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Sample records for pharmacopoeias homeopathic

  1. [Homeopathic medicine and magic].

    PubMed

    Angutek, Dorota

    2007-01-01

    The article compares homeopathic medicine and primitive magic. The author realises formal similarities beetwen these two fields of knowledge. The primitive homeopathic magic characterised by J. G. Frazer in his The Golden Bought announces that "similar courses similar". M. Mauss and H. Hubert added to this "low" an another formula: "similar acts on similar that courses a contrary phenomenon". The last formula is an identic one with the "low" of homeopathic medicine. Moreover there is a similarity between pantheistic religion of Hahnemann and magician beliefs in the power named mana in Melanesia and Polinesia or orenda, wakan, manitou and so on, by the Indians from The North America. The amazing thing is that homeopathic chemists belive that kinetic power transforms itself into esoteric one, during preparation of homeopathic medicines.In the end of this article the author ascertains that homeopathic medicine and magic has certain paradigm in common what is opposit to racionalism of official European paradigm of thinking. PMID:19244731

  2. The national pharmacopoeias of the Baltic States.

    PubMed

    Kondratas, R; Gudienė, V; Simaitiene, Z; Maurina, B; Paju, K; Hinrikus, T; Raal, A

    2015-10-01

    After Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania proclaimed their independence in 1918 and began to create their national health care systems, one of their stated priorities was the formulation and publication of national pharmacopoeias. In order to accomplish this, working groups as well as commissions composed of pharmacists, medical specialists and even linguists had to be formed. The process was long and difficult. New terminology in native languages had to be created. Sources for the monographs had to be chosen, researched, analyzed and compared. There were organizational and financial problems. Nevertheless, by the late 1930s, all three Baltic States published their national pharmacopoeias. Officially, they were not able to use them for long because during World War II all three were occupied and annexed by the Soviet Union. Pharmacists in those countries were obliged to use the Soviet pharmacopoeias, although unofficially, they also made good use of their national ones. Currently, the European Pharmacopoeia is in use in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. PMID:26601427

  3. Homeopathic treatment for premenstrual symptoms.

    PubMed

    Jones, Angela

    2003-01-01

    Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) are well-documented disorders causing significant morbidity in the female population. Treatments prescribed do not necessarily reflect proven clinical effectiveness. A recent systematic review from the Exeter Department of Complementary Medicine failed to endorse complementary therapies as a whole for treatment of PMS. However, a recent randomised controlled trial of homeopathic treatment for PMS confirms the clinical experience of homeopathic physicians that homeopathy is helpful in PMS. PMID:12626176

  4. [Electroanalytical methods in the European pharmacopoeia].

    PubMed

    Nagy, A; Kószeginé, S H; Török, I; Paál, T

    2001-10-01

    A brief survey on the electroanalytical test methods applied by the European Pharmacopoeia is presented by the authors. The frequency of the use of electrochemical tests and the main fields of their application in the monographs together with the trends of development are discussed. Paying a special attention to the measures taken by the pharmacopoeia to reduce the systematic and random error in each type of measurements, the authors are analysing the content and characteristics of texts describing the electrochemical methods. System suitability tests included in the different procedures and their efficacy in ensuring the criteria established in the validation studies carried out during elaboration of the test methods are also shown. PMID:11961904

  5. [The pharmacopoeia of Father Morin in 1864].

    PubMed

    Bonnemain, Bruno

    2016-03-01

    The "pharmacopoeia or collection of divine remedies found in the documents of an old rural priest after his death" is a publication of nearly 400 pages including a long list of diseases with their associated treatments, followed by several recipes for the day to day life (such as: how to preserve wine, how to produce Champagne's wine, recipes for filler paste, etc.). A last part, very unique, is dedicated to evil spells, i.e. to diseases that do not have natural explanations and for which Saint Benoit's medal works wonders, according to the author. This pharmacopoeia of 1864 is a typical example of "incoherent collection" mentioned by Tardieu in 1862 concerning clergy and pharmacy. It is, from that point of view, the archetype that pharmacists wanted to see disappearing after the law of germinal year XI (1803), but that persisted until the beginning of the XXth century: the illegal practice of pharmacy by priests and nuns. PMID:27281931

  6. Luminescence study of homeopathic remedies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobyshev, Valentin I.; Tomkevitch, Marie

    2001-06-01

    It was shown in our recent papers that distilled water possesses intrinsic luminescence at wavelength of about 400 nm with excitation wavelength 300 nm, which is very sensitive to small amount of dissolved substances. This phenomena was chosen to study homeopathic remedies. Pronounced difference in the intensity of luminescence between several commercial preparations with the same potency and one preparation with various potencies was obtained. Long scale evolution of the spectra was registered and final result was dependent on preparation and its potency. Systematic study of homeopathic preparations of halit (natural sodium chloride) from 1 to 30 decimal dilution was done. A stepwise dilution with mechanical agitation between the dilution steps, the so-called potentisation, was produced specially by homeopathic company Weleda. Luminescence intensity against concentration (potency) of halit is non monotonous function with several maxima, the main maximum is located at 13-14-th dilution. Evolution of the spectra was registered during several months. The analogous potentisation treatment of water without additional substances results also in changes of the luminescence spectra, depending on the number of potentisation. The obtained differences of luminescence spectra at ultra high dilutions and potentisation show that the collective properties of water are really changed in homeopathic preparations.

  7. The School Nurse's Role in Homeopathic Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selekman, Janice; Thomas, Elizabeth; McLean, Kay

    1998-01-01

    Describes the practices of homeopathy and how they affect the scope of practice of school nurses. Includes a definition of homeopathy, a discussion of remedies and the specific symptoms for which they are effective, and an examination of conditions treatable by homeopathic physicians. Nine guidelines for managing homeopathic products in the school…

  8. Arsenic content of homeopathic medicines

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, H.D.; Saryan, L.A.

    1986-01-01

    In order to test the widely held assumption that homeopathic medicines contain negligible quantities of their major ingredients, six such medicines labeled in Latin as containing arsenic were purchased over the counter and by mail order and their arsenic contents measured. Values determined were similar to those expected from label information in only two of six and were markedly at variance in the remaining four. Arsenic was present in notable quantities in two preparations. Most sales personnel interviewed could not identify arsenic as being an ingredient in these preparations and were therefore incapable of warning the general public of possible dangers from ingestion. No such warnings appeared on the labels.

  9. Regulating Homeopathic Products - A Century of Dilute Interest.

    PubMed

    Podolsky, Scott H; Kesselheim, Aaron S

    2016-01-21

    In 2015, U.S. government agencies began considering greater regulation of both homeopathic drugs and the advertising of such products. These actions came after more than a century of missed opportunities to regulate homeopathic medicines. PMID:26789866

  10. [Microbiological and biological methods of the European Pharmacopoeia. Relevant for each medicinal product].

    PubMed

    Norwig, J

    2014-10-01

    According to the EU Directive 2001/83 the European Pharmacopoeia is the official Pharmacopoeia of the European Union. Therefore the European Pharmacopoeia is one of the legal pharmacopoeial compendia in Germany. Any licensed medicinal product on the German market complies with the requirements of the compendial monographs, if applicable. Because the general monographs of the European Pharmacopoeia on Dosage Forms, Substances for Pharmaceutical Use and Pharmaceutical Preparations refer to the microbiological and biological methods of the Pharmacopoeia, the methods are relevant for medicinal products, too. This article presents a rough summary of the microbiological and biological methods of the European Pharmacopoeia and is intended to be a stimulus for the reader to better understand the original compendia. The short description of the methods mentioned, here, is a summary from the Pharmacopoeia and the non-official collection of comments on the texts of the European Pharmacopoeia. PMID:25200487

  11. Homeopathic drug selection using Intuitionistic fuzzy sets.

    PubMed

    Kharal, Athar

    2009-01-01

    Using intuitionistic fuzzy set theory, Sanchez's approach to medical diagnosis has been applied to the problem of selection of single remedy from homeopathic repertorization. Two types of Intuitionistic Fuzzy Relations (IFRs) and three types of selection indices are discussed. I also propose a new repertory exploiting the benefits of soft-intelligence. PMID:19135957

  12. Can homeopaths detect homeopathic medicines by dowsing? A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    McCarney, R; Fisher, P; Spink, F; Flint, G; van Haselen, R

    2002-04-01

    Dowsing is a method of problem-solving that uses a motor automatism, amplified through a pendulum or similar device. In a homeopathic context, it is used as an aid to prescribing and as a tool to identify miasm or toxin load. A randomized double-blind trial was conducted to determine whether six dowsing homeopaths were able to distinguish between Bryonia in a 12c potency and placebo by use of dowsing alone. The homeopathic medicine Bryonia was correctly identified in 48.1% of bottle pairs (n=156; 95% confidence interval 40.2%, 56.0%; P=0.689). These results, wholly negative, add to doubts whether dowsing in this context can yield objective information. PMID:11934908

  13. Can homeopaths detect homeopathic medicines by dowsing? A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    McCarney, R; Fisher, P; Spink, F; Flint, G; van Haselen, R

    2002-01-01

    Dowsing is a method of problem-solving that uses a motor automatism, amplified through a pendulum or similar device. In a homeopathic context, it is used as an aid to prescribing and as a tool to identify miasm or toxin load. A randomized double-blind trial was conducted to determine whether six dowsing homeopaths were able to distinguish between Bryonia in a 12c potency and placebo by use of dowsing alone. The homeopathic medicine Bryonia was correctly identified in 48.1% of bottle pairs (n=156; 95% confidence interval 40.2%, 56.0%; P=0.689). These results, wholly negative, add to doubts whether dowsing in this context can yield objective information. PMID:11934908

  14. [An unfulfilled wish of Hahnemann for a homoeopathic pharmacopoeia].

    PubMed

    Philipp, Guntram

    2005-01-01

    The collections of patient correspondence by Samuel Hahnemann in the Institute for the History of Medicine at the Robert Bosch Foundation in Stuttgart and the Deutsche Homöopathie-Union in Karlsruhe contain some letters written by the dispensing chemist, Theodor Lappe (1802-1882). These documents provide details of business affairs rather than illness topics. Hahnemann used the help of this pharmacist, who lived and worked in Neudietendorf/Thuringia, in trying to develop the homoeopathic medicine causticum. This gave rise to the idea of developing a homoeopathic pharmacopoeia which unfortunately failed because of the lack of self-confidence of this highly talented chemist. PMID:17144623

  15. A Homeopathic Arnica Patch for the Relief of Cellulitis-derived Pain and Numbness in the Hand

    PubMed Central

    Kaszkin-Bettag, Marietta

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Arnica montana, belonging to the Compositae family, is a plant with a longstanding tradition of relieving pain and/or inflammation in muscles and joints and may thus represent an alternative to nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, which are often ineffective or lead to a number of adverse effects. A homeopathic arnica patch (3X dilution according to the Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia of the United States) was developed to alleviate pain symptoms in the back and neck muscles and joints. Case Presentation: The present case report describes the treatment outcome after administration of the arnica patch in a 55-year-old female patient with pain in the right hand and numbness in the fourth finger after cellulitis in the palmar area. The cellulitis was treated with antibiotics, but pain symptoms remained at 7 points on a 0-to-10–point visual analog scale (VAS) for pain despite intake of oral ibuprofen and oral and topical application of an arnica-containing complex homeopathic ointment. Ten arnica patches were dispensed to the patient. She cut the patch into strips to cover all painful areas of the hand and applied them at night. After 3 days, she reported a substantial decrease in pain symptoms (VAS = 1) and a marked decrease in numbness and in the size of a tender nodule on the third metacarpal area. Moreover, the patient was able to sleep through the night without being awakened by the pain. The symptoms declined further during the next 2 days. Conclusion: This case demonstrates that after a relatively short period of time, the administration of the arnica patch on the hand provided a marked reduction of pain and recovery of functionality of the hand. PMID:24278813

  16. Observations on the effects of odours on the homeopathic response.

    PubMed

    McGuigan, Moira

    2014-07-01

    Samuel Hahnemann described incidences where the homeopathic response was disrupted by noxious smells in the environment. An earlier paper proposed that homeopathic medicines may be sensed by vomeronasal cells (VNCs) i.e. microvillus or brush cells in the vomeronasal organ (VNO), the taste buds and associated with the trigeminal nerve and nervus terminalis. This paper proposes an extension to the theory and suggests that a subset of solitary chemosensory cells (SCCs) in the diffuse chemosensory system (DCS) that is morphologically similar to VNCs might also be receptive to homeopathic medicines. The types of odours that may interfere with this process are described. Two clinical cases of disruption of the homeopathic response are given as examples, showing that successful re-establishment of remedy action can be produced by timely repetition of the medicine. The ramifications on clinical homeopathic practice are discussed. PMID:24931752

  17. [Homeopathic strategies: the Homeopathic League of Rio Grande do Sul in the 1940s and 1950s].

    PubMed

    Weber, Beatriz Teixeira

    2011-06-01

    Although the period following 1930 has been considered an era in which homeopathy lost ground within academia, homeopaths nevertheless were advocating for their proposals in a variety of spaces. One such instance was represented by the Homeopathic League of Rio Grande do Sul, founded in 1941, which published a journal until the 1970s, set up three free dispensaries to serve the population in Porto Alegre, and played an active role in political discussions through a group of homeopaths who endeavored to disseminate and expand homeopathic practice. An analysis of the League's Boletim de Homeopatia provides insight into homeopaths' strategies for expanding their role in Porto Alegre, capital of Rio Grande do Sul. PMID:21779687

  18. Homeopathic treatment for infertility in a prize Nelore bull.

    PubMed

    Lobreiro, J

    2007-01-01

    Treatments for infertility in bulls are not described in homeopathic literature. A few treatments, such as changing the protein content of the diet, giving extra minerals, etc have been proposed. This case report describes homeopathic treatment for infertility in a prize bull. A Nelore bull, considered infertile for 3 years, was treated with homeopathic Pulsatilla nigricans 200 CH. Decreased total sperm defects, increased sperm motility and a very impressive increased number of doses of semen produced were observed. The bull relapsed after treatment was withdrawn, but again responded when it was resumed. Since only one animal was observed one cannot assume that the observed changes were due only to this treatment. Further studies may establish the real benefits of a homeopathic medicine in bull infertility. PMID:17227749

  19. Identification of unknown homeopathic remedies by delayed luminescence.

    PubMed

    Lenger, Karin; Bajpai, Rajendra P; Spielmann, Manfred

    2014-03-01

    A quality control method of highly diluted and potentized homeopathic remedies is important for curing patients applying homeopathic therapy. Lenger detected photons in highly potentized homeopathic remedies by delayed luminescence. The photons of Argentum metallicum 100MK and Cantharis 100MK magnetically bound to their carrier substances ethanol or saccharose were separated by their resonating magnetic field of about 2.06 MHz. The photons of these 100MK potency levels and of their reference substances were determined to be standard values calculated by the B2-values of Bajpai's equation derived from the Hamiltonian equation. The stability of ethanolic Argentum metallicum 100MK and Cantharis 100MK declined to 1/3 of their photons within a month in contrast to saccharose globules with Argentum metallicum 100MK having been stable during the period of these investigations for almost 1 year. Some remedies delivered as CMK potency had been proved to be ethanol. The testing amount of high ethanolic potencies is limited to 40 μl because 80 μl resulted in an attenuation of the photons; 40 μl equal 16 medicated saccharose globules. Six unknown homeopathic remedies could be identified as increasing potency levels of Argentum metallicum from 100MK to 1.000MK which indicates a calibration curve. The homeopathic factories having sent the unknown remedies confirmed the measurements. A quality control of homeopathic remedies is possible by comparing the different B2-values of the remedies and their carrier substances. PMID:23872840

  20. [Alkalimetric titrations of salts of organic bases in the Pharmacopoeia].

    PubMed

    Bezáková, Zelmíra; Stankovičová, Mária

    2013-12-01

    Modified methods - alkalimetry in ethanol 70% with a defined small volume of hydrochloric acid 0.01 mol/l added to the solution of the sample before the titration and alkalimetry in ethanol 70% or ethanol 96% alone with potentiometric end-point detection for the assay of halide salts of 11 organic N-bases has been investigated. The results were compared to those obtained by the method of the European Pharmacopoeia 7th Ed. (Ph. Eur. 7th Ed.). The Ph. Eur. 7th Ed. use for 8 investigated substances alkalimetry in alcohol 96 % with a defined small volume of hydrochloric acid 0.01 mol/l (5 ml) with potentiometric end-point detection: Cinchocaine hydrochloride, Codeine hydrochloride dihydrate, Ethylmorphine hydrochloride, Lidocaine hydrochloride, Papaverine hydrochloride, Pilocarpine hydrochloride, Quinine hydrochloride, Tetracaine hydrochloride. Our results revealed that the Ph. Eur. 7th Ed. method did not work for 5 drugs from this group: Cinchocaine hydrochloride, Ethylmorphine hydrochloride, Papaverine hydrochloride, Pilocarpine hydrochloride and Tetracaine hydrochloride. In the group of investigated substances we included also drugs with the character of weak organic bases for which Ph. Eur. 7th Ed. prescribed different methods for their assay: Thiamine hydrochloride and Pyridoxine hydrochloride - acidimetric titration in non-aqueous solvents with perchloric acid and Procaine hydrochloride - determination of primary aromatic amino-nitrogen (Ph. Eur. 7th Ed., chapter 2.5.8). PMID:24393115

  1. [The National Pharmacopoeia and the therapeutic status of flora in Mexican biomedicine].

    PubMed

    Hersch Martinez, P

    2001-01-01

    The paper analyses the transformation of the Mexican pharmacopoeia, focusing on the presence of medicinal plants. Reflecting diverse processes, editions of the pharmacopoeia show a progressive modification in its content and profile. A text written to shape a Mexican materia medica, recognising empirical knowledge by the inclusion of popularly used resources and involving clinicians as authors and recipients, was transformed into a mainly industrial publication with no clinical references. The origin and implications of this process are explored. PMID:12001931

  2. Electronic pharmacopoeia: a missed opportunity for safe opioid prescribing information?

    PubMed

    Lapoint, Jeff; Perrone, Jeanmarie; Nelson, Lewis S

    2014-03-01

    Errors in prescribing of dangerous medications, such as extended release or long acting (ER/LA) opioid forlmulations, remain an important cause of patient harm. Prescribing errors often relate to the failure to note warnings regarding contraindications and drug interactions. Many prescribers utilize electronic pharmacopoeia (EP) to improve medication ordering. The purpose of this study is to assess the ability of commonly used apps to provide accurate safety information about the boxed warning for ER/LA opioids. We evaluated a convenience sample of six popular EP apps available for the iPhone and an online reference for the presence of relevant safety warnings. We accessed the dosing information for each of six ER/LA medications and assessed for the presence of an easily identifiable indication that a boxed warning was present, even if the warning itself was not provided. The prominence of precautionary drug information presented to the user was assessed for each app. Provided information was classified based on the presence of the warning in the ordering pathway, located separately but within the prescribers view, or available in a separate screen of the drug information but non-highlighted. Each program provided a consistent level of warning information for each of the six ER/LA medications. Only 2/7 programs placed a warning in line with dosing information (level 1); 3/7 programs offered level 2 warning and 1/7 offered level 3 warning. One program made no mention of a boxed warning. Most EP apps isolate important safety warnings, and this represents a missed opportunity to improve prescribing practices. PMID:24081616

  3. Solvatochromic dyes detect the presence of homeopathic potencies.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, Steven J

    2016-02-01

    A systematic approach to the design of simple, chemical systems for investigating the nature of homeopathic medicines has led to the development of an experimental protocol in which solvatochromic dyes are used as molecular probes of serially diluted and agitated solutions. Electronic spectroscopy has been used to follow changes in the absorbance of this class of dyes across the visible spectrum in the presence of homeopathic potencies. Evidence is presented using six different solvatochromic dyes in three different solvent systems. In all cases homeopathic potencies produce consistent and reproducible changes in the spectra of the dyes. Results suggest that potencies influence the supramolecular chemistry of solvatochromic dyes, enhancing either dye aggregation or disaggregation, depending upon dye structure. Comparable dyes lacking the intramolecular charge transfer feature of solvatochromic dyes are unaffected by homeopathic potencies, suggesting potencies require the oscillating dipole of solvatochromic dyes for effective interaction. The implications of the results presented, both for an eventual understanding of the nature of homeopathic medicines and their mode of action, together with future directions for research in this area, are discussed. PMID:26827998

  4. Homeopathic treatment in resistant livedoid vasculopathy: case report.

    PubMed

    Waisse-Priven, Silvia; Jurj, Gheorghe; Lima Thomaz, Luciana Costa; Tierno, Simone Almeida; Filho, Walter Labonia; Sos, Andrea Braida

    2009-07-01

    This paper describes the successful outcome of homeopathic treatment in a case of resistant livedoid vasculopathy (LV). LV is a rare disease characterized by chronic recurrent and painful ulceration of the lower limbs, frequently associated to atrophie blanche (AB), probably due to procoagulant conditions. Most literature reports single or very few cases; response to treatment is difficult, even resistant. This patient suffered LV for 7 years before seeking homeopathic treatment; ulcers recurred frequently, at intervals less than 3 months, in spite of continual use of pentoxyfilline. Configuration of signs and symptoms strongly pointed out to the prescription of homeopathic remedy Sepia succus that promptly elicited significant improvement of LV and the patient's overall state (non suppressive treatment). Considerations are made on the value of single case reports and the reliability of prescriptions grounded on consistent signs and coherence among the manifold features of individual disease. PMID:19647211

  5. Brief Homeopathic Pathogenetic Experimentation: A Unique Educational Tool in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    In homeopathy, many difficulties are encountered in understanding theoretical presuppositions because they represent different paradigms from those of hegemonic science. In our medical school, we developed a brief homeopathic pathogenetic experimentation course to be added as curricular content and a didactic method in homeopathic disciplines to add practical experience to the theoretical approach of homeopathic presuppositions. In accordance with the premises laid out by Hahnemann, the father of homeopathy, brief pathogenetic experimentation was offered on a voluntary basis for students who were free of chronic diseases and who had not regularly used medication in the last 3 months. The clinical test, either crossed or sequential (randomized and blind), was used as a study model. Single weekly doses of a homeopathic medicine of 30 cH or placebo were taken by participants during 4 weeks after which crossover of the experimented substances took place for another 4 weeks. Polycrest medicines were used so that symptoms developed by the participants could be compared to those described in Homeopathic Materia Medica. Thirty-three of the 50 students who studied homeopathy as an elective discipline over the last 4 years at the School of Medicine of the University of São Paulo (FMUSP) participated. Participants described symptoms according to specific methodology including many comments with peculiar characteristics and notable idiosyncrasies. All these students endorsed the course because it contributed to their understanding of how dynamized substances produced symptoms in healthy participants as well as the cure of symptoms according to the casual similitude principle. Brief homeopathic pathogenetic experimentation proved to be an effective method to observe the idiosyncratic manifestations of human individuality based on qualitative methodology, thus building a basis of understanding of homeopathy. PMID:18955242

  6. The frequency of dietary references in homeopathic consultations.

    PubMed

    Filho, Rubens Dolce

    2011-07-01

    A retrospective quantitative study on dietary references found in medical records of 2753 patients attending consultations from 10/1/1994 to 5/31/2007 was conducted. The symptoms found in the rubrics relating to food and drink aggravation and amelioration, aversion and craving of homeopathic repertories reflect diets at different places and times and do not correspond fully, to contemporary gastronomy. Desires for sweet and spicy foods were statistically more frequent, revealing the prevailing taste for such food among the studied population. Food cravings should be carefully analyzed before considering them as indications for choosing homeopathic therapy, they are less significant than aversions, aggravations and ameliorations. PMID:21784331

  7. Origin and evolution of China Pharmacopoeia and its implication for traditional medicines.

    PubMed

    Hao, Yun-Fang; Jiang, Jian-Guo

    2015-01-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has a history that can be dated back to several thousand years ago. The extant earliest medical book is Huangdi Neijing (Canon of Internal Medicine, 770 BC~221 BC), and the earliest pharmacy monograph is Shengnong Bencao Jing (Shengnong Materia Medica, AD25~AD220). The most influential pharmacy monograph is the Bencao Gangmu (Compendium of Materia Medica, AD1368~AD1644). There were also many other far-reaching influencial monographs, which become the main and the most important derived resources of modern China pharmacopoeia for TCM. In this paper, we try to introduce some representative medicine and pharmacy works of ancient China, and elaborate the origin, development and improvement process of modern China pharmacopoeia, which may have referential significance for traditional and natural drugs. China Pharmacopoeia and TCM still have to face many problems in authenticity discrimination, action mechanism, and adverse reaction, etc. The improvement of China Pharmacopoeia still has room for progress with the solutions of modern analytical methods to the problems. The start-up and development of Herbalomics project will be helpful to further improve the China Pharmacopoeia, especially Chinese patented medicine and compound prescription. PMID:25877600

  8. [Proposal for standardized authors' name citing in original plant Latin name listed in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia].

    PubMed

    Qin, Min-Jian; Tian, Mei

    2014-05-01

    In 2010, Chinese Pharmacopoeia Committee officially enacted Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2010 edition). The Volume 1 of the pharmacopoeia is comprised of the medicinal materials and the decoction pieces, the essential oils and extracts of medicinal plants, prescription preparations and single preparation, etc., which not only provides Latin names of Chinese medicinal materials, also provided Latin names of the original medicinal plants to effectively control the quality of Chinese medicinal materials. In order to raise awareness of correctly citation and maintain the authority and standardization of Chinese Pharmacopoeia, this paper briefly describes abbreviations rules of authors' name of plant scientific name according to the 'International Code of Botanical Nomenclature, ICBN'. Through comparing with the rules of ICBN, 'Flora of China' (Chinese edition and English edition), and authority international plant catalogue databases, the authors made statistic and analysis of the non-standard cited authors' names phenomena of the original plant scientific names recorded in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2010 edition), and the revision suggestions are proposed. PMID:25095396

  9. [Wound healing by homeopathic silica dilutions in mice].

    PubMed

    Oberbaum, M; Markovits, R; Weisman, Z; Kalinkevits, A; Bentwich, Z

    1992-08-01

    Highly diluted solutions of silica are widely used in homeopathic medicine to treat lesions such as chronic wounds, ulcers, and abscesses. We tested the therapeutic effects of homeopathic dilutions of silica on induced chronic wounds. Holes were made in the ears of mice by dental wire, which then remained hanging from the ear to cause persistent mechanical irritation. In each experiment 3 or 4 groups of 10 mice each were treated by adding homeopathic dilutions of silica (10(-10), 10(-60), 10(-400)) and of saline (10(-10), respectively, to the drinking water of the mice for 4-20 days. The size of the wound holes was measured every second day (grades 0-4) and/or by an objective image analysis system. The results showed that in 7/11 experiments the ear holes of the silica-treated animals were significantly smaller (p less than 0.05-0.001) and healed faster than in those treated with saline. Also the therapeutic effect increased progressively with increase in dilution of the silica (10(-10) less than 10(-60) less than 10(-400)). These results show that homeopathic dilutions of silica (even well beyond Avogadro's number) clearly have a therapeutic effect on wound healing and that our experimental model for studying wound healing is a very useful tool for such studies. PMID:1325402

  10. Effect of homeopathic medicines on transplanted tumors in mice.

    PubMed

    Es, Sunila; Kuttan, Girija; Kc, Preethi; Kuttan, Ramadasan

    2007-01-01

    Ultra low doses used in homeopathic medicines are reported to have healing potential for various diseases but their action remains controversial. In this study we have investigated the antitumour and antimetastatic activity of selected homeopathic medicines against transplanted tumours in mice. It was found that Ruta graveolens 200c and Hydrastis canadensis 200c significantly increased the lifespan of Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma and Dalton's Lymphoma Ascites induced tumour-bearing animals by 49.7%, and 69.4% respectively. Moreover there was 95.6% and 95.8% reduction of solid tumour volume in Ruta 200c and Hydrastis 200c treated animals on the 31st day after tumour inoculation. Hydrastis 1M given orally significantly inhibited the growth of developed solid tumours produced by DLA cells and increased the lifespan of tumour bearing animals. Some 9 out of 15 animals with developed tumors were completely tumour free after treatment with Hydrastis 1M. Significant anti-metastatic activity was also found in B16F-10 melanoma-bearing animals treated with Thuja1M, Hydrastis 1M and Lycopodium1M. This was evident from the inhibition of lung tumour nodule formation, morphological and histopathological analysis of lung and decreased levels of gamma-GT in serum, a cellular marker of proliferation. These findings support that homeopathic preparations of Ruta and Hydrastis have significant antitumour activity. The mechanism of action of these medicines is not known at present. PMID:18159975

  11. Dermatological remedies in the traditional pharmacopoeia of Vulture-Alto Bradano, inland southern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Quave, Cassandra L; Pieroni, Andrea; Bennett, Bradley C

    2008-01-01

    Background Dermatological remedies make up at least one-third of the traditional pharmacopoeia in southern Italy. The identification of folk remedies for the skin is important both for the preservation of traditional medical knowledge and in the search for novel antimicrobial agents in the treatment of skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI). Our goal is to document traditional remedies from botanical, animal, mineral and industrial sources for the topical treatment of skin ailments. In addition to SSTI remedies for humans, we also discuss certain ethnoveterinary applications. Methods Field research was conducted in ten communities in the Vulture-Alto Bradano area of the Basilicata province, southern Italy. We randomly sampled 112 interviewees, stratified by age and gender. After obtaining prior informed consent, we collected data through semi-structured interviews, participant-observation, and small focus groups techniques. Voucher specimens of all cited botanic species were deposited at FTG and HLUC herbaria located in the US and Italy. Results We report the preparation and topical application of 116 remedies derived from 38 plant species. Remedies are used to treat laceration, burn wound, wart, inflammation, rash, dental abscess, furuncle, dermatitis, and other conditions. The pharmacopoeia also includes 49 animal remedies derived from sources such as pigs, slugs, and humans. Ethnoveterinary medicine, which incorporates both animal and plant derived remedies, is addressed. We also examine the recent decline in knowledge regarding the dermatological pharmacopoeia. Conclusion The traditional dermatological pharmacopoeia of Vulture-Alto Bradano is based on a dynamic folk medical construct of natural and spiritual illness and healing. Remedies are used to treat more than 45 skin and soft tissue conditions of both humans and animals. Of the total 165 remedies reported, 110 have never before been published in the mainland southern Italian ethnomedical literature. PMID

  12. [Chemical tests with Marrubium species. Official data on Marubii herba in Pharmacopoeia Hungarica VII].

    PubMed

    Telek, E; Tõth, L; Botz, L; Máthé, I

    1997-01-01

    About 40 species of the Marrubium genus (Lamiaceae) are known of which 2 species (M. vulgare L. and M. peregrinum L.) and one hybrid (M. x paniculatum Desr.) can be found as native plants in Hungary. The above-ground parts of M. vulgare L. are official in Hungarian Pharmacopoeia VII. Active substances in Marrubii herba are labdane-structured bitter materials. Although the presence of furanic labdane diterpenes in the plant is known, the pharmacopoeia gives only microscopic tests, qualitative tests (for other parts of the plant and foreign organic matter) for the bitter value of Marrubii herba. We have examined the main terpenoid substances isolated with column, gel and preparative layer chromatography. Structure elucidations were performed by means of UV, mass and NMR spectroscopy. We have compared the changes in terpenoid-type compounds (premarrubiin and marrubiin) in plants during the vegetation period; in different Marrubium species and in the different extractions of horehound by means of thin layer chromatography and densitometry. By reason of our results we propose qualitative and quantitative chemical tests for the paragraph of Marrubii herba in Pharmacopoeia Hungarica VII. PMID:9163258

  13. Assays of homeopathic remedies in rodent behavioural and psychopathological models.

    PubMed

    Bellavite, Paolo; Magnani, Paolo; Marzotto, Marta; Conforti, Anita

    2009-10-01

    The first part of this paper reviews the effects of homeopathic remedies on several models of anxiety-like behaviours developed and described in rodents. The existing literature in this field comprises some fifteen exploratory studies, often published in non-indexed and non-peer-reviewed journals. Only a few results have been confirmed by multiple laboratories, and concern Ignatia, Gelsemium, Chamomilla (in homeopathic dilutions/potencies). Nevertheless, there are some interesting results pointing to the possible efficacy of other remedies, and confirming a statistically significant effect of high dilutions of neurotrophic molecules and antibodies. In the second part of this paper we report some recent results obtained in our laboratory, testing Aconitum, Nux vomica, Belladonna, Argentum nitricum, Tabacum (all 5CH potency) and Gelsemium (5, 7, 9 and 30CH potencies) on mice using ethological models of behaviour. The test was performed using coded drugs and controls in double blind (operations and calculations). After an initial screening that showed all the tested remedies (except for Belladonna) to have some effects on the behavioural parameters (light-dark test and open-field test), but with high experimental variability, we focused our study on Gelsemium, and carried out two complete series of experiments. The results showed that Gelsemium had several effects on the exploratory behaviour of mice, which in some models were highly statistically significant (p < 0.001), in all the dilutions/dynamizations used, but with complex differences according to the experimental conditions and test performed. Finally, some methodological issues of animal research in this field of homeopathy are discussed. The "Gelsemium model" - encompassing experimental studies in vitro and in vivo from different laboratories and with different methods, including significant effects of its major active principle gelsemine - may play a pivotal rule for investigations on other homeopathic

  14. Low Potency Homeopathic Remedies and Allopathic Herbal Medicines: Is There an Overlap?

    PubMed Central

    Csupor, Dezső; Boros, Klára; Hohmann, Judit

    2013-01-01

    Classical homeopathy is based on the therapeutic application of highly diluted homeopathic stocks. The indications of such medicines are determined by proving, i.e. by applying the remedies in healthy subjects. However, there are several complex homeopathic medicinal products on the market with approved therapeutic indications. The efficacy of these medicines has been assessed in clinical trials on patients. There is no upper limit of dosing for such homeopathic remedies, and these products often contain undiluted mother tincture. The aim of our study was to compare an allopathic herbal medicine and a homeopathic product containing undiluted mother tincture based on the same plant. Two products (an allopathic herbal medicine and a homeopathic product) containing Vitex agnus-castus extract were analyzed by HPLC-DAD for their agnuside and casticin contents. The agnuside content of the allopathic product was approximately four times higher, while the amount of casticin was in the same order of magnitude. Our experiments revealed the presence of active ingredients in allopathic quantity in a homeopathic preparation, highlighting the controversy between the principles of classical and practice of contemporary homeopathy. According to the principles of classical homeopathy these remedies cannot be considered as homeopathic remedies but rather as (allopathic) herbal ones. This phenomenon necessitates a case-by-case approach towards the possible adverse effects and drug interactions of homeopathics in the daily medical practice. Homeopathic products containing active agents in allopathic doses should be treated the same way as allopathic medicines from the point of view of quality assurance and pharmacovigilance. PMID:24019954

  15. Homeopathic Preparations of Quartz, Sulfur and Copper Sulfate Assessed by UV-Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Ursula; Wolf, Martin; Heusser, Peter; Thurneysen, André; Baumgartner, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    Homeopathic preparations are used in homeopathy and anthroposophic medicine. Although there is evidence of effectiveness in several clinical studies, including double-blinded randomized controlled trials, their nature and mode of action could not be explained with current scientific approaches yet. Several physical methods have already been applied to investigate homeopathic preparations but it is yet unclear which methods are best suited to identify characteristic physicochemical properties of homeopathic preparations. The aim of this study was to investigate homeopathic preparations with UV-spectroscopy. In a blinded, randomized, controlled experiment homeopathic preparations of copper sulfate (CuSO4; 11c–30c), quartz (SiO2; 10c–30c, i.e., centesimal dilution steps) and sulfur (S; 11×–30×, i.e., decimal dilution steps) and controls (one-time succussed diluent) were investigated using UV-spectroscopy and tested for contamination by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The UV transmission for homeopathic preparations of CuSO4 preparations was significantly lower than in controls. The transmission seemed to be also lower for both SiO2 and S, but not significant. The mean effect size (95% confidence interval) was similar for the homeopathic preparations: CuSO4 (pooled data) 0.0544% (0.0260–0.0827%), SiO2 0.0323% (–0.0064% to 0.0710%) and S 0.0281% (–0.0520% to 0.1082%). UV transmission values of homeopathic preparations had a significantly higher variability compared to controls. In none of the samples the concentration of any element analyzed by ICP-MS exceeded 100 ppb. Lower transmission of UV light may indicate that homeopathic preparations are less structured or more dynamic than their succussed pure solvent. PMID:19474239

  16. Survey of the use of homeopathic medicine in the UK health system.

    PubMed Central

    Swayne, J M

    1989-01-01

    An analysis of 7218 consultations showed that homeopathic medicines are being used to treat a wide range of morbidity in the United Kingdom. The data were derived from all consecutive consultations during one week by 73 doctors who used homeopathic medicine. Of these consultations 88% were conducted as part of the National Health Service (the majority in general practice). Thirty five per cent overall and 25% of general practice consultations were managed using homeopathic medicines, and these were combined with conventional drugs in 8.5% of the prescriptions. PMID:2558206

  17. Characterization of essential oil and effects on growth of Verbena gratissima plants treated with homeopathic phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Santos, Fúlvia M; Monfort, Lucila E F; Castro, Daniel M; Pinto, José E B P; Leonardi, Michele; Pistelli, Luisa

    2011-10-01

    Plant models offer a method to examine the efficacy of homeopathic solutions. Homeopathic Phosphorus (P) dynamizations were evaluated on the linear growth and dry biomass of Verbena gratissima, a plant native to Brazil. The yields and chemical characterization of the essential oil are also given. Plants exhibited phenotypic plasticity after the homeopathic Phosphorus treatments. The dynamization 9CH, in particular, interfered with plant growth, height, diameter of stems and total dry mass. 9CH treatment showed the highest yield of essential oil. The essential oil composition of V. gratissima varied according to the different dynamization used. Homeopathic Phosphorus provided the greatest amount of beta-pinene, trans-pinocarveol, trans-pinocamphone and trans-pinocarvyl acetate in comparison with controls. PMID:22164793

  18. The vital sensation of the minerals: reducing uncertainty in homeopathic prescribing.

    PubMed

    Thompson, E A; Geraghty, J

    2007-04-01

    We illustrate the 'vital sensation' of mineral-based homeopathic medicines as revealed by an interview style based on a synthesis of the Bombay method and Scholten's, understanding derived from the periodic table. The 'Bombay method', described by Rajan Sankaran, builds on homeopathic teaching giving a structure to guide the gathering and synthesising homeopathic data. The concept of 'levels' gives a route to the deepest reflection of the vital disturbance, the vital sensation. Moving through the levels of fact, symptom, emotion, delusion and finally vital sensation provides valuable prescribing information. These aspects are discussed in conjunction with the kingdoms: plant, mineral and animal, focusing on the mineral kingdom. By synthesizing information relating to the concepts of vital sensation and kingdom we can reduce uncertainly in homeopathic prescribing. PMID:17437937

  19. How to handle worsening of condition during treatment - risk assessment in homeopathic practice.

    PubMed

    Stub, Trine; Salamonsen, Anita; Kristoffersen, Agnete; Musial, Frauke

    2015-01-01

    Even though homeopathy is regarded as a harmless intervention, homeopathic practice may not be entirely risk-free. Risk in homeopathy can be divided into direct and indirect risk. Direct risk refers to traditional adverse effects of an intervention; indirect risk is related to adverse effects in a treatment context, e.g. the practitioner. Available data suggest that the risk profile of homeopathic remedies in ultra-molecular potencies is minor, but there is a potential for indirect risk related to homeopathic practice. The concept of 'homeopathic aggravation' which is unique for homeopathy may impose a particular risk as it allows the health status of the patients to deteriorate before there is a possible improvement. In that respect it is imperative to distinguish homeopathic aggravations from adverse effects. In a general risk evaluation of the homeopathic treatment it may be useful to assess the patient's symptoms in accordance with the natural course of disease and to evaluate any negative deviation from the normal curve as a possible adverse effect of the treatment. It is imperative that more emphasis is placed on patient safety during the education in homeopathy, and that students are trained to identify serious and red flag situations. PMID:25824402

  20. Efficacy of homeopathic remedies as prophylaxis of bovine endometritis.

    PubMed

    Arlt, S; Padberg, W; Drillich, M; Heuwieser, W

    2009-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of 2 different homeopathic prophylactic strategies for the prevention of endometritis. The drugs used were Lachesis compositum (Lachesis), Carduus compositum (Carduus), and Traumeel LT (Traumeel). Each drug contained a mixed formula of homeopathic remedies. All 929 cows received the first treatment within 24 h postpartum. The second to fourth treatments were conducted at 7 to 13, 14 to 20, and 21 to 27 d in milk, respectively. In the first group, the 4 treatments were Traumeel, Lachesis, Carduus, and Carduus, respectively (n = 206). In the second group, Lachesis was administered 3 times, followed by 1 treatment with Carduus (n = 198). The control group received 4 injections of saline (n = 189). In the fourth week after calving, the prevalence of clinical endometritis, uterine involution, and ovarian activity was monitored by rectal palpation and by ultrasonography. To assess the resumption of ovarian activity, blood samples were taken to determine the concentration of serum progesterone. The concentrations of beta-hydroxybutyrate and nonesterified fatty acids in blood serum were examined to evaluate energy metabolism. The incidence of clinical endometritis at 21 to 27 d in milk did not differ between the groups (44.4, 44.8, and 36.9% in the Traumeel, Lachesis, Carduus, and Carduus group; the 3x Lachesis, followed by Carduus group; and the control group, respectively). The proportion of cows with cyclic activity at 21 to 27 d in milk and the proportion of cows above threshold values of progesterone, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and nonesterified fatty acids did not differ significantly between groups. When reproductive performance data were analyzed, no significant differences were found between groups. Hence, the treatment protocols tested were not effective in preventing bovine endometritis or in enhancing reproductive performance in this study. PMID:19762811

  1. Economic impact of homeopathic practice in general medicine in France.

    PubMed

    Colas, Aurélie; Danno, Karine; Tabar, Cynthia; Ehreth, Jenifer; Duru, Gérard

    2015-12-01

    Health authorities are constantly searching for new ways to stabilise health expenditures. To explore this issue, we compared the costs generated by different types of medical practice in French general medicine: i.e. conventional (CM-GP), homeopathic (Ho-GP), or mixed (Mx-GP).Data from a previous cross-sectional study, EPI3 La-Ser, were used. Three types of cost were analysed: (i) consultation cost (ii) prescription cost and (iii) total cost (consultation + prescription). Each was evaluated as: (i) the cost to Social Security (ii) the remaining cost (to the patient and/or supplementary health insurance); and (iii) health expenditure (combination of the two costs).With regard to Social Security, treatment by Ho-GPs was less costly (42.00 vs 65.25 for CM-GPs, 35 % less). Medical prescriptions were two-times more expensive for CM-GPs patients (48.68 vs 25.62 ). For the supplementary health insurance and/or patient out-of-pocket costs, treatment by CM-GPs was less expensive due to the lower consultation costs (6.19 vs 11.20 for Ho-GPs) whereas the prescription cost was comparable between the Ho-GPs and the CM-GPs patients (15.87 vs 15.24 respectively) . The health expenditure cost was 20 % less for patients consulting Ho-GPs compared to CM-GPs (68.93 vs 86.63 , respectively). The lower cost of medical prescriptions for Ho-GPs patients compared to CM-GPs patients (41.67 vs 63.72 ) was offset by the higher consultation costs (27.08 vs 22.68 respectively). Ho-GPs prescribed fewer psychotropic drugs, antibiotics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.In conclusions management of patients by homeopathic GPs may be less expensive from a global perspective and may represent an important interest to public health. PMID:26152791

  2. Development of a Biocrystallisation Assay for Examining Effects of Homeopathic Preparations Using Cress Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Baumgartner, S.; Doesburg, P.; Scherr, C.; Andersen, J.-O.

    2012-01-01

    A major challenge in basic research into homeopathic potentisation is to develop bioassays that yield consistent results. We evaluated the potential of a seedling-biocrystallisation method. Cress seeds (Lepidium sativum L.) germinated and grew for 4 days in vitro in Stannum metallicum 30x or water 30x in blinded and randomized assignment. 15 experiments were performed at two laboratories. CuCl2-biocrystallisation of seedlings extracted in the homeopathic preparations was performed on circular glass plates. Resulting biocrystallograms were analysed by computerized textural image analysis. All texture analysis variables analysed yielded significant results for the homeopathic treatment; thus the texture of the biocrystallograms of homeopathically treated cress exhibited specific characteristics. Two texture analysis variables yielded differences between the internal replicates, most probably due to a processing order effect. There were only minor differences between the results of the two laboratories. The biocrystallisation method seems to be a promising complementary outcome measure for plant bioassays investigating effects of homeopathic preparations. PMID:22969820

  3. [Homeopathic treatment of adenoid vegetations. Results of a prospective, randomized double-blind study].

    PubMed

    Friese, K H; Feuchter, U; Moeller, H

    1997-08-01

    In a monocenter prospective randomized double-blind clinical trial the efficacy of homeopathic treatment was investigated on children with adenoid vegetations justifying an operation. Patients were treated with either homeopathic remedies such as Nux vomica D200, Okoubaka D3, Tuberculinum D200, Barium jodatum D4 and Barium jodatum D6 or with placebo. The duration of the study for each patient was 3 months. Examination of the ears using a microscope, rhinoscopy, stomatoscopy and pharyngoscopy, as well as tympanometry and audiometry were performed after 4, 8 and 12 weeks. Out of a total of 97 children studied between the ages of 4 to 10 years 82 could be analyzed. At the end of the study no operation was required in 70.7% of the placebo-treated children and in 78.1% of the children treated with homeopathic preparations. These results show no statistical significance. PMID:9378668

  4. Mass spectrometric characterization of gentamicin components separated by the new European Pharmacopoeia method.

    PubMed

    Li, B; Van Schepdael, A; Hoogmartens, J; Adams, E

    2011-04-28

    Liquid chromatography combined with pulsed electrochemical detection (LC-PED) is the method of choice in the European Pharmacopoeia for the determination of gentamicin and its related substances. A recently approved improved LC-PED method, with a reversed-phase C(18) column and a mobile phase consisting of trifluoroacetic acid (TFA), pentafluoropropionic acid (PFPA), sodium hydroxide and acetonitrile, showed better separation and more sensitive detection of the gentamicin components than the previous method using a polymer column. More unknown peaks can be separated from the main components and from each other. As the LC-PED method cannot be directly coupled to a mass spectrometer (MS), the unknown substances were collected after the LC column, desalted and analyzed by MS. The structures of the unknown compounds were deduced based on comparison of their fragmentation patterns with those of reference substances investigated by MS(n) experiments using an electrospray ion trap mass spectrometer. A comparison was also made with an already previously published LC-MS method using a volatile mobile phase. PMID:21316176

  5. Identification of marker compounds for Japanese Pharmacopoeia non-conforming jujube seeds from Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Oshima, Naohiro; Zaima, Kazumasa; Kamakura, Hiroyuki; Hamato, Akane; Yamamoto, Yutaka; Kang, Dong Hyo; Yokokura, Tsuguo; Goda, Yukihiro; Hakamatsuka, Takashi; Maruyama, Takuro

    2015-01-01

    Jujube seed is a crude drug defined as the seed of Ziziphus jujuba Miller var. spinosa Hu ex H.F. Chou (Rhamnaceae) in the Japanese Pharmacopoeia (JP). Most of the jujube seed in the Japanese markets is imported from China, with the rest obtained from other Asian countries. Here we confirmed the botanical origins of jujube seeds from both China and Myanmar by a DNA sequencing analysis. We found that the botanical origins of the crude drugs from China and Myanmar were Z. jujuba and Z. mauritiana, respectively. Although the jujube seed from China conforms to the JP, that from Myanmar does not. A method for discriminating jujube seeds from China and Myanmar using a chemical approach is thus desirable, and here we sought to identify a compound specific to Z. jujuba. Jujuboside A (1) was identified as a compound specific to Z. jujuba. To establish a purity test of Jujube Seed in the JP against Z. mauritiana, we fractionated the extract of Z. mauritiana seeds and identified frangufoline (2) and oleanolic acid (4) as the marker compounds specific to Z. mauritiana. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses revealed that the latter compound was useful for testing by TLC analysis. The established TLC conditions were as follows: chromatographic support, silica gel; developing solvent, n-hexane:EtOAc:HCOOH = 10:5:1; developing length, 7 cm; visualization, diluted sulfuric acid; R f value, 0.43 (oleanolic acid). PMID:25115227

  6. The role of Abraham Lincoln in securing a charter for a homeopathic medical college.

    PubMed

    Spiegel, Allen D; Kavaler, Florence

    2002-10-01

    In 1854, Abraham Lincoln was retained to prepare a state legislative proposal to charter a homeopathic medical college in Chicago. This was a complex task in view of the deep-seated animosity between allopathic or orthodox medical practitioners and irregular healers. Homeopathy was regarded as a cult by the nascent American Medical Association. In addition, the poor reputation of medical education in the United States in general, further complicated the project. Lincoln and influential individuals in Illinois lobbied legislators and succeeded in securing the charter. Subsequently, the Hahnemann Homeopathic Medical College accepted its first class in 1860 and with its successors remained in existence for almost sixty-five years. PMID:12238734

  7. Electrochemical detection of tobramycin or gentamicin according to the European Pharmacopoeia analytical method.

    PubMed

    Ghinami, C; Giuliani, V; Menarini, A; Abballe, F; Travaini, S; Ladisa, T

    2007-01-12

    Tobramycin and gentamicin are two aminoglycosidic antibiotics used in lung infection, ophthalmic treatments as well as in skin infections. Pharmaceutical companies which produce remedies containing tobramycin and gentamicin need an analytical method for their internal quality control. For several years a simple chromatographic method based on anion exchange separation coupled with amperometric detection was proposed for aminoglycosides. This analytical approach was partially used in the last edition of the European Pharmacopoeia (EP) for tobramycin and gentamicin analysis. In fact they use integrated pulsed amperometric detection (IPAD) on a gold electrode while the separation is obtained on a polymeric wide pore reversed phase instead of anion exchange in alkaline conditions. Such coupling seems to be cumbersome and not so easy to realize and to reproduce from one laboratory to another. Besides, the described method lacks some of the details as important as the waveform steps duration. Unfortunately the quality control (QC) laboratories have to use exactly the method described in the EP, so they complained about the troubles. Therefore, the EP authors published recently a paper regarding the guidelines for good practice in the method application, but the suggestion was not yet resolutive. In our work we evaluated the eluent composition and the kind of amperometric cell, work electrode diameter and cell volume. Mainly we optimized the amperometric waveform. In addition, for tobramycin analysis another chromatographic phase was explored in order to achieve better efficiency and to separate all the impurities confirming the effectiveness of the detection. The conditions described in the paper seem to allow the analyst to operate in conformity with the EP method. PMID:17150225

  8. Education in Homeopathic Medicine during the Biennium 1918-1920. Bulletin, 1921, No. 18

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewey, W. A.

    1921-01-01

    Education in the homeopathic schools of medicine is under the direct guidance of the American Institute of Homeopathy, and the requirements of the American Federation of State Medical Examiners Boards are fulfilled in all details, so that graduates may comply with the requirements of all the States and Territorial possessions. There were 45 more…

  9. [Acute otitis media in children. Comparison between conventional and homeopathic therapy].

    PubMed

    Friese, K H; Kruse, S; Moeller, H

    1996-08-01

    Within a prospective group study of five practicing otorhinolaryngologists, conventional therapy of acute otitis media in children was compared with homeopathic treatments. Group A (103 children) was primarily treated with homeopathic single remedies (Aconitum napellus, Apis mellifica, Belladonna, Capsicum, Chamomilla, Kalium bichromicum, Lachesis, Lycopodium, Mercurius solubilis, Okoubaka, Pulsatilla, Silicea). Group B (28 children) was treated by decongestant nose-drops, antibiotics, secretolytics and/or antipyretics. Comparisons were done by symptoms, physical findings, duration of therapy and number of relapses. The children of the study were between 1 and 11 years of age. The difference in numbers was explained by the children with otitis media being primarily treated by pediatricians using conventional methods. The median duration of pain in group A was 2 days and in group B 3 days. Median therapy in group A lasted 4 days and in group B 10 days. Antibiotics were given over a period of 8-10 days, while homeopathic treatments were stopped after healing. In group A 70.7% of the patients were free of relapses within 1 years and 29.3% had a maximum of three relapses. Group B had 56.5% without relapses and 43.5% a maximum of six relapses. Five children in group A were given antibiotics and 98 responded solely to homeopathic treatments. No side effects of treatment were found in either group. PMID:8805013

  10. The Teacher's Approach to the Study of the Disabled Reader, A Homeopathic Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGinnis, Dorothy J.

    Classroom treatment for the disabled reader in which the child is permitted to make reading errors and then to develop control over them is described. Homeopathic treatment emphasizes meeting the child's reading needs as they develop rather than determining causal factors and providing drastic remediation. A goal-oriented process of instruction is…

  11. Homeopathic Ear Drops as an Adjunct in Reducing Antibiotic Usage in Children With Acute Otitis Media

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To determine if use of a homeopathic ear drop preparation reduces antibiotic use in children diagnosed with acute otitis media (AOM). Methods. Children 6 months to 11 years old, diagnosed with AOM and managed with a delayed antibiotic approach, were randomized to standard therapy alone or standard therapy plus a homeopathic ear drop preparation. The primary outcome was whether or not the antibiotic prescription given at the index visit was filled during a 12- to 15-day follow-up period. Results. Among 210 enrolled children, follow-up antibiotic data were collected on 206. During the 12- to 15-day follow-up period, fewer parents of children randomized to the homeopathic ear drops group filled the antibiotic prescription compared with those of children receiving standard therapy alone (26.9% and 41.2%, respectively, P = .032). Conclusion. Homeopathic ear drops may be effective in reducing the use of antibiotics in children with AOM managed with a delayed antibiotic approach. PMID:27335917

  12. "Empathy" and "Sympathy" in Action: Attending to Patients' Troubles in Finnish Homeopathic and General Practice Consultations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruusuvuori, Johanna

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyzes "empathy" and "sympathy" as situated practices, sequential processes that are coconstructed by the participants in the situation. The data consists of 228 sequences of patients' descriptions of their problematic experiences and professionals' responses to them in videorecorded general practice and homeopathic consultations. One…

  13. Rat models of acute inflammation: a randomized controlled study on the effects of homeopathic remedies

    PubMed Central

    Conforti, Anita; Bellavite, Paolo; Bertani, Simone; Chiarotti, Flavia; Menniti-Ippolito, Francesca; Raschetti, Roberto

    2007-01-01

    Background One of the cardinal principles of homeopathy is the "law of similarities", according to which patients can be treated by administering substances which, when tested in healthy subjects, cause symptoms that are similar to those presented by the patients themselves. Over the last few years, there has been an increase in the number of pre-clinical (in vitro and animal) studies aimed at evaluating the pharmacological activity or efficacy of some homeopathic remedies under potentially reproducible conditions. However, in addition to some contradictory results, these studies have also highlighted a series of methodological difficulties. The present study was designed to explore the possibility to test in a controlled way the effects of homeopathic remedies on two known experimental models of acute inflammation in the rat. To this aim, the study considered six different remedies indicated by homeopathic practice for this type of symptom in two experimental edema models (carrageenan- and autologous blood-induced edema), using two treatment administration routes (sub-plantar injection and oral administration). Methods In a first phase, the different remedies were tested in the four experimental conditions, following a single-blind (measurement) procedure. In a second phase, some of the remedies (in the same and in different dilutions) were tested by oral administration in the carrageenan-induced edema, under double-blind (treatment administration and measurement) and fully randomized conditions. Seven-hundred-twenty male Sprague Dawley rats weighing 170–180 g were used. Six homeopathic remedies (Arnica montana D4, Apis mellifica D4, D30, Atropa belladonna D4, Hamamelis virginiana D4, Lachesis D6, D30, Phosphorus D6, D30), saline and indomethacin were tested. Edema was measured using a water-based plethysmometer, before and at different times after edema induction. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Student t test. Results In the first phase of experiments, some

  14. The Use of Intuition in Homeopathic Clinical Decision Making: An Interpretative Phenomenological Study

    PubMed Central

    Brien, Sarah; Dibb, Bridget; Burch, Alex

    2011-01-01

    While intuition plays a role in clinical decision making within conventional medicine, little is understood about its use in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). The aim of this qualitative study was to investigate intuition from the perspective of homeopathic practitioners; its' manifestation, how it was recognized, its origins and when it was used within daily clinical practice. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with clinically experienced non-National Health Service (NHS) UK homeopathic practitioners. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to analyze the data. Homeopaths reported many similarities with conventional medical practitioner regarding the nature, perceived origin and manifestation of their intuitions in clinical practice. Intuition was used in two key aspects of the consultation: (i) to enhance the practitioner-patient relationship, these were generally trusted; and (ii) intuitions relating to the prescribing decision. Homeopaths were cautious about these latter intuitions, testing any intuitive thoughts through deductive reasoning before accepting them. Their reluctance is not surprising given the consequences for patient care, but we propose this also reflects homeopaths' sensitivity to the academic and medical mistrust of both homeopathy and intuition. This study is the first to explore the use of intuition in decision making in any form of complementary medicine. The similarities with conventional practitioners may provide confidence in validating intuition as a legitimate part of the decision making process for these specific practitioners. Further work is needed to elucidate if these findings reflect intuitive use in clinical practice of other CAM practitioners in both private and NHS (i.e., time limited) settings. PMID:19773389

  15. [Comparative study of homeopathic remedies clinical efficacy in comprehensive treatment of inflammatory periodontal diseases in patients with burdened allergic status].

    PubMed

    Grudianov, A I; Bezrukova, I V; Aleksandrovskaia, I Iu

    2006-01-01

    Comparative analysis of clinical efficacy of 3 antihomotoxic homeopathic preparations (Traumeel S, Engistol and Echinacea compositum S) with non-specific immunostimulating and anti-inflammatory effects was performed. The study showed that Traumeel S had maximal anti-inflammatory effect. In proportion as destructive process weighting the efficacy of homeopathic preparations was decreased. The preparations are indicated for comprehensive treatment of inflammatory periodontal diseases in patients with burdened allergic status or heavy concomitant pathology. PMID:16710274

  16. "Homeopathic" palladium nanoparticle catalysis of cross carbon-carbon coupling reactions.

    PubMed

    Deraedt, Christophe; Astruc, Didier

    2014-02-18

    Catalysis by palladium derivatives is now one of the most important tools in organic synthesis. Whether researchers design palladium nanoparticles (NPs) or nanoparticles occur as palladium complexes decompose, these structures can serve as central precatalysts in common carbon-carbon bond formation. Palladium NPs are also valuable alternatives to molecular catalysts because they do not require costly and toxic ligands. In this Account, we review the role of "homeopathic" palladium catalysts in carbon-carbon coupling reactions. Seminal studies from the groups of Beletskaya, Reetz, and de Vries showed that palladium NPs can catalyze Heck and Suzuki-Miyaura reactions with aryl iodides and, in some cases, aryl bromides at part per million levels. As a result, researchers coined the term "homeopathic" palladium catalysis. Industry has developed large-scale applications of these transformations. In addition, chemists have used Crooks' concept of dendrimer encapsulation to set up efficient nanofilters for Suzuki-Miyaura and selective Heck catalysis, although these transformations required high PdNP loading. With arene-centered, ferrocenyl-terminated dendrimers containing triazolyl ligands in the tethers, we designed several generations of dendrimers to compare their catalytic efficiencies, varied the numbers of Pd atoms in the PdNPs, and examined encapsulation vs stabilization. The catalytic efficiencies achieved "homeopathic" (TON = 540 000) behavior no matter the PdNP size and stabilization type. The TON increased with decreasing the Pd/substrate ratio, which suggested a leaching mechanism. Recently, we showed that water-soluble arene-centered dendrimers with tri(ethylene glycol) (TEG) tethers stabilized PdNPs involving supramolecular dendritic assemblies because of the interpenetration of the TEG branches. Such PdNPs are stable and retain their "homeopathic" catalytic activities for Suzuki-Miyaura reactions for months. (TONs can reach 2.7 × 10(6) at 80 °C for aryl

  17. Chemometrics meets homeopathy--an exploratory analysis of infrared spectra of homeopathic granules.

    PubMed

    Gorlowska, Kinga; Gorlowska, Joanna; Skibiński, Robert; Komsta, Łukasz

    2015-11-10

    10 homeopathic remedies commercially available (each in 3 dilutions) as sugar granules, where half of them were of organic (and half inorganic) origin were subjected to solid-state infrared spectroscopy, both in middle infrared (ATR-FTIR) and near infrared (NIR) range. Measurements were repeated six times (six days, each sample was measured once in the same day, samples were measured in random order). The obtained spectra was subjected to unsupervised (PCA) and supervised (PLS-DA) chemometric techniques to check any visible differnces in spectral data between homeopathic remedies, including also feature selection approaches. It can be concluded that the only one information encoded in this dataset is the atmospheric drift of spectra between consecutive measurement days. This proves that homeopathy is not "infrared visible" in the case of proper experimental design. These results can be useful in further investigations of possible mechanisms of action of homeopathy (if they exist). PMID:26148470

  18. Bleeding risks of herbal, homeopathic, and dietary supplements: a hidden nightmare for plastic surgeons?

    PubMed

    Wong, Wendy W; Gabriel, Allen; Maxwell, G Patrick; Gupta, Subhas C

    2012-03-01

    The utilization of complementary and alternative medicine has increased tremendously in the last two decades. Herbal products, homeopathic medicines, and dietary supplements are extremely popular and are available without a prescription (which likely contributes to their popularity). Despite their "natural" characteristics, these remedies have the potential to cause bleeding in patients who undergo surgery. The high use of these supplements among cosmetic surgery patients, coupled with increasing reports of hematomas associated with herbal and homeopathic medicines, prompted the authors to conduct a comprehensive review focused on bleeding risks of such products in an effort to raise awareness among plastic surgeons. This review focuses on 19 herbs, three herbal formulas, two herbal teas, and several other supplements that can cause bleeding perioperatively and postoperatively. In addition to being aware of such adverse effects, plastic surgeons must adequately screen all patients and educate them on the possible dangers associated with these treatments. PMID:22395325

  19. Obstetrics and gynecology outpatient scenario of an Indian homeopathic hospital: A prospective, research-targeted study

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Subhranil; Koley, Munmun; Saha, Sangita; Singh, Rakesh; Hossain, Md. Monowar; Pramanik, Indrani

    2015-01-01

    The authors aimed to document prescriptions and clinical outcomes in routine homeopathic practice to short list promising areas of targeted research and efficacy trials of homeopathy in obstetrics and gynecology (O&G). Three homeopathic physicians participated in methodical data collection over a 3-month period in the O&G outpatient setting of The Calcutta Homeopathic Medical College and Hospital, West Bengal, India. A specifically designed Excel spreadsheet was used to record data on consecutive appointments, including date, patient identity, socioeconomic status, place of abode, religion, medical condition/complaint, whether chronic/acute, new/follow-up case, patient-assessed outcome (7-point Likert scale: −3 to +3), prescribed homeopathic medication, and whether other medication/s was being taken for the condition. These spreadsheets were submitted monthly for data synthesis and analysis. Data on 878 appointments (429 patients) were collected, of which 61% were positive, 20.8% negative, and 18.2% showed no change. Chronic conditions (93.2%) were chiefly encountered. A total of 434 medical conditions and 52 varieties were reported overall. The most frequently treated conditions were leucorrhea (20.5%), irregular menses (13.3%), dysmenorrhea (10%), menorrhagia (7.5%), and hypomenorrhea (6.3%). Strongly positive outcomes (+3/+2) were mostly recorded in oligomenorrhea (41.7%), leucorrhea (34.1%), polycystic ovary (33.3%), dysmenorrhea (28%), and irregular menses (22.2%). Individualized prescriptions predominated (95.6%). A total of 122 different medicines were prescribed in decimal (2.9%), centesimal (87.9%), and 50 millesimal potencies (4.9%). Mother tinctures and placebo were prescribed in 3.4% and 30.4% instances, respectively. Several instances of medicine-condition pairings were detected. This systematic recording cataloged the frequency and success rate of treating O&G conditions using homeopathy. PMID:27114940

  20. Testing the Nanoparticle-Allostatic Cross Adaptation-Sensitization Model for Homeopathic Remedy Effects

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Iris R.; Koithan, Mary; Brooks, Audrey J.

    2012-01-01

    Key concepts of the Nanoparticle-Allostatic Cross-Adaptation-Sensitization (NPCAS) Model for the action of homeopathic remedies in living systems include source nanoparticles as low level environmental stressors, heterotypic hormesis, cross-adaptation, allostasis (stress response network), time-dependent sensitization with endogenous amplification and bidirectional change, and self-organizing complex adaptive systems. The model accommodates the requirement for measurable physical agents in the remedy (source nanoparticles and/or source adsorbed to silica nanoparticles). Hormetic adaptive responses in the organism, triggered by nanoparticles; bipolar, metaplastic change, dependent on the history of the organism. Clinical matching of the patient’s symptom picture, including modalities, to the symptom pattern that the source material can cause (cross-adaptation and cross-sensitization). Evidence for nanoparticle-related quantum macro-entanglement in homeopathic pathogenetic trials. This paper examines research implications of the model, discussing the following hypotheses: Variability in nanoparticle size, morphology, and aggregation affects remedy properties and reproducibility of findings. Homeopathic remedies modulate adaptive allostatic responses, with multiple dynamic short- and long-term effects. Simillimum remedy nanoparticles, as novel mild stressors corresponding to the organism’s dysfunction initiate time-dependent cross-sensitization, reversing the direction of dysfunctional reactivity to environmental stressors. The NPCAS model suggests a way forward for systematic research on homeopathy. The central proposition is that homeopathic treatment is a form of nanomedicine acting by modulation of endogenous adaptation and metaplastic amplification processes in the organism to enhance long-term systemic resilience and health. PMID:23290882

  1. Pilot Study on the Homeopathic Treatment of Binge Eating in Males.

    PubMed

    van Heerden, Hertzog Johannes; Razlog, Radmila; Pellow, Janice

    2016-04-01

    Context • Frequent binge eating is often a symptom of an underlying eating disorder, such as bulimia nervosa (BN) or binge eating disorder (BED). The role of homeopathy in the treatment of binge eating remains poorly explored. Objective • The study intended to measure the efficacy of individualized homeopathic treatment for binge eating in adult males. Design • This case study was a 9-wk pilot using an embedded, mixed-methods design. A 3-wk baseline period was followed by a 6-wk treatment period. Setting • The setting was the Homeopathic Health Clinic at the University of Johannesburg in Johannesburg, South Africa. Participants • Through purposive sampling, the research team recruited 15 Caucasian, male participants, aged 18-45 y, who were exhibiting binge eating. Intervention • Individualized homeopathic remedies were prescribed to each participant. Primary Outcome Measures • Participants were assessed by means of (1) a self-assessment calendar (SAC), recording the frequency and intensity of binging; (2) the Binge Eating Scale (BES), a psychometric evaluation of severity; and (3) case analysis evaluating changes with time. Results • Ten participants completed the study. The study found a statistically significant improvement with regard to the BES (P = .003) and the SAC (P = .006), with a large effect size, indicating that a decrease occurred in the severity and frequency of binging behavior during the study period. Conclusions • This small study showed the potential benefits of individualized homeopathic treatment of binge eating in males, decreasing both the frequency and severity of binging episodes. Follow-up studies are recommended to explore this treatment modality as a complementary therapeutic option in eating disorders characterized by binge eating. PMID:27089525

  2. Evaluation of a homeopathic complex in the clinical management of udder diseases of riverine buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Varshney, J P; Naresh, Ram

    2004-01-01

    We report an uncontrolled observational study of the treatment of udder diseases of buffalo, using a homeopathic complex medicine. Mastitis is an economically important disease of buffaloes. In India economic losses due to mastitis are estimated at 526 million US dollars annually. Conventional veterinary treatment relies on costly antibiotics; cure rate is only 60% in field conditions with a problem of milk residues. The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of a homeopathic complex in the management of clinical udder health problems of riverine buffaloes. Cases of subclinical mastitis were excluded from the study. A total of 102 mastitic quarters (fibrosed--40, nonfibrosed--62) and five cases each of blood in milk and udder oedema in lactating buffaloes were treated with a homeopathic complex consisting of Phytolacca 200c, Calcarea fluorica 200c, Silicea 30c, Belladona 30c, Bryonia 30c, Arnica 30c, Conium 30c and Ipecacuanha 30c. The diagnosis of udder diseases and recovery criterion was based on physical examination of udder and milk and CMT/WST score. Bacteriological analysis and somatic cell count were not performed. Treatment was 80 and 96.72% effective in cases of fibrotic mastitis and nonfibrosed mastitis respectively. Recovery period was 21-42 days (fibrosed) and 4-15 days (nonfibrosed). Udder oedema and blood in milk responded favourably in 2-5 days. Cost of treatment was 0.07 US dollars per day. The homeopathic complex medicine may be effective and economical in the management of udder health problems of buffaloes. Definitive conclusions are premature due to the limited number of observations and lack of control group. PMID:14960098

  3. Obstetrics and gynecology outpatient scenario of an Indian homeopathic hospital: A prospective, research-targeted study.

