharmacy practice in an operating room complex.

    PubMed

    Evans, D M; Guenther, A M; Keith, T D; Lazarus, H L

    1979-10-01

    The steps involved in establishing a comprehensive pharmaceutical service in an operating and recovery room complex is described. Objectives of the operating room pharmaceutical satellite were to: (1) improve control of distribution, storage and charging for all drugs, especially Schedule II controlled substances; (2) reduce inventory costs and loss of revenue; (3) improve compliance with the drug formulary; and (4) establish patient-oriented pharmaceutical services. The pharmacy satellite improved inventory control and patient charging, assured continual access to all drugs and appropriate security for controlled substances, and expanded the pharmacy department's clinical, drug information and research activities. PMID:507076

  16. Game Face

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiner, Jill

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses "Game Face: Life Lessons Across the Curriculum", a teaching kit that challenges assumptions and builds confidence. Game Face, which is derived from a book and art exhibition, "Game Face: What Does a Female Athlete Look Like?", uses layered and powerful images of women and girls participating in sports to teach…

  17. Clinical Pharmacy Services in Canadian Emergency Departments: A National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Wanbon, Richard; Lyder, Catherine; Villeneuve, Eric; Shalansky, Stephen; Manuel, Leslie; Harding, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    Background: Providing clinical pharmacy services in emergency departments (EDs) is important because adverse drug events commonly occur before, during, and after ED encounters. Survey studies in the United States have indicated a relatively low presence of clinical pharmacy services in the ED setting, but a descriptive survey specific to Canada has not yet been performed. Objectives: To describe the current status of pharmacy services in Canadian EDs and potential barriers to implementing pharmacy services in this setting. Methods: All Canadian hospitals with an ED and at least 50 acute care beds were contacted to identify the presence of dedicated ED pharmacy services (defined as at least 0.5 full-time equivalent [FTE] position). Three different electronic surveys were then distributed by e-mail to ED pharmacy team members (if available), pharmacy managers (at hospitals without an ED pharmacy team), and ED managers (all hospitals). The surveys were completed between July and September 2013. Results: Of the 243 hospitals identified, 95 (39%) had at least 0.5 FTE clinical pharmacy services in the ED (based on initial telephone screening). Of the 60 ED pharmacy teams that responded to the survey, 56 had pharmacists (27 of which also had ED pharmacy technicians) and 4 had pharmacy technicians (without pharmacists). Forty-four (79%) of the 56 ED pharmacist services had been established within the preceding 10 years. Order clarification, troubleshooting, medication reconciliation, and assessment of renal dosing were the services most commonly provided. The large majority of pharmacy managers and ED managers identified the need for ED pharmacy services where such services do not yet exist. Inadequate funding, competing priorities, and lack of training were the most commonly reported barriers to providing this service. Conclusions: Although the establishment of ward-based pharmacy services in Canadian EDs has increased over the past 10 years, lack of funding and a lack of

  18. ROCKET PORT CLOSURE

    DOEpatents

    Mattingly, J.T.

    1963-02-12

    This invention provides a simple pressure-actuated closure whereby windowless observation ports are opened to the atmosphere at preselected altitudes. The closure comprises a disk which seals a windowless observation port in rocket hull. An evacuated instrument compartment is affixed to the rocket hull adjacent the inner surface of the disk, while the outer disk surface is exposed to the atmosphere through which the rocket is traveling. The pressure differential between the evacuated instrument compartment and the relatively high pressure external atmosphere forces the disk against the edge of the observation port, thereby effecting a tight seai. The instrument compartment is evacuated to a pressure equal to the atmospheric pressure existing at the altitude at which it is desiretl that the closure should open. When the rocket reaches this preselected altitude, the inwardly directed atmospheric force on the disk is just equaled by the residual air pressure force within the instrument compartment. Consequently, the closure disk falls away and uncovers the open observation port. The separation of the disk from the rocket hull actuates a switch which energizes the mechanism of a detecting instrument disposed within the instrument compartment. (AE C)

