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Sample records for pharmacogenetics research network

  1. The Pharmacogenetics Research Network: From SNP Discovery to Clinical Drug Response

    PubMed Central

    Giacomini, KM; Brett, CM; Altman, RB; Benowitz, NL; Dolan, ME; Flockhart, DA; Johnson, JA; Hayes, DF; Klein, T; Krauss, RM; Kroetz, DL; McLeod, HL; Nguyen, AT; Ratain, MJ; Relling, MV; Reus, V; Roden, DM; Schaefer, CA; Shuldiner, AR; Skaar, T; Tantisira, K; Tyndale, RF; Wang, L; Weinshilboum, RM; Weiss, ST; Zineh, I

    2016-01-01

    The NIH Pharmacogenetics Research Network (PGRN) is a collaborative group of investigators with a wide range of research interests, but all attempting to correlate drug response with genetic variation. Several research groups concentrate on drugs used to treat specific medical disorders (asthma, depression, cardiovascular disease, addiction of nicotine, and cancer), whereas others are focused on specific groups of proteins that interact with drugs (membrane transporters and phase II drug-metabolizing enzymes). The diverse scientific information is stored and annotated in a publicly accessible knowledge base, the Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics Knowledge base (PharmGKB). This report highlights selected achievements and scientific approaches as well as hypotheses about future directions of each of the groups within the PGRN. Seven major topics are included: informatics (PharmGKB), cardiovascular, pulmonary, addiction, cancer, transport, and metabolism. PMID:17339863

  2. Genome-wide association studies in pharmacogenetics research debate

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Kent R; Cheng, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Will genome-wide association studies (GWAS) ‘work’ for pharmacogenetics research? This question was the topic of a staged debate, with pro and con sides, aimed to bring out the strengths and weaknesses of GWAS for pharmacogenetics studies. After a full day of seminars at the Fifth Statistical Analysis Workshop of the Pharmacogenetics Research Network, the lively debate was held – appropriately – at Goonies Comedy Club in Rochester (MN, USA). The pro side emphasized that the many GWAS successes for identifying genetic variants associated with disease risk show that it works; that the current genotyping platforms are efficient, with good imputation methods to fill in missing data; that its global assessment is always a success even if no significant associations are detected; and that genetic effects are likely to be large because humans have not evolved in a drug-therapy environment. By contrast, the con side emphasized that we have limited knowledge of the complexity of the genome; limited clinical phenotypes compromise studies; the likely multifactorial nature of drug response clouding the small genetic effects; and limitations of sample size and replication studies in pharmacogenetic studies. Lively and insightful discussions emphasized further research efforts that might benefit GWAS in pharmacogenetics. PMID:20235786

  3. Pharmacogenetic research in partnership with American Indian and Alaska Native communities

    PubMed Central

    Woodahl, Erica L; Lesko, Lawrence J; Hopkins, Scarlett; Robinson, Renee F; Thummel, Kenneth E; Burke, Wylie

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacogenetics is a subset of personalized medicine that applies knowledge about genetic variation in gene–drug pairs to help guide optimal dosing. There is a lack of data, however, about pharmacogenetic variation in underserved populations. One strategy for increasing participation of underserved populations in pharmacogenetic research is to include communities in the research process. We have established academic–community partnerships with American Indian and Alaska Native people living in Alaska and Montana to study pharmacogenetics. Key features of the partnership include community oversight of the project, research objectives that address community health priorities, and bidirectional learning that builds capacity in both the community and the research team. Engaging the community as coresearchers can help build trust to advance pharmacogenetic research objectives. PMID:25141898

  4. Partnership with the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes: Establishing an Advisory Committee for Pharmacogenetic Research

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Chelsea T.; Muzquiz, LeeAnna I.; Howlett, Kevin; Azure, Bernie; Bodnar, Brenda; Finley, Vernon; Incashola, Tony; Mathias, Cheryl; Laukes, Cindi; Beatty, Patrick; Burke, Wylie; Pershouse, Mark A.; Putnam, Elizabeth A.; Trinidad, Susan Brown; James, Rosalina; Woodahl, Erica L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Inclusion of American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) populations in pharmacogenetic research is key if the benefits of pharmacogenetic testing are to reach these communities. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) offers a model to engage these communities in pharmacogenetics. Objectives An academic-community partnership between the University of Montana and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes (CSKT) was established to engage the community as partners and advisors in pharmacogenetic research. Methods A community advisory committee, the Community Pharmacogenetics Advisory Council (CPAC), was established to ensure community involvement in the research process. To promote bidirectional learning, researchers gave workshops and presentations about pharmacogenetic research to increase research capacity and CPAC members trained researchers in cultural competencies. As part of our commitment to a sustainable relationship, we conducted a self-assessment of the partnership, which included surveys and interviews with CPAC members and researchers. Results Academic and community participants agree that the partnership has promoted a bidirectional exchange of knowledge. Interviews showed positive feedback from the perspectives of both the CPAC and researchers. CPAC members discussed their trust in and support of the partnership as well as having learned more about research processes and pharmacogenetics. Researchers discussed their appreciation of CPAC involvement in the project and guidance the group provided in understanding the CSKT community and culture. Discussion We have created an academic-community partnership to ensure CSKT community input and to share decision-making about pharmacogenetic research. Our CBPR approach may be a model for engaging AI/AN people, and other underserved populations, in genetic research. PMID:27346763

  5. The Rhesus Monkey Connectome Predicts Disrupted Functional Networks Resulting from Pharmacogenetic Inactivation of the Amygdala.

    PubMed

    Grayson, David S; Bliss-Moreau, Eliza; Machado, Christopher J; Bennett, Jeffrey; Shen, Kelly; Grant, Kathleen A; Fair, Damien A; Amaral, David G

    2016-07-20

    Contemporary research suggests that the mammalian brain is a complex system, implying that damage to even a single functional area could have widespread consequences across the system. To test this hypothesis, we pharmacogenetically inactivated the rhesus monkey amygdala, a subcortical region with distributed and well-defined cortical connectivity. We then examined the impact of that perturbation on global network organization using resting-state functional connectivity MRI. Amygdala inactivation disrupted amygdalocortical communication and distributed corticocortical coupling across multiple functional brain systems. Altered coupling was explained using a graph-based analysis of experimentally established structural connectivity to simulate disconnection of the amygdala. Communication capacity via monosynaptic and polysynaptic pathways, in aggregate, largely accounted for the correlational structure of endogenous brain activity and many of the non-local changes that resulted from amygdala inactivation. These results highlight the structural basis of distributed neural activity and suggest a strategy for linking focal neuropathology to remote neurophysiological changes. PMID:27477019

  6. Pharmacogenetic Predictors of Response.

    PubMed

    Hertz, Daniel L; Rae, James M

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacogenetics attempts to predict treatment response using a patient's "germline" genome as the biomarker of interest. This chapter on pharmacogenetic predictors of breast cancer response is divided into four sections. The first introduces readers to genetic variation and describes how variation in the germline genome can affect biology or pharmacology. The second section introduces the translational pathway for pharmacogenetic research and discusses the specific challenges to identifying pharmacogenetic predictors of breast cancer response. The third section is divided into three subsections, each of which discusses a distinct category of pharmacogenetic response predictors; pharmacokinetics, cancer cell sensitivity, and effector cell activation. Within each subsection a specific pharmacogenetic association is described in detail; CYP2D6-tamoxifen, BRCA-PARP inhibitors, and FCGRA-trastuzumab, respectively, followed by a general discussion of other less well-established examples or areas for further research. The chapter concludes with a summary of the current status of pharmacogenetic predictors of breast cancer response and a few predictions for the future of this field. PMID:26987536

  7. [Personalised pharmacogenetics. Evidence-based guidelines and clinical application of pharmacogenetic diagnostics].

    PubMed

    Stingl, J C; Brockmöller, J

    2013-11-01

    The broad clinical application of pharmacogenetic diagnostics for individualised drug treatment is still limited. With the exception of oncological therapies where molecular tumor makers are frequently used to decide upon individual drug therapies, pharmacogenetic testing is not generally offered in clinical laboratory diagnostics, because the costs are not covered by general health insurance and it is not evident what consequences the results of a genotyping test may have for the individual drug treatment. Especially in the context of pharmacokinetics, bioequivalence-based concepts have been developed that allow the individual drug dosage or therapy to be adjusted to genetic polymorphisms in drug metabolism, drug transport that affect drug absorption, metabolism and elimination. Pharmacogenetic aspects are increasingly included in the product information (e.g., on its website the FDA lists more than 60 drug labels that include pharmacogenetic information). However, most pharmacogenetic information on drug labels does not give recommendations for clinical decisions to be made based on individual genotypes. This gap is currently being closed by the development of international consortia aiming to base clinical recommendations on the best available evidence by systematic review of the existing data. The Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium of the Pharmacogenomics Research Network (CPIC) is an international community-driven organisation that is developing peer-reviewed, freely available gene/drug guidelines that are published in full at PharmGKB (http://www.pharmgkb.org). The aim of these guidelines is to give therapeutic recommendations such as dose adjustments or suggestions for the choice of an alternative drug in the case of specific genotypes (phenotypes) that predict slow metabolism or transport of drugs or safety risks or risks of therapeutic failure. These guidelines are not mandatory but serve to facilitate the translation of pharmacogenetic

  8. Interethnic variability of pharmacogenetic biomarkers in Mexican healthy volunteers: a report from the RIBEF (Ibero-American Network of Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics).

    PubMed

    Fricke-Galindo, Ingrid; Jung-Cook, Helgi; LLerena, Adrián; López-López, Marisol

    2016-06-01

    Mexico presents a complex population diversity integrated by Mexican indigenous (MI) (7% of Mexico's population) and Mexican mestizos (MMs). This composition highlights the importance of pharmacogenetic studies in Mexican populations. The aims of this study were to analyze the reported frequencies of the most relevant pharmacogenetic biomarkers and metabolic phenotypes in healthy volunteers from Mexican populations and to assess its interethnic variability across MI and MM populations. After a literature search in PubMed, and according to previously defined inclusion criteria, 63 pharmacogenetic studies performed in Mexican healthy volunteers up to date were selected. These reports comprised 56,292 healthy volunteers (71.58% MM). Allele frequencies in 31 pharmacogenetic biomarkers, from 121 searched, are described. Nine of these biomarkers presented variation within MM and MI groups. The frequencies of CYP2D6*3, *4, *5, *10, *17, *35 and *41 alleles in the MM group were different from those reported in the MI group. CYP2C9*2 and *3 alleles were more frequent in MM than in MI populations (χ2 test, p<0.05). CYP2C19*3 allele was not found in the MM or MI populations reported. For UGT1A1*28, only one study was found. HLA-A*31:01 and HLA-B*15:02 were present in some MM and MI populations. Poor metabolizers for CYP2D6 and CYP2C9 were more frequent in MM than in MI groups (χ2 test, p<0.05). Only 26% of the relevant pharmacogenetic biomarkers searched have been studied in Mexican healthy volunteers; therefore, further studies are warranted. The frequency variation of biomarkers in MM and MI populations could be important for the clinical implementation of pharmacogenetics in Mexico. PMID:26812836

  9. Special Populations and Pharmacogenetic Issues in Tuberculosis Drug Development and Clinical Research

    PubMed Central

    McIlleron, Helen; Abdel-Rahman, Susan; Dave, Joel Alex; Blockman, Marc; Owen, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Special populations, including children and pregnant women, have been neglected in tuberculosis drug development. Patients in developing countries are inadequately represented in pharmacology research, and postmarketing pharmacovigilance activities tend to be rudimentary in these settings. There is an ethical imperative to generate evidence at an early stage to support optimal treatment in these populations and in populations with common comorbid conditions, such as diabetes and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. This article highlights the research needed to support equitable access to new antituberculosis regimens. Efficient and opportunistic pharmacokinetic study designs, typically using sparse sampling and population analysis methods, can facilitate optimal dose selection for children and pregnant women. Formulations suitable for children should be developed early and used in pharmacokinetic studies to guide dose selection. Drug–drug interactions between commonly coprescribed medications also need to be evaluated, and when these are significant, alternative approaches should be sought. A potent rifamycin-sparing regimen could revolutionize the treatment of adults and children requiring a protease inhibitor as part of antiretroviral treatment regimens for HIV infection. A sufficiently wide formulary of drugs should be developed for those with contraindications to the standard approaches. Because genetic variations may influence an individual's response to tuberculosis treatment, depending on the population being treated, it is important that samples be collected and stored for pharmacogenetic study in future clinical trials. PMID:26009615

  10. Special populations and pharmacogenetic issues in tuberculosis drug development and clinical research.

    PubMed

    McIlleron, Helen; Abdel-Rahman, Susan; Dave, Joel Alex; Blockman, Marc; Owen, Andrew

    2015-06-15

    Special populations, including children and pregnant women, have been neglected in tuberculosis drug development. Patients in developing countries are inadequately represented in pharmacology research, and postmarketing pharmacovigilance activities tend to be rudimentary in these settings. There is an ethical imperative to generate evidence at an early stage to support optimal treatment in these populations and in populations with common comorbid conditions, such as diabetes and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. This article highlights the research needed to support equitable access to new antituberculosis regimens. Efficient and opportunistic pharmacokinetic study designs, typically using sparse sampling and population analysis methods, can facilitate optimal dose selection for children and pregnant women. Formulations suitable for children should be developed early and used in pharmacokinetic studies to guide dose selection. Drug-drug interactions between commonly coprescribed medications also need to be evaluated, and when these are significant, alternative approaches should be sought. A potent rifamycin-sparing regimen could revolutionize the treatment of adults and children requiring a protease inhibitor as part of antiretroviral treatment regimens for HIV infection. A sufficiently wide formulary of drugs should be developed for those with contraindications to the standard approaches. Because genetic variations may influence an individual's response to tuberculosis treatment, depending on the population being treated, it is important that samples be collected and stored for pharmacogenetic study in future clinical trials. PMID:26009615

  11. Pharmacogenetics research on chemotherapy resistance in colorectal cancer over the last 20 years

    PubMed Central

    Panczyk, Mariusz

    2014-01-01

    During the past two decades the first sequencing of the human genome was performed showing its high degree of inter-individual differentiation, as a result of large international research projects (Human Genome Project, the 1000 Genomes Project International HapMap Project, and Programs for Genomic Applications NHLBI-PGA). This period was also a time of intensive development of molecular biology techniques and enormous knowledge growth in the biology of cancer. For clinical use in the treatment of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC), in addition to fluoropyrimidines, another two new cytostatic drugs were allowed: irinotecan and oxaliplatin. Intensive research into new treatment regimens and a new generation of drugs used in targeted therapy has also been conducted. The last 20 years was a time of numerous in vitro and in vivo studies on the molecular basis of drug resistance. One of the most important factors limiting the effectiveness of chemotherapy is the primary and secondary resistance of cancer cells. Understanding the genetic factors and mechanisms that contribute to the lack of or low sensitivity of tumour tissue to cytostatics is a key element in the currently developing trend of personalized medicine. Scientists hope to increase the percentage of positive treatment response in CRC patients due to practical applications of pharmacogenetics/pharmacogenomics. Over the past 20 years the clinical usability of different predictive markers has been tested among which only a few have been confirmed to have high application potential. This review is a synthetic presentation of drug resistance in the context of CRC patient chemotherapy. The multifactorial nature and volume of the issues involved do not allow the author to present a comprehensive study on this subject in one review. PMID:25110414

  12. Pharmacogenetics: implementing personalized medicine.

    PubMed

    Mini, Enrico; Nobili, Stefania

    2009-01-01

    Pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics have been widely recognized as fundamental steps toward personalized medicine. They deal with genetically determined variants in how individuals respond to drugs, and hold the promise to revolutionize drug therapy by tailoring it according to individual genotypes.The clinical need for novel approaches to improve drug therapy derives from the high rate of adverse reactions to drugs and their lack of efficacy in many individuals that may be predicted by pharmacogenetic testing.Significant advances in pharmacogenetic research have been made since inherited differences in response to drugs such as isoniazid and succinylcholine were explored in the 1950s. The clinical utility and applications of pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics are at present particularly evident in some therapeutic areas (anticancer, psycotrophic, and anticoagulant drugs).Recent evidence derived from several studies includes screening for thiopurine methyl transferase or uridine 5'-diphosphoglucuronosyl-transferase 1A1 gene polymorphisms to prevent mercaptopurine and azathioprine or irinotecan induced myelosuppression, respectively. Also there is a large body of information concerning cytochrome P450 gene polymorphisms and their relationship to drug toxicity and response. Further examples include screening the presence of the HLA-B*5701 allele to prevent the hypersensitivity reactions to abacavir and the assessment of the human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER-2) expression for trastuzumab therapy of breast cancer or that of KRAS mutation status for cetuximab or panitumumab therapy in colorectal cancer.Moreover, the application of pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics to therapies used in the treatment of osteoarticular diseases (e.g. rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis) holds great promise for tailoring therapy with clinically relevant drugs (e.g. disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, vitamin D, and estrogens). Although the classical candidate gene

  13. Pharmacogenetics of Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Mestroni, Luisa; Begay, Rene; Graw, Sharon L; Taylor, Matthew RG

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of Review Novel medical approaches and personalized medicine seek to use genetic information to “individualize” and improve diagnosis, prevention, and therapy. The personalized management of cardiovascular disease involves a large spectrum of potential applications, from diagnostics of monogenic disorders, to prevention and management strategies based on modifier genes, to pharmacogenetics in which individual genetic information is used to optimize pharmacological treatments. Recent Findings Evidence suggests that common polymorphic variants of modifier genes could influence drug response in cardiovascular disease in a variety of areas including heart failure, arrhythmias, dyslipidemia and hypertension. In heart failure, common genetic variants of beta-adrenergic receptors, alpha-adrenergic receptors, and endothelin receptors (among others) have been associated with variable response to heart failure therapies. The challenge remains to develop strategies to leverage this information in ways that personalize and optimize cardiovascular therapy based on a patient's genetic profile. Summary While advances in technologies will continue to transition personalized medicine from the research to the clinical setting, health care providers will need to reshape clinical diagnostic paradigms. Ultimately, pharmacogenetics will give providers options for improving patient management on the basis of pharmacogenetic data. PMID:24717669

  14. Pharmacogenetics of OPRM1

    PubMed Central

    Crist, Richard C.; Berrettini, Wade H.

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacogenetic research has the potential to explain the variation in treatment efficacy within patient populations. Understanding the interaction between genetic variation and medications may provide a method for matching patients to the most effective therapeutic options and improving overall patient outcomes. The OPRM1 gene has been a target of interest in a large number of pharmacogenetic studies due to its genetic and structural variation, as well as the role of opioid receptors in a variety of disorders. The mu-opioid receptor (MOR), encoded by OPRM1, naturally regulates the analgesic response to pain and also controls the rewarding effects of many drugs of abuse, including opioids, nicotine, and alcohol. Genetic variants in OPRM1, particularly the nonsynonymous polymorphism A118G, have been repeatedly associated with the efficacy of treatments for pain and various types of dependence. This review focuses on the current understanding of the pharmacogenetic impact of OPMR1, primarily in regards to the treatment of pain and addiction. PMID:24201053

  15. Abacavir hypersensitivity: a model system for pharmacogenetic test adoption.

    PubMed

    Lai-Goldman, Myla; Faruki, Hawazin

    2008-12-01

    A pharmacogenetic marker for abacavir hypersensitivity is rapidly being incorporated into routine medical practice following demonstration of strong clinical utility in pivotal clinical studies. As one of the few pharmacogenetic markers that have crossed from research tools to clinical adoption and utilization, the abacavir hypersensitivity pharmacogenetic marker provides a great model for demonstration of factors that are critical to successful pharmacogenetic test adoption. Several examples of novel diagnostic test implementation are reviewed with focus on factors that are critical to translation into clinical practice. Other pharmacogenetic markers that have not yet been integrated into routine clinical care are discussed and reasons for their lack of acceptance are suggested. PMID:19092439

  16. Pharmacogenetics in the Brazilian Population

    PubMed Central

    Suarez-Kurtz, Guilherme

    2010-01-01

    Brazil is the fifth largest country in the world and its present population, in excess of 190;million, is highly heterogeneous, as a result of centuries of admixture between Amerindians, Europeans, and Sub-Saharan Africans. The estimated individual proportions of biogeographical ancestry vary widely and continuously among Brazilians: most individuals, irrespective of self-identification as White, Brown or Black – the major categories of the Brazilian Census “race/color” system – have significant degrees of European and African ancestry, while a sizeable number display also Amerindian ancestry. These features have important pharmacogenetic (PGx) implications: first, extrapolation of PGx data from relatively well-defined ethnic groups is clearly not applicable to the majority of Brazilians; second, the frequency distribution of polymorphisms in pharmacogenes (e.g., CYP3A5, CYP2C9, GSTM1, ABCB1, GSTM3, VKORC, etc) varies continuously among Brazilians and is not captured by race/color self-identification; third, the intrinsic heterogeneity of the Brazilian population must be acknowledged in the design and interpretation of PGx studies in order to avoid spurious conclusions based on improper matching of study cohorts. The peculiarities of PGx in Brazilians are illustrated with data for different therapeutic groups, such as anticoagulants, HIV protease inhibitors and non-steroidal antinflammatory drugs, and the challenges and advantages created by population admixture for the study and implementation of PGx are discussed. PGx data for Amerindian groups and Brazilian-born, first-generation Japanese are presented to illustrate the rich diversity of the Brazilian population. Finally, I introduce the reader to the Brazilian Pharmacogenetic Network or Refargen1, a nation-wide consortium of research groups, with the mission to provide leadership in PGx research and education in Brazil, with a population health impact. PMID:21833165

  17. Pharmacogenetics of Response to Statins

    PubMed Central

    Zineh, Issam

    2016-01-01

    The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG CoA) reductase inhibitors (statins) are among the most commonly prescribed drugs worldwide. On average, statins improve lipid profiles and have been shown to have ancillary beneficial effects on inflammation, platelet activity, and endothelial function. However, variability in drug response exists regardless of the measured phenotype, and genetic variability may be a contributing factor. Recently, there has been an interesting shift in statin pharmacogenetic studies. Novel study designs have been employed and nontraditional candidate genes have been investigated in relation to both lipid and nonlipid responses to statins. This review outlines earlier pharmacogenetic studies and highlights newly published findings that expand on previous work. Furthermore, a framework is provided in which the necessary next steps in research are described, with the ultimate goal of translating pharmacogenetic findings into clinically meaningful changes in patient care. PMID:18241612

  18. Pharmacogenetics and individualizing drug treatment during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Haas, David M

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacogenetics as a tool to aid clinicians implement individualized pharmacotherapy is utilized in some areas of medicine. Pharmacogenetics in pregnancy is still a developing field. However, there are several areas of obstetric therapeutics where data are emerging that give glimpses into future therapeutic possibilities. These include opioid pain management, antihypertensive therapy, antidepressant medications, preterm labor tocolytics, antenatal corticosteroids and drugs for nausea and vomiting of pregnancy, to name a few. More data are needed to populate the therapeutic models and to truly determine if pharmacogenetics will aid in individualizing pharmacotherapy in pregnancy. The objective of this review is to summarize current data and highlight research needs. PMID:24329192

  19. Pharmacogenetics in Jewish populations

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yao; Peter, Inga; Scott, Stuart A.

    2014-01-01

    Spanning over 2000 years, the Jewish population has a long history of migration, population bottlenecks, expansions, and geographical isolation, which has resulted in a unique genetic architecture among the Jewish people. As such, many Mendelian disease genes and founder mutations for autosomal recessive diseases have been discovered in several Jewish groups, which have prompted recent genomic studies in the Jewish population on common disease susceptibility and other complex traits. Although few studies on the genetic determinants of drug response variability have been reported in the Jewish population, a number of unique pharmacogenetic variants have been discovered that are more common in Jewish populations than in other major racial groups. Notable examples identified in the Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) population include the vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 (VKORC1) c.106G>T (p.D36Y) variant associated with high warfarin dosing requirements and the recently reported cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19) allele, CYP2C19*4B, that harbors both loss-of-function [*4 (c.1A>G)] and increased-function [*17 (c.−806C>T)] variants on the same haplotype. These data are encouraging in that like other ethnicities and subpopulations, the Jewish population likely harbors numerous pharmacogenetic variants that are uncommon or absent in other larger racial groups and ethnicities. In addition to unique variants, common multi-ethnic variants in key drug metabolism genes (e.g., ABCB1, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, NAT2) have also been detected in the AJ and other Jewish groups. This review aims to summarize the currently available pharmacogenetics literature and discuss future directions for related research with this unique population. PMID:24867283

  20. Pharmacogenetics of antidepressant response.

    PubMed

    Keers, Robert; Aitchison, Katherine J

    2011-01-01

    There is substantial interindividual variation in response to antidepressants. Family and twin studies suggest that genetic variation may, at least in part, explain these differences. Pharmacogenetic research attempts to identify the genetic variants associated with antidepressant response to both understand the mechanism of action of pharmacotherapies and to predict outcome. Genes implicated in the pharmacokinetics or pharmacodyamics of antidepressants have been shown to predict response; however, the failure of some findings to replicate has been disappointing. More recent hypothesis-free approaches have identified novel candidates for antidepressant response. However, results have been considerably modest and suggest that treatment outcome is determined by multiple genetic variants of small effect. The small effect sizes of genetic variants and heterogeneity between studies have significantly hindered attempts to find robust genetic predictors of response to antidepressants. To allow the direct comparison of findings, future pharmacogenetic studies should employ standardized methodology and consider using intermediate phenotypes of response, such as neurogenesis, that may more closely reflect the mechanism of action of antidepressants. PMID:21158559

  1. Progress in pharmacogenetics: consortiums and new strategies.

    PubMed

    Maroñas, Olalla; Latorre, Ana; Dopazo, Joaquín; Pirmohamed, Munir; Rodríguez-Antona, Cristina; Siest, Gérard; Carracedo, Ángel; LLerena, Adrián

    2016-03-01

    Pharmacogenetics (PGx), as a field dedicated to achieving the goal of personalized medicine (PM), is devoted to the study of genes involved in inter-individual response to drugs. Due to its nature, PGx requires access to large samples; therefore, in order to progress, the formation of collaborative consortia seems to be crucial. Some examples of this collective effort are the European Society of Pharmacogenomics and personalized Therapy and the Ibero-American network of Pharmacogenetics. As an emerging field, one of the major challenges that PGx faces is translating their discoveries from research bench to bedside. The development of genomic high-throughput technologies is generating a revolution and offers the possibility of producing vast amounts of genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms for each patient. Moreover, there is a need of identifying and replicating associations of new biomarkers, and, in addition, a greater effort must be invested in developing regulatory organizations to accomplish a correct standardization. In this review, we outline the current progress in PGx using examples to highlight both the importance of polymorphisms and the research strategies for their detection. These concepts need to be applied together with a proper dissemination of knowledge to improve clinician and patient understanding, in a multidisciplinary team-based approach. PMID:26913460

  2. Genetic databases and pharmacogenetics: introduction.

    PubMed

    Ashcroft, Richard E; Hedgecoe, Adam M

    2006-09-01

    Since the inception of the Human Genome Project, human genetics has frequently been conducted through big science projects, combining academic, state and industrial methods, interests and resources. The legitimacy of such projects has been linked to national prestige and images of the nation, the purity of scientific endeavour, the entrepreneurial spirit, medical progress and the public health. A key complication in these discourses is that large-scale genetic research has yet to show major results when considered in terms of the objectives used to legitimate investment and social support for these projects. The main area showing promise at present is the developing field of pharmacogenetics, which is now attracting major industry and government investment. Sociological, ethical and philosophical study of human genetic sample-based research and pharmacogenetics has developed in parallel with inquiry in the biological and biomedical sciences. This paper introduces a symposium on the ethical and social aspects of this field of biomedical research. PMID:16980190

  3. [Pharmacogenetics of warfarin].

    PubMed

    Kessler, P

    2006-03-01

    There are significant differences among patients treated with warfarin in the dosage volumes necessary to reach an optimum therapeutic effect. Apart from the external influences (interactions with drugs and food), genetic predispositions play an important role. Polymorphysms of the P 450 2C9 cytochrome bear upon the speed ofbreaking down S-warfarin, polymorfysms VKORC1 bear on the volume and quality of epoxide reductase--an enzyme whose blockade is the crux of the mechanism how cumarin anticoagulants act. These two genes are responsible for at least 50% of the warfarin effect variability. Warfarin's effect is further determined by the genetic variants of gamma-carboxylase, prothrombin, factors VII and IX. In near future, further results of pharmacogenetic research and clinical studies can be expected. They study the impact of the findings in clinical practice. PMID:16637447

  4. Employing Dictyostelium as an Advantageous 3Rs Model for Pharmacogenetic Research.

    PubMed

    Otto, Grant P; Cocorocchio, Marco; Munoz, Laura; Tyson, Richard A; Bretschneider, Till; Williams, Robin S B

    2016-01-01

    Increasing concern regarding the use of animals in research has triggered a growing need for non-animal research models in a range of fields. The development of 3Rs (replacement, refinement, and reduction) approaches in research, to reduce the reliance on the use of animal tissue and whole-animal experiments, has recently included the use of Dictyostelium. In addition to not feeling pain and thus being relatively free of ethical constraints, Dictyostelium provides a range of distinct methodological advantages for researchers that has led to a number of breakthroughs. These methodologies include using cell behavior (cell movement and shape) as a rapid indicator of sensitivity to poorly characterized medicines, natural products, and other chemicals to help understand the molecular mechanism of action of compounds. Here, we outline a general approach to employing Dictyostelium as a 3Rs research model, using cell behavior as a readout to better understand how compounds, such as the active ingredient in chilli peppers, capsaicin, function at a cellular level. This chapter helps scientists unfamiliar with Dictyostelium to rapidly employ it as an advantageous model system for research, to reduce the use of animals in research, and to make paradigm shift advances in our understanding of biological chemistry. PMID:27271898

  5. Pharmacogenetics in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Tourkantonis, Ioannis S; Peponi, Evangelia; Syrigos, Konstantinos N; Saif, Muhammad Wasif

    2014-07-01

    Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive malignancy with a poor overall survival rate. Given advances in pharmacogenomics, numerous gene mutations have been identified that could be potential targets for drug development. Therefore, future research strategies may identify prognostic and predictive markers aiming to improve outcome by maximizing efficacy whilst lowering toxicity. In this commentary, we summarize several interesting results regarding pancreatic cancer pharmacogenetics that have been presented in the 2014 American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Annual Meeting. In particular, we focus on Abstract #4124, which investigated the potential predictive role of human equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (hENT1) in patients treated with adjuvant gemcitabine for pancreatic cancer, on Abstract #4125, which examined the tolerability of a modified FOLFORINOX study based on UGT1A1*28 genotype guided dosing of IRI in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer, and on Abstract #4130, which confirmed the predictive role of circulating tumor and invasive cells (CTICs) from patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer in second-line chemotherapy treatment setting. PMID:25076337

  6. The Pharmacogenetics of Alcohol Use Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Jermaine D.; Comer, Sandra D.; Kranzler, Henry R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Annually, the use and abuse of alcohol contributes to millions of deaths and billions of dollars in societ al costs. To determine the impact of genetic variation on the susceptibility to the disorder and its response to treatment, studies have been conducted to assess the contribution of a variety of candidate genetic variants. These variants, which we review here, were chosen based upon their observed or hypothesized functional relevance to AUD risk or to the mechanism by which medications used to treat the disorder exert their effects. Methods This qualitative review examines studies in which candidate polymorphisms were tested as moderator variables to identify pharmacogenetic effects on either the subjective response to alcohol or the outcomes of pharmacotherapy. Results Although findings from these studies provide evidence of a number of clinically relevant pharmacogenetic effects, the literature is limited and there are conflicting findings that require resolution. Conclusions Pharmacogenetic studies of AUD treatment that use greater methodological rigor and better statistical controls, such as corrections for multiple testing, may help to resolve inconsistent findings. These procedures could also lead to the discovery of more robust and clinically meaningful moderator effects. As the field evolves through methodological standardization and the use of larger study samples, pharmacogenetic research has the potential to inform clinical care by enhancing therapeutic effects and personalizing treatments. These efforts may also provide insights into the mechanisms by which medications reduce heavy drinking or promote abstinence in patients with an AUD. PMID:25703505

  7. Pharmacogenetics in clinical pediatrics: challenges and strategies

    PubMed Central

    Van Driest, Sara L; McGregor, Tracy L

    2013-01-01

    The use of genetic information to guide medication decisions holds great promise to improve therapeutic outcomes through increased efficacy and reduced adverse events. As in many areas of medicine, pediatric research and clinical implementation in pharmacogenetics lag behind corresponding adult discovery and clinical applications. In adults, genotype-guided clinical decision support for medications such as clopidogrel, warfarin and simvastatin are in use in some medical centers. However, research conducted in pediatric populations demonstrates that the models and practices developed in adults may be inaccurate in children, and some applications lack any pediatric research to guide clinical decisions. To account for additional factors introduced by developmental considerations in pediatric populations and provide pediatric patients with maximal benefit from genotype-guided therapy, the field will need to develop and employ creative solutions. In this article, we detail some concerns about research and clinical implementation of pharmacogenetics in pediatrics, and present potential mechanisms for addressing them. PMID:24363766

  8. Pharmacogenetics of drug hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Elizabeth J; Mallal, Simon A

    2010-01-01

    Drug hypersensitivity reactions and severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions, such as Stevens–Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis, are examples of serious adverse drug reactions mediated through a combination of metabolic and immunological mechanisms that could traditionally not have been predicted based on the pharmacological characteristics of the drug alone. The discovery of new associations between these syndromes and specific HLA has created the promise that risk for these reactions could be predicted through pharmacogenetic screening, thereby avoiding serious morbidity and mortality associated with these types of drug reactions. Despite this, several hurdles exist in the translation of these associations into pharmacogenetic tests that could be routinely used in the clinical setting. HLA-B*5701 screening to prevent abacavir hypersensitivity syndrome is an example of a test now in widespread routine clinical use in the developed world. PMID:20602616

  9. Pharmacogenetics of analgesic drugs

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Giovanna; Gubbay, Anthony; Branford, Ruth; Sato, Hiroe

    2013-01-01

    Summary points • Individual variability in pain perception and differences in the efficacy of analgesic drugs are complex phenomena and are partly genetically predetermined. • Analgesics act in various ways on the peripheral and central pain pathways and are regarded as one of the most valuable but equally dangerous groups of medications. • While pharmacokinetic properties of drugs, metabolism in particular, have been scrutinised by genotype–phenotype correlation studies, the clinical significance of inherited variants in genes governing pharmacodynamics of analgesics remains largely unexplored (apart from the µ-opioid receptor). • Lack of replication of the findings from one study to another makes meaningful personalised analgesic regime still a distant future. • This narrative review will focus on findings related to pharmacogenetics of commonly used analgesic medications and highlight authors’ views on future clinical implications of pharmacogenetics in the context of pharmacological treatment of chronic pain. PMID:26516523

  10. Pharmacogenetics of FSH action

    PubMed Central

    Laan, Maris; Grigorova, Marina; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo T.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of the review To review the current knowledge of genetic variants in the two genes affecting the individual responsiveness to follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) action—the FSH beta-subunit (FSHB) and the FSH receptor (FSHR), as well as the pharmacogenetic ramifications of the findings. Recent findings Four common variants in FSHB/FSHR were shown to exhibit significant effect on FSH action: linked FSHR variants Thr307Ala and Asn680Ser determining common receptorisoforms, andgene expression affecting polymorphisms FSHR –29G/A and FSHB–211G/T. In women, the FSHR Thr307Ala/Asn680Ser polymorphisms show consistent predictive value for estimating the most optimal rFSH dosage in controlled ovarian hyperstimulation(COH).The same variants exhibit a potential for the pharmacogenetic assessment of the treatment ofPCOS. The FSHR–29G/A variant was also shown to contribute to ovarian response to COH. Pilot studies have suggestedthe FSHB–211TT-homozygous oligozoospermicmen with genetically determined low concentration of FSH, as potentially the best responders to FSH treatment; furthermore, modulation of this response by FSHR polymorphisms is possible. Summary Genetic variants in FSHB/FSHRexhibit a potential for pharmacogenetic applications in selecting appropriate treatment options (timing and dosage) in male and female conditions requiring or benefitting from FSH therapy. PMID:22499219

  11. Pharmacogenetics approach to therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Koo, Seok Hwee; Lee, Edmund Jon Deoon

    2006-01-01

    1. Pharmacogenetics refers to the study of genetically controlled variations in drug response. Functional variants caused by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes encoding drug-metabolising enzymes, transporters, ion channels and drug receptors have been known to be associated with interindividual and interethnic variation in drug response. Genetic variations in these genes play a role in influencing the efficacy and toxicity of medications. 2. Rapid, precise and cost-effective high-throughput technological platforms are essential for performing large-scale mutational analysis of genetic markers involved in the aetiology of variable responses to drug therapy. 3. The application of a pharmacogenetics approach to therapeutics in general clinical practice is still far from being achieved today owing to various constraints, such as limited accessibility of technology, inadequate knowledge, ambiguity of the role of variants and ethical concerns. 4. Drug actions are determined by the interplay of several genes encoding different proteins involved in various biochemical pathways. With rapidly emerging SNP discovery technological platforms and widespread knowledge on the role of SNPs in disease susceptibility and variability in drug response, the pharmacogenetics approach to therapeutics is anticipated to take off in the not-too-distant future. This will present profound clinical, economic and social implications for health care. PMID:16700889

  12. Personalizing medicine with clinical pharmacogenetics

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Stuart A.

    2012-01-01

    Clinical genetic testing has grown substantially over the past 30 years as the causative mutations for Mendelian diseases have been identified, particularly aided in part by the recent advances in molecular-based technologies. Importantly, the adoption of new tests and testing strategies (e.g., diagnostic confirmation, prenatal testing, and population-based carrier screening) has often been met with caution and careful consideration before clinical implementation, which facilitates the appropriate use of new genetic tests. Although the field of pharmacogenetics was established in the 1950s, clinical testing for constitutional pharmacogenetic variants implicated in interindividual drug response variability has only recently become available to help clinicians guide pharmacotherapy, in part due to US Food and Drug Administration-mediated product insert revisions that include pharmacogenetic information for selected drugs. However, despite pharmacogenetic associations with adverse outcomes, physician uptake of clinical pharmacogenetic testing has been slow. Compared with testing for Mendelian diseases, pharmacogenetic testing for certain indications can have a lower positive predictive value, which is one reason for underutilization. A number of other barriers remain with implementing clinical pharmacogenetics, including clinical utility, professional education, and regulatory and reimbursement issues, among others. This review presents some of the current opportunities and challenges with implementing clinical pharmacogenetic testing. PMID:22095251

  13. Pharmacogenetics and outcome with antipsychotic drugs

    PubMed Central

    Pouget, Jennie G.; Shams, Tahireh A.; Tiwari, Arun K.; Müller, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Antipsychotic medications are the gold-standard treatment for schizophrenia, and are often prescribed for other mental conditions. However, the efficacy and side-effect profiles of these drugs are heterogeneous, with large interindividual variability. As a result, treatment selection remains a largely trial-and-error process, with many failed treatment regimens endured before finding a tolerable balance between symptom management and side effects. Much of the interindividual variability in response and side effects is due to genetic factors (heritability, h2~ 0.60-0.80). Pharmacogenetics is an emerging field that holds the potential to facilitate the selection of the best medication for a particular patient, based on his or her genetic information. In this review we discuss the most promising genetic markers of antipsychotic treatment outcomes, and present current translational research efforts that aim to bring these pharmacogenetic findings to the clinic in the near future. PMID:25733959

  14. Pharmacogenetics in drug regulation: promise, potential and pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Rashmi R

    2005-01-01

    result in complex prescribing information. Genotype-specific dosing regimens will have to be more precise and marketing strategies more prudent. However, not all variations in drug responses are related to pharmacogenetic polymorphisms. Drug response can be modulated by a number of non-genetic factors, especially co-medications and presence of concurrent diseases. Inappropriate prescribing frequently compounds the complexity introduced by these two important non-genetic factors. Unless prescribers adhere to the prescribing information, much of the benefits of pharmacogenetics will be squandered. Discovering highly predictive genotype–phenotype associations during drug development and demonstrating their clinical validity and utility in well-designed prospective clinical trials will no doubt better define the role of pharmacogenetics in future clinical practice. In the meantime, prescribing should comply with the information provided while pharmacogenetic research is deservedly supported by all concerned but without unrealistic expectations. PMID:16096112

  15. Pharmacogenetics of asthma in children

    PubMed Central

    Matsui, Eiko; Nishimura, Akane; Kaneko, Hideo

    2010-01-01

    Allergic diseases such as bronchial asthma and atopic dermatitis develop by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Several candidate causative genes of asthma and atopy have been reported as the genetic factors. The clinical features of patients and causes of diseases vary. Therefore, personalized medicine (tailor-made medicine) is necessary for the improvement of quality of life (QOL) and for asthma cure. Pharmacogenetics is very important for personalized medicine. Here, we present the genetics and pharmacogenetics of asthma in children. Finally, we show the guideline for personalized medicine for asthma, particularly in childhood, including the pharmacogenetics of anti-asthmatic drugs, preliminarily produced by the authors. PMID:20224673

  16. Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation

    PubMed Central

    WEITZEL, KRISTIN W.; ELSEY, AMANDA R.; LANGAEE, TAIMOUR Y.; BURKLEY, BENJAMIN; NESSL, DAVID R.; OBENG, ANIWAA OWUSU; STALEY, BENJAMIN J.; DONG, HUI-JIA; ALLAN, ROBERT W.; LIU, J. FELIX; COOPER-DEHOFF, RHONDA M.; ANDERSON, R. DAVID; CONLON, MICHAEL; CLARE-SALZLER, MICHAEL J.; NELSON, DAVID R.; JOHNSON, JULIE A.

    2014-01-01

    Current challenges exist to widespread clinical implementation of genomic medicine and pharmacogenetics. The University of Florida (UF) Health Personalized Medicine Program (PMP) is a pharmacist-led, multidisciplinary initiative created in 2011 within the UF Clinical Translational Science Institute. Initial efforts focused on pharmacogenetics, with long-term goals to include expansion to disease-risk prediction and disease stratification. Herein we describe the processes for development of the program, the challenges that were encountered and the clinical acceptance by clinicians of the genomic medicine implementation. The initial clinical implementation of the UF PMP began in June 2012 and targeted clopidogrel use and the CYP2C19 genotype in patients undergoing left heart catheterization and percutaneous-coronary intervention (PCI). After 1 year, 1,097 patients undergoing left heart catheterization were genotyped preemptively, and 291 of those underwent subsequent PCI. Genotype results were reported to the medical record for 100% of genotyped patients. Eighty patients who underwent PCI had an actionable genotype, with drug therapy changes implemented in 56 individuals. Average turnaround time from blood draw to genotype result entry in the medical record was 3.5 business days. Seven different third party payors, including Medicare, reimbursed for the test during the first month of billing, with an 85% reimbursement rate for outpatient claims that were submitted in the first month. These data highlight multiple levels of success in clinical implementation of genomic medicine. PMID:24616371

  17. Pharmacogenetics and Antipsychotics: Therapeutic Efficacy and Side Effects Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jian-Ping; Malhotra, Anil K.

    2010-01-01

    Importance of the field Antipsychotic drug is the mainstay of treatment for schizophrenia, and there are large inter-individual differences is clinical response and side effects. Pharmacogenetics provides a valuable tool to fulfill the promise of personalized medicine by tailoring treatment based on one's genetic markers. Areas covered in this review This article reviews the pharmacogenetic literature from early 1990s to 2010, focusing on two aspects of drug action: pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Genetic variants in the neurotransmitter receptors including dopamine and serotonin, and metabolic pathways of drugs including CYP2D6 and COMT, were discussed in association with clinical drug response and side effects. What the reader will gain Readers are expected to learn the up-to-date evidence in pharmacogenetic research, and to gain familiarity to the issues and challenges facing the field. Take home message Pharmacogenetic research of antipsychotic drugs is both promising and challenging. There is consistent evidence that some genetic variants can affect clinical response and side effects. However, more studies that are designed specifically to test pharmacogenetic hypotheses are clearly needed to advance the field. PMID:21162693

  18. Rare Diseases Clinical Research Network

    MedlinePlus

    ... RDCRN? Aims of the Rare Diseases Clinical Research Network Contact Us RDCRN Members Login Accessibility Disclaimer The Rare Diseases Clinical Research Network is an initiative of the Office of Rare ...

  19. Pharmacogenetics of alcohol, nicotine and drug addiction treatments.

    PubMed

    Sturgess, Jessica E; George, Tony P; Kennedy, James L; Heinz, Andreas; Müller, Daniel J

    2011-07-01

    The numerous premature deaths, medical complications and socio-economic repercussions of drug and alcohol addiction suggest that improvements in treatment strategies for addictive disorders are warranted. The use of pharmacogenetics to predict response to medication, side effects and appropriate dosages is relatively new in the field of drug addiction. However, increasing our understanding of the genetic factors influencing these processes may improve the treatment of addiction in the future. We examined the available scientific literature on pharmacogenetic advancements in the field of drug addiction with a focus on alcohol and tobacco to provide a summary of genes implicated in the effectiveness of pharmacotherapy for addiction. In addition, we reviewed pharmacogenetic research on cocaine and heroin dependence. Thus far, the most promising results were obtained for polymorphisms in the OPRM1 and CYP2A6 genes, which have been effective in predicting clinical response to naltrexone in alcoholism and nicotine replacement therapy in smoking, respectively. Opinions differ as to whether pharmacogenetic testing should be implemented in the clinic at this time because clinical utility and cost-effectiveness require further investigation. However, the data summarized in this review demonstrate that pharmacogenetic factors play a role in response to addiction pharmacotherapy and have the potential to aid in the personalization of addiction treatments. Such data may lead to improved cessation rates by allowing physicians to select medications for individuals based, at least in part, on genetic factors that predispose to treatment success or failure rather than on a trial and error basis. PMID:21362114

  20. Collaborative research networks work.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Anamaria A; Simpson, Andrew J G

    2003-08-01

    Brazil was heralded for completion of the first genome sequence of a plant pathogen following the development of a virtual research center - a collaborative network of laboratories throughout the state of São Paulo, drawing on the expertise of a dispersed and diverse scientific community and on investment from both the government and the private sector. Strategies key to the success of this model are discussed here in the context of continuing collaborative scientific endeavors in both developed and developing countries. PMID:12925684

  1. Pharmacogenetics and the future of medical practice

    PubMed Central

    Lindpaintner, Klaus

    2002-01-01

    Pharmacogenetic approaches are widely expected to bring about a “revolution” in medicine. While the application of molecular genetic approaches to disease research will provide us with new opportunities for progressively more targeted and, hopefully, more effective treatments, these developments will be evolutionary in nature and will, for their realization, still require the painstaking process that discovering and developing a new drug entails. It is also quintessential for the realization of these promises that we support a more rational understanding and more realistic expectations in the public at large through dialogue and information. PMID:12207645

  2. [Pharmacogenetics of oral antidiabetic treatment].

    PubMed

    Tkáč, Ivan

    2016-03-01

    Pharmacogenetics is the study of how genes (individual genotypes) affect a persons response to drugs. At present, recommendations made about the treatment of some monogenic forms of diabetes are based on genetic diagnostics. The first studies in the field of pharmacogenetics of oral antidiabetics have now been published which have identified associations of individual genetic variants with response to treatment. The response to sulfonylurea derivatives was significantly associated with the variants KCNJ11/ABCC8, TCF7L2 and CYP2C9. The response to metformin treatment was associated with the genetic variants ATM and SLC47A1. The response to treatment with glitazones was associated with the genetic variant PPARG. The therapeutic response to the treatment with gliptins was associated with the genetic variants TCF7L2 and CTRB1/2. It may be expected that in the near future pharmacogenetic knowledge will also be used within personalized treatment of type 2 diabetes. PMID:27180666

  3. Pharmacogenetics of warfarin.

    PubMed

    Kamali, Farhad; Wynne, Hilary

    2010-01-01

    Warfarin is a drug with a narrow therapeutic index and a wide interindividual variability in dose requirement. Because it is difficult to predict an accurate dose for an individual, patients starting the drug are at risk of thromboembolism or bleeding associated with underdosing or overdosing, respectively. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9) and vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR) genes have been shown to have a significant effect on warfarin dose requirement. Other genes mediating the action of warfarin make either little or no contribution to dose requirement. Although the polymorphisms in CYP2C9 and VKORC1 explain a significant proportion of the interindividual variability in warfarin dose requirement, currently available evidence based on a few small studies relating to the use of pharmacogenetics-guided dosing in the initiation of warfarin therapy has not shown improved outcomes in either safety or efficacy of therapy. Better clinical evidence of beneficial effects on patient outcome, particularly at the extremes of the dose requirements in geographically and ethnically diverse patient populations, is needed before the role of a pharmacogenomic approach to oral anticoagulation therapy in clinical practice can be established. PMID:19686083

  4. Pharmacogenetics in Oral Antithrombotic Therapy.

    PubMed

    Maier, Cheryl L; Duncan, Alexander; Hill, Charles E

    2016-09-01

    Certain antithrombotic drugs exhibit high patient-to-patient variability that significantly impacts the safety and efficacy of therapy. Pharmacogenetics offers the possibility of tailoring drug treatment to patients based on individual genotypes, and this type of testing has been recommended for 2 oral antithrombotic agents, warfarin and clopidogrel, to influence use and guide dosing. Limited studies have identified polymorphisms that affect the metabolism and activity of newer oral antithrombotic drugs, without clear evidence of the clinical relevance of such polymorphisms. This article provides an overview of the current status of pharmacogenetics in oral antithrombotic therapy. PMID:27514462

  5. Fundamentals of Pharmacogenetics in Personalized, Precision Medicine.

    PubMed

    Valdes, Roland; Yin, DeLu Tyler

    2016-09-01

    This article introduces fundamental principles of pharmacogenetics as applied to personalized and precision medicine. Pharmacogenetics establishes relationships between pharmacology and genetics by connecting phenotypes and genotypes in predicting the response of therapeutics in individual patients. We describe differences between precision and personalized medicine and relate principles of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics to applications in laboratory medicine. We also review basic principles of pharmacogenetics, including its evolution, how it enables the practice of personalized therapeutics, and the role of the clinical laboratory. These fundamentals are a segue for understanding specific clinical applications of pharmacogenetics described in subsequent articles in this issue. PMID:27514461

  6. Progress and promise of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder pharmacogenetics.

    PubMed

    Froehlich, Tanya E; McGough, James J; Stein, Mark A

    2010-02-01

    One strategy for understanding variability in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medication response, and therefore redressing the current trial-and-error approach to ADHD medication management, is to identify genetic moderators of treatment. This article summarizes ADHD pharmacogenetic investigative efforts to date, which have primarily focused on short-term response to methylphenidate and largely been limited by modest sample sizes. The most well studied genes include the dopamine transporter and dopamine D(4) receptor, with additional genes that have been significantly associated with stimulant medication response including the adrenergic alpha(2A)-receptor, catechol-O-methyltransferase, D(5) receptor, noradrenaline (norepinephrine) transporter protein 1 and synaptosomal-associated protein 25 kDa. Unfortunately, results of current ADHD pharmacogenetic studies have not been entirely consistent, possibly due to differences in study design, medication dosing regimens and outcome measures. Future directions for ADHD pharmacogenetics investigations may include examination of drug-metabolizing enzymes and a wider range of stimulant and non-stimulant medications. In addition, researchers are increasingly interested in going beyond the individual candidate gene approach to investigate gene-gene interactions or pathways, effect modification by additional environmental exposures and whole genome approaches. Advancements in ADHD pharmacogenetics will be facilitated by multi-site collaborations to obtain larger sample sizes using standardized protocols. Although ADHD pharmacogenetic efforts are still in a relatively early stage, their potential clinical applications may include the development of treatment efficacy and adverse effect prediction algorithms that incorporate the interplay of genetic and environmental factors, as well as the development of novel ADHD treatments. PMID:20088618

  7. [Network Research on Human Papillomavirus].

    PubMed

    Almeida-Gutiérrez, Eduardo; Paniagua, Ramón; Furuya, María ElenaYuriko

    2015-01-01

    In order to increase the research in important health questions at a national and institutional levels, the Human Papillomavirus Research Network of the Health Research Coordination of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social offers this supplement with the purpose of assisting patients that daily look for attention due to the human papillomavirus or to cervical cancer. PMID:26462505

  8. Lithium in the treatment of bipolar disorder: pharmacology and pharmacogenetics.

    PubMed

    Alda, M

    2015-06-01

    After decades of research, the mechanism of action of lithium in preventing recurrences of bipolar disorder remains only partially understood. Lithium research is complicated by the absence of suitable animal models of bipolar disorder and by having to rely on in vitro studies of peripheral tissues. A number of distinct hypotheses emerged over the years, but none has been conclusively supported or rejected. The common theme emerging from pharmacological and genetic studies is that lithium affects multiple steps in cellular signaling, usually enhancing basal and inhibiting stimulated activities. Some of the key nodes of these regulatory networks include GSK3 (glycogen synthase kinase 3), CREB (cAMP response element-binding protein) and Na(+)-K(+) ATPase. Genetic and pharmacogenetic studies are starting to generate promising findings, but remain limited by small sample sizes. As full responders to lithium seem to represent a unique clinical population, there is inherent value and need for studies of lithium responders. Such studies will be an opportunity to uncover specific effects of lithium in those individuals who clearly benefit from the treatment. PMID:25687772

  9. Pharmacogenetics and the pharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed

    Raaijmakers, Jan A M; Koster, Ellen S; Maitland-van der Zee, Anke-Hilse

    2010-01-01

    The detailed knowledge of the human genome has not fulfilled its promise as yet. It seems fair to say that we are far from treating existing diseases by therapeutic interventions developed on the basis of genetic knowledge. However, pharmacogenetics has shown to be useful in improving our understanding of pharmacotherapy. Industry is starting to embed this knowledge in the design of innovative drugs and there are three important areas of interest: safety, efficacy and target identification. Application of pharmacogenetics e.g. in patient selection are leading to the direction of more personalised medicine. The future will bring more of such applications. However, current knowledge also leads to a more integrated approach of pharmacogenetics as part of systems biology, providing an even more complete image of reality surrounding disease and therapy, including for example environmental factors and behaviour. In addition, collaborative efforts with academic partners are very much welcomed by the pharmaceutical industry and are expected to have a synergistic effect on progression in this field. PMID:20205665

  10. Supercomputing research networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulhall, Marguerite

    The need for a federal high-performance computing network has been presented before several congressional committees over the last several weeks. Championing the cause is Senator Albert Gore, Jr.(D-TN), Chairman of the Senate Subcommittee on Science, Space and Technology. Gore has been trumpeting the creation of computer “superhighways,” which would link supercomputers at universities, national laboratories and in industry and have the capability of transmitting 1000 times more data per second than current networks. The National High-Performance Computer Technology Act (S.1067) was introduced by Gore in May 1989 and authorizes $1.75 billion over 5 years for the program.The proposed program would involve the National Science Foundation, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Department of Energy and Department of Defense. Other agencies such as National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the U.S. Geological Survey, National Institutes of Health and Library of Congress would also play important roles. Gore's bill authorizes specific funds for the NSF in this area; however, to gain authorization for the program for some of the other agencies' “companion” bills must be introduced.

  11. Evaluating primary care research networks.

    PubMed

    Fenton, Evelyn; Harvey, Janet; Sturt, Jackie

    2007-08-01

    This paper presents a conceptual framework and tool kit, generated from the evaluation of five primary care research networks (PCRNs) funded by the then London, National Health Service (NHS) Executive. We employed qualitative methods designed to match the most important characteristics of PCRNs, conducting five contextualized case studies covering the five networks. A conceptual evaluation framework based on a review of the organization science literature was developed and comprised the broad, but inter-related organizational dimensions of structure, processes, boundaries and network self-evaluation as input factors and strategic emphasis as epitomized by network objectives. These dimensions were comprised of more detailed subdimensions designed to capture the potential of the networks to create ideas and knowledge, or intellectual capital, the key construct upon which our evaluation tool kit was based. We considered the congruence, or fit, between network objectives and input factors: greater congruence implied greater ability to achieve implicit and overt objectives. We conclude that network evaluation must take place, over time, recognizing stage of development and potential for long-term viability, but within a generic framework of inputs and outputs. If there is a good fit or congruence between their input factors and network objectives, networks will be internally coherent and able to operate at optimum effectiveness. PMID:17683655

  12. Gene Polymorphisms and Pharmacogenetics in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Rego-Pérez, Ignacio; Fernández-Moreno, Mercedes; Blanco, Francisco J

    2008-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic, chronic and inflammatory disease of unknown etiology with genetic predisposition. The advent of new biological agents, as well as the more traditional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, has resulted in highly efficient therapies for reducing the symptoms and signs of RA; however, not all patients show the same level of response in disease progression to these therapies. These variations suggest that RA patients may have different genetic regulatory mechanisms. The extensive polymorphisms revealed in non-coding gene-regulatory regions in the immune system, as well as genetic variations in drug-metabolizing enzymes, suggest that this type of variation is of functional and evolutionary importance and may provide clues for developing new therapeutic strategies. Pharmacogenetics is a rapidly advancing area of research that holds the promise that therapies will soon be tailored to an individual patient’s genetic profile. PMID:19506728

  13. Pharmacogenetics and anaesthetic drugs: Implications for perioperative practice

    PubMed Central

    Behrooz, Arash

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacogenetics seeks to elucidate the variations in individual's genetic sequences in order to better understand the differences seen in pharmacokinetics, drug metabolism, and efficacy between patients. This area of research is rapidly accelerating, aided by the use of novel and more economical molecular technologies. A substantial evidence base is being generated with the hopes that in the future it may be used to generate personalised treatment regimens in order to improve patient comfort and safety and reduce incidences of morbidity and mortality. Anaesthetics is an area of particular interest in this field, with previous research leading to better informed practice, specifically with regards to pseudocholinesterase deficiency and malignant hyperthermia. In this review, recent pharmacogenetic data pertaining to anaesthetic drugs will be presented and possible future applications and implications for practice will be discussed. PMID:26779337

  14. Pharmacogenetics in Europe: barriers and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Gurwitz, D; Zika, E; Hopkins, M M; Gaisser, S; Ibarreta, D

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the current situation in the field of pharmacogenetics/pharmacogenomics (PGx) in Europe. High expectations surrounding the clinical application of PGx remain largely unmet, as only a limited number of such applications have actually reached the market and clinical practice. Thus, the potential impact of PGx-based diagnostics on healthcare and its socio-economic implications are still unclear. With the aim of shedding some light on these uncertainties, the Institute for Prospective Technological Studies (IPTS) of the European Commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC) has conducted a review of the 'state of the art' and a further analysis on the use of pharmacogenetics diagnostics for preventing toxic drug reactions and improving drug efficacy in Europe. The paper presents highlights from the JRC-IPTS studies and discusses possibilities for improving translation of PGx research in Europe by comparing some experiences in the USA. We also illustrate the related barriers for the clinical uptake of PGx in Europe with specific case-studies. Most of the barriers identified extend beyond the European context. This reflects the global problems of scarcity of data demonstrating proven clinical validity or utility and favorable cost-effectiveness studies to support the clinical application of PGx diagnostic tests in the clinical setting. Another key barrier is the lack of incentives for the private sector to invest in the development and licensing of PGx diagnostic tests for improving the safety and efficacy of out-of-patent drugs. It therefore seems that one key aspect where policy can affect the clinical uptake of PGx is via sustaining large-scale industry-academia collaborations for developing and proving the utility of PGx diagnostics. PMID:19204415

  15. Pharmacogenetic challenges for the health care system.

    PubMed

    Robertson, John A; Brody, Baruch; Buchanan, Allen; Kahn, Jeffrey; McPherson, Elizabeth

    2002-01-01

    Pharmacogenetics--the effect of genotype on drug response--holds the promise of safer and more effective drug therapy. Genetic tests would be routinely given to patients prior to prescription of a drug, with therapeutic decisions based on the patient's drug-response profile. This paper examines the operational changes and the ethical, legal, and policy challenges that pharmacogenetic medicine poses for key actors in the health care system. Adaptation by drug companies, regulatory agencies, physicians, patients, insurers, and public funding agencies will be necessary to integrate pharmacogenetic medicine into health care. PMID:12117126

  16. Pharmacogenetic testing: current evidence of clinical utility

    PubMed Central

    Haga, Susanne B.