    PubMed

    Saha, Subhranil; Koley, Munmun; Saha, Sangita; Singh, Rakesh; Hossain, Md Monowar; Pramanik, Indrani

    2016-04-01

    The authors aimed to document prescriptions and clinical outcomes in routine homeopathic practice to short list promising areas of targeted research and efficacy trials of homeopathy in obstetrics and gynecology (O&G). Three homeopathic physicians participated in methodical data collection over a 3-month period in the O&G outpatient setting of The Calcutta Homeopathic Medical College and Hospital, West Bengal, India. A specifically designed Excel spreadsheet was used to record data on consecutive appointments, including date, patient identity, socioeconomic status, place of abode, religion, medical condition/complaint, whether chronic/acute, new/follow-up case, patient-assessed outcome (7-point Likert scale: -3 to +3), prescribed homeopathic medication, and whether other medication/s was being taken for the condition. These spreadsheets were submitted monthly for data synthesis and analysis. Data on 878 appointments (429 patients) were collected, of which 61% were positive, 20.8% negative, and 18.2% showed no change. Chronic conditions (93.2%) were chiefly encountered. A total of 434 medical conditions and 52 varieties were reported overall. The most frequently treated conditions were leucorrhea (20.5%), irregular menses (13.3%), dysmenorrhea (10%), menorrhagia (7.5%), and hypomenorrhea (6.3%). Strongly positive outcomes (+3/+2) were mostly recorded in oligomenorrhea (41.7%), leucorrhea (34.1%), polycystic ovary (33.3%), dysmenorrhea (28%), and irregular menses (22.2%). Individualized prescriptions predominated (95.6%). A total of 122 different medicines were prescribed in decimal (2.9%), centesimal (87.9%), and 50 millesimal potencies (4.9%). Mother tinctures and placebo were prescribed in 3.4% and 30.4% instances, respectively. Several instances of medicine-condition pairings were detected. This systematic recording cataloged the frequency and success rate of treating O&G conditions using homeopathy. PMID:27114940

  4. Effects of homeopathic treatment in women with premenstrual syndrome: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Yakir, M; Kreitler, S; Brzezinski, A; Vithoulkas, G; Oberbaum, M; Bentwich, Z

    2001-07-01

    Alternative therapies in general, and homeopathy in particular, lack clear scientific evaluation of efficacy. Controlled clinical trials are urgently needed, especially for conditions that are not helped by conventional methods. The objective of this work was to assess the efficacy of homeopathic treatment in relieving symptoms associated with premenstrual syndrome (PMS). It was a randomised controlled double-blind clinical trial. Two months baseline assessment with post-intervention follow-up for 3 months was conducted at Hadassah Hospital outpatient gynaecology clinic in Jerusalem in Israel 1992-1994. The subjects were 20 women, aged 20-48, suffering from PMS. Homeopathic intervention was chosen individually for each patient, according to a model of symptom clusters. Recruited volunteers with PMS were treated randomly with one oral dose of a homeopathic medication or placebo. The main outcome measure was scores of a daily menstrual distress questionnaire (MDQ) before and after treatment. Psychological tests for suggestibility were used to examine the possible effects of suggestion. Mean MDQ scores fell from 0.44 to 0.13 (P<0.05) with active treatment, and from 0.38 to 0.34 with placebo (NS). (Between group P=0.057). Improvement >30% was observed in 90% of patients receiving active treatment and 37.5% receiving placebo (P=0.048). Homeopathic treatment was found to be effective in alleviating the symptoms of PMS in comparison to placebo. The use of symptom clusters in this trial may offer a novel approach that will facilitate clinical trials in homeopathy. Further research is in progress. PMID:11479782

  5. Homeopathic medical practice: Long-term results of a cohort study with 3981 patients

    PubMed Central

    Witt, Claudia M; Lüdtke, Rainer; Baur, Roland; Willich, Stefan N

    2005-01-01

    Background On the range of diagnoses, course of treatment, and long-term outcome in patients who chose to receive homeopathic medical treatment very little is known. We investigated homeopathic practice in an industrialized country under everyday conditions. Methods In a prospective, multicentre cohort study with 103 primary care practices with additional specialisation in homeopathy in Germany and Switzerland, data from all patients (age >1 year) consulting the physician for the first time were observed. The main outcome measures were: Patient and physician assessments (numeric rating scales from 0 to 10) and quality of life at baseline, and after 3, 12, and 24 months. Results A total of 3,981 patients were studied including 2,851 adults (29% men, mean age 42.5 ± 13.1 years; 71% women, 39.9 ± 12.4 years) and 1,130 children (52% boys, 6.5 ± 3.9 years; 48% girls, 7.0 ± 4.3 years). Ninety-seven percent of all diagnoses were chronic with an average duration of 8.8 ± 8 years. The most frequent diagnoses were allergic rhinitis in men, headache in women, and atopic dermatitis in children. Disease severity decreased significantly (p < 0.001) between baseline and 24 months (adults from 6.2 ± 1.7 to 3.0 ± 2.2; children from 6.1 ± 1.8 to 2.2 ± 1.9). Physicians' assessments yielded similar results. For adults and young children, major improvements were observed for quality of life, whereas no changes were seen in adolescents. Younger age and more severe disease at baseline were factors predictive of better therapeutic success. Conclusion Disease severity and quality of life demonstrated marked and sustained improvements following homeopathic treatment period. Our findings indicate that homeopathic medical therapy may play a beneficial role in the long-term care of patients with chronic diseases. PMID:16266440

  6. Homeopathic arnica for prevention of pain and bruising: randomized placebo-controlled trial in hand surgery.

    PubMed

    Stevinson, C; Devaraj, V S; Fountain-Barber, A; Hawkins, S; Ernst, E

    2003-02-01

    Homeopathic arnica is widely believed to control bruising, reduce swelling and promote recovery after local trauma; many patients therefore take it perioperatively. To determine whether this treatment has any effect, we conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial with three parallel arms. 64 adults undergoing elective surgery for carpal tunnel syndrome were randomized to take three tablets daily of homeopathic arnica 30C or 6C or placebo for seven days before surgery and fourteen days after surgery. Primary outcome measures were pain (short form McGill Pain Questionnaire) and bruising (colour separation analysis) at four days after surgery. Secondary outcome measures were swelling (wrist circumference) and use of analgesic medication (patient diary). 62 patients could be included in the intention-to-treat analysis. There were no group differences on the primary outcome measures of pain (P=0.79) and bruising (P=0.45) at day four. Swelling and use of analgesic medication also did not differ between arnica and placebo groups. Adverse events were reported by 2 patients in the arnica 6C group, 3 in the placebo group and 4 in the arnica 30C group. The results of this trial do not suggest that homeopathic arnica has an advantage over placebo in reducing postoperative pain, bruising and swelling in patients undergoing elective hand surgery. PMID:12562974

  7. Homeopathic arnica for prevention of pain and bruising: randomized placebo-controlled trial in hand surgery

    PubMed Central

    Stevinson, C; Devaraj, V S; Fountain-Barber, A; Hawkins, S; Ernst, E

    2003-01-01

    Homeopathic arnica is widely believed to control bruising, reduce swelling and promote recovery after local trauma; many patients therefore take it perioperatively. To determine whether this treatment has any effect, we conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial with three parallel arms. 64 adults undergoing elective surgery for carpal tunnel syndrome were randomized to take three tablets daily of homeopathic arnica 30C or 6C or placebo for seven days before surgery and fourteen days after surgery. Primary outcome measures were pain (short form McGill Pain Questionnaire) and bruising (colour separation analysis) at four days after surgery. Secondary outcome measures were swelling (wrist circumference) and use of analgesic medication (patient diary). 62 patients could be included in the intention-to-treat analysis. There were no group differences on the primary outcome measures of pain (P=0.79) and bruising (P=0.45) at day four. Swelling and use of analgesic medication also did not differ between arnica and placebo groups. Adverse events were reported by 2 patients in the arnica 6C group, 3 in the placebo group and 4 in the arnica 30C group. The results of this trial do not suggest that homeopathic arnica has an advantage over placebo in reducing postoperative pain, bruising and swelling in patients undergoing elective hand surgery. PMID:12562974

  8. Patient-Assessed Chronic Illness Care (PACIC) scenario in an Indian homeopathic hospital.

    PubMed

    Koley, Munmun; Saha, Subhranil; Ghosh, Shubhamoy; Nag, Goutam; Kundu, Monojit; Mondal, Ramkumar; Purkait, Rajib; Patra, Supratim; Ali, Seikh Swaif

    2016-01-01

    Homeopathy research has focused on chronic conditions; however, the extent to which current homeopathic care is compliant with the Chronic Care Model (CCM) has been sparsely shown. As the Bengali Patient-Assessed Chronic Illness Care (PACIC)-20 was not available, the English questionnaire was translated and evaluated in a government homeopathic hospital in West Bengal, India. The translation was done in six steps, and approved by an expert committee. Face validity was tested by 15 people for comprehension. Test/retest reliability (reproducibility) was tested on 30 patients with chronic conditions. Internal consistency was tested in 377 patients suffering from various chronic conditions. The questionnaire showed acceptable test/retest reliability [intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) 0.57-0.75; positive to strong positive correlations; p < 0.0001] for all domains and the total score, strong internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.86 overall and 0.65-0.82 for individual subscales), and large responsiveness (1.11). The overall mean score percentage seemed to be moderate at 69.5 ± 8.8%. Gender and presence of chronic conditions did not seem to vary significantly with PACIC-20 subscale scores (p > 0.05); however, monthly household income had a significant influence (p < 0.05) on the subscales except for "delivery system or practice design." Overall, chronic illness care appeared to be quite promising and CCM-compliant. The psychometric properties of the Bengali PACIC-20 were satisfactory, rendering it a valid and reliable instrument for assessing chronic illness care among the patients attending a homeopathic hospital. PMID:26933640

  9. Patient-Assessed Chronic Illness Care (PACIC) scenario in an Indian homeopathic hospital

    PubMed Central

    Koley, Munmun; Saha, Subhranil; Ghosh, Shubhamoy; Nag, Goutam; Kundu, Monojit; Mondal, Ramkumar; Purkait, Rajib; Patra, Supratim; Ali, Seikh Swaif

    2015-01-01

    Homeopathy research has focused on chronic conditions; however, the extent to which current homeopathic care is compliant with the Chronic Care Model (CCM) has been sparsely shown. As the Bengali Patient-Assessed Chronic Illness Care (PACIC)-20 was not available, the English questionnaire was translated and evaluated in a government homeopathic hospital in West Bengal, India. The translation was done in six steps, and approved by an expert committee. Face validity was tested by 15 people for comprehension. Test/retest reliability (reproducibility) was tested on 30 patients with chronic conditions. Internal consistency was tested in 377 patients suffering from various chronic conditions. The questionnaire showed acceptable test/retest reliability [intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) 0.57–0.75; positive to strong positive correlations; p < 0.0001] for all domains and the total score, strong internal consistency (Cronbach’s α = 0.86 overall and 0.65–0.82 for individual subscales), and large responsiveness (1.11). The overall mean score percentage seemed to be moderate at 69.5 ± 8.8%. Gender and presence of chronic conditions did not seem to vary significantly with PACIC-20 subscale scores (p > 0.05); however, monthly household income had a significant influence (p < 0.05) on the subscales except for “delivery system or practice design.” Overall, chronic illness care appeared to be quite promising and CCM-compliant. The psychometric properties of the Bengali PACIC-20 were satisfactory, rendering it a valid and reliable instrument for assessing chronic illness care among the patients attending a homeopathic hospital. PMID:26933640

  10. [Homeopathic prophylaxis in dairy cows on an organic farm part 1--fertility].

    PubMed

    Fidelak, Ch; Klocke, P; Heuwieser, W

    2007-07-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the efficacy of different prophylactically applied homeopathic compounds on health and fertility during the periparturient period on an organic dairy farm. In a randomised double blinded study 146 dairy cows were enrolled in two treatment groups. The average milk yield was about 5100 kg per cow per lactation. The treatment group received the homeopathic compounds Carduus comp. and Coenzyme comp. at drying off, Traumeel on the day of calving, Lachesis comp. on day 7 post partum (p.p.) and Carduus comp. and Coenzyme comp. on day 14 days p.p. The control group followed the same protocol with a placebo (physiological saline solution). Each drug was administered subcutaneously in a dosage of 5 ml. At drying off, the day of calving and in weekly intervals until day 35 p.p. clinical examinations as well as blood sampling were performed. The effect of treatment was measured by clinical parameters, reproductive performance and serum profiles (Ca, P, AST, Urea, Bilirubin). Data of reproductive performance (days to first service, days open, conception rate) were compared between treatment groups and to those in the previous lactation. There was no significant difference between both treatment groups. Cows of the treatment group had an earlier onset of cyclic activity, especially when milk yield was considered as an influencing factor (82% vs. 57%, P < 0,05). In contrast the cows of the treatment group had a significant lower submission rate. The prophylactic treatment of all cows did not have an effect in general, but in cows with increased milk yield, especially in the current lactation. The reproductive performance in the previous lactation did not have any effects on the success of the homeopathic treatment. Reproductive performance in the herd could be enhanced slightly compared to the previous lactation. PMID:17724935

  11. Homeopathic drug proving of Okoubaka aubrevillei: a randomised placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Homeopathic drug proving is a basic concept in homeopathy. This study aimed to record symptoms produced by a homeopathic drug compared with placebo. Methods This multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 1 trial consisted of a 7-day run-in period, a 5-day intervention period and a 16-day post-intervention observation period. Subjects, investigators and statisticians were blinded for intervention groups and identity of the homeopathic drug. Subjects in the intervention group received Okoubaka aubrevillei (potency C12) and subjects in the placebo group received the optically identical sucrose globules. Dosage in both groups was five globules taken five times per day over a maximum period of 5 days. Subjects documented the symptoms they experienced in a semistructured online diary. The primary outcome parameter was the number of characteristic proving symptoms compared with placebo after a period of 3 weeks. Characteristic symptoms were categorised using content analysis. Secondary outcome parameters were the qualitative differences in profiles of characteristic and proving symptoms and the total number of all proving symptoms. The number of symptoms was quantitatively analysed on an intention-to-treat basis using analyses of covariance with the subject’s expectation and baseline values as covariates. Results Thirty-one subjects were included (19 Okoubaka and 12 placebo). Data for 29 participants could be analysed. No significant differences in number of characteristic symptoms in both groups were observed between Okoubaka (mean ± standard deviation 5.4 ± 6.0) and placebo (4.9 ± 5.6). The odds ratio for observation of a characteristic symptom was 1.11 (95% confidence interval 0.4 to 3.05, P = 0.843). Females and subjects expecting a higher number of symptoms at baseline or feeling more sensitive to homeopathic drugs experienced more characteristic symptoms regardless of allocation. The qualitative analysis showed

  12. Rosacea Patient Perspectives on Homeopathic and Over-the-counter Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Lucy; Kuo, Sandy; Huang, Karen E.; Taylor, Sarah L.; Feldman, Steven R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Rosacea patients commonly employ nonprescription therapies. The authors’ aim was to understand rosacea patients’ perceptions of over-the-counter products, complementary and alternative medicine, and homeopathic therapies. Method: A public, online discussion forum comprising 3,350 members and 27,051 posts provided a source of 346 posts on patient perceptions on alternative rosacea treatments. Results: Three major themes of nonprescription treatment were identified—motivation for use, patient-provider discussions, and experience with these treatments. Perceived medication failure, barriers to treatment, and distrust of physicians drive patients to seek nonprescription therapies. Still, patients prefer to consult a physician on incorporating nonprescription therapies into treatment. Complementary and alternative medicine natural products (19.4% of posts), complementary and alternative medicine practices (16.5%), and homeopathic medicine (3.8%) were commonly discussed. Conclusion: Physicians have an opportunity to be a trusted source of information on the strengths and weaknesses of skin care products and other complementary treatments for rosacea. PMID:26557217

  13. Microcirculatory effects of a homeopathic preparation in patients with mild vertigo: an intravital microscopic study.

    PubMed

    Klopp, R; Niemer, W; Weiser, M

    2005-01-01

    The effects of the homeopathic preparation Vertigoheel on variables related to microcirculation were investigated using vital microscopy techniques in patients with vestibular vertigo. In a non-randomized, open study, 16 patients given Vertigoheel were compared with 16 untreated patients. Measurements were carried out in two areas (defined by selecting 60 blood-cell perfused nodal points of arterioles, venules, and capillaries with a mean diameter > or = 40 microm): the cuticulum/subcuticulum of the inside left lower arm and an area 5 mm behind the left earlobe. After 12 weeks of treatment, patients receiving the homeopathic preparation exhibited an increased number of nodal points, increased flow rates of erythrocytes in both arterioles and venules, increased vasomotion, and a slight reduction in hematocrit vs. baseline. None of these changes were observed in the control group and the differences between treatment groups were statistically significant. Partial oxygen pressure increased significantly in the Vertigoheel group compared with the control group. In addition, in Vertigoheel patients, significantly increased numbers of cell-wall adhering leucocytes were observed, accompanied by increased local concentrations of the adhesion molecules ICAM-1. The microcirculatory changes were associated with a reduction in the severity of vertigo in the actively treated patients, both as assessed by the treating physician and by the patients themselves. The data support a pharmacological effect on microcirculation from the treatment. PMID:15797255

  14. Effects of a homeopathic complex in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) on performance, sexual proportion and histology.

    PubMed

    Valentim-Zabott, M; Vargas, L; Ribeiro, R P R; Piau, R; Torres, M B A; Rönnau, M; Souza, J C

    2008-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the homeopathic complex Homeopatila RS (REAL Homeopathy, Brazil), in the performance, sexual proportion and gills and liver histology of the Nile tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus L.). 4,800 post-larvae were treated for 45 days, in 12 tanks (500 L), in a closed environment, with density of 400 larvae per tank. Three treatments were given: alcohol 30%, negative control (C); hormonal, positive control, 17 alpha-methyltestosterone (H); homeopathic, Homeopatila RS, in ethanol (HH), with four replications. Mean values for length, weight, liver somatic index, condition factor, survival rate, average values of histological alterations and sexual proportion were determined. Analysis revealed significant differences (p<0.05) in growth, survival rate, liver somatic index and average values of hepatic histological alterations between treatments. It was concluded that the addition of Homeopatila RS to the diet of Nile tilapias, during the phase of gonadal differentiation, did not induce any alteration in the sexual proportion. Homeopathically treated fish were significantly smaller, but had significantly greater survival than the other two groups, there was no significant difference in final total biomass. The homeopathically treated fish had a lower liver/somatic index with less hepatic lipid inclusions than the other groups. PMID:19371567

  15. Homeopathic Medications as Clinical Alternatives for Symptomatic Care of Acute Otitis Media and Upper Respiratory Infections in Children

    PubMed Central

    Boyer, Nancy N

    2013-01-01

    The public health and individual risks of inappropriate antibiotic prescribing and conventional over-the-counter symptomatic drugs in pediatric treatment of acute otitis media (AOM) and upper respiratory infections (URIs) are significant. Clinical research suggests that over-the-counter homeopathic medicines offer pragmatic treatment alternatives to conventional drugs for symptom relief in children with uncomplicated AOM or URIs. Homeopathy is a controversial but demonstrably safe and effective 200-year-old whole system of complementary and alternative medicine used worldwide. Numerous clinical studies demonstrate that homeopathy accelerates early symptom relief in acute illnesses at much lower risk than conventional drug approaches. Evidence-based advantages for homeopathy include lower antibiotic fill rates during watchful waiting in otitis media, fewer and less serious side effects, absence of drug-drug interactions, and reduced parental sick leave from work. Emerging evidence from basic and preclinical science research counter the skeptics' claims that homeopathic remedies are biologically inert placebos. Consumers already accept and use homeopathic medicines for self care, as evidenced by annual US consumer expenditures of $2.9 billion on homeopathic remedies. Homeopathy appears equivalent to and safer than conventional standard care in comparative effectiveness trials, but additional well-designed efficacy trials are indicated. Nonetheless, the existing research evidence on safety supports pragmatic use of homeopathy in order to “first do no harm” in the early symptom management of otherwise uncomplicated AOM and URIs in children. PMID:24381823

  16. Potential confounding effects of benzyl alcohol as a formulation excipient support the elimination of the abnormal toxicity test from pharmacopoeias.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jianxun; Ottaviani, Giorgio; Sun, Kai; Lu, Mingqiu; Wu, Xiaoqin; Huang, Sunfeng; Bopst, Martin

    2015-11-01

    Benzyl alcohol is an excipient used in many drugs as a stabilizer. Depending on the amount present in drug formulations there might be confounding findings in the Abnormal Toxicity Test (ATT). The ATT is utilized as a quality control (QC) release test to detect extraneous contaminants according to national pharmacopoeias. Our study assessed the effects of benzyl alcohol as defined in ATT designs. This study - the first thorough evaluation of the confounding effects of benzyl alcohol on the ATT - was conducted in relation to particular health authority questions and was part of the root-cause analyses resulting from some transient behavioral findings observed in the test. Two strains of mice, CD-1 & Kunming, plus Hartley guinea pigs were administered intraperitoneally (ip), subcutaneously (sc), or intravenously (iv) with benzyl alcohol at dose level defined in the ATT design. In both mice and guinea pigs, only after ip administration, minimal behavioral changes were observed transiently within 2-3 min after administration. Therefore, the presence of benzyl alcohol in the product batch may confound the ATT results. This study provides further evidence to question the validity of the ATT for its intended use. PMID:26449397

  17. [On the content of the national part of the Czech pharmacopoeia from the aspect of the formulation of medicinal preparations in pharmacies].

    PubMed

    Subert, J

    2008-06-01

    The national part of the Czech Pharmacopoeia 2005 and its Supplements 2006 and 2007 do not sufficiently solve the issues of standardization of the present formulation of medicinal preparations in pharmacies. The paper discusses some of the possible causes of this state and lists the examples of ophthalmic drops monographs which are no longer topical for formulation in pharmacies, and also some monographs with obsolete active ingredient concentrations or not fully solved formulation technology. PMID:18683431

  18. Enhancement of adaptive biological effects by nanotechnology preparation methods in homeopathic medicines.

    PubMed

    Bell, Iris R; Schwartz, Gary E

    2015-04-01

    Multiple studies have demonstrated that traditional homeopathic manufacturing reagents and processes can generate remedy source and silica nanoparticles (NPs). Homeopathically-made NPs would initiate adaptive changes in an organism as a complex adaptive system (CAS) or network. Adaptive changes would emerge from several different endogenous amplification processes that respond to exogenous danger or threat signals that manufactured nanomaterials convey, including (1) stochastic resonance (SR) in sensory neural systems and (2) time-dependent sensitization (TDS)/oscillation. SR is nonlinear coherent amplification of a weak signal by the superposition of a larger magnitude white noise containing within it the same frequencies of the weak signal. TDS is progressive response magnitude amplification and oscillatory reversal in response direction to a given low dose at physiological limits with the passage of time. Hormesis is an overarching adaptive phenomenon that reflects the observed nonlinear adaptive dose-response relationship. Remedies would act as enhanced micro- and nanoscale forms of their source material via direct local ligand-receptor interactions at very low potencies and/or by triggering systemic adaptive network dynamical effects via their NP-based electromagnetic, optical, and quantum mechanical properties at higher potencies. Manufacturing parameters including dilution modify sizes, shapes, and surface charges of nanoparticles, thereby causing differences in physico-chemical properties and biological effects. Based on surface area, size, shape, and charge, nanoparticles adsorb a complex pattern of serum proteins, forming a protein corona on contact that constitutes a unique biological identity. The protein corona may capture individualized dysfunctional biological mediator information of the organism onto the surfaces of the salient, i.e., resonant, remedy nanostructures. SR would amplify this weak signal from the salient remedy NPs with protein corona

  19. High-field 1H T1 and T2 NMR relaxation time measurements of H2O in homeopathic preparations of quartz, sulfur, and copper sulfate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgartner, Stephan; Wolf, Martin; Skrabal, Peter; Bangerter, Felix; Heusser, Peter; Thurneysen, André; Wolf, Ursula

    2009-09-01

    Quantitative meta-analyses of randomized clinical trials investigating the specific therapeutic efficacy of homeopathic remedies yielded statistically significant differences compared to placebo. Since the remedies used contained mostly only very low concentrations of pharmacologically active compounds, these effects cannot be accounted for within the framework of current pharmacology. Theories to explain clinical effects of homeopathic remedies are partially based upon changes in diluent structure. To investigate the latter, we measured for the first time high-field (600/500 MHz) 1H T1 and T2 nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation times of H2O in homeopathic preparations with concurrent contamination control by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Homeopathic preparations of quartz (10 c-30 c, n = 21, corresponding to iterative dilutions of 100-10-100-30), sulfur (13 x-30 x, n = 18, 10-13-10-30), and copper sulfate (11 c-30 c, n = 20, 100-11-100-30) were compared to n = 10 independent controls each (analogously agitated dilution medium) in randomized and blinded experiments. In none of the samples, the concentration of any element analyzed by ICP-MS exceeded 10 ppb. In the first measurement series (600 MHz), there was a significant increase in T1 for all samples as a function of time, and there were no significant differences between homeopathic potencies and controls. In the second measurement series (500 MHz) 1 year after preparation, we observed statistically significant increased T1 relaxation times for homeopathic sulfur preparations compared to controls. Fifteen out of 18 correlations between sample triplicates were higher for controls than for homeopathic preparations. No conclusive explanation for these phenomena can be given at present. Possible hypotheses involve differential leaching from the measurement vessel walls or a change in water molecule dynamics, i.e., in rotational correlation time and/or diffusion. Homeopathic preparations

  20. Repurposing of approved drugs from the human pharmacopoeia to target Wolbachia endosymbionts of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Kelly L; Ford, Louise; Umareddy, Indira; Townson, Simon; Specht, Sabine; Pfarr, Kenneth; Hoerauf, Achim; Altmeyer, Ralf; Taylor, Mark J

    2014-12-01

    Lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis are debilitating diseases caused by parasitic filarial nematodes infecting around 150 million people throughout the tropics with more than 1.5 billion at risk. As with other neglected tropical diseases, classical drug-discovery and development is lacking and a 50 year programme of macrofilaricidal discovery failed to deliver a drug which can be used as a public health tool. Recently, antibiotic targeting of filarial Wolbachia, an essential bacterial symbiont, has provided a novel drug treatment for filariasis with macrofilaricidal activity, although the current gold-standard, doxycycline, is unsuitable for use in mass drug administration (MDA). The anti-Wolbachia (A·WOL) Consortium aims to identify novel anti-Wolbachia drugs, compounds or combinations that are suitable for use in MDA. Development of a Wolbachia cell-based assay has enabled the screening of the approved human drug-pharmacopoeia (∼2600 drugs) for a potential repurposing. This screening strategy has revealed that approved drugs from various classes show significant bacterial load reduction equal to or superior to the gold-standard doxycycline, with 69 orally available hits from different drug categories being identified. Based on our defined hit criteria, 15 compounds were then selectively screened in a Litomosoides sigmodontis mouse model, 4 of which were active. These came from the tetracycline, fluoroquinolone and rifamycin classes. This strategy of repurposing approved drugs is a promising development in the goal of finding a novel treatment against filariasis and could also be a strategy applicable for other neglected tropical diseases. PMID:25516838

  1. Repurposing of approved drugs from the human pharmacopoeia to target Wolbachia endosymbionts of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Kelly L.; Ford, Louise; Umareddy, Indira; Townson, Simon; Specht, Sabine; Pfarr, Kenneth; Hoerauf, Achim; Altmeyer, Ralf; Taylor, Mark J.

    2014-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis are debilitating diseases caused by parasitic filarial nematodes infecting around 150 million people throughout the tropics with more than 1.5 billion at risk. As with other neglected tropical diseases, classical drug-discovery and development is lacking and a 50 year programme of macrofilaricidal discovery failed to deliver a drug which can be used as a public health tool. Recently, antibiotic targeting of filarial Wolbachia, an essential bacterial symbiont, has provided a novel drug treatment for filariasis with macrofilaricidal activity, although the current gold-standard, doxycycline, is unsuitable for use in mass drug administration (MDA). The anti-Wolbachia (A·WOL) Consortium aims to identify novel anti-Wolbachia drugs, compounds or combinations that are suitable for use in MDA. Development of a Wolbachia cell-based assay has enabled the screening of the approved human drug-pharmacopoeia (∼2600 drugs) for a potential repurposing. This screening strategy has revealed that approved drugs from various classes show significant bacterial load reduction equal to or superior to the gold-standard doxycycline, with 69 orally available hits from different drug categories being identified. Based on our defined hit criteria, 15 compounds were then selectively screened in a Litomosoides sigmodontis mouse model, 4 of which were active. These came from the tetracycline, fluoroquinolone and rifamycin classes. This strategy of repurposing approved drugs is a promising development in the goal of finding a novel treatment against filariasis and could also be a strategy applicable for other neglected tropical diseases. PMID:25516838

  2. Can the caged bird sing? Reflections on the application of qualitative research methods to case study design in homeopathic medicine

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Trevor DB

    2004-01-01

    Background Two main pathways exist for the development of knowledge in clinical homeopathy. These comprise clinical trials conducted primarily by university-based researchers and cases reports and homeopathic "provings" compiled by engaged homeopathic practitioners. In this paper the relative merits of these methods are examined and a middle way proposed. This consists of the "Formal Case Study" (FCS) in which qualitative methods are used to increase the rigour and sophistication with which homeopathic cases are studied. Before going into design issues this paper places the FCS in an historical and academic context and describes the relative merits of the method. Discussion Like any research, the FCS should have a clear focus. This focus can be both "internal", grounded in the discourse of homeopathy and also encompass issues of wider appeal. A selection of possible "internal" and "external" research questions is introduced. Data generation should be from multiple sources to ensure adequate triangulation. This could include the recording and transcription of actual consultations. Analysis is built around existing theory, involves cross-case comparison and the search for deviant cases. The trustworthiness of conclusions is ensured by the application of concepts from qualitative research including triangulation, groundedness, respondent validation and reflexivity. Though homeopathic case studies have been reported in mainstream literature, none has used formal qualitative methods – though some such studies are in progress. Summary This paper introduces the reader to a new strategy for homeopathic research. This strategy, termed the "formal case study", allows for a naturalistic enquiry into the players, processes and outcomes of homeopathic practice. Using ideas from qualitative research, it allows a rigorous approach to types of research question that cannot typically be addressed through clinical trials and numeric outcome studies. The FCS provides an opportunity

  3. The Homeopathic Preparation Nervoheel N can Offer an Alternative to Lorazepam Therapy for Mild Nervous Disorders

    PubMed Central

    van den Meerschaut, Lodewijk

    2009-01-01

    In an open-label, prospective non-randomized cohort study, we compared the effectiveness and tolerability profiles of the homeopathic remedy Nervoheel N with those of the benzodiazepine, lorazepam, in 248 patients with insomnia, distress, anxieties, restlessness or burnout and similar nervous conditions (‘mild nervous disorders’). Patients were treated with Nervoheel N or lorazepam at the recommended doses for a maximum of 4 weeks. Dose variations were allowed if in the patient's best interest. Treatment effects were evaluated by the practitioner in a dialogue with the patient at the start of treatment, after 2 weeks and after maximally 4 weeks of treatment. Tolerability data were recorded as adverse events. At baseline, lorazepam patients were on average slightly older and there was a somewhat greater percentage of men in this group than in the Nervoheel group. Both treatment groups reported significant symptomatic improvements of similar magnitude during the course of the study. The sum of symptom scores improved by 4.4 points with Nervoheel N and by 4.2 points with lorazepam. The differences between the treatment groups were not significant. All differences between treatments were within 10% of the maximum score ranges, demonstrating non-inferiority of Nervoheel N. Both treatments were well tolerated, with few adverse events and very good self-assessed tolerability ratings by the patients. Thus, in patients who opt for a homeopathic treatment regimen for the short-term relief of mild nervous disorders, the effects of Nervoheel N are non-inferior to those of lorazepam. PMID:18955261

  4. Homeopathic Doses of Gelsemium sempervirens Improve the Behavior of Mice in Response to Novel Environments

    PubMed Central

    Bellavite, Paolo; Magnani, Paolo; Zanolin, Elisabetta; Conforti, Anita

    2011-01-01

    Gelsemium sempervirens is used in homeopathy for treating patients with anxiety related symptoms, however there have been few experimental studies evaluating its pharmacological activity. We have investigated the effects of homeopathic doses of G. sempervirens on mice, using validated behavioral models. Centesimal (CH) dilutions/dynamizations of G. sempervirens, the reference drug diazepam (1 mg/kg body weight) or a placebo (solvent vehicle) were intraperitoneally delivered to groups of mice of CD1 strain during 8 days, then the effects were assessed by the Light-Dark (LD) choice test and by the Open-Field (OF) exploration test, in a fully blind manner. In the LD test, the mean time spent in the illuminated area by control and placebo-treated animals was 15.98%, for mice treated with diazepam it increased to 19.91% (P = .047), while with G. sempervirens 5 CH it was 18.11% (P = .341, non-significant). The number of transitions between the two compartments increased with diazepam from 6.19 to 9.64 (P < .001) but not with G. Sempervirens. In the OF test, G. sempervirens 5 CH significantly increased the time spent and the distance traveled in the central zone (P = .009 and P = .003, resp.), while diazepam had no effect on these OF test parameters. In a subsequent series of experiments, G. sempervirens 7 and 30 CH also significantly improved the behavioral responses of mice in the OF test (P < .01 for all tested variables). Neither dilutions of G. sempervirens affected the total distance traveled, indicating that the behavioral effect was not due to unspecific changes in locomotor activity. In conclusion, homeopathic doses of G. sempervirens influence the emotional responses of mice to novel environments, suggesting an improvement in exploratory behavior and a diminution of thigmotaxis or neophobia. PMID:19752165

  5. [Efficiency of homeopathic preparation combinations in sinusitis. Results of a randomized double blind study with general practitioners].

    PubMed

    Wiesenauer, M; Gaus, W; Bohnacker, U; Häussler, S

    1989-05-01

    In a controlled randomized double-blind trial carried out by 47 physicians in private practice with totally 152 patients with sinusitis the therapeutic success of the following homeopathic drug preparations was investigated: Group A: combination of luffa operculata D4, kalium bicromicum D4 and cinnabaris D3. Group B: combination of kalium bicromicum D4 and cinnabaris D3. Group C: luffa operculata D4. Group D: placebo. Criteria for the therapeutic result were headache, blocked nasal breathing, trigeminal tenderness, reddening and swelling of nasal mucosa and postnasal secretion. There was no remarkable difference in the therapeutic success among the investigated homeopathic drug combinations nor between the active drugs and placebo. Averaged over all four groups 81% of the patients with acute sinusitis and 67% of the patients with chronic sinusitis recovered. In the literature comparable therapeutic results are reported for antibiotic therapy, decongestant nose drops and for the drainage of nasal cavities. PMID:2667526

  6. Effects of Homeopathic Medicines on Polysomnographic Sleep of Young Adults with Histories of Coffee-Related Insomnia

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Iris R.; Howerter, Amy; Jackson, Nicholas; Aickin, Mikel; Baldwin, Carol M.; Bootzin, Richard R.

    2010-01-01

    Background Homeopathy, a common form of alternative medicine worldwide, relies on subjective patient reports for diagnosis and treatment. Polysomnography offers a modern methodology for evaluating the objective effects of taking homeopathic remedies that clinicians claim exert effects on sleep quality in susceptible individuals. Animal studies have previously shown changes in non rapid eye movement sleep with certain homeopathic remedies. Methods Young adults of both sexes (ages 18–31) with above-average scores on standardized personality scales for either cynical hostility or anxiety sensitivity (but not both), and a history of coffee-induced insomnia, participated in the month-long study. At-home polysomnographic recordings were obtained on successive pairs of nights once per week for a total of eight recordings (nights 1, 2, 8, 9, 15, 16, 22, 23). Subjects (N=54) received placebo pellets on night 8 (single-blind) and verum pellets on night 22 (double-blind) in 30c doses of one of two homeopathic remedies, Nux Vomica or Coffea Cruda. Subjects completed daily morning sleep diaries and weekly Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scales, as well as Profile of Mood States Scales at bedtime on polysomnography nights. Results Verum remedies significantly increased PSG total sleep time and NREM, as well as awakenings and stage changes. Changes in actigraphic and self-rated scale effects were not significant. Conclusions The study demonstrated the feasibility of using in-home all-night sleep recordings to study homeopathic remedy effects. Findings are similar though not identical to those reported in animals with the same remedies. Possible mechanisms include initial disruption of the nonlinear dynamics of sleep patterns by the verum remedies. PMID:20673648

  7. Differences in Median Ultraviolet Light Transmissions of Serial Homeopathic Dilutions of Copper Sulfate, Hypericum perforatum, and Sulfur

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Sabine D.; Sandig, Annegret; Baumgartner, Stephan; Wolf, Ursula

    2013-01-01

    Homeopathic remedies are produced by potentising, that is, the serial logarithmic dilution and succussion of a mother tincture. Techniques like ultraviolet spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, calorimetry, or thermoluminescence have been used to investigate their physical properties. In this study, homeopathic centesimal (c) potencies (6c to 30c) of copper sulfate, Hypericum perforatum, and sulfur as well as succussed water controls were prepared. Samples of these preparations were exposed to external physical factors like heat, pressure, ultraviolet radiation, or electromagnetic fields to mimic possible everyday storage conditions. The median transmissions from 190 nm to 340 nm and 220 nm to 340 nm were determined by ultraviolet light spectroscopy on five measurement days distributed over several months. Transmissions of controls and potencies of sulfur differed significantly on two of five measurement days and after exposure to physical factors. Transmissions of potencies exposed to ultraviolet light and unexposed potencies of copper sulfate and Hypericum perforatum differed significantly. Potency levels 6c to 30c were also compared, and wavelike patterns of higher and lower transmissions were found. The Kruskal-Wallis test yielded significant differences for the potency levels of all three substances. Aiming at understanding the physical properties of homeopathic preparations, this study confirmed and expanded the findings of previous studies. PMID:23401712

  8. Homeopathic medicine for acute cough in upper respiratory tract infections and acute bronchitis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Zanasi, Alessandro; Mazzolini, Massimiliano; Tursi, Francesco; Morselli-Labate, Antonio Maria; Paccapelo, Alexandro; Lecchi, Marzia

    2014-02-01

    Cough is a frequent symptom associated to upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) and, although being self-limiting, it might deeply affect the quality of life. Homeopathic products are often employed by patients to treat cough, but the evidence on their efficacy is scarce. Thus, we tested the efficacy of a homeopathic syrup in treating cough arising from URTIs with a randomized, double blind, placebo controlled clinical trial. Patients were treated with either the homeopathic syrup or a placebo for a week, and recorded cough severity in a diary by means of a verbal category-descriptive score for two weeks. Sputum viscosity was assessed with a viscosimeter before and after 4 days of treatment; patients were also asked to provide a subjective evaluation of viscosity. Eighty patients were randomized to receive placebo (n = 40) or the homeopathic syrup (n = 40). All patients completed the study. In each group cough scores decreased over time, however, after 4 and 7 days of treatment, cough severity was significantly lower in the homeopathic group than in the placebo one (p < 0.001 and p = 0.023, respectively). Sputum was collected from 53 patients: in both groups its viscosity significantly decreased after 4 days of treatment (p < 0.001); however, viscosity was significantly lower in the homeopathic group (p = 0.018). Instead, the subjective evaluation did not significantly differ between the two groups (p = 0.059). No adverse events related to any treatment were reported. We concluded that the homeopathic syrup employed in the study was able to effectively reduce cough severity and sputum viscosity, thereby representing a valid remedy for the management of acute cough induced by URTIs. PMID:23714686

  9. Can Additional Homeopathic Treatment Save Costs? A Retrospective Cost-Analysis Based on 44500 Insured Persons

    PubMed Central

    Ostermann, Julia K.; Reinhold, Thomas; Witt, Claudia M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to compare the health care costs for patients using additional homeopathic treatment (homeopathy group) with the costs for those receiving usual care (control group). Methods Cost data provided by a large German statutory health insurance company were retrospectively analysed from the societal perspective (primary outcome) and from the statutory health insurance perspective. Patients in both groups were matched using a propensity score matching procedure based on socio-demographic variables as well as costs, number of hospital stays and sick leave days in the previous 12 months. Total cumulative costs over 18 months were compared between the groups with an analysis of covariance (adjusted for baseline costs) across diagnoses and for six specific diagnoses (depression, migraine, allergic rhinitis, asthma, atopic dermatitis, and headache). Results Data from 44,550 patients (67.3% females) were available for analysis. From the societal perspective, total costs after 18 months were higher in the homeopathy group (adj. mean: EUR 7,207.72 [95% CI 7,001.14–7,414.29]) than in the control group (EUR 5,857.56 [5,650.98–6,064.13]; p<0.0001) with the largest differences between groups for productivity loss (homeopathy EUR 3,698.00 [3,586.48–3,809.53] vs. control EUR 3,092.84 [2,981.31–3,204.37]) and outpatient care costs (homeopathy EUR 1,088.25 [1,073.90–1,102.59] vs. control EUR 867.87 [853.52–882.21]). Group differences decreased over time. For all diagnoses, costs were higher in the homeopathy group than in the control group, although this difference was not always statistically significant. Conclusion Compared with usual care, additional homeopathic treatment was associated with significantly higher costs. These analyses did not confirm previously observed cost savings resulting from the use of homeopathy in the health care system. PMID:26230412

  10. Inhibition of peripheral blood neutrophil oxidative burst in periodontitis patients with a homeopathic medication Traumeel S

    PubMed Central

    žilinskas, Juozas; žekonis, Jonas; žekonis, Gediminas; Šadzevičienė, Renata; Sapragonienė, Marija; Navickaitė, Justina; Barzdžiukaitė, Ingrida

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background The anti-inflammatory effects of a homeopathic remedy, Traumeel S, have been observed in experimental and clinical studies; however, its antioxidant properties have not been elucidated. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant effects of Traumeel S on peripheral blood neutrophils in patients with periodontitis. Material/Methods The study was performed using venous blood of 22 individuals with chronic periodontitis and 21 healthy subjects. The antioxidant effects of Traumeel S on the production of reactive oxygen species by unstimulated and stimulated with unopsonized E. coli neutrophils were investigated using luminol- and lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence (CL). Results Polymorphonuclear leukocytes of periodontitis patients produced higher levels (p<0.01) of light output of lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence and significantly reduced (p<0.01) light output of luminol-dependent chemiluminescence than analogous cells of healthy subjects. Highly diluted (10−4 of the stem solution) Traumeel S significantly (by approximately 50%) reduced superoxide-induced oxidation of lucigenin by unstimulated and stimulated with unopsonized E. coli polymorphonuclear leukocytes of periodontitis patients and had a tendency to intensify luminol-dependent chemiluminescence. Preincubation of the unstimulated and stimulated with unopsonized E. coli polymorphonuclear leukocytes of healthy subjects with Traumeel S exerts no inhibitory action on the luminol- and lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence of the above-mentioned cells. Conclusions This study indicates that Traumeel S may significantly reduce production of superoxide anion by unstimulated and stimulated peripheral blood polymorphonuclear neutrophils of periodontitis patients. PMID:21525811

  11. Dielectric Dispersion Studies Indicate Change in Structure of Water by Potentised Homeopathic Medicines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahata, C. R.

    2012-12-01

    Response of living bodies to different vastly `diluted' homeopathic medicines are different (rejecting the sceptic's view of `placebo' effect), though they are chemically same. Till now there is no satisfactory answer to how one such medicine differs from another in terms of scientifically measurable parameters. This paper tries to address this basic issue by taking two medicines of the same potency and two different potencies of the same medicine, namely, Arnica Mont 30c, 200c and Anacardium Orient 30c, 200c. These potencies are well above the Avogadro limit. The investigation reported here proceeds with the concept of `induced molecular structure' advanced by a number of scientists. Dielectric dispersion is used as the tool for experimental verification. It is based on the fact that when the exciting frequency of applied electric field equals the characteristic frequency, then macromolecules resonate leading to anomalous dielectric dispersion associated with sharp increase in dielectric loss, the resonance frequencies being different for macromolecules of different structures or dimensions. The results suggest that medicine- and potency-specific attributes are acquired by the vehicle (i.e. water) in the form of macromolecules generated by the potentization process of homeopathy making one medicine structurally different from another.

  12. Nonlinear Dynamical Systems Effects of Homeopathic Remedies on Multiscale Entropy and Correlation Dimension of Slow Wave Sleep EEG in Young Adults with Histories of Coffee-Induced Insomnia

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Iris R.; Howerter, Amy; Jackson, Nicholas; Aickin, Mikel; Bootzin, Richard R.; Brooks, Audrey J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Investigators of homeopathy have proposed that nonlinear dynamical systems (NDS) and complex systems science offer conceptual and analytic tools for evaluating homeopathic remedy effects. Previous animal studies demonstrate that homeopathic medicines alter delta electroencephalographic (EEG) slow wave sleep. The present study extended findings of remedy-related sleep stage alterations in human subjects by testing the feasibility of using two different NDS analytic approaches to assess remedy effects on human slow wave sleep EEG. Methods Subjects (N=54) were young adult male and female college students with a history of coffee-related insomnia who participated in a larger 4-week study of the polysomnographic effects of homeopathic medicines on home-based all-night sleep recordings. Subjects took one bedtime dose of a homeopathic remedy (Coffea cruda or Nux vomica 30c). We computed multiscale entropy (MSE) and the correlation dimension (Mekler-D2) for stage 3 and 4 slow wave sleep EEG sampled in artifact-free 2-minute segments during the first two rapid-eye-movement (REM) cycles for remedy and post-remedy nights, controlling for placebo and post-placebo night effects. Results MSE results indicate significant, remedy-specific directional effects, especially later in the night (REM cycle 2) (CC: remedy night increases and post-remedy night decreases in MSE at multiple sites for both stages 3 and 4 in both REM cycles; NV: remedy night decreases and post-remedy night increases, mainly in stage 3 REM cycle 2 MSE). D2 analyses yielded more sporadic and inconsistent findings. Conclusions Homeopathic medicines Coffea cruda and Nux vomica in 30c potencies alter short-term nonlinear dynamic parameters of slow wave sleep EEG in healthy young adults. MSE may provide a more sensitive NDS analytic method than D2 for evaluating homeopathic remedy effects on human sleep EEG patterns. PMID:22818237

  13. Establishing the interfacial nano-structure and elemental composition of homeopathic medicines based on inorganic salts: a scientific approach.

    PubMed

    Temgire, Mayur Kiran; Suresh, Akkihebbal Krishnamurthy; Kane, Shantaram Govind; Bellare, Jayesh Ramesh

    2016-05-01

    Extremely dilute systems arise in homeopathy, which uses dilution factors 10(60), 10(400) and also higher. These amounts to potencies of 30c, 200c or more, those are far beyond Avogadro's number. There is extreme skepticism among scientists about the possibility of presence of starting materials due to these high dilutions. This has led modern scientists to believe homeopathy may be at its best a placebo effect. However, our recent studies on 30c and 200c metal based homeopathic medicines clearly revealed the presence of nanoparticles of starting metals, which were found to be retained due to the manufacturing processes involved, as published earlier.(9,10) Here, we use HR-TEM and STEM techniques to study medicines arising from inorganic salts as starting materials. We show that the inorganic starting materials are present as nano-scale particles in the medicines even at 1 M potency (having a large dilution factor of 10(2000)). Thus this study has extended our physicochemical studies of metal based medicines to inorganic based medicines, and also to higher dilution. Further, we show that the particles develop a coat of silica: these particles were seen embedded in a meso-microporous silicate layer through interfacial encapsulation. Similar silicate coatings were also seen in metal based medicines. Thus, metal and inorganic salt based homeopathic medicines retain the starting material as nanoparticles encapsulated within a silicate coating. On the basis of these studies, we propose a universal microstructural hypothesis that all types of homeopathic medicines consist of silicate coated nano-structures dispersed in the solvent. PMID:27211323

  14. How healthy are chronically ill patients after eight years of homeopathic treatment? – Results from a long term observational study

    PubMed Central

    Witt, Claudia M; Lüdtke, Rainer; Mengler, Nils; Willich, Stefan N

    2008-01-01

    Background Homeopathy is a highly debated but often used medical treatment. With this cohort study we aimed to evaluate health status changes under homeopathic treatment in routine care. Here we extend former results, now presenting data of an 8-year follow-up. Methods In a prospective, multicentre cohort study with 103 homeopathic primary care practices in Germany and Switzerland, data from all patients (age >1 year) consulting the physician for the first time were observed. The main outcome measures were: The patients' perceived change in complaint severity (numeric rating scales from 0 = no complaint to 10 = maximal severity) and quality of life as measured by the SF-36 at baseline, and after 2 and 8 years. Results A total of 3,709 patients were studied, 73% (2,722 adults, 72.8% female, age at baseline 41.0 ± 12.3; 819 children, 48.4% female, age 6.5 ± 4.0) contributed data to the 8-year follow-up. The most frequent diagnoses were allergic rhinitis and headache in adults, and atopic dermatitis and multiple recurrent infections in children. Disease severity decreased significantly (p < 0.001) between baseline, 2 and 8 years (adults from 6.2 ± 1.7 to 2.9 ± 2.2 and 2.7 ± 2.1; children from 6.1 ± 1.8 to 2.1 ± 2.0 and 1.7 ± 1.9). Physical and mental quality of life sores also increased considerably. Younger age, female gender and more severe disease at baseline were factors predictive of better therapeutic success. Conclusion Patients who seek homeopathic treatment are likely to improve considerably. These effects persist for as long as 8 years. PMID:19091085

  15. Evaluating Complementary Therapies for Canine Osteoarthritis—Part II: A Homeopathic Combination Preparation (Zeel®)

    PubMed Central

    Tulamo, Riitta-Mari; Salonen, Hanna; Raekallio, Marja

    2009-01-01

    A homeopathic combination preparation (HCP) for canine osteoarthritic pain was evaluated in a randomized, double-controlled and double-blinded clinical trial. Forty-four dogs with osteoarthritis (OA) that were randomly allocated into one of three groups completed the study. All dogs were fed test products or placebo for 8 weeks. The dogs were evaluated at the clinic four times, with 4-week intervals. Six different variables were assessed: veterinary-assessed mobility, two force plate variables, an owner-evaluated chronic pain index and pain and locomotion visual analogue scales (VASs). Intake of extra non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs was also evaluated. A Chi-squared test and a Mann–Whitney test were used to determine significant improvement between groups. When changed into dichotomous responses of ‘improved’ or ‘not improved’ three out of the six variables showed a significant difference (P = 0.016, P = 0.008, P = 0.039) in improved dogs per group, between the HCP group and the placebo group. The odds ratios were over one for the same variables. As extent of improvement in the variables from start to end of treatment, the HCP product was significantly more improved in four (P = 0.015, P = 0.028, P = 0.049, P = 0.020) of the six variables, compared with the placebo. Our results indicated that the HCP Zeel® was beneficial in alleviating chronic orthopedic pain in dogs although it was not as effective as carprofen. PMID:18955260

  16. Bioactivity of the Murex Homeopathic Remedy and of Extracts from an Australian Muricid Mollusc against Human Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Benkendorff, Kirsten; McIver, Cassandra M.; Abbott, Catherine A.

    2011-01-01

    Marine molluscs from the family Muricidae are the source of a homeopathic remedy Murex, which is used to treat a range of conditions, including cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro bioactivity of egg mass extracts of the Australian muricid Dicathais orbita, in comparison to the Murex remedy, against human carcinoma and lymphoma cells. Liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was used to characterize the chemical composition of the extracts and homeopathic remedy, focusing on biologically active brominated indoles. The MTS (tetrazolium salt) colorimetric assay was used to determine effects on cell viability, while necrosis and apoptosis induction were investigated using flow cytometry (propidium iodide and Annexin-V staining, resp.). Cells were treated with varying concentrations (1–0.01 mg/mL) of crude and semi-purified extracts or preparations (dilute 1 M and concentrated 4 mg/mL) from the Murex remedy (4 h). The Murex remedy showed little biological activity against the majority of cell lines tested. In contrast, the D. orbita egg extracts significantly decreased cell viability in the majority of carcinoma cell lines. Flow cytometry revealed these extracts induce necrosis in HT29 colorectal cancer cells, whereas apoptosis was induced in Jurkat cells. These findings highlight the biomedical potential of Muricidae extracts in the development of a natural therapy for the treatment of neoplastic tumors and lymphomas. PMID:19491143

  17. The Effectiveness and Safety of a Homeopathic Medicinal Product in Pediatric Upper Respiratory Tract Infections With Fever

    PubMed Central

    van Haselen, Robert; Thinesse-Mallwitz, Manuela; Maidannyk, Vitaliy; Buskin, Stephen L.; Weber, Stephan; Keller, Thomas; Burkart, Julia; Klement, Petra

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the clinical effectiveness of a homeopathic add-on therapy in a pediatric subpopulation with upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) in a randomized, controlled, multinational clinical trial. Patients received either on-demand symptomatic standard treatment (ST-group) or the same ST plus a homeopathic medication (Influcid; IFC-group) for 7 days. Outcome assessment was based on symptom and fever resolution and the Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey–21 (WURSS-21). A total of 261 pediatric (<12 years) patients (130 IFC-group; 131 ST-group) were recruited in Germany and the Ukraine. The IFC-group used less symptomatic medication, symptoms resolved significantly earlier (P = .0001), had higher proportions of fever-free children from day 3 onwards, and the WURSS-assessed global disease severity was significantly less (P < .0001) during the entire URTI episode. One adverse event (vomiting) was possibly related to IFC. IFC as add-on treatment in pediatric URTI reduced global disease severity, shortened symptom resolution, and was safe in use. PMID:27493984

  18. Adjunctive care with nutritional, herbal, and homeopathic complementary and alternative medicine modalities in stroke treatment and rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Bell, Iris R

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an overview of nutritional, herbal, and homeopathic treatment options from complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) as adjuncts in stroke prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation. Despite many promising leads, the evidence does not favor recommendation of most of these treatments from a public health policy perspective. However, simple preventive interventions such as use of a high-quality multivitamin/multimineral supplement in patients with undernutrition may improve outcomes with minimal long-term risk. Natural agents such as the antioxidant alphalipoic acid, certain traditional Asian herbal mixtures, and some homeopathically prepared remedies show promise for reducing infarct size and associated impairments. A number of nutrients and herbs may assist in treatment of stroke-related complications such as pressure sores, urinary tract infections, and pneumonia. Individualized homeopathy may even play a helpful adjunctive role in treatment of sepsis. However, a great deal of systematic research effort lies ahead before most of the options discussed would meet mainstream medical standards for introduction into routine treatment regimens. PMID:17698456

  19. Homeopathic treatment of patients with chronic sinusitis: A prospective observational study with 8 years follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Witt, Claudia M; Lüdtke, Rainer; Willich, Stefan N

    2009-01-01

    Background An evaluation of homeopathic treatment and the outcomes in patients suffering from sinusitis for ≥12 weeks in a usual care situation. Methods Subgroup analysis including all patients with chronic sinusitis (ICD-9: 473.9; ≥12 weeks duration) of a large prospective multicentre observational study population. Consecutive patients presenting for homeopathic treatment were followed-up for 2 years, and complaint severity, health-related quality of life (QoL), and medication use were regularly recorded. We also present here patient-reported health status 8 years post initial treatment. Results The study included 134 adults (mean age 39.8 ± 10.4 years, 76.1% women), treated by 62 physicians. Patients had suffered from chronic sinusitis for 10.7 ± 9.8 years. Almost all patients (97.0%) had previously been treated with conventional medicine. For sinusitis, effect size (effect divided by standard deviation at baseline) of complaint severity was 1.58 (95% CI 1.77; 1.40), 2.15 (2.38; 1.92), and 2.43 (2.68; 2.18) at 3, 12, and 24 months respectively. QoL improved accordingly, with SF-36 changes in physical component score 0.27 (0.15; 0.39), 0.35 (0.19; 0.52), 0.44 (0.23; 0.65) and mental component score 0.66 (0.49; 0.84), 0.71 (0.50; 0.92), 0.65 (0.39; 0.92), 0.74 (0.49; 1.00) at these points. The effects were still present after 8 years with SF-36 physical component score 0.38 (0.10; 0.65) and mental component score 0.74 (0.49; 1.00). Conclusion This observational study showed relevant improvements that persisted for 8 years in patients seeking homeopathic treatment because of sinusitis. The extent to which the observed effects are due to the life-style regulation and placebo or context effects associated with the treatment needs clarification in future explanatory studies. PMID:19635154

  20. Homeopathic Individualized Q-Potencies versus Fluoxetine for Moderate to Severe Depression: Double-Blind, Randomized Non-Inferiority Trial

    PubMed Central

    Adler, U. C.; Paiva, N. M. P.; Cesar, A. T.; Adler, M. S.; Molina, A.; Padula, A. E.; Calil, H. M.

    2011-01-01

    Homeopathy is a complementary and integrative medicine used in depression, The aim of this study is to investigate the non-inferiority and tolerability of individualized homeopathic medicines [Quinquagintamillesmial (Q-potencies)] in acute depression, using fluoxetine as active control. Ninety-one outpatients with moderate to severe depression were assigned to receive an individualized homeopathic medicine or fluoxetine 20 mg day−1 (up to 40 mg day−1) in a prospective, randomized, double-blind double-dummy 8-week, single-center trial. Primary efficacy measure was the analysis of the mean change in the Montgomery & Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) depression scores, using a non-inferiority test with margin of 1.45. Secondary efficacy outcomes were response and remission rates. Tolerability was assessed with the side effect rating scale of the Scandinavian Society of Psychopharmacology. Mean MADRS scores differences were not significant at the 4th (P = .654) and 8th weeks (P = .965) of treatment. Non-inferiority of homeopathy was indicated because the upper limit of the confidence interval (CI) for mean difference in MADRS change was less than the non-inferiority margin: mean differences (homeopathy-fluoxetine) were −3.04 (95% CI −6.95, 0.86) and −2.4 (95% CI −6.05, 0.77) at 4th and 8th week, respectively. There were no significant differences between the percentages of response or remission rates in both groups. Tolerability: there were no significant differences between the side effects rates, although a higher percentage of patients treated with fluoxetine reported troublesome side effects and there was a trend toward greater treatment interruption for adverse effects in the fluoxetine group. This study illustrates the feasibility of randomized controlled double-blind trials of homeopathy in depression and indicates the non-inferiority of individualized homeopathic Q-potencies as compared to fluoxetine in acute treatment of outpatients

  1. A model for homeopathic remedy effects: low dose nanoparticles, allostatic cross-adaptation, and time-dependent sensitization in a complex adaptive system

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This paper proposes a novel model for homeopathic remedy action on living systems. Research indicates that homeopathic remedies (a) contain measurable source and silica nanoparticles heterogeneously dispersed in colloidal solution; (b) act by modulating biological function of the allostatic stress response network (c) evoke biphasic actions on living systems via organism-dependent adaptive and endogenously amplified effects; (d) improve systemic resilience. Discussion The proposed active components of homeopathic remedies are nanoparticles of source substance in water-based colloidal solution, not bulk-form drugs. Nanoparticles have unique biological and physico-chemical properties, including increased catalytic reactivity, protein and DNA adsorption, bioavailability, dose-sparing, electromagnetic, and quantum effects different from bulk-form materials. Trituration and/or liquid succussions during classical remedy preparation create “top-down” nanostructures. Plants can biosynthesize remedy-templated silica nanostructures. Nanoparticles stimulate hormesis, a beneficial low-dose adaptive response. Homeopathic remedies prescribed in low doses spaced intermittently over time act as biological signals that stimulate the organism’s allostatic biological stress response network, evoking nonlinear modulatory, self-organizing change. Potential mechanisms include time-dependent sensitization (TDS), a type of adaptive plasticity/metaplasticity involving progressive amplification of host responses, which reverse direction and oscillate at physiological limits. To mobilize hormesis and TDS, the remedy must be appraised as a salient, but low level, novel threat, stressor, or homeostatic disruption for the whole organism. Silica nanoparticles adsorb remedy source and amplify effects. Properly-timed remedy dosing elicits disease-primed compensatory reversal in direction of maladaptive dynamics of the allostatic network, thus promoting resilience and recovery from

  2. Larix laricina, an Antidiabetic Alternative Treatment from the Cree of Northern Quebec Pharmacopoeia, Decreases Glycemia and Improves Insulin Sensitivity In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Harbilas, Despina; Vallerand, Diane; Brault, Antoine; Saleem, Ammar; Arnason, John T.; Musallam, Lina; Haddad, Pierre S.

    2012-01-01

    Larix laricina K. Koch is a medicinal plant belonging to traditional pharmacopoeia of the Cree of Eeyou Istchee (Eastern James Bay area of Canada). In vitro screening studies revealed that, like metformin and rosiglitazone, it increases glucose uptake and adipogenesis, activates AMPK, and uncouples mitochondrial function. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antidiabetic and antiobesity potential of L. laricina in diet-induced obese (DIO) C57BL/6 mice. Mice were subjected for eight or sixteen weeks to a high fat diet (HFD) or HFD to which L. laricina was incorporated at 125 and 250 mg/kg either at onset (prevention study) or in the last 8 of the 16 weeks of administration of the HFD (treatment study). L. laricina effectively decreased glycemia levels, improved insulin resistance, and slightly decreased abdominal fat pad and body weights. This occurred in conjunction with increased energy expenditure as demonstrated by elevated skin temperature in the prevention study and improved mitochondrial function and ATP synthesis in the treatment protocol. L. laricina is thus a promising alternative and complementary therapeutic approach for the treatment and care of obesity and diabetes among the Cree. PMID:22888363

  3. [Effect of homeopathic drugs on the phagocytic activity of human granulocytes. In vitro tests in a controlled single-blind study].

    PubMed

    Wagner, H; Jurcic, K; Doenicke, A; Rosenhuber, E; Behrens, N

    1986-09-01

    Four homeopathic drug preparations with extract dilutions between D1 and D30 (expression for the homeopathic grade of potencies) and some additives (minerals and animal toxins) were investigated, using two in vitro and one in vivo phagocytosis models. All preparations enhanced significantly the activity of phagocytosis in all used systems. In controlled prospective single-blind studies with the preparations C and D performed on 12 and 14 verum and 13 male placebo volunteers respectively with i.v. injections within a 5-day treatment the phagocytosis indices were measured during 11 days using the microscopic smear method. In both investigations the maximum of phagocytosis activity was reached between the 4th and 5th day of injection. After the 4th or 5th (next to the last or last) injection, a rapid decrease of activity occurred which reached normal values on the 11th day. Other laboratory parameters investigated were not influenced. PMID:3539129

  4. A double-blind placebo-controlled study into the efficacy of a homeopathic remedy for fear of firework noises in the dog (Canis familiaris).

    PubMed

    Cracknell, Nina R; Mills, Daniel S

    2008-07-01

    Seventy-five dogs that showed a fear response to fireworks participated in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial to assess the efficacy of a homeopathic remedy for the alleviation of their behavioural signs. Dogs were randomly assigned to one of two treatments; the homeopathic treatment or the placebo treatment. At the baseline assessments the owners identified the behavioural signs of fear that their dogs normally displayed in response to fireworks, rated their frequency and intensity, and assessed the global severity of their dog's responses. These measures were repeated at the final assessment and owners also completed weekly diaries for the length of the trial. There were significant improvements in the owners' rating of 14/15 behavioural signs of fear in the placebo treatment group and all 15 behavioural signs in the homeopathic treatment group. Both treatment groups also showed significant improvement in the owners' rating of the global severity of their dog's responses. However, there was no significant difference in the response seen between the two treatment groups. PMID:17572119

  5. Management of Influenza-Like Illness by Homeopathic and Allopathic General Practitioners in France During the 2009–2010 Influenza Season

    PubMed Central

    Demonceaux, Antoine; Deswarte, Didier; Scimeca, Daniel; Bordet, Marie-France

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective This study was done to determine characteristics and management of patients in France visiting allopathic general practitioners (AGPs) and homeopathic general practitioners (HGPs) for influenza-like illness (ILI). Materials and Methods Design: This was a prospective observational study. Settings/location: It was conducted in metropolitan France during the 2009–2010 influenza season. Subjects: Sixty-five HGPs and 124 AGPs recruited a total of 461 patients with ILI. Interventions: Patients were treated for ILI by their GPs. GPs and patients completed questionnaires recording demographic characteristics and patient symptoms when patients were included in the study. Patients reported satisfaction with treatment on day 4. Prescriptions were recorded by the GPs. Outcome measures: Outcome measures were patient characteristics, demographics, and symptoms at baseline; medications prescribed by type of physician; and satisfaction with treatment by type of physician and medication. Results Most AGPs (86%), and most patients visiting them (58%) were men; whereas most HGPs (57%; p<0.0001), and most patients visiting them (56%; p=0.006) were women. Patients visiting AGPs were seen sooner after the appearance of symptoms, and they self-treated more frequently with cough suppressants or expectorants (p=0.0018). Patients visiting HGPs were seen later after the appearance of symptoms and they self-treated with homeopathic medications more frequently (p<0.0001). At enrollment, headaches (p=0.025), cough (p=0.01), muscle/joint pain (p=0.049), chills/shivering (p<0.001), and nasal discharge/congestion (p=0.002) were more common in patients visiting AGPs. Of these patients, 37.1% visiting AGPs were prescribed at least one homeopathic medication, and 59.6% of patients visiting HGPs were prescribed at least one allopathic medication. Patient satisfaction with treatment did not differ between AGPs and HGPs but was highest for patients treated with homeopathic

  6. Effect of artesunate based combination therapy with homeopathic medicine china on liver and kidney of Plasmodium berghei infected mice.

    PubMed

    Rajan, A; Bagai, U; Chandel, S

    2013-04-01

    Present study has been undertaken to evaluate antimalarial potential and safety of artesunate based combination therapy with homeopathic medicine china (ϕ/30 potency) against Plasmodium berghei (NK-65), a lethal rodent malaria parasite. In combination therapy, the oral administration of artesunate (100 mg/kg) + china ϕ/30 proved to be highly efficacious as it completely cleared the blood stage infection. During the follow up period up to day 28, no recrudescence was observed and the survival rate was 100 %. Combination did not disturb the normal functioning of liver and kidney, as evident from the normal activity of ALP (190.5 ± 0.2 and 174.2 ± 9.12 IU/l), level of bilirubin (0.6 ± 0.33 and 0.73 ± 0.1 mg/dl), urea (28 ± 0.51 and 29.1 ± 0.03 mg/dl) and creatinine (0.9 ± 0.62 and 1.1 ± 0.1 mg/dl) in serum of treated mice on day 7 and 28 respectively. Present study points to better efficacy of china as an alternative drug partner in combination to enhance antimalarial efficacy of artesunate without affecting the liver and kidney functions of P. berghei infected BALB/c mice. PMID:24431543

  7. Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice Related to Diabetes Mellitus Among Diabetics and Nondiabetics Visiting Homeopathic Hospitals in West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Koley, Munmun; Saha, Subhranil; Arya, Jogendra Singh; Choubey, Gurudev; Ghosh, Shubhamoy; Chattopadhyay, Rajat; Das, Kaushik Deb; Ghosh, Aloke; Hait, Himangsu; Mukherjee, Rajarshi; Banerjee, Tanapa

    2016-01-01

    High prevalence of undiagnosed cases of diabetes mellitus and poor knowledge, awareness, and practice has increased premature death, costly complications, and financial burden. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in November 2014 on 273 diabetics and 355 nondiabetics in 3 government homeopathic hospitals in West Bengal, India. A self-administered questionnaire assessing knowledge, awareness, and practice related to diabetes was used. A total of 17.5% to 29.3% of the participants were aware of the normal blood sugar level. Lack of insulin, frequent urination, hypertension, and poor wound healing were identified most frequently as the cause, symptom, association, and complications. A total of 35.5% to 46.5% said that diabetes was preventable; 14.1% to 31.9% knew that diabetes was controllable rather than curable. Consumption of planned diet, avoiding sugar, and testing blood sugar were the most frequently identified components of healthy lifestyle, diabetic diet, and diagnostic domain. Diabetics had higher knowledge and awareness than nondiabetics (P < .0001); still the latter need to be made aware and knowledgeable to curtail the ever-increasing burden of diabetes. PMID:26156145

  8. Stimulation of lymphocyte anti-melanoma activity by co-cultured macrophages activated by complex homeopathic medication

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Melanoma is the most aggressive form of skin cancer, and the most rapidly expanding cancer in terms of worldwide incidence. Chemotherapeutic approaches to treat melanoma have been uniformly disappointing. A Brazilian complex homeopathic medication (CHM), used as an immune modulator, has been recommended for patients with depressed immune systems. Previous studies in mice have demonstrated that the CHM activates macrophages, induces an increase in the number of leukocytes and improves the murine response against Sarcoma-180. Methods Here we studied the interaction of mouse lymph node lymphocytes, co-cultured in vitro with macrophages in the presence or absence of the CHM, with B16F10 melanoma cells. Results Lymphocytes co-cultured with macrophages in the presence of the CHM had greater anti-melanoma activity, reducing melanoma cell density and increasing the number of lysed tumor cells. There was also a higher proportion of activated (CD25+) lymphocytes with increased viability. Overall, lymphocytes activated by treatment destroyed growing cancer cells more effectively than control lymphocytes. Conclusion Co-culture of macrophages with lymphocytes in the presence of the CHM enhanced the anti-cancer performance of lymphocytes against a very aggressive lineage of melanoma cells. These results suggest that non-toxic therapies using CHMs are a promising alternative approach to the treatment of melanomas. In addition, they are attractive combination-therapy candidates, which may enhance the efficacy of conventional medicines by improving the immune response against tumor cells. PMID:19698142

  9. Journeys in The Country of The Blind: Entanglement Theory and The Effects of Blinding on Trials of Homeopathy and Homeopathic Provings

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    The idea of quantum entanglement is borrowed from physics and developed into an algebraic argument to explain how double-blinding randomized controlled trials could lead to failure to provide unequivocal evidence for the efficacy of homeopathy, and inability to distinguish proving and placebo groups in homeopathic pathogenic trials. By analogy with the famous double-slit experiment of quantum physics, and more modern notions of quantum information processing, these failings are understood as blinding causing information loss resulting from a kind of quantum superposition between the remedy and placebo. PMID:17342236

  10. Ameliorating effect of microdoses of a potentized homeopathic drug, Arsenicum Album, on arsenic-induced toxicity in mice

    PubMed Central

    Mallick, P; Chakrabarti Mallick, J; Guha, B; Khuda-Bukhsh, AR

    2003-01-01

    Background Arsenic in groundwater and its accumulation in plants and animals have assumed a menacing proportion in a large part of West Bengal, India and adjoining areas of Bangladesh. Because of the tremendous magnitude of the problem, there seems to be no way to tackle the problem overnight. Efforts to provide arsenic free water to the millions of people living in these dreaded zones are being made, but are awfully inadequate. In our quest for finding out an easy, safe and affordable means to combat this problem, a homeopathic drug, Arsenicum Album-30, appears to yield promising results in mice. The relative efficacies of two micro doses of this drug, namely, Arsenicum Album-30 and Arsenicum Album-200, in combating arsenic toxicity have been determined in the present study on the basis of some accepted biochemical protocols. Methods Mice were divided into different sets of control (both positive and negative) and treated series (As-intoxicated, As-intoxicated plus drug-fed). Alanine amino transferase (ALT) and aspartate amino transferase (AST) activities and reduced glutathione (GSH) level in liver and blood were analyzed in the different series of mice at six different fixation intervals. Results Both Arsenicum Album-30 and Arsenicum Album-200 ameliorated arsenic-induced toxicity to a considerable extent as compared to various controls. Conclusions The results lend further support to our earlier views that microdoses of potentized Arsenicum Album are capable of combating arsenic intoxication in mice, and thus are strong candidates for possible use in human subjects in arsenic contaminated areas under medical supervision. PMID:14570596

  11. [The development of modern Japanese pharmaceutical industry (Part 4). From 1906 to 1920, coinciding with the era between the institution and issue of Japanese Pharmacopoeia Third Edition with Fourth Edition (JP III-JP IV)].

    PubMed

    Yamada, H

    1994-01-01

    The publishing of the Third Edition of Japanese Pharmacopoeia was performed after Russo-Japanese War, on July 2, 1906. In those times, the military and economical power of Japan advanced toward East Asia, and thus gradually, Japan had become one of the powerful force in the world, partly because due to the unexpected victory in the War. Thereafter, in the second decade of the twentieth century, Japan was involved in the World War I, from July, 1914 to November, 1918, which ceased the fire by the defeat of Germanic Allied Countries. In Japan, the next revise of the pharmacopoeia was performed and the Fourth Edition of it was published on December 15, 1920. The Japanese pharmaceutical industry developed remarkably in those times, during the big war and confusion in the market, by accompanying with the suitable and tentative pharmaceutical legislations by the government and the supportive aids to the civilian enterprises in the productions, supplies and distributions of the materials and medicinal products. PMID:11613500

  12. Physician practicing preferences for conventional or homeopathic medicines in elderly subjects with musculoskeletal disorders in the EPI3-MSD cohort

    PubMed Central

    Danno, Karine; Joubert, Clementine; Duru, Gerard; Vetel, Jean-Marie

    2014-01-01

    patients consulting a conventional practice general practitioner. In contrast, analgesic use and MSD evolution were similar in the three groups. Consulting a homeopathic physician for MSD management does not appear to represent a loss of therapeutic opportunity, and decreases the use of NSAIDs. PMID:25298739

  13. A homeopathic remedy from arnica, marigold, St. John’s wort and comfrey accelerates in vitro wound scratch closure of NIH 3T3 fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Drugs of plant origin such as Arnica montana, Calendula officinalis or Hypericum perforatum have been frequently used to promote wound healing. While their effect on wound healing using preparations at pharmacological concentrations was supported by several in vitro and clinical studies, investigations of herbal homeopathic remedies on wound healing process are rare. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a commercial low potency homeopathic remedy Similasan® Arnica plus Spray on wound closure in a controlled, blind trial in vitro. Methods We investigated the effect of an ethanolic preparation composed of equal parts of Arnica montana 4x, Calendula officinalis 4x, Hypericum perforatum 4x and Symphytum officinale 6x (0712–2), its succussed hydroalcoholic solvent (0712–1) and unsuccussed solvent (0712–3) on NIH 3T3 fibroblasts. Cell viability was determined by WST-1 assay, cell growth using BrdU uptake, cell migration by chemotaxis assay and wound closure by CytoSelect ™Wound Healing Assay Kit which generated a defined “wound field”. All assays were performed in three independent controlled experiments. Results None of the three substances affected cell viability and none showed a stimulating effect on cell proliferation. Preparation (0712–2) exerted a stimulating effect on fibroblast migration (31.9%) vs 14.7% with succussed solvent (0712–1) at 1:100 dilutions (p < 0.001). Unsuccussed solvent (0712–3) had no influence on cell migration (6.3%; p > 0.05). Preparation (0712–2) at a dilution of 1:100 promoted in vitro wound closure by 59.5% and differed significantly (p < 0.001) from succussed solvent (0712–1), which caused 22.1% wound closure. Conclusion Results of this study showed that the low potency homeopathic remedy (0712–2) exerted in vitro wound closure potential in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts. This effect resulted from stimulation of fibroblasts motility rather than of their mitosis. PMID:22809174

  14. Can Homeopathic Arsenic Remedy Combat Arsenic Poisoning in Humans Exposed to Groundwater Arsenic Contamination?: A Preliminary Report on First Human Trial

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Groundwater arsenic (As) has affected millions of people globally distributed over 20 countries. In parts of West Bengal (India) and Bangladesh alone, over 100 million people are at risk, but supply of As-free water is grossly inadequate. Attempts to remove As by using orthodox medicines have mostly been unsuccessful. A potentized homeopathic remedy, Arsenicum Album-30, was administered to a group of As affected people and thereafter the As contents in their urine and blood were periodically determined. The activities of various toxicity marker enzymes and compounds in the blood, namely aspartate amino transferase, alanine amino transferase, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, lipid peroxidation and reduced glutathione, were also periodically monitored up to 3 months. The results are highly encouraging and suggest that the drug can alleviate As poisoning in humans. PMID:16322812

  15. A Comparative Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial on the Effectiveness, Safety, and Tolerability of a Homeopathic Medicinal Product in Children with Sleep Disorders and Restlessness.