  19. Using Bourdieu's Theoretical Framework to Examine How the Pharmacy Educator Views Pharmacy Knowledge.

    PubMed

    Waterfield, Jon

    2015-12-25

    Objective. To explore how different pharmacy educators view pharmacy knowledge within the United Kingdom MPharm program and to relate these findings to Pierre Bourdieu's theoretical framework. Methods. Twelve qualitative interviews were conducted with 4 faculty members from 3 different types of schools of pharmacy in the United Kingdom: a newer school, an established teaching-based school, and an established research-intensive school. Selection was based on a representation of both science-based and practice-based disciplines, gender balance, and teaching experience. Results. The interview transcripts indicated how these members of the academic community describe knowledge. There was a polarization between science-based and practice-based educators in terms of Bourdieu's description of field, species of capital, and habitus. Conclusion. A Bourdieusian perspective on the differences among faculty member responses supports our understanding of curriculum integration and offers some practical implications for the future development of pharmacy programs. PMID:26889065

  20. Using Bourdieu’s Theoretical Framework to Examine How the Pharmacy Educator Views Pharmacy Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To explore how different pharmacy educators view pharmacy knowledge within the United Kingdom MPharm program and to relate these findings to Pierre Bourdieu’s theoretical framework. Methods. Twelve qualitative interviews were conducted with 4 faculty members from 3 different types of schools of pharmacy in the United Kingdom: a newer school, an established teaching-based school, and an established research-intensive school. Selection was based on a representation of both science-based and practice-based disciplines, gender balance, and teaching experience. Results. The interview transcripts indicated how these members of the academic community describe knowledge. There was a polarization between science-based and practice-based educators in terms of Bourdieu’s description of field, species of capital, and habitus. Conclusion. A Bourdieusian perspective on the differences among faculty member responses supports our understanding of curriculum integration and offers some practical implications for the future development of pharmacy programs. PMID:26889065

  1. Community pharmacy incident reporting: a new tool for community pharmacies in Canada.

    PubMed

    Ho, Certina; Hung, Patricia; Lee, Gary; Kadija, Medina

    2010-01-01

    Incident reporting offers insight into a variety of intricate processes in healthcare. However, it has been found that medication incidents are under reported in the community pharmacy setting. The Community Pharmacy Incident Reporting (CPhIR) program was created by the Institute for Safe Medication Practices Canada specifically for incident reporting in the community pharmacy setting in Canada. The initial development of key elements for CPhIR included several focus-group teleconferences with pharmacists from Ontario and Nova Scotia. Throughout the development and release of the CPhIR pilot, feedback from pharmacists and pharmacy technicians was constantly incorporated into the reporting program. After several rounds of iterative feedback, testing and consultation with community pharmacy practitioners, a final version of the CPhIR program, together with self-directed training materials, is now ready to launch. The CPhIR program provides users with a one-stop platform to report and record medication incidents, export data for customized analysis and view comparisons of individual and aggregate data. These unique functions allow for a detailed analysis of underlying contributing factors in medication incidents. A communication piece for pharmacies to share their experiences is in the process of development. To ensure the success of the CPhIR program, a patient safety culture must be established. By gaining a deeper understanding of possible causes of medication incidents, community pharmacies can implement system-based strategies for quality improvement and to prevent potential errors from occurring again in the future. This article highlights key features of the CPhIR program that will assist community pharmacies to improve their drug distribution system and, ultimately, enhance patient safety. PMID:20959726

  2. Objective Assessment of Pharmacy Students' Interviewing Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Marie E.; Burpeau-Di Greggrio, Michele Y.

    1985-01-01

    The use of simulation of pharmacy student interviews with patients to teach and evaluate interviewing skills was found to be effective for both purposes and was felt by the students to be more objective than other methods for evaluating their own skills. The content checklists and interview rating instrument are appended. (MSE)

  3. 38 CFR 51.180 - Pharmacy services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 51.180 Pharmacy services. The facility... disseminating drug information to medical and nursing staff. (a) Procedures. The facility management must... irregularities to the primary physician and the director of nursing, and these reports must be acted upon....

  4. 38 CFR 51.180 - Pharmacy services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 51.180 Pharmacy services. The facility... disseminating drug information to medical and nursing staff. (a) Procedures. The facility management must... irregularities to the primary physician and the director of nursing, and these reports must be acted upon....

  5. 38 CFR 51.180 - Pharmacy services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 51.180 Pharmacy services. The facility... disseminating drug information to medical and nursing staff. (a) Procedures. The facility management must... irregularities to the primary physician and the director of nursing, and these reports must be acted upon....

  6. 38 CFR 51.180 - Pharmacy services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 51.180 Pharmacy services. The facility... disseminating drug information to medical and nursing staff. (a) Procedures. The facility management must... irregularities to the primary physician and the director of nursing, and these reports must be acted upon....