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decade, the number of clinical pharmacogenetic tests has steadily increased as understanding of the role of genes in drug response has grown. However, uptake of these tests has been slow, due in large part to the lack of robust evidence demonstrating clinical utility. We review the evidence behind four pharmacogenetic tests and discuss the barriers and facilitators to uptake: (1) warfarin (drug safety and efficacy); (2) clopidogrel (drug efficacy); (3) codeine (drug safety and efficacy); and (4) abacavir (drug safety). Future efforts should be directed toward addressing these issues and considering additional approaches to generating evidence basis to support clinical use of pharmacogenetic tests. PMID:24020014

  17. Network Penetration Testing and Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Brandon F.

    2013-01-01

    This paper will focus the on research and testing done on penetrating a network for security purposes. This research will provide the IT security office new methods of attacks across and against a company's network as well as introduce them to new platforms and software that can be used to better assist with protecting against such attacks. Throughout this paper testing and research has been done on two different Linux based operating systems, for attacking and compromising a Windows based host computer. Backtrack 5 and BlackBuntu (Linux based penetration testing operating systems) are two different "attacker'' computers that will attempt to plant viruses and or NASA USRP - Internship Final Report exploits on a host Windows 7 operating system, as well as try to retrieve information from the host. On each Linux OS (Backtrack 5 and BlackBuntu) there is penetration testing software which provides the necessary tools to create exploits that can compromise a windows system as well as other operating systems. This paper will focus on two main methods of deploying exploits 1 onto a host computer in order to retrieve information from a compromised system. One method of deployment for an exploit that was tested is known as a "social engineering" exploit. This type of method requires interaction from unsuspecting user. With this user interaction, a deployed exploit may allow a malicious user to gain access to the unsuspecting user's computer as well as the network that such computer is connected to. Due to more advance security setting and antivirus protection and detection, this method is easily identified and defended against. The second method of exploit deployment is the method mainly focused upon within this paper. This method required extensive research on the best way to compromise a security enabled protected network. Once a network has been compromised, then any and all devices connected to such network has the potential to be compromised as well. With a compromised

  18. Pharmacogenetics of smoking cessation therapy.

    PubMed

    Kortmann, Gustavo L; Dobler, Cristina J; Bizarro, Lisiane; Bau, Claiton H D

    2010-01-01

    Nicotine dependence is a major health problem, with a large amount of smoking-related premature deaths and disabilities. The dependence mechanism of nicotine is especially complex and is under strong genetic influence. Smoking cessation is associated with substantial health benefits. Evidence from animal and human studies suggests that genetic polymorphisms influencing pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of nicotine may have great potential for aiding smoking treatment. There are more than 30 association studies and one genome-wide association study (GWAS) between genetic polymorphisms and smoking cessation following nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) and/or bupropion therapy. However, only a few candidate genes or regions were analyzed more than twice and even these genes require additional investigations in different therapeutic schemes. There are a growing number of new pharmacologic options that have not been pharmacogenetically assessed according to published literature. In addition, molecular genetics studies are needed to assess the functional mechanisms of some putative association results. Taken together, the preliminary findings are promising but raise the need for new studies with adequate sample sizes and adjustment for several potential confounding factors frequently neglected, such as comorbidity and sociodemographic factors. The current state of the art in the field encourages an optimist view that personalized treatment approaches may become possible. However, the current scientific evidence still does not support the use of pharmacogenetic tests in routine smoking cessation therapy. PMID:19475569

  19. Pharmacogenetics and human genetic polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Daly, Ann K

    2010-08-01

    The term pharmacogenetics was first used in the late 1950s and can be defined as the study of genetic factors affecting drug response. Prior to formal use of this term, there was already clinical data available in relation to variable patient responses to the drugs isoniazid, primaquine and succinylcholine. The subject area developed rapidly, particularly with regard to genetic factors affecting drug disposition. There is now comprehensive understanding of the molecular basis for variable drug metabolism by the cytochromes P450 and also for variable glucuronidation, acetylation and methylation of certain drugs. Some of this knowledge has already been translated to the clinic. The molecular basis of variation in drug targets, such as receptors and enzymes, is generally less well understood, although there is consistent evidence that polymorphisms in the genes encoding the beta-adrenergic receptors and the enzyme vitamin K epoxide reductase is of clinical importance. The genetic basis of rare idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions had also been examined. Susceptibility to reactions affecting skin and liver appears to be determined in part by the HLA (human leucocyte antigen) genotype, whereas reactions affecting the heart and muscle may be determined by polymorphisms in genes encoding ion channels and transporters respectively. Genome-wide association studies are increasingly being used to study drug response and susceptibility to adverse drug reactions, resulting in identification of some novel pharmacogenetic associations. PMID:20626352

  20. Pharmacogenetics of inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Mascheretti, Silvia; Croucher, Peter J P; Schreiber, Stefan

    2004-06-01

    The therapeutic efficacy and toxicity of many commonly employed drugs show interindividual variations that relate to several factors, including genetic variability in drug-metabolizing enzymes, transporters or targets. The study of the genetic determinants influencing interindividual variations in drug response is known as pharmacogenetics. The ability to identify, through preliminary genetic screening, the patients most likely to respond positively to a medication should facilitate the best choice of treatment for each patient; drugs likely to exhibit low efficacy or to give negative side-effects can be avoided. Among the medications used for inflammatory bowel disease, the best studied pharmacogenetically is azathioprine. The hematopoietic toxicity of azathioprine is due to single nucleotide polymorphisms in the thiopurine S-methyltransferase enzyme. Additionally, likely gene targets have been investigated to predict the response to glucocorticoids and infliximab, a monoclonal antibody against tumour necrosis factor that induces remission in approximately 30-40% of patients. However, no genetic predictor of response has been identified in either case. PMID:15157830

  1. European attitudes to gene therapy and pharmacogenetics.

    PubMed

    Hudson, John; Orviska, Marta

    2011-10-01

    Views on pharmacogenetics and gene therapy systematically differ across European countries. But despite a complex regulatory regime there is a balance of support, albeit laced with considerable uncertainty. PMID:21745587

  2. LTAR linkages with other research networks: Capitalizing on network interconnections

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA ARS Research Unit based at the Jornada Experimental Range outside of Las Cruces, NM, is a member of the USDA’s Long Term Agro-ecosystem Research (LTAR) Network, the National Science Foundation’s Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) Network, the National Ecological Observation Network (NEON)...

  3. Personalized medicine: is it a pharmacogenetic mirage?

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Rashmi R; Shah, Devron R

    2012-01-01

    The notion of personalized medicine has developed from the application of the discipline of pharmacogenetics to clinical medicine. Although the clinical relevance of genetically-determined inter-individual differences in pharmacokinetics is poorly understood, and the genotype-phenotype association data on clinical outcomes often inconsistent, officially approved drug labels frequently include pharmacogenetic information concerning the safety and/or efficacy of a number of drugs and refer to the availability of the pharmacogenetic test concerned. Regulatory authorities differ in their approach to these issues. Evidence emerging subsequently has generally revealed the pharmacogenetic information included in the label to be premature. Revised drugs labels, together with a flurry of other collateral activities, have raised public expectations of personalized medicine, promoted as ‘the right drug at the right dose the first time.’ These expectations place the prescribing physician in a dilemma and at risk of litigation, especially when evidence-based information on genotype-related dosing schedules is to all intent and purposes non-existent and guidelines, intended to improve the clinical utility of available pharmacogenetic information or tests, distance themselves from any responsibility. Lack of efficacy or an adverse drug reaction is frequently related to non-genetic factors. Phenoconversion, arising from drug interactions, poses another often neglected challenge to any potential success of personalized medicine by mimicking genetically-determined enzyme deficiency. A more realistic promotion of personalized medicine should acknowledge current limitations and emphasize that pharmacogenetic testing can only improve the likelihood of diminishing a specific toxic effect or increasing the likelihood of a beneficial effect and that application of pharmacogenetics to clinical medicine cannot adequately predict drug response in individual patients. PMID:22591598

  4. Personalized medicine: is it a pharmacogenetic mirage?

    PubMed

    Shah, Rashmi R; Shah, Devron R

    2012-10-01

    The notion of personalized medicine has developed from the application of the discipline of pharmacogenetics to clinical medicine. Although the clinical relevance of genetically-determined inter-individual differences in pharmacokinetics is poorly understood, and the genotype-phenotype association data on clinical outcomes often inconsistent, officially approved drug labels frequently include pharmacogenetic information concerning the safety and/or efficacy of a number of drugs and refer to the availability of the pharmacogenetic test concerned. Regulatory authorities differ in their approach to these issues. Evidence emerging subsequently has generally revealed the pharmacogenetic information included in the label to be premature. Revised drugs labels, together with a flurry of other collateral activities, have raised public expectations of personalized medicine, promoted as 'the right drug at the right dose the first time.' These expectations place the prescribing physician in a dilemma and at risk of litigation, especially when evidence-based information on genotype-related dosing schedules is to all intent and purposes non-existent and guidelines, intended to improve the clinical utility of available pharmacogenetic information or tests, distance themselves from any responsibility. Lack of efficacy or an adverse drug reaction is frequently related to non-genetic factors. Phenoconversion, arising from drug interactions, poses another often neglected challenge to any potential success of personalized medicine by mimicking genetically-determined enzyme deficiency. A more realistic promotion of personalized medicine should acknowledge current limitations and emphasize that pharmacogenetic testing can only improve the likelihood of diminishing a specific toxic effect or increasing the likelihood of a beneficial effect and that application of pharmacogenetics to clinical medicine cannot adequately predict drug response in individual patients. PMID:22591598

  5. Pharmacogenetics predictive of response and toxicity in acute lymphoblastic leukemia therapy.

    PubMed

    Mei, Lin; Ontiveros, Evelena P; Griffiths, Elizabeth A; Thompson, James E; Wang, Eunice S; Wetzler, Meir

    2015-07-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a relatively rare disease in adults accounting for no more than 20% of all cases of acute leukemia. By contrast with the pediatric population, in whom significant improvements in long term survival and even cure have been achieved over the last 30years, adult ALL remains a significant challenge. Overall survival in this group remains a relatively poor 20-40%. Modern research has focused on improved pharmacokinetics, novel pharmacogenetics and personalized principles to optimize the efficacy of the treatment while reducing toxicity. Here we review the pharmacogenetics of medications used in the management of patients with ALL, including l-asparaginase, glucocorticoids, 6-mercaptopurine, methotrexate, vincristine and tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Incorporating recent pharmacogenetic data, mainly from pediatric ALL, will provide novel perspective of predicting response and toxicity in both pediatric and adult ALL therapies. PMID:25614322

  6. National research and education network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Villasenor, Tony

    1991-01-01

    Some goals of this network are as follows: Extend U.S. technological leadership in high performance computing and computer communications; Provide wide dissemination and application of the technologies both to the speed and the pace of innovation and to serve the national economy, national security, education, and the global environment; and Spur gains in the U.S. productivity and industrial competitiveness by making high performance computing and networking technologies an integral part of the design and production process. Strategies for achieving these goals are as follows: Support solutions to important scientific and technical challenges through a vigorous R and D effort; Reduce the uncertainties to industry for R and D and use of this technology through increased cooperation between government, industry, and universities and by the continued use of government and government funded facilities as a prototype user for early commercial HPCC products; and Support underlying research, network, and computational infrastructures on which U.S. high performance computing technology is based.

  7. Medical education practice-based research networks: Facilitating collaborative research

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Alan; Young, Robin; Hicks, Patricia J.; APPD LEARN, For

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Research networks formalize and institutionalize multi-site collaborations by establishing an infrastructure that enables network members to participate in research, propose new studies, and exploit study data to move the field forward. Although practice-based clinical research networks are now widespread, medical education research networks are rapidly emerging. Aims: In this article, we offer a definition of the medical education practice-based research network, a brief description of networks in existence in July 2014 and their features, and a more detailed case study of the emergence and early growth of one such network, the Association of Pediatric Program Directors Longitudinal Educational Assessment Research Network (APPD LEARN). Methods: We searched for extant networks through peer-reviewed literature and the world-wide web. Results: We identified 15 research networks in medical education founded since 2002 with membership ranging from 8 to 120 programs. Most focus on graduate medical education in primary care or emergency medicine specialties. Conclusions: We offer four recommendations for the further development and spread of medical education research networks: increasing faculty development, obtaining central resources, studying networks themselves, and developing networks of networks. PMID:25319404

  8. Pharmacogenetics: the bioethical problem of DNA investment banking.

    PubMed

    Corrigan, Oonagh P; Williams-Jones, Bryn

    2006-09-01

    Concern about the ethics of clinical drug trials research on patients and healthy volunteers has been the subject of significant ethical analysis and policy development--protocols are reviewed by Research Ethics Committees and subjects are protected by informed consent procedures. More recently attention has begun to be focused on DNA banking for clinical and pharmacogenetics research. It is, however, surprising how little attention has been paid to the commercial nature of such research, or the unique issues that present when subjects are asked to consent to the storage of biological samples. Our contention is that in the context of pharmacogenetic add-on studies to clinical drug trials, the doctrine of informed consent fails to cover the broader range of social and ethical issues. Applying a sociological perspective, we foreground issues of patient/subject participation or 'work', the ambiguity of research subject altruism, and the divided loyalties facing many physicians conducting clinical research. By demonstrating the complexity of patient and physician involvement in clinical drug trials, we argue for more comprehensive ethical review and oversight that moves beyond reliance on informed consent to incorporate understandings of the social, political and cultural elements that underpin the diversity of ethical issues arising in the research context. PMID:16980194

  9. Steps toward a National Research Telecommunications Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Gordon

    1988-01-01

    Summarizes the recommendations of the Computer Network Study Planning Group formed by the Office of Science and Technology Policy under the provisions of PL99-383 to study the networking needs of the nation's academic and federal research computer programs. The benefits and importance of the recommended National Research Network are discussed.…

  10. Research Priorities in Networking and Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC.

    A workshop focused on major research issues in networking and communications. This report defines the context for research priorities and initiatives and deals with issues in networking and communications. Fifteen major research priorities and four research specific initiatives were identified by participants as areas that should be pursued over…

  11. Research on the model of home networking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Xiang; Feng, Xiancheng

    2007-11-01

    It is the research hotspot of current broadband network to combine voice service, data service and broadband audio-video service by IP protocol to transport various real time and mutual services to terminal users (home). Home Networking is a new kind of network and application technology which can provide various services. Home networking is called as Digital Home Network. It means that PC, home entertainment equipment, home appliances, Home wirings, security, illumination system were communicated with each other by some composing network technology, constitute a networking internal home, and connect with WAN by home gateway. It is a new network technology and application technology, and can provide many kinds of services inside home or between homes. Currently, home networking can be divided into three kinds: Information equipment, Home appliances, Communication equipment. Equipment inside home networking can exchange information with outer networking by home gateway, this information communication is bidirectional, user can get information and service which provided by public networking by using home networking internal equipment through home gateway connecting public network, meantime, also can get information and resource to control the internal equipment which provided by home networking internal equipment. Based on the general network model of home networking, there are four functional entities inside home networking: HA, HB, HC, and HD. (1) HA (Home Access) - home networking connects function entity; (2) HB (Home Bridge) Home networking bridge connects function entity; (3) HC (Home Client) - Home networking client function entity; (4) HD (Home Device) - decoder function entity. There are many physical ways to implement four function entities. Based on theses four functional entities, there are reference model of physical layer, reference model of link layer, reference model of IP layer and application reference model of high layer. In the future home network

  12. Pharmacogenetics and age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Stephen G; Brantley, Milam A

    2011-01-01

    Pharmacogenetics seeks to explain interpatient variability in response to medications by investigating genotype-phenotype correlations. There is a small but growing body of data regarding the pharmacogenetics of both nonexudative and exudative age-related macular degeneration. Most reported data concern polymorphisms in the complement factor H and age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2 genes. At this time, the data are not consistent and no definite conclusions may be drawn. As clinical trials data continue to accumulate, these relationships may become more apparent. PMID:22046503

  13. The Pharmacist's Perspective on Pharmacogenetics Implementation.

    PubMed

    Weitendorf, Frederick; Reynolds, Kristen K

    2016-09-01

    The future for pharmacogenetics will continue to expand. Pharmacists can apply and incorporate drug knowledge in collaboration with other health providers using pharmacogenetics. Patients benefit with enhanced therapeutic outcomes that could lead to more streamlined drug approaches, fewer follow-up visits, cost savings, and shorter times to achieve therapeutic outcomes. As more drug-gene pathways are discovered and use of this knowledge increases, the potential for algorithm development for medication use will occur, resulting in better patient outcomes, higher standard of care, and reflect evidence-based medicine. PMID:27514467

  14. Economic Evaluation of Pharmacogenetic Tests in Patients Subjected to Renal Transplantation: A Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Rancic, Nemanja; Dragojevic-Simic, Viktorija; Vavic, Neven; Kovacevic, Aleksandra; Segrt, Zoran; Djordjevic, Natasa

    2016-01-01

    Renal transplantation is the treatment of choice for the patients with end-stage renal failure. Genetic factors, among others, can influence variability in response to immunosuppressive drugs. Nowadays, due to restrictive health resources, the question arises whether routine pharmacogenetic analyses should be done in the renal transplant recipients or not. The aim of this literature review was to present the up-to-date information considering the economic feasibility of pharmacogenetic testing in patients subjected to renal transplantation. The organization United Network for Organ Sharing in the US estimated that total costs per renal transplant concerning these analyses were $334,300 in 2014. Pharmacogenetic testing prior to treatment initiation could be helpful to predict and assess treatment response and the risks for adverse drug reactions. This kind of testing before treatment initiation seems to be one of the most promising applications of pharmacokinetics. Although pharmacogenetic tests were found to be a cost-effective or cost-saving strategy in many cases, some authors represent another opinion. However, if the real costs of renal transplantation are recognized, the application of these tests in the standard daily practice could be considered more realistic, which additionally emphasizes the importance of future studies assessing their cost effectiveness.

  15. Pharmacogenetics: Implications for Modern Type 2 Diabetes Therapy.

    PubMed

    Staiger, Harald; Schaeffeler, Elke; Schwab, Matthias; Häring, Hans-Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Many clinical treatment studies have reported remarkable interindividual variability in the response to pharmaceutical drugs, and uncovered the existence of inadequate treatment response, non-response, and even adverse drug reactions. Pharmacogenetics addresses the impact of genetic variants on treatment outcome including side-effects. In recent years, it has also entered the field of clinical diabetes research. In modern type 2 diabetes therapy, metformin is established as first-line drug. The latest pharmaceutical developments, including incretin mimetics, dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors (gliptins), and sodium/glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (gliflozins), are currently experiencing a marked increase in clinical use, while the prescriptions of α-glucosidase inhibitors, sulfonylureas, meglitinides (glinides), and thiazolidinediones (glitazones) are declining, predominantly because of reported side-effects. This review summarizes the current knowledge about gene-drug interactions observed in therapy studies with the above drugs. We report drug interactions with candidate genes involved in the pharmacokinetics (e.g., drug transporters) and pharmacodynamics (drug targets and downstream signaling steps) of the drugs, with known type 2 diabetes risk genes and previously unknown genes derived from hypothesis-free approaches such as genome-wide association studies. Moreover, some new and promising candidate genes for future pharmacogenetic assessment are highlighted. Finally, we critically appraise the current state of type 2 diabetes pharmacogenetics in the light of its impact on therapeutic decisions, and we refer to major problems, and make suggestions for future efforts in this field to help improve the clinical relevance of the results, and to establish genetically determined treatment failure. PMID:27111121

  16. The productivity of primary care research networks.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, F; Wild, A; Harvey, J; Fenton, E

    2000-11-01

    Primary care research networks are being publicly funded in the United Kingdom to promote a culture of research and development in primary care. This paper discusses the organisational form of these networks and how their productivity can be evaluated, drawing on evidence from management science. An evaluation of a research network has to take account of the complexity of the organisation, the influence of its local context, and its stage of development. Output measures, such as number of research papers, and process measures, such as number of research meetings, may contribute to an evaluation. However, as networking relies on the development of informal, trust-based relationships, the quality of interactions within a network is of paramount importance for its success. Networks can audit and reflect on their success in promoting such relationships and a more formal qualitative evaluation by an independent observer can document their success to those responsible for funding. PMID:11141879

  17. Pharmacogenetics of Anti-Diabetes Drugs

    PubMed Central

    DiStefano, Johanna K.; Watanabe, Richard M.

    2010-01-01

    A variety of treatment modalities exist for individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). In addition to dietary and physical activity interventions, T2D is also treated pharmacologically with nine major classes of approved drugs. These medications include insulin and its analogues, sulfonylureas, biguanides, thiazolidinediones (TZDs), meglitinides, α-glucosidase inhibitors, amylin analogues, incretin hormone mimetics, and dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) inhibitors. Pharmacological treatment strategies for T2D are typically based on efficacy, yet favorable responses to such therapeutics are oftentimes variable and difficult to predict. Characterization of drug response is expected to substantially enhance our ability to provide patients with the most effective treatment strategy given their individual backgrounds, yet pharmacogenetic study of diabetes medications is still in its infancy. To date, major pharmacogenetic studies have focused on response to sulfonylureas, biguanides, and TZDs. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of pharmacogenetics investigations of these specific anti-diabetes medications. We focus not only on the results of these studies, but also on how experimental design, study sample issues, and definition of ‘response’ can significantly impact our interpretation of findings. Understanding the pharmacogenetics of anti-diabetes medications will provide critical baseline information for the development and implementation of genetic screening into therapeutic decision making, and lay the foundation for “individualized medicine” for patients with T2D. PMID:20936101

  18. Pharmacogenetics of alcohol use disorders and comorbid psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Helton, Sarah G; Lohoff, Falk W

    2015-12-15

    Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) represent a significant health burden worldwide. Currently, there are three medications approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of AUDs, and other drugs are being prescribed off-label for this purpose. However, response rates for pharmacologic treatment are low, and extant research suggests that treatment effects may partially depend on genetic factors. Personalized medicine, or using a patient's genetics and/or personal history to determine efficacy of treatment prior to prescription, is an emerging tool that will help clinicians treat their patients more effectively and safely. This review systematically discusses current findings from AUD pharmacotherapy trials examining disulfiram, acamprosate, naltrexone, the injectable naltrexone, and topiramate. Furthermore, it presents pharmacogenetics findings associated with these medications in an attempt to further the field of personalized medicine. Research from trials examining AUDs and comorbid major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders is also presented, and pharmacogenetic findings for these treatments are discussed. Lastly, the authors comment on the present and future states of the field of personalized medicine for AUD. PMID:26455758

  19. Comprehensive Oncologic Emergencies Research Network (CONCERN)

    Cancer.gov

    The Comprehensive Oncologic Emergencies Research Network (CONCERN) was established in March 2015 with the goal to accelerate knowledge generation, synthesis and translation of oncologic emergency medicine research through multi-center collaborations.

  20. Pharmacogenetics: a new challenge for health law.

    PubMed

    Roscam Abbing, Henriette D C

    2007-12-01

    Developments in pharmacogenetics make it possible to determine the genetic factors that influence variations in response to medicine. Differences in response to medication may be related to the genetic characteristics of the individual, to the genetic make-up of the diseased tissue or to both. Advantages include optimal therapeutic effect, safe medication, minimised side-effects, and development of medication for small groups of patients. Strict adherence to patients' rights and to the medical professional standard must prevent negative effects of pharmacogenetics on individual rights, notably the right (not) to know, to privacy and informed consent. Use of pharmacogenetics by third parties for non-health related purposes may bring about a disproportionate intrusion of the privacy of an individual; it may result in barriers for accessing primary social goods, and it may be a disincentive for the individual to have a pharmacogenetic analysis performed for individual health care purposes or to participate in a drug trial. Medical examinations before employment must be justified by the health requirements unavoidably inherent to the job (their objective being the protection of health and not the financial interests of the employer). In a system that relies on private insurance for having access to primary social goods (health, disability--and life insurance), the use and the outcome of a pharmacogenetic analysis for the purpose of differentiation between insurance candidates on the basis of their "risk-profile" must be restricted; where appropriate measures should take into account justified interests of the insurance company to prevent adverse selection. Current measures in several European countries are not effective enough to meet the concerns specifically inherent to pahrmacogenetics. Human rights principles must be at the basis of national and European policies for providing adequate protection against disproportionate intrusion into private life, for

  1. LTAR Linkages with Other Research Networks: Capitalizing on Network Interconnections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havstad, K.

    2015-12-01

    The USDA ARS Research Unit based at the Jornada Experimental Range outside of Las Cruces, NM, is a member of the USDA's Long Term Agro-ecosystem Research (LTAR) Network, the National Science Foundation's Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) Network, the National Ecological Observation Network (NEON), and the USDA's Climate Hub Network. Each of these networks has distinct functions, missions, operational characteristics, and distinct scientific and management sub-cultures (though some are fairly new and developing). Some are a fairly independent collection of research sites functioning as a network in name only, and others are truly working to develop a research synergy that could be holistic and uniquely productive. All have real scientific value, and collectively represent an investment in US research infrastructure in biology and agriculture in excess of $3B. To effectively utilize and exploit this unique research infrastructure will require a concerted effort to meld attributes of each to the benefits of their common stakeholders. Real opportunities exist to collectively utilize this infrastructure to address grand research challenges.

  2. Research Networks Map | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention supports major scientific collaborations and research networks at more than 100 sites across the United States.  Five Major Programs' sites are shown on this map. | The Division of Cancer Prevention supports major scientific collaborations and research networks at more than 100 sites across the United States.

  3. A Communication Network for Educational Researchers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Jean; Cooley, William W.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses application of microcomputer technology to educational research and describes the possible uses of computer networking for communication with colleagues. Focuses on the organization and structure of the Education Research Forum on CompuServe. Considers advantages and costs of networking in general and for the American Educational…

  4. Collaborative knowledge in catchment research networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macleod, Christopher Kit

    2015-04-01

    There is a need to improve the production, sharing and use of collaborative knowledge of catchment systems through networks of researchers, policy makers and practitioners. This requires greater levels of systems based integrative research. In parallel to the growing realization that greater levels of collaborative knowledge in scientific research networks are required, a digital revolution has been taking place. This has been driven primarily by the emergence of distributed networks of computers and standards-based interoperability. The objective of this paper is to present the status and research needs for greater levels of systems based integrative research for the production, sharing and use of collaborative knowledge in catchment research networks. To enable increased levels of integrative research depends on development and application of digital technologies to improve collection, use and sharing of data and devise new knowledge infrastructures. This paper focuses on the requirements for catchment observatories that integrate existing and novel physical, social and digital networks of knowledge infrastructures. To support this focus, I present three leading international examples of collaborative networks of catchment researchers and their development of catchment observatories. In particular, the digital infrastructures they have developed to support collaborative knowledge in catchment research networks. These examples are from North America (NSF funded CUAHSI HIS) and from Europe (UK NERC funded EVOp and the German Helmholtz Association Centers funded TERENO/TEODOOR). These exemplars all supported advancing collaborative knowledge in catchment research networks through the development of catchment observatories. I will conclude by discussing the future research directions required for greater levels of production, sharing and use of collaborative knowledge in catchment research networks based on catchment systems science.

  5. A review of pharmacogenetic studies of substance-related disorders*

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Jermaine D.; Comer, Sandra D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Substance-related disorders (SRDs) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Family, twin, and adoption studies have demonstrated the substantial heritability of SRDs. To determine the impact of genetic variation on risk for SRD and the response to treatment, researchers have conducted a number of secondary data analyses and quasi-experimental studies that target one or more candidate gene variants. Methods This review examines studies in which candidate polymorphisms were examined as mediator variables to identify pharmacogenetic effects on subjective responses to drug administration or cues or outcomes of medication trials for SRDs. Efforts to use a meta-analytic approach to quantify these effects are premature because the number of available studies using similar methods and outcomes is limited, so the present review is qualitative. Results Findings from these studies provide preliminary evidence of clinically relevant pharmacogenetic effects. However, independent replication of these findings has been sparse. Conclusions Although this growing body of literature has produced conflicting results, improved statistical controls may help to clarify the findings. Additionally, the use of empirically derived sub-phenotypes (i.e., which serve to differentiate distinct groups of affected individuals) may also help to identify genetic mediators of pharmacologic response in relation to SRDs. The identification of genetic mediators can inform clinical care both by identifying risk factors for SRDs and predicting adverse events and therapeutic outcomes associated with specific pharmacotherapies. PMID:25819021

  6. Pharmacogenetics, race, and ethnicity: social identities and individualized medical care.

    PubMed

    Foster, M W; Sharp, R R; Mulvihill, J J

    2001-06-01

    Social categories such as race and ethnicity have long been used in interpreting patient symptoms, diagnosing disease, and predicting therapeutic response. DNA-based diagnostic tests and pharmacogenetic screens could make these uses of social categories largely irrelevant by allowing clinicians to base diagnosis and treatment decisions on the unique genetic features of individual patients. Despite this attractive vision of individualized care, however, social categories are likely to continue playing a significant role in the coming era of genetic medicine. Current uses of social categories in pharmacogenetic research, for example, illustrate how drug development and marketing will perpetuate the use of social categories such as race and ethnicity. Those uses may unintentionally blunt the precision of genetic technologies and pose new threats to socially identifiable populations. These implications suggest the need for greater caution in using social categories as indicators for specific tests or therapies and for federal legislation to protect against discriminatory uses of individuals' genetic information. In addition, more precise social classifications than those presently in use may allow us to realize the full potential of DNA-based technologies, thus minimizing social disparities in health care. Those more precise social classifications should reflect extended patient pedigrees and not the self-reported claims of racial and/or ethnic affiliation. PMID:11360031

  7. Research and Development Trends of Car Networking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Wei; Li, Zhixiong; Xie, Guotao

    With the rapid development of the world economy, road transport has become increasingly busy. An unexpected incident would cause serious traffic disaster due to traffic accidents. To solve this problem, the intelligent transportation system (ITS), which is important for the health developments of the city transportation, has become a hot topic. The car networking provides a new way for intelligent transportation system. It can ensure intelligent control and monitoring of urban road with high performance. This paper described the concept of car networking and related technology both in oversea and domestic. The importance of car networking to achieve vehicle and details of the car networking related technologies were illustrated firstly. Then, attentions focus on the research nodus of the car networking. Lastly, the development trend of car networking research was discussed.

  8. Research Networks, Mentorship and Sustainability Knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafle, A.; Mukhopadhyay, P.; Nepal, M.; Shyamsundar, P.

    2015-12-01

    In South Asia, a majority of institutions are ill-equipped to undertake research on multi-disciplinary environmental problems, though these problems are increasing at a fast rate and connected to the region's poverty and growth objectives. In this context, the South Asian Network for Development and Environmental Economics (SANDEE) tries to fill a research, training and knowledge gap by building skills in the area of Environment and Development Economics. In this paper, the authors argue that research networks contribute to the growth of sustainability knowledge through (a) knowledge creation, (b) knowledge transfer and (c) knowledge deepening. The paper tries to show the relationship between capacity building, mentorship and research scholarship. It demonstrates that researchers, by associating with the network and its multiple training and mentoring processes, are able to build skills, change curricula and deliver useful knowledge products. The paper discusses the need for interdisciplinary research and the challenges of bridging the gap between research outputs and policy reforms.

  9. Network for Translational Research - Cancer Imaging Program

    Cancer.gov

    Cooperative agreement (U54) awards to establish Specialized Research Resource Centers that will participate as members of a network of inter-disciplinary, inter-institutional research teams for the purpose of supporting translational research in optical imaging and/or spectroscopy in vivo, with an emphasis on multiple modalities.

  10. Advances in neural networks research: an introduction.

    PubMed

    Kozma, Robert; Bressler, Steven; Perlovsky, Leonid; Venayagamoorthy, Ganesh Kumar

    2009-01-01

    The present Special Issue "Advances in Neural Networks Research: IJCNN2009" provides a state-of-art overview of the field of neural networks. It includes 39 papers from selected areas of the 2009 International Joint Conference on Neural Networks (IJCNN2009). IJCNN2009 took place on June 14-19, 2009 in Atlanta, Georgia, USA, and it represents an exemplary collaboration between the International Neural Networks Society and the IEEE Computational Intelligence Society. Topics in this issue include neuroscience and cognitive science, computational intelligence and machine learning, hybrid techniques, nonlinear dynamics and chaos, various soft computing technologies, intelligent signal processing and pattern recognition, bioinformatics and biomedicine, and engineering applications. PMID:19632811

  11. The contribution of pharmacogenetics to pharmacovigilance.

    PubMed

    Bondon-Guitton, Emmanuelle; Despas, Fabien; Becquemont, Laurent

    2016-04-01

    Since the beginning of this century, information on pharmacogenetics appears in the summary of product characteristics (SPC) of drugs. Pharmacogenetic tests particularly concern the enzymes involved in the metabolism of drugs, among which P450 cytochromes. Some patients known as poor metabolisers eliminate some drugs more slowly, causing overdoses and adverse drug reactions (ADRs). The best-known examples are AVK and VKORC1-CYP2C9 or clopidogrel and CYP2C19. In the USA, the tests are recommended before the introduction of these drugs to prevent the occurrence of ADRs. Other tests are also commonly performed to address the toxicity of certain anticancer drugs (DPYD-capecitabine, UGT1A1-irinotecan, TPMT 6-mercaptopurine). Pharmacogenetic testing is also available to identify HLA loci that are very strongly associated with the occurrence of immuno-allergic reactions to a specific drug. The best-known example is HLA-B*5701, strongly associated with hypersensitivity to abacavir, and this test is now always prescribed before the instatement of this drug. PMID:27080842

  12. Considerations for safety pharmacogenetics in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Frueh, Felix W

    2011-10-01

    The focus of treating an individual patient is the identification of the individual's specific needs. The measurement of the patient's characteristics, such as blood pressure or body temperature, and also the measurement of biomarkers, such as cholesterol or hemoglobin A1C is part of the patient's health assessment. The deeper the insights into the phenotypic and molecular characteristics of the patient, the better we are positioned to treat a patient. Increasingly, this assessment includes testing for certain pharmacologically relevant genetic variations (pharmacogenetics). Evaluating how the patient's genetic makeup combined with the patient's exposure to environmental influences could impact disease and treatment decisions is becoming the cornerstone of personalized medicine. However, we often use such assessments for finding the most 'effective' treatment, but we might not always be as rigorous in our assessment of potential safety risks. This is particularly apparent when looking at how safety risks are communicated. Often this information is only available as general, population-based statements and a small amount of information is available to evaluate whether or not an individual patient is at risk. Although pharmacogenetic tests that can help to assess whether an individual patient's personal risk exist (safety pharmacogenetics), they are not always performed. PMID:21888988

  13. Research of Ad Hoc Networks Access Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Ma

    With the continuous development of mobile communication technology, Ad Hoc access network has become a hot research, Ad Hoc access network nodes can be used to expand capacity of multi-hop communication range of mobile communication system, even business adjacent to the community, improve edge data rates. When the ad hoc network is the access network of the internet, the gateway discovery protocol is very important to choose the most appropriate gateway to guarantee the connectivity between ad hoc network and IP based fixed networks. The paper proposes a QoS gateway discovery protocol which uses the time delay and stable route to the gateway selection conditions. And according to the gateway discovery protocol, it also proposes a fast handover scheme which can decrease the handover time and improve the handover efficiency.

  14. Comparison of Nine Statistical Model Based Warfarin Pharmacogenetic Dosing Algorithms Using the Racially Diverse International Warfarin Pharmacogenetic Consortium Cohort Database

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Rong; Li, Xi; Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Hong-Hao

    2015-01-01

    Objective Multiple linear regression (MLR) and machine learning techniques in pharmacogenetic algorithm-based warfarin dosing have been reported. However, performances of these algorithms in racially diverse group have never been objectively evaluated and compared. In this literature-based study, we compared the performances of eight machine learning techniques with those of MLR in a large, racially-diverse cohort. Methods MLR, artificial neural network (ANN), regression tree (RT), multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS), boosted regression tree (BRT), support vector regression (SVR), random forest regression (RFR), lasso regression (LAR) and Bayesian additive regression trees (BART) were applied in warfarin dose algorithms in a cohort from the International Warfarin Pharmacogenetics Consortium database. Covariates obtained by stepwise regression from 80% of randomly selected patients were used to develop algorithms. To compare the performances of these algorithms, the mean percentage of patients whose predicted dose fell within 20% of the actual dose (mean percentage within 20%) and the mean absolute error (MAE) were calculated in the remaining 20% of patients. The performances of these techniques in different races, as well as the dose ranges of therapeutic warfarin were compared. Robust results were obtained after 100 rounds of resampling. Results BART, MARS and SVR were statistically indistinguishable and significantly out performed all the other approaches in the whole cohort (MAE: 8.84–8.96 mg/week, mean percentage within 20%: 45.88%–46.35%). In the White population, MARS and BART showed higher mean percentage within 20% and lower mean MAE than those of MLR (all p values < 0.05). In the Asian population, SVR, BART, MARS and LAR performed the same as MLR. MLR and LAR optimally performed among the Black population. When patients were grouped in terms of warfarin dose range, all machine learning techniques except ANN and LAR showed significantly

  15. A proposed international watershed research network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osterkamp, W.R.; Gray, J.R.

    2003-01-01

    An “International Watershed Research Network” is to be an initial project of the Sino-U. S. Centers for Soil and Water Conservation and Environmental Protection. The Network will provide a fundamental database for research personnel of the Centers, as well as of the global research community, and is viewed as an important resource for their successful operation. Efforts are under way to (a) identify and select candidate watersheds, (b) develop standards and protocols for data collection and dissemination, and (c) specify other data sources on erosion, sediment transport, hydrology, and ancillary information of probable interest and use to participants of the Centers. The initial focus of the Network will be on water-deficient areas. Candidate watersheds for the Network are yet to be determined although likely selections include the Ansai Research Station, northern China, and the Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed, Arizona, USA. The Network is to be patterned after the Vigil Network, an open-ended group of global sites and small drainage basins for which Internet-accessible geomorphic, hydrologic, and biological data are periodically collected or updated. Some types of data, using similar instruments and observation methods, will be collected at all watersheds selected for the Network. Other data from the watersheds that may reflect individual watershed characteristics and research objectives will be collected as well.

  16. Creatiing a Collaborative Research Network for Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunn, W.

    2012-12-01

    This abstract proposes a discussion of how professional science communication and scientific cooperation can become more efficient through the use of modern social network technology, using the example of Mendeley. Mendeley is a research workflow and collaboration tool which crowdsources real-time research trend information and semantic annotations of research papers in a central data store, thereby creating a "social research network" that is emergent from the research data added to the platform. We describe how Mendeley's model can overcome barriers for collaboration by turning research papers into social objects, making academic data publicly available via an open API, and promoting more efficient collaboration. Central to the success of Mendeley has been the creation of a tool that works for the researcher without the requirement of being part of an explicit social network. Mendeley automatically extracts metadata from research papers, and allows a researcher to annotate, tag and organize their research collection. The tool integrates with the paper writing workflow and provides advanced collaboration options, thus significantly improving researchers' productivity. By anonymously aggregating usage data, Mendeley enables the emergence of social metrics and real-time usage stats on top of the articles' abstract metadata. In this way a social network of collaborators, and people genuinely interested in content, emerges. By building this research network around the article as the social object, a social layer of direct relevance to academia emerges. As science, particularly Earth sciences with their large shared resources, become more and more global, the management and coordination of research is more and more dependent on technology to support these distributed collaborations.

  17. Pharmacology and pharmacogenetics of pediatric ADHD with associated aggression: a review.

    PubMed

    Patel, Bianca D; Barzman, Drew H

    2013-12-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is often associated with symptoms of aggression in children and adolescents. Clinically, this is complex because aggression can be from hyperactivity and impulsivity, or could be a distinct symptom from a comorbid diagnosis. Past research has recommended first treating the primary disorder of ADHD. Stimulants are the most common treatment for pediatric ADHD, which can be helpful in decreasing aggressive behaviors. Alpha-adrenergic agonists and atomoxetine (ATX) are non-stimulant medications for ADHD and aggression, but more research is necessary to compare these drugs to stimulants. If aggressive symptoms do not improve from treating the primary disorder, aggression can be treated separately. Risperidone, lithium, valproic acid, clonidine, and guanfacine have shown positive results in reducing aggression, but studies including children with aggression and ADHD are limited. The variability in treatment tolerability in patients has stimulated research in pharmacogenetics for ADHD. Although this field is still emerging, research has found evidence supporting a link between the response rate of methylphenidate and the dopamine transporter (DAT1) and a link between the metabolism rate of atomoxetine and hepatic cytochrome 450 isozymes. Pharmacogenetics may be relevant to ADHD and associated aggression. Further research in pharmacogenetics will strive to identify patterns of genetic variations that can tailor individual treatments. PMID:23443759

  18. Biological and Environmental Research Network Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Balaji, V.; Boden, Tom; Cowley, Dave; Dart, Eli; Dattoria, Vince; Desai, Narayan; Egan, Rob; Foster, Ian; Goldstone, Robin; Gregurick, Susan; Houghton, John; Izaurralde, Cesar; Johnston, Bill; Joseph, Renu; Kleese-van Dam, Kerstin; Lipton, Mary; Monga, Inder; Pritchard, Matt; Rotman, Lauren; Strand, Gary; Stuart, Cory; Tatusova, Tatiana; Tierney, Brian; Thomas, Brian; Williams, Dean N.; Zurawski, Jason

    2013-09-01

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of SC programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 25 years. In November 2012, ESnet and the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) of the DOE SC organized a review to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by the BER program office. Several key findings resulted from the review. Among them: 1) The scale of data sets available to science collaborations continues to increase exponentially. This has broad impact, both on the network and on the computational and storage systems connected to the network. 2) Many science collaborations require assistance to cope with the systems and network engineering challenges inherent in managing the rapid growth in data scale. 3) Several science domains operate distributed facilities that rely on high-performance networking for success. Key examples illustrated in this report include the Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) and the Systems Biology Knowledgebase (KBase). This report expands on these points, and addresses others as well. The report contains a findings section as well as the text of the case studies discussed at the review.

  19. The future of pharmacogenetics in the treatment of heart failure.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Mohamed Subhan; Iskandar, Muhammad Zaid; Parry, Helen M; Doney, Alex S; Palmer, Colin N; Lang, Chim C

    2015-11-01

    Heart failure is a common disease with high levels of morbidity and mortality. Current treatment comprises β-blockers, ACE inhibitors, aldosterone antagonists and diuretics. Variation in clinical response seen in patients begs the question of whether there is a pharmacogenetic component yet to be identified. To date, the genes most studied involve the β-1, β-2, α-2 adrenergic receptors and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone pathway, mainly focusing on SNPs. However results have been inconsistent. Genome-wide association studies and next-generation sequencing are seen as alternative approaches to discovering genetic variations influencing drug response. Hopefully future research will lay the foundations for genotype-led drug management in these patients with the ultimate aim of improving their clinical outcome. PMID:26555119

  20. Status of photonic network research in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Won, Yong Hyub

    2004-10-01

    Korea is small country but has recently dramatic growth in broadband internet subscribers. At the present of December in 2003, about 73% of total households are internet subscribers. The country is now pursuing new internet highway with faster speed and broadband services for future intelligent internet. The viable research targets are the switching technologies, the access network and convergence network technologies. The optical burst switching will be discussed as the intermediate solution before the coming sophisticated optical packet switching technologies. Another important issue is how we accept diverse service types in future network. There are always dilemmas to choose "optical" or "electrical" for the network in both cost and technology views. The WDM PON-based FTTH and the broadband convergence network (BcN) plans in Korea will also be discussed.

  1. Advanced Scientific Computing Research Network Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Bacon, Charles; Bell, Greg; Canon, Shane; Dart, Eli; Dattoria, Vince; Goodwin, Dave; Lee, Jason; Hicks, Susan; Holohan, Ed; Klasky, Scott; Lauzon, Carolyn; Rogers, Jim; Shipman, Galen; Skinner, David; Tierney, Brian

    2013-03-08

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of SC programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 25 years. In October 2012, ESnet and the Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) of the DOE SC organized a review to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by the ASCR program office. The requirements identified at the review are summarized in the Findings section, and are described in more detail in the body of the report.

  2. The FIMP Medicines for Children Research Network

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The European Paediatric Regulation (EUPR) calls for the fostering of high quality ethical research and medicinal products to be used in children. The EUPR provides the background, goals, and requirements for paediatric clinical trials. Paediatric clinical trials in children are mandatory to generate data on new drugs as well as on drugs used off-label or for unlicensed indications. The Family Paediatricians Medicines for Children Research Network (FIMP-MCRN) was established in 2003 with the aim of developing competence, infrastructure, networking and education for paediatric clinical trials. The network, consisting of twenty Paediatric Regional Networks has progressed very well and has achieved valuable improvements concerning the conduct of paediatric clinical trials. Furthermore, ad hoc training programs have incremented knowledge about clinical trials in Family Paediatrician Investigators (FPI) and have made medical professionals as well as the public aware of the need and advantages of trials in children. PMID:20591168

  3. Sustaining Research Networks: the Twenty-Year Experience of the HMO Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Steiner, John F.; Paolino, Andrea R.; Thompson, Ella E.; Larson, Eric B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: As multi-institutional research networks assume a central role in clinical research, they must address the challenge of sustainability. Despite its importance, the concept of network sustainability has received little attention in the literature, and the sustainability strategies of durable scientific networks have not been described. Innovation: The Health Maintenance Organization Research Network (HMORN) is a consortium of 18 research departments in integrated health care delivery systems with over 15 million members in the United States and Israel. The HMORN has coordinated federally funded scientific networks and studies since 1994. This case study describes the HMORN approach to sustainability, proposes an operational definition of network sustainability, and identifies 10 essential elements that can enhance sustainability. Credibility: The sustainability framework proposed here is drawn from prior publications on organizational issues by HMORN investigators and from the experience of recent HMORN leaders and senior staff. Conclusion and Discussion: Network sustainability can be defined as (1) the development and enhancement of shared research assets to facilitate a sequence of research studies in a specific content area or multiple areas, and (2) a community of researchers and other stakeholders who reuse and develop those assets. Essential elements needed to develop the shared assets of a network include: network governance; trustworthy data and processes for sharing data; shared knowledge about research tools; administrative efficiency; physical infrastructure; and infrastructure funding. The community of researchers within a network is enhanced by: a clearly defined mission, vision and values; protection of human subjects; a culture of collaboration; and strong relationships with host organizations. While the importance of these elements varies based on the membership and goals of a network, this framework for sustainability can enhance strategic

  4. Fluoropyrimidine and platinum toxicity pharmacogenetics: an umbrella review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Jared M; Bateman, Emma; Peters, Micah Dj; Bowen, Joanne M; Keefe, Dorothy M; Stephenson, Matthew D

    2016-03-01

    Fluoropyrimidine (FU) and platinum-based chemotherapies are greatly complicated by their associated toxicities. This umbrella systematic review synthesized all systematic reviews that investigated associations between germline variations and toxicity, with the aim of informing personalized medicine. Systematic reviews are important in pharmacogenetics where false positives are common. Four systematic reviews were identified for FU-induced toxicity and three for platinum. Polymorphisms of DPYD and TYMS, but not MTHFR, were statistically significantly associated with FU-induced toxicity (although only DPYD had clinical significance). For platinum, GSTP1 was found to not be associated with toxicity. This umbrella systematic review has synthesized the best available evidence on the pharmacogenetics of FU and platinum toxicity. It provides a useful reference for clinicians and identifies important research gaps. PMID:26894782

  5. Creating a national home visiting research network.

    PubMed

    Duggan, Anne; Minkovitz, Cynthia S; Chaffin, Mark; Korfmacher, Jon; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Crowne, Sarah; Filene, Jill; Gonsalves, Kay; Landsverk, John; Harwood, Robin

    2013-11-01

    Home visiting can play a key role in the early childhood system of services. For home visiting to achieve its potential, decision-makers must make informed choices regarding adoption, adaptation, coordination, scale-up, and sustainment. We need a coordinated, focused, and theory-based home visiting research infrastructure to inform such decisions. The transdisciplinary Home Visiting Research Network (HVRN) was established in July 2012 with funding from the Health Resources and Services Administration. Its goal is to promote the translation of research findings into policy and practice. Its objectives are to (1) develop a national home visiting research agenda, (2) advance the use of innovative research methods; and (3) provide a research environment that is supportive of the professional development of emerging researchers interested in home visiting. A Management Team designs and directs activities to achieve these objectives through Work Teams. A Steering Committee of national leaders representing stakeholder groups oversees progress. HVRN's Coordinating Center supports the Work Teams and HVRN's Home visiting Applied Research Collaborative, a practice-based research network of home visiting programs. This article describes HVRN's rationale, approach, and anticipated products. We use home visiting-primary care coordination as an illustration, noting potential roles for pediatric practices and pediatric researchers and research educators in HVRN activities. HVRN creates the infrastructure for a rigorous program of research to inform policy and practice on home visiting as part of the system of services to improve family functioning, parenting, and child outcomes. PMID:24187127

  6. Registers for Networked Medical Research in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Stausberg, J.; Altmann, U.; Antony, G.; Drepper, J.; Sax, U.; Schütt, A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Several disease specific registers are operated by members of the ‘TMF – Technology, Methods, and Infrastructure for Networked Medical Research’, an umbrella organization of research networks in Germany. Objective To describe the coverage and the current state as well as financial and organizational issues of registers operated by member networks of the TMF, to identify their requirements and needs, and to recommend best practice models. Methods A survey with a self-completion questionnaire including all 55 TMF member networks was carried out in winter 2007/2008. Interviews focusing on technological issues were conducted and analyzed in summer 2009 with a convenience sample of 10 registers. Results From 55 TMF member networks, 11 provided information about 14 registers. Six registers address diseases of the circulatory system with more than 150,000 registered patients. The interviews revealed a typical setting of “research registers”. Research registers are an important mean to generate hypotheses for clinical research, to identify eligible patients, and to share data with clinical trials. Concerning technical solutions, we found a remarkable heterogeneity. The analysis of the most efficient registers revealed a structure with five levels as best practice model of register management: executive, operations, IT-management, software, hardware. Conclusion In the last ten years, the TMF member networks established disease specific registers in Germany mainly to support clinical research. The heterogeneity of organizational and technical solutions as well as deficits in register planning motivated the development of respective recommendations. The TMF will continue to assist the registers in quality improvement. PMID:23616850

  7. Pharmacogenetics: data, concepts and tools to improve drug discovery and drug treatment

    PubMed Central

    Tzvetkov, Mladen V.

    2008-01-01

    Variation in the human genome is a most important cause of variable response to drugs and other xenobiotics. Susceptibility to almost all diseases is determined to some extent by genetic variation. Driven by the advances in molecular biology, pharmacogenetics has evolved within the past 40 years from a niche discipline to a major driving force of clinical pharmacology, and it is currently one of the most actively pursued disciplines in applied biomedical research in general. Nowadays we can assess more than 1,000,000 polymorphisms or the expression of more than 25,000 genes in each participant of a clinical study – at affordable costs. This has not yet significantly changed common therapeutic practices, but a number of physicians are starting to consider polymorphisms, such as those in CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, TPMT and VKORC1, in daily medical practice. More obviously, pharmacogenetics has changed the practices and requirements in preclinical and clinical drug research; large clinical trials without a pharmacogenomic add-on appear to have become the minority. This review is about how the discipline of pharmacogenetics has evolved from the analysis of single proteins to current approaches involving the broad analyses of the entire genome and of all mRNA species or all metabolites and other approaches aimed at trying to understand the entire biological system. Pharmacogenetics and genomics are becoming substantially integrated fields of the profession of clinical pharmacology, and education in the relevant methods, knowledge and concepts form an indispensable part of the clinical pharmacology curriculum and the professional life of pharmacologists from early drug discovery to pharmacovigilance. PMID:18224312

  8. Differential Network Analysis in Human Cancer Research

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Ryan; Datta, Somnath; Datta, Susmita

    2016-01-01

    A complex disease like cancer is hardly caused by one gene or one protein singly. It is usually caused by the perturbation of the network formed by several genes or proteins. In the last decade several research teams have attempted to construct interaction maps of genes and proteins either experimentally or reverse engineer interaction maps using computational techniques. These networks were usually created under a certain condition such as an environmental condition, a particular disease, or a specific tissue type. Lately, however, there has been greater emphasis on finding the differential structure of the existing network topology under a novel condition or disease status to elucidate the perturbation in a biological system. In this review/tutorial article we briefly mention some of the research done in this area; we mainly illustrate the computational/statistical methods developed by our team in recent years for differential network analysis using publicly available gene expression data collected from a well known cancer study. This data includes a group of patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and a group with acute myeloid leukemia. In particular, we describe the statistical tests to detect the change in the network topology based on connectivity scores which measure the association or interaction between pairs of genes. The tests under various scores are applied to this data set to perform a differential network analysis on gene expression for human leukemia. We believe that, in the future, differential network analysis will be a standard way to view the changes in gene expression and protein expression data globally and these types of tests could be useful in analyzing the complex differential signatures. PMID:23530503

  9. Exploring Practice-Research Networks for Critical Professional Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appleby, Yvon; Hillier, Yvonne

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the contribution that practice-research networks can make to support critical professional development in the Learning and Skills sector in England. By practice-research networks we mean groups or networks which maintain a connection between research and professional practice. These networks stem from the philosophy of…

  10. Clinical Implementation of Germline Cancer Pharmacogenetic Variants during the Next-Generation Sequencing Era

    PubMed Central

    Gillis, Nancy K.; Patel, Jai N.; Innocenti, Federico

    2014-01-01

    Over 100 FDA-approved medications include pharmacogenetic biomarkers in the drug label, many with cancer indications referencing germline DNA variations. With the advent of next-generation sequencing (NGS) and its rapidly increasing uptake into cancer research and clinical practice, an enormous amount of data to inform documented gene-drug associations will be collected, which must be exploited to optimize patient benefit. This state-of-the-art article focuses on the implementation of germline cancer pharmacogenetics into clinical practice. Specifically, it discusses the importance of germline variation in cancer and the role of NGS in pharmacogenetic discovery and implementation. In the context of a scenario where massive NGS-based genetic information will be increasingly available to health stakeholders, this review explores the ongoing debate over the threshold of evidence necessary for implementation, provides an overview of recommendations in cancer by professional organizations and regulatory bodies, discusses limitations of current guidelines and strategies to improve third-party coverage. PMID:24136381

  11. Asthma pharmacogenetics and the development of genetic profiles for personalized medicine

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, Victor E; Meyers, Deborah A; Bleecker, Eugene R

    2015-01-01

    Human genetics research will be critical to the development of genetic profiles for personalized or precision medicine in asthma. Genetic profiles will consist of gene variants that predict individual disease susceptibility and risk for progression, predict which pharmacologic therapies will result in a maximal therapeutic benefit, and predict whether a therapy will result in an adverse response and should be avoided in a given individual. Pharmacogenetic studies of the glucocorticoid, leukotriene, and β2-adrenergic receptor pathways have focused on candidate genes within these pathways and, in addition to a small number of genome-wide association studies, have identified genetic loci associated with therapeutic responsiveness. This review summarizes these pharmacogenetic discoveries and the future of genetic profiles for personalized medicine in asthma. The benefit of a personalized, tailored approach to health care delivery is needed in the development of expensive biologic drugs directed at a specific biologic pathway. Prior pharmacogenetic discoveries, in combination with additional variants identified in future studies, will form the basis for future genetic profiles for personalized tailored approaches to maximize therapeutic benefit for an individual asthmatic while minimizing the risk for adverse events. PMID:25691813

  12. [Possibility of a pharmacogenetic approach for prediction and personalized medication in major depressive disorder treatment].

    PubMed

    Kato, Masaki

    2010-04-01

    The introduction of antidepressant drugs has revolutionized the treatment of mood disorders. However, even though sufficient doses of ADs have been used to treat depressive symptoms for sufficient periods, the treatment efficacy is considerably incomplete. The genetically determined investigation of pharmacological responses would be helpful to evaluate the best therapeutic tool for each depressed patient. However, the growing body of research in this field and heterogeneity across those studies could make it difficult for these candidates to be translated into treatment recommendations. Among other issues, the variety of ethnicity and therapeutic agents could play an important role as a confounder in pharmacogenetic results. To contribute to personalized medication for depression we should clarify the complicated, effect of these confounders. My colleagues and I reviewed the difference in genetic influence on antidepressant response between Asians and Caucasians based on a meta-analysis of pharmacogenetic studies. My colleagues and I also performed a randomized clinical trial (RCT) in Japanese subjects, "fluvoxamine vs paroxetine vs milnacipran," stratified by interesting genetic factors. The results showed that a pharmacogenetic approach could contribute, at least partially, to predict antidepressant response and personalized medication in depression with consideration of possible confounders. PMID:20491282

  13. Conceptualizing and Advancing Research Networking Systems.

    PubMed

    Schleyer, Titus; Butler, Brian S; Song, Mei; Spallek, Heiko

    2012-03-01

    Science in general, and biomedical research in particular, is becoming more collaborative. As a result, collaboration with the right individuals, teams, and institutions is increasingly crucial for scientific progress. We propose Research Networking Systems (RNS) as a new type of system designed to help scientists identify and choose collaborators, and suggest a corresponding research agenda. The research agenda covers four areas: foundations, presentation, architecture, and evaluation. Foundations includes project-, institution- and discipline-specific motivational factors; the role of social networks; and impression formation based on information beyond expertise and interests. Presentation addresses representing expertise in a comprehensive and up-to-date manner; the role of controlled vocabularies and folksonomies; the tension between seekers' need for comprehensive information and potential collaborators' desire to control how they are seen by others; and the need to support serendipitous discovery of collaborative opportunities. Architecture considers aggregation and synthesis of information from multiple sources, social system interoperability, and integration with the user's primary work context. Lastly, evaluation focuses on assessment of collaboration decisions, measurement of user-specific costs and benefits, and how the large-scale impact of RNS could be evaluated with longitudinal and naturalistic methods. We hope that this article stimulates the human-computer interaction, computer-supported cooperative work, and related communities to pursue a broad and comprehensive agenda for developing research networking systems. PMID:24376309

  14. Conceptualizing and Advancing Research Networking Systems

    PubMed Central

    SCHLEYER, TITUS; BUTLER, BRIAN S.; SONG, MEI; SPALLEK, HEIKO

    2013-01-01

    Science in general, and biomedical research in particular, is becoming more collaborative. As a result, collaboration with the right individuals, teams, and institutions is increasingly crucial for scientific progress. We propose Research Networking Systems (RNS) as a new type of system designed to help scientists identify and choose collaborators, and suggest a corresponding research agenda. The research agenda covers four areas: foundations, presentation, architecture, and evaluation. Foundations includes project-, institution- and discipline-specific motivational factors; the role of social networks; and impression formation based on information beyond expertise and interests. Presentation addresses representing expertise in a comprehensive and up-to-date manner; the role of controlled vocabularies and folksonomies; the tension between seekers’ need for comprehensive information and potential collaborators’ desire to control how they are seen by others; and the need to support serendipitous discovery of collaborative opportunities. Architecture considers aggregation and synthesis of information from multiple sources, social system interoperability, and integration with the user’s primary work context. Lastly, evaluation focuses on assessment of collaboration decisions, measurement of user-specific costs and benefits, and how the large-scale impact of RNS could be evaluated with longitudinal and naturalistic methods. We hope that this article stimulates the human-computer interaction, computer-supported cooperative work, and related communities to pursue a broad and comprehensive agenda for developing research networking systems. PMID:24376309

  15. National Research Networks Facilitate Mutually Beneficial Research at ARS Locations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyfried, M. S.; Holbrook, W. S.; Fellows, A.; Kormos, P.; Lohse, K. A.; Marks, D. G.; Flerchinger, G. N.

    2015-12-01

    A major benefit of participation in research networks such as the Long Term Agroecosystem Research (LTAR) network is that multidisciplinary research on a broad range of topics is facilitated. The interaction between the Agricultural Research Service long-term experimental watersheds and LTAR exemplifies this. At the Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed (RCEW), this is further enhanced by participation in the Critical Zone Observatory (CZO) network. The RCEW has a long history (55 years) of experimentation, modeling and monitoring emphasizing hydrologic processes, which are inevitably related to biogeochemical processes, but rarely linked directly in RCEW research. New research with the Reynolds Creek CZO (RC CZO) emphasizes biogeochemistry. The background research and infrastructure at the RCEW provides an ideal platform for that research. At the same time, RC CZO products are enabling ARS to extend its research activities. We highlight three examples: (i) forcing data sets used to facilitate physical modeling of hydrologic and biogeochemical processes, (ii) linkage of hydrology and geophyscis to extend our understanding of subsurface processes, and (iii) climate/elevation linkages to ecosystem productivity, which are closely related in water limited environments such as the RCEW. The addition of the RCEW to the LTAR is further extended ARS capabilities. For example, the RCEW is now monitoring net carbon balance and productivity at sites along an elevation/climatic gradient. The addition of LTAR research enhances that work by extending the climate gradient and introducing management and land surface change effects. We anticipate that these interactions will grow and that cross-site experiments will be initiated as the results begin to accumulate.