    PubMed

    Jong, Miek C; Ilyenko, Lydia; Kholodova, Irina; Verwer, Cynthia; Burkart, Julia; Weber, Stephan; Keller, Thomas; Klement, Petra

    2016-01-01

    A prospective, multicenter, randomized, open-label, controlled clinical trial was performed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of the homeopathic product ZinCyp-3-02 in children with sleep disorders for ≥ one month compared to glycine. Children ≤ six years old received either ZinCyp-3-02 (N = 89) or comparator glycine (N = 90). After treatment for 28 days, total sleep-disorder-associated complaints severity scores decreased in both groups from median 7.0 (out of maximum 11.0) points to 2.0 (ZinCyp-3-02) and 4.0 (glycine) points, respectively, with overall higher odds of showing improvement for ZinCyp-3-02 (odds ratio: 4.45 (95% CI: 2.77-7.14), p < 0.0001, POM overall treatment related effect). Absence of individual complaints (time to sleep onset, difficulties maintaining sleep, sleep duration, troubled sleep (somniloquism), physical inactivity after awakening, restlessness for unknown reason, and sleep disorders frequency) at study end were significantly higher with ZinCyp-3-02 (all p values < 0.05). More children with ZinCyp-3-02 were totally free of complaints (p = 0.0258). Treatment effectiveness (p < 0.0001) and satisfaction assessments (p < 0.0001) were more favorable for ZinCyp-3-02. Few nonserious adverse drug reactions were reported (ZinCyp-3-02: N = 2, glycine: N = 1) and both treatments were well tolerated. Treatment with the homeopathic product ZinCyp-3-02 was found to be safe and superior to the comparator glycine in the treatment of sleep disorders in children. PMID:27242915

  16. A Comparative Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial on the Effectiveness, Safety, and Tolerability of a Homeopathic Medicinal Product in Children with Sleep Disorders and Restlessness

    PubMed Central

    Jong, Miek C.; Ilyenko, Lydia; Kholodova, Irina; Verwer, Cynthia; Burkart, Julia; Weber, Stephan; Keller, Thomas; Klement, Petra

    2016-01-01

    A prospective, multicenter, randomized, open-label, controlled clinical trial was performed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of the homeopathic product ZinCyp-3-02 in children with sleep disorders for ≥ one month compared to glycine. Children ≤ six years old received either ZinCyp-3-02 (N = 89) or comparator glycine (N = 90). After treatment for 28 days, total sleep-disorder-associated complaints severity scores decreased in both groups from median 7.0 (out of maximum 11.0) points to 2.0 (ZinCyp-3-02) and 4.0 (glycine) points, respectively, with overall higher odds of showing improvement for ZinCyp-3-02 (odds ratio: 4.45 (95% CI: 2.77–7.14), p < 0.0001, POM overall treatment related effect). Absence of individual complaints (time to sleep onset, difficulties maintaining sleep, sleep duration, troubled sleep (somniloquism), physical inactivity after awakening, restlessness for unknown reason, and sleep disorders frequency) at study end were significantly higher with ZinCyp-3-02 (all p values < 0.05). More children with ZinCyp-3-02 were totally free of complaints (p = 0.0258). Treatment effectiveness (p < 0.0001) and satisfaction assessments (p < 0.0001) were more favorable for ZinCyp-3-02. Few nonserious adverse drug reactions were reported (ZinCyp-3-02: N = 2, glycine: N = 1) and both treatments were well tolerated. Treatment with the homeopathic product ZinCyp-3-02 was found to be safe and superior to the comparator glycine in the treatment of sleep disorders in children. PMID:27242915

  17. Relative Apoptosis-inducing Potential of Homeopa-thic Condurango 6C and 30C in H460 Lung Cancer Cells In vitro

    PubMed Central

    Sikdar, Sourav; Kumar Saha, Santu; Rahman Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: In homeopathy, it is claimed that more homeopathically-diluted potencies render more protective/curative effects against any disease condition. Potentized forms of Condurango are used successfully to treat digestive problems, as well as esophageal and stomach cancers. However, the comparative efficacies of Condurango 6C and 30C, one diluted below and one above Avogadro’s limit (lacking original drug molecule), respectively, have not been critically analyzed for their cell-killing (apoptosis) efficacy against lung cancer cells in vitro, and signalling cascades have not been studied. Hence, the present study was undertaken. Methods: 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenylte-trazolium bromide (MTT) assays were conducted on H460-non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells by using a succussed ethyl alcohol vehicle (placebo) as a control. Studies on cellular morphology, cell cycle regulation, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), changes in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and DNA-damage were made, and expressions of related signaling markers were studied. The observations were done in a “blinded” manner. Results: Both Condurango 6C and 30C induced apoptosis via cell cycle arrest at subG0/G1 and altered expressions of certain apoptotic markers significantly in H460 cells. The drugs induced oxidative stress through ROS elevation and MMP depolarization at 18-24 hours. These events presumably activated a caspase-3-mediated signalling cascade, as evidenced by reverse transcriptase- polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), western blot and immunofluorescence studies at a late phase (48 hours) in which cells were pushed towards apoptosis. Conclusion: Condurango 30C had greater apoptotic effect than Condurango 6C as claimed in the homeopathic doctrine. PMID:25780691

  18. Short-Term Effects of Repeated Olfactory Administration of Homeopathic Sulphur or Pulsatilla on Electroencephalographic Alpha Power in Healthy Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Iris R.; Brooks, Audrey J.; Howerter, Amy; Jackson, Nicholas; Schwartz, Gary E.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Homeopathic pathogenetic trials usually rely on symptom self report measures. Adding objective biomarkers could enhance detection of subtle initial remedy effects. The present feasibility study examined electroencephalographic (EEG) effects of repeated olfactory administration of two polycrest remedies. Methods College student volunteers (ages 18–30, both sexes) from an introductory psychology course were screened for good health and relatively elevated Sulphur OR Pulsatilla symptom scores on the Homeopathic Constitutional Type Questionnaire. Subjects underwent a series of 3 once-weekly double-blind sessions during which they repeatedly sniffed the remedy matched to their CTQ type and solvent controls. Each remedy was given in a 6c, 12c, and 30c potency, one potency per week, in randomly assigned order. Solvent controls included both plain distilled water and a water-ethanol (95%) solution. All sniff test solutions were further diluted just prior to laboratory sessions (0.5 ml test solution in 150 ml distilled water). Within a session, remedies and control solvents were administered via 2-second sniffs (8 sniffs of each of 4 different succussion levels for the potency in randomized order). Primary outcome variable was relative EEG power (alpha 1 8–10 hertz; alpha 2 10–12 hertz) averaged over 19 electrode sites, including all succussions for a given potency. Results Mixed-effect models revealed significant main effects for remedy type (Sulphur>Pulsatilla) in both alpha bands, controlling for gender, baseline resting EEG alpha, and solvent control responses. Additional analyses showed significant non-linear interactions between dilution and time (weekly session) in alpha 2 for both remedies and alpha 1 for Sulphur. Conclusion EEG alpha offers an objective biomarker of remedy effects for future studies and potential method for distinguishing time-dependent effects of specific remedies and remedy potencies from one another. PMID:21962194

  19. [Transition of Psychotropic Drugs in Japanese Pharmacopoeia (JP) (Part 16). Transitions in the Standards and Test Methods of Bromovalerylurea in JP V (1932) and JP X VI (2011), and Comparison with Deutsches Arzneibuch].

    PubMed

    Yanagisawa, Kiyohisa

    2015-01-01

    Soam discovered the drug Bromovalerylurea (or less BV) in 1907. After that, BV was imported in Japan in the latter part of the Meiji period as Western medicine. Under the influence of the First World War, in Japan, BV was domestic production. And BV are listed in JP V (1932), it is continued listing until the current JP X VI (2011). As a foreign pharmacopoeia which listed the BV, only in addition to the JP, there was a German Pharmacopoeia (DAB). During this time, the JP and DAB, the standards and test methods of BV, it was amended as shown in Table 1 and Table 2. The discrimination test and analysis test was defined based on the chemical properties of urea and isovaleric acid and bromine. Therefore, consistency was seen in the chemical criteria for test. From this it is understood that BV is Bromoisovalerateureido synthesized based on urea and isovaleric acid and bromine. This isovaleric acid is the active ingredient of Japanese Valerian and Valerian roots. BV is an organic synthetic urea derivative that was effectively improved organic synthesis isovaleric acid with respect to quality and efficacy surface. For this reason at the time that BV have been developed, it is an ideal new drug, it was described as a good medicine have no side effects. But to BV, there is a nature that it has tolerance, addictive, a dependency. In Japan after the Second World War, there was a lack of awareness about the nature of such BV. That it had become a system that masses can easily purchase the BV. Revision of the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law of 1960 against in this, selling regulation of BV is provided. However, for analgesic formulated with BV of dose observed in the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law, as generic drugs, selling is permitted, it is continuing until today. For this reason in recent years, long-term use of BV by self-judgment of the masses is frequent. And chronic bromine poisoning BV by this it have been a problem. Therefore regard to BV, always for their safety, including

  20. Efficacy of individualized homeopathic treatment and fluoxetine for moderate to severe depression in peri- and postmenopausal women (HOMDEP-MENOP): study protocol for a randomized, double-dummy, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The perimenopausal period refers to the interval when women’s menstrual cycles become irregular and is characterized by an increased risk of depressive symptoms. Use of homeopathy to treat depression is widespread but there is a lack of clinical trials about its efficacy in depression in peri- and postmenopausal women. Previous trials suggest that individualized homeopathic treatments improve depression. In classical homeopathy, an individually selected homeopathic remedy is prescribed after a complete case history of the patient. The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy and safety of the homeopathic individualized treatment versus placebo or fluoxetine in peri- and postmenopausal women with moderate to severe depression. Methods/design A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, double-dummy, three-arm trial with a six-week follow-up study was designed. The study will be conducted in a public research hospital in Mexico City (Juárez de México Hospital) in the outpatient service of homeopathy. One hundred eighty nine peri- and postmenopausal women diagnosed with major depression according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (moderate to severe intensity) will be included. The primary outcome is change in the mean total score among groups on the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression after the fourth and sixth week of treatment. Secondary outcomes are: Beck Depression Inventory change in mean score, Greene’s Scale change in mean score, response and remission rates and safety. Efficacy data will be analyzed in the intention-to-treat population. To determine differences in the primary and secondary outcomes among groups at baseline and weeks four and six, data will be analyzed by analysis of variance for independent measures with the Bonferroni post-hoc test. Discussion This study is the first trial of classical homeopathy that will evaluate the efficacy of homeopathic individualized treatment

  1. Who seeks primary care for musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) with physicians prescribing homeopathic and other complementary medicine? Results from the EPI3-LASER survey in France

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is a paucity of information describing patients with musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) using complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs) and almost none distinguishing homeopathy from other CAMs. The objective of this study was to describe and compare patients with MSDs who consulted primary care physicians, either certified homeopaths (Ho) or regular prescribers of CAMs in a mixed practice (Mx), to those consulting physicians who strictly practice conventional medicine (CM), with regard to the severity of their MSD expressed as chronicity, co-morbidity and quality of life (QOL). Methods The EPI3-LASER study was a nationwide observational survey of a representative sample of general practitioners and their patients in France. The sampling strategy ensured a sufficient number of GPs in each of the three groups to allow comparison of their patients. Patients completed a questionnaire on socio-demographics, lifestyle and QOL using the Short Form 12 (SF-12) questionnaire. Chronicity of MSDs was defined as more than twelve weeks duration of the current episode. Diagnoses and co-morbidities were recorded by the physician. Results A total of 825 GPs included 1,692 MSD patients (predominantly back pain and osteoarthritis) were included, 21.6% in the CM group, 32.4% Ho and 45.9% Mx. Patients in the Ho group had more often a chronic MSD (62.1%) than the CM (48.6%) or Mx (50.3%) groups, a result that was statistically significant after controlling for patients' characteristics (Odds ratio = 1.43; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.07 - 1.89). Patients seen by homeopaths or mixed practice physicians who were not the regular treating physician, had more often a chronic MSD than those seen in conventional medicine (Odds ratios were1.75; 95% CI: 1.22 - 2.50 and 1.48; 95% CI: 1.06 - 2.12, respectively). Otherwise patients in the three groups did not differ for co-morbidities and QOL. Conclusion MSD patients consulting primary care physicians who prescribed

  2. Who seeks primary care for sleep, anxiety and depressive disorders from physicians prescribing homeopathic and other complementary medicine? Results from the EPI3 population survey

    PubMed Central

    Grimaldi-Bensouda, Lamiae; Engel, Pierre; Massol, Jacques; Guillemot, Didier; Avouac, Bernard; Duru, Gerard; Lert, France; Magnier, Anne-Marie; Rossignol, Michel; Rouillon, Frederic; Abenhaim, Lucien; Begaud, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To describe and compare patients seeking treatment for sleep, anxiety and depressive disorders (SADD) from physicians in general practice (GPs) with three different practice preferences: strictly conventional medicine (GP-CM), mixed complementary and conventional medicine (GP-Mx) and certified homeopathic physicians (GP-Ho). Design and setting The EPI3 survey was a nationwide, observational study of a representative sample of GPs and their patients, conducted in France between March 2007 and July 2008. Participants 1572 patients diagnosed with SADD. Primary and secondary outcomes The patients’ attitude towards complementary and alternative medicine; psychotropic drug utilisation. Results Compared to patients attending GP-CM, GP-Ho patients had healthier lifestyles while GP-Mx patients showed similar profiles. Psychotropic drugs were more likely to be prescribed by GP-CM (64%) than GP-Mx (55.4%) and GP-Ho (31.2%). The three groups of patients shared similar SADD severity. Conclusion Our results showed that patients with SADD, while differing principally in their sociodemographic profiles and conventional psychotropic prescriptions, were actually rather similar regarding the severity of SADD in terms of comorbidities and quality of life. This information may help to better plan resource allocation and management of these common health problems in primary care. PMID:23180389

  3. The expanding pharmacopoeia for bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Philip B; Malhi, Gin S

    2002-01-01

    Over the past decade, the number of treatments available for bipolar disorder has undergone an extraordinary expansion. In that period, valproate and olanzapine have received regulatory approval in the United States for the acute treatment of mania, and carbamazepine has been indicated for this condition in many other countries. In addition to those agents, a number of other anticonvulsants (in particular lamotrigine, gabapentin, and topiramate) are in trials, as are the atypical antipsychotics clozapine and risperidone, and other novel compounds. This article critically reviews the evidence from controlled trials of these proposed "mood stabilizers," highlighting the strengths and limitations of the data for each compound. A major challenge to the field is the capacity to prove the prophylactic properties of agents for which effectiveness in acute mania and/or bipolar depression has been demonstrated. Finally, as the mechanisms of agents such as lithium are now becoming apparent, and the possibility of understanding the molecular defects underpinning the condition is no longer highly fanciful, the prospect of targeted therapies is considered feasible by both academia and the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:11818469

  4. Pharming Pharmacopoeia: Living Apothecaries from the Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baden, D. G.

    2012-12-01

    The quest for, and development of, new drugs to treat extant and emerging diseases is an interdisciplinary effort, often requiring isolation of pro-drugs from new organisms, environments, and species followed by activity measurement. Exploitation of cultivated microalgae from marine sources has produced some of the most potent natural biological agents known, with specific receptor-mediated activities in pulmonary medicine, toxicology, cancer chemotherapy, the cardiovascular system, central and peripheral nervous system, and in dermatology. Our recent discovery that one class of marine-derived molecule promotes trans-membrane transport, a second that enhances mucus secretion, and a third which is an inhibitor of inflammation--- all isolated from the same organism, highlights the increasingly broad potential for innovative exploitation of natural products that occur in marine microalgae. Approaches that include interdisciplinary teams, permanent innovation, and disruptive technologies all will be described in the context of discoveries made in the treatment of cystic fibrosis, in the improvement of drug efficacy, and in the development of multiple for translational sciences in the ocean and health arenas.

  5. Individualized Homeopathic Treatment and Fluoxetine for Moderate to Severe Depression in Peri- and Postmenopausal Women (HOMDEP-MENOP Study): A Randomized, Double-Dummy, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Macías-Cortés, Emma del Carmen; Llanes-González, Lidia; Aguilar-Faisal, Leopoldo; Asbun-Bojalil, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Background Perimenopausal period refers to the interval when women's menstrual cycles become irregular and is characterized by an increased risk of depression. Use of homeopathy to treat depression is widespread but there is a lack of clinical trials about its efficacy in depression in peri- and postmenopausal women. The aim of this study was to assess efficacy and safety of individualized homeopathic treatment versus placebo and fluoxetine versus placebo in peri- and postmenopausal women with moderate to severe depression. Methods/Design A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, double-dummy, superiority, three-arm trial with a 6 week follow-up study was conducted. The study was performed in a public research hospital in Mexico City in the outpatient service of homeopathy. One hundred thirty-three peri- and postmenopausal women diagnosed with major depression according to DSM-IV (moderate to severe intensity) were included. The outcomes were: change in the mean total score among groups on the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, Beck Depression Inventory and Greene Scale, after 6 weeks of treatment, response and remission rates, and safety. Efficacy data were analyzed in the intention-to-treat population (ANOVA with Bonferroni post-hoc test). Results After a 6-week treatment, homeopathic group was more effective than placebo by 5 points in Hamilton Scale. Response rate was 54.5% and remission rate, 15.9%. There was a significant difference among groups in response rate definition only, but not in remission rate. Fluoxetine-placebo difference was 3.2 points. No differences were observed among groups in the Beck Depression Inventory. Homeopathic group was superior to placebo in Greene Climacteric Scale (8.6 points). Fluoxetine was not different from placebo in Greene Climacteric Scale. Conclusion Homeopathy and fluoxetine are effective and safe antidepressants for climacteric women. Homeopathy and fluoxetine were significantly different from placebo

  6. Can Administration of Potentized Homeopathic Remedy, Arsenicum Album, Alter Antinuclear Antibody (ANA) Titer in People Living in High-Risk Arsenic Contaminated Areas? I. A Correlation with Certain Hematological Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Belon, Philippe; Banerjee, Pathikrit; Choudhury, Sandipan Chaki; Banerjee, Antara; Biswas, Surjyo Jyoti; Karmakar, Susanta Roy; Pathak, Surajit; Guha, Bibhas; Chatterjee, Sagar; Bhattacharjee, Nandini; Das, Jayanta Kumar; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman

    2006-01-01

    To examine whether elevated antinuclear antibody (ANA) titers reported in random human population of arsenic contaminated villages can be reverted to the normal range by administration of a potentized homeopathic drug, Arsenicum album, randomly selected volunteers in two arsenic contaminated villages and one arsenic-free village in West Bengal (India) were periodically tested for their ANA titer as well as various blood parameters in two types of experiments: ‘placebo-controlled double blind’ experiment for shorter duration and ‘uncontrolled verum fed experiment’ for longer duration. Positive modulation of ANA titer was observed along with changes in certain relevant hematological parameters, namely total count of red blood cells and white blood cells, packed cell volume, hemoglobin content, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and blood sugar level, mostly within 2 months of drug administration. Thus, Arsenicum album appears to have great potential for ameliorating arsenic induced elevated ANA titer and other hematological toxicities. PMID:16550230

  7. Quality control and analytical test method for Taxus baccata tincture preparation.

    PubMed

    Vignolini, Pamela; Gehrmann, Beatrice; Melzig, Matthias Friedrich; Borsacchi, Leonardo; Scardigli, Arianna; Romani, Annalisa

    2012-07-01

    The homeopathic tincture of Taxus baccata L. is monographed in the current German Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia (HAB 2009). However, the described identification test is a common comparative TLC procedure that might be updated. The purpose of the current work was the quali-quantitative analysis by HPLC/DAD/MS of Taxus tincture. In this study we characterized polyphenolic compounds, in particular four hydroxycinnamic derivatives (0.85 mg/mL) and four flavonoids (quercetin and kaempferol 3-O-rutinoside and xylosyl glucosides); the total polyphenol content was 1.265 mg/mL of tincture. Starting from the official German Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia method of preparation, the aim of this work was to optimize a rapid and reproducible method for the analysis of herbal drugs and tincture, directly prepared in store or the herbalist's shop, to ensure safety and efficacy of the preparation. The procedure has to ensure validation, robustness of the results, and provide a quick response about the composition of compounds in the herbal drug preparation. PMID:22908569

  8. [Discussion on efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine "Zi-hua Qianhu" in Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2010 Edition)].

    PubMed

    Shan, Feng; Hao, Jin-da; Huang, Lu-qi

    2015-06-01

    To clarify the origin and application development of the traditional Chinese medicine " Zi-hua Qianhu" and " Qianhu", the medicinal literatures of past dynasties and modern researches were analysed. The plant Angelica decursivum was used as a substitute for traditional Chinese medicine "Angelica sinensis Radix" for a long historical period, it is used incorrectly for traditional Chinese medicine "Qianhu" due to origin research in modern times. The plant origin of "Qianhu" is Peucedanum praeruptorum. There are significant differences in clinical applications and chemical composition of the two drugs. The same efficacy description of "Zi-huaQianhu" and "Qianhu" could not stop "Zi-huaQianhu" used as "Qianhu" in practical application. Therefore, we need to further research for the plant A. decursivum, delimit its medicinal attribution. PMID:26591544

  9. [Penicher: an manuscript addendum to his pharmacopoeia of 1695 on the copy of Pharmacy College Library].

    PubMed

    Bonnemain, Bruno

    2016-03-01

    Penicher's pharmacopeia (1695) was part of the Library of the "College de Pharmacie". The inventory of this Library was done in 1780 and is kept by the Library of the BIU Santé, Paris-Descartes University in Paris that digitized it recently. This copy contains handwritten texts that complete the original edition. The first main addition, at the beginning of the document, is three recipes of drugs, in Latin, one of them being well known at the early 18th century, the vulnerary balm of Leonardo Fioraventi (1517-1588), that is also known as Fioraventi's alcoholate. This product will still be present in the French Codex until 1949. The Penicher' book also includes, at the end, three handwritten pages in French which represent the equipment of apothecaries. These drawings are very close to the ones of Charas' Pharmacopeia. One can think that these additions are from the second part of the 18th century, but before the gift of the pharmacopeia to the College de Pharmacie by Fourcy en 1765. The author is unknown but he is probably one of the predecessor of Fourcy in Pharmacie de l'Ours (Bear's pharmacy). This gift done by Fourcy when joining the Community of Parisians pharmacists did not prevent the fact that Fourcy was sentenced by his colleagues pharmacists, a few years later, for the sales of "Chinese specialties" that someone called Jean-Daniel Smith, a physician installed in Paris, asked him to prepare. PMID:27281932

  10. From Materia Medica to the Pharmacopoeia: Challenges of Writing the History of Drugs in India

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Historians of indigenous medicine in colonial India have looked more closely at the changes, reinventions and reformulations of institutions of Ayurveda and Unani than at the cognitive content of the drugs themselves. The few historians who have examined the changing content of indigenous medicines have conceptualised the creation of materia medica of Indian drugs through two tropes: one of circulation (of specific drugs) through epistemological and geographic boundaries and the second, of marginalisation of certain other drugs either through a lack of textual legitimacy or the lack of the newly discovered ‘active principles’ within each drug. While these approaches have been useful, there is a case to be made for understanding the creation of formularies of Indian drugs in 19th and 20th centuries through the prism of medical praxis in India. PMID:27570491

  11. [Amphibians in Spanish popular medicine and the pharmacopoeia of Pliny and Dioscorides].

    PubMed

    Vallejo, José Ramón; González, José Antonio

    2015-12-01

    This article presents a list of medical remedies based on the use of amphibians in Spanish popular medicine and in the classical world. It provides an overview of bibliography relative to folklore studies, ethnographic work and research on social or medical anthropology. It documents a total of 113 remedies and the use of nine species of amphibians, two from the family of caudates (urodeles) and seven anurans. Most of these remedies are based on the popular "preconception" about the influence of amphibians and healing by transmitting an illness to a living creature. The traditional use of certain threatened species is emphasized, an issue to bear in mind in decision-making in the field of conservation biology and environmental education. PMID:25831480

  12. Anti-fungal activities of medicinal plants extracts of Ivorian pharmacopoeia

    PubMed Central

    Mathieu, Kra Adou Koffi; Marcel, Ahon Gnamien; Djè, Djo-Bi; Sitapha, Ouattara; Adama, Coulibaly; Joseph, Djaman Allico

    2014-01-01

    Aim: This study was to evaluate in vitro anti-fungal activity of aqueous and hydroethanolic from medicinal plants extracts collected in Côte d’Ivoire. Materials and Methods: Plants extracts were prepared by homogenization and separately incorporated to Sabouraud agar using the agar slanted double dilution method. Ketoconazole was used as standards for anti-fungal assay. The anti-fungal tests were performed by sowing 1000 cells of Candida albicans on the previously prepared medium culture. Anti-fungal activity was determined by evaluating anti-fungal parameters values (minimal fungicidal concentrations [MFC] and IC50). Results: The results showed that all extracts possessed anti-fungal activities whose levels vary from plant species to another. Eight of them had a satisfactory anti-candidosic activity and extracts from Terminalia species were the most active. Among them the Terminalia superba extracts generated the strongest activities (MFC = 0.0975 mg/mL). Compared with ketoconazole (MFC = 0.390 mg/mL), the T. superba extracts, aqueous (MFC = 0.195 mg/mL) and hydroethanolic (0.0975 mg/mL) were successively twice and four times more active. The worst anti-fungal activity (MFC = 1600 mg/mL) was obtained with the Guarea cedrata aqueous extract. Conclusion: All medicinal plants extracts produced anti-fungal activities, and T. superba was the most active. PMID:26401367

  13. The apparency hypothesis applied to a local pharmacopoeia in the Brazilian northeast

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Data from an ethnobotanical study were analyzed to see if they were in agreement with the biochemical basis of the apparency hypothesis based on an analysis of a pharmacopeia in a rural community adjacent to the Araripe National Forest (Floresta Nacional do Araripe - FLONA) in northeastern Brazil. The apparency hypothesis considers two groups of plants, apparent and non-apparent, that are characterized by conspicuity for herbivores (humans) and their chemical defenses. Methods This study involved 153 interviewees and used semi-structured interviews. The plants were grouped by habit and lignification to evaluate the behavior of these categories in terms of ethnospecies richness, use value and practical and commercial importance. Information about sites for collecting medicinal plants was also obtained. The salience of the ethnospecies was calculated. G-tests were used to test for differences in ethnospecies richness among collection sites and the Kruskal-Wallis test to identify differences in the use values of plants depending on habit and lignifications (e.g. plants were classes as woody or non-woody, the first group comprising trees, shrubs, and lignified climbers (vines) and the latter group comprising herbs and non-lignified climbers). Spearman’s correlation test was performed to relate salience to use value and these two factors with the commercial value of the plants. Results A total of 222 medicinal plants were cited. Herbaceous and woody plants exhibited the highest ethnospecies richness, the non-woody and herbaceous plants had the most practical value (current use), and anthropogenic areas were the main sources of woody and non-woody medicinal plants; herbs and trees were equally versatile in treating diseases and did not differ with regard to use value. Trees were highlighted as the most commercially important growth habit. Conclusions From the perspective of its biochemical fundamentals, the apparency hypothesis does not have predictive potential to explain the use value and commercial value of medicinal plants. In other hand, the herbaceous habit showed the highest ethnospecies richness in the community pharmacopeia, which is an expected prediction, corroborating the apparency hypothesis. PMID:24410756

  14. A modern-day shamanistic healer in the Peruvian Amazon: pharmacopoeia and trance.

    PubMed

    Dobkin de Rios, M

    1989-01-01

    The functions and successes of shamanistic healers are addressed in the context of psychoneuroimmunology, which allows a description of how therapeutic success is achieved via the symbolic manipulation of biological processes. These perspectives reinforce the continued importance of traditional shamanistic healers in the contemporary world. This is illustrated by the activities of a Peruvian healer who utilizes both psychoactive plant substances and a syncretic combination of modern and traditional symbolic therapies. The reliance on a wide range of psychoactive plants, including both psychoactive substances and nonhallucinogenic plants, is shown to be empirically effective in the treatment of disease. This demonstrates the pragmatic and adaptive approaches of these traditional healers and their positive functions in treating a variety of illnesses in today's world. PMID:2723893

  15. An homeopathic cure to pure Xenon large diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azevedo, C. D. R.; Fernandes, L. M. P.; Freitas, E. D. C.; Gonzalez-Diaz, D.; Monrabal, F.; Monteiro, C. M. B.; Dos Santos, J. M. F.; Veloso, J. F. C. A.; Gomez-Cadenas, J. J.

    2016-02-01

    The NEXT neutrinoless double beta decay (ββ0ν) experiment will use a high-pressure gas electroluminescence-based TPC to search for the decay of Xe-136. One of the main advantages of this technology is the possibility to reconstruct the topology of events with energies close to Qββ. The rejection potential associated to the topology reconstruction is limited by our capacity to properly reconstruct the original path of the electrons in the gas. This reconstruction is limited by different factors that include the geometry of the detector, the density of the sensors in the tracking plane and the separation among them, etc. Ultimately, the resolution is limited by the physics of electron diffusion in the gas. In this paper we present a series of molecular additives that can be used in Xenon gas at very low partial pressure to reduce both longitudinal and transverse diffusion. We will show the results of different Monte-Carlo simulations of electron transport in the gas mixtures from wich we have extracted the value of some important parameters like diffusion, drift velocity and light yields. These results show that there is a series of candidates that can reduce diffusion without affecting the energy resolution of the detector and they should be studied experimentally. A comparison with preliminary results from such an ongoing experimental effort is given.

  16. Identification of lactate. Analytical methods of pharmacopoeias with DBH in respect to environmental and economical concern, Part 4.

    PubMed

    Hilp, M

    2001-07-01

    The identification of lactate according to Ph. Eur. 1997 and DAB 2000 uses the oxidation of lactic acid to pyruvic acid by boiling with bromine water in sulphuric acid. Acetaldehyde arising by decarboxylation is detected according to Legal applying a time consuming and troublesome procedure. 1,3-Dibromo-5,5-dimethylhydantoin (DBH) as well as potassium bromate can replace elemental bromine. Lactic acid and all lactates of Ph. Eur. 1997 and DAB 2000 can be identified better and faster using lactate oxidase (LOD, test strip system Accusport). According to DAB 2000 the base of ethacridine lactate has to be separated. This is no longer necessary, if an enzymatic identification is applied. PMID:11487973

  17. Oscillococcinum

    MedlinePlus

    Oscillococcinum is a brand name homeopathic product manufactured by Boiron. Similar homeopathic products are found in other brands. Homeopathic products are extreme dilutions of some active ingredient. ...

  18. Inflammatory Process Modulation by Homeopathic Arnica montana 6CH: The Role of Individual Variation

    PubMed Central

    Kawakami, Ana Paula; Sato, Cesar; Cardoso, Thayna Neves; Bonamin, Leoni Villano

    2011-01-01

    The effects of Arnica montana 6cH on the individual modulation of acute inflammation kinetics in rats were evaluated. Adult male Wistar rats were inoculated with 1% carrageenan into the footpad and treated with Arnica montana 6cH, dexamethasone (4.0 mg/kg; positive control) or 5% hydroalcoholic solution (negative control), per os, each 15 minutes, between 30 and 180 minutes after the irritant inoculation. Histopathological and immunohistochemistry procedures were done in order to get a panel of inflammatory positive cells for CD3 (T lymphocytes), CD45RA (B lymphocytes), CD18 (beta 2 integrin), CD163 (ED2 protein), CD54 (ICAM-1), and MAC 387 (monocytes and macrophages). The statistical treatment of data included a posteriori classification of animals from each group (N = 20) in two subgroups presenting spontaneous precocious or late oedema. Animals that presented precocious oedema were less responsible to Arnica montana 6cH in relation to hemodynamic changes. Instead, rats that exhibited late oedema presented less intense oedema (P = .01), lower percentage of mast cell degranulation (P = .0001), and increase in lymphatic vessels diameter (P = .05). The data suggest an individually qualitative adjustment of inflammatory vascular events by Arnica montana 6cH. PMID:21318109

  19. Dual effects of a homeopathic mineral complex on carrageenan-induced oedema in rats.

    PubMed

    Bertani, S; Lussignoli, S; Andrioli, G; Bellavite, P; Conforti, A

    1999-07-01

    Carrageenan oedema, a classical experimental model commonly used to test activity of anti-inflammatory drugs, was used to evaluate the therapeutic activity of a low-potency mineral complex (MC). The MC was administered in the right plantar surface of albino rats 60 min before, simultaneously and 30 min after injection of carrageenan, an irritant which causes a local, transitory increase of fluid volume. The administration of the MC 60 min before the injection of carrageenan primed the animal to enhanced inflammatory response to the irritant. The administration of MC contemporarily to carrageenan did not modify the kinetic and the extent of the oedema, while the administration of the MC 30 min after the induction of the oedema significantly reduced the early phase of the inflammatory reaction. This indicated that the therapeutic action of this MC is not due to conventional anti-inflammatory effect but to activation of endogenous regulatory mechanisms, a phenomenon which may be regarded as a simple application of the 'similia rule'. PMID:10449049

  20. Immunomodulation of Homeopathic Thymulin 5CH in a BCG-Induced Granuloma Model

    PubMed Central

    Bonamin, Leoni Villano; Sato, Cesar; Zalla Neto, Ruggero; Morante, Graziela; Cardoso, Thayná Neves; de Santana, Fabiana Rodrigues; Coelho, Cideli de Paula; Osugui, Lika; Popi, Ana Flavia; Hurtado, Elizabeth Cristina Perez; Mariano, Mario

    2013-01-01

    The present study analyzed the immune modulation mechanisms of thymulin 5CH in a granuloma experimental model. Male adult Balb/c mice were inoculated with BCG into the footpad to induce granuloma, which was quantitatively evaluated. The phenotypic characterization of phagocyte, T- and B-lymphocyte populations in the peritoneum, and local lymph node was done by flow cytometry. During all experimental periods, thymulin 5CH and vehicle (control) were given ad libitum to mice, diluted into the drinking water (1.6 × 10−17 M). After 7 days from inoculation, thymulin-treated mice presented reduction in the number of epithelioid cytokeratine-positive cells (P = 0.0001) in the lesion, in relation to young phagocytes. After 21 days, the differentiation of B1 peritoneal stem cells into phagocytes reached the peak, being higher in thymulin-treated mice (P = 0.0001). Simultaneously, the score of infected phagocytes in the lesion decreased (P = 0.001), and the number of B1-derived phagocytes, CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes in the local lymph node increased in relation to control (P = 0.0001). No difference was seen on the CD25+ Treg cells. The results show that thymulin 5CH treatment is able to improve the granuloma inflammatory process and the infection remission, by modulating local and systemic phagocyte differentiation. PMID:23431344

  1. [Theory and practice of pharmacopoeial control of the quality of drugs and auxiliary substances. VI. Stability of comparative colour solutions of the Czech Pharmacopoeia 2002].

    PubMed

    Subert, J; Farsa, O; Gajdosová, Z

    2006-07-01

    Comparative colour solutions for methods I and II evaluating colouring of liquids according to PhB MMII are of identical composition. For method I, they can be stored without any time limit, whereas for method II are to be prepared just immediately prior to their use. The present paper deals with the examination of stability of comparative colour solutions PhB MMII kept in test-tubes made of colourless borosilicate glass with ground-glass stoppers, protected from light. The colour differences deltaE* in the uniform colour space CIELAB calculated from transmittance spectra measured in the course of preservation of solutions revealed that comparative colour solutions PhB 2002 show higher stability when there is a higher concentration of colour components in the solution. In solutions H9, HZ7, and Z7, the time period from their preparation to the time not exceeding the difference of deltaE* 1.5 units ranged within 3 days, in ZZ7 it was at least 14 days, and in C7 at least 20 days. In solutions H5, HZ4, Z4, ZZ4, and C4, it was at least 25 days, in solutions H2, HZ2, Z2, ZZ2, and C2 at least 41 days. These findings make questionable the justification of preservation of colour solutions according to PhB MMII for method I for an unlimited time period. At the same time they show that the solutions are not unstable to such an extent that they should be prepared for method II just prior to use in all cases. PMID:16921739

  2. Feasibility studies. The use of NMR spectrometry as a possible substitute of or complement to several analytical tests in pharmacopoeia monographs.

    PubMed

    McEwen, I; Arvidsson, T

    2012-04-01

    NMR spectrometry has many analytical applications; for instance, the identification of known substances; the structure elucidation of unknown ones; the quantification of APIs, impurities, solvent and water; kinetic studies, stereochemistry determinations, and the analyses of complex mixtures as in metabonomics. NMR spectrometry has the potential to substitute or complement existing analyses that are performed on APIs. In this work, 4 different NMR analyses were done on 2 APIs: fluvastatin sodium and benzalkonium chloride with good results. PMID:23327894

  3. Extreme sensitivity of gene expression in human SH-SY5Y neurocytes to ultra-low doses of Gelsemium sempervirens

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Gelsemium sempervirens L. (Gelsemium s.) is a traditional medicinal plant, employed as an anxiolytic at ultra-low doses and animal models recently confirmed this activity. However the mechanisms by which it might operate on the nervous system are largely unknown. This work investigates the gene expression of a human neurocyte cell line treated with increasing dilutions of Gelsemium s. extract. Methods Starting from the crude extract, six 100 × (centesimal, c) dilutions of Gelsemium s. (2c, 3c, 4c, 5c, 9c and 30c) were prepared according to the French homeopathic pharmacopoeia. Human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells were exposed for 24 h to test dilutions, and their transcriptome compared by microarray to that of cells treated with control vehicle solutions. Results Exposure to the Gelsemium s. 2c dilution (the highest dose employed, corresponding to a gelsemine concentration of 6.5 × 10-9 M) significantly changed the expression of 56 genes, of which 49 were down-regulated and 7 were overexpressed. Several of the down-regulated genes belonged to G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathways, calcium homeostasis, inflammatory response and neuropeptide receptors. Fisher exact test, applied to the group of 49 genes down-regulated by Gelsemium s. 2c, showed that the direction of effects was significantly maintained across the treatment with high homeopathic dilutions, even though the size of the differences was distributed in a small range. Conclusions The study shows that Gelsemium s., a medicinal plant used in traditional remedies and homeopathy, modulates a series of genes involved in neuronal function. A small, but statistically significant, response was detected even to very low doses/high dilutions (up to 30c), indicating that the human neurocyte genome is extremely sensitive to this regulation. PMID:24642002

  4. [The development of modern Japanese pharmaceutical industry (Part 3): from 1886 to 1906, coinciding with the era between the institution and issue of Japanese Pharmacopoeia first edition with third edition (JP I-JP III)].

    PubMed

    Yamada, H

    1992-01-01

    The history of the developmental outline of the pharmaceutical industry during the Meiji era, is introduced. The main topics or events in the development are as follows: 1. The establishment of Osaka Pharmaceutical Products, Examination Company; 2. National Institute of Hygiene which was originated from Drug Ruling Institute ("Shiyakujo"); 3. Development of the pharmaceutical industries, especially in East and West Japan ("Kanto and Kansai"); 4. The influences of two big wars (Sino-Japanese War and Russo-Japanese War) on the private pharmaceutical business. And each of them is considered in order to explain the background of the pharmaceutical business during the middle Meiji era. PMID:11639711

  5. Utilization and Safety of Common Over-the-Counter Dietary/Nutritional Supplements, Herbal Agents, and Homeopathic Compounds for Disease Prevention.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Ruchir; Salvo, Marissa C

    2016-09-01

    Dietary supplements are commonly used by patients as part of their medical care plan. Often clinicians may not be aware of their use, because patients do not always consider these to be medications. All clinicians need to continually ask patients about their use of dietary supplements when collecting a medication history. Dietary supplements and prescription medications often share similar enzymatic pathways for their metabolism. These interactions may lead to severe adverse reactions. This article reviews available evidence for a variety of dietary supplements in select disease categories. PMID:27542428

  6. Towards an ethnography of Indian homeopathy.

    PubMed

    Frank, Robert; Ecks, Stefan

    2004-12-01

    Despite its large number of practitioners, medical anthropology has given little attention to Indian homeopathy. In historical accounts, homeopathy's popularity is explained by its position as a modern, yet non-colonial form of medicine, which became indigenized during the last 150 years. Other scholars argue that homeopathic concepts converge with Indian ideas on healing. However, few empirical data have been gathered on homeopathic practice in contemporary India. In this paper, we explore the perspectives of college-trained homeopaths in urban West Bengal. How strongly do they feel indebted to classical and canonical homeopathic writings? Can we observe attempts of indigenizing homeopathy by blending it with common ideas of Indian medical culture? While the homeopaths in our study report practising an orthodox version of homeopathy, we can also identify creative solutions when they are responding to their patients' expectations: conforming to the idea of single-remedy prescription by simultaneous use of placebos, short-cut homeopathic anamnesis, complementing homeopathic drugs with therapeutic nutritional advice, and developing a system of seasonal drugs are all evidence for silent hybridization of homeopathic and local ideas. In the homeopathic consultation, time pressure becomes a significant challenge and Bengali homeopaths grasp the most important homeopathic symptoms quickly. PMID:26868322

  7. [History of homeopathy in Hungary, 1820-1871].

    PubMed

    Kóczián, Mária; Kölnei, Lívia

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyses the development of homeopathy in Hungary between 1820 and 1871. A brief account of the spread of this new method during the 1820s is followed by a history of the foundation of homeopathic hospitals in the first half of the 19th century and the publication of homeopathic self-help books for lay-persons. The attempts to establish an homeopathic association and an university chair of homeopathy which were to succeed ultimately are discussed. The homeopaths conflicts with allopaths and the difficult situation presented to homeopaths after the revolution of 1848/1849 are analysed. The paper concludes with a short representation of five of the most famous homeopaths in Hungary during the period under discussion. PMID:16025632

  8. Is homeopathy a clinically valuable approach?

    PubMed

    Ernst, Edzard

    2005-11-01

    Homeopathy is a popular but implausible form of medicine. Contrary to many claims by homeopaths, there is no conclusive evidence that highly dilute homeopathic remedies are different from placebos. The benefits that many patients experience after homeopathic treatment are therefore most probably due to nonspecific treatment effects. Contrary to widespread belief, homeopathy is not entirely devoid of risk. Thus, the proven benefits of highly dilute homeopathic remedies, beyond the beneficial effects of placebos, do not outweigh the potential for harm that this approach can cause. PMID:16165225

  9. [Transitions of psychotropic drugs in the Japanese Pharmacopoeia (JP) (Part 14). Transitions in the standards and test methods of Valerian root in the Deutsches Arzneibuch (DAB) and comparison between the USP, BP, EP and JP, and Oleum Valerianae (Japan Kesso oil) listed in DAB6 (1926)].

    PubMed

    Yanagisawa, Kiyohisa

    2014-01-01

    Valerian has been used as a name for Japanese Valerian and European Valerian root. Valerian in the German market today was originally called Baldrian. Transitions in the standards and the test methods of Valerian root listed in the DAB were studied this time. Moreover, we compared these standards and test methods with those in the USP, BP, EP and JP. We also considered the pharmacology evaluation in Germany. At the time, the standards and test methods had content in accordance with the EP from DAB9 (1986) of the West Germany publication. It also agreed with the EP and BP of the same period. To date in the DAB, botanical features have been mainly derived from the discriminating characteristics of the Valerian root. In DAB9 (1986), standards and test methods were added to the content, enhancing it and making it more stringent. This is thought to have happened as a result of a new, academic finding showing an improvement in the pharmacology level. Valerian root has been listed continuously in the DAB. These listings suggest that Valerian root has continally been evaluated as a sedative. We think that the listing was connected with a relisting in the BP as a result of scientific communications between Britain and Germany, EC member nations, such as through EP publications. On the other hand, the oil made with Japanese Valerian was listed in a radical field in DAB6 (1926) in the past. This is a valuable result, proving that it was used and evaluated as an important herbal medicine from Japan and foreign countries at that time. The Japanese Valerian referred to is not grown in Japan today. Moreover, it is not possible that cultivation will be restarted through good quality revaluation. However, this fact introduces a valuable piece of history supporting the survival of Japanese Valerian and European Valerian root as a sedative in the future. PMID:25799839

  10. [Clinical experimental test and equilibrimetric measurements of the therapeutic action of a homeopathic drug consisting of ambra, cocculus, Conium and mineral oil in the diagnosis of vertigo and nausea].

    PubMed

    Claussen, C F; Bergmann, J; Bertora, G; Claussen, E

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents a study by means of a modern neurotological technique for investigating the action and the site of action of an antivertiginous drug. The sensory motor tests are able to discriminate the sites of the lesions in the equilibrium regulating system, i.e., peripheral vestibular system, lower brainstem regulating system, upper brainstem nystagmus generating system and supratentorial system. Acoustic brainstem evoked potentials add information. A sample of 40 vertigo and nausea patients was treated by a combined drug, containing cocculus D4 210 mg, conium D3 30 mg, ambra D6 30 mg, mineral oil D8 30 mg (Vertigo-heel). The patients received 3 tablets 3 times per day during 14 days. An initial investigation was performed just before starting the treatment. A second directly followed the therapy. By subjective self-rating 57.5% of the patients reported on an improvement after the intake of Vertigoheel. Statistical evaluations showed that the different vertigo and nausea symptoms as well as the trigger mechanisms of vertigo and nausea (i.e. getting up, turning the head or gazing aside), highly significantly improved due to the therapy. The objective sensory motor tests showed a highly significant improvement in the monaural caloric butterfly chart as well as in the vestibulospinal head and body sway. The site of the action of Vertigoheel is in the brainstem and the Medulla oblongata, especially the middle longitudinal fascicle (MLF). The localisation in this area can be stressed by the investigation with acoustically brainstem evoked potentials (ABEP).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6543316

  11. Medicinal plants used for traditional veterinary in the Sierras de Córdoba (Argentina): An ethnobotanical comparison with human medicinal uses

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    with a vast repertoire of plant pharmacopoeia, the therapies also involve religious or ritualistic practices and other popular remedies that evidence the influence of traditional Hispanic-European knowledge. Although the traditional veterinary knowledge seems to be similar or else is inlcuded in the local human ethnomedicine, sharing a common group of plants, it has distinct traits originated by a constant assessment of new applications specifically destined to the treatment of animals. Conclusions Veterinary medicine is a fountain of relevant vernacular knowledge, a permanent source for testing new applications with valuable ethnobotanical interest. Knowledge on medicinal applications of native plants will allow future validations and tests for new homeopathic or phytotherapeutic preparations. PMID:21816043

  12. A short history of nitroglycerine and nitric oxide in pharmacology and physiology.

    PubMed

    Marsh, N; Marsh, A

    2000-04-01

    1. Nitroglycerine (NG) was discovered in 1847 by Ascanio Sobrero in Turin, following work with Theophile-Jules Pelouze. Sobrero first noted the 'violent headache' produced by minute quantities of NG on the tongue. 2. Constantin Hering, in 1849, tested NG in healthy volunteers, observing that headache was caused with 'such precision'. Hering pursued NG ('glonoine') as a homeopathic remedy for headache, believing that its use fell within the doctrine of 'like cures like'. 3. Alfred Nobel joined Pelouze in 1851 and recognized the potential of NG. He began manufacturing NG in Sweden, overcoming handling problems with his patent detonator. Nobel suffered acutely from angina and was later to refuse NG as a treatment. 4. During the mid-19th century, scientists in Britain took an interest in the newly discovered amyl nitrite, recognized as a powerful vasodilator. Lauder Brunton, the father of modern pharmacology, used the compound to relieve angina in 1867, noting the pharmacological resistance to repeated doses. 5. William Murrell first used NG for angina in 1876, although NG entered the British Pharmacopoeia as a remedy for hypertension. William Martindale, the pharmaceutical chemist, prepared '...a more stable and portable preparation': 1/100th of a grain in chocolate. 6. In the early 20th century, scientists worked on in vitro actions of nitrate-containing compounds although little progress was made towards understanding the cellular mode of action. 7. The NG industry flourished from 1900, exposing workers to high levels of organic nitrites; the phenomena of nitrate tolerance was recognized by the onset of 'Monday disease' and of nitrate-withdrawal/overcompensation by 'Sunday Heart Attacks'. 8. Ferid Murad discovered the release of nitric oxide (NO) from NG and its action on vascular smooth muscle (in 1977). Robert Furchgott and John Zawadski recognized the importance of the endothelium in acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation (in 1980) and Louis Ignarro and Salvador

  13. Sundew plant, a potential source of anti-inflammatory agents, selectively induces G2/M arrest and apoptosis in MCF-7 cells through upregulation of p53 and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio.

    PubMed

    Ghate, N B; Das, A; Chaudhuri, D; Panja, S; Mandal, N

    2016-01-01

    The worldwide cancer incidences are remarkable despite the advancement in cancer drug discovery field, highlighting the need for new therapies focusing on cancer cell and its microenvironment, including inflammation. Several species of Drosera (family: Droseraceae) are used in various traditional as well as homeopathic systems of medicine. Drosera burmannii Vahl. is also enlisted in French Pharmacopoeia in 1965 for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, including chronic bronchitis, asthma and whooping cough. The present study is designed to substantiate the potential of D. burmannii in in vitro anticancer activity and its relation with anti-inflammatory property. In vitro anticancer study revealed that DBME is inhibiting the proliferation of MCF-7 cells without affecting the viability of other malignant and non-malignant cells. DBME induced G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis in MCF-7 cells by suppressing the expression of cyclin A1, cyclin B1 and Cdk-1 and increasing the expression of p53, Bax/Bcl-2 ratio leading to activation of caspases and PARP degradation. Presence of caspase-8 (Z-IETD-fmk) and caspase-9 (Z-LEHD-fmk) inhibitors alone did prevent the apoptosis partially while apoptosis prevention was significantly observed when used in combination, suggesting vital role of caspases in DBME-induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. DBME also downregulated LPS-induced increased expression of iNOS, COX-2 and TNF-α along with suppression on intracellular ROS production that confirms the potential of DBME as anti-inflammatory extract. GCMS analysis revealed the presence of four major compounds hexadecanoic acid, tetradecanoic acid, hexadecen-1-ol, trans-9 and 1-tetradecanol along with some other fatty acid derivatives and carotenoids (Beta-doradecin) in DBME. These findings confirmed the anti-inflammatory activity of DBME, which is already listed in French Pharmacopeia in 1965. Here we have additionally reported the anti-breast cancer activity of DBME and its relation to the

  14. Sundew plant, a potential source of anti-inflammatory agents, selectively induces G2/M arrest and apoptosis in MCF-7 cells through upregulation of p53 and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio

    PubMed Central

    Ghate, NB; Das, A; Chaudhuri, D; Panja, S; Mandal, N

    2016-01-01

    The worldwide cancer incidences are remarkable despite the advancement in cancer drug discovery field, highlighting the need for new therapies focusing on cancer cell and its microenvironment, including inflammation. Several species of Drosera (family: Droseraceae) are used in various traditional as well as homeopathic systems of medicine. Drosera burmannii Vahl. is also enlisted in French Pharmacopoeia in 1965 for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, including chronic bronchitis, asthma and whooping cough. The present study is designed to substantiate the potential of D. burmannii in in vitro anticancer activity and its relation with anti-inflammatory property. In vitro anticancer study revealed that DBME is inhibiting the proliferation of MCF-7 cells without affecting the viability of other malignant and non-malignant cells. DBME induced G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis in MCF-7 cells by suppressing the expression of cyclin A1, cyclin B1 and Cdk-1 and increasing the expression of p53, Bax/Bcl-2 ratio leading to activation of caspases and PARP degradation. Presence of caspase-8 (Z-IETD-fmk) and caspase-9 (Z-LEHD-fmk) inhibitors alone did prevent the apoptosis partially while apoptosis prevention was significantly observed when used in combination, suggesting vital role of caspases in DBME-induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. DBME also downregulated LPS-induced increased expression of iNOS, COX-2 and TNF-α along with suppression on intracellular ROS production that confirms the potential of DBME as anti-inflammatory extract. GCMS analysis revealed the presence of four major compounds hexadecanoic acid, tetradecanoic acid, hexadecen-1-ol, trans-9 and 1-tetradecanol along with some other fatty acid derivatives and carotenoids (Beta-doradecin) in DBME. These findings confirmed the anti-inflammatory activity of DBME, which is already listed in French Pharmacopeia in 1965. Here we have additionally reported the anti-breast cancer activity of DBME and its relation to the

  15. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Nelson E. Baldwin, Photographer, Jan. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Nelson E. Baldwin, Photographer, Jan. 16, 1937, View - Stairway from First to Second Floor Old Homeopathic Hospital (Office of the HABS), Albany, N.Y. - Old Homeopathic Hospital (Interiors), 123 North Pearl Street, Albany, Albany County, NY

  16. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey, Nelson E. Baldwin, Photographer, Jan. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey, Nelson E. Baldwin, Photographer, Jan. 16, 1937, View - Second to Third Floor Stairs Old Homeopathic Hospital, 123 North Pearl St., Albany, N.Y. - Old Homeopathic Hospital (Interiors), 123 North Pearl Street, Albany, Albany County, NY

  17. Homeopathy for common complaints during pregnancy and childbirth.

    PubMed

    Crompton, Roz

    2012-09-01

    Many expectant mothers do not want to use conventional medicine during pregnancy. As homeopathic remedies contain minute doses of specially prepared substances, unwanted side effects are avoided, making such remedies useful alternatives to use during pregnancy or when treating infants. This article describes various conditions of pregnancy and the homeopathic remedies which can help to alleviate unpleasant or harmful symptoms. PMID:23082401

  18. [The flu epidemic after World War I and homeopathy--an international comparison].

    PubMed

    Jahn, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    The "Spanish Flu" began in 1918 and was the most devastating pandemic in human history that had ever been, claiming more lives than World War I. The flu virus had not yet been discovered, and the usual therapy measures were merely symptomatic. In many parts of the world the pandemic was treated by homeopaths. At the time, homeopathic medical practices, out-patient clinics and hospitals existed in various countries. To this day homeopaths refer to the successful homeopathic treatment of the "Spanish Flu". The following paper looks at what this treatment consisted in and whether it was based on a particular concept. It also examines contemporary evaluations and figures, as well as the question as to whether homeopathy experienced a rise in demand as a consequence of its success during the pandemic. PMID:25134258

  19. The toxicology of Latrodectus tredecimguttatus: the Mediterranean Black Widow spider.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, M S

    2004-01-01

    The symptomatology of envenomation by the Mediterranean Black Widow Spider, Latrodectus tredecimguttatus, is reviewed. The results confirm the hypothesis that the homeopathic remedy, Tarentula hispanica, is derived from this spider, not from the Wolf spider, Lycosa tarentula. PMID:14960100

  20. 21 CFR 206.10 - Code imprint required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... identification than a symbol or logo by itself. Homeopathic drug products are required only to bear an imprint... National Drug Code, or a mark, symbol, logo, or monogram, or a combination of letters, numbers, and...

  1. 21 CFR 206.10 - Code imprint required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... identification than a symbol or logo by itself. Homeopathic drug products are required only to bear an imprint... National Drug Code, or a mark, symbol, logo, or monogram, or a combination of letters, numbers, and...

  2. [History of homeopathy in Hungary 1820-1990].

    PubMed

    Kóczián, Maria; Kölnei, Livia

    2002-01-01

    This article tells the story of homeopathy in Hungary. After Hahnemann's discovery the theory found enthusiastic followers even in Hungary. The first generation of homeopathic physicians (Pál Almási Balogh, József Bakody, György Forgó and others) established a successful practice, although the doctrine had been banned in the Habsburg Empire from 1819 onwards. Thanks to the activity of the so-called second generation (Ferenc Hausmann, István Vezekényi Horner) Hahnemann's main work, the Organon was translated into Hungarian (1830) and the first homeopathic hospitals were founded in Köszeg (1833) and in Gyöngynös (1838). In 1837 the order banning homeopathical practice was removed, and in 1844 the Hungarian Parliament decided to establish a homeopathic department at the University of Pest. In 1847 Döme Argenti published his extradinarily successful homeopathic book Homeopathic Treatment of Various Illnesses". In the 1860s a new generation of physicians (Tihamér Almási Balogh, Lóránt Hausmann, Abrahám Szontagh and others) published the first Hungarian homeopathic periodicals the Hasonszenvi Közlöny and the Hasonszenvi Lapok and, at the same time, they founded the Society of Hungarian Homeopathic Physicians (1865), too. In 1870 the first homeopathic hospital, the Elisabethinum, opened its gates, and at the University of Pest two different homeopathic departments began to operate. At the end of the century however, homeopathy entered into a period of decline, due to the resistance of the conventional physicians and the successes of conventional medicine. Between the two World Wars only Gusztáv Schimert and his circle substained the theory and practice in Hungary, so successfully that in 1935 the International League of Homeopathy held its congress in Budapest. After the Second World War Schimert emigrated, and homeopathy was informally banned in Hungary (although the practice itself survived in secrecy). The Society of Hungarian Homeopathical

  3. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Leyton, Edward; Pross, Hugh

    1992-01-01

    To determine the effect of certain herbal and homeopathic preparations on symptoms, lymphocyte markers, and cytotoxic function of the lymphocytes in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome, we studied six outpatients diagnosed with the disease by their family physicians. Patients were given herbal and homeopathic preparations after a 3-week symptom-recording period. After treatment, symptoms were again recorded. Blood samples were taken before and after treatment. None of the values showed any significant change after treatment. PMID:21221272

  4. Homeopathy – what are the active ingredients? An exploratory study using the UK Medical Research Council's framework for the evaluation of complex interventions

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Trevor DB; Weiss, Marjorie

    2006-01-01

    Background Research in homeopathy has traditionally addressed itself to defining the effectiveness of homeopathic potencies in comparison to placebo medication. There is now increasing awareness that the homeopathic consultation is in itself a therapeutic intervention working independently or synergistically with the prescribed remedy. Our objective was to identify and evalute potential "active ingredients" of the homeopathic approach as a whole, in a prospective formal case series, which draws on actual consultation data, and is based on the MRC framework for the evaluation of complex interventions. Methods Following on from a theoretical review of how homeopathic care might mediate its effects, 18 patients were prospectively recruited to a case series based at Bristol Homeopathic Hospital. Patients, who lived with one of three index conditions, were interviewed before and after a five visit "package of care". All consultations were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Additional data, including generic and condition-specific questionnaires, artwork and "significant other" reports were collected. Textual data was subject to thematic analysis and triangulated with other sources. Results We judged that around one third of patients had experienced a major improvement in their health over the study period, a third had some improvement and a third had no improvement. Putative active ingredients included the patients' "openness to the mind-body connection", consultational empathy, in-depth enquiry into bodily complaints, disclosure, the remedy matching process and, potentially, the homeopathic remedies themselves. Conclusion This study has has identified, using primary consultation and other data, a range of factors that might account for the effectiveness of homeopathic care. Some of these, such as empathy, are non-specific. Others, such as the remedy matching process, are specific to homeopathy. These findings counsel against the use of placebo-controlled RCT designs in

  5. Immunology and Homeopathy. 3. Experimental Studies on Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Bellavite, Paolo; Ortolani, Riccardo; Conforti, Anita

    2006-01-01

    A search of the literature and the experiments carried out by the authors of this review show that there are a number of animal models where the effect of homeopathic dilutions or the principles of homeopathic medicine have been tested. The results relate to the immunostimulation by ultralow doses of antigens, the immunological models of the ‘simile’, the regulation of acute or chronic inflammatory processes and the use of homeopathic medicines in farming. The models utilized by different research groups are extremely etherogeneous and differ as the test medicines, the dilutions and the outcomes are concerned. Some experimental lines, particularly those utilizing mice models of immunomodulation and anti-inflammatory effects of homeopathic complex formulations, give support to a real effect of homeopathic high dilutions in animals, but often these data are of preliminary nature and have not been independently replicated. The evidence emerging from animal models is supporting the traditional ‘simile’ rule, according to which ultralow doses of compounds, that in high doses are pathogenic, may have paradoxically a protective or curative effect. Despite a few encouraging observational studies, the effectiveness of the homeopathic prevention or therapy of infections in veterinary medicine is not sufficiently supported by randomized and controlled trials. PMID:16786046

  6. MMR vaccination advice over the Internet.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Katja; Ernst, Edzard

    2003-03-01

    We wanted to investigate what advice UK homeopaths, chiropractors and general practitioners give on measles, mumps and rubella vaccination programme (MMR) vaccination via the Internet. Online referral directories listing e-mail addresses of UK homeopaths, chiropractors and general practitioners and private websites were visited. All addresses thus located received a letter of a (fictitious) patient asking for advice about the MMR vaccination. After sending a follow-up letter explaining the nature and aim of this project and offering the option of withdrawal, 26% of all respondents withdrew their answers. Homeopaths yielded a final response rate (53%, n = 77) compared to chiropractors (32%, n = 16). GPs unanimously refused to give advice over the Internet. No homeopath and only one chiropractor advised in favour of the MMR vaccination. Two homeopaths and three chiropractors indirectly advised in favour of MMR. More chiropractors than homeopaths displayed a positive attitude towards the MMR vaccination. Some complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) providers have a negative attitude towards immunisation and means of changing this should be considered. PMID:12559777

  7. Integrative Nanomedicine: Treating Cancer With Nanoscale Natural Products

    PubMed Central

    Sarter, Barbara; Koithan, Mary; Banerji, Prasanta; Banerji, Pratip; Jain, Shamini; Ives, John

    2014-01-01

    Finding safer and more effective treatments for specific cancers remains a significant challenge for integrative clinicians and researchers worldwide. One emerging strategy is the use of nanostructured forms of drugs, vaccines, traditional animal venoms, herbs, and nutraceutical agents in cancer treatment. The recent discovery of nanoparticles in traditional homeopathic medicines adds another point of convergence between modern nanomedicine and alternative interventional strategies. A way in which homeopathic remedies could initiate anticancer effects includes cell-to-cell signaling actions of both exogenous and endogenous (exosome) nanoparticles. The result can be a cascade of modulatory biological events with antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects. The Banerji Protocols reflect a multigenerational clinical system developed by homeopathic physicians in India who have treated thousands of patients with cancer. A number of homeopathic remedy sources from the Banerji Protocols (eg, Calcarea phosphorica; Carcinosin—tumor-derived breast cancer tissue prepared homeopathically) overlap those already under study in nonhomeopathic nanoparticle and nanovesicle tumor exosome cancer vaccine research. Past research on antineoplastic effects of nano forms of botanical extracts such as Phytolacca, Gelsemium, Hydrastis, Thuja, and Ruta as well as on homeopathic remedy potencies made from the same types of source materials suggests other important overlaps. The replicated finding of silica, silicon, and nano-silica release from agitation of liquids in glassware adds a proven nonspecific activator and amplifier of immunological effects. Taken together, the nanoparticulate research data and the Banerji Protocols for homeopathic remedies in cancer suggest a way forward for generating advances in cancer treatment with natural product–derived nanomedicines. PMID:24753994

  8. Pharmacovigilance in radiopharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rishi; Kalaiselvan, Vivekanandan; Kumar, Rakesh; Verma, Ravendra; Singh, Gyanendra Nath

    2016-01-01

    Indian Pharmacopoeia Commission is Committed for maintaining the standards of drugs including Radiopharmaceuticals (RPs) by publishing Indian Pharmacopoeia. These RPs are being used in India for diagnostic or therapeutic purpose. RPs though contain relatively small quantities of active ingredient and administered in small volumes could cause some adverse reactions to the patients. The objective of presenting this article is to introduce the system of adverse drug reaction reporting to the nuclear medicine fraternity who are dealing with RPs. PMID:27095855

  9. Homeopathy for Depression - DEP-HOM: study protocol for a randomized, partially double-blind, placebo controlled, four armed study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Homeopathy is often sought by patients with depression. In classical homeopathy, the treatment consists of two main elements: the case history and the prescription of an individually selected homeopathic remedy. Previous data suggest that individualized homeopathic Q-potencies were not inferior to the antidepressant fluoxetine in a sample of patients with moderate to severe depression. However, the question remains whether individualized homeopathic Q-potencies and/or the type of the homeopathic case history have a specific therapeutical effect in acute depression as this has not yet been investigated. The study aims to assess the two components of individualized homeopathic treatment for acute depression, i.e., to investigate the specific effect of individualized Q-potencies versus placebo and to investigate the effect of different approaches to the homeopathic case history. Methods/Design A randomized, partially double-blind, placebo-controlled, four-armed trial using a 2 × 2 factorial design with a six-week study duration per patient will be performed. 228 patients diagnosed with major depression (moderate episode) by a psychiatrist will be included. The primary endpoint is the total score on the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale after six weeks. Secondary end points are: Hamilton Depression Rating Scale total score after two and four weeks; response and remission rates, Beck Depression inventory total score, quality of life and safety at two, four and six weeks. Statistical analyses will be by intention-to-treat. The main endpoint will be analysed by a two-factorial analysis of covariance. Within this model generalized estimation equations will be used to estimate differences between verum and placebo, and between both types of case history. Discussion For the first time this study evaluates both the specific effect of homeopathic medicines and of a homeopathic case taking in patients with depression. It is an attempt to deal with the

  10. Priorities and methods for developing the evidence profile of homeopathy. Recommendations of the ECH general assembly and XVIII Symposium of GIRI.

    PubMed

    Van Wassenhoven, M

    2005-04-01

    To achieve scientific acceptance, homeopathy must investigate several questions: 1. The activity of very highly diluted preparations. The consensus of the meeting was that there is clear evidence of this. 2. The content of very highly diluted homeopathic preparations. More research is needed but evidence exists that a specific signal is present in homeopathic preparations. 3. A theoretical framework in which the effects of homeopathic diluted preparations can be explained. The 'Body Information Theory' is such a theory. 4. The clinical effectiveness of homeopathy. Because they avoid the placebo effect, animal studies are a priority. For human trials using Quality of Life questionnaires, studies on the activity, content and theoretical basis of homeopathic preparations were reviewed approximately 70% of cases; more in children showed improvement. Homeopathy reduced costs and allowed a better improvement in work-days lost compared with conventional practice. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) implicitly test the placebo hypothesis; RCTs have been performed and meta-analyses conclude that there is clear evidence of efficacy which cannot be attributed to placebo effect. Priorities depend on the audience. More research is needed especially regarding the content of homeopathic preparations and the transmission of information. Theoretical issues are also important to avoid incorrect design of research protocols. More effort should be dedicated to veterinary research. Clinical effects analysis in humans remains important. Many other questions should be prioritised, such as the potential of homeopathy to avoid invasive procedures in children and the long-term effects of homeopathy in preventing chronic complications. PMID:15892493

  11. Homeopathy in the treatment of tubercular lymphadenitis (TBLN)--an Indian experience.

    PubMed

    Chand, S Kusum; Manchanda, R K; Batra, Sudhir; Mittal, Renu

    2011-07-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) has been known since antiquity. In spite of effective antibiotic treatment, it is still a major worldwide public health problem. Endogenous factors are important in the development of active disease. Homeopathic medicines have the potential for immune-modulation and hence to influence endogenous factors in disease. In India, patients with tubercular lymphadenitis (TBLN) often consult homeopaths but such cases are seldom documented. The objective of the present study is to document such experience. A retrospective exploratory study of 25 positively diagnosed cases of TBLN has lead to the development of a homeopathic regime consisting of a patient specific constitutional medicine, one disease specific biotherapy (Tuberculinum) and Silicea 6x as supportive medicine. Homeopathy can be used as a complement to conventional anti tubercular treatment (ATT) with beneficial results. Further validation in controlled trials with immunological markers is required. PMID:21784333

  12. Patients' preference for integrating homeopathy (PPIH) within the standard therapy settings in West Bengal, India: The part 1 (PPIH-1) study.

    PubMed

    Koley, Munmun; Saha, Subhranil; Arya, Jogendra Singh; Choubey, Gurudev; Ghosh, Aloke; Das, Kaushik Deb; Ganguly, Subhasish; Dey, Samit; Saha, Sangita; Singh, Rakesh; Bhattacharyya, Kajal; Ghosh, Shubhamoy; Ali, Sk Swaif

    2016-07-01

    There is lack of studies assessing the preference of Indian patients for integration of homeopathy into standard therapy settings. The objectives of this study were to examine the knowledge, attitudes, and practice of homeopathy among Indian patients already availing homeopathy treatment and its integration into mainstream healthcare. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among adult patients attending the out-patients of the four government homeopathic hospitals in West Bengal, India. A self-administered 24-items questionnaire in local vernacular Bengali was developed and administered to the patients. A total of 1352 patients' responses were included in the current analysis. 40% patients thought that homeopathic medicines can be used along with standard therapy. 32.5% thought that homeopathic medicines might cause side effects, while only 13.3% believed that those might interact with other medications. Patients' knowledge ranged between 25.1 and 76.5% regarding regulations of practicing and safety of homeopathic medicine in India and abroad; while positive attitude towards the same ranged between 25.4 and 88.5%. 88.6% of the patients had favorable attitude toward integrated services. 68.2% of the patients used homeopathic medicines in any acute or chronic illness for themselves and 76.6% for their children. Preference for integrated services was significantly associated with better knowledge (P = 0.002), positive attitudes toward safety and regulations (P < 0.0001), and integration (P < 0.0001), but not with the level of practice (P = 0.515). A favorable attitude toward integrating homeopathy into conventional healthcare settings was obtained among the patients attending the homeopathic hospitals in West Bengal, India. PMID:27419087

  13. Triple gastric peptic ulcer perforation.

    PubMed

    Radojkovic, Milan; Mihajlovic, Suncica; Stojanovic, Miroslav; Stanojevic, Goran; Damnjanovic, Zoran

    2016-03-01

    Patients with advanced or metastatic cancer have compromised nutritional, metabolic, and immune conditions. Nevertheless, little is known about gastroduodenal perforation in cancer patients. Described in the present report is the case of a 41-year old woman with stage IV recurrent laryngeal cancer, who used homeopathic anticancer therapy and who had triple peptic ulcer perforation (PUP) that required surgical repair. Triple gastric PUP is a rare complication. Self-administration of homeopathic anticancer medication should be strongly discouraged when evidence-based data regarding efficacy and toxicity is lacking. PMID:27193988

  14. Determination of the concentration of a Bryonia Dioica tincture by Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milea, Irimie; Culea, E.; Iliescu, T.; Milea, Janetta

    1995-03-01

    It was established a method based on Raman spectroscopy in order to control the content and concentration of homeopathic dilutions. Dilutions of a tincture of Bryonia Dioica in ethanol were prepared and investigated by Raman spectroscopy. The Raman line at 881 cm-1 was found to depend linearly versus the concentration of Bryonia Dioica. This permits to obtain a calibration curve that may be used to determine the concentration of Bryonia Dioica in ethanol. The method may be extended to determine the concentration of various homeopathic dilutions.

  15. Homeopathy for Depression: A Randomized, Partially Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Four-Armed Study (DEP-HOM)

    PubMed Central

    Adler, Ubiratan C.; Krüger, Stephanie; Teut, Michael; Lüdtke, Rainer; Schützler, Lena; Martins, Friederike; Willich, Stefan N.; Linde, Klaus; Witt, Claudia M.

    2013-01-01

    Background The specific clinical benefit of the homeopathic consultation and of homeopathic remedies in patients with depression has not yet been investigated. Aims To investigate the 1) specific effect of individualized homeopathic Q-potencies compared to placebo and 2) the effect of an extensive homeopathic case taking (case history I) compared to a shorter, rather conventional one (case history II) in the treatment of acute major depression (moderate episode) after six weeks. Methods A randomized, partially double-blind, placebo-controlled, four-armed trial using a 2×2 factorial design with a six-week study duration per patient was performed. Results A total of 44 from 228 planned patients were randomized (2∶1∶2∶1 randomization: 16 homeopathic Q-potencies/case history I, 7 placebo/case history I, 14 homeopathic Q-potencies/case history II, 7 placebo/case history II). Because of recruitment problems, the study was terminated prior to full recruitment, and was underpowered for the preplanned confirmatory hypothesis testing. Exploratory data analyses showed heterogeneous and inconclusive results with large variance in the sample. The mean difference for the Hamilton-D after 6 weeks was 2.0 (95%CI −1.2;5.2) for Q-potencies vs. placebo and −3.1 (−5.9;−0.2) for case history I vs. case history II. Overall, no consistent or clinically relevant results across all outcomes between homeopathic Q-potencies versus placebo and homeopathic versus conventional case taking were observed. The frequency of adverse events was comparable for all groups. Conclusions Although our results are inconclusive, given that recruitment into this trial was very difficult and we had to terminate early, we cannot recommend undertaking a further trial addressing this question in a similar setting. Prof. Dr. Claudia Witt had full access to all the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. Trial registration

  16. The widow spider Latrodectus tredecimguttatus: source of the remedy Tarentula hispanica?

    PubMed

    Richardson-Boedler, C

    2001-01-01

    The European wolf spider, Lycosa tarentula, said to have caused the historical phenomenon of 'tarantism', is the official medicinal source of the homeopathic remedy Tarentula hispanica. Yet, scientific evidence links the spider's venomous effects with mild necrotic and minor systemic effects that contrast with the proving symptoms of Tarentula hispanica which show a cerebral and neural component. A comparative investigation by use of toxicological, clinical findings, supported by modern and antique biological texts, as well as homeopathic materia medica, traces the source of the remedy Tarentula hispanica to the Mediterranean widow spider Latrodectus tredecimguttatus, thus warranting a re-evaluation of pharmacological preparation. PMID:11212089

  17. Homeopathy and extraordinary claims--a response to Smith's utilitarian argument.

    PubMed

    Sebastian, Irene

    2012-11-01

    Kevin Smith's utilitarian argument against homeopathy(1) is flawed because he did not review and refute the relevant basic science literature on ultra-high dilutions. He also failed to appreciate that allopathic medicine is based on a deductive-nomothetic method and that homeopathic medicine is based on an inductive-idiographic method, and thus that the implications for clinical research are very different. His misunderstanding of provings and of the holism of homeopathic medicine also demonstrated his failure to understand the history, philosophy and method of homeopathy. Finally, I questioned the value of introducing ethical judgment into an ongoing scientific debate. PMID:22506685

  18. Guidelines and strategy of the International Conference of Harmonization (ICH) and its member states to overcome existing impurity control problems for antibiotics in China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yu; Xia, Jun-Ping; Yang, Jian-Hong; Zhang, Zhe-Feng; Hu, Chang-Qin; Zhang, Zhi-Rong

    2015-07-01

    In the present report, we review the technical guidelines and principles on impurity research and control for antibiotics established by various agencies, including the International Conference of Harmonization (ICH), the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and the China Food and Drug Administration (CFDA). Progresses with the US Pharmacopoeia (USP), the European Pharmacopoeia (EP) and the Chinese Pharmacopoeia (ChP) to control impurities in antibiotics are also presented. Next, our discussion is focused on analyzing the CFDA's requirements on impurity research and control for antibiotics, and the implementation of ICH, FDA and other technical guidelines for generic drugs impurity control in China. Existing problems are further reviewed, in order to improve the overall process for the control of antibiotic purity. PMID:26233840

  19. [Floral essences, a fascinating world].