  7. 38 CFR 51.180 - Pharmacy services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 51.180 Pharmacy services. The facility... disseminating drug information to medical and nursing staff. (a) Procedures. The facility management must... irregularities to the primary physician and the director of nursing, and these reports must be acted upon....

  8. Impact of Biotechnology on Pharmacy Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Curtis D.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Discussed is the role of schools of pharmacy in (1) preparing future practitioners to assimilate and shape the impact of biotechnology; (2) establish graduate and research programs to enhance and apply products of biotechnology; and (3) identify manpower needs to fully realize potential advances caused by biotechnology. (DB)

  9. Guidelines for the Clinical Pharmacy Preceptor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, Donald C.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Qualities that describe the performance of the clinical pharmacy preceptor are outlined, with particular concern for the personal and technical components of his role as a teacher. The guidelines were developed at an invitational workshop at the Los Angeles County/University of Southern California Medical Center. (LBH)

  10. Prediction of Achievement in Clinical Pharmacy Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Lee S.

    1978-01-01

    A study sought to identify student characteristics which account for academic achievement in clinical pharmacy courses. Preclinical grade point average was the best predictor. Subscales of the California Personality Inventory and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, work experience, sex, and age were the other predictor variables. (SW)

  11. Academic Due Process in Clinical Pharmacy Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abood, Richard R.; Iovacchini, Eric V.

    1979-01-01

    The historical evolution of academic due process, its current concept as revealed in the Supreme Court ruling in Horowitz vs Board of Curators of the University of Missouri, and the application of that judicial opinion to clinical clerkship programs in pharmacy are discussed. Guidelines to protect faculty and administration are offered. (JMD)

  12. Attitudes of Pharmacy Students toward Cancer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, A. Thomas; Kotzan, Jeffrey A.

    1984-01-01

    A study of one institution's baccalaureate pharmacy students' attitudes about cancer, chemotherapy, and related pharmaceutical practice roles examined four factors: pharmacist-patient conflict, patient rights, vigorous treatment, and acceptance. Results revealed male-female attitudinal differences as well as differences correlating with marital…

  13. Web vulnerability study of online pharmacy sites.

    PubMed

    Kuzma, Joanne

    2011-01-01

    Consumers are increasingly using online pharmacies, but these sites may not provide an adequate level of security with the consumers' personal data. There is a gap in this research addressing the problems of security vulnerabilities in this industry. The objective is to identify the level of web application security vulnerabilities in online pharmacies and the common types of flaws, thus expanding on prior studies. Technical, managerial and legal recommendations on how to mitigate security issues are presented. The proposed four-step method first consists of choosing an online testing tool. The next steps involve choosing a list of 60 online pharmacy sites to test, and then running the software analysis to compile a list of flaws. Finally, an in-depth analysis is performed on the types of web application vulnerabilities. The majority of sites had serious vulnerabilities, with the majority of flaws being cross-site scripting or old versions of software that have not been updated. A method is proposed for the securing of web pharmacy sites, using a multi-phased approach of technical and managerial techniques together with a thorough understanding of national legal requirements for securing systems. PMID:21208091

  14. Reducing pharmacy costs through improved utilization.

    PubMed

    Bates, Cinda; Richards, Barton S

    2013-06-01

    Strategies Trinity Regional Health System in Rock Island, III., used to reduce pharmacy expenses included: Leveraging benchmarking information to identify opportunities for cost savings. Implementing change management techniques, bolstered by well-presented and coherent data, to promote acceptance of change. Forming a multidisciplinary team of clinical and financial leaders to address quality, outcomes, and cost issues and collaborate on solutions. PMID:23795386

  15. NASA LaRC Hazardous Material Pharmacy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esquenet, Remy

    1995-01-01

    In 1993-1994 the Office of Environmental Engineering contracted SAIC to develop NASA Langley's Pollution Prevention (P2) Program. One of the priority projects identified in this contract was the development of a hazardous waste minimization (HAZMIN)/hazardous materials reutilization (HAZMART) program in the form of a Hazardous Materials Pharmacy. A hazardous materials pharmacy is designed to reduce hazardous material procurement costs and hazardous waste disposal costs. This is accomplished through the collection and reissue of excess hazardous material. Currently, a rarely used hazardous material may be stored in a shop area, unused, until it passes its expiration date. The material is then usually disposed of as a hazardous waste, often at a greater expense than the original cost of the material. While this material was on the shelf expiring, other shop areas may have ordered new supplies of the same material. The hazardous material pharmacy would act as a clearinghouse for such materials. Material that is not going to be used would be turned in to the pharmacy. Other users could then be issued this material free of charge, thereby reducing procurement costs. The use of this material by another shop prevents it from expiring, thereby reducing hazardous waste disposal costs.