  16. Pharmacogenetics of thiopurines in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Derijks, Luc J J; Wong, Dennis R

    2010-01-01

    Thiopurines are widely used in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, in clinical practice azathioprine (AZA) or 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) are not effective in one-third of patients and up to one-fifth of patients discontinue thiopurine therapy due to adverse reactions. The observed interindividual differences in therapeutic response and toxicity to thiopurines are explained to a large extent by the variable formation of active metabolites, which is at least partly caused by genetic polymorphisms of the genes encoding crucial enzymes in thiopurine metabolism. In this in-depth review we discuss the genetic polymorphisms of genes encoding for glutathione S-tranferases, xanthine oxidase, thiopurine S-methyltransferase, inosine triphosphate pyrophosphatase, hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase, inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase and multidrug resistance proteins. Pharmacogenetic knowledge in this field has increased dramatically and is still rapidly increasing, but the translation into practical guidelines with tailored advices will cost much effort in the near future. PMID:20205660

  17. Pharmacogenetics of treatment response in psoriatic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Jani, Meghna; Barton, Anne; Ho, Pauline

    2015-07-01

    TNF-blocking agents, non-biological disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (nbDMARDs) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are commonly prescribed treatments in psoriatic arthritis. A large proportion of patients do not respond to these medications, although unfortunately clinically useful biomarkers that predict future response are currently lacking. Several candidate gene polymorphisms have been associated with responses to biologic therapies and nbDMARDs; however, replication and validation of these variants in large prospective psoriatic arthritis cohorts are required before translating these to clinical practice. In this review, we discuss the advances made in pharmacogenetics of treatment response in psoriatic arthritis to date, with focus on biologic therapies approved for use, nbDMARDs and NSAIDs, as well as outline emerging methodologies to obtain data that will help inform a future precision medicine approach in this condition. PMID:25980667

  18. Pharmacogenetics of healthy volunteers in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Claudio-Campos, Karla; Orengo-Mercado, Carmelo; Renta, Jessicca Y.; Peguero, Muriel; García, Ricardo; Hernández, Gabriel; Corey, Susan; Cadilla, Carmen L.; Duconge, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Puerto Ricans are a unique Hispanic population with European, Native American (Taino), and higher West African ancestral contributions than other non-Caribbean Hispanics. In admixed populations, such as Puerto Ricans, genetic variants can be found at different frequencies when compared to parental populations and uniquely combined and distributed. Therefore, in this review, we aimed to collect data from studies conducted in healthy Puerto Ricans and to report the frequencies of genetic polymorphisms with major relevance in drug response. Filtering for healthy volunteers or individuals, we performed a search of pharmacogenetic studies in academic literature databases without limiting the period of the results. The search was limited to Puerto Ricans living in the island, excluding those studies performed in mainland (United States). We found that the genetic markers impacting pharmacological therapy in the areas of cardiovascular, oncology, and neurology are the most frequently investigated. Coincidently, the top causes of mortality in the island are cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease, and stroke. In addition, polymorphisms in genes that encode for members of the CYP450 family (CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP2D6) are also available due to their relevance in the metabolism of drugs. The complex genetic background of Puerto Ricans is responsible for the divergence in the reported allele frequencies when compared to parental populations (Africans, East Asians, and Europeans). The importance of reporting the findings of pharmacogenetic studies conducted in Puerto Ricans is to identify genetic variants with potential utility among this genetically complex population and eventually move forward the adoption of personalized medicine in the island. PMID:26501165

  19. Pharmacogenetics of healthy volunteers in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Claudio-Campos, Karla; Orengo-Mercado, Carmelo; Renta, Jessicca Y; Peguero, Muriel; García, Ricardo; Hernández, Gabriel; Corey, Susan; Cadilla, Carmen L; Duconge, Jorge

    2015-12-01

    Puerto Ricans are a unique Hispanic population with European, Native American (Taino), and higher West African ancestral contributions than other non-Caribbean Hispanics. In admixed populations, such as Puerto Ricans, genetic variants can be found at different frequencies when compared to parental populations and uniquely combined and distributed. Therefore, in this review, we aimed to collect data from studies conducted in healthy Puerto Ricans and to report the frequencies of genetic polymorphisms with major relevance in drug response. Filtering for healthy volunteers or individuals, we performed a search of pharmacogenetic studies in academic literature databases without limiting the period of the results. The search was limited to Puerto Ricans living in the island, excluding those studies performed in mainland (United States). We found that the genetic markers impacting pharmacological therapy in the areas of cardiovascular, oncology, and neurology are the most frequently investigated. Coincidently, the top causes of mortality in the island are cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, and stroke. In addition, polymorphisms in genes that encode for members of the CYP450 family (CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP2D6) are also available due to their relevance in the metabolism of drugs. The complex genetic background of Puerto Ricans is responsible for the divergence in the reported allele frequencies when compared to parental populations (Africans, East Asians, and Europeans). The importance of reporting the findings of pharmacogenetic studies conducted in Puerto Ricans is to identify genetic variants with potential utility among this genetically complex population and eventually move forward the adoption of personalized medicine in the island. PMID:26501165

  20. A Proposal for an Individualized Pharmacogenetic-Guided Warfarin Dosage Regimen for Puerto Rican Patients Commencing Anticoagulation Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Bosch, Luis Ángel Bermúdez

    2014-01-01

    Warfarin is the current standard of care in oral anticoagulation therapy. It is commonly prescribed to treat venous thromboembolism, pulmonary embolism, acute myocardial infarction, and to decrease the risk of stroke in atrial fibrillation. Warfarin therapy is challenging because of marked and often unpredictable inter-individual dosing variations that effectively reach and maintain adequate anticoagulation. Several researchers have developed pharmacogenetic-guided maintenance dose algorithms that incorporate genetics and individual patient characteristics. However, there is limited information available concerning dosing during warfarin initiation. This is considered the most clinically challenging therapeutic phase. In such, the risk of recurrent thromboembolism and hemorrhage are elevated. The objective of this retrospective study is to predict the individual initial doses for Puerto Rican patients (n=175) commencing anticoagulation therapy at Veterans Affairs Caribbean Healthcare System (VACHS) using pharmacogenetic/pharmacokinetic-driven model. A pharmacogenetic driven model (R2=0.4809) was developed in Puerto Rican patients and combined with pharmacokinetic formulas that enabled us to predict the individual initial doses for patients (n=121) commencing anticoagulation therapy. WinNonlin® pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic simulations were carried out to determine the predictability of this model. This model demonstrated promising results with few (n=10) simulations outside of their respective therapy range. A customized pharmacogenetic-based warfarin maintenance dose algorithm (R2=0.7659) was developed in a derivation cohort of 131 patients. The predictability of this developed pharmacogenetic algorithm was compared with the International Warfarin Pharmacogenomics Consortium (IWPC) algorithm and it demonstrated superior predictability within our study population. PMID:25285240

  1. Reaching Out: IDRC-HDFS Research Network (India). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saraswathi, T. S.; And Others

    This report documents the activities of the Research Network, a coordinated effort of the International Development Research Center (IDRC) and the Human Development and Family Studies (HDFS) Department of Baroda University (India) during the period January 1990 to June 1993. The Research Network aimed to establish a network of consultative…

  2. Research on 6R Military Logistics Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jie, Wan; Wen, Wang

    The building of military logistics network is an important issue for the construction of new forces. This paper has thrown out a concept model of 6R military logistics network model based on JIT. Then we conceive of axis spoke y logistics centers network, flexible 6R organizational network, lean 6R military information network based grid. And then the strategy and proposal for the construction of the three sub networks of 6Rmilitary logistics network are given.

  3. Pharmacogenetic markers of severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions.

    PubMed

    Borroni, R G

    2014-04-01

    Different responses, in terms both of efficacy and toxicity, are commonly observed for any drug administered to apparently homogeneous groups of patients. It is estimated that adverse drug reactions (ADRs) cause 3-6% of all hospitalizations, accounting for 5% to 9% of hospital admission costs. The skin is often involved in ADRs and although most cutaneous ADRs have a favorable course, they may present as severe adverse cutaneous drug reactions (SCARs), such as Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (also referred to as drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome), and acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis. SCARs are associated with significant mortality and require prompt diagnosis and adequate treatment. Pharmacogenetics studies individual variants in the DNA sequence associated with drug efficacy and toxicity, allowing prescription of a drug to patients expected to benefit from it, and excluding from treatment those who are at risk of developing ADRs. Pharmacogenetics already achieved several important results in the prevention of SCARs, and pharmacogenetic testing is now recommended by regulatory agencies before administration of abacavir and carbamazepine, leading to reduced incidence of SCARs. In this review, the pharmacogenetic associations of SCARs that have been validated in independent, case-control association studies will be presented. By familiarizing with principles of pharmacogenetics, dermatologists should be able to correlate specific cutaneous ADR phenotypes to the underlying genotype, thus contributing to better drug safety and facilitating drug discovery, development and approval. PMID:24819643

  4. Privacy Issues of a National Research and Education Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, James E.; Graveman, Richard F.

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of the right to privacy of communications focuses on privacy expectations within a National Research and Education Network (NREN). Highlights include privacy needs in scientific and education communications; academic and research networks; network security and privacy concerns; protection strategies; and consequences of privacy…

  5. Laboratory Medicine in the Clinical Decision Support for Treatment of Hypercholesterolemia: Pharmacogenetics of Statins.

    PubMed

    Ruaño, Gualberto; Seip, Richard; Windemuth, Andreas; Wu, Alan H B; Thompson, Paul D

    2016-09-01

    Statin responsiveness is an area of great research interest given the success of the drug class in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia and in primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Interrogation of the patient's genome for gene variants will eventually guide anti-hyperlipidemic intervention. In this review, we discuss methodological approaches to discover genetic markers predictive of class-wide and drug-specific statin efficacy and safety. Notable pharmacogenetic findings are summarized from hypothesis-free genome wide and hypothesis-led candidate gene association studies. Physiogenomic models and clinical decision support systems will be required for DNA-guided statin therapy to reach practical use in medicine. PMID:27514463

  6. Pharmacogenetics of Lipid-Lowering Agents: Precision or Indecision Medicine?

    PubMed

    Alfonsi, Jeffrey E; Hegele, Robert A; Gryn, Steven E

    2016-05-01

    Lipid-lowering medications, particularly statins, have been a popular target for pharmacogenetic studies. A handful of genes have shown promise for predicting response to therapy from the perspective of lipid lowering, as well as myopathy. A number of genes have been implicated and have biological plausibility based on their involvement with the pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics of statins or other lipid-lowering medications. The level of confidence and replication of these findings varies, although several associations are likely true. Novel classes of lipid-lowering therapy have opened up new possibilities in the treatment of severe inherited forms of dyslipidemia, making the identification of such mutations an important pharmacogenetic predictor of failure of standard therapy, with potential response to novel therapy. Advances in next-generation sequencing technology bring the application of pharmacogenetics even closer to routine clinical practice. PMID:26993470

  7. Recent advances in the pharmacogenetics of cancer chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Watters, James W; McLeod, Howard L

    2002-12-01

    Patient response to chemotherapy varies widely between individuals. Pharmacogenetics is the study of inherited DNA polymorphisms that influence drug disposition and effects, the goal of which is the individualization of drug treatment. As unpredictable efficacy and high levels of systemic toxicity are common in cancer chemotherapy, pharmacogenetics is particularly appealing for oncology. Recent studies have shown that polymorphisms in genes involved in drug metabolism, nucleotide synthesis and DNA repair contribute to inter-patient variability in the efficacy and toxicity of many chemotherapy agents. This review will discuss recent developments in the most clinically relevant examples of cancer pharmacogenetics, and how genetic differences among individuals are shaping the future of cancer chemotherapy. PMID:12596358

  8. The Potential Utility of Pharmacogenetic Testing in Psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Kathryn R.; Brennan, Francis X.; Scott, Rachel; Lombard, Jay

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade, pharmacogenetics has become increasingly significant to clinical practice. Psychiatric patients, in particular, may benefit from pharmacogenetic testing as many of the psychotropic medications prescribed in practice lead to varied response rates and a wide range of side effects. The use of pharmacogenetic testing can help tailor psychotropic treatment and inform personalized treatment plans with the highest likelihood of success. Recently, many studies have been published demonstrating improved patient outcomes and decreased healthcare costs for psychiatric patients who utilize genetic testing. This review will describe evidence supporting the clinical utility of genetic testing in psychiatry, present several case studies to demonstrate use in everyday practice, and explore current patient and clinician opinions of genetic testing. PMID:25587529

  9. Pharmacogenetic studies on the antipsychotic treatment. Current status and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Gesteira, A; Barros, F; Martín, A; Pérez, V; Cortés, A; Baiget, M; Carracedo, A

    2010-01-01

    Based on present knowledge, in this work we review the importance of the pharmacogenetic tests in the treatment with antipsychotic drugs. Many associations have been reported between different genetic markers and response to treatment as well as to the appearance of adverse reactions. However, up to now, no "prime" biomarker capable of unequivocally predicting the clinical benefits of a specific treatment or its toxicity has been identified. The use of individual pharmacogenetic markers has been demonstrated to have little clinical utility, and therefore the combination of information obtained from the analysis of different genes seems to be a more promising strategy. Inclusion of pharmacogenetic tests in clinical trials conducted prospectively and that include a large number of cases could, undoubtedly, significantly contribute to the development of individualized medicine protocols. PMID:21117005

  10. Modern International Research Groups: Networks and Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katehi, Linda

    2009-05-01

    In a globalized economy, education and research are becoming increasing international in content and context. Academic and research institutions worldwide try to internationalize their programs by setting formal or informal collaborations. An education that is enhanced by international experiences leads to mobility of the science and technology workforce. Existing academic cultures and research structures are at odds with efforts to internationalize education. For the past 20-30 years, the US has recognized the need to improve the abroad experience of our scientists and technologists: however progress has been slow. Despite a number of both federally and privately supported programs, efforts to scale up the numbers of participants have not been satisfactory. The exchange is imbalanced as more foreign scientists and researchers move to the US than the other way around. There are a number of issues that contribute to this imbalance but we could consider the US academic career system, as defined by its policies and practices, as a barrier to internationalizing the early career faculty experience. Strict curricula, pre-tenure policies and financial commitments discourage students, post doctoral fellows and pre-tenure faculty from taking international leaves to participate in research abroad experiences. Specifically, achieving an international experience requires funding that is not provided by the universities. Furthermore, intellectual property requirements and constraints in pre-tenure probationary periods may discourage students and faculty from collaborations with peers across the Atlantic or Pacific or across the American continent. Environments that support early career networking are not available. This presentation will discuss the increasing need for international collaborations and will explore the need for additional programs, more integration, better conditions and improved infrastructures that can encourage and support mobility of scientists. In addition

  11. Pharmacogenetics of second-generation antipsychotics.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Mark D

    2014-04-01

    This review considers pharmacogenetics of the so called 'second-generation' antipsychotics. Findings for polymorphisms replicating in more than one study are emphasized and compared and contrasted with larger-scale candidate gene studies and genome-wide association study analyses. Variants in three types of genes are discussed: pharmacokinetic genes associated with drug metabolism and disposition, pharmacodynamic genes encoding drug targets, and pharmacotypic genes impacting disease presentation and subtype. Among pharmacokinetic markers, CYP2D6 metabolizer phenotype has clear clinical significance, as it impacts dosing considerations for aripiprazole, iloperidone and risperidone, and variants of the ABCB1 gene hold promise as biomarkers for dosing for olanzapine and clozapine. Among pharmacodynamic variants, the TaqIA1 allele of the DRD2 gene, the DRD3 (Ser9Gly) polymorphism, and the HTR2C -759C/T polymorphism have emerged as potential biomarkers for response and/or side effects. However, large-scale candidate gene studies and genome-wide association studies indicate that pharmacotypic genes may ultimately prove to be the richest source of biomarkers for response and side effect profiles for second-generation antipsychotics. PMID:24897292

  12. Connecting the Dots: Understanding the Flow of Research Knowledge within a Research Brokering Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodway, Joelle

    2015-01-01

    Networks are frequently cited as an important knowledge mobilization strategy; however, there is little empirical research that considers how they connect research and practice. Taking a social network perspective, I explore how central office personnel find, understand and share research knowledge within a research brokering network. This mixed…

  13. Pharmacogenetic Profiling in the Treatment of Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Dorn, Gerald W

    2009-01-01

    Pharmacogenetics is the study of gene-drug interactions. In the post-Human Genome era, and with the realization that personal genotypes differ by millions of bases (gene polymorphisms), the application of genetics to explain inter-individual differences in clinical drug response seems to offer great promise. Here, recent basic and translational developments in pharmacogenetic profiling of β-blocker response in heart failure are reviewed in the context of the possible consequences of such advances on drug development and clinical therapeutics. PMID:19931195

  14. Action Research Networks: Role and Purpose in the Evaluation of Research Outcomes and Impacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zornes, Deborah; Ferkins, Lesley; Piggot-Irvine, Eileen

    2016-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to share thinking about networks in action research (AR) and to consider their role, purpose, and how networks' outcomes and impacts might be evaluated. Networks are often a by-product of AR projects, yet research focused on the network itself as part of a project is rare. The paper is one of several associated with the…

  15. Advances in European drought research efforts and related research networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tallaksen, Lena; van Lanen, Henny

    2010-05-01

    Drought is a complex phenomenon with wide-ranging socio-economic and environmental impacts; still drought research and operational applications like drought monitoring and forecasting, have been lagging behind the development in flood-related research. However, recently several drought research projects and networks have emerged in Europe, partly in response to the occurrence of a series of dry and hot summers in the 21st century, notable the record breaking 2003 event covering large part of central Europe. These events were a strong reminder of Europe's vulnerability to drought and neither were forecasted. Meteorological drought is caused by regional or meso- (synoptic) scale spatial and temporal anomalies in the climatic system, which control the natural short- and long term variability in drought occurrence. However, climate forcing by synoptic scale conditions is not the only cause of drought, also various regional land-surface feedbacks through soil moisture and vegetation, concur to amplify dry weather and high summer temperatures. A deficit in the climatic water balance may affect all components of the hydrological cycle through a reduction in soil moisture, groundwater and surface water and subsequently, reduced water availability. Understanding how a climate water deficiency propagates through the hydrological system and its feedbacks to the atmosphere is crucial to develop drought mitigation and adaptation plans. Moreover, it is the basis for early warning and forecasting of hydrological drought (groundwater and surface water). A review of drought studies from the 20th century suggests that drought in Europe has occurred more frequently in the latter part of the century, partly enhanced by higher temperatures. However, the scientific understanding of the driving forces behind large-scale droughts is incomplete and further complicated by insufficient knowledge about long-term (decadal and millennial) natural variability. Moreover, the role of the physical

  16. Clinical Practice Recommendations for the Management and Prevention of Cisplatin-Induced Hearing Loss Using Pharmacogenetic Markers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong W; Pussegoda, Kusala; Rassekh, Shahrad R; Monzon, Jose G; Liu, Geoffrey; Hwang, Soomi; Bhavsar, Amit P; Pritchard, Sheila; Ross, Colin J; Amstutz, Ursula; Carleton, Bruce C

    2016-08-01

    Currently no pharmacogenomics-based criteria exist to guide clinicians in identifying individuals who are at risk of hearing loss from cisplatin-based chemotherapy. This review summarizes findings from pharmacogenomic studies that report genetic polymorphisms associated with cisplatin-induced hearing loss and aims to (1) provide up-to-date information on new developments in the field, (2) provide recommendations for the use of pharmacogenetic testing in the prevention, assessment, and management of cisplatin-induced hearing loss in children and adults, and (3) identify knowledge gaps to direct and prioritize future research. These practice recommendations for pharmacogenetic testing in the context of cisplatin-induced hearing loss reflect a review and evaluation of recent literature, and are designed to assist clinicians in providing optimal clinical care for patients receiving cisplatin-based chemotherapy. PMID:26960170

  17. The APA and the Rise of Pediatric Generalist Network Research

    PubMed Central

    Wasserman, Richard; Serwint, Janet R.; Kuppermann, Nathan; Srivastava, Rajendu; Dreyer, Benard

    2010-01-01

    The Academic Pediatric Association (APA – formerly the Ambulatory Pediatric Association) first encouraged multi-institutional collaborative research among its members over thirty years ago. Individual APA members went on subsequently to figure prominently in establishing formal research networks. These enduring collaborations have been established to conduct investigations in a variety of generalist contexts. At present, four generalist networks – Pediatric Research in Office Settings (PROS), the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Network (PECARN), the COntinuity Research NETwork (CORNET), and Pediatric Research in Inpatient Settings (PRIS) – have a track record of extensive achievement in generating new knowledge aimed at improving the health and health care of children. This review details the history, accomplishments, and future directions of these networks and summarizes the common themes, strengths, challenges and opportunities inherent in pediatric generalist network research. PMID:21282083

  18. Recent research in network problems with applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, G. L.

    1980-01-01

    The capabilities of network codes and their extensions are surveyed in regard to specially structured integer programming problems which are solved by using the solutions of a series of ordinary network problems.

  19. The Ninth Annual Pharmacogenetics in Psychiatry Meeting report.

    PubMed

    Aitchison, Katherine J; Malhotra, Anil K

    2011-04-01

    The Ninth Annual Pharmacogenetics in Psychiatry meeting was held in New York City on 23-24 April 2010 with a series of panel presentations, as well as a debate on the commercialization of genetic testing and a poster reception. The following is a brief report of the meeting presentations. PMID:21206402

  20. Pharmacogenetics of the Neurodevelopmental Impact of Anticancer Chemotherapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robaey, Philippe; Krajinovic, Maja; Marcoux, Sophie; Moghrabi, Albert

    2008-01-01

    Pharmacogenetics holds the promise of minimizing adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes of cancer patients by identifying patients at risk, enabling the individualization of treatment and the planning of close follow-up and early remediation. This review focuses first on methotrexate, a drug often implicated in neurotoxicity, especially when used in…

  1. Pharmacogenetics of drug-metabolizing enzymes in US Hispanics

    PubMed Central

    Duconge, Jorge; Cadilla, Carmen L.; Ruaño, Gualberto

    2015-01-01

    Although the Hispanic population is continuously growing in the United States, they are underrepresented in pharmacogenetic studies. This review addresses the need for compiling available pharmacogenetic data in US Hispanics, discussing the prevalence of clinically relevant polymorphisms in pharmacogenes encoding for drug-metabolizing enzymes. CYP3A5*3 (0.245–0.867) showed the largest frequency in a US Hispanic population. A higher prevalence of CYP2C9*3, CYP2C19*4, and UGT2B7 IVS1+985 A>Gwas observed in US Hispanic vs. non-Hispanic populations. We found interethnic and intraethnic variability in frequencies of genetic polymorphisms for metabolizing enzymes, which highlights the need to define the ancestries of participants in pharmacogenetic studies. New approaches should be integrated in experimental designs to gain knowledge about the clinical relevance of the unique combination of genetic variants occurring in this admixed population. Ethnic subgroups in the US Hispanic population may harbor variants that might be part of multiple causative loci or in linkage-disequilibrium with functional variants. Pharmacogenetic studies in Hispanics should not be limited to ascertain commonly studied polymorphisms that were originally identified in their parental populations. The success of the Personalized Medicine paradigm will depend on recognizing genetic diversity between and within US Hispanics and the uniqueness of their genetic backgrounds. PMID:25431893

  2. Pharmacogenetic considerations for optimizing tacrolimus dosing in liver and kidney transplant patients

    PubMed Central

    Provenzani, Alessio; Santeusanio, Andrew; Mathis, Erin; Notarbartolo, Monica; Labbozzetta, Manuela; Poma, Paola; Provenzani, Ambra; Polidori, Carlo; Vizzini, Giovanni; Polidori, Piera; D’Alessandro, Natale

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of tacrolimus in clinical practice has improved patient survival after organ transplant. However, despite the long use of tacrolimus in clinical practice, the best way to use this agent is still a matter of intense debate. The start of the genomic era has generated new research areas, such as pharmacogenetics, which studies the variability of drug response in relation to the genetic factors involved in the processes responsible for the pharmacokinetics and/or the action mechanism of a drug in the body. This variability seems to be correlated with the presence of genetic polymorphisms. Genotyping is an attractive option especially for the initiation of the dosing of tacrolimus; also, unlike phenotypic tests, the genotype is a stable characteristic that needs to be determined only once for any given gene. However, prospective clinical studies must show that genotype determination before transplantation allows for better use of a given drug and improves the safety and clinical efficacy of that medication. At present, research has been able to reliably show that the CYP3A5 genotype, but not the CYP3A4 or ABCB1 ones, can modify the pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus. However, it has not been possible to incontrovertibly show that the corresponding changes in the pharmacokinetic profile are linked with different patient outcomes regarding tacrolimus efficacy and toxicity. For these reasons, pharmacogenetics and individualized medicine remain a fascinating area for further study and may ultimately become the face of future medical practice and drug dosing. PMID:24409044

  3. The Security Research of Digital Library Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xin; Song, Ding-Li; Yan, Shu

    Digital library is a self-development needs for the modern library to meet the development requirements of the times, changing the way services and so on. digital library from the hardware, technology, management and other aspects to objective analysis of the factors of threats to digital library network security. We should face up the problems of digital library network security: digital library network hardware are "not hard", the technology of digital library is relatively lag, digital library management system is imperfect and other problems; the government should take active measures to ensure that the library funding, to enhance the level of network hardware, to upgrade LAN and prevention technology, to improve network control technology, network monitoring technology; to strengthen safety management concepts, to prefect the safety management system; and to improve the level of security management modernization for digital library.

  4. EARLINET: potential operationality of a research network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sicard, M.; D'Amico, G.; Comerón, A.; Mona, L.; Alados-Arboledas, L.; Amodeo, A.; Baars, H.; Baldasano, J. M.; Belegante, L.; Binietoglou, I.; Bravo-Aranda, J. A.; Fernández, A. J.; Fréville, P.; García-Vizcaíno, D.; Giunta, A.; Granados-Muñoz, M. J.; Guerrero-Rascado, J. L.; Hadjimitsis, D.; Haefele, A.; Hervo, M.; Iarlori, M.; Kokkalis, P.; Lange, D.; Mamouri, R. E.; Mattis, I.; Molero, F.; Montoux, N.; Muñoz, A.; Muñoz Porcar, C.; Navas-Guzmán, F.; Nicolae, D.; Nisantzi, A.; Papagiannopoulos, N.; Papayannis, A.; Pereira, S.; Preißler, J.; Pujadas, M.; Rizi, V.; Rocadenbosch, F.; Sellegri, K.; Simeonov, V.; Tsaknakis, G.; Wagner, F.; Pappalardo, G.

    2015-11-01

    In the framework of ACTRIS (Aerosols, Clouds, and Trace Gases Research Infrastructure Network) summer 2012 measurement campaign (8 June-17 July 2012), EARLINET organized and performed a controlled exercise of feasibility to demonstrate its potential to perform operational, coordinated measurements and deliver products in near-real time. Eleven lidar stations participated in the exercise which started on 9 July 2012 at 06:00 UT and ended 72 h later on 12 July at 06:00 UT. For the first time, the single calculus chain (SCC) - the common calculus chain developed within EARLINET for the automatic evaluation of lidar data from raw signals up to the final products - was used. All stations sent in real-time measurements of a 1 h duration to the SCC server in a predefined netcdf file format. The pre-processing of the data was performed in real time by the SCC, while the optical processing was performed in near-real time after the exercise ended. 98 and 79 % of the files sent to SCC were successfully pre-processed and processed, respectively. Those percentages are quite large taking into account that no cloud screening was performed on the lidar data. The paper draws present and future SCC users' attention to the most critical parameters of the SCC product configuration and their possible optimal value but also to the limitations inherent to the raw data. The continuous use of SCC direct and derived products in heterogeneous conditions is used to demonstrate two potential applications of EARLINET infrastructure: the monitoring of a Saharan dust intrusion event and the evaluation of two dust transport models. The efforts made to define the measurements protocol and to configure properly the SCC pave the way for applying this protocol for specific applications such as the monitoring of special events, atmospheric modeling, climate research and calibration/validation activities of spaceborne observations.

  5. Taking part in a pharmacogenetic clinical trial: assessment of trial participants understanding of information disclosed during the informed consent process

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study is the first to examine the understandings that participants have of the consent process in a pharmacogenetic trial of anti-depressant medication. Methods This was a qualitative cross sectional study. There were 76 participants residing in London, Mannheim, Arhuus and Poznan. Results Only one quarter of participants (none in Poznan) could articulate the concept of pharmacogenetics. Heritability and testing medication were also given as the purpose of the trial. Most participants had not appreciated harms that could derive from the trial. Even when shown the consent sheet, participants were confused about DNA profiling. There was evidence that participants appreciated weekly contact with researchers. Most said they would participate in a trial again but would like choice over the intervention they were assigned to. Conclusion Participants in this study showed a poor level of informed consent. Although this is not the first time this argument has been made, it is in the case of a pharmacogenetic trial. Further work should investigate the associations between extraneous factors such as information and social support on beneficial or untoward outcomes of antidepressant treatment. PMID:24025622

  6. Pharmacogenetics, Pharmacogenomics and Ayurgenomics for Personalized Medicine: A Paradigm Shift

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Pooja D.

    2015-01-01

    The value of health care can be increased tremendously through individualized medicine. With the promise of individualized medicine, healthcare professionals will be able to better predict disease risk, prevent development of disease and manage treatments more efficiently thereby allowing people to be healthier and active longer. The developments in the area of pharmacogenetics/pharmacogenomics can help the physicians achieve the target of personalized medicine. Personalized medicine will come to mean not just the right drug for the right individual, but the right drug for the specific disease affecting a specific individual. The use of personalized medicine will make clinical trials more efficient by lowering the costs that would arise due to adverse drug effects and prescription of drugs that have been proven ineffective in certain genotypes. The genotypic experiments have laid valuable insights into genetic underpinnings of diseases. However it is being realized that identification of sub-groups within normal controls corresponding to contrasting disease susceptibility could lead to more effective discovery of predictive markers for diseases. However there are no modern methods available to look at the inter-individual differences within ethnically matched healthy populations. Ayurveda, an exquisitely elaborate system of predictive medicine which has been practiced for over 3500 years in India, can help in bridging this gap. In contrast to the contemporary system of medicine, the therapeutic regimen in Ayurveda is implicated on tridoshas and prakriti. According to this system, every individual is born with his or her own basic constitution, which to a great extent regulates inter-individual variability in susceptibility to diseases and response to external environment, diet and drugs. Thus the researchers in India have demonstrated that integration of this stratified approach of Ayurveda into genomics i.e. Ayurgenomics could complement personalized medicine

  7. What healthcare leaders can learn from research on dark networks.

    PubMed

    Milward, H Brinton

    2014-01-01

    For 12 years, a research program has been conducted on "dark networks," which are both illegal and covert. One of the major findings is that the structure of the network is conditioned by an existential dilemma-the need to act or exist. The more you do of one, the less you can do of the other. This article examines the findings of that research and applies it to the dilemmas of organizing healthcare networks. PMID:25518149

  8. Comparative-effectiveness research in distributed health data networks.

    PubMed

    Toh, S; Platt, R; Steiner, J F; Brown, J S

    2011-12-01

    Comparative-effectiveness research (CER) can be conducted within a distributed health data network. Such networks allow secure access to separate data sets from different data partners and overcome many practical obstacles related to patient privacy, data security, and proprietary concerns. A scalable network architecture supports a wide range of CER activities and meets the data infrastructure needs envisioned by the Federal Coordinating Council for Comparative Effectiveness Research. PMID:22030567

  9. South African Human Sciences Research Networking Directory. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Berg, Henda, Ed.; Maree-Snijders, Asa, Ed.; Prinsloo, Roelf, Ed.

    This networking directory is a comprehensive reference source of names, locations, and fields of interest of South African human sciences researchers. The guide is intended to promote research cooperation, facilitate networking, and organize conferences. The directory is intended for use at both the international level and the local level. The…

  10. How Might Better Network Theories Support School Leadership Research?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadfield, Mark; Jopling, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This article explores how recent research in education has applied different aspects of "network" theory to the study of school leadership. Constructs from different network theories are often used because of their perceived potential to clarify two perennial issues in leadership research. The first is the relative importance of formal and…

  11. From Human Genetics and Genomics to Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics: Past Lessons, Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Nebert, Daniel W.; Zhang, Ge; Vesell, Elliot S.

    2009-01-01

    A brief history of human genetics and genomics is provided, comparing recent progress in those fields with that in pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics, which are subsets of genetics and genomics, respectively. Sequencing of the entire human genome, the mapping of common haplotypes of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and cost-effective genotyping technologies leading to genome-wide association (GWA) studies—have combined convincingly in the past several years to demonstrate the requirements needed to separate true associations from the plethora of false positives. While research in human genetics has moved from monogenic to oligogenic to complex diseases, its pharmacogenetics branch has followed, usually a few years behind. The continuous discoveries, even today, of new surprises about our genome cause us to question reviews declaring that “personalized medicine is almost here” or that “individualized drug therapy will soon be a reality.” As summarized herein, numerous reasons exist to show that an “unequivocal genotype” or even an “unequivocal phenotype” is virtually impossible to achieve in current limited-size studies of human populations. This problem (of insufficiently stringent criteria) leads to a decrease in statistical power and, consequently, equivocal interpretation of most genotype-phenotype association studies. It remains unclear whether personalized medicine or individualized drug therapy will ever be achievable by means of DNA testing alone. PMID:18464043

  12. The Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Network: a national infrastructure for comparative effectiveness research.

    PubMed

    Califf, Robert M

    2014-01-01

    The current clinical research system does not produce high-quality evidence quickly enough to support health care decision making. The Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Network (PCORnet) embodies a novel strategy for creating a national "network of networks" that is capable of significantly accelerating evidence generation to support a learning health system. PMID:24830497

  13. Cognitive Radio Wireless Sensor Networks: Applications, Challenges and Research Trends

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Gyanendra Prasad; Nam, Seung Yeob; Kim, Sung Won

    2013-01-01

    A cognitive radio wireless sensor network is one of the candidate areas where cognitive techniques can be used for opportunistic spectrum access. Research in this area is still in its infancy, but it is progressing rapidly. The aim of this study is to classify the existing literature of this fast emerging application area of cognitive radio wireless sensor networks, highlight the key research that has already been undertaken, and indicate open problems. This paper describes the advantages of cognitive radio wireless sensor networks, the difference between ad hoc cognitive radio networks, wireless sensor networks, and cognitive radio wireless sensor networks, potential application areas of cognitive radio wireless sensor networks, challenges and research trend in cognitive radio wireless sensor networks. The sensing schemes suited for cognitive radio wireless sensor networks scenarios are discussed with an emphasis on cooperation and spectrum access methods that ensure the availability of the required QoS. Finally, this paper lists several open research challenges aimed at drawing the attention of the readers toward the important issues that need to be addressed before the vision of completely autonomous cognitive radio wireless sensor networks can be realized. PMID:23974152

  14. Cognitive radio wireless sensor networks: applications, challenges and research trends.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Gyanendra Prasad; Nam, Seung Yeob; Kim, Sung Won

    2013-01-01

    A cognitive radio wireless sensor network is one of the candidate areas where cognitive techniques can be used for opportunistic spectrum access. Research in this area is still in its infancy, but it is progressing rapidly. The aim of this study is to classify the existing literature of this fast emerging application area of cognitive radio wireless sensor networks, highlight the key research that has already been undertaken, and indicate open problems. This paper describes the advantages of cognitive radio wireless sensor networks, the difference between ad hoc cognitive radio networks, wireless sensor networks, and cognitive radio wireless sensor networks, potential application areas of cognitive radio wireless sensor networks, challenges and research trend in cognitive radio wireless sensor networks. The sensing schemes suited for cognitive radio wireless sensor networks scenarios are discussed with an emphasis on cooperation and spectrum access methods that ensure the availability of the required QoS. Finally, this paper lists several open research challenges aimed at drawing the attention of the readers toward the important issues that need to be addressed before the vision of completely autonomous cognitive radio wireless sensor networks can be realized. PMID:23974152

  15. Patient-powered research networks: building capacity for conducting patient-centered clinical outcomes research

    PubMed Central

    Daugherty, Sarah E; Wahba, Sarita; Fleurence, Rachael

    2014-01-01

    The Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) recently launched PCORnet to establish a single inter-operable multicenter data research network that will support observational research and randomized clinical trials. This paper provides an overview of the patient-powered research networks (PPRNs), networks of patient organizations focused on a particular health condition that are interested in sharing health information and engaging in research. PPRNs will build on their foundation of trust within the patient communities and draw on their expertise, working with participants to identify true patient-centered outcomes and direct a patient-centered research agenda. The PPRNs will overcome common challenges including enrolling a diverse and representative patient population; engaging patients in governance; designing the data infrastructure; sharing data securely while protecting privacy; prioritizing research questions; scaling small networks into a larger network; and identifying pathways to sustainability. PCORnet will be the first distributed research network to bring PCOR to national scale. PMID:24821741

  16. Patient-powered research networks: building capacity for conducting patient-centered clinical outcomes research.

    PubMed

    Daugherty, Sarah E; Wahba, Sarita; Fleurence, Rachael

    2014-01-01

    The Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) recently launched PCORnet to establish a single inter-operable multicenter data research network that will support observational research and randomized clinical trials. This paper provides an overview of the patient-powered research networks (PPRNs), networks of patient organizations focused on a particular health condition that are interested in sharing health information and engaging in research. PPRNs will build on their foundation of trust within the patient communities and draw on their expertise, working with participants to identify true patient-centered outcomes and direct a patient-centered research agenda. The PPRNs will overcome common challenges including enrolling a diverse and representative patient population; engaging patients in governance; designing the data infrastructure; sharing data securely while protecting privacy; prioritizing research questions; scaling small networks into a larger network; and identifying pathways to sustainability. PCORnet will be the first distributed research network to bring PCOR to national scale. PMID:24821741

  17. US computer research networks: Domestic and international telecommunications capacity requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kratochvil, D.; Sood, D.

    1990-01-01

    The future telecommunications capacity and connectivity requirements of the United States (US) research and development (R&D) community raise two concerns. First, would there be adequate privately-owned communications capacity to meet the ever-increasing requirements of the US R&D community for domestic and international connectivity? Second, is the method of piecemeal implementation of communications facilities by individual researchers cost effective when viewed from an integrated perspective? To address the capacity issue, Contel recently completed a study for NASA identifying the current domestic R&D telecommunications capacity and connectivity requirements, and projecting the same to the years 1991, 1996, 2000, and 2010. The work reported here extends the scope of an earlier study by factoring in the impact of international connectivity requirements on capacity and connectivity forecasts. Most researchers in foreign countries, as is the case with US researchers, rely on regional, national or continent-wide networks to collaborate with each other, and their US counterparts. The US researchers' international connectivity requirements, therefore, stem from the need to link the US domestic research networks to foreign research networks. The number of links and, more importantly, the speeds of links are invariably determined by the characteristics of the networks being linked. The major thrust of this study, therefore, was to identify and characterize the foreign research networks, to quantify the current status of their connectivity to the US networks, and to project growth in the connectivity requirements to years 1991, 1996, 2000, and 2010 so that a composite picture of the US research networks in the same years could be forecasted. The current (1990) US integrated research network, and its connectivity to foreign research networks is shown. As an example of projections, the same for the year 2010 is shown.

  18. Ocean Research - Perspectives from an international Ocean Research Coordination Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearlman, Jay; Williams, Albert, III

    2013-04-01

    The need for improved coordination in ocean observations is more urgent now given the issues of climate change, sustainable food sources and increased need for energy. Ocean researchers must work across disciplines to provide policy makers with clear and understandable assessments of the state of the ocean. With advances in technology, not only in observation, but also communication and computer science, we are in a new era where we can answer questions asked over the last 100 years at the time and space scales that are relevant. Programs like GLOBEC moved us forward but we are still challenged by the disciplinary divide. Interdisciplinary problem solving must be addressed not only by the exchange of data between the many sides, but through levels where questions require day-to-day collaboration. A National Science Foundation-funded Research Coordination Network (RCN) is addressing approaches for improving interdisciplinary research capabilities in the ocean sciences. During the last year, the RCN had a working group for Open Data led by John Orcutt, Peter Pissierssens and Albert Williams III. The teams has focused on three areas: 1. Data and Information formats and standards; 2. Data access models (including IPR, business models for open data, data policies,...); 3. Data publishing, data citation. There has been a significant trend toward free and open access to data in the last few years. In 2007, the US announced that Landsat data would be available at no charge. Float data from the US (NDBC), JCOMM and OceanSites offer web-based access. The IODE is developing its Ocean Data Portal giving immediate and free access to ocean data. However, from the aspect of long-term collaborations across communities, this global trend is less robust than might appear at the surface. While there are many standard data formats for data exchange, there is not yet widespread uniformity in their adoption. Use of standard data formats can be encouraged in several ways: sponsors of

  19. Praxis-based research networks: an emerging paradigm for research that is rigorous, relevant and inclusive

    PubMed Central

    Werner, James J.; Stange, Kurt C.

    2016-01-01

    Practice-based research networks (PBRNs) have developed a grounded approach to conducting practice-relevant and translational research in community practice settings. Seismic shifts in the healthcare landscape are shaping PBRNs that work across organizational and institutional margins to address complex problems. Praxis-based research networks combine PBRN knowledge generation with multi-stakeholder learning, experimentation, and practical knowledge application. The catalytic processes in praxis-based research networks are cycles of action and reflection based on experience, observation, conceptualization, and experimentation by network members and partners. To facilitate co-learning and solution-building, these networks have a flexible architecture that allows pragmatic inclusion of stakeholders based on demands of the problem and the needs of the network. Praxis-based research networks represent an evolving trend that combines the core values of PBRNs with new opportunities for relevance, rigor, and broad participation. PMID:25381067

  20. Launching PCORnet, a national patient-centered clinical research network

    PubMed Central

    Fleurence, Rachael L; Curtis, Lesley H; Califf, Robert M; Platt, Richard; Selby, Joe V; Brown, Jeffrey S

    2014-01-01

    The Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) has launched PCORnet, a major initiative to support an effective, sustainable national research infrastructure that will advance the use of electronic health data in comparative effectiveness research (CER) and other types of research. In December 2013, PCORI's board of governors funded 11 clinical data research networks (CDRNs) and 18 patient-powered research networks (PPRNs) for a period of 18 months. CDRNs are based on the electronic health records and other electronic sources of very large populations receiving healthcare within integrated or networked delivery systems. PPRNs are built primarily by communities of motivated patients, forming partnerships with researchers. These patients intend to participate in clinical research, by generating questions, sharing data, volunteering for interventional trials, and interpreting and disseminating results. Rapidly building a new national resource to facilitate a large-scale, patient-centered CER is associated with a number of technical, regulatory, and organizational challenges, which are described here. PMID:24821743

  1. Towards a European Clinical Research Infrastructures Network: the ECRIN programme.

    PubMed

    Demotes-Mainard, Jacques

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of the interconnection of national networks of clinical research centres (CRCs) and clinical trials units (CTUs), the European Clinical Research Infrastructures Network (ECRIN) programme aims to develop an infrastructure allowing for bottom-up harmonisation of the support and training for, and practice of, clinical research, and to provide public sponsors for biotechnology small and medium-sized companies (SMEs) with support for translational research and multicentre clinical studies in Europe. This will be achieved through an application to the next FP6 'Integrated Infrastructure Initiatives' call. However, prior work is required to improve the reciprocal knowledge of partners in the ECRIN consortium and, as a first step, country-specific workshops will be organised by national networks in order to address the organisation of CRC/CTUs and national networks, and their interaction with the national environment of clinical research; this will enable in-depth discussion addressing the bottlenecks hampering transnational studies. PMID:15199684

  2. Research on Individualized Product Requirement Expression Based on Semantic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Qin; Pan, Xiuqin; Wei, Daozhu; Wu, Ke

    In order to establish an effective platform for individualized product development, the individualized product requirement expression forms were put forward. The diversity Semantic Network of product knowledge representation was researched based on the dualistic semantic network, and the product requirement framework model was established. Thereby the validity, reliability and consistency of the requirement expression process were ensured. Finally an example of customer requirement expression model about differential mechanism based on semantic network was described to satisfy with the individualized product design system.

  3. Can pharmacogenetics explain efficacy and safety of cisplatin pharmacotherapy?

    PubMed Central

    Roco, Ángela; Cayún, Juan; Contreras, Stephania; Stojanova, Jana; Quiñones, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Several recent pharmacogenetic studies have investigated the variability in both outcome and toxicity in cisplatin-based therapies. These studies have focused on the genetic variability of therapeutic targets that could affect cisplatin response and toxicity in diverse type of cancer including lung, gastric, ovarian, testicular, and esophageal cancer. In this review, we seek to update the reader in this area of investigation, focusing primarily on DNA reparation enzymes and cisplatin metabolism through Glutathione S-Transferases (GSTs). Current evidence indicates a potential application of pharmacogenetics in therapeutic schemes in which cisplatin is the cornerstone of these treatments. Therefore, a collaborative effort is required to study these molecular characteristics in order to generate a genetic panel with clinical utility. PMID:25452763

  4. Comparison of Delivery Strategies for Pharmacogenetic Testing Services

    PubMed Central

    Moaddeb, Jivan

    2013-01-01

    The number and use of pharmacogenetic tests to assess a patient’s likelihood of response or risk of an adverse event is expanding across medical specialties and becoming more prevalent. During this period of development and translation, different approaches are being investigated to optimize delivery of pharmacogenetic services. In this paper, we review preemptive and point-of-care delivery approaches currently implemented or being investigated and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each approach. The continued growth in knowledge about the genetic basis of drug response combined with development of new and cheaper testing technologies and electronic medical records will impact future delivery systems. Regardless of delivery approach, the currently limited knowledge of health professionals about genetics generally or PGx specifically will remain a major obstacle to utilization. PMID:24384556

  5. Commercial pharmacogenetic-based decision-support tools in psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Bousman, Chad A; Hopwood, Malcolm

    2016-06-01

    Despite a compendium of pharmacotherapies available for treating psychiatric illnesses, suboptimal response to these therapies is typical and thought to be in part a result of genetic variation. This notion has sparked a personalised psychiatry movement, which has in turn led to the development of several commercial pharmacogenetic-based decision support tools marketed to psychiatrists as an alternative to typical, trial-and-error, prescribing. However, there is considerable uncertainty about the validity and usefulness of these tools and whether there is sufficient evidence to support their adoption. In this Personal View, we provide an introduction to these tools and assess their potential usefulness in psychiatry practice. We conclude with clinical considerations and development strategies for improving future pharmacogenetic-based decision support tools for clinical use. PMID:27133546

  6. Personalised prescribing for asthma--is pharmacogenetics the answer?

    PubMed

    Dewar, Jane C; Hall, Ian P

    2003-03-01

    An individual's response to anti-asthma medication is likely to arise from a complex interaction between social, environmental and inherited factors. Studies indicate that genetic factors may account for 60-80% of the heterogeneity in treatment responsiveness in asthmatics. Identifying the genetic variants responsible may potentially lead to the development of novel treatments, improved effectiveness in the use of existing treatments and better prediction of efficacy in phase II and III trials. This article will briefly outline the current methods of identifying relevant treatment-responsive genes and their genetic variants. The pharmacogenetics of the main asthma treatment groups will then be reviewed in detail. Finally, the impact of pharmacogenetics on the pharmaceutical industry, and clinical practice in the future will be discussed. PMID:12724032

  7. Pharmacogenetics of ribavirin-induced anemia in hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Ampuero, Javier; Romero-Gómez, Manuel

    2016-09-01

    Pharmacogenetics assesses inherited genetic differences in drug metabolic pathways and its role in medicine is growing. Ribavirin (RBV) and peginterferon were the standard of care therapy in hepatitis C virus infection during 15 years, with the addition of first-generation protease inhibitors at the beginning of 2010s. New direct-acting agents are the new standard of care, but RBV remains important in some scenarios. The main adverse effect of RBV is anemia, which requires dose reduction and even stopping treatment in some patients. Pharmacogenetics has identified ITPA and SLC28/29 genes to be closely related to RBV-induced anemia. The routine evaluation of these genes could help to identify those patients at risk of developing anemia during the hepatitis C virus treatment. PMID:27547881

  8. Identifying emerging research collaborations and networks: method development.

    PubMed

    Dozier, Ann M; Martina, Camille A; O'Dell, Nicole L; Fogg, Thomas T; Lurie, Stephen J; Rubinstein, Eric P; Pearson, Thomas A

    2014-03-01

    Clinical and translational research is a multidisciplinary, collaborative team process. To evaluate this process, we developed a method to document emerging research networks and collaborations in our medical center to describe their productivity and viability over time. Using an e-mail survey, sent to 1,620 clinical and basic science full- and part-time faculty members, respondents identified their research collaborators. Initial analyses, using Pajek software, assessed the feasibility of using social network analysis (SNA) methods with these data. Nearly 400 respondents identified 1,594 collaborators across 28 medical center departments resulting in 309 networks with 5 or more collaborators. This low-burden approach yielded a rich data set useful for evaluation using SNA to: (a) assess networks at several levels of the organization, including intrapersonal (individuals), interpersonal (social), organizational/institutional leadership (tenure and promotion), and physical/environmental (spatial proximity) and (b) link with other data to assess the evolution of these networks. PMID:24019209

  9. Identifying emerging research collaborations and networks: Method development

    PubMed Central

    Dozier, Ann M.; Martina, Camille A.; O’Dell, Nicole L.; Fogg, Thomas T.; Lurie, Stephen J.; Rubinstein, Eric P.; Pearson, Thomas A.

    2014-01-01

    Clinical and translational research is a multidisciplinary, collaborative team process. To evaluate this process, we developed a method to document emerging research networks and collaborations in our medical center to describe their productivity and viability over time. Using an email survey, sent to 1,620 clinical and basic science full-and part-time faculty members, respondents identified their research collaborators. Initial analyses, using Pajek software, assessed the feasibility of using social network analysis (SNA) methods with these data. Nearly 400 respondents identified 1,594 collaborators across 28 medical center departments resulting in 309 networks with 5 or more collaborators. This low-burden approach yielded a rich dataset useful for evaluation using SNA to: a) assess networks at several levels of the organization, including intrapersonal (individuals), interpersonal (social), organizational/institutional leadership (tenure and promotion), and physical/environmental (spatial proximity) and b) link with other data to assess the evolution of these networks. PMID:24019209

  10. Pharmacogenetic allele nomenclature: International workgroup recommendations for test result reporting.

    PubMed

    Kalman, L V; Agúndez, Jag; Appell, M Lindqvist; Black, J L; Bell, G C; Boukouvala, S; Bruckner, C; Bruford, E; Caudle, K; Coulthard, S A; Daly, A K; Tredici, Al Del; den Dunnen, J T; Drozda, K; Everts, R E; Flockhart, D; Freimuth, R R; Gaedigk, A; Hachad, H; Hartshorne, T; Ingelman-Sundberg, M; Klein, T E; Lauschke, V M; Maglott, D R; McLeod, H L; McMillin, G A; Meyer, U A; Müller, D J; Nickerson, D A; Oetting, W S; Pacanowski, M; Pratt, V M; Relling, M V; Roberts, A; Rubinstein, W S; Sangkuhl, K; Schwab, M; Scott, S A; Sim, S C; Thirumaran, R K; Toji, L H; Tyndale, R F; van Schaik, Rhn; Whirl-Carrillo, M; Yeo, Ktj; Zanger, U M

    2016-02-01

    This article provides nomenclature recommendations developed by an international workgroup to increase transparency and standardization of pharmacogenetic (PGx) result reporting. Presently, sequence variants identified by PGx tests are described using different nomenclature systems. In addition, PGx analysis may detect different sets of variants for each gene, which can affect interpretation of results. This practice has caused confusion and may thereby impede the adoption of clinical PGx testing. Standardization is critical to move PGx forward. PMID:26479518

  11. Multipath routing in wireless sensor networks: survey and research challenges.

    PubMed

    Radi, Marjan; Dezfouli, Behnam; Abu Bakar, Kamalrulnizam; Lee, Malrey

    2012-01-01

    A wireless sensor network is a large collection of sensor nodes with limited power supply and constrained computational capability. Due to the restricted communication range and high density of sensor nodes, packet forwarding in sensor networks is usually performed through multi-hop data transmission. Therefore, routing in wireless sensor networks has been considered an important field of research over the past decade. Nowadays, multipath routing approach is widely used in wireless sensor networks to improve network performance through efficient utilization of available network resources. Accordingly, the main aim of this survey is to present the concept of the multipath routing approach and its fundamental challenges, as well as the basic motivations for utilizing this technique in wireless sensor networks. In addition, we present a comprehensive taxonomy on the existing multipath routing protocols, which are especially designed for wireless sensor networks. We highlight the primary motivation behind the development of each protocol category and explain the operation of different protocols in detail, with emphasis on their advantages and disadvantages. Furthermore, this paper compares and summarizes the state-of-the-art multipath routing techniques from the network application point of view. Finally, we identify open issues for further research in the development of multipath routing protocols for wireless sensor networks. PMID:22368490

  12. Unravelling the Social Network: Theory and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merchant, Guy

    2012-01-01

    Despite the widespread popularity of social networking sites (SNSs) amongst children and young people in compulsory education, relatively little scholarly work has explored the fundamental issues at stake. This paper makes an original contribution to the field by locating the study of this online activity within the broader terrain of social…

  13. Research Universities as Knowledge Networks: The Role of Institutional Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chirikov, Igor

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on the elaboration of institutional research practice, which is an important element of any research university. The study addresses three questions. First, how did institutional research arise, and what is its raison d'etre in a research university? Second, how can institutional research contribute to the improvement of…

  14. The National Research and Education Network (NREN): A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodson, James, Comp.

    This bibliography brings together sources, through August 1991, on the National Research and Education Network (NREN) and related topics, including computer networks, databases, information technology, library automation, microcomputers, and online systems. Where possible, a brief biographical note on the author is included, and most of the…

  15. Using an Inter-University Network for Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettibone, Timothy J.; Roddy, Mary E.

    An inter-university network of computer centers, the "Because It's Time NETwork" (BITNET), is described. Specific guidelines and format requirements for using BITNET, with sample commands, are presented. More than 1,800 computers at over 600 institutions of higher education and research centers in Europe, Asia, and North America are linked in this…

  16. Learning Networks--Enabling Change through Community Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleach, Josephine

    2016-01-01

    Learning networks are a critical element of ethos of the community action research approach taken by the Early Learning Initiative at the National College of Ireland, a community-based educational initiative in the Dublin Docklands. Key criteria for networking, whether at local, national or international level, are the individual's and…

  17. Pharmacogenetic studies update in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Shalini; Usman, Kauser; Banerjee, Monisha

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a silent progressive polygenic metabolic disorder resulting from ineffective insulin cascading in the body. World-wide, about 415 million people are suffering from T2DM with a projected rise to 642 million in 2040. T2DM is treated with several classes of oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs) viz. biguanides, sulfonylureas, thiazolidinediones, meglitinides, etc. Treatment strategies for T2DM are to minimize long-term micro and macro vascular complications by achieving an optimized glycemic control. Genetic variations in the human genome not only disclose the risk of T2DM development but also predict the personalized response to drug therapy. Inter-individual variability in response to OADs is due to polymorphisms in genes encoding drug receptors, transporters, and metabolizing enzymes for example, genetic variants in solute carrier transporters (SLC22A1, SLC22A2, SLC22A3, SLC47A1 and SLC47A2) are actively involved in glycemic/HbA1c management of metformin. In addition, CYP gene encoding Cytochrome P450 enzymes also play a crucial role with respect to metabolism of drugs. Pharmacogenetic studies provide insights on the relationship between individual genetic variants and variable therapeutic outcomes of various OADs. Clinical utility of pharmacogenetic study is to predict the therapeutic dose of various OADs on individual basis. Pharmacogenetics therefore, is a step towards personalized medicine which will greatly improve the efficacy of diabetes treatment. PMID:27555891

  18. Pharmacogenetic studies update in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shalini; Usman, Kauser; Banerjee, Monisha

    2016-08-10

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a silent progressive polygenic metabolic disorder resulting from ineffective insulin cascading in the body. World-wide, about 415 million people are suffering from T2DM with a projected rise to 642 million in 2040. T2DM is treated with several classes of oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs) viz. biguanides, sulfonylureas, thiazolidinediones, meglitinides, etc. Treatment strategies for T2DM are to minimize long-term micro and macro vascular complications by achieving an optimized glycemic control. Genetic variations in the human genome not only disclose the risk of T2DM development but also predict the personalized response to drug therapy. Inter-individual variability in response to OADs is due to polymorphisms in genes encoding drug receptors, transporters, and metabolizing enzymes for example, genetic variants in solute carrier transporters (SLC22A1, SLC22A2, SLC22A3, SLC47A1 and SLC47A2) are actively involved in glycemic/HbA1c management of metformin. In addition, CYP gene encoding Cytochrome P450 enzymes also play a crucial role with respect to metabolism of drugs. Pharmacogenetic studies provide insights on the relationship between individual genetic variants and variable therapeutic outcomes of various OADs. Clinical utility of pharmacogenetic study is to predict the therapeutic dose of various OADs on individual basis. Pharmacogenetics therefore, is a step towards personalized medicine which will greatly improve the efficacy of diabetes treatment. PMID:27555891

  19. Global Networked Learning: A New Form of Collaborative Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirny, A.; Wiske, M. S.; Joo, J.; Cunningham, G.; Daniels, D.; Farid, A. B.; Gordon, F.; Madani, R.; Nissen, S. C.

    2010-01-01

    A year-long collaborative action research project used networked technologies to connect researchers at a university-based online professional development program and a group of practitioner researchers based in a range of schools and educational agencies in several countries. They studied the process and effects of online professional development…

  20. Openness in Adoption: Research with the Adoption Kinship Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grotevant, Harold D.

    2000-01-01

    Summarizes current research on the outcomes of open adoption. Discusses issues involved in conducting research on openness and offers methodological recommendations. Provides examples from one research program with adoptive kinship networks. Concludes that psychological outcomes were less related to the level of openness than to the dynamics of…

  1. The future of intersite networking. [Office of Energy Research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-11-01

    Copies of viewgraphs and summaries of three discussion groups are presented. The purpose of the workshop was to identify strategies for meeting the computer networking needs to the scientists under the Office of Energy Research. (WRF)

  2. 75 FR 57521 - Networking and Information Technology Research and Development (NITRD) Program: Draft NITRD 2010...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... FOUNDATION Networking and Information Technology Research and Development (NITRD) Program: Draft NITRD 2010... Coordination Office for Networking and Information Technology Research and Development (NITRD) requests... National Coordination Office for the Networking and Information Technology Research and Development...

  3. Direct2Experts: a pilot national network to demonstrate interoperability among research-networking platforms

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, William; Conlon, Mike; Eichmann, David; Kibbe, Warren; Falk-Krzesinski, Holly; Halaas, Michael; Johnson, Layne; Meeks, Eric; Mitchell, Donald; Schleyer, Titus; Stallings, Sarah; Warden, Michael; Kahlon, Maninder

    2011-01-01

    Research-networking tools use data-mining and social networking to enable expertise discovery, matchmaking and collaboration, which are important facets of team science and translational research. Several commercial and academic platforms have been built, and many institutions have deployed these products to help their investigators find local collaborators. Recent studies, though, have shown the growing importance of multiuniversity teams in science. Unfortunately, the lack of a standard data-exchange model and resistance of universities to share information about their faculty have presented barriers to forming an institutionally supported national network. This case report describes an initiative, which, in only 6 months, achieved interoperability among seven major research-networking products at 28 universities by taking an approach that focused on addressing institutional concerns and encouraging their participation. With this necessary groundwork in place, the second phase of this effort can begin, which will expand the network's functionality and focus on the end users. PMID:22037890

  4. Direct2Experts: a pilot national network to demonstrate interoperability among research-networking platforms.

    PubMed

    Weber, Griffin M; Barnett, William; Conlon, Mike; Eichmann, David; Kibbe, Warren; Falk-Krzesinski, Holly; Halaas, Michael; Johnson, Layne; Meeks, Eric; Mitchell, Donald; Schleyer, Titus; Stallings, Sarah; Warden, Michael; Kahlon, Maninder

    2011-12-01

    Research-networking tools use data-mining and social networking to enable expertise discovery, matchmaking and collaboration, which are important facets of team science and translational research. Several commercial and academic platforms have been built, and many institutions have deployed these products to help their investigators find local collaborators. Recent studies, though, have shown the growing importance of multiuniversity teams in science. Unfortunately, the lack of a standard data-exchange model and resistance of universities to share information about their faculty have presented barriers to forming an institutionally supported national network. This case report describes an initiative, which, in only 6 months, achieved interoperability among seven major research-networking products at 28 universities by taking an approach that focused on addressing institutional concerns and encouraging their participation. With this necessary groundwork in place, the second phase of this effort can begin, which will expand the network's functionality and focus on the end users. PMID:22037890

  5. What is needed to incorporate clinical pharmacogenetic tests into the practice of psychopharmacotherapy?

    PubMed

    de Leon, Jose; Spina, Edoardo

    2016-01-01

    This editorial considers two questions in psychopharmacotherapy: 1) What is needed to market pharmacogenetic tests in the US, since the US appears to lead other countries? and 2) What is needed for US-marketed pharmacogenetic tests to be incorporated by prescribers into long-term practice? US marketing of pharmacogenetic tests requires 1) understanding the pharmacological complexity of drug response, 2) modifying the oversight of non-FDA regulatory agencies, 3) clarifying the FDA's role and 4) promoting innovative marketing. The incorporation of pharmacogenetic tests into long-term practice requires 1) not jeopardizing pharmacogenetic testing by short-sighted marketing of non-validated tests, 2) educating prescribers about benefits, 3) educating patients about limitations and 4) considering the differences between isolated testing and generalized testing incorporating big data. PMID:26580456

  6. The CounterACT Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Jett, David A.; Yeung, David T.

    2010-01-01

    The National Institutes of Health has developed a comprehensive research program that includes research centers of excellence, individual research projects, small business projects, contracts, and interagency agreements to conduct basic, translational, and clinical research aimed at the discovery and/or identification of better medical countermeasures against chemical threat agents. Chemical threats include chemical warfare agents, toxic industrial and agricultural chemicals, and toxins and other chemicals that could be used intentionally as an act of terror or by large-scale accidents or natural disasters. The overarching goal of this research program is to enhance our medical response capabilities during an emergency. The program is named Countermeasures Against Chemical Threats (CounterACT). It supports translational research, applying ideas, insights, and discoveries generated through basic scientific inquiry to the treatment or prevention of mortality and morbidity caused by chemical threat agents. The categories of research supported under this program include creation and development of screening assays and animal models for therapy development, identification of candidate therapeutics, obtaining preliminary proof-of-principle data on the efficacy of candidate therapeutics, advanced efficacy and preclinical safety studies with appropriate animal models using Good Laboratory Practices (GLP), and clinical studies, including clinical trials with new drugs. Special consideration is given to research relevant to people who are particularly vulnerable, including the young, the elderly, and individuals with pre-existing medical conditions. PMID:20601628

  7. [Competence Network Stroke : A successful model for stroke research].

    PubMed

    Lachmann, Ulrike; Villringer, Arno

    2016-04-01

    In 1999 the German Ministry of Education and Research initiated a funding initiative for competence networks in health research in order to improve research and health care for major diseases with high morbidity and relevance to public health. All major players in a given field were invited to cooperate. The aims were to improve horizontal as well as vertical networking in order to improve research quality and the transfer of new results into general clinical practice. Another aim was to establish sustainable structures for lasting cooperation. After a highly competitive application round, the Competence Network Stroke was among the very first to be funded. The incidence of stroke in Germany is about 250,000 new patients per year, it is the leading cause of adult impairment and its societal impact is dramatic.This article describes how the Competence Network Stroke managed to meet the above-mentioned goals and how cooperation among stroke researchers and caregivers in Germany has improved. Furthermore it provides examples of researcher achievements in the network, which have advanced research and benefited patients. PMID:26942932

  8. Pharmacogenetics of antidepressant treatment in obsessive-compulsive disorder: an update and implications for clinicians.

    PubMed

    Zai, Gwyneth; Brandl, Eva J; Müller, Daniel J; Richter, Margaret A; Kennedy, James L

    2014-06-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic neuropsychiatric disorder with high genetic influence. Antidepressants such as serotonin reuptake inhibitors, are widely accepted as the first-line medications for OCD; however, approximately 50% of OCD patients show poor response. Personalized medicine utilizing genetic testing has recently received much attention because the variability of antidepressant response and tolerability are partly due to an individual's genetic variations. This has led to researchers investigating the role of specific genetic factors on antidepressant response and utility of testing in the clinical realm. Genetic test panels are showing promise for guiding antidepressant treatment to improve outcomes in depression. This article will review the most recent findings in the pharmacogenetics of OCD and its related disorders. Promising results have been reported for several serotonergic and glutamatergic system genes and the cytochrome CYP450 liver enzyme genes, which appear to play an important role in OCD and antidepressant response. PMID:25084207

  9. Measuring Networking as an Outcome Variable in Undergraduate Research Experiences.

    PubMed

    Hanauer, David I; Hatfull, Graham

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to propose, present, and validate a simple survey instrument to measure student conversational networking. The tool consists of five items that cover personal and professional social networks, and its basic principle is the self-reporting of degrees of conversation, with a range of specific discussion partners. The networking instrument was validated in three studies. The basic psychometric characteristics of the scales were established by conducting a factor analysis and evaluating internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha. The second study used a known-groups comparison and involved comparing outcomes for networking scales between two different undergraduate laboratory courses (one involving a specific effort to enhance networking). The final study looked at potential relationships between specific networking items and the established psychosocial variable of project ownership through a series of binary logistic regressions. Overall, the data from the three studies indicate that the networking scales have high internal consistency (α = 0.88), consist of a unitary dimension, can significantly differentiate between research experiences with low and high networking designs, and are related to project ownership scales. The ramifications of the networking instrument for student retention, the enhancement of public scientific literacy, and the differentiation of laboratory courses are discussed. PMID:26538387

  10. Measuring Networking as an Outcome Variable in Undergraduate Research Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Hanauer, David I.; Hatfull, Graham

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to propose, present, and validate a simple survey instrument to measure student conversational networking. The tool consists of five items that cover personal and professional social networks, and its basic principle is the self-reporting of degrees of conversation, with a range of specific discussion partners. The networking instrument was validated in three studies. The basic psychometric characteristics of the scales were established by conducting a factor analysis and evaluating internal consistency using Cronbach’s alpha. The second study used a known-groups comparison and involved comparing outcomes for networking scales between two different undergraduate laboratory courses (one involving a specific effort to enhance networking). The final study looked at potential relationships between specific networking items and the established psychosocial variable of project ownership through a series of binary logistic regressions. Overall, the data from the three studies indicate that the networking scales have high internal consistency (α = 0.88), consist of a unitary dimension, can significantly differentiate between research experiences with low and high networking designs, and are related to project ownership scales. The ramifications of the networking instrument for student retention, the enhancement of public scientific literacy, and the differentiation of laboratory courses are discussed. PMID:26538387

  11. The Mind Research Network - Mental Illness Neuroscience Discovery Grant

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, J.; Calhoun, V.