    PubMed

    Llonch, María

    2005-05-01

    Floral essences were discovered in the decade of the thirties by the English doctor, bacteriologist and homeopath Dr. Edward Bach. He described 38 remedies elaborated with flowers and shoots; each one correspondeds to an emotional pattern or a typical personality. Furthermore, he describes a remedy developed for emergency situations. PMID:15981972

  20. Providers issue brief: alternative providers.

    PubMed

    Rothouse, M

    1999-06-29

    Access by managed care plan enrollees, scope of practice issues and fee reimbursement by Medicaid and third parties such as insurance carriers is the engine that drives legislation recognizing alternative health care providers--chiropractors, acupuncturists, physical therapists, naturopaths, massage therapists, homeopaths, and dietitians and nutritionists. PMID:11073386

  1. A Strong Remedy to a Weak Ethical Defence of Homeopathy.

    PubMed

    Shaw, David

    2015-12-01

    In this article, I indicate and illustrate several flaws in a recent "ethical defence" of homeopathy. It transpires that the authors' arguments have several features in common with homeopathic remedies, including strong claims, a lack of logic or evidence, and no actual effect. PMID:26659862

  2. IDENTIFICATION OF ERYTHROXYLUM TAXA BY AFLP DNA ANALYSIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Erythroxylum coca, indigenous to the Andean region of South America, is grown historically as a source of homeopathic medicine. However, in the last century, cultivation of E. coca var. coca and three closely-related taxa for the production of illicit cocaine has become a major global problem. Two s...

  3. [Ten years of therapy resistant intercostal neuralgia-suspected postherpetic neuralgia following herpes zoster sine herpete.].

    PubMed

    Zwölfer, W; Hartmann, T; Spacek, A; Grubhofer, G; Porges, P

    1993-09-01

    We report the case of a 65 year old man who has been suffering from segmental back pain for 10 years. The diagnosis postherpetic neuralgia following herpes zoster sine herpete was fixed 9 years after the beginning of pain. All treatments prior to ours were ineffective. Acupuncture and the use of homeopathic drugs led to success at last. PMID:18415405

  4. Elaps in advanced pathology--a case study.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, P; Waisse-Priven, S I; Schunemann, C

    2004-01-01

    The case of a patient with severe complications after rectal adenocarcinoma surgery is reported. Homeopathic treatment was selected on the basis of individualization of symptoms ('minimum syndrome of maximum value') and prescribed in Korsakovian potencies. It is discussed what it may be expected in the treatment of severely ill patients. PMID:14960104

  5. A Review of Use of Enantiomers in Homeopathy

    PubMed Central

    Kuzeff, R. M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews publications of laboratory experiments using pairs of enantiomers in homeopathy. Many molecules in nature have geometry which enables them to exist as nonsuperimposable mirror images or enantiomers. Modulation of toxicity of such molecules provides possibility for therapeutics, since they target multiple points in biochemical pathways. It was hypothesized that toxicity of a chemical agent could be counteracted by a homeopathic preparation of the enantiomer of the chemical agent (patents applied for: PCT/AU2003/000219-PCT/AU2008/001611). A diverse body of data, including controlled laboratory studies, supports the conclusion that toxicity of optical isomers may be inhibited by homeopathic enantiomer preparations. These data were obtained with minimal or no pretesting to determine optimal test solutions. Inhibition of the excitotoxic neurotransmitter L-glutamic acid with homeopathic preparations of D-glutamic acid indicates the latter may be of use for amelioration of symptoms of disturbances of mood. Similarly, homeopathic preparation of (+)-nicotine may be of use for inhibition of effects of nicotine in tobacco. PMID:23724294

  6. Veterinary Homeopathy: The Implications of Its History for Unorthodox Veterinary Concepts and Veterinary Medical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulter, Dwight B.

    1979-01-01

    The history of veterinary homeopathy, its future and implications are discussed. The need for investigation into the validity of both allopathic and homeopathic claims is stressed and it is suggested that maintenance of quality is the key factor in any approach. (BH)

  7. Gniditrin is the main diterpenoid constituent in the bark of Daphne mezereum L.

    PubMed

    Görick, C; Melzig, M F

    2013-07-01

    The bark of Daphne mezereum L. is known as toxic drug due to the presence of diterpene esters. The phytochemical analysis of the bark used for preparation of homeopathic mother tinctures showed that gniditrin was the main diterpene constituent, only in the fruits of D. mezereum mezerein could be detected. The complete NMR data of gniditrin are published for the first time. PMID:23923651

  8. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Nelson E. Baldwin, Photographer, Jan. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Nelson E. Baldwin, Photographer, Jan. 16, 1937, View - Double Doors and Columns in Apartment on First Floor, 123 North Pearl St., Albany, N.Y. - Old Homeopathic Hospital (Interiors), 123 North Pearl Street, Albany, Albany County, NY

  9. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Nelson E. Baldwin, Photographer, Jan. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Nelson E. Baldwin, Photographer, Jan. 16, 1937, View - Interior Door Opening into Apartment on First Floor, 123 North Pearl St., Albany, N.Y. - Old Homeopathic Hospital (Interiors), 123 North Pearl Street, Albany, Albany County, NY

  10. Homeopathy.

    PubMed

    Merrell, Woodson C; Shalts, Edward

    2002-01-01

    Especially in the United States, homeopathy has not become integrated into mainstream medical practice; this is partly because of the historical paucity of quality published research studies or quality educational programs. More recently, there have been better-designed studies in reputable journals, although historically most studies have been inconclusive or of poor methodology. The confusion around homeopathy in the United States exists for several reasons: 1. One of the main reasons for the relative disinterest or opposition to homeopathy is that even well-designed clinical studies on homeopathy leave the reader without any protocol-driven tools to take into daily practice. Individualization of treatment, or, as it is called today, differential therapeutics, is the main requirement of successful homeopathic prescribing. Only well-trained homeopathic practitioners are able to carry out such a task. In many articles that reported positive outcomes for homeopathy, numerous homeopathic remedies had been prescribed for the same diagnostic category. Critics suggest that the pooling of data from trials using different therapeutic agents to assess the overall success of homeopathic prescribing is incorrect. Research protocols that employ combination remedies, in which a medication contains several homeopathic remedies, fall into the same category. 2. Many of the positive and negative studies published are flawed with numerous methodologic problems. One of the most common problems is a lack of objective validated outcome measures. Another common problem is a small sample size. In most positive and negative meta-analyses published to date, research data are pulled together artificially based on either a diagnostic category or a particular remedy. Frequently the concentration of the remedy used and the conditions to which it has been applied are different. Ernst and Pittler published a letter with a critique of the methodology used in one of the meta-analyses of clinical

  11. Can homeopathy bring additional benefits to thalassemic patients on hydroxyurea therapy? Encouraging results of a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Antara; Chakrabarty, Sudipa Basu; Karmakar, Susanta Roy; Chakrabarty, Amit; Biswas, Surjyo Jyoti; Haque, Saiful; Das, Debarsi; Paul, Saili; Mandal, Biswapati; Naoual, Boujedaini; Belon, Philippe; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman

    2010-03-01

    Several homeopathic remedies, namely, Pulsatilla Nigricans (30th potency), Ceanothus Americanus (both mother tincture and 6th potency) and Ferrum Metallicum (30th potency) selected as per similia principles were administered to 38 thalassemic patients receiving Hydroxyurea (HU) therapy for a varying period of time. Levels of serum ferritin (SF), fetal hemoglobin (HbF), hemoglobin (Hb), platelet count (PC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), white blood cell (WBC) count, bilirubin content, alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST) and serum total protein content of patients were determined before and 3 months after administration of the homeopathic remedies in combination with HU to evaluate additional benefits, if any, derived by the homeopathic remedies, by comparing the data with those of 38 subjects receiving only HU therapy. Preliminary results indicated that there was a significant decrease in the SF and increase in HbF levels in the combined, treated subjects. Although the changes in other parameters were not so significant, there was a significant decrease in size of spleen in most patients with spleenomegaly and improvement in general health conditions along with an increased gap between transfusions in most patients receiving the combined homeopathic treatment. The homeopathic remedies being inexpensive and without any known side-effects seem to have great potentials in bringing additional benefits to thalassemic patients; particularly in the developing world where blood transfusions suffer from inadequate screening and fall short of the stringent safety standards followed in the developed countries. Further independent studies are encouraged. PMID:18955271

  12. Carbohydrate drugs: current status and development prospect.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Wang, Fengshan

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, there has been a great effort devoted to the investigation of the roles of carbohydrates in various essential biological processes and the development of carbohydrates to therapeutic drugs. This review summarizes the carbohydrate drugs which have been recorded in several pharmacopoeias, marketed, and under development. A prospect of the future development of carbohydrate drugs is discussed as well. PMID:25994058

  13. [Protein assay by the modified Dumas method applied to preparations of plasma proteins].

    PubMed

    Blondel, P; Vian, L

    1993-01-01

    Quantify protein according Pharmacopoeia method, based on Kjeldahl method, needs a long time to do. The development of an automaton which used the modified Dumas method divide the analysis time by 15 (6 minutes versus over 90 minutes). The results show no statistical differences between official method and this one. PMID:8154798

  14. Recent trends in the impurity profile of pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Pilaniya, Kavita; Chandrawanshi, Harish K.; Pilaniya, Urmila; Manchandani, Pooja; Jain, Pratishtha; Singh, Nitin

    2010-01-01

    Various regulatory authorities such as the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH), the United States Food and Drug administration (FDA), and the Canadian Drug and Health Agency (CDHA) are emphasizing on the purity requirements and the identification of impurities in Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs). The various sources of impurity in pharmaceutical products are — reagents, heavy metals, ligands, catalysts, other materials like filter aids, charcoal, and the like, degraded end products obtained during \\ after manufacturing of bulk drugs from hydrolysis, photolytic cleavage, oxidative degradation, decarboxylation, enantiomeric impurity, and so on. The different pharmacopoeias such as the British Pharmacopoeia, United State Pharmacopoeia, and Indian Pharmacopoeia are slowly incorporating limits to allowable levels of impurities present in APIs or formulations. Various methods are used to isolate and characterize impurities in pharmaceuticals, such as, capillary electrophoresis, electron paramagnetic resonance, gas–liquid chromatography, gravimetric analysis, high performance liquid chromatography, solid-phase extraction methods, liquid–liquid extraction method, Ultraviolet Spectrometry, infrared spectroscopy, supercritical fluid extraction column chromatography, mass spectrometry, Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and RAMAN spectroscopy. Among all hyphenated techniques, the most exploited techniques for impurity profiling of drugs are Liquid Chromatography (LC)-Mass Spectroscopy (MS), LC-NMR, LC-NMR-MS, GC-MS, and LC-MS. This reveals the need and scope of impurity profiling of drugs in pharmaceutical research. PMID:22247862

  15. [Quality survey of different species of clematidis radix et rhizoma].

    PubMed

    Li, Qian-Qian; Ma, Chang-Hua; Liu, Chun-Sheng; Xiao, Yao; Chen, Mei-Lan; Tian, Zhi-Hao; Wang, Yuan; Kong, Fan-Yao; Xu, Wen-Ying

    2013-04-01

    Quality survey of different species of Clematidis Radix et Rhizoma was made by determining the content of hederagenin and oleanolic acid from Clematidis Radix et Rhizoma. The result showed that only a few samples of Clematis chinensis met the quality standard for Clematidis Radix et Rhizoma in Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2010 Edition. PMID:23944036

  16. 27 CFR 21.6 - Incorporations by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..._locations.html. (c) Material from the “Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official... Incorporations by reference. (a) “The United States Pharmacopoeia (Twentieth Revision, Official from July, 1980) and the National Formulary (Fifteenth Edition, Official from July 1, 1980)” published together as...

  17. Comparison of polarimetry and crown ether-based HPLC chiral stationary phase method to determine (L)-amino acid optical purity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mee Sung; Khan, F Nawaz; Shin, Sung Chul; Jeong, Euh Duck; Kim, Hae Gyeong; Kim, Mi Jin; Cho, Yoon Jae; Cha, Jae-Young; Hyun, Myung Ho; Jin, Jong Sung

    2012-11-15

    Although various pharmacopoeias provide titration methods to assay (L)-amino acid content, none of these methods distinguish between (L)- and (D)-amino acids and do not consider the presence of enantiomeric impurities. Consequently, these methods are limited in scope to describe the relationship between content and specific rotation, [α]. In this study, the US Pharmacopoeia method was compared with the crown ether-based high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) chiral stationary phase (CSP) method to determine (L)-amino acid content and specific rotation. The (L)-amino acid content specified by the US Pharmacopoeia method was not consistent with the specific rotation in the presence of enantiomeric impurities, whereas the HPLC-CSP method was very effective for determining the (L)-amino acid content and the optical purity. The other advantage is that the HPLC-CSP method requires amino acid samples of quite low concentration (as low as 1 μg/mL), whereas the pharmacopoeia method requires higher concentrations (20-110 mg/mL). PMID:22868097

  18. PubMed Central

    Lépine, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Interest in alternative medicine is increasing. Family physicians, frequently asked by patients about the merits of these practices, must increase their knowledge in order to develop an enlightened, scientific approach to the subject. Homeopathy is one such system of medicine; it was founded by Dr. Samuel Hahnemann nearly 200 years ago. Clinical research in homeopathy is in the very early stages. To date, clinical trials to determine the efficacy of individual homeopathic remedies and the validity of homeopathic theory generally have been inconclusive. It is to be hoped that clinical research in homeopathy will continue so that we can increase our knowledge and provide our patients with better answers to their questions. PMID:21249117

  19. [New documental evidence on the history of homeopathy in Latin America: a case study of links between Rio de Janeiro and Buenos Aires].

    PubMed

    Tarcitano, Conrado Mariano; Waisse, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Homeopathy began to spread soon after it was formulated by Samuel Hahnemann in the early 1800s, reaching the Southern Cone in the 1830s. In processes of this kind, one figure is often cited as being responsible for introducing it, often attaining quasi-mythical status. Little is known, however, about how homeopathy reached Argentina at that time. Through archival research, we discovered that medical and lay homeopaths circulated between Rio de Janeiro and Buenos Aires. Given the well-known proselytizing of the circles gravitating around lay homeopaths B. Mure and J.V. Martins in Rio de Janeiro, the documents indicate that this movement actually went as far as Argentina, which had not been confirmed until now. PMID:27438734

  20. Usage and Attitudes Towards Natural Remedies and Homeopathy in General Pediatrics

    PubMed Central

    Beer, André-Michael; Burlaka, Ievgeniia; Buskin, Stephen; Kamenov, Borislav; Pettenazzo, Andrea; Popova, Diana; Riveros Huckstadt, María Pilar; Sakalinskas, Virgilijus; Oberbaum, Menachem

    2016-01-01

    In order to better understand the global approach and country differences in physicians’ usage, knowledge, and attitudes towards natural remedies and homeopathy in pediatric practice, an online survey involving 582 general pediatricians and general practitioners treating pediatric diseases was conducted in 6 countries. Overall, 17% of the pediatric prescriptions refer to phytotherapy and 15% refer to homeopathic preparations. Natural remedies and homeopathic preparations are more frequently used in upper respiratory tract infections, infant colic, sleep disturbances, and recurrent infections. In the majority of cases, they are used together with chemical drugs. Both treatment options are typically used if parents are concerned about side effects of conventional drugs or prefer natural remedies for themselves. Physicians express high interest in natural remedies and homeopathy; however, their knowledge is variable. Lack of proven efficacy, knowledge on mechanism of action, and information on indications are main factors that limit their usage. PMID:27493983

  1. A Not-So-Gentle Refutation of the Defence of Homeopathy.

    PubMed

    Zawiła-Niedźwiecki, Jakub; Olender, Jacek

    2016-03-01

    In a recent paper, Levy, Gadd, Kerridge, and Komesaroff attempt to defend the ethicality of homeopathy by attacking the utilitarian ethical framework as a basis for medical ethics and by introducing a distinction between evidence-based medicine and modern science. This paper demonstrates that their argumentation is not only insufficient to achieve that goal but also incorrect. Utilitarianism is not required to show that homeopathic practice is unethical; indeed, any normative basis of medical ethics will make it unethical, as a defence of homeopathic practice requires the rejection of modern natural sciences, which are an integral part of medical ethics systems. This paper also points out that evidence-based medicine lies at the very core of modern science. Particular arguments made by Levy et al. within the principlist medical ethics normative system are also shown to be wrong. PMID:26732397

  2. Complementary treatment of psychotic and epileptic patients in malaysia.

    PubMed

    Razali, Salleh Mohd; Yassin, Azhar Mohd

    2008-09-01

    The objective of this article is to describe and compare the use of traditional/complementary medicine (T/CM) among psychotic (schizophrenia and schizophreniform disorder) and epileptic Malay patients in peninsular Malaysia. There were 60 patients in each group. T/CM consultation was uniformly spread across all levels of education and social status. We could not find a single over-riding factor that influenced the decision to seek T/CM treatment because the decision to seek such treatment was complex and the majority of decisions were made by others. Fifty-three patients (44.2%), consisting of 37 (61.7%) psychotic and 16 (26.7%) epileptic patients had consulted Malay traditional healers (bomoh) and/or homeopathic practitioners in addition to modern treatment; of these, only three had consulted bomoh and homeopathic practitioners at the same time. The use of T/CM was significantly higher in psychotic than in epileptic Malay patients. PMID:18799643

  3. Two Cases of Fulminant Hepatic Failure from Amanita phalloides Poisoning Treated Additively by Homeopathy

    PubMed Central

    Frass, Michael; Zagorchev, Petko; Yurukova, Vasilka; Wulkersdorfer, Beatrix; Thieves, Karin; Zedtwitz-Liebenstein, Konstantin; Bursch, Willfried; Kaye, Alan David

    2014-01-01

    Background Intoxication with Amanita phalloides is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Treatment therapies include general support, toxin elimination, pharmacotherapy with agents such as the hepatoprotective agent silibinin, and, in extreme states, liver transplantation. Despite these therapeutic interventions, mortality remains relatively high. Case Reports We present reports of 2 patients with severe hepatic failure following intoxication with Amanita phalloides. Both patients were admitted to the intensive care unit; 1 patient suffered from hepatic failure solely, and the second patient experienced severe 5-organ failure. In addition to conventional intensive care treatment, both patients were treated additively with classical homeopathy. The 2 patients survived without any residual pathological sequelae. Conclusion Based on the 2 cases, including 1 extreme situation, we suggest that adjunctive homeopathic treatment has a role in the treatment of acute Amanita phalloides–induced toxicity following mushroom poisoning. Additional studies may clarify a more precise dosing regimen, standardization, and better acceptance of homeopathic medicine in the intensive care setting. PMID:24940137

  4. [Alternative therapies, homeopathy and medical science].

    PubMed

    Martins e Silva, J

    1990-01-01

    This article briefly reviews the impact of regularly promoted alternative therapies within portuguese society. The origins, attractions and acceptance of alternative therapies, homeopathic included, are discussed. Recent homeopathic studies published in renowned scientific journals provoked comments and reports claiming for more objective explanations and better criticism. Accordingly, homeopathy is presently an unacceptable system with no physical basis, supported by inexplicable observations and a mixture of magic effects. Also alternatives therapies may provide an area of conflict with health and medical care, particularly in most severe diseases that require advanced resources of orthodox medicine. Improved education of the population, more qualified medical personal, and better understanding of medical problems, difficulties and progress by the media are final recommendations. PMID:2077840

  5. Re-analysis of survival data of cancer patients utilizing additive homeopathy.

    PubMed

    Gleiss, Andreas; Frass, Michael; Gaertner, Katharina

    2016-08-01

    In this short communication we present a re-analysis of homeopathic patient data in comparison to control patient data from the same Outpatient´s Unit "Homeopathy in malignant diseases" of the Medical University of Vienna. In this analysis we took account of a probable immortal time bias. For patients suffering from advanced stages of cancer and surviving the first 6 or 12 months after diagnosis, respectively, the results show that utilizing homeopathy gives a statistically significant (p<0.001) advantage over control patients regarding survival time. In conclusion, bearing in mind all limitations, the results of this retrospective study suggest that patients with advanced stages of cancer might benefit from additional homeopathic treatment until a survival time of up to 12 months after diagnosis. PMID:27515878

  6. Similitude in modern pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, M Z

    1999-07-01

    The principle of the similitude, the basis of homeopathy, has correspondences in the clinical studies of secondary effects of many modern pharmaceutical agents through the observation of the rebound effects of these drugs. Through clinical pharmacology, I proposed a model on which to base the scientificism of the homeopathic model. We have studied the effects of the drugs in the human body using pharmacological compendia and recent scientific works, confirming the mechanism of the homeopathic medicines' action through the verification of the primary action of the drugs and the consequent secondary reaction of the organism in hundreds of pharmaceutical agents. Treatment exploiting the "rebound" effect (curative vital reaction) may also be observed. This work suggests a research methodology to scientifically base the therapeutic principle of similitude. PMID:10449051

  7. Utility of Nutraceutical Products Marketed for Cognitive and Memory Enhancement

    PubMed Central

    McDougall, Graham J.; Austin-Wells, Vonnette; Zimmerman, Teena

    2008-01-01

    This article identifies a convenience sample of 14 memory-enhancing herbal products that were found to be available commercially, examines their active ingredients, states their claims, and evaluates the available evidence to determine their efficacy. The analyses identified four problematic areas. First, a majority of the products use cognitive terminology, which leads consumers to anticipate an intended cognitive benefit. Second, some ingredients are completely homeopathic and contain components not known outside of the homeopathic field. Third, the evidence of treatment efficacy is often contradictory, because products are recommended for purposes other than cognitive or memory loss. Finally, the manufacturers of the product have usually conducted the research on individual products. Until more research is available, it is suggested that holistic nursing professionals exercise caution in recommending nutraceuticals to their patients/clients for the use of cognitive improvement or memory enhancement. PMID:16251490

  8. The silica hypothesis for homeopathy: physical chemistry.

    PubMed

    Anick, David J; Ives, John A

    2007-07-01

    The 'silica hypothesis' is one of several frameworks that have been put forward to explain how homeopathic remedies, which often are diluted beyond the point where any of the original substance remains, might still be clinically effective. We describe here what the silica hypothesis says. From a physical chemistry viewpoint, we explore three challenges that the hypothesis would have to meet in order to explain homeopathy: thermodynamic stability of a large number of distinct structures, pattern initiation at low potencies, and pattern maintenance or gradual evolution at higher potencies. We juxtapose current knowledge about silicates with some of the conventional wisdom about homeopathic remedies, to see how well the latter might be a consequence of the former. We explore variants of the hypothesis including some speculations about mechanisms. We outline laboratory experiments that could help to decide it. PMID:17678816

  9. Notes From the Field: Are Rural Medical Practitioners in India Competent?

    PubMed

    Mondal, Swadhin

    2015-12-01

    In India, rural medical practitioners (RMPs) practice allopathic, homeopathic, and other modern systems of medicine without formal medical training. However, the quality of treatment offered remains questionable. The present study systematically examines the knowledge, practices, and competencies of the RMPs. While about 80% of RMPs can diagnose common diseases and treat them, 25% are involved in inappropriate practices like unsafe abortion and unsafe childbirth. Hence, there is an urgent need for appropriate intervention to reduce potential harm and improve care provided. PMID:25917457

  10. Evidence and simplicity: why we should reject homeopathy.

    PubMed

    Sehon, Scott; Stanley, Donald

    2010-04-01

    Homeopathic medications are used by millions, and hundreds of millions of dollars are spent on these remedies in the USA alone. In the UK, the NHS covers homeopathic treatments. Nonetheless, homeopathy is held in considerable disrepute by much of the medical and scientific community. Many proponents of homeopathy are well aware of these criticisms but remain unimpressed. The differences of opinion run deep, and the debate seems deadlocked. We aim to shed some light on this situation. We briefly recap some of the major arguments on each side, but we try to go further by making explicit an underlying philosophical presupposition. In particular, we will claim that there is an important principle, which has ancient roots going back at least to Occam, some version of which constrains all empirical reasoning. We call this constraint the simplicity principle. We argue that this is not something specific to a scientific paradigm, but that, all of us, including proponents of homeopathy, are themselves deeply committed to the simplicity principle. However, once the simplicity principle is made explicit and applied to homeopathy, allegiance to homeopathy is clearly seen as irrational. The point is not merely the lack of clinical trials supporting homeopathy; rather, belief in the efficacy of homeopathy leaves a mountain of unexplained mysteries, and thereby flies in the face of the simplicity rule that guides the homeopaths' own reasoning and arguments. If nothing else, we hope that defenders of homeopathy will gain a greater understanding of why critics are so deeply reluctant to accept the efficacy of homeopathic interventions - and that this reluctance is not mere stubbornness or artificial allegiance to western medicine. Finally, we also hope thereby to illustrate the usefulness of philosophy in unearthing presuppositions in seemingly deadlocked debates. PMID:20367847

  11. Statistical Analysis of Physiological Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, María G.; Pérez, Leticia

    2003-07-01

    In spite of two hundred years of clinical practice, Homeopathy still lacks of scientific basis. Its fundamental laws, similia principle and the activity of the denominated ultra-high dilutions are controversial issues that do not fit into the mainstream medicine or current physical-chemistry field as well. Aside its clinical efficacy, the identification of physical - chemistry parameters, as markers of the homeopathic effect, would allow to construct mathematic models [1], which in turn, could provide clues regarding the involved mechanism.

  12. Appetoff: another diet fad.

    PubMed

    Beckerich, M J

    1989-12-01

    Appetoff diet patches were diet aids introduced to the public in 1987 and removed from the market in 1988 by the FDA for reasons of fraud. The ingredients were supposedly homeopathic concentrations of plant and mineral products. Although 91.6% of persons in this study who used the product for at least 1 week reported weight loss and mild side effects, no active ingredients could be detected by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. PMID:2617837

  13. Pre-trial beliefs in complementary and alternative medicine: whose pre-trial belief should be considered?

    PubMed

    Hansen, Kirsten; Kappel, Klemens

    2012-02-01

    Subjective probabilities play a significant role in the assessment of evidence: in other words, our background knowledge, or pre-trial beliefs, cannot be set aside when new evidence is being evaluated. Focusing on homeopathy, this paper investigates the nature of pre-trial beliefs in clinical trials. It asks whether pre-trial beliefs of the sort normally held only by those who are sympathetic to homeopathy can legitimately be disregarded in those trials. The paper addresses several surprisingly unsuccessful attempts to provide a satisfactory justification for ignoring the pre-trial beliefs of the homeopathic community. The ensuing diagnosis of the difficulties here emphasizes that the reason the arguments for choosing the pre-trial beliefs of the conventional community seem insufficient is not the arguments per se. It is rather that there is no cogent argument for choosing the conventional stance which would at the same time rationally persuade a member of the homeopathic community. The paper concludes that, once we understand that this is the predicament, there is no genuine reason to doubt the reasoning that leads us to reject the pre-trial beliefs of the homeopathic community. PMID:20820925

  14. The curious case of charles darwin and homeopathy.

    PubMed

    Ullman, Dana

    2010-03-01

    In 1849, Charles Darwin was so ill that he was unable to work one out of every 3 days, and after having various troubling symptoms for 2-12 years, he wrote to a friend that he was 'going the way of all flesh'. He sought treatment from Dr James Manby Gully, a medical doctor who used water cure and homeopathic medicines. Despite being highly skeptical of these treatments, he experienced a dramatic improvement in his health, though some of his digestive and skin symptoms returned various times in his life. He grew to appreciate water cure, but remained skeptical of homeopathy, even though his own experiments on insectivore plants using what can be described as homeopathic doses of ammonia salts surprised and shocked him with their significant biological effect. Darwin even expressed concern that he should publish these results. Two of Darwin's sons were as incredulous as he was, but their observations confirmed the results of his experiments. Darwin was also known to have read a book on evolution written by a homeopathic physician that Darwin described as similar to his own but 'goes much deeper.' PMID:19875430

  15. Immunology and Homeopathy. 5. The Rationale of the ‘Simile’

    PubMed Central

    Ortolani, Riccardo; Pontarollo, Francesco; Pitari, Giuseppina; Conforti, Anita

    2007-01-01

    The foundation of homeopathic medicine is the ‘Similia Principle’, also known as the ‘Principle of Similarity’ or also as the ‘Simile’, which reflects the inversion of pharmacological effects in healthy subjects as compared with sick ones. This article describes the inversion of effects, a widespread medical phenomenon, through three possible mechanisms: non-linearity of dose–response relationship, different initial pathophysiological states of the organism, and pharmacodynamics of body response to the medicine. Based on the systemic networks which play an important role in response to stress, a unitary and general model is designed: homeopathic medicines could interact with sensitive (primed) regulation systems through complex information, which simulate the disorders of natural disease. Reorganization of regulation systems, through a coherent response to the medicine, could pave the way to the healing of the cellular, tissue and neuro-immuno-endocrine homeodynamics. Preliminary evidence is suggesting that even ultra-low doses and high-dilutions of drugs may incorporate structural or frequency information and interact with chaotic dynamics and physical-electromagnetic levels of regulation. From the clinical standpoint, the ‘simile’ can be regarded as a heuristic principle, according to which the detailed knowledge of pathogenic effects of drugs, associated with careful analysis of signs and symptoms of the ill subject, could assist in identifying homeopathic remedies with high grade of specificity for the individual case. PMID:17549232

  16. Immunology and Homeopathy. 4. Clinical Studies—Part 2

    PubMed Central

    Bellavite, Paolo; Ortolani, Riccardo; Pontarollo, Francesco; Piasere, Valeria; Benato, Giovanni; Conforti, Anita

    2006-01-01

    The clinical studies on the effectiveness of homeopathy in respiratory allergy (18 randomized trials and 9 observational studies) are described. The literature of common immunologic disorders including also upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) and otorhinolaryngology (reported in part 1), is evaluated and discussed. Most of initial evidence-based research was addressed to the question of whether homeopathic high dilutions are placebos or possess specific effects, but this question has been often equivocal and is still a matter of debate. The evidence demonstrates that in some conditions homeopathy shows significant promise, e.g. Galphimia glauca (low dilutions/potencies) in allergic oculorhinitis, classical individualized homeopathy in otitis and possibly in asthma and allergic complaints, and a few low-potency homeopathic complexes in sinusitis and rhinoconjunctivitis. A general weakness of evidence derives from lack of independent confirmation of reported trials and from presence of conflicting results, as in case of homeopathic immunotherapy and of classical homeopathy for URTI. The suitable methods to evaluate homeopathy effectiveness, without altering the setting of cure, are also analyzed. PMID:17173103

  17. THE MEDICO-SCIENTIFIC MARGINALISATION OF HOMEOPATHY: INTERNATIONAL LEGAL AND REGULATORY DEVELOPMENTS.

    PubMed

    Freckelton, Ian

    2015-09-01

    The 2010 report of the United Kingdom Science and Technology Committee of the House of Commons and the 2015 report of the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council have overtaken in significance the uncritical Swiss report of 2012 and have gone a long way to changing the environment of tolerance toward proselytising claims of efficacy in respect of homeopathy. The inquiry being undertaken in the United States by the Food and Drug Administration during 2015 may accelerate this trend. An outcome of the reports and inquiries has been a series of decisions from advertising regulators and by courts rejecting medically unjustifiable claims in respect of the efficacy of homeopathy. Class actions have also been initiated in North America against manufacturers of homeopathic products. The changing legal and regulatory environment is generating an increasingly scientifically marginalised existence for homeopathy. That new environment is starting to provide effective inhibition of assertions on behalf of homeopathy and other health modalities whose claims to therapeutic efficacy cannot be justified by reference to the principles of evidence-based health care. This has the potential to reduce the financial support that is provided by insurers and governments toward homeopathy and to result in serious liability exposure for practitioners, manufacturers and those who purvey homeopathic products, potentially including pharmacists. In addition, it may give a fillip to a form of regulation of homeopaths if law reform to regulate unregistered health practitioners gathers momentum, as is taking place in Australia. PMID:26554194

  18. Individualised homeopathy as an adjunct in the treatment of childhood asthma: a randomised placebo controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    White, A; Slade, P; Hunt, C; Hart, A; Ernst, E

    2003-01-01

    Background: Homeopathy is frequently used to treat asthma in children. In the common classical form of homeopathy, prescriptions are individualised for each patient. There has been no rigorous investigation into this form of treatment for asthma. Methods: In a randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial the effects of individualised homeopathic remedies were compared with placebo medication in 96 children with mild to moderate asthma as an adjunct to conventional treatment. The main outcome measure was the active quality of living subscale of the Childhood Asthma Questionnaire administered at baseline and follow up at 12 months. Other outcome measures included other subscales of the same questionnaire, peak flow rates, use of medication, symptom scores, days off school, asthma events, global assessment of change, and adverse reactions. Results: There were no clinically relevant or statistically significant changes in the active quality of life score. Other subscales, notably those measuring severity, indicated relative improvements but the sizes of the effects were small. There were no differences between the groups for other measures. Conclusions: This study provides no evidence that adjunctive homeopathic remedies, as prescribed by experienced homeopathic practitioners, are superior to placebo in improving the quality of life of children with mild to moderate asthma in addition to conventional treatment in primary care. PMID:12668794

  19. Psoriatic Erythroderma and Hypothalamus-Pituitary Axis Suppression Due to Misuse of Systemic Steroid: Two Challenging Cases

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Gautam K; Chatterjee, Manas

    2015-01-01

    Adding corticosteroid in homeopathic pills, self medication of steroid in the backdrop permanent cure in cases of psoriasis is not very uncommon in clinical practice in Indian subcontinent. First case a 52 year man, a known case of psoriasis vulgaris with psoriatic arthropathy of 15 years duration received multiple modalities of therapies without any satisfactory response. He was on self medication of tab prednisolone 10 mg daily with Cushingoid features. Second case a 22 year old boy, a known case of psoriasis from last 06 years was on Homeopathic treatment with Cushinoid features. Tapering of systemic steroid in first case and discontinuation of homeopathic drug in second case resulted in erythroderma and features of adrenal insufficiiency. Investigation revealed low morning cortisol and low cortisol following ACTH stimulation suggestive of HPA axis suppression. Planned withdrawal of steroid under the cover of short acting systemic steroid for short duration along with combination of immunosuppressants and supportive care gave an excellent result in both the cases. PMID:25814713

  20. ["Do two walk together unless they have agreed to do so?"--Combining conventional and complementary medicine in the treatment of gastroparesis].

    PubMed

    Oberbaum, Menachem; Schmell, Malki; Schreiber, Rachel; Adar, Tomer; Lysy, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Gastroparesis is a chronic disorder of abnormal gastric motility causing considerable suffering. We describe two cases of gastroparesis which were treated by methods which were not part of routine conventional therapy, but which, nevertheless, led to significant clinical improvement. In the first case, the patient suffered from gastroparesis following a vagal injury while undergoing a lung transplant. During his illness a mega-bezoar formed, a well-described complication of gastroparesis. After conservative measures failed, and in order to avoid a surgical intervention that carried considerable risk under the circumstances, a successful trial consisting of imbibing large amounts of "Coca Cola" and acupuncture was initiated. The bezoar dissolved completely and considerable improvement of the patient's gastric motility was achieved. In the second case, the patient was a young woman suffering from idiopathic gastroparesis, which responded well to treatment with tricyclic antidepressants. Due to her intention to become pregnant, this treatment was discontinued and she was admitted to receive homeopathic treatment. After two failed attempts in finding the right homeopathic remedy to replace the conventional treatment, the third remedy (Sepia) used brought dramatic improvement in her general condition and her dyspepsia. Today, over two years after her successful homeopathic treatment, she is in the middle of her second pregnancy, without any treatment and free of complaints. These two cases are examples of simple solutions for seemingly complicated and complex conditions alleviated by an integration of conventional and complementary/alternative medicine. PMID:25796672

  1. The defining role of structure (including epitaxy) in the plausibility of homeopathy.

    PubMed

    Rao, Manju Lata; Roy, Rustum; Bell, Iris R; Hoover, Richard

    2007-07-01

    The key stumbling block to serious consideration of homeopathy is the presumed "implausibility" of biological activity for homeopathic medicines in which the source material is diluted past Avogadro's number of molecules. Such an argument relies heavily on the assumptions of elementary chemistry (and biochemistry), in which the material composition of a solution, (dilution factors and ligand-receptor interactions), is the essential consideration. In contrast, materials science focuses on the three-dimensional complex network structure of the condensed phase of water itself, rather than the original solute molecules. The nanoheterogenous structure of water can be determined by interactive phenomena such as epitaxy (the transmission of structural information from the surface of one material to another without the transfer of any matter), temperature-pressure processes during succussion, and formation of colloidal nanobubbles containing gaseous inclusions of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and possibly the remedy source material. Preliminary data obtained using Raman and Ultra-Violet-Visible (UV-VIS) spectroscopy illustrate the ability to distinguish two different homeopathic medicines (Nux vomica and Natrum muriaticum) from one another and to differentiate, within a given medicine, the 6c, 12c, and 30c potencies. Materials science concepts and experimental tools offer a new approach to contemporary science, for making significant advances in the basic science studies of homeopathic medicines. PMID:17678814

  2. Tuareg ethnoveterinary treatments of camel diseases in Agadez area (Niger).

    PubMed

    Antoine-Moussiaux, N; Faye, B; Vias, G F

    2007-02-01

    For generations, nomadic herders have been learning to manage herd health, particularly in dromedaries because of their great value. Owing to the unavailability of veterinary services, camel herders in remote areas have been developing their own pharmacopoeia and veterinary techniques. The bleeding of sick animals is a common treatment, as Tuareg herders believe that 'tainted blood' (izni) is the cause of many conditions. Several surgical techniques are also used, such as excision of calcified sublingual cord. The remedies mentioned in this survey are derived from Maerua crassifolia, Boscia senegalensis, Acacia raddiana, Cucumis prophetarum, Calotropis procera, Ricinus communis, Citrullus colocynthis, green tea, millet, tobacco and onions. Artificial elements are also used for treatment of animals: Powders collected from batteries, various haircare or skincare creams, crushed glass, insecticides or motor oil belong to their pharmacopoeia. This broadmindedness allows the introduction of modern veterinary medicine. Factors such as the lack of real production objectives constitute limits to this progress, however. PMID:18318345

  3. Microwave-assisted digestion using nitric acid for heavy metals and sulfated ash testing in active pharmaceutical ingredients.

    PubMed

    Pluhácek, T; Hanzal, J; Hendrych, J; Milde, D

    2016-04-01

    The monitoring of inorganic impurities in active pharmaceutical ingredients plays a crucial role in the quality control of the pharmaceutical production. The heavy metals and residue on ignition/sulfated ash methods employing microwave-assisted digestion with concentrated nitric acid have been demonstrated as alternatives to inappropriate compendial methods recommended in United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) and European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.). The recoveries using the heavy metals method ranged between 89% and 122% for nearly all USP and Ph. Eur. restricted elements as well as the recoveries of sodium sulfate spikes were around 100% in all tested matrices. The proposed microwave-assisted digestion method allowed simultaneous decomposition of 15 different active pharmaceutical ingredients with sample weigh up to 1 g. The heavy metals and sulfated ash procedures were successfully applied to the determination of heavy metals and residue on ignition/sulfated ash content in mycophenolate mofetil, nicergoline and silymarin. PMID:27209695

  4. [Study on suitable harvest time of Dendrobium officinale in Yunnan province].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shan-bao; Zhou, Ke-jun; Zhang, Zhen; Lu, Rui-rui; Li, Xian; Li, Xiao-hua

    2015-09-01

    In order to determine the suitable harvest time of Dendrobium officinale from different regions in Yunnan province, the drying rate, mannose and glucose peak area ratio, extract, contents of polysaccharide and mannose of D. officinale samples collected from six producing areas in Ynnnan province were determined. The results indicate that drying rate and the contents of polysaccharide and mannose arrived the peak from January to April, extract reached a higher content from September to December, and mannose and glucose peak area ratio from October to February of the coming met the requirment of the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. Hence, the suitable harvesting time of D. officinale in Yunnan province is from December to February of the coming year,according to the experimental results and the request of the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. PMID:26983198

  5. [Instrumental analysis of medicinal plants and their drug products].

    PubMed

    Petri, G; Lemberkovics, E

    1994-05-01

    The experiences obtained during the development of gas chromatographic and other (GC, TLC and infrared spectrophotometric) methods for the 7th edition of the Hungarian Pharmacopoeia for essential oils and drugs containing essential oils are summarized with emphasis on the selection of suitable internal standard for the gas chromatographic assays. The qualitative and quantitative estimation of bitter compounds and polyphenoles e.g. flavonoids and procyanidines by means of ultraviolet and infrared spectrophotometry and HPLC is also described. Some HPLC methods for the determination of anthocyan and carotinoid derivatives are also presented. These are not yet included in the pharmacopoeia but are successfully used for the analytical investigation of commercially available medicinal plants and drug products made thereof. PMID:7942042

  6. [Pharmaceutical research progress of rhynchophylla based on chemical stability].

    PubMed

    Hao, Bo; Yang, Xiu-Juan; Feng, Yi; Hong, Yan-Long

    2014-12-01

    Rhynchophylla is a Chinese herb commonly used in clinical practice. It's also the primary herb of some famous Chinese herbal compound such as Tianma Gouteng decoction, and Lingyang Gouteng decoction. According the record from many previous materia medica literatures, rhynchophylla should be added later during decoction. Pharmaceutical research showed that rhynchophylla alkaloids were not stable. Which has resulted in many problems in the research and its application. For example, there was not a quantitative determination method in "Chinese Pharmacopoeia" of past and present versions, which seriously impacted its quality control and product application. Firstly, records from previous materia medica literatures and "Chinese Pharmacopoeia" were systematically sorted based on the chemical stability of rhynchophylla. Secondly, pharmaceutical research including chemical compositions and their stability, pharmacological effects, extraction process and quality analysis, was reviewed after reference of literatures published at home and abroad in recent decades. Positive reference and evidence for further research and development of rhynchophylla will be provided in the article. PMID:25911796

  7. WHO Expert Committee on Specifications for Pharmaceutical Preparations.

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    The Expert Committee on Specifications for Pharmaceutical Preparations works towards clear, independent and practical standards and guidelines for the quality assurance of medicines. Standards are developed by the Committee through worldwide consultation and an international consensus-building process. The following new guidelines were adopted and recommended for use, in addition to 20 monographs and general texts for inclusion in The International Pharmacopoeia and 11 new International Chemical Reference Substances. The International Pharmacopoeia--updating mechanism for the section on radiopharmaceuticals; WHO good manufacturing practices for pharmaceutical products: main principles; Model quality assurance system for procurement agencies; Assessment tool based on the model quality assurance system for procurement agencies: aide-memoire for inspection; Guidelines on submission of documentation for prequalification of finished pharmaceutical products approved by stringent regulatory authorities; and Guidelines on submission of documentation for a multisource (generic) finished pharmaceutical product: quality part. PMID:24964711

  8. Structural elucation of a novel impurity in rifaximin.

    PubMed

    Liuchao; Maixi; Wangchao; Wan, Chunpeng

    2012-05-01

    Rifaximin is a semi-synthetic rifamycin derivate. It acts on RNA polymerase of the subunit of DNA beta-2 in bacteria to restrain synthesis of RNA leading to antibacterial activity. The purpose of this study was to analyse the structure of the prepared impurity a. We found that the impurity a is the isomeride of impurity G defined in the European Pharmacopoeia. PMID:22764576

  9. Synthesis and Characterization of Compounds Related to Lisinopril

    PubMed Central

    Raghava Reddy, Ambati V.; Garaga, Srinivas; Takshinamoorthy, Chandiran; Naidu, Andra; Dandala, Ramesh

    2016-01-01

    Lisinopril is a drug of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor class that is primarily used in the treatment of hypertension. During the scale-up of the lisinopril process, one unknown impurity was observed and is identified. The present work describes the origin, synthesis, characterization, and control of this impurity. This paper also describes the synthesis and characterization of three other impurities listed in the European Pharmacopoeia 8.4 (Impurity C, D, and F). PMID:27222603

  10. Repertory, therapeutic indications, chemical analysis and cultural background of mineral drugs of Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Younos, C; Martin, J; Fleurentin, J; Mazars, G; Notter, D; Mortier, F; Pelt, J M

    1991-01-01

    The traditional uses of minerals drugs and chemical products for medicine were studied in Afghanistan. Twelve medicinal drugs have been identified by chemical investigations and are presented in one table with the vernacular names (in Dari, Pasto and Kati); the origins and the therapeutical uses are listed in another table with their cultural background in pre-Islamic (Greek and Indian medicines) and Islamic pharmacopoeia (Afghano-Persian and Arabian medicines). Twenty-six other mineral drugs are also mentioned. PMID:1943165

  11. [History of Polish pharmacy].

    PubMed

    Okuda, J; Okuda, R

    1993-01-01

    Doctoral thesis (in French) by Monika Debska-Donnet, entitled "History of pharmacy and pharmaceutical art collections in Poland" which was presented to Paris XI University (Faculty of Pharmaceutical and Biological Sciences) in 1991, was translated into Japanese and summarized. In this report, histories of pharmacy education, pharmacists, community pharmacies, pharmacopoeiae, pharmaceutical industries in Poland were described, and four representative Polish museums of history of pharmacy were also explained. PMID:11639718

  12. 27 CFR 17.132 - U.S.P., N.F., and H.P.U.S. preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false U.S.P., N.F., and H.P.U.S... NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples Approval of Formulas § 17.132 U.S.P., N.F., and H.P.U.S... current revisions or editions of the United States Pharmacopoeia (U.S.P.), the National Formulary...

  13. 27 CFR 17.132 - U.S.P., N.F., and H.P.U.S. preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false U.S.P., N.F., and H.P.U.S... NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples Approval of Formulas § 17.132 U.S.P., N.F., and H.P.U.S... current revisions or editions of the United States Pharmacopoeia (U.S.P.), the National Formulary...

  14. [The medicines of herbal and animal origin in ancient Greece].

    PubMed

    Skaltsa, Hélène

    2014-01-01

    The present study concerns an effort to present historic data on the evolution of the medicines used by the ancient Greeks from the prehippocratic period until the greco-roman times. In addition, information is given for the influence of this accumulated knowledge based on the greek traditional herbal medicines in the first editions of the Hellenic Pharmacopoeia (19th century) through the byzantin manuscripts. PMID:25668914

  15. Development and validation of a serological potency test for the release of Leptospira vaccines--requirements in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Balks, Elisabeth; Gyra, Heike; Kobe, Babett; Cussler, Klaus; Werner, Esther

    2013-09-01

    Both European Pharmacopoeia Monograph 01/2008:0447 "Canine Leptospirosis vaccine (inactivated)" and the more recent Monograph 01/2008:1939 "Bovine Leptospirosis vaccine (inactivated)" explicitly allow for a sero-response test to assess batch potency. Test setup and requirements for in vivo and in vitro validation are described. Furthermore, the two main strategies to assess batch potency and their specific demands are addressed. PMID:23911253

  16. 27 CFR 17.132 - U.S.P., N.F., and H.P.U.S. preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false U.S.P., N.F., and H.P.U.S... NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples Approval of Formulas § 17.132 U.S.P., N.F., and H.P.U.S... current revisions or editions of the United States Pharmacopoeia (U.S.P.), the National Formulary...

  17. 27 CFR 17.132 - U.S.P., N.F., and H.P.U.S. preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false U.S.P., N.F., and H.P.U.S... NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples Approval of Formulas § 17.132 U.S.P., N.F., and H.P.U.S... current revisions or editions of the United States Pharmacopoeia (U.S.P.), the National Formulary...

  18. 27 CFR 17.132 - U.S.P., N.F., and H.P.U.S. preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false U.S.P., N.F., and H.P.U.S... NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples Approval of Formulas § 17.132 U.S.P., N.F., and H.P.U.S... current revisions or editions of the United States Pharmacopoeia (U.S.P.), the National Formulary...

  19. [Comparison of the efficiency of the Soviet culture medium no. 3 and the media used for cultivation of mycobacteria in routine in the GDR (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Kalich, R; Dickel, H; Gerloff, W; Knauf, B; Koedel, H; Köhler, B; Kunze, J; Mydlak, G; Ulber, H

    1981-01-01

    In cooperation of ten laboratories the Soviet culture medium Mo. 3 (FINN) was compared with the media used in the GDR for primary cultivation of mycobacteria in routine (German Pharmacopoeia (diagnostic laboratory methods) GDR). The efficiency of the media tested in the study was nearly the same, not only concerning the number of positive cultures but also in time of growth and the number of colonies. PMID:6784361

  20. [History of the therapeutic uses of the tinder polypore, Fomes fomentarius (L. : Fr].

    PubMed

    Roussel, Bertrand; Rapior, Sylvie; Charlot, Colette; Masson, Christian-Louis; Boutié, Paul

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the major therapeutic uses of Fomes fomentarius (L. : Fr.) Fr., tinder polypore. The context of this fungus is a wooly and soft material so called amadou (tinder). During the XVIII and XIXth centuries, the fungal material was used as haemostatic dressing and bandage to keep the temperature and compress parts of the body. It was also used as cautery for moxibustion and was reported in several traditional pharmacopoeias (Hungarian, Chinese, Indian). PMID:12712985

  1. Determination of the 121Te gamma emission probabilities associated with the production process of radiopharmaceutical NaI[123I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Araújo, M. T. F.; Poledna, R.; Delgado, J. U.; de Almeida, M. C. M.; Lopes, R. T.; Silva, R. L.; Cagido, A. C. F.

    2016-07-01

    The 123I is widely used in radiodiagnostic procedures in nuclear medicine. According to Pharmacopoeia care should be taken during its production process, since radionuclidic impurities may be generated. The 121Te is an impurity that arises during the 123I production and determining their gamma emission probabilities (Pγ) is important in order to obtain more information about its decay. Activities were also obtained by absolute standardization using the sum-peak method and these values were compared to the efficiency curve method.

  2. Pyrogen testing of lipidic parenterals with a novel in vitro test--application of the IPT based on cryopreserved human whole blood.

    PubMed

    Schindler, S; Rosenberg, U; Schlote, D; Panse, K; Kempe, A; Fennrich, S; Hartung, T

    2006-08-01

    The European Pharmacopoeia has made the testing of small volume parenterals (< 15) obligatory since 2004. This concerns many formulations, e.g. vitamins, steroids and hormones, many of which are applied intramuscularly using a lipidic carrier. Lipopolysaccharides, the best established endotoxins from Gram-negative bacteria, bind strongly to lipophilic substances, which mask them in Limulus amebocyte lysate assays. End-product testing, therefore, can only be carried out in rabbit pyrogen tests. This will lead to a pronounced increase in animal experiments if no alternative procedures become available. We have described a novel in vitro pyrogen test (IPT) based on human whole blood, which has recently been validated in a collaborative study including the European Pharmacopoeia. Here, the utility of the IPT for lipophilic substances and lipid-containing end-products was assessed. For a variety of lipids commonly added to formulations of injectable endproducts, namely peanut oil, sesame oil, miglyol and paraffin, a protocol which allows interference-free testing was established applying the pharmacopoeial criterion of 50 to 200% retrieval of an LPS spike. Furthermore, end-product testing for three sample formulations was possible. In all, a method could be established which allows the determination of given or calculated ELC (endotoxin limit concentrations) according to Pharmacopoeia. It is concluded that monocytes do react to lipid-bound LPS, indicating that immune responses to contaminated endproducts must be anticipated, and that the IPT is suitable for endproduct control of these formulations. PMID:17694639

  3. Validation of constitutively expressed bioluminescent Pseudomonas aeruginosa as a rapid microbiological quantification tool.

    PubMed

    Shah, N; Naseby, D C

    2015-06-15

    Whole cell biosensors have been extensively used for monitoring toxicity and contamination of various compounds and xenobiotics in environmental biology and microbial ecology; their application in the pharmaceutical and cosmetics industries has been limited. According to several pharmacopoeias, pharmaceutical products must be tested for microbial activity using traditional viable count techniques; the use of whole cell microbial biosensors potentially provides an alternative, fast, and efficient method. However there is a lack of a validated bioluminescence method. Prototype whole cell microbial biosensors have already been developed in Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027. Validation of the bioluminescent strains was performed in accordance with the pharmacopoeia, Parenteral Drug Association and International Organisation of Standardisation. These strains demonstrated that the bioluminescent method was accurate, precise and equivalent, as compared with plate counting at a range of 10(3)-10(7) CFU/mL. Percentage recoveries using the bioluminescent method were between 70% and 130% for all bioluminescent strains and therefore the bioluminescent method was accurate according to the criteria set in PDA technical report 33. The method was also more precise (relative standard deviation less than 15%) than the traditional plate counting method or the ATP bioluminescent method. The lower limit of detection was 10(3) CFU/mL. Two-way ANOVA showed no significant difference between the traditional plate counting and the novel bioluminescent method for all bioluminescent strains. The bioluminescent constructs passed/exceeded pharmacopoeia-specified criteria for range, limit of detection, accuracy, precision and equivalence. PMID:25618377

  4. A critical overview of homeopathy.

    PubMed

    Jonas, Wayne B; Kaptchuk, Ted J; Linde, Klaus

    2003-03-01

    Homeopathy is a 200-year-old therapeutic system that uses small doses of various substances to stimulate autoregulatory and self-healing processes. Homeopathy selects substances by matching a patient's symptoms with symptoms produced by these substances in healthy individuals. Medicines are prepared by serial dilution and shaking, which proponents claim imprints information into water. Although many conventional physicians find such notions implausible, homeopathy had a prominent place in 19th-century health care and has recently undergone a worldwide revival. In the United States, patients who seek homeopathic care are more affluent and younger and more often seek treatment for subjective symptoms than those who seek conventional care. Homeopathic remedies were allowed by the 1939 Pure Food and Drug Act and are available over the counter. Some data--both from randomized, controlled trials and laboratory research--show effects from homeopathic remedies that contradict the contemporary rational basis of medicine. Three independent systematic reviews of placebo-controlled trials on homeopathy reported that its effects seem to be more than placebo, and one review found its effects consistent with placebo. There is also evidence from randomized, controlled trials that homeopathy may be effective for the treatment of influenza, allergies, postoperative ileus, and childhood diarrhea. Evidence suggests that homeopathy is ineffective for migraine, delayed-onset muscle soreness, and influenza prevention. There is a lack of conclusive evidence on the effectiveness of homeopathy for most conditions. Homeopathy deserves an open-minded opportunity to demonstrate its value by using evidence-based principles, but it should not be substituted for proven therapies. PMID:12614092

  5. Enzyme stabilization by glass-derived silicates in glass-exposed aqueous solutions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ives, J.A.; Moffett, J.R.; Arun, P.; Lam, D.; Todorov, T.I.; Brothers, A.B.; Anick, D.J.; Centeno, J.; Namboodiri, M.A.A.; Jonas, W.B.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To analyze the solutes leaching from glass containers into aqueous solutions, and to show that these solutes have enzyme activity stabilizing effects in very dilute solutions. Methods: Enzyme assays with acetylcholine esterase were used to analyze serially succussed and diluted (SSD) solutions prepared in glass and plastic containers. Aqueous SSD preparations starting with various solutes, or water alone, were prepared under several conditions, and tested for their solute content and their ability to affect enzyme stability in dilute solution. Results: We confirm that water acts to dissolve constituents from glass vials, and show that the solutes derived from the glass have effects on enzymes in the resultant solutions. Enzyme assays demonstrated that enzyme stability in purified and deionized water was enhanced in SSD solutions that were prepared in glass containers, but not those prepared in plastic. The increased enzyme stability could be mimicked in a dose-dependent manner by the addition of silicates to the purified, deionized water that enzymes were dissolved in. Elemental analyses of SSD water preparations made in glass vials showed that boron, silicon, and sodium were present at micromolar concentrations. Conclusions: These results show that silicates and other solutes are present at micromolar levels in all glass-exposed solutions, whether pharmaceutical or homeopathic in nature. Even though silicates are known to have biological activity at higher concentrations, the silicate concentrations we measured in homeopathic preparations were too low to account for any purported in vivo efficacy, but could potentially influence in vitro biological assays reporting homeopathic effects. ?? 2009 The Faculty of Homeopathy.

  6. [Patient admission and induced abortion. A different mode: homeopathy and sophrology].

    PubMed

    Tregan, D; Cailleux-Kreitmann, J; Nègre-Garnier, C

    1994-03-01

    Unlike classic allopathic medicine in which specific drugs are given for specific symptoms, homeopathic prescriptions take into account the specificity of each patient. Different patients have different reactions to the same illness. Homeopathic practitioners sometimes prescribe different remedies for each patient suffering a particular illness. Two nurses and a midwife at the abortion service of the Center for Social Gynecology in Marseilles received training in homeopathic medicine which they applied to their work with abortion patients. A very complete and detailed questioning is necessary to identify the prescription that will be best adapted to the overall psychological, somatic, and etiological circumstances of the patient. Changes noted since the beginning of the pregnancy are especially noted. During the medical consultation, homeopathy may be proposed by the physician for patients who are particularly stressed. The anxiety and fear experienced by the referred patients can have physical consequences. The opportunity given to the patient to express herself and the individualized remedies prescribed enable the procedure to be completed under better conditions. Sophrology is the study of consciousness, its modifications, and the physical, psychological, and physiological means that can modify it for therapeutic or prophylactic purposes. A psychiatrist in Barcelona developed sophrology and began to teach it in 1960. The goal of sophrology is to achieve mental relaxation through muscular relaxation. Application of the principles of sophrology in an abortion service must be adapted to the structure and function of the service. Most patients have no knowledge of the method. Explanations must be rapid, clear, and simplified if patients are to obtain benefit. The practitioner instructs the patient in a calm voice to be aware of and maintain breathing, and uses positive words to suggest that the patient relax. Personnel with adequate training in sophrology can assist

  7. Comparative efficacy of two microdoses of a potentized homoeopathic drug, Cadmium Sulphoricum, in reducing genotoxic effects produced by cadmium chloride in mice: a time course study

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Swapna S; Mallick, Palash P; Rahman Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur AR

    2001-01-01

    Background Cadmium poisoning in the environment has assumed an alarming problem in recent years. Effective antimutagenic agents which can reverse or combat cadmium induced genotoxicity in mice have not yet been reported. Therefore, in the present study, following the homeopathic principle of "like cures like", we tested the efficacy of two potencies of a homeopathic drug, Cadmium Sulphoricum (Cad Sulph), in reducing the genotoxic effects of Cadmium chloride in mice. Another objective was to determine the relative efficacy of three administrative modes, i.e. pre-, post- and combined pre and post-feeding of the homeopathic drugs. For this, healthy mice, Mus musculus, were intraperitoneally injected with 0.008% solution of CdCl2 @ 1 ml/100 gm of body wt (i.e. 0.8 mcg/gm of bw), and assessed for the genotoxic effects through such studies as chromosome aberrations (CA), micronucleated erythrocytes (MNE), mitotic index (MI) and sperm head anomaly (SHA), keeping suitable succussed alcohol fed (positive) and CdCl2 untreated normal (negative) controls. The CdCl2 treated mice were divided into 3 subgroups, which were orally administered with the drug prior to, after and both prior to and after injection of CdCl2 at specific fixation intervals and their genotoxic effects were analyzed. Results While the CA, MNE and SHA were reduced in the drug fed series as compared to their respective controls, the MI showed an apparent increase. The combined pre- and post-feeding of Cad Sulph showed maximum reduction of the genotoxic effects. Conclusions Both Cad Sulph-30 and 200 were able to combat cadmium induced genotoxic effects in mice and that combined pre- and post-feeding mode of administration was found to be most effective in reducing the genotoxic effect of CdCl2 followed by the post-feeding mode. PMID:11737881

  8. How far can complementary and alternative medicine go? The case of chiropractic and homeopathy.

    PubMed

    Kelner, Merrijoy; Wellman, Beverly; Welsh, Sandy; Boon, Heather

    2006-11-01

    This paper examines the efforts of two complementary and alternative occupations, chiropractors and homeopaths, to move from the margins to the mainstream in health care in the province of Ontario. We use a variety of theoretical perspectives to understand how health occupations professionalize: the trait functionalist framework, social closure, the system of professions, and the concept of countervailing powers. The research traces the strategies that the leaders of the two groups are employing, as well as the resources they are able to marshal. These are analyzed within the context of the larger institutional and cultural environment. The data are derived from in-person interviews with 16 leaders (10 chiropractic and 6 homeopathic) identified through professional associations, teaching institutions and informants from the groups. The responses were analyzed with qualitative content analysis. We also used archival materials to document what the leaders were telling us. The data revealed four main strategies: (1) improving the quality of educational programs, (2) elevating standards of practice, (3) developing more peer reviewed research, and (4) increasing group cohesion. Although both groups identified similar strategies, the chiropractors were bolstered by more resources as well as state sanctioned regulation. The efforts of the homeopaths were constrained by scarce resources and the absence of self-regulation. In both cases the lack of strong structural support from government and the established health professions played an important role in limiting what was possible. In the future, it may be to the state's advantage to modify the overall shape of health care to include alternative paradigms of healing along with conventional medical care. Such a shift would put complementary and alternative medicine occupations in a better position to advance professionally and become formal elements of the established health care system. PMID:16926065

  9. Ernst Haeckel's biodynamics 1866 and the occult basis of organic farming.

    PubMed

    Kutschera, Ulrich

    2016-07-01

    One hundred and 50 years ago (Sept. 1866), Ernst Haeckel published a monograph entitled General Morphology of Organisms, wherein key terms, such as Protista, Monera, ontogeny, phylogeny, ecology and the 'biogenetic law' where introduced. In addition, Haeckel coined the word "biodynamics" as a synonym for "general physiology." In contrast, Rudolf Steiner's "biodynamic agriculture," which originated in 1924, and was promoted via Ehrenfried Pfeiffer's book of 1938 with the same title, is an occult pseudoscience still popular today. The misuse of Haeckel's term to legitimize disproven homeopathic principles and esoteric rules within the context of applied plant research is unacceptable. PMID:27322020

  10. Natural remedies recommended for the management of oral health.

    PubMed

    Ocasio, N A; Solomowitz, B H; Sher, M R

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses various practices recommended by homeopaths, herbalists, spiritual and natural healers for the management and maintenance of oral health. It is intended as a partial guide to educate the dental professional on self-administered, over-the-counter remedies that are easily available to the general population. Since few if any clinical studies exist assessing the efficacy or side effects of these ingested products, little is known about the beneficial or potentially harmful course these remedies may take on the human body. PMID:10474992

  11. ["A change in medical thinking?" or "over-eager literary activity?" August Bier, homeopathy and the Nobel Prize 1906-1936].

    PubMed

    Hansson, Nils

    2015-01-01

    This essay explains the nomination and evaluation procedure for the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine. Its research is based on original files and on the example of August Karl Gustav Bier (1861-1949). It discusses the minutes of the Nobel Committee for physiology or medicine, which are kept in the Nobel Archives, as well as the unusually high number of nominations of August Bier and the nominations submitted by him; it also describes the reasons why August Bier, in the end, never received the Nobel Prize. The essay focuses mainly on the reception of Bier's homeopathic theses by the Nobel Prize Committee and his nominators. PMID:26137648

  12. Patient-practitioner-remedy (PPR) entanglement. Part 2: Extending the metaphor for homeopathy using molecular quantum theory.

    PubMed

    Milgrom, L R

    2003-01-01

    A quantum metaphor developed previously for homeopathy, involving triadic patient-practitioner-remedy (PPR) entanglement, is extended by importing concepts used in chemistry to describe the electronic structures of molecules. In particular, the electronic energy states of triangular tri-atomic molecules are used metaphorically to predict that (a) the more a homeopathic medicine is potentised, the deeper the level of cure is likely to be, and (b) the practitioner can be included as a beneficiary of the therapeutic process. The model also predicts that remedy attenuation and degree of PRR interaction could (in the quantum theoretical sense) represent a pair of complementary conjugate variables. PMID:12587993

  13. ‘Nosodes’ are no substitute for vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Rieder, Michael J; Robinson, Joan L

    2015-01-01

    A growing antivaccine movement in Canada and elsewhere is hearing more about an unproven homeopathic therapy, ‘nosodes’, as an alternative to routine vaccines. The present statement defines nosodes and describes limitations for their use in children. There is scant evidence in the medical literature for either the efficacy or safety of nosodes, which have not been well studied for the prevention of any infectious disease in humans. Recommendations to change the labelling on these products to reflect such limitations are made. PMID:26038642

  14. Novel, Alternative, and Controversial Therapies of Rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Surda, Pavol; Fokkens, Wytske J

    2016-05-01

    Rhinitis is a multifactorial disease characterized by sneezing, rhinorrhea, postnasal drip, and nasal congestion. This condition affects 10% to 40% of the population and is responsible for billions of spent health care dollars and impairment in quality of life for those affected. Currently available medical and vaccine therapies are effective for a large segment of this population; however, a subset of patients still has difficult-to-control rhinitis. This article reviews the current progress being made in novel drug and vaccine development and delves into alternative medical, surgical, and homeopathic strategies that may be promising adjunctive treatments for the difficult-to-treat rhinitis patient. PMID:27083111

  15. Immunology and Homeopathy. 4. Clinical Studies—Part 1

    PubMed Central

    Bellavite, Paolo; Ortolani, Riccardo; Pontarollo, Francesco; Piasere, Valeria; Benato, Giovanni; Conforti, Anita

    2006-01-01

    The evidence-based research of the effectiveness of homeopathic medicines in common immunologic disorders is reviewed. In part 1, we introduce methodological issues of clinical research in homeopathy, and criteria utilized to evaluate the literature. Then 24 studies (12 randomized and 12 non-randomized) on common upper respiratory tract infections and otorhinolaryngologic complaints are described. In part 2, the focus will be on allergic diseases and the effectiveness of homeopathy will be globally evaluated and discussed using the criteria of evidence-based medicine. PMID:16951713

  16. Health insurance and use of alternative medicine in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    van Gameren, Edwin

    2014-01-01

    Objectives I analyze the effect of coverage by health insurance on the use of alternative medicine such as folk healers and homeopaths, in particular if it complements or substitutes conventional services. Methods Panel data from the Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS) is used to estimate bivariate probit models in order to explain the use of alternative medicine while allowing the determinant of interest, access to health insurance, to be an endogenous factor. Results The findings indicate that households with insurance coverage less often use alternative medicine, and that the effect is much stronger among poor than among rich households. Conclusions Poor households substitute away from traditional medicine towards conventional medicine. PMID:20546965

  17. Neem oil: an herbal therapy for alopecia causes dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Reutemann, Patricia; Ehrlich, Alison

    2008-01-01

    For more than 2,000 years, the neem tree has been considered one of the most useful and versatile plants in the world. Neem oil has been used for both homeopathic remedies and as a pesticide. Both systemic and contact reactions have occurred with the use of neem oil. We report a patient who presented with an acute case of contact dermatitis on the scalp and face after the use of neem oil for alopecia and present a review of the literature regarding its uses, toxicity, and regulation. PMID:18627678

  18. Advice offered by practitioners of complementary/ alternative medicine: an important ethical issue.

    PubMed

    Ernst, E

    2009-12-01

    The current popularity of complementary/alternative medicine (CAM) generates many challenges to medical ethics. The one discussed here is the advice offered by CAM practitioners. Using selected examples, the author tries to demonstrate that some of the advice issued through the popular media or provided by acupuncturists, chiropractors, herbalists, homeopaths, pharmacists, and doctors is misleading or dangerous. This, the author argues, can impinge on the main principle of medical ethics: beneficence, nonmaleficence, and autonomy. We should work toward correcting this deplorable situation. PMID:19926607

  19. An exploration of the relationship between placebo and homeopathy and the implications for clinical trial design.

    PubMed

    Haresnape, Claire

    2013-01-01

    Placebo appears to be a real neurobiological phenomenon that has evolved through the selection pressure to be able to heal ourselves. The complex language and social structures of humans means that we can attribute meaning to therapeutic encounters with culturally sanctioned authority figures and we can use our attachment to such figures to generate hope for recovery. Different mechanisms may be involved in the neurobiological aspect of placebo including anxiety, learning, conditioning as well as individual genetic variation. Examination of the published work shows that while some trials do seem to indicate a specific mode of action for homeopathic remedies other trials do not and this is an issue that needs to be addressed at the trial design stage. A clinical trial that includes both a placebo group and a non-participating control arm is the most powerful design for separating the non-specific and polymorphic placebo effect from the specific effects of trial medication. The control variables in a trial of homeopathic medication should also include the process of consultation as this may assume a meaning for the individual that can also be associated with a placebo effect. PMID:24040505

  20. A gentle ethical defence of homeopathy.

    PubMed

    Levy, David; Gadd, Ben; Kerridge, Ian; Komesaroff, Paul A

    2015-06-01

    Recent discourses about the legitimacy of homeopathy have focused on its scientific plausibility, mechanism of action, and evidence base. These, frequently, conclude not only that homeopathy is scientifically baseless, but that it is "unethical." They have also diminished patients' perspectives, values, and preferences. We contend that these critics confuse epistemic questions with questions of ethics, misconstrue the moral status of homeopaths, and have an impoverished idea of ethics-one that fails to account either for the moral worth of care and of relationships or for the perspectives, values, and preferences of patients. Utilitarian critics, in particular, endeavour to present an objective evaluation-a type of moral calculus-quantifying the utilities and disutilities of homeopathy as a justification for the exclusion of homeopathy from research and health care. But these critiques are built upon a narrow formulation of evidence and care and a diminished episteme that excludes the values and preferences of researchers, homeopaths, and patients engaged in the practice of homeopathy. We suggest that homeopathy is ethical as it fulfils the needs and expectations of many patients; may be practiced safely and prudentially; values care and the virtues of the therapeutic relationship; and provides important benefits for patients. PMID:25037244

  1. Traumeel S® for pain relief following hallux valgus surgery: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In spite of recent advances in post-operative pain relief, pain following orthopedic surgery remains an ongoing challenge for clinicians. We examined whether a well known and frequently prescribed homeopathic preparation could mitigate post-operative pain. Method We performed a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of the homeopathic preparation Traumeel S® in minimizing post-operative pain and analgesic consumption following surgical correction of hallux valgus. Eighty consecutive patients were randomized to receive either Traumeel tablets or an indistinguishable placebo, and took primary and rescue oral analgesics as needed. Maximum numerical pain scores at rest and consumption of oral analgesics were recorded on day of surgery and for 13 days following surgery. Results Traumeel was not found superior to placebo in minimizing pain or analgesic consumption over the 14 days of the trial, however a transient reduction in the daily maximum post-operative pain score favoring the Traumeel arm was observed on the day of surgery, a finding supported by a treatment-time interaction test (p = 0.04). Conclusions Traumeel was not superior to placebo in minimizing pain or analgesic consumption over the 14 days of the trial. A transient reduction in the daily maximum post-operative pain score on the day of surgery is of questionable clinical importance. Trial Registration This study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov. # NCT00279513 PMID:20380750

  2. Use of and interest in alternative therapies among adult primary care clinicians and adult members in a large health maintenance organization.

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, N P; Sobel, D S; Tarazona, E Z

    1998-01-01

    During spring 1996, random samples of adult primary care physicians, obstetrics-gynecology physicians and nurse practitioners, and adult members of a large northern California group practice model health maintenance organization (HMO) were surveyed by mail to assess the use of alternative therapies and the extent of interest in having them incorporated into HMO-delivered care. Sixty-one percent (n = 624) of adult primary care physicians, 70% (n = 157) of obstetrics-gynecology clinicians, and 50% (2 surveys, n = 1,507 and n = 17,735) of adult HMO members responded. During the previous 12 months, 25% of adults reported using and nearly 90% of adult primary care physicians and obstetrics-gynecology clinicians reported recommending at least 1 alternative therapy, primarily for pain management. Chiropractic, acupuncture, massage, and behavioral medicine techniques such as meditation and relaxation training were most often cited. Obstetrics-gynecology clinicians used herbal and homeopathic medicines more often than adult primary care physicians, primarily for menopause and premenstrual syndrome. Two thirds of adult primary care physicians and three fourths of obstetrics-gynecology clinicians were at least moderately interested in using alternative therapies with patients, and nearly 70% of young and middle-aged adult and half of senior adult members were interested in having alternative therapies incorporated into their health care. Adult primary care physicians and members were more interested in having the HMO cover manipulative and behavioral medicine therapies than homeopathic or herbal medicines. PMID:9771154

  3. Use of and interest in alternative therapies among adult primary care clinicians and adult members in a large health maintenance organization.