  16. Pharmacy Research Online. A Guide for Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkin, Derral; And Others

    This document is a self-paced training packet developed for a pilot project at the University of Houston-University Park to teach pharmacy faculty members to do their own online searching. The training begins with general topics such as the kinds of searches that can be done effectively online, the selection of appropriate databases to search, and…

  17. Pharmacy practice simulations: performance of senior pharmacy students at a University in southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Galato, Dayani; Alano, Graziela M.; Trauthman, Silvana C.; França, Tainã F.

    Objective A simulation process known as objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) was applied to assess pharmacy practice performed by senior pharmacy students. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted based on documentary analysis of performance evaluation records of pharmacy practice simulations that occurred between 2005 and 2009. These simulations were related to the process of self-medication and dispensing, and were performed with the use of patients simulated. The simulations were filmed to facilitate the evaluation process. It presents the OSCE educational experience performed by pharmacy trainees of the University of Southern Santa Catarina and experienced by two evaluators. The student general performance was analyzed, and the criteria for pharmacy practice assessment often identified trainees in difficulty. Results The results of 291 simulations showed that students have an average yield performance of 70.0%. Several difficulties were encountered, such as the lack of information about the selected/prescribed treatment regimen (65.1%); inadequate communication style (21.9%); lack of identification of patients’ needs (7.7%) and inappropriate drug selection for self-medication (5.3%). Conclusions These data show that there is a need for reorientation of clinical pharmacy students because they need to improve their communication skills, and have a deeper knowledge of medicines and health problems in order to properly orient their patients. PMID:24367467

  18. Who uses pharmacy for flu vaccinations? Population profiling through a UK pharmacy chain.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Claire; Thornley, Tracey

    2016-04-01

    Background There is a need to increase influenza vaccination rates in England particularly among those who are under 65 years of age and at-risk because of other conditions and treatments. Objective To understand the profile of people accessing flu vaccination services within a large pharmacy chain. Method Pharmacists requested people who had been vaccinated in 2014/15 to complete a questionnaire. Data was captured electronically on vaccine delivery levels across 1201 pharmacies. Deprivation profiles were calculated using the Carstairs index. Results 1741 patients from a total of 55 pharmacies completed the survey. Convenience and accessibility remain the key reasons for attending pharmacy. Pharmacy services are accessed by people from all postcode areas, including some from the most deprived localities. Conclusion Pharmacy flu vaccination services complement those provided by general practitioners to help improve overall coverage and vaccination rates for patients in at-risk groups. These services are highly accessed by patients from all socio demographic areas, and seem to be particularly attractive to carers, frontline healthcare workers, and those of working age. PMID:26821372

  19. Impact of the Pharmacy Practice Model Initiative on Clinical Pharmacy Specialist Practice.

    PubMed

    Jacobi, Judith; Ray, Shaunta'; Danelich, Ilya; Dodds Ashley, Elizabeth; Eckel, Stephen; Guharoy, Roy; Militello, Michael; O'Donnell, Paul; Sam, Teena; Crist, Stephanie M; Smidt, Danielle

    2016-05-01

    This paper describes the goals of the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists' Pharmacy Practice Model Initiative (PPMI) and its recommendations for health-system pharmacy practice transformation to meet future patient care needs and elevate the role of pharmacists as patient care providers. PPMI envisions a future in which pharmacists have greater responsibility for medication-related outcomes and technicians assume greater responsibility for product-related activities. Although the PPMI recommendations have elevated the level of practice in many settings, they also potentially affect existing clinical pharmacists, in general, and clinical pharmacy specialists, in particular. Moreover, although more consistent patient care can be achieved with an expanded team of pharmacist providers, the role of clinical pharmacy specialists must not be diminished, especially in the care of complex patients and populations. Specialist practitioners with advanced training and credentials must be available to model and train pharmacists in generalist positions, residents, and students. Indeed, specialist practitioners are often the innovators and practice leaders. Negotiation between hospitals and pharmacy schools is needed to ensure a continuing role for academic clinical pharmacists and their contributions as educators and researchers. Lessons can be applied from disciplines such as nursing and medicine, which have developed new models of care involving effective collaboration between generalists and specialists. Several different pharmacy practice models have been described to meet the PPMI goals, based on available personnel and local goals. Studies measuring the impact of these new practice models are needed. PMID:27118546