    2013-12-17

    The scientific and technological programs of the Mind Research Network (MRN), reflect DOE missions in basic science and associated instrumentation, computational modeling, and experimental techniques. MRN's technical goals over the course of this project have been to develop and apply integrated, multi-modality functional imaging techniques derived from a decade of DOE-support research and technology development.

  12. Networks of Practice in Science Education Research: A Global Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Sonya N.; Siry, Christina

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we employ cultural sociology and Braj Kachru's model of World Englishes as theoretical and analytical tools for considering English as a form of capital necessary for widely disseminating research findings from local networks of practice to the greater science education research community. We present a brief analysis of recent…

  13. Social Network Analysis of Biomedical Research Collaboration Networks in a CTSA Institution

    PubMed Central

    Bian, Jiang; Xie, Mengjun; Topaloglu, Umit; Hudson, Teresa; Eswaran, Hari; Hogan, William

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND The popularity of social networks has triggered a number of research efforts on network analyses of research collaborations in the Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) community. Those studies mainly focus on the general understanding of collaboration networks by measuring common network metrics. More fundamental questions about collaborations still remain unanswered such as recognizing “influential” nodes and identifying potential new collaborations that are most rewarding. METHODS We analyzed biomedical research collaboration networks (RCNs) constructed from a dataset of research grants collected at a CTSA institution (i.e. University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS)) in a comprehensive and systematic manner. First, our analysis covers the full spectrum of a RCN study: from network modeling to network characteristics measurement, from key nodes recognition to potential links (collaborations) suggestion. Second, our analysis employs non-conventional model and techniques including a weighted network model for representing collaboration strength, rank aggregation for detecting important nodes, and Random Walk with Restart (RWR) for suggesting new research collaborations. RESULTS By applying our models and techniques to RCNs at UAMS prior to and after the CTSA, we have gained valuable insights that not only reveal the temporal evolution of the network dynamics but also assess the effectiveness of the CTSA and its impact on a research institution. We find that collaboration networks at UAMS are not scale-free but small-world. Quantitative measures have been obtained to evident that the RCNs at UAMS are moving towards favoring multidisciplinary research. Moreover, our link prediction model creates the basis of collaboration recommendations with an impressive accuracy (AUC: 0.990, MAP@3: 1.48 and MAP@5: 1.522). Last but not least, an open-source visual analytical tool for RCNs is being developed and released through Github. CONCLUSIONS

  14. Latin American Lidar Network (LALINET) for aerosol research: Diagnosis on network instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrero-Rascado, Juan Luis; Landulfo, Eduardo; Antuña, Juan Carlos; de Melo Jorge Barbosa, Henrique; Barja, Boris; Bastidas, Álvaro Efrain; Bedoya, Andrés Esteban; da Costa, Renata Facundes; Estevan, René; Forno, Ricardo; Gouveia, Diego Alvés; Jiménez, Cristofer; Larroza, Eliane Gonçalves; da Silva Lopes, Fábio Juliano; Montilla-Rosero, Elena; Arruda Moreira, Gregori de; Nakaema, Walker Morinobu; Nisperuza, Daniel; Alegria, Dairo; Múnera, Mauricio; Otero, Lidia; Papandrea, Sebastián; Pallota, Juan Vicente; Pawelko, Ezequiel; Quel, Eduardo Jaime; Ristori, Pablo; Rodrigues, Patricia Ferrini; Salvador, Jacobo; Sánchez, Maria Fernanda; Silva, Antonieta

    2016-02-01

    LALINET (Latin American Lidar Network), previously known as ALINE, is the first fully operative lidar network for aerosol research in South America, probing the atmosphere on regular basis since September 2013. The general purpose of this network is to attempt to fill the gap in the knowledge on aerosol vertical distribution over South America and its direct and indirect impact on weather and climate by the establishment of a vertically-resolved dataset of aerosol properties. Similarly to other lidar research networks, most of the LALINET instruments are not commercially produced and, consequently, configurations, capabilities and derived-products can be remarkably different among stations. It is a fact that such un-biased 4D dataset calls for a strict standardization from the instrumental and data processing point of view. This study has been envisaged to investigate the ongoing network configurations with the aim of highlighting the instrumental strengths and weaknesses of LALINET.

  15. Research, Supervision, and the Network Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennison, Carmel

    2009-01-01

    Much has been written about the use of information and communication technology (ICT) in distance learning environments. A quick Google search turns up as many as 178,000 links to the term. ICT has been less used and discussed as a means of communication between research student and supervisor--particularly where this is the major means of student…

  16. US computer research networks: Current and future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kratochvil, D.; Sood, D.; Verostko, A.

    1989-01-01

    During the last decade, NASA LeRC's Communication Program has conducted a series of telecommunications forecasting studies to project trends and requirements and to identify critical telecommunications technologies that must be developed to meet future requirements. The Government Networks Division of Contel Federal Systems has assisted NASA in these studies, and the current study builds upon these earlier efforts. The current major thrust of the NASA Communications Program is aimed at developing the high risk, advanced, communications satellite and terminal technologies required to significantly increase the capacity of future communications systems. Also, major new technological, economic, and social-political events and trends are now shaping the communications industry of the future. Therefore, a re-examination of future telecommunications needs and requirements is necessary to enable NASA to make management decisions in its Communications Program and to ensure the proper technologies and systems are addressed. This study, through a series of Task Orders, is helping NASA define the likely communication service needs and requirements of the future and thereby ensuring that the most appropriate technology developments are pursued.

  17. EEG-based research on brain functional networks in cognition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Niannian; Zhang, Li; Liu, Guozhong

    2015-01-01

    Recently, exploring the cognitive functions of the brain by establishing a network model to understand the working mechanism of the brain has become a popular research topic in the field of neuroscience. In this study, electroencephalography (EEG) was used to collect data from subjects given four different mathematical cognitive tasks: recite numbers clockwise and counter-clockwise, and letters clockwise and counter-clockwise to build a complex brain function network (BFN). By studying the connectivity features and parameters of those brain functional networks, it was found that the average clustering coefficient is much larger than its corresponding random network and the average shortest path length is similar to the corresponding random networks, which clearly shows the characteristics of the small-world network. The brain regions stimulated during the experiment are consistent with traditional cognitive science regarding learning, memory, comprehension, and other rational judgment results. The new method of complex networking involves studying the mathematical cognitive process of reciting, providing an effective research foundation for exploring the relationship between brain cognition and human learning skills and memory. This could help detect memory deficits early in young and mentally handicapped children, and help scientists understand the causes of cognitive brain disorders. PMID:26405867

  18. The Long Term Agroecosystem Research Network - Shared research strategy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture faces tremendous challenges in meeting multiple societal goals, including a safe and plentiful food supply; climate change adaptation and mitigation; supplying sources of bioenergy; improving water, air, and soil quality; and maintaining biodiversity. The Long Term Agroecosystem Research...

  19. Network of participants in European research: accepted versus rejected proposals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsouchnika, Maria; Argyrakis, Panos

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the network formed by the collaboration of researchers seeking funding by the European Commission by submitting research proposals. Institutions are network nodes and collaborations are links between the nodes. We constructed one network for the accepted proposals and one for the rejected ones, in order to look for any structural differences between them. To this end, first, we compare the size of the largest connected components and the resulting degree distributions. The latter show notable difference only in the region of relatively small degrees. We calculate the assortative mixing by participant type, i.e. a property which indicates whether the participant is a university/research institute, a company (non-profit included), or undefined. By aggregating the data of both networks into three geographical scales (city, region, country), we compare the degree assortativity and average node weight, in all scales. With respect to these two features the networks display similar behaviour. Finally, we compare a series of centrality measures and the Minimum Spanning Trees, at the country scale, to assess the relative performance of the countries. We find that five countries, France, Germany, the United Kingdom, Spain and Italy, play a central role in both networks, however, their relative significance is not the same.

  20. Dietary, Lifestyle and Pharmacogenetic Factors Associated with Arteriole Endothelial Dependent Vasodilatation In Schizophrenia Patients Treated with Atypical Antipsychotics (AAPs)

    PubMed Central

    Ellingrod, Vicki L.; Taylor, Stephan F.; Brook, Robert D.; Evans, Simon J.; Zöllner, Sebastian K.; Grove, Tyler B.; Gardner, Kristen M.; Bly, Michael J.; Pop-Busui, Rodica; Dalack, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Within schizophrenia cardiovascular disease (CVD) is highly prevalent secondary to atypical antipsychotic (AAP) use. Thorough assessments of diet, lifestyle, and endothelial functioning have not been done in this population. Omega 3 Fatty Acids (N-3 FAs) have garnered attention in relation to psychopathology as well as cardioprotection. This study examined the status of endothelial function within the schizophrenia population and determined pharmacogenetic, medication, dietary, and lifestyle factors associated with this functioning. Methods Schizophrenia subjects were screened for the metabolic syndrome along with physical activity, smoking, and variants related to folate pharmacogenetics in this cross-sectional analysis. Arteriole endothelial-dependent vasodilatation was measured using non-invasive peripheral arterial tonometry (RH-PAT, EndoPAT2000). A 24 hour dietary food recall was used to construct intake profiles using the Nutrition Data Systems for Research software (NDSR). We examined associations between AAP use and RH-PAT values, and the influence of N-3 FA dietary intake on this measure. Preliminary data are reported in 83 subjects with a mean age (± s.d.) of 45.89 (± 11.49), 64% were Caucasian (n = 53), 64% were male (n = 53), and 77% were receiving AAP treatment (n = 63). Results A significant positive relationship was found between RH-PAT values and N-3 FA intake (F=17.7(1,16), p=0.0007) in subjects not receiving AAPs. This relationship was lost in those treated with AAPs (F=0.25(1,43), p>0.6). Regression analysis confirmed the interaction effect of AAP treatment on the relationship between RH-PAT and N-3 FAs (p=0.0105). Endothelial dysfunction was also related to folate pharmacogenetic variants. Conclusions AAPs may counteract some vascular health benefits of a diet high in N-3 FAs. AAP use may necessitate a higher N-3 FA dose to regain these effects, but additional research is necessary to strengthen the preliminary findings

  1. Coordinating centers and multi-practice-based research network (PBRN) research.

    PubMed

    Mold, James W; Lipman, Paula Darby; Durako, Stephen J

    2012-01-01

    Practice-based research networks (PBRNs) have emerged as laboratories in which to address important primary care challenges. In 2011, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's PBRN database included more than 130 networks, most regional and some national, with member practices in every state. Regional networks may have certain advantages over national networks with respect to practice recruitment and project quality control because of closer relationships and shorter distances. However, national networks often can achieve larger numbers of practices with greater diversity, resulting in broader generalizability of results. Increasingly, regional networks are collaborating on multinetwork projects, but this creates significant study coordination challenges. A potential solution is to incorporate PBRN coordinating centers similar to those used in many National Institutes of Health and industry-sponsored multi-center clinical trials. In this article, we discuss the potential functions of a coordinating center in multi-region PBRN studies based on our experience with 2 recent studies. PMID:22956693

  2. Lysimeter Research Group - A scientific community network for lysimeter research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cepuder, Peter; Nolz, Reinhard; Bohner, Andreas; Baumgarten, Andreas; Klammler, Gernot; Murer, Erwin; Wimmer, Bernhard

    2014-05-01

    A lysimeter is a vessel that isolates a volume of soil between ground surface and a certain depth, and includes a sampling device for percolating water at its bottom. Lysimeters are traditionally used to study water and solute transport in the soil. Equipped with a weighing system, soil water sensors and temperature sensors, lysimeters are valuable instruments to investigate hydrological processes in the system soil-plant-atmosphere, especially fluxes across its boundary layers, e.g. infiltration, evapotranspiration and deep drainage. Modern lysimeter facilities measure water balance components with high precision and high temporal resolution. Hence, lysimeters are used in various research disciplines - such as hydrology, hydrogeology, soil science, agriculture, forestry, and climate change studies - to investigate hydrological, chemical and biological processes in the soil. The Lysimeter Research Group (LRG) was established in 1992 as a registered nonprofit association with free membership (ZVR number: 806128239, Austria). It is organized as an executive board with an international scientific steering committee. In the beginning the LRG focused mainly on nitrate contamination in Austria and its neighboring countries. Today the main intention of the LRG is to advance interdisciplinary exchange of information between researchers and users working in the field of lysimetry on an international level. The LRG also aims for the dissemination of scientific knowledge to the public and the support of decision makers. Main activities are the organization of a lysimeter conference every two years in Raumberg-Gumpenstein (Styria, Austria), the organization of excursions to lysimeter stations and related research sites around Europe, and the maintenance of a website (www.lysimeter.at). The website contains useful information about numerous European lysimeter stations regarding their infrastructure, instrumentation and operation, as well as related links and references which

  3. AmeriFlux Measurement Network: Science Team Research

    SciTech Connect

    Law, B E

    2012-12-12

    Research involves analysis and field direction of AmeriFlux operations, and the PI provides scientific leadership of the AmeriFlux network. Activities include the coordination and quality assurance of measurements across AmeriFlux network sites, synthesis of results across the network, organizing and supporting the annual Science Team Meeting, and communicating AmeriFlux results to the scientific community and other users. Objectives of measurement research include (i) coordination of flux and biometric measurement protocols (ii) timely data delivery to the Carbon Dioxide Information and Analysis Center (CDIAC); and (iii) assurance of data quality of flux and ecosystem measurements contributed by AmeriFlux sites. Objectives of integration and synthesis activities include (i) integration of site data into network-wide synthesis products; and (ii) participation in the analysis, modeling and interpretation of network data products. Communications objectives include (i) organizing an annual meeting of AmeriFlux investigators for reporting annual flux measurements and exchanging scientific information on ecosystem carbon budgets; (ii) developing focused topics for analysis and publication; and (iii) developing data reporting protocols in support of AmeriFlux network goals.

  4. Stories in Networks and Networks in Stories: A Tri-Modal Model for Mixed-Methods Social Network Research on Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker-Doyle, Kira J.

    2015-01-01

    Social network research on teachers and schools has risen exponentially in recent years as an innovative method to reveal the role of social networks in education. However, scholars are still exploring ways to incorporate traditional quantitative methods of Social Network Analysis (SNA) with qualitative approaches to social network research. This…

  5. Research on the complex network of the UNSPSC ontology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yingying; Zou, Shengrong; Gu, Aihua; Wei, Li; Zhou, Ta

    The UNSPSC ontology mainly applies to the classification system of the e-business and governments buying the worldwide products and services, and supports the logic structure of classification of the products and services. In this paper, the related technologies of the complex network were applied to analyzing the structure of the ontology. The concept of the ontology was corresponding to the node of the complex network, and the relationship of the ontology concept was corresponding to the edge of the complex network. With existing methods of analysis and performance indicators in the complex network, analyzing the degree distribution and community of the ontology, and the research will help evaluate the concept of the ontology, classify the concept of the ontology and improve the efficiency of semantic matching.

  6. EARLINET: potential operationality of a research network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sicard, M.; D'Amico, G.; Comerón, A.; Mona, L.; Alados-Arboledas, L.; Amodeo, A.; Baars, H.; Belegante, L.; Binietoglou, I.; Bravo-Aranda, J. A.; Fernández, A. J.; Fréville, P.; García-Vizcaíno, D.; Giunta, A.; Granados-Muñoz, M. J.; Guerrero-Rascado, J. L.; Hadjimitsis, D.; Haefele, A.; Hervo, M.; Iarlori, M.; Kokkalis, P.; Lange, D.; Mamouri, R. E.; Mattis, I.; Molero, F.; Montoux, N.; Muñoz, A.; Muñoz Porcar, C.; Navas-Guzmán, F.; Nicolae, D.; Nisantzi, A.; Papagiannopoulos, N.; Papayannis, A.; Pereira, S.; Preißler, J.; Pujadas, M.; Rizi, V.; Rocadenbosch, F.; Sellegri, K.; Simeonov, V.; Tsaknakis, G.; Wagner, F.; Pappalardo, G.

    2015-07-01

    In the framework of ACTRIS summer 2012 measurement campaign (8 June-17 July 2012), EARLINET organized and performed a controlled exercise of feasibility to demonstrate its potential to perform operational, coordinated measurements and deliver products in near-real time. Eleven lidar stations participated to the exercise which started on 9 July 2012 at 06:00 UT and ended 72 h later on 12 July at 06:00 UT. For the first time the Single-Calculus Chain (SCC), the common calculus chain developed within EARLINET for the automatic evaluation of lidar data from raw signals up to the final products, was used. All stations sent in real time measurements of 1 h of duration to the SCC server in a predefined netcdf file format. The pre-processing of the data was performed in real time by the SCC while the optical processing was performed in near-real time after the exercise ended. 98 and 84 % of the files sent to SCC were successfully pre-processed and processed, respectively. Those percentages are quite large taking into account that no cloud screening was performed on lidar data. The paper shows time series of continuous and homogeneously obtained products retrieved at different levels of the SCC: range-square corrected signals (pre-processing) and daytime backscatter and nighttime extinction coefficient profiles (optical processing), as well as combined plots of all direct and derived optical products. The derived products include backscatter- and extinction-related Ångström exponents, lidar ratios and color ratios. The combined plots reveal extremely valuable for aerosol classification. The efforts made to define the measurements protocol and to configure properly the SCC pave the way for applying this protocol for specific applications such as the monitoring of special events, atmospheric modelling, climate research and calibration/validation activities of spaceborne observations.

  7. Patterns of collaboration in complex networks: the example of a translational research network

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This paper examines collaboration in a complex translational cancer research network (TRN) made up of a range of hospital-based clinicians and university-based researchers. We examine the phenomenon of close-knit and often introspective clusters of people (silos) and test the extent that factors associated with this clustering (geography, profession and past experience) influence patterns of current and future collaboration on TRN projects. Understanding more of these patterns, especially the gaps or barriers between members, will help network leaders to manage subgroups and promote connectivity crucial to efficient network function. Methods An on-line, whole network survey was used to collect attribute and relationship data from all members of the new TRN based in New South Wales, Australia in early 2012. The 68 members were drawn from six separate hospital and university campuses. Social network analysis with UCInet tested the effects of geographic proximity, profession, past research experience, strength of ties and previous collaborations on past, present and future intended partnering. Results Geographic proximity and past working relationships both had significant effects on the choice of current collaboration partners. Future intended collaborations included a significant number of weak ties and ties based on other members’ reputations implying that the TRN has provided new opportunities for partnership. Professional grouping, a significant barrier discussed in the translational research literature, influenced past collaborations but not current or future collaborations, possibly through the mediation of network brokers. Conclusions Since geographic proximity is important in the choice of collaborators a dispersed network such as this could consider enhancing cross site interactions by improving virtual communication technology and use, increasing social interactions apart from project related work, and maximising opportunities to meet members

  8. Promoting Cognitive Health: A Formative Research Collaboration of the Healthy Aging Research Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laditka, James N.; Beard, Renee L.; Bryant, Lucinda L.; Fetterman, David; Hunter, Rebecca; Ivey, Susan; Logsdon, Rebecca G.; Sharkey, Joseph R.; Wu, Bei

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Evidence suggests that healthy lifestyles may help maintain cognitive health. The Prevention Research Centers Healthy Aging Research Network, 9 universities collaborating with their communities and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, is conducting a multiyear research project, begun in 2005, to understand how to translate this…

  9. Patient-powered research networks aim to improve patient care and health research.

    PubMed

    Fleurence, Rachael L; Beal, Anne C; Sheridan, Susan E; Johnson, Lorraine B; Selby, Joe V

    2014-07-01

    The era of big data, loosely defined as the development and analysis of large or complex data sets, brings new opportunities to empower patients and their families to generate, collect, and use their health information for both clinical and research purposes. In 2013 the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute launched a large national research network, PCORnet, that includes both clinical and patient-powered research networks. This article describes these networks, their potential uses, and the challenges they face. The networks are engaging patients, family members, and caregivers in four key ways: contributing data securely, with privacy protected; including diverse and representative groups of patients in research; prioritizing research questions, participating in research, and disseminating results; and participating in the leadership and governance of patient-powered research networks. If technical, regulatory, and organizational challenges can be overcome, PCORnet will allow research to be conducted more efficiently and cost-effectively and results to be disseminated quickly back to patients, clinicians, and delivery systems to improve patient health. PMID:25006148

  10. Challenges to Integrating Pharmacogenetic Testing into Medication Therapy Management

    PubMed Central

    Allen LaPointe, Nancy M.; Moaddeb, Jivan

    2015-01-01

    Background Some have proposed the integration of pharmacogenetic (PGx) testing into medication therapy management (MTM) to enable further refinement of treatment(s) to reduce risk of adverse responses and improve efficacy. PGx testing involves the analysis of genetic variants associated with therapeutic or adverse response and may be useful in enhancing the ability to identify ineffective and/or harmful drugs or drug combinations. This “enhanced” MTM might also reduce patient concerns about side effects and increase confidence that the medication is effective, addressing two key factors that impact patient adherence - concern and necessity. However, the feasibility and effectiveness of the integration of PGx testing into MTM in clinical practice has not yet been determined. Objectives In this paper, we consider some of the challenges to the integration and delivery of PGx testing in MTM services. What is already known about this subject While the addition of pharmacogenetic testing has been suggested, little literature exists exploring the challenges or feasibility of doing so. PMID:25803768

  11. Genetic epidemiology and pharmacogenetics in irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Katzka, David A.

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this review are twofold. Our first objective is to evaluate the evidence supporting a role for genetics in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Specific examples of the associations of genetic variation and symptoms, syndromes, and intermediate phenotypes, including neurotransmitter (serotonergic, α2-adrenergic, and cannabinoid) mechanisms, inflammatory pathways (IL-10, TNFα, GNβ3, and susceptibility loci involved in Crohn's disease), and bile acid metabolism, are explored. The second objective is to review pharmacogenetics in IBS, with the focus on cytochrome P-450 metabolism of drugs used in IBS, modulation of motor and sensory responses to serotonergic agents based on the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) and 5-HT3 genetic variants, responses to a nonselective cannabinoid agonist (dronabinol) based on cannabinoid receptor (CNR1) and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) variation, and responses to a bile acid (sodium chenodeoxycholate) and bile acid binding (colesevelam) based on klothoβ (KLB) and fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) variation. Overall, there is limited evidence of a genetic association with IBS; the most frequently studied association is with 5-HTTLPR, and the most replicated association is with TNF superfamily member 15. Most of the pharmacogenetic associations are reported with intermediate phenotypes in relatively small trials, and confirmation in large clinical trials using validated clinical end points is still required. No published genome-wide association studies in functional gastrointestinal or motility disorders have been published. PMID:22403795

  12. The role of pharmacogenetics in nonmalignant gastrointestinal diseases

    PubMed Central

    Camilleri, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Genetic variation influences the absorption and efflux of drugs in the intestine, the metabolism of drugs in the liver and the effects of these drugs on their target proteins. Indeed, variations in genes whose products have a role in the pathophysiology of nonmalignant gastrointestinal diseases, such as IBD, have been shown to affect the response of patients to therapy. This Review provides an overview of pharmacogenetics in the management of nonmalignant gastrointestinal diseases on the basis of data from clinical trials. Genetic variants that have the greatest effect on the management of patients with IBD involve the metabolism of thiopurines. Variation in drug metabolism by cytochrome P450 enzymes also requires attention so as to avoid drug interactions in patients receiving tricyclic antidepressants and PPIs. Few genotyping tests are currently used in the clinical management of patients with nonmalignant gastrointestinal diseases, owing to a lack of data from clinical trials showing their effectiveness in predicting nonresponse or adverse outcomes. However, pharmacogenetics could have a beneficial role in enabling pharmacotherapy for nonmalignant gastrointestinal diseases to be targeted to the individual patient. PMID:22310916

  13. A community of practice: librarians in a biomedical research network.

    PubMed

    De Jager-Loftus, Danielle P; Midyette, J David; Harvey, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Providing library and reference services within a biomedical research community presents special challenges for librarians, especially those in historically lower-funded states. These challenges can include understanding needs, defining and communicating the library's role, building relationships, and developing and maintaining general and subject specific knowledge. This article describes a biomedical research network and the work of health sciences librarians at the lead intensive research institution with librarians from primarily undergraduate institutions and tribal colleges. Applying the concept of a community of practice to a collaborative effort suggests how librarians can work together to provide effective reference services to researchers in biomedicine. PMID:24528265

  14. Interdependent networks - Topological percolation research and application in finance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Di

    This dissertation covers the two major parts of my Ph.D. research: i) developing a theoretical framework of complex networks and applying simulation and numerical methods to study the robustness of the network system, and ii) applying statistical physics concepts and methods to quantitatively analyze complex systems and applying the theoretical framework to study real-world systems. In part I, we focus on developing theories of interdependent networks as well as building computer simulation models, which includes three parts: 1) We report on the effects of topology on failure propagation for a model system consisting of two interdependent networks. We find that the internal node correlations in each of the networks significantly changes the critical density of failures, which can trigger the total disruption of the two-network system. Specifically, we find that the assortativity within a single network decreases the robustness of the entire system. 2) We study the percolation behavior of two interdependent scale-free (SF) networks under random failure of 1-p fraction of nodes. We find that as the coupling strength q between the two networks reduces from 1 (fully coupled) to 0 (no coupling), there exist two critical coupling strengths q1 and q2 , which separate the behaviors of the giant component as a function of p into three different regions, and for q2 < q < q 1 , we observe a hybrid order phase transition phenomenon. 3) We study the robustness of n interdependent networks with partially support-dependent relationship both analytically and numerically. We study a starlike network of n Erdos-Renyi (ER), SF networks and a looplike network of n ER networks, and we find for starlike networks, their phase transition regions change with n, but for looplike networks the phase regions change with average degree k . In part II, we apply concepts and methods developed in statistical physics to study economic systems. We analyze stock market indices and foreign exchange

  15. Artificial Neural Networks in Policy Research: A Current Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woelfel, Joseph

    1993-01-01

    Suggests that artificial neural networks (ANNs) exhibit properties that promise usefulness for policy researchers. Notes that ANNs have found extensive use in areas once reserved for multivariate statistical programs such as regression and multiple classification analysis and are developing an extensive community of advocates for processing text…

  16. Using Action Research to Investigate Social Networking Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worrall, Lisa; Harris, Katy

    2013-01-01

    This article outlines the first cycle of an Action Research (AR) investigation into why professional learners are not using the Social Networking Technologies (SNTs) of their bespoke website. It presents the rationale of how this study came about, the ontological and epistemological stance of the authors and how this led to the particular choice…

  17. Research Activities Within the Professional Development Center Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abram, Marie J.; And Others

    A cooperative program to improve education in the public schools involving the combined resources of the state department of education, a state university, and the local school districts is described. This Professional Development Center Network (PDC) conducts research to produce decision-making information to upgrade inservice programs in the…

  18. Water resources: Research network to track alpine water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The water cycle in alpine environments worldwide supplies fresh water to vast downstream areas inhabited by more than half of humanity. The International Network for Alpine Research Catchment Hydrology (INARCH) was launched this year by the Global Energy and Water Exchanges project of the World Clim...

  19. Citation Networks as Indicators of Journalism Research Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tankard, James W.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Reviews citation networks and discovers that the six major areas of activity in mass communication research are (1) television and politics, (2) sociological studies of journalists, (3) agenda setting, (4) the effects of mass communication, (5) the credibility of various news media, and (6) the characteristics of users and nonusers of mass media.…

  20. The National Research and Education Network: Two Meetings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cisler, Steve

    This article discusses two meetings which dealt with developments regarding the National Research and Education Network (NREN). In November 1990, the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University held a symposium entitled "Information Infrastructure for the 1990s," whose participants represented a wide spectrum of economic, political,…

  1. Higher Education Change and Social Networks: A Review of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kezar, Adrianna

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews literature on the potential for understanding higher education change processes through social network analysis (SNA). In this article, the main tenets of SNA are reviewed and, in conjunction with organizational theory, are applied to higher education change to develop a set of hypotheses that can be tested in future research.

  2. The Georgia Psychoeducational Network (GPN) Research Report, 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swan, William W., Ed.; Brown, Carvin L., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    This research report contains seven papers on students with serious Emotional Disturbances (SED) and/or Severe Behavior Disorder (SBD) who participated in the Georgia Psychoeducational Network Program (GPN). "The 1982 Cohort of GPN Preschoolers--Where Are They in 1987-1988?" (Juanda Ponsell and others) reports the placement of 75 preschoolers with…

  3. The Use and Significance of a Research Networking System

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Leslie; Daigre, John; Meeks, Eric; Nelson, Katie; Piontkowski, Cynthia; Reuter, Katja; Sak, Rachael; Turner, Brian; Weber, Griffin M; Chatterjee, Anirvan

    2014-01-01

    Background Universities have begun deploying public Internet systems that allow for easy search of their experts, expertise, and intellectual networks. Deployed first in biomedical schools but now being implemented more broadly, the initial motivator of these research networking systems was to enable easier identification of collaborators and enable the development of teams for research. Objective The intent of the study was to provide the first description of the usage of an institutional research “social networking” system or research networking system (RNS). Methods Number of visits, visitor location and type, referral source, depth of visit, search terms, and click paths were derived from 2.5 years of Web analytics data. Feedback from a pop-up survey presented to users over 15 months was summarized. Results RNSs automatically generate and display profiles and networks of researchers. Within 2.5 years, the RNS at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) achieved one-seventh of the monthly visit rate of the main longstanding university website, with an increasing trend. Visitors came from diverse locations beyond the institution. Close to 75% (74.78%, 208,304/278,570) came via a public search engine and 84.0% (210 out of a sample of 250) of these queried an individual’s name that took them directly to the relevant profile page. In addition, 20.90% (214 of 1024) visits went beyond the page related to a person of interest to explore related researchers and topics through the novel and networked information provided by the tool. At the end of the period analyzed, more than 2000 visits per month traversed 5 or more links into related people and topics. One-third of visits came from returning visitors who were significantly more likely to continue to explore networked people and topics (P<.001). Responses to an online survey suggest a broad range of benefits of using the RNS in supporting the research and clinical mission. Conclusions Returning

  4. The Global Network for Women's and Children's Health Research: A model of capacity-building research.

    PubMed

    Koso-Thomas, Marion; McClure, Elizabeth M

    2015-10-01

    In response to the global effort to accelerate progress towards the Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5, a partnership was created between the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation to establish the Global Network for Women's and Children's Health Research (Global Network) in 2000. The Global Network was developed with a goal of building local maternal and child health research capacity in resource-poor settings. The objective of the network was to conduct research focused on several high-need areas, such as preventing life-threatening obstetric complications, improving birth weight and infant growth, and improving childbirth practices in order to reduce mortality. Scientists from developing countries, together with peers in the USA, lead research teams that identify and address population needs through randomized clinical trials and other research studies. Global Network projects develop and test cost-effective, sustainable interventions for pregnant women and newborns and provide guidance for national policy and for the practice of evidence-based medicine. This article reviews the results of the Global Network's research, the impact on policy and practice, and highlights the capacity-building efforts and collaborations developed since its inception. PMID:26043962

  5. Building Research Infrastructure in Community Health Centers: A Community Health Applied Research Network (CHARN) Report

    PubMed Central

    Likumahuwa, Sonja; Song, Hui; Singal, Robbie; Weir, Rosy Chang; Crane, Heidi; Muench, John; Sim, Shao-Chee; DeVoe, Jennifer E.

    2015-01-01

    This article introduces the Community Health Applied Research Network (CHARN), a practice-based research network of community health centers (CHCs). Established by the Health Resources and Services Administration in 2010, CHARN is a network of 4 community research nodes, each with multiple affiliated CHCs and an academic center. The four nodes (18 individual CHCs and 4 academic partners in 9 states) are supported by a data coordinating center. Here we provide case studies detailing how CHARN is building research infrastructure and capacity in CHCs, with a particular focus on how community practice-academic partnerships were facilitated by the CHARN structure. The examples provided by the CHARN nodes include many of the building blocks of research capacity: communication capacity and “matchmaking” between providers and researchers; technology transfer; research methods tailored to community practice settings; and community institutional review board infrastructure to enable community oversight. We draw lessons learned from these case studies that we hope will serve as examples for other networks, with special relevance for community-based networks seeking to build research infrastructure in primary care settings. PMID:24004710

  6. Leadership in complex networks: the importance of network position and strategic action in a translational cancer research network

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Leadership behaviour in complex networks is under-researched, and little has been written concerning leadership of translational research networks (TRNs) that take discoveries made ‘at the bench’ and translate them into practices used ‘at the bedside.’ Understanding leaders’ opportunities and behaviours within TRNs working to solve this key problem in implementing evidence into clinical practice is therefore important. This study explored the network position of governing body members and perceptions of their role in a new TRN in Sydney, Australia. The paper asks three questions: Firstly, do the formal, mandated leaders of this TRN hold key positions of centrality or brokerage in the informal social network of collaborative ties? Secondly, if so, do they recognise the leadership opportunities that their network positions afford them? Thirdly, what activities associated with these key roles do they believe will maximise the TRN’s success? Methods Semi-structured interviews of all 14 governing body members conducted in early 2012 explored perceptions of their roles and sought comments on a list of activities drawn from review of successful transdisciplinary collaboratives combined with central and brokerage roles. An on-line, whole network survey of all 68 TRN members sought to understand and map existing collaborative connections. Leaders’ positions in the network were assessed using UCInet, and graphs were generated in NetDraw. Results Social network analysis identified that governing body members had high centrality and high brokerage potential in the informal network of work-related ties. Interviews showed perceived challenges including ‘silos’ and the mismatch between academic and clinical goals of research. Governing body members recognised their central positions, which would facilitate the leadership roles of leading, making decisions, and providing expert advice necessary for the co-ordination of effort and relevant input across

  7. Social Networking and Online Recruiting for HIV Research: Ethical Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Brenda L.

    2015-01-01

    Social networking sites and online advertising organizations provide HIV/AIDS researchers access to target populations, often reaching difficult-to-reach populations. However, this benefit to researchers raises many issues for the protections of prospective research participants. Traditional recruitment procedures have involved straightforward transactions between the researchers and prospective participants; online recruitment is a more complex and indirect form of communication involving many parties engaged in the collecting, aggregating, and storing of research participant data. Thus, increased access to online data has challenged the adequacy of current and established procedures for participants’ protections, such as informed consent and privacy/confidentiality. Internet-based HIV/AIDS research recruitment and its ethical challenges are described, and research participant safeguards and best practices are outlined. PMID:24572084

  8. Research trends in wireless visual sensor networks when exploiting prioritization.

    PubMed

    Costa, Daniel G; Guedes, Luiz Affonso; Vasques, Francisco; Portugal, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    The development of wireless sensor networks for control and monitoring functions has created a vibrant investigation scenario, where many critical topics, such as communication efficiency and energy consumption, have been investigated in the past few years. However, when sensors are endowed with low-power cameras for visual monitoring, a new scope of challenges is raised, demanding new research efforts. In this context, the resource-constrained nature of sensor nodes has demanded the use of prioritization approaches as a practical mechanism to lower the transmission burden of visual data over wireless sensor networks. Many works in recent years have considered local-level prioritization parameters to enhance the overall performance of those networks, but global-level policies can potentially achieve better results in terms of visual monitoring efficiency. In this paper, we make a broad review of some recent works on priority-based optimizations in wireless visual sensor networks. Moreover, we envisage some research trends when exploiting prioritization, potentially fostering the development of promising optimizations for wireless sensor networks composed of visual sensors. PMID:25599425

  9. Research Trends in Wireless Visual Sensor Networks When Exploiting Prioritization

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Daniel G.; Guedes, Luiz Affonso; Vasques, Francisco; Portugal, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    The development of wireless sensor networks for control and monitoring functions has created a vibrant investigation scenario, where many critical topics, such as communication efficiency and energy consumption, have been investigated in the past few years. However, when sensors are endowed with low-power cameras for visual monitoring, a new scope of challenges is raised, demanding new research efforts. In this context, the resource-constrained nature of sensor nodes has demanded the use of prioritization approaches as a practical mechanism to lower the transmission burden of visual data over wireless sensor networks. Many works in recent years have considered local-level prioritization parameters to enhance the overall performance of those networks, but global-level policies can potentially achieve better results in terms of visual monitoring efficiency. In this paper, we make a broad review of some recent works on priority-based optimizations in wireless visual sensor networks. Moreover, we envisage some research trends when exploiting prioritization, potentially fostering the development of promising optimizations for wireless sensor networks composed of visual sensors. PMID:25599425

  10. Exploring Knowledge Processes Based on Teacher Research in a School-University Research Network of a Master's Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornelissen, Frank; van Swet, Jacqueline; Beijaard, Douwe; Bergen, Theo

    2013-01-01

    School-university research networks aim at closer integration of research and practice by means of teacher research. Such practice-oriented research can benefit both schools and universities. This paper reports on a multiple-case study of five participants in a school-university research network in a Dutch master's program. The research question…

  11. Research and development of network virtual instrument laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Hongmei; Pei, Xichun; Ma, Hongyue; Ma, Shuoshi

    2006-11-01

    A software platform of the network virtual instrument test laboratory has been developed to realize the network function of the test and signal analysis as well as the share of the hardware based on the data transmission theory and the study of the present technologies of the network virtual instrument. The whole design procedure was also presented in this paper. The main work of the research is as follows. 1. A suitable scheme of the test system with B/S mode and the virtual instrument laboratory with BSDA (Browser/Server/Database/Application) mode was determined. 2. The functions were classified and integrated by adopting the multilayer structure. The application for the virtual instruments running in the client terminal and the network management server managing the multiuser in the test laboratory according to the "Concurrent receival, sequential implementation" strategy in Java as well as the code of the test server application responding the client's requests of test and signal analysis in LabWindows/CVI were developed. As the extending part of network function of the original virtual test and analysis instruments, a software platform of network virtual instrument test laboratory was built as well. 3. The communication of the network data between Java and the LabWindows/CVI was realized. 4. The database was imported to store the data as well as the correlative information acquired by the server and help the network management server to manage the multiuser in the test laboratory. 5. A website embedding Java Applet of virtual instrument laboratory with the on-line help files was designed.

  12. UltraSciencenet: High- Performance Network Research Test-Bed

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, Nageswara S; Wing, William R; Poole, Stephen W; Hicks, Susan Elaine; DeNap, Frank A; Carter, Steven M; Wu, Qishi

    2009-04-01

    The high-performance networking requirements for next generation large-scale applications belong to two broad classes: (a) high bandwidths, typically multiples of 10Gbps, to support bulk data transfers, and (b) stable bandwidths, typically at much lower bandwidths, to support computational steering, remote visualization, and remote control of instrumentation. Current Internet technologies, however, are severely limited in meeting these demands because such bulk bandwidths are available only in the backbone, and stable control channels are hard to realize over shared connections. The UltraScience Net (USN) facilitates the development of such technologies by providing dynamic, cross-country dedicated 10Gbps channels for large data transfers, and 150 Mbps channels for interactive and control operations. Contributions of the USN project are two-fold: (a) Infrastructure Technologies for Network Experimental Facility: USN developed and/or demonstrated a number of infrastructure technologies needed for a national-scale network experimental facility. Compared to Internet, USN's data-plane is different in that it can be partitioned into isolated layer-1 or layer-2 connections, and its control-plane is different in the ability of users and applications to setup and tear down channels as needed. Its design required several new components including a Virtual Private Network infrastructure, a bandwidth and channel scheduler, and a dynamic signaling daemon. The control-plane employs a centralized scheduler to compute the channel allocations and a signaling daemon to generate configuration signals to switches. In a nutshell, USN demonstrated the ability to build and operate a stable national-scale switched network. (b) Structured Network Research Experiments: A number of network research experiments have been conducted on USN that cannot be easily supported over existing network facilities, including test-beds and production networks. It settled an open matter by demonstrating

  13. 75 FR 55360 - Networking and Information Technology Research and Development (NITRD) Program: Draft NITRD 2010...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-10

    ... Networking and Information Technology Research and Development (NITRD) Program: Draft NITRD 2010 Strategic Plan AGENCY: The National Coordination Office (NCO) for Networking and Information Technology Research... and Information Technology Research and Development (NITRD) requests comments from the...

  14. Louisiana Clinical Data Research Network: establishing an infrastructure for efficient conduct of clinical research

    PubMed Central

    Khurshid, Anjum; Nauman, Elizabeth; Carton, Tom; Horswell, Ron

    2014-01-01

    The state of Louisiana, like the nation as a whole, is facing the salient challenge of improving population health and efficiency of healthcare delivery. Research to inform innovations in healthcare will best enhance this effort if it is timely, efficient, and patient-centered. The Louisiana Clinical Data Research Network (LACDRN) will increase the capacity to conduct robust comparative effectiveness research by building a health information technology infrastructure that provides access to comprehensive clinical data for more than 1 million patients statewide. To ensure that network-based research best serves its end-users, the project will actively engage patients and providers as key informants and decision-makers in the implementation of LACDRN. The network's patient-centered research agenda will prioritize patients’ and clinicians’ needs and aim to support evidence-based decisions on the healthcare they receive and provide, to optimize patient outcomes and quality of life. PMID:24821735

  15. Louisiana Clinical Data Research Network: establishing an infrastructure for efficient conduct of clinical research.

    PubMed

    Khurshid, Anjum; Nauman, Elizabeth; Carton, Tom; Horswell, Ron

    2014-01-01

    The state of Louisiana, like the nation as a whole, is facing the salient challenge of improving population health and efficiency of healthcare delivery. Research to inform innovations in healthcare will best enhance this effort if it is timely, efficient, and patient-centered. The Louisiana Clinical Data Research Network (LACDRN) will increase the capacity to conduct robust comparative effectiveness research by building a health information technology infrastructure that provides access to comprehensive clinical data for more than 1 million patients statewide. To ensure that network-based research best serves its end-users, the project will actively engage patients and providers as key informants and decision-makers in the implementation of LACDRN. The network's patient-centered research agenda will prioritize patients' and clinicians' needs and aim to support evidence-based decisions on the healthcare they receive and provide, to optimize patient outcomes and quality of life. PMID:24821735

  16. [Interdisciplinary Network for Epidemiological Research in Berlin--EpiBerlin].

    PubMed

    Bau, A M

    2004-06-01

    The Interdisciplinary Network for Epidemiological Research in Berlin (EpiBerlin) has the goal of bringing together epidemiologists and experts in epidemiology and public health in Germany's capital city of Berlin and to offer them opportunities for knowledge transfer and networking. In that way, existing resources may be strengthened and additional potential in Berlin as a science center may be developed. EpiBerlin was founded by an initiative of the Berlin Center of Public Health (BZPH) and is closely affiliated with the three universities in Berlin (Free University, Technical University, and Humboldt University) as well as the Robert Koch Institute, Germany's national center for health research. EpiBerlin is evenly funded by the state of Berlin, through the Senatsverwaltung für Wissenschaft, Forschung und Kultur (Senate Administration for Science, Research, and Culture), and the Bund-Länder-Kommission (Commission of the Federation and States). The development of a databank of the epidemiological databases in the region of Berlin (EpiDB) aims to show the variety of epidemiological work in the area. The aim of EpiDB is to provide transparency and an overview of existing and current research in Berlin, which may also benefit external users. Cooperation, networking, and division of labor for joint venture research may be promoted, also beyond the region of Berlin. PMID:15221106

  17. GURN (GNSS Upper Rhine Graben Network) - Status and Research Goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knoepfler, A.; Mayer, M.; Masson, F.; Ferhat, G.; Ulrich, P.; Heck, B.

    2009-04-01

    In April 2008 the Institut de Physique du Globe de Strasbourg (Ecole et Observatoire des Sciences de la Terre) and the Geodetic Institute of the University Karlsruhe (TH) established an international cooperation called GURN (GNSS Upper Rhine Graben Network). Within the GURN initiative these institutions are cooperating in order to carry out research in the framework of the transnational project TOPO-WECEP (Western and Central European Platform), which succeeds the former project URGENT (Upper Rhine Graben Evolution and NeoTectonics) of the EUCOR universities (European Confederation of Universities on the Upper Rhin). The research is actually based on GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite Systems) in order to establish a network for the detection of recent crustal movements. The poster will focus on main research goals as well as on first results (e.g. phase multipath impact, receiver quality, PPP time series) concerning the data quality of the approx. 70 permanently operating GNSS reference sites.

  18. Pharmacogenetics and Personalized Medicine in Pain Management.

    PubMed

    Webster, Lynn R; Belfer, Inna

    2016-09-01

    Genetic research heralds a new therapeutic approach to pain management. Increasing literature demonstrates individual genetic vulnerabilities to specific pain types and mechanisms, partially explaining differing responses to similar pain stimuli. Furthermore, analgesics demonstrate great variability among carriers of different genotypes. Family history and genotyping promise to play an important role in the future approach to pain therapies. As advances continue in the genetics of pain and analgesia, pharmacotherapy will depend more on an individualized, targeted approach and less on empiricism. PMID:27514464

  19. Network of Research Infrastructures for European Seismology (NERIES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Eck, T.; Giardini, D.; Bossu, R.; Wiemer, S.

    2008-12-01

    NERIES (Network of Research Infrastructures for European Seismology) is an Integrated Infrastructure Initiative (I3) project within the Sixth Framework Programme of the European Commission (EC). The project consortium consists of 25 participants from 13 different European countries. It is currently the largest earth science project ever funded by the EC. The goal of NERIES is to integrate European seismological observatories and research institutes into one integrated cyber-infrastructure for seismological data serving the research community, civil protection authorities and the general public. The EC provides funds for the networking and research. The participants provide the necessary hardware investments, mostly through national resources. NERIES consists of 13 subprojects (networking and research activities) and 5 facilities providing access through grants (Transnational Access). The project is coordinated by ORFEUS in close cooperation with the EMSC. The individual subprojects address different issues such as: extension of the Virtual European Broadband Seismic Network (VEBSN) from 140 to about 500 stations, implementing the core European Integrated Waveform Data Archive (EIDA) consisting of ODC-KNMI, GFZ, INGV and IPGP and a distributed archive of historical Data. Providing access to data gathered by acceleration networks within Europe and its surroundings and deploys Ocean Bottom Seismometers in coordination with relevant Ocean bottom projects like ESONET. Tot facilitate access to this diverse and distributed data NERIES invests a significant portion of its resources to implementing a portal for which a beta release is planned to be release in the autumn of 2008. The research project main goal is to produce products and tools facilitating data interpretation and analysis. These tools include a European reference (velocity) model, real-time hazard tools, shakemaps and lossmaps, site response determination software and tools, and automatic tools to manage and

  20. [Research on Zhejiang blood information network and management system].

    PubMed

    Yan, Li-Xing; Xu, Yan; Meng, Zhong-Hua; Kong, Chang-Hong; Wang, Jian-Min; Jin, Zhen-Liang; Wu, Shi-Ding; Chen, Chang-Shui; Luo, Ling-Fei

    2007-02-01

    This research was aimed to develop the first level blood information centralized database and real time communication network at a province area in China. Multiple technology like local area network database separate operation, real time data concentration and distribution mechanism, allopatric backup, and optical fiber virtual private network (VPN) were used. As a result, the blood information centralized database and management system were successfully constructed, which covers all the Zhejiang province, and the real time exchange of blood data was realised. In conclusion, its implementation promote volunteer blood donation and ensure the blood safety in Zhejiang, especially strengthen the quick response to public health emergency. This project lays the first stone of centralized test and allotment among blood banks in Zhejiang, and can serve as a reference of contemporary blood bank information systems in China. PMID:17490550

  1. Analyzing Enterprise Networks Needs: Action Research from the Mechatronics Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cagnazzo, Luca; Taticchi, Paolo; Bidini, Gianni; Baglieri, Enzo

    New business models and theories are developing nowadays towards collaborative environments direction, and many new tools in sustaining companies involved in these organizations are emerging. Among them, a plethora of methodologies to analyze their needs are already developed for single companies. Few academic works are available about Enterprise Networks (ENs) need analysis. This paper presents the learning from an action research (AR) in the mechatronics sector: AR has been used in order to experience the issue of evaluating network needs and therefore define, develop, and test a complete framework for network evaluation. Reflection on the story in the light of the experience and the theory is presented, as well as extrapolation to a broader context and articulation of usable knowledge.

  2. A global spacecraft control network for spacecraft autonomy research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitts, Christopher A.

    1996-01-01

    The development and implementation of the Automated Space System Experimental Testbed (ASSET) space operations and control network, is reported on. This network will serve as a command and control architecture for spacecraft operations and will offer a real testbed for the application and validation of advanced autonomous spacecraft operations strategies. The proposed network will initially consist of globally distributed amateur radio ground stations at locations throughout North America and Europe. These stations will be linked via Internet to various control centers. The Stanford (CA) control center will be capable of human and computer based decision making for the coordination of user experiments, resource scheduling and fault management. The project's system architecture is described together with its proposed use as a command and control system, its value as a testbed for spacecraft autonomy research, and its current implementation.

  3. Online Social Networks and Smoking Cessation: A Scientific Research Agenda

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Amanda L; Byron, M. Justin; Niaura, Raymond S; Abrams, David B

    2011-01-01

    Background Smoking remains one of the most pressing public health problems in the United States and internationally. The concurrent evolution of the Internet, social network science, and online communities offers a potential target for high-yield interventions capable of shifting population-level smoking rates and substantially improving public health. Objective Our objective was to convene leading practitioners in relevant disciplines to develop the core of a strategic research agenda on online social networks and their use for smoking cessation, with implications for other health behaviors. Methods We conducted a 100-person, 2-day, multidisciplinary workshop in Washington, DC, USA. Participants worked in small groups to formulate research questions that could move the field forward. Discussions and resulting questions were synthesized by the workshop planning committee. Results We considered 34 questions in four categories (advancing theory, understanding fundamental mechanisms, intervention approaches, and evaluation) to be the most pressing. Conclusions Online social networks might facilitate smoking cessation in several ways. Identifying new theories, translating these into functional interventions, and evaluating the results will require a concerted transdisciplinary effort. This report presents a series of research questions to assist researchers, developers, and funders in the process of efficiently moving this field forward. PMID:22182518

  4. The Collaborative Action Research Network: 30 Years of Agency in Developing Educational Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somekh, Bridget

    2010-01-01

    This article provides an analysis of the Collaborative Action Research Network's (CARN) origins and development since its foundation in 1976. The author brings the unique perspective of active involvement in CARN almost from its inception, and editorship for many years of its journal "Educational Action Research". Cultural-historical activity…

  5. 75 FR 80853 - Designing a Digital Future: Federally Funded Research and Development in Networking and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-23

    ... networking and information technologies (NIT) for the health, energy, transportation, and cyberinfrastructure... Technology AGENCY: National Coordination Office (NCO) for the Networking and Information Technology Research... Technology''. ACTION: Request for Information (RFI). SUMMARY: Networking and Information Technology......

  6. Multispecies networks: visualizing the psychological research of the Committee for Research in Problems of Sex.

    PubMed

    Pettit, Michael; Serykh, Darya; Green, Christopher D

    2015-03-01

    In our current moment, there is considerable interest in networks, in how people and things are connected. This essay outlines one approach that brings together insights from actor-network theory, social network analysis, and digital history to interpret past scientific activity. Multispecies network analysis (MNA) is a means of understanding the historical interactions among scientists, institutions, and preferred experimental animals. A reexamination of studies of sexual behavior funded by the Committee for Research in Problems of Sex between the 1920s and the 1940s demonstrates the applicability of MNA to clarifying the relations that sustained this area of psychology. The measures of weighted degree and betweenness can highlight which nodes (whether organisms or institutions) were particularly "central" to this network. Rats featured as the animals most widely studied during this period, but the analysis also reveals distinct institutional and disciplinary cultures where different species were favored as either surrogates for humans or representatives of more general biological groups. PMID:26027310

  7. Precision Obesity Treatments Including Pharmacogenetic and Nutrigenetic Approaches.

    PubMed

    Solas, Maite; Milagro, Fermin I; Martínez-Urbistondo, Diego; Ramirez, Maria J; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2016-07-01

    Five pharmaceutical strategies are currently approved by the US FDA for the treatment of obesity: orlistat, lorcaserin, liraglutide, phentermine/topiramate, and bupropion/naltrexone. The most effective treatment seems to be the combined administration of phentermine/topiramate followed by lorcaserin and bupropion/naltrexone. In relation to the management of excessive weight, other aspects also need to be considered, including comorbidities accompanying obesity, drug interactions, and the risk of negative collateral effects, as well as individualized treatments based on the genetic make-up. This review aims to provide an overview of the approved anti-obesity drugs and newer molecules that could affect different targets in the central nervous system or peripheral tissues, the molecular mechanisms, emerging dietary treatments and phytogenic compounds, and pharmacogenetic/nutrigenetic approaches for personalized obesity management. PMID:27236593

  8. Relevance of G-quadruplex structures to pharmacogenetics

    PubMed Central

    Cree, Simone L.; Kennedy, Martin A.

    2014-01-01

    G-quadruplexes are non-canonical secondary structures formed within nucleic acids that are involved in modulating cellular processes such as replication, gene regulation, recombination and epigenetics. Within genes, there is mounting evidence of G-quadruplex involvement in transcriptional and post transcriptional regulation. We report the presence of potential G-quadruplex motifs within relevant sites of some important pharmacogenes and discuss the possible implications of this on the function and expression of these genes. Appreciating the location and potential functions of these motifs may be of value when considering the impacts of some pharmacogenetic variants. G-quadruplexes are also the focus of drug development efforts in oncology and we highlight the broader pharmacological implications of treatment strategies that may target G-quadruplexes. PMID:25071578

  9. Research on secure routing algorithm in wireless sensor network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bo

    2013-03-01

    Through the research on the existing wireless sensor network (WSN) and its security technologies, this paper presents a design of the WSN-based secure routing algorithm. This design uses the existing routing algorithm as chief source, adding the security guidance strategy, introducing the location key information, to enhance the security performance of WSN routing. The improved routing algorithm makes the WSN routing achieve better anti-attack in the case of little overhead increase, therefore has high practical value.

  10. Research on the Simulation of Neural Networks and Semaphores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Haibo

    In recent years, much research has been devoted to the emulation of the Turing machine; unfortunately, few have enabled the exploration of SMPs. Given the current status of decentralized algorithms, security experts obviously desire the significant unification of wide-area networks and telephony, which embodies the confusing principles of steganography. In this paper, we present new empathic communication (Bam), demonstrating that digital-to-analog converters and checksums are largely incompatible.

  11. Pharmacogenetics of idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions.

    PubMed

    Pirmohamed, Munir

    2010-01-01

    Idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions are unpredictable and thought to have an underlying genetic etiology. With the completion of the human genome and HapMap projects, together with the rapid advances in genotyping technologies, we have unprecedented capabilities in identifying genetic predisposing factors for these relatively rare, but serious, reactions. The main roadblock to this is the lack of sufficient numbers of well-characterized samples from patients with such reactions. This is now beginning to be solved through the formation of international consortia, including developing novel ways of identifying and recruiting patients affected by these reactions, both prospectively and retrospectively. This has been led by the research on abacavir hypersensitivity - its association with HLA-B*5701 forms the gold standard of how we need to identify associations and implement them in clinical practice. Strong genetic predisposing factors have also been identified for hypersensitivity reactions such as are associated with carbamazepine, allopurinol, flucloxacillin, and statin-induced myopathy. However, for most other idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions, the genetic effect sizes have been low to moderate, although this may partly be due to the fact that only small numbers have been investigated and limited genotyping strategies have been utilized. It may also indicate that genetic predisposition will be dependent on multiple genes, with complex interactions with environmental factors. Irrespective of the strength of the genetic associations identified with individual idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions, it is important to undertake functional investigations to provide insights into the mechanism(s) of how the drug interacts with the gene variant to lead to a phenotype, which can take a multitude of clinical forms with variable severity. Such investigations will be essential in preventing the burden caused by idiosyncratic reactions, both in healthcare and in industry

  12. Pharmacogenetics: progress, pitfalls and clinical potential for coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Humphries, Steve E; Hingorani, Aroon

    2006-02-01

    Much has been written about the potential of pharmacogenetic testing to inform therapy based on an individual's genetic makeup, and to decide the most effective choice of available drugs, or to avoid dangerous side effects. Currently, there is little hard data for either in the field of cardiovascular disease. The usual approach has been opportunistic use of drug trials in unrelated patients, and to look for differences in response or outcome by "candidate gene" genotype, for example genes coding for drug metabolising enzymes (activators and metabolisers), and enzymes and receptors involved in lipid metabolism, adrenergic response, etc. As with all association studies, initially promising results have often failed the test of replication in larger studies, and the relationship between the CETP Taq-I variant and response to statins has now been disproved. The strongest data to date is the report [Chasman, D.I., Posada, D., Subrahmanyan, L., Cook, N.R., Stanton Jr., V.P., Ridker, P.M., 2004. Pharmacogenetic study of statin therapy and cholesterol reduction. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 291, 2821-2827] of a poorer cholesterol-lowering response to Pravastatin in the 7% of patients carrying a certain haplotype of the HMG CoA reductase gene (14% fall versus 19%), but if this is overcome simply by a higher dose, it is of little clinical relevance. Currently, the best example of avoiding side effects is determining genotype at the CYP2C9 locus with respect of warfarin treatment, since carriers for functional variants (>20% of the population) require lower doses for optimal anticoagulation, and homozygotes, although rare, may well experience serious bleeding if given a usual dose. The full potential of this field will only be realised with much further work. PMID:16359930

  13. The Mid-South Clinical Data Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbloom, S Trent; Harris, Paul; Pulley, Jill; Basford, Melissa; Grant, Jason; DuBuisson, Allison; Rothman, Russell L

    2014-01-01

    The Mid-South Clinical Data Research Network (CDRN) encompasses three large health systems: (1) Vanderbilt Health System (VU) with electronic medical records for over 2 million patients, (2) the Vanderbilt Healthcare Affiliated Network (VHAN) which currently includes over 40 hospitals, hundreds of ambulatory practices, and over 3 million patients in the Mid-South, and (3) Greenway Medical Technologies, with access to 24 million patients nationally. Initial goals of the Mid-South CDRN include: (1) expansion of our VU data network to include the VHAN and Greenway systems, (2) developing data integration/interoperability across the three systems, (3) improving our current tools for extracting clinical data, (4) optimization of tools for collection of patient-reported data, and (5) expansion of clinical decision support. By 18 months, we anticipate our CDRN will robustly support projects in comparative effectiveness research, pragmatic clinical trials, and other key research areas and have the capacity to share data and health information technology tools nationally. PMID:24821742

  14. The Mid-South clinical Data Research Network.

    PubMed

    Rosenbloom, S Trent; Harris, Paul; Pulley, Jill; Basford, Melissa; Grant, Jason; DuBuisson, Allison; Rothman, Russell L

    2014-01-01

    The Mid-South Clinical Data Research Network (CDRN) encompasses three large health systems: (1) Vanderbilt Health System (VU) with electronic medical records for over 2 million patients, (2) the Vanderbilt Healthcare Affiliated Network (VHAN) which currently includes over 40 hospitals, hundreds of ambulatory practices, and over 3 million patients in the Mid-South, and (3) Greenway Medical Technologies, with access to 24 million patients nationally. Initial goals of the Mid-South CDRN include: (1) expansion of our VU data network to include the VHAN and Greenway systems, (2) developing data integration/interoperability across the three systems, (3) improving our current tools for extracting clinical data, (4) optimization of tools for collection of patient-reported data, and (5) expansion of clinical decision support. By 18 months, we anticipate our CDRN will robustly support projects in comparative effectiveness research, pragmatic clinical trials, and other key research areas and have the capacity to share data and health information technology tools nationally. PMID:24821742

  15. Bernard Lerer: recipient of the 2014 inaugural Werner Kalow Responsible Innovation Prize in Global Omics and Personalized Medicine (Pacific Rim Association for Clinical Pharmacogenetics).

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Vural; Endrenyi, Laszlo; Aynacıoğlu, Sükrü; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Dandara, Collet; Dove, Edward S; Ferguson, Lynnette R; Geraci, Christy Jo; Hafen, Ernst; Kesim, Belgin Eroğlu; Kolker, Eugene; Lee, Edmund J D; Llerena, Adrian; Nacak, Muradiye; Shimoda, Kazutaka; Someya, Toshiyuki; Srivastava, Sanjeeva; Tomlinson, Brian; Vayena, Effy; Warnich, Louise; Yaşar, Umit

    2014-04-01

    This article announces the recipient of the 2014 inaugural Werner Kalow Responsible Innovation Prize in Global Omics and Personalized Medicine by the Pacific Rim Association for Clinical Pharmacogenetics (PRACP): Bernard Lerer, professor of psychiatry and director of the Biological Psychiatry Laboratory, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel. The Werner Kalow Responsible Innovation Prize is given to an exceptional interdisciplinary scholar who has made highly innovative and enduring contributions to global omics science and personalized medicine, with both vertical and horizontal (transdisciplinary) impacts. The prize is established in memory of a beloved colleague, mentor, and friend, the late Professor Werner Kalow, who cultivated the idea and practice of pharmacogenetics in modern therapeutics commencing in the 1950s. PRACP, the prize's sponsor, is one of the longest standing learned societies in the Asia-Pacific region, and was founded by Kalow and colleagues more than two decades ago in the then-emerging field of pharmacogenetics. In announcing this inaugural prize and its winner, we seek to highlight the works of prize winner, Professor Lerer. Additionally, we contextualize the significance of the prize by recalling the life and works of Professor Kalow and providing a brief socio-technical history of the rise of pharmacogenetics and personalized medicine as a veritable form of 21(st) century scientific practice. The article also fills a void in previous social science analyses of pharmacogenetics, by bringing to the fore the works of Kalow from 1995 to 2008, when he presciently noted the rise of yet another field of postgenomics inquiry--pharmacoepigenetics--that railed against genetic determinism and underscored the temporal and spatial plasticity of genetic components of drug response, with invention of the repeated drug administration (RDA) method that estimates the dynamic heritabilities of drug response. The prize goes a long way

  16. Structure and Evolution of Scientific Collaboration Networks in a Modern Research Collaboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pepe, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation is a study of scientific collaboration at the Center for Embedded Networked Sensing (CENS), a modern, multi-disciplinary, distributed laboratory involved in sensor network research. By use of survey research and network analysis, this dissertation examines the collaborative ecology of CENS in terms of three networks of…

  17. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis of genetic, pharmacogenetic and biochemical studies.