    PubMed

    Gordon, N P; Sobel, D S; Tarazona, E Z

    1998-09-01

    During spring 1996, random samples of adult primary care physicians, obstetrics-gynecology physicians and nurse practitioners, and adult members of a large northern California group practice model health maintenance organization (HMO) were surveyed by mail to assess the use of alternative therapies and the extent of interest in having them incorporated into HMO-delivered care. Sixty-one percent (n = 624) of adult primary care physicians, 70% (n = 157) of obstetrics-gynecology clinicians, and 50% (2 surveys, n = 1,507 and n = 17,735) of adult HMO members responded. During the previous 12 months, 25% of adults reported using and nearly 90% of adult primary care physicians and obstetrics-gynecology clinicians reported recommending at least 1 alternative therapy, primarily for pain management. Chiropractic, acupuncture, massage, and behavioral medicine techniques such as meditation and relaxation training were most often cited. Obstetrics-gynecology clinicians used herbal and homeopathic medicines more often than adult primary care physicians, primarily for menopause and premenstrual syndrome. Two thirds of adult primary care physicians and three fourths of obstetrics-gynecology clinicians were at least moderately interested in using alternative therapies with patients, and nearly 70% of young and middle-aged adult and half of senior adult members were interested in having alternative therapies incorporated into their health care. Adult primary care physicians and members were more interested in having the HMO cover manipulative and behavioral medicine therapies than homeopathic or herbal medicines. PMID:9771154

  4. Immunology and Homeopathy. 1. Historical Background

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Homeopathy was born as an experimental discipline, as can be seen from the enormous amount of homeopathic data collected over more than two centuries. However, the medical tradition of homeopathy has been separated from that of conventional science for a long time. Conventional scientific wisdom dictates that homeopathy should have no effect above placebo but experiments on ultra-high dilutions of solutes together with some clinical data suggest the intriguing possibility that it might do in some circumstances. Today, an osmotic process between disciplines, previously seen as in conflict, is facilitated because over the last few decades homeopathy has initiated the methods of current medical science and a substantial number of experimental studies—at molecular, cellular and clinical levels—are available. One area of dialogue and of common progress is that of inflammation and immunity, probably because these are closely related to the traditional ‘vital force’ of the body's self-healing power. In a series of papers we review the historical origins of homeopathy, the laboratory and animal models related to the field of immunopharmacology, the clinical evidence in favor and against the use of homeopathy in the inflammatory diseases and the hypotheses regarding its action mechanism(s). Finally, we will enlighten the specific characteristics of the homeopathic approach, which places great emphasis on identifying a cure for the whole organism. PMID:16322800

  5. Endogenous morphine: up-to-date review 2011.

    PubMed

    Stefano, G B; Ptáček, R; Kuželová, H; Kream, R M

    2012-01-01

    Positive evolutionary pressure has apparently preserved the ability to synthesize chemically authentic morphine, albeit in homeopathic concentrations, throughout animal phyla. Despite the establishment of a progressively rigorous and mechanistically focused historical literature extending from the mid 1970s to the mid 1980s that supported the expression of chemically authentic morphine by animal cellular and organ systems, prejudicial scepticism and early dismissal by scientists and clinicians most often obscured widespread acceptance of the biological importance and medical implications of endogenous morphine. The current critical paper presents and evaluates key recent coordinated studies in endogenous morphine research, highlighting those that have advanced our understanding of the functional roles of cognate alkaloid-selective μ(3) and μ(4) opiate receptors. We propose that the expression of endogenous morphine by animal and human cells is designed to mediate homeopathic regulation of metabolic activity via activation of cognate μ(3) and μ(4) receptors that serve as transductive conduits for shortcircuit Ca(++) fluxes. The implications of endogenous morphine coupling to nitric oxide regulation of mitochondrial function, with special reference to the cardiovascular system, are now formulated after many years of neglect. PMID:22578954

  6. An exploration of the relationship between placebo and homeopathy and the implications for clinical trial design

    PubMed Central

    Haresnape, Claire

    2013-01-01

    Placebo appears to be a real neurobiological phenomenon that has evolved through the selection pressure to be able to heal ourselves. The complex language and social structures of humans means that we can attribute meaning to therapeutic encounters with culturally sanctioned authority figures and we can use our attachment to such figures to generate hope for recovery. Different mechanisms may be involved in the neurobiological aspect of placebo including anxiety, learning, conditioning as well as individual genetic variation. Examination of the published work shows that while some trials do seem to indicate a specific mode of action for homeopathic remedies other trials do not and this is an issue that needs to be addressed at the trial design stage. A clinical trial that includes both a placebo group and a non-participating control arm is the most powerful design for separating the non-specific and polymorphic placebo effect from the specific effects of trial medication. The control variables in a trial of homeopathic medication should also include the process of consultation as this may assume a meaning for the individual that can also be associated with a placebo effect. PMID:24040505

  7. [Memoirs on Chlorodyne and Shinyaku].

    PubMed

    Ohashi, K

    1999-01-01

    Dr. J. Collins Browne, a British army surgeon in India, invented a secret remedy for cholera-infected patients in the fifth decade of the 19th century. After his resignation from the army, the formula was given to a pharmacist in London for the purpose of manufacture and marketing as a patented medicine named Chlorodyne. Chlorodyne was well-accepted as paregoric for several decades. The formula of Chlorodyne was adopted in the 3rd Revision of the British Pharmacopoeia (1885) as "Compound Tincture of Chloroform and Morphine." In 1906, the 3rd Revision of Japanese Pharmacopoeia listed "Compound Tincture and Morphine" according to the formula of the 4th Revision of British Pharmacopoeia (1898). References written in 1870 and 1873 recorded the importation of Chlorodyne to Japan. In 1871, Dr. Jyun Matsumoto, Chief Military Surgeon Major General advised the manufacturers of traditional medicines to produce patented medicines to spread in western countries. Preparations of formula seeming to resemble Chlorodyne was named "Shinyaku" and were marketed from 1872. The name Shinyaku represented a medicine of marvellous efficacy, because the word split, Shin and Yaku, means "divine or almighty" and "medicine," respectively. Although the orginal formula of Shinyaku was not preserved, modifications of the formula were made to meet legal restrictions over the change of time. Needless to say, Morphine hydrochloride, Diluted hydrocyanic acid and tincture of Indian hemp were replaced with other ingredients to assure safety and lately Chloroform deleted from the formula as well. Shinyaku enjoyed good sales for a long time owing to its efficacy of restorative and refrigerant. PMID:11624349

  8. [Simultaneous separation and detection of principal component isomer and related substances of raw material drug of ammonium glycyrrhizinate by RP-HPLC and structure confirmation].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan-Yan; Liu, Li-Yan; Han, Yuan-Yuan; Li, Yue-Qiu; Wang, Yan; Shi, Min-Jian

    2013-08-01

    A simple, fast and sensitive analytical method for the simultaneous separation and detection of 18alpha-glycyrrhizinic acid, 18beta-glycyrrhizinic acid, related substance A and related substance B by RP-HPLC and drug quality standard was established. The structures of principal component isomer and related substances of raw material drug of ammonium glycyrrhizinate have been confirmed. Reference European Pharmacopoeia EP7.0 version, British Pharmacopoeia 2012 version, National Drug Standards of China (WS 1-XG-2002), domestic and international interrelated literature were referred to select the composition of mobile phase. The experimental parameters including salt concentration, pH, addition quantities of organic solvent, column temperature and flow rate were optimized. Finally, the assay was conducted on a Durashell-C18 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm) with 0.01 mol x mL(-1) ammonium perchlorate (add ammonia to adjust the pH value to 8.2) -methanol (48 : 52) as mobile phase at the flow rate of 0.8 mL x min(-1), and the detection wavelength was set at 254 nm. The column temperature was 50 degrees C and the injection volume was 10 microL. The MS, NMR, UV and RP-HPLC were used to confirm the structures of principal component isomer and related substances of raw material drug of ammonium glycyrrhizinate. Under the optimized separation conditions, the calibration curves of 18 alpha-glycyrrhizinic acid, 18beta-glycyrrhizinic acid, related substance A and related substance B showed good linearity within the concentration of 0.50-100 microg x mL(-1) (r = 0.999 9). The detection limits for 18alpha-glycyrrhizinic acid, 18beta-glycyrrhizinic acid, related substance A and related substance B were 0.15, 0.10, 0.10, 0.15 microg x mL(-1) respectively. The method is sensitive, reproducible and the results are accurate and reliable. It can be used for chiral resolution of 18alpha-glycyrrhizinic acid, 18Pbeta-glycyrrhizinic acid, and detection content of principal component and

  9. The importance of weeds in ethnopharmacology.

    PubMed

    Stepp, J R; Moerman, D E

    2001-04-01

    Tropical primary forest is often considered to be the most important habitat for traditional peoples to gather medicinal plants. However, the role of weeds, commonly found in disturbed areas, in traditional medicinal floras has been overlooked. Data are presented showing the significant representation of weeds in the medicinal floras of the Highland Maya in Chiapas, Mexico and in the medicinal flora of Native North Americans as a whole. The frequency with which weeds appear in these pharmacopoeias is significantly larger (P<0.0001) than what would be predicted by the frequency of weed species in general. Explanations based on human ecology and biochemical ecology are presented. PMID:11282438

  10. Use of experimental design and effective mobility calculations to develop a method for the determination of antimicrobials by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Mamani, Mónica Cecília Vargas; Amaya-Farfan, Jaime; Reyes, Felix Guillermo Reyes; Silva, José Alberto Fracassi da; Rath, Susanne

    2008-09-15

    A capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) method for the determination of chloramphenicol (CLP), danofloxacin (DANO), ciprofloxacin (CIPRO), enrofloxacin (ENRO), sulfamethazine (SMZ), sulfaquinoxaline (SQX) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) is described. For the development, the effective mobilities were estimated and a central composite design was performed. The method was in-house validated for CLP, CIPRO, ENRO and SMX determination in pharmaceuticals. In comparison with the HPLC method recommended by the United States Pharmacopoeia, this CZE method exhibited the same performance, with the advantage that seven different antimicrobials in pharmaceutical formulations could be simultaneously determined. PMID:18761147

  11. Anti-inflammatory activity of root bark and stem bark of Shyonaka

    PubMed Central

    Doshi, Krunal; Ilanchezhian, R; Acharya, Rabinarayan; Patel, B. R.; Ravishankar, B.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Shyonaka (Oroxylum indicum Vent.; Bignoniaceae) root bark is one of the ingredients of dashamoola (a group of 10 roots), and is used for its anti-inflammatory and analgesic action in a number of compound formulations in Ayurveda. Aim: Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (API) recommends using the stem bark instead of root bark. Material and Methods: An attempt has been made to study the anti-inflammatory activity of both root bark and stem bark kashaya (decoction) experimentally. Conclusion Results showed significant anti-inflammatory activity of root bark and stem bark decoction. PMID:23326090

  12. Modern industrial and pharmacological applications of indigo dye and its derivatives--a review.

    PubMed

    Stasiak, Natalia; Kukuła-Koch, Wirginia; Głowniak, Kazimierz

    2014-01-01

    Plant sources, chemical properties, bioactivities, as well as the synthesis of indigo dye and its derivatives, are reviewed in this paper. These compounds were chosen because of their significant benefits and scope of application as both coloring agents in the textile industry and as pharmacologically active natural products. Their use in traditional chinese medicine (TCM) has directed the attention of European researchers and medical doctors alike. The preparation of indigoferous plants--Indigo naturalis is currently about to be introduced into the European Pharmacopoeia. PMID:25272640

  13. Nootropic herbs (Medhya Rasayana) in Ayurveda: An update

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Reena; Girish, K. J.; Kumar, Abhimanyu

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive deficits that present with many of neuropsychiatric conditions and/or alone as developmental deficit demand use of nootropics to boost cognitive abilities. Recently there is a tremendous urge to explore medicinal plants globally for improving cognitive function owing to their less adverse effects. Ayurveda provides a list of herbs known for nootropic activity as well as their multi-dimensional utility in various conditions. Present paper is a review to update knowledge on pharmacological properties, major chemical constituents, therapeutic actions, preclinical studies, safety and possible mode of action of the selected herbs from ayurvedic pharmacopoeia. Concurrently, it opens up for further research and standardization on nootropic herbs PMID:23055641

  14. [Regulatory aspects and medicolegal considerations regarding clinical drug trials].

    PubMed

    Cammarano, Andrea; De Dominicis, Enrico; Marella, Gian Luca; Maurici, Massimo; Arcudi, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to explore the regulatory and medicolegal aspects of experimental drug trials. Firstly, the authors provide definitions of drug according to WHO, the European Community and our official Pharmacopoeia, and that of experimental studies. They then explain the distinction between pure or basic research and drug trials and explain the various phases of the latter. Besides providing definitions, and exploring doctrinal, theoretical but also practical aspects of drug trials, the authors also discuss and analyze legislative aspects, with particular reference to the Italian legislative framework, and medicolegal issues, including informed consent, effects on humans, and professional responsibility. PMID:27336959

  15. [Summary and analysis of safety warning on clinical application of anti-cold Chinese patent medicine preparations].

    PubMed

    Lai, Xiao-xiao; Lin, Hua; Luo, Yi-ni; Wang, Ying-yan; Duan, Xiao-hong; Wang, Lin; Luo, Rui; Chen, Yan-hong

    2015-04-01

    In China, many surveys have shown that most people do not have a correct understanding about cold and administration of anti-cold Chinese patent medicine preparations. The author conducted a systematic summary and analysis on the actual application of anti-cold Chinese patent medicine preparations as well as the warning on safe application of anti-cold Chinese patent medicine preparations in Clinical Medication Information of China Pharmacopoeia, in the expectation of reducing the blind application of anti-cold Chinese patent medicine preparations and providing traditional Chinese medicine pharmacists new ideas in monitoring the safe application of exterior syndrome-relieving Chinese patent medicine preparations. PMID:26281605

  16. Content uniformity and assay requirements in current regulations.

    PubMed

    Bánfai, Balázs; Ganzler, Katalin; Kemény, Sándor

    2007-07-13

    The acceptance of a tablet batch is based both on the content uniformity test and on the assay. It is shown that these two characteristics are not independent, and the acceptance criteria for them are not even consistent. For content uniformity range three methods of calculation are compared: the present European Pharmacopoeia method, a tolerance range method with improved k tolerance factor and a one-way random effects analysis of variance model. To resolve the inconsistency several options are discussed: applying the holistic content uniformity range alone; using content uniformity standard deviation and assay mean simultaneously or applying a criterion based on Taguchi's quadratic loss function. PMID:17109871

  17. Antimicrobial properties of Honduran medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Lentz, D L; Clark, A M; Hufford, C D; Meurer-Grimes, B; Passreiter, C M; Cordero, J; Ibrahimi, O; Okunade, A L

    1998-12-01

    Ninety-two plants used in the traditional pharmacopoeia of the Pech and neighboring Mestizo peoples of central Honduras are reported. The results of in vitro antimicrobial screens showed that 19 of the extracts from medicinal plants revealed signs of antifungal activity while 22 demonstrated a measurable inhibitory effect on one or more bacterial cultures. Bioassay-guided fractionation of extracts from Mikania micrantha, Neurolaena lobata and Piper aduncum produced weak to moderately active isolates. The broad spectrum of activity of the extracts helps to explain the widespread use of these plants for wound healing and other applications. PMID:10030730

  18. [Determination of saponosides from Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer. Comparison of official methods and HPLC].

    PubMed

    Guédon, D; Abbe, P; Cappelaere, N; Rames, N

    1989-01-01

    Official methods for determination of ginsenosides of the French and Helvetic Pharmacopoeias have been compared with HPLC method. Sample preparation schemes used are those of monographs with conventional solvent extraction and solid phase extraction with a polar and a non-polar sorbents, respectively kieselguhr and C 18 octadecyl. Liquid-solid sample clean-up with C 18 cartridge is the most effective procedure. Prior HPLC method, an hydrolysis step of malonylginsenosides is necessary. Very selective extraction resulting in highly purified solution authorizes reliable and rapid colorimetric determination from ginseng saponosides. PMID:2634933

  19. [The solubility and in vivo-in vitro correlation of naltrexone].

    PubMed

    Navarro Guerrero, J; Ruiz Ramirez, J C; Lorduy Oses, L

    1998-01-01

    The dissolution of three dosages of Naltrexone tablets was studied, there being no monograph of this active principle in the most commonplace pharmacopoeia. The dissolution parameters were calculated "in vitro", then a correlation model was applied to determine the relationship between these parameters and the "in vivo" pharmacokinetic parameters of Naltrexone at each dosage level and also their degree of association. The regression lines between the "in vivo" and "in vitro" parameters were then plotted. Three C level correlations were obtained as per USP 23 between the pharmacokinetic parameter Cmax and the dissolution parameters 1/T50, E.D.30 and kd. The dissolution test conditions were also validated. PMID:9595829

  20. The rainbow hurts my skin: medicinal concepts and plants uses among the Yanesha (Amuesha), an Amazonian Peruvian ethnic group.

    PubMed

    Valadeau, Céline; Castillo, Joaquina Alban; Sauvain, Michel; Lores, Augusto Francis; Bourdy, Geneviève

    2010-01-01

    Yanesha, also called Amuesha, is a group of amerindian people, belonging to the arawak linguistic family. They dwell in the central region of Peru, at the oriental foothills of the Andes. Their territory covers a large range of ecological settings, and communities spread from 1800 down to 400 m/snm. The Yanesha culture is vivid to this day, and people strongly rely on traditional medicine in their everyday life. An exhaustive ethnopharmacological survey leads us to collect 249 species with medicinal uses. An overview of the Yanesha pharmacopoeia, linked with ethnomedicinal practices is presented in this paper. PMID:19835943

  1. Is It Time to Beta Block the Septic Patient?

    PubMed

    Pemberton, Philip; Veenith, Tonny; Snelson, Catherine; Whitehouse, Tony

    2015-01-01

    Beta blockers are some of the most studied drugs in the pharmacopoeia. They are already widely used in medicine for treating hypertension, chronic heart failure, tachyarrhythmias, and tremor. Whilst their use in the immediate perioperative patient has been questioned, the use of esmolol in the patients with established septic shock has been recently reported to have favourable outcomes. In this paper, we review the role of the adrenergic system in sepsis and the evidence for the use of beta stimulation and beta blockers from animal models to critically ill patients. PMID:26557668

  2. Particles in small volume injections.

    PubMed

    Taylor, S A; Spence, J

    1983-12-01

    The level of particulate contamination in small volume injections has been examined using the light blockage (HIAC) and electrical sensing zone (Coulter counter) techniques, the HIAC system being found to be the more suitable. Particle counts on the same batch of injection showed a large and variable difference between the HIAC and the Coulter counter results, especially below 5 micron. None of the injections examined complied with the British Pharmacopoeia limits for particulates in large volume parenterals, suggesting the unsuitability of the limits for small volume parenterals. PMID:6141237

  3. Microtubule-binding agents: a dynamic field of cancer therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Dumontet, Charles; Jordan, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    Preface Microtubules are dynamic filamentous cytoskeletal proteins that are an important therapeutic target in tumor cells. Microtubule binding agents have been part of the pharmacopoeia of cancer for decades, and until the advent of targeted therapy microtubules were the only alternative to DNA as a therapeutic target in cancer. The screening of a variety of botanical species and marine organisms has yielded promising new antitubulin agents with novel properties. Enhanced tumor specificity, reduced neurotoxicity, and insensitivity to chemoresistance mechanisms are the three main objectives in the current search for novel microtubule binding agents. PMID:20885410

  4. Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the assay of oxytetracycline.

    PubMed

    Barnes, W N; Ray, A; Bates, L J

    1985-10-25

    The British Pharmacopoeia monograph for oxytetracycline calcium describes an high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) assay which requires packing of the column by the analyst. Presented in this report is an HPLC method for the assay of oxytetracycline which employs a commercially available reversed-phase column and a solvent system which gives improved separation of the antibiotic from common impurities. Results obtained using this method for both bulk and dosage forms of oxytetracycline are in accord with the results of the microbiological assays. PMID:4086631

  5. [Extemporaneous magistral formulas for the topical treatment of pruritus : Proven and new options].

    PubMed

    Staubach, P; Weisshaar, E

    2016-08-01

    The treatment of pruritus, primarily chronic pruritus, is often difficult and must be treated simultaneously with the cause of pruritus and the individual demands of the skin. Due to the chronicity, a combination of systemic therapies, different active ingredients and basic formulas must be used in local therapies and adjusted during the course of the treatment. There are still therapeutic gaps, which can be closed by the use of extemporaneous preparations. Magistral formulas, which are already checked for plausibility, should be preferred over individual prescriptions. In the following, different therapeutic options in daily practice by using extemporaneous formulas from the NRF (New German Pharmacopoeia for compounded medications) are presented. PMID:27341823

  6. Senna alata.

    PubMed

    Hennebelle, Thierry; Weniger, Bernard; Joseph, Henry; Sahpaz, Sevser; Bailleul, François

    2009-10-01

    A review is made of chemical, ethnopharmacological and pharmacological papers dealing with Senna alata (L.) Roxb., a plant that belongs to the Creole traditional system of medicine and that has recently been introduced in the French Pharmacopoeia. The proofs existing for its various usages are presented. The species is mainly used against constipation and skin diseases. The laxative activity is supported by scientific findings. In contrast the dermatologic use requires further investigation. The species can be considered as safe for short-term or topical use. PMID:19446609

  7. Identification of Suitable Reference Genes for gene Expression Studies by qRT-PCR in the Blister Beetle Mylabris cichorii

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu; Wang, Zhong-Kang; Huang, Yi; Liao, Yu-Feng; Yin, You-Ping

    2014-01-01

    The blister beetle Mylabris cichorii L. (Coleoptera: Meloidae) is a traditional medicinal insect recorded in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. It synthesizes cantharidin, which kills cancer cells efficiently. Only males produce large amounts of cantharidin. Reference genes are required as endogenous controls for the analysis of differential gene expression in M. cichorii. Our study chose 10 genes as candidate reference genes. The stability of expression of these genes was analyzed by quantitative PCR and determined with two algorithms, geNorm and Normfinder. We recommend UBE3A and RPL22e as suitable reference genes in females and UBE3A, TAF5, and RPL22e in males. PMID:25368050

  8. Identification of suitable reference genes for gene expression studies by qRT-PCR in the blister beetle Mylabris cichorii.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Wang, Zhong-Kang; Huang, Yi; Liao, Yu-Feng; Yin, You-Ping

    2014-01-01

    The blister beetle Mylabris cichorii L. (Coleoptera: Meloidae) is a traditional medicinal insect recorded in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. It synthesizes cantharidin, which kills cancer cells efficiently. Only males produce large amounts of cantharidin. Reference genes are required as endogenous controls for the analysis of differential gene expression in M. cichorii. Our study chose 10 genes as candidate reference genes. The stability of expression of these genes was analyzed by quantitative PCR and determined with two algorithms, geNorm and Normfinder. We recommend UBE3A and RPL22e as suitable reference genes in females and UBE3A, TAF5, and RPL22e in males. PMID:25368050

  9. Discriminatory dissolution method for quality control measurements of carbamazepine immediate release tablets based on in vitro--in vivo investigations.

    PubMed

    Xu, Caihong; Zou, Meijuan; Wang, Yiping; Liu, Yi; Yan, Jing; Wu, Yi; Cheng, Gang

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify a discriminatory dissolution method able to predict the in vivo performance of tablet formulations designed for carbamazepine (CBZ). After evaluation of dissolution medium and rotation speed using a 2⁵ central composite design and investigation of the in vivo release behaviors in beagle dogs, the dissolution method of CBZ 100 mg tablets was validated using a USP apparatus II, at a rotation speed of 75 rpm, and 900 ml deaerated water with 0.5% sodium lauryl sulfate (w/v) as the dissolution medium. Dissolution profiles were evaluated by the Weibull parameters and the modified fit factor, ƒ^(1,area). The in vitro-in vivo relationship of CBZ tablets was examined. Compared with the results from the USP and Chinese Pharmacopoeia monograph, the proposed system provides a superior discriminatory method. Since the dissolution method in pharmacopoeia for CBZ tablets is unable to distinguish between a good and a bad product, the method presented here can be used for the quality control testing of CBZ tablets. PMID:21988132

  10. Historical Data Analyses and Scientific Knowledge Suggest Complete Removal of the Abnormal Toxicity Test as a Quality Control Test

    PubMed Central

    Garbe, Joerg H O; Ausborn, Susanne; Beggs, Claire; Bopst, Martin; Joos, Angelika; Kitashova, Alexandra A; Kovbasenco, OLga; Schiller, Claus-Dieter; Schwinger, Martina; Semenova, Natalia; Smirnova, Lilia; Stodart, Fraser; Visalli, Thomas; Vromans, Lisette

    2014-01-01

    In the early 1900s, the abnormal toxicity test (ATT) was developed as an auxiliary means to ensure safe and consistent antiserum production. Today, the ATT is utilized as a quality control (QC) release test according to pharmacopoeial or other regulatory requirements. The study design has not been changed since around 1940. The evidence of abnormal toxicity testing as a prediction for harmful batches is highly questionable and lacks a scientific rationale. Numerous reviews of historical ATT results have revealed that no reliable conclusions can be drawn from this QC measure. Modern pharmaceutical manufacturers have thorough control of the manufacturing process and comply with good manufacturing practice rules. Contaminants are appropriately controlled by complying with the validated manufacturing processes and strict QC batch release confirming batch-to-batch consistency. Recognizing that product safety, efficacy, and stability can be ensured with strict QC measures, nowadays most regulatory authorities do not require the ATT for most product classes. In line with the replacement, reduction, and refinement (3Rs) initiative, the test requirement has been deleted from approximately 80 monographs of the European Pharmacopoeia and for the majority of product classes in the United States. For these reasons, it is recommended that the ATT should be consistently omitted world-wide and be removed from pharmacopoeias and other regulatory requirements. PMID:25209378

  11. Chinese herbs for memory disorders: a review and systematic analysis of classical herbal literature.

    PubMed

    May, Brian H; Lu, Chuanjian; Lu, Yubo; Zhang, Anthony L; Xue, Charlie C L

    2013-02-01

    Text mining and other literature-based investigations can assist in identifying natural products for experimental and clinical research. This article details a method for systematically analyzing data derived from the classical Chinese medical literature. We present the results of electronic searches of Zhong Hua Yi Dian ("Encyclopaedia of Traditional Chinese Medicine"), a CD of 1000 premodern (before 1950) medical books, for single herbs, and other natural products used for dementia, memory disorders, and memory improvement. This review explores how the terminology for these disorders has changed over time and which herbs have been used more or less frequently, and compares the results from the premodern literature with the herbs indexed for memory disorders in a modern pharmacopoeia. The searches located 731 citations deriving from 127 different books written between ca. 188 ad and ca. 1920. Of the 110 different natural products identified, those most frequently cited for forgetfulness were yuan zhi (Polygala tenuifolia), fu shen (Poria cocos), and chang pu (Acorus spp.), all of which have been cited repeatedly over the past 1800 years and appear among the 31 herbs indexed in a modern pharmacopoeia. By providing a complete, hierarchically organized list of herbs for a specific disorder, this approach can assist researchers in selecting herbs for research. PMID:23433049

  12. The chemical and pharmaceutical equivalence of sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine tablets sold on the Tanzanian market.

    PubMed

    Hebron, Y; Tettey, J N A; Pournamdari, M; Watson, D G

    2005-12-01

    This study investigated chemical and pharmaceutical equivalence of 11 brands of pyrimethamine-sulphadoxine combination tablets sold on the Tanzanian market. Physical and chemical tests were performed for all the 11 brands. These tests included hardness test, friability, disintegration, dissolution, weight uniformity and assay for the active components. All the brands passed all the quality specifications of the United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) and British Pharmacopoeia (BP) in terms of hardness, friability, disintegration, assay and dissolution test, except for three brands that failed the hardness, disintegration or friability tests. One brand failed both the hardness and disintegration test; one failed the hardness test, whereas another one failed the friability test. The percentage content of pyrimethamine in the brands was in the range of 91.04-100.20% whereas that of sulphadoxine ranged from 91.53% to 99.88%. There were no major differences between the different brands of tablets containing pyrimethamine and sulphadoxine and the innovator product (Fansidar), and all brands were physically and chemically equivalent. The results indicate that the post-market surveillance and registration process in Tanzania is having an impact on product quality as there was no brand which could be considered of very poor quality. Impurity profiling of all the locally produced brands indicated that they all contained the same sulphadoxine impurity, which was absent in the innovator product, suggesting a common source of generic raw material. PMID:16336290

  13. Development of a simple, rapid, and robust liquid chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of sulfalene, sulfadoxine, and pyrimethamine in tablets.

    PubMed

    Mwalwisi, Yonah H; Hoellein, Ludwig; Kaale, Eliangiringa; Holzgrabe, Ulrike

    2016-09-10

    A simple, cost effective, accurate, and precise RP-HPLC method was developed for the simultaneous determination of sulfalene and sulfadoxine in fixed dose dual combinations with pyrimethamine together with their related substances. Proprietary products containing these combinations are often being prescribed in malaria endemic countries. Quantification of the active compounds and impurity profiling was achieved using two standard C18 columns with a mobile phase being composed of 60% (v/v) of a 0.05M KH2PO4 buffer solution (pH=2.6) and 40% (v/v) of methanol, applying an isocratic elution mode and a detection wavelength of 215nm. The method allows a quick quantitative determination of sulfadoxine and sulfalene and the separation of the respective impurities within a total runtime of approximately 15min and was validated with respect to specificity, linearity, precision, accuracy, limits of detection and quantification, robustness, and stability of the standard and sample solutions. The method is simpler than the corresponding method described in the International Pharmacopoeia and the United States Pharmacopoeia in terms of being easy to apply, being less time consuming, and utilizing reagents and chemicals which are cost efficient. PMID:27505128

  14. Historical data analyses and scientific knowledge suggest complete removal of the abnormal toxicity test as a quality control test.

    PubMed

    Garbe, Joerg H O; Ausborn, Susanne; Beggs, Claire; Bopst, Martin; Joos, Angelika; Kitashova, Alexandra A; Kovbasenco, Olga; Schiller, Claus-Dieter; Schwinger, Martina; Semenova, Natalia; Smirnova, Lilia; Stodart, Fraser; Visalli, Thomas; Vromans, Lisette

    2014-11-01

    In the early 1900s, the abnormal toxicity test (ATT) was developed as an auxiliary means to ensure safe and consistent antiserum production. Today, the ATT is utilized as a quality control (QC) release test according to pharmacopoeial or other regulatory requirements. The study design has not been changed since around 1940. The evidence of abnormal toxicity testing as a prediction for harmful batches is highly questionable and lacks a scientific rationale. Numerous reviews of historical ATT results have revealed that no reliable conclusions can be drawn from this QC measure. Modern pharmaceutical manufacturers have thorough control of the manufacturing process and comply with good manufacturing practice rules. Contaminants are appropriately controlled by complying with the validated manufacturing processes and strict QC batch release confirming batch-to-batch consistency. Recognizing that product safety, efficacy, and stability can be ensured with strict QC measures, nowadays most regulatory authorities do not require the ATT for most product classes. In line with the replacement, reduction, and refinement (3Rs) initiative, the test requirement has been deleted from approximately 80 monographs of the European Pharmacopoeia and for the majority of product classes in the United States. For these reasons, it is recommended that the ATT should be consistently omitted world-wide and be removed from pharmacopoeias and other regulatory requirements. PMID:25209378

  15. [Use of Ancient texts in modern therapeutic research].

    PubMed

    Fabre, André

    2003-01-01

    Two main purposes were assigned to this study of medicinal prescription of spices at the time of the Roman Empire: analyze Roman pharmacopoeia of spices in reference to modern criteria and assess a new discipline, close to "ethno-botany" and "ethno-pharmacology", aiming to a new approach of drug research: "archeopharmacology". A brief overview is given of the Roman world of spices : all aromatic substances from Orient, India and Far-East held a major place which can only be compared to the role of petroleum in our modern times. The study is conducted on a thesaurus of 2600 quotations from twelve authors: Apicius, Caelius Aurelianus, Cassius Felix, Celsus, Dioscorides, Galen, Marcellus,(Anonymous) Mulonmedicina, Pelagorius, Pliny the Elder, Serenus Sammonicus and Scribonius Largus and a set of 33 medicinal spices among which: cyperus, ferulas (Asa foetida), frankincense, pepper, myrrh and saffron. Medicinal use of spices (mainly for pneumology, dermatology and gastroenterology) do not differ notably from the rest of Roman pharmacopoeia: the main criteria for prescription of spices is not their place of origin but a "therapeutic profile" which is clearly assigned to each substance by tradition. During the last decades, new methods of therapeutic research: ethno-botany and ethno-pharmacology have been used extensively to explore traditional medicines. A new discipline is ready to emerge: "archeo-pharmacology", aiming towards a drug research based on Ancient texts. PMID:14606484

  16. Purity control of some Chinese crude herbal drugs marketed in Italy.

    PubMed

    Mazzanti, G; Battinelli, L; Daniele, C; Costantini, S; Ciaralli, L; Evandri, M G

    2008-09-01

    The widespread use of herbal drugs, among which those coming from eastern Countries, has created a more compelling need for quality, a pre-requisite that can influence safety. In the present study, 10 Chinese crude herbal drugs marketed in Italy (Radix Ginseng, Radix Astragali, Rhizoma Coptidis, Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae, Radix Bupleuri, Radix Rehmanniae, Radix Paeoniae Alba, Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae, Radix Polygalae, Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae) were analysed by the following purity assays: foreign matter, total ash, microbial and heavy metal contamination. Each herbal drug was purchased in Italy from three different sources: two Chinese firms and one Chinese herbal shop. Except for the heavy metal content, the tests were performed according to the European Pharmacopoeia. The presence of parasites was shown in two samples; moreover, level of ash (in three samples), lead content (in one sample) and total viable aerobic count (in one sample), were higher than the limits set by the European or Italian Pharmacopoeias. Our results, even if obtained from a small number of herbal drugs, show some purity issues and underline the importance of the quality control, particularly for this kind of products whose therapeutic value is not always demonstrated. PMID:18586067

  17. Changes in the trade in native medicinal plants in Brazilian public markets.

    PubMed

    Brandão, Maria das Graças Lins; Cosenza, Gustavo Pereira; Pereira, Flávia Liparini; Vasconcelos, Ariela Silva; Fagg, Christopher William

    2013-08-01

    Plants continue to be an important source of new bioactive substances. Brazil is one of the world's mega-diverse countries, with 20 % of the world's flora. However, the accelerated destruction of botanically rich ecosystems has contributed to a gradual loss of native medicinal species. In previous study, we have observed a fast and intensive change in trade of medicinal plants in an area of Amazon, where human occupation took place. In this study, we surveyed 15 public markets in different parts of Brazil in search of samples of 40 plants used in traditional medicine and present in first edition of Brazilian Official Pharmacopoeia (FBRAS), published in 1926. Samples of plants commercialized as the same vernacular name as in Pharmacopoeia were acquired and submitted to analysis for authentication. A total of 252 plant samples were purchased, but the laboratory analyses showed that only one-half of the samples (126, 50.2 %) were confirmed as the same plant species so named in FBRAS. The high number of unauthenticated samples demonstrates a loss of knowledge of the original native species. The proximity of the market from areas in which the plant occurs does not guarantee that trade of false samples occurs. The impact of the commerce of the substitute species on their conservation and in public health is worrying. Strategies are necessary to promote the better use and conservation of this rich heritage offered by Brazilian biodiversity. PMID:23322507

  18. Preparation, characterization, and in vitro permeation study of terbinafine HCl in poloxamer 407-based thermogelling formulation for topical application.

    PubMed

    Lusiana; Müller-Goymann, Christel C

    2011-06-01

    Upon topical administration, a high penetration rate of antifungal drug into the infected site is desirable to reduce treatment length and systemic side effects which occur especially after a prolonged peroral administration. Thermogelling formulations composed of poloxamer 407, medium chain triglycerides, isopropyl alcohol, dimethyl isosorbide, and water for topical application were developed, and a lipophilic drug terbinafine HCl (TBF) was incorporated. Previously, a remarkable high permeation rate of a hydrophilic drug 5-aminolevulinic acid from this vehicle was evident compared to different creams from German Pharmacopoeia. By varying the composition of vehicle constituents, a broad range of consistencies and appearances was obtained. Up to 4% TBF could be solubilized in the vehicle. TBF fluxes at steady state across human stratum corneum from these formulations were higher than those from the German Pharmacopoeia Basiscreme Deutscher Arzneimittel Codex and a marketed product at similar concentration of 1%. TBF fluxes increased along with a higher content of TBF in the formulation. The amount of TBF retained in stratum corneum was higher compared to those from both standards of comparison (p < 0.01). The thermodynamic activity of TBF in the thermogelling formulation was lower compared to those in other formulations. Therefore, the nature of the vehicle and its interaction with TBF are suggested to play a significant role in explaining higher fluxes along with higher TBF content. Differential scanning calorimetry measurements revealed comparable T2 and T3 endothermic shifts from all examined formulations suggesting equal influences to the skin lipids. PMID:21479748

  19. Validation of an alternative microbiological method for tissue products.

    PubMed

    Suessner, Susanne; Hennerbichler, Simone; Schreiberhuber, Stefanie; Stuebl, Doris; Gabriel, Christian

    2014-06-01

    According to the European Pharmacopoeia sterility testing of products includes an incubation time of 14 days in thioglycollate medium and soya-bean casein medium. In this case a large period of time is needed for product testing. So we designed a study to evaluate an alternative method for sterility testing. The aim of this study was to reduce the incubation time for the routinely produced products in our tissue bank (cornea and amnion grafts) by obtaining the same detection limit, accurateness and recovery rates as the reference method described in the European Pharmacopoeia. The study included two steps of validation. Primary validation compared the reference method with the alternative method. Therefore eight bacterial and two fungi test strains were tested at their preferred milieu. A geometric dilution series from 10 to 0.625 colony forming unit per 10 ml culture media was used. Subsequent to the evaluation the second part of the study started including the validation of the fertility of the culture media and the parallel testing of the two methods by investigating products. For this purpose two product batches were tested in three independent runs. Concerning the validation we could not find any aberration between the alternative and the reference method. In addition, the recovery rate of each microorganism was between 83.33 and 100 %. The alternative method showed non-inferiority regarding accuracy to the reference method. Due to this study we reduced the sterility testing for cornea and amniotic grafts to 9 days. PMID:24810914

  20. Quality Assessment of Artemether-Lumefantrine Samples and Artemether Injections Sold in the Cape Coast Metropolis

    PubMed Central

    Ameyaw, Elvis Ofori; Afoakwah, Richmond; Fiawoyife, Patrick; Oppong-Danquah, Ernest; Boampong, Johnson Nyarko

    2016-01-01

    Most prescribers and patients in Ghana now opt for the relatively expensive artemether/lumefantrine rather than artesunate-amodiaquine due to undesirable side effects in the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. The study sought to determine the existence of substandard and/or counterfeit artemether-lumefantrine tablets and suspension as well as artemether injection on the market in Cape Coast. Six brands of artemether-lumefantrine tablets, two brands of artemether-lumefantrine suspensions, and two brands of artemether injections were purchased from pharmacies in Cape Coast for the study. The mechanical properties of the tablets were evaluated. The samples were then analyzed for the content of active ingredients using High Performance Liquid Chromatography with a variable wavelength detector. None of the samples was found to be counterfeit. However, the artemether content of the samples was variable (93.22%−104.70% of stated content by manufacturer). The lumefantrine content of the artemether/lumefantrine samples was also variable (98.70%–111.87%). Seven of the artemether-lumefantrine brands passed whilst one failed the International Pharmacopoeia content requirements. All brands of artemether injections sampled met the International Pharmacopoeia content requirement. The presence of a substandard artemether-lumefantrine suspension in the market should alert regulatory bodies to be more vigilant and totally flush out counterfeit and substandard drugs from the Ghanaian market. PMID:27006665

  1. Zosyn® (piperacillin/tazobactam) reformulation: Expanded compatibility and coadministration with lactated Ringer’s solutions and selected aminoglycosides

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Narendra R; Shah, Syed M; Cohen, Jonathan; McLaughlin, Matthew; Dalal, Hema R

    2008-01-01

    Zosyn® , also known as Tazocin® for injection, contains piperacillin and tazobactam and was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in 1993 for the treatment of indicated serious infections. In 1995, United States Pharmacopoeia and European Pharmacopoeias reduced the particulate limit for injectables by 40%, based on general safety concerns. Wyeth attempted to control sporadic batch failures (associated with increased particulate formation) by shortening product expiration dating from 36 to 24 months and optimizing the stopper siliconization process. These modifications did not correct the problem completely. Wyeth reformulated Zosyn by incorporating two stabilizing functional excipients, ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid disodium salt (EDTA disodium) and sodium citrate, which solved the particulate formation problem. These two functional excipients also allowed for the first time Y-site coadministration of reformulated Zosyn product with amikacin and gentamicin at specific doses and concentrations, and with certain diluents, and the use of Ca++ ion-containing Lactated Ringer’s for admixture preparation. Reformulated Zosyn (approved 2005) may provide useful options of drug administration to healthcare professionals to lessen levels of particulates. Supportive data is provided for the expanded compatibility of reformulated Zosyn with different types of Ringer’s solutions used globally and for the Y-site coadministration of amikacin and gentamicin aminoglycosides. PMID:18728835

  2. Veterinary herbal medicines in India

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, Shruti; Pandey, Manoj Kumar; Prakash, Jai; Sharma, Alok; Singh, Gyanendra Nath

    2015-01-01

    India has a rich and diversified flora. It is seen that synthetic drugs could pose serious problems, are toxic and costly. In contrast to this, herbal medicines are relatively nontoxic, cheaper and are eco-friendly. Moreover, the people have used them for generations. They have also been used in day-to-day problems of healthcare in animals. 25% of the drugs prescribed worldwide come from plants. Almost 75% of the medicinal plants grow naturally in different states of India. These plants are known to cure many ailments in animals like poisoning, cough, constipation, foot and mouth disease, dermatitis, cataract, burning, pneumonia, bone fractures, snake bites, abdominal pains, skin diseases etc. There is scarce review of such information (veterinary herbals) in the literature. The electronic and manual search was made using various key words such as veterinary herbal, ethno-veterinary medicines etc. and the content systematically arranged. This article deals with the comprehensive review of 45 medicinal plant species that are official in Indian Pharmacopoeia (IP) 2014. The botanical names, family, habitat, plant part used and pharmacological actions, status in British Pharmacopoeia 2014, USP 36 are mentioned. Also, a relationship between animal and human dose, standardization and regulatory aspects of these selected veterinary herbals are provided. PMID:26392714

  3. Adulteration of Ginkgo biloba products and a simple method to improve its detection.

    PubMed

    Wohlmuth, Hans; Savage, Kate; Dowell, Ashley; Mouatt, Peter

    2014-05-15

    Extracts of ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba) leaf are widely available worldwide in herbal medicinal products, dietary supplements, botanicals and complementary medicines, and several pharmacopoeias contain monographs for ginkgo leaf, leaf extract and finished products. Being a high-value botanical commodity, ginkgo extracts may be the subject of economically motivated adulteration. We analysed eight ginkgo leaf retail products purchased in Australia and Denmark and found compelling evidence of adulteration with flavonol aglycones in three of these. The same three products also contained genistein, an isoflavone that does not occur in ginkgo leaf. Although the United States Pharmacopeia - National Formulary (USP-NF) and the British and European Pharmacopoeias stipulate a required range for flavonol glycosides in ginkgo extract, the prescribed assays quantify flavonol aglycones. This means that these pharmacopoeial methods are not capable of detecting adulteration of ginkgo extract with free flavonol aglycones. We propose a simple modification of the USP-NF method that addresses this problem: by assaying for flavonol aglycones pre and post hydrolysis the content of flavonol glycosides can be accurately estimated via a simple calculation. We also recommend a maximum limit be set for free flavonol aglycones in ginkgo extract. PMID:24566389

  4. Quality Assessment of Artemether-Lumefantrine Samples and Artemether Injections Sold in the Cape Coast Metropolis.

    PubMed

    Prah, James; Ameyaw, Elvis Ofori; Afoakwah, Richmond; Fiawoyife, Patrick; Oppong-Danquah, Ernest; Boampong, Johnson Nyarko

    2016-01-01

    Most prescribers and patients in Ghana now opt for the relatively expensive artemether/lumefantrine rather than artesunate-amodiaquine due to undesirable side effects in the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. The study sought to determine the existence of substandard and/or counterfeit artemether-lumefantrine tablets and suspension as well as artemether injection on the market in Cape Coast. Six brands of artemether-lumefantrine tablets, two brands of artemether-lumefantrine suspensions, and two brands of artemether injections were purchased from pharmacies in Cape Coast for the study. The mechanical properties of the tablets were evaluated. The samples were then analyzed for the content of active ingredients using High Performance Liquid Chromatography with a variable wavelength detector. None of the samples was found to be counterfeit. However, the artemether content of the samples was variable (93.22%-104.70% of stated content by manufacturer). The lumefantrine content of the artemether/lumefantrine samples was also variable (98.70%-111.87%). Seven of the artemether-lumefantrine brands passed whilst one failed the International Pharmacopoeia content requirements. All brands of artemether injections sampled met the International Pharmacopoeia content requirement. The presence of a substandard artemether-lumefantrine suspension in the market should alert regulatory bodies to be more vigilant and totally flush out counterfeit and substandard drugs from the Ghanaian market. PMID:27006665

  5. HPLC quantification of all five ginkgolic acid derivatives in Ginkgo biloba extracts using 13 : 0 ginkgolic acid as a single marker compound.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruwei; Kobayashi, Yuta; Lin, Yu; Rauwald, Hans Wilhelm; Yao, Jianbiao; Fang, Ling; Qiao, Hongxiang; Kuchta, Kenny

    2015-01-01

    An HPLC quantification method for ginkgolic acid derivatives in Ginkgo biloba leaf extracts was developed. Using 13 : 0 ginkgolic acid as a marker compound, the relative correlation factors of the four other ginkgolic acid derivatives - namely, 15 : 0 ginkgolic acid, 15 : 1 ginkgolic acid, 17 : 1 ginkgolic acid, and 17 : 2 ginkgolic acid - to 13 : 0 ginkgolic acid were determined by HPLC and subsequently used for calculating their contents in ten hydro-ethanolic refined extract samples. In other words, the content of 13 : 0 ginkgolic acid in the extracts was determined using the isolated compound as an external standard. Subsequently the now known concentration of this compound functioned as an internal standard for the quantification of the other four ginkgolic acid derivatives via the described correlation factors. This HPLC method was validated by two independent control measurements, one with an external standard for every individual compound and one based on the present method with the single marker compound alone. The results did not differ significantly in any of the 10 tested extract samples. The protocol presented here thus not only uses the same reference substance for G. biloba extracts as the current Chinese Pharmacopoeia method but also incorporates the advantages of the current European Pharmacopoeia approach. It is simple, reproducible, and can be used to determine the total contents of ginkgolic acid derivatives in G. biloba leaf extracts. PMID:25519835

  6. WHO Expert Committee on Specifications for Pharmaceutical Preparations. Forty-ninth report.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    The Expert Committee on Specifications for Pharmaceutical Preparations works towards clear, independent and practical standards and guidelines for the quality assurance of medicines. Standards are developed by the Committee through worldwide consultation and an international consensus-building process. The following new guidelines were adopted and recommended for use. Revised procedure for the development of monographs and other texts for The International Pharmacopoeia; Revised updating mechanism for the section on radiopharmaceuticals in The International Pharmacopoeia; Revision of the supplementary guidelines on good manufacturing practices: validation, Appendix 7: non-sterile process validation; General guidance for inspectors on hold-time studies; 16 technical supplements to Model guidance for the storage and transport of time- and temperature-sensitive pharmaceutical products; Recommendations for quality requirements when plant-derived artemisinin is used as a starting material in the production of antimalarial active pharmaceutical ingredients; Multisource (generic) pharmaceutical products: guidelines on registration requirements to establish interchangeability: revision; Guidance on the selection of comparator pharmaceutical products for equivalence assessment of interchangeable multisource (generic) products: revision; and Good review practices: guidelines for national and regional regulatory authorities. PMID:26118121

  7. Identification and characterization of stressed degradation products of metoprolol using LC/Q-TOF-ESI-MS/MS and MS(n) experiments.

    PubMed

    Borkar, Roshan M; Raju, B; Srinivas, R; Patel, Prashant; Shetty, Satheesh Kumar

    2012-06-01

    A rapid, specific and reliable isocratic high-performance liquid chromatography combined with quadrupole time-of-flight electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/Q-TOF-ESI-MS/MS) method has been developed and validated for the identification and characterization of stressed degradation products of metoprolol. Metoprolol, an anti-hypertensive drug, was subjected to hydrolysis (acidic, alkaline and neutral), oxidation, photolysis and thermal stress, as per ICH-specified conditions. The drug showed extensive degradation under oxidative and hydrolysis (acid and base) stress conditions. However, it was stable to thermal, neutral and photolysis stress conditions. A total of 14 degradation products were observed and the chromatographic separation of the drug and its degradation products was achieved on a C(18) column (4.6 × 250 mm, 5 µm). To characterize degradation products, initially the mass spectral fragmentation pathway of the drug was established with the help of MS/MS, MS(n) and accurate mass measurements. Similarly, fragmentation pattern and accurate masses of the degradation products were established by subjecting them to LC-MS/QTOF analysis. Structure elucidation of degradation products was achieved by comparing their fragmentation pattern with that of the drug. The degradation products DP(2) (m/z 153) and DP(14) (m/z 236) were matched with impurity B, listed in European Pharmacopoeia and British Pharmacopoeia, and impurity I, respectively. The LC-MS method was validated with respect to specificity, linearity, accuracy and precision. PMID:21989963

  8. Spectrophotometric determination of dapsone in pharmaceutical products using sodium 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulfonic as the chromogenic reagent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huai You; Xu, Li Xiao; Xiao, Yan; Han, Juan

    2004-10-01

    Spectrophotometric determination of dapsone is described. The dapsone reacts with sodium 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulfonic in pH 6.98 buffer solution to form a salmon pink compound, and its maximum absorption wavelength is at 525 nm, ɛ525=3.68×10 4 l mol -1 cm -1. The absorbance of dapsone from 0.40 to 10 μg ml -1 obeys Beer's law. The linear regression equation of the calibration graph is C=0.2334 A+0.01288, with a linear regression correlation coefficient of 0.9998, the detection limit is 0.24 μg ml -1, and recovery is from 99.2 to 102.4%. Effects of pH, surfactant, organic solvents, foreign ions, and standing time on the determination of dapsone have been examined. This method is simple and can be used for the determination of dapsone in injection solution of dapsone. The results obtained by this method agreed with those by the official method (dead-stop titration method [The Chinese Pharmacopoeia, Pharmacopoeia Commission, Ministry of Health, vol. 2, fifth ed., PRC Chemical Industry Press, Beijing, 2000, p.720]).

  9. Spectrum-Effect Relationships Between Chemical Fingerprints and Antibacterial Effects of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos and Lonicerae Flos Base on UPLC and Microcalorimetry.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zhilong; Liu, Zhenjie; Liu, Chunsheng; Wu, Mingquan; Su, Haibin; Ma, Xiao; Zang, Yimei; Wang, Jiabo; Zhao, Yanling; Xiao, Xiaohe

    2016-01-01

    The traditional Chinese medicines Lonicerae Japonicae Flos (LJF, Jinyinhua in Chinese) and Lonicerae Flos (LF, Shanyinhua in Chinese) refer to the flower buds of five plants belonging to the Caprifoliaceae family. Until 2000, all of these were officially listed as a single item, LJF (Jinyinhua), in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. However, there have recently been many academic controversies concerning the separation and combination of LJF and LF in administrative regulation. Till now there has been little work completed evaluating the relationships between biological activity and chemical properties among these drugs. Microcalorimetry and UPLC were used along with principal component analysis (PCA), hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), and canonical correlation analysis (CCA) to investigate the relationships between the chemical ingredients and the antibacterial effects of LJF and LF. Using multivariate statistical analysis, LJF and LF could be initially separated according to their chemical fingerprints, and the antibacterial effects of the two herbal drugs were divided into two clusters. This result supports the disaggregation of LJF and LF by the Pharmacopoeia Committee. However, the sample of Lonicera fulvotomentosa Hsu et S. C. Cheng turned out to be an intermediate species, with similar antibacterial efficacy as LJF. The results of CCA indicated that chlorogenic acid and 3,4-Dicaffeoylquinic acid were the major components generating antibacterial effects. Furthermore, 3,4-Dicaffeoylquinic acid could be used as a new marker ingredient for quality control of LJF and LF. PMID:26869929

  10. Spectrum-Effect Relationships Between Chemical Fingerprints and Antibacterial Effects of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos and Lonicerae Flos Base on UPLC and Microcalorimetry

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Zhilong; Liu, Zhenjie; Liu, Chunsheng; Wu, Mingquan; Su, Haibin; Ma, Xiao; Zang, Yimei; Wang, Jiabo; Zhao, Yanling; Xiao, Xiaohe

    2016-01-01

    The traditional Chinese medicines Lonicerae Japonicae Flos (LJF, Jinyinhua in Chinese) and Lonicerae Flos (LF, Shanyinhua in Chinese) refer to the flower buds of five plants belonging to the Caprifoliaceae family. Until 2000, all of these were officially listed as a single item, LJF (Jinyinhua), in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. However, there have recently been many academic controversies concerning the separation and combination of LJF and LF in administrative regulation. Till now there has been little work completed evaluating the relationships between biological activity and chemical properties among these drugs. Microcalorimetry and UPLC were used along with principal component analysis (PCA), hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), and canonical correlation analysis (CCA) to investigate the relationships between the chemical ingredients and the antibacterial effects of LJF and LF. Using multivariate statistical analysis, LJF and LF could be initially separated according to their chemical fingerprints, and the antibacterial effects of the two herbal drugs were divided into two clusters. This result supports the disaggregation of LJF and LF by the Pharmacopoeia Committee. However, the sample of Lonicera fulvotomentosa Hsu et S. C. Cheng turned out to be an intermediate species, with similar antibacterial efficacy as LJF. The results of CCA indicated that chlorogenic acid and 3,4-Dicaffeoylquinic acid were the major components generating antibacterial effects. Furthermore, 3,4-Dicaffeoylquinic acid could be used as a new marker ingredient for quality control of LJF and LF. PMID:26869929

  11. Modernization of Physical Appearance and Solution Color Tests Using Quantitative Tristimulus Colorimetry: Advantages, Harmonization, and Validation Strategies.

    PubMed

    Pack, Brian W; Montgomery, Laura L; Hetrick, Evan M

    2015-10-01

    Color measurements, including physical appearance, are important yet often misunderstood and underappreciated aspects of a control strategy for drug substances and drug products. From a patient safety perspective, color can be an important control point for detecting contamination, impurities, and degradation products, with human visual acuity often more sensitive for colored impurities than instrumental techniques such as HPLC. Physical appearance tests and solution color tests can also serve an important role in ensuring that appropriate steps are taken such that clinical trials do not become unblinded when the active material is compared with another product or a placebo. Despite the importance of color tests, compendial visual tests are not harmonized across the major pharmacopoeias, which results in ambiguous specifications of little value, difficult communication of true sample color, and significant extra work required for global registration. Some pharmacopoeias have not yet recognized or adopted technical advances in the instrumental measurement of color and appearance, whereas others begin to acknowledge the advantage of instrumental colorimetry, yet leave implementation of the technology ambiguous. This commentary will highlight the above-mentioned inconsistencies, provide an avenue toward harmonization and modernization, and outline a scientifically sound approach for implementing quantitative technologies for improved measurement, communication, and control of color and appearance for both solutions and solids. Importantly, this manuscript, for the first time, outlines a color method validation approach that is consistent with the International Conference on Harmonization's guidance on the topic of method validation. PMID:26173406

  12. Effect of homeopathy on analgesic intake following knee ligament reconstruction: a phase III monocentre randomized placebo controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Paris, A; Gonnet, N; Chaussard, C; Belon, P; Rocourt, F; Saragaglia, D; Cracowski, J L

    2008-01-01

    Aims The efficacy of homeopathy is still under debate. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of homeopathic treatment (Arnica montana 5 CH, Bryonia alba 5 CH, Hypericum perforatum 5 CH and Ruta graveolens 3 DH) on cumulated morphine intake delivered by PCA over 24 h after knee ligament reconstruction. Methods This was an add-on randomized controlled study with three parallel groups: a double-blind homeopathic or placebo arm and an open-label noninterventional control arm. Eligible patients were 18–60 years old candidates for surgery of the anterior cruciate ligament. Treatment was administered the evening before surgery and continued for 3 days. The primary end-point was cumulated morphine intake delivered by PCA during the first 24 h inferior or superior/equal to 10 mg day−1. Results One hundred and fifty-eight patients were randomized (66 in the placebo arm, 67 in the homeopathic arm and 25 in the noninterventional group). There was no difference between the treated and the placebo group for primary end-point (mean (95% CI) 48% (35.8, 56.3), and 56% (43.7, 68.3), required less than 10 mg day−1 of morphine in each group, respectively). The homeopathy treatment had no effect on morphine intake between 24 and 72 h or on the visual analogue pain scale, or on quality of life assessed by the SF-36 questionnaire. In addition, these parameters were not different in patients enrolled in the open-label noninterventional control arm. Conclusions The complex of homeopathy tested in this study was not superior to placebo in reducing 24 h morphine consumption after knee ligament reconstruction. What is already known about this subject The efficacy of homeopathy is still under debate and a recent meta-analysis recommended further randomized double-blind clinical trials to identify any clinical situation in which homeopathy might be effective. What this study adds The complex of homeopathy tested in this study (Arnica montana 5 CH, Bryonia alba 5 CH

  13. Pierre Curie, 1859–1906

    PubMed Central

    Mould, R.F.

    2007-01-01

    The year 2006 marked 100 years since the death of Pierre Curie. It is therefore appropriate that we remember his life and his work, which was cut short by his untimely death from an accident on the Pont Neuf, Paris, on April 19, 1906. He had already accomplished much during his life, both before the discovery of radium with Marie Curie, in work co-authored with his brother Jacques on piezoelectricity, and afterwards, when he published the results of several experimental studies with radium and radon. He came from a medical family, and his grandfather Pierre Curie was a famous homeopathic physician. He has, in print, unfairly been relegated to the background—his own scientific contributions having been overtaken by the fame of Marie Curie, probably because she outlived him by 28 years. PMID:17576470

  14. HPTLC method for the estimation of alkaloids of Cinchona officinalis stem bark and its marketed formulations.

    PubMed

    Ravishankara, M N; Shrivastava, N; Padh, H; Rajani, M

    2001-04-01

    We report a sensitive method for the estimation of quinine (Qn), cinchonine (Cn), and cinchonidine (Cnd) and a new method based on fluorescence enhancement and detection and quantification of quinidine (Qnd) from Cinchona stem bark and its formulations, using HPTLC. Standard solutions of Qn, Qnd, Cn, and Cnd were applied on precoated HPTLC plates and developed with chloroform/diethylamine (9.6:1.4 v/v). The plates were scanned and quantified at 226 nm for Qn, Cn, Cnd and for Qnd at 366 nm in fluorescence and reflectance mode ([symbol: see text] K400 filter). The method was validated for precision, accuracy and repeatability. Further, the stem bark of Cinchona officinalis and some herbal and homeopathic formulations were evaluated for their individual alkaloid content applying the developed method. PMID:11345710

  15. Toxic hepatitis induced by Gymnema sylvestre, a natural remedy for type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Shiyovich, Arthur; Sztarkier, Ignacio; Nesher, Lior

    2010-12-01

    Toxic hepatitis or drug-induced liver injury (DILI) encompasses a spectrum of conditions ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to acute liver failure. Recent studies report that 35% to 48% of patients with diabetes use some form of complementary and alternative medical therapy. Moreover, >800 plants have been traditionally used for the treatment of diabetes. Despite this widespread use, only few were supported by rigorous clinical evidence. Gymnema sylvestre, also known as gurmar (sugar destroyer in Hindi), is a plant considered to be with potent antidiabetic effects and, hence, widely used in folk, ayurvedic and homeopathic systems in medicine. The authors were unable to find previous reports associating G sylvestre to liver injury. Herein, the authors report a case of DILI in a patient who was treated with G sylvestre for diabetes mellitus and review the literature to suggest possible mechanisms that led to this acute condition. PMID:20856101

  16. Laboratory research in homeopathy: con.

    PubMed

    Moffett, John R; Arun, Peethambaran; Namboodiri, M A A

    2006-12-01

    Alternative medical approaches to human diseases such as cancer are becoming increasingly popular, but reports on their success rates have been highly variable. Homeopathy is an alternative medical practice often applied to less critical human diseases but one that has also been applied sporadically to the treatment of cancer. Animal studies on the use of homeopathy to treat experimental cancer are few and the evidence provided to date is far from conclusive. The debate presented here concerns the utility of animal studies on cancer treatment with homeopathic preparations. As part of a Point-Counterpoint feature, this review and its companion piece in this issue by Khuda-Bukhsh (Integr Cancer Ther. 2006;5:320-332) are composed of a thesis section, a response section in reaction to the companion thesis, and a rebuttal section to address issues raised in the companion response. PMID:17101762

  17. Moral Legitimacy: The Struggle Of Homeopathy in the NHS.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Louise

    2016-02-01

    This article deploys a well-established theoretical model from the accountability literature to the domain of bioethics. Specifically, homeopathy is identified as a controversial industry and the strategic action of advocates to secure moral legitimacy and attract public funding is explored. The Glasgow Homeopathic Hospital (GHH) is used as the location to examine legitimizing strategies, from gaining legitimacy as a National Health Service (NHS) hospital in 1948, followed by maintaining and repairing legitimacy in response to government enquires in 2000 and 2010. An analysis of legitimizing strategies leads to the conclusion that advocates have been unsuccessful in maintaining and repairing moral legitimacy for homeopathy, thus threatening continued public funding for this unscientific medical modality. This is an encouraging development towards open and transparent NHS accountability for targeting limited public resources in pursuit of maximizing society's health and well-being. Policy implications and areas for future research are suggested. PMID:26806451

  18. Cutting Edge Research in Homeopathy: HRI's second international research conference in Rome.

    PubMed

    Tournier, Alexander L; Roberts, E Rachel

    2016-02-01

    Rome, 3rd-5th June 2015, was the setting for the Homeopathy Research Institute's (HRI) second conference with the theme 'Cutting Edge Research in Homeopathy'. Attended by over 250 delegates from 39 countries, this event provided an intense two and a half day programme of presentations and a forum for the sharing of ideas and the creation of international scientific collaborations. With 35 oral presentations from leaders in the field, the scientific calibre of the programme was high and the content diverse. This report summarises the key themes underpinning the cutting edge data presented by the speakers, including six key-note presentations, covering advancements in both basic and clinical research. Given the clear commitment of the global homeopathic community to high quality research, the resounding success of both Barcelona 2013 and Rome 2015 HRI conferences, and the dedicated support of colleagues, the HRI moves confidently forward towards the next biennial conference. PMID:26827995

  19. From Hahnemann's hand to your computer screen: building a digital homeopathy collection

    PubMed Central

    Mix, Lisa A; Cameron, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    The University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), Library holds the unique manuscript of the sixth edition of Samuel Hahnemann's Organon der Heilkunst, the primary text of homeopathy. The manuscript volume is Hahnemann's own copy of the fifth edition of the Organon with his notes for the sixth edition, handwritten throughout the volume. There is a high level of interest in the Organon manuscript, particularly among homeopaths. This led to the decision to present a digital surrogate on the web to make it accessible to a wider audience. Digitizing Hahnemann's manuscript and determining the best method of presentation on the web posed several challenges. Lessons learned in the course of this project will inform future digital projects. This article discusses the historical significance of the sixth edition of Hahnemann's Organon, its context in UCSF's homeopathy collections, and the specifics of developing the online homeopathy collection. PMID:21243055

  20. William Henderson (1810-72) and homeopathy in Edinburgh.

    PubMed

    Boyd, D H A

    2006-06-01

    William Henderson was appointed professor of general pathology at Edinburgh University and physician-in-ordinary to the ERI. He produced several papers on clinical and pathological aspects of aortic and heart disease and contributed to the differentiation of typhus and typhoid fevers. He became a homeopathist and was at the centre of a controversy surrounding the introduction of homeopathy to Edinburgh in the 1840s. This involved the Faculty of Medicine, the RCPE and medical societies as well as medical personalities, prominent among whom were Professor Sir James Y Simpson, Professor Sir Robert Christison and Professor James Syme. Many Scottish medical graduates were involved in the introduction of homeopathy to the British Isles. Glasgow is one of only four UK cities still to have a homeopathic hospital. PMID:17153153

  1. Effectiveness and Safety of Arnica montana in Post-Surgical Setting, Pain and Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Iannitti, Tommaso; Morales-Medina, Julio César; Bellavite, Paolo; Rottigni, Valentina; Palmieri, Beniamino

    2016-01-01

    Arnica montana has been widely used as a homeopathic remedy for the treatment of several inflammatory conditions in pain management and postoperative settings. This review gives an overview of the therapeutic use of Arnica montana in the above-mentioned fields also focusing on its mechanisms of action learned from animal models and in vitro studies. Arnica montana is more effective than placebo when used for the treatment of several conditions including post-traumatic and postoperative pain, edema, and ecchymosis. However, its dosages and preparations used have produced substantial differences in the clinical outcome. Cumulative evidence suggests that Arnica montana may represent a valid alternative to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, at least when treating some specific conditions. PMID:25171757

  2. Practice of oral therapy: role of village practitioners.

    PubMed

    1980-03-01

    In September 1978, ICDDR,B started a community training project in Chandpur, Bangladesh. Because there are few doctors in Bangladesh, village practitioners perform many of the services of community health care. In March, 1979, a 7-day training session was conducted for village practitioners in diarrhea, and its management; nutrition; and, health education. Before the training, a KAP study was conducted with the following results: 12% had formal medical education; 60-75% have general education between grade 9 or 10 passed; and, about 90% practice allopathic medicine alone or in combination with homeopathic or indigenous methods. More than 60% have been practicing medicine for 6-10 years. About 70% attend patients from 5-10 villages, but receiving patients from more than 10 villages is not uncommon. Almost half of the practitioners have pharmaceutical shops of their own. Every month, on an average, 58% attend 3-10 cases. PMID:12262303

  3. Position paper on mesotherapy.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Rashmi; Garg, Vijay Kumar; Mysore, Venkataram

    2011-01-01

    Mesotherapy is a controversial cosmetic procedure which has received publicity among the lay people, in the internet and in the media. It refers to minimally invasive techniques which consist of the use of intra- or subcutaneous injections containing liquid mixture of compounds (pharmaceutical and homeopathic medications, plant extracts, vitamins and other ingredients) to treat local medical and cosmetic conditions. This position paper has examined the available evidence and finds that acceptable scientific evidence for its effectiveness and safety is lacking. IADVL taskforce, therefore would like to state that the use of this technique remains controversial at present. Further research and well-designed controlled scientific studies are required to substantiate the claims of benefit of this mode of therapy. PMID:21393967

  4. [Homeopathy: a humanistic approach to medical practice].

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Marcus Zulian

    2007-01-01

    During the last decade, the traditional medical model has endeavoured to retrieve an improvement in the patient-physician relationship by means of propositions for humanization in the areas of education, medical care and policies. To enhance holistic characteristics of non-conventional practices in health, the incorporation of several aspects of humanities in understanding the process of the individual's illness, stressing that the physician's interest in aspects apparently not related to the impaired organ (history of the patients life, personality, interests, etc.) should be added to the technical and less humanized consultation. Since homeopathy embraces this wide semiological approach as inherent practice, using the totality of characteristic symptoms to evaluate organic unbalance and choose means of treatment, homeopathic clinical practice can significantly contribute to humanism in medicine. PMID:18157373

  5. From Hahnemann's hand to your computer screen: building a digital homeopathy collection.

    PubMed

    Mix, Lisa A; Cameron, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    The University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), Library holds the unique manuscript of the sixth edition of Samuel Hahnemann's Organon der Heilkunst, the primary text of homeopathy. The manuscript volume is Hahnemann's own copy of the fifth edition of the Organon with his notes for the sixth edition, handwritten throughout the volume. There is a high level of interest in the Organon manuscript, particularly among homeopaths. This led to the decision to present a digital surrogate on the web to make it accessible to a wider audience. Digitizing Hahnemann's manuscript and determining the best method of presentation on the web posed several challenges. Lessons learned in the course of this project will inform future digital projects. This article discusses the historical significance of the sixth edition of Hahnemann's Organon, its context in UCSF's homeopathy collections, and the specifics of developing the online homeopathy collection. PMID:21243055

  6. [General aspects of homeopathy].

    PubMed

    Avello L, Marcia; Avendaño O, Cristian; Mennickent C, Sigrid

    2009-01-01

    Homeopathic medicine is a type of therapy that appeared in Europe at the end of the eighteenth century. At the present time, it is widely accepted in developed countries as a form of alternative medicine. In Chile, health regulation includes homeopathy as pharmaceutical products and homeopathy is also considered a form of complementary medicine, that is well accepted by the public. The scientific rationale of homeopathy is based on an empiric type of thought that goes from the general to the particular. The symptoms that are valued are those that are particular to each sick individual. It uses diluted solutions of plants, minerals, animals and even venoms. There are basically two hypotheses to explain its mechanisms of action: The "immunological memory" and the "memory of water" or the transmission of electromagnetic information of the water. There still is needed to perform new studies to scientifically assess homeopathy and its usefulness, as an accepted alternative therapy. PMID:19399332

  7. Complementary and alternative medicine in inflammatory bowel diseases: what is the future in the field of herbal medicine?

    PubMed

    Gilardi, Daniela; Fiorino, Gionata; Genua, Marco; Allocca, Mariangela; Danese, Silvio

    2014-09-01

    The use of complementary and alternative medicine is wide-spread not only in Eastern countries, but also in the Western world. Despite the increasing evidence on the harmful effects induced by several naturopathic/homeopathic products, patients seem to appreciate these remedies, in particular because they consider them to be absolutely safe. This same phenomenon is common among inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. As a result there is a significant request for scientific data to evaluate both the efficacy and safety of these remedies, and to support the use of such medications as adjuvant treatments to biological and synthetic drugs. We aimed to review the current evidence on efficacy and safety of some natural products that are believed to be effective in inflammatory bowel disease. Further perspectives for the clinical use of herbal products and strategies for improving knowledge about herbal products in IBD are also discussed. PMID:24813226

  8. Is propolis safe as an alternative medicine?

    PubMed Central

    Miguel, Maria Graça; Antunes, Maria Dulce

    2011-01-01

    Propolis is a resinous substance produced by honeybees as defense against intruders. It has relevant therapeutic properties that have been used since ancient times. Nowadays, propolis is of increasing importance as a therapeutic, alone or included in many medicines and homeopathic products or in cosmetics. Propolis is produced worldwide and honeybees use the flora surrounding their beehives for its production. Therefore its chemical composition may change according to the flora. The phenolic and volatile fractions of propolis have been revised in the present study, as well as some of the biological properties attributed to this natural product. An alert is given about the need to standardize this product, with quality control. This has already been initiated by some authors, mainly in the propolis from the poplar-type. Only this product can constitute a good complementary and alternative medicine under internationally acceptable quality control. PMID:22219581

  9. A darker shade of green: medical botany, homeopathy, and cultural politics in interwar Germany.

    PubMed

    Kenny, Michael G

    2002-12-01

    In 1941 a proposal was made to Nazi SS Reichsführer, Heinrich Himmler, that extracts of a South American plant, Dieffenbachia seguine, might be used for the mass sterilization of racially undesirable war prisoners. The proposal was based on published animal fertility research conducted by Dr Gerhard Madaus, co-founder of a firm that produced and marketed natural medicinals. His fertility experiments were part of a broader series aimed at evaluating the scientific validity of ethnobotanical folk-knowledge. This article traces the historical background to the Madaus research: first, the role of homeopathy in the introduction of Dieffenbachias to western medicine; secondly, the social context of German 'alternative' medicine in the interwar period; and finally, the role of Madaus himself, whose homeopathically-oriented research on botanical medicinals inadvertently initiated the chain of events described here. PMID:12659098

  10. "Paradoxes, absurdities, and madness": conflict over alchemy, magic and medicine in the works of Andreas Libavius and Heinrich Khunrath.