  20. Stakeholder Perspectives on Outcome Expectations of Pharmacy Graduates From a Caribbean School of Pharmacy

    PubMed Central

    Sa, Bidyadhar; Ignacio, Diane N.; Extavour, Rian M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To explore stakeholders’ views regarding the performance of pharmacy graduates upon entering the workforce and to identify curricular deficiencies and possible solutions. Methods. Practicing pharmacists, many of whom were members of government and pharmacy organizations, were asked to complete a 40-item questionnaire to determine their views regarding the educational outcomes of pharmacy graduates from a Caribbean pharmacy school. In addition, the stakeholders participated in focus group discussions to capture feedback not gathered on the questionnaire. Results. Ten stakeholders completed the questionnaire and 11 participated in the focus group discussions. Stakeholders rated graduates higher than average in 13 educational outcomes: application of knowledge and skills, patient care, communication skills, confidentiality, ethics, problem solving, and innovation. However, responses to open-ended questions and comments made during the focus group discussions identified deficiencies, which included a lack of clinical faculty members and qualified preceptors to teach pharmacy students, and the need to revise basic sciences courses. Conclusion. Feedback from key stakeholders suggests that the quality of pharmacy graduates is above average for the most part; however, additional work is needed to address the deficiencies identified. PMID:23788810

  1. History of Pharmacy Museum of the Faculty of Pharmacy University of Belgrade.

    PubMed

    Krajnović, Dusanka; Kernican, Leontina

    2009-01-01

    History of Pharmacy Museum at the Faculty of Pharmacy University of Belgrade was founded in Belgrade in 1952, thanks to many pharmacists and historians, but especially to Mr Andrija Mirković (Mpharm). His precious private collection of antiquities, which he donated to the Faculty of Pharmacy in Belgrade, subsequently a basic one for the Museum foundation, included apothecary vessels, apparatuses, manuscripts and books dated back to the XVI century. Furthermore, there were included many other antiquities, books and manuscripts from pharmacies on the territory of former Yugoslavia, mostly from Serbia, so the entire Museum collection comprises various apothecary vessels: 700 ceramic, wooden, glass, porcelain and halide glass jars, as well as the XIX century exhibits from Pravitelstvena Apoteka (the first state-owned pharmacy in Serbia, which operated between 1836-1859). The Museum collection of accessories and vessels is completed with a library and precious archive materials. The library itself includes the original manuscripts as well as the colour offprint of some manuscripts, and printed works; mostly scientific books, textbooks, journals and pharmacopoeias with drug tax lists. Some printed books dating back to the Late Middle Ages are very rare and precious, such as Curio's Medicina Salernitana (1612) and the Ruel's version of Dioscorides' De materia medica. This entire collection is considered a unique one in Serbia for its variety and greatness, representing a precious source for studying the History of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Ethics (as a subject was included into the Faculty's curriculum since 1952 and cancelled recently in 2008). PMID:20500004

  2. An investigation on pharmacy functions and services affecting satisfaction of patients with prescriptions in community pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Hidehiko; Nakajima, Fumio; Tada, Yuichirou; Yoshikawa, Emi; Iwahashi, Yoshiki; Fujita, Kenji; Hayase, Yukitoshi

    2009-05-01

    Various functions expected by patient expects are needed with progress in the system for separation of dispensing and prescribing functions. In this investigation, the relationship between patient satisfaction and pharmacy function were analyzed quantitatively. A questionnaire survey was conducted in 178 community pharmacies. Questions on pharmacy functions and services totaled 87 items concerning information service, amenities, safety, personnel training, etc. The questionnaires for patients had five-grade scales and composed 11 items (observed variables). Based on the results, "the percentage of satisfied patients" was determined. Multivariate analysis was performed to investigate the relationship between patient satisfaction and pharmacy functions or services provided, to confirm patient's evaluation of the pharmacy, and how factors affected comprehensive satisfaction. In correlation analysis, "the number of pharmacists" and "comprehensive satisfaction" had a negative correlation. Other interesting results were obtained. As a results of factor analysis, three latent factors were obtained: the "human factor," "patients' convenience," and "environmental factor," Multiple regression analysis showed that the "human factor" affected "comprehensive satisfaction" the most. Various pharmacy functions and services influence patient satisfaction, and improvement in their quality increases patient satisfaction. This will result in the practice of patient-centered medicine. PMID:19420889