    PubMed

    Bonvicini, C; Faraone, S V; Scassellati, C

    2016-07-01

    found for salivary cortisol, whereas lower serum docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels were found in ADHD adults. This last association was significant even after Bonferroni correction and in absence of heterogeneity. Other polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) such as AA (arachidonic acid), EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) and DyLA (dihomogammalinolenic acid) levels were not different between patients and controls. No publication biases were observed for these markers. Genes linked to dopaminergic, serotoninergic and noradrenergic signaling, metabolism (DBH, TPH1, TPH2, DDC, MAOA, MAOB, BCHE and TH), neurodevelopment (BDNF and others), the SNARE system and other forty genes/proteins related to different pathways were not meta-analyzed due to insufficient data. In conclusion, we found that there were not enough genetic, pharmacogenetic and biochemical studies of ADHD in adults and that more investigations are needed. Moreover we confirmed a significant role of BAIAP2 and DHA in the etiology of ADHD exclusively in adults. Future research should be focused on the replication of these findings and to assess their specificity for ADHD. PMID:27217152

  18. Enhancing research capacity of African institutions through social networking.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Castellanos, Ana; Ramirez-Robles, Maximo; Shousha, Amany; Bagayoko, Cheick Oumar; Perrin, Caroline; Zolfo, Maria; Cuzin, Asa; Roland, Alima; Aryeetey, Richmond; Maojo, Victor

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, participation of African researchers in top Biomedical Informatics (BMI) scientific journals and conferences has been scarce. Looking beyond these numbers, an educational goal should be to improve overall research and, therefore, to increase the number of scientists/authors able to produce and publish high quality research. In such scenario, we are carrying out various efforts to expand the capacities of various institutions located at four African countries - Egypt, Ghana, Cameroon and Mali - in the framework of a European Commission-funded project, AFRICA BUILD. This project is currently carrying out activities such as e-learning, collaborative development of informatics tools, mobility of researchers, various pilot projects, and others. Our main objective is to create a self-sustained South-South network of BMI developers. PMID:23920873

  19. The promise of pharmacogenetics: assessing the prospects for disease and patient stratification.

    PubMed

    Smart, Andrew; Martin, Paul

    2006-09-01

    Pharmacogenetics is an emerging biotechnology concerned with understanding the genetic basis of drug response, and promises to transform the development, marketing and prescription of medicines. This paper is concerned with analysing the move towards segmented drug markets, which is implicit in the commercial development of pharmacogenetics. It is claimed that in future who gets a particular drug will be determined by their genetic make up. Drawing on ideas from the sociology of expectations we examine how pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies are constructing, responding to and realising particular 'visions' or expectations of pharmacogenetics and market stratification. We argue that the process of market segmentation remains uncertain, but that the outcome will be fashioned according to the convergence and divergence of the interests of key commercial actors. Qualitative data based both on interviews with industry executives and company documentation will be used to explore how different groups of companies are developing pharmacogenetics in distinct ways, and what consequences these different pathways might have for both clinical practice and health policy. In particular, the analysis will show a convergence of interests between biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies for creating segmented markets for new drugs, but a divergence of interest in segmenting established markets. Whilst biotechnology firms have a strong incentive to innovate, the pharmaceutical industry has no commercial interest in segmenting markets for existing products. This has important implications, as many of the claimed public health benefits of pharmacogenetics will derive from changing the prescribing of existing medicines. One significant implication of this is that biotechnology companies who wish to apply pharmacogenetics to existing medicines will have to explore an alternative convergence of interests with healthcare payers and providers (health insurers, HMOs, MCOs and

  20. Network of nanomedicine researches: impact of Iranian scientists

    PubMed Central

    Biglu, Mohammad-Hossein; Riazi, Shukuh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: We may define the nanomedicine as the use of nanotechnology in the health care, disease diagnoses and treatment in order to maintain and increase the health status of a population through improve pharmacotherapy. The main objective of the current study is to analyze and visualize the co-authorship network of all papers in the field of nanomedicine published throughout 2002-2014 in journals and indexed in the Web of Science database. Methods: The Web of Science database was used to extract all papers indexed as a topic of nanomedicine through 2002-2014. The Science of Science Tool was used to map the co-authorship network of papers. Results: Total number of papers extracted from the Web of Science in the field of nanomedicine was 3092 through 2002-2014. Analysis of data showed that the research activities in the field of nanomedicine increased steadily through the period of study. USA, China, and India were the most prolific countries in the field. The dominant language of publications was English. The co-authorship connection revealed a network with a density of 0.0006. Conclusion: Nanomedicine researches have markedly been increased in Iran. Ninety-five percent of Iranian papers were cooperated with multi-authors. The collaboration coefficient degree was 0.731. PMID:26929924

  1. The Southeast Asian Influenza Clinical Research Network: development and challenges for a new multilateral research endeavor.

    PubMed

    Higgs, Elizabeth S; Hayden, Frederick G; Chotpitayasunondh, Tawee; Whitworth, Jimmy; Farrar, Jeremy

    2008-04-01

    The Southeast Asia Influenza Clinical Research Network (SEA ICRN) (www.seaclinicalresearch.org) is a recently developed multilateral, collaborative partnership that aims to advance scientific knowledge and management of human influenza through integrated clinical investigation. The partnership of hospitals and institutions in Indonesia, Thailand, United Kingdom, United States, and Viet Nam was established in late 2005 after agreement on the general principles and mission of the initiative and after securing initial financial support. The establishment of the SEA ICRN was both a response to the re-emergence of the highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) virus in Southeast Asia in late 2003 and an acknowledgment that clinical trials on emerging infectious diseases require prepared and coordinated research capacity. The objectives of the Network also include building sustainable research capacity in the region, compliance with international standards, and prompt dissemination of information and sharing of samples. The scope of research includes diagnosis, pathogenesis, treatment and prevention of human influenza due to seasonal or novel viruses. The Network has overcome numerous logistical and scientific challenges but has now successfully initiated several clinical trials. The establishment of a clinical research network is a vital part of preparedness and an important element during an initial response phase to a pandemic. PMID:18295355

  2. Ethical reflections on pharmacogenetics and DNA banking in a cohort of HIV-infected patients

    PubMed Central

    de Montgolfier, Sandrine; Moutel, Grégoire; Duchange, Nathalie; Theodorou, Ioannis; Hervé, Christian; Leport, Catherine

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze ethical questions concerning the storage of human biological samples to be used in genetic analyses and pharmacogenetic research based on a French experience of DNA banking in a cohort of HIV-infected patients receiving protease inhibitor treatment (APROCO). We describe the ethical issues raised during the establishment of a DNA bank, including questions dealing with autonomy, benefit to the patient, information sharing and confidentiality as well as guarantees concerning the storage and use of DNA. We describe the practical applications of themes illustrated theoretically in the literature. Most of the points raised are not specific to HIV, but some of them may be more accurate due to the characteristics of the HIV population. The questions raised are not exhaustive and we conclude with specific points that remain to be defined. Our results are summarized in the memorandum and consent form presented in the appendices. This work should allow other researchers and members of evaluation committees to enrich their considerations and should stimulate discussion on this subject. PMID:12464796

  3. European network infrastructures of observatories for terrestrial Global Change research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vereecken, H.; Bogena, H.; Lehning, M.

    2009-04-01

    The earth's climate is significantly changing (e.g. IPCC, 2007) and thus directly affecting the terrestrial systems. The number and intensity hydrological extremes, such as floods and droughts, are continually increasing, resulting in major economical and social impacts. Furthermore, the land cover in Europe has been modified fundamentally by conversions for agriculture, forest and for other purposes such as industrialisation and urbanisation. Additionally, water resources are more than ever used for human development, especially as a key resource for agricultural and industrial activities. As a special case, the mountains of the world are of significant importance in terms of water resources supply, biodiversity, economy, agriculture, traffic and recreation but particularly vulnerable to environmental change. The Alps are unique because of the pronounced small scale variability they contain, the high population density they support and their central position in Europe. The Alps build a single coherent physical and natural environment, artificially cut by national borders. The scientific community and governmental bodies have responded to these environmental changes by performing dedicated experiments and by establishing environmental research networks to monitor, analyse and predict the impact of Global Change on different terrestrial systems of the Earths' environment. Several European network infrastructures for terrestrial Global Change research are presently immerging or upgrading, such as ICOS, ANAEE, LifeWatch or LTER-Europe. However, the strongest existing networks are still operating on a regional or national level and the historical growth of such networks resulted in a very heterogeneous landscape of observation networks. We propose therefore the establishment of two complementary networks: The NetwOrk of Hydrological observAtories, NOHA. NOHA aims to promote the sustainable management of water resources in Europe, to support the prediction of

  4. The Role of Research in Integrated Health Care Systems: The HMO Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Vogt, Thomas M; Lafata, Jennifer Elston; Tolsma, Dennis D; Greene, Sarah M

    2004-01-01

    Integrated care systems have unique advantages for conducting research. The HMO Research Network (HMORN) includes research centers associated with 13 large integrated care systems whose research focuses on improving health and health care delivery using the extraordinary platform provided by these health systems. We conducted literature reviews and surveys and interviews with directors of HMORN research centers, research investigators, and selected support staff in order to identify the characteristics of the research in HMORN centers and to present examples of how this research has affected health and health policy. The 13 HMORN member health systems deliver health care to 13 million people. HMORN research centers have access to large, defined populations, comprehensive medical information, extensive computerized data systems and to medical care delivery systems that offer extraordinary research opportunities. HMORN centers publish about 1200 scientific articles each year and received about $180 million in external research funding in 2002, most of it from NIH, CDC, and other federal sources. More than 2000 research studies are currently underway at these centers, which employ approximately 1500 persons in the research activities. HMORN research centers have had a profound impact on health policy and care. New technologies are steadily expanding the research capacities of these research groups. Increased collaboration between academic and HMO researchers would enhance the work of both. PMID:26705313

  5. The AERONET network: atmospheric aerosol research in Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milinevsky, G. P.

    2013-12-01

    The AERONET network is one of the most developed ground-based networks for aerosol monitoring. Solar radiance extinction, aureole brightness and sky light polarization measurements are used by the AERONET inversion retrieval algorithm to derive a variety of aerosol particle properties and parameters that are important for estimations of aerosol influences on air quality and climate change. In 2008 the AERONET has been extended in Ukraine: in addition to Sevastopol site (operated since 2006) the sunphotometer CIMEL CE318-2 has been installed at Kyiv site. New generation of sunphotometer (CE318N) has been used widely since 2011 in various sites of Ukraine as mobile station together with portable sunphotometer Microtops II. This article presents a short description of the AERONET, its development in Ukraine and prospects for future atmospheric research.

  6. The Canadian Higher Education Research Network. A Proposal to the Secretary of State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Society for the Study of Higher Education.

    A network to facilitate research on postsecondary education in Canada is advocated by the Canadian Society for the Study of Higher Education. The network will link centers of specialization and individual researchers, and will use information technology to produce and disseminate research findings and to enhance communications. The network will…

  7. Making health policy: networks in research and policy after 1945.

    PubMed

    Berridge, Virginia

    2005-01-01

    Science and policy in health and medicine have interacted in new ways in Britain since 1945. The relationship between research and policy has a history. The changing role of social medicine, the rise of health services research and "customer contractor" policies in government have been important. The relationship between research and policy has been analysed by different schools of thought. This chapter categorises them as several groups: "evidence-based", "journalism", "sociology of scientific knowledge" and "science policy studies". The chapters in the book illuminate aspects of these changing relationships. The role of chronic disease epidemiology, of new networks in public health, of media-focussed activism, and of health technology and its advocates have been more important than political interest. PMID:16212725

  8. Network structure and the role of key players in a translational cancer research network: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Frances C; Braithwaite, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Translational research networks are a deliberate strategy to bridge the gulf between biomedical research and clinical practice through interdisciplinary collaboration, supportive funding and infrastructure. The social network approach examines how the structure of the network and players who hold important positions within it constrain or enable function. This information can be used to guide network management and optimise its operations. The aim of this study was to describe the structure of a translational cancer research network (TCRN) in Australia over its first year, identify the key players within the network and explore these players' opportunities and constraints in maximising important network collaborations. Methods and analysis This study deploys a mixed-method longitudinal design using social network analysis augmented by interviews and review of TCRN documents. The study will use network documents and interviews with governing body members to explore the broader context into which the network is embedded as well as the perceptions and expectations of members. Of particular interest are the attitudes and perceptions of clinicians compared with those of researchers. A co-authorship network will be constructed of TCRN members using journal and citation databases to assess the success of past pre-network collaborations. Two whole network social network surveys will be administered 12 months apart and parameters such as density, clustering, centrality and betweenness centrality computed and compared using UCINET and Netdraw. Key players will be identified and interviewed to understand the specific activities, barriers and enablers they face in that role. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approvals were obtained from the University of New South Wales, South Eastern Sydney Northern Sector Local Health Network and Calvary Health Care Sydney. Results will be discussed with members of the TCRN, submitted to relevant journals and presented as oral

  9. Finding Collaborators: Toward Interactive Discovery Tools for Research Network Systems

    PubMed Central

    Schleyer, Titus K; Becich, Michael J; Hochheiser, Harry

    2014-01-01

    Background Research networking systems hold great promise for helping biomedical scientists identify collaborators with the expertise needed to build interdisciplinary teams. Although efforts to date have focused primarily on collecting and aggregating information, less attention has been paid to the design of end-user tools for using these collections to identify collaborators. To be effective, collaborator search tools must provide researchers with easy access to information relevant to their collaboration needs. Objective The aim was to study user requirements and preferences for research networking system collaborator search tools and to design and evaluate a functional prototype. Methods Paper prototypes exploring possible interface designs were presented to 18 participants in semistructured interviews aimed at eliciting collaborator search needs. Interview data were coded and analyzed to identify recurrent themes and related software requirements. Analysis results and elements from paper prototypes were used to design a Web-based prototype using the D3 JavaScript library and VIVO data. Preliminary usability studies asked 20 participants to use the tool and to provide feedback through semistructured interviews and completion of the System Usability Scale (SUS). Results Initial interviews identified consensus regarding several novel requirements for collaborator search tools, including chronological display of publication and research funding information, the need for conjunctive keyword searches, and tools for tracking candidate collaborators. Participant responses were positive (SUS score: mean 76.4%, SD 13.9). Opportunities for improving the interface design were identified. Conclusions Interactive, timeline-based displays that support comparison of researcher productivity in funding and publication have the potential to effectively support searching for collaborators. Further refinement and longitudinal studies may be needed to better understand the

  10. Study of co-authorship network of papers in the Journal of Research in Medical Sciences using social network analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zare-Farashbandi, Firoozeh; Geraei, Ehsan; Siamaki, Saba

    2014-01-01

    Background: Co-authorship is one of the most tangible forms of research collaboration. A co-authorship network is a social network in which the authors through participation in one or more publication through an indirect path have linked to each other. The present research using the social network analysis studied co-authorship network of 681 articles published in Journal of Research in Medical Sciences (JRMS) during 2008-2012. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out with the scientometrics approach and using co-authorship network analysis of authors. The topology of the co-authorship network of 681 published articles in JRMS between 2008 and 2012 was analyzed using macro-level metrics indicators of network analysis such as density, clustering coefficient, components and mean distance. In addition, in order to evaluate the performance of each authors and countries in the network, the micro-level indicators such as degree centrality, closeness centrality and betweenness centrality as well as productivity index were used. The UCINET and NetDraw softwares were used to draw and analyze the co-authorship network of the papers. Results: The assessment of the authors productivity in this journal showed that the first ranks were belonged to only five authors, respectively. Furthermore, analysis of the co-authorship of the authors in the network demonstrated that in the betweenness centrality index, three authors of them had the good position in the network. They can be considered as the network leaders able to control the flow of information in the network compared with the other members based on the shortest paths. On the other hand, the key role of the network according to the productivity and centrality indexes was belonged to Iran, Malaysia and United States of America. Conclusion: Co-authorship network of JRMS has the characteristics of a small world network. In addition, the theory of 6° separation is valid in this network was also true. PMID:24672564

  11. Knowledge brokers in a knowledge network: the case of Seniors Health Research Transfer Network knowledge brokers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this paper is to describe and reflect on the role of knowledge brokers (KBs) in the Seniors Health Research Transfer Network (SHRTN). The paper reviews the relevant literature on knowledge brokering, and then describes the evolving role of knowledge brokering in this knowledge network. Methods The description of knowledge brokering provided here is based on a developmental evaluation program and on the experiences of the authors. Data were gathered through qualitative and quantitative methods, analyzed by the evaluators, and interpreted by network members who participated in sensemaking forums. The results were fed back to the network each year in the form of formal written reports that were widely distributed to network members, as well as through presentations to the network’s members. Results The SHRTN evaluation and our experiences as evaluators and KBs suggest that a SHRTN KB facilitates processes of learning whereby people are connected with tacit or explicit knowledge sources that will help them to resolve work-related challenges. To make this happen, KBs engage in a set of relational, technical, and analytical activities that help communities of practice (CoPs) to develop and operate, facilitate exchanges among people with similar concerns and interests, and help groups and individuals to create, explore, and apply knowledge in their practice. We also suggest that the role is difficult to define, emergent, abstract, episodic, and not fully understood. Conclusions The KB role within this knowledge network has developed and matured over time. The KB adapts to the social and technical affordances of each situation, and fashions a unique and relevant process to create relationships and promote learning and change. The ability to work with teams and to develop relevant models and feasible approaches are critical KB skills. The KB is a leader who wields influence rather than power, and who is prepared to adopt whatever roles and

  12. Differential Regulatory Analysis Based on Coexpression Network in Cancer Research.

    PubMed

    Li, Junyi; Li, Yi-Xue; Li, Yuan-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    With rapid development of high-throughput techniques and accumulation of big transcriptomic data, plenty of computational methods and algorithms such as differential analysis and network analysis have been proposed to explore genome-wide gene expression characteristics. These efforts are aiming to transform underlying genomic information into valuable knowledges in biological and medical research fields. Recently, tremendous integrative research methods are dedicated to interpret the development and progress of neoplastic diseases, whereas differential regulatory analysis (DRA) based on gene coexpression network (GCN) increasingly plays a robust complement to regular differential expression analysis in revealing regulatory functions of cancer related genes such as evading growth suppressors and resisting cell death. Differential regulatory analysis based on GCN is prospective and shows its essential role in discovering the system properties of carcinogenesis features. Here we briefly review the paradigm of differential regulatory analysis based on GCN. We also focus on the applications of differential regulatory analysis based on GCN in cancer research and point out that DRA is necessary and extraordinary to reveal underlying molecular mechanism in large-scale carcinogenesis studies. PMID:27597964

  13. Differential Regulatory Analysis Based on Coexpression Network in Cancer Research

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    With rapid development of high-throughput techniques and accumulation of big transcriptomic data, plenty of computational methods and algorithms such as differential analysis and network analysis have been proposed to explore genome-wide gene expression characteristics. These efforts are aiming to transform underlying genomic information into valuable knowledges in biological and medical research fields. Recently, tremendous integrative research methods are dedicated to interpret the development and progress of neoplastic diseases, whereas differential regulatory analysis (DRA) based on gene coexpression network (GCN) increasingly plays a robust complement to regular differential expression analysis in revealing regulatory functions of cancer related genes such as evading growth suppressors and resisting cell death. Differential regulatory analysis based on GCN is prospective and shows its essential role in discovering the system properties of carcinogenesis features. Here we briefly review the paradigm of differential regulatory analysis based on GCN. We also focus on the applications of differential regulatory analysis based on GCN in cancer research and point out that DRA is necessary and extraordinary to reveal underlying molecular mechanism in large-scale carcinogenesis studies. PMID:27597964

  14. Earth Stewardship Science: International Research Networks based in Africa (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaines, S. M.

    2010-12-01

    The role of networking in student and early career years is critical in the development of international interdisciplinary earth system science. These networks - both peer and mentor-based - can build community, foster enthusiasm and further research applications in addition to the traditional goal of identifying and obtaining work. UNESCO has nearly 40 years of experience in building international research teams through the International Geoscience Program (IGCP) and has recently focused their attention on the status of the earth sciences in Africa. UNESCO’s Earth Science Education Initiative in Africa ran a series of regional scoping workshops around the continent in order to develop an integrated status report on the earth sciences in Africa. The results, which are globally relevant, indicate that the field is limited by the level of basic science education of incoming students and restricted laboratory facilities, but also by a lack of connectedness. This isolation relates both to the interaction between researchers within countries and around the world but also the divide between Universities and Industry and the failure of the field to communicate its relevance to the public. In a context where livelihood opportunities are the driver of study and the earth sciences provide a major source of income, practical academic ties to industry are an essential element of the attractiveness of the field to students. Actions and ideas for addressing this situation will be presented to reinforce the role of the earth sciences in improving human and environmental well-being.

  15. Extremely high data-rate, reliable network systems research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foudriat, E. C.; Maly, Kurt J.; Mukkamala, R.; Murray, Nicholas D.; Overstreet, C. Michael

    1990-01-01

    Significant progress was made over the year in the four focus areas of this research group: gigabit protocols, extensions of metropolitan protocols, parallel protocols, and distributed simulations. Two activities, a network management tool and the Carrier Sensed Multiple Access Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) protocol, have developed to the point that a patent is being applied for in the next year; a tool set for distributed simulation using the language SIMSCRIPT also has commercial potential and is to be further refined. The year's results for each of these areas are summarized and next year's activities are described.

  16. Transforming networking within the ESIP Federation using ResearchBit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, E.

    2015-12-01

    Geoscientists increasingly need interdisciplinary teams to solve their research problems. Currently, geoscientists use Research Networking (RN) systems to connect with each other and find people of similar and dissimilar interests. As we shift to digitally mediated scholarship, we need innovative methods for scholarly communication. Formal methods for scholarly communication are undergoing vast transformation owing to the open-access movement and reproducible research. However, informal scholarly communication that takes place at professional society meetings and conferences, like AGU, has received limited research attention relying primarily on serendipitous interaction. The ResearchBit project aims to fundamentally improve informal methods of scholarly communication by leveraging the serendipitous interactions of researchers and making them more aware of co-located potential collaborators with mutual interests. This presentation will describe our preliminary hardware testing done at the Federation for Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP) Summer meeting this past July and the initial recommendation system design. The presentation will also cover the cultural shifts and hurdles to introducing new technology, the privacy concerns of tracking technology and how we are addressing those new issues.

  17. Pharmacogenetics: implications of race and ethnicity on defining genetic profiles for personalized medicine.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Victor E; Meyers, Deborah A

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacogenetics is being used to develop personalized therapies specific to subjects from different ethnic or racial groups. To date, pharmacogenetic studies have been primarily performed in trial cohorts consisting of non-Hispanic white subjects of European descent. A "bottleneck" or collapse of genetic diversity associated with the first human colonization of Europe during the Upper Paleolithic period, followed by the recent mixing of African, European, and Native American ancestries, has resulted in different ethnic groups with varying degrees of genetic diversity. Differences in genetic ancestry might introduce genetic variation, which has the potential to alter the therapeutic efficacy of commonly used asthma therapies, such as β2-adrenergic receptor agonists (β-agonists). Pharmacogenetic studies of admixed ethnic groups have been limited to small candidate gene association studies, of which the best example is the gene coding for the receptor target of β-agonist therapy, the β2-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2). Large consortium-based sequencing studies are using next-generation whole-genome sequencing to provide a diverse genome map of different admixed populations, which can be used for future pharmacogenetic studies. These studies will include candidate gene studies, genome-wide association studies, and whole-genome admixture-based approaches that account for ancestral genetic structure, complex haplotypes, gene-gene interactions, and rare variants to detect and replicate novel pharmacogenetic loci. PMID:24369795

  18. Pharmacogenetics: Implications of Race and Ethnicity on Defining Genetic Profiles for Personalized Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, Victor E.; Meyers, Deborah A.

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacogenetics is being used to develop personalized therapies specific to individuals from different ethnic or racial groups. Pharmacogenetic studies to date have been primarily performed in trial cohorts consisting of non-Hispanic whites of European descent. A “bottleneck” or collapse of genetic diversity associated with the first human colonization of Europe during the Upper Paleolithic period, followed by the recent mixing of African, European, and Native American ancestries has resulted in different ethnic groups with varying degrees of genetic diversity. Differences in genetic ancestry may introduce genetic variation which has the potential to alter the therapeutic efficacy of commonly used asthma therapies, for example β2-adrenergic receptor agonists (beta agonists). Pharmacogenetic studies of admixed ethnic groups have been limited to small candidate gene association studies of which the best example is the gene coding for the receptor target of beta agonist therapy, ADRB2. Large consortium-based sequencing studies are using next-generation whole-genome sequencing to provide a diverse genome map of different admixed populations which can be used for future pharmacogenetic studies. These studies will include candidate gene studies, genome-wide association studies, and whole-genome admixture-based approaches which account for ancestral genetic structure, complex haplotypes, gene-gene interactions, and rare variants to detect and replicate novel pharmacogenetic loci. PMID:24369795

  19. Practice-based research networks: the laboratories of primary care research.

    PubMed

    Lindbloom, Erik J; Ewigman, Bernard G; Hickner, John M

    2004-04-01

    Medical research has traditionally been based in academic centers, and the findings are frequently not applicable in community primary care settings. The result is a large gap between the possible and the practical in delivering high-quality primary medical care in the United States. Practice-based research networks (PBRNs), laboratories for primary care clinical research, are the appropriate vehicles for uniting the worlds of community primary care practice and clinical research. Although they have received little attention in the mainstream of clinical and health services research, PBRNs have already reported a variety of findings useful for primary care providers, and these networks have helped to identify key issues in healthcare delivery that affect important outcomes. In this report, we outline the rationale for and history of PBRNs. We describe the organization and work of several productive PBRNs, giving examples of their studies that have changed the standards of modern primary care practice. Finally, we describe a developing electronic process for identifying research questions obtained directly from primary care providers that can be used to focus the national primary care research agenda on questions of clinical relevance and importance. As electronic technologies are fully developed and tested, they will facilitate communication between clinicians and researchers, thereby improving the effectiveness and efficiency of practice-based research. PMID:15026664

  20. Pediatric collaborative networks for quality improvement and research.

    PubMed

    Lannon, Carole M; Peterson, Laura E

    2013-01-01

    -scale health system laboratories, providing the social, scientific, and technical infrastructure and data for multiple types of research. Statewide, regional, and national pediatric collaborative networks have demonstrated improvements in primary care practice as well as care for chronic pediatric diseases (eg, asthma, cystic fibrosis, inflammatory bowel disease, congenital heart disease), perinatal care, and patient safety (eg, central line-associated blood stream infections, adverse medication events, surgical site infections); many have documented improved outcomes. Challenges to spreading the improvement network model exist, including the need for the identification of stable funding sources. However, these barriers can be overcome, allowing the benefits of improved care and outcomes to spread to additional clinical and safety topics and care processes for the nation's children. PMID:24268088

  1. Pharmacogenetic Smoking Cessation Intervention in a Health Care Setting: A Pilot Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: There is increasing evidence that response to pharmacological treatment for nicotine dependence may be moderated by genetic polymorphisms. However, the feasibility, acceptability, and impact of genetically tailoring treatment in real-world clinical settings are unknown. Methods: We conducted a multiphased, mixed-methods feasibility study with current smokers to develop and evaluate a patient-centered, theoretically grounded personalized medicine treatment protocol. The initial research phase included formative work to develop intervention materials. The second phase included a randomized pilot trial to evaluate the intervention. Trial participants (n = 36) were genotyped for ANKK1 rs1800497 and were randomized to receive genetic feedback (GF) plus standard behavioral counseling (BC) for smoking cessation or BC without GF. All participants received genetically tailored pharmacotherapy (nicotine patch or bupropion). Results: The intervention was feasible to implement and was acceptable to participants based on satisfaction ratings and objective measures of participation. There was no evidence that the GF resulted in adverse psychological outcomes (e.g., depression, fatalism, reduced perceived control over quitting, differential motivation for quitting) based on quantitative or qualitative outcomes. Conclusions: Study results suggest that it is feasible to offer treatment within a health care setting that includes genetically tailored pharmacotherapy and doing so had no apparent adverse psychological impacts. Further evaluation of pharmacogenetically tailored smoking cessation interventions appears warranted. PMID:22949583

  2. Pharmacogenetics of the metabolic disturbances and atherosclerosis associated with antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Veloso, Sergi; Peraire, Joaquim; Viladés, Consuelo; López-Dupla, Miguel; Escoté, Xavier; Olona, Montserrat; Garcia-Pardo, Graciano; Gómez-Bertomeu, Frederic; Soriano, Antoni; Sirvent, Joan-Josep; Vidal, Francesc

    2010-10-01

    The availability of highly active antiretroviral therapy has markedly improved the survival rate and quality of life in patients infected with HIV. At present, however, there is still no cure for HIV and those undergoing treatment have to do so for life. The use of antiretroviral drugs has been associated with several toxicities that limit their success. Some acute and chronic toxicities associated with these drugs include hypersensitivity reactions, neurotoxicity, nephropathy, liver damage, the appearance of body fat redistribution syndrome and the different metabolic alterations that accompany it. Some of these toxicities are family- or even drug-specific. Since not all patients that take a particular antiretroviral medication develop the adverse effect that has been attributed to that drug, it has therefore been postulated that there must be a genetically-conditioned individual predisposition to developing the adverse effect. Pharmacogenetics is the science that studies interindividual variations in the response to and toxicity of drugs due to variations in the genetic composition of individuals. Sufficient advances have been made in this discipline to allow this fertile field of research to move out of the basic science laboratory and into clinical applications. The present article reviews the investigations that have been published regarding the association between the genetic determinants of persons infected with HIV and the metabolic toxicity and chronic vascular consequences resulting from antiretroviral drugs. The influence of host genetic variants on dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia and insulin resistance, lipodystrophy and atherosclerosis are presented and discussed. PMID:20687887

  3. Dictyostelium discoideum to human cells: pharmacogenetic studies demonstrate a role for sphingolipids in chemoresistance.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Stephen; Min, Junxia; Alexander, Hannah

    2006-03-01

    Resistance to chemotherapy is a major obstacle for the treatment of cancer and a subject of extensive research. Numerous mechanisms of drug resistance have been proposed, and they differ for different drugs. Nevertheless, it is clear that our understanding of this important problem is still incomplete, and that new targets for modulating therapy still await discovery. The attractive biology and the availability of powerful molecular techniques have made the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum, a powerful non-mammalian model for drug target discovery, and the problem of drug resistance. To understand the molecular basis of chemoresistance to the widely used drug cisplatin, both genetic and pharmacological approaches have been applied to this versatile experimental system. These studies have resulted in the identification of novel molecular pathways which can be used to increase the efficacy of cisplatin, and brought attention to the role of sphingolipids in mediating the cellular response to chemotherapeutic drugs. In the following review, we will describe the history and utility of D. discoideum in pharmacogenetics, and discuss recent studies which focus attention on the role of sphingolipids in chemotherapy and chemoresistance. PMID:16403600

  4. Research and collaboration overview of Institut Pasteur International Network: a bibliometric approach toward research funding decisions

    PubMed Central

    Mostafavi, Ehsan; Bazrafshan, Azam

    2014-01-01

    Background: Institut Pasteur International Network (IPIN), which includes 32 research institutes around the world, is a network of research and expertise to fight against infectious diseases. A scientometric approach was applied to describe research and collaboration activities of IPIN. Methods: Publications were identified using a manual search of IPIN member addresses in Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE) between 2006 and 2011. Total publications were then subcategorized by geographic regions. Several scientometric indicators and the H-index were employed to estimate the scientific production of each IPIN member. Subject and geographical overlay maps were also applied to visualize the network activities of the IPIN members. Results: A total number of 12667 publications originated from IPIN members. Each author produced an average number of 2.18 papers and each publication received an average of 13.40 citations. European Pasteur Institutes had the largest amount of publications, authored papers, and H-index values. Biochemistry and molecular biology, microbiology, immunology and infectious diseases were the most important research topics, respectively. Geographic mapping of IPIN publications showed wide international collaboration among IPIN members around the world. Conclusion: IPIN has strong ties with national and international authorities and organizations to investigate the current and future health issues. It is recommended to use scientometric and collaboration indicators as measures of research performance in IPIN future policies and investment decisions. PMID:24596896

  5. Changing the research landscape: the New York City Clinical Data Research Network.

    PubMed

    Kaushal, Rainu; Hripcsak, George; Ascheim, Deborah D; Bloom, Toby; Campion, Thomas R; Caplan, Arthur L; Currie, Brian P; Check, Thomas; Deland, Emme Levin; Gourevitch, Marc N; Hart, Raffaella; Horowitz, Carol R; Kastenbaum, Isaac; Levin, Arthur Aaron; Low, Alexander F H; Meissner, Paul; Mirhaji, Parsa; Pincus, Harold A; Scaglione, Charles; Shelley, Donna; Tobin, Jonathan N

    2014-01-01

    The New York City Clinical Data Research Network (NYC-CDRN), funded by the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI), brings together 22 organizations including seven independent health systems to enable patient-centered clinical research, support a national network, and facilitate learning healthcare systems. The NYC-CDRN includes a robust, collaborative governance and organizational infrastructure, which takes advantage of its participants' experience, expertise, and history of collaboration. The technical design will employ an information model to document and manage the collection and transformation of clinical data, local institutional staging areas to transform and validate data, a centralized data processing facility to aggregate and share data, and use of common standards and tools. We strive to ensure that our project is patient-centered; nurtures collaboration among all stakeholders; develops scalable solutions facilitating growth and connections; chooses simple, elegant solutions wherever possible; and explores ways to streamline the administrative and regulatory approval process across sites. PMID:24821739

  6. Changing the research landscape: the New York City Clinical Data Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Kaushal, Rainu; Hripcsak, George; Ascheim, Deborah D; Bloom, Toby; Campion, Thomas R; Caplan, Arthur L; Currie, Brian P; Check, Thomas; Deland, Emme Levin; Gourevitch, Marc N; Hart, Raffaella; Horowitz, Carol R; Kastenbaum, Isaac; Levin, Arthur Aaron; Low, Alexander F H; Meissner, Paul; Mirhaji, Parsa; Pincus, Harold A; Scaglione, Charles; Shelley, Donna; Tobin, Jonathan N

    2014-01-01

    The New York City Clinical Data Research Network (NYC-CDRN), funded by the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI), brings together 22 organizations including seven independent health systems to enable patient-centered clinical research, support a national network, and facilitate learning healthcare systems. The NYC-CDRN includes a robust, collaborative governance and organizational infrastructure, which takes advantage of its participants’ experience, expertise, and history of collaboration. The technical design will employ an information model to document and manage the collection and transformation of clinical data, local institutional staging areas to transform and validate data, a centralized data processing facility to aggregate and share data, and use of common standards and tools. We strive to ensure that our project is patient-centered; nurtures collaboration among all stakeholders; develops scalable solutions facilitating growth and connections; chooses simple, elegant solutions wherever possible; and explores ways to streamline the administrative and regulatory approval process across sites. PMID:24821739

  7. The MAPP research network: design, patient characterization and operations

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The “Multidisciplinary Approach to the Study of Chronic Pelvic Pain” (MAPP) Research Network was established by the NIDDK to better understand the pathophysiology of urologic chronic pelvic pain syndromes (UCPPS), to inform future clinical trials and improve clinical care. The evolution, organization, and scientific scope of the MAPP Research Network, and the unique approach of the network’s central study and common data elements are described. Methods The primary scientific protocol for the Trans-MAPP Epidemiology/Phenotyping (EP) Study comprises a multi-site, longitudinal observational study, including bi-weekly internet-based symptom assessments, following a comprehensive in-clinic deep-phenotyping array of urological symptoms, non-urological symptoms and psychosocial factors to evaluate men and women with UCPPS. Healthy controls, matched on sex and age, as well as “positive” controls meeting the non-urologic associated syndromes (NUAS) criteria for one or more of the target conditions of Fibromyalgia (FM), Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) or Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS), were also evaluated. Additional, complementary studies addressing diverse hypotheses are integrated into the Trans-MAPP EP Study to provide a systemic characterization of study participants, including biomarker discovery studies of infectious agents, quantitative sensory testing, and structural and resting state neuroimaging and functional neurobiology studies. A highly novel effort to develop and assess clinically relevant animal models of UCPPS was also undertaken to allow improved translation between clinical and mechanistic studies. Recruitment into the central study occurred at six Discovery Sites in the United States, resulting in a total of 1,039 enrolled participants, exceeding the original targets. The biospecimen collection rate at baseline visits reached nearly 100%, and 279 participants underwent common neuroimaging through a standardized protocol. An extended

  8. Networking among young global health researchers through an intensive training approach: a mixed methods exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Networks are increasingly regarded as essential in health research aimed at influencing practice and policies. Less research has focused on the role networking can play in researchers’ careers and its broader impacts on capacity strengthening in health research. We used the Canadian Coalition for Global Health Research (CCGHR) annual Summer Institute for New Global Health Researchers (SIs) as an opportunity to explore networking among new global health researchers. Methods A mixed-methods exploratory study was conducted among SI alumni and facilitators who had participated in at least one SI between 2004 and 2010. Alumni and facilitators completed an online short questionnaire, and a subset participated in an in-depth interview. Thematic analysis of the qualitative data was triangulated with quantitative results and CCGHR reports on SIs. Synthesis occurred through the development of a process model relevant to networking through the SIs. Results Through networking at the SIs, participants experienced decreased isolation and strengthened working relationships. Participants accessed new knowledge, opportunities, and resources through networking during the SI. Post-SI, participants reported ongoing contact and collaboration, although most participants desired more opportunities for interaction. They made suggestions for structural supports to networking among new global health researchers. Conclusions Networking at the SI contributed positively to opportunities for individuals, and contributed to the formation of a network of global health researchers. Intentional inclusion of networking in health research capacity strengthening initiatives, with supportive resources and infrastructure could create dynamic, sustainable networks accessible to global health researchers around the world. PMID:24460819

  9. Undetected Toxicity Risk in Pharmacogenetic Testing for Dihydropyrimidine Dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Falvella, Felicia Stefania; Caporale, Marta; Cheli, Stefania; Martinetti, Antonia; Berenato, Rosa; Maggi, Claudia; Niger, Monica; Ricchini, Francesca; Bossi, Ilaria; Di Bartolomeo, Maria; Sottotetti, Elisa; Bernardi, Francesca Futura; de Braud, Filippo; Clementi, Emilio; Pietrantonio, Filippo

    2015-01-01

    Fluoropyrimidines, the mainstay agents for the treatment of colorectal cancer, alone or as a part of combination therapies, cause severe adverse reactions in about 10%–30% of patients. Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD), a key enzyme in the catabolism of 5-fluorouracil, has been intensively investigated in relation to fluoropyrimidine toxicity, and several DPD gene (DPYD) polymorphisms are associated with decreased enzyme activity and increased risk of fluoropyrimidine-related toxicity. In patients carrying non-functional DPYD variants (c.1905+1G>A, c.1679T>G, c.2846A>T), fluoropyrimidines should be avoided or reduced according to the patients’ homozygous or heterozygous status, respectively. For other common DPYD variants (c.496A>G, c.1129-5923C>G, c.1896T>C), conflicting data are reported and their use in clinical practice still needs to be validated. The high frequency of DPYD polymorphism and the lack of large prospective trials may explain differences in studies’ results. The epigenetic regulation of DPD expression has been recently investigated to explain the variable activity of the enzyme. DPYD promoter methylation and its regulation by microRNAs may affect the toxicity risk of fluoropyrimidines. The studies we reviewed indicate that pharmacogenetic testing is promising to direct personalised dosing of fluoropyrimidines, although further investigations are needed to establish the role of DPD in severe toxicity in patients treated for colorectal cancer. PMID:25906475

  10. The Pharmacogenetics of Symptom Response to Antipsychotic Drugs

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Antipsychotic drugs are limited in their efficacy by the relatively poor response of negative and cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia as well as by the substantial variability in response between patients. Pharmacogenetic studies have sought to identify the genetic factors that underlie the individual variability in response to treatment, with a past emphasis on dopamine and serotonin receptors as candidate genes. Few studies have separated effects on positive and negative symptoms, despite the established differences in response to drug treatment between these syndromes. Where this has been done most findings are consistent with the conclusion that dopamine receptor polymorphisms relate to positive symptom response, while negative symptom improvement is influenced by polymorphisms of genes involved in 5-HT neurotransmission. A wide range of polymorphisms in other candidate genes have been investigated, with some positive findings in those genes associated with glutamatergic transmission and/or risk factors for schizophrenia. However, there remains a lack of good replicated findings; furthermore there is little evidence to support drug-specific genetic associations with treatment response. While most past studies focused on single candidate genes, technology now permits genome-wide association studies with response to antipsychotics. Although not without major limitations, these "hypothesis-free" approaches are beginning to identify further important risk factors for treatment response. Again there is little consistency between various studies, although some of the polymorphisms identified are in genes involved in neurodevelopment, which is increasingly being recognized as important in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. PMID:22396678

  11. The pharmacogenetics of symptom response to antipsychotic drugs.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Gavin P

    2012-03-01

    Antipsychotic drugs are limited in their efficacy by the relatively poor response of negative and cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia as well as by the substantial variability in response between patients. Pharmacogenetic studies have sought to identify the genetic factors that underlie the individual variability in response to treatment, with a past emphasis on dopamine and serotonin receptors as candidate genes. Few studies have separated effects on positive and negative symptoms, despite the established differences in response to drug treatment between these syndromes. Where this has been done most findings are consistent with the conclusion that dopamine receptor polymorphisms relate to positive symptom response, while negative symptom improvement is influenced by polymorphisms of genes involved in 5-HT neurotransmission. A wide range of polymorphisms in other candidate genes have been investigated, with some positive findings in those genes associated with glutamatergic transmission and/or risk factors for schizophrenia. However, there remains a lack of good replicated findings; furthermore there is little evidence to support drug-specific genetic associations with treatment response. While most past studies focused on single candidate genes, technology now permits genome-wide association studies with response to antipsychotics. Although not without major limitations, these "hypothesis-free" approaches are beginning to identify further important risk factors for treatment response. Again there is little consistency between various studies, although some of the polymorphisms identified are in genes involved in neurodevelopment, which is increasingly being recognized as important in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. PMID:22396678

  12. Pharmacogenetic analysis in the treatment of Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Altés, Albert; Paré, Laia; Esquirol, Albert; Xicoy, Blanca; Rámila, Elena; Vicente, Laura; López, Rosario; Orriols, Jaume; Vall-llovera, Ferran; Sánchez-González, Blanca; del Río, Elisabeth; Sureda, Anna; Páez, David; Baiget, Montserrat

    2013-08-01

    About 15-20% of patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) treated with doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine and dacarbazine (ABVD) chemotherapy ± radiotherapy still die following relapse or progressive disease. The outcome might be influenced by gene polymorphisms influencing chemotherapy metabolism. We studied 126 patients with HL treated with the ABVD regimen. We analyzed glutathione S-transferases (GSTT1, GSTM1 and GSTP1), cytochromes P450 (CYP3A4 and CYP2D6), UGT1A1 and BLMH gene polymorphisms and their association with clinical and outcome variables. Patients with a GSTM1 genotype associated with extensive or ultrahigh activity had a probability of 93.8% to achieve a complete response, while the remainder of the patients had a probability of 82.3% (p = 0.04). This variable maintained its statistical significance in multivariate analysis (hazard ratio 3.7, 95% confidence interval 1-13, p = 0.05). Patients with an extensive or ultrahigh GSTM1 genotype had better prognostic factors than those with poor or intermediate genotypes (hemoglobin level, p = 0.003; serum albumin, p = 0.05; and International Prognostic Score, p = 0.038). Thus, in the treatment of HL, clinical determinants might be more relevant than the pharmacogenetic parameters analyzed to date. PMID:23323945

  13. Pharmacogenetics of multiple sclerosis: personalized therapy with immunomodulatory drugs.

    PubMed

    Tsareva, Ekaterina; Kulakova, Olga; Boyko, Alexey; Favorova, Olga

    2016-03-01

    Pharmacogenetic (PG) studies aim to discover the individual genetic background that underlies the heterogeneity of treatment response, and thus find biomarkers for identification of individual patients who will benefit the most from the therapy administered or urgently require the alternate drug. Over the last decade, PG studies have made progress in terms of multiple sclerosis (MS), which is one of the most severe neurodegenerative diseases of the central nervous system. With the understanding of the role of the immune system in the pathogenesis of MS, a number of immunomodulatory drugs were developed for MS treatment management. However, clinical response to these disease-modifying therapies varies in individual patients. Interferon-β and glatiramer acetate showed the most reliable long-term safety and remain among the first-line disease-modifying therapies for MS worldwide. Here, we will review the results of interferon-β and glatiramer acetate PG studies with a detailed analysis of study design and approaches, their advantages and limitations, and future perspectives. PMID:26678572

  14. Friending Adolescents on Social Networking Websites: A Feasible Research Tool

    PubMed Central

    Brockman, Libby N.; Christakis, Dimitri A.; Moreno, Megan A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Social networking sites (SNSs) are increasingly used for research. This paper reports on two studies examining the feasibility of friending adolescents on SNSs for research purposes. Methods Study 1 took place on www.MySpace.com where public profiles belonging to 18-year-old adolescents received a friend request from an unknown physician. Study 2 took place on www.Facebook.com where college freshmen from two US universities, enrolled in an ongoing research study, received a friend request from a known researcher’s profile. Acceptance and retention rates of friend requests were calculated for both studies. Results Study 1: 127 participants received a friend request; participants were 18 years-old, 62.2% male and 51.8% Caucasian. 49.6% accepted the friend request. After 9 months, 76% maintained the online friendship, 12.7% defriended the study profile and 11% deactivated their profile. Study 2: 338 participants received a friend request; participants were 18 years-old, 56.5% female and 75.1% Caucasian. 99.7% accepted the friend request. Over 12 months, 3.3% defriended the study profile and 4.1% deactivated their profile. These actions were often temporary; the overall 12-month friendship retention rate was 96.1%. Conclusion Friending adolescents on SNSs is feasible and friending adolescents from a familiar profile may be more effective for maintaining online friendship with research participants over time. PMID:25485226

  15. Practice-based Research Networks (PBRNs) Are Promising Laboratories for Conducting Dissemination and Implementation Research

    PubMed Central

    Heintzman, John; Gold, Rachel; Krist, Alexander; Crosson, Jay; Likumahuwa, Sonja; DeVoe, Jennifer E.

    2016-01-01

    Dissemination and implementation science addresses the application of research findings in varied health care settings. Despite the potential benefit of dissemination and implementation work to primary care, ideal laboratories for this science have been elusive. Practice-based research networks (PBRNs) have a long history of conducting research in community clinical settings, demonstrating an approach that could be used to execute multiple research projects over time in broad and varied settings. PBRNs also are uniquely structured and increasingly involved in pragmatic trials, a research design central to dissemination and implementation science. We argue that PBRNs and dissemination and implementation scientists are ideally suited to work together and that the collaboration of these 2 groups will yield great value for the future of primary care and the delivery of evidence-based health care. PMID:25381072

  16. Research Networking Systems: The State of Adoption at Institutions Aiming to Augment Translational Research Infrastructure

    PubMed Central

    Obeid, Jihad S; Johnson, Layne M; Stallings, Sarah; Eichmann, David

    2015-01-01

    Fostering collaborations across multiple disciplines within and across institutional boundaries is becoming increasingly important with the growing emphasis on translational research. As a result, Research Networking Systems that facilitate discovery of potential collaborators have received significant attention by institutions aiming to augment their research infrastructure. We have conducted a survey to assess the state of adoption of these new tools at the Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) funded institutions. Survey results demonstrate that most CTSA funded institutions have either already adopted or were planning to adopt one of several available research networking systems. Moreover a good number of these institutions have exposed or plan to expose the data on research expertise using linked open data, an established approach to semantic web services. Preliminary exploration of these publically-available data shows promising utility in assessing cross-institutional collaborations. Further adoption of these technologies and analysis of the data are needed, however, before their impact on cross-institutional collaboration in research can be appreciated and measured. PMID:26491707

  17. The Function Biomedical Informatics Research Network Data Repository.

    PubMed

    Keator, David B; van Erp, Theo G M; Turner, Jessica A; Glover, Gary H; Mueller, Bryon A; Liu, Thomas T; Voyvodic, James T; Rasmussen, Jerod; Calhoun, Vince D; Lee, Hyo Jong; Toga, Arthur W; McEwen, Sarah; Ford, Judith M; Mathalon, Daniel H; Diaz, Michele; O'Leary, Daniel S; Jeremy Bockholt, H; Gadde, Syam; Preda, Adrian; Wible, Cynthia G; Stern, Hal S; Belger, Aysenil; McCarthy, Gregory; Ozyurt, Burak; Potkin, Steven G

    2016-01-01

    The Function Biomedical Informatics Research Network (FBIRN) developed methods and tools for conducting multi-scanner functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies. Method and tool development were based on two major goals: 1) to assess the major sources of variation in fMRI studies conducted across scanners, including instrumentation, acquisition protocols, challenge tasks, and analysis methods, and 2) to provide a distributed network infrastructure and an associated federated database to host and query large, multi-site, fMRI and clinical data sets. In the process of achieving these goals the FBIRN test bed generated several multi-scanner brain imaging data sets to be shared with the wider scientific community via the BIRN Data Repository (BDR). The FBIRN Phase 1 data set consists of a traveling subject study of 5 healthy subjects, each scanned on 10 different 1.5 to 4 T scanners. The FBIRN Phase 2 and Phase 3 data sets consist of subjects with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder along with healthy comparison subjects scanned at multiple sites. In this paper, we provide concise descriptions of FBIRN's multi-scanner brain imaging data sets and details about the BIRN Data Repository instance of the Human Imaging Database (HID) used to publicly share the data. PMID:26364863

  18. The Geropathology Research Network: An Interdisciplinary Approach for Integrating Pathology Into Research on Aging.

    PubMed

    Ladiges, Warren; Ikeno, Yuji; Niedernhofer, Laura; McIndoe, Richard A; Ciol, Marcia A; Ritchey, Jerry; Liggitt, Denny

    2016-04-01

    Geropathology is the study of aging and age-related lesions and diseases in the form of whole necropsies/autopsies, surgical biopsies, histology, and molecular biomarkers. It encompasses multiple subspecialties of geriatrics, anatomic pathology, molecular pathology, clinical pathology, and gerontology. In order to increase the consistency and scope of communication in the histologic and molecular pathology assessment of tissues from preclinical and clinical aging studies, a Geropathology Research Network has been established consisting of pathologists and scientists with expertise in the comparative pathology of aging, the design of aging research studies, biostatistical methods for analysis of aging data, and bioinformatics for compiling and annotating large sets of data generated from aging studies. The network provides an environment to promote learning and exchange of scientific information and ideas for the aging research community through a series of symposia, the development of uniform ways of integrating pathology into aging studies, and the statistical analysis of pathology data. The efforts of the network are ultimately expected to lead to a refined set of sentinel biomarkers of molecular and anatomic pathology that could be incorporated into preclinical and clinical aging intervention studies to increase the relevance and productivity of these types of investigations. PMID:26243216

  19. Evidence used in model-based economic evaluations for evaluating pharmacogenetic and pharmacogenomic tests: a systematic review protocol

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Jaime L; Cooper, Chris; Buchanan, James

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Decision models can be used to conduct economic evaluations of new pharmacogenetic and pharmacogenomic tests to ensure they offer value for money to healthcare systems. These models require a great deal of evidence, yet research suggests the evidence used is diverse and of uncertain quality. By conducting a systematic review, we aim to investigate the test-related evidence used to inform decision models developed for the economic evaluation of genetic tests. Methods and analysis We will search electronic databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE and NHS EEDs to identify model-based economic evaluations of pharmacogenetic and pharmacogenomic tests. The search will not be limited by language or date. Title and abstract screening will be conducted independently by 2 reviewers, with screening of full texts and data extraction conducted by 1 reviewer, and checked by another. Characteristics of the decision problem, the decision model and the test evidence used to inform the model will be extracted. Specifically, we will identify the reported evidence sources for the test-related evidence used, describe the study design and how the evidence was identified. A checklist developed specifically for decision analytic models will be used to critically appraise the models described in these studies. Variations in the test evidence used in the decision models will be explored across the included studies, and we will identify gaps in the evidence in terms of both quantity and quality. Dissemination The findings of this work will be disseminated via a peer-reviewed journal publication and at national and international conferences. PMID:26560056

  20. The Greater Plains Collaborative: a PCORnet Clinical Research Data Network.

    PubMed

    Waitman, Lemuel R; Aaronson, Lauren S; Nadkarni, Prakash M; Connolly, Daniel W; Campbell, James R

    2014-01-01

    The Greater Plains Collaborative (GPC) is composed of 10 leading medical centers repurposing the research programs and informatics infrastructures developed through Clinical and Translational Science Award initiatives. Partners are the University of Kansas Medical Center, Children's Mercy Hospital, University of Iowa Healthcare, the University of Wisconsin-Madison, the Medical College of Wisconsin and Marshfield Clinic, the University of Minnesota Academic Health Center, the University of Nebraska Medical Center, the University of Texas Health Sciences Center at San Antonio, and the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center. The GPC network brings together a diverse population of 10 million people across 1300 miles covering seven states with a combined area of 679 159 square miles. Using input from community members, breast cancer was selected as a focus for cohort building activities. In addition to a high-prevalence disorder, we also selected a rare disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. PMID:24778202

  1. Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network: facilitating research and clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network (DIAN) is an international registry of individuals at risk for developing autosomal dominant Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Its primary aims are to investigate the temporal ordering of AD pathophysiological changes that occur in asymptomatic mutation carriers and to identify those markers that herald the transition from cognitive normality to symptomatic AD. DIAN participants undergo longitudinal evaluations, including clinical and cognitive assessments and measurements of molecular and imaging AD biomarkers. This review details the unique attributes of DIAN as a model AD biomarker study and how it provides the infrastructure for innovative research projects, including clinical trials. The recent design and launch of the first anti-amyloid-beta secondary prevention trial in AD, led by the related DIAN Trials Unit, also are discussed. PMID:24131566

  2. Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network: facilitating research and clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Moulder, Krista L; Snider, B Joy; Mills, Susan L; Buckles, Virginia D; Santacruz, Anna M; Bateman, Randall J; Morris, John C

    2013-01-01

    The Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network (DIAN) is an international registry of individuals at risk for developing autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease (AD). Its primary aims are to investigate the temporal ordering of AD pathophysiological changes that occur in asymptomatic mutation carriers and to identify those markers that herald the transition from cognitive normality to symptomatic AD. DIAN participants undergo longitudinal evaluations, including clinical and cognitive assessments and measurements of molecular and imaging AD biomarkers. This review details the unique attributes of DIAN as a model AD biomarker study and how it provides the infrastructure for innovative research projects, including clinical trials. The recent design and launch of the first anti-amyloid-beta secondary prevention trial in AD, led by the related DIAN Trials Unit, also are discussed. PMID:24131566

  3. Role of Internet Images in the Biomedical Informatics Research Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santini, Simone; Gupta, Amarnath

    2003-01-01

    The Biomedical Informatics Research Network is wide breadth project sponsored by the American National Institutes of Health (NIH) to promote the use of modern telecommunication for data exchange and collaboration in brain research. The project is attempting to buid a database and network infrastructure in which neuroscientists will post, query, and analyze raw data, processed data, and the results of the analysis. The project is divided into parts, which analyze mouse brain data and human brain data, respectively. In this phase of the project, the data are essentially anatomical, while in a future phase we foresee the introduction of functional data. One important source of raw data, both for the mouse and the human brains are magnetic resonance images (MRI), which provide dense volumetric information of the density of the brain or (in the case of functional MRI), of the brain activity. In the case of the brain mouse, these data are supplemented with images of slices of brains and other histological measure. One important technical problem that we are facing in BIRN is that of managing these volumetric data, processing them (possibly using tools available only remotely), storing the results of the analyses, and making them available to all the institutions participating in the project. This paper describes the problems posed by the BIRN project, the importance of image data in these activities, and the challenges they pose. We will describe the shared environment that we are creating, and the facilities for storing, querying, remotely processing, and sharing the image data that constitute the bulk of the brain data that scientists are producing.

  4. A Space Operations Network Alternative: Using the Globally Connected Research and Education Networks for Space-based Science Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradford, Robert N.

    2006-01-01

    Earth based networking in support of various space agency projects has been based on leased service/circuits which has a high associated cost. This cost is almost always taken from the science side resulting in less science. This is a proposal to use Research and Education Networks (RENs) worldwide to support space flight operations in general and space-based science operations in particular. The RENs were developed to support scientific and educational endeavors. They do not provide support for general Internet traffic. The connectivity and performance of the research and education networks is superb. The connectivity at Layer 3 (IP) virtually encompasses the globe. Most third world countries and all developed countries have their own research and education networks, which are connected globally. Performance of the RENs especially in the developed countries is exceptional. Bandwidth capacity currently exists and future expansion promises that this capacity will continue. REN performance statistics has always exceeded minimum requirements for spaceflight support. Research and Education networks are more loosely managed than a corporate network but are highly managed when compared to the commodity Internet. Management of RENs on an international level is accomplished by the International Network Operations Center at Indiana University at Indianapolis. With few exceptions, each regional and national REN has its own network ops center. The acceptable use policies (AUP), although differing by country, allows any scientific program or project the use of their networks. Once in compliance with the first RENs AUP, all others will accept that specific traffic including regional and transoceanic networks. RENs can support spaceflight related scientific programs and projects. Getting the science to the researcher is obviously key to any scientific project. RENs provide a pathway to virtually any college or university in the world, as well as many governmental institutes and

  5. The Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network: a history of multicenter collaboration in the United States.

    PubMed

    Tzimenatos, Leah; Kim, Emily; Kuppermann, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we review the history and progress of a large multicenter research network pertaining to emergency medical services for children. We describe the history, organization, infrastructure, and research agenda of the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network and highlight some of the important accomplishments since its inception. We also describe the network's strategy to grow its research portfolio, train new investigators, and study how to translate new evidence into practice. This strategy ensures not only the sustainability of the network in the future but the growth of research in emergency medical services for children in general. PMID:25560626

  6. Research and Simulation on Application of the Mobile IP Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yibing, Deng; Wei, Hu; Minghui, Li; Feng, Gao; Junyi, Shen

    The paper analysed the mobile node, home agent, and foreign agent of mobile IP network firstly, some key technique, such as mobile IP network basical principle, protocol work principle, agent discovery, registration, and IP packet transmission, were discussed. Then a network simulation model was designed, validating the characteristic of mobile IP network, and some advantages, which were brought by mobile network, were testified. Finally, the conclusion is gained: mobile IP network could realize the expectation of consumer that they can communicate with others anywhere.

  7. The Deep Space Network: An instrument for radio astronomy research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renzetti, N. A.; Levy, G. S.; Kuiper, T. B. H.; Walken, P. R.; Chandlee, R. C.

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Deep Space Network operates and maintains the Earth-based two-way communications link for unmanned spacecraft exploring the solar system. It is NASA's policy to also make the Network's facilities available for radio astronomy observations. The Network's microwave communication systems and facilities are being continually upgraded. This revised document, first published in 1982, describes the Network's current radio astronomy capabilities and future capabilities that will be made available by the ongoing Network upgrade. The Bibliography, which includes published papers and articles resulting from radio astronomy observations conducted with Network facilities, has been updated to include papers to May 1987.

  8. Lambdastation: a forwarding and admission control service to interface production network facilities with advanced research network paths

    SciTech Connect

    DeMar, Philip; Petravick, Don; /Fermilab

    2004-12-01

    Over the past several years, there has been a great deal of research effort and funding put into the deployment of optical-based, advanced technology wide-area networks. Fermilab and CalTech have initiated a project to enable our production network facilities to exploit these advanced research network facilities. Our objective is to forward designated data transfers across these advanced wide area networks on a per-flow basis, making use our capacious production-use storage systems connected to the local campus network. To accomplish this, we intend to develop a dynamically provisioned forwarding service that would provide alternate path forwarding onto available wide area advanced research networks. The service would dynamically reconfigure forwarding of specific flows within our local production-use network facilities, as well as provide an interface to enable applications to utilize the service. We call this service LambdaStation. If one envisions wide area optical network paths as high bandwidth data railways, then LambdaStation would functionally be the railroad terminal that regulates which flows at the local site get directed onto the high bandwidth data railways. LambdaStation is a DOE-funded SciDac research project in its very early stage of development.

  9. Proposed Development of NASA Glenn Research Center's Aeronautical Network Research Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Thanh C.; Kerczewski, Robert J.; Wargo, Chris A.; Kocin, Michael J.; Garcia, Manuel L.

    2004-01-01

    Accurate knowledge and understanding of data link traffic loads that will have an impact on the underlying communications infrastructure within the National Airspace System (NAS) is of paramount importance for planning, development and fielding of future airborne and ground-based communications systems. Attempting to better understand this impact, NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), through its contractor Computer Networks & Software, Inc. (CNS, Inc.), has developed an emulation and test facility known as the Virtual Aircraft and Controller (VAC) to study data link interactions and the capacity of the NAS to support Controller Pilot Data Link Communications (CPDLC) traffic. The drawback of the current VAC test bed is that it does not allow the test personnel and researchers to present a real world RF environment to a complex airborne or ground system. Fortunately, the United States Air Force and Navy Avionics Test Commands, through its contractor ViaSat, Inc., have developed the Joint Communications Simulator (JCS) to provide communications band test and simulation capability for the RF spectrum through 18 GHz including Communications, Navigation, and Identification and Surveillance functions. In this paper, we are proposing the development of a new and robust test bed that will leverage on the existing NASA GRC's VAC and the Air Force and Navy Commands JCS systems capabilities and functionalities. The proposed NASA Glenn Research Center's Aeronautical Networks Research Simulator (ANRS) will combine current Air Traffic Control applications and physical RF stimulation into an integrated system capable of emulating data transmission behaviors including propagation delay, physical protocol delay, transmission failure and channel interference. The ANRS will provide a simulation/stimulation tool and test bed environment that allow the researcher to predict the performance of various aeronautical network protocol standards and their associated waveforms under varying

  10. [Network of researchers on the health aspects of reproduction].