    PubMed

    Forshaw, Peter J

    2008-01-01

    Both Andreas Libavius and Heinrich Khunrath graduated from Basel Medical Academy in 1588, though the theses they defended reveal antithetical approaches to medicine, despite their shared interests in iatrochemistry and transmutational alchemy. Libavius argued in favour of Galenic allopathy while Khunrath promoted the contrasting homeopathic approach of Paracelsus and the utility of the occult doctrine of Signatures for medical purposes. This article considers these differences in the two graduates' theses, both as intimations of their subsequent divergent notions of the boundaries of alchemy and its relations with medicine and magic, and also as evidence of the surprisingly unstable academic status of Paracelsian philosophy in Basel, its main publishing centre, at the end of the sixteenth century. PMID:18548903

  11. Mastitis prevention and control practices and mastitis treatment strategies associated with the consumption of (critically important) antimicrobials on dairy herds in Flanders, Belgium.

    PubMed

    Stevens, M; Piepers, S; De Vliegher, S

    2016-04-01

    The main objectives of this study were to evaluate to what extent variations in herd-level antimicrobial consumption (AMC) can be explained by differences in management practices that are consistently effective in the prevention of (sub)clinical mastitis, on the one hand, and by differences in mastitis treatment strategies, on the other hand. Antimicrobial consumption data were obtained during 2012 and 2013 by "garbage can audits" and expressed as antimicrobial treatment incidences (ATI) for all compounds combined (total ATI) and for the critically important antimicrobials for human health separately. Data on mastitis prevention and control practices were obtained via face-to-face interviews performed during herd visits in March 2013. Some management practices and treatment strategies related to udder health were associated with the total AMC. However, the results demonstrated that implementing effective udder health management practices does not necessarily imply a low AMC and vice versa. Herds participating in a veterinary herd health management program and herds selectively drying off cows used fewer antimicrobials compared with herds not participating in such a program or applying blanket dry-cow therapy. Moreover, herds treating (some) (sub)clinical mastitis cases with intramammary homeopathic substances consumed fewer antimicrobials than herds not applying such homeopathic treatments. Besides these factors, no other direct association was found between effective udder health management practices on the one hand and AMC on the other hand. Also, the use of critically important antimicrobials was only associated with the way in which subclinical mastitis cases were treated. The latter indicates that the AMC of critically important antimicrobials is potentially driven by factors other than those included in this study such as those related to the "mindset" of the veterinarians and their farmers. Future research should therefore aim to unravel the reasoning of

  12. Efficacy of Injections with Disci/Rhus Toxicodendron Compositum for Chronic Low Back Pain – A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Pach, Daniel; Brinkhaus, Benno; Roll, Stephanie; Wegscheider, Karl; Icke, Katja; Willich, Stefan N.; Witt, Claudia M.

    2011-01-01

    Background The effectiveness of injection therapy for low-back pain is still debatable. We compared the efficacy of local injections of the homeopathic preparation Disci/Rhus toxicodendron compositum (verum) with placebo injections and with no treatment in patients with chronic low back pain. Methodology/Principal Findings In a randomized controlled partly double blind multicenter trial patients with chronic low back pain from 9 German outpatient clinics were enrolled and randomly allocated in a 1∶1∶1 ratio to receive subcutaneous injections (verum or placebo) into painful sites on the lower back over 12 treatment sessions within eight weeks, or no treatment (rescue pain medication with paracetamol or NSAIDs). All trial personnel and participants were masked to treatment allocation. The primary outcome measure was the average pain intensity over the last seven days on a visual analogue scale (0–100 mm, 0 = no pain, 100 = worst imaginable pain) after eight weeks. Follow-up was 26 weeks. Primary analysis was by intention to treat. Between August 2007 and June 2008, 150 patients were randomly allocated to three groups (51 verum, 48 placebo and 51 no treatment). The mean baseline-adjusted low back pain intensity at week eight was: verum group 37.0 mm (97.5% CI 25.3;48.8), no treatment group 53.0 (41.8;64.2), and placebo group 41.8 (30.1;53.6). The verum was significantly superior to no treatment (P = 0.001), but not to placebo (P = 0.350). No significant side effects were reported. Conclusions/Significance The homeopathic preparation was not superior to placebo. Compared to no treatment injections resulted in significant and clinical relevant chronic back pain relief. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00567736 PMID:22087222

  13. Drug use during early pregnancy: Cross-sectional analysis from the Childbirth and Health Study in Primary Care in Iceland

    PubMed Central

    Sigurdsson, Emil L.; Gudmundsdottir, Anna M.; Kristjansdottir, Hildur; Sigurdsson, Johann A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective. To analyse drug use in early pregnancy with special focus on socio-demographic factors associated with psychotropic and analgesic drug use. Design. Cross-sectional study. Setting and subjects. A total of 1765 women were invited via their local health care centres, and 1111 participated at 11–16 weeks of pregnancy by filling out a postal questionnaire concerning socio-demographic and obstetric background, stressful life events, and drug use. Main outcome measures. Drug use prior to and early on in pregnancy, socio-demographic factors, smoking, and adverse life events were investigated. Drug categories screened for were psychotropics (collective term for antidepressants, relaxants, and sleep medication), analgesics, hormones, nicotine, vitamins/minerals, and homeopathic medicine. Results. Drug use from the aforementioned drug categories, excluding vitamins/minerals and homeopathic medicine, was reduced by 18% during early pregnancy, compared with six months prior to conception (49% vs. 60%). Psychotropic drug use during early pregnancy was associated with elementary maternal education (p < 0.5), being unemployed (p < 0.001), being single/divorced/separated (p < 0.01), smoking prior to or during pregnancy (p < 0.01), forced to change job/move house (p < 0.001), and psychotropic drug use six months prior to pregnancy (p < 0.001). No items on the stressful life events scale were associated with increased analgesic use, which increased only with multiparity. Conclusions. Use of analgesics and psychotropic drugs seems common in pregnancy. Our results indicate that lack of a support network, stressful life events, and lower status in society may predispose women to more drug use. GPs and midwives responsible for maternity care could take this into account when evaluating risk and gain for women and foetuses in the primary care setting. PMID:25299613

  14. Comparing Two Questionnaires for Eliciting CAM Use in a Multi-Ethnic US Population of Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Quandt, Sara A.; Ip, Edward H.; Saldana, Santiago; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The NAFKAM International CAM Questionnaire (I-CAM-Q) was designed to facilitate cross-study comparisons of CAM usage. This research presents the first empirical study of the I-CAM-Q’s performance. Materials and Methods Data were collected in two studies in a multi-ethnic (African American, American Indian, and white) population of older adults in the US. In 2010, 564 adults 60+ years were recruited. The I-CAM-Q was interviewer-administered. Data were compared to those collected in 2002 from a random sample of 701 Medicare recipients 65+ years. The 2002 survey included an extensive inventory of specific CAM therapies derived from local ethnographic research. Comparisons of the responses for 14 CAM modalities common to the two studies used logistic regression adjusted for demographics. Results There were no significant differences between the 2002 and 2010 surveys in the proportions reporting 10 modalities, including use of chiropractors, homeopaths, acupuncturists, herbalists, spiritual healers, vitamins, minerals, homeopathic remedies, Qigong, visualization, and prayer for health. Significantly less use of physicians and more use of relaxation techniques were reported in 2010. Herb use and garlic, as a specific herb, were reported significantly less in 2010. Conclusions Overall, the I-CAM-Q obtained results similar to those produced by a population-specific questionnaire. Those differences observed appear to reflect differences in the studies’ inclusion criteria or secular trends in CAM. This study supports the intention of the I-CAM-Q to substitute for local and regional surveys in order to allow cross-study comparisons of CAM use. Further tests, preferably through contemporaneous data collection are needed in other populations. PMID:22792131

  15. Alternative therapies for menopause.

    PubMed

    Kass-Annese, B

    2000-03-01

    If a woman does not want to use, or cannot use, hormone replacement therapy, then she must consider other ways to address two issues related to menopause: reducing her risk of developing cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, and other health problems that increase as women age, and symptomatology. Risk reduction of an array of health problems can be achieved through diet, exercise, and stress management. The nutraceuticals of specific vitamins, minerals, phytoestrogens, and essential fatty acid supplementations are a vital component of the risk reduction health program. Risk reduction of osteoporosis can be enhanced specifically through the use of ipriflavone and a comprehensive "bone building" vitamin and mineral program. Control of homocysteine levels for prevention of CAD, osteoporosis, and other health problems can be accomplished through B vitamin supplementation. The same interventions for risk reduction also may prove to be effective in prevention and treatment of menopausal-related symptoms, particularly when the B vitamins, magnesium, isoflavones, and essential fatty acids are used. If lifestyle interventions and nutraceuticals do not adequately address symptomatology, however, a woman has several alternative therapies from which to choose. There are numerous excellent multiherbal and homeopathic therapies that can be purchased over the counter. A woman also can choose to be evaluated by an alternative therapy practitioner and have a program designed specifically for her health needs. Although there has been limited clinical research of herbal and homeopathic alternative therapies for the menopause, when taken according to directions and if no contraindications exist, they have the potential for being extremely effective and safe options. PMID:10694998

  16. [Advertising and Zeitgeist. The advertising of Schwabe Pharmaceuticals].

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Cornelia; Riha, Ortrun

    2015-01-01

    This contribution explores the advertisements for homeopathic products in magazines in the first half of the twentieth century, focusing on the period between 1933 and 1945 and based on the example of the pharmaceutical company Dr Willmar Schwabe. In the first half of the twentieth century, Schwabe Pharmaceuticals was market leader for homeopathic and other complementary medical products (phytotherapy, biochemicals). The example chosen as well as the time frame complement the existing research. We searched three German publications (the homeopathy journal Leipziger Populäre Zeitschrift für Homöopathie, the medical weekly Münchner Medizinische Wochenschrift and the pharma magazine Pharmazeutische Zeitung) and collected target-group-specific results for laypersons, physicians and pharmacists. Analysis of the images and texts in the selected advertisements often reflected the historical background and the respective health policies (wartime requirements, times of need, "Neue Deutsche Heilkunde"). The history of this traditional company was seen as an important point in advertising, as were the recognisability of the brand through the company logo, the emphasis on the high quality of their products and the reference to the company's own research activities. We furthermore found the kind of argumentation that is typical of natural medicine (naturalness, the power of the sun, prominent representatives). Schwabe met the expectations of its clients, who were interested in complementary medicine, whilst pursuing an approach to homeopathy that was compatible with natural science, and it presented itself as a modern, scientifically oriented enterprise. The company did not lose credibility as a result, but increased its clientele by expanding to include the whole naturopathic market. PMID:26137649

  17. Potential metal impurities in active pharmaceutical substances and finished medicinal products - A market surveillance study.

    PubMed

    Wollein, Uwe; Bauer, Bettina; Habernegg, Renate; Schramek, Nicholas

    2015-09-18

    A market surveillance study has been established by using different atomic spectrometric methods for the determination of selected elemental impurities of particular interest, to gain an overview about the quality of presently marketed drug products and their bulk drug substances. The limit tests were carried out with respect to the existing EMA guideline on the specification limits for residuals of metal catalysts or metal reagents. Also attention was given to the future implementation of two new chapters of the United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) stating limit concentrations of elemental impurities. The methods used for determination of metal residues were inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), and atomic absorption spectrometry technologies (GFAAS, CVAAS, HGAAS). This article presents the development and validation of the methods used for the determination of 21 selected metals in 113 samples from drug products and their active pharmaceutical ingredients. PMID:26036232

  18. The antimicrobial properties of chile peppers (Capsicum species) and their uses in Mayan medicine.

    PubMed

    Cichewicz, R H; Thorpe, P A

    1996-06-01

    A survey of the Mayan pharmacopoeia revealed that tissues of Capsicum species (Solanaceae) are included in a number of herbal remedies for a variety of ailments of probable microbial origin. Using a filter disk assay, plain and heated aqueous extracts from fresh Capsicum annuum, Capsicum baccatum, Capsicum chinese, Capsicum frutescens, and Capsicum pubescens varieties were tested for their antimicrobial effects with fifteen bacterial species and one yeast species. Two pungent compounds found in Capsicum species (capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin) were also tested for their anti-microbial effects. The plain and heated extracts were found to exhibit varying degrees of inhibition against Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Clostridium sporogenes, Clostridium tetani, and Streptococcus pyogenes. PMID:8735449

  19. Formulation and evaluation of clozapine orally disintegrating tablets prepared by direct compression.

    PubMed

    Olmez, S S; Vural, I; Sahin, S; Ertugrul, A; Capan, Y

    2013-02-01

    In this study, clozapine orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) were prepared by direct compression method. Disintegration time, resistance to crushing of tablets, porosity, friability, dissolution tests were performed and dissolution profiles of ODTs were investigated. Morphological and interaction studies were also performed. Friability values were found to be less than 1%. All tablet formulations disintegrated within 1 min and fulfilled the 3 min disintegration time required for ODTs given in the European Pharmacopoeia. More than 85% of the labeled amount of clozapine was dissolved in 15 min from the ODTs. No interaction or changes were found between active substance and excipients. As a result of the studies, ODT formulations developed in this study can be suggested as promising formulations, which assist development and manufacturing a generic product of clozapine. PMID:23469682

  20. Portable system of programmable syringe pump with potentiometer for determination of promethazine in pharmaceutical applications

    PubMed Central

    Saleh, Tawfik A.; Abulkibash, A.M.; Ibrahim, Atta E.

    2011-01-01

    A simple and fast-automated method was developed and validated for the assay of promethazine hydrochloride in pharmaceutical formulations, based on the oxidation of promethazine by cerium in an acidic medium. A portable system, consisting of a programmable syringe pump connected to a potentiometer, was constructed. The developed change in potential during promethazine oxidation was monitored. The related optimum working conditions, such as supporting electrolyte concentration, cerium(IV) concentration and flow rate were optimized. The proposed method was successfully applied to pharmaceutical samples as well as synthetic ones. The obtained results were realized by the official British pharmacopoeia (BP) method and comparable results were obtained. The obtained t-value indicates no significant differences between the results of the proposed and BP methods, with the advantages of the proposed method being simple, sensitive and cost effective. PMID:23960787

  1. Antibiotic resistance modulation by natural products obtained from Nasutitermes corniger (Motschulsky, 1855) and its nest.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Thiago P; Clementino, Elaine L C; Felismino, Delcio C; Alves, Rômulo R N; Vasconcellos, Alexandre; Coutinho, Henrique D M; Medeiros, Ana Cláudia D

    2015-07-01

    Insects and their products are included in the traditional pharmacopoeia of various ethnic groups worldwide. In the Brazilian semiarid region can be highlighted the use of the termite Nasutitermes corniger for the treatment of various diseases. This study evaluated the ethanol extract of N. corniger and its nest as an antimicrobial agent and as a modulator of bacterial resistance against multidrug strains. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of the extract on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli by microdilution was determined, as well as MIC of antibiotics in the presence and absence of extract. Despite having no significant antimicrobial activity (MIC ⩾ 1000 μg mL(-1)), the extract showed additive activity to the antibiotic efficacy, significantly reducing its MIC. These results suggest that N. corniger and its nest are promising natural products for use in antimicrobial therapy. PMID:26150745

  2. Handheld Computing in Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Sandra; Stewart, Thomas E.; Mehta, Sangeeta; Wax, Randy; Lapinsky, Stephen E.

    2003-01-01

    Handheld computers have become a valuable and popular tool in various fields of medicine. A systematic review of articles was undertaken to summarize the current literature regarding the use of handheld devices in medicine. A variety of articles were identified, and relevant information for various medical fields was summarized. The literature search covered general information about handheld devices, the use of these devices to access medical literature, electronic pharmacopoeias, patient tracking, medical education, research, business management, e-prescribing, patient confidentiality, and costs as well as specialty-specific uses for personal digital assistants (PDAs). The authors concluded that only a small number of articles provide evidence-based information about the use of PDAs in medicine. The majority of articles provide descriptive information, which is nevertheless of value. This article aims to increase the awareness among physicians about the potential roles for handheld computers in medicine and to encourage the further evaluation of their use. PMID:12595403

  3. HPTLC determination of chemical composition variability in raw materials used in botanicals.

    PubMed

    Toniolo, Chiara; Nicoletti, Marcello; Maggi, Filippo; Venditti, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Besides the chemotaxonomic value, nowadays determination of biodiversity and chemical variability has a commercial impact. The exact identity of raw material and constituents of botanical products, such as food supplements or herbal remedies, is a very important argument, being the real prerequisite for quality control and traceability, followed by the determination of active components. However, the analytical approach must consider the natural great variability in secondary metabolites and product form, such as in extracts. Against the reductive approach, on the basis of single chemical standards, so far dominant in Pharmacopoeias monographs, we report applications and utility of the high-performance thin-layer chromatography fingerprint in determination of species of the same genus, of populations of the same species and of different drugs of the same plant. PMID:24219430

  4. Studies on an inactivated vaccine against rabies virus in domestic animals.

    PubMed

    Monaco, F; Franchi, P M; Lelli, R

    2006-01-01

    An inactivated vaccine against rabies virus was prepared from the attenuated ATCC PV-12 viral rabbit Pasteur strain. The virus was grown on Baby Hamster Kidney (BHK21) cells, and the supernatant was purified by filtration and inactivated with beta-propriolactone. The inactivated product was checked according to the NHI and European Pharmacopoeia methods. Part of the product was then lyophilised and the other part was adjuvanted with Al(OH)3. Both parts were used to vaccinate and boost groups of horses, cattle and sheep at different intervals. Their immunogenicity was compared with a similar commercial product. Blood samples were collected on a regular basis and the antibody titre was determined by the Fluorescence Antibody Virus Neutralisation (FAVN) test. No significant differences were found between species after both inoculations even though the immune response increased in intensity and duration after the booster dose in all the animals tested and was stronger and lasted longer with the adjuvanted aliquot. PMID:16878481

  5. The pharmaceutical death-ride of dihydroartemisinin

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    In the 2010 second edition of WHO's guidelines for the treatment of malaria, the relatively new fixed dose combination dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine is included as one of the recommended artemisinin combination therapies. However, experimental testing demonstrates that, due to its intrinsic chemical instability, dihydroartemisinin is not suitable to be used in pharmaceutical formulations. In addition, data show that the currently available dihydroartemisinin preparations fail to meet the internationally accepted stability requirements. At a time when many efforts aim to ban counterfeit and substandard drugs from the malaria market, the obvious question rises how WHO and public-private partnerships, such as Medicine for Malaria venture (MMV), can support the production and marketing of anti-malarial drugs that do not even meet the International Pharmacopoeia requirements? PMID:20649950

  6. Selectivity of similar compounds identification using IR spectroscopy: steroids.

    PubMed

    Sadlej-Sosnowska, Nina; Ocios, Agnieszka

    2007-02-01

    This article focuses on investigating three methods of positive identification or discrimination of a substance when it is compared to a set of similar ones, applying the quantitative criteria and is a continuation of two recent investigations, involving groups of structurally related compounds, namely benzodiazepines and beta-lactam antibiotics. In the course of the present study a set of steroids has been explored. Identification of a substance was based on the comparison of its spectrum with that of a reference material by using several functional algorithms. The algorithm based on the calculation of correlation coefficient between the first derivatives of the spectra has been proved to have the most discriminating power. Then the results in two spectral regions were likened. Limiting values were proposed for correlation coefficients so as to allow for discrimination or qualification of a substance as identical as a reference one. Quantitative criteria are proposed for the identification instead of the qualitative ones recommended by leading pharmacopoeias. PMID:17051592

  7. Physicochemical characterization, fatty acid composition, and thermal analysis of Bertholletia excelsa HBK oil

    PubMed Central

    Pena Muniz, Marcos Antônio; Ferreira dos Santos, Marina Nídia; da Costa, Carlos Emmerson Ferreira; Morais, Luiz; Lamarão, Maria Louze Nobre; Ribeiro-Costa, Roseane Maria; Silva-Júnior, José Otávio Carréra

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed at characterizing the oil extracted from Bertholletia excelsa H.B.K. almond, a native species from the Amazon region. Analytical methods used for oils and fats were employed through pharmacopoeia assays, AOCS (American Oil Chemists Society) standard methods as well as those recommended by ANVISA (National Health Surveillance Agency) such as acidity, peroxide value, saponification index, iodine value and refractive index, pH and relative density, and also thermoanalytical analyses (thermogravimetry, differential thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis) as well as chromatographic analysis (gas chromatography). The characterization assessments of B. excelsa oil showed results indicating that the oil contains polyunsaturated fatty acids in large proportion. The termoanalytical tests indicated that B.excelsa oil showed thermal stability up to 220 °C, These results showed that the oil extracted from B. excelsa has acceptable characteristics and is of good quality. PMID:25709225

  8. Boldo and boldine: an emerging case of natural drug development.

    PubMed

    Speisky, H; Cassels, B K

    1994-01-01

    Boldo (Peumus boldus Mol.), a Chilean tree traditionally employed in folk medicine and recognized as a herbal remedy in a number of pharmacopoeias, mainly for the treatment of liver ailments, has recently been the subject of increasing attention. Boldine, in particular, the major and most characteristic alkaloidal constituent of this plant species, now emerges as its most interesting active principle from the pharmacological viewpoint. The recent demonstration that boldine is an effective antioxidant in both biological and non-biological systems has opened up the perspective of a broad range of uses in medicine and industry. Given the toxicological data on this alkaloid, its antioxidative properties situate it as a potentially useful substance in many disease states featuring free-radical related oxidative injury. This review attempts to cover and discuss the studies conducted over the last four decades on the chemical and pharmacological properties of boldo and its main constituent. PMID:8202440

  9. Handheld computing in medicine.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Sandra; Stewart, Thomas E; Mehta, Sangeeta; Wax, Randy; Lapinsky, Stephen E

    2003-01-01

    Handheld computers have become a valuable and popular tool in various fields of medicine. A systematic review of articles was undertaken to summarize the current literature regarding the use of handheld devices in medicine. A variety of articles were identified, and relevant information for various medical fields was summarized. The literature search covered general information about handheld devices, the use of these devices to access medical literature, electronic pharmacopoeias, patient tracking, medical education, research, business management, e-prescribing, patient confidentiality, and costs as well as specialty-specific uses for personal digital assistants (PDAs). The authors concluded that only a small number of articles provide evidence-based information about the use of PDAs in medicine. The majority of articles provide descriptive information, which is nevertheless of value. This article aims to increase the awareness among physicians about the potential roles for handheld computers in medicine and to encourage the further evaluation of their use. PMID:12595403

  10. Plants used as food and medicine by Polish migrants in Misiones, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Kujawska, Monika; Pieroni, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    In this article we discuss the importance of food plants, both introduced and native, in the pharmacopoeia of the Polish community in Misiones, Argentina. Food species constitute a relevant portion of all botanicals used by Polish settlers in home therapies (41%), while introduced food species prevail among the continued herbal remedies used by the study group. We explain this pattern of use by food plant availability, their versatility as reflected in the number of medicinal applications, and also their importance in cross-cultural relations. Finally, we conclude that several food plants used by Polish migrants (e.g., Allium sativum, Mentha xpiperita, and Camellia sinensis) may have served to "strengthen" migrants' identity within the host country. PMID:25602720

  11. [How to become a pharmacist via the medical juries, during the Consulate and the Empire].

    PubMed

    Lafont, Olivier

    2015-09-01

    The law of Germinal an XI organized the education of pharmacists. It offered two different pathways to become a pharmacist. The first one needed three years in a pharmacy followed by three years of courses in a School of Pharmacy (located in Paris, Montpellier or Strasbourg) and the examination had to be passed in the School. The second one needed eight years in a pharmacy followed by an examination in front of a Medical jury. Medical juries were organized in every department and were composed by three physicians and four pharmacists. An interesting document, a book gathering together all the preparations realized during years 1811, 1812, 1813, collected by Claude Duméril in many departments, will allow to study what had been asked to the candidates in Rouen, in 1813, and what were reference pharmacopoeias used. PMID:26529887

  12. [Determination of residual organic solvents and macroporous resin residues in Akebia saponin D].

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiao-han; Yang, Xiao-lin; Xiao, Wei; Wang, Zhen-zhong; Ding, Gang; Huang, Wen-zhe; Yang, Zhong-lin

    2015-05-01

    According to ICH, Chinese Pharmacopoeia and supplementary requirements on the separation and purification of herbal extract with macroporous adsorption resin by SFDA, hexane, acetidine, ethanol, benzene, methyl-benzene, o-xylene, m-xylene, p-xylene, styrene, diethyl-benzene and divinyl-benzene of residual organic solvents and macroporous resin residues in Akebia saponin D were determined by headspace capillary GC. Eleven residues in Akebia saponin D were completely separated on DB-wax column, with FID detector, high purity nitrogen as the carry gases. The calibration curves were in good linearity (0.999 2-0.999 7). The reproducibility was good (RSD < 10%). The average recoveries were 80.0% -110%. The detection limit of each component was far lower than the limit concentration. The method is simple, reproducible, and can be used to determine the residual organic solvents and macroporous resin residues in Akebia saponin D. PMID:26390656

  13. Development, standardization and assessment of PCR systems for purity testing of avian viral vaccines.

    PubMed

    Ottiger, Hans-Peter

    2010-05-01

    The European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) requires avian viral vaccines to be free of adventitious agents. Purity testing is an essential quality requirement of immunological veterinary medicinal products (IVMPs) and testing for extraneous agents includes monitoring for many different viruses. Conventional virus detection methods include serology or virus culture, however, molecular tests have become a valid alternative testing method. Nucleic acid testing (NAT) is fast, highly sensitive and has a higher degree of discrimination than conventional approaches. These advantages have led to the development and standardization of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays for the detection of avian leucosis virus, avian orthoreovirus, infectious bursal disease virus, infectious bronchitis virus, Newcastle disease virus, infectious laryngotracheitis virus, influenza A virus, Marek's disease virus, turkey rhinotracheitis virus, egg drop syndrome virus, chicken anaemia virus, avian adenovirus and avian encephalomyelitis virus. This paper reviews the development, standardization and assessment of PCR for extraneous agent testing in IVMPs with examples from an Official Medicines Control Laboratory (OMCL). PMID:20338785

  14. Characterization of dihydrostreptomycin-related substances by liquid chromatography coupled to ion trap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Pendela, Murali; Hoogmartens, Jos; Van Schepdael, Ann; Adams, Erwin

    2009-06-01

    Dihydrostreptomycin sulphate (DHS) is a water-soluble, broad-spectrum aminoglycoside antibiotic. For quantitative analysis, the European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) prescribes an ion-pairing liquid chromatography/ultraviolet (LC/UV) method using a C18 stationary phase. Several unknown compounds were detected in commercial samples. Hence, for characterization of these unknown peaks in a commercial DHS sample, the Ph. Eur. method was coupled to mass spectrometry (MS). However, since the Ph. Eur. method uses a non-volatile mobile phase, each peak eluted was collected and desalted before introduction into the mass spectrometer. The desalting procedure was applied to remove the non volatile salt, buffer and ion-pairing reagent in the collected fraction. In total, 20 impurities were studied and 14 of them were newly characterized. Five impurities which are already reported in the literature were also traced in this LC/UV method. PMID:19449319

  15. Review of clinical studies of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. and its isolated bioactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Bounda, Guy-Armel; Feng, Y U

    2015-01-01

    Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. (PMT), officially listed in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, is one of the most popular perennial Chinese traditional medicines known as He shou wu in China and East Asia, and as Fo-ti in North America. Mounting pharmacological studies have stressed out its key benefice for the treatment of various diseases and medical conditions such as liver injury, cancer, diabetes, alopecia, atherosclerosis, and neurodegenerative diseases as well. International databases such as PubMed/Medline, Science citation Index and Google Scholar were searched for clinical studies recently published on P. multiflorum. Various clinical studies published articles were retrieved, providing information relevant to pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics analysis, sleep disorders, dyslipidemia treatment, and neurodegenerative diseases. This review is an effort to update the clinical picture of investigations ever carried on PMT and/or its isolated bio-compounds and to enlighten its therapeutic assessment. PMID:26130933

  16. Synthesis and biological activity of Wuweizisu C and analogs.

    PubMed

    Chang, J B; Wang, Q; Li, Y F

    2009-01-01

    Lignans are widely distributed in nature. The earliest recorded medicinal use of lignans dated back to over 1000 years ago. Lignan-rich plant products were also active ingredients in Chinese and Japanese folk medicines for the treatment of various diseases. The dried root and stem of this plant are listed in the Chinese pharmacopoeia for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, gastric, duodenal ulcers and many other diseases. This review highlights synthetic strategies for the Wuweizisu C analogs and the important pharmacological activities as well as therapeutic findings related to the treatment of HBV and other diseases. Notably a significant and ongoing project on Wuweizisu C and its analogs has led to the discovery and development of two potent derivatives alpha-DDB and BICYCLOL which are currently in clinical trials against HBV, especially in lowering elevated SGPT levels. Further design, synthesis, and evaluation of Wuweizisu C analogs are discussed. PMID:19903156

  17. Alkaloids in Processed Rhizoma Corydalis and Crude Rhizoma Corydalis Analyzed by GC/MS

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Ru; Su, Huidan; Li, Yunlong

    2014-01-01

    The alkaloids in the processed Rhizoma Corydalis and the crude Rhizoma Corydalis were qualitatively and semiquantitatively analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) method. The processing herb drug procedure was carried out according to the standard method of Chinese Pharmacopoeia. The samples were extracted using Soxhlet extractor with different solvents: methanol and acetone. The extraction effect on different solvents was investigated. The results showed that 11 kinds of alkaloids were identified from the crude Rhizoma Corydalis and only two were from the processed Rhizoma Corydalis. A total of 13 kinds of alkaloids were all based on two backbones. The alkaloids in the processed sample were less than those in the crude Rhizoma Corydalis significantly, while almost the corydaline has been changed in conformation after the sample had undergone processing, which provided support for the conclusion of reducing toxicity when the herbal medicine having been undergone a traditional drugs treatment process. PMID:25210643

  18. The application of HPLC ESI MS in the investigation of the flavonoids and flavonoid glycosides of a Caribbean Lamiaceae plant with potential for bioaccumulation.

    PubMed

    Peter, Sonia R; Peru, Kerry M; Fahlman, Brian; McMartin, Dena W; Headley, John V

    2015-01-01

    As part of an exchange technology program between the government of Barbados and Environment Canada, methanolic and aqueous extracts from the flavonoid-rich Lamiaceae family were characterized using negative-ion electrospray mass spectrometry. The species investigated is part of the Caribbean Pharmacopoeia, and is used for a variety of health issues, including colds, flu, diabetes, and hypertension. The extracts were investigated for structural elucidation of phenolics, identification of chemical taxonomic profile, and evidence of bio-accumulator potential. The methanolic and aqueous leaf extracts of Plectranthus amboinicus yielded rosmarinic acid, ladanein, cirsimaritin, and other methoxylated flavonoids. This genus also shows a tendency to form conjugates with monosaccharides, including glucose, galactose, and rhamnose. The aqueous extract yielded four isomeric rhamnosides. The formation of conjugates by Plectranthus amboinicus is thus evidence of high bioaccumulator significance. PMID:26357892

  19. Review of clinical studies of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. and its isolated bioactive compounds

    PubMed Central

    Bounda, Guy-Armel; Feng, YU

    2015-01-01

    Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. (PMT), officially listed in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, is one of the most popular perennial Chinese traditional medicines known as He shou wu in China and East Asia, and as Fo-ti in North America. Mounting pharmacological studies have stressed out its key benefice for the treatment of various diseases and medical conditions such as liver injury, cancer, diabetes, alopecia, atherosclerosis, and neurodegenerative diseases as well. International databases such as PubMed/Medline, Science citation Index and Google Scholar were searched for clinical studies recently published on P. multiflorum. Various clinical studies published articles were retrieved, providing information relevant to pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics analysis, sleep disorders, dyslipidemia treatment, and neurodegenerative diseases. This review is an effort to update the clinical picture of investigations ever carried on PMT and/or its isolated bio-compounds and to enlighten its therapeutic assessment. PMID:26130933

  20. Evaluation of capillary zone electrophoresis for the determination of protein composition in therapeutic immunoglobulins and human albumins.

    PubMed

    Christians, Stefan; van Treel, Nadine Denise; Bieniara, Gabriele; Eulig-Wien, Annika; Hanschmann, Kay-Martin; Giess, Siegfried

    2016-07-01

    Capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) provides an alternative means of separating native proteins on the basis of their inherent electrophoretic mobilities. The major advantage of CZE is the quantification by UV detection, circumventing the drawbacks of staining and densitometry in the case of gel electrophoresis methods. The data of this validation study showed that CZE is a reliable assay for the determination of protein composition in therapeutic preparations of human albumin and human polyclonal immunoglobulins. Data obtained by CZE are in line with "historical" data obtained by the compendial method, provided that peak integration is performed without time correction. The focus here was to establish a rapid and reliable test to substitute the current gel based zone electrophoresis techniques for the control of protein composition of human immunoglobulins or albumins in the European Pharmacopoeia. We believe that the more advanced and modern CZE method described here is a very good alternative to the procedures currently described in the relevant monographs. PMID:27156142

  1. Physicochemical characterization, fatty acid composition, and thermal analysis of Bertholletia excelsa HBK oil.

    PubMed

    Pena Muniz, Marcos Antônio; Ferreira Dos Santos, Marina Nídia; da Costa, Carlos Emmerson Ferreira; Morais, Luiz; Lamarão, Maria Louze Nobre; Ribeiro-Costa, Roseane Maria; Silva-Júnior, José Otávio Carréra

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed at characterizing the oil extracted from Bertholletia excelsa H.B.K. almond, a native species from the Amazon region. Analytical methods used for oils and fats were employed through pharmacopoeia assays, AOCS (American Oil Chemists Society) standard methods as well as those recommended by ANVISA (National Health Surveillance Agency) such as acidity, peroxide value, saponification index, iodine value and refractive index, pH and relative density, and also thermoanalytical analyses (thermogravimetry, differential thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis) as well as chromatographic analysis (gas chromatography). The characterization assessments of B. excelsa oil showed results indicating that the oil contains polyunsaturated fatty acids in large proportion. The termoanalytical tests indicated that B.excelsa oil showed thermal stability up to 220 °C, These results showed that the oil extracted from B. excelsa has acceptable characteristics and is of good quality. PMID:25709225

  2. Comparative thermoresistance of two biological indicators for monitoring steam autoclaves. I. Comparison performed in a gravity BIER/Steam Vessel.

    PubMed

    Skaug, N; Berube, R

    1983-12-01

    The thermoresistance of two biological indicators (BIs) for steam sterilization control (Swedish spore tablets and Attest No. 1242 BI) was compared at 121 degrees C and at 134 degrees C, saturated steam, in a special test autoclave (a gravity BIER/Steam Vessel). In this autoclave, three lots of Attest No. 1242 BI (ABI) demonstrated longer survival exposure times than did the three lots of the Scandinavian BI (SBI) tested while the survival-kill range was approx. the same. Also, the ABI had higher D121 degrees C- and D134 degrees C- values based on fraction-negative tests. The D121 degrees C-value of approx, 1.5 min as suggested by the European Pharmacopoeia, was met by both BIs. The larger spore population and the package configuration of the ABI units contribute to the higher thermoresistance of the ABI in the gravity BIER/Steam Vessel. PMID:6673502

  3. Edinburgh doctors and their physic gardens.

    PubMed

    Doyle, D

    2008-12-01

    Edinburgh has had eight physic gardens on different sites since its first one was created by the Incorporation of Barbers and Surgeons in 1656. As the gardens grew in size, they evolved from herb gardens to botanic gardens with small herbaria for the supply of medical herbs. They were intended for the instruction of medical, surgical and apothecary students and, in the case of the physicians, to demonstrate the need for a physicians' college and a pharmacopoeia. Some of the doctors in charge of them were equally famous and influential in botany as in medicine, and while Edinburgh Town Council enjoyed the fame the gardens brought to the city it was parsimonious and slow to support its botanical pioneers. The gardens are celebrated today in the Sibbald Garden within the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh. PMID:19227967

  4. Overview of the quality standard research of traditional Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Gao, Huimin; Wang, Zhimin; Li, Yujuan; Qian, Zhongzhi

    2011-06-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been widely used for the prevention and treatment of various diseases for a long time in China. Due to its proven efficacy, wide applications, and low side effect, TCM has increasingly attracted worldwide attention. However, one of the biggest challenges facing the clinical practice of TCM is the uncontrollable quality. In this review, the progress of the development and the current status of quality standard as well as new quality control techniques introduced in Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2010 edition), such as liquid chromatography hyphenated mass spectrometry (LC-MS), fingerprint, quantitative analysis of multicomponents by single-marker (QAMS), thin layer chromatography bio-autographic assay (TLC-BAA), and DNA molecular marker technique, are briefly overviewed. PMID:21695625

  5. Radiation effect studies on anticancer drugs, cyclophosphamide and doxorubicin for radiation sterilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varshney, L.; Dodke, P. B.

    2004-12-01

    Two anticancer drugs, cyclophosphamide (CPH) and doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOXO), in powder form were exposed to a range of doses of 60Co gamma and electron beam radiation to study the effects of ionizing radiation. Pharmacopoeia tests, discolouration, degradation products, effect of irradiation temperature and dose rate were investigated. CPH undergoes less than 2% degradation at 30 kGy. Chromatographic studies revealed formation of several trace level degradation products, discolouration and free radicals in the irradiated CPH. N, N-bis (2-chloroethyl) group in the molecule is particularly sensitive to radiation degradation. Irradiation to 5 kGy at low temperature (77 K) did not result in significant changes. DOXO was observed to be quite radiation resistant and did not undergo significant changes in its physico-chemical properties and degradation product profile. It can be radiation sterilized at normal sterilization dose of 25 kGy.

  6. Product-specific validation of a serological potency test for release of Leptospira vaccines in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Stirling, Catrina; Novokova, Viera

    2013-09-01

    Historically in the European Union, all Leptospira vaccines were released using the European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) hamster potency assay. Recently, there has been a shift toward alternatives that offer either refinement of testing or replacement of animals for product release. This is being driven by animal welfare concerns but also by a drive to have more consistent, cheaper, and faster batch release tests. This publication discusses one such example of a multicomponent canine vaccine that includes three Leptospira serovars and has recently been registered in the European Union. The potency release test is a refinement because it uses rabbit serology rather than hamster challenge. This publication covers the principles of the test method, challenges faced during its development and registration, and discussion about benefits and limitations of this method. It concludes with a view of how the use of serology testing could fit into an overall strategy to move to fully in vitro testing by adopting a consistency approach. PMID:23849308

  7. [Biological and chemical indicators of thermal sterilization and their possible effect on its general concept].

    PubMed

    Horn, H; Machmerth, R; Witthauer, J

    1976-01-01

    Regarding to ignorance of germ thermoresistance occurring in hospital environment, the effect of sterilization in medicine is determined occasionally on samples of medium with high number of germs or tests are performed to determine the sterilization success (in pharmacy) by examining samples of sterile badges, although their degrees of contamination (mostly low) before sterilization are not known. Instead of fixed sterilization parameters, the new second Pharmacopoeia of the German Democratic Republic (1976 seqq.) allows a free choise of sterilization parameters ingeniously spaced (110 degrees C--140 degrees C vapour, 160 degrees C--200 degrees C hot air) according to diagrams. The mentioned methods both imperfect and expensive ones should be replaced by introducing sterilization indicators whose changes might render the designation "sterile" possible. Substantial differencies between biological and chemical indicators are shown. PMID:987099

  8. Boric Acid Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Wong, L. C.; Heimbach, M. D.; Truscott, D. R.; Duncan, B. D.

    1964-01-01

    Boric acid poisoning in 11 infants, occurring in the newborn nursery as a result of the accidental and inadvertent use of 2.5% boric acid in the preparation of the formulae, is reported. Five of the infants died. All except two exhibited the classical symptomatology of acute boric acid poisoning, namely, diarrhea, vomiting, erythema, exfoliation, desquamation of the skin, and marked central nervous system irritation. Early manifestations of poisoning were nonspecific, and one patient died before skin manifestations were noted. Peritoneal dialysis, instituted in nine cases, was found to be the most effective method of treatment. It is recommended that boric acid, which is of doubtful therapeutic value, should be completely removed from hospitals, dispensaries and pharmacopoeias. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:14166459

  9. Stability of the crystalline form of cefaclor monohydrate and its pharmaceutical preparations.

    PubMed

    Medenecka, Beata; Jelińska, Anna; Zajac, Marianna; Bałdyka, Magdalena; Juszkiewicz, Krzysztof; Oszczapowicz, Irena

    2009-01-01

    The influence of temperature and relative air humidity on the stability of cefaclor monohydrate in crystalline form and in its pharmaceutical preparations (oral suspension and slow release tablets) was investigated. The process of degradation was studied by using high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet (UV) detection, as described in the monograph of cefaclor in European Pharmacopoeia. The degradation of cefaclor monohydrate in substance, in oral suspension and tablets at relative air humidity RH > 50% is a first-order autocatalytic reaction relative to substrate concentration, while at 0% RH the degradation of cefaclor in substance is a first-order reaction relative to substrate concentration. The kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of degradation were calculated. PMID:19894653

  10. Ultrahigh hydrostatic pressure extraction of flavonoids from Epimedium koreanum Nakai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Lili; Zhang, Shouqin; Dou, Jianpeng; Zhu, Junjie; Liang, Qing

    2011-02-01

    Herba Epimedii is one of the most famous Chinese herbal medicines listed in the Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China, as one of the representatives of traditional Chinese herb, it has been widely applied in the field of invigorate the kidney and strengthen 'Yang'. The attention to Epimedium extract has more and more increased in recent years. In this work, a novel extraction technique, ultra-high hydrostatic pressure extraction (UPE) technology was applied to extract the total flavonoids of E. koreanum. Three factors (pressure, ethanol concentration and extraction time) were chosen as the variables of extraction experiments, and the optimum UPE conditions were pressure 350 MPa; ethanol concentration 50% (v/v); extraction time 5 min. Compared with Supercritical CO2 extraction, Reflux extraction and Ultrasonic-assisted extraction, UPE has excellent advantages (shorter extraction time, higher yield, better antioxidant activity, lower energy consumption and eco-friendly).

  11. Two Traditional Chinese Medicines Curcumae Radix and Curcumae Rhizoma: An Ethnopharmacology, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacology Review.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yang; Xie, Meng; Song, Yan; Wang, Wenping; Zhao, Haoran; Tian, Yuxin; Wang, Yan; Bai, Shaojuan; Zhao, Yichen; Chen, Xiaoyi; She, Gaimei

    2016-01-01

    Curcumae Rhizoma, known as Ezhu (Chinese: ), and Curcumae Radix, known as Yujin (Chinese: ), are different plant parts coming from three same species according to China Pharmacopoeia. Actually, they are used in different ways in TCM clinical treatment. Curcumae Rhizoma is mainly used as antitumor drug, while Curcumae Radix has been used as antidepressant and cholagogue. Curcumae Rhizoma and Curcumae Radix are confused in variety and source, even in clinical trials by some nonprofessional workers. So it is important for us to make them clear. This review is aimed at summarizing the ethnopharmacology, phytochemical, and pharmacological differences between Curcumae Radix and Curcumae Rhizoma by SciFinder, CNKI, and so on, to use them exactly and clearly. Further studies on Curcumae Rhizoma and Curcumae Radix can lead to the development of new drugs and therapeutics for various diseases on the basis of the TCM theory. PMID:27057197

  12. Two Traditional Chinese Medicines Curcumae Radix and Curcumae Rhizoma: An Ethnopharmacology, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacology Review

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yang; Xie, Meng; Song, Yan; Wang, Wenping; Zhao, Haoran; Tian, Yuxin; Wang, Yan; Bai, Shaojuan; Zhao, Yichen; Chen, Xiaoyi; She, Gaimei

    2016-01-01

    Curcumae Rhizoma, known as Ezhu (Chinese: 莪术), and Curcumae Radix, known as Yujin (Chinese: 郁金), are different plant parts coming from three same species according to China Pharmacopoeia. Actually, they are used in different ways in TCM clinical treatment. Curcumae Rhizoma is mainly used as antitumor drug, while Curcumae Radix has been used as antidepressant and cholagogue. Curcumae Rhizoma and Curcumae Radix are confused in variety and source, even in clinical trials by some nonprofessional workers. So it is important for us to make them clear. This review is aimed at summarizing the ethnopharmacology, phytochemical, and pharmacological differences between Curcumae Radix and Curcumae Rhizoma by SciFinder, CNKI, and so on, to use them exactly and clearly. Further studies on Curcumae Rhizoma and Curcumae Radix can lead to the development of new drugs and therapeutics for various diseases on the basis of the TCM theory. PMID:27057197

  13. [Quality control of Maca (Lepidium meyenii)].

    PubMed

    Shu, Ji-cheng; Cui, Hang-qing; Huang, Ying-zheng; Huang, Xiao-ying; Yang, Ming

    2015-12-01

    To control the quality of Maca, the quality standard was established in this study. According to the methods recorded in the Appendix of Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2010 Edition), the water, extract, total ash, acid insoluble substance, and heavy metals inspections in Lepidium meyenii were carried out. N-benzyl-9Z, 12Z-octadecadienamide in L. meyenii was identified by TLC, and it was determined by HPLC. The results showed that the N-benzyl-9Z, 12Z-octadecadienamide identification of TLC was a strong mark and specificity. In content determination experiment, the linearity of N-benzyl-9Z, 12Z-octadecadienamide was in the range of 0.01-2 microg (r = 0.9998), and the average recovery (n=9) was 99.27% (RSD 2.0%). The methods were simple, accurate, with good reproducibility. It is suitable for quality control L. meyenii. PMID:27141660

  14. Dr Pugh: a poisoner?

    PubMed

    Paull, J D; Morris, G M

    2012-07-01

    On 16 February 1845 the Reverend W. H. Browne, rector of St John's Church in Launceston, Van Diemen's Land, wrote in his journal, "My dear Wife died very suddenly almost immediately after and in consequence of taking a preparation of Hyd. Cyan. Acid prepared & supplied by Dr Pugh". This journal entry raises a number of questions. Was Dr Pugh treating a condition which he thought merited that treatment or was it a ghastly mistake? Was Caroline Browne suffering from pulmonary tuberculosis? Was hydrocyanic acid an accepted treatment at that time? Did Mrs Browne take the wrong dose? Was an incorrect concentration of the drug prepared by Dr Pugh? Did he use the wrong pharmacopoeia in preparing the hydrocyanic acid? Why was there no inquest? Only some of these questions can be answered. PMID:23230685

  15. Chinese Medicinal Leech: Ethnopharmacology, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacological Activities

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Han; Ren, Ji-Xiang; Wang, Jing-Jing; Ding, Li-Shuai; Zhao, Jian-Jun; Liu, Song-Yan; Gao, Hui-Min

    2016-01-01

    Hirudo (Shuizhi in Chinese) is an important Chinese medicine, which possesses many therapeutic properties for the treatment of the cerebral hemorrhage and other thrombosis-related diseases. The phytochemical investigation gave more than 51 compounds including pteridines, phosphatidylcholines, glycosphingolipids, and sterols, as well as some bioactive peptides from the Shuizhi derived from three animal species recorded in the current Chinese Pharmacopoeia. The pharmacological studies on the Shuizhi have revealed various activities such as anticoagulation, antithrombosis, antiatherosclerosis, antiplatelet aggregation, antitumor and anti-inflammatory as well as hemorheology improvement, and protective effects against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. However, some important issues based on the traditional uses of Shuizhi are still not clear. The aim of the present review is to provide comprehensive knowledge on the ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, and pharmacological activities of Shuizhi. It will provide a potential guidance in exploring main active compounds of Shuizhi and interpreting the action mechanism for the further research. PMID:27274755

  16. Asparagus racemosus: a review on its phytochemical and therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ram

    2016-09-01

    Asparagus racemosus (Willd.) is a widely found medicinal plant in tropical and subtropical parts of India. The therapeutic applications of this plant have been reported in Indian and British Pharmacopoeias and in traditional system of medicine, such as Ayurveda, Unani and Siddha. The crude, semi-purified and purified extracts obtained from different parts of this plant have been useful in therapeutic applications. Numerous bioactive phytochemicals mostly saponins and flavonoids have been isolated and identified from this plant which are responsible alone or in combination for various pharmacological activities. This review aims to give a comprehensive overview of traditional applications, current knowledge on the phytochemistry, pharmacology and overuse of A. racemosus. PMID:26463825

  17. [Prescription of medicines by two medical officers in Jutland in 1797. An analysis of the prescription practice of C.D. Hahn, Physicus of Aarhus Diocese, and K.N. Carstensen, Physicus of Aalborg Diocese].

    PubMed

    Kruse, Poul R; Kruse, Edith; Wulff, Henrik R; Jungersen, Kirsten

    2008-01-01

    The concept of authorized medicines was introduced and defined by the Danish Government during the first half of the 17th century, thus establishing the basis for the sale of such medicines by pharmacists and their prescription by medical practitioners. The concept of authorized medicines was linked to the drug tariff in force until 1772 when the Pharmacopoea Danica was first published. The pharmacopoeia fixed the assortment of substances to be stocked by all pharmacies, including about 580 medicamenta simplicia, i.e. substances to be used as medicines or for the preparation of medicines, as well as 640 medicamenta composita, i.e. composite medicines already prepared. The pharmacopoeia helps us to understand the basis of medical therapy at that time, but it does not tell us which medicines were favoured in practice. However, two other sources prove valuable for that purpose. One of these is a large collection of patient records found in the archives of the Medical Museion of Copenhagen. These records were written by Christopher Detlev Hahn, medical officer in Aarhus from 1777 to 1817, and they include all his prescriptions to his patients. The other source is the prescription record from Aalborg Swan Pharmacy, kept in Jens Bang's House in Aalborg. It contains copies of prescriptions by Knud Nicolai Carstensen who was the medical officer in Aalborg from 1783 to 1802. We compared the prescription practice of these two doctors in the year 1797, studying 280 prescriptions by Hahn to 59 patients and 267 prescriptions by Carstensen to 137 patients. Both doctors used a large selection of the substances and preparations described in the pharmacopoeia, showing that they were familiar with that book, but usually they did not prescribe these substances and preparations as such. They individualized their treatment to suit each patient, composing medicines, whose ingredients, however, were mostly found in the pharmacopoeia. Medicines for internal use included drops, mixtures

  18. The Use of Medicinal Plants by Migrant People: Adaptation, Maintenance, and Replacement

    PubMed Central

    de Medeiros, Patrícia Muniz; Soldati, Gustavo Taboada; Alencar, Nélson Leal; Vandebroek, Ina; Pieroni, Andrea; Hanazaki, Natalia; de Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

    2012-01-01

    Given the importance of studying the knowledge, beliefs, and practices of migrant communities to understand the dynamics of plant resource use, we reviewed the scientific literature concerning the use of medicinal plants by migrant populations engaged in international or long-distance migrations. We considered the importance of two processes: (1) adaptation to the new flora of the host country (i.e., substitution and incorporation of plants in the pharmacopoeia) and (2) continued use and acquisition of the original flora from migrants' home countries (i.e., importation, cultivation, and/or continued use of plants that grow in both host and home environments). We suggest that, depending on the specific context and conditions of migration, different processes that determine the use and/or selection of plants as herbal medicines may become predominant. PMID:22110548

  19. Oral Solid Dosage Form Disintegration Testing - The Forgotten Test.

    PubMed

    Al-Gousous, Jozef; Langguth, Peter

    2015-09-01

    Since its inception in the 1930s, disintegration testing has become an important quality control (QC) test in pharmaceutical industry, and disintegration test procedures for various dosage forms have been described by the different pharmacopoeias, with harmonization among them still not quite complete. However, because of the fact that complete disintegration does not necessarily imply complete dissolution, much more research has been focused on dissolution rather than on disintegration testing. Nevertheless, owing to its simplicity, disintegration testing seems to be an attractive replacement to dissolution testing as recognized by the International Conference on Harmonization guidelines, in some cases. Therefore, with proper research being carried out to overcome the associated challenges, the full potential of disintegration testing could be tapped saving considerable efforts allocated to QC testing and quality assurance. PMID:25546430

  20. [About animal experiments for a face without wrinkles].

    PubMed

    Ruhdel, Irmela

    2004-01-01

    Botulinum toxin, a nervous poison produced by bacteria, is increasingly being used - besides its medical application - as a beauty product for smoothing facial wrinkles. It is unknown in public that each batch of the toxin has to undergo a quality control before marketing. The test used is a LD50 test using mice that is very animal consuming and causes extreme suffering. Although several alternative methods exist, none of these are have yet been adopted by the European pharmacopoeia. Consumers in the EU do not accept animal experiments for cosmetic purposes. However, Botulinum toxin does not fall under the definition of a "cosmetic product" and therefore the bans on animal experiments laid down in the EU Cosmetic Directive do not apply. Therefore on a short term scale, only the voluntarily renouncement of the use of this toxin as an anti-wrinkling agent can prevent the suffering and death of animals for a beauty product. PMID:14976586

  1. Traditional medicines and globalization: current and future perspectives in ethnopharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Leonti, Marco; Casu, Laura

    2013-01-01

    The ethnopharmacological approach toward the understanding and appraisal of traditional and herbal medicines is characterized by the inclusions of the social as well as the natural sciences. Anthropological field-observations describing the local use of nature-derived medicines are the basis for ethnopharmacological enquiries. The multidisciplinary scientific validation of indigenous drugs is of relevance to modern societies at large and helps to sustain local health care practices. Especially with respect to therapies related to aging related, chronic and infectious diseases traditional medicines offer promising alternatives to biomedicine. Bioassays applied in ethnopharmacology represent the molecular characteristics and complexities of the disease or symptoms for which an indigenous drug is used in “traditional” medicine to variable depth and extent. One-dimensional in vitro approaches rarely cope with the complexity of human diseases and ignore the concept of polypharmacological synergies. The recent focus on holistic approaches and systems biology in medicinal plant research represents the trend toward the description and the understanding of complex multi-parameter systems. Ethnopharmacopoeias are non-static cultural constructs shaped by belief and knowledge systems. Intensified globalization and economic liberalism currently accelerates the interchange between local and global pharmacopoeias via international trade, television, the World Wide Web and print media. The increased infiltration of newly generated biomedical knowledge and introduction of “foreign” medicines into local pharmacopoeias leads to syncretic developments and generates a feedback loop. While modern and post-modern cultures and knowledge systems adapt and transform the global impact, they become more relevant for ethnopharmacology. Moreover, what is traditional, alternative or complementary medicine depends on the adopted historic-cultural perspective. PMID:23898296

  2. [Medicinal plants in France, between pharmacy and herb trade: historical and legislative aspects].

    PubMed

    Lehmann, H

    2015-09-01

    Medicinal plants are registered on the French Pharmacopoeia in its successive editions, the first dated 1818. The edition which is currently in force, the XIth (2012), comprises two plant lists drawn up by a working group of experts belonging to the ANSM: List A (medicinal plants traditionally used [365 plants]) and list B (medicinal plants with the ratio benefit/risk's evaluation negative [123 plants]). Moreover, a list of medicinal plants with non exclusive therapeutic use has been established. This last list is composed of 147 plants which are thus liberated from the pharmaceutical monopoly, in application of decrees n(o) 2008-839 and 2008-841 dated August 22nd 2008. Medicinal plants are a matter, in France, from pharmaceutical monopoly, which means that they can only be dispensed to public in pharmacy, according to article L. 4211-1/5° of the Public Health Code, except however for a certain number of plants "liberated" from this monopoly. Nevertheless, besides officinal pharmacists, herbalists who obtained their diploma as far as 1941, were habilitated to deliver medicinal plants, even non "liberated", on condition that they are not registered on a list of venomous substances nor classified among the stupefacients, according to the article L. 4211-7 of Public Health Code. Concerning plants for herbal teas, which should be differentiated from herbal teas classified among the herbal medicines, they can be delivered in mixtures form, which are considered as officinal preparations, according to the new French Pharmacopoeia monography of August 1st 2013. PMID:25818399

  3. Determination of the in vitro disintegration profile of rapidly disintegrating tablets and correlation with oral disintegration.

    PubMed

    Abdelbary, G; Eouani, C; Prinderre, P; Joachim, J; Reynier, Jp; Piccerelle, Ph

    2005-03-23

    The assessment of the in vitro disintegration profile of rapidly disintegrating tablets (RDT) is very important in the evaluation and the development of new formulations of this type. So far neither the US Pharmacopoeia nor the European Pharmacopoeia has defined a specific disintegration test for RDT; currently, it is only possible to refer to the tests on dispersible or effervescent tablets for the evaluation of RDT's disintegration capacity. In the present study, we have evaluated the disintegration profile of RDT manufactured by main commercialised technologies, using the texture analyser (TA). In order to simulate as much as possible the oral disintegration of these dosage forms, a new operating structure was developed. This structure mimics the situation in the patient's mouth and provides a gradual elimination of the detached particles during the disintegration process. The obtained time-distance profiles or disintegration profiles enabled the calculation of certain quantitative values as the disintegration onset (t1) and the total disintegration time (t2). These values were used in the characterisation of the effect of test variables as the disintegration medium and temperature on the disintegration time of RDT. Moreover, the oral disintegration time of the same products was evaluated by 14 healthy volunteers. Results obtained when artificial saliva at 37 degrees C was employed as disintegration medium were used to correlate the in vitro (t2) and oral disintegration times. Excellent correlation was found and in addition, we were able to achieve a qualitative measure of the mouthfeel by comparing the thickness of the tablets and the penetration distance obtained from the disintegration profile. This method also permitted the discrimination between different RDT, where differences in the disintegration mechanism were reflected on the disintegration profile achieved for each tablet. PMID:15725551

  4. Deep Sequencing of the Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi Transcriptome Reveals Flavonoid Biosynthetic Profiling and Organ-Specific Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jinxin; Hou, Jingyi; Jiang, Chao; Li, Geng; Lu, Heng; Meng, Fanyun; Shi, Linchun

    2015-01-01

    Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi has long been used in traditional medicine to treat various such widely varying diseases and has been listed in the Chinese Pharmacopeia, the Japanese Pharmacopeia, the Korean Pharmacopoeia and the European Pharmacopoeia. Flavonoids, especially wogonin, wogonoside, baicalin, and baicalein, are its main functional ingredients with various pharmacological activities. Although pharmaological studies for these flavonoid components have been well conducted, the molecular mechanism of their biosynthesis remains unclear in S. baicalensis. In this study, Illumina/Solexa deep sequencing generated more than 91 million paired-end reads and 49,507 unigenes from S. baicalensis roots, stems, leaves and flowers. More than 70% unigenes were annotated in at least one of the five public databases and 13,627 unigenes were assigned to 3,810 KEGG genes involved in 579 different pathways. 54 unigenes that encode 12 key enzymes involved in the pathway of flavonoid biosynthesis were discovered. One baicalinase and three baicalein 7-O-glucuronosyltransferases genes potentially involved in the transformation between baicalin/wogonoside and baicalein/wogonin were identified. Four candidate 6-hydroxylase genes for the formation of baicalin/baicalein and one candidate 8-O-methyltransferase gene for the biosynthesis of wogonoside/wogonin were also recognized. Our results further support the conclusion that, in S. baicalensis, 3,5,7-trihydroxyflavone was the precursor of the four above compounds. Then, the differential expression models and simple sequence repeats associated with these genes were carefully analyzed. All of these results not only enrich the gene resource but also benefit research into the molecular genetics and functional genomics in S. baicalensis. PMID:26317778

  5. [Guidelines on water and solutions for dialysis. Italian Society of Nephrology].

    PubMed

    Alloatti, S; Bolasco, P; Canavese, C; Cappelli, G; Pedrini, L; Pizzarelli, F; Pontoriero, G; Santoro, A; Anastasio, P; Teatini, U; Fuiano, G

    2005-01-01

    The National Society of Nephrology has promoted the development of specific Italian Guidelines for dialysis fluids. Two previous national inquiries showed a wide variety in the type and frequency of both microbiological and chemical controls concerning dialysis water, reinforcing the need for specific standards and recommendations. An optimal water treatment system should include tap water pre-treatment and a double reverse osmosis process. Every component of the system, including the delivery of the treated water to the dialysis machines, should prevent microbiological contamination of the fluid. Regular chemical and microbiological tests and regular disinfection of the system are necessary. 1. Chemical quality (Table: see text). Treated tap water used to prepare dialysis fluid should be within European Pharmacopoeia limits at the water treatment system inlet and at the reverse osmosis outlet. In addition dialysate, concentrate and infusion fluids must comply with specific Pharmacopoeia limits. The physician in charge of the dialysis unit is advised to institute a multidisciplinary team to evaluate the requirement for added chemical controls in the presence of local hazards. 2. Microbiological quality (Table: see text). High microbiological purity of dialysis fluid--regularly verified--is a fundamental prerequisite for dialysis quality and every dialysis unit should aim as a matter of course to obtain "ultra-pure" dialysate (microbial count <0.1 UFC/mL, endotoxins <0.03 U/mL). On-line dialysate ultrafiltration and regular disinfection of dialysis machines greatly enhance microbiological purity. On-line dialysate reinfusion requires specific devices used according to corresponding instructions and to more frequent microbiological tests. Dialysis fluids for home dialysis should comply with the same chemical and bacteriological quality. The appendix reports the water treatment system's technical characteristics, sampling and analytical methods, monitoring time

  6. Composition of OSCS-contaminated heparin occurring in 2008 in batches on the German market.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Tanja; Matz, Magnus; Brinz, Daniela; Rädler, Oliver; Wolf, Bernhard; Norwig, Jochen; Baumann, Knut; Alban, Susanne; Holzgrabe, Ulrike

    2010-07-11

    In 2008, some 900 cases of adverse events associated with the use of heparin were reported to the Food and Drug Administration of USA and the Federal Institute of Drugs and Medical Devices in Germany. 238 patients died from heparin in the USA. In March 2008, oversulfated chondroitin sulfate (OSCS) was identified to be responsible for these cases. NMR spectroscopic evaluation of heparin samples revealed OSCS, dermatan sulfate (DS), chondroitin sulfate A and C as well as various residual solvents to be present in heparin batches, which could not be identified by means of conventional methods described in various pharmacopoeias at that time. In order to evaluate the situation on the German market, 145 representative samples were collected in 2008 and analyzed by means of 1H NMR spectroscopy, water determination, optical rotation and sheep plasma clotting assay. 66 samples were found to contain pure heparin, 51 samples heparin plus DS, 5 samples heparin plus OSCS, and 23 samples heparin, DS and OSCS, each in varying amounts. In 94 out of 145 batches especially ethanol was found in strongly varying amounts up to about 9.5%. Traces of acetone and formic acid were found with concentrations up to 0.04%, as well as sodium acetate and methanol up to 0.5%. Additionally, in many batches the content of water was found to be relatively high. Whereas the optical rotation was able to identify samples with a high contamination of OCSC, all samples tested fulfilled the requirements of the anticoagulation potency assay of the European Pharmacopoeia 6.0. The presented analysis of a representative set of heparin samples proves the suitability of 1H NMR spectroscopy for the quality control of heparin of both glycosaminoglycans and residual solvents. PMID:20399266

  7. Determination of (R)-timolol in (S)-timolol maleate active pharmaceutical ingredient: validation of a new supercritical fluid chromatography method with an established normal phase liquid chromatography method.

    PubMed

    Marley, Adrian; Connolly, Damian

    2014-01-17

    An enantioselective supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) method was developed and validated to meet the current European Pharmacopoeia requirements of a limit test for the determination of S-timolol maleate enantiomeric purity in timolol maleate drug substance. The developed method is presented as an alternative to the current normal phase high performance liquid chromatography (NP-HPLC) method described in the European Pharmacopoeia (Timolol Maleate Monograph). Using a 4.6mm×250mm Chiralcel OD-H (dp: 5μm) column and a mobile phase of (93:7) CO2/0.1% (v/v) TEA in MeOH delivered at 4.0mLmin(-1) resolution of 2.0 was achieved within 5min, representing a 3-fold reduction in run-time and an 11-fold reduction in solvent consumption relative to the NP-HPLC method. Method robustness was examined by the variation of flow rate (±0.5mLmin(-1)), column temperature (±5°C) and column back-pressure (±10bar) and resolution was maintained at ≥1.9 in all cases. R-timolol was resolved from all potential impurities and the limit of detection was improved by increasing the sample concentration threefold compared to the NP-HPLC method such that the method could detect the R-timolol enantiomer at 0.5% (w/w) with respect to S-timolol maleate. Additional validation parameters demonstrated that the potential of the method to be used for routine release testing of timolol maleate raw material for drug product manufacturing in which the quantitation of R-timolol impurity in S-timolol maleate drug substance would be a requirement. PMID:24377734

  8. A systematic review of how homeopathy is represented in conventional and CAM peer reviewed journals

    PubMed Central

    Caulfield, Timothy; DeBow, Suzanne

    2005-01-01

    Background Growing popularity of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in the public sector is reflected in the scientific community by an increased number of research articles assessing its therapeutic effects. Some suggest that publication biases occur in mainstream medicine, and may also occur in CAM. Homeopathy is one of the most widespread and most controversial forms of CAM. The purpose of this study was to compare the representation of homeopathic clinical trials published in traditional science and CAM journals. Methods Literature searches were performed using Medline (PubMed), AMED and Embase computer databases. Search terms included "homeo-pathy, -path, and -pathic" and "clinical" and "trial". All articles published in English over the past 10 years were included. Our search yielded 251 articles overall, of which 46 systematically examined the efficacy of homeopathic treatment. We categorized the overall results of each paper as having either "positive" or "negative" outcomes depending upon the reported effects of homeopathy. We also examined and compared 15 meta-analyses and review articles on homeopathy to ensure our collection of clinical trials was reasonably comprehensive. These articles were found by inserting the term "review" instead of "clinical" and "trial". Results Forty-six peer-reviewed articles published in a total of 23 different journals were compared (26 in CAM journals and 20 in conventional journals). Of those in conventional journals, 69% reported negative findings compared to only 30% in CAM journals. Very few articles were found to be presented in a "negative" tone, and most were presented using "neutral" or unbiased language. Conclusion A considerable difference exists between the number of clinical trials showing positive results published in CAM journals compared with traditional journals. We found only 30% of those articles published in CAM journals presented negative findings, whereas over twice that amount were published

  9. DISCLOSURE TO PHYSICIANS OF CAM USE BY BREAST CANCER PATIENTS: FINDINGS FROM THE WOMEN’S HEALTHY EATING AND LIVING STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Saxe, Gordon A.; Madlensky, Lisa; Kealey, Sheila; Wu, David P.; Freeman, Karen L.; Pierce, John P.

    2009-01-01

    Background Physician awareness of their patients’ use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is crucial, particularly in the setting of a potentially life-threatening disease such as cancer. The potential for harmful treatment interactions may be greatest when a patient sees a CAM practitioner – perceived as a physician-like authority figure – but does not disclose this to their physician. We therefore investigated the extent of nondisclosure in a large cohort of cancer patients. Methods We investigated CAM use in participants of the UCSD Women’s Healthy Eating and Living (WHEL) Study, a multicenter study of the effect of diet and lifestyle on disease-free and overall survival in women ages 18–70 who had completed treatment for invasive breast cancer between 1995 and 2000. Data regarding CAM use and disclosure was collected via a telephone-administered questionnaire in 2003–2004. This questionnaire asked about different CAM modalities including those requiring a “skilled CAM practitioner” (acupuncturist, chiropractor, homeopath, or naturopath) for administration. Demographic data was obtained at the WHEL baseline clinic interview. Modality-specific disclosure rates were determined and a comparison of demographic variables of disclosers versus nondisclosers was conducted using Chi-squared tests for categorical variables, and t-tests for continuous variables. Results Of 3088 total WHEL participants, 2527 completed the CAM questionnaire. Of these, 2017 reported using some form of CAM. Of these, 300 received treatment from an acupuncturist, chiropractor, homeopath, or naturopath and also provided information on whether or not they disclosed this care to their conventional physician. The highest disclosure rate was for naturopathy (85%), followed by homeopathy (74%), acupuncture (71%), and chiropractic (47%). Among demographic characteristics, only education (p = 0.047) and study site (p=0.039) were associated with disclosure. College graduates

  10. The growth of a lie and the end of "conventional" medicine.

    PubMed

    Mastrangelo, Domenico; Loré, Cosimo

    2005-12-01

    Throughout its over 200-year history, homeopathy has been proven effective in treating diseases for which conventional medicine has little to offer. However, given its low cost, homeopathy has always represented a serious challenge and a constant threat to the profits of drug companies. Moreover, since drug companies represent the most relevant source of funding for biomedical research worldwide, they are in a privileged position to finance detractive campaigns against homeopathy by manipulating the media as well as academic institutions and the medical establishment. The basic argument against homeopathy is that in some controlled clinical trials (CCTs), comparison with conventional treatments shows that its effects are not superior to those of placebo. Against this thesis we argue that a) CCT methodology cannot be applied to homeopathy, b) misconduct and fraud are common in CCTs, c) adverse drug reactions and side effects show that CCT methodology is deeply flawed, d) an accurate testing of homeopathic remedies requires more sophisticated techniques, e) the placebo effect is no more "plausible" than homeopathy, and its real nature is still unexplained, and f) the placebo effect is nevertheless a "cure" and, as such, worthy of further investigation and analysis. It is concluded that no arguments presently exist against homeopathy and that the recurrent campaigns against it represent the specific interests of the pharmaceutical industry which, in this way, strives to protect its profits from the "threat" of a safer, more effective, and much less expensive treatment modality. PMID:16319808

  11. [Pharmaceutical industry and "New German Medicine" ("Neue Deutsche Heilkunde")].

    PubMed

    Meyer, Ulrich

    2004-01-01

    THe so-called "New German Medicine", initially propagated in the health policy of the National Socialist Party, promoted greater use of phytotherapeutic and homeopathic drugs by the medical community. In response, the "Reichsfachschaft der pharmazeutischen Industrie e. V." (Association of Pharmaceutical Industry of the Reich") was obliged to pursue a carefully chosen double strategy, given that the members of the Association were both manufacturers of natural remedies and manufacturers of allopathic drugs.However, the fact that I.G. Farben completely ignored the "New German Medicine" suggests that the large chemical-pharmaceutical manufacturers did not take this policy very seriously. The only documents pertaining to increased research in the area of natural remedies stem from the medium-sized manufacturers Knoll and Schering. In the case of both companies it is noteworthy that they worked towards obtaining a scientific foundation for the developed preparates, and that they employed conventional methods of chemical analysis and proof of activity. THe growth of the classical manufacturers of natural remedies, such as the company Willmar Schwabe was, as far as any growth at all could be observed, significantly smaller than had been theoretically postulated. There is no casual relationship between any commercial success during the period in which the Nazis were in power and today's commercial prosperity.Moreover, from the viewpoint of the pharmaceutical industry, the "New German Medicine" seems to have passed its zenith before 1936, when the 4-year plan for war preparation entered into force. PMID:16025629

  12. Infant Feeding Practices in a Multi-Ethnic Asian Cohort: The GUSTO Study.

    PubMed

    Toh, Jia Ying; Yip, Grace; Han, Wee Meng; Fok, Doris; Low, Yen-Ling; Lee, Yung Seng; Rebello, Salome A; Saw, Seang-Mei; Kwek, Kenneth; Godfrey, Keith M; Chong, Yap-Seng; Chong, Mary Foong-Fong

    2016-01-01

    The optimal introduction of complementary foods provides infants with nutritionally balanced diets and establishes healthy eating habits. The documentation of infant feeding practices in multi-ethnic Asian populations is limited. In a Singapore cohort study (GUSTO), 842 mother-infant dyads were interviewed regarding their feeding practices when the infants were aged 9 and 12 months. In the first year, 20.5% of infants were given dietary supplements, while 5.7% took probiotics and 15.7% homeopathic preparations. At age 9 months, 45.8% of infants had seasonings added to their foods, increasing to 56.3% at 12 months. At age 12 months, 32.7% of infants were given blended food, although 92.3% had begun some form of self-feeding. Additionally, 87.4% of infants were fed milk via a bottle, while a third of them had food items added into their bottles. At both time points, more than a third of infants were provided sweetened drinks via the bottle. Infants of Indian ethnicity were more likely to be given dietary supplements, have oil and seasonings added to their foods and consumed sweetened drinks from the bottle (p < 0.001). These findings provide a better understanding of variations in infant feeding practices, so that healthcare professionals can offer more targeted and culturally-appropriate advice. PMID:27187461

  13. The Chameleon Hypothesis, Contextual Cosmos, and Prospects for Novel forms of Propulsion and Energy Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, D.

    Evidence will be presented from a wide spectrum of recent empirical and theoretical research to advance the thesis that the laws of nature, particularly in the astrophysical and microphysical arenas, are in some sense contextual, possibly dependent on both location and to a certain extent direction. The most compelling evidence to date to support this hypothesis will be brought forth - the surprising 2010 finding that the value of the fine structure constant appears slightly smaller than it was eons ago, if one looks in the northern sky direction, and incrementally higher if one scans the southern sky. This and the "chameleon" principle, which has been advanced to explain the anomalous acceleration of cosmic expansion, will also be shown to call into question one of the sacrosanct foundational tenets of general relativity, the Equivalence Principle. In the microphysical realm, it will be shown that the principles underlying quantum mechanics, especially superposition and counter-intuitive nature of entanglement, inherently exhibit contextual qualities that have yet to be recognized and fully probed. Finally, it is demonstrated that this considerably fairly well hidden contextual aspect of natural laws, might be brought to bear to account for physical anomalies heretofore inexplicable using current paradigms, such as the claimed efficacy of homeopathic protocols. Moreover, acknowledgment of this novel principle of contextual posturing of natural laws even in the macroscopic regime might imply unplumbed prospects for development of new energy sources and forms of energy generation.