  3. Activity and the Role of Keio University Pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Noriko

    2016-01-01

    Keio University Faculty of Pharmacy opened an insurance pharmacy on its campus in 2001. This pharmacy was opened with the objectives of 1) educating pharmacists to serve the regional community; 2) heightening students' motivation; and 3) providing practical education geared to the needs of actual healthcare settings. Since my appointment as director in 2003, I have led various initiatives to determine an ideal business model for a university pharmacy. This paper reports these initiatives and discusses the mission and future prospects of university pharmacies. In terms of education, all 4th-year students provide medication guidance to simulated patients at our university pharmacy counters, and are briefed by pharmacists about pharmacy administration and dispensing activities. Over three periods each academic year, trainees from other universities have been accepted for long-term on-site training. Students also work at local facilities for elderly persons to learn how to effectively communicate with this demographic and to better understand their unique pharmacokinetic profiles, impaired QOL, etc. Students can also participate in health promotion and drug education courses for regional residents, and support their self-medication. Pharmacies are important points of contact with local communities where residents' lives can be medically monitored. It is important for pharmaceutical universities to operate their own pharmacies in order to determine and stay abreast of the evolving challenges society expects pharmaceutical science to address. University pharmacies need to become models for general community pharmacies. PMID:27150926

  4. Health promotion at Swedish pharmacies – views of the staff

    PubMed Central

    Björkman, Ingeborg; Viberg, Nina; Rydberg, Linda; Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia

    2008-01-01

    The role of pharmacy has changed dramatically during the last decades, which has led to new demands on pharmacy personnel. Objective This study aims at exploring the attitudes of Swedish pharmacy personnel on their role as public health promoters and to look at the opportunities and obstacles they identify in the efforts to widen the pharmacy remit to include a wider health approach. Method Eight focus group discussions were conducted with a strategic sample of pharmacy personnel working in two counties in Sweden. The discussions were transcribed verbatim and analysed by qualitative inductive analysis. Results Five themes were identified, “Pharmacy activities impact on public health”, “The employer, Apoteket AB”, “The new role welcomed”, “Obstacles in the new role”, and “Need of change and support”. Conclusion The concept of pharmacy personnel as public health promoters was not initially in the mindset of the participants. In the process of discussion, the impact of traditional pharmacy practice as well as new pharmacy based initiatives on public health gradually became more obvious to them. The findings show a pharmacy staff involved in a process of change. The participants have not yet landed in their new role as public health promoters and the study shows that practical as well as conceptual support is needed in order for pharmacy personnel to play a more important role in public health. PMID:25157296

  5. Pharmacy promotion of tobacco use among children in Massachusetts.

    PubMed

    Brown, L J; DiFranza, J R

    1992-05-01

    The role played by pharmacies in the promotion and distribution of tobacco to children was assessed in a survey of 100 pharmacies. Of the 100 surveyed, 95 sold tobacco products, 50 advertised tobacco, 42 advertised the cigarette brands that are most appealing to children, and 23 displayed the Camel cartoon advertisements that have been identified as being targeted specifically at children. Candy tobacco products were sold in 22% of the pharmacies. Of the pharmacies selling tobacco, 81% were willing to sell it to minors illegally. The five pharmacies that did not carry tobacco products were independent stores. When compared to chain pharmacies, independent pharmacies more frequently advertised tobacco (p less than 0.05) but were not more likely to sell it to children. The authors contend that pharmacists who sell tobacco violate the profession's Code of Ethics and play an important role in the promotion of tobacco use among children. PMID:1590207

  6. Rho Chi lecture. Pharmacy in a smaller world.

    PubMed

    Weaver, L C

    1986-09-01

    Health care is a business. Pharmacy is in the health business. The health care delivery system in the U.S. is rapidly becoming a managed system by corporations. Further, these corporations are moving toward international markets where some already have considerable experience. There are many parts of the world not participating in these developments in health care. Some are just off our shores in the Caribbean Basin. A review of activities occurring in recent years by various groups suggests that more could be done. Two modest approaches are presented. Support of the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy's "Pharmacy School Twinning Project" through which U.S. pharmacy schools would work with pharmacy schools in Central and South America is recommended. Also, national pharmacy associations jointly with pharmaceutical companies would work together using their expertise in continuing pharmacy education to develop new education models for the needy areas of the world. PMID:3757790

  7. Randomized, Community-Based Pharmacy Intervention to Expand Services Beyond Sale of Sterile Syringes to Injection Drug Users in Pharmacies in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Amesty, Silvia; Rivera, Alexis V.; Harripersaud, Katherine; Turner, Alezandria; Fuller, Crystal M.