    PubMed

    1990-07-01

    A symposium held 3-5 May 1990 commemorated the anniversary of the "Network" by presentations on the health aspects of reproduction in Africa. Prof. Sambra Diarra of the Ivory Coast presented a paper on "Health of Reproduction in Africa, Bi-Dimensional Problems: Biomedical and Social." He stressed the need to emphasize both maternal (MM) and infant mortality (IM) in Africa, where MM rates are 640/100,000 and IMR are 130/1000, because they remain so high. Prof. Fadel Diadhiou of Senegal followed with a paper on "Operations Research on Women's Reproductive Health in Africa." The major themes were that problems in reproductive health have resulted because of the fragmentation between the ecosystem and development and the lack of research is due to the isolation of institutions that lack human and material resources. The 3rd presentation by Prof. Mouhamadou Fall of Senegal on "The Health of Children and the Perspectives for Senegal," focused on the increasing infant and child mortality rates in Senegal (238/1000 in 1981) due to the combination of factors caused by the mother-child syndrome. These are: 1) congenital malformations caused by incest, young or advanced age of mothers; 2) diseases of the mother that cause fetal mortality: diabetes, arterial hypertension, eclampsia; 3) lack of breastfeeding and illiteracy of mothers; 4) public health diseases such as measles, malaria, diarrhea; 5) streptococcic infections and their complications such as anemia and tuberculosis. The last presentation made by Prof. Eusebe Alihonou from Benin on the "Perspectives and Priorities of Reproductive Health in Africa," concluded that the research priorities in Africa should be on health systems that lower utilization rates of services and resources and on epidemiological studies that identify health problems and analyze the risk factors. The Symposium concluded that the research priorities should be: maternal morbidity and mortality; adolescents and reproduction and the morbidity and

  11. Intracellular accumulation of boceprevir according to plasma concentrations and pharmacogenetics.

    PubMed

    Cusato, Jessica; Allegra, Sarah; De Nicolò, Amedeo; Boglione, Lucio; Fatiguso, Giovanna; Abdi, Adnan Mohamed; Cariti, Giuseppe; Di Perri, Giovanni; D'Avolio, Antonio

    2015-06-01

    Boceprevir (BOC) is a directly-acting antiviral agent for the treatment of hepatitis C virus genotype 1 (HCV-1) infection. It is a mixture of two stereoisomers, the inactive R and the active S isomers. No data have previously been published on BOC intracellular accumulation. In this study, BOC isomer concentrations in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and plasma were determined. The influence of various single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on plasma and intracellular drug exposure at Week 4 of triple therapy were also evaluated. Plasma and intracellular BOC concentrations were determined at the end of the dosing interval (C(trough)) using a UPLC-MS/MS validated method. Allelic discrimination was performed through real-time PCR. Median plasma concentrations were 65.97 ng/mL for the S isomer and 36.31 ng/mL for the R isomer; the median S/R plasma concentration ratio was 1.66. The median PBMC concentration was 2285.88 ng/mL for the S isomer; the R isomer was undetectable within PBMCs. The median S isomer PBMC/plasma concentration ratio was 28.59. A significant positive correlation was found between plasma and PBMC S isomer concentrations. ABCB1 1236, SLC28A2 124 and IL28B rs12979860 SNPs were associated with the S isomer PBMC/plasma concentration ratio. In regression models, S isomer plasma levels and FokI polymorphism were able to predict S isomer intracellular exposure, whereas SNPs in AKR1, BCRP1 and SLC28A2 predicted the S isomer PBMC/plasma concentration ratio. No similar data regarding BOC pharmacogenetics and pharmacokinetics have been published previously. This study adds a novel and useful overview of the pharmacological properties of this drug. PMID:25836019

  12. Effects of Pharmacogenetics on the Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Tamoxifen.

    PubMed

    de Vries Schultink, Aurelia H M; Zwart, Wilbert; Linn, Sabine C; Beijnen, Jos H; Huitema, Alwin D R

    2015-08-01

    The antiestrogenic drug tamoxifen is widely used in the treatment of estrogen receptor-α-positive breast cancer and substantially decreases recurrence and mortality rates. However, high interindividual variability in response is observed, calling for a personalized approach to tamoxifen treatment. Tamoxifen is bioactivated by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes such as CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4/5, resulting in the formation of active metabolites, including 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen and endoxifen. Therefore, polymorphisms in the genes encoding these enzymes are proposed to influence tamoxifen and active tamoxifen metabolites in the serum and consequently affect patient response rates. To tailor tamoxifen treatment, multiple studies have been performed to clarify the influence of polymorphisms on its pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Nevertheless, personalized treatment of tamoxifen based on genotyping has not yet met consensus. This article critically reviews the published data on the effect of various genetic polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of tamoxifen, and reviews the clinical implications of its findings. For each CYP enzyme, the influence of polymorphisms on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic outcome measures is described throughout this review. No clear effects on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics were seen for various polymorphisms in the CYP encoding genes CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP3A4/5. For CYP2D6, there was a clear gene-exposure effect that was able to partially explain the interindividual variability in plasma concentrations of the pharmacologically most active metabolite endoxifen; however, a clear exposure-response effect remained controversial. These controversial findings and the partial contribution of genotype in explaining interindividual variability in plasma concentrations of, in particular, endoxifen, imply that tailored tamoxifen treatment may not be fully realized through pharmacogenetics of

  13. Pharmacogenetics of Risperidone and Cardiovascular Risk in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Dos Santos-Júnior, Amilton; Henriques, Taciane Barbosa; de Mello, Maricilda Palandi; Della Torre, Osmar Henrique; Paes, Lúcia Arisaka; Ferreira-Neto, Adriana Perez; Sewaybricker, Letícia Esposito; Fontana, Thiago Salum; Celeri, Eloisa Helena Rubello Valler; Guerra-Júnior, Gil; Dalgalarrondo, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To identify the frequency of obesity and metabolic complications in child and adolescent users of risperidone. Potential associations with clinical parameters and SNPs of the HTR2C, DRD2, LEP, LEPR, MC4R, and CYP2D6 genes were analyzed. Methods. Samples from 120 risperidone users (8–20 years old) were collected and SNPs were analyzed, alongside assessment of chronological and bone ages, prescribed and weight-adjusted doses, use of other psychotropic drugs, waist circumference, BMI z-scores, blood pressure, HOMA-IR index, fasting levels of serum glucose, insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides, transaminases, and leptin. Results. Thirty-two (26.7%) patients were overweight and 5 (4.2%) obese. Hypertension was recorded in 8 patients (6.7%), metabolic syndrome in 6 (5%), and increased waist circumference in 20 (16.7%). The HOMA-IR was high for 22 patients (18.3%), while total cholesterol and triglycerides were high in 20 (16.7%) and 41 (34.2%) patients, respectively. SNP associations were found for LEP, HTR2C, and CYP2D6 with BMI; CYP2D6 with blood pressure, ALT, and HOMA-IR; HTR2C and LEPR with leptin levels; MC4R and DRD2 with HOMA-IR; HTR2C with WC; and LEP with ALT. Conclusions. Although not higher than in the general pediatric population, a high frequency of patients was overweight/obese, with abnormalities in metabolic parameters and some pharmacogenetic associations. PMID:26880915

  14. Ticagrelor: Pharmacokinetic, Pharmacodynamic and Pharmacogenetic Profile: An Update.

    PubMed

    Teng, Renli

    2015-11-01

    Despite advancements in treatments for acute coronary syndromes over the last 10 years, they continue to be life-threatening disorders. Currently, the standard of treatment includes dual antiplatelet therapy consisting of aspirin plus a P2Y12 receptor antagonist. The thienopyridine class of P2Y12 receptor antagonists, clopidogrel and prasugrel, have demonstrated efficacy. However, their use is associated with several limitations, including the need for metabolic activation and irreversible P2Y12 receptor binding causing prolonged recovery of platelet function. In addition, response to clopidogrel is variable and efficacy is reduced in patients with certain genotypes. Although prasugrel is a more consistent inhibitor of platelet aggregation than clopidogrel, it is associated with an increased risk of life-threatening and fatal bleeding. Ticagrelor is an oral antiplatelet agent of the cyclopentyltriazolopyrimidine class and also acts through the P2Y12 receptor. In contrast to clopidogrel and prasugrel, ticagrelor does not require metabolic activation and binds rapidly and reversibly to the P2Y12 receptor. In light of new data, this review provides an update on the pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and pharmacogenetic profiles of ticagrelor in different study populations. Recent studies report that no dose adjustment for ticagrelor is required on the basis of age, gender, ethnicity, severe renal impairment or mild hepatic impairment. The non-P2Y12 actions of ticagrelor are reviewed, showing indirect positive effects on cellular adenosine concentration and biological activity, by inhibition of equilibrative nucleoside transporter-1 independently of the P2Y12 receptor. CYP2C19 and ABCB1 genotypes do not appear to influence ticagrelor pharmacodynamics. A summary of drug interactions is also presented. PMID:26063049

  15. Ethambutol plasma and intracellular pharmacokinetics: A pharmacogenetic study.

    PubMed

    Fatiguso, Giovanna; Allegra, Sarah; Calcagno, Andrea; Baietto, Lorena; Motta, Ilaria; Favata, Fabio; Cusato, Jessica; Bonora, Stefano; Perri, Giovanni Di; D'Avolio, Antonio

    2016-01-30

    We evaluated ethambutol plasma and intracellular pharmacokinetic according to single nucleotide polymorphisms in ABCB1, OATP1B1, PXR, VDR, CYP24A1 and CYP27B1 genes. Mycobacterium tubercolosis infected patients were enrolled. Standard weight-adjusted antitubercular treatment was administered intravenously for 2 weeks and then orally. Allelic discrimination was performed by real-time PCR. Ethambutol plasma and intracellular concentrations were measured by UPLC-MS/MS methods. Twenty-four patients were included. Considering weeks 2 and 4, median plasma Ctrough were 73 ng/mL and 247 ng/mL, intracellular Ctrough were 16,863 ng/mL and 13,535 ng/mL, plasma Cmax were 5627 ng/mL and 2229 ng/mL, intracellular Cmax were 133,830 ng/mL and 78,544 ng/mL. At week 2, ABCB1 3435 CT/TT (p=0.023) and CYP24A1 8620 AG/GG (p=0.030) genotypes for plasma Ctrough, BsmI AA (p=0.036) for intracellular Ctrough and BsmI AA (p<0.001) and ApaI AA (p=0.048) for intracellular Cmax, remained in linear regression analysis as predictive factors. Concerning week 4 only ABCB1 3435 CT/TT (p=0.035) and Cdx2 AG/GG (p=0.004) genotypes for plasma Ctrough and BsmI AA (p=0.028) for plasma Cmax were retained in final regression model. We reveal, for the first time, the possible role of single nucleotide polymorphisms on ethambutol plasma and intracellular concentrations; this may further the potential use of pharmacogenetic for tailoring antitubercular treatment. PMID:26642947

  16. Pharmacogenetic determinants of immediate and delayed reactions of drug hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Guéant, J L; Guéant-Rodriguez, R M; Gastin, I Aimone; Cornejo-García, J A; Viola, M; Barbaud, A; Mertes, P M; Blanca, M; Romano, A

    2008-01-01

    Drug allergy refers to a hypersensitivity reaction for which either an IgE or T-cell-mediated mechanism is demonstrated. The recognition of the drug by B and T cells is influenced by variants of HLA genes. The genetic factors involved in IgE-mediated mechanisms have been studied mainly in beta-lactam reactions, and they appear to be related to human leukocyte antigen presentation (HLA A2 and DRw52), TNFA -308G>A, class switching to IgE by B cells (variants of IL-13 and of IL-4RA), and expression of IgE receptors on target cells (variant of the FcepsilonRIbeta gene). Delayed T-cell-mediated reactions are also associated with HLA alleles. Studies have reported an association of HLA-B*1502 and HLA-B*5801 in patients with the Stevens-Johnson syndrome or toxic epidermal necrolysis provoked by carbamazepine, as well as of HLA-B*5701 with abacavir hypersensitivity. HLA-B*5701 seems to be a strong predictor in whites, but not in Hispanics or Africans. Carbamazepine hypersensitivity is also influenced by gene variants of cytochrome P450 enzymes on the generation of reactive metabolites, while CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3 polymorphisms influence the bioactivation of sulfamethoxazole in prohapten. Pharmacogenetic studies on aspirin hypersensitivity have identified distinct types of predictors, such as HLA genotypes, a polymorphism in the promoter of the FcepsilonRIalpha gene, and variants in genes of enzymes from the arachidonic acid pathway. In the future, identification of genetic predictors will benefit from genomewide association studies that also take ethnic differences into account. Ideally, predictors will help to prevent adverse reactions, as suggested by a recent study on the effectiveness of prospective HLA-B*5701 screening to prevent hypersensitivity reactions to abacavir in HIV patients. PMID:18991696

  17. Pharmacogenetic Study of Deferasirox, an Iron Chelating Agent

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji Won; Kang, Hyoung Jin; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Kim, Nam Hee; Jang, Mi Kyung; Yeo, Chang-Woo; Lee, Sang Seop; Kim, Hyery; Park, June Dong; Park, Kyung Duk; Shin, Hee Young; Shin, Jae-Gook; Ahn, Hyo Seop

    2013-01-01

    Transfusion-associated iron overload induces systemic toxicity. Deferasirox, a convenient long acting oral agent, has recently been introduced in clinical practice with a promising efficacy. But there are some patients who experience drug-related toxicities and cannot tolerate it. To investigate effect of genetic variations on the toxicities and find optimal target population, we analyzed the genetic polymorphisms of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A (UGT1A) subfamily, multi-drug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP). A total of 20 functional genetic polymorphisms were analyzed in 98 patients who received deferasirox to reduce transfusion-induced iron overload. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records to find out the drug-related toxicities. Fifteen (15.3%) patients developed hepatotoxicity. Patients without wild-type allele carrying two MRP2 haplotypes containing −1774 del and/or −24T were at increased risk of developing hepatotoxicity compared to patients with the wild-type allele on multivariate analysis (OR = 7.17, 95% CI = 1.79–28.67, P = 0.005). Creatinine elevation was observed in 9 patients (9.2%). Body weight ≥40 kg and homozygosity for UGT1A1*6 were risk factors of creatinine elevation (OR = 8.48, 95% CI = 1.7–43.57, P = 0.010 and OR = 14.17, 95% CI = 1.34–150.35, P = 0.028). Our results indicate that functional genetic variants of enzymes to metabolize and transport deferasirox are associated with drug-related toxicities. Further studies are warranted to confirm the results as the pharmacogenetic biomarkers of deferasirox. PMID:23737969

  18. OX1 and OX2 orexin/hypocretin receptor pharmacogenetics

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Miles D.; Xhaard, Henri; Sakurai, Takeshi; Rainero, Innocenzo; Kukkonen, Jyrki P.

    2014-01-01

    Orexin/hypocretin peptide mutations are rare in humans. Even though human narcolepsy is associated with orexin deficiency, this is only extremely rarely due to mutations in the gene coding prepro-orexin, the precursor for both orexin peptides. In contrast, coding and non-coding variants of the OX1 and OX2 orexin receptors have been identified in many human populations; sometimes, these have been associated with disease phenotype, although most confer a relatively low risk. In most cases, these studies have been based on a candidate gene hypothesis that predicts the involvement of orexins in the relevant pathophysiological processes. In the current review, the known human OX1/HCRTR1 and OX2/HCRTR2 genetic variants/polymorphisms as well as studies concerning their involvement in disorders such as narcolepsy, excessive daytime sleepiness, cluster headache, polydipsia-hyponatremia in schizophrenia, and affective disorders are discussed. In most cases, the functional cellular or pharmacological correlates of orexin variants have not been investigated—with the exception of the possible impact of an amino acid 10 Pro/Ser variant of OX2 on orexin potency—leaving conclusions on the nature of the receptor variant effects speculative. Nevertheless, we present perspectives that could shape the basis for further studies. The pharmacology and other properties of the orexin receptor variants are discussed in the context of GPCR signaling. Since orexinergic therapeutics are emerging, the impact of receptor variants on the affinity or potency of ligands deserves consideration. This perspective (pharmacogenetics) is also discussed in the review. PMID:24834023

  19. Pharmacogenetic analysis of cinacalcet response in secondary hyperparathyroidism patients

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Sohyun; Kim, In-Wha; Oh, Kook-Hwan; Han, Nayoung; Joo, Kwon Wook; Kim, Hyo Jin; Oh, Jung Mi

    2016-01-01

    Background Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) is one of the major risk factors of morbidity and mortality in end-stage renal disease. Cinacalcet effectively controls SHPT without causing hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia. However, there is significant inter-individual response variance to cinacalcet treatment. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the genetic effects related with parathyroid hormone regulation as factors for cinacalcet response variance. Methods Patients with a diagnosis of SHPT based on intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) >300 pg/mL on dialysis were included in this study. They were over 18 years and have been treated by cinacalcet for more than 3 months. Responders and nonresponders were grouped by the serum iPTH changes. Twenty-four single nucleotide polymorphisms of CASR, VDR, FGFR1, KL, ALPL, RGS14, NR4A2, and PTHLH genes were selected for the pharmacogenetic analysis. Results After adjusting for age, sex, and calcium level, CASR rs1042636 (odds ratio [OR]: 0.066, P=0.027) and rs1802757 (OR: 10.532, P=0.042) were associated with cinacalcet response. The association of haplotypes of CASR rs1042636, rs10190, and rs1802757; GCC (OR: 0.355, P=0.015); and ATT (OR: 2.769, P=0.014) with cinacalcet response was also significant. Conclusion We obtained supporting information of the associations between cinacalcet response and CASR polymorphisms. CASR single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs1802757, rs1042636, and haplotypes of rs1042636, rs10190, and rs1802757 were significantly associated with cinacalcet response variance. PMID:27468225

  20. GMES Initial Operations - Network for Earth Observation Research Training (GIONET)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolas-Perea, V.; Balzter, H.

    2012-12-01

    GMES Initial Operations - Network for Earth Observation Research Training (GIONET) is a Marie Curie funded project that aims to establish the first of a kind European Centre of Excellence for Earth Observation Research Training. GIONET is a partnership of leading Universities, research institutes and private companies from across Europe aiming to cultivate a community of early stage researchers in the areas of optical and radar remote sensing skilled for the emerging GMES land monitoring services during the GMES Initial Operations period (2011-2013) and beyond. GIONET is expected to satisfy the demand for highly skilled researchers and provide personnel for operational phase of the GMES and monitoring and emergency services. It will achieve this by: -Providing postgraduate training in Earth Observation Science that exposes students to different research disciplines and complementary skills, providing work experiences in the private and academic sectors, and leading to a recognized qualification (Doctorate). -Enabling access to first class training in both fundamental and applied research skills to early-stage researchers at world-class academic centers and market leaders in the private sector. -Building on the experience from previous GMES research and development projects in the land monitoring and emergency information services. The training program through supervised research focuses on 14 research topics (each carried out by an Early Stage Researchers based in one of the partner organization) divided in 5 main areas: Forest monitoring: Global biomass information systems Forest Monitoring of the Congo Basin using Synthetic Aperture radar (SAR) Multi-concept Earth Observation Capabilities for Biomass Mapping and Change Detection: Synergy of Multi-temporal and Multi-frequency Interferometric Radar and Optical Satellite Data Land cover and change: Multi-scale Remote Sensing Synergy for Land Process Studies: from field Spectrometry to Airborne Hyperspectral and

  1. Risk and ageing populations: practice development research through an international research network.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Charlotte L

    2006-09-01

    Background.  Risk theories derive from a range of disciplines, with nursing traditionally concentrating on scientific medical perspectives. However, for older people, risk perception and management is filled with complexity and paradox, and the threat of focusing on physical safety only to the detriment of the well-being of the older person. Method.  An international collaborative research network on risk in ageing populations has been developed, with 22 members in six countries (Britain, USA, India, South Africa, Australia and Northern Ireland). The network supports several independent projects, many of which have developed as a result of the network. An annual workshop for members has provided the opportunity to share and synthesize methodological experiences and to identify a developing model of risk for older people. Findings.  The developing model highlights the importance for older people of engaging with risk in a positive way, and describes patterns of risk-philic and risk-phobic activity. The inter-relationship of the individual older person with their community, with practitioners and with society is specific to the context of different countries. Conclusion.  Socio-critical practice development research can be a vehicle for advancing an understanding of risk theory for older people. Risk underpins concepts of choice and capacity to execute decisions. It is influenced by society, policy, health and social care services, and has a profound impact on the experiences of older people. PMID:20925746

  2. Design and Evaluation of a Widget-Based Dashboard for Awareness Support in Research Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinhardt, Wolfgang; Mletzko, Christian; Drachsler, Hendrik; Sloep, Peter B.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we describe the rationale, design and evaluation of a widget-based dashboard to support scholars' awareness of their Research Networks. We introduce the concept of a Research Network and discuss Personal Research Environments that are built of as a development parallel to Personal Learning Environments. Based on the results…

  3. The National Research and Education Network (NREN): Promise of New Information Environments. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Ann P.

    This digest describes proposed legislation for the implementation of the National Research and Education Network (NREN). Issues and implications for teachers, students, researchers, and librarians are suggested and the emergence of the electronic network as a general communication and research tool is described. Developments in electronic…

  4. Clinical Research Careers: Reports from a NHLBI Pediatric Heart Network Clinical Research Skills Development Conference

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Wyman W.; Richmond, Marc; Li, Jennifer S.; Saul, J. Philip; Mital, Seema; Colan, Steven D.; Newburger, Jane W.; Sleeper, Lynn A.; McCrindle, Brain W.; Minich, L. LuAnn; Goldmuntz, Elizabeth; Marino, Bradley S.; Williams, Ismee A.; Pearson, Gail D.; Evans, Frank; Scott, Jane D.; Cohen, Meryl S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Wyman W. Lai, MD, MPH, and Victoria L. Vetter, MD, MPH. The Pediatric Heart Network (PHN), funded under the U.S. National Institutes of Health-National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NIH–NHLBI), includes two Clinical Research Skills Development (CRSD) Cores, which were awarded to The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia and to the Morgan Stanley Children's Hospital of New York–Presbyterian. To provide information on how to develop a clinical research career to a larger number of potential young investigators in pediatric cardiology, the directors of these two CRSD Cores jointly organized a one-day seminar for fellows and junior faculty from all of the PHN Core sites. The participants included faculty members from the PHN and the NHLBI. The day-long seminar was held on April 29, 2009, at the NHLBI site, immediately preceding the PHN Steering Committee meeting in Bethesda, MD. Methods The goals of the seminar were 1) to provide fellows and early investigators with basic skills in clinical research 2) to provide a forum for discussion of important research career choices 3) to introduce attendees to each other and to established clinical researchers in pediatric cardiology, and 4) to publish a commentary on the future of clinical research in pediatric cardiology. Results The following chapters are compilations of the talks given at the 2009 PHN Clinical Research Skills Development Seminar, published to share the information provided with a broader audience of those interested in learning how to develop a clinical research career in pediatric cardiology. The discussions of types of clinical research, research skills, career development strategies, funding, and career management are applicable to research careers in other areas of clinical medicine as well. Conclusions The aim of this compilation is to stimulate those who might be interested in the research career options available to investigators. PMID:21167335

  5. EHRA research network surveys: 6 years of EP wires activity.

    PubMed

    Bongiorni, Maria Grazia; Chen, Jian; Dagres, Nikolaos; Estner, Heidi; Hernandez-Madrid, Antonio; Hocini, Meleze; Larsen, Torben Bjerregaard; Pison, Laurent; Potpara, Tatjana; Proclemer, Alessandro; Sciaraffia, Elena; Todd, Derick; Blomstrom-Lundqvist, Carina

    2015-11-01

    Clinical practice should follow guidelines and recommendations mainly based on the results of controlled trials, which are often conducted in selected populations and special conditions, whereas clinical practice may be influenced by factors different from controlled scientific studies. Hence, the real-world setting is better assessed by the observational registries enrolling patients for longer periods of time. However, this may be difficult, expensive, and time-consuming. In 2009, the Scientific Initiatives Committee of the European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) has instigated a series of surveys covering the controversial issues in clinical electrophysiology (EP). With this in mind, an EHRA EP research network has been created, which included EP centres in Europe among which the surveys on 'hot topic' were circulated. This review summarizes the overall experience conducting EP wires over the past 6 years, categorizing and assessing the topics regarding clinical EP, and evaluating the acceptance and feedback from the responding centres, in order to improve participation in the surveys and better address the research needs and aspirations of the European EP community. PMID:26589904

  6. Research on Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Interaction Detection from Network Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Su, Lingtao; Liu, Guixia; Wang, Han; Tian, Yuan; Zhou, Zhihui; Han, Liang; Yan, Lun

    2015-01-01

    Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) found in Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) mainly influence the susceptibility of complex diseases, but they still could not comprehensively explain the relationships between mutations and diseases. Interactions between SNPs are considered so important for deeply understanding of those relationships that several strategies have been proposed to explore such interactions. However, part of those methods perform poorly when marginal effects of disease loci are weak or absent, others may lack of considering high-order SNPs interactions, few methods have achieved the requirements in both performance and accuracy. Considering the above reasons, not only low-order, but also high-order SNP interactions as well as main-effect SNPs, should be taken into account in detection methods under an acceptable computational complexity. In this paper, a new pairwise (or low-order) interaction detection method IG (Interaction Gain) is introduced, in which disease models are not required and parallel computing is utilized. Furthermore, high-order SNP interactions were proposed to be detected by finding closely connected function modules of the network constructed from IG detection results. Tested by a wide range of simulated datasets and four WTCCC real datasets, the proposed methods accurately detected both low-order and high-order SNP interactions as well as disease-associated main-effect SNPS and it surpasses all competitors in performances. The research will advance complex diseases research by providing more reliable SNP interactions. PMID:25763929

  7. Research on single nucleotide polymorphisms interaction detection from network perspective.

    PubMed

    Su, Lingtao; Liu, Guixia; Wang, Han; Tian, Yuan; Zhou, Zhihui; Han, Liang; Yan, Lun

    2015-01-01

    Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) found in Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) mainly influence the susceptibility of complex diseases, but they still could not comprehensively explain the relationships between mutations and diseases. Interactions between SNPs are considered so important for deeply understanding of those relationships that several strategies have been proposed to explore such interactions. However, part of those methods perform poorly when marginal effects of disease loci are weak or absent, others may lack of considering high-order SNPs interactions, few methods have achieved the requirements in both performance and accuracy. Considering the above reasons, not only low-order, but also high-order SNP interactions as well as main-effect SNPs, should be taken into account in detection methods under an acceptable computational complexity. In this paper, a new pairwise (or low-order) interaction detection method IG (Interaction Gain) is introduced, in which disease models are not required and parallel computing is utilized. Furthermore, high-order SNP interactions were proposed to be detected by finding closely connected function modules of the network constructed from IG detection results. Tested by a wide range of simulated datasets and four WTCCC real datasets, the proposed methods accurately detected both low-order and high-order SNP interactions as well as disease-associated main-effect SNPS and it surpasses all competitors in performances. The research will advance complex diseases research by providing more reliable SNP interactions. PMID:25763929

  8. Research in high speed fiber optics local area networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobagi, F. A.

    1986-02-01

    The design of high speed local area networks (HSLAN) for communication among distributed devices requires solving problems in three areas: the network medium and its topology, the medium access control, and the network interface. Considerable progress was already made in the first two areas. Accomplishments are divided into two groups according to their theoretical or experimental nature. A brief summary is given.

  9. Co-authorship network analysis in health research: method and potential use.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Bruna de Paula Fonseca E; Sampaio, Ricardo Barros; Fonseca, Marcus Vinicius de Araújo; Zicker, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Scientific collaboration networks are a hallmark of contemporary academic research. Researchers are no longer independent players, but members of teams that bring together complementary skills and multidisciplinary approaches around common goals. Social network analysis and co-authorship networks are increasingly used as powerful tools to assess collaboration trends and to identify leading scientists and organizations. The analysis reveals the social structure of the networks by identifying actors and their connections. This article reviews the method and potential applications of co-authorship network analysis in health. The basic steps for conducting co-authorship studies in health research are described and common network metrics are presented. The application of the method is exemplified by an overview of the global research network for Chikungunya virus vaccines. PMID:27138279

  10. Measuring the Impact of Practice-based Research Networks on Member Dentists in the Collaboration on Networked Dental and Oral Health Research, CONDOR

    PubMed Central

    McBride, Ruth; Leroux, Brian; Lindblad, Anne; Williams, O. Dale; Lehmann, Maryann; Rindal, D. Brad; Botello-Harbaum, Maria; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Gillette, Jane; Bozeman, MT; Demko, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research funded three practice-based research networks (PBRNs), NW-PRECEDENT, PEARL and DPBRN to conduct studies relevant to practicing general dentists. These PBRNs collaborated to develop a questionnaire to assess the impact of network participation on changes in practice patterns. This report presents results from the initial administration of the questionnaire. Methods Questionnaires were administered to network dentists and a non-network reference group. Practice patterns including caries diagnosis and treatment, pulp cap materials, third molar extraction, dentin hypersensitivity treatments and endodontic treatment and restoration were assessed by network, years in practice, and level of network participation.Test-retest reliability of the questionnaire was evaluated. Results 950 practitioners completed the questionnaire. Test-retest reliability was good-excellent (kappa>0.4) for most questions. Significant differences in responses by network were not observed. The use of caries risk assessment forms differed by both network participation (p<0.001) and years since dental degree (p=0.026). Recent dental graduates are more likely to recommend third molar removal for preventive reasons (p=0.003). Conclusions Practitioners in the CONDOR research networks are similar to their US colleagues. As a group, however, these practitioners show a more evidence-based approach to their practice. Dental PBRNs have the potential to improve the translation of evidence into daily practice. Designing methods to assess practice change and the associated factors is essential to addressing this important issue. PMID:23562351

  11. GIONET (GMES Initial Operations Network for Earth Observation Research Training)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolas, V.; Balzter, H.

    2013-12-01

    GMES Initial Operations - Network for Earth Observation Research Training (GIONET) is a Marie Curie funded project that aims to establish the first of a kind European Centre of Excellence for Earth Observation Research Training. Copernicus (previously known as GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) is a joint undertaking of the European Space Agency and the European Commission. It develops fully operational Earth Observation monitoring services for a community of end users from the public and private sector. The first services that are considered fully operational are the land monitoring and emergency monitoring core services. In GIONET, 14 early stage researchers are being trained at PhD level in understanding the complex physical processes that determine how electromagnetic radiation interacts with the atmosphere and the land surface ultimately form the signal received by a satellite. In order to achieve this, the researchers are based in industry and universities across Europe, as well as receiving the best technical training and scientific education. The training programme through supervised research focuses on 14 research topics. Each topic is carried out by an Early Stage Researcher based in one of the partner organisations and is expected to lead to a PhD degree. The 14 topics are grouped in 5 research themes: Forest monitoring Land cover and change Coastal zone and freshwater monitoring Geohazards and emergency response Climate adaptation and emergency response The methods developed and used in GIONET are as diverse as its research topics. GIONET has already held two summer schools; one at Friedrich Schiller University in Jena (Germany), on 'New operational radar satellite applications: Introduction to SAR, Interferometry and Polarimetry for Land Surface Mapping'. The 2nd summer school took place last September at the University of Leicester (UK )on 'Remote sensing of land cover and forest in GMES'. The next Summer School in September 2013

  12. Pharmacogenetics in primary care: the promise of personalized medicine and the reality of racial profiling.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Linda M; Kreiner, Meta J

    2013-03-01

    Many anticipate that expanding knowledge of genetic variations associated with disease risk and medication response will revolutionize clinical medicine, making possible genetically based Personalized Medicine where health care can be tailored to individuals, based on their genome scans. Pharmacogenetics has received especially strong interest, with many pharmaceutical developers avidly working to identify genetic variations associated with individual differences in drug response. While clinical applications of emerging genetic knowledge are becoming increasingly available, genetic tests for drug selection are not as yet widely accessible, and many primary care clinicians are unprepared to interpret genetic information. We conducted interviews with 58 primary care clinicians, exploring how they integrate emerging pharmacogenetic concepts into their practices. We found that in their current practices, pharmacogenetic innovations have not led to individually tailored treatment, but instead have encouraged use of essentialized racial/ethnic identity as a proxy for genetic heritage. Current manifestations of Personalized Medicine appear to be reinforcing entrenched notions of inherent biological differences between racial groups, and promoting the belief that racial profiling in health care is supported by cutting-edge scientific authority. Our findings raise concern for how pharmacogenetic innovations will actually affect diverse populations, and how unbiased treatment can be assured. PMID:23264029

  13. A Pharmacogenetic Screening Experiment Demonstrating Principles of Genetic Constitution on Drug Metabolism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Doris K.; Wedlund, Peter J.

    1990-01-01

    A laboratory experiment designed to provide rapid, inexpensive student exposure to pharmacogenetics in drug elimination and patient therapy is described. The test, performed on students, determines expression of a drug metabolism enzyme following ingestion of a probe drug. (Author/MSE)

  14. A Novel Admixture-Based Pharmacogenetic Approach to Refine Warfarin Dosing in Caribbean Hispanics

    PubMed Central

    Claudio-Campos, Karla; Rivera-Miranda, Giselle; Bermúdez-Bosch, Luis; Renta, Jessicca Y.; Cadilla, Carmen L.; Cruz, Iadelisse; Feliu, Juan F.; Vergara, Cunegundo; Ruaño, Gualberto

    2016-01-01

    Aim This study is aimed at developing a novel admixture-adjusted pharmacogenomic approach to individually refine warfarin dosing in Caribbean Hispanic patients. Patients & Methods A multiple linear regression analysis of effective warfarin doses versus relevant genotypes, admixture, clinical and demographic factors was performed in 255 patients and further validated externally in another cohort of 55 individuals. Results The admixture-adjusted, genotype-guided warfarin dosing refinement algorithm developed in Caribbean Hispanics showed better predictability (R2 = 0.70, MAE = 0.72mg/day) than a clinical algorithm that excluded genotypes and admixture (R2 = 0.60, MAE = 0.99mg/day), and outperformed two prior pharmacogenetic algorithms in predicting effective dose in this population. For patients at the highest risk of adverse events, 45.5% of the dose predictions using the developed pharmacogenetic model resulted in ideal dose as compared with only 29% when using the clinical non-genetic algorithm (p<0.001). The admixture-driven pharmacogenetic algorithm predicted 58% of warfarin dose variance when externally validated in 55 individuals from an independent validation cohort (MAE = 0.89 mg/day, 24% mean bias). Conclusions Results supported our rationale to incorporate individual’s genotypes and unique admixture metrics into pharmacogenetic refinement models in order to increase predictability when expanding them to admixed populations like Caribbean Hispanics. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01318057 PMID:26745506

  15. “Getting off the Bus Closer to Your Destination”: Patients’ Views about Pharmacogenetic Testing

    PubMed Central

    Trinidad, Susan Brown; Coffin, Tara B; Fullerton, Stephanie M; Ralston, James; Jarvik, Gail P; Larson, Eric B

    2015-01-01

    Context: Pharmacogenetic testing, a form of precision medicine, has the potential to optimize medication choice and dosing. Yet, relatively little is known about the views of patients—particularly those with chronic psychiatric conditions—with respect to such testing. Objective: To explore patients’ beliefs and attitudes regarding pharmacogenetic testing, with the goal of informing policy development and implementation. Design: Qualitative study design using semistructured focus groups with adults enrolled in Group Health Cooperative, a large health maintenance organization in the Pacific Northwest. We conducted focus groups with patients prescribed antidepressants (pilot session plus 2 focus groups, n = 27); patients prescribed carbamazepine (2 focus groups, n = 17); and healthy patients (2 focus groups, n = 17). Results: Although participants understood the potential advantages of pharmacogenetic testing, many felt that the risks (discrimination, stigmatization, physician overreliance on genomic results, and denial of certain medications) may outweigh the benefits. These concerns were shared across groups but were more strongly expressed among participants with chronic mental health diagnoses. Conclusion: Clinical implementation of pharmacogenetic testing must address patient concerns about privacy, discrimination, quality of care, and erosion of the physician-patient relationship. PMID:26057686

  16. A 30-years Review on Pharmacokinetics of Antibiotics: Is the Right Time for Pharmacogenetics?

    PubMed Central

    Baietto, Lorena; Corcione, Silvia; Pacini, Giovanni; Di Perri, Giovanni; D’Avolio#†, Antonio; Giuseppe De Rosa†, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Drug bioavailability may vary greatly amongst individuals, affecting both efficacy and toxicity: in humans, genetic variations account for a relevant proportion of such variability. In the last decade the use of pharmacogenetics in clinical practice, as a tool to individualize treatment, has shown a different degree of diffusion in various clinical fields. In the field of infectious diseases, several studies identified a great number of associations between host genetic polymor-phisms and responses to antiretroviral therapy. For example, in patients treated with abacavir the screening for HLA-B*5701 before starting treatment is routine clinical practice and standard of care for all patients; efavirenz plasma levels are influenced by single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) CYP2B6-516G> T (rs3745274). Regarding antibiotics, many studies investigated drug transporters involved in antibiotic bioavailability, especially for fluoroquinolones, cephalosporins, and antituberculars. To date, few data are available about pharmacogenetics of recently developed antibiotics such as tigecycline, daptomycin or linezolid. Considering the effect of SNPs in gene coding for proteins involved in antibiotics bioavailability, few data have been published. Increasing knowledge in the field of antibiotic pharmacogenetics could be useful to explain the high drug inter-patients variability and to individualize therapy. In this paper we reported an overview of pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacogenetics of antibiotics to underline the importance of an integrated approach in choosing the right dosage in clinical practice. PMID:24909419

  17. [Pediatric research in an office-setting network--a new dimension in pediatric research in Israel].

    PubMed

    Grossman, Z; Kahan, E; Gross, S; Ashkenazi, S; Shalit, I

    1999-06-15

    Pediatric care in the community is gradually replacing traditional care in hospitals. Despite that, research activity in the community setting is minimal due to objective difficulties. These are mainly constraints of time, office work and lack of research-supporting logistics. In the past decade, throughout the world, primary physicians interested in research have grouped together and formed research networks. The aim of such networks is to support and promote research in the community. An Israel Pediatric Research in Office-Setting network (IPROS) was established 2 years ago by the Israel Ambulatory Pediatric Association (IAPA). Today, there are over 140 pediatricians listed in IPROS, representing the heterogeneous composition of pediatricians in Israel. The network's policy is defined by a joint steering committee. The committee is composed of IAPA representatives, senior network members and Schneider Hospital senior investigators. The research subjects are diverse, and represent common practical issues. Effective intra-net communication is vital to the existence of the network, and is accomplished by 3 modalities: 1) semiannual updates by mail, 2) e-mail, using an electronic mailing list to facilitate connection between members, 3) semi-annual meetings. Research budgets are derived from public sources like the Ministry of Health and IAPA, and private sources such as pharmaceutical companies. The administration of the network is supported by Schneider Children's Medical Center, and financed by IAPA. PMID:10955149

  18. Electronic Data Collection Options for Practice-Based Research Networks

    PubMed Central

    Pace, Wilson D.; Staton, Elizabeth W.

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE We wanted to describe the potential benefits and problems associated with selected electronic methods of collecting data within practice-based research networks (PBRNs). METHODS We considered a literature review, discussions with PBRN researchers, industry information, and personal experience. This article presents examples of selected PBRNs’ use of electronic data collection. RESULTS Collecting research data in the geographically dispersed PBRN environment requires considerable coordination to ensure completeness, accuracy, and timely transmission of the data, as well as a limited burden on the participants. Electronic data collection, particularly at the point of care, offers some potential solutions. Electronic systems allow use of transparent decision algorithms and improved data entry and data integrity. These systems may improve data transfer to the central office as well as tracking systems for monitoring study progress. PBRNs have available to them a wide variety of electronic data collection options, including notebook computers, tablet PCs, personal digital assistants (PDAs), and browser-based systems that operate independent of or over the Internet. Tablet PCs appear particularly advantageous for direct patient data collection in an office environment. PDAs work well for collecting defined data elements at the point of care. Internet-based systems work well for data collection that can be completed after the patient visit, as most primary care offices do not support Internet connectivity in examination rooms. CONCLUSIONS When planning to collect data electronically, it is important to match the electronic data collection method to the study design. Focusing an inappropriate electronic data collection method onto users can interfere with accurate data gathering and may also anger PBRN members. PMID:15928215

  19. An Analysis for the Use of Research and Education Networks and Commercial Network Vendors in Support of Space Based Mission Critical and Non-Critical Networking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradford, Robert N.

    2002-01-01

    Currently, and in the past, dedicated communication circuits and "network services" with very stringent performance requirements are being used to support manned and unmanned mission critical ground operations at GSFC, JSC, MSFC, KSC and other NASA facilities. Because of the evolution of network technology, it is time to investigate using other approaches to providing mission services for space ground operations. The current NASA approach is not in keeping with the evolution of network technologies. In the past decade various research and education networks dedicated to scientific and educational endeavors have emerged, as well as commercial networking providers, that employ advanced networking technologies. These technologies have significantly changed networking in recent years. Significant advances in network routing techniques, various topologies and equipment have made commercial networks very stable and virtually error free. Advances in Dense Wave Division Multiplexing will provide tremendous amounts of bandwidth for the future. The question is: Do these networks, which are controlled and managed centrally, provide a level of service that equals the stringent NASA performance requirements. If they do, what are the implication(s) of using them for critical space based ground operations as they are, without adding high cost contractual performance requirements? A second question is the feasibility of applying the emerging grid technology in space operations. Is it feasible to develop a Space Operations Grid and/or a Space Science Grid? Since these network's connectivity is substantial, both nationally and internationally, development of these sorts of grids may be feasible. The concept of research and education networks has evolved to the international community as well. Currently there are international RENs connecting the US in Chicago to and from Europe, South America, Asia and the Pacific rim, Russia and Canada. And most countries in these areas have their

  20. Patient Informed Governance of Distributed Research Networks: Results and Discussion from Six Patient Focus Groups

    PubMed Central

    Mamo, Laura A.; Browe, Dennis K.; Logan, Holly C.; Kim, Katherine K.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how to govern emerging distributed research networks is essential to their success. Distributed research networks aggregate patient medical data from many institutions leaving data within the local provider security system. While much is known about patients’ views on secondary medical research, little is known about their views on governance of research networks. We conducted six focus groups with patients from three medical centers across the U.S. to understand their perspectives on privacy, consent, and ethical concerns of sharing their data as part of research networks. Participants positively endorsed sharing their health data with these networks believing that doing so could advance healthcare knowledge. However, patients expressed several concerns regarding security and broader ethical issues such as commercialism, public benefit, and social responsibility. We suggest that network governance guidelines move beyond strict technical requirements and address wider socio-ethical concerns by fully including patients in governance processes. PMID:24551383

  1. Mapping the Field of Educational Administration Research: A Journal Citation Network Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yinying; Bowers, Alex J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to uncover how knowledge is exchanged and disseminated in the educational administration research literature through the journal citation network. Design/ Methodology/Approach: Drawing upon social network theory and citation network studies in other disciplines, the authors constructed an educational…

  2. [AFNET. A translational research network develops into an academic research organization].

    PubMed

    Kirchhof, Paulus; Goette, Andreas; Näbauer, Michael; Schotten, Ulrich

    2016-04-01

    "The whole is greater than the sum of its parts" (Aristotle).Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia and affects 1-2 % of the population in developed countries, especially the elderly. We expect that the prevalence of AF will double in the next few decades. The last decades have seen important improvements in the management of atrial fibrillation, but many questions remain regarding the optimal diagnosis and management of the condition. The German Atrial Fibrillation NETwork (AFNET) was one of three cardiovascular competence networks in medicine funded by the German Ministry of Education and Research between 2003-2014. AFNET has contributed to the understanding of atrial fibrillation, and AFNET-led studies have led to improved clinical practices and practice guidelines in Germany and in Europe. This work has been expanded and is continuing in the AFNET association (AFNET e. V.). The AFNET association, founded in 2010 and continuing to this day, has developed into a small but fully formed academic research organisation that conducts investigator-initiated clinical trials as the responsible sponsor in Germany, Europe, and beyond. The AFNET association currently cooperates with EHRA (The European Heart Rhythm Association), ESC (The European Society of Cardiology) and DZHK (The German Centre for Cardiovascular Research) and receives funding from the European Union to generate evidence that can in the future lead to better prevention and management of AF. PMID:26979716

  3. A Statistical Approach to Scanning the Biomedical Literature for Pharmacogenetics Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, Daniel L.; Thorn, Caroline F.; Klein, Teri E.; Altman, Russ B.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Biomedical databases summarize current scientific knowledge, but they generally require years of laborious curation effort to build, focusing on identifying pertinent literature and data in the voluminous biomedical literature. It is difficult to manually extract useful information embedded in the large volumes of literature, and automated intelligent text analysis tools are becoming increasingly essential to assist in these curation activities. The goal of the authors was to develop an automated method to identify articles in Medline citations that contain pharmacogenetics data pertaining to gene–drug relationships. Design: The authors built and evaluated several candidate statistical models that characterize pharmacogenetics articles in terms of word usage and the profile of Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) used in those articles. The best-performing model was used to scan the entire Medline article database (11 million articles) to identify candidate pharmacogenetics articles. Results: A sampling of the articles identified from scanning Medline was reviewed by a pharmacologist to assess the precision of the method. The authors' approach identified 4,892 pharmacogenetics articles in the literature with 92% precision. Their automated method took a fraction of the time to acquire these articles compared with the time expected to be taken to accumulate them manually. The authors have built a Web resource (http://pharmdemo.stanford.edu/pharmdb/main.spy) to provide access to their results. Conclusion: A statistical classification approach can screen the primary literature to pharmacogenetics articles with high precision. Such methods may assist curators in acquiring pertinent literature in building biomedical databases. PMID:15561790

  4. Paediatric Obesity Research in Early Childhood and the Primary Care Setting: The TARGet Kids! Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Morinis, Julia; Maguire, Jonathon; Khovratovich, Marina; McCrindle, Brian W.; Parkin, Patricia C.; Birken, Catherine S.

    2012-01-01

    Primary paediatric health care is the foundation for preventative child health. In light of the recent obesity epidemic, paediatricians find themselves at the frontline of identification and management of childhood obesity. However, it is well recognized that evidence based approaches to obesity prevention and subsequent translation of this evidence into practice are critically needed. This paper explores the role of primary care in obesity prevention and introduces a novel application and development of a primary care research network in Canada—TARGet Kids!—to develop and translate an evidence-base on effective screening and prevention of childhood obesity. PMID:22690197

  5. Understanding Naltrexone Mechanism of Action and Pharmacogenetics in Asian Americans via Behavioral Economics: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Bujarski, Spencer; MacKillop, James; Ray, Lara A.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale A behavioral economic approach to understanding the relative value of alcohol may be useful for advancing medication development for alcoholism. Naltrexone is a heavily researched and moderately effective treatment for alcohol dependence making it a good candidate for a proof-of-concept study of behavioral economics and alcoholism pharmacotherapy. Objectives This study examines naltrexone efficacy and pharmacogenetics in terms of the relative value of alcohol, assessed via demand curve analysis. Materials and Methods Participants were 35 heavy drinking (AUDIT ≥ 8) Asian Americans. A within-subjects cross-over medication design was used along with an intravenous alcohol challenge completed after four days of both naltrexone and placebo. At baseline and BrAC = 0.06 g/dl, participants completed an Alcohol Purchase Task, which assessed estimated alcohol consumption along escalating prices. Behavioral economic demand curve analysis yielded measures of Intensity, Elasticity, maximum expenditure (Omax), proportionate price insensitivity (Pmax) and breakpoint. Results Compared to placebo, naltrexone significantly reduced Intensity, Omax and breakpoint. There were also a trend level medication effects on Pmax. BrAC was associated with increases in Pmax and breakpoint. A significant naltrexone × OPRM1 genotype interaction was observed for intensity of demand. Conclusion The present study extends the literature on naltrexone’s mechanisms through the application of a novel behavioral economic paradigm. These results indicate that naltrexone reduces several indices of demand for alcohol. This preliminary report provides further evidence for the effectiveness of naltrexone and supports the utility of a behavioral economic approach to alcoholism pharmacotherapy development. PMID:22429255

  6. 40 years of biannual family medicine research meetings – The European General Practice Research Network (EGPRN)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To document family medicine research in the 25 EGPRN member countries in 2010. Design Semi-structured survey with open-ended questions. Setting Academic family medicine in 23 European countries, Israel, and Turkey. Subjects 25 EGPRN national representatives. Main outcome measures Demographics of the general population and family medicine. Assessments, opinions, and suggestions. Results EGPRN has represented family medicine for almost half a billion people and > 300 000 general practitioners (GPs). Turkey had the largest number of family medicine departments and highest density of GPs, 2.1/1000 people, Belgium had 1.7, Austria 1.6, and France 1.5. Lowest GP density was reported from Israel 0.17, Greece 0.18, and Slovenia 0.4 GPs per 1000 people. Family medicine research networks were reported by 22 of 25 and undergraduate family medicine research education in 20 of the 25 member countries, and in 10 countries students were required to do research projects. Postgraduate family medicine research was reported by 18 of the member countries. Open-ended responses showed that EGPRN meetings promoted stimulating and interesting research questions such as comparative studies of chronic pain management, sleep disorders, elderly care, healthy lifestyle promotion, mental health, clinical competence, and appropriateness of specialist referrals. Many respondents reported a lack of interest in family medicine research related to poor incentives and low family medicine status in general and among medical students in particular. It was suggested that EGPRN exert political lobbying for family medicine research. Conclusion Since 1974, EGPRN organizes biannual conferences that unite and promote primary care practice, clinical research and academic family medicine in 25 member countries. PMID:24191874

  7. Research of neural network application in methane gas spectrum sensing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Meng-ran; Zhang, Haiqing; Wu, Hongwei; Yu, Gang

    2010-10-01

    Laser spectroscopy combined with neural network approach is a new method of monitoring coal mine gas. This research analyses of gas concentration and predicts the process of modeling using BP neural network finds changes law of concentration, gives the various parameters settings of neural network. Experimental results show that, BP neural network for early warning of gas concentration is feasible. The study meets an online, real-time, fast agreement of China's Coal Mine Gas monitoring systems.

  8. ICOS Sweden - a national infrastructure network for greenhouse gas research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindroth, Anders; Heliasz, Michal; Klemedtsson, Leif; Friborg, Thomas; Nilsson, Mats; Ottosson Löfvenius, Mikaell; Rutgersson, Anna; Stiegler, Christian

    2015-04-01

    ICOS Sweden operates a measurement network consisting of seven field stations representing major Swedish ecosystems (forests, wetlands, crop sites and marine) and climatic conditions. Three sites also host atmospheric measurements in high towers. In addition to ICOS activities, the stations are open to all researchers wishing to perform complementary studies. The ICOS Sweden ecosystem and atmospheric stations are all equipped according to the ICOS "class 1" criteria, and will be fully operational in beginning of 2015. All ICOS Sweden field stations are equipped with mains power, internet, computers and staff meaning that many other projects, both long-term and short-term, can be linked to them - for example, in the fields of meteorology, hydrology, biodiversity, land and soil studies etc. ICOS Sweden is comprised of the following stations; Abisko-Stordalen (subarctic mire), Degerö (boreal mire), Svartberget (boreal pine/spruce forest + atmospheric observations), Norunda (hemi boreal pine/spruce forest + atmospheric observations), Lanna (cropland), Östergarnsholm (marine) and Hyltemossa (southern boreal spruce + atmospheric observations).

  9. The Stillbirth Collaborative Research Network Neuropathologic Examination Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Pinar, Halit; Koch, Matthew A.; Hawkins, Hal; Heim-Hall, Josefine; Shehata, Bahig; Thorsten, Vanessa R.; Chin, Steven; Willinger, Marian; Monte, Suzanne dela

    2015-01-01

    We describe the neuropathologic procedure utilized in the Stillbirth Collaborative Research Network (SCRN), focusing on the examination of central nervous system (CNS) in stillbirth (SB). The SCRN was organized to perform a case-control study to determine the scope and causes of SB. Pathologists at all the participating centers agreed on and used the same standardized neuropathologic techniques. Standardized sections were taken and detailed data were collected. Fresh brain tissue was saved for investigative purposes. A total of 663 women with SB were enrolled into the case-control study: 620 delivered a single stillborn, 42 delivered twins, and 1 delivered triplets. Of the 560 (84.5%) who consented to postmortem examination, 465 (70.1%) also gave consent to the examination of the CNS. In the 440 stillborn infants in whom CNS examination was possible, 248 (56.4%) of the brains were intact, 72 were fragmented (16.4%), and 120 (27.3%) were liquefied. In summary, this is the largest prospective study dedicated to investigate the causes of SB and collect essential information and biological samples in the United States. A protocol for neuropathologic examination was instituted, and a brain tissue repository was created to provide samples and related data for future investigations. PMID:21780010

  10. Research of home networking system based on XML/BACnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhongming

    2008-11-01

    To standardize home networking information and simplify its management, this paper form a universal information module of various devices in home networking by adopting XML technology and BACnet protocol(XML/BACnet). Then, a software architecture of home networking based on this module is designed, having the function like auto management and maintenance, safety, real-time and remote controlling. Consequently, a home networking system based on this architecture is completed. Tested and evaluated, this system is one easy-using, easy-realizing, nice real-time system with strong heterogeneity and stable safety system.

  11. Research on invulnerability of equipment support information network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiao; Liu, Bin; Zhong, Qigen; Cao, Zhiyi

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, the entity composition of equipment support information network is studied, and the network abstract model is built. The influence factors of the invulnerability of equipment support information network are analyzed, and the invulnerability capabilities under random attack are analyzed. According to the centrality theory, the materiality evaluation centralities of the nodes are given, and the invulnerability capabilities under selective attack are analyzed. Finally, the reasons that restrict the invulnerability of equipment support information network are summarized, and the modified principles and methods are given.

  12. Participatory Research: An Emerging Alternative Methodology in Social Science Research. Participatory Research Network Series No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassam, Yusuf, Ed.; Mustafa, Kemal, Ed.

    This book, consisting of a series of discussion papers and case studies, is a compilation of the papers presented at a region 1 workshop on participatory research in Africa. Included in the volume are the following discussion papers: "The Concept of Development in the Social Sciences," by Kemal Mustafa and Deborah Bryceson; "The Politics of…

  13. Establishment of the Ivermectin Research for Malaria Elimination Network: updating the research agenda.

    PubMed

    Chaccour, Carlos J; Rabinovich, N Regina; Slater, Hannah; Canavati, Sara E; Bousema, Teun; Lacerda, Marcus; Ter Kuile, Feiko; Drakeley, Chris; Bassat, Quique; Foy, Brian D; Kobylinski, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The potential use of ivermectin as an additional vector control tool is receiving increased attention from the malaria elimination community, driven by the increased importance of outdoor/residual malaria transmission and the threat of insecticide resistance where vector tools have been scaled-up. This report summarizes the emerging evidence presented at a side meeting on "Ivermectin for malaria elimination: current status and future directions" at the annual meeting of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene in New Orleans on November 4, 2014. One outcome was the creation of the "Ivermectin Research for Malaria Elimination Network" whose main goal is to establish a common research agenda to generate the evidence base on whether ivermectin-based strategies should be added to the emerging arsenal to interrupt malaria transmission. PMID:26068560

  14. Convening a Network within the European Conference on Educational Research: A History of the Social Justice and Intercultural Education Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatti, Ghazala; Leeman, Yvonne

    2011-01-01

    The experience of initiating and sustaining a research-based dialogue on social justice and intercultural education in Europe requires both flexibility and focus. This article highlights the challenges facing convenors of one network, who wish to include researchers from diverse backgrounds, while at the same time enhancing the academic quality of…

  15. Leveraging the Relationship: Knowledge Processes in School-University Research Networks of Master's Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornelissen, Frank; Daly, Alan J.; Liou, Yi-Hwa; Van Swet, Jacqueline; Beijaard, Douwe; Bergen, Theo C. M.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the way developing, sharing and using of research-based knowledge occurred in the school-university research network of a master's programme for in-service teachers in the Netherlands. Over a 10-month period, a combination of quantitative and qualitative network data was collected. Data were analysed at three network…

  16. Using Action Research and Action Learning for Entrepreneurial Network Capability Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, Helen; O'Toole, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This paper applies an action research (AR) design and action learning (AL) approach to network capability development in an entrepreneurial context. Recent research suggests that networks are a viable strategy for the entrepreneurial firm to overcome the liabilities associated with newness and smallness. However, a gap emerges as few, if any,…

  17. Teaching the Geoweb: Interdisciplinary Undergraduate Research in Wireless Sensor Networks, Web Mapping, and Geospatial Data Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abernathy, David

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses an effort to incorporate wireless sensor networks and the emerging tools of the Geoweb into undergraduate teaching and research at a small liberal arts college. The primary goal of the research was to identify the hardware, software, and skill sets needed to deploy a local sensor network, collect data, and transmit that data…

  18. Establishing a Practice-Based Research Network: Lessons from the Massachusetts Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pulcini, Joyce; Sheetz, Anne; DeSisto, Marie

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the recently established Massachusetts School Nurse Research Network (MASNRN) which has a mission of establishing a practice-based research network (PBRN) comprised of a representative, collaborative group of professional school nurses, nurse academicians, and other interested parties for whom school health is a priority.…

  19. A Mixed-Methods Social Networks Study Design for Research on Transnational Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernardi, Laura

    2011-01-01

    This paper advocates the adoption of a mixed-methods research design to describe and analyze ego-centered social networks in transnational family research. Drawing on the experience of the "Social Networks Influences on Family Formation" project (2004-2005; see Bernardi, Keim, & von der Lippe, 2007a, 2007b), I show how the combined use of network…

  20. Hierarchical Network Models for Education Research: Hierarchical Latent Space Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweet, Tracy M.; Thomas, Andrew C.; Junker, Brian W.

    2013-01-01

    Intervention studies in school systems are sometimes aimed not at changing curriculum or classroom technique, but rather at changing the way that teachers, teaching coaches, and administrators in schools work with one another--in short, changing the professional social networks of educators. Current methods of social network analysis are…

  1. Social Network Analysis to Evaluate an Interdisciplinary Research Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aboelela, Sally W.; Merrill, Jacqueline A.; Carley, Kathleen M.; Larson, Elaine

    2007-01-01

    We sought to examine the growth of an interdisciplinary center using social network analysis techniques. Specific aims were to examine the patterns of growth and interdisciplinary connectedness of the Center and to identify the social network characteristics of its productive members. The setting for this study was The Center for Interdisciplinary…

  2. The Georgia Psychoeducational Network (GPN) Research Report, 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swan, William W., Ed.; Brown, Carvin L., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    This collection of papers includes five articles on the education of students with emotional and/or behavioral disorders participating in the Georgia Psychoeducational Network Program (GPN). "Training Needs of Fully Certified BD Teachers in the Georgia Psychoeducational Network" (Robert J. Stansberry) found, in a survey of 203 certified teachers…

  3. Reappraisal of Social Network Research in Educational Contexts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scherer, Jacqueline

    Three network studies in education are reviewed in order to assess the current "state of the art." New directions for developing social network analysis (SNA) in education, based upon experiences from a study of school-community relations in Pontiac, Michigan, are suggested. One concern for the future of SNA stems from the elevation of distrust…

  4. Citation Networks as Indicators of Journalism Research Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tankard, James W., Jr.; And Others

    One method of identifying important areas and books within a field is through citation counts--noting the number of times a work is referred to in the literature. These counts can be supplemented with citation networks, in which links between articles are formed by such methods as direct citation and cocitation. Citation counts and networks were…

  5. Research on dynamic routing mechanisms in wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Zhao, A Q; Weng, Y N; Lu, Y; Liu, C Y

    2014-01-01

    WirelessHART is the most widely applied standard in wireless sensor networks nowadays. However, it does not provide any dynamic routing mechanism, which is important for the reliability and robustness of the wireless network applications. In this paper, a collection tree protocol based, dynamic routing mechanism was proposed for WirelessHART network. The dynamic routing mechanism was evaluated through several simulation experiments in three aspects: time for generating the topology, link quality, and stability of network. Besides, the data transmission efficiency of this routing mechanism was analyzed. The simulation and evaluation results show that this mechanism can act as a dynamic routing mechanism for the TDMA-based wireless sensor network. PMID:24982927

  6. Research on urban public traffic network with multi-weights based on single bus transfer junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Xin-lei; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Jian-gang

    2015-10-01

    Regarding single bus transfer junction as a research object, this paper constructs the urban traffic network models with multi-weights taking different bus lines in bus transfer junction as the network nodes, that is, the urban traffic network with multi-weights is given different properties weights at every edge. According to the method of network split, the complex network with multi-weights is split into several different single weighted complex networks. Then, we study the global synchronization of the new network model by changing congestion degrees, transfers coefficient and passenger flow density between different bus lines. Finally, analytical and simulated results are given to show the impact of different properties weights to the public traffic network balance.

  7. Some data-driven reflections on priorities in AIDS network research.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Samuel R; Bolyard, Melissa; Mateu-Gelabert, Pedro; Goltzman, Paula; Pawlowicz, Maria Pia; Singh, Dhan Zunino; Touze, Graciela; Rossi, Diana; Maslow, Carey; Sandoval, Milagros; Flom, Peter L

    2007-09-01

    Risk networks can transmit HIV or other infections; social networks can transmit social influence and thus help shape norms and behaviors. This primarily-theoretical paper starts with a review of network concepts, and then presents data from a New York network study to study patterns of sexual and injection linkages among IDUs and other drug users and nonusers, men who have sex with men, women who have sex with women, other men and other women in a high-risk community and the distribution of HIV, sex at group sex events, and health intravention behaviors in this network. It then discusses how risk network microstructures might influence HIV epidemics and urban vulnerability to epidemics; what social and other forces (such as "Big Events" like wars or ecological disasters) might shape networks and their associated norms, intraventions, practices and behaviors; and how network theory and research have and may continue to contribute to developing interventions against HIV epidemics. PMID:17053857

  8. Development of the Massachusetts School Nurse Research Network (MASNRN): A Practice-Based Research Network to Improve the Quality of School Nursing Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vessey, Judith A.