  14. Cosmetic mesotherapy: between scientific evidence, science fiction, and lucrative business.

    PubMed

    Atiyeh, Bishara S; Ibrahim, Amir E; Dibo, Saad A

    2008-11-01

    Mesotherapy, originally conceived in Europe, is a minimally invasive technique that consists of the intra- or subcutaneous injection of variable mixtures of natural plant extracts, homeopathic agents, pharmaceuticals, vitamins, and other bioactive substances in microscopic quantities through dermal multipunctures. Its application in cosmetic medicine and surgery is gaining in popularity and acceptance and is rapidly growing in profile at an alarming rate. Despite their attraction as purported rejuvenating and ''fat-dissolving'' injections, the safety and efficacy of these novel cosmetic treatments remain ambiguous, making mesotherapy vulnerable to criticism by the generally more skeptical medical community. The technique is shrouded in mystery and the controversy surrounding it pertains to its efficacy and potential adverse effects that are subject of much concern. As with any new technology, it is important to assess the benefits, safety, experience, and standardization of mesotherapy. More studies are necessary before it can be advocated as a safe and effective treatment for body contouring and facial rejuvenation. Although the claims made about mesotherapy may be hard to believe at face value, we must be cautious about rejecting new ideas. Just as absence of proof is not proof of absence, lack of scientific validation is not proof that it does not work. PMID:18663517

  15. Comparative evaluation of a herbal mouthwash (Freshol) with chlorhexidine on plaque accumulation, gingival inflammation, and salivary Streptococcus mutans growth

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Shivika; Pesapathy, Sudha; Joseph, Madonna; Tiwari, Prabhat K.; Chawla, Saurabh

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Plaque accumulation and oral microorganisms are the main predisposing factors to various orodental infections and targeting these, therefore, can prove to be an effective way of combating these diseases. Herbal extracts have been of particular interest these days owing to various side effects associated with conventional modes of treatment. Aims and Objectives: The present study was conducted to compare the efficacy of a commercially available homeopathic mouthwash with chlorhexidine on plaque status, gingival status, and salivary Streptococcus mutans count. Materials and Methods: Total sample of 55 children, aged 8-14 years, were randomly divided into two groups. Group A (35) and Group B (20) were given 10 mL of test mouthwash “Freshol” and chlorhexidine respectively during phases 1 and 3 of the clinical trial which was of 10 days each. Phase 2 of 14 days in between was the washout period during which no mouthwash was given. Result: Freshol was found to be better than chlorhexidine in reducing the salivary mutans streptococci count and equieffective to chlorhexidine in altering plaque and gingival scores. Conclusion: Herbal alternatives can prove to be an effective and safe alternative to conventional modes of treatment. PMID:24478976

  16. The octave potencies convention: a mathematical model of dilution and succussion.

    PubMed

    Anick, David J

    2007-07-01

    Several hypothesized explanations for homeopathy posit that remedies contain a concentration of discrete information-carrying units, such as water clusters, nano-bubbles, or silicates. For any such explanation to be sustainable, dilution must reduce and succussion must restore the concentration of these units. Succussion can be modeled by a logistic equation, which leads to mathematical relationships involving the maximum concentration, the average growth of information-carrying units rate per succussion stroke, the number of succussion strokes, and the dilution factor (x, c, or LM). When multiple species of information-carrying units are present, the fastest-growing species will eventually come to dominate, as the potency is increased. An analogy is explored between iterated cycles dilution and succussion, in making homeopathic remedies, and iterated cycles of reseeding and growth, in bacterial cultures. Drawing on this analogy, the active ingredients in low and medium potency remedies may be present at early dilutions but only gradually come to 'dominate', while high potencies may develop from the occurrence of low-probability but faster-growing 'mutations.' Conclusions from this model include: 'x' and 'c' potencies are best compared by the amount of dilution, not the amount of succussion; the minimum number of succussion strokes needed per cycle is proportional to the logarithm of the dilution factor; and a plausible interpretation of why potencies at approximately regular ratios are traditionally used (the octave potencies convention). PMID:17678818

  17. Infant Feeding Practices in a Multi-Ethnic Asian Cohort: The GUSTO Study

    PubMed Central

    Toh, Jia Ying; Yip, Grace; Han, Wee Meng; Fok, Doris; Low, Yen-Ling; Lee, Yung Seng; Rebello, Salome A.; Saw, Seang-Mei; Kwek, Kenneth; Godfrey, Keith M.; Chong, Yap-Seng; Chong, Mary Foong-Fong

    2016-01-01

    The optimal introduction of complementary foods provides infants with nutritionally balanced diets and establishes healthy eating habits. The documentation of infant feeding practices in multi-ethnic Asian populations is limited. In a Singapore cohort study (GUSTO), 842 mother-infant dyads were interviewed regarding their feeding practices when the infants were aged 9 and 12 months. In the first year, 20.5% of infants were given dietary supplements, while 5.7% took probiotics and 15.7% homeopathic preparations. At age 9 months, 45.8% of infants had seasonings added to their foods, increasing to 56.3% at 12 months. At age 12 months, 32.7% of infants were given blended food, although 92.3% had begun some form of self-feeding. Additionally, 87.4% of infants were fed milk via a bottle, while a third of them had food items added into their bottles. At both time points, more than a third of infants were provided sweetened drinks via the bottle. Infants of Indian ethnicity were more likely to be given dietary supplements, have oil and seasonings added to their foods and consumed sweetened drinks from the bottle (p < 0.001). These findings provide a better understanding of variations in infant feeding practices, so that healthcare professionals can offer more targeted and culturally-appropriate advice. PMID:27187461

  18. Integrative management of pediatric tonsillopharyngitis: An international survey.

    PubMed

    Salatino, Silvia; Gray, Alastair

    2016-02-01

    This survey investigated the management of pediatric tonsillopharyngitis, with a focus on natural remedies. 138 pediatricians, general practitioners and ear-nose-throat (ENT) specialists in 7 countries were surveyed by a dedicated questionnaire. A rapid strept test (RST) to diagnose acute tonsillopharyngitis was routinely used by 56/138 participants (41%). The use of RST allowed 200 diagnosis/year compared with 125 diagnosis/year for clinicians who did not use this tool. Homeopathy remedies were prescribed as a supportive therapy by 62% of participants (85/138). Among different homeopathic remedies, SilAtro-5-90 was the most frequently prescribed (53/138, 38%). In the chronic setting, homeopathy was suggested as a supportive therapy by 82/138 participants (59%), phytotherapy by 39 (28%) and vitamins/nutritional supplementation by 51 (37%). The management of tonsillopharyngitis in pediatric patients still remains empiric. Natural remedies, and homeopathy in particular, are used in the management of URTIs. An integrative approach to these infections may help reduce excessive antibiotic prescription. PMID:26850802

  19. Use of homeopathy in organic dairy farming in Spain.

    PubMed

    Orjales, Inmaculada; López-Alonso, Marta; Rodríguez-Bermúdez, Ruth; Rey-Crespo, Francisco; Villar, Ana; Miranda, Marta

    2016-02-01

    Organic farming principles promote the use of unconventional therapies as an alternative to chemical substances (which are limited by organic regulations), with homeopathy being the most extensive. Traditionally, Spain has had little faith in homeopathy but its use in organic farming is growing. Fifty-six Spanish organic dairy farmers were interviewed to obtain what we believe to be the first data on the use of homeopathy in organic dairy cattle in Spain. Only 32% of farms use some sort of alternative therapy (16.1% homeopathy, 10.7% phytotherapy and 5.3% using both therapies) and interestingly, a clear geographical pattern showing a higher use towards the East (similar to that in the human population) was observed. The main motivation to use homeopathy was the need to reduce chemical substances promoted by organic regulations, and the treatment of clinical mastitis being the principle reason. The number of total treatments was lower in farms using homeopathy compared with those applying allopathic therapies (0.13 and 0.54 treatments/cow/year respectively) and although the bulk SCC was significantly higher (p < 0.001) in these farms (161,826 and 111,218 cel/ml, respectively) it did not have any negative economical penalty for the farmer and milk quality was not affected complying with the required standards; on the contrary homeopathic therapies seems to be an alternative for reducing antibiotic treatments, allowing farmers to meet the organic farming principles. PMID:26828005

  20. Ruta 6 selectively induces cell death in brain cancer cells but proliferation in normal peripheral blood lymphocytes: A novel treatment for human brain cancer.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Sen; Multani, Asha S; Banerji, Pratip; Banerji, Prasanta

    2003-10-01

    Although conventional chemotherapies are used to treat patients with malignancies, damage to normal cells is problematic. Blood-forming bone marrow cells are the most adversely affected. It is therefore necessary to find alternative agents that can kill cancer cells but have minimal effects on normal cells. We investigated the brain cancer cell-killing activity of a homeopathic medicine, Ruta, isolated from a plant, Ruta graveolens. We treated human brain cancer and HL-60 leukemia cells, normal B-lymphoid cells, and murine melanoma cells in vitro with different concentrations of Ruta in combination with Ca3(PO4)2. Fifteen patients diagnosed with intracranial tumors were treated with Ruta 6 and Ca3(PO4)2. Of these 15 patients, 6 of the 7 glioma patients showed complete regression of tumors. Normal human blood lymphocytes, B-lymphoid cells, and brain cancer cells treated with Ruta in vitro were examined for telomere dynamics, mitotic catastrophe, and apoptosis to understand the possible mechanism of cell-killing, using conventional and molecular cytogenetic techniques. Both in vivo and in vitro results showed induction of survival-signaling pathways in normal lymphocytes and induction of death-signaling pathways in brain cancer cells. Cancer cell death was initiated by telomere erosion and completed through mitotic catastrophe events. We propose that Ruta in combination with Ca3(PO4)2 could be used for effective treatment of brain cancers, particularly glioma. PMID:12963976

  1. Animal welfare in relation to standards in organic farming.

    PubMed

    Hammarberg, K E

    2001-01-01

    The new EU-regulations on organic farming (1804/1999) are also influencing the animal welfare. A lot of positive regulations is to find, but also regulations that seen to mind more about the general public and customer and their view on organic farming, than the health and welfare of the animals. The paper specially focus on the impact of the regulations and the recommendations that phytotherapeutic essences and homeopathic products take precedence over the so called chemically-synthesised allopatic veterinary medical products, and that the use of the same is prohibited for preventive treatments. Key questions here are the lack of scientific evidence concerning homeopathy in animals, and that Swedish veterinarians are not allowed to work with homeopathy. Differences in interpretation of the regulations between animal owners and veterinarians will also be discussed. What is a disease that needs treatment? Who is to decide about the treatment? Parasitic infections are discussed as an illustrative example. Other consequences of the regulations concerning the animal welfare are problems in certain geographical zones, for instance subarctic areas where necessary crops are impossible to grow. Animal transports and splitting mother-offspring are briefly discussed as future problems to be handled in the regulations, and the paper ends by presenting the need of regulated herd health control programs in organic husbandry, which can detect and focus on welfare and production problems. The organic movement is not static, and must not be so. PMID:11995386

  2. The puzzle of homeopathy.

    PubMed

    Reilly, D

    2001-01-01

    Homeopathy is a branch of Western medicine that has mostly been rejected by Western orthodoxy for the last 200 years because of conceptual and scientific clashes. Homeopathy uses microdoses of potential toxins to provoke defense and self-regulatory responses, rather than the more orthodox approach of blocking body reactions. This approach hints at its clinical scope: it can help, at times resolve, conditions that are intrinsically reversible rather than mechanical problems, deficiencies, or irreversible breakdowns in body functions where it is only palliative. In recent years, there has been a renaissance of interest. Public demand has soared, and with it professional interest. Approximately 20% of Scotland's general practitioners have completed basic training. This is partly occasioned by public interest in complementary medicine and a sympathy with the more mind-body approach of homeopathy, and partly by recent scientific evidence. Some homeopathic dilutions are so extreme they are dismissed by critics as only placebo. Yet trials and meta-analyses of controlled trials are pointing toward real effects, mechanism of action unknown. Clinical outcome studies suggest useful clinical impact and excellent safety. There seems to be a potential to enhance patient care by integrating the two systems. PMID:11822623

  3. [Little histories of magnetic cures].

    PubMed

    Pinet, Patrice

    2009-02-01

    Men were very early fascinated by magnetism because of its manifest and particular working at distance, which looked different of gravity. It was tryed to be explained by mecanism, for exemple Descartes and Boyle. Paracelse valued the therapeutics with magnets and conceived medicines as working by a magnetic virtue. Gilbert limited the medicinal properties of magnet but helded it to be animated. Many authors praised remedies that work at distance of the evil as Bacon, Van Helmont, Croll, Porta, Goclenius, Digby. Such a belief related to magic ideas of this time. In the Bacon's way Boyle collected facts of magnetic cures, and his actual testing of the divisibility of bodies led him to conceive imponderable corpuscles. Newton supposed a subtil and universel fluid going through every solid body. Mesmer misappropriated this idea by founding the animal magnetism of which physical working was only proceeding from the inside of the patient by an effect of suggestion (psychosomatic). Homeopathy took again the notion of remedies having an infinite or a magnetic virtue, which partly issued from Paracelse's and Mesmer's doctrines, which were extolled in Germany at the time of Hahnemann. The latter decided in favour of a spiritualist and not corpuscular interpretation of the working of his homeopathic medicines. PMID:19579649

  4. From body-talk to body-stories: body work in complementary and alternative medicine.

    PubMed

    Gale, Nicola Kay

    2011-02-01

    This paper explores the 'body work' undertaken by practitioners of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), in the light of ethnographic research on the education of osteopaths and homeopaths. The data presented focus on practitioners' experiences of learning to communicate, touch and facilitate the healing process for their patients. Two new concepts are introduced: listening to body-talk and constructing body-stories, which are discussed as aspects of body work. Body-talk expresses the idea that the embodied patient is not a passive recipient of healthcare, but that the 'body' is able to communicate its distress and its needs. The body-story concept highlights the interactional nature of the therapeutic encounter and the profound interrelation between the treatment and case-taking aspects of the practitioner's clinical tasks. By drawing on key sociological concepts of the body and embodiment, reflexivity and narrative, I argue that the dialogical construction of body-stories challenges Cartesian dualism. Finally, I discuss what the data might mean for the future development of the sociological concept of 'body work', drawing particular attention to the necessity to problematise the concept of the 'body' and to pay great attention to body work as embodied work. PMID:21029118

  5. Solanaceae III: henbane, hags and Hawley Harvey Crippen.

    PubMed

    Lee, M R

    2006-12-01

    Hyoscyamus, the henbane, is one of the drugs of the ancients. Initially used both as a poison and narcotic, it was widely adopted by witches, wizards and soothsayers as a component of their hallucinatory and flying ointments. It was also used by notorious poisoners such as Madame Voisin in France. Eventually, in the nineteenth century its active principle was isolated by Ladenburg and called l-hyoscine. It proved to be a tropane alkaloid very similar to atropine. These two alkaloids proved to be very important in the study of the parasympathetic component of the autonomic nervous system, and together with physostigmine, allowed the major neurotransmitter acetylcholine to be isolated and its mechanisms of action to be characterised. The Crippen murder case in 1910 gave hyoscine further fame, indeed, notoriety. The unassuming homeopathic doctor murdered his wife with the alkaloid and then decamped for Canada with his mistress Ethel Le Neve. The case became a worldwide sensation for several reasons: the arrest of the fugitive couple by wireless telegraphy (Marconigram) and the extensive chemical and histological evidence presented by Willcox and Spilsbury. Some authorities claim that this was the beginning of the science of forensic medicine in Britain. Hyoscine is now hardly ever used in modern therapeutics but its history from antiquity to the witches and on to Dr Crippen is both bizarre and fascinating. PMID:17526134

  6. Explanatory models for homeopathy: from the vital force to the current paradigm.

    PubMed

    Waisse, Silvia; Bonamin, Leoni Villano

    2016-08-01

    Facing claims for and against the scientific status of homeopathy, one is entitled to ask: is there a scientific model for homeopathy? In this study we reconstructed the model put forward by Hahnemann. The results showed that it was essentially based on the assumption of a 'vital force' exclusive to living beings. While the vital force was a basic element of 18th-century science, the existence of such a sui generis force of nature was refuted with the formulation of the law of the conservation of energy by mid-19th century. As a function of that fact for homeopathic theory, we discuss the history of the rise and demise of the theory of the vital force from the last quarter of the 18th century to 1830. Finally, we call the attention to the paradigm shift biology underwent starting at the end of the 19th century as the framework for contemporary views on the functioning of living beings and consequently, of the effects of pharmacological agents on them. PMID:27473550

  7. New therapies for allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Braido, Fulvio; Sclifò, Francesca; Ferrando, Matteo; Canonica, Giorgio Walter

    2014-04-01

    Because of its burden on patient's lives and its impact on asthma, allergic rhinitis must be treated properly with more effective and safer treatments. According to guidelines by Allergic Rhinitis and Its Impact on Asthma (ARIA), the classification, pathogenesis, and treatment of allergic rhinitis are well defined. Currently, second-generation antihistamines and inhaled steroids are considered the cornerstone of first-line therapy. However, new formulations of available drugs (e.g., loratadine and rupatadine oral solution, ebastine fast-dissolving tablets, and the combination of intranasal fluticasone propionate and azelastine hydrochloride), recently discovered molecules (e.g., ciclesonide, bilastine, and phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitors), immunologic targets (e.g., omalizumab), and unconventional treatments (e.g., homeopathic treatments) are currently under investigation and represent a new frontier in modern medicine and in allergic rhinitis management. The aim of this review is to provide an update on allergic rhinitis treatment, paying particular attention to clinical trials published within the past 20 months that assessed the efficacy and safety of new formulations of available drugs or new molecules. PMID:24504526

  8. Evaluation of the immunological cellular response of Cebus apella exposed to the carcinogen N-methyl-N-nitrosourea and treated with CANOVA®.

    PubMed

    Feio, Danielle Cristinne Azevedo; Muniz, José Augusto Pereira Carneiro; Montenegro, Raquel Carvalho; Burbano, Rommel Rodriguez; De Brito Junior, Lacy Cardoso; De Lima, Patrícia Danielle Lima

    2014-01-01

    The immune response modifier Canova® is a homeopathic remedy indicated for patients with depressed immune system, since this drug appears to increase adaptive immunity and induce an immune response against multiple and severe pathological conditions, including cancer. We evaluated the pattern of immune cellular response in non-human primates of the species Cebus apella exposed to N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) with and without Canova®. Twelve animals were divided into four groups, with three animals each: negative control and three experimental groups, MNU-alone (35 days); MNU (35 days)-plus-Canova® (3 days) and Canova®-alone (3 days). The animals received MNU orally and Canova® by three intravenous injections. Evaluation of the cellular immune response was performed by immunophenotyping of T-lymphocytes (CD4(+), CD8(+)), B-lymphocytes and natural killer cells. Analysis was also performed of the cell cycle. Our results suggest an increase of T-lymphocytes (CD4(+)CD3(+)) only in the Canova® group, while in the MNU-plus-Canova® group only B-lymphocytes increased. PMID:25189897

  9. Glycerol Monolaurate (GML) inhibits human T cell signaling and function by disrupting lipid dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Michael S.; Sandouk, Aline; Houtman, Jon C. D.

    2016-01-01

    Glycerol Monolaurate (GML) is a naturally occurring fatty acid widely utilized in food, cosmetics, and homeopathic supplements. GML is a potent antimicrobial agent that targets a range of bacteria, fungi, and enveloped viruses but select findings suggest that GML also has immunomodulatory functions. In this study, we have mechanistically examined if GML affects the signaling and functional output of human primary T cells. We found that GML potently altered order and disorder dynamics in the plasma membrane that resulted in reduced formation of LAT, PLC-γ, and AKT microclusters. Altered membrane events induced selective inhibition of TCR-induced phosphorylation of regulatory P85 subunit of PI3K and AKT as well as abrogated calcium influx. Ultimately, GML treatment potently reduced TCR-induced production of IL-2, IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-10. Our data reveal that the widely used anti-microbial agent GML also alters the lipid dynamics of human T cells, leading to their defective signaling and function. PMID:27456316

  10. Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Pakistan: Prospects and Limitations

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Despite all the marvelous advancements in modern medicine, traditional medicine has always been practiced. More than 70% of the developing world's population still depends on the complementary and alternative systems of medicine (CAM). Cultural beliefs and practices often lead to self-care or home remedies in rural areas and consultation with traditional healers. Evidence-based CAM therapies have shown remarkable success in healing acute as well as chronic diseases. Alternative therapies have been utilized by people in Pakistan who have faith in spiritual healers, clergymen, hakeems, homeopaths or even many quacks. These are the first choice for problems such as infertility, epilepsy, psychosomatic troubles, depression and many other ailments. The traditional medicine sector has become an important source of health care, especially in rural and tribal areas of the country. The main reasons for consulting a CAM healer is the proximity, affordable fee, availability, family pressure and the strong opinion of the community. Pakistan has a very rich tradition in the use of medicinal plants for the treatment of various ailments. It necessitates the integration of the modern and CAM systems in terms of evidence-based information sharing. The health-seeking behavior of the people especially in developing countries calls for bringing all CAM healers into the mainstream by providing them with proper training, facilities and back-up for referral. A positive interaction between the two systems has to be harnessed to work for the common goal of improving health of the people. PMID:15937553

  11. Development of botanical principles for clinical use in cancer: where are we lacking?

    PubMed

    Poojari, R J; Patil, A G; Gota, V S

    2012-01-01

    Development of drugs from plant sources (botanicals) for the treatment of cancer has not been successful in India, despite a plethora of medicinal plants and an equal number of experiments demonstrating anti-cancer activity of plant principles in vitro. There are several pitfalls in our approach to botanical drug development. Foremost is the lack of industry-academia collaborations in this field. Research goals in Indian academic institutions are generally short-term and mostly aimed at fulfilling the minimum requirements of a doctoral/MD or MPharm thesis. Secondly, quality assurance of herbal formulations is difficult to achieve and good manufacturing practices are expensive to implement. This could introduce bias during the biological evaluation of botanicals. A systematic approach covering a wide range of investigations including but not limited to mechanistic studies, potential herb-drug interactions, pharmacokinetics and bioavailability could help in the optimization of herbal formulations in the preclinical stage of development before they can be considered for clinical trials. Government initiatives such as Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha and Homeopathic have encouraged research in these areas, but are insufficient to promote focused and aggressive evaluation of potential herbs. Particular emphasis should be given to clinical pharmacokinetics, drug interactions and clinical trials in specific cancers for the evaluation of dosage, safety, efficacy and concomitant use with chemotherapy. Only such policies can result in meaningful evaluation of botanicals for cancer therapy. PMID:22387653

  12. [The empacho in Mexico during the nineteenth century].

    PubMed

    Campos-Navarro, Roberto; Coronado, María Luisa

    2009-01-01

    During the 19th century, empacho as a nosological entity prompted academic research by such renowned Mexican clinicians as Miguel F. Jiménez, Eduardo Liceaga, Fernando Altamirano, José Peon y Contreras, among others. Empacho is often the result of excessive eating or difficulty in digestion of certain foods, especially fruits with a peel (oranges, limes, grapefruits, apples, etc.) and legumes (beans, sweet pea, chick peas). Empacho has a greater effect on children under the age of two. It is clinically identified by diarrhea, abdominal pain, fever, restlessness, the presence of abdominal distension, abdominal dullness to percussion, nausea, vomiting, anorexia and meteorism. The most common treatments during the 19th century sought to evacuate gastrointestinal content immediately through vomiting or purgative medication. The general population often used medicinal plants to provoke gastrointestinal purges, while academic doctors most frequently used castor oil as a laxative and ipecacuanha to induce vomiting. This work presents a description and analysis of the general characteristics of the popular illness, empacho. The information comes from doctors, pharmacists, homeopaths, botanists and popular groups. PMID:20141652

  13. Testing Homeopathy in Mouse Emotional Response Models: Pooled Data Analysis of Two Series of Studies

    PubMed Central

    Bellavite, Paolo; Conforti, Anita; Marzotto, Marta; Magnani, Paolo; Cristofoletti, Mirko; Olioso, Debora; Zanolin, Maria Elisabetta

    2012-01-01

    Two previous investigations were performed to assess the activity of Gelsemium sempervirens (Gelsemium s.) in mice, using emotional response models. These two series are pooled and analysed here. Gelsemium s. in various homeopathic centesimal dilutions/dynamizations (4C, 5C, 7C, 9C, and 30C), a placebo (solvent vehicle), and the reference drugs diazepam (1 mg/kg body weight) or buspirone (5 mg/kg body weight) were delivered intraperitoneally to groups of albino CD1 mice, and their effects on animal behaviour were assessed by the light-dark (LD) choice test and the open-field (OF) exploration test. Up to 14 separate replications were carried out in fully blind and randomised conditions. Pooled analysis demonstrated highly significant effects of Gelsemium s. 5C, 7C, and 30C on the OF parameter “time spent in central area” and of Gelsemium s. 5C, 9C, and 30C on the LD parameters “time spent in lit area” and “number of light-dark transitions,” without any sedative action or adverse effects on locomotion. This pooled data analysis confirms and reinforces the evidence that Gelsemium s. regulates emotional responses and behaviour of laboratory mice in a nonlinear fashion with dilution/dynamization. PMID:22548123

  14. Immunology and Homeopathy. 2. Cells of the Immune System and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Bellavite, Paolo; Conforti, Anita; Pontarollo, Francesco; Ortolani, Riccardo

    2006-01-01

    Here we describe the results of some experimental laboratory studies aimed at verifying the efficacy of high dilutions of substances and of homeopathic medicines in models of inflammation and immunity. Studies carried out on basophils, lymphocytes, granulocytes and fibroblasts are reviewed. This approach may help to test under controlled conditions the main principles of homeopathy such as ‘similarity’ of drug action at the cellular level and the effects of dilution/dynamization on the drug activity. The current situation is that few and rather small groups are working on laboratory models for homeopathy. Regarding the interpretation of data in view of the simile principle, we observe that there are different levels of similarity and that the laboratory data give support to this principle, but have not yet yielded the ultimate answer to the action mechanism of homeopathy. Evidence of the biological activity in vitro of highly diluted-dynamized solutions is slowly accumulating, with some conflicting reports. It is our hope that this review of literature unknown to most people will give an original and useful insight into the ‘state-of-the-art’ of homeopathy, without final conclusions ‘for’ or ‘against’ this modality. This kind of uncertainty may be difficult to accept, but is conceivably the most open-minded position now. PMID:16550219

  15. Glycerol Monolaurate (GML) inhibits human T cell signaling and function by disrupting lipid dynamics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Michael S; Sandouk, Aline; Houtman, Jon C D

    2016-01-01

    Glycerol Monolaurate (GML) is a naturally occurring fatty acid widely utilized in food, cosmetics, and homeopathic supplements. GML is a potent antimicrobial agent that targets a range of bacteria, fungi, and enveloped viruses but select findings suggest that GML also has immunomodulatory functions. In this study, we have mechanistically examined if GML affects the signaling and functional output of human primary T cells. We found that GML potently altered order and disorder dynamics in the plasma membrane that resulted in reduced formation of LAT, PLC-γ, and AKT microclusters. Altered membrane events induced selective inhibition of TCR-induced phosphorylation of regulatory P85 subunit of PI3K and AKT as well as abrogated calcium influx. Ultimately, GML treatment potently reduced TCR-induced production of IL-2, IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-10. Our data reveal that the widely used anti-microbial agent GML also alters the lipid dynamics of human T cells, leading to their defective signaling and function. PMID:27456316

  16. Traumeel S in preventing and treating mucositis in young patients undergoing SCT: a report of the Children's Oncology Group.

    PubMed

    Sencer, S F; Zhou, T; Freedman, L S; Ives, J A; Chen, Z; Wall, D; Nieder, M L; Grupp, S A; Yu, L C; Sahdev, I; Jonas, W B; Wallace, J D; Oberbaum, M

    2012-11-01

    Mucositis can be a serious complication of hematopoietic SCT (HSCT). A previous phase II trial in 32 children undergoing HSCT reported a beneficial effect of the homeopathic remedy Traumeel S. The Children's Oncology Group sought to replicate the results in a multi-institutional trial. The study was an international multi-center, double-blind, randomized trial comparing Traumeel with placebo in patients aged 3-25 years undergoing myeloablative HSCT. Traumeel/placebo was started on Day -1 as a five-time daily mouth rinse. Efficacy of the treatment was assessed using the modified Walsh scale for mucositis, scored daily from Day -1 to 20 days after HCST. The main outcome was the sum of Walsh scale scores (area-under-the-curve (AUC)) over this period. Other outcomes included narcotic use, days of total parenteral feeding, days of nasogastric feeding and adverse events. In 181 evaluable patients, there was no statistical difference in mucositis (AUC) in the Traumeel group (76.7) compared with placebo (67.3) (P=0.13). There was a trend towards less narcotic usage in the Traumeel patients. No statistically beneficial effect from Traumeel was demonstrated for mucositis. We could not confirm that Traumeel is an effective treatment for mucositis in children undergoing HSCT. PMID:22504933

  17. Complementary and Alternative Medicines Use during Pregnancy: A Systematic Review of Pregnant Women and Healthcare Professional Views and Experiences.

    PubMed

    Pallivalappila, Abdul Rouf; Stewart, Derek; Shetty, Ashalatha; Pande, Binita; McLay, James S

    2013-01-01

    Aims. To undertake a systematic review of the recent (2008-2013) primary literature, describing views and experiences of CAM use during pregnancy by women and healthcare professionals. Method. Medline, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Cochrane Database of Systematic Review Library and Allied, and Complementary Medicine Database were searched. Studies reporting systemic CAM products (homeopathic preparations, herbal medicines, Vitamins and minerals, homeopathy, and special diets) alone or in combination with other nonsystemic CAM modalities (e.g., acupuncture) were included. Results. Database searches retrieved 2,549 citations. Removal of duplicates followed by review of titles and abstracts yielded 32 relevant studies. Twenty-two reported the perspectives of women and their CAM use during pregnancy, while 10 focused on healthcare professionals. The majority of studies had significant flaws in study design and reporting, including a lack of appropriate definitions of CAM and associated modalities, absence of detailed checklists provided to participants, the use of convenience sampling, and a general lack of scientific robustness in terms of data validity and reliability. Conclusion. To permit generalisability of study findings, there is an urgent need to expand the evidence base assessing CAMs use during pregnancy using appropriately designed studies. PMID:24194778

  18. Dietary and nutritional treatments for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: current research support and recommendations for practitioners.

    PubMed

    Hurt, Elizabeth A; Arnold, L Eugene; Lofthouse, Nicholas

    2011-10-01

    Evidence for dietary/nutritional treatments of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) varies widely, from double-blind, placebo-controlled trials to anecdotal. In guiding patients, clinicians can apply the SECS versus RUDE rule: treatments that are Safe, Easy, Cheap, and Sensible (SECS) require less evidence than those that are Risky, Unrealistic, Difficult, or Expensive (RUDE). Two nutritional treatments appear worth general consideration: Recommended Daily Allowance/Reference Daily Intake multivitamin/mineral supplements as a pediatric health intervention not specific to ADHD and essential fatty acids, especially a mix of eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and γ-linolenic acid as an ADHD-specific intervention. Controlled studies support the elimination of artificial food dyes to reduce ADHD symptoms, but this treatment may be more applicable to the general pediatric population than to children with diagnosed ADHD. Mineral supplementation is indicated for those with documented deficiencies but is not supported for others with ADHD. Carnitine may have a role for inattention, but the evidence is limited. Dimethylaminoethanol probably has a small effect. Herbs, although "natural," are actually crude drugs, which along with homeopathic treatments have little evidence of efficacy. Consequences of delayed proven treatments need consideration in the risk-benefit assessment of dietary/nutritional treatments. PMID:21779824

  19. Complementary and Alternative Medicines Use during Pregnancy: A Systematic Review of Pregnant Women and Healthcare Professional Views and Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Pallivalappila, Abdul Rouf; Stewart, Derek; Shetty, Ashalatha; Pande, Binita; McLay, James S.

    2013-01-01

    Aims. To undertake a systematic review of the recent (2008–2013) primary literature, describing views and experiences of CAM use during pregnancy by women and healthcare professionals. Method. Medline, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Cochrane Database of Systematic Review Library and Allied, and Complementary Medicine Database were searched. Studies reporting systemic CAM products (homeopathic preparations, herbal medicines, Vitamins and minerals, homeopathy, and special diets) alone or in combination with other nonsystemic CAM modalities (e.g., acupuncture) were included. Results. Database searches retrieved 2,549 citations. Removal of duplicates followed by review of titles and abstracts yielded 32 relevant studies. Twenty-two reported the perspectives of women and their CAM use during pregnancy, while 10 focused on healthcare professionals. The majority of studies had significant flaws in study design and reporting, including a lack of appropriate definitions of CAM and associated modalities, absence of detailed checklists provided to participants, the use of convenience sampling, and a general lack of scientific robustness in terms of data validity and reliability. Conclusion. To permit generalisability of study findings, there is an urgent need to expand the evidence base assessing CAMs use during pregnancy using appropriately designed studies. PMID:24194778

  20. Alternative treatments for menopausal symptoms. Systematic review of scientific and lay literature.

    PubMed Central

    Seidl, M. M.; Stewart, D. E.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the scientific literature on common alternative remedies for treatment of symptoms attributed to menopause and to contrast this with available lay literature. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Scientific articles were identified by searching MEDLINE, CINAHL, and HEALTH databases from 1966 to mid-1997 for English-language articles. More than 200 references were reviewed; 85 were selected for citation based on specific reference to alternative medicine for symptoms commonly attributed to menopause (e.g., hot flashes), to the effects of changing estrogen levels (e.g., irregular menses, vaginal dryness), and to reported side effects of the treatments. MAIN FINDINGS: The scientific literature was categorized under the headings nutritional supplements, herbal remedies, homeopathic remedies, and physical approaches. Some scientific evidence of the safety and efficacy of alternative treatments during menopause was uncovered, with the strongest evidence emerging in favour of phytoestrogens, which occur in high concentrations as isoflavones in soy products. CONCLUSIONS: In available controlled studies, the strongest data support phytoestrogens for their role in diminishing menopausal symptoms related to estrogen deficiency and for possible protective effects on bones and the cardiovascular system. Randomized controlled trials, standardization of dosage, and accurate safety and efficacy labeling are required to ensure proper use of alternative remedies. PMID:9640524

  1. [Alchemy, freemasonry and homeopathy].

    PubMed

    Pinet, Patrice

    2011-07-01

    In this article we are showing that homeopathic doctrine has really esoteric and occult origins as it was suspected by a few authors, nevertheless we saw Hahnemann also using scientific writers. As early as twenty-two years old Hahnemann was initiate in the freemasonry, very in vogue at that time. He will be life long attached to it and will keep close to distinguished freemasons. Freemasonry has conveid enlightement philosophical ideas as well as occult, alchemical and theosophical ones by successive incursion of very different orders. Among these we can find a few rosicrucians orders. At the beginning of 17th century in Germany, the first rosicrucians authors appealed to Paracelse, and the first members of their legendary fraternity manifested their contempt for the practice of transmutation into gold and must devote themselves to gratuitous medical practice (famous utopia). Freemasonry took again these philanthropic views so that Hahnemann was certainly involved to the ideas of Paracelse and his followers through the Rosicrucians which played a substantial part within freemasonry before homeopathy rose. PMID:21998970

  2. Why extreme dilutions reach non-zero asymptotes: a nanoparticulate hypothesis based on froth flotation.

    PubMed

    Chikramane, Prashant S; Kalita, Dhrubajyoti; Suresh, Akkihebbal K; Kane, Shantaram G; Bellare, Jayesh R

    2012-11-13

    Extreme dilutions, especially homeopathic remedies of 30c, 200c, and higher potencies, are prepared by a process of serial dilution of 1:100 per step. As a result, dilution factors of 10(60), 10(400), or even greater are achieved. Therefore, both the presence of any active ingredient and the therapeutic efficacy of these medicines have been contentious because the existence of even traces of the starting raw materials in them is inconceivable. However, physicochemical studies of these solutions have unequivocally established the presence of the starting raw materials in nanoparticulate form even in these extreme (super-Avogadro, >10(23)) dilutions. In this article, we propose and validate a hypothesis to explain how nanoparticles are retained even at such enormous dilution levels. We show that once the bulk concentration is below a threshold level of a few nanograms/milliliter (ng/mL), at the end of each dilution step, all of the nanoparticles levitate to the surface and are accommodated as a monolayer at the top. This dominant population at the air-liquid interface is preserved and carried to the subsequent step, thereby forming an asymptotic concentration. Thus, all dilutions are only apparent and not real in terms of the concentrations of the starting raw materials. PMID:23083226

  3. Traumeel S in preventing and treating mucositis in young patients undergoing SCT: a report of the Children’s Oncology Group

    PubMed Central

    Sencer, SF; Zhou, T; Freedman, LS; Ives, JA; Chen, Z; Wall, D; Nieder, ML; Grupp, SA; Yu, LC; Sahdev, I; Jonas, WB; Wallace, JD; Oberbaum, M

    2012-01-01

    Mucositis can be a serious complication of hematopoietic SCT (HSCT). A previous phase II trial in 32 children undergoing HSCT reported a beneficial effect of the homeopathic remedy Traumeel S. The Children’s Oncology Group sought to replicate the results in a multi-institutional trial. The study was an international multi-center, double-blind, randomized trial comparing Traumeel with placebo in patients aged 3–25 years undergoing myeloablative HSCT. Traumeel/placebo was started on Day −1 as a five-time daily mouth rinse. Efficacy of the treatment was assessed using the modified Walsh scale for mucositis, scored daily from Day −1 to 20 days after HCST. The main outcome was the sum of Walsh scale scores (area-under-the-curve (AUC)) over this period. Other outcomes included narcotic use, days of total parenteral feeding, days of nasogastric feeding and adverse events. In 181 evaluable patients, there was no statistical difference in mucositis (AUC) in the Traumeel group (76.7) compared with placebo (67.3) (P = 0.13). There was a trend towards less narcotic usage in the Traumeel patients. No statistically beneficial effect from Traumeel was demonstrated for mucositis. We could not confirm that Traumeel is an effective treatment for mucositis in children undergoing HSCT. PMID:22504933

  4. Biosynthesized silver nanoparticles by ethanolic extracts of Phytolacca decandra, Gelsemium sempervirens, Hydrastis canadensis and Thuja occidentalis induce differential cytotoxicity through G2/M arrest in A375 cells.

    PubMed

    Das, Sreemanti; Das, Jayeeta; Samadder, Asmita; Bhattacharyya, Soumya Sundar; Das, Durba; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman

    2013-01-01

    The capability of crude ethanolic extracts of certain medicinal plants like Phytolacca decandra, Gelsemium sempervirens, Hydrastis canadensis and Thuja occidentalis used as homeopathic mother tinctures in precipitating silver nanoparticles from aqueous solution of silver nitrate has been explored. Nanoparticles thus precipitated were characterized by spectroscopic, dynamic light scattering, X-ray diffraction, atomic force and transmission electron microscopic analyses. The drug-DNA interactions of silver nanoparticles were analyzed from data of circular dichroism spectroscopy and melting temperature profiles using calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) as target. Biological activities of silver nanoparticles of different origin were then tested to evaluate their effective anti-proliferative and anti-bacterial properties, if any, by exposing them to A375 skin melanoma cells and to Escherichia coli C, respectively. Silver nanoparticles showed differences in their level of anti-cancer and anti-bacterial potentials. The nanoparticles of different origin interacted differently with CT-DNA, showing differences in their binding capacities. Particle size differences of the nanoparticles could be attributed for causing differences in their cellular entry and biological action. The ethanolic extracts of these plants had not been tested earlier for their possible efficacies in synthesizing nanoparticles from silver nitrate solution that had beneficial biological action, opening up a possibility of having therapeutic values in the management of diseases including cancer. PMID:23010037

  5. High-dilution effects revisited. 1. Physicochemical aspects.

    PubMed

    Bellavite, Paolo; Marzotto, Marta; Olioso, Debora; Moratti, Elisabetta; Conforti, Anita

    2014-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that homeopathic high dilutions (HDs) can effectively have a pharmacological action, and so cannot be considered merely placebos. However, until now there has been no unified explanation for these observations within the dominant paradigm of the dose-response effect. Here the possible scenarios for the physicochemical nature of HDs are reviewed. A number of theoretical and experimental approaches, including quantum physics, conductometric and spectroscopic measurements, thermoluminescence, and model simulations investigated the peculiar features of diluted/succussed solutions. The heterogeneous composition of water could be affected by interactive phenomena such as coherence, epitaxy and formation of colloidal nanobubbles containing gaseous inclusions of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, silica and, possibly, the original material of the remedy. It is likely that the molecules of active substance act as nucleation centres, amplifying the formation of supramolecular structures and imparting order to the solvent. Three major models for how this happens are currently being investigated: the water clusters or clathrates, the coherent domains postulated by quantum electrodynamics, and the formation of nanoparticles from the original solute plus solvent components. Other theoretical approaches based on quantum entanglement and on fractal-type self-organization of water clusters are more speculative and hypothetical. The problem of the physicochemical nature of HDs is still far from to be clarified but current evidence strongly supports the notion that the structuring of water and its solutes at the nanoscale can play a key role. PMID:24439452

  6. Complementary and alternative medicine's occupational closure in Portuguese healthcare: Contradictions and challenges.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Joana

    2016-09-01

    This article analyses strategies of closure recently enacted by complementary and alternative medicine practitioners in order to achieve occupational control over work domains in healthcare, taking Portugal as an example. A combination of the neo-Weberian occupational closure theory of the professions and Abbott's jurisdictional vacancy theory is proposed as the framework for analysis. Acupuncture and homeopathy will be presented as case studies. Data are derived from in-depth interviews with 10 traditional acupuncturists and 10 traditional homeopaths. Data analysis suggests that (1) professionalisation, (2) alignment with biomedical science and (3) expressing 'legitimating values' of a countervailing nature have been three significant strategies complementary and alternative medicine practitioners have used in an attempt to achieve market closure. It is argued that these strategies are contradictory: some involve allegiances, while others involve demarcation from biomedical science. A further outcome of these strategies is the promotion of complementary and alternative medicine treatments and solutions in everyday life. The success of these strategies therefore, although helping to reinforce the biomedical model, may simultaneously help complementary and alternative medicine to demarcate from it, posing thus challenges to mainstream healthcare. PMID:27580857

  7. [A new political contribution to medicine: homeopathy in 19th century Spain].

    PubMed

    Albarracin Teulon, A

    1993-01-01

    The author has sumarized the role of well known 19th century doctors, Thackray, Villermé, Chadwick and especially Virchow (whose socio-medical works are related in detail), in the influence of political ideas on Medicine. As a new contribution to this subject the author informs us of the participation or a Spanish homeopathic doctor in this task. Anastasio García López (1821-1897), was influenced by the works of Charles Fourier, whose doctrine was spreading throughout Spain at that time. García López aplied the sociological concepts of the French utopian philosopher to his idea of homeopaty. A review is made of how Fourierism penetrated and became implanted in Spain and the mark it left on Hahnemann is analized using the "passionate attraction" concept and the ideas of social constriction and violence. García López believed that Hahnemann was attempting to free therapeutics from the yoke of attacking symptoms, emphasizing the affinities of the illness with the cure. Finally, this influence is demostrated in all the activitires of this Spanish doctor, politican, spiritualist, mason and hydrologist of renown. PMID:11624939

  8. Pharmacists and Natural Health Products: A systematic analysis of professional responsibilities in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Farrell, Jennifer; Ries, Nola M.; Boon, Heather

    2007-01-01

    Natural health products such as herbs, vitamins and homeopathic medicines are widely available in Canadian pharmacies. Purpose to conduct a systematic analysis of Canadian pharmacy policies and guidelines to explore pharmacists’ professional responsibilities with respect to natural health products. Methods Legislation, codes of ethics, standards of practice and guidance documents that apply to the practice of pharmacy in each Canadian jurisdiction were systematically collected and examined to identify if, and how, these instruments establish professional duties in regard to natural health products. Results The majority of Canadian jurisdictions now include some explicit reference to natural health products in standards of practice policy or guideline documents. Often natural health products are simply assumed to be included in the over-the-counter (OTC) product category and thus professional responsibilities for OTCs are relevant for natural health products. A minority of provinces have specific policies on natural health products, herbals or homeopathy. In addition, the National Association of Pharmacy Regulatory Authorities’ Model Standards of Practice specifically refers to natural health products. Most policy documents indicate that pharmacists should inquire about natural health product use when counselling patients and, when asked, should provide accurate information regarding the efficacy, toxicity, side effects or interactions of natural health products. Public messaging also indicates that pharmacists are knowledgeable professionals who can provide evidence-based information about natural health products. Conclusions Explicit policies or guidelines regarding pharmacists’ professional responsibilities with respect to natural health products currently exist in the majority of Canadian jurisdictions. PMID:22282720

  9. Qairooti (Cerate or Cera Beeswax Salve) in Traditional Iranian Pharmacy

    PubMed Central

    Mosleh, Ghazaleh; Badr, Parmis

    2016-01-01

    Background: Qairooti (Cerate), a medicinal salve or ointment, compounded of wax and oil, is a formulation used alone or as a basis for medicinal dosage forms. It is widely used from the ancient times to the present. Based on its structure, beeswax has unique characteristics. It builds stable emulsions and increases water absorbance of creams and ointments. The aim of this study was to gather all pharmaceutical information about preparing Qairooti products from traditional pharmacopoeaes, such as the various types of Qairooti and their preparation methods. Methods: In this article, various types of Qairooti, their producing method and related indications have been discussed based on the main medical Persian manuscripts including Al-Canon fil tibb (Canon of Avicenna), Gharabadin-e-Kabir, Gharabadin-e-Salehi, Exir-e-Azam, Alhavi, Kamel-al-sanaat, Zakhireh-ye Khwarazm shahi, al-Shamel-fi-sanawat-al-tebie, Ekhtiarate badiee, Kholasat-al-tajarob, Tib-e-Akbari, Mofareh al-gholoob, Makhzan-ul-Adwiah, Hedayat-al-motealemin-fi-al-tibb, Altasrif-le-man-ajeza-an-talif, etc. Results: About 500 different formulations from the above-mentioned manuscripts were found and their preparation method and other required information were collected. The amounts of oil and wax in Qairooti are not fixed and depend on different factors; providing the best consistency and appearance of the formulation, such as seasonal temperature. In order to prepare cerate, wax has to be melted by indirect heat and then mixed with the isothermal oil. Mixing process should be performed precisely to provide a homogenized product. If the multi-ingredient cerate is needed, other constituents have to be added to the warm mixture of oil and wax. Conclusion: There are many kinds of Qairooti in traditional Iranian pharmacopoeias recommended for different indications. Cerate was a common medication for injuries and wounds. Although it is still used in conventional medicine, some clinical applications in traditional

  10. Collaborative study for the establishment of a European Phamacopoeia Biological reference preparation for Bordetella pertussis mouse antiserum for serological potency testing of acellular pertussis vaccines.

    PubMed

    Poirier, Bertrand; Bornstein, Nicole; Andre, Murielle; Marmonier, Denis; Pares, Monique; Vanhooren, Gerard; Rautmann, Guy; Behr-Gross, Marie-Emmanuelle; Dobbelaer, Roland; Fuchs, Florence

    2003-03-01

    A collaborative study was organised by the European Directorate For the Quality of Medicines (EDQM) to assess the suitability of a candidate mouse antiserum as a European Pharmacopoeia Biological reference preparation (BRP) for acellular pertussis vaccine potency testing. The candidate antiserum was obtained by immunising mice with a five-component acellular pertussis vaccine: pertussis toxin (PT), filamentous haemagglutinin (FHA), pertactin (PRN) and Fimbrial 2/Fimbrial 3 (Fim 2&3). The study has been divided into two separate phases. Phase I was a pre-qualification study including three laboratories. This phase was aimed at pre-qualifying the candidate BRP (cBRP) and at documenting the impact of differences in the antibody detection methodology enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) procedures on results of pertussis antisera calibration versus the currently used standard US standard pertussis antiserum (mouse) Lot 1 (SPAM-1) (United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) reference serum) and the cBRP. As no significant difference between the antibody titres determined by using the different ELISA methodologies was found, a large-scale study enrolling 13 laboratories (Phase II) was carried out, each participant performing its in-house methodology. Its aim was to calibrate the cBRP (in terms of the SPAM-1 reference) and to demonstrate its equivalence or superiority to internal references. The study showed that there was no difference in positive sera titres expressed relative to their corresponding internal reference (homologous situation) or the proposed standard (heterologous situation) reference. The cBRP can, therefore, reliably act as replacement for the in-house reference preparations. Further analysis of the outcome of this study enabled to assign to the cBRP a potency of 39, 138, 34 and 56 ELISA unit per millilitre, respectively, to its anti-PT, anti-FHA, anti-PRN and anti-Fim 2&3 antibody contents. The cBRP has been adopted by the European

  11. A pilot study on quality of artesunate and amodiaquine tablets used in the fishing community of Tema, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The ineffectiveness of artesunate and amodiaquine tablets in malaria treatment remains a health burden to WHO and governments of malaria-endemic countries, including Ghana. The proliferation of illegitimate anti-malarial drugs and its use by patients is of primary concern to international and local drug regulatory agencies because such drugs are known to contribute to the development of the malaria-resistant parasites in humans. No data exist on quality of these drugs in the fishing village communities in Ghana although the villagers are likely users of such drugs. A pilot study on the quality of anti-malarial tablets in circulation during the major fishing season at a malarious fishing village located along the coast of Tema in southern Ghana was determined. Methods Blisterpacks of anti-malarial tablets were randomly sampled. The International Pharmacopoeia and Global Pharma Health Fund Minilab protocols were used to assess the quality of anti-malarial tablets per blisterpacks allegedly manufactured by Guilin Pharmaceutical Co Ltd, China (GPCL) and Letap Pharmaceuticals Ltd, Ghana (LPL) and sold in chemical sales outlets at Kpone-on–Sea. Ferric chloride and cobaltous thiocyanate tests confirmed the presence of active ingredients in the tablets. A confirmatory test for the active ingredient was achieved with artesunate (ICRS1409) and amodiaquine (ICRS0209) reference standards. A high performance liquid chromatography analysis confirmed the amount of artesunate found in tablets. Results Based on the International Pharmacopoeia acceptable range of 96/98 to 102% for genuine artesunate per tablet, 10% [relative standard deviation (RSD): 3.2%] of field-selected artesunate blisterpack per tablets manufactured by GPCL, and 50% (RSD: 5.1%) of a similar package per tablet by LPL, passed the titrimetric test. However, 100% (RSD: 2.2%) of amodiaquine blisterpack per tablet by GPCL were found to be within the International Pharmacopeia acceptable range of 90 to

  12. Study of quality and stability of ursodeoxycholic acid formulations for oral pediatric administration.

    PubMed

    Santoveña, A; Sánchez-Negrín, E; Charola, L; Llabrés, M; Fariña, J B

    2014-12-30

    This paper describes a rational method of characterizing the biopharmaceutical stability of two oral suspensions of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) used in pediatrics. Because there is no commercial presentation of UDCA that can administer appropriate doses for infants and children, an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) formulation is required. Due to its very low solubility and low dose in the formula (1.5%), two different suspensions with minimal use of excipients were studied, avoiding the use of complex additives and those not recommended by the European Medicines Agency (EMA). Adherence to Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) allows the preparation of formulations with appropriately sized and stable particles, and suitable rheological behavior in withdrawing the dose after stirring. Dose uniformity, expressed as mass and content variability, was determined using the criteria of the European and the United States Pharmacopoeia. Additionally, dose content variation of every mass determined was studied. A rational method was developed for determining the dose uniformity of UDCA in suspensions, whether freshly prepared or after storage under different conditions for 30 and 60 days. This method permits detection of differences between doses taken at different heights in the vessel at various times and storage conditions. UDCA was stable under all conditions studied, requiring the presence of glycerol in the formulation to obtain the declared API value after stirring. Storage of UDCA suspensions in a refrigerator increased variability between doses. PMID:25305380

  13. [Dendrobium officinale stereoscopic cultivation method].

    PubMed

    Si, Jin-Ping; Dong, Hong-Xiu; Liao, Xin-Yan; Zhu, Yu-Qiu; Li, Hui

    2014-12-01

    The study is aimed to make the most of available space of Dendrobium officinale cultivation facility, reveal the yield and functional components variation of stereoscopic cultivated D. officinale, and improve quality, yield and efficiency. The agronomic traits and yield variation of stereoscopic cultivated D. officinale were studied by operating field experiment. The content of polysaccharide and extractum were determined by using phenol-sulfuric acid method and 2010 edition of "Chinese Pharmacopoeia" Appendix X A. The results showed that the land utilization of stereoscopic cultivated D. officinale increased 2.74 times, the stems, leaves and their total fresh or dry weight in unit area of stereoscopic cultivated D. officinale were all heavier than those of the ground cultivated ones. There was no significant difference in polysaccharide content between stereoscopic cultivation and ground cultivation. But the extractum content and total content of polysaccharide and extractum were significantly higher than those of the ground cultivated ones. In additional, the polysaccharide content and total content of polysaccharide and extractum from the top two levels of stereoscopic culture matrix were significantly higher than that of the ones from the other levels and ground cultivation. Steroscopic cultivation can effectively improves the utilization of space and yield, while the total content of polysaccharides and extractum were significantly higher than that of the ground cultivated ones. The significant difference in Dendrobium polysaccharides among the plants from different height of stereo- scopic culture matrix may be associated with light factor. PMID:25911804

  14. T-Cell Immune Response Assessment as a Complement to Serology and Intranasal Protection Assays in Determining the Protective Immunity Induced by Acellular Pertussis Vaccines in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ausiello, C. M.; Lande, R.; Stefanelli, P.; Fazio, C.; Fedele, G.; Palazzo, R.; Urbani, F.; Mastrantonio, P.

    2003-01-01

    The relative value of antibodies and/or T-cell immune responses to Bordetella pertussis antigens in the immunity induced by acellular pertussis (aP) vaccines is still an open issue, probably due to the incomplete knowledge on the mechanisms of protective immunity to pertussis. The relevance of T-cell immune responses in protection from pertussis has been demonstrated in murine and human models of infection; thus, in this study, the ability of different vaccine preparations of three component (pertussis toxin, filamentous hemagglutinin, and pertactin) aP vaccines to induce T-cell responses was investigated in mice. All vaccine preparations examined passed the immunogenicity control test, based on antibody titer assessment, according to European Pharmacopoeia standards, and protected mice from B. pertussis intranasal challenge, but not all preparations were able to prime T cells to pertussis toxin, the specific B. pertussis antigen. In particular, one vaccine preparation was unable to induce proliferation and gamma interferon (IFN-γ) production while the other two gave borderline results. The evaluation of T-cell responses to pertussis toxin antigen may provide information on the protective immunity induced by aP vaccines in animal models. Considering the critical role of the axis interleukin-12-IFN-γ for protection from pertussis, our results suggest that testing the induction of a key protective cytokine such as IFN-γ could be an additional tool for the evaluation of the immune response induced by aP vaccines. PMID:12853397

  15. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Study of Thermally Treated Bismuth Subgallate

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Paweł; Pilawa, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Complex of bismuth, an anti-inflammatory drug, was studied by EPR spectroscopy. The aim of this study was to determine concentrations and properties of free radicals formed during thermal sterilization of bismuth subgallate according to pharmacopoeia norms to optimize its sterilization process. Different temperatures (160°C, 170°C, and 180°C) and times (120 minutes, 60 minutes, and 30 minutes) of sterilization were used. Interactions of bismuth subgallate with DPPH, the model free radical reference, were checked. g-Factors, amplitudes (A), integral intensities (I), and linewidths (ΔBpp) were obtained. Integral intensities were obtained by double integration of the first-derivative EPR lines. The influence of microwave power in the range of 2.2–70 mW on shape and parameters of the EPR spectra was examined. Thermal sterilization produced free radicals in bismuth subgallate in all tested cases. Strong interactions with free radicals were pointed out for all the analysed samples containing bismuth independent of sterilization conditions. Optimal conditions of thermal sterilization for bismuth subgallate with the lowest free radical formation are temperature 170°C and time of heating 60 minutes. Strong dipolar interactions exist in thermally sterilized bismuth subgallate. EPR spectroscopy is a useful method of examination of thermal sterilization conditions. PMID:25525421

  16. Delivery of formoterol from a novel multi-dose inhaler Airmax.

    PubMed

    Zeng, X M; Jones, S; O'Leary, D; Phelan, M; Colledge, J

    2002-06-01

    Using a proprietary technology known as the X-ACT system--Active-metering, Cyclone-separator Technology, a novel multi-dose inhaler (Airmax) was developed to provide accurate and consistent dosing and a high-fine particle fraction ofthe drug. Formoterol, present as a blend with lactose monohydrate was delivered from Airmax to obtain a nominal formoterol dose of 6 or 12 microg. The devices were tested using a five-stage liquid impinger and a unit dose sampling apparatus, operated under conditions specified in European Pharmacopoeia (2000). Fine-particle dose (FPD) was defined as the dose of the aerosolized drug particles with an aerodynamic diameter < 5 microm and fine particle fraction (FPF) was the ratio of FPD to the total recovered dose. Dose per actuation was found to be 97.0+/-11.5% label claim (LC) or 5.8+/-0.7 microg (n = 140), and 100+/-9.4% LC or 12+/-1.1 microg (n=440), for the 6 and 12 microg strengths, respectively. The mass median aerodynamic diameter was 2.4+/-0.1 microm (n = 14), the geometric standard deviation 2.1+/-0.1 (n = 14), and FPF 44.4+/-24% (n= 14) for both strengths. Thus, the combination of active metering and cyclone separator produces highly consistent doses of formoterol that have a large respirable fraction. PMID:12117038

  17. Identification and evaluation of the chemical similarity of Yindan xinnaotong samples by ultra high performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Gong, Leilei; Haiyu, Xu; Wang, Lan; Xiaojie, Yin; Huijun, Yuan; Songsong, Wang; Cheng, Long; Ma, Xiaojing; Gao, Shuangrong; Liang, Rixin; Yang, Hongjun

    2016-02-01

    Yindan xinnaotong, a compound preparation used in traditional Chinese medicine, is composed of eight herbs: Ginkgo biloba leaf (yinxingye), Salvia miltiorrhizae (danshen), Herba gynostemmatis (jiaogulan), Erigerontis herba (dengzhanxixin), Allii sativi bulbus (dasuan), Notoginseng radixe rhizoma (sanqi), Crataegi fructus (shanzha), and Borneolum (tianranbingpian). Yindan xinnaotong is primarily used to treat cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. However, to date, no scientific methods have been established to assess the quality of Yindan xinnaotong. Therefore, a combinatorial method was developed based on chemical constituent identification and fingerprint analysis to assess the consistency of Yindan xinnaotong quality. In this study, ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry was used to identify the chemical components of Yindan xinnaotong soft capsules. Approximately 74 components were detected, of which 70, including flavonoids, ginkgolide, phenolic acid, diterpenoid tanshinones, and ginsenoside, were tentatively identified. A fingerprint analysis was also conducted to evaluate the uniformity of the quality of Yindan xinnaotong soft capsules. Ten batches of Yindan xinnaotong soft capsules were analyzed. All of the resulting chromatograms were imported into the "Similarity Evaluation System for Chromatographic Fingerprints of TCM" (Chinese Pharmacopoeia Commission, version 2004A). The similarity scores of common peaks from these samples ranged from 0.903-1.000, indicating that samples from different batches were highly correlated. PMID:26634631

  18. Ethnomedicine in Himalaya: a case study from Dolpa, Humla, Jumla and Mustang districts of Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Kunwar, Ripu M; Nepal, Bal K; Kshhetri, Hari B; Rai, Sanjeev K; Bussmann, Rainer W

    2006-01-01

    Traditional plant use in Nepal has been documented for millennia. The importance of plants as medicine has not diminished in any way in recent times, and traditional medicines are still the most important health care source for the vast majority of the population. This paper examines the ethnobotany and traditional use of plants extracted from the vulnerable alpine zone in the Dolpa, Humla, Jumla and Mustang districts of Nepal. The results of this ethnobotanical study indicate that a very large number of plant species is used as traditional medicines. There were 107, 59, 44 and 166 species of ethnomedicinal importance in surveyed areas of Dolpa, Humla, Jumla and Mustang district respectively. Of these, 84 common species, used at least in two districts, were selected to enumerate their ethnomedicinal properties. The 84 species belonged to 75 genera and 39 families. The commonest species in this pharmacopoeia were: Allium wallichii, Cordyceps sinensis, Dactylorhiza hatagirea, and Rheum australe. A total of 21 species were most common in three districts and 59 in two districts. The genera Aconitum, Allium, Arisaema, Berberis, Corydalis, Gentiana, Hippophae, Juniperus and Rhododendron each possessed two species with ethnomedicinal use. Labiatae was the most medicinally important family with five species used, followed by Araceae, Compositae, Liliaceae, Polygonaceae, Ranunculaceae, Scrophulariaceae and Umbelliferae, each contributing four species. PMID:16749924

  19. From rustics to savants: indigenous materia medica in eighteenth-century Mexico.

    PubMed

    Achim, Miruna

    2011-09-01

    This essay explores how indigenous knowledge about plant and animal remedies was gathered, classified, tested, and circulated across wide networks of exchange for natural knowledge between Europe and the Americas. There has been much recent interest in the "bioprospecting" of local natural resources-medical and otherwise-by Europeans in the early modern world and the strategies employed by European travellers, missionaries, or naturalists have been well documented. By contrast, less is known about the role played by indigenous and Creole intermediaries in this process. And yet, the transmission of knowledge between indigenous communities and the European cabinet was neither transparent nor natural, and often involved epistemological, linguistic, and religious obstacles. Drawing on printed and manuscript collections of indigenous remedies, written in colonial Mexico between the sixteenth and the eighteenth centuries, I focus on how local intermediaries, like creoles scholars, sought to overcome such obstacles by observing indigenous uses of remedies, by studying indigenous languages and by producing natural histories and pharmacopoeias in indigenous languages. Ultimately, behind the Creole participation in the transmission of indigenous remedies, one can point to political and cultural interests and to inclusive definitions of knowledge, which cut across oppositions between science and superstition, cabinet and field, centre and periphery. PMID:21802632

  20. Cyclodextrin-assisted liquid-solid extraction for determination of the composition of jujube fruit using ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection and quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qiong-Yao; Zhang, Qian-Yun; Cao, Jun; Cao, Wan; Xu, Jing-Jing; Peng, Li-Qing

    2016-12-15

    A novel, simple and environmental friendly sample preparation technique based on the use of cyclodextrin has been developed for the extraction of phenolic compounds from jujube samples, the analytes being finally determined by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry was used to characterize the composition of jujube fruit. The present method exhibited higher efficiency for extracting phenolic compositions than Pharmacopoeia heat-reflux approach in term of peak areas. Moreover, compared with traditional ultrasound-assisted extraction, the developed methodology was found without the use of toxic organic solvent, meeting the principles of green chemistry. Validation experiments showed that the proposed method presented good linearity (r(2)>0.9970), satisfactory precision (RSD<7.55%), and high recovery (85.63-105.67%). The limits of detection were from 4.92ng/mL to 142.85ng/mL for eight phenolic compounds. Eventually, the optimized approach was successfully applied to the analysis of jujube fruit. PMID:27451208

  1. Pharmacokinetic profile of phytoconstituent(s) isolated from medicinal plants—A comprehensive review

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Piyush; Shah, Rishi; Lohidasan, Sathiyanarayanan; Mahadik, K.R.

    2015-01-01

    Herbal medicine, the backbone of traditional medicine, has played an important role in human health and welfare for a long period. Traditional therapeutic approaches of regional significance are found in Africa, South and Central America, China, India, Tibet, Indonesia, and the Pacific Islands. The considerable scientific significance and commercial potential of traditional medicines have resulted in increased international attention and global market demands for herbal medicines, especially Chinese herbal medicines. Herbal medicines currently are the primary form of health care for the poor in the developing countries, and also are widely used as a supplement or substitute for conventional drugs in developed countries. These traditional medicines have a pivotal role in the treatment of various ailments and more than 50% of drugs used in Western pharmacopoeia are isolated from herbs or derived from modifications of chemicals found in plants. Herbal medicines usually contain a complex mixture of various bioactive molecules, which make its standardization complicated, and there is little information about all compounds responsible for pharmacological activity. Several research papers have been published that claim pharmacological activity of herbal medicines but few are discussing the role of the exact phytoconstituent. Understanding the pharmacokinetic profile of such phytoconstituents is essential. Although there are research papers that deal with pharmacokinetic properties of phytoconstituents, there are a number of phytoconstituents yet to be explored for their kinetic properties. This article reviews the pharmacokinetic profile of 50 different therapeutically effective traditional medicinal plants from the year 2003 onward. PMID:26587392

  2. Evaluation of aqueous preparations from herbal drugs.

    PubMed

    Vitková, Zuzana; Brázdovicová, Bronislava; Ralbovská, Katarína; Halenárová, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents results obtained within analysis of aqueous preparations obtained from the herbal drugs, (APHD) which are available in pharmacy as mass produced drugs. In particular, the following drugs were analyzed: CYNAROFIT, L'ALIAFIT, Tinctura belladonnae, Tinctura gentianae, Tinctura chinae a Tinctura valerianae made by Calendula, j.s.c.--Slovakia and Tinctura valerianae made by IVAX-Czech republic. Tictura valerianae magistraliter was prepared in a laboratory. The APHDs were analyzed under the following aspects: amount of dry matter, density, index of refraction, pH value, content of ethanol, influence of the light on these parameters as well as the global appearance of samples. In parallel to that, the stability of samples Tinctura valerianae prepared by two different manufacturers and the samples of magistraliter preparations were compared. It was found that storing samples delivered by Calendula j.s.c. does not significantly influenced their stability neither in the light nor in the dark, kept at the temperature of 20-25 degrees C over the time interval of 6 months. All samples were in agreement with the norms of companies as well as with both Czechoslovak (CSL 4) and Slovak (SL 1) pharmacopoeias. Besides, the results obtained show that a kind of extraction methods (percolation, maceration) does not influence neither quality nor stability of the samples Tinctura valerianae. PMID:20210084

  3. A novel strategy for the discrimination of gelatinous Chinese medicines based on enzymatic digestion followed by nano-flow liquid chromatography in tandem with orbitrap mass spectrum detection

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Huan; Shen, Yuping; Xu, Ying; Maqueda, Aida Serra; Zheng, Jie; Wu, Qinan; Tam, James P

    2015-01-01

    Gelatinous Chinese medicines made from mammalian skin or horn or reptile shell are a very important type of animal-derived Chinese medicine. They have been extensively used either as both hemopoietic and hemostatic agents to treat vertigo, palpitation, hematuria, and insomnia in traditional Chinese medicine clinics; consumed as a popular tonic for weaker persons such as the elderly or women after giving birth; or further manufactured to health supplements for certain populations. However, they cannot be discriminated from each other by only using the routine approach in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, as it lacks enough specificity and, consequently, and the requirements can be met even by adding assayed ingredients. In this study, our efforts to differentiate three gelatinous Chinese medicines, Asini Corii Colla, Cervi Cornus Colla, and Testudinis Carapacis ET Plastri Colla, are presented, and a novel strategy based on enzymatic digestion followed by nano-flow liquid chromatography in tandem with orbitrap mass spectrum detector analysis is proposed herein. Fourteen diagnostic fragments identified from the digests of these medicines were exclusively selected for their discrimination. By taking advantage of the favorable features of this strategy, it is feasible and convenient to identify enzymatic-digested peptides originated from signature proteins in each medicine, which thus could be employed as potential biomarkers for their form of raw medicinal material, and the pulverized and the complex especially, that being the direct basis for authentication purpose. PMID:26345994

  4. Desktop 3D printing of controlled release pharmaceutical bilayer tablets.

    PubMed

    Khaled, Shaban A; Burley, Jonathan C; Alexander, Morgan R; Roberts, Clive J

    2014-01-30

    Three dimensional (3D) printing was used as a novel medicine formulation technique for production of viable tablets capable of satisfying regulatory tests and matching the release of standard commercial tablets. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC 2208) (Methocel™ K100M Premium) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) (Carbopol(®) 974P NF) were used as a hydrophilic matrix for a sustained release (SR) layer. Hypromellose(®) (HPMC 2910) was used as a binder while microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) (Pharmacel(®) 102) and sodium starch glycolate (SSG) (Primojel(®)) were used as disintegrants for an immediate release (IR) layer. Commercial guaifenesin bi-layer tablets (GBT) were used as a model drug (Mucinex(®)) for this study. There was a favourable comparison of release of the active guaifenesin from the printed hydrophilic matrix compared with the commercially available GBT. The printed formulations were also evaluated for physical and mechanical properties such as weight variation, friability, hardness and thickness as a comparison to the commercial tablet and were within acceptable range as defined by the international standards stated in the United States Pharmacopoeia (USP). All formulations (standard tablets and 3D printed tablets) showed Korsmeyer-Peppas n values between 0.27 and 0.44 which indicates Fickian diffusion drug release through a hydrated HPMC gel layer. PMID:24280018

  5. "Back to the Future": A New Look at Hydroxypropyl Beta-Cyclodextrins.

    PubMed

    Malanga, Milo; Szemán, Julianna; Fenyvesi, Éva; Puskás, István; Csabai, Katalin; Gyémánt, Gyöngyi; Fenyvesi, Ferenc; Szente, Lajos

    2016-09-01

    Since the discovery about 30 years ago (2-hydroxypropyl) beta-cyclodextrin, a highly soluble derivative of beta-cyclodextrin, has become an approved excipient of drug formulations included both in the United States and European Pharmacopoeias. It is recommended to use as solubilizer and stabilizer for oral and parenteral formulations. Recently, its pharmacological activity has been recognized in various diseases. The increasing applications require a closer look to the structure-activity relationship. As (2-hydroxypropyl) beta-cyclodextrin (HPBCD) is always a mixture of isomers with various degrees and pattern of hydroxypropylation, no wonder that the products of different manufacturers are often different. Several HPBCDs were compared applying a battery of analytical tools including thin layer chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), HPLC-mass spectrometry (MS), and matrix-assisted laser desorption MS. We studied how the average degree of substitution affects the aggregation behavior, the toxicity, and the solubilizing effect on poorly soluble drugs. We found that the products with low average degree of substitution are more prone to aggregation. The samples studied are nontoxic to Caco-2 cells and have low hemolytic activity. The solubility enhancement of poorly soluble drugs decreases or increases with increasing degree of substitution or shows a maximum curve depending on the properties of the guest. PMID:27317368

  6. Pharmaceutics, Drug Delivery and Pharmaceutical Technology: A New Test Unit for Disintegration End-Point Determination of Orodispersible Films.

    PubMed

    Low, Ariana; Kok, Si Ling; Khong, Yuetmei; Chan, Sui Yung; Gokhale, Rajeev

    2015-11-01

    No standard time or pharmacopoeia disintegration test method for orodispersible films (ODFs) exists. The USP disintegration test for tablets and capsules poses significant challenges for end-point determination when used for ODFs. We tested a newly developed disintegration test unit (DTU) against the USP disintegration test. The DTU is an accessory to the USP disintegration apparatus. It holds the ODF in a horizontal position, allowing top-view of the ODF during testing. A Gauge R&R study was conducted to assign relative contributions of the total variability from the operator, sample or the experimental set-up. Precision was compared using commercial ODF products in different media. Agreement between the two measurement methods was analysed. The DTU showed improved repeatability and reproducibility compared to the USP disintegration system with tighter standard deviations regardless of operator or medium. There is good agreement between the two methods, with the USP disintegration test giving generally longer disintegration times possibly due to difficulty in end-point determination. The DTU provided clear end-point determination and is suitable for quality control of ODFs during product developmental stage or manufacturing. This may facilitate the development of a standardized methodology for disintegration time determination of ODFs. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 104:3893-3903, 2015. PMID:27524687

  7. Therapeutic Effects of Traditional Chinese Medicine on Spinal Cord Injury: A Promising Supplementary Treatment in Future.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Yang, Hao; An, Jing; Zhang, Rui; Chen, Bo; Hao, Ding-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating neurological disorder caused by trauma. Pathophysiological events occurring after SCI include acute, subacute, and chronic phases, while complex mechanisms are comprised. As an abundant source of natural drugs, Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) attracts much attention in SCI treatment recently. Hence, this review provides an overview of pathophysiology of SCI and TCM application in its therapy. Methods. Information was collected from articles published in peer-reviewed journals via electronic search (PubMed, SciFinder, Google Scholar, Web of Science, and CNKI), as well as from master's dissertations, doctoral dissertations, and Chinese Pharmacopoeia. Results. Both active ingredients and herbs could exert prevention and treatment against SCI, which is linked to antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, or antiapoptosis effects. The detailed information of six active natural ingredients (i.e., curcumin, resveratrol, epigallocatechin gallate, ligustrazine, quercitrin, and puerarin) and five commonly used herbs (i.e., Danshen, Ginkgo, Ginseng, Notoginseng, and Astragali Radix) was elucidated and summarized. Conclusions. As an important supplementary treatment, TCM may provide benefits in repair of injured spinal cord. With a general consensus that future clinical approaches will be diversified and a combination of multiple strategies, TCM is likely to attract greater attention in SCI treatment. PMID:27118982

  8. Identification of New Diterpenes as Putative Marker Compounds Distinguishing Agnus Castus Fruit (Chaste Tree) from Shrub Chaste Tree Fruit (Viticis Fructus).