    2013-01-01

    Structural interventions may help reduce racial/ethnic disparities in HIV. In 2009 to 2011, we randomized pharmacies participating in a nonprescription syringe access program in minority communities to intervention (pharmacy enrolled and delivered HIV risk reduction information to injection drug users [IDUs]), primary control (pharmacy only enrolled IDUs), and secondary control (pharmacy did not engage IDUs). Intervention pharmacy staff reported more support for syringe sales than did control staff. An expanded pharmacy role in HIV risk reduction may be helpful. PMID:23865644

  8. Remote controlled vacuum joint closure mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Doll, David W.; Hager, E. Randolph

    1986-01-01

    A remotely operable and maintainable vacuum joint closure mechanism for a noncircular aperture is disclosed. The closure mechanism includes an extendible bellows coupled at one end to a noncircular duct and at its other end to a flange assembly having sealed grooves for establishing a high vacuum seal with the abutting surface of a facing flange which includes an aperture forming part of the system to be evacuated. A plurality of generally linear arrangements of pivotally coupled linkages and piston combinations are mounted around the outer surface of the duct and aligned along the length thereof. Each of the piston/linkage assemblies is adapted to engage the flange assembly by means of a respective piston and is further coupled to a remote controlled piston drive shaft to permit each of the linkages positioned on a respective flat outer surface of the duct to simultaneously and uniformly displace a corresponding piston and the flange assembly with which it is in contact along the length of the duct in extending the bellows to provide a high vacuum seal between the movable flange and the facing flange. A plurality of latch mechanisms are also pivotally mounted on the outside of the duct. A first end of each of the latch mechanisms is coupled to a remotely controlled latch control shaft for displacing the latch mechanism about its pivot point. In response to the pivoting displacement of the latch mechanism, a second end thereof is displaced so as to securely engage the facing flange.

  9. Junior Pharmacy Faculty Members’ Perceptions of Their Exposure to Postgraduate Training and Academic Careers During Pharmacy School

    PubMed Central

    Murawski, Matthew M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To determine the perceptions of junior pharmacy faculty members with US doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) degrees regarding their exposure to residency, fellowship, and graduate school training options in pharmacy school. Perceptions of exposure to career options and research were also sought. Methods. A mixed-mode survey instrument was developed and sent to assistant professors at US colleges and schools of pharmacy. Results. Usable responses were received from 735 pharmacy faculty members. Faculty members perceived decreased exposure to and awareness of fellowship and graduate education training as compared to residency training. Awareness of and exposure to academic careers and research-related fields was low from a faculty recruitment perspective. Conclusions. Ensuring adequate exposure of pharmacy students to career paths and postgraduate training opportunities could increase the number of PharmD graduates who choose academic careers or other pharmacy careers resulting from postgraduate training. PMID:22544956

  10. Airway closure in microgravity.

    PubMed

    Dutrieue, Brigitte; Verbanck, Sylvia; Darquenne, Chantal; Prisk, G Kim

    2005-08-25

    Recent single breath washout (SBW) studies in microgravity and on the ground have suggested an important effect of airway closure on gas mixing in the human lung, reflected particularly in the phase III slope of vital capacity SBW and bolus tests. In order to explore this effect, we designed a SBW in which subjects inspired 2-l from residual volume (RV) starting with a 150 ml bolus of He and SF6. In an attempt to vary the pattern of airways closure configuration before the test, the experiments were conducted in 1G and in microgravity during parabolic flight allowing the pre-test expiration to RV to be either in microgravity or at 1.8 G, with the actual test gas inhalation performed entirely in microgravity. Contrary to our expectations, the measured phase III slope and phase IV height and volume obtained from seven subjects in microgravity were essentially identical irrespective of the gravity level during the pre-test expiration to RV. The results suggest that airway closure configuration at RV before the test inspiration has no apparent impact on phases III and IV generation. PMID:15979418