    2007-01-01

    When school nurses embrace evidence-based practice (EBP), higher-quality care is provided to students, their families, and the larger community. Despite this, school nursing has been slow to embrace EBP. Practice-Based Research Networks (PBRNs), which capitalize on the combined strengths of clinicians and researchers to study clinical questions,…

  9. [ECRIN (European clinical research infrastructures network), a pan-European infrastructure for clinical research].

    PubMed

    Demotes-Mainard, Jacques

    2010-12-01

    Clinical research plays a key role both in the development of innovative health products and in the optimisation of medical strategies, leading to evidence-based practice and healthcare cost containment. ECRIN is a distributed ESFRI-roadmap pan-European infrastructure designed to support multinational clinical research, making Europe a single area for clinical studies, taking advantage of its population size to access patients, and unlocking latent scientific providing services to multinational. Servicing of multinational trials started during the preparatory phase, and ECRIN has applied for ERIC status in 2011. In parallel, ECRIN has also proposed an FP7 integrating activity project to further develop, upgrade and expand the ECRIN infrastructure built up during the past FP6 and FP7 projects, facilitating an efficient organization of clinical research in Europe, with ECRIN developing generic tools and providing generic services for multinational studies, and supporting the construction of pan-European disease-oriented networks that will in turn act as ECRIN users. This organization will improve Europe's attractiveness for industry trials, boost its scientific competitiveness, and result in better healthcare for European citizens. The three medical areas supported in this project (rare diseases, medical devices, and nutrition) will serve as pilots for other biomedical research fields. By creating a single area for clinical research in Europe, this structure will contribute to the implementation of the Europe flagship initiative 2020 'Innovation Union', whose objectives include defragmentation of research and educational capacities, tackling the major societal challenges (starting with healthy aging), and removing barriers to bringing ideas to the market. PMID:22043593

  10. Is a practice-based rural research network feasible in Europe?

    PubMed

    Klemenc-Ketis, Zalika; Kurpas, Donata; Tsiligianni, Ioanna; Petrazzuoli, Ferdinando; Jacquet, Jean-Pierre; Buono, Nicola; Lopez-Abuin, Jose; Lionis, Christos

    2015-01-01

    Research in family medicine is a well-established entity nationally and internationally, covering all aspects of primary care including remote and isolated practices. However, due to limited capacity and resources in rural family medicine, its potential is not fully exploited yet. An idea to foster European rural primary care research by establishing a practice-based research network has been recently put forward by several members of the European Rural and Isolated Practitioners Association (EURIPA) and the European General Practice Research Network (EGPRN). Two workshops on why, and how to design a practice-based research network among rural family practices in Europe were conducted at two international meetings. This paper revisits the definition of practice-based research in family medicine, reflects on the current situation in Europe regarding the research in rural family practice, and discusses a rationale for practice-based research in rural family medicine. A SWOT analysis was used as the main tool to analyse the current situation in Europe regarding the research in rural family practice at both meetings. The key messages gained from these meetings may be employed by the Wonca Working Party on research, the International Federation of Primary Care Research Network and the EGPRN that seek to introduce a practice-based research approach. The cooperation and collaboration between EURIPA and EGPRN creates a fertile ground to discuss further the prospect of a European practice-based rural family medicine research network, and to draw on the joint experience. PMID:26134091

  11. Architecture of the Multi-Modal Organizational Research and Production Heterogeneous Network (MORPHnet)

    SciTech Connect

    Aiken, R.J.; Carlson, R.A.; Foster, I.T.

    1997-01-01

    The research and education (R&E) community requires persistent and scaleable network infrastructure to concurrently support production and research applications as well as network research. In the past, the R&E community has relied on supporting parallel network and end-node infrastructures, which can be very expensive and inefficient for network service managers and application programmers. The grand challenge in networking is to provide support for multiple, concurrent, multi-layer views of the network for the applications and the network researchers, and to satisfy the sometimes conflicting requirements of both while ensuring one type of traffic does not adversely affect the other. Internet and telecommunications service providers will also benefit from a multi-modal infrastructure, which can provide smoother transitions to new technologies and allow for testing of these technologies with real user traffic while they are still in the pre-production mode. The authors proposed approach requires the use of as much of the same network and end system infrastructure as possible to reduce the costs needed to support both classes of activities (i.e., production and research). Breaking the infrastructure into segments and objects (e.g., routers, switches, multiplexors, circuits, paths, etc.) gives the capability to dynamically construct and configure the virtual active networks to address these requirements. These capabilities must be supported at the campus, regional, and wide-area network levels to allow for collaboration by geographically dispersed groups. The Multi-Modal Organizational Research and Production Heterogeneous Network (MORPHnet) described in this report is an initial architecture and framework designed to identify and support the capabilities needed for the proposed combined infrastructure and to address related research issues.

  12. A Federated Network for Translational Cancer Research Using Clinical Data and Biospecimens.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Rebecca S; Becich, Michael J; Bollag, Roni J; Chavan, Girish; Corrigan, Julia; Dhir, Rajiv; Feldman, Michael D; Gaudioso, Carmelo; Legowski, Elizabeth; Maihle, Nita J; Mitchell, Kevin; Murphy, Monica; Sakthivel, Mayurapriyan; Tseytlin, Eugene; Weaver, JoEllen

    2015-12-15

    Advances in cancer research and personalized medicine will require significant new bridging infrastructures, including more robust biorepositories that link human tissue to clinical phenotypes and outcomes. In order to meet that challenge, four cancer centers formed the Text Information Extraction System (TIES) Cancer Research Network, a federated network that facilitates data and biospecimen sharing among member institutions. Member sites can access pathology data that are de-identified and processed with the TIES natural language processing system, which creates a repository of rich phenotype data linked to clinical biospecimens. TIES incorporates multiple security and privacy best practices that, combined with legal agreements, network policies, and procedures, enable regulatory compliance. The TIES Cancer Research Network now provides integrated access to investigators at all member institutions, where multiple investigator-driven pilot projects are underway. Examples of federated search across the network illustrate the potential impact on translational research, particularly for studies involving rare cancers, rare phenotypes, and specific biologic behaviors. The network satisfies several key desiderata including local control of data and credentialing, inclusion of rich phenotype information, and applicability to diverse research objectives. The TIES Cancer Research Network presents a model for a national data and biospecimen network. PMID:26670560

  13. Guideline-defining asthma clinical trials of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Asthma Clinical Research Network and Childhood Asthma Research and Education Network.

    PubMed

    Denlinger, Loren C; Sorkness, Christine A; Chinchilli, Vernon M; Lemanske, Robert F

    2007-01-01

    Because of an increasing prevalence, morbidity, and mortality associated with asthma, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute created the Asthma Clinical Research Network and the Childhood Asthma Research and Education Network to improve public health. The objectives of these clinical research networks are to conduct multiple, well-designed clinical trials for rapid evaluation of new and existing therapeutic approaches to asthma and to disseminate laboratory and clinical findings to the health care community. These trials comprise a large proportion of the data driving the treatment guidelines established and reviewed by the National Asthma Education and Prevention Program. This article will review the basic design and major findings of selected Asthma Clinical Research Network and Childhood Asthma Research and Education Network trials involving both adults and children with asthma. Collectively, these studies have helped refine the therapeutic role of existing controller medications, establish standard models for side-effect evaluation and risk-benefit models, validate symptom-based assessments for asthma control, and identify baseline characteristics that might predict individual patient responses. Remaining challenges include shaping the role of novel therapeutics in future guidelines, incorporating pharmacogenomic data in treatment decisions, and establishing better implementation strategies for translation to community settings, all with the goal of reducing the asthma burden on society. PMID:17141853

  14. Bernard Lerer: Recipient of the 2014 Inaugural Werner Kalow Responsible Innovation Prize in Global Omics and Personalized Medicine (Pacific Rim Association for Clinical Pharmacogenetics)

    PubMed Central

    Aynacıoğlu, Şükrü; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Dandara, Collet; Dove, Edward S.; Ferguson, Lynnette R.; Geraci, Christy Jo; Hafen, Ernst; Kesim, Belgin Eroğlu; Kolker, Eugene; Lee, Edmund J.D.; LLerena, Adrian; Nacak, Muradiye; Shimoda, Kazutaka; Someya, Toshiyuki; Srivastava, Sanjeeva; Tomlinson, Brian; Vayena, Effy; Warnich, Louise; Yaşar, Ümit

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This article announces the recipient of the 2014 inaugural Werner Kalow Responsible Innovation Prize in Global Omics and Personalized Medicine by the Pacific Rim Association for Clinical Pharmacogenetics (PRACP): Bernard Lerer, professor of psychiatry and director of the Biological Psychiatry Laboratory, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel. The Werner Kalow Responsible Innovation Prize is given to an exceptional interdisciplinary scholar who has made highly innovative and enduring contributions to global omics science and personalized medicine, with both vertical and horizontal (transdisciplinary) impacts. The prize is established in memory of a beloved colleague, mentor, and friend, the late Professor Werner Kalow, who cultivated the idea and practice of pharmacogenetics in modern therapeutics commencing in the 1950s. PRACP, the prize's sponsor, is one of the longest standing learned societies in the Asia-Pacific region, and was founded by Kalow and colleagues more than two decades ago in the then-emerging field of pharmacogenetics. In announcing this inaugural prize and its winner, we seek to highlight the works of prize winner, Professor Lerer. Additionally, we contextualize the significance of the prize by recalling the life and works of Professor Kalow and providing a brief socio-technical history of the rise of pharmacogenetics and personalized medicine as a veritable form of 21st century scientific practice. The article also fills a void in previous social science analyses of pharmacogenetics, by bringing to the fore the works of Kalow from 1995 to 2008, when he presciently noted the rise of yet another field of postgenomics inquiry—pharmacoepigenetics—that railed against genetic determinism and underscored the temporal and spatial plasticity of genetic components of drug response, with invention of the repeated drug administration (RDA) method that estimates the dynamic heritabilities of drug response. The prize goes a

  15. Research collaboration in the discovery, development, and delivery networks of a statewide cancer coalition

    PubMed Central

    Provan, Keith G.; Leischow, Scott J.; Keagy, Judith; Nodora, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    This study examines and evaluates collaborative network involvement among 18 organizations within the Arizona Cancer Coalition. All were involved in one or more of three types of research activity: discovery, development, and delivery, consistent with the 3D continuum developed by the National Cancer Institute. Data were collected in 2007 using surveys of key informants in each organization. Using network analysis methods, we examined the structure of each type of network as well as the relationship between network position and the importance of cancer research to each organization’s mission. Findings indicated that while both the discovery and delivery networks were comparably densely connected, their centrality structures were quite different. In contrast, the structures of both these networks were similar to the development network. Centrality in the discovery and development networks was positively related to the importance of cancer research to the organization, but not in the delivery network. Implications of the findings for future research, policy, and planning are discussed. PMID:20061027

  16. winderosionnetwork.org - Portal to the National Wind Erosion Research Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, N.; Herrick, J. E.; Clingan, S.; Cooper, B.; Courtright, E.; LaPlante, V.; Van Zee, J.

    2015-12-01

    The National Wind Erosion Research Network was established in 2014 as a collaborative effort led by the USDA Agricultural Research Service and Natural Resources Conservation Service, and USDI Bureau of Land Management, to address the need for standardized measurements of wind erosion and its controlling factors. Data will be used to support model development and identification of improved land management strategies that have global applications. By applying standard methods, the Network will overcome the common challenge of synthesizing independent studies to assess local-to-national scale wind erosion and dust emission. Twelve intensively instrumented Network sites will be operational by spring 2016, providing high-resolution measurements of aeolian sediment transport rates, meteorological conditions and soil and vegetation properties. These initial sites are located across rangelands and croplands in New Mexico, Texas, Arizona, California, Nevada, Colorado, Utah, North Dakota, Idaho and Washington. A primary objective of the Network is to facilitate collaboration among Network sites and the wider research community to address basic research questions about aeolian processes, model development, and evaluate practical management options. In support of Network activities, winderosionnetwork.org was developed to serve as a Network data portal, and provide online information about the National Wind Erosion Research Network including protocols and results. The website provides a comprehensive resource for scientists and managers interested in engaging with the Network and accessing Network products. The Network provides exciting opportunities to engage in a national long-term wind erosion research program that promises significant impact for our understanding and ability to predict and evaluate aeolian processes across land cover types and land use systems.

  17. Pharmacogenetics of drug dependence: role of gene variations in susceptibility and treatment.

    PubMed

    Khokhar, Jibran Y; Ferguson, Charmaine S; Zhu, Andy Z X; Tyndale, Rachel F

    2010-01-01

    Drug dependency is a highly prevalent mental health disorder that imposes a significant burden on those directly affected, health care systems, and society in general. There is substantial heritability in the susceptibility to drug addiction, which indicates that there are genetic risk factors. Variation in the human genome is abundant and can directly affect drug dependency phenotypes, for example, by altering the function of a gene product or by altering gene expression. Pharmacogenetic studies can assess the effects of genetic variation on the risk for a particular phenotype (e.g., being an alcoholic). In addition, pharmacogenetic variability in treatment efficacy and adverse reactions can be investigated to identify particular genetic variants associated with altered responses. This review highlights examples of genetic variations that are important in the development and maintenance of specific drug dependencies as well as those that affect the response to treatment. PMID:20055697

  18. Pharmacogenetics in type 2 diabetes: influence on response to oral hypoglycemic agents.

    PubMed

    Dawed, Adem Yesuf; Zhou, Kaixin; Pearson, Ewan Robert

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality, consuming a significant proportion of public health spending. Oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs) are the frontline treatment approaches after lifestyle changes. However, huge interindividual variation in response to OHAs results in unnecessary treatment failure. In addition to nongenetic factors, genetic factors are thought to contribute to much of such variability, highlighting the importance of the potential of pharmacogenetics to improve therapeutic outcome. Despite the presence of conflicting results, significant progress has been made in an effort to identify the genetic markers associated with pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and ultimately therapeutic response and/or adverse outcomes to OHAs. As such, this article presents a comprehensive review of current knowledge on pharmacogenetics of OHAs and provides insights into knowledge gaps and future directions. PMID:27103840

  19. Pharmacogenetics informed decision making in adolescent psychiatric treatment: a clinical case report.

    PubMed

    Smith, Teri; Sharp, Susan; Manzardo, Ann M; Butler, Merlin G

    2015-01-01

    Advances made in genetic testing and tools applied to pharmacogenetics are increasingly being used to inform clinicians in fields such as oncology, hematology, diabetes (endocrinology), cardiology and expanding into psychiatry by examining the influences of genetics on drug efficacy and metabolism. We present a clinical case example of an adolescent male with anxiety, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder who did not tolerate numerous medications and dosages over several years in attempts to manage his symptoms. Pharmacogenetics testing was performed and DNA results on this individual elucidated the potential pitfalls in medication use because of specific pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic differences specifically involving polymorphisms of genes in the cytochrome p450 enzyme system. Future studies and reports are needed to further illustrate and determine the type of individualized medicine approach required to treat individuals based on their specific gene patterns. Growing evidence supports this biological approach for standard of care in psychiatry. PMID:25710722

  20. Pharmacogenetic meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of LDL cholesterol response to statins.

    PubMed

    Postmus, Iris; Trompet, Stella; Deshmukh, Harshal A; Barnes, Michael R; Li, Xiaohui; Warren, Helen R; Chasman, Daniel I; Zhou, Kaixin; Arsenault, Benoit J; Donnelly, Louise A; Wiggins, Kerri L; Avery, Christy L; Griffin, Paula; Feng, QiPing; Taylor, Kent D; Li, Guo; Evans, Daniel S; Smith, Albert V; de Keyser, Catherine E; Johnson, Andrew D; de Craen, Anton J M; Stott, David J; Buckley, Brendan M; Ford, Ian; Westendorp, Rudi G J; Slagboom, P Eline; Sattar, Naveed; Munroe, Patricia B; Sever, Peter; Poulter, Neil; Stanton, Alice; Shields, Denis C; O'Brien, Eoin; Shaw-Hawkins, Sue; Chen, Y-D Ida; Nickerson, Deborah A; Smith, Joshua D; Dubé, Marie Pierre; Boekholdt, S Matthijs; Hovingh, G Kees; Kastelein, John J P; McKeigue, Paul M; Betteridge, John; Neil, Andrew; Durrington, Paul N; Doney, Alex; Carr, Fiona; Morris, Andrew; McCarthy, Mark I; Groop, Leif; Ahlqvist, Emma; Bis, Joshua C; Rice, Kenneth; Smith, Nicholas L; Lumley, Thomas; Whitsel, Eric A; Stürmer, Til; Boerwinkle, Eric; Ngwa, Julius S; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Wei, Wei-Qi; Wilke, Russell A; Liu, Ching-Ti; Sun, Fangui; Guo, Xiuqing; Heckbert, Susan R; Post, Wendy; Sotoodehnia, Nona; Arnold, Alice M; Stafford, Jeanette M; Ding, Jingzhong; Herrington, David M; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Launer, Leonore J; Harris, Tamara B; Chu, Audrey Y; Giulianini, Franco; MacFadyen, Jean G; Barratt, Bryan J; Nyberg, Fredrik; Stricker, Bruno H; Uitterlinden, André G; Hofman, Albert; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Emilsson, Valur; Franco, Oscar H; Ridker, Paul M; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Liu, Yongmei; Denny, Joshua C; Ballantyne, Christie M; Rotter, Jerome I; Adrienne Cupples, L; Psaty, Bruce M; Palmer, Colin N A; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Colhoun, Helen M; Hitman, Graham; Krauss, Ronald M; Wouter Jukema, J; Caulfield, Mark J

    2014-01-01

    Statins effectively lower LDL cholesterol levels in large studies and the observed interindividual response variability may be partially explained by genetic variation. Here we perform a pharmacogenetic meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in studies addressing the LDL cholesterol response to statins, including up to 18,596 statin-treated subjects. We validate the most promising signals in a further 22,318 statin recipients and identify two loci, SORT1/CELSR2/PSRC1 and SLCO1B1, not previously identified in GWAS. Moreover, we confirm the previously described associations with APOE and LPA. Our findings advance the understanding of the pharmacogenetic architecture of statin response. PMID:25350695

  1. Pharmacogenetics of leptin in antipsychotic-associated weight gain and obesity-related complications

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Amy K; Bishop, Jefrey R

    2013-01-01

    Second-generation antipsychotics can greatly improve symptoms of psychosis-spectrum disorders. Unfortunately, these drugs are associated with weight gain, which increases a patient’s risk for developing chronic diseases including Type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases or other obesity-related complications. There are interindividual differences in weight gain resulting from antipsychotic drug use that may be explained by pharmacodynamic characteristics of these agents as well as clinical factors. In addition, genetic variations in pathways associated with satiety are increasingly recognized as potential contributors to antipsychotic-associated weight gain. Polymorphisms in the leptin gene, as well as the leptin receptor gene, are potential pharmacogenetic markers associated with these outcomes. This article summarizes evidence for the associations of the leptin gene and the leptin receptor gene polymorphisms with antipsychotic-induced weight gain, potential mechanisms underlying these relationships, and discusses areas for future pharmacogenetic investigation. PMID:21787190

  2. Pharmacogenetics Informed Decision Making in Adolescent Psychiatric Treatment: A Clinical Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Teri; Sharp, Susan; Manzardo, Ann M.; Butler, Merlin G.

    2015-01-01

    Advances made in genetic testing and tools applied to pharmacogenetics are increasingly being used to inform clinicians in fields such as oncology, hematology, diabetes (endocrinology), cardiology and expanding into psychiatry by examining the influences of genetics on drug efficacy and metabolism. We present a clinical case example of an adolescent male with anxiety, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder who did not tolerate numerous medications and dosages over several years in attempts to manage his symptoms. Pharmacogenetics testing was performed and DNA results on this individual elucidated the potential pitfalls in medication use because of specific pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic differences specifically involving polymorphisms of genes in the cytochrome p450 enzyme system. Future studies and reports are needed to further illustrate and determine the type of individualized medicine approach required to treat individuals based on their specific gene patterns. Growing evidence supports this biological approach for standard of care in psychiatry. PMID:25710722

  3. Pharmacogenetic meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of LDL cholesterol response to statins

    PubMed Central

    Postmus, Iris; Trompet, Stella; Deshmukh, Harshal A.; Barnes, Michael R.; Li, Xiaohui; Warren, Helen R.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Zhou, Kaixin; Arsenault, Benoit J.; Donnelly, Louise A.; Wiggins, Kerri L.; Avery, Christy L.; Griffin, Paula; Feng, QiPing; Taylor, Kent D.; Li, Guo; Evans, Daniel S.; Smith, Albert V.; de Keyser, Catherine E.; Johnson, Andrew D.; de Craen, Anton J. M.; Stott, David J.; Buckley, Brendan M.; Ford, Ian; Westendorp, Rudi G. J.; Eline Slagboom, P.; Sattar, Naveed; Munroe, Patricia B.; Sever, Peter; Poulter, Neil; Stanton, Alice; Shields, Denis C.; O’Brien, Eoin; Shaw-Hawkins, Sue; Ida Chen, Y.-D.; Nickerson, Deborah A.; Smith, Joshua D.; Pierre Dubé, Marie; Matthijs Boekholdt, S.; Kees Hovingh, G.; Kastelein, John J. P.; McKeigue, Paul M.; Betteridge, John; Neil, Andrew; Durrington, Paul N.; Doney, Alex; Carr, Fiona; Morris, Andrew; McCarthy, Mark I.; Groop, Leif; Ahlqvist, Emma; Bis, Joshua C.; Rice, Kenneth; Smith, Nicholas L.; Lumley, Thomas; Whitsel, Eric A.; Stürmer, Til; Boerwinkle, Eric; Ngwa, Julius S.; O’Donnell, Christopher J.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Wei, Wei-Qi; Wilke, Russell A.; Liu, Ching-Ti; Sun, Fangui; Guo, Xiuqing; Heckbert, Susan R; Post, Wendy; Sotoodehnia, Nona; Arnold, Alice M.; Stafford, Jeanette M.; Ding, Jingzhong; Herrington, David M.; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Launer, Leonore J.; Harris, Tamara B.; Chu, Audrey Y.; Giulianini, Franco; MacFadyen, Jean G.; Barratt, Bryan J.; Nyberg, Fredrik; Stricker, Bruno H.; Uitterlinden, André G.; Hofman, Albert; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Emilsson, Valur; Franco, Oscar H.; Ridker, Paul M.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Liu, Yongmei; Denny, Joshua C.; Ballantyne, Christie M.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Adrienne Cupples, L.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Colhoun, Helen M.; Hitman, Graham; Krauss, Ronald M.; Wouter Jukema, J; Caulfield, Mark J.; Donnelly, Peter; Barroso, Ines; Blackwell, Jenefer M.; Bramon, Elvira; Brown, Matthew A.; Casas, Juan P.; Corvin, Aiden; Deloukas, Panos; Duncanson, Audrey; Jankowski, Janusz; Markus, Hugh S.; Mathew, Christopher G.; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Plomin, Robert; Rautanen, Anna; Sawcer, Stephen J.; Trembath, Richard C.; Viswanathan, Ananth C.; Wood, Nicholas W.; Spencer, Chris C. A.; Band, Gavin; Bellenguez, Céline; Freeman, Colin; Hellenthal, Garrett; Giannoulatou, Eleni; Pirinen, Matti; Pearson, Richard; Strange, Amy; Su, Zhan; Vukcevic, Damjan; Donnelly, Peter; Langford, Cordelia; Hunt, Sarah E.; Edkins, Sarah; Gwilliam, Rhian; Blackburn, Hannah; Bumpstead, Suzannah J.; Dronov, Serge; Gillman, Matthew; Gray, Emma; Hammond, Naomi; Jayakumar, Alagurevathi; McCann, Owen T.; Liddle, Jennifer; Potter, Simon C.; Ravindrarajah, Radhi; Ricketts, Michelle; Waller, Matthew; Weston, Paul; Widaa, Sara; Whittaker, Pamela; Barroso, Ines; Deloukas, Panos; Mathew, Christopher G.; Blackwell, Jenefer M.; Brown, Matthew A.; Corvin, Aiden; McCarthy, Mark I.; Spencer, Chris C. A.

    2014-01-01

    Statins effectively lower LDL cholesterol levels in large studies and the observed interindividual response variability may be partially explained by genetic variation. Here we perform a pharmacogenetic meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in studies addressing the LDL cholesterol response to statins, including up to 18,596 statin-treated subjects. We validate the most promising signals in a further 22,318 statin recipients and identify two loci, SORT1/CELSR2/PSRC1 and SLCO1B1, not previously identified in GWAS. Moreover, we confirm the previously described associations with APOE and LPA. Our findings advance the understanding of the pharmacogenetic architecture of statin response. PMID:25350695

  4. Pharmacogenetics in type 2 diabetes: influence on response to oral hypoglycemic agents

    PubMed Central

    Dawed, Adem Yesuf; Zhou, Kaixin; Pearson, Ewan Robert

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality, consuming a significant proportion of public health spending. Oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs) are the frontline treatment approaches after lifestyle changes. However, huge interindividual variation in response to OHAs results in unnecessary treatment failure. In addition to nongenetic factors, genetic factors are thought to contribute to much of such variability, highlighting the importance of the potential of pharmacogenetics to improve therapeutic outcome. Despite the presence of conflicting results, significant progress has been made in an effort to identify the genetic markers associated with pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and ultimately therapeutic response and/or adverse outcomes to OHAs. As such, this article presents a comprehensive review of current knowledge on pharmacogenetics of OHAs and provides insights into knowledge gaps and future directions. PMID:27103840

  5. Current State and Future Prospects of Direct-to-Consumer Pharmacogenetics

    PubMed Central

    Chua, E. W.; Kennedy, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    Direct-to-consumer (DTC) DNA testing has grown from contentious beginnings into a global industry, by providing a wide range of personal genomic information directly to its clients. These companies, typified by the well-established 23andMe, generally carry out a gene-chip analysis of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using DNA extracted from a saliva sample. These genetic data are then assimilated and provided direct to the client, with varying degrees of interpretation. Although much debate has focused on the limitations and ethical aspects of providing genotypes for disease risk alleles, the provision of pharmacogenetic results by DTC companies is less studied. We set out to evaluate current DTC pharmacogenetics offerings, and then to consider how these services might best evolve and adapt in order to play a potentially useful future role in delivery of personalized medicine. PMID:22934000

  6. Pharmacogenetics of antiplatelets and anticoagulants: a report on clopidogrel, warfarin and dabigatran.

    PubMed

    Ross, Stephanie; Paré, Guillaume

    2013-10-01

    Genetic polymorphisms are thought to contribute to the wide intraindividual variability in antiplatelet and anticoagulant drug response. Pharmacogenetics is the study of how genetic variants influence drug response and how the adoption of a more personalized approach in antiplatelet and anticoagulant therapy may help to minimize harmful drug effects and optimize care for individual patients. However, due to sometimes conflicting evidence, the uptake of pharmacogenetics in the clinical setting has been slow. In this article, we review the genetic mechanisms contributing to the variability in response to three commonly used and emerging antiplatelet and anticoagulant drug therapies, namely clopidogrel, warfarin and dabigatran. We will focus on common genetic variants that influence the absorption, metabolism and/or action of these agents, including CYP2C19 (*2, *3 and *17), CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP2C9, ABCB1, P2RY12, CYP2C9 (*2/*3), VKORC1 and CESI. PMID:24088127

  7. Developing knowledge resources to support precision medicine: principles from the Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC).

    PubMed

    Hoffman, James M; Dunnenberger, Henry M; Kevin Hicks, J; Caudle, Kelly E; Whirl Carrillo, Michelle; Freimuth, Robert R; Williams, Marc S; Klein, Teri E; Peterson, Josh F

    2016-07-01

    To move beyond a select few genes/drugs, the successful adoption of pharmacogenomics into routine clinical care requires a curated and machine-readable database of pharmacogenomic knowledge suitable for use in an electronic health record (EHR) with clinical decision support (CDS). Recognizing that EHR vendors do not yet provide a standard set of CDS functions for pharmacogenetics, the Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) Informatics Working Group is developing and systematically incorporating a set of EHR-agnostic implementation resources into all CPIC guidelines. These resources illustrate how to integrate pharmacogenomic test results in clinical information systems with CDS to facilitate the use of patient genomic data at the point of care. Based on our collective experience creating existing CPIC resources and implementing pharmacogenomics at our practice sites, we outline principles to define the key features of future knowledge bases and discuss the importance of these knowledge resources for pharmacogenomics and ultimately precision medicine. PMID:27026620

  8. Molecular Classification and Pharmacogenetics of Primary Plasma Cell Leukemia: An Initial Approach toward Precision Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Simeon, Vittorio; Todoerti, Katia; La Rocca, Francesco; Caivano, Antonella; Trino, Stefania; Lionetti, Marta; Agnelli, Luca; De Luca, Luciana; Laurenzana, Ilaria; Neri, Antonino; Musto, Pellegrino

    2015-01-01

    Primary plasma cell leukemia (pPCL) is a rare and aggressive variant of multiple myeloma (MM) which may represent a valid model for high-risk MM. This disease is associated with a very poor prognosis, and unfortunately, it has not significantly improved during the last three decades. New high-throughput technologies have allowed a better understanding of the molecular basis of this disease and moved toward risk stratification, providing insights for targeted therapy studies. This knowledge, added to the pharmacogenetic profile of new and old agents in the analysis of efficacy and safety, could contribute to help clinical decisions move toward a precision medicine and a better clinical outcome for these patients. In this review, we describe the available literature concerning the genomic characterization and pharmacogenetics of plasma cell leukemia (PCL). PMID:26263974

  9. Molecular Classification and Pharmacogenetics of Primary Plasma Cell Leukemia: An Initial Approach toward Precision Medicine.

    PubMed

    Simeon, Vittorio; Todoerti, Katia; La Rocca, Francesco; Caivano, Antonella; Trino, Stefania; Lionetti, Marta; Agnelli, Luca; De Luca, Luciana; Laurenzana, Ilaria; Neri, Antonino; Musto, Pellegrino

    2015-01-01

    Primary plasma cell leukemia (pPCL) is a rare and aggressive variant of multiple myeloma (MM) which may represent a valid model for high-risk MM. This disease is associated with a very poor prognosis, and unfortunately, it has not significantly improved during the last three decades. New high-throughput technologies have allowed a better understanding of the molecular basis of this disease and moved toward risk stratification, providing insights for targeted therapy studies. This knowledge, added to the pharmacogenetic profile of new and old agents in the analysis of efficacy and safety, could contribute to help clinical decisions move toward a precision medicine and a better clinical outcome for these patients. In this review, we describe the available literature concerning the genomic characterization and pharmacogenetics of plasma cell leukemia (PCL). PMID:26263974

  10. Cyber Security Research Frameworks For Coevolutionary Network Defense

    SciTech Connect

    Rush, George D.; Tauritz, Daniel Remy

    2015-12-03

    Several architectures have been created for developing and testing systems used in network security, but most are meant to provide a platform for running cyber security experiments as opposed to automating experiment processes. In the first paper, we propose a framework termed Distributed Cyber Security Automation Framework for Experiments (DCAFE) that enables experiment automation and control in a distributed environment. Predictive analysis of adversaries is another thorny issue in cyber security. Game theory can be used to mathematically analyze adversary models, but its scalability limitations restrict its use. Computational game theory allows us to scale classical game theory to larger, more complex systems. In the second paper, we propose a framework termed Coevolutionary Agent-based Network Defense Lightweight Event System (CANDLES) that can coevolve attacker and defender agent strategies and capabilities and evaluate potential solutions with a custom network defense simulation. The third paper is a continuation of the CANDLES project in which we rewrote key parts of the framework. Attackers and defenders have been redesigned to evolve pure strategy, and a new network security simulation is devised which specifies network architecture and adds a temporal aspect. We also add a hill climber algorithm to evaluate the search space and justify the use of a coevolutionary algorithm.

  11. Pharmacogenetics of Parkinson’s Disease – Through Mechanisms of Drug Actions

    PubMed Central

    Droździk, Marek; Białecka, Monika; Kurzawski, Mateusz

    2013-01-01

    In the last years due to development of molecular methods a substantial progress in understanding of genetic associations with drug effects in many clinical disciplines has been observed. The efforts to define the role of genetic polymorphisms in optimizing pharmacotherapy of Parkinson’s disease (PD) were also undertaken. So far, some promising genetic loci for PD treatment were determined. In the review pharmacogenetic aspects of levodopa, dopamine agonists and COMT inhibitors are discussed. PMID:24532988

  12. Pharmacogenetic Biomarkers Predictive of the Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Immunosuppressive Drugs.

    PubMed

    Picard, Nicolas; Bergan, Stein; Marquet, Pierre; van Gelder, Teun; Wallemacq, Pierre; Hesselink, Dennis A; Haufroid, Vincent

    2016-04-01

    In association with therapeutic drug monitoring of immunosuppressive drugs, pharmacogenetics has rapidly emerged as an additional tool to refine dose selection or, more interestingly to select, a priori, the first dose to administer. Pharmacogenetic biomarkers are now readily available in most transplantation centers, at a limited cost and within a limited analytical time frame, which make them compatible with the clinical decision process. However, despite some evidence of clear associations between polymorphisms in genes encoding metabolizing enzymes (CYP3A4/3A5, UGT1A9) or drug transporters (ABCB1, ABCC2, SLCO1B1) and pharmacokinetics of several immunosuppressive drugs, pre-emptive genotyping and selection of the optimal starting dose based on the genetic background of the patient is still rarely performed in clinical practice. The main reason is probably the lack of formal proof that clinical outcome really improves after genotype-based dosing. So far, the only clinical recommendation in relation to pharmacogenetic biomarkers should be a doubling of the starting tacrolimus dose in patients who are CYP3A5 expressers, and even in this case, some authors still do not recommend pre-emptive genotyping but only genotype-based adaptation if the CYP3A5 genotype is already known. However, with the rise of new technologies, as next generation sequencing, allowing to obtain pre-emptive genetic information, one must be aware that the question will no longer be whether to genotype or not but rather whether or not to use the information already there. There was therefore a need to update the information available in relation to pharmacogenetic biomarkers for calcineurin inhibitors, mycophenolic acid, and mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors. PMID:26469711

  13. The extraction of pharmacogenetic and pharmacogenomic relations--a case study using PharmGKB.

    PubMed

    Buyko, Ekaterina; Beisswanger, Elena; Hahn, Udo

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we report on adapting the JREX relation extraction engine, originally developed For the elicitation of protein-protein interaction relations, to the domains of pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics. We propose an intrinsic and an extrinsic evaluation scenario which is based on knowledge contained in the PharmGKB knowledge base. Porting JREX yields favorable results in the range of 80% F-score for Gene-Disease, Gene-Drug, and Drug-Disease relations. PMID:22174293

  14. Research into alternative network approaches for space operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kusmanoff, Antone L.; Barton, Timothy J.

    1990-01-01

    The main goal is to resolve the interoperability problem of applications employing DOD TCP/IP (Department of Defence Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) family of protocols on a CCITT/ISO based network. The objective is to allow them to communicate over the CCITT/ISO protocol GPLAN (General Purpose Local Area Network) network without modification to the user's application programs. There were two primary assumptions associated with the solution that was actually realized. The first is that the solution had to allow for future movement to the exclusive use of the CCITT/ISO standards. The second is that the solution had to be software transparent to the currently installed TCP/IP and CCITT/ISO user application programs.

  15. The Deep Space Network: An instrument for radio science research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renzetti, N. A.

    1981-01-01

    Doppler and ranging data routinely generated at the Deep Space Stations of the California Institute of Technology-Jet Propulsion Laboratory Deep Space Network serve as an excellent source of radio science information. Important radio science experiments based on Deep Space Network generated radio metric data have included confirmation of Einstein's Theory of Relativity, measurement of the masses and gravitational harmonics of the planets out to Saturn, and measurement of electron density distribution and turbulence in the solar corona. In response to an increased level of radio science requirements, the Deep Space Network chose in 1976 to implement a new radio science system, which was completed in late 1978. Key features include (1) highly phase stable open loop receivers, (2) reduction of recorded data bandwidth through use of programmed local oscillators, and (3) real time digitization and recording on computer compatible tape.

  16. Research on networked manufacturing system for reciprocating pump industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yangdong; Qi, Guoning; Xie, Qingsheng; Lu, Yujun

    2005-12-01

    Networked manufacturing is a trend of reciprocating pump industry. According to the enterprises' requirement, the architecture of networked manufacturing system for reciprocating pump industry was proposed, which composed of infrastructure layer, system management layer, application service layer and user layer. Its main functions included product data management, ASP service, business management, and customer relationship management, its physics framework was a multi-tier internet-based model; the concept of ASP service integration was put forward and its process model was also established. As a result, a networked manufacturing system aimed at the characteristics of reciprocating pump industry was built. By implementing this system, reciprocating pump industry can obtain a new way to fully utilize their own resources and enhance the capabilities to respond to the global market quickly.

  17. Undergraduate students' development of social, cultural, and human capital in a networked research experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Jennifer Jo; Conaway, Evan; Dolan, Erin L.

    2015-04-01

    Recent calls for reform in undergraduate biology education have emphasized integrating research experiences into the learning experiences of all undergraduates. Contemporary science research increasingly demands collaboration across disciplines and institutions to investigate complex research questions, providing new contexts and models for involving undergraduates in research. In this study, we examined the experiences of undergraduates participating in a multi-institution and interdisciplinary biology research network. Unlike the traditional apprenticeship model of research, in which a student participates in research under the guidance of a single faculty member, students participating in networked research have the opportunity to develop relationships with additional faculty and students working in other areas of the project, at their own and at other institutions. We examined how students in this network develop social ties and to what extent a networked research experience affords opportunities for students to develop social, cultural, and human capital. Most studies of undergraduate involvement in science research have focused on documenting student outcomes rather than elucidating how students gain access to research experiences or how elements of research participation lead to desired student outcomes. By taking a qualitative approach framed by capital theories, we have identified ways that undergraduates utilize and further develop various forms of capital important for success in science research. In our study of the first 16 months of a biology research network, we found that undergraduates drew upon a combination of human, cultural, and social capital to gain access to the network. Within their immediate research groups, students built multidimensional social ties with faculty, peers, and others, yielding social capital that can be drawn upon for information, resources, and support. They reported developing cultural capital in the form of learning to

  18. Brain extracellular matrix meets COST--matrix for European research networks.

    PubMed

    Gajović, Srećko; Pochet, Roland

    2014-01-01

    Today's researchers are faced with a change from curiosity-driven to mandate-driven research. These two approaches are well combined within scientific networks (Actions) supported by the European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) program. The functioning of COST Actions, although directed only to networking, has a substantial impact on European science and can be compared to the functioning of the extracellular matrix in the brain, which although scarce plays a key role in initiation, maintenance, and plasticity of intercellular interactions in the nervous system. COST networks enable interdisciplinary approach and support early-stage researchers, which is a vital asset for the advancement of science. PMID:25410370

  19. Research and Application of Knowledge Resources Network for Product Innovation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chuan; Li, Wen-qiang; Li, Yan; Na, Hui-zhen; Shi, Qian

    2015-01-01

    In order to enhance the capabilities of knowledge service in product innovation design service platform, a method of acquiring knowledge resources supporting for product innovation from the Internet and providing knowledge active push is proposed. Through knowledge modeling for product innovation based on ontology, the integrated architecture of knowledge resources network is put forward. The technology for the acquisition of network knowledge resources based on focused crawler and web services is studied. Knowledge active push is provided for users by user behavior analysis and knowledge evaluation in order to improve users' enthusiasm for participation in platform. Finally, an application example is illustrated to prove the effectiveness of the method. PMID:25884031

  20. Importance of pharmacogenetics in the treatment of children with attention deficit hyperactive disorder: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Tan-kam, Teerarat; Suthisisang, Chutamanee; Pavasuthipaisit, Chosita; Limsila, Penkhae; Puangpetch, Apichaya; Sukasem, Chonlaphat

    2013-01-01

    This case report highlights the importance of pharmacogenetic testing in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD). A 6-year-old boy diagnosed with ADHD was prescribed methylphenidate 5 mg twice daily (7 am and noon) and the family was compliant with administration of this medication. On the first day of treatment, the patient had an adverse reaction, becoming disobedient, more mischievous, erratic, resistant to discipline, would not go to sleep until midnight, and had a poor appetite. The All-In-One PGX (All-In-One Pharmacogenetics for Antipsychotics test for CYP2D6, CYP2C19, and CYP2C9) was performed using microarray-based and real-time polymerase chain reaction techniques. The genotype of our patient was identified to be CYP2D6*2/*10, with isoforms of the enzyme consistent with a predicted cytochrome P450 2D6 intermediate metabolizer phenotype. Consequently, the physician adjusted the methylphenidate dose to 2.5 mg once daily in the morning. At this dosage, the patient had a good response without any further adverse reactions. Pharmacogenetic testing should be included in the management plan for ADHD. In this case, cooperation between the medical team and the patients’ relatives was key to successful treatment. PMID:23526481

  1. Pharmacogenetics and the Development of Personalized Approaches for Combination Therapy in Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Stacey M.

    2013-01-01

    Asthma is a common, chronic disease of the airways that is treated with a combination of different therapies. The combination of LABA and ICS therapy results in a synergistic interaction that is efficacious in improving asthma symptom control; however, genetic variation has the potential to alter therapeutic efficacy. Both agents mediate complex molecular pathways consisting of gene variation that has been investigated with the analysis of candidate genes in the β2-adrenergic receptor and glucocorticoid pathway. These pharmacogenetic studies have been limited to retrospective analyses of clinical trial cohorts and a small number of prospective, genotype-stratified trials. More recently, genome-wide association studies in combination with replication in additional cohorts and in vitro cell-based models have been used to identify novel pathway-related pharmacogenetic variations. This review of the pharmacogenetics of the β2-adrenergic receptor and glucocorticoid pathways highlights the genotypic effects of variation in multiple genes from interacting pathways which may contribute to differential responses to inhaled beta agonists and glucocorticoids. As our understanding of these genetic mechanisms improves, panels of biomarkers may be developed to determine which combination therapies are the most effective with the least risk to an individual asthma patient. Before we can usher in an era of personalized medicine for asthma, it is first important to improve our ability to analyze large volumes of genetic data in large clinical trial cohorts using a combination of study designs, analytical methods, and in vitro functional studies. PMID:23912588

  2. Opportunities and methodological challenges in EEG and MEG resting state functional brain network research.

    PubMed

    van Diessen, E; Numan, T; van Dellen, E; van der Kooi, A W; Boersma, M; Hofman, D; van Lutterveld, R; van Dijk, B W; van Straaten, E C W; Hillebrand, A; Stam, C J

    2015-08-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG) and magnetoencephalogram (MEG) recordings during resting state are increasingly used to study functional connectivity and network topology. Moreover, the number of different analysis approaches is expanding along with the rising interest in this research area. The comparison between studies can therefore be challenging and discussion is needed to underscore methodological opportunities and pitfalls in functional connectivity and network studies. In this overview we discuss methodological considerations throughout the analysis pipeline of recording and analyzing resting state EEG and MEG data, with a focus on functional connectivity and network analysis. We summarize current common practices with their advantages and disadvantages; provide practical tips, and suggestions for future research. Finally, we discuss how methodological choices in resting state research can affect the construction of functional networks. When taking advantage of current best practices and avoid the most obvious pitfalls, functional connectivity and network studies can be improved and enable a more accurate interpretation and comparison between studies. PMID:25511636

  3. pSCANNER: patient-centered Scalable National Network for Effectiveness Research.

    PubMed

    Ohno-Machado, Lucila; Agha, Zia; Bell, Douglas S; Dahm, Lisa; Day, Michele E; Doctor, Jason N; Gabriel, Davera; Kahlon, Maninder K; Kim, Katherine K; Hogarth, Michael; Matheny, Michael E; Meeker, Daniella; Nebeker, Jonathan R

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the patient-centered Scalable National Network for Effectiveness Research (pSCANNER), which is part of the recently formed PCORnet, a national network composed of learning healthcare systems and patient-powered research networks funded by the Patient Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI). It is designed to be a stakeholder-governed federated network that uses a distributed architecture to integrate data from three existing networks covering over 21 million patients in all 50 states: (1) VA Informatics and Computing Infrastructure (VINCI), with data from Veteran Health Administration's 151 inpatient and 909 ambulatory care and community-based outpatient clinics; (2) the University of California Research exchange (UC-ReX) network, with data from UC Davis, Irvine, Los Angeles, San Francisco, and San Diego; and (3) SCANNER, a consortium of UCSD, Tennessee VA, and three federally qualified health systems in the Los Angeles area supplemented with claims and health information exchange data, led by the University of Southern California. Initial use cases will focus on three conditions: (1) congestive heart failure; (2) Kawasaki disease; (3) obesity. Stakeholders, such as patients, clinicians, and health service researchers, will be engaged to prioritize research questions to be answered through the network. We will use a privacy-preserving distributed computation model with synchronous and asynchronous modes. The distributed system will be based on a common data model that allows the construction and evaluation of distributed multivariate models for a variety of statistical analyses. PMID:24780722

  4. Networks of Collaboration among Scientists in a Center for Diabetes Translation Research

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Jenine K.; Wong, Roger; Thompson, Kellie; Haire-Joshu, Debra; Hipp, J. Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Background Transdisciplinary collaboration is essential in addressing the translation gap between scientific discovery and delivery of evidence-based interventions to prevent and treat diabetes. We examined patterns of collaboration among scientists at the Washington University Center for Diabetes Translation Research. Methods Members (n = 56) of the Washington University Center for Diabetes Translation Research were surveyed about collaboration overall and on publications, presentations, and grants; 87.5% responded (n = 49). We used traditional and network descriptive statistics and visualization to examine the networks and exponential random graph modeling to identify predictors of collaboration. Results The 56 network members represented nine disciplines. On average, network members had been affiliated with the center for 3.86 years (s.d. = 1.41). The director was by far the most central in all networks. The overall and publication networks were the densest, while the overall and grant networks were the most centralized. The grant network was the most transdisciplinary. The presentation network was the least dense, least centralized, and least transdisciplinary. For every year of center affiliation, network members were 10% more likely to collaborate (OR: 1.10; 95% CI: 1.00–1.21) and 13% more likely to write a paper together (OR: 1.13; 95% CI: 1.02–1.25). Network members in the same discipline were over twice as likely to collaborate in the overall network (OR: 2.10; 95% CI: 1.40–3.15); however, discipline was not associated with collaboration in the other networks. Rank was not associated with collaboration in any network. Conclusions As transdisciplinary centers become more common, it is important to identify structural features, such as a central leader and ongoing collaboration over time, associated with scholarly productivity and, ultimately, with advancing science and practice. PMID:26301873

  5. Aspects of School-University Research Networks that Play a Role in Developing, Sharing and Using Knowledge Based on Teacher Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornelissen, Frank; van Swet, Jacqueline; Beijaard, Douwe; Bergen, Theo

    2011-01-01

    School-university research networks aim at closer integration of research and practice by means of teacher research. Such practice-oriented research can enhance teachers' professional knowledge development, and can benefit both schools and university. This paper reports on 21 participants of a school-university research network embedded in a…

  6. The Georgia Psychoeducational Network (GPN) Research Report, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swan, William W., Ed.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    This report presents four papers on services provided to students with severe emotional and/or behavioral disorders by the Georgia Psychoeducational Network (GPN). "Teacher Ratings of Pro-social Behaviors for Medicated ADHD Students" (Catherine P. Fortner) reports on the development of positive social skills in 111 medicated male students with…

  7. Museum Information Networks. Museum Data Bank Research Report No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chenhall, Robert G.

    Several museum information processing systems are discussed in relation to their underlying assumptions regarding museum information and networking needs that have resulted in inadequate service to some kinds of museums, particularly historical museums. Rather than any of these systems, a modular approach is proposed that would allow each museum…

  8. Teacher Agency in Educational Reform: Lessons from Social Networks Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Datnow, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    This article provides a context for understanding how social networks among teachers support or constrain school improvement in terms of instructional practice, professional development, and educational reform. It comments on the articles in this special issue, summarizing their contributions to the field. This analysis reveals several important…

  9. Research of negotiation in network trade system based on multi-agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Jun; Wang, Guozheng; Wu, Haiyan

    2009-07-01

    A construction and implementation technology of network trade based on multi-agent is described in this paper. First, we researched the technology of multi-agent, then we discussed the consumer's behaviors and the negotiation between purchaser and bargainer which emerges in the traditional business mode and analysed the key technology to implement the network trade system. Finally, we implement the system.

  10. The Role of Action Research in the Development of Learning Networks for Entrepreneurs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brett, Valerie; Mullally, Martina; O'Gorman, Bill; Fuller-Love, Nerys

    2012-01-01

    Developing sustainable learning networks for entrepreneurs is the core objective of the Sustainable Learning Networks in Ireland and Wales (SLNIW) project. One research team drawn from the Centre for Enterprise Development and Regional Economy at Waterford Institute of Technology and the School of Management and Business from Aberystwyth…

  11. The Canadian Network for the Advancement of Research, Industry, and Education (CANARIE).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Marcos; Cartwright, Glenn F.

    1992-01-01

    Discussion of a Canadian high-speed communications network, influenced by the National Research and Education Network (NREN) initiative, focuses on the genesis of the system; expected benefits to Canada's economy, competitiveness, and social welfare; and specific applications such as library resource sharing, free-nets, distance education, and…

  12. Friendship Networks, Social Capital and Ethnic Identity: Researching the Perspectives of Caribbean Young People in Britain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Tracey

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the perspectives of Caribbean young people in Britain in order to examine the issue of friendship networks. The research shows that the young people interviewed have a vast array of friendship networks across diverse ethnic groups. However, the majority of the Caribbean young people in the study acknowledged that their three…

  13. Governing by Network in Europe: Associations, Educational Research and Social Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawn, Martin

    2007-01-01

    The coincident arrival of a European policy space in education and a European Educational Research Association [EERA], and their subsequent relation, will be the subject of this paper. EERA is a hybrid organization--it supports scientific networking, it is a social partner in EU policy, it is a first level social space for networking, and…

  14. Community-Based Research Networks: Development and Lessons Learned in an Emerging Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoecker, Randy; Ambler, Susan H.; Cutforth, Nick; Donohue, Patrick; Dougherty, Dan; Marullo, Sam; Nelson, Kris S.; Stutts, Nancy B.

    2003-01-01

    Compares seven multi-institutional community-based research networks in Appalachia; Colorado; District of Columbia; Minneapolis-St. Paul; Philadelphia; Richmond, Virginia; and Trenton, New Jersey. After reviewing the histories of the networks, conducts a comparative SWOT analysis, showing their common and unique strengths, weaknesses,…

  15. Analysis and research on technology system of space broadband network based on laser link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chengwu; Fei, Ligang; Chen, Erhu; Kou, Baohua; Cheng, Liyu

    2015-10-01

    Space broadband network based on laser link represents the future development direction, Europe, the United States, Japan and other space powers have been researching the theory of space laser communication and the key technology constantly, and have carried out the key technology test of inter-satellite laser communication and satellite-ground laser communication on orbit. However, what is the technology system of space broadband network based on laser link? up to now, it is still controversial, such as wavelength, coding, and modulation mode, exchange mode and so on. Here, by analyzing all kinds of space laser communication test and its technology parameters, combined with the application requirement of space broadband network, a set of technology system for space broadband network based on laser link is put forward, although just a preliminary research result. At first, this paper introduces the basic conception of space broadband network based on laser link, defines the space laser broadband network technology system and its research scope. Then analyze the main contents of space laser broadband network technology system, especially the technical route choice involved, and by studying, the related suggestions are given. Finally, with the development of space broadband network, the issue of standardization in space laser communication technology system is put forward, in order to cause attaches great importance to scientific research institutes and relevant experts.

  16. The Wisconsin Network for Health Research (WiNHR): A Statewide, Collaborative, Multi-disciplinary, Research Group

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Howard; Agger, William; Baumgardner, Dennis; Burmester, James K.; Cisler, Ron A.; Evertsen, Jennifer; Glurich, Ingrid; Hartman, David; Yale, Steven H.; DeMets, David

    2010-01-01

    In response to the goals of the Wisconsin Partnership Program and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Initiatives to Improve Healthcare, the Wisconsin Network for Health Research (WiNHR) was formed. As a collaborative, multi-disciplinary statewide research network, WiNHR encourages and fosters the discovery and application of scientific knowledge for researchers and practitioners throughout Wisconsin. The 4 founding institutions—Aurora Health Care/Center for Urban Population Health (CUPH), Gundersen Lutheran Medical Foundation, Marshfield Clinic Research Foundation, and the University of Wisconsin-Madison—representing geographically diverse areas of the state, are optimistic and committed to WiNHR’s success. This optimism is based on the relevance of its goals to public health, the quality of statewide health care research, and, most importantly, the residents of Wisconsin who recognize the value of health research. PMID:20131687

  17. Leveraging the Methodological Affordances of Facebook: Social Networking Strategies in Longitudinal Writing Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheffield, Jenna Pack; Kimme Hea, Amy C.

    2016-01-01

    While composition studies researchers have examined the ways social media are impacting our lives inside and outside of the classroom, less attention has been given to the ways in which social media--specifically Social Network Sites (SNSs)--may enhance our own research methods and methodologies by helping to combat research participant attrition…

  18. The Mission and Purpose of TRUCEN (The Research University Civic Engagement Network)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Higher Education Outreach and Engagement, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The mission of The Research University Civic Engagement Network (TRUCEN) is to advance civic engagement and engaged scholarship among research universities. TRUCEN has adopted the following goals for advancing civic engagement and engaged scholarship as part of the core mission of all research universities: (1) Encourage community-engaged…

  19. The organic research network project on the central coast of California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The California organic agriculture industry has grown in size and consumer acceptance despite a very limited scientific research base. The Organic Research Network Project, funded by USDA-Organic Agriculture Research and Extension Initiative (USDA-OREI) program in 2004 (S.R. Gliessman, P.I.), was de...

  20. Requirements for data integration platforms in biomedical research networks: a reference model

    PubMed Central

    Knaup, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical research networks need to integrate research data among their members and with external partners. To support such data sharing activities, an adequate information technology infrastructure is necessary. To facilitate the establishment of such an infrastructure, we developed a reference model for the requirements. The reference model consists of five reference goals and 15 reference requirements. Using the Unified Modeling Language, the goals and requirements are set into relation to each other. In addition, all goals and requirements are described textually in tables. This reference model can be used by research networks as a basis for a resource efficient acquisition of their project specific requirements. Furthermore, a concrete instance of the reference model is described for a research network on liver cancer. The reference model is transferred into a requirements model of the specific network. Based on this concrete requirements model, a service-oriented information technology architecture is derived and also described in this paper. PMID:25699205

  1. Requirements for data integration platforms in biomedical research networks: a reference model.

    PubMed

    Ganzinger, Matthias; Knaup, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical research networks need to integrate research data among their members and with external partners. To support such data sharing activities, an adequate information technology infrastructure is necessary. To facilitate the establishment of such an infrastructure, we developed a reference model for the requirements. The reference model consists of five reference goals and 15 reference requirements. Using the Unified Modeling Language, the goals and requirements are set into relation to each other. In addition, all goals and requirements are described textually in tables. This reference model can be used by research networks as a basis for a resource efficient acquisition of their project specific requirements. Furthermore, a concrete instance of the reference model is described for a research network on liver cancer. The reference model is transferred into a requirements model of the specific network. Based on this concrete requirements model, a service-oriented information technology architecture is derived and also described in this paper. PMID:25699205

  2. INA-RESPOND: a multi-centre clinical research network in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Karyana, Muhammad; Kosasih, Herman; Samaan, Gina; Tjitra, Emiliana; Aman, Abu Tholib; Alisjahbana, Bachti; Fatmawati; Gasem, M Hussein; Arif, Mansyur; Sudarmono, Pratiwi; Suharto; Merati, Tuti P; Lane, Clifford; Siswanto; Siddiqui, Sophia

    2015-01-01

    Nationally representative observational and translational research is needed to address the public health challenges in Indonesia due to the geographic disparity, recently decentralized health system, and diverse infectious disease priorities. To accomplish this, the Indonesian Ministry of Health in collaboration with the US National Institute of Health has established INA-RESPOND (Indonesia Research Partnership on Infectious Disease) - a clinical research network comprising 9 referral hospitals, 7 medical faculties, and 2 research centres across Indonesia. The network provides a forum to conduct research at a national scale and to address scientific questions that would be difficult to address in smaller research settings. Further, it is currently conducting multi-centre research on the etiologies of fever, sepsis, and tuberculosis. There are opportunities to leverage existing network resources for other public health research needs. INA-RESPOND is an Indonesian-led network in a country with diverse population groups and public health needs which is poised to collaborate with researchers, universities, donors, and industry worldwide. This paper describes the network and its goals and values, as well as the management structure, process for collaboration, and future vision. PMID:26219280

  3. A State-Wide Research Network for Alzheimer's Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Mintzer, Jacobo E.; Bachman, D. L.; Stuckey, M.; Ebeling, M.; Wagner, M. T.; Evans, W. J.; Hirth, V.; Walker, A.; Joglekar, R.; Faison, W.

    2014-03-13

    The Specific Aim of the proposal was to develop an administrative structure that will facilitate the development of AD research across the state of SC by providing key services such as (but not limited to) seeking funding research opportunities, financial tracking, regulatory management, central recruitment, training for investigators and coordinators, data collection, data storing, and data processing to researchers across the state.

  4. The Central and Eastern European Earthquake Research Network - CE3RN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bragato, Pier Luigi; Costa, Giovanni; Gallo, Antonella; Gosar, Andrej; Horn, Nikolaus; Lenhardt, Wolfgang; Mucciarelli, Marco; Pesaresi, Damiano; Steiner, Rudolf; Suhadolc, Peter; Tiberi, Lara; Živčić, Mladen; Zoppé, Giuliana

    2014-05-01

    The region of the Central and Eastern Europe is an area characterised by a relatively high seismicity. The active seismogenic structures and the related potentially destructive events are located in the proximity of the political boundaries between several countries existing in the area. An example is the seismic region between the NE Italy (FVG, Trentino-Alto Adige and Veneto), Austria (Tyrol, Carinthia) and Slovenia. So when a destructive earthquake occurs in the area, all the three countries are involved. In the year 2001 the Agencija Republike Slovenije za Okolje (ARSO) in Slovenia, the Department of Mathematics and Geoscience of the University of Trieste (DMG), the OGS (Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale) in Italy and the Zentralanstalt für Meteorologie und Geodynamik (ZAMG) in Austria signed an agreement for the real-time seismological data exchange in the Southeastern Alps region. Soon after the Interreg IIIa Italia-Austria projects "Trans-National Seismological Networks in the South-Eastern Alps" and "FASTLINK" started. The main goal of these projects was the creation of a transfrontier network for the common seismic monitoring of the region for scientific and civil defense purposes. During these years the high quality data recorded by the transfrontier network has been used, by the involved institutions, for their scientific research, for institutional activities and for the civil defense services. Several common international projects have been realized with success. The instrumentation has been continuously upgraded, the installations quality improved as well as the data transmission efficiency. In the 2013 ARSO, DMG, OGS and ZAMG decided to name the cooperative network "Central and Eastern European Earthquake Research Network - CE3RN". The national/regional seismic networks actually involved in the CE3RN network are: • Austrian national BB network (ZAMG - OE) • Friuli Veneto SP network (OGS - FV) • Friuli VG

  5. The Long-Term Agro-Ecosystem Research (LTAR) Network: A New In-Situ Data Network For Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walbridge, M. R.

    2014-12-01

    Agriculture in the 21st Century faces significant challenges due to increases in the demand for agricultural products from a global population expected to reach 9.5 billion by 2050, changes in land use that are reducing the area of arable land worldwide, and the uncertainties associated with increasing climate variability and change. There is broad agreement that meeting these challenges will require significant changes in agro-ecosystem management at the landscape scale. In 2012, the USDA/ARS announced the reorganization of 10 existing benchmark watersheds, experimental ranges, and research farms into a Long-Term Agro-ecosystem Research (LTAR) network. Earlier this year, the LTAR network expanded to 18 sites, including 3 led by land grant universities and/or private foundations. The central question addressed by the LTAR network is, "How do we sustain or enhance productivity, profitability, and ecosystem services in agro-ecosystems and agricultural landscapes"? All 18 LTAR sites possess rich historical databases that extend up to 100 years into the past. However as LTAR moves forward, the focus is on collecting a core set of common measurements over the next 30-50 years that can be used to draw inferences regarding the nature of agricultural sustainability and how it varies across regional and continental-scale gradients. As such, LTAR is part long-term research network and part observatory network. Rather than focusing on a single site, each LTAR has developed regional partnerships that allow it to address agro-ecosystem function in the large basins and eco-climatic zones that underpin regional food production systems. Partners include other long-term in-situ data networks (e.g., Ameriflux, CZO, GRACEnet, LTER, NEON). 'Next steps' include designing and implementing a cross-site experiment addressing LTAR's central question.

  6. Research on a Queue Scheduling Algorithm in Wireless Communications Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wenchuan; Hu, Yuanmei; Zhou, Qiancai

    This paper proposes a protocol QS-CT, Queue Scheduling Mechanism based on Multiple Access in Ad hoc net work, which adds queue scheduling mechanism to RTS-CTS-DATA using multiple access protocol. By endowing different queues different scheduling mechanisms, it makes networks access to the channel much more fairly and effectively, and greatly enhances the performance. In order to observe the final performance of the network with QS-CT protocol, we simulate it and compare it with MACA/C-T without QS-CT protocol. Contrast to MACA/C-T, the simulation result shows that QS-CT has greatly improved the throughput, delay, rate of packets' loss and other key indicators.

  7. Understanding Classrooms through Social Network Analysis: A Primer for Social Network Analysis in Education Research

    PubMed Central

    Wiggins, Benjamin L.; Goodreau, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    Social interactions between students are a major and underexplored part of undergraduate education. Understanding how learning relationships form in undergraduate classrooms, as well as the impacts these relationships have on learning outcomes, can inform educators in unique ways and improve educational reform. Social network analysis (SNA) provides the necessary tool kit for investigating questions involving relational data. We introduce basic concepts in SNA, along with methods for data collection, data processing, and data analysis, using a previously collected example study on an undergraduate biology classroom as a tutorial. We conduct descriptive analyses of the structure of the network of costudying relationships. We explore generative processes that create observed study networks between students and also test for an association between network position and success on exams. We also cover practical issues, such as the unique aspects of human subjects review for network studies. Our aims are to convince readers that using SNA in classroom environments allows rich and informative analyses to take place and to provide some initial tools for doing so, in the process inspiring future educational studies incorporating relational data. PMID:26086650

  8. The Evolution of Research and Education Networks and their Essential Role in Modern Science

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, W.; Chaniotakis, E.; Dart, E.; Guok, C.; Metzger, J.; Tierney, B.