    PubMed

    Oshima, Naohiro; Masada, Sayaka; Suzuki, Ryuta; Yagi, Kanae; Matsufuji, Hiroshi; Suenaga, Emi; Takahashi, Yutaka; Yahagi, Tadahiro; Watanabe, Masato; Yahara, Shoji; Iida, Osamu; Kawahara, Nobuo; Maruyama, Takuro; Goda, Yukihiro; Hakamatsuka, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Agnus Castus Fruit is defined in the European Pharmacopoeia as the dried ripe fruit of Vitex agnus-castus. In Europe it is used as a medicine targeting premenstrual syndrome and climacteric disorder. In Japan, Agnus Castus Fruit is becoming popular as a raw material for over-the-counter drugs and health food products, though its congenic species, Vitex rotundifolia and Vitex trifolia, have been used as Shrub Chaste Tree Fruit in traditional medicines. Therefore, it is important to discriminate these Vitex plants from the viewpoint of regulatory science. Here we tried to identify putative marker compounds that distinguish between Agnus Castus Fruit and Shrub Chaste Tree Fruit. We analyzed extracts of each crude drug by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and performed differential analysis by comparison of each chromatogram to find one or more peaks characteristic of Agnus Castus Fruit. A peak was isolated and identified as an equilibrium mixture of new compounds named chastol (1) and epichastol (1a). The planar structures of 1 and 1a were determined spectroscopically. Their relative configurations were revealed by nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy and differential nuclear Overhauser effect-NMR data. Since avoiding contamination from closely related species is needed for the quality control of natural pharmaceuticals, this information will be valuable to establish a method for the quality control of both, Agnus Castus Fruit and Shrub Chaste Tree Fruit products. PMID:26756820

  9. Synergistic Drug Combinations for Tuberculosis Therapy Identified by a Novel High-Throughput Screen▿†

    PubMed Central

    Ramón-García, Santiago; Ng, Carol; Anderson, Hilary; Chao, Joseph D.; Zheng, Xingji; Pfeifer, Tom; Av-Gay, Yossef; Roberge, Michel; Thompson, Charles J.

    2011-01-01

    Therapeutic options for tuberculosis (TB) are limited and notoriously ineffective despite the wide variety of potent antibiotics available for treating other bacterial infections. We investigated an approach that enables an expansion of TB therapeutic strategies by using synergistic combinations of drugs. To achieve this, we devised a high-throughput synergy screen (HTSS) of chemical libraries having known pharmaceutical properties, including thousands that are clinically approved. Spectinomycin was used to test the concept that clinically available antibiotics with limited efficacy against Mycobacterium tuberculosis might be used for TB treatment when coadministered with a synergistic partner compound used as a sensitizer. Screens using Mycobacterium smegmatis revealed many compounds in our libraries that acted synergistically with spectinomycin. Among them, several families of antimicrobial compounds, including macrolides and azoles, were also synergistic against M. tuberculosis in vitro and in a macrophage model of M. tuberculosis infection. Strikingly, each sensitizer identified for synergy with spectinomycin uniquely enhanced the activities of other clinically used antibiotics, revealing a remarkable number of unexplored synergistic drug combinations. HTSS also revealed a novel activity for bromperidol, a butyrophenone used as an antipsychotic drug, which was discovered to be bactericidal and greatly enhanced the activities of several antibiotics and drug combinations against M. tuberculosis. Our results suggest that many compounds in the currently available pharmacopoeia could be readily mobilized for TB treatment, including disease caused by multi- and extensively drug-resistant strains for which there are no effective therapies. PMID:21576426

  10. Differentiation of tannin-containing herbal drugs by HPLC fingerprints.

    PubMed

    He, Yu; Wu, Qiaofeng; Hansen, S H; Cornett, C; Møller, C; Lai, Pingfan

    2013-03-01

    A new HPLC system coupled with multiple detectors - Diode array detector (DAD), fluorescence detector (FLD), electrochemical amperometric detector (ADC) and mass spectrometry detector (MSD) was developed for the characterization and differentiation of tannin-containing herbal drugs included in The European Pharmacopoeia. The HPLC separation system consisted of an Agilent ZORBAX Eclipse XDB C18 column and a gradient water and methanol as the mobile phase which was kept at a flow rate of 0.3 mL x min(-1). Four kinds of detectors were connected by a micro-splitter valve and simultaneously recorded the response of each analytical sample. Thirty-one samples from eight kinds of tannin-containing drugs were measured using this HPLC system and their signals from all detectors were comprehensively processed via principal component analysis (PCA). The statistic result demonstrates that thirty-one batches from different herbal drugs can be reasonably identified and systematically classified by their chemical fingerprints. The proposed multi-detector HPLC method aided by chemometrics not only offers a new pattern for the study of tannin-containing herbs, but also provides a useful foundation for quality control of herbal medicines. PMID:23556331

  11. Determination of nabumetone in pharmaceutical formulation by flow injection analysis (FIA) with UV-detection.

    PubMed

    Can, N O; Tuncel, M; Aboul-Enein, H Y

    2003-01-01

    A precise and accurate FIA method for the quantification of nabumetone (NAB) in pharmaceuticals is described. The best suitable carrier solvent system consisted of ethanol: water (30:70 v/v). Sample solution (4.7 x 10(-6) M NAB) was prepared in this solvent and injected to the instrumental system at a flow rate of 1.2 ml x min(-1). The signals were detected by a UV detector at 228.8 nm. The calibration curves of NAB was linear in the concentration range of 1.4 x 10(-6) M-2.8 x 10(-5) M. The intra- and inter-assay precision were less than 2.6%. The method exhibited a good linearity with the correlation coefficients. The LOD and LOQ values were found to be 4.4 x 10(-7) and 1.3 x 10(-6) M, respectively. The effects of the tablet excipients were insignificant at the 95% probability level. The calculated tablet content was 99% which is agreement with the ranges stated by pharmacopoeias. PMID:12622247

  12. Medicinal plants used in Northern Peru for reproductive problems and female health

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Infections of the reproductive tract, complications after childbirth, and reproductive problems continue to be a major health challenge worldwide. An impressive number of plant species is traditionally used to remedy such afflictions, and some have been investigated for their efficacy with positive results. A total of 105 plant species belonging to 91 genera and 62 families were documented and identified as herbal remedies for reproductive problems in Northern Peru. Most species used were Asteraceae (9.52%), followed by Lamiaceae and Fabaceae (8.57% and 6.67%). The most important families are clearly represented very similarly to their overall importance in the local pharmacopoeia. The majority of herbal preparations for reproductive afflictions were prepared from the leaves of plants (22.72%), the whole plant (21.97%), and stems (21.21%), while other plant parts were used less frequently. More than 60% of the cases fresh plant material was used to prepare remedies. Over 70% of the remedies were applied orally, while the remaining ones were applied topically. Many remedies were prepared as mixtures of multiple ingredients. Little scientific evidence exists to prove the efficacy of the species employed as reproductive disorder remedies in Northern Peru. Only 34% of the plants found or their congeners have been studied at all for their medicinal properties. The information gained on frequently used traditional remedies might give some leads for future targets for further analysis in order to develop new drugs. PMID:21040536

  13. Traditional medicinal plant use in Northern Peru: tracking two thousand years of healing culture.

    PubMed

    Bussmann, Rainer W; Sharon, Douglas

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the traditional use of medicinal plants in Northern Peru, with special focus on the Departments of Piura, Lambayeque, La Libertad, Cajamarca, and San Martin. Northern Peru represents the center of the old Central Andean "Health Axis," stretching from Ecuador to Bolivia. The roots of traditional healing practices in this region go at least as far back as the Moche period (AC 100-800). Although about 50% of the plants in use reported in the colonial period have disappeared from the popular pharmacopoeia, the plant knowledge of the population is much more extensive than in other parts of the Andean region. 510 plant species used for medicinal purposes were collected, identified and their vernacular names, traditional uses and applications recorded. The families best represented were Asteraceae with 69 species, Fabaceae (35), Lamiaceae (25), and Solanaceae (21). Euphorbiaceae had twelve species, and Apiaceae and Poaceae 11 species. The highest number of species was used for the treatment of "magical/ritual" ailments (207 species), followed by respiratory disorders (95), problems of the urinary tract (85), infections of female organs (66), liver ailments (61), inflammations (59), stomach problems (51) and rheumatism (45). Most of the plants used (83%) were native to Peru. Fresh plants, often collected wild, were used in two thirds of all cases, and the most common applications included the ingestion of herb decoctions or the application of plant material as poultices. PMID:17090303

  14. Physicochemical characterisation of a novel thermogelling formulation for percutaneous penetration of 5-aminolevulinic acid.

    PubMed

    Grüning, Nadja; Müller-Goymann, Christel Charlotte

    2008-06-01

    The present contribution was dedicated to the development and characterisation of a semisolid formulation of 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA), appropriate for the diagnosis and treatment of actinic keratosis in photodynamic therapy. To achieve sufficiently high concentrations of the polar substance within the living epithelium after topical application, the semisolid base was enriched with penetration enhancers. A semisolid liquid crystalline system for drug delivering was the formulation of choice. It was composed of isopropyl alcohol, dimethyl isosorbide, medium chain triglycerides, water, and Pluronic F 127 as a polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene surface-active block copolymer. Rheometrical investigations were performed in the oscillatory mode and showed a thermo reversible gelification behaviour of the formulation, which therefore was denoted Thermogel. Permeation studies through human stratum corneum revealed higher permeation coefficients for 5-ALA from the Thermogel than from different German Pharmacopoeia creams. For example a 7.5-fold increase in comparison with Basiscreme DAC, and a 19.5-fold increase compared to water containing hydrophilic ointment. With respect to Dolgit(R) Mikrogel, the permeation coefficient from the Thermogel was 6.4-fold higher. These results were in accordance with those of differential scanning calorimetry measurements. Thermogel disclosed the strongest interactions with stratum corneum lipids. PMID:17828744

  15. Cytochrome C oxidase subunit I barcodes provide an efficient tool for Jinqian Baihua She (Bungarus parvus) authentication

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Zhi; Liao, Jing; Liang, Zhenbiao; Huang, Suhua; Zhang, Liang; Li, Junde

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To test the feasibility of DNA barcoding for accurate identification of Jinqian Baihua She and its adulterants. Materials and Methods: Standard cytochrome C oxidase subunit I (COI) gene fragments were sequenced for DNA barcoding of 39 samples from 9 snake species, including Bungarus multicinctus, the officially recognized origin animal by Chinese Pharmacopoeia, and other 8 adulterate species. The aligned sequences, 658 base pairs in length, were analyzed for divergence using the Kimura-2-parameter (K2P) distance model with MEGA5.0. Results: The mean intraspecific K2P distance was 0.0103 and the average interspecific genetic distance was 0.2178 in B. multicinctus, far greater than the minimal interspecific genetic distance of 0.027 recommended for species identification. A neighbor-joining (NJ) tree was constructed, in which each species formed a monophyletic clade with bootstrap supports of 100%. All the data were submitted to Barcode of Life Data system version 3.0 (BOLD, http://www.barcodinglife.org) under the project title “DNA barcoding Bungarus multicinctus and its adulterants”. Ten samples of commercially available crude drugs of JBS were identified using the identification engine provided by BOLD. All the samples were clearly identified at the species level, among which five were found to be the adulterants and identified as Dinodon rufozonatum. Conclusion: DNA barcoding using the standard COI gene fragments provides an effective and accurate means for JBS identification and authentication. PMID:25422545

  16. Pharmacognostical and physicochemical analysis of Tamarindus indica Linn. stem

    PubMed Central

    Kodlady, Naveena; Patgiri, B. J.; Harisha, C. R.; Shukla, V. J.

    2012-01-01

    Tamarindus indica Linn. fruits (Chincha) are extensively used in culinary preparations in Indian civilization. Its vast medicinal uses are documented in Ayurvedic classics and it can be used singly or as a component of various formulations. Besides fruit, the Kasta (wood) of T. indica L. is also important and used to prepare Kshara (alkaline extract) an Ayurvedic dosage form. Pharmacognostical and physicochemical details of Chincha Kasta are not available in authentic literature including API (Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India). The study is an attempt in this direction. T. indica L. stem with heartwood was selected and morphological, microscopic and physicochemical standardization characters along with TLC finger print, and fluorescence analysis were documented. Transverse section of stem showed important characters such as phelloderm, stone cells layer, fiber groups, calcium oxalate, crystal fibers, and tylosis in heartwood region. Four characteristic spots were observed under UV long wave, in thin layer chromatography with the solvent combination of toluene: ethyl acetate (8:2). The study can help correct identification and standardization of this plant material. PMID:22529673

  17. Discrimination and chemical phylogenetic study of seven species of Dendrobium using infrared spectroscopy combined with cluster analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Congpei; He, Tao; Chun, Ze

    2013-04-01

    Dendrobium is a commonly used and precious herb in Traditional Chinese Medicine. The high biodiversity of Dendrobium and the therapeutic needs require tools for the correct and fast discrimination of different Dendrobium species. This study investigates Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy followed by cluster analysis for discrimination and chemical phylogenetic study of seven Dendrobium species. Despite the general pattern of the IR spectra, different intensities, shapes, peak positions were found in the IR spectra of these samples, especially in the range of 1800-800 cm-1. The second derivative transformation and alcoholic extracting procedure obviously enlarged the tiny spectral differences among these samples. The results indicated each Dendrobium species had a characteristic IR spectra profile, which could be used to discriminate them. The similarity coefficients among the samples were analyzed based on their second derivative IR spectra, which ranged from 0.7632 to 0.9700, among the seven Dendrobium species, and from 0.5163 to 0.9615, among the ethanol extracts. A dendrogram was constructed based on cluster analysis the IR spectra for studying the chemical phylogenetic relationships among the samples. The results indicated that D. denneanum and D. crepidatum could be the alternative resources to substitute D. chrysotoxum, D. officinale and D. nobile which were officially recorded in Chinese Pharmacopoeia. In conclusion, with the advantages of high resolution, speediness and convenience, the experimental approach can successfully discriminate and construct the chemical phylogenetic relationships of the seven Dendrobium species.

  18. Injectability, microstructure and release properties of sodium fusidate-loaded apatitic cement as a local drug-delivery system.

    PubMed

    Noukrati, Hassan; Cazalbou, Sophie; Demnati, Imane; Rey, Christian; Barroug, Allal; Combes, Christèle

    2016-02-01

    The introduction of an antibiotic, sodium fusidate (SF), into the liquid phase of calcium carbonate-calcium phosphate (CaCO3-CaP) bone cement was evaluated, considering the effect of the liquid to powder ratio (L/P) on the composition and microstructure of the set cement and the injectability of the paste. In all cases, we obtained set cements composed mainly of biomimetic carbonated apatite analogous to bone mineral. With this study, we evi-denced a synergistic effect of the L/P ratio and SF presence on the injectability (i.e., the filter-pressing pheno-menon was suppressed) and the setting time of the SF-loaded cement paste compared to reference cement (without SF). In addition, the in vitro study of SF release, according to the European Pharmacopoeia recommendations, showed that, regardless of the L/P ratio, the cement allowed a sustained release of the antibiotic over 1month in sodium chloride isotonic solution at 37°C and pH7.4; this release is discussed considering the microstructure characteristics of SF-loaded cements (i.e., porosity, pore-size distribution) before and after the release test. Finally, modelling antibiotic release kinetics with several models indicated that the SF release was controlled by a diffusion mechanism. PMID:26652362

  19. Dose emission and aerodynamic characterization of the terbutaline sulphate dose emitted from a Turbuhaler at low inhalation flow.

    PubMed

    Abdelrahim, M E; Assi, K H; Chrystyn, H

    2013-01-01

    Previously, dose emission below 30 L min(-1) through DPI has not been routinely determined. However, during routine use some patients do not achieve 30 L min(-1) inhalation flows. Hence, the aim of the present study was to determine dose emission characteristics for low inhalation flows from terbutaline sulphate Turbuhaler. Total emitted dose (TED), fine particle dose (FPD) and mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) of terbutaline sulphate Turbuhaler were determined using inhalation flows of 10-60 L min(-1) and inhaled volume of 4 L. TED and FPD increase significantly with the increase of inhalation flows (p <0.05). Flows had more pronounced effect on FPD than TED, thus, faster inhalation increases respirable amount more than it increases emitted dose. MMAD increases with decrease of inhalation flow until flow of 20L min(-1) then it decreases. In vitro flow dependent dose emission has been demonstrated previously for Turbuhaler for flow rates above 30 L min(-1) but is more pronounced below this flow. Minimal FPD below 30 L min(-1) suggests that during routine use at this flow rate most of emitted dose will impact in mouth. Flow dependent dose emission results suggest that Pharmacopoeias should consider the use variety of inhalation flows rather than one that is equivalent to pressure drop of 4 KPa. PMID:21981637

  20. Chemo-profiling of eucalyptus and study of its hypoglycemic potential

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Baishakhi; Mitra, Analava

    2013-01-01

    Constant escalations in the number of diabetics world-wide and the failure of conventional therapy to restore normoglycemia without adverse effects, in spite of tremendous strides in modern medicine, calls for naturopathy and alternative medicine. Because diabetes is multi-factorial and has secondary complications, prevention of hyperglycemia is the central dogma for its management. To date, no oral hypoglycemic exists which can achieve tight glycemic control without side effects. Dietary adjuncts, lifestyle interventions and a resurgence of interest in phyto-therapy have consequently gained ground. Natural hypoglycemics have attracted attention due to ease of incorporation in everyday diet, affordability, less adverse effects, and long term safety. Ethno botanical literature reports more than 800 anti-diabetic plants species. Eucalyptus is well represented in the Aboriginal Pharmacopoeias for its various pharmacological activities. Its hot aqueous decoction has been used as a hypoglycemic in various regions of world. This editorial attempts to summarize the data on the hypoglycemic potential of the different eucalyptus species, highlight the value of its natural biomolecules for the prophylaxis and treatment of type 2 diabetes, describe their mechanistic actions, shed light on the posology and safety aspects of eucalyptus and assess its applicability as a reinforcement to currently used therapy. PMID:24147201

  1. Evaluation of medicinal value of Epimedium elatum on the basis of pharmacologically active constituents, Icariin and Icariside-II.

    PubMed

    Arief, Zargar Mohmad; Munshi, Abid Hussain; Shawl, Abdul Sami

    2015-09-01

    Epimedium L. is well known medicinal genus of Chinese pharmacopoeia. Various species are ethno-botanically used against diseases of eye and kidney, impotence, asthma, arthritis and hypertension; besides being used as analeptic, expectorant, antibacterial, hypoglycemic, vasodilator and refrigerant. Recent studies have attributed most of these medicinal properties to its flavonoid glycosides, especially Icariin which is the major pharmacologically active constituent. Icariin has been found to possess effective aphrodisiac, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective, cardioprotective, vasodilatory, antidepressant and anti-osteoporosis activities. Icariside-II, another active constituent, has cytotoxic and cytostatic effects on 6 cancer cell-lines, and immunosuppressive effects on allograft rejection. In this present study, Epimedium elatum Morr. and Decne., the only species of this genus growing in Indian subcontinent, has been investigated for its medicinal value by determining the content of pharmacologically active constituents, Icariin and Icariside-II, by HPLC method. HPLC analysis of alcohol extract of its shade dried parts was performed with reverse phase C-18 column. The mobile phase for Icariin was acetonitrile-water in gradient mode; while for Icariside-II, it was methanol-water. The effluent was monitored at 270 nm. The results have revealed an appreciable content of Icariin and Icariside-II in its aerial and underground parts; the content being higher in populations growing at higher altitudes. The substantial presence of pharmacologically active constituents, Icariin and Icariside-II, in this species of Epimedium, signifies its value as a medicinal plant. PMID:26408886

  2. Quality evaluation of ayurvedic crude drug daruharidra, its allied species, and commercial samples from herbal drug markets of India.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Sharad; Rawat, A K S

    2013-01-01

    Berberis aristata known as "Daruharidra" in Ayurveda is a versatile medicinal plant used singly or in combination with other medicinal plants for treating a variety of ailments like jaundice, enlargement of spleen, leprosy, rheumatism, fever, morning/evening sickness, snakebite, and so forth. A major bioactive marker of this genus is an alkaloid berberine, which is known for its activity against cholera, acute diarrhea, amoebiasis, and latent malaria and for the treatment of oriental sore caused by Leishmania tropica. Although the roots of B. aristata are considered as the official drug (Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India), the study revealed that different species of Berberis, namely. B. asiatica, B. chitria, and B. lycium are also used under the name of Daruharidra in different parts of the country. Detailed physicochemical and phytochemical studies of subjects like total ash, acid insoluble ash, tannins, and total alkaloids were calculated from the shade dried powdered material according to the recommended procedures. Further, heavy metal studies and quantitative estimation of berberine through HPTLC have also been performed as per ICH guidelines. A detailed study of four Berberis species, namely B. aristata, B. asiatica, B. chitria, and B. lycium, which are implicated as Daruharidra and collected from wild and ten commercial samples procured from various important drug markets in India has been carried out, which may be useful to pharmaceutical industries for the authentication of the commercial samples and exploring the possibilities of using other species as a substitute of B. aristata. PMID:23431340

  3. Quality Evaluation of Ayurvedic Crude Drug Daruharidra, Its Allied Species, and Commercial Samples from Herbal Drug Markets of India

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Sharad; Rawat, A. K. S.

    2013-01-01

    Berberis aristata known as “Daruharidra” in Ayurveda is a versatile medicinal plant used singly or in combination with other medicinal plants for treating a variety of ailments like jaundice, enlargement of spleen, leprosy, rheumatism, fever, morning/evening sickness, snakebite, and so forth. A major bioactive marker of this genus is an alkaloid berberine, which is known for its activity against cholera, acute diarrhea, amoebiasis, and latent malaria and for the treatment of oriental sore caused by Leishmania tropica. Although the roots of B. aristata are considered as the official drug (Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India), the study revealed that different species of Berberis, namely. B. asiatica, B. chitria, and B. lycium are also used under the name of Daruharidra in different parts of the country. Detailed physicochemical and phytochemical studies of subjects like total ash, acid insoluble ash, tannins, and total alkaloids were calculated from the shade dried powdered material according to the recommended procedures. Further, heavy metal studies and quantitative estimation of berberine through HPTLC have also been performed as per ICH guidelines. A detailed study of four Berberis species, namely B. aristata, B. asiatica, B. chitria, and B. lycium, which are implicated as Daruharidra and collected from wild and ten commercial samples procured from various important drug markets in India has been carried out, which may be useful to pharmaceutical industries for the authentication of the commercial samples and exploring the possibilities of using other species as a substitute of B. aristata. PMID:23431340

  4. High-performance thin layer chromatography for quality control of multicomponent herbal drugs: example of cangzhu xianglian san.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi; Merfort, Irmgard; Reich, Eike

    2010-01-01

    Due to their complexity, multicomponent herbal drugs pose enormous analytical challenges for quality control (QC). Although they may have traditionally been used for hundreds of years, the information about their chemical composition is often still limited. Selecting suitable markers to monitor the identity and potency of the mixture is, therefore, difficult. There is also the possibility of natural variability for each plant. This paper illustrates a pragmatic and practical approach to QC of a multicomponent herbal drug by HPTLC. Cangzhu xianglian xan (CXS), composed of the herbal drugs Coptis rhizome, Aucklandia root, and Atractylodes rhizome (30 + 20 + 60, w/w/w), is used as an example. A characteristic fingerprint can be generated for CXS with toluene-ethyl acetate-methanol-isopropanol-water (60 + 30 + 20 + 15 + 3, v/v/v/v/v) mobile phase on HPTLC silica gel 60 conditioned with ammonia. While the corresponding monograph of the Chinese Veterinary Pharmacopoeia focuses only on the detection of berberine, one of the principal components of Coptis rhizome, the proposed method of identification determines the presence of all three components in the drug after derivatization with anisaldehyde reagent. The same method can also be used to quantitatively determine the content of berberine by scanning densitometry. This paper provides details about the validation of the qualitative and quantitative determinations. PMID:21140648

  5. Identification of common horsetail (Equisetum arvense L.; Equisetaceae) using Thin Layer Chromatography versus DNA barcoding.

    PubMed

    Saslis-Lagoudakis, C Haris; Bruun-Lund, Sam; Iwanycki, Natalie E; Seberg, Ole; Petersen, Gitte; Jäger, Anna K; Rønsted, Nina

    2015-01-01

    The global herbal products market has grown in recent years, making regulation of these products paramount for public healthcare. For instance, the common horsetail (Equisetum arvense L.) is used in numerous herbal products, but it can be adulterated with closely related species, especially E. palustre L. that can produce toxic alkaloids. As morphology-based identification is often difficult or impossible, the identification of processed material can be aided by molecular techniques. In this study, we explore two molecular identification techniques as methods of testing the purity of these products: a Thin Layer Chromatography approach (TLC-test) included in the European Pharmacopoeia and a DNA barcoding approach, used in recent years to identify material in herbal products. We test the potential of these methods for distinguishing and identifying these species using material from herbarium collections and commercial herbal products. We find that both methods can discriminate between the two species and positively identify E. arvense. The TLC-test is more cost- and time-efficient, but DNA barcoding is more powerful in determining the identity of adulterant species. Our study shows that, although DNA barcoding presents certain advantages, other established laboratory methods can perform as well or even better in confirming species' identity in herbal products. PMID:26165523

  6. Hyperoside protects human primary melanocytes against H2O2-induced oxidative damage

    PubMed Central

    YANG, BIN; YANG, QIN; YANG, XIN; YAN, HONG-BO; LU, QI-PING

    2016-01-01

    Cuscutae semen has been shown to have beneficial effects in the treatment of vitiligo, recorded in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, whereas the effects of its constituent compounds remains to be elucidated. Using a tetrazolium bromide assay, the present study found that hyperoside (0.5–200 µg/ml) significantly increased the viability of human melanocytes in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The present study used a cell model of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative damage to examine the effect of hyperoside on human primary melanocytes. The results demonstrated that hyperoside pretreatment for 2 h decreased cell apoptosis from 54.03±9.11 to 17.46±3.10% in the H2O2-injured melanocytes. The levels of oxidative stress in the mitochondrial membrane potential of the melanocytes increased following hyperoside pretreatment. The mRNA and protein levels of B-cell lymphoma-2/Bcl-2-associated X protein and caspase 3 were regulated by hyperoside, and phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling were also mediated by hyperoside. In conclusion, the results of the present study demonstrated that hyperoside protected the human primary melanocytes against oxidative damage. PMID:27082158

  7. 3(3) factorial design-based optimization of the formulation of nitrofurantoin microcapsules.

    PubMed

    Karasulu, H Y; Ertan, G; Günerï, T

    1996-01-01

    A microcapsule form of nitrofurantoin was prepared by a simple coacervation method with carboxymethylcellulose and aluminium sulfate. 3(3) factorial design was performed for three independent variables, namely, the particle size of the drug, the size of the microcapsules and the pH of the dissolution medium. The dissolution tests with the formulated microcapsules were carried out according to the United States Pharmacopeia XXII rotating basket method at pH 1.2, 5, and 7.5, which represent the pH of gastrointestinal fluids. Release data were examined kinetically and the ideal kinetic models were estimated and t(63.2) values obtained from RRSBW distribution were used in the factorial design experiment. The influence of the independent variables on the dissolution of nitrofurantoin microcapsules could be expressed as the pH of the dissolution medium > particle size of the microcapsule > particle size of nitrofurantoin. The other aim of this study was to evaluate microcapsule formulation in terms of the United States Pharmacopeia criteria with a minimum of experiments. Our findings suggest that dosage forms which comply with the pharmacopoeia criteria for dissolution can be prepared and selected by factorial design. PMID:8861827

  8. The rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test is a suitable method for batch potency testing of inactivated rabies vaccines.

    PubMed

    Krämer, B; Schildger, H; Behrensdorf-Nicol, H A; Hanschmann, K M; Duchow, K

    2009-04-01

    The European Pharmacopoeia proposes two methods for potency determination of inactivated rabies vaccines for veterinary use: The first one is a classical mouse challenge test, which is imprecise, time-consuming, and causes severe distress to the test animals. Alternatively, the potency may be determined serologically by measuring the neutralizing antibody titers induced after vaccination of mice by using a rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT). Although this method is faster and less painful for the animals, it is not widely used yet, and only little data exist concerning the comparability of both methods. We have therefore performed a comparative study, in which we demonstrated a good correlation between the challenge test results and the mean titers determined by RFFIT. Furthermore, all vaccine batches failing the challenge test were also recognized as insufficient in the serological assay. This publication further describes the influence of different vaccine administration routes on the resulting antibody titers, and it proposes various modifications to the serological assay protocol which could improve its overall practicability. Finally, we recommend that the serological assay be used for the potency testing of inactivated rabies vaccines. PMID:19181541

  9. Repeatability Assessment by ISO 11843-7 in Quantitative HPLC for Herbal Medicines.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liangmian; Kotani, Akira; Hakamata, Hideki; Tsutsumi, Risa; Hayashi, Yuzuru; Wang, Zhimin; Kusu, Fumiyo

    2015-01-01

    We have proposed an assessment methods to estimate the measurement relative standard deviation (RSD) of chromatographic peaks in quantitative HPLC for herbal medicines by the methodology of ISO 11843 Part 7 (ISO 11843-7:2012), which provides detection limits stochastically. In quantitative HPLC with UV detection (HPLC-UV) of Scutellaria Radix for the determination of baicalin, the measurement RSD of baicalin by ISO 11843-7:2012 stochastically was within a 95% confidence interval of the statistically obtained RSD by repetitive measurements (n = 6). Thus, our findings show that it is applicable for estimating of the repeatability of HPLC-UV for determining baicalin without repeated measurements. In addition, the allowable limit of the "System repeatability" in "Liquid Chromatography" regulated in a pharmacopoeia can be obtained by the present assessment method. Moreover, the present assessment method was also successfully applied to estimate the measurement RSDs of quantitative three-channel liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (LC-3ECD) of Chrysanthemi Flos for determining caffeoylquinic acids and flavonoids. By the present repeatability assessment method, reliable measurement RSD was obtained stochastically, and the experimental time was remarkably reduced. PMID:26353956

  10. Taste Masked Orodispersible Formulation of Fexofenadine Hydrochloride Using Ion Exchange Resins.

    PubMed

    Suares, Divya; Hiray, Arti

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research work was to mask the intense bitter taste of fexofenadine hydrochloride using weak cation exchange resins and to formulate orodispersible tablet of taste masked drug-resin complex. Five resins indion 204, indion 234, indion 414, kyron T-114 and kyron T-314 were used. Depending on maximum drug loading capacity of resins indion 234 and kyron T-314 were finalized for further study. Drug-resin complex was optimized by considering parameters such as drug to resin ratio, soaking time of resins, stirring time, temperature and pH on maximum drug loading. The drug-resin complex was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The drug-resin complex was also subjected to various evaluation studies such as taste mask evaluation by panel method, drug content and in vitro drug release at salivary and gastric pH. The orodispersible tablets of taste masked drug-resin complex for indion 234 and kyron T-314 were prepared by direct compression method. Formulated orodispersible tablets were subjected to various evaluation parameters such as diameter and thickness measurement, hardness test, weight variation test, in vitro United States Pharmacopoeia disintegration test, wetting time, test for content uniformity, assay, friability test and in vitro dissolution studies. The results indicate that orodispersible tablets of fexofenadine hydrochloride containing indion 234 and kyron T-314 are palatable and provide quick disintegration and fast drug release without addition of superdisintegrants. PMID:26798169

  11. Thermoanalytical Investigation of Some Sulfone-Containing Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Salama, Nahla N.; El Ries, Mohammed A.; Toubar, Safaa; Abd El Hamid, Maha; Walash, Mohammed I.

    2012-01-01

    The thermal behavior of some sulfone-containing drugs, namely, dapsone (DDS), dimethylsulfone (MSM), and topiramate (TOP) in drug substances, and products were investigated using different thermal techniques. These include thermogravimetry (TGA), derivative thermogravimetry (DTG), differential thermal analysis (DTA), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The thermogravimetric data allowed the determination of the kinetic parameters: activation energy (E a), frequency factor (A), and reaction order (n). The thermal degradation of dapsone and topiramate was followed a first-order kinetic behavior. The calculated data evidenced a zero-order kinetic for dimethylsulfone. The relative thermal stabilities of the studied drugs have been evaluated and follow the order DDS > TOP > MSM. The purity was determined using DSC for the studied compounds, in drug substances and products. The results were in agreement with the recommended pharmacopoeia and manufacturer methods. DSC curves obtained from the tablets suggest compatibility between the drugs, excipients and/or coformulated drugs. The fragmentation pathway of dapsone with mass spectrometry was taken as example, to correlate the thermal decomposition with the resulted MS-EI. The decomposition modes were investigated, and the possible fragmentation pathways were suggested by mass spectrometry. PMID:22792516

  12. The practice and clinical implications of tablet splitting in international health

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Ivo; Mayxay, Mayfong; Yeuichaixong, Sengchanh; Lee, Sue J; Newton, Paul N

    2014-01-01

    Objective Tablet splitting is frequently performed to facilitate correct dosing, but the practice and implications in low-income settings have rarely been discussed. Methods We selected eight drugs, with narrow therapeutic indices or critical dosages, frequently divided in the Lao PDR (Laos). These were split, by common techniques used in Laos, by four nurses and four laypersons. The mean percentage deviation from the theoretical expected weight and weight loss of divided tablets/capsules were recorded. Results Five of eight study drugs failed, on splitting, to meet European Pharmacopoeia recommendations for tablet weight deviation from the expected weight of tablet/capsule halves with 10% deviating by more than 25%. There was a significant difference in splitting accuracy between nurses and laypersons (P = 0.027). Coated and unscored tablets were less accurately split than uncoated (P = 0.03 and 0.0019 for each half) and scored (0.0001 for both halves) tablets. Conclusion These findings have potential clinical implications on treatment outcome and the development of antimicrobial resistance. Investment by drug companies in a wider range of dosage units, particularly for narrow therapeutic index and critical dosage medicines, is strongly recommended. PMID:24702766

  13. Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation of Hydrodynamics and Stresses in the PhEur/USP Disintegration Tester Under Fed and Fasted Fluid Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kindgen, Sarah; Wachtel, Herbert; Abrahamsson, Bertil; Langguth, Peter

    2015-09-01

    Disintegration of oral solid dosage forms is a prerequisite for drug dissolution and absorption and is to a large extent dependent on the pressures and hydrodynamic conditions in the solution that the dosage form is exposed to. In this work, the hydrodynamics in the PhEur/USP disintegration tester were investigated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Particle image velocimetry was used to validate the CFD predictions. The CFD simulations were performed with different Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids, representing fasted and fed states. The results indicate that the current design and operating conditions of the disintegration test device, given by the pharmacopoeias, are not reproducing the in vivo situation. This holds true for the hydrodynamics in the disintegration tester that generates Reynolds numbers dissimilar to the reported in vivo situation. Also, when using homogenized US FDA meal, representing the fed state, too high viscosities and relative pressures are generated. The forces acting on the dosage form are too small for all fluids compared to the in vivo situation. The lack of peristaltic contractions, which generate hydrodynamics and shear stress in vivo, might be the major drawback of the compendial device resulting in the observed differences between predicted and in vivo measured hydrodynamics. PMID:26017815

  14. Metabolic fate of cardiac glycosides and flavonoids upon fermentation of aqueous sea squill (Drimia maritima L.) extracts.

    PubMed

    Knittel, Diana N; Stintzing, Florian C; Kammerer, Dietmar R

    2015-06-10

    Sea squill (Drimia maritima L.) extracts have been used for centuries for the medical treatment of heart diseases. A procedure for the preparation of Drimia extracts applied for such purposes comprising a fermentation step is described in the German Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia (GHP). However, little is known about the secondary metabolite profile of such extracts and the fate of these components upon processing and storage. Thus, in the present study sea squill extracts were monitored during fermentation and storage by HPLC-DAD-MS(n) and GC-MS to characterise and quantitate individual cardiac glycosides and phenolic compounds. For this purpose, a previously established HPLC method for the separation and quantitation of pharmacologically relevant cardiac glycosides (bufadienolides) was validated. Within 12 months of storage, total bufadienolide contents decreased by about 50%, which was attributed to microbial and plant enzyme activities. The metabolisation and degradation rates of individual bufadienolide glycosides significantly differed, which was attributed to differing structures of the aglycones. Further degradation of bufadienolide aglycones was also observed. Besides reactions well known from human metabolism studies, dehydration of individual compounds was monitored. Quantitatively predominating flavonoids were also metabolised throughout the fermentation process. The present study provides valuable information about the profile and stability of individual cardiac glycosides and phenolic compounds in fermented Drimia extracts prepared for medical applications, and expands the knowledge of cardiac glycoside conversion upon microbial fermentation. PMID:25841205

  15. Estimation of Potential Availability of Essential Oil in Some Brands of Herbal Teas and Herbal Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Kowalski, Radosław; Baj, Tomasz; Kowalska, Grażyna; Pankiewicz, Urszula

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to estimate potential availability of essential oil in some brands of herbal products. Methods A comparison was performed on the basis of the essential oil yield in the unprocessed raw materials such as leaves of peppermint and lemon balm and inflorescence of chamomile as well as herbal tea bags and in dietary supplements. The yield of essential oil was determined by distillation. Essential oil was analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Results It was found that the average potential availability of essential oils in the products such as dietary supplements for the doses recommended by the producers is lower than in the corresponding tea infusions: for peppermint formulations approximately 6-fold lower, for the formulations with lemon balm about 4-fold lower, and for the chamomile preparations about 3-fold lower. It was found that essential oils extracted from herbal teas have a similar chemical profile with characteristic deviations in the amount of individual components, which arise from the origin of the raw material. Discussion In contrast to homogenous pharmaceutical herbal mixtures consistent with, the Pharmacopoeia requirements, herbal teas (available in grocery stores) and dietary supplements are often out of control in terms of the yield and composition of the essential oil, which is primarily responsible for the health benefits and aromatic qualities of these products. Analysis of the composition of the dietary supplements showed that they contain on average significantly lower amounts of plant material compared to the herbal teas. PMID:26110869

  16. Lavender, tea tree and lemon oils as antimicrobials in washing liquids and soft body balms.

    PubMed

    Kunicka-Styczyńska, A; Sikora, M; Kalemba, D

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of commercial essential oils: lavender, tea tree and lemon, antimicrobials in washing liquid and O/W soft body balm. The inhibition efficacy of essential oils in washing liquid (1% alone or in mixtures), in soft body balm (0.5% alone), as well as combined with the synthetic preservative DMDM hydantoin and 3-iodo-2-propynyl butyl carbamate mixture (0.1 and 0.3%), was tested against S. aureus ATCC 6538, P. aeruginosa ATCC 9027, Candida sp. ŁOCK 0008 and A. niger ATCC 16404 in compliance with the European Pharmacopoeia standards. The components of the system preserving soft body balm were supplemented with a solubilizer. Washing liquids containing only essential oils met Criterion A E.P. only for S. aureus, Candida sp. and A. niger. In soft body balm formulations, oils at a concentration of 0.5% did not reveal any preserving activity. The introduction of a solubilizer to a system containing 0.5% tea tree oil led to a substantial increase in the bacteriostatic activity of the formulation, but did not significantly affect its fungistatic properties. A combination of 0.5% tea tree oil, 5% solubilizer and 0.3% synthetic preservative ensured the microbiological stability of soft body balm in accordance with Criterion A E.P. PMID:20572887

  17. History of Pharmacy Museum of the Faculty of Pharmacy University of Belgrade.

    PubMed

    Krajnović, Dusanka; Kernican, Leontina

    2009-01-01

    History of Pharmacy Museum at the Faculty of Pharmacy University of Belgrade was founded in Belgrade in 1952, thanks to many pharmacists and historians, but especially to Mr Andrija Mirković (Mpharm). His precious private collection of antiquities, which he donated to the Faculty of Pharmacy in Belgrade, subsequently a basic one for the Museum foundation, included apothecary vessels, apparatuses, manuscripts and books dated back to the XVI century. Furthermore, there were included many other antiquities, books and manuscripts from pharmacies on the territory of former Yugoslavia, mostly from Serbia, so the entire Museum collection comprises various apothecary vessels: 700 ceramic, wooden, glass, porcelain and halide glass jars, as well as the XIX century exhibits from Pravitelstvena Apoteka (the first state-owned pharmacy in Serbia, which operated between 1836-1859). The Museum collection of accessories and vessels is completed with a library and precious archive materials. The library itself includes the original manuscripts as well as the colour offprint of some manuscripts, and printed works; mostly scientific books, textbooks, journals and pharmacopoeias with drug tax lists. Some printed books dating back to the Late Middle Ages are very rare and precious, such as Curio's Medicina Salernitana (1612) and the Ruel's version of Dioscorides' De materia medica. This entire collection is considered a unique one in Serbia for its variety and greatness, representing a precious source for studying the History of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Ethics (as a subject was included into the Faculty's curriculum since 1952 and cancelled recently in 2008). PMID:20500004

  18. Comparative In Vitro Dissolution of Two Commercially Available Er-Zhi-Wan Herbal Medicinal Products

    PubMed Central

    Wang, M.; Jin, X.; Ren, X.; Zhu, Y.; Liu, Z.; Gao, X.

    2015-01-01

    In vitro dissolution test is an essential tool to assess the quality of herbal medicinal products in the solid dosage forms for oral use. Our work aimed to evaluate the dissolution behavior of Er-Zhi-Wan, in the formulations of water-honeyed pill and formula granule. Different media (water, 30% EtOH, 0.1 M HCl, acetate buffer, pH 4.5 and phosphate buffer, pH 6.8) were used following United States Pharmacopoeia and Chinese Pharmacopeia. An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography method was developed and validated to detect simultaneously six active ingredients for quantification and dissolution study (salidroside, specnuezhenide, nuezhenoside, luteolin, apigenin, oleanolic acid). As we observed, contents of main active ingredients were close in the two formulations for daily dose. In each medium, more ingredients dissolved from formula granule with higher Ymax and Ka. The mean dissolution time of the most ingredients in granule was significantly shorter than that in pill in acetate buffer, pH 4.5 and phosphate buffer, pH 6.8. Furthermore, salidroside, specnuezhenide and luteolin dissolved more than 80% in 30 min from formula granule, which indicated higher solubility along the intestinal tract according to biopharmaceutics classification system. The dissolution test developed and validated was adequate for its purposes and could be applied for quality control of herbal medicine. This work also can be used to provide necessary information on absorption for its biopharmaceutical properties. PMID:26664054

  19. Identification of Lonicera japonica and its related species using the DNA barcoding method.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhiying; Gao, Ting; Yao, Hui; Shi, Linchun; Zhu, Yingjie; Chen, Shilin

    2011-02-01

    To choose a suitable DNA marker to authenticate the botanical origins of Flos Lonicerae Japonicae and Flos Lonicerae, seven candidate DNA bar codes (i.e., RBCL, MATK, PSBA-TRNH, ITS2, ITS, TRNL intron, and TRNL-F intergenic spacer) were tested on forty-four samples of LONICERA JAPONICA and its closely related species using the DNA barcoding method. We found that all seven candidate bar codes yielded 100 % PCR amplification efficiency and that the sequencing efficiency of the five other candidate bar codes was 100%, with the exception of ITS and ITS2. The highest interspecific divergence was provided by the PSBA-TRNH intergenic spacer, followed by the TRNL-F intergenic spacer based on six parameters and Wilcoxon signed rank tests. Through the inspection of the histograms of the barcoding gap, the distribution of the PSBA-TRNH intergenic spacer was well separated; and only this candidate DNA bar code possessed the highest species identification efficiency at 100 % by BLAST1 method. In conclusion, using the PSBA-TRNH intergenic spacer as a DNA bar code is suitable for the identification of the botanical origins of Flos Lonicerae Japonicae and Flos Lonicerae. This study may provide an important example for the authentication of the botanical origin of medicinal herbs listed in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. PMID:20862638

  20. Contribution of Light and Electron Microscopy to Identification of Bark from Frangula azorica, an Azorean Medicinal Plant.

    PubMed

    Malmir, Maryam; Curica, Cátia; Gomes, Elsa T; Serrano, Rita; Silva, Olga

    2015-10-01

    Frangula azorica V. Grubow is a Macaronesian flora medicinal plant, endemic from Azores islands and inscribed on the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species. This species, known as "sanguinho," belongs to the family Rhamnaceae, the same as Frangula alnus Mill. and Frangula purshiana (DC.) J. G. Cooper, two widely used official laxative herbal medicines of the western Pharmacopoeias constituted by the dried barks of each species. Morphological and chemical studies on F. azorica dried bark are scarce although it is potentially recognized as a Portuguese laxative herbal medicine. Macroscopically, the bark occurs in quills or nearly flat pieces. A channeled external surface with transversely elongated lenticels is characteristic. When the outer phellem layer is removed, a bright purple inner phellem layer is disclosed. Light and electron microscopy observations revealed flattened phellem cells with slightly thickened walls, cortical parenchyma with secretory ducts and groups of sclereids, phloem with groups of fibers and sheaths of parenchymatous cells containing druses or more frequently prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, and parenchymatous medullary rays one to three cells wide with spherical starch grains. Observation of these botanical characteristics must be included in quality monographs of F. azorica bark herbal medicine. PMID:26350278

  1. Ultraviolet-B and photosynthetically active radiation interactively affect yield and pattern of monoterpenes in leaves of peppermint (Mentha x piperita L.).

    PubMed

    Behn, Helen; Albert, Andreas; Marx, Friedhelm; Noga, Georg; Ulbrich, Andreas

    2010-06-23

    Solar radiation is a key environmental signal in regulation of plant secondary metabolism. Since metabolic responses to light and ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure are known to depend on the ratio of spectral ranges (e.g., UV-B/PAR), we examined effects of different UV-B radiation (280-315 nm) and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm) levels and ratios on yield and pattern of monoterpenoid essential oil of peppermint. Experiments were performed in exposure chambers, technically equipped for realistic simulation of natural climate and radiation. The experimental design comprised four irradiation regimes created by the combination of two PAR levels including or excluding UV-B radiation. During flowering, the highest essential oil yield was achieved at high PAR (1150 micromol m(-2) s(-1)) and approximate ambient UV-B radiation (0.6 W m(-2)). Regarding the monoterpene pattern, low PAR (550 micromol m(-2) s(-1)) and the absence of UV-B radiation led to reduced menthol and increased menthone contents and thereby to a substantial decrease in oil quality. Essential oil yield could not be correlated with density or diameter of peltate glandular trichomes, the epidermal structures specialized on biosynthesis, and the accumulation of monoterpenes. The present results lead to the conclusion that production of high quality oils (fulfilling the requirements of the Pharmacopoeia Europaea) requires high levels of natural sunlight. In protected cultivation, the use of UV-B transmitting covering materials is therefore highly recommended. PMID:20481601

  2. Species-specific AFLP markers for identification of Zingiber officinale, Z. montanum and Z. zerumbet (Zingiberaceae).

    PubMed

    Ghosh, S; Majumder, P B; Sen Mandi, S

    2011-01-01

    The Zingiber genus, which includes the herbs known as gingers, commonly used in cooking, is well known for its medicinal properties, as described in the Indian pharmacopoeia. Different members of this genus, although somewhat similar in morphology, differ widely in their pharmacological and therapeutic properties. The most important species of this genus, with maximal therapeutic properties, is Zingiber officinale (garden ginger), which is often adulterated with other less-potent Zingiber sp. There is an existing demand in the herbal drug industry for an authentication system for the Zingiber sp in order to facilitate their commercial use as genuine phytoceuticals. To this end, we used amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) to produce DNA fingerprints for three Zingiber species. Sixteen collections (six of Z. officinale, five of Z. montanum, and five of Z. zerumbet) were used in the study. Seven selective primer pairs were found to be useful for all the accessions. A total of 837 fragments were produced by these primer pairs. Species-specific markers were identified for all three Zingiber species (91 for Z. officinale, 82 for Z. montanum, and 55 for Z. zerumbet). The dendogram analysis generated from AFLP patterns showed that Z. montanum and Z. zerumbet are phylogenetically closer to each other than to Z. officinale. The AFLP fingerprints of the Zingiber species could be used to authenticate Zingiber sp-derived drugs and to resolve adulteration-related problems faced by the commercial users of these herbs. PMID:21341214

  3. Metabolomics study of Saw palmetto extracts based on 1H NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    de Combarieu, Eric; Martinelli, Ernesto Marco; Pace, Roberto; Sardone, Nicola

    2015-04-01

    Preparations containing Saw palmetto extracts are used in traditional medicine to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia. According to the European and the American Pharmacopoeias, the extract is obtained from comminuted Saw palmetto berries by a suitable extracting procedure using ethanol or supercritical carbon dioxide or a mixture of n-hexane and methylpentanes. In the present study an approach to metabolomics profiling using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has been used as a finger-printing tool to assess the overall composition of the extracts. The phytochemical analysis coupled with principal component analysis (PCA) showed the same composition of the Saw palmetto extracts obtained with carbon dioxide and hexane with minor not significant differences for extracts obtained with ethanol. In fact these differences are anyhow lower than the batch-to-batch variability ascribable to the natural-occurring variability in the Saw palmetto fruits' phytochemical composition. The fingerprinting analysis combined with chemometric method, is a technique, which would provide a tool to comprehensively assess the quality control of Saw palmetto extracts. PMID:25707588

  4. Metabonomic analysis of water extracts from different angelica roots by ¹H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chan, Pui Hei; Zhang, Wendy L; Lau, Chung-Ho; Cheung, Chi Yuen; Keun, Hector C; Tsim, Karl W K; Lam, Henry

    2014-01-01

    Angelica Radix, the roots of the genus Angelica, has been used for more than 2,000 years as a traditional medicine in Eastern Asia. The Chinese Pharmacopoeia records more than 100 herbal formulae containing Angelica roots. There are two common sources of Angelica roots, Angelica sinensis from China and A. gigas from Korea. The two species of Angelica roots differ in their chemical compositions, pharmacological properties and clinical efficacy. ¹H-NMR metabolic profiling has recently emerged as a promising quality control method for food and herbal chemistry. We explored the use of ¹H-NMR metabolic profiling for the quality control of Angelica Radix. Unlike previous work, we performed the metabolic profiling on hot water extracts, so as to mimic the clinically relevant preparation method. Unsupervised principle component analyses of both the full spectral profile and a selection of targeted molecules revealed a clear differentiation of three types of Angelica roots. In addition, the levels of 13 common metabolites were measured. Statistically significant differences in the levels of glucose, fructose and threonine were found between different sources of Angelica. Ferulic acid, a marker commonly used to evaluate Angelica root, was detected in our samples, but the difference in ferulic acid levels between the samples was not statistically significant. Overall, we successfully applied ¹H-NMR metabolic profiling with water extraction to discriminate all three sources of Angelica roots, and obtained quantitative information of many common metabolites. PMID:24658570

  5. In Vitro Characterization of Derrone as an Aurora Kinase Inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Nhung Thi My; Phuong, Thuong Thien; Nguyen, Trang Thi Nhu; Tran, Yen Thi Hai; Nguyen, Anh Thi Ngoc; Nguyen, Thanh Lai; Bui, Khanh Thi Van

    2016-06-01

    Among mitotic kinases, Aurora kinases are the most widely studied, since their expression is restricted to mitosis. They play a key role in chromosome segregation and cell polyploidy. Aurora kinases are important therapeutic targets, and several research groups have directed their efforts toward the identification of kinase inhibitors. The aim of this study is to screen and characterize Aurora kinase inhibitors from natural substances extracted from plants that are used in the Vietnamese pharmacopoeia. We have characterized in vitro Derrone, extracted from Erythrina orientalis L. MURR, as a novel Aurora kinase inhibitor. This compound exhibited an ability to inhibit the phosphorylation of histone H3 at ser10 both in kinase assay and at the cellular level. The compound was more effective against Aurora kinase B, with a lower IC50 value as compared to Aurora A. Moreover, it impaired the mitotic spindle checkpoint and led to endoreduplication in cancer cells, a phenomenon caused by an Aurora B inhibitor. Interestingly, using the xCelligence system and real-time cell analysis (RTCA) software, we set up a comparison of cell proliferation profiles between cancer cells treated with Derrone and VX680-a well-known Aurora kinase inhibitor-and we found that these profiles exhibited considerable similarity in cell morphology, growth, and death. Additionally, Derrone significantly inhibited the formation and growth of MCF7 tumor spheroids. PMID:26983907

  6. Composition Analysis and Inhibitory Effect of Sterculia lychnophora against Biofilm Formation by Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Park, Bok-Im; Hwang, Eun-Hee; You, Yong-Ouk

    2016-01-01

    Pangdahai is a traditional Chinese drug, specifically described in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia as the seeds of Sterculia lychnophora Hance. Here, we separated S. lychnophora husk and kernel, analyzed the nutrient contents, and investigated the inhibitory effects of S. lychnophora ethanol extracts on cariogenic properties of Streptococcus mutans, important bacteria in dental caries and plaque formation. Ethanol extracts of S. lychnophora showed dose-dependent antibacterial activity against S. mutans with significant inhibition at concentrations higher than 0.01 mg/mL compared with the control group (p < 0.05). Furthermore, biofilm formation was decreased by S. lychnophora at concentrations > 0.03 mg/mL, while bacterial viability was decreased dose-dependently at high concentrations (0.04, 0.08, 0.16, and 0.32 mg/mL). Preliminary phytochemical analysis of the ethanol extract revealed a strong presence of alkaloid, phenolics, glycosides, and peptides while the presence of steroids, terpenoids, flavonoids, and organic acids was low. The S. lychnophora husk had higher moisture and ash content than the kernel, while the protein and fat content of the husk were lower (p < 0.05) than those of the kernel. These results indicate that S. lychnophora may have antibacterial effects against S. mutans, which are likely related to the alkaloid, phenolics, glycosides, and peptides, the major components of S. lychnophora. PMID:27190540

  7. Formulation and characterization of a 0.1% rapamycin cream for the treatment of Tuberous Sclerosis Complex-related angiofibromas.

    PubMed

    Bouguéon, Guillaume; Lagarce, Frédéric; Martin, Ludovic; Pailhoriès, Hélène; Bastiat, Guillaume; Vrignaud, Sandy

    2016-07-25

    Medicines for the treatment of rare diseases frequently do not attract the interest of the pharmaceutical industry, and hospital pharmacists are thus often requested by physicians to prepare personalized medicines. Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC) is a rare disease that causes disfiguring lesions named facial angiofibromas. Various topical formulations of rapamycin (=sirolimus) have been proved effective in treating these changes in small case series. The present study provides for the first time characterization of a 0.1% rapamycin cream formulation presenting good rapamycin solubilisation. The first step of the formulation is solubilisation of rapamycin in Transcutol(®), and the second step is the incorporation of the mixture in an oil-in-water cream. A HPLC stability-indicating method was developed. Rapamycin concentration in the cream was tested by HPLC and confirmed that it remained above 95% of the initial concentration for at least 85days, without characteristic degradation peaks. The preparation met European Pharmacopoeia microbial specifications throughout storage in aluminum tubes, including when patient use was simulated. Odour, appearance and colour of the preparation were assessed and no change was evidenced during storage. The rheological properties of the cream also remained stable throughout storage. To conclude, we report preparation of a novel cream formulation presenting satisfactory rapamycin solubilisation for the treatment of TSC cutaneous manifestations, with stability data. The cream is currently being used by our patients. Efficacy and tolerance will be reported later. PMID:27260135

  8. Anatomical investigation of flower of Butea monosperma Lam.

    PubMed Central

    Muthuswamy, Ragunathan; Senthamarai, R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Butea frondosa Roxb. and Koen. syn. Butea monosperma Lam. (Leguminosae or Fabaceae) is a tree grows up to the height of 8 m at the age 50 years. Its flowers are being used in traditional medicine for the treatment of ulcer, inflammation, hepatic disorder, and eye diseases. Aims: The present study was aimed at establishing the microscopic characteristics of flower B. monosperma Lam. Materials and Methods: Histological evaluation of flowers was done using standard procedures. Images of microscopic characters were taken at different magnifications using Nikon Labphoto 2 microscopic Unit. Perkin Elmer 5000 an atomic absorption spectrophotometer was employed for elemental analysis. Results: In the study, microscopic characters of floral parts were investigated in transverse section and the flower powder. The current study reveals the presence of pollen grains, ovary (OV), and trichomes in their flower powder. Different cell components were studied, and their sizes were measured. Elemental analysis showed the presence of Zn 52.2 μg/g and Cu 36.3 μg/g were major contents, whereas Cr, Mn, and Pd were minor contents in dried flower powder. Conclusion: The current study paves the way to provide standard information related to the presence of essential elements in the flower. Microscopic characters of the flower and its quantitative measurement of cell components will help to identify the plant and also help to improvise the existing monograph of B. monosperma in the Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia. PMID:25861140

  9. Separation of somatropin charge variants by multiple-injection CZE with Polybrene/chondroitin sulfate A double-coated capillaries.

    PubMed

    Amini, Ahmad

    2013-08-01

    The performance of dynamic double-coated fused-silica capillaries with Polybrene and chondroitin sulfate A has been compared with uncoated fused-silica capillaries for the determination of recombinant human growth factor (somatropin) charge variants. The separations were carried out under the same electrophoretic conditions as described in the European Pharmacopoeia, i.e. at pH 6.0 and 30°C. The coating significantly reduced the interactions between the proteins and the surface of the fused-silica capillary. The first five separations performed in a new bare fused-silica capillary were discarded because of very poor separation performance as a result of protein-surface interactions. There was an approximate twofold increase in the interday migration time precision (%RSD ≤ 6.5%) in the double-coated capillaries. The method was successfully transferred to a multiple CZE mode where two samples were analyzed in a single electrophoretic run. The average purity of somatropin certified reference standard was 98.0% (%RSD ≤ 0.3%) determined by using uncoated and coated capillaries. PMID:23780627

  10. Gamma-irradiated liposome/noisome and lipogelosome/niogelosome formulations for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Turker, Selcan; Kiliç, Ekrem; Özalp, Meral; Çolak, Seyda; Korkmaz, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis by intraarticular administration of anti-inflammatory drugs encapsulated in drug delivery systems, such as liposomes/niosomes and lipogelosomes/niogelosomes, prolongs the residence time of the drugs in the joint. It was therefore anticipated that liposome/niosome entrapment would enhance the efficacy of drugs in the inflammatory sides. Liposomes are good candidates for the local delivery of therapeutic agents, such as diclofenac sodium (DFNa), for intraarticular delivery. Drugs for parenteral delivery must be sterile, and radiation sterilization is a method recognized by pharmacopoeias to achieve sterility of drugs. However, irradiation might also affect the performance of drug delivery systems. One of the most critical points is irradiation dose, because certain undesirable chemical and physical changes may accompany with the treatment, especially with the traditionally applied dose of 25 kGy. The present study aims to determine the effects of gamma irradiation on DFNa-loaded liposomes/niosomes and lipogelosomes/niogelosomes for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:24265892

  11. Guideline for dialysate quality of Spanish Society of Nephrology (second edition, 2015).

    PubMed

    Pérez-García, Rafael; García Maset, Rafael; Gonzalez Parra, Emilio; Solozábal Campos, Carlos; Ramírez Chamond, Rafael; Martín-Rabadán, Pablo; Sobrino Pérez, Pedro Enrique; Gallego Pereira, Ovidio; Dominguez, Jon; de la Cueva Matute, Enrique; Ferllen, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    A Best Practice Guideline about Dialysis fluid purity was developed under the leadership of the Spanish Society of Nephrology in 2004. The second edition revised Guideline considered new evidences and International Standard. The Guideline has established recommendations for standards for preparing dialysate: water, concentrates and hemodialysis proportioning systems. This Guideline is based on the ISO13959, European Pharmacopoeia, the Real Farmacopea Española, the AAMI Standards and Recommended Practices, European Best Practice Guidelines for Haemodialysis, literature reviews, according to their level of evidence, and the opinion of the expert Spanish group. Two levels of quality of water were defined: purified water and high purified water (ultra pure) and for dialysate: ultra pure dialysate. Regular use of ultra pure dialysate is recommended for all type of hemodialysis to prevent and delay the occurrence of complications: inflammation, malnutrition, anaemia and amiloidosis. Water, concentrates and dialysate quality requirements are defined as maximum allowable contaminant levels: chemicals (4.1.2), conductivity, microbial and endotoxins (4.1.1): Monitoring frequency, maintenance and corrective actions were specified. Methods of sampling and analysis were described in appendix (anexos). For microbiological monitoring, R2A medium is recommended, incubated during 7-14 days at a temperature of 17-23°C. The dialysate quality assurance process involves all dialysis staff members and requires strict protocols. The physician in charge of hemodialysis has the ultimate responsibility for dialysate quality. All suggestions and questions about this Guideline are wellcome to www.senefro.org. PMID:26988922

  12. [A historical review of the therapeutic use of wood creosote. Part II: Original plant source of crude drug wood creosote].

    PubMed

    Moriguchi, Nobuaki; Sato, Akane; Shibata, Takashi; Yoneda, Yukio

    2011-01-01

    Wood creosote is a medicine that has been listed in the Japanese Pharmacopoeia (JP) since the first edition published in 1886. Medicines containing wood creosote and other natural ingredients have been very popular in Japan and Southeast Asian countries. In Japan, one such medicine, named Seirogan, has been used for more than 100 years. In this paper, we report the results of our examination on the historical aspects of wood creosote. One finding was that creosote, called "kereosote" at that time, was imported to Japan for the first time to Nagasaki by Johann Erdewin Niemann, who was the Director of the Dutch Mercantile House, and prescribed by Johannes Lijdius Catharinus Pompe van Meerdervoort and Anthonius Franciscus Bauduin. From our findings, we concluded that wood creosote was one of the essential medicines for the successful introduction and progression of Western medicine in Japan. Furthermore, we found that Dutch physicians introduced wood creosote to Japanese physicians, including Taizen Sato, Dokai Hayashi, and Jun Matsumoto, and that wood creosote was subsequently popularized by Rintaro (Ogai) Mori during the Russo-Japanese war. In addition, we examined the original plant for wood creosote, and consequently confirmed that the 15th edition of the JP, Supplement Two, clarifying the original plant for wood creosote, matches the pharmaceutical and historical facts. We also provide drug information relating to distinguishing between wood creosote and the creosote bush. PMID:22164686

  13. Northwestern Argentina: a center of genetic diversity of lemon verbena (Aloysia citriodora PALÁU, Verbenaceae).

    PubMed

    Di Leo Lira, Paola; van Baren, Catalina M; López, Simon; Molina, Ana; Heit, Cecilia; Viturro, Carmen; de Lampasona, Marina P; Catalán, Cesar A; Bandoni, Arnaldo

    2013-02-01

    The aerial parts of lemon verbena (Aloysia citriodora PALÁU) are worldwide used due to their medicinal and aromatic properties. The essential-oil and acteoside contents have been proposed as the main quality markers for their pharmacological and organoleptic features. The northwestern region of Argentina has been repeatedly proposed as the place of origin for this species. For this reason, the essential-oil yields and chemical compositions of leaves of 25 populations of lemon verbena from both wild collections and experimental crops from this region were studied. Plants from six different collections were subsequently grown on the same experimental parcel located at Cerrillos, Salta province, during more than seven years. In addition, the acteoside contents determined in all the samples collected in 2010 showed significant variations (from 0.5 to 4.0%). Large differences were observed in the essential-oil composition and yields, which ranged from 0.4 to 2.1% (v/w). Nevertheless, most of the samples complied with the European Pharmacopoeia specifications. A remarkable chemical diversity with at least four clearly defined chemotypes was detected in this region. Therefore, it would be urgent to encourage actions to protect these genotypes of lemon verbena in the northwestern Argentina. PMID:23418172

  14. Collaborative study for the establishment of a candidate equine influenza subtype 2 American-like strain A/EQ/South Africa/4/03 - horse antiserum biological reference preparation.

    PubMed

    Daly, Janet; Daas, A; Behr-Gross, M-E

    2007-12-01

    In 2004, the Office International des Epizooties (OIE) Expert Surveillance Panel on equine influenza recommended that the American lineage component (H3N8) of equine influenza vaccines (A/eq/Newmarket/1/93-like) be updated to an A/eq/South Africa/4/03-like virus. As a consequence the common European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) - OIE reference for equine influenza subtype 2 American-like antiserum had to be complemented by an antiserum raised in horses against an A/eq/South Africa/4/03 strain. An international collaborative study run by the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines (EDQM) in the frame of its Biological Standardisation Programme (BSP) under the aegis of the Ph. Eur. and the OIE was organised. The study was aimed at evaluating a candidate reference horse anti-serum using the single radial haemolysis (SRH) and haemagglutination inhibition (HI) tests. The standard was to be established for use in immunogenicity and batch potency assay of equine influenza vaccines as a Ph. Eur. BRP and for use in clinical diagnostic tests as an OIE-approved International Standard. The evaluation performed in the collaborative study enabled the suitability of the candidate to be demonstrated and an SRH value to be assigned. The candidate was adopted as a BRP by the Ph. Eur. Commission and approved by the OIE Biological Standards Commission as an International Standard Serum in June and September 2006, respectively. PMID:18413133

  15. Health traditions of Sikkim Himalaya

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Ashok Kumar; Misra, Sangram

    2010-01-01

    Ancient medical systems are still prevalent in Sikkim, popularly nurtured by Buddhist groups using the traditional Tibetan pharmacopoeia overlapping with Ayurvedic medicine. Traditional medical practices and their associated cultural values are based round Sikkim’s three major communities, Lepcha, Bhutia and Nepalis. In this study, a semi-structured questionnaire was prepared for folk healers covering age and sex, educational qualification, source of knowledge, types of practices, experience and generation of practice, and transformation of knowledge. These were administered to forty-eight folk healers identified in different parts of Sikkim. 490 medicinal plants find their habitats in Sikkim because of its large variations in altitude and climate. For 31 commonly used by these folk healers, we present botanical name, family, local name, distribution, and parts used, together with their therapeutic uses, mostly Rheumatoid arthritis, Gout, Gonorrhea, Fever, Viral flu, asthma, Cough and Cold, indigestion, Jaundice etc. A case treated by a folk healer is also recounted. This study indicates that, in the studied area, Sikkim’s health traditions and folk practices are declining due to shifts in socio-economic patterns, and unwillingness of the younger generation to adopt folk healing as a profession. PMID:21547046

  16. Eliminating interferences in a compendial test for oxidizable substances in water

    SciTech Connect

    Kenley, R.A.; Koberda, M.; DeMond, W.; Hammond, R.B.; Hines, J.; Ashline, K.; Vincent, M.; Sriram, R.; Martinez, A.; Raghavan, N. )

    1990-09-01

    The United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) uses acidified potassium permanganate to test for dissolved organics in pharmaceutical-grade water. In the test, a standard permanganate concentration is added to a boiling, acidified water sample. Visually inspecting the sample for residual permanganate determines whether the sample passes (pink color remains) or fails (pink color disappears) the test. The permanganate redox chemistry is complex, however, and test samples are prone to developing suspended particulate and colors other than pink. Forming hazy or off-colored solutions interferes with the subjective end point determination according to the USP test. We report two alternative end point determinations that essentially eliminate interferences from the compendial test method. The first alternative involves recording a uv-visible spectrum of the reduced permanganate test solution. Residual permanganate shows three distinct absorbance maxima at 510, 526, and 545 nm. It is straightforward to differentiate the characteristic permanganate fingerprint from the broad, lower-wavelength extinction that results from interfering substances. The second alternative involves filtering the reduced permanganate test solution through sintered glass. This filtration step removes manganese oxides and other colloidal particles that contribute to haze and off color formation in test samples. Visually inspecting the filtrate for residual pink color remains the end point determination for the test method. A third alternative method, namely spectrophotometric determination of permanganate loss rate constants is not a suitable alternative owing to a strong dependence of permanganate reduction rate on organic substrate structure.

  17. A Review of the Pharmacological Effects of the Dried Root of Polygonum cuspidatum (Hu Zhang) and Its Constituents.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huan; Li, Chang; Kwok, Sin-Tung; Zhang, Qing-Wen; Chan, Shun-Wan

    2013-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been widely used in China for thousands of years to treat and prevent diseases. TCM has been proven safe and effective, and it is being considered as one of the important types of complementary and alternative medicine and receives increasing attention worldwide. The dried root of Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb. et Zucc. (also known as "Hu Zhang" in Chinese) is one of the medicinal herbs listed in the Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China. Hu Zhang is widely distributed in the world. It can be found in Asia and North America and is used as folk medicine in countries such as Japan and Korea. In China, Hu Zhang is usually used in combination with other TCM herbs. The therapeutic uses of those Hu Zhang-containing TCM prescriptions or formulations are for treating cough, hepatitis, jaundice, amenorrhea, leucorrhea, arthralgia, burns and snake bites. Recent pharmacological and clinical studies have indicated that Hu Zhang has antiviral, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, and cardioprotective functions. This review gives a summary of the reported therapeutic effects of the active compounds and the different extracts of Hu Zhang. PMID:24194779

  18. Effect of Herbal Therapy to Intensity Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting in Cancer Patients.

    PubMed Central

    Montazeri, Akram Sadat; Raei, Mehdi; Ghanbari, Atefeh; Dadgari, Ali; Montazeri, Azam Sadat; Hamidzadeh, Azam

    2013-01-01

    Background: Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting are the most important complications for cancer patients as its prevalence has been reported to be about 54-96 percent. ginger has been used for medicinal purposes including nausea and vomiting in traditional Persian, Chinese and Indian pharmacopoeia. Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of complimentary ginger among cancer patients experiencing nausea and vomiting. Material and Methods: A randomized cross-over clinical trial was carried out on patients under chemotherapy treatment for at least 2 episodes of chemotherapy and at least 2 episodes of previous experience of nausea and vomiting. Subjects of this study received 2 different complementary regimes with 250mg ginger capsule in regime A and placebo capsule in regime B. subjects of the study were crossed over to receive the other regime during the two cycles of chemotherapy. Results: Findings of the study indicated that subjects receiving ginger showed significant reduction in frequency and intensity of nausea and vomiting compared to placebo receiving subjects. Conclusions: According to finding of this study, in accordance to most of other researches, ginger is an effective agent to reduce chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. However, there are some researches supporting ginger as a moderate antiemetic agent among cancerous patients under chemotherapy. PMID:24693415

  19. [Are ultraviolet and visible spectroscopy and spectrophotometry obsolete methods in pharmaceutical analysis?].

    PubMed

    Görög, S; Babják, M; Gazdag, M; Horváth, P; Osztheimer, E; Rényei, M; Varga, K

    1999-04-01

    It has been investigated if UV-VIS spectroscopy and spectrophotometry can be regarded to be obsolete methods in pharmaceutical analysis. The conclusions are as follows. As a consequence of the introduction and spreading of highly efficient spectroscopic methods in the structural analysis of organic compounds the importance of UV-VIS spectroscopy as a structure elucidation tool has greatly decreased. At the same time, however, diode-array UV spectrophotometers used as HPLC detectors have created very convenient possibilities for the identification of minor components (impurities, degradation products, etc.) in drugs. This statement is illustrated by several practical examples. On the basis of some data taken from the British Pharmacopoeia 1998 it is stated that UV spectrophotometry as a quantitative analytical method still belongs to the most frequently used analytical techniques in pharmaceutical analysis. At the same time, however, the authors are of negative opinion about the up-to-dateness and usefulness of colorimetric methods still very often published for the determination of drug substances. PMID:10389299

  20. Development and validation of an HPLC-DAD analysis for pharmacopoeial qualification of industrial Capsicum extracts.

    PubMed

    Kuzma, Mónika; Fodor, Krisztina; Boros, Borbála; Perjési, Pál

    2015-01-01

    A reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed to quantify capsaicin (trans-8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamid), dihydrocapsaicin (8-methyl-N-vanillylnonanamide) and the main capsaicinoid contents of Capsicum extracts. The chromatographic separation was carried out on a C8 column using isocratic mobile phase consisting of 40% (v/v) acetonitrile and 60% (v/v) orthophosphoric acid solution with flow rate of 1.5 mL/min. The concentration of the eluting compounds was monitored by a diode-array detector at wavelength of 281 nm. The method was evaluated for number of validation characteristics (selectivity, accuracy (confidence intervals <1%), repeatability and intermediate precision (RSD% < 2.5%), limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ) and calibration range). The LOD was 0.25 µg/mL and the LOQ was 0.5 µg/mL. Using methanolic solutions of United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) Capsaicin and Dihydrocapsaicin Reference Standards, the method was linear over the concentration range 0.0005-0.5000 mg/mL for both capsaicinoids. The method was applied to qualify capsaicinoid content of two industrial capsicum extracts according to the USP 29. PMID:24557717