    2009-06-15

    ESnet - the Energy Sciences Network - has the mission of enabling the aspects of the US Department of Energy's Office of Science programs and facilities that depend on large collaborations and large-scale data sharing to accomplish their science. The Office of Science supports a large fraction of all U.S. physical science research and operates many large science instruments and supercomputers that are used by both DOE and University researchers. The network requirements of this community have been explored in some detail by ESnet and a long-term plan has been developed in order to ensure adequate networking to support the science. In this paper we describe the planning process (which has been in place for several years and was the basis of a new network that is just now being completed and a new set of network services) and examine the effectiveness and adequacy of the planning process in the light of evolving science requirements.

  9. A network approach for distinguishing ethical issues in research and development.

    PubMed

    Zwart, Sjoerd D; van de Poel, Ibo; van Mil, Harald; Brumsen, Michiel

    2006-10-01

    In this paper we report on our experiences with using network analysis to discern and analyse ethical issues in research into, and the development of, a new wastewater treatment technology. Using network analysis, we preliminarily interpreted some of our observations in a Group Decision Room (GDR) session where we invited important stakeholders to think about the risks of this new technology. We show how a network approach is useful for understanding the observations, and suggests some relevant ethical issues. We argue that a network approach is also useful for ethical analysis of issues in other fields of research and development. The abandoning of the overarching rationality assumption, which is central to network approaches, does not have to lead to ethical relativism. PMID:17199143

  10. A research using hybrid RBF/Elman neural networks for intrusion detection system secure model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Xiaojun; Wang, Zhu; Yu, Haining

    2009-10-01

    A hybrid RBF/Elman neural network model that can be employed for both anomaly detection and misuse detection is presented in this paper. The IDSs using the hybrid neural network can detect temporally dispersed and collaborative attacks effectively because of its memory of past events. The RBF network is employed as a real-time pattern classification and the Elman network is employed to restore the memory of past events. The IDSs using the hybrid neural network are evaluated against the intrusion detection evaluation data sponsored by U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). Experimental results are presented in ROC curves. Experiments show that the IDSs using this hybrid neural network improve the detection rate and decrease the false positive rate effectively.

  11. Build your own social network laboratory with Social Lab: a tool for research in social media.

    PubMed

    Garaizar, Pablo; Reips, Ulf-Dietrich

    2014-06-01

    Social networking has surpassed e-mail and instant messaging as the dominant form of online communication (Meeker, Devitt, & Wu, 2010). Currently, all large social networks are proprietary, making it difficult to impossible for researchers to make changes to such networks for the purpose of study design and access to user-generated data from the networks. To address this issue, the authors have developed and present Social Lab, an Internet-based free and open-source social network software system available from http://www.sociallab.es . Having full availability of navigation and communication data in Social Lab allows researchers to investigate behavior in social media on an individual and group level. Automated artificial users ("bots") are available to the researcher to simulate and stimulate social networking situations. These bots respond dynamically to situations as they unfold. The bots can easily be configured with scripts and can be used to experimentally manipulate social networking situations in Social Lab. Examples for setting up, configuring, and using Social Lab as a tool for research in social media are provided. PMID:24061930

  12. Early Detection Research Network (EDRN) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    http://edrn.nci.nih.gov/EDRN is a collaborative network that maintains comprehensive infrastructure and resources critical to the discovery, development and validation of biomarkers for cancer risk and early detection. The program comprises a public/private sector consortium to accelerate the development of biomarkers that will change medical practice, ensure data reproducibility, and adapt to the changing landscape of biomarker science.  | Comprehensive infrastructure and resources critical to discovery, development and validation of biomarkers for cancer risk and early detection.

  13. Virtual Round Table on ten leading questions for network research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-03-01

    The following discussion is an edited summary of the public debate started during the conference “Growing Networks and Graphs in Statistical Physics, Finance, Biology and Social Systems” held in Rome in September 2003. Drafts documents were circulated electronically among experts in the field and additions and follow-up to the original discussion have been included. Among the scientists participating to the discussion L.A.N. Amaral, A. Barrat, A.L. Barabasi, G. Caldarelli, P. De Los Rios, A. Erzan, B. Kahng, R. Mantegna, J.F.F. Mendes, R. Pastor-Satorras, A. Vespignani are acknowledged for their contributions and editing.

  14. Anticipated Ethics and Regulatory Challenges in PCORnet: The National Patient-Centered Clinical Research Network.

    PubMed

    Ali, Joseph; Califf, Robert; Sugarman, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    PCORnet, the National Patient-Centered Clinical Research Network, seeks to establish a robust national health data network for patient-centered comparative effectiveness research. This article reports the results of a PCORnet survey designed to identify the ethics and regulatory challenges anticipated in network implementation. A 12-item online survey was developed by leadership of the PCORnet Ethics and Regulatory Task Force; responses were collected from the 29 PCORnet networks. The most pressing ethics issues identified related to informed consent, patient engagement, privacy and confidentiality, and data sharing. High priority regulatory issues included IRB coordination, privacy and confidentiality, informed consent, and data sharing. Over 150 IRBs and five different approaches to managing multisite IRB review were identified within PCORnet. Further empirical and scholarly work, as well as practical and policy guidance, is essential if important initiatives that rely on comparative effectiveness research are to move forward. PMID:26192996

  15. Research in the Osher Lifelong Learning Institute Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, R. Jack; Brady, E. Michael

    2013-01-01

    A 19-question online survey was administered to all 115 directors of Osher Lifelong Learning Institutes (OLLIs) across the United States to explore the extent to which research is being conducted and for what purposes. A response rate of 87% was attained. Findings revealed that most research focused on issues such as course and instructor…

  16. Adult Literacy and Numeracy: Assessing Change. Adult Literacy Research Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumming, J. Joy, Ed.; van Kraayenoord, Christina E., Ed.

    This document contains eight papers from an action research program to foster good practice in adult literacy provision and policy. "Introduction" (J. Joy Cumming, Christina E. van Kraayenoord) presents an overview of the action research project and individual reports. "Assessment: Making a Difference in Adult Literacy and Numeracy Learning" (J.…

  17. PGTandMe: social networking-based genetic testing and the evolving research model.

    PubMed

    Koch, Valerie Gutmann

    2012-01-01

    The opportunity to use extensive genetic data, personal information, and family medical history for research purposes may be naturally appealing to the personal genetic testing (PGT) industry, which is already coupling direct-to-consumer (DTC) products with social networking technologies, as well as to potential industry or institutional partners. This article evaluates the transformation in research that the hybrid of PGT and social networking will bring about, and--highlighting the challenges associated with a new paradigm of "patient-driven" genomic research--focuses on the consequences of shifting the structure, locus, timing, and scope of research through genetic crowd-sourcing. This article also explores potential ethical, legal, and regulatory issues that arise from the hybrid between personal genomic research and online social networking, particularly regarding informed consent, institutional review board (IRB) oversight, and ownership/intellectual property (IP) considerations. PMID:22616542

  18. The many facets of integrating data and metadata for research networks: experience from the AmeriFlux Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastorello, G.; Poindexter, C.; van Ingen, C.; Papale, D.; Agarwal, D.

    2014-12-01

    Grassroots research networks, such as AmeriFlux, require data and metadata integration from multiple, independently managed field sites, scales, and science domains. The goal of these networks is production of consistent datasets enabling investigation of broad science questions at regional and global scales. These datasets combine data from a large number of data providers, who often utilize different data collection protocols and data processing approaches. In this scenario, data integration and curation quickly become large-scale efforts. This presentation reports on our experience with integration efforts for the AmeriFlux network. In AmeriFlux we are attempting to integrate flux, meteorological, biological, soil, chemistry, and disturbance data and metadata. Our data management activities range from acquisition/publication mechanisms, quality control, processing and product generation, data and software synchronized versioning and archiving, and interaction mechanisms and tools for data providers and data users. To enable consistent data processing and network-level data quality, combinations of automated and visual data quality assessment procedures were built, extending on checks already done at site levels. The implementation of community developed and trusted algorithms to operate in production mode proved to be a key aspect of data product generation, with extensive testing and validation being one of the main concerns. Clear definitions for data processing levels help with easily tracking different data products and data quality levels. For metadata and ancillary information, formatting standards are even more relevant, since variables collected are considerably more heterogeneous. Documentation and training on the standards were crucial in this case, with instruction sessions having proved to be an effective approach, given that documentation cannot cover all different scenarios at different sites. This work is being developed in close coordination with

  19. Understanding Classrooms through Social Network Analysis: A Primer for Social Network Analysis in Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunspan, Daniel Z.; Wiggins, Benjamin L.; Goodreau, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    Social interactions between students are a major and underexplored part of undergraduate education. Understanding how learning relationships form in undergraduate classrooms, as well as the impacts these relationships have on learning outcomes, can inform educators in unique ways and improve educational reform. Social network analysis (SNA)…

  20. Assessing Collaboration Networks in Educational Research: A Co-Authorship-Based Social Network Analysis Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, David Andres; Queupil, Juan Pablo; Fraser, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyze collaboration networks and their patterns among higher education institutions (HEIs) in Chile and the Latin American region. This will provide evidence to educational managements in order to properly allocate their efforts to improve collaboration. Design/methodology/approach: This quantitative…

  1. Canada's Neglected Tropical Disease Research Network: Who's in the Core—Who's on the Periphery?

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Kaye; Kohler, Jillian Clare; Pennefather, Peter; Thorsteinsdottir, Halla; Wong, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Background This study designed and applied accessible yet systematic methods to generate baseline information about the patterns and structure of Canada's neglected tropical disease (NTD) research network; a network that, until recently, was formed and functioned on the periphery of strategic Canadian research funding. Methodology Multiple methods were used to conduct this study, including: (1) a systematic bibliometric procedure to capture archival NTD publications and co-authorship data; (2) a country-level “core-periphery” network analysis to measure and map the structure of Canada's NTD co-authorship network including its size, density, cliques, and centralization; and (3) a statistical analysis to test the correlation between the position of countries in Canada's NTD network (“k-core measure”) and the quantity and quality of research produced. Principal Findings Over the past sixty years (1950–2010), Canadian researchers have contributed to 1,079 NTD publications, specializing in Leishmania, African sleeping sickness, and leprosy. Of this work, 70% of all first authors and co-authors (n = 4,145) have been Canadian. Since the 1990s, however, a network of international co-authorship activity has been emerging, with representation of researchers from 62 different countries; largely researchers from OECD countries (e.g. United States and United Kingdom) and some non-OECD countries (e.g. Brazil and Iran). Canada has a core-periphery NTD international research structure, with a densely connected group of OECD countries and some African nations, such as Uganda and Kenya. Sitting predominantly on the periphery of this research network is a cluster of 16 non-OECD nations that fall within the lowest GDP percentile of the network. Conclusion/Significance The publication specialties, composition, and position of NTD researchers within Canada's NTD country network provide evidence that while Canadian researchers currently remain the overall gatekeepers of the

  2. Research on mixed network architecture collaborative application model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Changfeng; Zhao, Xi'an; Liang, Song

    2009-10-01

    When facing complex requirements of city development, ever-growing spatial data, rapid development of geographical business and increasing business complexity, collaboration between multiple users and departments is needed urgently, however conventional GIS software (such as Client/Server model or Browser/Server model) are not support this well. Collaborative application is one of the good resolutions. Collaborative application has four main problems to resolve: consistency and co-edit conflict, real-time responsiveness, unconstrained operation, spatial data recoverability. In paper, application model called AMCM is put forward based on agent and multi-level cache. AMCM can be used in mixed network structure and supports distributed collaborative. Agent is an autonomous, interactive, initiative and reactive computing entity in a distributed environment. Agent has been used in many fields such as compute science and automation. Agent brings new methods for cooperation and the access for spatial data. Multi-level cache is a part of full data. It reduces the network load and improves the access and handle of spatial data, especially, in editing the spatial data. With agent technology, we make full use of its characteristics of intelligent for managing the cache and cooperative editing that brings a new method for distributed cooperation and improves the efficiency.

  3. Named Data Networking in Climate Research and HEP Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shannigrahi, Susmit; Papadopoulos, Christos; Yeh, Edmund; Newman, Harvey; Jerzy Barczyk, Artur; Liu, Ran; Sim, Alex; Mughal, Azher; Monga, Inder; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Wu, John

    2015-12-01

    The Computing Models of the LHC experiments continue to evolve from the simple hierarchical MONARC[2] model towards more agile models where data is exchanged among many Tier2 and Tier3 sites, relying on both large scale file transfers with strategic data placement, and an increased use of remote access to object collections with caching through CMS's AAA, ATLAS' FAX and ALICE's AliEn projects, for example. The challenges presented by expanding needs for CPU, storage and network capacity as well as rapid handling of large datasets of file and object collections have pointed the way towards future more agile pervasive models that make best use of highly distributed heterogeneous resources. In this paper, we explore the use of Named Data Networking (NDN), a new Internet architecture focusing on content rather than the location of the data collections. As NDN has shown considerable promise in another data intensive field, Climate Science, we discuss the similarities and differences between the Climate and HEP use cases, along with specific issues HEP faces and will face during LHC Run2 and beyond, which NDN could address.

  4. Distance Education Network. SSTA Research Centre Report #95-10. SSTA Research in Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saskatchewan School Trustees Association, Regina.

    The Distance Education Network of the Saskatchewan School Trustees Association (SSTA) was established to provide leadership in exploring enhanced program delivery through distance education and information technology. This report, a product of three meetings of the Distance Education Network in 1995, begins the process of suggesting directions and…

  5. Characterization of 137 Genomic DNA Reference Materials for 28 Pharmacogenetic Genes: A GeT-RM Collaborative Project.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Victoria M; Everts, Robin E; Aggarwal, Praful; Beyer, Brittany N; Broeckel, Ulrich; Epstein-Baak, Ruth; Hujsak, Paul; Kornreich, Ruth; Liao, Jun; Lorier, Rachel; Scott, Stuart A; Smith, Chingying Huang; Toji, Lorraine H; Turner, Amy; Kalman, Lisa V

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacogenetic testing is increasingly available from clinical laboratories. However, only a limited number of quality control and other reference materials are currently available to support clinical testing. To address this need, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-based Genetic Testing Reference Material Coordination Program, in collaboration with members of the pharmacogenetic testing community and the Coriell Cell Repositories, has characterized 137 genomic DNA samples for 28 genes commonly genotyped by pharmacogenetic testing assays (CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP4F2, DPYD, GSTM1, GSTP1, GSTT1, NAT1, NAT2, SLC15A2, SLC22A2, SLCO1B1, SLCO2B1, TPMT, UGT1A1, UGT2B7, UGT2B15, UGT2B17, and VKORC1). One hundred thirty-seven Coriell cell lines were selected based on ethnic diversity and partial genotype characterization from earlier testing. DNA samples were coded and distributed to volunteer testing laboratories for targeted genotyping using a number of commercially available and laboratory developed tests. Through consensus verification, we confirmed the presence of at least 108 variant pharmacogenetic alleles. These samples are also being characterized by other pharmacogenetic assays, including next-generation sequencing, which will be reported separately. Genotyping results were consistent among laboratories, with most differences in allele assignments attributed to assay design and variability in reported allele nomenclature, particularly for CYP2D6, UGT1A1, and VKORC1. These publicly available samples will help ensure the accuracy of pharmacogenetic testing. PMID:26621101

  6. Development of an Expert Resource Network for Students and Advisors Engaging in Authentic Scientific Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danch, J. M.; Aker-bolin, K.

    2011-12-01

    In an effort to increase the the number of secondary students engaging in authentic scientific research and to improve the quality of that research, an online network of scientists and educators is being established. The Network will be assessable to students and advisors participating in the 2012 Monmouth Junior Science Symposium (MJSS), a scientific forum for New Jersey students, but is intended to serve as a model for use by participants in the additional 47 regional science symposia of which the MJSS is part. Hosted on the MJSS website, the Network will consist of contact information and profiles of scientists, educators and other research professionals willing to assist secondary students and their teacher/advisors perform authentic scientific research. Profiles will include area(s) of expertise and level of participation to which the individual is capable. The set of participating experts will have the potential to expand continually as additional professionals with a variety of backgrounds are recruited over time. The Network will also be made available to members of the New Jersey Science Supervisors Association to encourage school districts not currently participating in the MJSS to involve secondary students in conducting authentic scientific research. The Network's effectiveness will be evaluated by surveys completed by MJSS participants and their teacher/advisors included with their research paper submissions.

  7. The Air Force Academy’s Falcon Telescope Network: An Educational and Research Network for K-12 and Higher Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, Francis; Tippets, Roger; Della-Rose, Devin J.; Polsgrove, Daniel; Gresham, Kimberlee; Barnaby, David A.

    2015-01-01

    The Falcon Telescope Network (FTN) is a global network of small aperture telescopes developed by the Center for Space Situational Awareness Research in the Department of Physics at the United States Air Force Academy (USAFA). Consisting of commercially available equipment, the FTN is a collaborative effort between USAFA and other educational institutions ranging from two- and four-year colleges to major research universities. USAFA provides the equipment (e.g. telescope, mount, camera, filter wheel, dome, weather station, computers and storage devices) while the educational partners provide the building and infrastructure to support an observatory. The user base includes USAFA along with K-12 and higher education faculty and students. The diversity of the users implies a wide variety of observing interests, and thus the FTN collects images on diverse objects, including satellites, galactic and extragalactic objects, and objects popular for education and public outreach. The raw imagery, all in the public domain, will be accessible to FTN partners and will be archived at USAFA. USAFA cadets use the FTN to continue a tradition of satellite characterization and astronomical research; this tradition is the model used for designing the network to serve undergraduate research needs. Additionally, cadets have led the development of the FTN by investigating observation priority schemes and conducting a 'day-in-the-life' study of the FTN in regards to satellite observations. With respect to K-12 outreach, cadets have provided feedback to K-12 students and teachers through evaluation of first-light proposals. In this paper, we present the current status of the network and results from student participation in the project.

  8. AILA Africa Research Network Launch 2007: Research into the Use of the African Languages for Academic Purposes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildsmith-Cromarty, Rosemary

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the one-day symposium was to bring together scholars in applied linguistics with an interest in the African languages for the launch of the new AILA Africa regional network. Contributions were in the form of invited research papers from several African countries. This report focuses on the South African contribution, which highlighted…

  9. A Space for Critical Research on Education Policy: ECER Paper Sessions and the "Policy Studies and Politics of Education" Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Palle

    2014-01-01

    The activities of the European Educational Research Association (EERA) and the yearly European Conference on Educational Research (ECER) are mainly organised in standing networks. Through the example of the Policy Studies and Politics of Education network, this article takes a closer look at network activity and the ways in which it contributes to…

  10. The establishment of an attachment research network in Latin America: goals, accomplishments, and challenges.

    PubMed

    Causadias, José M; Sroufe, L Alan; Herreros, Francisca

    2011-03-01

    In the face of a pressing need for expanded attachment research programs and attachment informed interventions in Latin America, a research network was established: Red Iberoamericana de Apego: RIA (Iberian-American Attachment Network). The purpose of RIA is to promote human development and well being, informed by attachment theory, centering on research, and with implications for public policies, education, and intervention. We report the proceedings of the second meeting of RIA held in Panama City, Panama, in February 2010. As part of this meeting, RIA sponsored the first Latin-American attachment conference. Proceedings of the conference are described, as are future goals of this new organization. PMID:21390910

  11. The Inquiry Network: A Model for Promoting the Teaching-Research Nexus in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slapcoff, Marcy; Harris, dik

    2014-01-01

    We describe how our teaching and learning centre developed a model, founded on Boyer's notion of scholarship, to explore the nature of the teaching-research nexus. At the core of this model is the Inquiry Network, a faculty learning community whose members moved from exploring the links between their own teaching and research to creating…

  12. winderosionnetwork.org – Portal to the National Wind Erosion Research Network

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The National Wind Erosion Research Network was established in 2014 as a collaborative effort led by the USDA Agricultural Research Service and Natural Resources Conservation Service, and USDI Bureau of Land Management, to address the need for standardized measurements of wind erosion and its control...

  13. More than a Master: Developing, Sharing, and Using Knowledge in School-University Research Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornelissen, Frank; Daly, Alan J.; Liou, Yi-Hwa; van Swet, Jacqueline; Beijaard, Douwe; Bergen, Theo C. M.

    2014-01-01

    Postgraduate master's programs for in-service teachers may be a promising new avenue in developing research partnership networks that link schools and university and enable collaborative development, sharing and use of knowledge of teacher research. This study explores the way these knowledge processes originating from master's…

  14. Networking and Information Technology Research and Development. Supplement to the President's Budget for FY 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Science and Technology Policy, Washington, DC. National Science and Technology Council.

    This document is the annual report prepared by the Interagency Working Group on Information Technology Research and Development of the National Science and Technology Council. This report is a Supplement to the President's fiscal year (FY) 2002 Budget that describes the Federal Networking and Information Technology Research and Development (NITRD)…

  15. Contrasting Assessments of Interdisciplinarity in Emerging Specialties: The Case of Neural Networks Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCain, Katherine W.; Whitney, P. Joy

    1994-01-01

    Discussion of bibliometric analysis of interdisciplinary research in emerging fields focuses on a study of neural networks research that examined citation analyses, publishing patterns and subject terms, and journal subject classification. Roles that journals can play in interdisciplinary information transfer are considered. (Contains 42…

  16. Walking the Walk? Critical Reflections from an Afro-Irish Emancipatory Research Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adshead, Maura; Dubula, Vuyiseka

    2016-01-01

    In this article the authors, who are both collaborators in this project, reflect on the challenges faced in developing and sustaining an emancipatory research framework approach to our research network in the context of radically shifting ideals and objectives for higher education in all partner institutions. The article is focused around…

  17. Institutionalizing Community-Based Learning and Research: The Case for External Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shrader, Elizabeth; Saunders, Mary Anne; Marullo, Sam; Benatti, Sylvia; Weigert, Kathleen Maas

    2008-01-01

    Conversations continue as to whether and how community-based learning and research (CBLR) can be most effectively integrated into the mission and practice of institutions of higher education (IHEs). In 2005, eight District of Columbia- (DC-) area universities affiliated with the Community Research and Learning (CoRAL) Network engaged in a planning…

  18. Report of the Interagency Optical Network Testbeds Workshop 2, NASA Ames Research Center, September 12-14, 2005

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The Optical Network Testbeds Workshop 2 (ONT2), held on September 12-14, 2005, was cosponsored by the Department of Energy Office of Science (DOE/SC) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), in cooperation with the Joint Engineering Team (JET) of the Federal Networking and Information Technology Research and Development (NITRD) Program's Large Scale Networking (LSN) Coordinating Group. The ONT2 workshop was a follow-on to an August 2004 Workshop on Optical Network Testbeds (ONT1). ONT1 recommended actions by the Federal agencies to assure timely development and implementation of optical networking technologies and infrastructure. Hosted by the NASA Ames Research Center in Mountain View, California, the ONT2 workshop brought together representatives of the U.S. advanced research and education (R&E) networks, regional optical networks (RONs), service providers, international networking organizations, and senior engineering and R&D managers from Federal agencies and national research laboratories. Its purpose was to develop a common vision of the optical network technologies, services, infrastructure, and organizations needed to enable widespread use of optical networks; recommend activities for transitioning the optical networking research community and its current infrastructure to leading-edge optical networks over the next three to five years; and present information enabling commercial network infrastructure providers to plan for and use leading-edge optical network services in that time frame.

  19. Building a Governance Strategy for CER: The Patient Outcomes Research to Advance Learning (PORTAL) Network Experience

    PubMed Central

    Paolino, Andrea R.; McGlynn, Elizabeth A.; Lieu, Tracy; Nelson, Andrew F.; Prausnitz, Stephanie; Horberg, Michael A.; Arterburn, David E.; Gould, Michael K.; Laws, Reesa L.; Steiner, John F.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The Patient Outcomes Research to Advance Learning (PORTAL) Network was established with funding from the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) in 2014. The PORTAL team adapted governance structures and processes from past research network collaborations. We will review and outline the structures and processes of the PORTAL governance approach and describe how proactively focusing on priority areas helped us to facilitate an ambitious research agenda. Background: For years a variety of funders have supported large-scale infrastructure grants to promote the use of clinical datasets to answer important comparative effectiveness research (CER) questions. These awards have provided the impetus for health care systems to join forces in creating clinical data research networks. Often, these scientific networks do not develop governance processes proactively or systematically, and address issues only as problems arise. Even if network leaders and collaborators foresee the need to develop governance approaches, they may underestimate the time and effort required to develop sound processes. The resulting delays can impede research progress. Innovation: Because the PORTAL sites had built trust and a foundation of collaboration by participating with one another in past research networks, essential elements of effective governance such as guiding principles, decision making processes, project governance, data governance, and stakeholders in governance were familiar to PORTAL investigators. This trust and familiarity enabled the network to rapidly prioritize areas that required sound governance approaches: responding to new research opportunities, creating a culture of trust and collaboration, conducting individual studies, within the broader network, assigning responsibility and credit to scientific investigators, sharing data while protecting privacy/security, and allocating resources. The PORTAL Governance Document, complete with a Toolkit of

  20. Online Social Networking, Sexual Risk and Protective Behaviors: Considerations for Clinicians and Researchers

    PubMed Central

    Holloway, Ian W.; Dunlap, Shannon; del Pino, Homero E.; Hermanstyne, Keith; Pulsipher, Craig; Landovitz, Raphael J.

    2014-01-01

    Online social networking refers to the use of internet-based technologies that facilitate connection and communication between users. These platforms may be accessed via computer or mobile device (e.g., tablet, smartphone); communication between users may include linking of profiles, posting of text, photo and video content, instant messaging and email. This review provides an overview of recent research on the relationship between online social networking and sexual risk and protective behaviors with a focus on use of social networking sites (SNS) among young people and populations at high risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). While findings are mixed, the widespread use of SNS for sexual communication and partner seeking presents opportunities for the delivery and evaluation of public health interventions. Results of SNS-based interventions to reduce sexual risk are synthesized in order to offer hands-on advice for clinicians and researchers interested in engaging patients and study participants via online social networking. PMID:25642408

  1. Who Talks to Whom in Malawi's Agricultural Research Information Network?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mapila, Mariam A. T. J.; Yauney, Jason; Thangata, Paul; Droppelmann, Klaus; Mazunda, John

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The sector-wide approach currently dominates as the strategy for developing the agricultural sector of many African countries. Although recognised that collaborative agricultural research is vital in ensuring success of sector-wide agricultural development strategies; there have been few efforts to understand the dynamics of national…

  2. Active Early Detection Research Network Grants | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  3. Using Social Network Analysis to Evaluate Research Productivity and Collaborations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royal, Kenneth D.; Akers, Kathryn S.; Lybarger, Melanie A.; Zakrajsek, Todd D.

    2014-01-01

    Research productivity and collaborations are essential aspects of advancing academia. Publishing is a critical mechanism in higher education to allow faculty members to share new information in all disciplinary fields. Due to its importance, scholarly work is often heavily considered for promotion, tenure, compensation, and other merit decisions.…

  4. Researching Community-Based Support Networks: What Policymakers Should Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dadich, Ann

    2009-01-01

    Self-help support groups (SHSGs) have a valuable role in civic society. However, it is difficult to measure their value through sole use of the positivist approaches that interest policymakers. This is because SHSGs are consumer-driven and voluntary. Thus, they cannot be regulated by research agendas or prescribed like treatment. Although social…

  5. [Clinical research in the "acute and chronic leukemias"competence network ].

    PubMed

    Hehlmann, R; Berger, U; Aul, C; Büchner, T; Döhner, H; Ehninger, G; Ganser, A; Hoelzer, D; Gökbuget, N; Uberla, K

    2004-04-01

    Goal of the network is the construction of an exemplary cooperative leukemia network for the improvement of medical care and of health related research in acute and chronic leukemias. This is achieved by improved mechanisms of cooperation among all major groups in Germany that deal with the leukemias in research and in patient care. In practice, cooperation between clinical groups and scientists in research institutes is mediated by various instruments that improve communication, flow of information and interdisciplinary cooperation and also increase information transfer from top research institutions to clinical translation. The network comprises more than 1400 participants in about 400 university centers, large community hospitals and specialty practices with functional communication structures, interdisciplinary cooperation and nation-wide logistics. The improved cooperation and the accelerated information transfer from the bench to the "bedside" results in an added value that ultimately results in improved survival results of patients and in superior competitiveness of involved research workers and clinicians. Sustainability is addressed by establishing a leukemia foundation to support long term financial coverage of the network and by negotiating a proposal for a European Network of Excellence against leukemia within the Sixth Framework Programme of the European Union. PMID:15004683

  6. Wildlife, Snow, Coffee, and Video: The IPY Activities of the University of Alaska Young Researchers' Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pringle, D.; Alvarez-Aviles, L.; Carlson, D.; Harbeck, J.; Druckenmiller, M.; Newman, K.; Mueller, D.; Petrich, C.; Roberts, A.; Wang, Y.

    2007-12-01

    The University of Alaska International Polar Year (IPY) Young Researchers' Network is a group of graduate students and postdoctoral fellows. Our interdisciplinary group operates as a volunteer network to promote the International Polar Year through education and outreach aimed at the general public and Alaskan students of all ages. The Young Researchers' Network sponsors and organizes science talks or Science Cafés by guest speakers in public venues such as coffee shops and bookstores. We actively engage high school students in IPY research concerning the ionic concentrations and isotopic ratios of precipitation through Project Snowball. Our network provides hands-on science activities to encourage environmental awareness and initiate community wildlife monitoring programs such as Wildlife Day by Day. We mentor individual high school students pursuing their own research projects related to IPY through the Alaska High School Science Symposium. Our group also interacts with the general public at community events and festivals to share the excitement of IPY for example at the World Ice Art Championship and Alaska State Fair. The UA IPY Young Researchers' Network continues to explore new partnerships with educators and students in an effort to enhance science and education related to Alaska and the polar regions in general. For more information please visit: http://ipy-youth.uaf.edu or e-mail: ipy-youth@alaska.edu

  7. The Black College satellite telecommunications network planning in support of energy-related collaborative research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1986-10-01

    Four interrelated phases constituted this 12-month effort: planning, system test, system shakedown and system implementation. Objective was to determine and test the most feasible satellite telecommunications network configuration in support of HBCU (historically black college/university) principal investigators conducting research in the energy sciences. This report outlines the accomplishments of that planning effort, indicates potential uses of the operational network and specifies resources needed to effectively mobilize widespread use of the system by HBCU scientists.

  8. Inventory management plan for a research and development local area network

    SciTech Connect

    Strickler, D.; Chester, R.; Ingle, K.; Payne, P.; Rome, J.; Kertis, K.

    1993-08-01

    An inventory management plan is presented for the local area network (LAN) for the Security Aspects of Database Management Systems, a Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored project examining computer and network security in a data management environment. The inventory management plan establishes procedures to ensure that changes in system hardware and software are identified and controlled. Management tools are described, and the roles of the project manager, inventory control manager, and research team members in the implementation of inventory management are defined.

  9. Cursor on Target: Research for a Sensor Network

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, G; Naiman, M; Valenta, AL; Boyd, AD

    2012-01-01

    Summary Terrorism, epidemics, natural, and man-made disasters have increased over the last decade, prompting ongoing evaluation and incremental rebuilding of the American public health system (Chan, Killeen, Griswold, & Lenert, 2004a; Yu, Brock, Mecozzi, Tran, & Kost, 2010). In February 2002, the Center for Disease Control (CDC) identified six focus areas to generate response capacities to bioterrorism and public emergencies. According to one focus area, information sharing and alert notifications between systems and public health agencies must be continuous and automatic (Popovich, Henderson, & Stinn, 2002) Advancements in technology set the stage for this uninterrupted data-sharing requirement to be met; for example, “smart devices” can digitally record and transmit information and text messages from remote disaster sites using wireless ad hoc networks. In this context, medical systems and personnel can provide enhanced patient support from the extraction point to the hospital, even when normal landline infrastructure has been damaged. However, care may be restricted due to the limited recognition of proprietary information and the distance between the transmitter and collector system. This article suggests that overcoming these limitations necessitates the adoption of interoperability by basic operations and illustrates how an Internet Protocol called Cursor-on-Target can facilitate communication between open source and propriety systems. PMID:23569647

  10. [Research progress on ecological function of arbuscular mycorrhizal network].

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Wang, Qiang; Wang, Xiao-juan; Zhang, Liang; Jin, Liang

    2015-07-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are one of the most important soil microorganisms in terrestrial ecosystems. Through hyphal fusion, the mycelium of AM fungi could form arbuscular mycorrhizal network (AMN) widely in the underground habitats. It has been demonstrated that AMN plays important roles in ecosystems. AMN could change the soil physical and chemical properties directly and change the micro-environment for soil microorganisms. Thus, AMN could influence the soil microbial community structure. AM fungi also could absorb nutrients through the external hyphae from soil. Then the nutrition could transport to different host plants through the mycelium with AMN, which could affect the dynamics of plant community structure. In order to discover the role of AMN in ecosystem, we reviewed the function of AMN in ecosystem, including: 1) the formation strategy of AMN through the external hyphae of AM fungi fusion in the soil; 2) the regulation of AMN on soil microorganism community structure and ecological function; 3) the mechanism of AMN to adjust the soil resources distribution, and their influence on intra- and inter-specific plant competition, as well as the host plant species diversity and abundance in ecosystem; 4) the relationship between AMN and global changes in the atmospheric nitrogen deposition, atmospheric CO2 and temperature, and the role of AMN in the stability of ecosystem. The future development directions and application prospects were also discussed. PMID:26710650

  11. [Leukemia research in Germany: the Competence Network Acute and Chronic Leukemias].

    PubMed

    Kossak-Roth, Ute; Saußele, Susanne; Aul, Carlo; Büchner, Thomas; Döhner, Hartmut; Dugas, Martin; Ehninger, Gerhard; Ganser, Arnold; Giagounidis, Aristoteles; Gökbuget, Nicola; Griesshammer, Martin; Hasford, Jörg; Heuser, Michael; Hiddemann, Wolfgang; Hochhaus, Andreas; Hoelzer, Dieter; Niederwieser, Dietger; Reiter, Andreas; Röllig, Christoph; Hehlmann, Rüdiger

    2016-04-01

    The Competence Network "Acute and Chronic Leukemias" was founded in 1997 by the consolidation of the leading leukemia study groups in Germany. Key results are the development of new trials and cooperative studies, the setup of patient registries and biobanking facilities, as well as the improvement of study infrastructure. In 2003, the concept of the competence network contributed to the foundation of the European LeukemiaNet (ELN). Synergy with the ELN resulted in cooperation on a European and international level, standardization of diagnostics and treatment, and recommendations for each leukemia and interdisciplinary specialty. The ultimate goal of the network is the cure of leukemia through cooperative research. PMID:26979719

  12. Practice-based Research Networks (PBRNs) Bridging the Gaps between Communities, Funders, and Policymakers.

    PubMed

    Gaglioti, Anne H; Werner, James J; Rust, George; Fagnan, Lyle J; Neale, Anne Victoria

    2016-01-01

    In this commentary, we propose that practice-based research networks (PBRNs) engage with funders and policymakers by applying the same engagement strategies they have successfully used to build relationships with community stakeholders. A community engagement approach to achieve new funding streams for PBRNs should include a strategy to engage key stakeholders from the communities of funders, thought leaders, and policymakers using collaborative principles and methods. PBRNs that implement this strategy would build a robust network of engaged partners at the community level, across networks, and would reach state and federal policymakers, academic family medicine departments, funding bodies, and national thought leaders in the redesign of health care delivery. PMID:27613796

  13. Interpreting the CYP2D6 Results From the International Tamoxifen Pharmacogenetics Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Province, MA; Altman, RB; Klein, TE

    2014-01-01

    Meta-analysis of the entire analyzable cohort of 4,935 tamoxifen-treated breast cancer patients by the International Tamoxifen Pharmacogenetics Consortium (ITPC) (criterion 3) revealed no CYP2D6 effect on outcomes but strong heterogeneity across sites.1 However, a post hoc–defined subgroup (criterion 1: postmenopausal, estrogen receptor positive, receiving 20 mg/day tamoxifen for 5 years; n = 1,996) did find statistically significant effect of CYP2D6 on both invasive disease–free survival as well as breast cancer–free interval, with little site heterogeneity. How should we interpret these discrepant findings? PMID:25056393

  14. Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium Guidelines for HLA-B Genotype and Abacavir Dosing: 2014 update.

    PubMed

    Martin, M A; Hoffman, J M; Freimuth, R R; Klein, T E; Dong, B J; Pirmohamed, M; Hicks, J K; Wilkinson, M R; Haas, D W; Kroetz, D L

    2014-05-01

    The Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) Guidelines for HLA-B Genotype and Abacavir Dosing were originally published in April 2012. We reviewed recent literature and concluded that none of the evidence would change the therapeutic recommendations in the original guideline; therefore, the original publication remains clinically current. However, we have updated the Supplementary Material online and included additional resources for applying CPIC guidelines to the electronic health record. Up-to-date information can be found at PharmGKB (http://www.pharmgkb.org). PMID:24561393

  15. Pharmacogenetics of Statin-Induced Myopathy: A Focused Review of the Clinical Translation of Pharmacokinetic Genetic Variants

    PubMed Central

    Talameh, Jasmine A; Kitzmiller, Joseph P

    2014-01-01

    Statins are the most commonly prescribed drugs in the United States and are extremely effective in reducing major cardiovascular events in the millions of Americans with hyperlipidemia. However, many patients (up to 25%) cannot tolerate or discontinue statin therapy due to statin-induced myopathy (SIM). Patients will continue to experience SIM at unacceptably high rates or experience unnecessary cardiovascular events (as a result of discontinuing or decreasing their statin therapy) until strategies for predicting or mitigating SIM are identified. A promising strategy for predicting or mitigating SIM is pharmacogenetic testing, particularly of pharmacokinetic genetic variants as SIM is related to statin exposure. Data is emerging on the association between pharmacokinetic genetic variants and SIM. A current, critical evaluation of the literature on pharmacokinetic genetic variants and SIM for potential translation to clinical practice is lacking. This review focuses specifically on pharmacokinetic genetic variants and their association with SIM clinical outcomes. We also discuss future directions, specific to the research on pharmacokinetic genetic variants, which could speed the translation into clinical practice. For simvastatin, we did not find sufficient evidence to support the clinical translation of pharmacokinetic genetic variants other than SLCO1B1. However, SLCO1B1 may also be clinically relevant for pravastatin- and pitavastatin-induced myopathy, but additional studies assessing SIM clinical outcome are needed. CYP2D6*4 may be clinically relevant for atorvastatin-induced myopathy, but mechanistic studies are needed. Future research efforts need to incorporate statin-specific analyses, multi-variant analyses, and a standard definition of SIM. As the use of statins is extremely common and SIM continues to occur in a significant number of patients, future research investments in pharmacokinetic genetic variants have the potential to make a profound impact on

  16. The Use of Underground Research Laboratories to Support Repository Development Programs. A Roadmap for the Underground Research Facilities Network.

    SciTech Connect

    MacKinnon, Robert J.

    2015-10-26

    Under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), nationally developed underground research laboratories (URLs) and associated research institutions are being offered for use by other nations. These facilities form an Underground Research Facilities (URF) Network for training in and demonstration of waste disposal technologies and the sharing of knowledge and experience related to geologic repository development, research, and engineering. In order to achieve its objectives, the URF Network regularly sponsors workshops and training events related to the knowledge base that is transferable between existing URL programs and to nations with an interest in developing a new URL. This report describes the role of URLs in the context of a general timeline for repository development. This description includes identification of key phases and activities that contribute to repository development as a repository program evolves from an early research and development phase to later phases such as construction, operations, and closure. This information is cast in the form of a matrix with the entries in this matrix forming the basis of the URF Network roadmap that will be used to identify and plan future workshops and training events.

  17. Building Networks for Global Clinical Research: The Basics.

    PubMed

    Shearer, David W; Volberding, Paul A; Schemitsch, Emil H; Cook, Gillian E; Slobogean, Gerard P; Morshed, Saam

    2015-12-01

    Over the last several decades, interest in global health across all fields of medicine, including orthopaedic surgery, has grown markedly. Cross-national collaborations are an effective means of conducting high-quality clinical research and offer many advantages over single-center investigations. Successful collaboration requires a well-designed research protocol, development of an effective team structure, and the funding to ensure the project is sustained to completion. Equally important, investigators must consider the social, linguistic, and cultural context in which the study is being undertaken. Although randomized clinical trials are the highest level of evidence, study designs may have to be adapted to accommodate available resources, expertise, and local contextual factors. With appropriate planning, these collaborative endeavors can generate changes in clinical practice and positively impact health policy. PMID:26584260

  18. A Framework for Understanding and Applying Ethical Principles in Network and Security Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenneally, Erin; Bailey, Michael; Maughan, Douglas

    Current information and communications technology poses a variety of ethical challenges for researchers. In this paper, we present an intellectual framework for understanding and applying ethical principles in networking and security research rooted in the guidance suggested by an ongoing Department of Homeland Security working group on ethics. By providing this prototype ethical impact assessment, we seek to encourage community feedback on the working group's nascent efforts and spur researchers to concretely evaluate the ethical impact of their work.

  19. Report on NSF/ARO/ONR Workshop on Distributed Camera Networks: Research Challenges and Future Directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhanu, Bir; Roy Chowdhury, Amit

    Large-scale video networks are becoming increasingly important for a wide range of critical applications. The development of automated techniques for aggregating and interpreting information from multiple video streams in large-scale networks in real-life scenarios is very challenging. Research in video sensor networks is highly interdisciplinary and requires expertise from a variety of fields. The goal of this effort was to organize a two-day nationally recognized workshop in the domain of camera networks that brings together leading researchers from academia, industry and the government. The workshop was held at the University of California at Riverside on May 11-12, 2009. The workshop was attended by 75 participants. The workshop was sponsored by the US National Science Foundation, US Army Research Office and US Office of Naval Research. The workshop addressed critical interdisciplinary challenges at the intersection of large-scale video camera networks and distributed sensing, processing, communication and control; distributed video understanding; embedded real-time systems; graphics and simulation; and education. The recommendations of the workshop are summarized in the following order of topics: Video Processing and Video Understanding

  20. Network-based collaborative research environment LDRD final report

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, B.R.; McDonald, M.J.

    1997-09-01

    The Virtual Collaborative Environment (VCE) and Distributed Collaborative Workbench (DCW) are new technologies that make it possible for diverse users to synthesize and share mechatronic, sensor, and information resources. Using these technologies, university researchers, manufacturers, design firms, and others can directly access and reconfigure systems located throughout the world. The architecture for implementing VCE and DCW has been developed based on the proposed National Information Infrastructure or Information Highway and a tool kit of Sandia-developed software. Further enhancements to the VCE and DCW technologies will facilitate access to other mechatronic resources. This report describes characteristics of VCE and DCW and also includes background information about the evolution of these technologies.

  1. Barrett's Esophagus Translational Research Network (BETRNet) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The goal of BETRNet is to reduce the incidence, morbidity, and mortality of esophageal adenocarcinoma by answering key questions related to the progression of the disease, especially in the premalignant stage. In partnership with NCI’s Division of Cancer Biology, multidisciplinary translational research centers collaborate to better understand the biology of Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma to improve risk stratification and develop prevention strategies.  | Multi-disciplinary, multi-institutional collaboration to enhance understanding of Barrett's esophagus and to prevent esophageal adenocarcinoma.

  2. International scientific optical network for space debris research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molotov, I.; Agapov, V.; Titenko, V.; Khutorovsky, Z.; Burtsev, Yu.; Guseva, I.; Rumyantsev, V.; Ibrahimov, M.; Kornienko, G.; Erofeeva, A.; Biryukov, V.; Vlasjuk, V.; Kiladze, R.; Zalles, R.; Sukhov, P.; Inasaridze, R.; Abdullaeva, G.; Rychalsky, V.; Kouprianov, V.; Rusakov, O.; Litvinenko, E.; Filippov, E.

    A joint team of researchers under the auspices of the Center for Space Debris Information Collection, Processing and Analysis of the Russian Academy of Sciences collaborates with 15 observatories around the world to perform observations of space debris. For this purpose, 14 telescopes were equipped with charge-coupled device (CCD) cameras, Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers, CCD frame processing and ephemeris computation software, with the support of the European and Russian grants. Many of the observation campaigns were carried out in collaboration with the Astronomical Institute of the University of Bern (AIUB) team operating at the Zimmerwald observatory and conducting research for the European Space Agency (ESA), using the Tenerife/Teide telescope for searching and tracking of unknown objects in the geostationary region (GEO). More than 130,000 measurements of space objects along a GEO arc of 340.9°, collected and processed at Space Debris Data Base in the Ballistic Center of the Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics (KIAM) in 2005 2006, allowed us to find 288 GEO objects that are absent in the public orbital databases and to determine their orbital elements. Methods of discovering and tracking small space debris fragments at high orbits were developed and tested. About 40 of 150 detected unknown objects of magnitudes 15 20.5 were tracked during many months. A series of dedicated 22-cm telescopes with large field of view for GEO survey tasks is in process of construction. 7 60-cm telescopes will be modernized in 2007.

  3. Generating Researcher Networks with Identified Persons on a Semantic Service Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Hanmin; Lee, Mikyoung; Kim, Pyung; Lee, Seungwoo

    This paper describes a Semantic Web-based method to acquire researcher networks by means of identification scheme, ontology, and reasoning. Three steps are required to realize it; resolving co-references, finding experts, and generating researcher networks. We adopt OntoFrame as an underlying semantic service platform and apply reasoning to make direct relations between far-off classes in ontology schema. 453,124 Elsevier journal articles with metadata and full-text documents in information technology and biomedical domains have been loaded and served on the platform as a test set.

  4. Data governance requirements for distributed clinical research networks: triangulating perspectives of diverse stakeholders

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Katherine K; Browe, Dennis K; Logan, Holly C; Holm, Roberta; Hack, Lori; Ohno-Machado, Lucila

    2014-01-01

    There is currently limited information on best practices for the development of governance requirements for distributed research networks (DRNs), an emerging model that promotes clinical data reuse and improves timeliness of comparative effectiveness research. Much of the existing information is based on a single type of stakeholder such as researchers or administrators. This paper reports on a triangulated approach to developing DRN data governance requirements based on a combination of policy analysis with experts, interviews with institutional leaders, and patient focus groups. This approach is illustrated with an example from the Scalable National Network for Effectiveness Research, which resulted in 91 requirements. These requirements were analyzed against the Fair Information Practice Principles (FIPPs) and Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) protected versus non-protected health information. The requirements addressed all FIPPs, showing how a DRN's technical infrastructure is able to fulfill HIPAA regulations, protect privacy, and provide a trustworthy platform for research. PMID:24302285

  5. CIHR canadian HIV trials network HIV workshop: ethical research through community participation and strengthening scientific validity

    PubMed Central

    Mbuagbaw, Lawrence; Slogrove, Amy; Sas, Jacqueline; Kunda, John; Morfaw, Frederick; Mukonzo, Jackson; Thabane, Lehana

    2014-01-01

    The CIHR canadian HIV trials network mandate includes strengthening capacity to conduct and apply clinical research through training and mentoring initiatives of HIV researchers by building strong networks and partnerships on the African continent. At the17th International Conference on AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Infections in Africa (ICASA), the CTN facilitated a two-day workshop to address ethical issues in the conduct of HIV research, and career enhancing strategies for young African HIV researchers. Conference attendees were allowed to attend whichever session was of interest to them. We report on the topics covered, readings shared and participants’ evaluation of the workshop. The scientific aspects of ethical research in HIV and career enhancement strategies are relevant issues to conference attendees. PMID:25667706

  6. Data governance requirements for distributed clinical research networks: triangulating perspectives of diverse stakeholders.

    PubMed

    Kim, Katherine K; Browe, Dennis K; Logan, Holly C; Holm, Roberta; Hack, Lori; Ohno-Machado, Lucila

    2014-01-01

    There is currently limited information on best practices for the development of governance requirements for distributed research networks (DRNs), an emerging model that promotes clinical data reuse and improves timeliness of comparative effectiveness research. Much of the existing information is based on a single type of stakeholder such as researchers or administrators. This paper reports on a triangulated approach to developing DRN data governance requirements based on a combination of policy analysis with experts, interviews with institutional leaders, and patient focus groups. This approach is illustrated with an example from the Scalable National Network for Effectiveness Research, which resulted in 91 requirements. These requirements were analyzed against the Fair Information Practice Principles (FIPPs) and Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) protected versus non-protected health information. The requirements addressed all FIPPs, showing how a DRN's technical infrastructure is able to fulfill HIPAA regulations, protect privacy, and provide a trustworthy platform for research. PMID:24302285

  7. Who are the key players in a new translational research network?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Professional networks are used increasingly in health care to bring together members from different sites and professions to work collaboratively. Key players within these networks are known to affect network function through their central or brokerage position and are therefore of interest to those who seek to optimise network efficiency. However, their identity may not be apparent. This study using social network analysis to ask: (1) Who are the key players of a new translational research network (TRN)? (2) Do they have characteristics in common? (3) Are they recognisable as powerful, influential or well connected individuals? Methods TRN members were asked to complete an on-line, whole network survey which collected demographic information expected to be associated with key player roles, and social network questions about collaboration in current TRN projects. Three questions asked who they perceived as powerful, influential and well connected. Indegree and betweenness centrality values were used to determine key player status in the actual and perceived networks and tested for association with demographic and descriptive variables using chi square analyses. Results Response rate for the online survey was 76.4% (52/68). The TRN director and manager were identified as key players along with six other members. Only two of nine variables were associated with actual key player status; none with perceived. The main finding was the mismatch between actual and perceived brokers. Members correctly identified two of the three central actors (the two mandated key roles director and manager) but there were only three correctly identified actual brokers among the 19 perceived brokers. Possible reasons for the mismatch include overlapping structures and weak knowledge of members. Conclusions The importance of correctly identifying these key players is discussed in terms of network interventions to improve efficiency. PMID:23987790

  8. Increasing Health Research Literacy through Outreach and Networking: Why Translational Research Should Matter to Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer-White, Molly; Choate, Celeste; Markel, Dorene S

    2015-01-01

    Background: Increasingly clinical and health research awareness is a priority for health and medical research communities. Translational research, including the prevention and treatment of conditions, relies upon proper funding as well as public participation in research studies. This requires executing more effective communication strategies to…

  9. Creating Knowledge: A Monopoly? Participatory Research in Development. Participatory Research Network Series No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Budd, Ed.; And Others

    This book, consisting of 13 papers, deals with the theory, practice, and reactions to participatory research in the area of social research for development. Included in the volume are the following papers: "Breaking the Monopoly of Knowledge: Research Methods, Participation, and Development," by Budd Hall; "Creating Alternative Research Methods:…

  10. JERICO: a Joint European Research Infrastructure network for Coastal Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puillat, I.; Sparnocchia, S.; Bozzano, R.; Coppola, L.; Petihakis, G.; Ntoumas, M.; Lefevre, D.; Caballero, A.; Beguery, L.; Testor, P.

    2013-12-01

    Existing coastal observatories in European waters are composed of platforms such as moored buoys, piles, profiling systems, gliders, ';ferryboxes' and automated systems on board of ships of opportunity. JERICO project strives to integrate existing infrastructures and provides a platform for the identification and dissemination of best practices for the design, implementation, operation and maintenance of observing systems and the dissemination of data. In order to reach these objectives several kinds of actions are undertaken, amongst which the offer of Trans-National Access (TNA) to a number of coastal observatories and calibration facilities for international research and technology development. This presentation will give a short overview of the selected TNA proposals and a focus will be drawn on some of the TNA results. Calibrating sensors regularly is the prime requirement for getting reliable data from coastal observatories and ensuring their long-term relevance as viable providers of information on the marine environment. The calibration facilities at the HCMR complex in Crete hosted users for calibration experiments. The first one was accessed by a HCMR team to improve their experience in calibrating high-quality oceanographic temperature sensors using primary ITS-90 reference standards. The experiment involved full calibrations of two SBE 35 thermometers from Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc. owned by the HCMR that will be used as reference sensors for temperature measurements in their calibration laboratory in Crete. Gliders make oceanographic measurements traditionally collected by research vessels or moored instruments, but at a fraction of the costs. The GESEBB glider Mission started in July 2013, in the southeastern Bay of Biscay. The objective of the mission is sampling the characteristics of a mesoscale eddy that appears in the southeastern Bay of Biscay, during spring and summer. The origin of this structure is associated with the strength and extension

  11. Quantifying greenhouse gas mitigation potential of cropland management practices: A review of the GRA croplands research group greenhouse gas network

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multi-national greenhouse gas (GHG) flux networks play a central role facilitating model development and verification while concurrently identifying critical research needs. In 2012, a network was established within Component 1 of the Global Research Alliance (GRA) Croplands Research Group. The ne...

  12. Systemwide Reform in Districts under Pressure: The Role of Social Networks in Defining, Acquiring, Using, and Diffusing Research Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finnigan, Kara S.; Daly, Alan J.; Che, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the way in which low-performing schools and their district define, acquire, use, and diffuse research-based evidence. Design/methodology/approach: The mixed methods case study builds upon the prior research on research evidence and social networks, drawing on social network analyses, survey data and…

  13. Supplement B: Research Networking Systems Characteristics Profiles. A Companion to the OCLC Research Report, Registering Researchers in Authority Files

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith-Yoshimura, Karen; Altman, Micah; Conlon, Michael; Cristán, Ana Lupe; Dawson, Laura; Dunham, Joanne; Hickey, Thom; Hill, Amanda; Hook, Daniel; Horstmann, Wolfram; MacEwan, Andrew; Schreur, Philip; Smart, Laura; Wacker, Melanie; Woutersen, Saskia

    2014-01-01

    The OCLC Research Report, "Registering Researchers in Authority Files", [Accessible in ERIC as ED564924] summarizes the results of the research conducted by the OCLC Research Registering Researchers in Authority Files Task Group in 2012-2014. Details of this research are in supplementary data sets: (1) "Supplement A: Use Cases. A…

  14. Pharmacogenetic Analysis of Pediatric Patients with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: A Possible Association between Survival Rate and ITPA Polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyery; Kang, Hyoung Jin; Kim, Hyo Jeong; Jang, Mi Kyung; Kim, Nam Hee; Oh, Yongtaek; Han, Byoung-Don; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Kim, Chul Woo; Lee, Ji Won; Park, Kyung Duk; Shin, Hee Young; Ahn, Hyo Seop

    2012-01-01

    Genetic polymorphisms are important factors in the effects and toxicity of chemotherapeutics. To analyze the pharmacogenetic and ethnic differences in chemotherapeutics, major genes implicated in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) were analyzed. Eighteen loci of 16 genes in 100 patients with ALL were analyzed. The distribution of variant alleles were CYP3A4*1B (0%), CYP3A5*3 (0%), GSTM1 (21%), GSTP1 (21%), GSTT1 (16%), MDR1 exon 21 (77%), MDR1 exon 26 (61%), MTHFR 677 (63%), MTHFR 1298 (29%), NR3C1 1088 (0%), RFC1 80 (68%), TPMT combined genotype (7%), VDR intron 8 (11%), VDR FokI (83%), TYMS enhancer repeat (22%) and ITPA 94 (30%). The frequencies of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of 10 loci were statistically different from those in Western Caucasians. Dose percents (actual/planned dose) or toxicity of mercaptopurine and methotrexate were not related to any SNPs. Event free survival (EFS) rate was lower in ITPA variants, and ITPA 94 AC/AA variant genotypes were the only independent risk factor for lower EFS in multivariate analysis, which was a different pharmacogenetic implication from Western studies. This study is the first pharmacogenetic study in Korean pediatric ALL. Our result suggests that there are other possible pharmacogenetic factors besides TPMT or ITPA polymorphisms which influence the metabolism of mercaptopurine in Asian populations. PMID:23029095

  15. Research progress in the key device and technology for fiber optic sensor network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Deming; Sun, Qizhen; Lu, Ping; Xia, Li; Sima, Chaotan

    2016-03-01

    The recent research progress in the key device and technology of the fiber optic sensor network (FOSN) is introduced in this paper. An architecture of the sensor optical passive network (SPON), by employing hybrid wavelength division multiplexing/time division multiplexing (WDM/TDM) techniques similar to the fiber communication passive optical network (PON), is proposed. The network topology scheme of a hybrid TDM/WDM/FDM (frequency division multiplexing) three-dimension fiber optic sensing system for achieving ultra-large capacity, long distance, and high resolution sensing performance is performed and analyzed. As the most important device of the FOSN, several kinds of light source are developed, including the wideband multi-wavelength fiber laser operating at C band, switchable and tunable 2 μm multi-wavelength fiber lasers, ultra-fast mode-locked fiber laser, as well as the optical wideband chaos source, which have very good application prospects in the FOSN. Meanwhile, intelligent management techniques for the FOSN including wideband spectrum demodulation of the sensing signals and real-time fault monitoring of fiber links are presented. Moreover, several typical applications of the FOSN are also discussed, such as the fiber optic gas sensing network, fiber optic acoustic sensing network, and strain/dynamic strain sensing network.

  16. Privacy in Pharmacogenetics: An End-to-End Case Study of Personalized Warfarin Dosing

    PubMed Central

    Fredrikson, Matthew; Lantz, Eric; Jha, Somesh; Lin, Simon; Page, David; Ristenpart, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    We initiate the study of privacy in pharmacogenetics, wherein machine learning models are used to guide medical treatments based on a patient’s genotype and background. Performing an in-depth case study on privacy in personalized warfarin dosing, we show that suggested models carry privacy risks, in particular because attackers can perform what we call model inversion: an attacker, given the model and some demographic information about a patient, can predict the patient’s genetic markers. As differential privacy (DP) is an oft-proposed solution for medical settings such as this, we evaluate its effectiveness for building private versions of pharmacogenetic models. We show that DP mechanisms prevent our model inversion attacks when the privacy budget is carefully selected. We go on to analyze the impact on utility by performing simulated clinical trials with DP dosing models. We find that for privacy budgets effective at preventing attacks, patients would be exposed to increased risk of stroke, bleeding events, and mortality. We conclude that current DP mechanisms do not simultaneously improve genomic privacy while retaining desirable clinical efficacy, highlighting the need for new mechanisms that should be evaluated in situ using the general methodology introduced by our work. PMID:27077138

  17. The Pharmacogenetic Control of Antiplatelet Response: Candidate Genes and CYP2C19

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yao; Lewis, Joshua P.; Hulot, Jean-Sébastien; Scott, Stuart A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Aspirin, clopidogrel, prasugrel and ticagrelor are antiplatelet agents for the prevention of ischemic events in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS), percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), and other indications. Variability in response is observed to different degrees with these agents, which can translate to increased risks for adverse cardiovascular events. As such, potential pharmacogenetic determinants of antiplatelet pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and clinical outcomes have been actively studied. Areas covered This article provides an overview of the available antiplatelet pharmacogenetics literature. Evidence supporting the significance of candidate genes and their potential influence on antiplatelet response and clinical outcomes are summarized and evaluated. Additional focus is directed at CYP2C19 and clopidogrel response, including the availability of clinical testing and genotype-directed antiplatelet therapy. Expert opinion The reported aspirin response candidate genes have not been adequately replicated and few candidate genes have thus far been implicated in prasugrel or ticagrelor response. However, abundant data supports the clinical validity of CYP2C19 and clopidogrel response variability among ACS/PCI patients. Although limited prospective trial data are available to support the utility of routine CYP2C19 testing, the increased risks for reduced clopidogrel efficacy among ACS/PCI patients that carry CYP2C19 loss-of-function alleles should be considered when genotype results are available. PMID:26173871

  18. Challenges in Determining Genotypes for Pharmacogenetics in Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplant Recipients.

    PubMed

    Langman, Loralie J; Nesher, Lior; Shah, Dimpy P; Azzi, Jacques M; Shpall, Elizabeth J; Rezvani, Katy; Black, John L; Chemaly, Roy F

    2016-09-01

    As part of a pharmacogenetic study, paired blood and oral fluid samples were tested for the IL28B polymorphism (rs12979860) before and after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) to evaluate changes in the genotype and investigate the utility of genotyping in oral fluid in HCT recipients. In 54 patients with leukemia >18 years of age, samples were collected approximately 7 days before HCT and 60 days after HCT. IL28B polymorphism testing was performed using real-time PCR with allele-specific probes. Twenty-four patients had the same genotype as their donors. In 30 patients, the genotype was different from that of the donor. In the oral fluid samples, 4 retained the recipient's genotype, and 18 had a genotype that matched that of the donor. In the remaining 8 patients, the results could not be characterized and appeared to be a combination of both, suggesting mixed proportions of donor and recipient cells. The assumption was that the sloughed epithelial cells of the mouth are of recipient origin. However, oral fluid is a mixture that contains varying numbers of cells of the recipient and immunomodulatory cells from the donor. Therefore, the use of oral fluid after HCT for clinical pharmacogenetics purposes needs further investigation. PMID:27371869

  19. Research on low-latency MAC protocols for wireless sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Chenguang; Sha, Xuejun; Lee, Chankil

    2007-11-01

    Energy-efficient should not be the only design goal in MAC protocols for wireless sensor networks, which involve the use of battery-operated computing and sensing devices. Low-latency operation becomes the same important as energy-efficient in the case that the traffic load is very heavy or the real-time constrain is used in applications like tracking or locating. This paper introduces some causes of traditional time delays which are inherent in a multi-hops network using existing WSN MAC protocols, illuminates the importance of low-latency MAC design for wireless sensor networks, and presents three MACs as examples of low-latency protocols designed specially for sleep delay, wait delay and wakeup delay in wireless sensor networks, respectively. The paper also discusses design trade-offs with emphasis on low-latency and points out their advantages and disadvantages, together with some design considerations and suggestions for MAC protocols for future applications and researches.

  20. Establishing the European Research Area in Ageing: a network of national research programmes.

    PubMed

    Geyer, Gerda

    2005-10-01

    The following paper gives a summary of the European Commission's research policy with regard to the ERA-NET scheme and especially with regard to the ERA-AGE project that was launched in March 2004. All the partner institutions in the ERA-AGE project are main national funding agencies, research councils or ministries. Some selected examples of programme funding by the partner institutions may demonstrate their different ways of funding research and show the great variety of programmes. The long-term objective of the ERA-AGE project is to create a sustainable basis for the planning, implementation and exploitation of transnational research. In future, the European Research Area in Ageing could gain an added value from research investments by integrating existing funding mechanisms and research infrastructures, by commonly deciding on research priorities for funding activities in order to reduce fragmentation and duplication, and by the recruitment of young researchers. PMID:16154308